WorldWideScience

Sample records for glide snag mobilisation

  1. Project mobilisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, J.; Limbrick, A.

    1996-01-01

    This paper identifies and reviews the issues to be addressed and the procedures to be followed during the mobilisation of projects using LFG as an energy source. Knowledge of the procedures involved in project mobilisation, their sequence and probable timescales, is essential for efficient project management. It is assumed that the majority of projects will be situated on existing, licensed landfill sites and, in addition to complying with the relevant conditions of the waste management licence and original planning consent, any proposed developments on the site will require a separate planning consent. Experience in the UK indicates that obtaining planning permission rarely constitutes a barrier to the development of schemes for the utilisation of LFG. Even so, an appreciation of the applicable environmental and planning legislation is essential as this will enable the developer to recognise the main concerns of the relevant planning authority at an early stage of the project, resulting in the preparation of an informed and well-structured application for planning permission. For a LFG utilisation scheme on an existing landfill site, the need to carry out an environmental assessment (EA) as part of the application for planning permission will, in vitually all cases, be discretionary. Even if not deemed necessary by the planning authority, an EA is a useful tool at the planning application stage, to identify and address potential problems and to support discussions with bodies such as the Environment Agency, from whom consents or authorisations may be required. Carrying out an EA can thus provide for more cost-effective project development and enhanced environmental protection. Typically, the principal contractual arrangements, such as the purchase of gas or the sale of electricity, will have been established before the project mobilisation phase. However, there are many other contractural arrangements that must be established, and consents and permits that may be

  2. Can snag creation benefit a primary cavity nester: response to an experimental pulse in snag abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Kilgo; Mark Vukovich

    2014-01-01

    Thresholds in response by cavity-nesting bird populations to variations in the snag resource are poorly understood. In addition, limited information exists on the value of artificially created snags for cavity-nesting birds. Therefore, uncertainty exists in whether artificially created snags can yield a positive population response among snag-dependent birds. We used...

  3. Snags - Spears and Didion Ranches [ds317

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — These data are the characteristics of the individual snags (standing dead trees) found at 15 sample points with three 0.05-ha circular plot habitat samples taken in...

  4. Snag Dynamics in Western Oregon and Washington

    OpenAIRE

    Ohmann, Janet L

    2002-01-01

    To achieve desired amounts and characteristics of snags and down wood, managers require analytical tools for projecting changes in dead wood over time, and for comparing those changes to management objectives such as providing dead wood for wildlife and ecosystem processes. The following information on rates of snag recruitment, decay, and fall across forests of western Oregon and Washington may be useful in planning for future levels of dead wood. Eventually the information will be incorpora...

  5. Kaolinite Mobilisation in Sandstone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbrand, Esther; Fabricius, Ida Lykke; Kets, Frans

    2013-01-01

    suggest that this effect is due to kaolinite clay mobilisation from the quartz grain surface; the mobilised particles subsequently plug the pore throats and reduce the permeability irreversibly. The expected hysteresis is observed when the salinity is reduced and increased; however, in contradiction...... the mobilised kaolinite particles either remain suspended and thereby increase the fluid viscosity, or form porous aggregates that can be destabilized by hydrodynamic forces. To address how the pore scale distribution of kaolinite relates to the permeability of the entire sample, we relate permeability...

  6. Prescribed fire, snag population dynamics, and avian nest site selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karen E. Bagne; Kathryn L. Purcell; John T. Rotenberry

    2008-01-01

    Snags are an important resource for a wide variety of organisms, including cavity-nesting birds. We documented snag attributes in a mixed conifer forest dominated by ponderosa pine in the Sierra Nevada, California where fire is being applied during spring. A total of 328 snags were monitored before and after fire on plots burned once, burned twice, or left unburned to...

  7. The longevity of large pine snags in eastern Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard N. Conner; Daniel Saenz

    2005-01-01

    Habitat for cavity-nesting wildlife is closely tied to the availability of standing dead trees (snags). Large snags (>40 cm dbh) are particularly important because they provide cavity- excavation substrate for both large and small cavity excavators. Historically in the southern United States, common belief has been that the utility of pine (Pinus...

  8. SnagPRO: snag and tree sampling and analysis methods for wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisa J. Bate; Michael J. Wisdom; Edward O. Garton; Shawn C. Clabough

    2008-01-01

    We describe sampling methods and provide software to accurately and efficiently estimate snag and tree densities at desired scales to meet a variety of research and management objectives. The methods optimize sampling effort by choosing a plot size appropriate for the specified forest conditions and sampling goals. Plot selection and data analyses are supported by...

  9. Snag characteristics and dynamics following natural and artificially induced mortality in a managed loblolly pine forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarnoch, Stanley J.; Vukovich, Mark A.; Kilgo, John C.; Blake, John I.

    2013-09-01

    A 14-year study of snag characteristics was established in 41- to 44-year old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) stands in southeastern USA. During the initial 5.5 years, no stand manipulation or unusually high-mortality events occurred. Afterwards, three treatments were applied consisting of trees thinned and removed, trees felled and not removed, and artificial creation of snags produced by girdling and herbicide injection. The thinned treatments were designed to maintain the same live canopy density as the snag-created treatment, disregarding snags that remained standing.We monitored snag height, diameter, density, volume, and bark percentage; the number of cavities was monitored in natural snags only. During the first 5.5 years, recruitment and loss rates were stable, resulting in a stable snag population. Large snags (≥25 cm diameter) were common, but subcanopy small snags (10 to <25 cm diameter) dominated numerically. Large natural snags survived (90% quantile) significantly longer (6.0–9.4 years) than smaller snags (4.4–6.9 years). Large artificial snags persisted the longest (11.8 years). Cavities in natural snags developed within 3 years following tree death. The mean number of cavities per snag was five times greater in large versus small snags and large snags were more likely to have multiple cavities, emphasizing the importance of mature pine stands for cavity-dependent wildlife species.

  10. The efficacy of Sustained Natural Apophyseal Glides with and without Isometric Exercise Training in Non-specific Neck Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Abid; Shakil-Ur-Rehman, Syed; Sibtain, Fozia

    2014-07-01

    To determine the efficacy of Sustained Natural Apophyseal Glides (SNAGs) with and without Isometric Exercise Training Program (IETP) in Non-specific Neck Pain (NSNP) Methods: This randomized control trial of one year duration was conducted at out-patient department of Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation, Khyber Teaching Hospital (KTH) Peshawar, Pakistan from July 2012 to June 2013. The sample of 102 patients of NSNP were randomly selected through simple random sampling technique, and placed into two groups. The SNAGs manual physical therapy technique with IETP was applied on 51 patients in group A and SNAGs manual physical therapy techniques was applied alone on 51 patients in group B. The duration of intervention was 6 weeks, at 4 times per week. The Neck Disability Index (NDI) and Visual Analog Scale (VAS) for neck pain were assessment tools used for all patients before and after 6 weeks of physical therapy intervention. All the patients were assessed through NDI and VAS before intervention and at the completion of 6 weeks program. The data of all 102 was analyzed by SPSS-20 and statistical test was applied at 95% level of significance determine the efficacy of both the treatments interventions and compare with each other. The patients in group A, treated with SNAGs and followed by IETP for 6 weeks, demonstrated more improvement in pain and physical activity as assessed by VAS (p=0.013) and NDI (p=0.003), as compared to the patients treated with SNAGS alone, as pain and function assessed by VAS (p=0.047) and NDI (p=0.164). In group A the NDI score improved from 40 to 15 and VAS from 7 to 4, while in group B the NDI score improved from 42 to 30 and VAS from 7 to 4. Patients with non-specific neck pain treated with SNAGs manual physical therapy techniques and followed by IETP was more effective in reduction of pain and enhancement of function, as compared to those patients treated with SNAGs manual physical therapy techniques alone.

  11. Field guide for the identification of snags and logs in the interior Columbia River basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catherine G. Parks; Evelyn L. Bull; Torolf R. Torgersen

    1997-01-01

    This field guide contains descriptions and color photographs of snags and logs of 10 coniferous and 3 deciduous tree species found in the interior Columbia River basin. Methods arc described to distinguish among the different species when various amounts of branches, cones, and bark arc missing. Wildlife use of the different species of snags and logs are listed. Snags...

  12. SNAG AND LARGE WOODY DEBRIS DYNAMICS IN RIPARIAN FORESTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Important components of riparian forests are snags and streamside large woody debris (LWD) because they are functional in maintaining water quality and providing habitat for numerous plants and animals. To effectively manage riparian forests, it is important to understand the dy...

  13. Manipulation or Mobilisation for Neck Pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gross, Anita; Miller, Jordan; D'Sylva, Jonathan; Burnie, Stephen J.; Goldsmith, Charles H.; Graham, Nadine; Haines, Ted; Brønfort, Gert; Hoving, Jan L.

    2010-01-01

    Background Manipulation and mobilisation are often used, either alone or combined with other treatment approaches, to treat neck pain. Objectives To assess if manipulation or mobilisation improves pain, function/disability, patient satisfaction, quality of life, and global perceived effect in adults

  14. Quantifying post-fire ponderosa pine snags using GIS techniques on scanned aerial photographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Kevin

    Snags are an important component of forest ecosystems because of their utility in forest-nutrient cycling and provision of critical wildlife habitat, as well as associated fuel management concerns relating to coarse woody debris (CWD). Knowledge of snag and CWD trajectories are needed for land managers to plan for long-term ecosystem change in post-fire regimes. This need will likely be exacerbated by increasingly warm and dry climatic conditions projected for the U.S. Southwest. One of the best prospects for studying fire-induced landscape change beyond the plot scale, but still at a resolution sufficient to resolve individual snags, is to utilize the available aerial photography record. Previous field-based studies of snag and CWD loads in the Southwest have relied on regional chronosequences to judge the recovery dynamic of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) burns. This previous research has been spatially and temporally restricted because of field survey extent limitations and uncertainty associated with the chronosequence approach (i.e., space-for-time substitution), which does not consider differences between specific site conditions and histories. This study develops highly automated methods for remotely quantifying and characterizing the spatial and temporal distribution of large snags associated with severe forest fires from very high resolution (VHR) landscape imagery I obtained from scans of aerial photos. Associated algorithms utilize the sharp edges, shape, shadow, and contrast characteristics of snags to enable feature recognition. Additionally, using snag shadow length, image acquisition time, and location information, heights were estimated for each identified snag. Furthermore, a novel solution was developed for extracting individual snags from areas of high snag density by overlaying parallel lines in the direction of the snag shadows and extracting local maxima lines contained by each snag polygon. Field survey data coincident to imagery coverage

  15. Positioning and early mobilisation in stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Moira; Penney, Maree; Russell, Petra; Bailey, Emma

    Stroke unit care, providing early rehabilitation, improves long-term outcomes for patients following a stroke. Early mobilisation and good positioning are recognised as key aspects of care in stroke units. Nurses working on stroke units have an important role because they are able to implement positioning and early mobilisation strategies 24 hours a day, reducing the risk of complications and improving functional recovery. Patients benefit if nurses work effectively with the therapy team in positioning and early mobilisation. Nurses also need appropriate training and expertise to make best use of specialist equipment.

  16. Study of gliding arc discharge plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Chi; Lin Lie; Wu Bin

    2006-01-01

    The electric parameters change during discharge is studied and the relationship between non-equilibrium degree and parameters is discussed for gliding arc discharges. Using two-channel model, the rules of arc moving due to effect of the airflow is simulated. The numerical simulation results can help analyzing the generation mechanism of gliding arc non-equilibrium plasma. (authors)

  17. Modeling respiration from snags and coarse woody debris before and after an invasive gypsy moth disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidi J. Renninger; Nicholas Carlo; Kenneth L. Clark; Karina V.R. Schäfer

    2014-01-01

    Although snags and coarse woody debris are a small component of ecosystem respiration, disturbances can significantly increase the mass and respiration from these carbon (C) pools. The objectives of this study were to (1) measure respiration rates of snags and coarse woody debris throughout the year in a forest previously defoliated by gypsy moths, (2) develop models...

  18. Snag Condition and Woodpecker Foraging Ecology in a Bottomland Hardwood Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard N. Conner; Stanley D. Jones; Gretchen D. Jones

    1994-01-01

    We studied woodpecker foraging behavior, snag quality, and surrounding habitat in a bottomland hardwood forest in the Stephen F. Austin Experimental Forest from December 1984 through November 1986. The amount and location of woodpecker foraging excavations indicated that woodpeckers excavated mainly at the well-decayed tops and bases of snags. Woodpeckers preferred to...

  19. Estimating cavity tree and snag abundance using negative binomial regression models and nearest neighbor imputation methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianca N.I. Eskelson; Hailemariam Temesgen; Tara M. Barrett

    2009-01-01

    Cavity tree and snag abundance data are highly variable and contain many zero observations. We predict cavity tree and snag abundance from variables that are readily available from forest cover maps or remotely sensed data using negative binomial (NB), zero-inflated NB, and zero-altered NB (ZANB) regression models as well as nearest neighbor (NN) imputation methods....

  20. Selection of fire-created snags at two spatial scales by cavity-nesting birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victoria A. Saab; Ree Brannon; Jonathan Dudley; Larry Donohoo; Dave Vanderzanden; Vicky Johnson; Henry Lachowski

    2002-01-01

    We examined the use of snag stands by seven species of cavity-nesting birds from 1994-1998. Selection of snags was studied in logged and unlogged burned forests at two spatial scales: microhabitat (local vegetation characteristics) and landscape (composition and patterning of surrounding vegetation types). We modeled nest occurrence at the landscape scale by using...

  1. Effects of urban sprawl on snags and the abundance and productivity of cavity-nesting birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christina M. Blewett; John M. Marzluff

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the occurrence of, and relationships among, snags and cavity-nesting birds in the rapidly urbanizing region around Seattle, Washington in 2001 and 2002. We measured the density of snags in 49 sites (1-km2 "suburban landscapes" that included built and forested portions), and determined the diameter, height, decay status,...

  2. Comparison of snag densities among regeneration treatments in mixed pine-hardwood forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger W. Perry; Ronald E. Thill

    2013-01-01

    Standing dead trees (snags) are an important component of forest ecosystems, providing foraging, nesting, and roosting substrate for a variety of vertebrates. We examined the effects of four forest regeneration treatments on residual snag density and compared those with densities found in unharvested, naturally regenerated forests (controls) during the second, fourth,...

  3. Mapping snags and understory shrubs for LiDAR based assessment of wildlife habitat suitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian Martinuzzi; Lee A. Vierling; William A. Gould; Michael J. Falkowski; Jeffrey S. Evans; Andrew T. Hudak; Kerri T. Vierling

    2009-01-01

    The lack of maps depicting forest three-dimensional structure, particularly as pertaining to snags and understory shrub species distribution, is a major limitation for managing wildlife habitat in forests. Developing new techniques to remotely map snags and understory shrubs is therefore an important need. To address this, we first evaluated the use of LiDAR data for...

  4. Snag recruitment and mortality in a bottomland hardwood forest following partial harvesting: second-year results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian Roy Lockhart; Philip A. Tappe; David G. Peitz; Christopher A. Watt

    2010-01-01

    Snags are defined simply as standing dead trees. They function as an important component of wildlife habitat. Unfortunately, little information has been gathered regarding snags in bottomland forest ecosystems. We initiated a study to determine the effects of harvesting on the flora and fauna of a bottomland hardwood ecosystem adjacent the Mississippi River in...

  5. Mobilization versus manipulations versus sustain apophyseal natural glide techniques and interaction with psychological factors for patients with chronic neck pain: randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Lopez, A; Alonso Perez, J L; González Gutierez, J L; La Touche, R; Lerma Lara, S; Izquierdo, H; Fernández-Carnero, J

    2015-04-01

    Three different types of manual therapy techniques for patients with neck pain and relationship with psychological factors has not been evaluated. To compare the effectiveness high velocity and low amplitude (HVLA) manipulation vs. posteroanterior mobilization (PA mob) vs. sustain appophyseal natural glide (SNAG) in the management of patients with neck pain and to evaluate the interaction with psychological factors. Randomized clinical trial. Primary Health Care Center. Patients with history of chronic neck pain over the last 3 months were recruited. Patients were randomly assigned to receive treatment with HVLA (N.=15), with PA mob (N.=16) or with SNAG (N.=17). One session was applied. Pain intensity of neck pain, pressure pain threshold over processus spinosus of C2 (PPT_C2) and cervical range of motion (CROM) were measured pre- and post-intervention. Pain catastrophizing, depression, anxiety and kinesiophobia were assessed in baseline. ANOVAs were performed, with main effects, two-way (treatment x time) and three-way interactions (treatment x psychological variable x time) were examined. Fourthy-eight patients (mean±SD age, 36.5±8.7 years; 87.5% female). A significant interaction treatment x time was observed for VAS-rest in HVLA and AP mob groups (Ptechniques have similar immediate effects over neck pain and while under high anxiety levels a better outcome is expected after mobilization intervention, under low anxiety levels a better prognosis is expected after manipulation and SNAG intervention.

  6. Use of created snags by cavity‐nesting birds across 25 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Amy M.; Hagar, Joan; Rivers, James W.

    2018-01-01

    Snags are important habitat features for many forest‐dwelling species, so reductions in the number of snags can lead to the loss of biodiversity in forest ecosystems. Intentional snag creation is often used in managed forests to mitigate the long‐term declines of naturally created snags, yet information regarding the use of snags by wildlife across long timescales (>20 yr) is lacking and prevents a complete understanding of how the value of created snags change through time. We used a long‐term experiment to assess how harvest treatment (i.e., small‐patch group selection, 2‐story, and clearcut) and snag configuration (i.e., scattered and clustered) influenced nesting in and foraging on 25–27‐year‐old Douglas‐fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) snags by cavity‐nesting birds. In addition, we compared our contemporary measures of bird use to estimates obtained from historical surveys conducted on the same group of snags to quantify how bird use changed over time. Despite observing created snags for >750 hours across 2 consecutive breeding seasons, we found limited evidence of nesting activity. Only 11% of created snags were used for breeding, with nesting attempts by 4 bird species (n = 36 nests); however, we detected 12 cavity‐nesting species present on our study sites. Furthermore, nearly all nests (94%) belonged to the chestnut‐backed chickadee (Poecile rufescens), a weak cavity‐excavating species that requires well‐decayed wood for creating nest cavities. Our surveys also recorded few observations of birds using created snags as foraging substrates, with only 1 foraging event recorded for every 20 hours of observation. We detected 82% fewer nests and recorded 7% fewer foraging observations during contemporary field work despite spending >7.5 times more effort observing created snags relative to historical surveys. We conclude that 25–27‐year‐old created Douglas‐fir snags provided limited opportunities for nesting and foraging by

  7. Mobilising Investment in Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Taxes, loans and grants, trading schemes and white certificates, public procurement and investment in R&D or infrastructure: known collectively as 'economic instruments', these tools can be powerful means of mobilising the finances needed to achieve policy goals by implementing energy efficiency measures. The role of economic instruments is to kick-start the private financial markets and to motivate private investors to fund EE measures. They should reinforce and promote energy performance regulations. This IEA analysis addresses the fact that, to date, relatively little effort has been directed toward evaluating how well economic instruments work. Using the buildings sector to illustrate how such measures can support energy efficiency, this paper can help policy makers better select and design economic instruments appropriate to their policy objectives and national contexts. This report’s three main aims are to: 1) Examine how economic instruments are currently used in energy efficiency policy; 2) Consider how economic instruments can be more effective and efficient in supporting low-energy buildings; and 3) Assess how economic instruments should be funded, where public outlay is needed. Detailed case studies in this report assess examples of economic instruments for energy efficiency in the buildings sector in Canada (grants), France (tax relief and loans), Germany (loans and grants), Ireland (grants) and Italy (white certificates and tax relief).

  8. Stability of alternating current gliding arcs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusano, Yukihiro; Salewski, Mirko; Leipold, Frank

    2014-01-01

    on Ohm’s law indicates that the critical length of alternating current (AC) gliding arc discharge columns can be larger than that of a corresponding direct current (DC) gliding arc. This finding is supported by previously published images of AC and DC gliding arcs. Furthermore, the analysis shows......A gliding arc is a quenched plasma that can be operated as a non-thermal plasma at atmospheric pressure and that is thus suitable for large-scale plasma surface treatment. For its practical industrial use the discharge should be extended stably in ambient air. A simple analytical calculation based...... that the critical length can be increased by increasing the AC frequency, decreasing the serial resistance and lowering the gas flow rate. The predicted dependence of gas flow rate on the arc length is experimentally demonstrated. The gap width is varied to study an optimal electrode design, since the extended non...

  9. Potential Phosphorus Mobilisation in Peat Soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forsmann, Ditte M.; Kjærgaard, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    Re-establishment of wetlands on peat soils containing phosphorus bound to iron(III)-oxides can lead to an undesirable phosphorus loss to the aquatic environment due to the reductive dissolution of iron(III)-oxides. Thus it is important to be able to assess the potential phosphorus mobilisation from...... peat soils before a re-establishment takes place. The potential phosphorus mobilisation from a peat soil depends not only on the geochemical characteristics but also on the redox conditions, the hydrological regime in the area as well as the hydro-physical properties of the soil. The hypothesis...... for this study is (i) the release of phosphorus in peat is controlled by the geochemistry; (ii) the mobilisation of phosphorus is controlled by both geochemistry and hydro-physics of the soil. For this study, 10 Danish riparian lowland areas with peat soil were selected based on their geochemical characteristics...

  10. Missing link or not, mobilise against delirium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Valerie J; Casarin, Annalisa

    2014-01-31

    Delirium is known to be a predictor of adverse outcomes. In a prospective study Abelha and colleagues showed that postoperative delirium was an independent risk factor for deterioration in functional capacity following discharge. While evidence for causality remains elusive, there is no doubt that patients who develop delirium are left with new functional and cognitive impairment. Finding a pharmacological treatment for the prevention and treatment of delirium is a priority in delirium research and the results of ongoing trials are awaited. Early mobilisation of ICU patients has been demonstrated to decrease delirium and improve functional outcomes. Resources should be directed to appropriate, progressive mobilisation of all critically ill patients as a priority.

  11. The range of excursion of flexor tendons in Zone V: a comparison of active vs passive flexion mobilisation regimes.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Panchal, J

    1997-10-01

    A number of early postoperative mobilisation regimes have been developed in an attempt to increase tendon excursion and gliding and thereby reduce formation of adhesions following repair of flexor tendons. Early active flexion mobilisation regimes are becoming more popular, and have replaced early passive flexion regimes in many centres. The aim of the present study was: (a) to determine the range of excursion of flexor tendons in Zone V, and (b) to compare the excursion ranges between active (Belfast) and passive (modified Duran) flexion mobilisation regimes postoperatively. This was done (a) in two cadavers, and (b) in two patients intraoperatively, and postoperatively at 10 days, 3 weeks and 6 weeks. With passive flexion, the mean tendon excursion in Zone V in cadavers was 1 mm for flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS), flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) and flexor pollicis longus (FPL) tendons respectively. With simulated active flexion, the mean tendon excursion was 14 mm, 10 mm and 11 mm respectively. The mean tendon excursion in clinical cases intraoperatively following passive flexion was 2 mm for FDS, FDP and FPL respectively; following simulated active flexion it was 10 mm, 11 mm and 11 mm for FDS, FDP and FPL respectively. On the tenth day following repair, the mean excursions of FDS, FDP and FPL were 1 mm, 4 mm and 4 mm on passive flexion as compared to 3 mm, 10 mm and 12 mm on active flexion respectively. Three weeks postoperatively, the mean excursions of FDS, FDP and FPL tendons were 1 mm, 2 mm and 1 mm on passive flexion as compared to 5 mm, 15 mm on active flexion respectively. Six weeks postoperatively, the mean excursions of FDS, FDP and FPL tendons were 9 mm, 7 mm and 4 mm on passive flexion as compared to 12 mm, 33 mm and 20 mm on active flexion respectively. These results demonstrate an increased excursion of repaired flexor tendons in Zone V following an active flexion mobilisation regime as compared to a passive flexion mobilisation regime.

  12. Mobilising private adaptation finance: developed country perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pauw, W.P.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The private sector is one of the sources of finance included in developed countries’ pledge in the UN climate negotiations to mobilise $100 billion annually by 2020 to support developing countries’ efforts to address climate change. For adaptation in particular, it remains unclear what

  13. Collaborative Research Partnerships for Knowledge Mobilisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelstein, Hilary

    2016-01-01

    This study examines elements of collaborative research partnerships (CRPs) between university researchers and organisations who engage in knowledge mobilisation activities in education. The study uses key informant interviews and document analysis from one type of partnership, and a survey of university-community partnerships across Canada to…

  14. Understanding the Mechanism of Arsenic Mobilisation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael

    2017-06-01

    Jun 1, 2017 ... Arsenic Mobilisation and Behaviour in Tailings Dams”, Ghana Mining Journal, ... chronic lung disease, gangrene of toes/black foot disease, body weakness, skin cancer and solid swelling of legs, osteoporosis, decreased birth ..... of soils and waters in and around the Imcheon ... Johnsongrass and Cotton.

  15. Optical diagnostics of a gliding arc

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Z.W.; Zhu, J.J.; Li, Z.S.

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic processes in a gliding arc plasma generated between two diverging electrodes in ambient air driven by 31.25 kHz AC voltage were investigated using spatially and temporally resolved optical techniques. The life cycles of the gliding arc were tracked in fast movies using a high-speed camera...... triggered by Townsend breakdown between the two legs of the gliding arc. The emission from the plasma column is shown to pulsate at a frequency of 62.5 kHz, i.e., twice the frequency of the AC power supply. Optical emission spectra of the plasma radiation show the presence of excited N2, NO and OH radicals...... suggesting that ground-state OH is not formed in the plasma column but in its vicinity. ©2013 Optical Society of America...

  16. Performance analysis of jump-gliding locomotion for miniature robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidyasagar, A; Zufferey, Jean-Christohphe; Floreano, Dario; Kovač, M

    2015-03-26

    Recent work suggests that jumping locomotion in combination with a gliding phase can be used as an effective mobility principle in robotics. Compared to pure jumping without a gliding phase, the potential benefits of hybrid jump-gliding locomotion includes the ability to extend the distance travelled and reduce the potentially damaging impact forces upon landing. This publication evaluates the performance of jump-gliding locomotion and provides models for the analysis of the relevant dynamics of flight. It also defines a jump-gliding envelope that encompasses the range that can be achieved with jump-gliding robots and that can be used to evaluate the performance and improvement potential of jump-gliding robots. We present first a planar dynamic model and then a simplified closed form model, which allow for quantification of the distance travelled and the impact energy on landing. In order to validate the prediction of these models, we validate the model with experiments using a novel jump-gliding robot, named the 'EPFL jump-glider'. It has a mass of 16.5 g and is able to perform jumps from elevated positions, perform steered gliding flight, land safely and traverse on the ground by repetitive jumping. The experiments indicate that the developed jump-gliding model fits very well with the measured flight data using the EPFL jump-glider, confirming the benefits of jump-gliding locomotion to mobile robotics. The jump-glide envelope considerations indicate that the EPFL jump-glider, when traversing from a 2 m height, reaches 74.3% of optimal jump-gliding distance compared to pure jumping without a gliding phase which only reaches 33.4% of the optimal jump-gliding distance. Methods of further improving flight performance based on the models and inspiration from biological systems are presented providing mechanical design pathways to future jump-gliding robot designs.

  17. Underlying and derived glides in Middle High German

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy Alan Hall

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the phonology of glides in Middle High German. On the basis of surface contrasts between prevocalic nuclear glides in syllable-final position ([VG.V] and postvocalic glides in onset position ([V.GV], it is argued that the latter were underlying glides (e.g. the /w/ in [le.wə] ‘lion’ and that the former were glides derived from vowels (e.g. the offglide [o̯] in the diphthong [uo̯] from /uo/. Underlying glides are argued to be [+consonantal], while nuclear glides ‒ like the vowels from which they derive ‒ are [‒consonantal]. The analysis of Middle High German bears on several debates involving glides in the theoretical literature. First, a treatment with an underlying glide in /VGV/ cannot be reanalyzed by treating the vowels as peaks (e.g. Harris & Kaisse 1999 for Argentinian Spanish. Second, the treatment of underlying glides as [+consonantal] is to be preferred over alternatives which analyze those sounds as [‒vocalic] (e.g. Nevins & Chitoran 2008 for several languages. Third, an analysis of nuclear structure is adopted (from Harris & Kaisse 1999 which enables one to interpret which element in a complex nucleus is the peak and which is the nonpeak without stipulation. Fourth, the contrastive syllabification of surface glides (i.e. [VG.V] vs. [V.GV] is shown to be a diagnostic of underlying glide languages that has not been discussed in the literature to date.

  18. How swifts control their glide performance with morphing wings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lentink, D.; Muller, U. K.; Stamhuis, E. J.; de Kat, R.; van Gestel, W.; Veldhuis, L. L. M.; Henningsson, P.; Hedenstrom, A.; Videler, J. J.

    2007-01-01

    Gliding birds continually change the shape and size of their wings(1-6), presumably to exploit the profound effect of wing morphology on aerodynamic performance(7-9). That birds should adjust wing sweep to suit glide speed has been predicted qualitatively by analytical glide models(2,10), which

  19. The Mobilisation of Muslim Women in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pristed Nielsen, Helene

    Under the headline of ‘the mobilisation of Muslim women in Denmark', this paper contains a series of introductory considerations as well as a few preliminary findings on the relatively unexplored question of how and why Muslim women in Denmark form organisations, and via their organisations...... immigrant women´s organisations, this paper aims to explore patterns of networking among these women, and the level and nature of their interaction with other organisations and societal institutions....

  20. Observation of gliding arc surface treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusano, Yukihiro; Zhu, Jiajian; Ehn, A.

    2015-01-01

    . Water contact angle measurements indicate that the treatment uniformity improves significantly when the AC gliding arc is tilted to the polymer surface. Thickness reduction of the gas boundary layer, explaining the improvement of surface treatment, by the ultrasonic irradiation was directly observed...

  1. Investigation of gliding flight by flying fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyungmin; Jeon, Woo-Pyung; Choi, Haecheon

    2006-11-01

    The most successful flight capability of fish is observed in the flying fish. Furthermore, despite the difference between two medium (air and water), the flying fish is well evolved to have an excellent gliding performance as well as fast swimming capability. In this study, flying fish's morphological adaptation to gliding flight is experimentally investigated using dry-mounted darkedged-wing flying fish, Cypselurus Hiraii. Specifically, we examine the effects of the pectoral and pelvic fins on the aerodynamic performance considering (i) both pectoral and pelvic fins, (ii) pectoral fins only, and (iii) body only with both fins folded. Varying the attack angle, we measure the lift, drag and pitching moment at the free-stream velocity of 12m/s for each case. Case (i) has higher lift-to-drag ratio (i.e. longer gliding distance) and more enhanced longitudinal static stability than case (ii). However, the lift coefficient is smaller for case (i) than for case (ii), indicating that the pelvic fins are not so beneficial for wing loading. The gliding performance of flying fish is compared with those of other fliers and is found to be similar to those of insects such as the butterfly and fruitfly.

  2. Fluxless Sn-Ag bonding in vacuum using electroplated layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jongsung; Lee, Chin C.

    2007-01-01

    A fluxless bonding process in vacuum environment using newly developed electroplated Sn-Ag multilayer structure at eutectic composition is presented. The new bonding process is entirely fluxless, or flux-free. It is performed in vacuum (100 mTorr), in which the oxygen content is reduced by a factor of 7600 comparing to air, to inhibit solder oxidation. In the design, Cr/Au dual layer is employed as the UBM as well as the plating seed layer. This UBM design, seldom used in the electronic industry, is explained in some details. To realize the fluxless possibility, a proper layer design of the solder structure is needed. In this connection, we wish to point out that it is hard to achieve fluxless bonding using Sn-rich alloys because these alloys have numerous Sn atoms on the surface that are easily oxidized. To prevent Sn oxidation, a thin Ag layer is plated immediately over Sn layer. XRD results confirm that this thin Ag layer does act as a barrier to prevent oxidation of the inner Sn layer. The resulting solder joints are void free as examined by a scanning acoustic microscope (SAM). SEM and EDX studies on the cross section of the joint indicate a homogeneous Sn-rich phase. The melting temperature is measured to be between 219 and 226 deg. C. This new fluxless bonding process is valuable in many applications where the use of flux is prohibited

  3. Efficacy of mulligan's self-sustained natural apophyseal glides in decreasing pain, disability, and improving neck mobility among the nursing professional suffering from work-related neck pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shagun Aggarwal

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Prevalence of neck pain in nursing professionals (NPs is much higher than in the general population. However, concrete evidence is not available regarding the efficacy of the therapeutic intervention for treating neck pain among them. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of Mulligan's self-sustained natural apophyseal glides (SNAGs and conventional physiotherapy in the management of work-related neck pain (WRNP among the NPs. Materials and Methods: A total of 38 NPs with WRNP were recruited using the simple random sampling (lottery method to participate in this two group such as pretest–posttest and single-blinded randomized controlled study from recognized tertiary care teaching hospital. Recruited NPs were randomly allocated into two groups such as Group A and Group B. NP in Group A taught self-SNAGs with a towel and instructed to perform 10 repetitions ×1 set/two hour ×4 times/day for 5 days/week ×2 weeks. Whereas in Group B, NPs received conventional physiotherapy treatment, consist of neck isometrics, and performed for 10 s ×10 repetitions ×1 set/day ×5 days/week ×2 weeks. Both groups were asked to use the hot pack for 15 min, before their intervention. Visual Analog Scale (VAS score, neck disability index (NDI, and cervical range of motion (ROM were documented at baseline, 2nd-week postintervention, and 4th-week follow-up period and analyzed. Results: Group A revealed statistical significance difference (P < 0.05 in VAS, NDI, and neck ROM when compared to Group B. Conclusion: Mulligan's self-SNAGs have proved to be more beneficial over the conventional physiotherapy in the management of WRNP among the NPs.

  4. DecAID advisor: a tool for managing snags, down wood and wood decay in PNW forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce G. Marcot; Grant Gunderson; Kim Mellen; Janet L. Ohmann

    2004-01-01

    Past tools for modeling and setting guidelines for snag and down wood management have been based on theory, professional judgment, models of wildlife species use as habitat and empirical data. However, recent studies reveal that guidelines for amounts of snags and down wood on national forests of Washington and Oregon may have been lower than the new field data on use...

  5. Trends in Snag Populations in Drought-Stressed Mixed-Conifer and Ponderosa Pine Forests (1997–2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph L. Ganey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Snags provide important biological legacies, resources for numerous species of native wildlife, and contribute to decay dynamics and ecological processes in forested ecosystems. We monitored trends in snag populations from 1997 to 2007 in drought-stressed mixed-conifer and ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws forests, northern Arizona. Median snag density increased by 75 and 90% in mixed-conifer and ponderosa pine forests, respectively, over this time period. Increased snag density was driven primarily by a large pulse in drought-mediated tree mortality from 2002 to 2007, following a smaller pulse from 1997 to 2002. Decay-class composition and size-class composition of snag populations changed in both forest types, and species composition changed in mixed-conifer forest. Increases in snag abundance may benefit some species of native wildlife in the short-term by providing increased foraging and nesting resources, but these increases may be unsustainable in the long term. Observed changes in snag recruitment and fall rates during the study illustrate the difficulty involved in modeling dynamics of those populations in an era of climate change and changing land management practices.

  6. Assessing the importance of terrain parameters on glide avalanche release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peitzsch, Erich H.; Hendrikx, Jordy; Fagre, Daniel B.

    2014-01-01

    Glide snow avalanches are dangerous and difficult to predict. Despite recent research there is still a lack of understanding regarding the controls of glide avalanche release. Glide avalanches often occur in similar terrain or the same locations annually and observations suggest that topography may be critical. Thus, to gain an understanding of the terrain component of these types of avalanches we examined terrain parameters associated with glide avalanche release as well as areas of consistent glide crack formation but no subsequent avalanches. Glide avalanche occurrences visible from the Going-to-the-Sun Road corridor in Glacier National Park, Montana from 2003-2013 were investigated using an avalanche database derived of daily observations each year from April 1 to June 15. This yielded 192 glide avalanches in 53 distinct avalanche paths. Each avalanche occurrence was digitized in a GIS using satellite, oblique, and aerial imagery as reference. Topographical parameters such as area, slope, aspect, elevation and elevation were then derived for the entire dataset utilizing GIS tools and a 10m DEM. Land surface substrate and surface geology were derived from National Park Service Inventory and Monitoring maps and U.S. Geological Survey surface geology maps, respectively. Surface roughness and glide factor were calculated using a four level classification index. . Then, each avalanche occurrence was aggregated to general avalanche release zones and the frequencies were compared. For this study, glide avalanches released in elevations ranging from 1300 to 2700 m with a mean aspect of 98 degrees (east) and a mean slope angle of 38 degrees. The mean profile curvature for all glide avalanches was 0.15 and a plan curvature of -0.01, suggesting a fairly linear surface (i.e. neither convex nor concave). The glide avalanches occurred in mostly bedrock made up of dolomite and limestone slabs and talus deposits with very few occurring in alpine meadows. However, not all glide

  7. Assessing the importance of terrain parameters on glide avalanche release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peitzsch, E.; Hendrikx, J.; Fagre, D. B.

    2013-12-01

    Glide snow avalanches are dangerous and difficult to predict. Despite recent research there is still a lack of understanding regarding the controls of glide avalanche release. Glide avalanches often occur in similar terrain or the same locations annually and observations suggest that topography may be critical. Thus, to gain an understanding of the terrain component of these types of avalanches we examined terrain parameters associated with glide avalanche release as well as areas of consistent glide crack formation but no subsequent avalanches. Glide avalanche occurrences visible from the Going-to-the-Sun Road corridor in Glacier National Park, Montana from 2003-2013 were investigated using an avalanche database derived of daily observations each year from April 1 to June 15. This yielded 192 glide avalanches in 53 distinct avalanche paths. Each avalanche occurrence was digitized in a GIS using satellite, oblique, and aerial imagery as reference. Topographical parameters such as area, slope, aspect, elevation and elevation were then derived for the entire dataset utilizing GIS tools and a 10m DEM. Land surface substrate and surface geology were derived from National Park Service Inventory and Monitoring maps and U.S. Geological Survey surface geology maps, respectively. Surface roughness and glide factor were calculated using a four level classification index. . Then, each avalanche occurrence was aggregated to general avalanche release zones and the frequencies were compared. For this study, glide avalanches released in elevations ranging from 1300 to 2700 m with a mean aspect of 98 degrees (east) and a mean slope angle of 38 degrees. The mean profile curvature for all glide avalanches was 0.15 and a plan curvature of -0.01, suggesting a fairly linear surface (i.e. neither convex nor concave). The glide avalanches occurred in mostly bedrock made up of dolomite and limestone slabs and talus deposits with very few occurring in alpine meadows. However, not all glide

  8. Integrating motion-detection cameras and hair snags for wolverine identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audrey J. Magoun; Clinton D. Long; Michael K. Schwartz; Kristine L. Pilgrim; Richard E. Lowell; Patrick Valkenburg

    2011-01-01

    We developed an integrated system for photographing a wolverine's (Gulo gulo) ventral pattern while concurrently collecting hair for microsatellite DNA genotyping. Our objectives were to 1) test the system on a wild population of wolverines using an array of camera and hair-snag (C&H) stations in forested habitat where wolverines were known to occur, 2)...

  9. Mountain pine beetle-killed trees as snags in Black Hills ponderosa pine stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. M. Schmid; S. A. Mata; W. C. Schaupp

    2009-01-01

    Mountain pine beetle-killed ponderosa pine trees in three stands of different stocking levels near Bear Mountain in the Black Hills National Forest were surveyed over a 5-year period to determine how long they persisted as unbroken snags. Rate of breakage varied during the first 5 years after MPB infestation: only one tree broke during the first 2 years in the three...

  10. Cervical spine mobilisation forces applied by physiotherapy students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snodgrass, Suzanne J; Rivett, Darren A; Robertson, Val J; Stojanovski, Elizabeth

    2010-06-01

    Postero-anterior (PA) mobilisation is commonly used in cervical spine treatment and included in physiotherapy curricula. The manual forces that students apply while learning cervical mobilisation are not known. Quantifying these forces informs the development of strategies for learning to apply cervical mobilisation effectively and safely. This study describes the mechanical properties of cervical PA mobilisation techniques applied by students, and investigates factors associated with force application. Physiotherapy students (n=120) mobilised one of 32 asymptomatic subjects. Students applied Grades I to IV central and unilateral PA mobilisation to C2 and C7 of one asymptomatic subject. Manual forces were measured in three directions using an instrumented treatment table. Spinal stiffness of mobilised subjects was measured at C2 and C7 using a device that applied a standard oscillating force while measuring this force and its concurrent displacement. Analysis of variance was used to determine differences between techniques and grades, intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were used to calculate the inter- and intrastudent repeatability of forces, and linear regression was used to determine the associations between applied forces and characteristics of students and mobilised subjects. Mobilisation forces increased from Grades I to IV (highest mean peak force, Grade IV C7 central PA technique: 63.7N). Interstudent reliability was poor [ICC(2,1)=0.23, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.14 to 0.43], but intrastudent repeatability of forces was somewhat better (0.83, 95% CI 0.81 to 0.86). Higher applied force was associated with greater C7 stiffness, increased frequency of thumb pain, male gender of the student or mobilised subject, and a student being earlier in their learning process. Lower forces were associated with greater C2 stiffness. This study describes the cervical mobilisation forces applied by students, and the characteristics of the student and mobilised

  11. 14 CFR 23.71 - Glide: Single-engine airplanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Glide: Single-engine airplanes. 23.71... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Performance § 23.71 Glide: Single-engine airplanes. The maximum horizontal distance traveled in still air, in nautical miles...

  12. Should we mobilise critically ill patients? A review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, Enda D

    2009-12-01

    Neuromuscular weakness, a frequent complication of prolonged bed rest and critical illness, is associated with morbidity and mortality. Mobilisation physiotherapy has widespread application in patients hospitalised with non-critical illness.

  13. Discord in the gender harmony: Mobilising femininities at work

    OpenAIRE

    Carr, Melissa; Kelan, Elisabeth K.

    2017-01-01

    This article seeks to aid our understanding of gendered inclusion by looking at how femininities are mobilised at work. Whilst within the popular press there is a growing neo-liberal discourse about women supporting other women in organisations, little consideration has been given to men’s reactions to women aligning with each other, in other words, women mobilising femininities. Furthermore, whilst studies of doing gender have considered this from an individual viewpoint, we are unclear abou...

  14. High density of tree-cavities and snags in tropical dry forest of western Mexico raises questions for a latitudinal gradient.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leopoldo Vázquez

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that a latitudinal gradient exists of a low density of snags and high density of naturally-formed tree-cavities in tropical vs. temperate forests, though few cavities may have characteristics suitable for nesting by birds. We determined snag and cavity density, characteristics, and suitability for birds in a tropical dry forest biome of western Mexico, and evaluated whether our data fits the trend of snag and cavity density typically found in tropical moist and wet forests. We established five 0.25-ha transects to survey and measure tree-cavities and snags in each of three vegetation types of deciduous, semi-deciduous, and mono-dominant Piranhea mexicana forest, comprising a total of 3.75 ha. We found a high density of 77 cavities/ha, with 37 cavities suitable for birds/ha, where density, and characteristics of cavities varied significantly among vegetation types. Lowest abundance of cavities occurred in deciduous forest, and these were in smaller trees, at a lower height, and with a narrower entrance diameter. Only 8.6% of cavities were excavated by woodpeckers, and only 11% of cavities were occupied, mainly by arthropods, though 52% of all cavities were unsuitable for birds. We also found a high density of 56 snags/ha, with greatest density in deciduous forest (70 snags/ha, though these were of significantly smaller diameter, and snags of larger diameter were more likely to contain cavities. The Chamela-Cuixmala tropical dry forest had the highest density of snags recorded for any tropical or temperate forest, and while snag density was significantly correlated with mean snag dbh, neither latitude nor mean dbh predicted snag density in ten forest sites. The high spatial aggregation of snag and cavity resources in tropical dry forest may limit their availability, particularly for large-bodied cavity adopters, and highlights the importance of habitat heterogeneity in providing resources for primary and secondary cavity-nesters.

  15. High density of tree-cavities and snags in tropical dry forest of western Mexico raises questions for a latitudinal gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, Leopoldo; Renton, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    It has been suggested that a latitudinal gradient exists of a low density of snags and high density of naturally-formed tree-cavities in tropical vs. temperate forests, though few cavities may have characteristics suitable for nesting by birds. We determined snag and cavity density, characteristics, and suitability for birds in a tropical dry forest biome of western Mexico, and evaluated whether our data fits the trend of snag and cavity density typically found in tropical moist and wet forests. We established five 0.25-ha transects to survey and measure tree-cavities and snags in each of three vegetation types of deciduous, semi-deciduous, and mono-dominant Piranhea mexicana forest, comprising a total of 3.75 ha. We found a high density of 77 cavities/ha, with 37 cavities suitable for birds/ha, where density, and characteristics of cavities varied significantly among vegetation types. Lowest abundance of cavities occurred in deciduous forest, and these were in smaller trees, at a lower height, and with a narrower entrance diameter. Only 8.6% of cavities were excavated by woodpeckers, and only 11% of cavities were occupied, mainly by arthropods, though 52% of all cavities were unsuitable for birds. We also found a high density of 56 snags/ha, with greatest density in deciduous forest (70 snags/ha), though these were of significantly smaller diameter, and snags of larger diameter were more likely to contain cavities. The Chamela-Cuixmala tropical dry forest had the highest density of snags recorded for any tropical or temperate forest, and while snag density was significantly correlated with mean snag dbh, neither latitude nor mean dbh predicted snag density in ten forest sites. The high spatial aggregation of snag and cavity resources in tropical dry forest may limit their availability, particularly for large-bodied cavity adopters, and highlights the importance of habitat heterogeneity in providing resources for primary and secondary cavity-nesters.

  16. Social Media, Deliberative Democracy and Social Mobilisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Lerche; Bodington, Malene; Lerche, Søren

    Over the past 20 years, researchers have studied how the Internet frames deliberative processes. What is needed to create a framework for dialogue & engagement, & how can the Internet be used to create & support social communities? (Castells 2001, Dyson 1997, Rheingold 1993). However, these appro......Over the past 20 years, researchers have studied how the Internet frames deliberative processes. What is needed to create a framework for dialogue & engagement, & how can the Internet be used to create & support social communities? (Castells 2001, Dyson 1997, Rheingold 1993). However......, these approaches have all taken a normative & meta-theoretical approach to the subject & are rarely grounded in empirical research. Much has been written about using social media in a rationally, purpose-driven or strategic way, relating it to corporations, political organisations, and the latest in relation...... to the Obama presidential campaign in 2008, where deliberative features were successfully used to mobilise and organise 2 millions activists through his social network, Mybo.com. However, very little literature addresses the deliberative processes, nor does much past research build on cases that have...

  17. Simulation of dislocation glide in dilute Fe-Cu alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tapasa, K.; Bacon, D.J.; Osetsky, Yu.N.

    2005-01-01

    The effects on dislocation glide of the substitutional element copper in solution in α-iron are being investigated by computer simulation. In the first phase, the critical stress for a 1/2 {110} edge dislocation to overcome configurations of either a single or two nearest-neighbour solute atoms is simulated. Molecular statics and dynamics methods are used to simulate effects at temperature equal to and greater than 0K, respectively. Single copper atoms and nearest-neighbour pairs in the first atomic plane below the glide plane give the strongest barrier to dislocation glide, in partial agreement with elasticity theory. In addition to temperature, obstacle-spacing effects are considered

  18. Glide back booster wind tunnel model testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pricop, M. V.; Cojocaru, M. G.; Stoica, C. I.; Niculescu, M. L.; Neculaescu, A. M.; Persinaru, A. G.; Boscoianu, M.

    2017-07-01

    Affordable space access requires partial or ideally full launch vehicle reuse, which is in line with clean environment requirement. Although the idea is old, the practical use is difficult, requiring very large technology investment for qualification. Rocket gliders like Space Shuttle have been successfullyoperated but the price and correspondingly the energy footprint were found not sustainable. For medium launchers, finally there is a very promising platform as Falcon 9. For very small launchers the situation is more complex, because the performance index (payload to start mass) is already small, versus medium and heavy launchers. For partial reusable micro launchers this index is even smaller. However the challenge has to be taken because it is likely that in a multiyear effort, technology is going to enable the performance recovery to make such a system economically and environmentally feasible. The current paper is devoted to a small unitary glide back booster which is foreseen to be assembled in a number of possible configurations. Although the level of analysis is not deep, the solution is analyzed from the aerodynamic point of view. A wind tunnel model is designed, with an active canard, to enablea more efficient wind tunnel campaign, as a national level premiere.

  19. GLobal Integrated Design Environment (GLIDE): A Concurrent Engineering Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Melissa L.; Kunkel, Matthew R.; Smith, David A.

    2010-01-01

    The GLobal Integrated Design Environment (GLIDE) is a client-server software application purpose-built to mitigate issues associated with real time data sharing in concurrent engineering environments and to facilitate discipline-to-discipline interaction between multiple engineers and researchers. GLIDE is implemented in multiple programming languages utilizing standardized web protocols to enable secure parameter data sharing between engineers and researchers across the Internet in closed and/or widely distributed working environments. A well defined, HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP) based Application Programming Interface (API) to the GLIDE client/server environment enables users to interact with GLIDE, and each other, within common and familiar tools. One such common tool, Microsoft Excel (Microsoft Corporation), paired with its add-in API for GLIDE, is discussed in this paper. The top-level examples given demonstrate how this interface improves the efficiency of the design process of a concurrent engineering study while reducing potential errors associated with manually sharing information between study participants.

  20. Military labour mobilisation in colonial Lesotho during World War II ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In 1940, Great Britain's wartime exploitation of the human and material resources of its colonial empire was extended to colonial Lesotho (then known as Basutoland). The aim of this article, therefore, is to trace the four-year military labour mobilisation process in that colony, with special attention to the timing, number and ...

  1. Stabilisation of microalgae: Iodine mobilisation under aerobic and anaerobic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wei; Clarke, William; Pratt, Steven

    2015-10-01

    Mobilisation of iodine during microalgae stabilisation was investigated, with the view of assessing the potential of stabilised microalgae as an iodine-rich fertiliser. An iodine-rich waste microalgae (0.35 ± 0.05 mg I g(-1) VS(added)) was stabilised under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Iodine mobilisation was linearly correlated with carbon emission, indicating iodine was in the form of organoiodine. Comparison between iodine and nitrogen mobilisation relative to carbon emission indicated that these elements were, at least in part, housed separately within the cells. After stabilisation, there were 0.22 ± 0.05 and 0.19 ± 0.01 mg g(-1) VS(added) iodine remaining in the solid in the aerobic and anaerobic processed material respectively, meaning 38 ± 5.0% (aerobic) and 50 ± 8.6% (anaerobic) of the iodine were mobilised, and consequently lost from the material. The iodine content of the stabilised material is comparable to the iodine content of some seaweed fertilisers, and potentially satisfies an efficient I-fertilisation dose. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A Playful Multitude? Mobilising and Counter-Mobilising Immaterial Game Labour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Dyer-Witheford

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Using the conceptual grid of "immaterial labour" in the age of Empire, this article is a preliminary portrait of work in the video and computer game development industry, a sector of creative, cognitive labour that exemplifies the allure but also the peril of new media work. Drawing on interviews we conducted with game developers in Canada , we examine the conditions of labour in game studios, this cultural industry's "work as play" ethos, the pleasures and potentialities of game production, the blemishes that mar this attractive vista, and the new infractions these tensions provoke. Confirming that Empire sets in motion potentialities it cannot fully control, we also observe an emergent counter-mobilisation of game labour, whose manifestations range from digital piracy to dissident games produced in the context of activism. These experiments of a playful multitude flow into the wider currents of tactical media, hacktivism, open-source software, and distributed computing that are generating tumults throughout the circuits of Empire.

  3. Decomposition of naphthalene by dc gliding arc gas discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Liang; Li, Xiaodong; Tu, Xin; Wang, Yu; Lu, Shengyong; Yan, Jianhua

    2010-01-14

    Gliding arc discharge has been proved to be effective in treatment of gas and liquid contaminants. In this study, physical characteristics of dc gliding arc discharge and its application to naphthalene destruction are investigated with different external resistances and carrier gases. The decomposition rate increases with increasing of oxygen concentration and decreases with external resistance. This value can be achieved up to 92.3% at the external resistance of 50 kOmega in the oxygen discharge, while the highest destruction energy efficiency reaches 3.6 g (kW h)(-1) with the external resistance of 93 kOmega. Possible reaction pathways and degradation mechanisms in the plasma with different gases are proposed by qualitative analysis of postdestructed products. In the air and oxygen gliding arc discharges, the naphthalene degradation is mainly governed by reactions with oxygen-derived radicals.

  4. Creep deformation behavior in eutectic Sn-Ag solder joints using a novel mapping technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucas, J.P.; Guo, F.; McDougall, J.; Bieler, T.R.; Subramanian, K.N.; Park, J.K.

    1999-11-01

    Creep deformation behavior was measured for 60--100 {micro}m thick solder joints. The solder joints investigated consisted of: (1) non-composite solder joints made with eutectic Sn-Ag solder, and (2) composite solder joints with eutectic Sn-Ag solder containing 20 vol.%, 5 {micro}m diameter in-situ Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} intermetallic reinforcements. All creep testing in this study was carried out at room temperature. Qualitative and quantitative assessment of creep deformation was characterized on the solder joints. Creep deformation was analyzed using a novel mapping technique where a geometrical-regular line pattern was etched over the entire solder joint using excimer laser ablation. During creep, the laser-ablation (LA) pattern becomes distorted due to deformation in the solder joint. By imaging the distortion of laser-ablation patterns using the SEM, actual deformation mapping for the entire solder joint is revealed. The technique involves sequential optical/digital imaging of the deformation versus time history during creep. By tracing and recording the deformation of the LA patterns on the solder over intervals of time, local creep data are obtained in many locations in the joint. This analysis enables global and localized creep shear strains and strain rate to be determined.

  5. 'Snag bags': adapting condoms to community values in Native American communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilley, Brian Joseph

    2006-01-01

    HIV/AIDS researchers working among Native Americans have consistently noted resistance to discussions of sexuality and the distribution of condoms. This resistance is inspired by long held values about shame and public discussions of sexuality. Also, American Indians have been reluctant to welcome public discussions of HIV/AIDS and sexuality from external entities, such as governmental agencies. As a result, Native peoples have some of the lowest documented condom use rates. However, innovations in culturally integrating condoms and safe sex messages into Native cultural ideals are proving beneficial. One such innovation is the snag bag, which incorporates popular Native sexual ideology while working within local ideals of shame to distribute condoms and safe sex materials to sexually active young people and adults. Using snag bags as an example, this research proposes that an effective approach to HIV prevention among Native peoples is not cultural sensitivity but cultural integration. That is, HIV prevention strategies must move beyond the empty promise of merely culturally-sensitizing ideas about disease cause. Instead of simply 'translating' HIV/AIDS programming into Native culture, prevention strategies must be integrated by Native peoples into their own disease theories and contemporary culture.

  6. Ubiquity of quantum zero-point fluctuations in dislocation glide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landeiro Dos Reis, Marie; Choudhury, Anshuman; Proville, Laurent

    2017-03-01

    Modeling the dislocation glide through atomic scale simulations in Al, Cu, and Ni and in solid solution alloys Al(Mg) and Cu(Ag), we show that in the course of the plastic deformation the variation of the crystal zero-point energy (ZPE) and the dislocation potential energy barriers are of opposite sign. The multiplicity of situations where we have observed the same trend allows us to conclude that quantum fluctuations, giving rise to the crystal ZPE, make easier the dislocation glide in most materials, even those constituted of atoms heavier than H and He.

  7. Time lapse photography as an approach to understanding glide avalanche activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrikx, Jordy; Peitzsch, Erich H.; Fagre, Daniel B.

    2012-01-01

    Avalanches resulting from glide cracks are notoriously difficult to forecast, but are a recurring problem for numerous avalanche forecasting programs. In some cases glide cracks are observed to open and then melt away in situ. In other cases, they open and then fail catastrophically as large, full-depth avalanches. Our understanding and management of these phenomena are currently limited. It is thought that an increase in the rate of snow gliding occurs prior to full-depth avalanche activity so frequent observation of glide crack movement can provide an index of instability. During spring 2011 in Glacier National Park, Montana, USA, we began an approach to track glide crack avalanche activity using a time-lapse camera focused on a southwest facing glide crack. This crack melted in-situ without failing as a glide avalanche, while other nearby glide cracks on north through southeast aspects failed. In spring 2012, a camera was aimed at a large and productive glide crack adjacent to the Going to the Sun Road. We captured three unique glide events in the field of view. Unfortunately, all of them either failed very quickly, or during periods of obscured view, so measurements of glide rate could not be obtained. However, we compared the hourly meteorological variables during the period of glide activity to the same variables prior to glide activity. The variables air temperature, relative humidity, air pressure, incoming and reflected long wave radiation, SWE, total precipitation, and snow depth were found to be statistically different for our cases examined. We propose that these are some of the potential precursors for glide avalanche activity, but do urge caution in their use, due to the simple approach and small data set size. It is hoped that by introducing a workable method to easily record glide crack movement, combined with ongoing analysis of the associated meteorological data, we will improve our understanding of when, or if, glide avalanche activity will ensue.

  8. Evaluation of sampling methods to quantify abundance of hardwoods and snags within conifer-dominated riparian zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theresa Marquardt; Hailemariam Temesgen; Paul D. Anderson; Bianca. Eskelson

    2012-01-01

    Six sampling alternatives were examined for their ability to quantify selected attributes of snags and hardwoods in conifer-dominated riparian areas of managed headwater forests in western Oregon. Each alternative was simulated 500 times at eight headwater forest locations based on a 0.52-ha square stem map. The alternatives were evaluated based on how well they...

  9. Degradation of Verapamil hydrochloride in water by gliding arc discharge

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krishna, S.; Mašláni, Alan; Izdebski, T.; Horáková, M.; Klementová, Š.; Špatenka, P.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 152, June (2016), s. 47-54 ISSN 0045-6535 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Gliding arc discharge * Emission spectroscopy * Pharmaceuticals * Half-life * Degradation mechanism Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 4.208, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0045653516302442

  10. Gliding Swifts Attain Laminar Flow over Rough Wings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lentink, D.; Kat, de R.

    2014-01-01

    Swifts are among the most aerodynamically refined gliding birds. However, the overlapping vanes and protruding shafts of their primary feathers make swift wings remarkably rough for their size. Wing roughness height is 1–2% of chord length on the upper surface—10,000 times rougher than sailplane

  11. Gliding swifts attain laminar flow over rough wings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Lentink

    Full Text Available Swifts are among the most aerodynamically refined gliding birds. However, the overlapping vanes and protruding shafts of their primary feathers make swift wings remarkably rough for their size. Wing roughness height is 1-2% of chord length on the upper surface--10,000 times rougher than sailplane wings. Sailplanes depend on extreme wing smoothness to increase the area of laminar flow on the wing surface and minimize drag for extended glides. To understand why the swift does not rely on smooth wings, we used a stethoscope to map laminar flow over preserved wings in a low-turbulence wind tunnel. By combining laminar area, lift, and drag measurements, we show that average area of laminar flow on swift wings is 69% (n = 3; std 13% of their total area during glides that maximize flight distance and duration--similar to high-performance sailplanes. Our aerodynamic analysis indicates that swifts attain laminar flow over their rough wings because their wing size is comparable to the distance the air travels (after a roughness-induced perturbation before it transitions from laminar to turbulent. To interpret the function of swift wing roughness, we simulated its effect on smooth model wings using physical models. This manipulation shows that laminar flow is reduced and drag increased at high speeds. At the speeds at which swifts cruise, however, swift-like roughness prolongs laminar flow and reduces drag. This feature gives small birds with rudimentary wings an edge during the evolution of glide performance.

  12. Kick, Glide, Pole! Cross-Country Skiing Fun (Part II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duoos, Bridget A.

    2012-01-01

    Part I of Kick, Glide, Pole! Cross-Country Skiing Fun, which was published in last issue, discussed how to select cross-country ski equipment, dress for the activity and the biomechanics of the diagonal stride. Part II focuses on teaching the diagonal stride technique and begins with a progression of indoor activities. Incorporating this fun,…

  13. Hypergravity synthesis of graphitic carbon nanomaterial in glide arc plasma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Šperka, J.; Soucek, P.; van Loon, J.J.W.A.; Dowson, A.; Schwarz, C.; Krause, J.; Butenko, Y.; Kroesen, G.; Kudrle, V.

    2014-01-01

    A nanostructured carbon material was synthesized using a methane/helium glide arc plasma under standard and increased gravity. Material analysis performed on samples collected from an effluent gas filter showed that the deposited material was present in the form of carbon nanoparticles. They

  14. Mobile media, mobility and mobilisation in the current museum field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baggesen, Rikke Haller

    2017-01-01

    Introducing the concept of a 'mobile museology' to describe how museums are currently set in motion by a confluence of cultural, technological and museological developments, this chapter traces the connections between mobile media and notions of mobility and mobilisation in the museum field....... As illustrated by current examples in the chapter, mobile phones have thus provided an opportunity for both augmenting and transcending the museum space, blurring former boundaries between institutions and their environments. At the same time, technological advances and digitial culture developments have also...... required and inspired museums to become organisationally mobile, and to mobilise collections, audiences and institutions in order to fulfill museum missions. In this perspective, mobile media are thus seen as both catalysts and instruments for current museum developments....

  15. Carbon dioxide triggered metal(loid) mobilisation in a mofette

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beulig, Felix

    2014-01-01

    Carbon capture and geologic storage is a frequently discussed option to reduce atmospheric CO2 concentrations with the long-term risk of leakage from storage sites to overlying aquifers and soils. We chose natural CO2 exhalations, so-called mofettes, in a wetland area in the Czech Republic...... as analogues to follow the fate of metal(loid)s under CO2-saturated conditions. Compared to the reference fluvisol at the study site, mofette soils exhibited lower pH (4.9 ± 0.05) and redox potential (300 ± 40 mV), as well as higher organic carbon contents. Poorly crystalline and crystalline Fe (hydr...... to complexation and/or adsorption to organic carbon and the small amount of Fe (hydr)oxides. A one-month-in-situ mobilisation experiment showed mobilisation of all investigated elements to the aqueous phase suggesting that desorption is the faster and initially dominating process while resorption is a secondary...

  16. Anti-Islamic PEGIDA beyond Germany : explaining differences in mobilisation

    OpenAIRE

    BERNTZEN, Lars Erik; WEISSKIRCHER, Manès

    2016-01-01

    First published online: 28 October 2016 The rise of anti-Islamic PEGIDA (Patriotische Europäer gegen die Islamisierung des Abendlandes) is one of the latest sustained episodes of radical right mobilisation in Western Europe outside the electoral arena. This study provides a first comparative analysis of PEGIDA beyond Germany and its core region of Saxony. Combining protest event analysis with online data and network analysis, we identify why PEGIDA mustered low-scale support in some countr...

  17. The Use of a Reciprocating Handpiece to Create a Glide Path in Curved Canals: Comparison with Manual Glide Path Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    instruments into the root canal system, manufacturers recommend creating a glide path to reduce the risk of instrument fracture due to taper lock . This...Results The two groups had almost identical mean and standard...The groups had identical median values of 85 seconds, and there was no significant difference between the groups (Mann-Whitney U test; p=0.15; two

  18. Analysis of temperature glide matching of heat pumps with zeotropic working fluid mixtures for different temperature glides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zühlsdorf, Benjamin; Jensen, Jonas Kjær; Cignitti, Stefano

    2018-01-01

    refrigerants. This approach enables a match of the temperature glide of sink and source with the temperature of the working fluid during phase change and thus, a reduction of the exergy destruction due to heat transfer. The model was evaluated for four different boundary conditions. The exergy destruction due...

  19. Effect of early and late mobilisation on split skin graft outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luczak, Bernard; Ha, Jennifer; Gurfinkel, Reuven

    2012-02-01

    There is an increasing trend towards early mobilisation post-split skin grafting of the lower limbs. This study was performed to determine if early mobilisation impacts negatively on graft healing and patient morbidity. A retrospective review of 48 cases of lower limb split skin grafts performed by the plastic surgery department at Royal Perth Hospital was undertaken. Patients were stratified into early and late mobilisation groups. No difference in outcome was identified with early mobilisation, but an increased rate of deconditioning with increased length of stay was present with late mobilisation. These results suggest that early mobilisation post-split skin grafting of the lower limb is beneficial to patient care and is associated with lower morbidity. © 2011 The Authors. Australasian Journal of Dermatology © 2011 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  20. Circular random motion in diatom gliding under isotropic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutiérrez-Medina, Braulio; Maldonado, Ana Iris Peña; Guerra, Andrés Jiménez; Rubio, Yadiralia Covarrubias; Meza, Jessica Viridiana García

    2014-01-01

    How cells migrate has been investigated primarily for the case of trajectories composed by joined straight segments. In contrast, little is known when cellular motion follows intrinsically curved paths. Here, we use time-lapse optical microscopy and automated trajectory tracking to investigate how individual cells of the diatom Nitzschia communis glide across surfaces under isotropic environmental conditions. We find a distinct kind of random motion, where trajectories are formed by circular arcs traveled at constant speed, alternated with random stoppages, direction reversals and changes in the orientation of the arcs. Analysis of experimental and computer-simulated trajectories show that the circular random motion of diatom gliding is not optimized for long-distance travel but rather for recurrent coverage of limited surface area. These results suggest that one main biological role for this type of diatom motility is to efficiently build the foundation of algal biofilms. (paper)

  1. Investigation of Aerodynamic Capabilities of Flying Fish in Gliding Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, H.; Choi, H.

    In the present study, we experimentally investigate the aerodynamic capabilities of flying fish. We consider four different flying fish models, which are darkedged-wing flying fishes stuffed in actual gliding posture. Some morphological parameters of flying fish such as lateral dihedral angle of pectoral fins, incidence angles of pectoral and pelvic fins are considered to examine their effect on the aerodynamic performance. We directly measure the aerodynamic properties (lift, drag, and pitching moment) for different morphological parameters of flying fish models. For the present flying fish models, the maximum lift coefficient and lift-to-drag ratio are similar to those of medium-sized birds such as the vulture, nighthawk and petrel. The pectoral fins are found to enhance the lift-to-drag ratio and the longitudinal static stability of gliding flight. On the other hand, the lift coefficient and lift-to-drag ratio decrease with increasing lateral dihedral angle of pectoral fins.

  2. Characteristics of Atmospheric Pressure Rotating Gliding Arc Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Zhu, Fengsen; Tu, Xin; Bo, Zheng; Cen, Kefa; Li, Xiaodong

    2016-05-01

    In this work, a novel direct current (DC) atmospheric pressure rotating gliding arc (RGA) plasma reactor has been developed for plasma-assisted chemical reactions. The influence of the gas composition and the gas flow rate on the arc dynamic behaviour and the formation of reactive species in the N2 and air gliding arc plasmas has been investigated by means of electrical signals, high speed photography, and optical emission spectroscopic diagnostics. Compared to conventional gliding arc reactors with knife-shaped electrodes which generally require a high flow rate (e.g., 10-20 L/min) to maintain a long arc length and reasonable plasma discharge zone, in this RGA system, a lower gas flow rate (e.g., 2 L/min) can also generate a larger effective plasma reaction zone with a longer arc length for chemical reactions. Two different motion patterns can be clearly observed in the N2 and air RGA plasmas. The time-resolved arc voltage signals show that three different arc dynamic modes, the arc restrike mode, takeover mode, and combined modes, can be clearly identified in the RGA plasmas. The occurrence of different motion and arc dynamic modes is strongly dependent on the composition of the working gas and gas flow rate. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51576174), the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (No. 20120101110099) and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (No. 2015FZA4011)

  3. Mobilisation of toxic trace elements under various beach nourishments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pit, Iris R.; Dekker, Stefan C.; Kanters, Tobias J.; Wassen, Martin J.; Griffioen, Jasper

    2017-01-01

    To enhance protection and maintain wide beaches for recreation, beaches are replenished with sand: so-called beach nourishments. We compared four sites: two traditional beach nourishments, a mega beach nourishment and a reference without beach nourishment. Two sites contain calcareous-rich sand, whereas the other two sites have calcareous-poor sand. We aimed to understand hydrogeochemical processes to indicate factors critical for the mobility of trace elements at nourishments. We therefore analysed the chemical characteristics of sediment and pore water to ascertain the main drivers that mobilise toxic trace elements. With Dutch Quality Standards for soil and groundwater, the characteristics of sediment and pore water were compared to Target Values (the values at which there is a sustainable soil quality) and Intervention Values (the threshold above which the soil's functions are at risk). The pore water characteristics revealed that Target Values were regularly exceeded, especially for the nourishment sites and mainly for Mo (78%), Ni (24%), Cr (55%), and As (21%); Intervention Values for shallow groundwater were occasionally exceeded for As (2%), Cr (2%) and Zn (2%). The sediment characteristics did not exceed the Target Values and showed that trace elements were mainly present in the fine fraction of <150 μm. The oxidation of sulphide minerals such as pyrite resulted into the elevated concentration for all nourishment sites, especially when an unsaturated zone was present and influence of rainwater was apparent. To prevent trace metal mobility at a mega beach nourishment it is important to retain seawater influences and limit oxidation processes. In this respect, a shoreface nourishment is recommended rather than a mega beach nourishment with a thick unsaturated zone. Consequently, we conclude that whether a site is carbonate-rich or carbonate-poor is unimportant, as the influence of seawater will prevent decalcification, creating a low risk of

  4. The role of fire-return interval and season of burn in snag dynamics in a south Florida slash pine forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, John D.; Slater, Gary L.; Snyder, James R.

    2012-01-01

    Standing dead trees, or snags, are an important habitat element for many animal species. In many ecosystems, fire is a primary driver of snag population dynamics because it can both create and consume snags. The objective of this study was to examine how variation in two key components of the fire regime—fire-return interval and season of burn—affected population dynamics of snags. Using a factorial design, we exposed 1 ha plots, located within larger burn units in a south Florida slash pine (Pinus elliottii var. densa Little and Dorman) forest, to prescribed fire applied at two intervals (approximately 3-year intervals vs. approximately 6-year intervals) and during two seasons (wet season vs. dry season) over a 12- to 13-year period. We found no consistent effect of fire season or frequency on the density of lightly to moderately decayed or heavily decayed snags, suggesting that variation in these elements of the fire regime at the scale we considered is relatively unimportant in the dynamics of snag populations. However, our confidence in these findings is limited by small sample sizes, potentially confounding effects of unmeasured variation in fire behavior and effects (e.g., intensity, severity, synergy with drought cycles) and wide variation in responses within a treatment level. The generalizing of our findings is also limited by the narrow range of treatment levels considered. Future experiments incorporating a wider range of fire regimes and directly quantifying fire intensity would prove useful in identifying more clearly the role of fire in shaping the dynamics of snag populations.

  5. Political Participation Online: The Replacement and the Mobilisation Hypotheses Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jakob Linaa

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the state of political participation online more than ten years after the Internet’s great popular breakthrough as an everyday medium. Denmark is used as a case study to critically re-examine the frequently discussed replacement and mobilisation hypotheses on behalf of the ...... participation, efficacy and social capital seem to have less impact on online political participation. In the end, these findings are related to more overall discussions on the democratising potential of the Internet.......This article discusses the state of political participation online more than ten years after the Internet’s great popular breakthrough as an everyday medium. Denmark is used as a case study to critically re-examine the frequently discussed replacement and mobilisation hypotheses on behalf...... of the Internet. The pure replacement hypothesis is rejected. Instead, it is found that the Internet still supplements rather than replaces other media, even among heavy Internet users. The Internet is one among several media used by ‘media omnivores’, and political participation online supplements rather than...

  6. Mobilisation of toxic elements in the human respiratory system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinheiro, T.; Alves, L.C.; Palhano, M.J.; Bugalho de Almeida, A.

    2001-01-01

    The fate of respired particles in the respiratory system is inferred through the chemical characterisation of individual particles at the tracheal and bronchial mucosas, and the accumulation of toxic elements in lung alveoli and lymph nodes. The particles and tissue elemental distributions were identified and characterised using micro-PIXE elemental mapping of thin frozen sections using the ITN Nuclear Microprobe facility. Significant particle deposits are found at the distal respiratory tract. Al, Si, Ti, V, Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu and Zn are elements detected at these accumulation areas. The elemental distributions in the different cellular environments of lymph nodes vary. The major compartments for Al, Si, Ti, Fe and Cr are the phagocytic cells and capsule of lymph nodes, while V and Ni are in the cortex and paracortex medullar areas which retain more than 70% of these two elements, suggesting high solubility of the latter in the cellular milieu. The elemental mobilisation from particles or deposits to surrounding tissues at the respiratory ducts evidences patterns of diffusion and removal that are different than those for elements in the respiratory tract. Mobilisation of elements such as V, Cr and Ni is more relevant at alveoli areas where gaseous exchange takes place. The apparent high solubility of V and Ni in the respiratory tract tissue points towards a deviation of the lymphatic system filtering efficiency for these elements when compared to others

  7. Distributed leadership to mobilise capacity for accreditation research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, David; Braithwaite, Jeffrey; Pawsey, Marjorie; Johnson, Brian; Robinson, Maureen

    2009-01-01

    Inquiries into healthcare organisations have highlighted organisational or system failure, attributed to poor responses to early warning signs. One response, and challenge, is for professionals and academics to build capacity for quality and safety research to provide evidence for improved systems. However, such collaborations and capacity building do not occur easily as there are many stakeholders. Leadership is necessary to unite differences into a common goal. The lessons learned and principles arising from the experience of providing distributed leadership to mobilise capacity for quality and safety research when researching health care accreditation in Australia are presented. A case study structured by temporal bracketing that presents a narrative account of multi-stakeholder perspectives. Data are collected using in-depth informal interviews with key informants and ethno-document analysis. Distributed leadership enabled a collaborative research partnership to be realised. The leadership harnessed the relative strengths of partners and accounted for, and balanced, the interests of stakeholder participants involved. Across three phases, leadership and the research partnership was enacted: identifying partnerships, bottom-up engagement and enacting the research collaboration. Two principles to maximise opportunities to mobilise capacity for quality and safety research have been identified. First, successful collaborations, particularly multi-faceted inter-related partnerships, require distributed leadership. Second, the leadership-stakeholder enactment can promote reciprocity so that the collaboration becomes mutually reinforcing and beneficial to partners. The paper addresses the need to understand the practice and challenges of distributed leadership and how to replicate positive practices to implement patient safety research.

  8. Manipulation and mobilisation for neck pain contrasted against an inactive control or another active treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gross, Anita; Langevin, Pierre; Burnie, Stephen J.; Bédard-Brochu, Marie-Sophie; Empey, Brian; Dugas, Estelle; Faber-Dobrescu, Michael; Andres, Cristy; Graham, Nadine; Goldsmith, Charles H.; Brønfort, Gert; Hoving, Jan L.; LeBlanc, Francis

    2015-01-01

    Manipulation and mobilisation are commonly used to treat neck pain. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2003, and previously updated in 2010. To assess the effects of manipulation or mobilisation alone compared wiith those of an inactive control or another active treatment on

  9. Assessment of the Implementation of GNSS into Gliding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Kubáč

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Global navigation satellite systems are increasingly part of our lives and many industries including aviation. Glider flying is no exception in this trend. Global navigation satellite systems were part of gliding since the early 1990s. First as official recording devices for simple evidence of sporting performances, then as navigation systems, anti-collision systems and emergency location transmitters. Development of recording application was initiated and supported by International Gliding Commission of World Air Sports Federation in way of certifications for flight recorders. The use of navigation and other modern instruments in gliders has brought many benefits but also risks. However, the advantages outweigh the disadvantages and these systems are now integral part of gliding. With this wide usage of global navigation satellite systems devices, there is great many possibilities how and in which way one can use these systems. Pilots must orient themselves in varied selection of products, which they can use to choose one solution, that fits him. Therefore, to find out how and if pilots use these devices, we created questionnaire survey among 143 Czech glider pilots. We found out, that 84% of them are using global navigation satellite systems devices for official record of flight and for navigation as well. More than half of pilots is using free, not built-in devices. Most common devices are mobile phones up to 5 inches of screen diagonal in combination with approved flight recorder without display. If pilots use mobile device for navigation, 52% of them is using one with Windows Mobile operating system, 33% use Android. Navigational software on these mobile devices is then almost tied between SeeYou Mobile, XCSoar and LK8000. Knowledge about usage preference of global navigation systems devices should help pilots with selection and overall orientation in subject.

  10. Aerodynamic characteristics of flying fish in gliding flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyungmin; Choi, Haecheon

    2010-10-01

    The flying fish (family Exocoetidae) is an exceptional marine flying vertebrate, utilizing the advantages of moving in two different media, i.e. swimming in water and flying in air. Despite some physical limitations by moving in both water and air, the flying fish has evolved to have good aerodynamic designs (such as the hypertrophied fins and cylindrical body with a ventrally flattened surface) for proficient gliding flight. Hence, the morphological and behavioral adaptations of flying fish to aerial locomotion have attracted great interest from various fields including biology and aerodynamics. Several aspects of the flight of flying fish have been determined or conjectured from previous field observations and measurements of morphometric parameters. However, the detailed measurement of wing performance associated with its morphometry for identifying the characteristics of flight in flying fish has not been performed yet. Therefore, in the present study, we directly measure the aerodynamic forces and moment on darkedged-wing flying fish (Cypselurus hiraii) models and correlated them with morphological characteristics of wing (fin). The model configurations considered are: (1) both the pectoral and pelvic fins spread out, (2) only the pectoral fins spread with the pelvic fins folded, and (3) both fins folded. The role of the pelvic fins was found to increase the lift force and lift-to-drag ratio, which is confirmed by the jet-like flow structure existing between the pectoral and pelvic fins. With both the pectoral and pelvic fins spread, the longitudinal static stability is also more enhanced than that with the pelvic fins folded. For cases 1 and 2, the lift-to-drag ratio was maximum at attack angles of around 0 deg, where the attack angle is the angle between the longitudinal body axis and the flying direction. The lift coefficient is largest at attack angles around 30∼35 deg, at which the flying fish is observed to emerge from the sea surface. From glide polar

  11. Magnetic circuit design of magnetically driving gliding arc discharge device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Zhonghe; Liu Minghai; Gu Chenglin; Pan Yuan

    2002-01-01

    A gliding arc discharge driven by magnetic field at atmospheric pressure can generate non-equilibrium plasma with good confinement property, and has extensive application in the areas of microelectronic fabrication, environmental engineering, etc. The magnetic circuit of the generator is designed with the permeance method, and analytic expression is obtained on the magnetic induction, the permeant magnetic material thickness and length of air gap. The results have been compared with those of the finite element method, the difference is 3.1%. But the permeance method is more concise and convenient and more universal and economical. So the permeance method is a more credible and useful engineering arithmetic

  12. Gliding motility of Babesia bovis merozoites visualized by time-lapse video microscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahito Asada

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Babesia bovis is an apicomplexan intraerythrocytic protozoan parasite that induces babesiosis in cattle after transmission by ticks. During specific stages of the apicomplexan parasite lifecycle, such as the sporozoites of Plasmodium falciparum and tachyzoites of Toxoplasma gondii, host cells are targeted for invasion using a unique, active process termed "gliding motility". However, it is not thoroughly understood how the merozoites of B. bovis target and invade host red blood cells (RBCs, and gliding motility has so far not been observed in the parasite. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Gliding motility of B. bovis merozoites was revealed by time-lapse video microscopy. The recorded images revealed that the process included egress of the merozoites from the infected RBC, gliding motility, and subsequent invasion into new RBCs. The gliding motility of B. bovis merozoites was similar to the helical gliding of Toxoplasma tachyzoites. The trails left by the merozoites were detected by indirect immunofluorescence assay using antiserum against B. bovis merozoite surface antigen 1. Inhibition of gliding motility by actin filament polymerization or depolymerization indicated that the gliding motility was driven by actomyosin dependent process. In addition, we revealed the timing of breakdown of the parasitophorous vacuole. Time-lapse image analysis of membrane-stained bovine RBCs showed formation and breakdown of the parasitophorous vacuole within ten minutes of invasion. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first report of the gliding motility of B. bovis. Since merozoites of Plasmodium parasites do not glide on a substrate, the gliding motility of B. bovis merozoites is a notable finding.

  13. Mobilisering af barnets potentiale for en bedre fremtid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øland, Trine

    2014-01-01

    to the forming and education of the child, mobilising the child’s potential to secure the future and promote peace and international understanding. This article examines so far unexamined sources, i.e., 89 assessments of children’s book manuscripts from the private archives of Torben Gregersen (1911......Children’s books were one of the scenes where ‘progressive’ professionals - mostly teachers, psychologists and artists - around WWII fought the battle to change society through changed educational thinking. Especially after WWII it was acknowledged that children’s books could contribute...... development and national culture, and literary and aesthetic-artistic elements to a lesser extent. Thus, the article shows that the emergence of ‘progressive’ elements which in research on children’s literature normally are dated to the late 1960s, are not only present in the 1940s and 1950s...

  14. The mobilisation of sediment by demersal otter trawls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, F G; Summerbell, K

    2011-05-01

    The mobilisation of sediment by towed demersal fishing gears has been related to the release of nutrients, benthic infaunal mortality and the resuspension of phytoplankton cysts and copepod eggs. Hence, to understand the broader environmental and ecological implications of demersal fishing, it is important to be able to estimate accurately the amount of sediment put into the water column by towed gears. Experimental trials were carried out in the Moray Firth, Scotland, to measure the quantity of sediment remobilised by trawl gear components. It is demonstrated, for a given sediment type, that there is a relationship between the hydrodynamic drag of the gear element and the mass of sediment entrained behind it. A better understanding of this relationship and the hydrodynamic processes involved will lead to the development of accurate predictive models and aid the design of fishing gears of reduced impact. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Mobilisation of toxic trace elements under various beach nourishments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pit, Iris R; Dekker, Stefan C; Kanters, Tobias J; Wassen, Martin J; Griffioen, Jasper

    2017-12-01

    To enhance protection and maintain wide beaches for recreation, beaches are replenished with sand: so-called beach nourishments. We compared four sites: two traditional beach nourishments, a mega beach nourishment and a reference without beach nourishment. Two sites contain calcareous-rich sand, whereas the other two sites have calcareous-poor sand. We aimed to understand hydrogeochemical processes to indicate factors critical for the mobility of trace elements at nourishments. We therefore analysed the chemical characteristics of sediment and pore water to ascertain the main drivers that mobilise toxic trace elements. With Dutch Quality Standards for soil and groundwater, the characteristics of sediment and pore water were compared to Target Values (the values at which there is a sustainable soil quality) and Intervention Values (the threshold above which the soil's functions are at risk). The pore water characteristics revealed that Target Values were regularly exceeded, especially for the nourishment sites and mainly for Mo (78%), Ni (24%), Cr (55%), and As (21%); Intervention Values for shallow groundwater were occasionally exceeded for As (2%), Cr (2%) and Zn (2%). The sediment characteristics did not exceed the Target Values and showed that trace elements were mainly present in the fine fraction of <150 μm. The oxidation of sulphide minerals such as pyrite resulted into the elevated concentration for all nourishment sites, especially when an unsaturated zone was present and influence of rainwater was apparent. To prevent trace metal mobility at a mega beach nourishment it is important to retain seawater influences and limit oxidation processes. In this respect, a shoreface nourishment is recommended rather than a mega beach nourishment with a thick unsaturated zone. Consequently, we conclude that whether a site is carbonate-rich or carbonate-poor is unimportant, as the influence of seawater will prevent decalcification, creating a low risk of mobilisation

  16. Pregnancy increases mobilisation of lead from maternal skeleton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulson, B.L.

    2000-01-01

    Lead is a neurotoxin that, even at low levels, is considered to result in neurobehavioural disorders such as cognitive deficits, learning disability and behavioural disturbances. The most recent study of Needleman et al. suggested an association between bone lead levels and antisocial and delinquent behaviour (Needleman et al., 1996). Although the neurobehavioural deficits associated with low-level lead exposure are best documented for early childhood exposures, the effects of lead on the developing nervous system are of concern. Lead readily crosses the placenta (Barltrop, 1969; Silbergeld, 1991) and changes in maternal blood lead potentially result in alterations to foetal exposure. Mobilisation of lead from body stores accumulated prior to pregnancy has been established in experimental animals (Buchet, 1977; Keller and Doherty, 1980). The cohort was to consist of 100 immigrants anticipated to provide 20 pregnant subjects who would be compared with two groups of control subjects: a matched immigrant nonpregnant control group and second-generation Australian pregnant controls. The pregnant subject also serves as her own control for a comparison of changes during pregnancy with those prior to conception. High precision lead isotopic compositions and lead concentrations were measured on: maternal blood and urine prenatally, monthly during pregnancy and post-pregnancy for 6 months; infant blood and urine for 6 months; and environmental measures sampled quarterly for 6-day duplicate diet, house dust and water, urban air and petrol. Results of this study confirm that lead is mobilised from skeletal stores at an accelerated rate during pregnancy and transferred to the foetus. This has implications for interpretations of neurobehavioural disorders attributed solely to post-natal exposure

  17. Evolution of gliding in Southeast Asian geckos and other vertebrates is temporally congruent with dipterocarp forest development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinicke, Matthew P; Greenbaum, Eli; Jackman, Todd R; Bauer, Aaron M

    2012-12-23

    Gliding morphologies occur in diverse vertebrate lineages in Southeast Asian rainforests, including three gecko genera, plus frogs, snakes, agamid lizards and squirrels. It has been hypothesized that repeated evolution of gliding is related to the dominance of Asian rainforest tree floras by dipterocarps. For dipterocarps to have influenced the evolution of gliding in Southeast Asian vertebrates, gliding lineages must have Eocene or later origins. However, divergence times are not known for most lineages. To investigate the temporal pattern of Asian gliding vertebrate evolution, we performed phylogenetic and molecular clock analyses. New sequence data for geckos incorporate exemplars of each gliding genus (Cosymbotus, Luperosaurus and Ptychozoon), whereas analyses of other vertebrate lineages use existing sequence data. Stem ages of most gliding vertebrates, including all geckos, cluster in the time period when dipterocarps came to dominate Asian tropical forests. These results demonstrate that a gliding/dipterocarp correlation is temporally viable, and caution against the assumption of early origins for apomorphic taxa.

  18. 14 CFR 29.71 - Helicopter angle of glide: Category B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Helicopter angle of glide: Category B. 29... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Performance § 29.71 Helicopter angle of glide: Category B. For each category B helicopter, except multiengine helicopters meeting the...

  19. Adhesion improvement of glass-fibre-reinforced polyester composites by gliding arc discharge treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusano, Yukihiro; Sørensen, Bent F.; Løgstrup Andersen, Tom

    2013-01-01

    A gliding arc is a plasma that can be operated at atmospheric pressure and applied for plasma surface treatment for adhesion improvement. In the present work, glass-fibre-reinforced polyester plates were treated using an atmospheric pressure gliding arc discharge with an air flow to improve...

  20. Plasma-liquid system with rotational gliding discharge with liquid electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nedybaliuk, O.A.; Solomenko, O.V; Martysh, E.V.; Fedirchuk, I.I.

    2014-01-01

    Plasma-liquid system based on rotational gliding discharge with one liquid electrode was developed. Emission spectra of plasma of rotational gliding discharge with one liquid electrode were investigated. Discovered effective mechanism of controlling non-isothermal level of plasma in dynamic plasma-liquid systems. Major mechanism of expulsion of metal anode material from plasma-liquid systems with rotational discharges was shown.

  1. The impact of glide phases on the trackability of hydrodynamic trails in harbour seals (Phoca vitulina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieskotten, S; Dehnhardt, G; Mauck, B; Miersch, L; Hanke, W

    2010-11-01

    The mystacial vibrissae of harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) constitute a highly sensitive hydrodynamic receptor system enabling the seals to detect and follow hydrodynamic trails. In the wild, hydrodynamic trails, as generated by swimming fish, consist of cyclic burst-and-glide phases, associated with various differences in the physical parameters of the trail. Here, we investigated the impact of glide phases on the trackability of differently aged hydrodynamic trails in a harbour seal. As fish are not easily trained to swim certain paths with predetermined burst-and-glide phases, the respective hydrodynamic trails were generated using a remote-controlled miniature submarine. Gliding phases in hydrodynamic trails had a negative impact on the trackability when trails were 15 s old. The seal lost the generated trails more often within the transition zones, when the submarine switched from a burst to a glide moving pattern. Hydrodynamic parameter analysis (particle image velocimetry) revealed that the smaller dimensions and faster decay of hydrodynamic trails generated by the gliding submarine are responsible for the impaired success of the seal tracking the gliding phase. Furthermore, the change of gross water flow generated by the submarine from a rearwards-directed stream in the burst phase to a water flow passively dragged behind the submarine during gliding might influence the ability of the seal to follow the trail as this might cause a weaker deflection of the vibrissae. The possible ecological implications of intermittent swimming behaviour in fish for piscivorous predators are discussed.

  2. The epidemiology of injury in hang-gliding and paragliding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekand, Tiina

    2012-01-01

    Para- and hang-gliding are modern air sports that developed in the 20th century. Performers should possess technical skills and manage certified equipment for successful flight. Injuries may happen during the take-off, flight and landing. PubMed was searched using the search terms 'paragliding' and/or 'hang-gliding'. The reference lists of articles identified in the search strategy were also searched for relevant articles. The most common injuries are fractures, dislocations or sprains in the extremities, followed by spinal and head traumas. Multiple injuries after accidents are common. Collision with electrical wires may cause burn injuries. Fatal outcomes are caused by brain injuries, spinal cord injuries at the cervical level or aorta rupture. Accidents happen because of risk-taking behavior, lack of education or use of self-modified equipment. Observational studies have suggested the need for protection of the head, trunk and lower extremities. The measures proposed are often based on conclusions of observational studies and not proven through randomized studies. Better education along with focusing on possible risk factors will probably diminish the risks of hang- and paragliding. Large denominator-based case series, case-control and population-based studies are needed for assessment of the risks of hang- and paragliding. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Gliding arc in tornado using a reverse vortex flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalra, Chiranjeev S.; Cho, Young I.; Gutsol, Alexander; Fridman, Alexander; Rufael, Tecle S.

    2005-01-01

    The present article reports a new gliding arc (GA) system using a reverse vortex flow ('tornado') in a cylindrical reactor (gliding arc in tornado, or GAT), as used to preserve the main advantages of traditional GA systems and overcome their main drawbacks. The primary advantages of traditional GA systems retained in the present GAT are the possibility to generate transitional plasma and to avoid considerable electrode erosion. In contrast to a traditional GA, the new GAT system ensures much more uniform gas treatment and has a significantly larger gas residence time in the reactor. The present article also describes the design of the new reactor and its stable operation regime when the variation of GAT current is very small. These features are understood to be very important for most viable applications. Additionally the GAT provides near-perfect thermal insulation from the reactor wall, indicating that the present GAT does not require the reactor wall to be constructed of high-temperature materials. The new GAT system, with its unique properties such as a high level of nonequilibrium and a large residence time, looks very promising for many industrial applications including fuel conversion, carbon dioxide conversion to carbon monoxide and oxygen, surface treatment, waste treatment, flame stabilization, hydrogen sulfide treatment, etc

  4. Plastic deformation of tubular crystals by dislocation glide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beller, Daniel A; Nelson, David R

    2016-09-01

    Tubular crystals, two-dimensional lattices wrapped into cylindrical topologies, arise in many contexts, including botany and biofilaments, and in physical systems such as carbon nanotubes. The geometrical principles of botanical phyllotaxis, describing the spiral packings on cylinders commonly found in nature, have found application in all these systems. Several recent studies have examined defects in tubular crystals associated with crystalline packings that must accommodate a fixed tube radius. Here we study the mechanics of tubular crystals with variable tube radius, with dislocations interposed between regions of different phyllotactic packings. Unbinding and separation of dislocation pairs with equal and opposite Burgers vectors allow the growth of one phyllotactic domain at the expense of another. In particular, glide separation of dislocations offers a low-energy mode for plastic deformations of solid tubes in response to external stresses, reconfiguring the lattice step by step. Through theory and simulation, we examine how the tube's radius and helicity affects, and is in turn altered by, the mechanics of dislocation glide. We also discuss how a sufficiently strong bending rigidity can alter or arrest the deformations of tubes with small radii.

  5. Improving efficiency of heat pumps by use of zeotropic mixtures for different temperature glides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zühlsdorf, Benjamin; Jensen, Jonas Kjær; Cignitti, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    The present study demonstrates the optimization of a heat pump for an application with a large temperature glide on the sink and a smaller temperature glide on the source side. The study includes a simulation of a heat pump cycle for all possible binary mixtures from a list of 14 natural...... refrigerants, which enables a match of the temperature glide of sink and source with the temperature of the working fluid during phase change and thus, a reduction of the exergy destruction due to heat transfer. The model was evaluated for four different boundary conditions. For a separated evaluation...... of the irreversibility solely caused by the fluid properties, the exergy destruction in the heat exchangers has been distinguished accordingly and an indicator quantifying the glide match has been defined to analyse the influence on the performance. It was observed that a good glide match can contribute to an increased...

  6. The glide of screw dislocations in bcc Fe: Atomistic static and dynamic simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaussidon, Julien; Fivel, Marc; Rodney, David

    2006-01-01

    We present atomic-scale simulations of screw dislocation glide in bcc iron. Using two interatomic potentials that, respectively, predict degenerate and non-degenerate core structures, we compute the static 0 K dependence of the screw dislocation Peierls stress on crystal orientation and show strong boundary condition effects related to the generation of non-glide stress components. At finite temperatures we show that, with a non-degenerate core, glide by nucleation/propagation of kink-pairs in a {1 1 0} glide plane is obtained at low temperatures. A transition in the twinning region, towards an average {1 1 2} glide plane, with the formation of debris loops is observed at higher temperatures

  7. Director gliding in a nematic liquid crystal layer: Quantitative comparison with experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mema, E.; Kondic, L.; Cummings, L. J.

    2018-03-01

    The interaction between nematic liquid crystals and polymer-coated substrates may lead to slow reorientation of the easy axis (so-called "director gliding") when a prolonged external field is applied. We consider the experimental evidence of zenithal gliding observed by Joly et al. [Phys. Rev. E 70, 050701 (2004), 10.1103/PhysRevE.70.050701] and Buluy et al. [J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 14, 603 (2006), 10.1889/1.2235686] as well as azimuthal gliding observed by S. Faetti and P. Marianelli [Liq. Cryst. 33, 327 (2006), 10.1080/02678290500512227], and we present a simple, physically motivated model that captures the slow dynamics of gliding, both in the presence of an electric field and after the electric field is turned off. We make a quantitative comparison of our model results and the experimental data and conclude that our model explains the gliding evolution very well.

  8. Report on the investigation into the snagging of hooks and their indiscriminate shedding of slings/pennants. Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    The Health and Safety Executive (HSE) initiated studies to (a) identify reasons why hooks snag on various objects and (b) into the unsolicited discharge or shedding of slings/pennants from non-loaded hooks during offshore operations with cranes. In practical testing, both Single Point Hooks and Load Closing Hooks were used. The author of the report has assumed the reader is familiar with the offshore environment and with the terminology associated with lifting equipment. The tests were recorded on video which is available from the HSE. The report includes various safety recommendations.

  9. High Order Large Eddy Simulation (LES) of Gliding Snake Aerodynamics: Effect of 3D Flow on Gliding Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delorme, Yann; Hassan, Syed Harris; Socha, Jake; Vlachos, Pavlos; Frankel, Steven

    2014-11-01

    Chrysopelea paradisi are snakes that are able to glide over long distances by morphing the cross section of their bodies from circular to a triangular airfoil, and undulating through the air. Snake glide is characterized by relatively low Reynolds number and high angle of attack as well as three dimensional and unsteady flow. Here we study the 3D dynamics of the flow using an in-house high-order large eddy simulation code. The code features a novel multi block immersed boundary method to accurately and efficiently represent the complex snake geometry. We investigate the steady state 3-dimensionality of the flow, especially the wake flow induced by the presence of the snake's body, as well as the vortex-body interaction thought to be responsible for part of the lift enhancement. Numerical predictions of global lift and drag will be compared to experimental measurements, as well as the lift distribution along the body of the snake due to cross sectional variations. Comparisons with previously published 2D results are made to highlight the importance of 3-dimensional effects. Additional efforts are made to quantify properties of the vortex shedding and Dynamic Mode Decomposition (DMD) is used to analyse the main modes responsible for the lift and drag forces.

  10. Employment of hypersonic glide vehicles: Proposed criteria for use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olguin, Abel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Hypersonic Glide Vehicles (HGVs) are a type of reentry vehicle that couples the high speed of ballistic missiles with the maneuverability of aircraft. The HGV has been in development since the 1970s, and its technology falls under the category of Conventional Prompt Global Strike (CPGS) weapons. As noted by James M. Acton, a senior associate in the Nuclear Policy Program at the Carnegie Endowment, CPGS is a “missile in search of a mission.” With the introduction of any significant new military capability, a doctrine for use—including specifics regarding how, when and where it would be used, as well as tactics, training and procedures—must be clearly defined and understood by policy makers, military commanders, and planners. In this paper, benefits and limitations of the HGV are presented. Proposed criteria and four scenarios illustrate a possible method for assessing when to use an HGV.

  11. Leaping shampoo glides on a lubricating air layer

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, S.

    2013-06-10

    When a stream of shampoo is fed onto a pool in one\\'s hand, a jet can leap sideways or rebound from the liquid surface in an intriguing phenomenon known as the Kaye effect. Earlier studies have debated whether non-Newtonian effects are the underlying cause of this phenomenon, making the jet glide on top of a shear-thinning liquid layer, or whether an entrained air layer is responsible. Herein we show unambiguously that the jet slides on a lubricating air layer. We identify this layer by looking through the pool liquid and observing its rupture into fine bubbles. The resulting microbubble sizes suggest this air layer is of submicron thickness. This thickness estimate is also supported by the tangential deceleration of the jet during the rebounding.

  12. Leaping shampoo glides on a lubricating air layer

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, S.; Li, Erqiang; Marston, J. O.; Bonito, A.; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T

    2013-01-01

    When a stream of shampoo is fed onto a pool in one's hand, a jet can leap sideways or rebound from the liquid surface in an intriguing phenomenon known as the Kaye effect. Earlier studies have debated whether non-Newtonian effects are the underlying cause of this phenomenon, making the jet glide on top of a shear-thinning liquid layer, or whether an entrained air layer is responsible. Herein we show unambiguously that the jet slides on a lubricating air layer. We identify this layer by looking through the pool liquid and observing its rupture into fine bubbles. The resulting microbubble sizes suggest this air layer is of submicron thickness. This thickness estimate is also supported by the tangential deceleration of the jet during the rebounding.

  13. Leaping shampoo glides on a lubricating air layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S.; Li, E. Q.; Marston, J. O.; Bonito, A.; Thoroddsen, S. T.

    2013-06-01

    When a stream of shampoo is fed onto a pool in one's hand, a jet can leap sideways or rebound from the liquid surface in an intriguing phenomenon known as the Kaye effect. Earlier studies have debated whether non-Newtonian effects are the underlying cause of this phenomenon, making the jet glide on top of a shear-thinning liquid layer, or whether an entrained air layer is responsible. Herein we show unambiguously that the jet slides on a lubricating air layer. We identify this layer by looking through the pool liquid and observing its rupture into fine bubbles. The resulting microbubble sizes suggest this air layer is of submicron thickness. This thickness estimate is also supported by the tangential deceleration of the jet during the rebounding.

  14. Non-equilibrium trajectory dynamics and the kinematics of gliding in a flying snake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Socha, John J; Jafari, Farid; Miklasz, Kevin; Vlachos, Pavlos P

    2010-01-01

    Given sufficient space, it is possible for gliding animals to reach an equilibrium state with no net forces acting on the body. In contrast, every gliding trajectory must begin with a non-steady component, and the relative importance of this phase is not well understood. Of any terrestrial animal glider, snakes exhibit the greatest active movements, which may affect their trajectory dynamics. Our primary aim was to determine the characteristics of snake gliding during the transition to equilibrium, quantifying changes in velocity, acceleration, and body orientation in the late phase of a glide sequence. We launched 'flying' snakes (Chrysopelea paradisi) from a 15 m tower and recorded the mid-to-end portion of trajectories with four videocameras to reconstruct the snake's body position with mm to cm accuracy. Additionally, we developed a simple analytical model of gliding assuming only steady-state forces of lift, drag and weight acting on the body and used it to explore effects of wing loading, lift-to-drag ratio, and initial velocity on trajectory dynamics. Despite the vertical space provided to transition to steady-state gliding, snakes did not exhibit equilibrium gliding and in fact displayed a net positive acceleration in the vertical axis, an effect also predicted by the analytical model.

  15. Non-equilibrium trajectory dynamics and the kinematics of gliding in a flying snake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Socha, John J; Jafari, Farid [Engineering Science and Mechanics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Miklasz, Kevin [Hopkins Marine Station, Stanford University, Pacific Grove, CA 93950 (United States); Vlachos, Pavlos P, E-mail: jjsocha@vt.ed [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States)

    2010-12-15

    Given sufficient space, it is possible for gliding animals to reach an equilibrium state with no net forces acting on the body. In contrast, every gliding trajectory must begin with a non-steady component, and the relative importance of this phase is not well understood. Of any terrestrial animal glider, snakes exhibit the greatest active movements, which may affect their trajectory dynamics. Our primary aim was to determine the characteristics of snake gliding during the transition to equilibrium, quantifying changes in velocity, acceleration, and body orientation in the late phase of a glide sequence. We launched 'flying' snakes (Chrysopelea paradisi) from a 15 m tower and recorded the mid-to-end portion of trajectories with four videocameras to reconstruct the snake's body position with mm to cm accuracy. Additionally, we developed a simple analytical model of gliding assuming only steady-state forces of lift, drag and weight acting on the body and used it to explore effects of wing loading, lift-to-drag ratio, and initial velocity on trajectory dynamics. Despite the vertical space provided to transition to steady-state gliding, snakes did not exhibit equilibrium gliding and in fact displayed a net positive acceleration in the vertical axis, an effect also predicted by the analytical model.

  16. Agent principal de rayonnement et de mobilisation stratégiques (h/f ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Dans ce contexte, l'agent principal de rayonnement et de mobilisation stratégiques élabore des démarches qui permettent de mobiliser les chercheurs et les principaux utilisateurs de la recherche dans les régions visées, afin de faire en sorte qu'ils aient l'occasion de participer à la définition des besoins de recherche dans ...

  17. Social Entrepreneurship and Mobilisation of Social Capital in European Social Enterprise - (Korean translation)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulgård, Lars; Spear, Roger

    2011-01-01

    Korean translation of ”Social Entrepreneurship and Mobilisation of Social Capital in European Social Enterprise”, with Roger Spear. In Marthe Nyssens (ed.) Social Enterprises: between Market, Public Policies and Community. London: Routledge.......Korean translation of ”Social Entrepreneurship and Mobilisation of Social Capital in European Social Enterprise”, with Roger Spear. In Marthe Nyssens (ed.) Social Enterprises: between Market, Public Policies and Community. London: Routledge....

  18. Overseas Voter Mobilisation in Singapore: Implications from Malaysia’s 13th General Election

    OpenAIRE

    James Gomez; Rusdi Omar

    2013-01-01

    "This paper discusses voter mobilisation and other election-related activities of Malaysian voters living, studying and working in Singapore in the context of Malaysia's 13th general election (GE13). According to the World Bank, nearly 400,000 Malaysians reside in the city-state. Thus these figures represent a significant Malaysian voter pool based in Singapore. Efforts to mobilise these voters for general elections or other causes have political implications for both countries, which became ...

  19. Prediction of phosphorus mobilisation in inundated floodplain soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loeb, Roos; Lamers, Leon P.M.; Roelofs, Jan G.M.

    2008-01-01

    After flooding, iron reduction in riverine wetlands may cause the release of large quantities of phosphorus. As phosphorus is an important nutrient causing eutrophication in aquatic systems, it is important to have a tool to predict this potential release. In this study we examined the P release to the soil pore water in soil cores from floodplains in the Netherlands and from less anthropogenically influenced floodplains from Poland. During the inundation experiment, concentrations of P in the pore water rose to 2-90 times the initial concentrations. P release was not directly related to the geographic origin of the soils. An important predictor variable of P release was found in the ratio between the concentration of iron-bound P and amorphous iron. This ratio may provide a practical tool for the selection of new areas for wetland creation, and for impact assessment of plans for riverine wetland restoration and floodwater storage. - Mobilisation of phosphorus in floodplain wetland soils can be predicted with easily measurable soil characteristics

  20. Prediction of phosphorus mobilisation in inundated floodplain soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loeb, Roos [Department of Aquatic Ecology and Environmental Biology, Institute for Water and Wetland Research, Radboud University Nijmegen, Toernooiveld 1, 6525 ED Nijmegen (Netherlands)], E-mail: r.loeb@science.ru.nl; Lamers, Leon P.M.; Roelofs, Jan G.M. [Department of Aquatic Ecology and Environmental Biology, Institute for Water and Wetland Research, Radboud University Nijmegen, Toernooiveld 1, 6525 ED Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2008-11-15

    After flooding, iron reduction in riverine wetlands may cause the release of large quantities of phosphorus. As phosphorus is an important nutrient causing eutrophication in aquatic systems, it is important to have a tool to predict this potential release. In this study we examined the P release to the soil pore water in soil cores from floodplains in the Netherlands and from less anthropogenically influenced floodplains from Poland. During the inundation experiment, concentrations of P in the pore water rose to 2-90 times the initial concentrations. P release was not directly related to the geographic origin of the soils. An important predictor variable of P release was found in the ratio between the concentration of iron-bound P and amorphous iron. This ratio may provide a practical tool for the selection of new areas for wetland creation, and for impact assessment of plans for riverine wetland restoration and floodwater storage. - Mobilisation of phosphorus in floodplain wetland soils can be predicted with easily measurable soil characteristics.

  1. Mobilisation for public engagement: Benchmarking the practices of research institutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entradas, Marta; Bauer, Martin M

    2017-10-01

    Studies on scientists' practices of public engagement have pointed to variations between disciplines. If variations at the individual level are reflected at the institutional level, then research institutes in Social Sciences (and Humanities) should perform higher in public engagement and be more involved in dialogue with the public. Using a nearly complete sample of research institutes in Portugal 2014 ( n = 234, 61% response rate), we investigate how public engagement varies in intensity, type of activities and target audiences across scientific areas. Three benchmark findings emerge. First, the Social Sciences and the Humanities profile differently in public engagement highlighting the importance of distinguishing between these two scientific areas often conflated in public engagement studies. Second, the Social Sciences overall perform more public engagement activities, but the Natural Sciences mobilise more effort for public engagement. Third, while the Social Sciences play a greater role in civic public engagement, the Natural Sciences are more likely to perform educational activities. Finally, this study shows that the overall size of research institutes, available public engagement funding and public engagement staffing make a difference in institutes' public engagement.

  2. Palatalization and glide strengthening as competing repair strategies: Evidence from Kirundi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexei Kochetov

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Alternations involving place-changing palatalization (e.g. t+j → ʧ in spirit – spiritual are very common and have been a focus of much generative phonological work since Chomsky & Halle’s (1968 ‘Sound Pattern of English’. The interest in palatalization and its mechanisms (see e.g. Sagey 1990; Chen 1996; Bateman 2007 has somewhat obscured the question of how these processes fit into a wider typology of segmental alternations. What happens when palatalization fails to apply? Do other processes take its place and apply under the same circumstances? In this paper, I argue for a close functional and formal affinity between place-changing palatalization and one such process, palatal glide strengthening (e.g. p+j → pc. As evidence I present data from Kirundi (Bantu on the realization of consonant + palatal and velar glide sequences within and across morphemes. As will be shown, palatalization and glide strengthening in Kirundi work in parallel, affecting different subsets of consonants. Specifically, palatalization targets C+j sequences with laryngeals, velars, nasal coronals, and – across morpheme boundaries – non-nasal coronals. In contrast, glide strengthening targets C+j sequences with labials and – within morphemes – non-nasal coronals. In addition, glide strengthening applies to within- and across-morpheme consonant + velar glide sequences, producing a set of outputs (e.g. m+w → mŋ similar to C+j sequences. I further present a unified Optimality Theoretic (Prince & Smolensky 1993/2004 account of these seemingly disparate phenomena as both arising from different rankings of constraints prohibiting consonant + glide sequences (parameterized by place and/or manner and various feature-specific agreement and faithfulness constraints. Finally, I explore typological predictions of this account, reviewing several remarkably similar cases of C + glide resolution patterns from other languages, and outlining questions for further

  3. Onboard Determination of Vehicle Glide Capability for Shuttle Abort Flight Managment (SAFM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straube, Timothy; Jackson, Mark; Fill, Thomas; Nemeth, Scott

    2002-01-01

    When one or more main engines fail during ascent, the flight crew of the Space Shuttle must make several critical decisions and accurately perform a series of abort procedures. One of the most important decisions for many aborts is the selection ofa landing site. Several factors influence the ability to reach a landing site, including the spacecraft point of atmospheric entry, the energy state at atmospheric entry, the vehicle glide capability from that energy state, and whether one or more suitable landing sites are within the glide capability. Energy assessment is further complicated by the fact that phugoid oscillations in total energy influence glide capability. Once the glide capability is known, the crew must select the "best" site option based upon glide capability and landing site conditions and facilities. Since most of these factors cannot currently be assessed by the crew in flight, extensive planning is required prior to each mission to script a variety of procedures based upon spacecraft velocity at the point of engine failure (or failures). The results of this preflight planning are expressed in tables and diagrams on mission-specific cockpit checklists. Crew checklist procedures involve leafing through several pages of instructions and navigating a decision tree for site selection and flight procedures - all during a time critical abort situation. With the advent of the Cockpit Avionics Upgrade (CAU), the Shuttle will have increased on-board computational power to help alleviate crew workload during aborts and provide valuable situational awareness during nominal operations. One application baselined for the CAU computers is Shuttle Abort Flight Management (SAFM), whose requirements have been designed and prototyped. The SAFM application includes powered and glided flight algorithms. This paper describes the glided flight algorithm which is dispatched by SAFM to determine the vehicle glide capability and make recommendations to the crew for site

  4. Debris extrusion by glide-path establishing endodontic instruments with different geometries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Hong Ha

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: Creating the glide-path using nickel-titanium rotary files produced lower amounts of debris extrusion than using manual stainless-steel files. The progressive taper design of ProGlider, the center-off cross-section of One G, and the alternative-pitch design of ScoutRace may have increased the efficiencies of debris removal with minimal extrusion during glide-path preparation. Glide-path preparation using NiTi rotary files have better clinical efficiency than the manual stainless-steel file.

  5. Translational, rotational, vibrational and electron temperatures of a gliding arc discharge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Jiajian; Ehn, Andreas; Gao, Jinlong

    2017-01-01

    , 0) band was used to simulate the rotational temperature (Tr) of the gliding arc discharge whereas the NO A–X (1, 0) and (0, 1) bands were used to determine its vibrational temperature (Tv). The instantaneous reduced electric field strength E/N was obtained by simultaneously measuring......Translational, rotational, vibrational and electron temperatures of a gliding arc discharge in atmospheric pressure air were experimentally investigated using in situ, non-intrusive optical diagnostic techniques. The gliding arc discharge was driven by a 35 kHz alternating current (AC) power source...... and operated in a glow-type regime. The two-dimensional distribution of the translational temperature (Tt) of the gliding arc discharge was determined using planar laser-induced Rayleigh scattering. The rotational and vibrational temperatures were obtained by simulating the experimental spectra. The OH A–X (0...

  6. Irradiation creep by climb-enables glide of dislocations resulting from preferred absorption of point defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansur, L K [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)

    1979-04-01

    A mechanism of irradiation creep arising from the climb-enabled glide of dislocations due to stress-induced preferred absorption of radiation-produced point defects is proposed. This creep component is here termed preferred absorption glide, PAG. PAG-creep operates in addition to the previously studied components of creep from climb by stress-induced preferred absorption, (SI) PA-creep, and the climb-enabled glide due to excess absorption of interstitials on dislocations during swelling, I-creep. A formulation of the various climb and climb-enabled glide processes which includes earlier results is presented. PAG-creep is comparable in magnitude to PA-creep in the parameter range of applications. While the PSA-creep rate and the I-creep rate are linear in stress, the PAG-creep rate is quadratic in stress and thus dominates at high stresses.

  7. The novel echo-guided ProGlide technique during percutaneous transfemoral transcatheter aortic valve implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Yohsuke; Araki, Motoharu; Yamawaki, Masahiro; Tokuda, Takahiro; Tsutumi, Masakazu; Mori, Shinsuke; Sakamoto, Yasunari; Kobayashi, Norihiro; Hirano, Keisuke; Ito, Yoshiaki

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess clinical benefit of the Echo-guided ProGlide technique in patients undergoing percutaneous transfemoral transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TF-TAVI). The efficacy of the Echo-guided ProGlide technique during percutaneous TF-TAVI was not previously clarified. A total of 121 consecutive patients who underwent percutaneous TF-TAVI at our institution between February 2014 and July 2017 were enrolled in this study. According to the introduction of this novel technique in March 2016, patients were divided into two groups (echo-guided group who underwent TAVI from March 2016 to July 2017, n = 63; not echo-guided group who underwent TAVI from February 2014 to February 2016, n = 58). The incidence of major vascular complications, defined per the Valve Academic Research Consortium-2 criteria, and ProGlide complications including acute femoral artery stenosis or occlusion and bleeding requiring any intervention. The incidence of major vascular complication and ProGlide complication were significantly lower in the echo-guided group than in not echo-guided group (1.6% vs 17.2%, P guided ProGlide technique was independently associated with prevention of ProGlide complications (odds ratio, 0.11; 95% confidential interval, 0.01-0.76; P = 0.03). This novel Echo-guided ProGlide technique was associated with a lower rate of major vascular complications, particularly ProGlide complications during percutaneous TF-TAVI. © 2017, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Dislocation glide velocity in creep of Mg alloys derived from dip tests

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Eisenlohr, P.; Blum, W.; Milička, Karel

    510-511, Sp. Iss. (2009), s. 393-397 ISSN 0921-5093. [Creep 2008. Bayreuth, 04.05.2008-09.05.2008] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/06/1354 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : Dislocation glide velocity * Temperature dependence * Solute drag * Forest cutting * Prismatic glide Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy Impact factor: 1.901, year: 2009

  9. Efficiency of lift production in flapping and gliding flight of swifts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per Henningsson

    Full Text Available Many flying animals use both flapping and gliding flight as part of their routine behaviour. These two kinematic patterns impose conflicting requirements on wing design for aerodynamic efficiency and, in the absence of extreme morphing, wings cannot be optimised for both flight modes. In gliding flight, the wing experiences uniform incident flow and the optimal shape is a high aspect ratio wing with an elliptical planform. In flapping flight, on the other hand, the wing tip travels faster than the root, creating a spanwise velocity gradient. To compensate, the optimal wing shape should taper towards the tip (reducing the local chord and/or twist from root to tip (reducing local angle of attack. We hypothesised that, if a bird is limited in its ability to morph its wings and adapt its wing shape to suit both flight modes, then a preference towards flapping flight optimization will be expected since this is the most energetically demanding flight mode. We tested this by studying a well-known flap-gliding species, the common swift, by measuring the wakes generated by two birds, one in gliding and one in flapping flight in a wind tunnel. We calculated span efficiency, the efficiency of lift production, and found that the flapping swift had consistently higher span efficiency than the gliding swift. This supports our hypothesis and suggests that even though swifts have been shown previously to increase their lift-to-drag ratio substantially when gliding, the wing morphology is tuned to be more aerodynamically efficient in generating lift during flapping. Since body drag can be assumed to be similar for both flapping and gliding, it follows that the higher total drag in flapping flight compared with gliding flight is primarily a consequence of an increase in wing profile drag due to the flapping motion, exceeding the reduction in induced drag.

  10. Efficiency of Lift Production in Flapping and Gliding Flight of Swifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henningsson, Per; Hedenström, Anders; Bomphrey, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Many flying animals use both flapping and gliding flight as part of their routine behaviour. These two kinematic patterns impose conflicting requirements on wing design for aerodynamic efficiency and, in the absence of extreme morphing, wings cannot be optimised for both flight modes. In gliding flight, the wing experiences uniform incident flow and the optimal shape is a high aspect ratio wing with an elliptical planform. In flapping flight, on the other hand, the wing tip travels faster than the root, creating a spanwise velocity gradient. To compensate, the optimal wing shape should taper towards the tip (reducing the local chord) and/or twist from root to tip (reducing local angle of attack). We hypothesised that, if a bird is limited in its ability to morph its wings and adapt its wing shape to suit both flight modes, then a preference towards flapping flight optimization will be expected since this is the most energetically demanding flight mode. We tested this by studying a well-known flap-gliding species, the common swift, by measuring the wakes generated by two birds, one in gliding and one in flapping flight in a wind tunnel. We calculated span efficiency, the efficiency of lift production, and found that the flapping swift had consistently higher span efficiency than the gliding swift. This supports our hypothesis and suggests that even though swifts have been shown previously to increase their lift-to-drag ratio substantially when gliding, the wing morphology is tuned to be more aerodynamically efficient in generating lift during flapping. Since body drag can be assumed to be similar for both flapping and gliding, it follows that the higher total drag in flapping flight compared with gliding flight is primarily a consequence of an increase in wing profile drag due to the flapping motion, exceeding the reduction in induced drag. PMID:24587260

  11. Thickness measurement of Sn-Ag hot dip coatings on Large Hadron Collider Superconducting strands by coulometry

    CERN Document Server

    Arnau-Izquierdo, G; Oberli, L R; Scheuerlein, C; Taborelli, M; 10.1149/1.1715094

    2004-01-01

    Amperostatic coulometry is applied for the thickness measurement of Sn-Ag hot dip coatings, which comprise an extended Sn-Cu interdiffusion layer. Complementary measurements, notably weight loss, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and dynamic secondary ion mass spectroscopy (DSIMS) have been performed in order to obtain a better interpretation of the coulometry results. Based on the experimental results presented in this article the three potential changes that are observed during coulometry measurements are ascribed to (1) the entire dissolution of pure Sn, (2) the formation of a CuCl salt layer and (3) the surface passivation. The measurement of the pure Sn mass is well reproducible despite of strong coating thickness variations that are detected by XRF. Several experimental problems, in particular a coating undercutting, hamper the determination of the Sn mass in the intermetallic Sn-Cu layer.

  12. Surfactant-induced mobilisation of trace metals from estuarine sediment: Implications for contaminant bioaccessibility and remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Anu [School of Earth, Ocean and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Turner, Andrew [School of Earth, Ocean and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)], E-mail: aturner@plymouth.ac.uk

    2009-02-15

    The mobilisation of metals (Al, Fe, Cd, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sn, Zn) from contaminated estuarine sediment has been examined using commercially available surfactants. Metal release by the anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS), increased with increasing amphiphile concentration up to and above its critical micelle concentration (CMC). Metal mobilisation by the bile acid salt, sodium taurocholate, and the nonionic surfactant, Triton X-100, however, did not vary with amphiphile concentration. SDS was the most efficient surfactant in mobilising metals from the sample, and Cd, Cu and Ni were released to the greatest extents (12-18% of total metal at [SDS] > CMC). Metal mobilisation appeared to proceed via complexation with anionic amphiphiles and denudation of hydrophobic host phases. Surfactants may play an important role in the solubilisation of metals in the digestive environment of deposit-feeding animals and, potentially, in the remediation of metal-contaminated soil and sediment. - Significant quantities of metals are mobilised from estuarine sediment by commercially available surfactants.

  13. Émeutes urbaines, sentiments d’injustice, mobilisations associatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éric Marlière

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Cet article a pour objectif l’appréhension des répertoires de mobilisations politiques des jeunes dits « des cités ». Pour cela, il faut nous intéresser aux modes de vie de ces jeunes structurés depuis plus de trente ans maintenant autour du chômage et de la précarité et des nouvelles formes de ségrégation. Cette situation engendre chez les jeunes une certaine frustration sociale se manifestant sous la forme d’un sentiment d’injustice plus ou moins diffus. Si les émeutes urbaines constituent le mode d’action le plus médiatique, un certain nombre de jeunes adultes originaires « des cités » réagissent à travers un ensemble d’initiatives associatives nationales et locales comme le montrent les dernières échéances électorales.Urban riots, feeling of injustice and associative mobilizationsThis article’s objective are the understanding of the directories of the political youth called “cities”. For this, we must concern ourselves with life’s styles of the young people structured over 30 years now about unemployment and job insecurity and new forms of segregation. This creates youth frustration manifested as a feeling of injustice more or less diffuse. If the urban riots of action in the most media, a number of young adults from the “cities” are responding through a number of national associations and local initiatives as evidenced by the recent elections.Revueltas urbanas, sentimientos de injusticia, formas asociativasEste artículo tiene como objetivo el aprehender las diferentes formas de las movilizaciones políticas de los jóvenes de los barrios desfavorecidos. Para cumplirlo es necesario que nos interesemos por las maneras de vivir de esos jóvenes cuyas vidas se desarrollan dentro del paro, la precariedad y nuevas formas de segregación. Esta situación engendra una gran frustración social con conciencia más o menos difusa de ser víctimas de injusticias. Si las revueltas urbanas constituyen la

  14. Convalescence and hospital stay after colonic surgery with balanced analgesia, early oral feeding, and enforced mobilisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møiniche, S; Bülow, Steffen; Hesselfeldt, Peter

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the combined effects of pain relief by continuous epidural analgesia, early oral feeding and enforced mobilisation on convalescence and hospital stay after colonic resection. DESIGN: Uncontrolled pilot investigation. SETTING: University hospital, Denmark. SUBJECTS: 17...... unselected patients (median age 69 years) undergoing colonic resection. INTERVENTIONS: Patients received combined epidural and general anaesthesia during operations and after operation were given continuous epidural bupivacaine 0.25%, 4 ml hour and morphine 0.2 mg hour, for 96 hours and oral paracetamol 4 g....../daily. No patient had a nasogastric tube, and oral feeding with normal food and protein enriched solutions (1000 Kcal (4180 KJ/day) was instituted 24 hours postoperatively together with intensive mobilisation. RESULTS: Median visual analogue pain scores were zero at rest and minimal during coughing and mobilisation...

  15. Marked colour divergence in the gliding membranes of a tropical lizard mirrors population differences in the colour of falling leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Klomp, D. A.; Stuart-Fox, D.; Das, I.; Ord, T. J.

    2014-01-01

    Populations of the Bornean gliding lizard, Draco cornutus, differ markedly in the colour of their gliding membranes. They also differ in local vegetation type (mangrove forest versus lowland rainforest) and consequently, the colour of falling leaves (red and brown/black in mangrove versus green, brown and black in rainforest). We show that the gliding membranes of these lizards closely match the colours of freshly fallen leaves in the local habitat as they appear to the visual system of birds...

  16. A rolling-gliding wear simulator for the investigation of tribological material pairings for application in total knee arthroplasty

    OpenAIRE

    Richter, Berna I; Ostermeier, Sven; Turger, Anke; Denkena, Berend; Hurschler, Christof

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Material wear testing is an important technique in the development and evaluation of materials for use in implant for total knee arthroplasty. Since a knee joint induces a complex rolling-gliding movement, standardised material wear testing devices such as Pin-on-Disc or Ring-on-Disc testers are suitable to only a limited extent because they generate pure gliding motion only. Methods A rolling-gliding wear simulator was thus designed, constructed and implemented, which sim...

  17. Effects of Glide Path on the Centering Ability and Preparation Time of Two Reciprocating Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Marcelo Santos; Fontana, Carlos Eduardo; Kato, Augusto Shoji; de Martin, Alexandre Sigrist; da Silveira Bueno, Carlos Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effects of establishing glide path on the centering ability and preparation time of two single-file reciprocating systems in mesial root canals of mandibular molars. Methods and Materials: Sixty extracted mandibular molars with curvatures of 25-39 degrees and separate foramina for the mesiobuccal and mesiolingual canals, were divided into four groups (n=15); WaveOne+glide path; WaveOne; Reciproc+glide path and Reciproc. Non-patent canals were excluded and only one canal in each tooth was instrumented. A manual glide path was established in first and third groups with #10, 15 and 20 hand K-files. Preparation was performed with reciprocating in-and-out motion, with a 3-4 mm amplitude and slight apical pressure. Initial and final radiographs were taken to analyze the amount of dentin removed in the instrumented canals. The radiographs were superimposed with an image editing software and examined to assess discrepancies at 3-, 6- and 9-mm distances from the apex. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used for statistical analysis. The level of significance was set at 0.05. Results: Preparation in groups without glide paths was swifter than the other groups (P=0.001). However, no difference was observed regarding centering ability. Conclusion: Establishing a glide path increased the total instrumentation time for preparing curved canals with WaveOne and Reciproc instruments. Glide path had no influence on the centering ability of these systems. PMID:26843875

  18. [Posterior lamellar keratoplasty with DSEK technique and use of the Tan EndoGlide - short-term results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kałuiny, Bartłomiej J; Piotrowiak, Ilona; Sołdańska, Beata; Grzybek, Katarzyna; Czajkowska, Monika; Galas, Małgorzata; Malukiewicz, Grazyna

    2013-01-01

    To present the differences in surgical technique of DSEK (Descemet's Stripping Endothelial Keratoplasty) with the use of Tan EndoGlide (Coronet, UK) and Busin Glide (Moria, FR). Short-term results will also be presented, DSEK was performed in 24 eyes, in 8 cases the surgery was combined with cataract phacoemulsification and lOL implantation. Surgery course and 6 months postoperative results of first 12 eyes performed with the use of Tan EndoGlide were compared with 12 consecutive eyes preformed with Busin Glide. Tan EndoGlide provided much more stable anterior chamber, donor tissue unfolding process was better controlled but the incision was wider incision. Surgically induced mean refractory cylinder 6. months after the surgery was 1.56 - 1.15 Dsph in Tan EndoGlide group and 1.18 +/- 1.10 Dsph in Busin Glide group (P 0.05). Mean CDVA was 0.65+/- 0.27 and 0.63 +/- 0.25, respectively (P>0,05). Statistically significant differences in intra- and post-operative complications between both groups were not found. The Tan EndoGlide used during posterior lamellar keratoplasty with DSEK technique is a good alternative to currently used methods. It provides better stabilization of the anterior chamber, however its use is linked with higher postoperative astigmatism in comparison with Busin Glide. The visual outcomes and endothelial cell loss 6 months after the surgery were similar in both groups.

  19. Rethinking capacity building for knowledge mobilisation: developing multilevel capabilities in healthcare organisations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kislov, Roman; Waterman, Heather; Harvey, Gill; Boaden, Ruth

    2014-11-15

    Knowledge mobilisation in healthcare organisations is often carried out through relatively short-term projects dependent on limited funding, which raises concerns about the long-term sustainability of implementation and improvement. It is becoming increasingly recognised that the translation of research evidence into practice has to be supported by developing the internal capacity of healthcare organisations to engage with and apply research. This process can be supported by external knowledge mobilisation initiatives represented, for instance, by professional associations, collaborative research partnerships and implementation networks. This conceptual paper uses empirical and theoretical literature on organisational learning and dynamic capabilities to enhance our understanding of intentional capacity building for knowledge mobilisation in healthcare organisations. The discussion is structured around the following three themes: (1) defining and classifying capacity building for knowledge mobilisation; (2) mechanisms of capability development in organisational context; and (3) individual, group and organisational levels of capability development. Capacity building is presented as a practice-based process of developing multiple skills, or capabilities, belonging to different knowledge domains and levels of complexity. It requires an integration of acquisitive learning, through which healthcare organisations acquire knowledge and skills from knowledge mobilisation experts, and experience-based learning, through which healthcare organisations adapt, absorb and modify their knowledge and capabilities through repeated practice. Although the starting point for capability development may be individual-, team- or organisation-centred, facilitation of the transitions between individual, group and organisational levels of learning within healthcare organisations will be needed. Any initiative designed to build capacity for knowledge mobilisation should consider the

  20. Manipulation and mobilisation for neck pain contrasted against an inactive control or another active treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Anita; Langevin, Pierre; Burnie, Stephen J; Bédard-Brochu, Marie-Sophie; Empey, Brian; Dugas, Estelle; Faber-Dobrescu, Michael; Andres, Cristy; Graham, Nadine; Goldsmith, Charles H; Brønfort, Gert; Hoving, Jan L; LeBlanc, Francis

    2015-09-23

    Manipulation and mobilisation are commonly used to treat neck pain. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2003, and previously updated in 2010. To assess the effects of manipulation or mobilisation alone compared wiith those of an inactive control or another active treatment on pain, function, disability, patient satisfaction, quality of life and global perceived effect in adults experiencing neck pain with or without radicular symptoms and cervicogenic headache (CGH) at immediate- to long-term follow-up. When appropriate, to assess the influence of treatment characteristics (i.e. technique, dosage), methodological quality, symptom duration and subtypes of neck disorder on treatment outcomes. Review authors searched the following computerised databases to November 2014 to identify additional studies: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL). We also searched ClinicalTrials.gov, checked references, searched citations and contacted study authors to find relevant studies. We updated this search in June 2015, but these results have not yet been incorporated. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) undertaken to assess whether manipulation or mobilisation improves clinical outcomes for adults with acute/subacute/chronic neck pain. Two review authors independently selected studies, abstracted data, assessed risk of bias and applied Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) methods (very low, low, moderate, high quality). We calculated pooled risk ratios (RRs) and standardised mean differences (SMDs). We included 51 trials (2920 participants, 18 trials of manipulation/mobilisation versus control; 34 trials of manipulation/mobilisation versus another treatment, 1 trial had two comparisons). Cervical manipulation versus inactive control: For subacute and chronic neck pain, a single manipulation (three trials, no meta

  1. eEF1A Mediates the Nuclear Export of SNAG-Containing Proteins via the Exportin5-Aminoacyl-tRNA Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Mingot

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Exportin5 mediates the nuclear export of double-stranded RNAs, including pre-microRNAs, adenoviral RNAs, and tRNAs. When tRNAs are aminoacylated, the Exportin5-aminoacyl (aa-tRNA complex recruits and coexports the translation elongation factor eEF1A. Here, we show that eEF1A binds to Snail transcription factors when bound to their main target, the E-cadherin promoter, facilitating their export to the cytoplasm in association with the aa-tRNA-Exportin5 complex. Snail binds to eEF1A through the SNAG domain, a protein nuclear export signal present in several transcription factor families, and this binding is regulated by phosphorylation. Thus, we describe a nuclear role for eEF1A and provide a mechanism for protein nuclear export that attenuates the activity of SNAG-containing transcription factors.

  2. Identifying key factors for mobilising under-utilised low carbon land resources : A case study on Kalimantan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goh, Chun Sheng; Junginger, Martin; Potter, Lesley; Faaij, André; Wicke, Birka

    2018-01-01

    Mobilising under-utilised low carbon (ULC) land for future agricultural expansion helps minimising further carbon stock loss. This study examined the regency cases in Kalimantan, a carbon loss hotspot, to understand the key factors for mobilising ULC land via narrative interviews with a range of

  3. Tidlig struktureret mobilisering og træning af kritisk syge patienter på et dansk intensivafsnit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup Sørensen, Katrine; Hvid, Sidsel; Rolving, Nanna

    2015-01-01

    derimod anvendelig i forhold til at tilpasse niveauet for mobilisering og træning. Relevans for klinisk praksis: Tidlig mobilisering og træning er mulig at indføre med en simpel algoritme, dog med hensyntagen til individuelle screeningskriterier fra sted til sted, da disse åbenbart ikke er nemme...

  4. Early mobilisation versus plaster immobilisation of simple elbow dislocations: Results of the FuncSiE multicentre randomised clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.I.T. Iordens (Gijs); E.M.M. van Lieshout (Esther); N.W.L. Schep (Niels); J. de Haan (Jeroen); W.E. Tuinebreijer (Wim); D. Eygendaal (Denise); E.F. van Beeck (Ed); P. Patka (Peter); M.H.J. Verhofstad (Michiel); D. den Hartog (Dennis); R.S. Breederveld (Roelf S.); M.W.G.A. Bronkhorst (Maarten); M.R. de Vries (Mark); B.J. Dwars (Boudewijn); R. Haverlag (Robert); S.A.G. Meylaerts (Sven); J.W. Mulder (Jan-Willem); K.J. Ponsen (Kees-jan); W.H. Roerdink (Herbert); G.R. Roukema (Gert); I.B. Schipper (Inger); M.A. Schouten (Michel); J.B. Sintenie (Jan Bernard); S. Sivro (Senail); J.G.H. van den Brand (Johan); F.M. van der Linden (Frits); H.G.W.M. Meulen (Hub); E.J.M.M. Verleisdonk (Egbert); J.P.A.M. Vroemen (Jos); M. Waleboer (Marco); W.J. Willems (Jaap)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractBackground/aim To compare outcome of early mobilisation and plaster immobilisation in patients with a simple elbow dislocation. We hypothesised that early mobilisation would result in earlier functional recovery. Methods From August 2009 to September 2012, 100 adult patients with a

  5. The effect of intermetallic compound morphology on Cu diffusion in Sn-Ag and Sn-Pb solder bump on the Ni/Cu Under-bump metallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Guh-Yaw; Duh, Jenq-Gong

    2005-01-01

    The eutectic Sn-Ag solder alloy is one of the candidates for the Pb-free solder, and Sn-Pb solder alloys are still widely used in today’s electronic packages. In this tudy, the interfacial reaction in the eutectic Sn-Ag and Sn-Pb solder joints was investigated with an assembly of a solder/Ni/Cu/Ti/Si3N4/Si multilayer structures. In the Sn-3.5Ag solder joints reflowed at 260°C, only the (Ni1-x,Cux)3Sn4 intermetallic compound (IMC) formed at the solder/Ni interface. For the Sn-37Pb solder reflowed at 225°C for one to ten cycles, only the (Ni1-x,Cux)3Sn4 IMC formed between the solder and the Ni/Cu under-bump metallization (UBM). Nevertheless, the (Cu1-y,Niy)6Sn5 IMC was observed in joints reflowed at 245°C after five cycles and at 265°C after three cycles. With the aid of microstructure evolution, quantitative analysis, and elemental distribution between the solder and Ni/Cu UBM, it was revealed that Cu content in the solder near the solder/IMC interface played an important role in the formation of the (Cu1-y,Niy)6Sn5 IMC. In addition, the diffusion behavior of Cu in eutectic Sn-Ag and Sn-Pb solders with the Ni/Cu UBM were probed and discussed. The atomic flux of Cu diffused through Ni was evaluated by detailed quantitative analysis in an electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA). During reflow, the atomic flux of Cu was on the order of 1016-1017 atoms/cm2sec in both the eutectic Sn-Ag and Sn-Pb systems.

  6. COMPARATIVE STUDY TO FIND THE EFFECT OF MULLIGANS SNAG TECHNIQUE (C1-C2 VERSUS MAITLANDS TECHNIQUE (C1-C2 IN CERVICOGENIC HEADACHE AMONG INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY PROFESSIONALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeti Christian

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Headache is a common condition which physiotherapists have to deal with in clinical practice.Headaches which arise from the cervical spine are termed as Cervicogenic headaches (CGH, and these types of headaches are common form of a chronic and recurrent headache.The diagnostic criteria for CGH are outlined by the IHS (International Headache Society. The upper cervical joints, namely the occiput-C1 and C1-C2 segments are the most common origin of pain. Office and computer workers have the highest incidence of neck disorders than other occupations; the prevalence of neck disorders is above 50% among them. The purpose of this study is to find the effectiveness of Mulligan’s SNAG technique (C1-C2 and Maitland’s technique (C1-C2 in CGH and to compare these manual therapy techniques (Mulligan’s SNAG technique and Maitland’s technique with a control group. Methods: 30 subjects were selected for the study among them 23 subjects completed the study. The subjects were randomly allocated to 3 groups. The range of motion (ROM and severity of a headache were assessed pre and post intervention using FRT and HDI respectively. Result: The comparison revealed that SNAG group had a greater increase in cervical rotation (p<0.01 range than the Maitland’s technique and control groups. The mean value between pre-post differences shows a decrease in severity of a headache among all three groups. The significant difference between 3 groups was found through Tukey’s post hoc test using ANOVA method (Group A versus Group C; p<0.01 and Group B versus Group C; p<0.05. Conclusion: The present study suggested that C1-C2 SNAG technique showed statistically significant improvement in reducing headache and disability when compared to the Maitland’s mobilization technique among cervicogenic headache subjects

  7. Lubrication of dislocation glide in MgO by hydrous defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelton, Richard; Walker, Andrew M.

    2018-02-01

    Water-related defects, principally in the form of protonated cation vacancies, are potentially able to weaken minerals under high-stress or low-temperature conditions by reducing the Peierls stress required to initiate dislocation glide. In this study, we use the Peierls-Nabarro (PN) model to determine the effect of protonated Mg vacancies on the 1/2{110} and 1/2{100} slip systems in MgO. This PN model is parameterized using generalized stacking fault energies calculated using plane-wave density functional theory, with and without protonated Mg vacancies present at the glide plane. It found that these defects increase dislocation core widths and reduce the Peierls stress over the entire pressure range 0-125 GPa. Furthermore, 1/2{110} slip is found to be more sensitive to the presence of protonated vacancies which increases in the pressure at which {100} becomes the easy glide plane for 1/2 screw dislocations. These results demonstrate, for a simple mineral system, that water-related defects can alter the deformation behavior of minerals in the glide-creep regime by reducing the stress required to move dislocations by glide. (Mg, Fe)O is the most anisotropic mineral in the Earth's lower mantle, so the differential sensitivity of the major slip systems in MgO to hydrous defects has potential implications for the interpretation of the seismic anisotropy in this region.

  8. Root canal anatomy preservation of WaveOne reciprocating files with or without glide path.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berutti, Elio; Paolino, Davide Salvatore; Chiandussi, Giorgio; Alovisi, Mario; Cantatore, Giuseppe; Castellucci, Arnaldo; Pasqualini, Damiano

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of glide path on canal curvature and axis modification after instrumentation with WaveOne Primary reciprocating files. Thirty ISO 15, 0.02 taper Endo Training Blocks were used. In group 1, glide path was created with PathFile 1, 2, and 3 at working length, whereas in group 2, glide path was not performed. In both groups, canals were shaped with WaveOne Primary reciprocating files at working length. Preinstrumentation and postinstrumentation digital images were superimposed and processed with Matlab r2010b software to analyze the curvature radius ratio (CRr) and the relative axis error (rAe), representing canal curvature modification. Data were analyzed with 1-way balanced analyses of variance at 2 levels (P < .05). Glide path was found to be extremely significant for both CRr parameter (F = 9.59; df = 1; P = .004) and rAe parameter (F = 13.55; df = 1; P = .001). Canal modifications seem to be significantly reduced when previous glide path is performed by using the new WaveOne nickel-titanium single-file system. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A cyclic GMP signalling module that regulates gliding motility in a malaria parasite.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W Moon

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The ookinete is a motile stage in the malaria life cycle which forms in the mosquito blood meal from the zygote. Ookinetes use an acto-myosin motor to glide towards and penetrate the midgut wall to establish infection in the vector. The regulation of gliding motility is poorly understood. Through genetic interaction studies we here describe a signalling module that identifies guanosine 3', 5'-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP as an important second messenger regulating ookinete differentiation and motility. In ookinetes lacking the cyclic nucleotide degrading phosphodiesterase delta (PDEdelta, unregulated signalling through cGMP results in rounding up of the normally banana-shaped cells. This phenotype is suppressed in a double mutant additionally lacking guanylyl cyclase beta (GCbeta, showing that in ookinetes GCbeta is an important source for cGMP, and that PDEdelta is the relevant cGMP degrading enzyme. Inhibition of the cGMP-dependent protein kinase, PKG, blocks gliding, whereas enhanced signalling through cGMP restores normal gliding speed in a mutant lacking calcium dependent protein kinase 3, suggesting at least a partial overlap between calcium and cGMP dependent pathways. These data demonstrate an important function for signalling through cGMP, and most likely PKG, in dynamically regulating ookinete gliding during the transmission of malaria to the mosquito.

  10. Influence of a glide path on the dentinal crack formation of ProTaper Next system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevinç Aktemur Türker

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The aim was to evaluate dentinal crack formation after root canal preparation with ProTaper Next system (PTN with and without a glide path. Materials and Methods Forty-five mesial roots of mandibular first molars were selected. Fifteen teeth were left unprepared and served as controls. The experimental groups consist of mesiobuccal and mesiolingual root canals of remaining 30 teeth, which were divided into 2 groups (n = 15: Group PG/PTN, glide path was created with ProGlider (PG and then canals were shaped with PTN system; Group PTN, glide path was not prepared and canals were shaped with PTN system only. All roots were sectioned perpendicular to the long axis at 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 8 mm from the apex, and the sections were observed under a stereomicroscope. The presence/absence of cracks was recorded. Data were analyzed with chi-square tests with Yates correction. Results There were no significant differences in crack formation between the PTN with and without glide path preparation. The incidence of cracks observed in PG/PTN and PTN groups was 17.8% and 28.9%, respectively. Conclusions The creation of a glide path with ProGlider before ProTaper Next rotary system did not influence dentinal crack formation in root canals.

  11. Modules de formation en durabilité et mobilisation des ressources

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Wind

    apprendre à lier la mobilisation des ressources à la planification stratégique; ... chercheurs et des ONG collaborant à des initiatives de défense de politiques. La ...... établissements membres à recruter des stagiaires qui ont contribué à la.

  12. A Model for Collaborative Working to Facilitate Knowledge Mobilisation in Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Karen Elizabeth; Wallace, Annie; Crosland, Ann

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a model for collaborative working to facilitate knowledge mobilisation in public health. The model has been developed by university researchers who worked collaboratively with public health commissioners and strategic partners to evaluate a portfolio of short-term funded interventions to inform re-commissioning. Within this…

  13. Room to Manoeuvre: Mobilising the "Active Partner" in Home-School Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Olwen; Hustler, David; Stronach, Ian; Rodrigo, Marta; Beresford, Emma; Botcherby, Sue

    2000-01-01

    Offers an interpretation of the dynamics of home-school relations in terms of a matrix of "mobilisations" and "demolisations" among parents, teachers, and children based upon data collected in an action research and development project. Aims to establish some bases for practical and theoretical "manoeuvers." (CMK)

  14. Finding Feminism, Finding Voice? Mobilising Community Education to Build Women's Participation in Myanmar's Political Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maber, Elizabeth Jane Tregoning

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the role played by women activists and educators in mobilising community education to support new opportunities for women's activism in the context of Myanmar's political transition. Recent political reorientations in Myanmar which have resulted in a civilian-led democracy emerging from a repressive military regime, have…

  15. Developing a Knowledge Network for Applied Education Research to Mobilise Evidence in and for Educational Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Carol; Pollock, Katina; Briscoe, Patricia; Carr-Harris, Shasta; Tuters, Stephanie

    2017-01-01

    Background: The importance of "evidence-informed practice" has risen dramatically in education and in other public policy areas. This article focuses on the importance of knowledge mobilisation strategies, processes and outputs. It is concerned with how these can support the adaptation and implementation of evidence from research and…

  16. Longwy: Higher Education and Health Mobilised in the Process of Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardouin, Magali; le Goff, Erwan

    2013-01-01

    For almost a century, Longwy has been one of the most important industrial areas of France, contributing the majority of the national production of cast iron and steel. The objective of this paper is to analyse how higher education, then health and well-being were mobilised in the process of regeneration of Longwy, which had been very harshly…

  17. The collapse of stacking-fault tetrahedra by interaction with gliding dislocations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsukawa, Y.; Osetsky, Yu.N.; Stoller, R.E.; Zinkle, S.J.

    2005-01-01

    The collapse of stacking-fault tetrahedra (SFT) by gliding dislocations was observed in in situ straining experiments in a transmission electron microscope (TEM). A stacking-fault tetrahedron was collapsed by intersection with a gliding perfect dislocation: only the base portion divided by the gliding plane of the dislocation annihilated, while the apex portion remained intact. As a result of analysis on evolution of atom configuration induced by intersection with perfect dislocation in SFT, it was found that an unusual atom configuration inevitably appeared in one of the ledges formed on stacking-fault planes, which is traditionally called I-ledge: the atoms on adjacent (1 1 1) planes were overlapping each other. The overlapping configuration provides a strong repulsive force, being a conceivable driving force to induce a chain reaction of atom displacements that collapses the SFT base portion

  18. Mobilisations collectives et femmes immigrées en France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Thiéblemont-Dollet

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Si nombreuses que soient les études ayant trait à l’immigration en France (et plus particulièrement masculine, aborder l’immigration sous l’angle des femmes immigrées et des processus communicationnels qu'elles ont développés en terre d’accueil est un apport essentiel aux sciences humaines. C’est pourquoi, cet article traite du thème de la mobilisation collective entre 2000 et 2008, par le biais des actions et des processus communicationnels mis en œuvre par des femmes immigrées ou issues de l’immigration, originaires du Maghreb et de l’Afrique de l’Ouest, plus particulièrement à partir de l’exemple du mouvement Ni Putes Ni Soumises. Analyser les réseaux d’interdépendance et de « contagion » entre ces actrices aux origines sociales identiques, faisant que ces femmes expriment un sentiment d’exclusion et associent leur statut social (chômage, profession sous-qualifiée, ethnique (origine maghrébine ou africaine et spatial (cité, banlieue, quartier dit difficile, à un même stigmate les reléguant à un univers discriminatoire, dégager les spécificités de leurs paroles selon les espaces et les temporalités où elles ont été délivrées, saisir leurs manières de s’organiser et leurs possibilités de mobilisation, sont les grands axes de cette réflexion. Suggérer enfin que ces femmes constituent un corps social émergent et mutant est une autre manière de lire ce texte. Émergent, parce qu’il est relativement récent du point de vue de sa visibilité dans la sphère publique et mutant, parce qu’il intègre des femmes qui participent d’un changement en train de se faire dans la société française et qui donnent une nouvelle image d’elles : non pas celle de féministes au sens classique du terme et de ce qui peut s’y rattacher, mais celle qui s’inscrit dans la perspective de comportement de genre à entendre comme mixité et modalités d’interaction entre femmes et hommes. Enfin

  19. Plastic deformation of crystals: analytical and computer simulation studies of dislocation glide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altintas, S.

    1978-05-01

    The plastic deformation of crystals is usually accomplished through the motion of dislocations. The glide of a dislocation is impelled by the applied stress and opposed by microstructural defects such as point defects, voids, precipitates and other dislocations. The planar glide of a dislocation through randomly distributed obstacles is considered. The objective of the present research work is to calculate the critical resolved shear stress (CRSS) for athermal glide and the velocity of the dislocation at finite temperature as a function of the applied stress and the nature and strength of the obstacles. Dislocation glide through mixtures of obstacles has been studied analytically and by computer simulation. Arrays containing two kinds of obstacles as well as square distribution of obstacle strengths are considered. The critical resolved shear stress for an array containing obstacles with a given distribution of strengths is calculated using the sum of the quadratic mean of the stresses for the individual obstacles and is found to be in good agreement with the computer simulation data. Computer simulation of dislocation glide through randomly distributed obstacles containing up to 10 6 obstacles show that the CRSS decreases as the size of the array increases and approaches a limiting value. Histograms of forces and of segment lengths are obtained and compared with theoretical predictions. Effects of array shape and boundary conditions on the dislocation glide are also studied. Analytical and computer simulation results are compared with experimental results obtained on precipitation-, irradiation-, forest-, and impurity cluster-hardening systems and are found to be in good agreement

  20. Plastic deformation of crystals: analytical and computer simulation studies of dislocation glide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altintas, S.

    1978-05-01

    The plastic deformation of crystals is usually accomplished through the motion of dislocations. The glide of a dislocation is impelled by the applied stress and opposed by microstructural defects such as point defects, voids, precipitates and other dislocations. The planar glide of a dislocation through randomly distributed obstacles is considered. The objective of the present research work is to calculate the critical resolved shear stress (CRSS) for athermal glide and the velocity of the dislocation at finite temperature as a function of the applied stress and the nature and strength of the obstacles. Dislocation glide through mixtures of obstacles has been studied analytically and by computer simulation. Arrays containing two kinds of obstacles as well as square distribution of obstacle strengths are considered. The critical resolved shear stress for an array containing obstacles with a given distribution of strengths is calculated using the sum of the quadratic mean of the stresses for the individual obstacles and is found to be in good agreement with the computer simulation data. Computer simulation of dislocation glide through randomly distributed obstacles containing up to 10/sup 6/ obstacles show that the CRSS decreases as the size of the array increases and approaches a limiting value. Histograms of forces and of segment lengths are obtained and compared with theoretical predictions. Effects of array shape and boundary conditions on the dislocation glide are also studied. Analytical and computer simulation results are compared with experimental results obtained on precipitation-, irradiation-, forest-, and impurity cluster-hardening systems and are found to be in good agreement.

  1. Aerodynamic consequences of wing morphing during emulated take-off and gliding in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaassen van Oorschot, Brett; Mistick, Emily A; Tobalske, Bret W

    2016-10-01

    Birds morph their wings during a single wingbeat, across flight speeds and among flight modes. Such morphing may allow them to maximize aerodynamic performance, but this assumption remains largely untested. We tested the aerodynamic performance of swept and extended wing postures of 13 raptor species in three families (Accipitridae, Falconidae and Strigidae) using a propeller model to emulate mid-downstroke of flapping during take-off and a wind tunnel to emulate gliding. Based on previous research, we hypothesized that (1) during flapping, wing posture would not affect maximum ratios of vertical and horizontal force coefficients (C V :C H ), and that (2) extended wings would have higher maximum C V :C H when gliding. Contrary to each hypothesis, during flapping, extended wings had, on average, 31% higher maximum C V :C H ratios and 23% higher C V than swept wings across all biologically relevant attack angles (α), and, during gliding, maximum C V :C H ratios were similar for the two postures. Swept wings had 11% higher C V than extended wings in gliding flight, suggesting flow conditions around these flexed raptor wings may be different from those in previous studies of swifts (Apodidae). Phylogenetic affiliation was a poor predictor of wing performance, due in part to high intrafamilial variation. Mass was only significantly correlated with extended wing performance during gliding. We conclude that wing shape has a greater effect on force per unit wing area during flapping at low advance ratio, such as take-off, than during gliding. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  2. The MOVIN' project (Mobilisation Of Ventilated Intensive care patients at Nepean): A quality improvement project based on the principles of knowledge translation to promote nurse-led mobilisation of critically ill ventilated patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Anwar; Rajamani, Arvind; Fitzsimons, Fiona

    2017-10-01

    Prospective quality improvement project to evaluate the impact of a training programme to promote nurse-led mobilisation of intubated critically ill patients. This project involved an educational programme to upskill nurses and overcome the barriers/challenges to nurse-led mobilisation. Initial strategies focused on educating and upskilling nurses to attain competency in active mobilisation. Subsequent strategies focused on positive reinforcement to achieve a culture shift. A pre- and post-intervention audit was used to evaluate its effectiveness. A baseline audit showed that ∼9% of ventilated patients were mobilised. Several barriers were identified. Twenty-three nurses underwent training in actively mobilising ventilated patients. This increased their confidence levels and there was reduction in reported barriers. However, the rate of active mobilisation remained low (9.7%). Subsequently, a programme of positive reinforcement with rewards and visual reminders was introduced, which saw an increase in the number of nurse-led mobilisations of both ventilated patients (from 9.7% to 34.8%; p=0.0003), and non-ventilated patients (29.5% versus 62.9%; p=patients. However, to promote a culture change, training and competency must be combined with a multi-pronged approach including reminders, positive reinforcement and rewards. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effectiveness of exercise therapy and manual mobilisation in ankle sprain and functional instability: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wees, Philip J; Lenssen, Anton F; Hendriks, Erik J M; Stomp, Derrick J; Dekker, Joost; de Bie, Rob A

    2006-01-01

    This study critically reviews the effectiveness of exercise therapy and manual mobilisation in acute ankle sprains and functional instability by conducting a systematic review of randomised controlled trials. Trials were searched electronically and manually from 1966 to March 2005. Randomised controlled trials that evaluated exercise therapy or manual mobilisation of the ankle joint with at least one clinically relevant outcome measure were included. Internal validity of the studies was independently assessed by two reviewers. When applicable, relative risk (RR) or standardised mean differences (SMD) were calculated for individual and pooled data. In total 17 studies were included. In thirteen studies the intervention included exercise therapy and in four studies the effects of manual mobilisation of the ankle joint was evaluated. Average internal validity score of the studies was 3.1 (range 1 to 7) on a 10-point scale. Exercise therapy was effective in reducing the risk of recurrent sprains after acute ankle sprain: RR 0.37 (95% CI 0.18 to 0.74), and with functional instability: RR 0.38 (95% CI 0.23 to 0.62). No effects of exercise therapy were found on postural sway in patients with functional instability: SMD: 0.38 (95% CI -0.15 to 0.91). Four studies demonstrated an initial positive effect of different modes of manual mobilisation on dorsiflexion range of motion. It is likely that exercise therapy, including the use of a wobble board, is effective in the prevention of recurrent ankle sprains. Manual mobilisation has an (initial) effect on dorsiflexion range of motion, but the clinical relevance of these findings for physiotherapy practice may be limited.

  4. Knowledge mobilisation for policy development: implementing systems approaches through participatory dynamic simulation modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freebairn, Louise; Rychetnik, Lucie; Atkinson, Jo-An; Kelly, Paul; McDonnell, Geoff; Roberts, Nick; Whittall, Christine; Redman, Sally

    2017-10-02

    Evidence-based decision-making is an important foundation for health policy and service planning decisions, yet there remain challenges in ensuring that the many forms of available evidence are considered when decisions are being made. Mobilising knowledge for policy and practice is an emergent process, and one that is highly relational, often messy and profoundly context dependent. Systems approaches, such as dynamic simulation modelling can be used to examine both complex health issues and the context in which they are embedded, and to develop decision support tools. This paper reports on the novel use of participatory simulation modelling as a knowledge mobilisation tool in Australian real-world policy settings. We describe how this approach combined systems science methodology and some of the core elements of knowledge mobilisation best practice. We describe the strategies adopted in three case studies to address both technical and socio-political issues, and compile the experiential lessons derived. Finally, we consider the implications of these knowledge mobilisation case studies and provide evidence for the feasibility of this approach in policy development settings. Participatory dynamic simulation modelling builds on contemporary knowledge mobilisation approaches for health stakeholders to collaborate and explore policy and health service scenarios for priority public health topics. The participatory methods place the decision-maker at the centre of the process and embed deliberative methods and co-production of knowledge. The simulation models function as health policy and programme dynamic decision support tools that integrate diverse forms of evidence, including research evidence, expert knowledge and localised contextual information. Further research is underway to determine the impact of these methods on health service decision-making.

  5. Association of manual or engine-driven glide path preparation with canal centring and apical transportation: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, R C; Peters, O A; de Figueiredo, J A P; Rossi-Fedele, G

    2018-04-28

    The role and effect of glide path preparation in root canal treatment remain controversial. This systematic review aims to compare apical transportation and canal centring of different glide path preparation techniques, with or without subsequent engine-driven root canal preparation. A database search in PubMed, PubMed Central, Embase, Scopus, EBSCO Dentistry & Oral Sciences Source and Virtual Health Library was conducted, using appropriate key words to identify the effect of glide path preparation (or its absence) on apical transportation and canal centring. An assessment for the risk of bias in included studies was carried out. Amongst 2146 studies, 18 satisfied the inclusion criteria. Nine studies assessed glide path preparation per se, comparing apical transportation and canal centring of rotary systems and/or manual files; eleven further investigations examined the efficacy of the glide path prior to final canal preparation with different engine-driven systems. Risk of bias and other study design features with potential influence on study outcomes and clinical implications were assessed. Based on the available evidence, and within the limitation of the studies included, preparation of a glide path using rotary sequences performs similarly (in most of the component studies) or significantly better than manual preparation when assessing apical transportation or canal centring. When compared to the absence of a glide path, canal shaping following glide path preparation was of similar, or significantly better quality, in regard to apical transportation or canal centring. © 2018 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Marked colour divergence in the gliding membranes of a tropical lizard mirrors population differences in the colour of falling leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klomp, D A; Stuart-Fox, D; Das, I; Ord, T J

    2014-12-01

    Populations of the Bornean gliding lizard, Draco cornutus, differ markedly in the colour of their gliding membranes. They also differ in local vegetation type (mangrove forest versus lowland rainforest) and consequently, the colour of falling leaves (red and brown/black in mangrove versus green, brown and black in rainforest). We show that the gliding membranes of these lizards closely match the colours of freshly fallen leaves in the local habitat as they appear to the visual system of birds (their probable predators). Furthermore, gliding membranes more closely resembled colours of local fallen leaves than standing foliage or fallen leaves in the other population's habitat. This suggests that the two populations have diverged in gliding membrane coloration to match the colours of their local falling leaves, and that mimicking falling leaves is an adaptation that functions to reduce predation by birds. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  7. Use of glide-ins in CMS for production and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, D; Gutsche, O; Holzman, B; Sfiligoi, I; Vaandering, E; Hahn, K; Padhi, S; Pi, H; Wuerthwein, F; Spiga, D

    2010-01-01

    With the evolution of various grid federations, the Condor glide-ins represent a key feature in providing a homogeneous pool of resources using late-binding technology. The CMS collaboration uses the glide-in based Workload Management System, glideinWMS, for production (ProdAgent) and distributed analysis (CRAB) of the data. The Condor glide-in daemons traverse to the worker nodes, submitted via Condor-G. Once activated, they preserve the Master-Worker relationships, with the worker first validating the execution environment on the worker node before pulling the jobs sequentially until the expiry of their lifetimes. The combination of late-binding and validation significantly reduces the overall failure rate visible to CMS physicists. We discuss the extensive use of the glideinWMS since the computing challenge, CCRC-08, in order to prepare for the forthcoming LHC data-taking period. The key features essential to the success of large-scale production and analysis on CMS resources across major grid federations, including EGEE, OSG and NorduGrid are outlined. Use of glide-ins via the CRAB server mechanism and ProdAgent, as well as first hand experience of using the next generation CREAM computing element within the CMS framework is discussed.

  8. Gliding arc surface treatment of glass-fiber-reinforced polyester enhanced by ultrasonic irradiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusano, Yukihiro; Norrman, Kion; Drews, Joanna Maria

    2011-01-01

    . The efficiency of such a plasma treatment at atmospheric pressure can be further improved by ultrasonic irradiation onto the surface during the treatment. In the present work glass fiber reinforced polyester (GFRP) plates are treated using an atmospheric pressure gliding arc with and without ultrasonic...

  9. Gliding arc discharge — Application for adhesion improvement of fibre reinforced polyester composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusano, Yukihiro; Teodoru, Steluta; Leipold, Frank

    2008-01-01

    production, and surface treatment. However, the application for adhesion improvement of structural materials has been rarely reported. In the present work, glass fibre reinforced polyester plates were treated using atmospheric pressure gliding arcs with high speed air flow for adhesion improvement...

  10. The 3D CFD study of gliding swimmer on passive hydrodynamics drag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishveshwar Rajendra Mantha

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of depth on the hydrodynamic drag coefficient during the passive underwater gliding after the starts and turns. The swimmer hydrodynamics performance was studied by the application of computational fluid dynamics (CFD method. The steady-state CFD simulations were performed by the application of k - omega turbulent model and volume of fluid method to obtain two-phase flow around a three-dimensional swimmer model when gliding near water surface and at different depths from the water surface. The simulations were conducted for four different swimming pool size, each with different depth, i.e., 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 3.0 m for three different velocities, i.e., 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 m/s, with swimmer gliding at different depths with intervals of 0.25 m, each starting from the water surface, respectively. The numerical results of pressure drag and total coefficients at individual average race velocities were obtained. The results showed that the drag coefficient decreased as depth increased, with a trend toward reduced fluctuation after 0.5m depth from the water surface. The selection of the appropriate depth during the gliding phase should be a main concern of swimmers and coaches.

  11. Is Snow Gliding a Major Soil Erosion Agent in Steep Alpine Areas?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meusburger, K.; Walter, A.; Alewell, C.; Leitinger, G.; Mabit, L.; Mueller, M.H.

    2015-01-01

    Snow cover is a key hydrological characteristic of mountain areas. Nevertheless, a majority of studies focused on quantifying rates of soil erosion and sediment transport in steep mountain areas has largely neglected the role of snow cover on soil erosion rates (Stanchi et al., 2014). Soil erosion studies have focused almost exclusively on the snow-free periods even though it is well known that wet avalanches can yield enormous erosive forces (Freppaz et al., 2010; Korup and Rixen, 2014). This raises the question whether annual snow cover and particularly the slow movement of snow packages over the soil surface, termed ‘‘snow gliding’’, contribute significantly to the total soil loss in these areas. Three different approaches to estimate soil erosion rates were used to address this question. These include (1) the anthropogenic soil tracer 137 Cs, (2) the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE), and (3) direct sediment yield measurements of snow glide deposits. The fallout radionuclide 137 Cs integrates total soil loss due to all erosion agents involved, the RUSLE model is suitable to estimate soil loss by water erosion and the sediment yield measurements yield represents a direct estimate of soil removal by snow gliding. Moreover, cumulative snow glide distance was measured for 14 sites and modelled for the surrounding area with the Spatial Snow Glide Model (Leitinger et al., 2008)

  12. 14 CFR 121.360 - Ground proximity warning-glide slope deviation alerting system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... deviation alerting system. 121.360 Section 121.360 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Equipment Requirements § 121.360 Ground proximity warning-glide slope deviation alerting system. (a) No... system that meets the performance and environmental standards of TSO-C92 (available from the FAA, 800...

  13. Gravity effects on a gliding arc in four noble gases: from normal to hypergravity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potocnakova, L.; Sperka, J.; Zikan, P.; van Loon, J.J.W.A.; Beckers, J.; Kudrle, V.

    2015-01-01

    A gliding arc in four noble gases (He, Ne, Ar, Kr) has been studied under previously unexplored conditions of varying artificial gravity, from normal 1 g gravity up to 18 g hypergravity. Significant differences, mainly the visual thickness of the plasma channel, its maximum elongation and general

  14. Translational, rotational and vibrational temperatures of a gliding arc discharge at atmospheric pressure air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Jiajian; Gao, Jinlong; Ehn, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    and vibrational temperatures of a gliding arc generated at atmospheric pressure air are investigated. Translational temperatures (about 1100 K) were measured by laser-induced Rayleigh scattering, and two-dimensional temperature imaging was performed. Rotational and vibrational temperatures (about 3600 K and 6700...

  15. Brittle-ductile gliding shear zone and its dynamic metallization in uranium deposit No. 3110

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Shiyi.

    1990-01-01

    A preliminary study on the macroscopic geological structure, microstructures of plastic deformation rotary strain, structural geochemistry and zoning regularity of a brittle-ductile gliding shear zone in uranium deposit No. 3110 is made. Structural dynamic metallization of uranium caused by the strong shearing stress is discussed. It is pointed out that great attention must be paid to in further exploration

  16. An in vitro comparison of root canal transportation by reciproc file with and without glide path.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarimoghadam, Kiumars; Daryaeian, Mohammad; Ramazani, Nahid

    2014-09-01

    The aim of ideal canal preparation is to prevent iatrogenic aberrations such as transportation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the root canal transportation by Reciproc file with and without glide path. Thirty acrylic-resin blocks with a curvature of 60° and size#10 (2% taper) were assigned into two groups (n= 15). In group 1, the glide path was performed using stainless steel k-files size#10 and 15 at working length In group 2, canals were prepared with Reciproc file system at working length. By using digital imaging software (AutoCAD 2008), the pre-instrumentation and post-instrumentation digital images were superimposed over, taking the landmarks as reference points. Then the radius of the internal and external curve of the specimens was calculated at three α, β and γ points (1mm to apex as α, 3mm to apex as β, and 5mm to apex as γ). The data were statically analyzed using the independent T-test and Mann-Whitney U test by SPSS version 16. Glide path was found significant for only external curve in the apical third of the canal; that is, 5mm to apex (P=0.005). But in the other third, canal modification was not significant (P> 0.008). Canal transportation in the apical third of the canal seems to be significantly reduced when glide path is performed using reciprocating files.

  17. The Hydrodynamic Study of the Swimming Gliding: a Two-Dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinho, Daniel A; Barbosa, Tiago M; Rouboa, Abel I; Silva, António J

    2011-09-01

    Nowadays the underwater gliding after the starts and the turns plays a major role in the overall swimming performance. Hence, minimizing hydrodynamic drag during the underwater phases should be a main aim during swimming. Indeed, there are several postures that swimmers can assume during the underwater gliding, although experimental results were not conclusive concerning the best body position to accomplish this aim. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to analyse the effect in hydrodynamic drag forces of using different body positions during gliding through computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methodology. For this purpose, two-dimensional models of the human body in steady flow conditions were studied. Two-dimensional virtual models had been created: (i) a prone position with the arms extended at the front of the body; (ii) a prone position with the arms placed alongside the trunk; (iii) a lateral position with the arms extended at the front and; (iv) a dorsal position with the arms extended at the front. The drag forces were computed between speeds of 1.6 m/s and 2 m/s in a two-dimensional Fluent(®) analysis. The positions with the arms extended at the front presented lower drag values than the position with the arms aside the trunk. The lateral position was the one in which the drag was lower and seems to be the one that should be adopted during the gliding after starts and turns.

  18. Comparison of patellar distraction with patellar glides in female patients with patellofemoral pain syndrom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syed, S.; Chaudhary, M.A.; Noor, R.; Bashir, M.S.; Manzoor, B.

    2017-01-01

    To analyse effectiveness of patellar glides and patellar distraction in the patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS). Methodology: This longitudinal interventional comparative study was conducted at Physiotherapy Department, Mayo Hospital Lahore, Pakistan from September 2015 to March 2016. A total of 70 patients were divided into 2 groups randomly; group A received hot pack, quadriceps strengthening exercises and patellar distraction whereas group B received hot pack, quadriceps strengthening exercises and patellar glides. Age of the female patients was 18-40 years. Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and Knee Injury and osteoarthritis outcome score (KOOS) questionnaire were used to compare the effectiveness of both treatments. The data were analysed using SPSS v. 21.0. Results: There was reduction in pain at VAS and KOOS showed improvement in function as well as the range of motion also increased in both groups. Both treatment techniques were effective in reducing pain in PFPS (P <0.005). Pre-treatment KOOS score in patellar glides group was 34.77+10.84 and post-treatment KOOS score was 62.155+15.75 and for patellar distraction group pre-treatment KOOS score was 35.42+10.07 that increased to 55.77+14.66 after treatment which showed that patellar glides had better effect on PFPS. Conclusion: Both treatments were effective in managing PFPS in terms of decreasing pain and increasing ROM as there was no significant difference between two techniques, however patellar glides were superior as compared to patellar distraction in decreasing pain and increasing ROM. (author)

  19. Ancient phylogenetic divergence of the enigmatic African rodent Zenkerella and the origin of anomalurid gliding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Heritage

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The “scaly-tailed squirrels” of the rodent family Anomaluridae have a long evolutionary history in Africa, and are now represented by two gliding genera (Anomalurus and Idiurus and a rare and obscure genus (Zenkerella that has never been observed alive by mammalogists. Zenkerella shows no anatomical adaptations for gliding, but has traditionally been grouped with the glider Idiurus on the basis of craniodental similarities, implying that either the Zenkerella lineage lost its gliding adaptations, or that Anomalurus and Idiurus evolved theirs independently. Here we present the first nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequences of Zenkerella, based on recently recovered whole-body specimens from Bioko Island (Equatorial Guinea, which show unambiguously that Zenkerella is the sister taxon of Anomalurus and Idiurus. These data indicate that gliding likely evolved only once within Anomaluridae, and that there were no subsequent evolutionary reversals. We combine this new molecular evidence with morphological data from living and extinct anomaluromorph rodents and estimate that the lineage leading to Zenkerella has been evolving independently in Africa since the early Eocene, approximately 49 million years ago. Recently discovered fossils further attest to the antiquity of the lineage leading to Zenkerella, which can now be recognized as a classic example of a “living fossil,” about which we know remarkably little. The osteological markers of gliding are estimated to have evolved along the stem lineage of the Anomalurus–Idiurus clade by the early Oligocene, potentially indicating that this adaptation evolved in response to climatic perturbations at the Eocene–Oligocene boundary (∼34 million years ago.

  20. Nitrogen Fixation by Gliding Arc Plasma: Better Insight by Chemical Kinetics Modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weizong; Patil, Bhaskar; Heijkers, Stjin; Hessel, Volker; Bogaerts, Annemie

    2017-05-22

    The conversion of atmospheric nitrogen into valuable compounds, that is, so-called nitrogen fixation, is gaining increased interest, owing to the essential role in the nitrogen cycle of the biosphere. Plasma technology, and more specifically gliding arc plasma, has great potential in this area, but little is known about the underlying mechanisms. Therefore, we developed a detailed chemical kinetics model for a pulsed-power gliding-arc reactor operating at atmospheric pressure for nitrogen oxide synthesis. Experiments are performed to validate the model and reasonable agreement is reached between the calculated and measured NO and NO 2 yields and the corresponding energy efficiency for NO x formation for different N 2 /O 2 ratios, indicating that the model can provide a realistic picture of the plasma chemistry. Therefore, we can use the model to investigate the reaction pathways for the formation and loss of NO x . The results indicate that vibrational excitation of N 2 in the gliding arc contributes significantly to activating the N 2 molecules, and leads to an energy efficient way of NO x production, compared to the thermal process. Based on the underlying chemistry, the model allows us to propose solutions on how to further improve the NO x formation by gliding arc technology. Although the energy efficiency of the gliding-arc-based nitrogen fixation process at the present stage is not comparable to the world-scale Haber-Bosch process, we believe our study helps us to come up with more realistic scenarios of entering a cutting-edge innovation in new business cases for the decentralised production of fertilisers for agriculture, in which low-temperature plasma technology might play an important role. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Influence of GlideScope assisted endotracheal intubation on intraocular pressure in ophthalmic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nauman Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Traditional Macintoch laryngoscopy is known to cause a rise in intraocular pressure (IOP, tachycardia and hypertension. These changes are not desirable in patients with glaucoma and open globe injury. GlideScope is a video laryngoscope that functions independent of the line of sight, reduces upward lifting forces for glottic exposure and requires less cervical neck movement for intubation, making it less stimulating than Macintosh laryngoscopy. Aim: The aim was to assess the variations in IOP and hemodynamic changes after GlideScope assisted intubation. Materials and Methods: After approval of the local Institutional Research and Ethical Board and informed patient consent, 50 adult American Society of Anesthesiologist I and II patients with normal IOP were enrolled in a prospective, randomized study for ophthalmic surgery requiring tracheal intubation. In all patients, trachea was intubated using either GlideScope or Macintoch laryngoscope. IOP of nonoperated eye, heart rate and blood pressure were measured as baseline, 1 min after induction, 1 min and 5 min after tracheal intubation. Results: IOP was not significantly different between groups before and after anesthetic induction and 5 min after tracheal intubation (P = 0.217, 0.726, and 0.110 respectively. The only significant difference in IOP was at 1 min after intubation (P = 0.041. No significant difference noted between groups in mean arterial pressure (P = 0.899, 0.62, 0.47, 0.82 respectively and heart rate (P = 0.21, 0.72, 0.07, 0.29, respectively at all measurements. Conclusion: GlideScope assisted tracheal intubation shown lesser rise in IOP at 1 min after intubation in comparison to Macintoch laryngoscope, suggesting that GlideScope may be preferable to Macintosh laryngoscope.

  2. Convalescence and hospital stay after colonic surgery with balanced analgesia, early oral feeding, and enforced mobilisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møiniche, S; Bülow, Steffen; Hesselfeldt, Peter

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the combined effects of pain relief by continuous epidural analgesia, early oral feeding and enforced mobilisation on convalescence and hospital stay after colonic resection. DESIGN: Uncontrolled pilot investigation. SETTING: University hospital, Denmark. SUBJECTS: 17...... unselected patients (median age 69 years) undergoing colonic resection. INTERVENTIONS: Patients received combined epidural and general anaesthesia during operations and after operation were given continuous epidural bupivacaine 0.25%, 4 ml hour and morphine 0.2 mg hour, for 96 hours and oral paracetamol 4 g...... weight loss. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that a combined approach of optimal pain relief with balanced analgesia, enforced early mobilisation, and oral feeding, may reduce the length of convalescence and hospital stay after colonic operations....

  3. Hypoalgesic effect of a passive accessory mobilisation technique in patients with lateral ankle pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Hwee Koon; Wright, Anthony

    2011-08-01

    A randomised, double blind, repeated measures study was conducted to investigate the initial effects of an accessory mobilisation technique applied to the ankle joint in 13 patients with a unilateral sub-acute ankle supination injury. Ankle dorsiflexion range of motion, pressure pain threshold, visual analogue scale rating of pain during functional activity and ankle functional scores were assessed before and after application of treatment, manual contact control and no contact control conditions. There were significant improvements in ankle dorsiflexion range of motion (p = 0.000) and pressure pain threshold (p = 0.000) during the treatment condition. However no significant effects were observed for the other measures. These findings demonstrate that mobilisation of the ankle joint can produce an initial hypoalgesic effect and an improvement in ankle dorsiflexion range of motion. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Exploring mechanisms for mobilising industrial sustainability models across different industrial locations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Ole Morten Noel Brings

    2009-01-01

    Industrial symbiosis is a model of sustainability which suggests that agglomerations of industries can achieve considerable environmental benefits by engaging in inter-organisational waste recycling, energy cascading and water recovery. This article considers how such a complex inter-organisation......Industrial symbiosis is a model of sustainability which suggests that agglomerations of industries can achieve considerable environmental benefits by engaging in inter-organisational waste recycling, energy cascading and water recovery. This article considers how such a complex inter...... symbiosis model may in this way be mobilised across industrial localities as part of the global corporate search for marked access and cost reductions. This suggestion is supported by an illustrative case study shedding some light on the mechanisms for mobilising sustainability models across localities....

  5. Mobile museology:An exploration of fashionable museums, mobilisation, and trans-museal mediation

    OpenAIRE

    Baggesen, Rikke Haller

    2015-01-01

    Drawing together perspectives from museology, digital culture studies and fashion theory, this thesis considers changes in and challenges for current - day museums as related to ‘mobile museology’. This concept is developed for and elucidated in the thesis to describe an orientation towards the fashionable, the ephemeral, and towards an (ideal) state of change and changeability. This orientation is characterised with the triplet concepts of mobile, mobility, and mobilisation, as related to mo...

  6. Decision-Making Tool for Cost-Efficient and Environmentally Friendly Wood Mobilisation

    OpenAIRE

    Matevž Triplat; Peter Prislan; Nike Krajnc

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose: With development of forest management technologies, the efficiency of wood production was significantly improved, and thus the impact on forests has changed as well. The article presents a practical decision-making tool for selection of most suitable harvesting system, considering given terrain as well as expected soil conditions on harvesting sites. The decision-making tool should support cost-efficient and environmentally friendly mobilisation of wood. Materials a...

  7. Towards a "fourth generation" of approaches to HIV/AIDS management: creating contexts for effective community mobilisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Catherine; Cornish, Flora

    2010-01-01

    Many biomedical and behavioural HIV/AIDS programmes aimed at prevention, care and treatment have disappointing outcomes because of a lack of effective community mobilisation. But community mobilisation is notoriously difficult to bring about. We present a conceptual framework that maps out those dimensions of social context that are likely to support or undermine community mobilisation efforts, proposing that attention should be given to three dimensions of social context: the material, symbolic and relational. This paper has four parts. We begin by outlining why community mobilisation is regarded as a core dimension of effective HIV/AIDS management: it increases the "reach" and sustainability of programmes; it is a vital component of the wider "task shifting" agenda given the scarcity of health professionals in many HIV/AIDS-vulnerable contexts. Most importantly it facilitates those social psychological processes that we argue are vital preconditions for effective prevention, care and treatment. Secondly we map out three generations of approaches to behaviour change within the HIV/AIDS field: HIV-awareness, peer education and community mobilisation. We critically evaluate each approach's underlying assumptions about the drivers of behaviour change, to frame our understandings of the pathways between mobilisation and health, drawing on the concepts of social capital, dialogue and empowerment. Thirdly we refer to two well-documented case studies of community mobilisation in India and South Africa to illustrate our claim that community mobilisation is unlikely to succeed in the absence of supportive material, symbolic and relational contexts. Fourthly we provide a brief overview of how the papers in this special issue help us flesh out our conceptualisation of the "health enabling social environment". We conclude by arguing for the urgent need for a 'fourth generation' of approaches in the theory and practice of HIV/AIDS management, one which pays far greater

  8. Overseas Voter Mobilisation in Singapore: Implications from Malaysia’s 13th General Election

    OpenAIRE

    James Gomez; Rusdi Omar

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses voter mobilisation and other election-related activities of Malaysian voters living, studying and working in Singapore in the context of Malaysia’s 13th general election (GE13). According to the World Bank, nearly 400,000 Malaysians reside in the city-state. Thus these figures represent a significant Malaysian voter pool based in Singapore. Efforts to mobilise these voters for general elections or other causes have political implications for both countries, which became...

  9. Mobilisation, alteration, and redistribution of monosulfidic sediments in inland river systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheetham, M D; Wong, V N L; Bush, R T; Sullivan, L A; Ward, N J; Zawadzki, A

    2012-12-15

    The accumulation of monosulfidic sediments in inland waterways is emerging as a major environmental issue. Mobilisation and suspension of monosulfidic sediments can result in deoxygenation, acidification of the water column and mobilisation of trace metals. The controls on monosulfidic sediment mobilisation and the critical thresholds for its scour and entrainment have not been established. This study examines the effect of a minor flood event (average return interval of 5 years) on sulfidic sediment scour in the Wakool River in southern NSW, Australia. Five profiles were sampled within a small (~300 m) reach before and after a minor flood event to determine the degree of sediment scour and transport. The results indicate substantial scour of both monosulfidic sediments and underlying bed sediments (approximately 2100 m(3)). Changes in the sediment geochemistry suggest large concentrations of monosulfidic sediments had been suspended in the water column, partially-oxidised and redeposited. This is supported by (210)Pb results from one of the profiles. These results suggest that these monosulfidic sediments can move as bed load during minor flood events. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Water-cooled non-thermal gliding arc for adhesion improvement of glass-fibre-reinforced polyester

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusano, Yukihiro; Sørensen, Bent F.; Løgstrup Andersen, Tom

    2013-01-01

    A non-equilibrium quenched plasma is prepared using a gliding-arc discharge generated between diverging electrodes and extended by a gas flow. It can be operated at atmospheric pressure and applied to plasma surface treatment to improve adhesion properties of material surfaces. In this work, glass......-fibre-reinforced polyester plates were treated using an atmospheric pressure gliding-arc discharge with air flow to improve adhesion with a vinylester adhesive. The electrodes were water-cooled so as to operate the gliding arc continually. The treatment improved wettability and increased the density of oxygen...

  11. Spatiotemporally resolved characteristics of a gliding arc discharge in a turbulent air flow at atmospheric pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Jiajian; Gao, Jinlong; Ehn, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    A gliding arc discharge was generated in a turbulent air flow at atmospheric pressure driven by a 35 kHz alternating current (AC) electric power. The spatiotemporally resolved characteristics of the gliding arc discharge, including glow-type discharges, spark-type discharges, short-cutting events...... and transitions among the different types of discharges, were investigated using simultaneously optical and electrical diagnostics. The glow-type discharge shows sinusoidal-like voltage and current waveforms with a peak current of hundreds of milliamperes. The frequency of the emission intensity variation...... of the glow-type discharge is the same as that of the electronic power dissipated in the plasma column. The glow-type discharge can transfer into a spark discharge characterized by a sharp peak current of several amperes and a sudden increase of the brightness in the plasma column. Transitions can also...

  12. Deformation behavior of dragonfly-inspired nodus structured wing in gliding flight through experimental visualization approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sheng; Sunami, Yuta; Hashimoto, Hiromu

    2018-04-10

    Dragonfly has excellent flight performance and maneuverability due to the complex vein structure of wing. In this research, nodus as an important structural element of the dragonfly wing is investigated through an experimental visualization approach. Three vein structures were fabricated as, open-nodus structure, closed-nodus structure (with a flex-limiter) and rigid wing. The samples were conducted in a wind tunnel with a high speed camera to visualize the deformation of wing structure in order to study the function of nodus structured wing in gliding flight. According to the experimental results, nodus has a great influence on the flexibility of the wing structure. Moreover, the closed-nodus wing (with a flex-limiter) enables the vein structure to be flexible without losing the strength and rigidity of the joint. These findings enhance the knowledge of insect-inspired nodus structured wing and facilitate the application of Micro Air Vehicle (MAV) in gliding flight.

  13. Pulsating-gliding transition in the dynamics of levitating liquid nitrogen droplets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snezhko, Alexey; Aranson, Igor S [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Jacob, Eshel Ben [School of Physics and Astronomy, 69978 Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel)], E-mail: aranson@msd.anl.gov

    2008-04-15

    Hot surfaces can cause levitation of small liquid droplets if the temperature is kept above the Leidenfrost point (220 {sup 0}C for water) due to the pressure formed because of rapid evaporation. Here, we demonstrate a new class of pulsating-gliding dynamic transitions in a special setting of the Leidenfrost effect at room temperatures and above a viscous fluid for droplets of liquid nitrogen. A whole range of highly dynamic patterns unfolds when droplets of liquid nitrogen are poured on the surface of another, more viscous liquid at room temperature. We also discovered that the levitating droplets induce vortex motion in the supporting viscous liquid. Depending on the viscosity of the supporting liquid, the nitrogen droplets either adopt an oscillating (pulsating) star-like shape with different azimuthal symmetries (from 2-9 petals) or glide on the surface with random trajectories. Thus, by varying the viscosity of the supporting liquid, we achieve controlled morphology and dynamics of Leidenfrost droplets.

  14. Relationship between the electronic structure and the glide in the hexagonal close packed metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legrand, B.; Le Hazif, R.

    1983-06-01

    In all hexagonal close-packed metals (HCP), deformation is performed by slip on a mean glide system (MGS) and on several secondary systems. There are no reliable predictions of the MGS choice. In this paper is shown the role played by the electronic structure on the choice of glide system in HCP metals. MGS is basal for all normal metals and is a function of the electron number in HCP transition metals. The different SFE's were calculated using appropriate total energy models, for different metals. Thus pseudopotentials were used (or empirical pair potentials) for normal metals, and a tight-binding model for transition metals. The most important results are the following: prismatic SFE (PSFE) is smaller than basal SFE (BSFE) for Y, Ti, Zr, Hf, Ru and Os; BSFE is smaller than PSFE for Co and all normal metals; BSFE and PSFe and about the same for RE and Tc

  15. Pulsating-gliding transition in the dynamics of levitating liquid nitrogen droplets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snezhko, Alexey; Aranson, Igor S; Jacob, Eshel Ben

    2008-01-01

    Hot surfaces can cause levitation of small liquid droplets if the temperature is kept above the Leidenfrost point (220 0 C for water) due to the pressure formed because of rapid evaporation. Here, we demonstrate a new class of pulsating-gliding dynamic transitions in a special setting of the Leidenfrost effect at room temperatures and above a viscous fluid for droplets of liquid nitrogen. A whole range of highly dynamic patterns unfolds when droplets of liquid nitrogen are poured on the surface of another, more viscous liquid at room temperature. We also discovered that the levitating droplets induce vortex motion in the supporting viscous liquid. Depending on the viscosity of the supporting liquid, the nitrogen droplets either adopt an oscillating (pulsating) star-like shape with different azimuthal symmetries (from 2-9 petals) or glide on the surface with random trajectories. Thus, by varying the viscosity of the supporting liquid, we achieve controlled morphology and dynamics of Leidenfrost droplets

  16. Sustained diffusive alternating current gliding arc discharge in atmospheric pressure air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jiajian; Gao, Jinlong; Li, Zhongshan; Ehn, Andreas; Aldén, Marcus; Larsson, Anders; Kusano, Yukihiro

    2014-12-01

    Rapid transition from glow discharge to thermal arc has been a common problem in generating stable high-power non-thermal plasmas especially at ambient conditions. A sustained diffusive gliding arc discharge was generated in a large volume in atmospheric pressure air, driven by an alternating current (AC) power source. The plasma column extended beyond the water-cooled stainless steel electrodes and was stabilized by matching the flow speed of the turbulent air jet with the rated output power. Comprehensive investigations were performed using high-speed movies measured over the plasma column, synchronized with simultaneously recorded current and voltage waveforms. Dynamic details of the novel non-equilibrium discharge are revealed, which is characterized by a sinusoidal current waveform with amplitude stabilized at around 200 mA intermediate between thermal arc and glow discharge, shedding light to the governing mechanism of the sustained spark-suppressed AC gliding arc discharge.

  17. Destruction of acenaphthene, fluorene, anthracene and pyrene by a dc gliding arc plasma reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Liang; Tu, Xin; Li, Xiaodong; Wang, Yu; Chi, Yong; Yan, Jianhua

    2010-08-15

    In this study, four kinds of PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) i.e. acenaphthene, fluorene, anthracene and pyrene are used as targets for investigation of PAHs treatment process assisted by dc gliding arc discharge. The effects of carrier gas and external resistance on the PAHs decomposition process are discussed. The results indicate that the destruction rate can be achieved to the highest with the carrier gas of oxygen and the external resistance of 50 kOmega independent of type of PAHs. Furthermore, experimental results suggest that destruction energy efficiency of gliding arc plasma would be improved by treating higher concentration pollutants. Based on the analysis of experimental results, possible destruction mechanisms in different gas discharge are discussed. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Destruction of acenaphthene, fluorene, anthracene and pyrene by a dc gliding arc plasma reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Liang; Tu Xin; Li Xiaodong; Wang Yu; Chi Yong; Yan Jianhua

    2010-01-01

    In this study, four kinds of PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) i.e. acenaphthene, fluorene, anthracene and pyrene are used as targets for investigation of PAHs treatment process assisted by dc gliding arc discharge. The effects of carrier gas and external resistance on the PAHs decomposition process are discussed. The results indicate that the destruction rate can be achieved to the highest with the carrier gas of oxygen and the external resistance of 50 kΩ independent of type of PAHs. Furthermore, experimental results suggest that destruction energy efficiency of gliding arc plasma would be improved by treating higher concentration pollutants. Based on the analysis of experimental results, possible destruction mechanisms in different gas discharge are discussed.

  19. Efficacy of manual therapy treatments for people with cervicogenic dizziness and pain: protocol of a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reid Susan A

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cervicogenic dizziness is a disabling condition characterised by postural unsteadiness that is aggravated by cervical spine movements and associated with a painful and/or stiff neck. Two manual therapy treatments (Mulligan’s Sustained Natural Apophyseal Glides (SNAGs and Maitland’s passive joint mobilisations are used by physiotherapists to treat this condition but there is little evidence from randomised controlled trials to support their use. The aim of this study is to conduct a randomised controlled trial to compare these two forms of manual therapy (Mulligan glides and Maitland mobilisations to each other and to a placebo in reducing symptoms of cervicogenic dizziness in the longer term and to conduct an economic evaluation of the interventions. Methods Participants with symptoms of dizziness described as imbalance, together with a painful and/or stiff neck will be recruited via media releases, advertisements and mail-outs to medical practitioners in the Hunter region of NSW, Australia. Potential participants will be screened by a physiotherapist and a neurologist to rule out other causes of their dizziness. Once diagnosed with cervciogenic dizziness, 90 participants will be randomly allocated to one of three groups: Maitland mobilisations plus range-of-motion exercises, Mulligan SNAGs plus self-SNAG exercises or placebo. Participants will receive two to six treatments over six weeks. The trial will have unblinded treatment but blinded outcome assessments. Assessments will occur at baseline, post-treatment, six weeks, 12 weeks, six months and 12 months post treatment. The primary outcome will be intensity of dizziness. Other outcome measures will be frequency of dizziness, disability, intensity of cervical pain, cervical range of motion, balance, head repositioning, adverse effects and treatment satisfaction. Economic outcomes will also be collected. Discussion This paper describes the methods for a randomised

  20. Rheological effects of micropolar slime on the gliding motility of bacteria with slip boundary condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghar, Z.; Ali, N.; Anwar Bég, O.; Javed, T.

    2018-06-01

    Gliding bacteria are virtually everywhere. These organisms are phylogenetically diverse with their hundreds of types, different shapes and several modes of motility. One possible mode of gliding motility in the rod shaped bacteria is that they propel themselves by producing undulating waves in their body. Few bacteria glides near the solid surface over the slime without any aid of flagella so the classical Navier-Stokes equations are incapable of explaining the slime rheology at the microscopic level. Micropolar fluid dynamics however provides a solid framework for mimicking bacterial physical phenomena at both micro and nano-scales, and therefore we use the micropolar fluid to characterize the rheology of a thin layer of slime and its dominant microrotation effects. It is also assumed that there is a certain degree of slip between slime and bacterial undulating surface and also between slime and solid substrate. The flow equations are formulated under long wavelength and low Reynolds number assumptions. Exact expressions for stream function and pressure gradient are obtained. The speed of the gliding bacteria is numerically calculated by using a modified Newton-Raphson method. Slip effects and effects of non-Newtonian slime parameters on bacterial speed and power are also quantified. In addition, when the glider is fixed, the effects of slip and rheological properties of micropolar slime parameters on the velocity, micro-rotation (angular velocity) of spherical slime particles, pressure rise per wavelength, pumping and trapping phenomena are also shown graphically and discussed in detail. The study is relevant to emerging biofuel cell technologies and also bacterial biophysics.

  1. Optimization geometries of a vortex gliding-arc reactor for partial oxidation of methane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guofeng, Xu; Xinwei, Ding

    2012-01-01

    The effects of the geometry of gliding-arc reactor – such as distance between the electrodes, outlet diameter, and inlet position – on the reactor characteristics (methane conversion, hydrogen yield, and energy efficiency) have not been fully investigated. In this paper, AC gliding-arc reactors including the vortex flow configuration are designed to produce hydrogen from the methane by partial oxidation. The influence of vortex flow configuration on the reactor characteristics is also studied by varying the inlet position. When the inlet of the gliding-arc reactor is positioned close to the outlet, reverse vortex flow reactor (RVFR), the maximum energy efficiency reaches 50% and the yields of hydrogen and carbon monoxide are 40% and 65%, respectively. As the distance between electrodes increases from 5 mm to 15 mm, both hydrogen yield and energy efficiency increase approximately 10% for the RVFR. The energy efficiency and hydrogen yield are highest when the ratio of the outlet diameter to the inner diameter is 0.5 for the RVFR. Experimental results indicate that the flow field in the plasma reactor has an important influence on the reactor performance. Furthermore, hydrogen production increases as the number of feed gas flows in contact with the plasma zone increases. -- Highlights: ► Gliding-arc reactors were designed to produce hydrogen for studying the characteristics of the vortex flow reactor. ► Hydrogen yield of reverse vortex flow reactor was 10% higher than that of forward vortex flow reactor. ► Maximum energy efficiency was 50% for reverse vortex flow reactor. ► If discharge power was supplied to the reactors, the reactor performance increased with increasing distance between electrodes. ► Optimum ratio of the outlet and inner diameter was 1/2.

  2. Postoperative pain after manual and mechanical glide path: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqualini, Damiano; Mollo, Livio; Scotti, Nicola; Cantatore, Giuseppe; Castellucci, Arnaldo; Migliaretti, Giuseppe; Berutti, Elio

    2012-01-01

    This prospective randomized clinical trial evaluated the incidence of postoperative pain after glide path performed with PathFile (PF) (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) versus stainless-steel K-file (KF). In 149 subjects, the mechanical glide path was performed with nickel-titanium (NiTi) rotary PF; in 146 subjects, the manual glide path was performed with stainless-steel KFs. Postoperative pain, analgesics consumption, and the number of days to complete pain resolution were evaluated in the following 7 days. An analysis of variance model for repeated measures was used to compare the variation of pain-scale values (P < .05). The Student's t test for continuous variables normally distributed, the nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test for the nonnormally distributed variables, and the chi-square test for dichotomous variables were used (P < .05). Despite homogeneous baseline conditions at diagnosis, tooth type, pain prevalence, and scores, the postoperative pain prevalence curves in PF group evidenced a more favorable trend in terms of time to pain resolution compared with the KF group (P = .004). The difference was also evident in the model adjusted for analgesics consumption in both groups (P = .012). The mean analgesics intake per subject was significantly higher in the KF group (3.7 ± 2.2) compared with the PF group (2 ± 1.7) (P < .001). Mean pain stop values were also significantly higher in the KF group (2.7) compared with the PF group (1.7) (P = .001). The glide path with NiTi Rotary PF leads to less postoperative pain and faster symptom resolution. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Complete genome sequence of the gliding, heparinolytic Pedobacter saltans type strain (113T)

    OpenAIRE

    Liolios, Konstantinos; Sikorski, Johannes; Lu, Meagan; Nolan, Matt; Lapidus, Alla; Lucas, Susan; Hammon, Nancy; Deshpande, Shweta; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Tapia, Roxanne; Han, Cliff; Goodwin, Lynne; Pitluck, Sam; Huntemann, Marcel; Ivanova, Natalia

    2011-01-01

    Pedobacter saltans Steyn et al. 1998 is one of currently 32 species in the genus Pedobacter within the family Sphingobacteriaceae. The species is of interest for its isolated location in the tree of life. Like other members of the genus P. saltans is heparinolytic. Cells of P. saltans show a peculiar gliding, dancing motility and can be distinguished from other Pedobacter strains by their ability to utilize glycerol and the inability to assimilate D-cellobiose. The genome presented here is on...

  4. Using physical models to study the gliding performance of extinct animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehl, M A R; Evangelista, Dennis; Yang, Karen

    2011-12-01

    Aerodynamic studies using physical models of fossil organisms can provide quantitative information about how performance of defined activities, such as gliding, depends on specific morphological features. Such analyses allow us to rule out hypotheses about the function of extinct organisms that are not physically plausible and to determine if and how specific morphological features and postures affect performance. The purpose of this article is to provide a practical guide for the design of dynamically scaled physical models to study the gliding of extinct animals using examples from our research on the theropod dinosaur, †Microraptor gui, which had flight feathers on its hind limbs as well as on its forelimbs. Analysis of the aerodynamics of †M. gui can shed light on the design of gliders with large surfaces posterior to the center of mass and provide functional information to evolutionary biologists trying to unravel the origins of flight in the dinosaurian ancestors and sister groups to birds. Measurements of lift, drag, side force, and moments in pitch, roll, and yaw on models in a wind tunnel can be used to calculate indices of gliding and parachuting performance, aerodynamic static stability, and control effectiveness in maneuvering. These indices permit the aerodynamic performance of bodies of different shape, size, stiffness, texture, and posture to be compared and thus can provide insights about the design of gliders, both biological and man-made. Our measurements of maximum lift-to-drag ratios of 2.5-3.1 for physical models of †M. gui suggest that its gliding performance was similar to that of flying squirrels and that the various leg postures that might have been used by †M. gui make little difference to that aspect of aerodynamic performance. We found that body orientation relative to the movement of air past the animal determines whether it is difficult or easy to maneuver.

  5. Anteroposterior glide versus rotating platform low contact stress (LCS knee arthroplasty: a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wynn-Jones Charles

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fifty thousand knee replacements are performed annually in the UK at an estimated cost of £150 million. Post-operative improvement depends on a number of factors including implant design and patient associated factors. To our knowledge there are no published study's comparing the results of AP glide and rotating platform designs of LCS knee arthroplasty. Therefore we feel that a study is required to investigate and compare the effects of two types of LCS total knee arthroplasty on joint proprioception and range of motion. Methods/Design Patients will be randomised to receive either a LCS AP glide or Rotating platform prosthesis. Clinical scores (Oxford knee score, American knee society score, EuroQol, range of motion and proprioception will be assessed prior to and at 3,6, 12 and 24 months after the operation. Proprioception will be assessed in terms of absolute error angle (mean difference between the target angle and the response angle. Knee angles will be measured in degrees using an electromagnetic tracking device, Polhemus 3Space Fastrak that detects positions of sensors placed on the test limb. Student's t-test will be used to compare the mean of two groups. Discussion Evidence is lacking concerning the best prosthesis to use for patients undergoing total knee replacement. This pragmatic randomised trial will test the null hypothesis that anteroposterior glide LCS knee arthroplasty does not result in better post operative knee motion and proprioception as compared to rotating platform LCS knee. Trial Registration ISRCTN52943804

  6. Ultrasound-guided hydrodissection decreases gliding resistance of the median nerve within the carpal tunnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, Stefanie; Thoreson, Andrew R; Smith, Jay; Zhao, Chunfeng; Geske, Jennifer R; Amadio, Peter C

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess alterations in median nerve (MN) biomechanics within the carpal tunnel resulting from ultrasound-guided hydrodissection in a cadaveric model. Twelve fresh frozen human cadaver hands were used. MN gliding resistance was measured at baseline and posthydrodissection, by pulling the nerve proximally and then returning it to the origin. Six specimens were treated with hydrodissection, and 6 were used as controls. In the hydrodissection group there was a significant reduction in mean peak gliding resistance of 92.9 ± 34.8 mN between baseline and immediately posthydrodissection (21.4% ± 10.5%; P = 0.001). No significant reduction between baseline and the second cycle occurred in the control group: 9.6 ± 29.8 mN (0.4% ± 5.3%; P = 0.467). Hydrodissection can decrease the gliding resistance of the MN within the carpal tunnel, at least in wrists unaffected by carpal tunnel syndrome. A clinical trial of hydrodissection seems justified. Muscle Nerve 57: 25-32, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. A theoretical analysis of pitch stability during gliding in flying snakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jafari, Farid; Ross, Shane D; Socha, John J; Vlachos, Pavlos P

    2014-01-01

    Flying snakes use their entire body as a continuously morphing ‘wing’ to produce lift and shallow their glide trajectory. Their dominant behavior during gliding is aerial undulation, in which lateral waves are sent posteriorly down the body. This highly dynamic behavior, which is unique among animal gliders, should have substantial effects on the flight dynamics and stability of the snakes, resulting from the continuous redistribution of mass and aerodynamic forces. In this study, we develop two-dimensional theoretical models to assess the stability characteristics of snakes in the pitch direction. Previously measured force coefficients are used to simulate aerodynamic forces acting on the models, and undulation is simulated by varying mass. Model 1 is a simple three-airfoil representation of the snake’s body that possesses a passively stable equilibrium solution, whose basin of stability contains initial conditions observed in experimental gliding trajectories. Model 2 is more sophisticated, with more degrees of freedom allowing for postural changes to better represent the snake’s real kinematics; in addition, a restoring moment is added to simulate potential active control. The application of static and dynamic stability criteria show that Model 2 is passively unstable, but can be stabilized with a restoring moment. Overall, these models suggest that undulation does not contribute to stability in pitch, and that flying snakes require a closed-loop control system formed around a passively stable dynamical framework. (papers)

  8. Gliding and Quasi-harmonic Tremor Behaviour of Raung Volcano: November 2014 Crisis Period Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vico Luthfi Ipmawan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.5.1.13-21The seismic activity of Raung Volcano was raised on 11 November 2014. As many as 1709 tremors were recorded followed by continuous tremors appearing in late November 2014. Quasi-harmonic and gliding tremors appeared in a spectrogram on 12 November 2014. The quasi-harmonic tremors refer to tremors that have no fully harmonic form in spectrum. The gliding harmonic tremors refer to harmonic tremors that have frequency jumps with either positive or negative increment. After signal restitution processing, the Maximum Entropy Spectral Analysis (MESA method was applied in Raung recordings resulting the spectrum and the spectrogram of tremors. The quasi-harmonic tremors have the monotonic spectrum in its head and centre segment, and the harmonic one in its tails. There are twenty-four spectrums that show frequency changes between the monotonic and harmonic. The similarity between the fundamental frequency range of the monotonic and harmonic ones suggests that both signals are excited from a common resonator. The alternating of monotonic and harmonic respectively over this period is qualitatively similar with Julian’s synthetic time series about the nonlinear oscillator model. It is suggested that Raung Volcano magma pressure is sizeable to make a chaotic vibration. A pressure increasing in Raung magmatic conduit causes the increasing of P-wave velocity and makes a positive gliding frequency.

  9. Use of glide-ins in CMS for production and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Bradley, D; Hahn, K; Holzman, B; Padhi, S; Pi, H; Spiga, D; Sfiligoi, I; Vaandering, E; Würthwein, F

    2010-01-01

    With the evolution of various grid federations, the Condor glide-ins represent a key feature in providing a homogeneous pool of resources using late-binding technology. The CMS collaboration uses the glide-in based Workload Management System, glideinWMS, for production (ProdAgent) and distributed analysis (CRAB) of the data. The Condor glide-in daemons traverse to the worker nodes, submitted via Condor-G. Once activated, they preserve the Master-Worker relationships, with the worker first validating the execution environment on the worker node before pulling the jobs sequentially until the expiry of their lifetimes. The combination of late-binding and validation significantly reduces the overall failure rate visible to CMS physicists. We discuss the extensive use of the glideinWMS since the computing challenge, CCRC-08, in order to prepare for the forthcoming LHC data-taking period. The key features essential to the success of large-scale production and analysis on CMS resources across major grid federations,...

  10. A theoretical analysis of pitch stability during gliding in flying snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Farid; Ross, Shane D; Vlachos, Pavlos P; Socha, John J

    2014-06-01

    Flying snakes use their entire body as a continuously morphing 'wing' to produce lift and shallow their glide trajectory. Their dominant behavior during gliding is aerial undulation, in which lateral waves are sent posteriorly down the body. This highly dynamic behavior, which is unique among animal gliders, should have substantial effects on the flight dynamics and stability of the snakes, resulting from the continuous redistribution of mass and aerodynamic forces. In this study, we develop two-dimensional theoretical models to assess the stability characteristics of snakes in the pitch direction. Previously measured force coefficients are used to simulate aerodynamic forces acting on the models, and undulation is simulated by varying mass. Model 1 is a simple three-airfoil representation of the snake's body that possesses a passively stable equilibrium solution, whose basin of stability contains initial conditions observed in experimental gliding trajectories. Model 2 is more sophisticated, with more degrees of freedom allowing for postural changes to better represent the snake's real kinematics; in addition, a restoring moment is added to simulate potential active control. The application of static and dynamic stability criteria show that Model 2 is passively unstable, but can be stabilized with a restoring moment. Overall, these models suggest that undulation does not contribute to stability in pitch, and that flying snakes require a closed-loop control system formed around a passively stable dynamical framework.

  11. On low temperature glide of dissociated 〈1 1 0〉 dislocations in strontium titanate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritterbex, Sebastian; Hirel, Pierre; Carrez, Philippe

    2018-05-01

    An elastic interaction model is presented to quantify low temperature plasticity of SrTiO3 via glide of dissociated 〈1 1 0〉{1 1 0} screw dislocations. Because 〈1 1 0〉 dislocations are dissociated, their glide, controlled by the kink-pair mechanism at T good quantitative agreement with the observed non-monotonic mechanical behaviour of SrTiO3. This agreement allows to explain the experimental results in terms of a (progressive) change in 〈1 1 0〉{1 1 0} glide mechanism, from simultaneous nucleation of two kink-pairs along both partials at low stress, towards nucleation of single kink-pairs on individual partials if resolved shear stress exceeds a critical value of 95 MPa. High resolved shear stress allows thus for the activation of extra nucleation mechanisms on dissociated dislocations impossible to occur under the sole action of thermal activation. We suggest that stress condition in conjunction with core dissociation is key to the origin of non-monotonic plastic behaviour of SrTiO3 at low temperatures.

  12. Simulation as a tool for developing knowledge mobilisation strategies: Innovative knowledge transfer in youth services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Ungar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available While there are excellent models of knowledge mobilisation (KMb that address the opportunity for co-production and sharing of best practice knowledge among human service professionals, it remains unclear whether these models will work in less formal settings like community-based non-government organisations (NGOs where there are fewer resources for KMb. For three days, 65 policy-makers, senior staff of NGOs, mental health professionals, KMb specialists and youth participated in a set of simulation exercises to problem solve how to mobilise knowledge in less formal settings that provide services to children and youth in challenging contexts (CYCC. Based on simulation exercises used in other settings (such as the deployment of international aid workers, participants were first provided with reports synthesising best practice knowledge relevant to their workplaces. They then engaged in an appreciative inquiry process, and were finally tasked with developing innovative strategies for KMb. Observation notes and exit interviews were used to evaluate the process and assess impact. Findings related to the process of the simulation exercises show the technique of simulation to be useful but that it requires effort to keep participants focused on the task of KMb rather than the content of best practices within a focal population. With regard to developing innovative KMb strategies, findings suggest that service providers in less formal community-based services prefer KMb activities that promote one-to-one relationships, including the participation of youth themselves, who can speak to the effectiveness of the interventions they have experienced. Unexpectedly, the use of electronic communication, including social media, was not viewed very positively by participants. These results suggest that the use of simulation to search for innovative KMb strategies and to problem solve around barriers to KMb has the potential to inform new ways of co-producing and

  13. Mobilisation of store Ca2+ activates tyrosine hydroxylase in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenzie, S.; Marley, P.D.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Many receptor agonists are able to activate tyrosine hydroxylase (TOH) in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells. The majority of these are dependent on extracellular Ca 2+ for this action. Entry of extracellular Ca 2+ through voltage-operated Ca 2+ channels is very effective at activating TOH. The contribution of the intracellular Ca 2+ stores to TOH activation however is not known. Previous studies have shown that mobilisation of intracellular Ca 2+ stores is effective at increasing phosphorylation of TOH, but its effect on TOH activity has not been studied. Therefore, in the present study, the effect of mobilisation of store Ca 2+ on TOH activity was investigated using primary cultures of bovine adrenal chromaffin cells. Cells were prepared from abattoir tissue and cultured for 3-6 days. TOH activity was determined over 10 minutes, measuring the 14 CO 2 produced following the hydroxylation and rapid decarboxylation of 14 C-tyrosine offered to intact cells. Caffeine increased TOH activity in a concentration-dependent manner with a maximum response of 100% increase at 20mM. This effect was not due to osmolarity since 20mM sucrose had no effect.Nor was it due to inhibition of phosphodiesterases, since the effect of caffeine was still seen in the presence of 1mM IBMX. However,caffeine-induced TOH activation was substantially reduced in the absence of extracellular Ca 2+ . The results suggest that TOH activity can be increased by mobilising intracellular Ca 2+ stores, but that this effect involves extracellular Ca 2+ influx, possibly through store-operated channels. Copyright (2001) Australian Neuroscience Society

  14. Metal mobilisation in hydrothermal sediments at the TAG Hydrothermal Field (MAR, 26°N)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutrieux, A. M.; Lichtschlag, A.; Martins, S.; Barriga, F. J.; Petersen, S.; Murton, B. J.

    2017-12-01

    Metalliferous sediments in the vicinity of hydrothermal systems are enriched in base metals, but few studies have addressed their potential as mineral resources. These metalliferous sediments have been accumulated by different processes and reflect modifications of the primary mineral deposits by: oxidation of the chimney materials, in situ precipitation of low-temperature minerals and mass wasting. To understand the post-formation processes in metalliferous sediments, we investigated sub-seafloor metal mobilisation in different geological environments. This presentation focuses on the TAG Hydrothermal Field (Mid-Atlantic Ridge, 26°N) and explores sediment and pore water compositions using ICP-MS and ICP-OES. We use reactive transport modelling to interpret the degree of metal remobilisation and to identify the most important geochemical reactions in the different sediments. The pore water concentrations measured in sediments above inactive sulphide mounds present constant major elements composition that indicates this environment is dominated by complete exchange with seawater. The sediments, that are mainly composed of hematite and goethite formed during the oxidation of sulphides, have low Cu concentrations (sediments and capped by more recent sediment slumping. In the depositionary channels, pore waters show metal concentrations affected by diagenesis and redox-sensitive metals are released at depth (e.g. Mn2+ and Cu2+). The leaching of the primary sulphides (e.g. deprecated grains of chalcopyrite), and metal mobilisation lead to an enrichment of Cu and Zn at shallower depth. Here, some stratigraphic horizons scavenge metallic cations back into solid phases and form Mn-oxide crusts between 30 and 60 cm, in which Cu concentrations also increase. Our results demonstrate that metal mobilisation differs depending on the geological environment and their related accumulation processes, causing the absence of Cu on the top of inactive hydrothermal mounds but enriched

  15. Community mobilisation in the 21st century: updating our theory of social change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    The article explores the Freirian theory of social change underpinning health-related community mobilisation in poor and marginalised communities. Highlighting potential shortcomings of its essentialist understandings of power and identity, and linear notions of change, it examines how lessons from the 'new left', and burgeoning global protest movements, can rejuvenate the field given the growing complexity of 21st-century social inequalities. It suggests the need for a pastiche of approaches to accommodate health struggles in different times and places. However, while needing some updating, Freire's profound and actionable understandings of the symbolic and material dimensions of social inequalities remain a powerful starting point for activism.

  16. Electrokinetic mobilisation of toluene and chlorinated ethenes in low permeable soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Middeldorp, P.; Sinke, A. [TNO Environment Energy and Process Innovation, Apeldoorn (Netherlands)

    2001-07-01

    An electrokinetic horizontal soil column setup was developed to study the effect of electric current on the mobilisation and biodegradation of organic pollutants in soil. Toluene and tetrachloroethene (PCE) were injected between the two electrodes in the center of the soil column and a DC current of 1 V/cm was applied. We observed a breakthrough of PCE and toluene at the cathode side after 8 days and 11 days respectively. This short experiment shows the possibility to enhance the mobility of non-ionic organic pollutants through electro-osmosis. (orig.)

  17. PEMIMPIN MOBILISATOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Abdullah Syarif

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Every human being is a holder of responsibility. A man as leader often forgot his duty. The current conditions not only shows the weakness of the mentality of leaders in various level of office, but the societies are unruly also adds the problem. A leader is not just enough to know a solution of a problem, but the idea that solution must be applied to the problems. The characteristics of a mobilizing leader are a quick job completed with satisfactory results, efficient and effective, able to communicate, exemplary, and able in giving motivation.

  18. Comparison of apical extrusion of intracanal bacteria by various glide-path establishing systems: an in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Dagna

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives This study compared the amount of apically extruded bacteria during the glide-path preparation by using multi-file and single-file glide-path establishing nickel-titanium (NiTi rotary systems. Materials and Methods Sixty mandibular first molar teeth were used to prepare the test apparatus. They were decoronated, blocked into glass vials, sterilized in ethylene oxide gas, infected with a pure culture of Enterococcus faecalis, randomly assigned to 5 experimental groups, and then prepared using manual stainless-steel files (group KF and glide-path establishing NiTi rotary files (group PF with PathFiles, group GF with G-Files, group PG with ProGlider, and group OG with One G. At the end of canal preparation, 0.01 mL NaCl solution was taken from the experimental vials. The suspension was plated on brain heart infusion agar and colonies of bacteria were counted, and the results were given as number of colony-forming units (CFU. Results The manual instrumentation technique tested in group KF extruded the highest number of bacteria compared to the other 4 groups (p < 0.05. The 4 groups using rotary glide-path establishing instruments extruded similar amounts of bacteria. Conclusions All glide-path establishment instrument systems tested caused a measurable apical extrusion of bacteria. The manual glide-path preparation showed the highest number of bacteria extruded compared to the other NiTi glide-path establishing instruments.

  19. Dynamics, OH distributions and UV emission of a gliding arc at various flow-rates investigated by optical measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Jiajian; Sun, Zhiwei; Li, Zhongshan; Ehn, Andreas; Aldén, Marcus; Salewski, Mirko; Leipold, Frank; Kusano, Yukihiro

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate a plasma discharge which is generated between two diverging electrodes and extended into a gliding arc in non-equilibrium condition by an air flow at atmospheric pressure. Effects of the air flow rates on the dynamics, ground-state OH distributions and spectral characterization of UV emission of the gliding arc were investigated by optical methods. High-speed photography was utilized to reveal flow-rate dependent dynamics such as ignitions, propagation, short-cutting events, extinctions and conversions of the discharge from glowtype to spark-type. Short-cutting events and ignitions occur more frequently at higher flow rates. The anchor points of the gliding arc are mostly steady at the top of the electrodes at lower flow rates whereas at higher flow rates they glide up along the electrodes most of the time. The afterglow of fully developed gliding arcs is observed to decay over hundreds of microseconds after being electronically short-cut by a newly ignited arc. The extinction time decreases with the increase of the flow rate. The frequency of the conversion of a discharge from glow-type to spark-type increases with the flow rate. Additionally, spatial distributions of ground-state OH were investigated using planar laser-induced fluorescence. The results show that the shape, height, intensity and thickness of ground-state OH distribution vary significantly with air flow rates. Finally, UV emission of the gliding arc is measured using optical emission spectroscopy and it is found that the emission intensity of NO γ (A-X), OH (A-X) and N 2 (C-B) increase with the flow rates showing more characteristics of spark-type arcs. The observed phenomena indicate the significance of the interaction between local turbulence and the gliding arc. (paper)

  20. Dynamics, OH distributions and UV emission of a gliding arc at various flow-rates investigated by optical measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jiajian; Sun, Zhiwei; Li, Zhongshan; Ehn, Andreas; Aldén, Marcus; Salewski, Mirko; Leipold, Frank; Kusano, Yukihiro

    2014-07-01

    We demonstrate a plasma discharge which is generated between two diverging electrodes and extended into a gliding arc in non-equilibrium condition by an air flow at atmospheric pressure. Effects of the air flow rates on the dynamics, ground-state OH distributions and spectral characterization of UV emission of the gliding arc were investigated by optical methods. High-speed photography was utilized to reveal flow-rate dependent dynamics such as ignitions, propagation, short-cutting events, extinctions and conversions of the discharge from glowtype to spark-type. Short-cutting events and ignitions occur more frequently at higher flow rates. The anchor points of the gliding arc are mostly steady at the top of the electrodes at lower flow rates whereas at higher flow rates they glide up along the electrodes most of the time. The afterglow of fully developed gliding arcs is observed to decay over hundreds of microseconds after being electronically short-cut by a newly ignited arc. The extinction time decreases with the increase of the flow rate. The frequency of the conversion of a discharge from glow-type to spark-type increases with the flow rate. Additionally, spatial distributions of ground-state OH were investigated using planar laser-induced fluorescence. The results show that the shape, height, intensity and thickness of ground-state OH distribution vary significantly with air flow rates. Finally, UV emission of the gliding arc is measured using optical emission spectroscopy and it is found that the emission intensity of NO γ (A-X), OH (A-X) and N2 (C-B) increase with the flow rates showing more characteristics of spark-type arcs. The observed phenomena indicate the significance of the interaction between local turbulence and the gliding arc.

  1. Perception of visual apparent motion is modulated by a gap within concurrent auditory glides, even when it is illusory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qingcui; Guo, Lu; Bao, Ming; Chen, Lihan

    2015-01-01

    Auditory and visual events often happen concurrently, and how they group together can have a strong effect on what is perceived. We investigated whether/how intra- or cross-modal temporal grouping influenced the perceptual decision of otherwise ambiguous visual apparent motion. To achieve this, we juxtaposed auditory gap transfer illusion with visual Ternus display. The Ternus display involves a multi-element stimulus that can induce either of two different percepts of apparent motion: ‘element motion’ (EM) or ‘group motion’ (GM). In “EM,” the endmost disk is seen as moving back and forth while the middle disk at the central position remains stationary; while in “GM,” both disks appear to move laterally as a whole. The gap transfer illusion refers to the illusory subjective transfer of a short gap (around 100 ms) from the long glide to the short continuous glide when the two glides intercede at the temporal middle point. In our experiments, observers were required to make a perceptual discrimination of Ternus motion in the presence of concurrent auditory glides (with or without a gap inside). Results showed that a gap within a short glide imposed a remarkable effect on separating visual events, and led to a dominant perception of GM as well. The auditory configuration with gap transfer illusion triggered the same auditory capture effect. Further investigations showed that visual interval which coincided with the gap interval (50–230 ms) in the long glide was perceived to be shorter than that within both the short glide and the ‘gap-transfer’ auditory configurations in the same physical intervals (gaps). The results indicated that auditory temporal perceptual grouping takes priority over the cross-modal interaction in determining the final readout of the visual perception, and the mechanism of selective attention on auditory events also plays a role. PMID:26042055

  2. Perception of visual apparent motion is modulated by a gap within concurrent auditory glides, even when it is illusory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingcui eWang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Auditory and visual events often happen concurrently, and how they group together can have a strong effect on what is perceived. We investigated whether/how intra- or cross-modal temporal grouping influenced the perceptual decision of otherwise ambiguous visual apparent motion. To achieve this, we juxtaposed auditory gap transfer illusion with visual Ternus display. The Ternus display involves a multi-element stimulus that can induce either of two different percepts of apparent motion: ‘element motion’ or ‘group motion’. In element motion, the endmost disk is seen as moving back and forth while the middle disk at the central position remains stationary; while in group motion, both disks appear to move laterally as a whole. The gap transfer illusion refers to the illusory subjective transfer of a short gap (around 100 ms from the long glide to the short continuous glide when the two glides intercede at the temporal middle point. In our experiments, observers were required to make a perceptual discrimination of Ternus motion in the presence of concurrent auditory glides (with or without a gap inside. Results showed that a gap within a short glide imposed a remarkable effect on separating visual events, and led to a dominant perception of group motion as well. The auditory configuration with gap transfer illusion triggered the same auditory capture effect. Further investigations showed that visual interval which coincided with the gap interval (50-230 ms in the long glide was perceived to be shorter than that within both the short glide and the ‘gap-transfer’ auditory configurations in the same physical intervals (gaps. The results indicated that auditory temporal perceptual grouping takes priority over the cross-modal interaction in determining the final readout of the visual perception, and the mechanism of selective attention on auditory events also plays a role.

  3. Possible effects of mobilisation on acute post-operative pain and nociceptive function after total knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunn, T H; Kristensen, B B; Gaarn-Larsen, L

    2012-01-01

    anaesthesia and analgesia underwent an exercise (mobilisation) strategy on the first post-operative morning consisting of 25-m walking twice, with a 20-min interval. Pain was assessed at rest and during passive hip and knee flexion before, and 5 and 20 min after walk, as well as during walk. Nociceptive......BACKGROUND: Experimental studies in animals, healthy volunteers, and patients with chronic pain suggest exercise to provide analgesia in several types of pain conditions and after various nociceptive stimuli. To our knowledge, there is no data on the effects of exercise on pain and nociceptive...... function in surgical patients despite early mobilisation being an important factor to enhance recovery. We therefore investigated possible effects of mobilisation on post-operative pain and nociceptive function after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). METHODS: Thirty patients undergoing TKA under standardised...

  4. Surgical manipulation compromises leukocyte mobilisation responses and inflammation after experimental cerebral ischaemia in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam eDenes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute brain injury results in peripheral inflammatory changes, although the impact of these processes on neuronal death and neuroinflammation is currently unclear. To facilitate the translation of experimental studies to clinical benefit, it is vital to characterize the mechanisms by which acute brain injury induces peripheral inflammatory changes, and how these are affected by surgical manipulation in experimental models. Here we show that in mice, even mild surgical manipulation of extracranial tissues induced marked granulocyte mobilisation (300% and systemic induction of cytokines. However, intracranial changes induced by craniotomy, or subsequent induction of focal cerebral ischaemia were required to induce egress of CXCR2-positive granulocytes from the bone marrow. CXCR2 blockade resulted in reduced mobilisation of granulocytes from the bone marrow, caused an unexpected increase in circulating granulocytes, but failed to effect brain injury induced by cerebral ischaemia. We also demonstrate that isoflurane anaesthesia interferes with circulating leukocyte responses, which could contribute to the reported vascular and neuroprotective effects of isoflurane. In addition, no immunosuppression develops in the bone marrow after experimental stroke. Thus, experimental models of cerebral ischaemia are compromised by surgery and anaesthesia in proportion to the severity of surgical stress and overall tissue injury. Understanding the inherent confounding effects of surgical manipulation and development of new models of cerebral ischaemia with minimal surgical intervention could facilitate better understanding of interactions between inflammation and brain injury.

  5. Climate and enterprises: from mobilisation to action. Seven proposals to prepare the after-COP21

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayme, Arnaud; Derumaux, Quentin; Authier, Marc-Antoine; Monterno, Alexia de; Piolot, Lucie

    2015-11-01

    Based on meetings with 30 representatives of enterprises and institutions, this report first outlines that the COP21 takes place within a context characterised by a momentum which is to be exploited as awareness grows quickly, as data published by the IPCC is a consensus. It outlines that national climate contributions represent a positive methodological evolution and discusses the importance of bilateral agreements (example and the China-USA agreement), and gives an overview of remaining obstacles (financing the struggle against climate change, level playing field for European enterprises, how to support the losers of energy transition). The mobilisation of enterprises is then described as a new lever in the struggle against climate change: strong signals are sent by the financial sector; enterprises are facing many challenges. This mobilisation is presented as an unavoidable stake in negotiations. A necessary action of public authorities is outlined. Some proposals are stated regarding public financing of the struggle against climate change, the focussing of regulatory constraints on this struggle, public commissioning as a lever for a successful environmental transition, and the role of public authorities as a mediator between civil society and enterprises

  6. Arsenic and selenium mobilisation from organic matter treated mine spoil with and without inorganic fertilisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno-Jiménez, Eduardo; Clemente, Rafael; Mestrot, Adrien; Meharg, Andrew A.

    2013-01-01

    Organic matter amendments are applied to contaminated soil to provide a better habitat for re-vegetation and remediation, and olive mill waste compost (OMWC) has been described as a promising material for this aim. We report here the results of an incubation experiment carried out in flooded conditions to study its influence in As and metal solubility in a trace elements contaminated soil. NPK fertilisation and especially organic amendment application resulted in increased As, Se and Cu concentrations in pore water. Independent of the amendment, dimethylarsenic acid (DMA) was the most abundant As species in solution. The application of OMWC increased pore water dissolved organic-carbon (DOC) concentrations, which may explain the observed mobilisation of As, Cu and Se; phosphate added in NPK could also be in part responsible of the mobilisation caused in As. Therefore, the application of soil amendments in mine soils may be particularly problematic in flooded systems. Highlights: ► Organic and inorganic amendments were added to a mine soil in flooding conditions. ► Olive mill waste compost (OMWC) provoked As, Se and Cu solubilisation. ► Dimethylarsenic acid (DMA) was the predominant As species in pore water. ► Selenium volatilisation from soils was intense. - The addition of organic amendment and/or inorganic fertiliser to a trace element contaminated soil in flooded conditions led to As, Cu and Se solubilisation.

  7. Advocacy, communication and social mobilisation for tuberculosis control in Pakistan: a qualitative case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haq, Z; Khan, W; Rizwan, S

    2013-03-01

    A national-level study in four districts, one each in all four provinces of Pakistan, a high tuberculosis (TB) burden country. To examine how advocacy, communication and social mobilisation (ACSM) campaigns by the National Tuberculosis Programme (NTP) in Pakistan engaged the populations of interest, to what extent they were successful in promoting services and desired behaviours, and how these campaigns could be improved. This was a qualitative case study comprising 13 focus groups and 36 individual interviews in four districts. All three levels of the ACSM programme, i.e., planners, implementers and beneficiaries, were included among the respondents. Improved political commitment, availability of funds, partnership with the private sector, visibility of the NTP and access to directly observed treatment (DOT) were achieved. Individual and social environmental issues of poor patients and marginalised communities were addressed to some extent, and could be improved in the future. Empathy and respect from physicians, and better service delivery of the DOTS-based programme were desired by the patients. The strategic advocacy ensured political and financial commitment; however, identification and targeting of vulnerable populations, and carrying out context-based social mobilisation and effective counselling are crucial to increase the use of DOT. Evaluations should be built-in from the beginning to increase the evidence on effectiveness of ACSM campaigns.

  8. Contact- and Protein Transfer-Dependent Stimulation of Assembly of the Gliding Motility Machinery in Myxococcus xanthus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Jakobczak

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria engage in contact-dependent activities to coordinate cellular activities that aid their survival. Cells of Myxococcus xanthus move over surfaces by means of type IV pili and gliding motility. Upon direct contact, cells physically exchange outer membrane (OM lipoproteins, and this transfer can rescue motility in mutants lacking lipoproteins required for motility. The mechanism of gliding motility and its stimulation by transferred OM lipoproteins remain poorly characterized. We investigated the function of CglC, GltB, GltA and GltC, all of which are required for gliding. We demonstrate that CglC is an OM lipoprotein, GltB and GltA are integral OM β-barrel proteins, and GltC is a soluble periplasmic protein. GltB and GltA are mutually stabilizing, and both are required to stabilize GltC, whereas CglC accumulate independently of GltB, GltA and GltC. Consistently, purified GltB, GltA and GltC proteins interact in all pair-wise combinations. Using active fluorescently-tagged fusion proteins, we demonstrate that GltB, GltA and GltC are integral components of the gliding motility complex. Incorporation of GltB and GltA into this complex depends on CglC and GltC as well as on the cytoplasmic AglZ protein and the inner membrane protein AglQ, both of which are components of the gliding motility complex. Conversely, incorporation of AglZ and AglQ into the gliding motility complex depends on CglC, GltB, GltA and GltC. Remarkably, physical transfer of the OM lipoprotein CglC to a ΔcglC recipient stimulates assembly of the gliding motility complex in the recipient likely by facilitating the OM integration of GltB and GltA. These data provide evidence that the gliding motility complex in M. xanthus includes OM proteins and suggest that this complex extends from the cytoplasm across the cell envelope to the OM. These data add assembly of gliding motility complexes in M. xanthus to the growing list of contact-dependent activities in bacteria.

  9. How Informative are the Vertical Buoyancy and the Prone Gliding Tests to Assess Young Swimmers’ Hydrostatic and Hydrodynamic Profiles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Tiago M.; Costa, Mário J.; Morais, Jorge E; Moreira, Marc; Silva, António J.; Marinho, Daniel A.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research was to develop a path-flow analysis model to highlight the relationships between buoyancy and prone gliding tests and some selected anthropometrical and biomechanical variables. Thirty-eight young male swimmers (12.97 ± 1.05 years old) with several competitive levels were evaluated. It were assessed the body mass, height, fat mass, body surface area, vertical buoyancy, prone gliding after wall push-off, stroke length, stroke frequency and velocity after a maximal 25 [m] swim. The confirmatory model included the body mass, height, fat mass, prone gliding test, stroke length, stroke frequency and velocity. All theoretical paths were verified except for the vertical buoyancy test that did not present any relationship with anthropometrical and biomechanical variables nor with the prone gliding test. The good-of-fit from the confirmatory path-flow model, assessed with the standardized root mean square residuals (SRMR), is considered as being close to the cut-off value, but even so not suitable of the theory (SRMR = 0.11). As a conclusion, vertical buoyancy and prone gliding tests are not the best techniques to assess the swimmer’s hydrostatic and hydrodynamic profile, respectively. PMID:23486528

  10. Effect of condensation temperature glide on the performance of organic Rankine cycles with zeotropic mixture working fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Qiang; Duan, Yuanyuan; Yang, Zhen

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A condensation pressure determination method for ORC with zeotropic mixture is given. • The effects of condensation temperature glide on the ORC performance are analyzed. • Mixture mole fractions for the maximum power output of a geothermal ORC are identified. • The biomass ORC performance with part of the latent heat transferred in the IHE is analyzed. - Abstract: The organic Rankine cycle (ORC) has been widely used to convert low-grade ( 2 M) selected as working fluids for the cogenerative ORC driven by the biomass energy. Two optimal working fluid mole fractions maximize the cycle efficiency, exergy efficiency and net power output for cooling water temperature increases less than the maximum condensation temperature glide, while the highest net power output appears at the higher mole fraction of the more volatile component for the geothermal ORC when the condensation temperature glide of the working fluid mixture matches the cooling water temperature increase. Higher condensation temperature glides result in large thermal loss to the heat sink and exergy destruction in the condenser. There is only one optimal working fluid mole fraction that maximizes the thermal efficiency, exergy efficiency and net power output when the cooling water temperature increase is greater than the condensation temperature glide

  11. Abnormal accumulation of intermetallic compound at cathode in a SnAg3.0Cu0.5 lap joint during electromigration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Mingyu; Chang Hong; Pang Xiaochao; Wang Ling; Fu Yonggao

    2011-01-01

    Interfacial reactions in a SnAg 3.0 Cu 0.5 /Cu lap joint for naked and encompassed specimens were investigated contrastively under electric current stressing. After applying a constant direct current at 6.5 A for 144 h, an abnormal accumulation of bulk Cu 6 Sn 5 intermetallic compound was found at the cathode for the naked specimen. But normal polarization phenomenon arose for the encompassed specimen at the same current density for 504 h. The abnormal accumulation phenomenon was explained by the mechanism that thermomigration and stress migration induced by temperature gradient dominated the migration process. A three-dimensional joint simulation model was designed to demonstrate how current crowding and temperature gradient can enhance the local atomic flux.

  12. Destruction of tributylphosphate by cold plasma. Use of a gliding arc reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moussa, David

    1999-01-01

    The nuclear industry uses the Purex process for reprocessing spent nuclear fuel by plutonium and uranium separation. This process uses complexing properties of tributylphosphate. This solvent is aged by the high radioactivity and acidity of the medium and loses its extracting properties. Thus it becomes an highly radioactive liquid organic waste and it must be degraded before its conditioning. We have elaborated a new method for mineralizing TBP by exposure to the plasma produced by a wet air gliding arc. Electric discharges in wet air give rise to very reactive species like excited molecules and radicals. Such species can accelerate oxidation and degradation of organic compounds. The gliding arc discharge is obtained by applying high voltage between two divergent metal electrodes disposed around a blowing nozzle. The arc formed between the electrodes is blown by the air flow with growing in length. Thus a quenched wet air plasma trail is formed and licks an upper layer of TBP while the lower layer is water. Our device can degrade almost 40 percent of the treated TBP. The main degradation product is phosphoric acid for which we have monitored the production kinetics and suggested a model of a surface oxidation process to explain it. Another part of the TBP is converted into a phosphate layer found on the electrodes and phosphorus oxide white smokes present in exhaust fumes. By means of chromatography and spectroscopic analysis we have found the dibutyl-phosphoric acid as the main partial degradation product. The gliding arc device presents several advantages towards other plasma processes which are a low cost and especially for the present task i.e. an easy building and use, operating at atmospheric pressure and moderate temperature, and the possibility to use high powers (several kW for one unit). (author) [fr

  13. The Effects of One-Dimensional Glide on the Reaction Kinetics of Interstitial Clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinisch, Howard L.; Singh, B N.; Golubov, S I.

    2000-01-01

    Collision cascades in metals produce small interstitial clusters and perfect dislocation loops that glide in thermally activated one-dimensional (1D) random walks. These gliding defects can change their Burgers vectors by thermal activation or by interactions with other defects. Their migration is therefore''mixed 1D/3D migration'' along a 3D path consisting of 1D segments. The defect reaction kinetics under mixed 1D/3D diffusion are different from pure 1D diffusion and pure 3D diffusion, both of which can be formulated within analytical rate theory models of microstructure evolution under irradiation. Atomic-scale kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC) defect migration simulations are used to investigate the effects of mixed 1D/3D migration on defect reaction kinetics as a guide for implementing mixed 1D/3D migration into the analytical rate theory. The functional dependence of the sink strength on the sixe and concentration of sinks under mixed 1D/3D migration is shown to lie between that for pure 1D and pure 3D migration and varies with L, the average distance between direction changes of the gliding defects. It is shown that the sink strength in simulations for spherical sinks of radius R under mixed 1D/3D migration for values of L greater than R can be approximated by an expression that varies directly as R2. For small L, the form of the transition from mixed 1D/3D to pure 3D diffusion as L decreases is demonstrated in the simulations, the results of which can be used in the future development of an analytical expression describing this transition region

  14. Kinematics of ram filter feeding and beat-glide swimming in the northern anchovy Engraulis mordax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Nicholas; Goldbogen, Jeremy A

    2017-08-01

    In the dense aquatic environment, the most adept swimmers are streamlined to reduce drag and increase the efficiency of locomotion. However, because they open their mouth to wide gape angles to deploy their filtering apparatus, ram filter feeders apparently switch between diametrically opposite swimming modes: highly efficient, streamlined 'beat-glide' swimming, and ram filter feeding, which has been hypothesized to be a high-cost feeding mode because of presumed increased drag. Ram filter-feeding forage fish are thought to play an important role in the flux of nutrients and energy in upwelling ecosystems; however, the biomechanics and energetics of this feeding mechanism remain poorly understood. We quantified the kinematics of an iconic forage fish, the northern anchovy, Engraulis mordax , during ram filter feeding and non-feeding, mouth-closed beat-glide swimming. Although many kinematic parameters between the two swimming modes were similar, we found that swimming speeds and tailbeat frequencies were significantly lower during ram feeding. Rather than maintain speed with the school, a speed which closely matches theoretical optimum filter-feeding speeds was consistently observed. Beat-glide swimming was characterized by high variability in all kinematic parameters, but variance in kinematic parameters was much lower during ram filter feeding. Under this mode, body kinematics are substantially modified, and E. mordax swims more slowly and with decreased lateral movement along the entire body, but most noticeably in the anterior. Our results suggest that hydrodynamic effects that come with deployment of the filtering anatomy may limit behavioral options during foraging and result in slower swimming speeds during ram filtration. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  15. Glide path preparation in S-shaped canals with rotary pathfinding nickel-titanium instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajuz, Natasha C C; Armada, Luciana; Gonçalves, Lucio S; Debelian, Gilberto; Siqueira, José F

    2013-04-01

    This study compared the incidence of deviation along S-shaped (double-curved) canals after glide path preparation with 2 nickel-titanium (NiTi) rotary pathfinding instruments and hand K-files. S-shaped canals from 60 training blocks were filled with ink, and preinstrumentation images were obtained by using a stereomicroscope. Glide path preparation was performed by an endodontist who used hand stainless steel K-files (up to size 20), rotary NiTi PathFile instruments (up to size 19), or rotary NiTi Scout RaCe instruments (up to size 20). Postinstrumentation images were taken by using exactly the same conditions as for the preinstrumentation images, and both pictures were superimposed. Differences along the S-shaped canal for the mesial and distal aspects were measured to evaluate the occurrence of deviation. Intragroup analysis showed that all instruments promoted some deviation in virtually all levels. Overall, regardless of the group, deviations were observed in the mesial wall at the canal terminus and at levels 4, 5, 6 and 7 mm and in the distal wall at levels 1, 2, and 3 mm. These levels corresponded to the inner walls of each curvature. Both rotary NiTi instruments performed significantly better than hand K-files at all levels (P instruments showed significantly better results than PathFiles at levels 0, 2, 3, 5, and 6 mm (P rotary NiTi instruments are suitable for adequate glide path preparation because they promoted less deviation from the original canal anatomy when compared with hand-operated instruments. Of the 2 rotary pathfinding instruments, Scout RaCe showed an overall significantly better performance. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of repetitive pecking at working length for glide path preparation using G-file

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Hong Ha

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives Glide path preparation is recommended to reduce torsional failure of nickel-titanium (NiTi rotary instruments and to prevent root canal transportation. This study evaluated whether the repetitive insertions of G-files to the working length maintain the apical size as well as provide sufficient lumen as a glide path for subsequent instrumentation. Materials and Methods The G-file system (Micro-Mega composed of G1 and G2 files for glide path preparation was used with the J-shaped, simulated resin canals. After inserting a G1 file twice, a G2 file was inserted to the working length 1, 4, 7, or 10 times for four each experimental group, respectively (n = 10. Then the canals were cleaned by copious irrigation, and lubricated with a separating gel medium. Canal replicas were made using silicone impression material, and the diameter of the replicas was measured at working length (D0 and 1 mm level (D1 under a scanning electron microscope. Data was analysed by one-way ANOVA and post-hoc tests (p = 0.05. Results The diameter at D0 level did not show any significant difference between the 1, 2, 4, and 10 times of repetitive pecking insertions of G2 files at working length. However, 10 times of pecking motion with G2 file resulted in significantly larger canal diameter at D1 (p < 0.05. Conclusions Under the limitations of this study, the repetitive insertion of a G2 file up to 10 times at working length created an adequate lumen for subsequent apical shaping with other rotary files bigger than International Organization for Standardization (ISO size 20, without apical transportation at D0 level.

  17. Evidence and characterization of a glide-vowel distinction in American English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary Scott Jaggers

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study tests whether native speakers of American English exhibit a glide-vowel distinction ([j]-[i] in a speech elicitation experiment. When reading sentences out loud, participants’ pronunciations of 4 near-minimal pairs of pre-existing lexical items (e.g., 'Eston'[iə] vs. 'pneumon'[jə] exhibit significant differences when acoustically measured, confirming the presence of a [j]-[i] distinction. This distinction is also found to be productively extended to the production of 20 near-minimal pairs of nonce words (e.g., 'Súmia '→ [sumiə] vs. 'Fímya '→ [fimjə], diversified and balanced along different phonologically relevant factors of the surrounding environment. Multiple acoustic measurements are compared to test what aspects most consistently convey the distinction: F2 (frontness, F1 (height, intensity, vocalic sequence duration, transition earliness, and transition speed. This serves the purpose of documenting the distinction’s acoustic phonetic realization. It also serves in the comparison of phonological representations. Multiple types of previously proposed phonological representations are considered along with the competing predictions they generate regarding the acoustic measurements performed. Results suggest that the primary and most consistent characteristic of the distinction is earliness of transition into the following vowel, with results also suggesting that the [j] glide has a greater degree of constriction. The [j] glide is found to have a significantly 'less 'anterior articulation, challenging the application of a representation based on place or articulator differences that would predict [j] to be 'more 'anterior.

  18. Large Gaps in Canopy Reduce Road Crossing by a Gliding Mammal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney van der Ree

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Roads and traffic reduce landscape connectivity and increase rates of mortality for many species of wildlife. Species that glide from tree to tree may be strongly affected by roads and traffic if the size of the gap between trees exceeds their gliding capability. Not only are wide roads likely to reduce crossing rates, but mortality may also be increased if gliders that do cross have poor landing opportunities. The road-crossing behavior of 47 squirrel gliders (Petaurus norfolcensis was investigated in southeast Australia using radio-tracking. The proportion of gliders crossing one or both roadways of a freeway where trees were present or absent from the center median was compared to that at single-lane country roads (control. The proportion of gliders crossing the road at control sites (77% was similar to the proportion that crossed one or both roadways at the freeway with trees in the median (67%, whereas only a single male (6% crossed the freeway where trees were absent from the median. The frequency of crossing for each individual was also similar at control sites and freeway sites with trees in the median. The almost complete lack of crossing at sites where trees were absent from the median was attributed to the wider gap in canopy (50 - 64 m vs. 5 - 13 m at sites with trees in the median. This suggests that traffic volume, up to 5,000 vehicles per day on each roadway, and the other characteristics of the freeway we studied are not in themselves complete deterrents to road crossing by squirrel gliders. This study demonstrates that retaining and facilitating the growth of tall trees in the center median of two-way roads may mitigate the barrier effect of roads on gliders, thus contributing positively to mobility and potentially to connectivity. This information will be essential for the assessment of road impacts on gliding species using population viability models.

  19. The barrier to misfit dislocation glide in continuous, strained, epitaxial layers on patterned substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, G.P.; Ast, D.G.; Anderson, T.J.; Pathangey, B.

    1993-01-01

    In a previous report [G. P. Watson, D. G. Ast, T. J. Anderson, and Y. Hayakawa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2517 (1991)] we demonstrated that the motion of misfit dislocations in InGaAs, grown by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy on patterned GaAs substrates, can be impeded even if the strained epitaxial layer is continuous. Trenches etched into GaAs before growth are known to act as a barrier to misfit dislocation propagation [E. A. Fitzgerald, G. P. Watson, R. E. Proano, D. G. Ast, P. D. Kirchner, G. D. Pettit, and J. M. Woodall, J. Appl. Phys. 65, 2220 (1989)] when those trenches create discontinuities in the epitaxial layers; but even shallow trenches, with continuous strained layers following the surface features, can act as barriers. By considering the strain energy required to change the length of the dislocation glide segments that stretch from the interface to the free surface, a simple model is developed that explains the major features of the unique blocking action observed at the trench edges. The trench wall angle is found to be an important parameter in determining whether or not a trench will block dislocation glide. The predicted blocking angles are consistent with observations made on continuous 300 and 600 nm thick In 0.04 Ga 0.96 As films on patterned GaAs. Based on the model, a structure is proposed that may be used as a filter to yield misfit dislocations with identical Burgers vectors or dislocations which slip in only one glide plane

  20. Measurements of 3D slip velocities and plasma column lengths of a gliding arc discharge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Jiajian; Gao, Jinlong; Ehn, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    A non-thermal gliding arc discharge was generated at atmospheric pressure in an air flow. The dynamics of the plasma column and tracer particles were recorded using two synchronized high-speed cameras. Whereas the data analysis for such systems has previously been performed in 2D (analyzing......, gives more realistic insight into the convection cooling process. Additionally, with the determination of the 3D slip velocity and the 3D length of the plasma column, we give more accurate estimates for the drag force, the electric field strength, the power per unit length, and the radius...

  1. In situ TEM study on elastic interaction between a prismatic loop and a gliding dislocation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsukawa, Yoshitaka; Liu, Grace S.

    2012-01-01

    In situ straining in a transmission electron microscope was performed in order to investigate dislocation interactions with a prismatic loop, which as a mobile obstacle is expected to be displaced by the strain-field of dislocation prior to physical contact. It was found that when a gliding dislocation approached a critical distance, the prismatic loop was certainly attracted to the dislocation. The captured loop disrupted the dislocation motion and was not dragged along with the mobile dislocation. Instead, the dislocation bypassed the loop via cross-slip to another slip plane with a resolved shear stress estimated to be 40% lower than that of the original plane.

  2. Sustained diffusive alternating current gliding arc discharge in atmospheric pressure air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Jiajian; Gao, Jinlong; Li, Zhongshan

    2014-01-01

    Rapid transition from glow discharge to thermal arc has been a common problem in generating stable high-power non-thermal plasmas especially at ambient conditions. A sustained diffusive gliding arc discharge was generated in a large volume in atmospheric pressure air, driven by an alternating...... current (AC) power source. The plasma column extended beyond the water-cooled stainless steel electrodes and was stabilized by matching the flow speed of the turbulent air jet with the rated output power. Comprehensive investigations were performed using high-speed movies measured over the plasma column...

  3. Ribbon and gliding type parachutes evaluated in the 7 by 10 foot transonic wind tunnel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ottensoser, J.

    1975-09-01

    An experiment has been conducted in the NSRDC 7- x 10-foot transonic tunnel for the Sandia Corporation to evaluate various parachute parameters. The experiment consisted of three main parts: the first phase evaluated the disreefing characteristics of the various parachutes as well as the drag forces before, during, and after disreefing; the second phase measured the pressure distribution around the chute as well as the drag forces; and the final phase evaluated the disreefing and drag characteristics of gliding type parachutes. The free stream dynamic pressure varied from 65 to 500 psf. 12 figures, 1 table. (auth)

  4. A Prospective Observational Study of Technical Difficulty With GlideScope-Guided Tracheal Intubation in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Gurnaney, Harshad G; Stricker, Paul A; Galvez, Jorge A; Isserman, Rebecca S; Fiadjoe, John E

    2018-05-09

    The GlideScope Cobalt is one of the most commonly used videolaryngoscopes in pediatric anesthesia. Although visualization of the airway may be superior to direct laryngoscopy, users need to learn a new indirect way to insert the tracheal tube. Learning this indirect approach requires focused practice and instruction. Identifying the specific points during tube placement, during which clinicians struggle, would help with targeted education. We conducted this prospective observational study to determine the incidence and location of technical difficulties using the GlideScope, the success rates of various corrective maneuvers used, and the impact of technical difficulty on success rate. We conducted this observational study at our quaternary pediatric hospital between February 2014 and August 2014. We observed 200 GlideScope-guided intubations and documented key intubation-related outcomes. Inclusion criteria for patients were the number of advancement maneuvers required to intubate the trachea, the location where technical difficulty occurred, the types of maneuvers used to address difficulties, and the tracheal intubation success rate. We used a bias-corrected bootstrapping method with 300 replicates to determine the 95% confidence interval (CI) around the rate of difficulty with an intubation attempt. After excluding attempts by inexperienced clinicians, there were 225 attempts in 187 patients, 58% (131 of 225; bootstrap CI, 51.6%-64.6%]) of the attempts had technical difficulties. Technical difficulty was most likely to occur when inserting the tracheal tube between the plane of the arytenoid cartilages to just beyond the vocal cords: "zone 3." Clockwise rotation of the tube was the most common successful corrective maneuver in zone 3. The overall tracheal intubation success rate was 98% (CI, 95%-99%); however, the first attempt success rate was only 80% (CI, 74%-86%). Patients with technical difficulty had more attempts (median [interquartile range], 2 [1

  5. Spatial variability of herbicide mobilisation and transport at catchment scale: insights from a field experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Doppler

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available During rain events, herbicides can be transported from their point of application to surface waters, where they may harm aquatic organisms. Since the spatial pattern of mobilisation and transport is heterogeneous, the contributions of different fields to the herbicide load in the stream may vary considerably within one catchment. Therefore, the prediction of contributing areas could help to target mitigation measures efficiently to those locations where they reduce herbicide pollution the most.

    Such spatial predictions require sufficient insight into the underlying transport processes. To improve the understanding of the process chain of herbicide mobilisation on the field and the subsequent transport through the catchment to the stream, we performed a controlled herbicide application on corn fields in a small agricultural catchment (ca. 1 km2 with intensive crop production in the Swiss Plateau. Water samples were collected at different locations in the catchment (overland flow, tile drains and open channel for two months after application in 2009, with a high temporal resolution during rain events. We also analysed soil samples from the experimental fields and measured discharge, groundwater level, soil moisture and the occurrence of overland flow at several locations. Several rain events with varying intensities and magnitudes occurred during the study period. Overland flow and erosion were frequently observed in the entire catchment. Infiltration excess and saturation excess overland flow were both observed. However, the main herbicide loss event was dominated by infiltration excess.

    Despite the frequent and wide-spread occurrence of overland flow, most of this water did not reach the channel directly, but was retained in small depressions in the catchment. From there, it reached the stream via macropores and tile drains. Manholes of the drainage system and storm drains for road and farmyard runoff acted as

  6. Differential recognition of pitch patterns in discrete and gliding stimuli in congenital amusia: evidence from Mandarin speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fang; Xu, Yi; Patel, Aniruddh D; Francart, Tom; Jiang, Cunmei

    2012-08-01

    This study examined whether "melodic contour deafness" (insensitivity to the direction of pitch movement) in congenital amusia is associated with specific types of pitch patterns (discrete versus gliding pitches) or stimulus types (speech syllables versus complex tones). Thresholds for identification of pitch direction were obtained using discrete or gliding pitches in the syllable /ma/ or its complex tone analog, from nineteen amusics and nineteen controls, all healthy university students with Mandarin Chinese as their native language. Amusics, unlike controls, had more difficulty recognizing pitch direction in discrete than in gliding pitches, for both speech and non-speech stimuli. Also, amusic thresholds were not significantly affected by stimulus types (speech versus non-speech), whereas controls showed lower thresholds for tones than for speech. These findings help explain why amusics have greater difficulty with discrete musical pitch perception than with speech perception, in which continuously changing pitch movements are prevalent. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of experimental acidification on mobilisation of metals from sediments of limed and non-limed lakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waellstedt, Teresia; Borg, Hans

    2003-01-01

    In order to study the influence of pH on the mobilisation of metals from lake sediments, intact sediment cores with overlying water were sampled from one lime treated lake and one acidified lake. The overlying water of two cores from each lake was successively acidified to pH 4.2 over a period of 3 months. In the acid treated samples from the limed lake, the initial concentrations of Al, Cd, Mn, Pb and Zn in the overlying water were generally lower and the final concentrations were higher than in the acid treated samples from the acidified lake. The labile inorganic fraction of Al (Al i ) was increasingly dominating as pH decreased. Redox potential and pH in the sediment indicated that the upper two centimetres were involved in the exchange reactions. The experiment showed that mobilisation of metals from sediments can occur and the results indicated that mobilisation could contribute to increased concentrations of metals in lake water during reacidification of formerly lime treated lakes. - Reacidification leads to mobilisation of metals from lake sediments

  8. The de Bono LAMS Sequence Series: Template Designs as Knowledge-Mobilising Strategy for 21st Century Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobozy, Eva

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the five interlocking de Bono LAMS sequences are introduced as a new form of generic template designs. This transdisciplinary knowledge-mobilising strategy is based on Edward de Bono's attention-directing ideas and thinking skills, commonly known as the CoRT tools. The development of the de Bono LAMS sequence series is an important…

  9. Overseas Voter Mobilisation in Singapore: Implications from Malaysia’s 13th General Election

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Gomez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses voter mobilisation and other election-related activities of Malaysian voters living, studying and working in Singapore in the context of Malaysia’s 13th general election (GE13. According to the World Bank, nearly 400,000 Malaysians reside in the city-state. Thus these figures represent a significant Malaysian voter pool based in Singapore. Efforts to mobilise these voters for general elections or other causes have political implications for both countries, which became apparent following Singapore-based Malaysians’ activities to encourage Malaysians to return home to cast their votes during the 13th general election. Singapore’s strict public assembly laws led to several legal issues related to the voter mobilisation and election campaign activities undertaken by Malaysians in the city-state. These legal issues became a source of friction between the two countries during the elections as government leaders and authorities on both sides of the causeway accused the other of interfering in domestic political matters. Given the growing number of Malaysians in Singapore and the likely repeat of Malaysian voter mobilisation activities in Singapore in the run-up to the fourteenth general election (GE14 in 2018, issues related to the election activities of Malaysian voters in Singapore stand to be another set of factors that will shape the health of bilateral relations between these two countries.

  10. Mobilisation of heavy metals into the urine by CaEDTA: relation to erythrocyte and plasma concentrations and exposure indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, S; Aono, H; Murata, K

    1986-09-01

    To investigate the effects of calcium disodium ethylenediamine tetra-acetate (CaEDTA) on the urinary excretion, erythrocyte, and plasma concentrations and exposure indicators of seven heavy metals, CaEDTA was administered by intravenous infusion to 20 workers exposed to lead, zinc, and copper. The workers' blood lead concentrations ranged from 22 to 59 micrograms/dl (mean 38 micrograms/dl (1.8 mumol/l]. The 24 hour urinary excretion of metals after CaEDTA administration (mobilisation yield) was on average 13 times the background excretion for lead, 11 times for zinc, 3.8 times for manganese, 3.4 times for cadmium, 1.3 times for copper, and 1.1 times for chromium; no significant increase was found for mercury. The mobilisation yield of lead (MPb) was significantly correlated with whole blood and erythrocyte concentrations and the urinary excretion of lead but not with its plasma concentration; similarly, the mobilisation yield of cadmium was significantly correlated with its erythrocyte concentration. In addition, MPb was significantly correlated with intra-erythrocytic enzyme delta-aminolaevulinic acid dehydratase activity and urinary coproporphyrin excretion. The relation between the mobilisation yield of heavy metals and their body burden (and toxic signs) is discussed in the light of these findings.

  11. Dislocation glide in Ni-Al solid solutions from the atomic scale up: a molecular dynamics study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodary, E.

    2003-01-01

    The glide of an edge dislocation in solid solutions is studied by molecular dynamics, at fixed temperature and imposed external stress. We have optimized an EAM potential for Ni(1 a 8% A1): it well reproduces the lattice expansion, local atomic order, stacking fault energy as a function of composition, as well as the elastic properties of the γ' phase with L1 2 structure. On increasing the stress, the dislocation is first immobile, then glides with a velocity proportional to the stress and the velocity saturates on reaching the transverse sound velocity. However, only beyond a static threshold stress, σ s , does the dislocation glide a distance large enough to allow macroscopic shear; the linear part of the velocity-stress curve extrapolates to zero at a dynamical threshold stress, σ d , The friction coefficient, and the threshold stresses (σ s and σ d ), increase with the A1 concentration and decrease with temperature (300 and 500 K). Close to the critical shear stress, σ s , the dislocation glide is analysed with a 'stop and go' model. The latter yields the flight velocity between obstacles, the mean obstacle density and the distribution of the waiting time on each obstacle as a function of stress, composition and temperature. The obstacle to the glide is proposed to be the strong repulsion between Al atoms brought into nearest neighbour position by the glide process, and not the dislocation-solute interaction. The microscopic parameters so defined are introduced into a micro-mechanical model, which well reproduces the known behaviour of nickel base solid solutions. (author)

  12. A mannequin study of intubation with the AP advance and GlideScope Ranger videolaryngoscopes and the Macintosh laryngoscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodd, Jack A R; Doyle, D John; Gupta, Shipra; Dalton, Jarrod E; Cata, Juan P; Brewer, Edward J; James, Monyulona; Sessler, Daniel I

    2011-10-01

    The AP Advance (APA) is a videolaryngoscope with interchangeable blades: intubators can choose standard Macintosh blades or a difficult-airway blade with increased curvature and a channel to guide the tube to the larynx. The APA may therefore be comparably effective in both normal and difficult airways. We tested the hypotheses that intubation with the APA is no slower than Macintosh laryngoscopy for normal mannequin airways, and that it is no slower than videolaryngoscopy using a GlideScope Ranger in difficult mannequin airways. Medical professionals whose roles potentially include tracheal intubation were trained with each device. Participants intubated simulated (Laerdal SimMan) normal and difficult airways with the APA, GlideScope, and a conventional Macintosh blade. Speed of intubation was compared using Cox proportional hazards regression, with a hazard ratio >0.8 considered noninferior. We also compared laryngeal visualization, failures, and participant preferences. Unadjusted intubation times in the normal airway with the APA and Macintosh were virtually identical (median, 22 vs 23 seconds); after adjustment for effects of experience, order, and period, the hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) comparing APA with Macintosh laryngoscopy was 0.87 (0.65, 1.17), which was not significantly more than our predefined noninferiority boundary of 0.8 (P = 0.26). Intubation with the APA was faster than with the GlideScope in difficult airways (hazard ratio = 7.6 [5.0, 11.3], P APA, whereas 33% and 37% failed with the GlideScope and Macintosh, respectively. In the difficult airway, 99% of participants achieved a Cormack and Lehane grade I to II view with the APA, versus 85% and 33% with the GlideScope and Macintosh, respectively. When asked to choose 1 device overall, 82% chose the APA. Intubation times were similar with the APA and Macintosh laryngoscopes in mannequins with normal airways. However, intubation with the APA was significantly faster than with the Glide

  13. A rolling-gliding wear simulator for the investigation of tribological material pairings for application in total knee arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denkena Berend

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Material wear testing is an important technique in the development and evaluation of materials for use in implant for total knee arthroplasty. Since a knee joint induces a complex rolling-gliding movement, standardised material wear testing devices such as Pin-on-Disc or Ring-on-Disc testers are suitable to only a limited extent because they generate pure gliding motion only. Methods A rolling-gliding wear simulator was thus designed, constructed and implemented, which simulates and reproduces the rolling-gliding movement and loading of the knee joint on specimens of simplified geometry. The technical concept was to run a base-plate, representing the tibia plateau, against a pivoted cylindrical counter-body, representing one femur condyle under an axial load. A rolling movement occurs as a result of the friction and pure gliding is induced by limiting the rotation of the cylindrical counter-body. The set up also enables simplified specimens handling and removal for gravimetrical wear measurements. Long-term wear tests and gravimetrical wear measurements were carried out on the well known material pairings: cobalt chrome-polyethylene, ceramic-polyethylene and ceramic-ceramic, over three million motion cycles to allow material comparisons to be made. Results The observed differences in wear rates between cobalt-chrome on polyethylene and ceramic on polyethylene pairings were similar to the differences of published data for existing material-pairings. Test results on ceramic-ceramic pairings of different frontal-plane geometry and surface roughness displayed low wear rates and no fracture failures. Conclusions The presented set up is able to simulate the rolling-gliding movement of the knee joint, is easy to use, and requires a minimum of user intervention or monitoring. It is suitable for long-term testing, and therefore a useful tool for the investigation of new and promising materials which are of interest for application in

  14. A rolling-gliding wear simulator for the investigation of tribological material pairings for application in total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Berna I; Ostermeier, Sven; Turger, Anke; Denkena, Berend; Hurschler, Christof

    2010-06-15

    Material wear testing is an important technique in the development and evaluation of materials for use in implant for total knee arthroplasty. Since a knee joint induces a complex rolling-gliding movement, standardised material wear testing devices such as Pin-on-Disc or Ring-on-Disc testers are suitable to only a limited extent because they generate pure gliding motion only. A rolling-gliding wear simulator was thus designed, constructed and implemented, which simulates and reproduces the rolling-gliding movement and loading of the knee joint on specimens of simplified geometry. The technical concept was to run a base-plate, representing the tibia plateau, against a pivoted cylindrical counter-body, representing one femur condyle under an axial load. A rolling movement occurs as a result of the friction and pure gliding is induced by limiting the rotation of the cylindrical counter-body. The set up also enables simplified specimens handling and removal for gravimetrical wear measurements. Long-term wear tests and gravimetrical wear measurements were carried out on the well known material pairings: cobalt chrome-polyethylene, ceramic-polyethylene and ceramic-ceramic, over three million motion cycles to allow material comparisons to be made. The observed differences in wear rates between cobalt-chrome on polyethylene and ceramic on polyethylene pairings were similar to the differences of published data for existing material-pairings. Test results on ceramic-ceramic pairings of different frontal-plane geometry and surface roughness displayed low wear rates and no fracture failures. The presented set up is able to simulate the rolling-gliding movement of the knee joint, is easy to use, and requires a minimum of user intervention or monitoring. It is suitable for long-term testing, and therefore a useful tool for the investigation of new and promising materials which are of interest for application in knee joint replacement implants.

  15. A rolling-gliding wear simulator for the investigation of tribological material pairings for application in total knee arthroplasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Material wear testing is an important technique in the development and evaluation of materials for use in implant for total knee arthroplasty. Since a knee joint induces a complex rolling-gliding movement, standardised material wear testing devices such as Pin-on-Disc or Ring-on-Disc testers are suitable to only a limited extent because they generate pure gliding motion only. Methods A rolling-gliding wear simulator was thus designed, constructed and implemented, which simulates and reproduces the rolling-gliding movement and loading of the knee joint on specimens of simplified geometry. The technical concept was to run a base-plate, representing the tibia plateau, against a pivoted cylindrical counter-body, representing one femur condyle under an axial load. A rolling movement occurs as a result of the friction and pure gliding is induced by limiting the rotation of the cylindrical counter-body. The set up also enables simplified specimens handling and removal for gravimetrical wear measurements. Long-term wear tests and gravimetrical wear measurements were carried out on the well known material pairings: cobalt chrome-polyethylene, ceramic-polyethylene and ceramic-ceramic, over three million motion cycles to allow material comparisons to be made. Results The observed differences in wear rates between cobalt-chrome on polyethylene and ceramic on polyethylene pairings were similar to the differences of published data for existing material-pairings. Test results on ceramic-ceramic pairings of different frontal-plane geometry and surface roughness displayed low wear rates and no fracture failures. Conclusions The presented set up is able to simulate the rolling-gliding movement of the knee joint, is easy to use, and requires a minimum of user intervention or monitoring. It is suitable for long-term testing, and therefore a useful tool for the investigation of new and promising materials which are of interest for application in knee joint replacement

  16. Energy consumption of ProTaper Next X1 after glide path with PathFiles and ProGlider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berutti, Elio; Alovisi, Mario; Pastorelli, Michele Angelo; Chiandussi, Giorgio; Scotti, Nicola; Pasqualini, Damiano

    2014-12-01

    Instrument failure caused by excessive torsional stress can be controlled by creating a manual or mechanical glide path. The ProGlider single-file system (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) was recently introduced to perform a mechanical glide path. This study was designed to compare the effect of a glide path performed with PathFiles (Dentsply Maillefer) and ProGlider on torque, time, and pecking motion required for ProTaper Next X1 (Dentsply Maillefer) to reach the full working length in simulated root canals. Forty Endo Training Blocks (Dentsply Maillefer) were used. Twenty were prepared with a mechanical glide path using PathFiles 1 and 2 (the PathFile group), and 20 were prepared with a mechanical glide path using a ProGlider single file (the ProGlider group). All samples were shaped with ProTaper Next X1 driven by an endodontic motor connected to a digital wattmeter. The required torque for root canal instrumentation was analyzed by evaluating the electrical power consumption of the endodontic engine. Electric power consumption (mW/h), elapsed time (seconds), and number of pecking motions required to reach the full working length with ProTaper Next X1 were calculated. Differences among groups were analyzed with the parametric Student t test for independent data (P < .05). Elapsed time and electric power consumption were significantly different between groups (P = .0001 for both). ProGlider appears to perform more efficiently than PathFiles in decreasing electric power consumption of ProTaper Next X1 to reach the full working length. This study confirmed the ability of ProGlider to reduce stress in ProTaper Next X1 during shaping through a glide path and preliminary middle and coronal preflaring. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Materials mobilised by the French economy: a decrease stabilised since the crisis of 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calatayud, Philippe

    2016-05-01

    This publication proposes data illustrating the evolution of the use of natural resources, and more particularly materials mobilised by the French economy and population since 1990. The evolution of domestic material consumption is described through that of domestic extraction, and of imports and exports, through the apparent and global material consumption in 2013, and the evolution of apparent domestic material consumption, and of the quantity of materials extracted from the French territory, imported or exported. Tables indicate these evolutions since 1990 for the different materials (biomass, wood, metallic ores, minerals used in construction or industry, coal, oil, natural gas, products based on fossil fuels). The rate between hidden flows and apparent flows is shown to be steady. It is also outlined that the recession has intensified material productivity but decreased material consumption per inhabitant. This material consumption per inhabitant is compared with that of European and non-European countries

  18. Domestic saving mobilisation and small business creation: The case of Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LC Forje

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Promoting savings and providing a basis for lending to the poor is a growing concern in many developing countries. Cameroon has a culture of savings mobilisation known as njangi/tontine. The njangi is contributions given to members in a rotating form at the end of every sitting, and tontine is voluntary savings held by the group. This study reveals that njangi/tontine groups only lend money to group members and suggests that a micro village bank known as MC2 could be used as guarantor to ensure that group monies lent to non-group members are repaid. Encouragement and improvement in the function of such voluntary savings could promote the creation of small businesses in the country.  The Cameroonian government needs to improve fighting corruption and a functional justice system to ensure security.

  19. A systematic review on the safety of Prostar XL versus ProGlide after TAVR and EVAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maniotis, Christos [2nd Cardiology Department, Hellenic Red Cross Hospital of Athens, Athens (Greece); Andreou, Constantinos; Karalis, Ioannis [Interventional Cardiology Department, University Hospital of Leiden, Leiden (Netherlands); Koutouzi, Giasemi [Interventional Radiology Department, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Agelaki, Maria [2nd Cardiology Department, Hellenic Red Cross Hospital of Athens, Athens (Greece); Koutouzis, Michael, E-mail: koutouzismike@yahoo.gr [2nd Cardiology Department, Hellenic Red Cross Hospital of Athens, Athens (Greece)

    2017-03-15

    Background: Endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) and transfemoral transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) are widely spreading minimally invasive procedures performed mainly through the femoral artery. Prostar XL and ProGlide vascular closure devices are used in clinical practice for the hemostasis in these procedures and they have been shown to be safe and effective. Purpose: The aim of our systematic review is to compare the safety of these two devices for percutaneous closure of large arteriotomies in patients undergoing TAVR and EVAR. Methods: We searched PubMed, EMBASE, Google Scholar and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for all randomized and observational published studies that compared Prostar XL vs. ProGlide. Relative risk was calculated by random-effects model. Review Manager 5.1 was used for statistical analysis. Results: A total number of 2909 patients were included in our analysis. The rate of overall vascular complications did not differ between Prostar XL and ProGlide {RR 1.35 (0.80–2.29), p = 0.27}. In contrary, the risk ratio of all bleeding complications with Prostar XL compared to ProGlide was 1.82 (1.47–2.24, p < 0.001) and for major and life-threatening bleeding complications was 2.48 (1.65–3.73, p < 0001, suggesting a lower bleeding risk with ProGlide). No statistical difference was found between groups for end-stage acute kidney injury (AKI), with a risk ratio of 2.14 (0.81–5.66), p = 0.05. Finally, there were no differences in in-hospital and 30-days mortality rate between the two groups (1.41, 0.56–3.54, p = 0.46 and 1.43, 0.55–3.73, p = 0.47, respectively). Conclusions: Prostar XL is associated with greater risk of any bleeding as well as life threatening bleeding compared to the ProGlide device. However, no significant differences were observed in the rate of overall vascular complications, end stage AKI and in-hospital and 30-days mortality. - Highlights: • We present a systematic review

  20. A systematic review on the safety of Prostar XL versus ProGlide after TAVR and EVAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maniotis, Christos; Andreou, Constantinos; Karalis, Ioannis; Koutouzi, Giasemi; Agelaki, Maria; Koutouzis, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Background: Endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) and transfemoral transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) are widely spreading minimally invasive procedures performed mainly through the femoral artery. Prostar XL and ProGlide vascular closure devices are used in clinical practice for the hemostasis in these procedures and they have been shown to be safe and effective. Purpose: The aim of our systematic review is to compare the safety of these two devices for percutaneous closure of large arteriotomies in patients undergoing TAVR and EVAR. Methods: We searched PubMed, EMBASE, Google Scholar and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for all randomized and observational published studies that compared Prostar XL vs. ProGlide. Relative risk was calculated by random-effects model. Review Manager 5.1 was used for statistical analysis. Results: A total number of 2909 patients were included in our analysis. The rate of overall vascular complications did not differ between Prostar XL and ProGlide {RR 1.35 (0.80–2.29), p = 0.27}. In contrary, the risk ratio of all bleeding complications with Prostar XL compared to ProGlide was 1.82 (1.47–2.24, p < 0.001) and for major and life-threatening bleeding complications was 2.48 (1.65–3.73, p < 0001, suggesting a lower bleeding risk with ProGlide). No statistical difference was found between groups for end-stage acute kidney injury (AKI), with a risk ratio of 2.14 (0.81–5.66), p = 0.05. Finally, there were no differences in in-hospital and 30-days mortality rate between the two groups (1.41, 0.56–3.54, p = 0.46 and 1.43, 0.55–3.73, p = 0.47, respectively). Conclusions: Prostar XL is associated with greater risk of any bleeding as well as life threatening bleeding compared to the ProGlide device. However, no significant differences were observed in the rate of overall vascular complications, end stage AKI and in-hospital and 30-days mortality. - Highlights: • We present a systematic review

  1. Dynamics, OH distributions and UV emission of a gliding arc at various flow-rates investigated by optical measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Jiajian; Sun, Zhiwei; Li, Zhongshan

    2014-01-01

    -state OH were investigated using planar laser-induced fluorescence. The results show that the shape, height, intensity and thickness of ground-state OH distribution vary significantly with air flow rates. Finally, UV emission of the gliding arc is measured using optical emission spectroscopy......We demonstrate a plasma discharge which is generated between two diverging electrodes and extended into a gliding arc in non-equilibrium condition by an air flow at atmospheric pressure. Effects of the air flow rates on the dynamics, ground-state OH distributions and spectral characterization of UV...

  2. Conversion of Methane to C2 Hydrocarbons and Hydrogen Using a Gliding Arc Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Shuanghui; Wang Baowei; Lv Yijun; Yan Wenjuan

    2013-01-01

    Methane conversion has been studied using gliding arc plasma in the presence of argon. The process was conducted at atmospheric pressure and ambient temperature. The focus of this research was to develop a process of converting methane to C 2 hydrocarbons and hydrogen. The main parameters, including the CH 4 /Ar mole ratio, the CH 4 flow rate, the input voltage, and the minimum electrode gap, were varied to investigate their effects on methane conversion rate, product distribution, energy consumption, carbon deposit, and reaction stability. The specific energy requirement (SER) was used to express the energy utilization efficiency of the process and provided a practical guidance for optimizing reaction conditions for improving energy efficiency. It was found that the carbon deposition was not conducive to methane conversion, and the gliding arc plasma discharge reached a stable state twelve minutes later. Optimum conditions for methane conversion were suggested. The maximum methane conversion rate of 43.39% was obtained under the optimum conditions. Also, C 2 hydrocarbons selectivity, C 2 hydrocarbons yield, H 2 selectivity, H 2 yield and SER were 87.20%, 37.83%, 81.28%, 35.27%, and 2.09 MJ/mol, respectively.

  3. Instantaneous imaging of ozone in a gliding arc discharge using photofragmentation laser-induced fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Kajsa; Hot, Dina; Gao, Jinlong; Kong, Chengdong; Li, Zhongshan; Aldén, Marcus; Bood, Joakim; Ehn, Andreas

    2018-04-01

    Ozone vapor, O3, is here visualized in a gliding arc discharge using photofragmentation laser-induced fluorescence. Ozone is imaged by first photodissociating the O3 molecule into an O radical and a vibrationally hot O2 fragment by a pump photon. Thereafter, the vibrationally excited O2 molecule absorbs a second (probe) photon that further transits the O2-molecule to an excited electronic state, and hence, fluorescence from the deexcitation process in the molecule can be detected. Both the photodissociation and excitation processes are achieved within one 248 nm KrF excimer laser pulse that is formed into a laser sheet and the fluorescence is imaged using an intensified CCD camera. The laser-induced signal in the vicinity of the plasma column formed by the gliding arc is confirmed to stem from O3 rather than plasma produced vibrationally hot O2. While both these products can be produced in plasmas a second laser pulse at 266 nm was utilized to separate the pump- from the probe-processes. Such arrangement allowed lifetime studies of vibrationally hot O2, which under these conditions were several orders of magnitude shorter than the lifetime of plasma-produced ozone.

  4. A protein secretion system linked to bacteroidete gliding motility and pathogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Keiko; Naito, Mariko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Hirakawa, Hideki; Shoji, Mikio; McBride, Mark J.; Rhodes, Ryan G.; Nakayama, Koji

    2009-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis secretes strong proteases called gingipains that are implicated in periodontal pathogenesis. Protein secretion systems common to other Gram-negative bacteria are lacking in P. gingivalis, but several proteins, including PorT, have been linked to gingipain secretion. Comparative genome analysis and genetic experiments revealed 11 additional proteins involved in gingipain secretion. Six of these (PorK, PorL, PorM, PorN, PorW, and Sov) were similar in sequence to Flavobacterium johnsoniae gliding motility proteins, and two others (PorX and PorY) were putative two-component system regulatory proteins. Real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed that porK, porL, porM, porN, porP, porT, and sov were down-regulated in P. gingivalis porX and porY mutants. Disruption of the F. johnsoniae porT ortholog resulted in defects in motility, chitinase secretion, and translocation of a gliding motility protein, SprB adhesin, to the cell surface, providing a link between a unique protein translocation system and a motility apparatus in members of the Bacteroidetes phylum. PMID:19966289

  5. CO2 Dissociation by Low Current Gliding Discharge in the Reverse Vortex Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutsol, Alexander

    2012-10-01

    If performed with high energy efficiency, plasma-chemical dissociation of carbon dioxide can be a way of converting and storing energy when there is an excess of electric energy, for example generated by solar elements of wind turbines. CO2 dissociation with efficiency of up to 90% was reported earlier for low pressure microwave discharge in supersonic flow. A new plasma-chemical system uses a low current gliding discharge in the reverse vortex flow of plasma gas. The system is a development of the Gliding Arc in Tornado reactor. The system was used to study dissociation of CO2 in wide ranges of the following experimental parameters: reactor pressure (15-150 kPa), discharge current (50-500 mA), gas flow rate (3-30 liters per minute), and electrode gap length (1-10 cm). Additionally, the effect of thermal energy recuperation on CO2 dissociation efficiency was tested. Plasma chemical efficiency of CO2 dissociation is very low (about 3%) in a short discharge at low pressures (about 15 kPa) when it is defined by electronic excitation. The highest efficiency (above 40%) was reached at pressures 50-70 kPa in a long discharge with thermal energy recuperation. It means that the process is controlled by thermal dissociation with subsequent effective quenching. Plasma chemical efficiency was determined from the data of chromatographic analysis and oscilloscope electric power integration, and also was checked calorimetrically by the thermal balance of the system.

  6. Degradation of gas-liquid gliding arc discharge on Acid Orange II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, J.H.; Liu, Y.N.; Bo, Zh.; Li, X.D.; Cen, K.F.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of pH value, initial concentration of dye solution and temperature on the degradation efficiency of Acid Orange II (AO7) using gas-liquid gliding arc discharge were investigated. The influences of pH value and temperature on degradation efficiency were not apparent. Increasing initial solution concentration caused the decrease of degradation rate and the increase of absolute degradation quantity. Considering energy efficiency and absolute degradation quantity, the gas-liquid gliding arc discharge is fit for treating high concentration organic wastewater. A possible mineralization pathway was proposed through the analysis of intermediate products detected by gas chromatograph coupled with mass spectrophotometer (GC-MS) and ion chromatograph (IC). Hydroxyl radicals reacted with the azo linkage-bearing carbon of a hydroxy-substituted ring, leading to the cleavage of -C-N- and degradation of AO7. The solution biodegradability was significantly improved (BOD 5 /COD from 0.02 to 0.43). The toxicity of intermediate products was lower than that of the initial Acid Orange II

  7. Arc dynamics of a pulsed DC nitrogen rotating gliding arc discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fengsen; Zhang, Hao; Li, Xiaodong; Wu, Angjian; Yan, Jianhua; Ni, Mingjiang; Tu, Xin

    2018-03-01

    In this study, a novel pulsed direct current (DC) rotating gliding arc (RGA) plasma reactor co-driven by an external magnetic field and a tangential gas flow has been developed. The dynamic characteristics of the rotating gliding arc have been investigated by means of numerical simulation and experiment. The simulation results show that a highly turbulent vortex flow can be generated at the bottom of the RGA reactor to accelerate the arc rotation after arc ignition, whereas the magnitude of gas velocity declined significantly along the axial direction of the RGA reactor. The calculated arc rotation frequency (14.4 Hz) is reasonably close to the experimental result (18.5 Hz) at a gas flow rate of 10 l min-1. In the presence of an external magnet, the arc rotation frequency is around five times higher than that of the RGA reactor without using a magnet, which suggests that the external magnetic field plays a dominant role in the maintenance of the arc rotation in the upper zone of the RGA reactor. In addition, when the magnet is placed outside the reactor reversely to form a reverse external magnetic field, the arc can be stabilized at a fixed position in the inner wall of the outer electrode at a critical gas flow rate of 16 l min-1.

  8. Rosuvastatin reduces atherosclerotic lesions and promotes progenitor cell mobilisation and recruitment in apolipoprotein E knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeter, Marco R; Humboldt, Tim; Schäfer, Katrin; Konstantinides, Stavros

    2009-07-01

    Statins enhance incorporation of bone marrow-derived cells into experimental neointimal lesions. However, the contribution of progenitor cells to progression of spontaneous atherosclerotic plaques, and the possible modulatory role of statins in this process, remain poorly understood. We compared the effects of rosuvastatin (1 and 10mg/kg BW) and pravastatin (10mg/kg) on progenitor cell mobilisation, recruitment into atherosclerotic plaques, and lesion growth. Statins were administered over 8 weeks to apolipoprotein E knockout mice on atherogenic diet. In addition, mice were lethally irradiated, followed by transplantation of bone marrow from LacZ transgenic mice. Rosuvastatin reduced lesion area and intima-to-media ratio at the brachiocephalic artery compared to vehicle, while both parameters were not significantly altered by pravastatin. Rosuvastatin also augmented endothelialisation (P<0.05) and reduced the smooth muscle cells (SMC) content (P=0.042) of lesions. Numbers of c-kit, sca-1 and flk-1, sca-1 double-positive progenitor cells were significantly increased in rosuvastatin compared to control-treated mice, both in the bone marrow and the peripheral blood. Similarly, the number of spleen-derived acLDL, lectin double-positive progenitor cells (P=0.001) and colony-forming units (P=0.0104) was significantly increased in mice treated with rosuvastatin compared to vehicle alone. In the bone marrow, increased Akt and p42/44 MAP kinase phosphorylation and upregulated SDF1alpha mRNA expression were observed. Importantly, rosuvastatin treatment also increased the plasma levels of c-kit ligand (P=0.003), and the number of c-kit-positive cells within atherosclerotic lesions (P=0.041). Our findings suggest that rosuvastatin reduces the size of atherosclerotic plaques, and this effect appears to involve progenitor cell mobilisation and recruitment into vascular lesions.

  9. Nuclear energy: from scientist mobilisation to the rise of counter-expertise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topcu, Sezin

    2006-01-01

    The management of nuclear energy in France was restricted until the mid 1970's to a small circle of government experts. Within the scientific community criticism against nuclear power mostly targeted nuclear weapons while the sphere of civil nuclear energy remained unchallenged. The launch of the French nuclear programme in 1974 led to the first protest against civil nuclear power and its management within the scientific community. The mobilisation of thousands of researchers against the programme, initially through a petition, the so-called 'Appeal of the 400', then through the creation of an association, the 'Group of Scientists for Information on Nuclear Energy (GSIEN)', beside reflecting a rupture in the relations with science, progress and decision-making processes in the nuclear field, also expressed in the following decades the appropriation of critical knowledge on nuclear risks by the actors of non-governmental organisations. The criticism raised by scientists in 1975 therefore underlies two major shifts between the 1950's to 1990's in collective action vis-a-vis nuclear risk: from the mobilisation of 'distinguished scientists' against the atom bomb in the 1950's and 1960's (Joliot, Russell, Einstein, Rostand) to the politicisation of nuclear power by 'critical scientists' in the post-May 1968 period (GSIEN) and finally, after the Chernobyl accident, to the rise of associations of counter-expertise on nuclear energy (creation of expert NGOs such as the Commission for Independent Research and Information on Radioactivity-CRIIRAD and the Association for the Control of Radioactivity in the West-ACRO). This paper examines the crucial role that the community of physicists has played in transforming the relations between scientists, science, expertise and society

  10. Differential Recognition of Pitch Patterns in Discrete and Gliding Stimuli in Congenital Amusia: Evidence from Mandarin Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fang; Xu, Yi; Patel, Aniruddh D.; Francart, Tom; Jiang, Cunmei

    2012-01-01

    This study examined whether "melodic contour deafness" (insensitivity to the direction of pitch movement) in congenital amusia is associated with specific types of pitch patterns (discrete versus gliding pitches) or stimulus types (speech syllables versus complex tones). Thresholds for identification of pitch direction were obtained using discrete…

  11. Estimating intratidal nonlinearity of respiratory system mechanics: a model study using the enhanced gliding-SLICE method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schumann, Stefan; Burcza, Boris; Guttmann, Josef; Haberthür, Christoph; Lichtwarck-Aschoff, Michael

    2009-01-01

    In the clinical situation and in most research work, the analysis of respiratory system mechanics is limited to the estimation of single-value compliances during static or quasi-static conditions. In contrast, our SLICE method analyses intratidal nonlinearity under the dynamic conditions of mechanical ventilation by calculating compliance and resistance for six conjoined volume portions (slices) of the pressure–volume loop by multiple linear regression analysis. With the gliding-SLICE method we present a new approach to determine continuous intratidal nonlinear compliance. The performance of the gliding-SLICE method was tested both in computer simulations and in a physical model of the lung, both simulating different intratidal compliance profiles. Compared to the original SLICE method, the gliding-SLICE method resulted in smaller errors when calculating the compliance or pressure course (all p 2 O s L −1 to 0.8 ± 0.3 cmH 2 O s L −1 (mathematical model) and from 7.2 ± 3.9 cmH 2 O s L −1 to 0.4 ± 0.2 cmH 2 O s L −1 (physical model) (all p < 0.001). We conclude that the new gliding-SLICE method allows detailed assessment of intratidal nonlinear respiratory system mechanics without discontinuity error

  12. Engagement militant et politisation des mobilisations au sein des oppositions urbaines à Istanbul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clémence Petit

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available La Municipalité du Grand Istanbul met en œuvre depuis quelques années une « politique de transformation urbaine » pour faire d’Istanbul une ville moderne et compétitive sur la scène mondiale. Les mobilisations locales et les mouvements protestataires se multiplient pour infléchir une politique qui domine aujourd’hui l’agenda urbain « néolibéral » et empêcher les démolitions et déplacements de population escomptés. Au-delà de la distance au politique généralement affichée – condition de légitimité dans le système sécuritaire mis en place en Turquie après le coup d’État de 1980 – ces « oppositions urbaines » sont traversées par des débats sur la place du politique dans la mobilisation. À partir de l’étude sociologique de deux associations de quartiers et de deux mouvements de « professionnels urbains », cette contribution analyse le travail de définition des cadrages et répertoires d’action propres à chaque mouvement. Elle fait apparaître le rôle de ces professionnels urbains dans la requalification politique du désaccord qui divise les oppositions urbaines entre une stratégie « experte » et une stratégie plus politique. L’analyse met néanmoins en évidence le caractère dynamique et relatif – en termes de contextes et d’échelles – des stratégies d’appropriation des politiques publiques locales et des processus de politisation des « mouvements urbains ».The Istanbul Greater Municipality has been implementing for a few years numerous ‘urban renewal projects’ to change Istanbul into a modern and competitive city on the global scene. Reacting to the demolitions and evictions of entire neighbourhoods caused by these projects, some inhabitants and ‘urban professionals’ mobilize within new movements and neighbourdhood associations. Beyond the distance they usually show towards politics – a condition of legitimacy in the securitarian system introduced in

  13. Gliding lizards use the position of the sun to enhance social display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klomp, Danielle A; Stuart-Fox, Devi; Das, Indraneil; Ord, Terry J

    2017-02-01

    Effective communication requires animal signals to be readily detected by receivers in the environments in which they are typically given. Certain light conditions enhance the visibility of colour signals and these conditions can vary depending on the orientation of the sun and the position of the signaller. We tested whether Draco sumatranus gliding lizards modified their position relative to the sun to enhance the conspicuousness of their throat-fan (dewlap) during social display to conspecifics. The dewlap was translucent, and we found that lizards were significantly more likely to orient themselves perpendicular to the sun when displaying. This increases the dewlap's radiance, and likely, its conspicuousness, by increasing the amount of light transmitted through the ornament. This is a rare example of a behavioural adaptation for enhancing the visibility of an ornament to distant receivers. © 2017 The Author(s).

  14. Improved MPSP Method-based Cooperative Re-entry Guidance for Hypersonic Gliding Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chu Haiyan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A computationally sufficient technique is used to solve the 3-D cooperative re-entry guidance problem for hypersonic gliding vehicles. Due to the poor surrounding adaptive ability of the traditional cooperative guidance methods, a novel methodology, named as model predictive static programming (MPSP, is used to solve a class of finite-horizon optimal control problems with hard terminal constraints. The main feature of this guidance law is that it is capable of hitting the target with high accuracy for each one of the cooperative vehicles at the same time. In addition, it accurately satisfies variable constraints. Performance of the proposed MPSP-based guidance is demonstrated in 3-D nonlinear dynamics scenario. The numerical simulation results show that the proposed cooperative re-entry guidance methodology has the advantage of computational efficiency and better robustness against the perturbations.

  15. Treatment by gliding arc of epoxy resin: preliminary analysis of surface modifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faubert, F.; Wartel, M.; Pellerin, N.; Pellerin, S.; Cochet, V.; Regnier, E.; Hnatiuc, B.

    2016-12-01

    Treatments with atmospheric pressure non-thermal plasma are easy to implement and inexpensive. Among them gliding arc (GlidArc) remains rarely used in surface treatment of polymers. However, it offers economic and flexible way to treat quickly large areas. In addition the choice of carrier gas makes it possible to bring the active species and other radicals allowing different types of grafting and functionalization of the treated surfaces, for example in order to apply for anti-biofouling prevention. This preliminary work includes analysis of the surface of epoxy resins by infrared spectroscopy: the different affected chemical bonds were studied depending on the duration of treatment. The degree of oxidation (the C/O ratio) is obtained by X-ray microanalysis and contact angle analysis have been performed to determinate the wettability properties of the treated surface. A spectroscopic study of the plasma allows to determine the possible active species in the different zones of the discharge.

  16. Non-planar dislocations: 3D models and thermally-activated glide processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngan, A.H.W.

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a renewed interest in studying the cross-slip of screw dislocations in the simple face-centred cubic (FCC) structure. This paper serves to address parallel developments in modelling the cross-slip of screw dislocations in the body-centred cubic (BCC) structure and the ordered L1 2 structure. In the latter two cases, the dislocation cores have non-planar spreading offering high intrinsic Peierls stresses. The flow behaviours of these materials, such as the non-Schmid behaviour and temperature-dependence of flow stress, are largely due to the behaviours of single dislocations. 3D atomistic modelling of the minimum-energy path for the glide processes in these cases is performed with an aim to reconcile with experimentally determined activation energies for slip

  17. Complete genome sequence of the gliding, heparinolytic Pedobacter saltans type strain (113T)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liolios, Konstantinos; Sikorski, Johannes; Lu, Meagan; Nolan, Matt; Lapidus, Alla; Lucas, Susan; Hammon, Nancy; Deshpande, Shweta; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Tapia, Roxanne; Han, Cliff; Goodwin, Lynne; Pitluck, Sam; Huntemann, Marcel; Ivanova, Natalia; Pagani, Ioanna; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Ovchinikova, Galina; Pati, Amrita; Chen, Amy; Palaniappan, Krishna; Land, Miriam; Hauser, Loren; Brambilla, Evelyne-Marie; Kotsyurbenko, Oleg; Rohde, Manfred; Tindall, Brian J.; Abt, Birte; Göker, Markus; Detter, John C.; Woyke, Tanja; Bristow, James; Eisen, Jonathan A.; Markowitz, Victor; Hugenholtz, Philip; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Kyrpides, Nikos C.

    2011-01-01

    Pedobacter saltans Steyn et al. 1998 is one of currently 32 species in the genus Pedobacter within the family Sphingobacteriaceae. The species is of interest for its isolated location in the tree of life. Like other members of the genus P. saltans is heparinolytic. Cells of P. saltans show a peculiar gliding, dancing motility and can be distinguished from other Pedobacter strains by their ability to utilize glycerol and the inability to assimilate D-cellobiose. The genome presented here is only the second completed genome sequence of a type strain from a member of the family Sphingobacteriaceae to be published. The 4,635,236 bp long genome with its 3,854 protein-coding and 67 RNA genes consists of one chromosome, and is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project. PMID:22180808

  18. Complete genome sequence of the gliding, heparinolytic Pedobacter saltans type strain (113).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liolios, Konstantinos; Sikorski, Johannes; Lu, Meagan; Nolan, Matt; Lapidus, Alla; Lucas, Susan; Hammon, Nancy; Deshpande, Shweta; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Tapia, Roxanne; Han, Cliff; Goodwin, Lynne; Pitluck, Sam; Huntemann, Marcel; Ivanova, Natalia; Pagani, Ioanna; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Ovchinikova, Galina; Pati, Amrita; Chen, Amy; Palaniappan, Krishna; Land, Miriam; Hauser, Loren; Brambilla, Evelyne-Marie; Kotsyurbenko, Oleg; Rohde, Manfred; Tindall, Brian J; Abt, Birte; Göker, Markus; Detter, John C; Woyke, Tanja; Bristow, James; Eisen, Jonathan A; Markowitz, Victor; Hugenholtz, Philip; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Kyrpides, Nikos C

    2011-10-15

    Pedobacter saltans Steyn et al. 1998 is one of currently 32 species in the genus Pedobacter within the family Sphingobacteriaceae. The species is of interest for its isolated location in the tree of life. Like other members of the genus P. saltans is heparinolytic. Cells of P. saltans show a peculiar gliding, dancing motility and can be distinguished from other Pedobacter strains by their ability to utilize glycerol and the inability to assimilate D-cellobiose. The genome presented here is only the second completed genome sequence of a type strain from a member of the family Sphingobacteriaceae to be published. The 4,635,236 bp long genome with its 3,854 protein-coding and 67 RNA genes consists of one chromosome, and is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  19. [fs-Lentotomy: presbyopia reversal by generating gliding planes inside the crystalline lens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubatschowski, H; Schumacher, S; Wegener, A; Fromm, M; Oberheide, U; Hoffmann, H; Gerten, G

    2009-12-01

    Based on the Helmholtz theory for accommodation, increasing sclerosis of the lens nucleus and cortex is the main cause for the development of presbyopia. Existing therapies, however, do not reverse the stiffness of the crystalline lens and thus do not regain real accommodation ability. A new approach to restore the flexibility of the lens has been realised by utilising the non-linear interaction of ultrafast laser pulses with transparent tissue, the so-called photodisruption. This process has been used to create micro-incisions which act as gliding planes inside the crystalline lens without opening the eye globe. This treatment method, known as fs-lentotomy, enables regeneration of real dynamic accommodation. For the first time, 3D structures for gliding planes were successfully generated in experiments with human donor lenses of different ages. An average increase in anterior-posterior lens thickness of 100 mum accompanied by a decrease of equatorial lens diameter was observed as a direct consequence of fs-lentotomy. This is attributed to the increased flexibility, as the force of the capsule bag moulds the lens tissue more spherically. Moreover, in vivo experiments on rabbit eye lenses did not induce an increasing opacification (cataract) over a six-month follow-up period. However, the incisions were still detectable using Scheimpflug imaging and histopathological techniques, although the visibility of the incisions was declining. Furthermore, no side effects were observed during the wound healing process and during a six-months follow-up period. Based on these findings fs-lentotomy might have the potential to become a procedure for the reversal of presbyopia. Copyright Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart . New York.

  20. Comparative effectiveness of manipulation, mobilisation and the Activator instrument in treatment of non-specific neck pain: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miller Peter

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neck pain is a common problem and different forms of manual therapy are used in its treatment. The purpose of this systematic review was to critically appraise the literature that directly compared manipulation, mobilisation and the Activator instrument for non-specific neck pain. Methods Electronic databases (MEDLINE, MANTIS and CINAHL were searched from their inception to October 2005 for all English language randomised clinical trials that directly compared manipulation, mobilisation and the Activator instrument. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied to select the studies and these studies were then evaluated using validated criteria. Results Five such studies were identified. The methodological quality was mostly poor. Findings from the studies were mixed and no one therapy was shown to be more effective than the others. Conclusion Further high quality research has to be done before a recommendation can be made as to the most effective manual method for non-specific neck pain.

  1. ‘The only way is Essex’: Gender, union and mobilisation among fire service control room staff

    OpenAIRE

    Hudson, Lynne; Moore, Sian; Tainsh, Kate; Taylor, Phil; Wright, Tessa

    2017-01-01

    This contribution to On the Front Line records a dialogue between two female Fire Brigades Union (FBU) representatives in the Essex Emergency Control Room who led industrial action over the imposition of a shift system that stretched their work–life balance to breaking point and constrained their ability to work full-time. Their testimony reveals how male members were mobilised in the interests of predominantly female control staff. Kate and Lynne’s discussion illuminates the interaction of g...

  2. Mobilising culture against domestic violence in migrant and ethnic communities: practitioner perspectives from Aotearoa/New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon-Kumar, Rachel; Kurian, Priya A; Young-Silcock, Faith; Narasimhan, Nirmala

    2017-07-01

    Studies on domestic violence in ethnic minority communities highlight that social norms, family structures and cultural practices are among the key triggers of violence against women. Not surprisingly, most anti-violence interventions in these communities aim to redeem women from the oppressive features of these cultures. More recently, however, emergent scholarship advocates mobilising, rather than erasing, culture within existing anti-violence strategies. This paper explores the nature of culturally informed interventions used by front-line workers. It presents the findings of a small-scale qualitative study in Aotearoa/New Zealand, where around 13% of the population are currently deemed to be from minority ethnic communities. Interviews and one focus group were conducted with nine practitioners - including social workers, counsellors and the police - in Hamilton, Aotearoa in 2013-2014. Based on thematic analysis, the paper identifies two core strands: (a) the distinctive profile of ethnic violence and (b) the strategies that mobilise culture in anti-violence interventions. Specifically within the former strand, it was found that violence in the ethnic community was distinctive for the following reasons: the heightened sense of stigma surrounding disclosure and the consequent silence by women who suffer from it; the lack of trust in authority; and the fear of conventional safety plans necessitating longer time periods for rapport-building. Among the strategies that mobilise culture, the study found that practitioners used a family approach; engaged men in their interventions, at times reinforcing gendered roles; utilised micro-interventions; and deployed cultural tropes, especially around spirituality, as a strategy. The conclusion points to the gap between interventions that challenge and mobilise cultures. While anecdotally, the latter are perceived to be relevant and effective in anti-violence interventions, there is need for a fuller assessment and better

  3. The number of in-out catheterisations is reduced by mobilising the postoperative patient with bladder needs to the toilet in the recovery room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anette Maria; Olsen, Karsten S

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many patients are diagnosed with postoperative urine retention in the recovery room and treated with in-out catheterisation (IOC). OBJECTIVES: We hypothesised that the use of IOC could be reduced by mobilising patients to the toilet to pass urine instead of offering a bedpan or urinal...... ward mobilisation were 85 (37 to 139) min in Group I and 180 (118 to 245) min in Group C (P strategy decreased the number of IOCs, duration of stay in the recovery...

  4. Kinematic real-time feedback is more effective than traditional teaching method in learning ankle joint mobilisation: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Sánchez, Manuel; Ruiz-Muñoz, Maria; Ávila-Bolívar, Ana Belén; Cuesta-Vargas, Antonio I

    2016-10-06

    To analyse the effect of real-time kinematic feedback (KRTF) when learning two ankle joint mobilisation techniques comparing the results with the traditional teaching method. Double-blind randomized trial. Faculty of Health Sciences. undergraduate students with no experience in manual therapy. Each student practised intensely for 90 min (45 min for each mobilisation) according to the random methodology assigned (G1: traditional method group and G2: KRTF group). G1: an expert professor supervising the student's practice, the professorstudent ratio was 1:8. G2: placed in front of a station where, while they performed the manoeuvre, they received a KRTF on a laptop. total time of mobilisation, time to reach maximum amplitude, maximum angular displacement in the three axes, maximum and average velocity to reach the maximum angular displacement, average velocity during the mobilisation. Among the pre-post intervention measurements, there were significant differences within the two groups for all outcome variables, however, G2 (KRTF) achieved significantly greater improvements in kinematic parameters for the two mobilisations (significant increase in displacement, velocity and significant reduction in the mobilisations runtime) than G1. Ankle plantar flexion: G1's measurement stability (post-intervention) ranged between 0.491 and 0.687, while G2's measurement stability ranged between 0.899 and 0.984. Ankle dorsal flexion mobilisation: G1 the measurement stability (post-intervention) ranged from 0.543 and 0.684 while G2 ranged between 0.899 and 0.974. KRTF was proven to be more effective tool than traditional teaching method in the teaching - learning process of two joint mobilisation techniques. NCT02504710.

  5. Knowledge mobilisation in healthcare: a critical review of health sector and generic management literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferlie, Ewan; Crilly, Tessa; Jashapara, Ashok; Peckham, Anna

    2012-04-01

    The health policy domain has displayed increasing interest in questions of knowledge management and knowledge mobilisation within healthcare organisations. We analyse here the findings of a critical review of generic management and health-related literatures, covering the period 2000-2008. Using 29 pre-selected journals, supplemented by a search of selected electronic databases, we map twelve substantive domains classified into four broad groups: taxonomic and philosophical (e.g. different types of knowledge); theoretical discourse (e.g. critical organisational studies); disciplinary fields (e.g. organisational learning and Information Systems/Information Technology); and organisational processes and structures (e.g. organisational form). We explore cross-overs and gaps between these traditionally separate literature streams. We found that health sector literature has absorbed some generic concepts, notably Communities of Practice, but has not yet deployed the performance-oriented perspective of the Resource Based View (RBV) of the Firm. The generic literature uses healthcare sites to develop critical analyses of power and control in knowledge management, rooted in neo-Marxist/labour process and Foucauldian approaches. The review generates three theoretically grounded statements to inform future enquiry, by: (a) importing the RBV stream; (b) developing the critical organisational studies perspective further; and (c) exploring the theoretical argument that networks and other alternative organisational forms facilitate knowledge sharing. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The effectiveness of mobilisation with movement for chronic medial ankle pain: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Penso

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and Purpose: It has been shown that approximatelythirty percent of those sustaining an ankle sprain are likely to develop chronicfunctional limitations. Mulligan has developed mobilisation with movement (MWMfor treatment of joint dysfunction and suggests that it is a positional fault of the jointthat causes pain and movement restriction. Method: This single case reports on the effects of a MWM technique on chronicmedial ankle pain. The patient was a 25-year-old female runner who had experiencedpain since an initial ankle sprain at 8 years of age. The main findings of the subjective and physical examinations were decrease in active and passive dorsiflexion and eversion range of motion (ROM, shortening of gastrocnemiusand soleus muscles and the functional limitation of pain when running. The patient was treated twice with the MWMtechnique.Results: Outcomes of immediate reduction in pain, restoration of full dorsiflexion and eversion ROM, increase in calfmuscle length and pain free running were observed. This was maintained over a four-month follow up period.Conclusion: This case concurs with previous studies detailing increases in range of motion and restoration of painfree movement as well as adding new support for the resolution of chronic pain with MWM.

  7. Municipal mobilisation of materials for the landscape conservation; Kommunale Mobilisierung von Landschaftspflegematerial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruening, Arnd; Kottbusch, Bastian; Haensch, David; Hartz, Franziska [Bruening-Megawatt GmbH, Fischerhude (Germany)

    2013-10-01

    Since summer 2012, Bruening-Megawatt GmbH has been making more intensive efforts in coordinating community mobilisation of landscape management material. Such material is an important factor in maintaining full supply to the 6 biomass power (and thermal energy) plants, under contract to Bayernfonds BestEnergy 1 GmbH and Co. KG (BBE). These plants, located at Niesky, Leipzig, Bad Arolsen, Steinau an der Strasse, Langelsheim and Rieste, each have an output of 5 MW/h and consume approx. 200 tonnes of solid fuel every day. Already a proportion amounting to 1/10 of this requirement (approx. 25 tonnes, or 1 truck-trailer load) originates from community projects during the landscape maintenance months. For the period from October to February this yields a total of approximately 3,750 tonnes per power plant. Summed up over all 6 BBE plants, Bruning-Megawatt GmbH thus supplies approximately 22,500 tonnes of landscape management material originating from cooperation with municipalities and towns, to these biomass power (and thermal energy) plants. This amount is accordingly reduced during the summer months. These projects prove to be financially practical for the municipalities. They do not need to pay third parties for the disposal of branch cuttings and hedgerow trimmings, and Bruening-Megawatt GmbH pays them a fixed amount per tonne, depending on the quality of the clippings. (orig.)

  8. Deliberated opinion of the Environmental Authority on the national strategy for biomass mobilisation (SNMB)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barthod, Christian; Clement, Marc; Duval, Francois; Ledenvic, Philippe; Letourneux, Francois; Muller, Serge; Orizet, Francois-Regis; Perrin, Therese; Ullmann, Gabriel; Vindimian, Eric

    2017-01-01

    This document first presents the context of the French project of national strategy for biomass mobilisation (SNMB) as an application of the law related to energy transition for a green growth, and also as an item within the complex set of strategic documents such as the national strategy for low carbon, the national programme for forest and wood, the multi-year programming of energy, regional climate-air-energy schemes. It presents the SNMB project, its scope (with some recommendations made by the Environmental Authority), the usage challenges, the present situation of biomass with respect to the SNMB objectives for different biomass sources (forest, agriculture, breeding, by-products and wastes). It briefly discusses procedures related to the SNMB and to its environmental assessment. The second section addresses the analysis of the environmental assessment. It formulates some methodological recommendations, discusses the articulation with other programmes, and the initial analysis of the environment and of its perspectives of evolution, comments the justification of choices made regarding substitution solutions. It comments the analysis of likely effects of the SNMB implementation, and measures to avoid, mitigate or compensate these impacts. It briefly discusses the assessment of Natura 2000 effects, and choices made by the SNMB regarding indicators and modalities of environmental follow-up

  9. Is wartime mobilisation a suitable policy model for rapid national climate mitigation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delina, Laurence L.; Diesendorf, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Climate science suggests that, to have a high probability of limiting global warming to an average temperature increase of 2 °C, global greenhouse gas emissions must peak by 2020 and be reduced to close to zero by 2040. However, the current trend is heading towards at least 4 °C by 2100 and little effective action is being taken. This paper commences the process of developing contingency plans for a scenario in which a sudden major global climate impact galvanises governments to implement emergency climate mitigation targets and programs. Climate activists assert that rapid mitigation is feasible, invoking the scale and scope of wartime mobilisation strategies. This paper draws upon historical accounts of social, technological and economic restructurings in several countries during World War 2 in order to investigate potential applications of wartime experience to radical, rigorous and rapid climate mitigation strategies. We focus on the energy sector, the biggest single contributor to global climate change, in developed and rapidly developing countries. We find that, while wartime experience suggests some potential strategies for rapid climate mitigation in the areas of finance and labour, it also has severe limitations, resulting from its lack of democratic processes. - Highlights: • The paper explores the strengths and weaknesses of using wartime experience as a model for rapid climate mitigation. • Wartime experience suggests some potential strategies for rapid climate mitigation in the areas of finance and labour. • Wartime experience also has severe limitations, resulting from its lack of democratic processes

  10. The policy work of piloting: Mobilising and managing conflict and ambiguity in the English NHS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Simon; Checkland, Kath; Hodgson, Damian; McBride, Anne; Elvey, Rebecca; Parkin, Stephen; Rothwell, Katy; Pierides, Dean

    2017-04-01

    In spite of their widespread use in policy making in the UK and elsewhere, there is a relatively sparse literature specifically devoted to policy pilots. Recent research on policy piloting has focused on the role of pilots in making policy work in accordance with national agendas. Taking this as a point of departure, the present paper develops the notion of pilots doing policy work. It does this by situating piloting within established theories of policy formulation and implementation, and illustrating using an empirical case. Our case is drawn from a qualitative policy ethnography of a local government pilot programme aiming to extend access to healthcare services. Our case explores the collective entrepreneurship of regional policy makers together with local pilot volunteers. We argue that pilots work to mobilise and manage the ambiguity and conflict associated with particular policy goals, and in their structure and design, shape action towards particular outcomes. We conclude with a discussion of the generative but managed role which piloting affords to local implementers. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Smouldering peat fires in polluted landscapes and their impact on heavy metal mobilisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, Gareth; Rothwell, James; Shuttleworth, Emma

    2016-04-01

    Whilst wildfires are commonly viewed as a threat confined to Southern Europe, Australia, and North America, recognition of wildfire hazard in the UK has been growing in recent years. UK wildfires often occur on heathland vegetation underlain by peat. These areas can contain industrially-derived legacy pollutants, such as mercury, lead, and arsenic. Ignition of the peat can lead to long-term smouldering fires that are difficult to extinguish, leading to large-scale damage. While work on assessing post-fire damage of peatlands has focussed on carbon and nutrient dynamics, there has been little attention on the release of heavy metals following wildfires. This paper presents initial data from a preliminary study to assess heavy metal release from smouldering peat fires. A homogenised sample of peat from the Peak District National Park, UK was ignited, monitored using thermocouples and an IR camera, and left to smoulder until self-extinguished (~9 hours). Total mass loss was 61%. Samples of pre- and post-burn peat were analysed for their heavy metal concentrations using XRF, ICP-MS, and CVAFS. Sample analysis is ongoing, but initial data shows that there is a substantial (3x) relative enrichment in heavy metal concentrations in post-fire ash. This has important implications for subsequent mobilisation in the aquatic and terrestrial environments, as well as consequences for human health risk through atmospheric redistribution.

  12. The efficacy of manual joint mobilisation/manipulation in treatment of lateral ankle sprains: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loudon, Janice K; Reiman, Michael P; Sylvain, Jonathan

    2014-03-01

    Lateral ankle sprains are common and can have detrimental consequences to the athlete. Joint mobilisation/manipulation may limit these outcomes. Systematically summarise the effectiveness of manual joint techniques in treatment of lateral ankle sprains. This review employed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. A computer-assisted literature search of MEDLINE, CINHAL, EMBASE, OVID and Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) (January 1966 to March 2013) was used with the following keywords alone and in combination 'ankle', 'sprain', 'injuries', 'lateral', 'manual therapy', and 'joint mobilisation'. The methodological quality of individual studies was assessed using the PEDro scale. After screening of titles, abstracts and full articles, eight articles were kept for examination. Three articles achieved a score of 10 of 11 total points; one achieved a score of 9; two articles scored 8; one article scored a 7 and the remaining article scored a 5. Three articles examined joint techniques for acute sprains and the remainder examined subacute/chronic ankle sprains. Outcome measures included were pain level, ankle range of motion, swelling, functional score, stabilometry and gait parameters. The majority of the articles only assessed these outcome measures immediately after treatment. No detrimental effects from the joint techniques were revealed in any of the studies reviewed. For acute ankle sprains, manual joint mobilisation diminished pain and increased dorsiflexion range of motion. For treatment of subacute/chronic lateral ankle sprains, these techniques improved ankle range-of-motion, decreased pain and improved function.

  13. The hydrodynamic drag and the mobilisation of sediment into the water column of towed fishing gear components

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, F. G.; Summerbell, Keith David

    2016-12-01

    The hydrodynamic drag of towed fishing gears leads to direct impacts on the benthic environment, and can play a major role in the overall economic efficiency of the fishing operation and emissions of nitrogen oxides, sulphur oxides and greenhouse gases such as CO2. Here we investigate some of the underpinning processes which govern these issues and make direct hydrodynamic drag measurements and calculate the hydrodynamic drag coefficients for a range of well-defined gear components that, when fished, are in contact with the seabed. We measure the concentration and particle size distribution of the sediment mobilised into the water column in the wake of these gear elements, at a range of towing speeds, and demonstrate that as the hydrodynamic drag increases the amount of sediment mobilised also increases. We also vary the weight of the elements and show that this does not influence the amount of sediment put into the water column. These results provide a better understanding of the physical and mechanical processes that take place when a towed fishing gear interacts with the seabed. They will permit the development of more fuel efficient gears and gears of reduced benthic impact and will improve the empirical modelling of the sediment mobilised into the turbulent wake behind towed fishing gears which will lead to better assessments of the environmental and ecological impact of fishing gears.

  14. Enhancing Stand Structure through Snag Creation in Northeastern U.S. Forests: Using Ethanol Injections and Bark Beetle Pheromones to Artificially Stress Red Maple and White Pine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin J. Dodds

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigated two methods to create white pine and red maple snags in a forested setting. The first involved injecting trees with ethanol at two times (single Ethanol (ETOH and double ETOH injections to increase attractiveness to insects and elicit attacks on trees. The second method was unique to white pines and involved both injection treatments in combination with baiting trees with Ips-specific pheromones. Three of five white pines from the double ETOH treatment died in the second year. Species including Ips pini (Say, Ips grandicollis Eichhoff, Orthotomicus caelatus Eichhoff, Crypturgus borealis Swaine and Monochamus notatus (Drury responded more strongly to at least one of the treatments over control trees. However, there were no differences found in individual Scolytinae or Cerambycidae species response to treatments in red maple. Fitness (FV/FM and vitality (PIabs were both significantly reduced in both ETOH treatments compared to controls in white pine. In red maple, fitness was reduced in the double ETOH treated trees but the final mean FV/FM values were within the approximate optimal of health. Ethanol injections, in combination with Ips-specific semiochemicals, show promise for creating standing coarse woody debris (CWD in white pine. Injecting ethanol was not effective for stressing red maple.

  15. Mobilisation of lipophilic pollutants from blubber in northern elephant seal pups (Mirounga angustirostris) during the post-weaning fast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louis, Caroline [Institut des Sciences de la Vie, UCLouvain, Croix du Sud 2/L7.05.08, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Dirtu, Alin C. [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Toxicological Center, Campus Drie Eiken, Universiteit Antwerpen, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Department of Chemistry, “Al. I. Cuza” University of Iasi, 700506 Iasi (Romania); Stas, Marie [Institut des Sciences de la Vie, UCLouvain, Croix du Sud 2/L7.05.08, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Guiot, Yves [Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, UCLouvain, Brussels (Belgium); Malarvannan, Govindan [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Toxicological Center, Campus Drie Eiken, Universiteit Antwerpen, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Das, Krishna [Laboratoire d’Océanologie, MARE Center B6c, Université de Liège, 4000 Liège (Belgium); Costa, Daniel P. [Ecology and Evolutionary Biology Department, University of California Santa Cruz, 100 Shaffer Rd, Santa Cruz, CA 95060 (United States); Crocker, Daniel E. [Department of Biology, Sonoma State University, 1801 East Cotati Ave, Rohnert Park, CA 94928 (United States); Covaci, Adrian [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Toxicological Center, Campus Drie Eiken, Universiteit Antwerpen, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Debier, Cathy, E-mail: cathy.debier@uclouvain.be [Institut des Sciences de la Vie, UCLouvain, Croix du Sud 2/L7.05.08, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)

    2014-07-15

    Northern elephant seals (NES) (Mirounga angustirostris) from the Año Nuevo State Reserve (CA, USA) were longitudinally sampled during the post-weaning fast in order to study the mobilisation and redistribution of various classes of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p′-DDE) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) between blubber and blood. Inner and outer blubber layers were analysed separately. Organohalogenated compounds were detected in all blubber samples in the decreasing order of their concentrations: p,p′-DDE>PCBs⪢HCB>PBDEs. The concentrations of all studied compounds were homogeneously distributed in the blubber layer at early fast, since the concentrations of POPs were statistically not different in the inner and outer layers. With the progression of the fast, the concentrations of PBDEs, PCBs and p,p′-DDE increased more sharply in inner blubber than in outer blubber. As a result, their levels became significantly higher in inner blubber as compared to outer blubber at late fast. The rise of pollutant concentrations in blubber might result from a less efficient mobilisation than triglycerides and/or a reuptake by adipocytes of some of the pollutants released into the circulation. The mobilisation of pollutants from blubber was higher at late fast. An increase of pollutant concentrations was observed in serum between early and late fast. Lower halogenated congeners (i.e. tetra-CBs) were present in higher proportions in serum, whereas the higher halogenated congeners (i.e. hepta-CBs) were mainly found in the inner and outer blubber layers. The transfer ratios of both PBDEs and PCBs from inner blubber to serum decreased with the number of chlorine and bromine atoms. In addition, the distribution of both types of compounds between serum and blubber was strongly influenced by their lipophilic character (log K{sub ow} values), with more

  16. Processes and challenges of community mobilisation for latrine promotion under Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan in rural Odisha, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Routray, Parimita; Torondel, Belen; Jenkins, Marion W; Clasen, Thomas; Schmidt, Wolf-Peter

    2017-05-16

    Despite efforts to eradicate it, open defecation remains widely practiced in India, especially in rural areas. Between 2013 and 2014, 50 villages in one district of Odisha, India, received a sanitation programme under the Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan (NBA - "Clean India Campaign"), the successor of India's Total Sanitation Campaign. This paper documents the strategies and processes of NBA community mobilisation for latrine promotion in these villages and assesses the strengths and limitations of the mobilisation activities. NBA's community mobilisation activities were observed and assessed against the programme's theory of change in 10 randomly selected programme villages from start to finish. Additional data was collected through review of documents, individual interviews (n = 80) and focus group discussions (n = 26) with staff of the implementing NGOs and community members. Our study revealed the lack of a consistent implementation strategy, lack of capacities and facilitation skills of NGO staff to implement sanitation programmes, political interference, challenges in accessing government financial incentives for latrine construction, and lack of clarity on the roles and responsibilities among government and NGO staff, leading to failure in translating government policies into sustainable actions. Social divisions and village dynamics related to gender and caste further constrained the effectiveness of mobilisation activities. Meetings were often dominated by male members of upper caste households, and excluded low caste community members and views of women. Community discussions revolved largely around the government's cash incentive for latrines. Activities aimed at creating demand for sanitation and use of latrines often resonated poorly with community members. An assessment by the implementers, 1 year after community mobilisation found 19% of households had a completed latrine across the 50 villages, a marginal increase of 7 percentage points over baseline. In

  17. Processes and challenges of community mobilisation for latrine promotion under Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan in rural Odisha, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parimita Routray

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite efforts to eradicate it, open defecation remains widely practiced in India, especially in rural areas. Between 2013 and 2014, 50 villages in one district of Odisha, India, received a sanitation programme under the Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan (NBA – “Clean India Campaign”, the successor of India’s Total Sanitation Campaign. This paper documents the strategies and processes of NBA community mobilisation for latrine promotion in these villages and assesses the strengths and limitations of the mobilisation activities. Methods NBA’s community mobilisation activities were observed and assessed against the programme’s theory of change in 10 randomly selected programme villages from start to finish. Additional data was collected through review of documents, individual interviews (n = 80 and focus group discussions (n = 26 with staff of the implementing NGOs and community members. Results Our study revealed the lack of a consistent implementation strategy, lack of capacities and facilitation skills of NGO staff to implement sanitation programmes, political interference, challenges in accessing government financial incentives for latrine construction, and lack of clarity on the roles and responsibilities among government and NGO staff, leading to failure in translating government policies into sustainable actions. Social divisions and village dynamics related to gender and caste further constrained the effectiveness of mobilisation activities. Meetings were often dominated by male members of upper caste households, and excluded low caste community members and views of women. Community discussions revolved largely around the government’s cash incentive for latrines. Activities aimed at creating demand for sanitation and use of latrines often resonated poorly with community members. An assessment by the implementers, 1 year after community mobilisation found 19% of households had a completed latrine across the 50

  18. Does the addition of deep breathing exercises to physiotherapy-directed early mobilisation alter patient outcomes following high-risk open upper abdominal surgery? Cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Y R; Li, S K; Rickard, M J F X

    2013-09-01

    To investigate whether the inclusion of deep breathing exercises in physiotherapy-directed early mobilisation confers any additional benefit in reducing postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs) when patients are treated once daily after elective open upper abdominal surgery. This study also compared postoperative outcomes following early and delayed mobilisation. Cluster randomised controlled trial. Single-centre study in a teaching hospital. Eighty-six high-risk patients undergoing elective open upper abdominal surgery. Three groups: early mobilisation (Group A), early mobilisation plus breathing exercises (Group B), and delayed mobilisation (mobilised from third postoperative day) plus breathing exercises (Group C). PPCs and postoperative outcomes [number of days until discharge from physiotherapy, physiotherapy input and length of stay (LOS)]. There was no significant difference in PPCs between Groups A and B. The LOS for Group A {mean 10.7 [standard deviation (SD) 5.0] days} was significantly shorter than the LOS for Groups B [mean 16.7 (SD 9.7) days] and C [mean 15.2 (SD 9.8) days; P=0.036]. The greatest difference was between Groups A and B (mean difference -5.93, 95% confidence interval -10.22 to -1.65; P=0.008). Group C had fewer smokers (26%) and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (0%) compared with Group B (53% and 14%, respectively). This may have led to fewer PPCs in Group C, but the difference was not significant. Despite Group C having fewer PPCs and less physiotherapy input, the number of days until discharge from physiotherapy and LOS were similar to Group B. The addition of deep breathing exercises to physiotherapy-directed early mobilisation did not further reduce PPCs compared with mobility alone. PPCs can be reduced with once-daily physiotherapy if the patients are mobilised to a moderate level of exertion. Delayed mobilisation tended to increase physiotherapy input and the number of days until discharge from physiotherapy

  19. Influence of a glide path on apical extrusion of debris during canal preparation using single-file systems in curved canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topçuoğlu, H S; Düzgün, S; Akpek, F; Topçuoğlu, G; Aktı, A

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate the effect of a glide path on the amount of apically extruded debris during canal preparation using single-file systems in curved canals. Ninety extracted mandibular molar teeth were randomly assigned to six groups (n = 15 for each group) for canal instrumentation. Endodontic access cavities were prepared in each tooth. In three of the six groups, a glide path was not created whereas a glide path was created using PathFile instruments on the mesial canals of all teeth in the remaining three groups. The mesial canals of the teeth were then instrumented with the following single-file instrument systems: WaveOne, Reciproc and OneShape. Debris extruded apically during instrumentation was collected into pre-weighed Eppendorf tubes. The tubes were then stored in an incubator at 70 °C for 5 days. The weight of the dry extruded debris was established by subtracting the pre-instrumentation and post-instrumentation weight of the Eppendorf tubes for each group. The data obtained were analysed using one-way analysis of variance (anova) and Tukey's post hoc tests. The OneShape file was associated with less debris extrusion than the Reciproc and WaveOne files when canal instrumentation was performed without a glide path (P files (P > 0.05). There was no significant difference amongst the OneShape, Reciproc and WaveOne files when a glide path was created before canal preparation in curved root canals (P > 0.05). All systems extruded significantly less debris in groups with a glide path than in groups without a glide path (P < 0.05). All instruments were associated with apical extrusion of debris. Creating a glide path prior to canal instrumentation reduced the amount of apically extruded debris in curved canals. © 2015 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Engineering Circular Gliding of Actin Filaments Along Myosin-Patterned DNA Nanotube Rings To Study Long-Term Actin-Myosin Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariadi, Rizal F; Appukutty, Abhinav J; Sivaramakrishnan, Sivaraj

    2016-09-27

    Nature has evolved molecular motors that are critical in cellular processes occurring over broad time scales, ranging from seconds to years. Despite the importance of the long-term behavior of molecular machines, topics such as enzymatic lifetime are underexplored due to the lack of a suitable approach for monitoring motor activity over long time periods. Here, we developed an "O"-shaped Myosin Empowered Gliding Assay (OMEGA) that utilizes engineered micron-scale DNA nanotube rings with precise arrangements of myosin VI to trap gliding actin filaments. This circular gliding assay platform allows the same individual actin filament to glide over the same myosin ensemble (50-1000 motors per ring) multiple times. First, we systematically characterized the formation of DNA nanotubes rings with 4, 6, 8, and 10 helix circumferences. Individual actin filaments glide along the nanotube rings with high processivity for up to 12.8 revolutions or 11 min in run time. We then show actin gliding speed is robust to variation in motor number and independent of ring curvature within our sample space (ring diameter of 0.5-4 μm). As a model application of OMEGA, we then analyze motor-based mechanical influence on "stop-and-go" gliding behavior of actin filaments, revealing that the stop-to-go transition probability is dependent on motor flexibility. Our circular gliding assay may provide a closed-loop platform for monitoring long-term behavior of broad classes of molecular motors and enable characterization of motor robustness and long time scale nanomechanical processes.

  1. Geology for Global Development: Mobilising and equipping young geologists to engage in disaster risk reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Joel

    2016-04-01

    Geology for Global Development (GfGD) is a not-for-profit organisation working to mobilise and equip geologists to engage in all aspects of sustainable development, including disaster risk reduction (DRR). Geologists have a crucial role to play in DRR, and the recently agreed Sendai Framework for DRR 2015-2030. This framework aims to significantly reduce loss of lives and livelihoods due to disasters. The geology community have an understanding of the Earth, its physical structure, and the processes by which it is constantly being shaped which are of particular relevance to Priorities for Action 1 and 4 noted within the Sendai Framework. Effective engagement by geologists, however, requires many skills beyond the standard geology curriculum. Cultural understanding, cross-disciplinary communication, diplomacy, community mobilization and participation, knowledge exchange, and an understanding of social science research tools are commonly necessary for effective research and engagement in the science-policy-practice interface. Topical and disciplinary knowledge, such as understanding social vulnerability, international policy frameworks and development theory are also rarely included in the education and professional training of a young geologist. Through the work of GfGD, we are training young geologists with these skills and the supporting knowledge required to make an effective contribution to reducing disaster risk, support civil society, empower communities and help to strengthen resilience. University chapters have been established in 14 major UK and Irish universities, coordinating extra-curricular seminars, workshops and discussion activities. Our work is currently focused on supporting young geologists, but we are increasingly a respected voice at international geoscience forums that gather a wide range of students and professionals. Wider (national and international) activities include conferences, placements and facilitating youth engagement in education

  2. Rapid arsenic(V)-reduction by fire in schwertmannite-rich soil enhances arsenic mobilisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Scott G.; Bennett, William W.; Burton, Edward D.; Hockmann, Kerstin; Dawson, Nigel; Karimian, Niloofar

    2018-04-01

    Arsenic in acid sulfate soil (ASS) landscapes commonly associates with schwertmannite, a poorly crystalline Fe(III) mineral. Fires in ASS landscapes can thermally transform Fe(III) minerals to more crystalline phases, such as maghemite (γFe2O3). Although thermal genesis of maghemite requires electron transfer via organic matter pyrolysis, the possibility of fire causing concurrent transfer of electrons to schwertmannite-bound As(V) remains unexplored. Here, we subject an organic-rich soil with variable carbon content (∼9-44% organic C) mixed (4:1) with As(V)-bearing schwertmannite (total As of 4.7-5.4 μmol g-1), to various temperatures (200-800 °C) and heating durations (5-120 min). We explore the consequences for As and Fe via X-ray absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy and selective extracts. Heating transforms schwertmannite to mainly maghemite and hematite at temperatures above 300-400 °C, with some transitory formation of magnetite, and electrons are readily transferred to both Fe(III) and As(V). As(V) reduction to As(III) is influenced by a combination of temperature, heating duration and carbon content and is significantly (P moderate fires in ASS landscapes, even of short duration, may generate considerable labile As(III) species and cause a pulse of As(III)aq mobilisation following initial re-wetting. Further research is warranted to examine if analogous As(III) formation occurs during combustion of organic-rich soil containing common As-bearing Fe(III) minerals such as ferrihydrite and goethite.

  3. Scaling up community mobilisation through women's groups for maternal and neonatal health: experiences from rural Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahar Tasmin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Program coverage is likely to be an important determinant of the effectiveness of community interventions to reduce neonatal mortality. Rigorous examination and documentation of methods to scale-up interventions and measure coverage are scarce, however. To address this knowledge gap, this paper describes the process and measurement of scaling-up coverage of a community mobilisation intervention for maternal, child and neonatal health in rural Bangladesh and critiques this real-life experience in relation to available literature on scaling-up. Methods Scale-up activities took place in nine unions in rural Bangladesh. Recruitment and training of those who deliver the intervention, communication and engagement with the community and other stakeholders and active dissemination of intervention activities are described. Process evaluation and population survey data are presented and used to measure coverage and the success of scale-up. Results The intervention was scaled-up from 162 women's groups to 810, representing a five-fold increase in population coverage. The proportion of women of reproductive age and pregnant women who were engaged in the intervention increased from 9% and 3%, respectively, to 23% and 29%. Conclusions Examination and documentation of how scaling-up was successfully initiated, led, managed and monitored in rural Bangladesh provide a deeper knowledge base and valuable lessons. Strong operational capabilities and institutional knowledge of the implementing organisation were critical to the success of scale-up. It was possible to increase community engagement with the intervention without financial incentives and without an increase in managerial staff. Monitoring and feedback systems that allow for periodic programme corrections and continued innovation are central to successful scale-up and require programmatic and operational flexibility.

  4. Decision-Making Tool for Cost-Efficient and Environmentally Friendly Wood Mobilisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matevž Triplat

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: With development of forest management technologies, the efficiency of wood production was significantly improved, and thus the impact on forests has changed as well. The article presents a practical decision-making tool for selection of most suitable harvesting system, considering given terrain as well as expected soil conditions on harvesting sites. The decision-making tool should support cost-efficient and environmentally friendly mobilisation of wood. Materials and Methods: The presented decision-making tool is based on ground bearing capacities (relevant environmental parameter and nominal ground pressure (harvesting system characteristics. Soil and terrain (slope characteristics were taken into account for selection of the most suitable harvesting system. Three-step methodological approach was suggested, where soil and terrain conditions were defined in first step, while harvesting system were described using wood process charts (“functiogramms” in second step. In final step ecological and technological requirements were matched. Results: To exemplify the three-step methodology, a decision-making tool was prepared for the three selected harvesting systems. The proposed harvesting systems differ in technological, ecological and economic aspects, but each is limited by at least one of the aspect. Conclusions: The decision-making tool in combination with the presented wood process charts (“functiogramms” can simplify and facilitate forest production planning, although it can also be used in case of unforeseen event e.g. changing of soil moisture, machinery failure and insufficient current capacities. Considering the envisaged quantities and types of forest wooden assortments, it is possible to use the decision-making tool for a basic selection of most appropriate harvesting systems. The main idea behind the suggested three step methodological approach is that forest workers can prepare individual decision

  5. Mobilisation, politics, investment and constant adaptation: lessons from the Australian health-promotion response to HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Graham; O'Donnell, Daryl; Crooks, Levinia; Lake, Rob

    2014-04-01

    The Australian response to HIV oversaw one of the most rapid and sustained changes in community behaviour in Australia's health-promotion history. The combined action of communities of gay men, sex workers, people who inject drugs, people living with HIV and clinicians working in partnership with government, public health and research has been recognised for many years as highly successful in minimising the HIV epidemic. This article will show how the Australian HIV partnership response moved from a crisis response to a constant and continuously adapting response, with challenges in sustaining the partnership. Drawing on key themes, lessons for broader health promotion are identified. The Australian HIV response has shown that a partnership that is engaged, politically active, adaptive and resourced to work across multiple social, structural, behavioural and health-service levels can reduce the transmission and impact of HIV. The experience of the response to HIV, including its successes and failures, has lessons applicable across health promotion. This includes the need to harness community mobilisation and action; sustain participation, investment and leadership across the partnership; commit to social, political and structural approaches; and build and use evidence from multiple sources to continuously adapt and evolve. So what? The Australian HIV response was one of the first health issues to have the Ottawa Charter embedded from the beginning, and has many lessons to offer broader health promotion and common challenges. As a profession and a movement, health promotion needs to engage with the interactions and synergies across the promotion of health, learn from our evidence, and resist the siloing of our responses.

  6. The role of actor-networks in the early stage mobilisation of low carbon heat networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrose, Aimee; Eadson, Will; Pinder, James

    2016-01-01

    Low carbon heat networks (LCHNs) offer great potential for carbon and heating cost reduction. Despite these benefits, LCHNs provide for just two per cent of heat demand in the UK, when estimates suggest they have the potential to provide for around 43 per cent. These low levels of LCHN provision are in stark contrast to the Nordic nations which exemplify some of the highest quality and most extensive heat networks in the world. It is within this context that the Pioneer Cities project (the project) was launched by the UK government to help local authorities overcome barriers to the deployment of LCHNs. This paper reports the findings of an evaluation of this project, drawing on 86 interviews across five local authorities, analysed using elements of Actor Network Theory (ANT). The evaluation found that the project’s success has been limited. Participating local authorities have encountered challenges regarding marketisation, public sector retrenchment and inexperience in mobilising LCHNs. These factors militate against the formation of the robust actor-networks required to deploy LCHNs. Analysis using ANT reveals insights into why LCHNs remain elusive in the UK and suggests that policy makers need to strengthen local authorities’ ability to lead and deliver complex infrastructure projects. - Highlights: •Low carbon heat networks (LCHNs) reduce carbon emissions from heat production and reduce costs. •Yet market issues and local government cut backs undermine successful delivery of LCHNs. •Local authorites are charged by government with deploying LCHNS but are not well placed to do so. •Policy makers need to ‘prepare the ground’ for LCHN deployment through policy and incentives.

  7. Apical Transportation, Centering Ability, and Cleaning Effectiveness of Reciprocating Single-file System Associated with Different Glide Path Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Guilherme Moreira; Sponchiado Junior, Emílio Carlos; Garrido, Angela Delfina Bittencourt; Lia, Raphael Carlos Comelli; Garcia, Lucas da Fonseca Roberti; Marques, André Augusto Franco

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the apical transportation, the centering ability, and the cleaning effectiveness of a reciprocating single-file system associated to different glide path techniques. The mesial root canals of 52 mandibular molars were randomly distributed into 4 groups (n = 13) according to the different glide path techniques used before biomechanical preparation with Reciproc System (RS): KF/RS (sizes 10 and 15 K-files), NGP/RS (no glide path, only reciprocating system), PF/RS (sizes 13, 16, and 19 PathFile instruments), and NP (no preparation). Cone-beam computed tomography analysis was performed before and after instrumentation for apical third images acquisition. Apical transportation and its direction were evaluated by using the formula D = (X1 - X2) - (Y1 - Y2), and the centering ability was analyzed by the formula CC = (X1 - X2/Y1 - Y2 or Y1 - Y2/X1 - X2). The samples were submitted to histologic processing and analyzed under a digital microscope for debris quantification. The values were statistically analyzed (Kruskal-Wallis, the Dunn multiple comparisons test, P .05). Groups had a tendency toward transportation in the mesial direction. No technique had perfect centering ability (=1.0), with no significant difference among them. KF/RS had larger amount of debris, with statistically significant difference in comparison with NGP/RS (P > .05). The different glide path techniques promoted minimal apical transportation, and the reciprocating single-file system tested remained relatively centralized within the root canal. Also, the different techniques interfered in the cleaning effectiveness of the reciprocating system. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Direct observation of gliding dislocations interactions with defects in irradiated niobium single crystals by means of the high voltage electronic microscopy (HVEM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otero, M.P.

    1985-01-01

    The interactions of gliding dislocations with defects in irradiated niobium that result in the formation of dislocations channels. The effects in the mechanical behaviour of [941]- and [441]- oriented Nb single crystals due to oxygen addition, neutron and electron irradiation was observed either by macroscopic deformation in a Instron machine or 'in-situ' deformation in the HVEM-High Voltage Electron Microscope. Some specimens were irradiated at IPNS-Intense Pulsed Neutron Source, at 325 K, with 5 x 10 17 n/cm 2 , others were irradiated with electrons in the HVEM. The interactions between gliding dislocations with clusters point defects and dislocations were observed. The primary mechanism for removal of the clusters by the gliding dislocations was the 'sweeping' of the clusters along with the gliding dislocations. As to the point defects, they were 'swept' by the gliding dislocations and left as aligned loops close to the intersections of the gliding dislocations with the upper and lower specimen surfaces. For the illustration of this phenomena, a schematic drawing was made. The mechanism of 'bowing-out' interaction of dislocations with defect clusters was also observed. The reported anomalous slip observed to operate in the [941]- oriented Nb was also directly observed and a qualitive explanation along with a schematic drawing was proposed. This would explain the softenig observed after the yield stress in the [941]- oriented Nb deformed in the Instron machine. (Author) [pt

  9. CR TKA UHMWPE Wear Tested after Artificial Aging of the Vitamin E Treated Gliding Component by Simulating Daily Patient Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Schwiesau

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The wear behaviour of total knee arthroplasty (TKA is dominated by two wear mechanisms: the abrasive wear and the delamination of the gliding components, where the second is strongly linked to aging processes and stress concentration in the material. The addition of vitamin E to the bulk material is a potential way to reduce the aging processes. This study evaluates the wear behaviour and delamination susceptibility of the gliding components of a vitamin E blended, ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE cruciate retaining (CR total knee arthroplasty. Daily activities such as level walking, ascending and descending stairs, bending of the knee, and sitting and rising from a chair were simulated with a data set received from an instrumented knee prosthesis. After 5 million test cycles no structural failure of the gliding components was observed. The wear rate was with 5.62±0.53 mg/million cycles falling within the limit of previous reports for established wear test methods.

  10. CR TKA UHMWPE wear tested after artificial aging of the vitamin E treated gliding component by simulating daily patient activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwiesau, Jens; Fritz, Bernhard; Kutzner, Ines; Bergmann, Georg; Grupp, Thomas M

    2014-01-01

    The wear behaviour of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is dominated by two wear mechanisms: the abrasive wear and the delamination of the gliding components, where the second is strongly linked to aging processes and stress concentration in the material. The addition of vitamin E to the bulk material is a potential way to reduce the aging processes. This study evaluates the wear behaviour and delamination susceptibility of the gliding components of a vitamin E blended, ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) cruciate retaining (CR) total knee arthroplasty. Daily activities such as level walking, ascending and descending stairs, bending of the knee, and sitting and rising from a chair were simulated with a data set received from an instrumented knee prosthesis. After 5 million test cycles no structural failure of the gliding components was observed. The wear rate was with 5.62 ± 0.53 mg/million cycles falling within the limit of previous reports for established wear test methods.

  11. Evaluation of canal transportation after preparation with Reciproc single-file systems with or without glide path files.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Ugur; Karataslioglu, Emrah

    2017-01-01

    Canal transportation is a common sequel caused by rotary instruments. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the degree of transportation after the use of Reciproc single-file instruments with or without glide path files. Thirty resin blocks with L-shaped canals were divided into three groups ( n = 10). Group 1 - canals were prepared with Reciproc-25 file. Group 2 - glide path file-G1 was used before Reciproc. Group 3 - glide path files-G1 and G2 were used before Reciproc. Pre- and post-instrumentation images were superimposed under microscope, and resin removed from the inner and outer surfaces of the root canal was calculated throughout 10 points. Statistical analysis was performed with Kruskal-Wallis test and post hoc Dunn test. For coronal and middle one-thirds, there was no significant difference among groups ( P > 0.05). For apical section, transportation of Group 1 was significantly higher than other groups ( P files before Reciproc single-file system reduced the degree of apical canal transportation.

  12. Cyclic fatigue resistance of R-Pilot, WaveOne Gold Glider, and ProGlider glide path instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Cangül; İnan, Uğur; Demiral, Murat; Keleş, Ali

    2018-02-17

    The aim of the present study was to compare the cyclic fatigue resistance of R-Pilot (VDW; Munich, Germany) with ProGlider (Denstply Sirona; Ballaigues, Switzerland) and WaveOne Gold Glider (Denstply Sirona; Ballaigues, Switzerland) glide path instruments. R-Pilot, ProGlider, and WaveOne Gold Glider instruments were collected (n = 15) and tested in a dynamic cyclic fatigue test device, which has an artificial canal with 60° angle of curvature and a 5-mm radius of curvature. All instruments were operated until fracture occurred, and both time to fracture (TF) and the lengths of the fractured fragments were recorded. Mean and standard deviations of TF and fragment length were calculated for each reciprocating system. TF data and fractured fragment length data were subjected to one-way ANOVA and post-hoc Tukey tests (P  0.05). Weibull analysis revealed that WaveOne Gold Glider showed the highest predicted TF value for 99% survival rate, which was followed by R-Pilot and ProGlider. Regarding the length of the fractured tips, there were no significant differences among the instruments (P > 0.05). The reciprocating WaveOne Gold Glider and R-Pilot instruments had significantly higher cyclic fatigue resistance than rotary ProGlider instruments. This study reported that novel reciprocating glide path instruments exhibited higher cyclic fatigue resistance than rotating glide path instrument.

  13. T-S Fuzzy Modelling and H∞ Attitude Control for Hypersonic Gliding Vehicles

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    Weidong Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the T-S fuzzy modelling and H∞ attitude control in three channels for hypersonic gliding vehicles (HGVs. First, the control-oriented affine nonlinear model has been established which is transformed from the reentry dynamics. Then, based on Taylor’s expansion approach and the fuzzy linearization approach, the homogeneous T-S local modelling technique for HGVs is proposed. Given the approximation accuracy and controller design complexity, appropriate fuzzy premise variables and operating points of interest are selected to construct the T-S homogeneous submodels. With so-called fuzzy blending, the original plant is transformed into the overall T-S fuzzy model with disturbance. By utilizing Lyapunov functional approach, a state feedback fuzzy controller has been designed based on relaxed linear matrix inequality (LMI conditions to stable the original plants with a prescribed H∞ performance of disturbance. Finally, numerical simulations are performed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed H∞ T-S fuzzy controller for the original attitude dynamics; the superiority of the designed T-S fuzzy controller compared with other local controllers based on the constructed fuzzy model is shown as well.

  14. Leaping shampoo glides on a 500-nm-thick lubricating air layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Erqiang; Lee, Sanghyun; Marston, Jeremy; Bonito, Andrea; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur

    2013-11-01

    When a stream of shampoo is fed onto a pool in one's hand, a jet can leap sideways or rebound from the liquid surface in an intriguing phenomenon known as the Kaye effect. Earlier studies have debated whether non-Newtonian effects are the underlying cause of this phenomenon, making the jet glide on top of a shear-thinning liquid layer, or whether an entrained air layer is responsible. Herein we show unambiguously that the jet slides on a lubricating air layer [Lee et al., Phys. Rev. E 87, 061001 (2013)]. We identify this layer by looking through the pool liquid and observing its rupture into fine micro-bubbles. The resulting micro-bubble sizes suggest that the thickness of this air layer is around 500 nm. This thickness estimate is also supported by the tangential deceleration of the jet during the rebounding, with the shear stress within the thin air layer sufficient for the observed deceleration. Particle tracking within the jet shows uniform velocity, with no pronounced shear, which would be required for shear-thinning effects. The role of the surfactant may primarily be to stabilize the air film.

  15. A Cost-Effective Tracking Algorithm for Hypersonic Glide Vehicle Maneuver Based on Modified Aerodynamic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Fan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to defend the hypersonic glide vehicle (HGV, a cost-effective single-model tracking algorithm using Cubature Kalman filter (CKF is proposed in this paper based on modified aerodynamic model (MAM as process equation and radar measurement model as measurement equation. In the existing aerodynamic model, the two control variables attack angle and bank angle cannot be measured by the existing radar equipment and their control laws cannot be known by defenders. To establish the process equation, the MAM for HGV tracking is proposed by using additive white noise to model the rates of change of the two control variables. For the ease of comparison several multiple model algorithms based on CKF are presented, including interacting multiple model (IMM algorithm, adaptive grid interacting multiple model (AGIMM algorithm and hybrid grid multiple model (HGMM algorithm. The performances of these algorithms are compared and analyzed according to the simulation results. The simulation results indicate that the proposed tracking algorithm based on modified aerodynamic model has the best tracking performance with the best accuracy and least computational cost among all tracking algorithms in this paper. The proposed algorithm is cost-effective for HGV tracking.

  16. Collective behavior of minus-ended motors in mitotic microtubule asters gliding toward DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Athale, Chaitanya A; Dinarina, Ana; Nedelec, Francois; Karsenti, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Microtubules (MTs) nucleated by centrosomes form star-shaped structures referred to as asters. Aster motility and dynamics is vital for genome stability, cell division, polarization and differentiation. Asters move either toward the cell center or away from it. Here, we focus on the centering mechanism in a membrane independent system of Xenopus cytoplasmic egg extracts. Using live microscopy and single particle tracking, we find that asters move toward chromatinized DNA structures. The velocity and directionality profiles suggest a random-walk with drift directed toward DNA. We have developed a theoretical model that can explain this movement as a result of a gradient of MT length dynamics and MT gliding on immobilized dynein motors. In simulations, the antagonistic action of the motor species on the radial array of MTs leads to a tug-of-war purely due to geometric considerations and aster motility resembles a directed random-walk. Additionally, our model predicts that aster velocities do not change greatly with varying initial distance from DNA. The movement of asymmetric asters becomes increasingly super-diffusive with increasing motor density, but for symmetric asters it becomes less super-diffusive. The transition of symmetric asters from superdiffusive to diffusive mobility is the result of number fluctuations in bound motors in the tug-of-war. Overall, our model is in good agreement with experimental data in Xenopus cytoplasmic extracts and predicts novel features of the collective effects of motor-MT interactions. (paper)

  17. Acute aerobic exercise induces a preferential mobilisation of plasmacytoid dendritic cells into the peripheral blood in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Frankie F; Campbell, John P; Wadley, Alex J; Fisher, James P; Aldred, Sarah; Turner, James E

    2018-05-31

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are important sentinel cells of the immune system responsible for presenting antigen to T cells. Exercise is known to cause an acute and transient increase in the frequency of DCs in the bloodstream in humans, yet there are contradictory findings in the literature regarding the phenotypic composition of DCs mobilised during exercise, which may have implications for immune regulation and health. Accordingly, we sought to investigate the composition of DC sub-populations mobilised in response to acute aerobic exercise. Nine healthy males (age, 21.9 ± 3.6 years; height, 177.8 ± 5.4 cm; body mass, 78.9 ± 10.8 kg; body mass index, 24.9 ± 3.3 kg·m 2 ; V̇O 2 MAX , 41.5 ± 5.1 mL·kg·min -1 ) cycled for 20 min at 80% V̇O 2 MAX . Blood was sampled at baseline, during the final minute of exercise and 30 min later. Using flow cytometry, total DCs were defined as Lineage- (CD3, CD19, CD20, CD14, CD56) HLA-DR+ and subsequently identified as plasmacytoid DCs (CD303+) and myeloid DCs (CD303-). Myeloid DCs were analysed for expression of CD1c and CD141 to yield four sub-populations; CD1c-CD141+; CD1c+CD141+; CD1c+CD141- and CD1c-CD141-. Expression of CD205 was also analysed on all DC sub-populations to identify DCs capable of recognising apoptotic and necrotic cells. Total DCs increased by 150% during exercise (F (1,10)  = 60; p < 0.05, η 2  = 0.9). Plasmacytoid DCs mobilised to a greater magnitude than myeloid DCs (195 ± 131% vs. 131 ± 100%; p < 0.05). Among myeloid DCs, CD1c-CD141- cells showed the largest exercise-induced mobilisation (167 ± 122%), with a stepwise pattern observed among the remaining sub-populations: CD1c+CD141- (79 ± 50%), followed by CD1c+CD141+ (44 ± 41%), with the smallest response shown by CD1c-CD141+ cells (23 ± 54%) (p < 0.05). Among myeloid DCs, CD205- cells were the most exercise responsive. All DC subsets returned to resting levels within

  18. A state-of-the-art anisotropic rock deformation model incorporating the development of mobilised shear strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, M. J. Md; Jobli, A. F.

    2018-04-01

    Currently rock deformation is estimated using the relationship between the deformation modulus Em and the stress-strain curve. There have been many studies conducted to estimate the value of Em. This Em is basically derived from conducting unconfined compression test, UCS. However, the actual stress condition of the rock in the ground is anisotropic stress condition where the rock mass is subjected to different confining and vertical pressures. In addition, there is still no empirical or semi-empirical framework that has been developed for the prediction of rock stress-strain response under anisotropic stress condition. Arock triaxial machine GCTS Triaxial RTX-3000 has been deployed to obtain the anisotropic stress-strain relationship for weathered granite grade II from Rawang, Selangor sampled at depth of 20 m and subjected to confining pressure of 2 MPa, 7.5 MPa and 14 MPa. The developed mobilised shear strength envelope within the specimen of 50 mm diameter and 100 mm height during the application of the deviator stress is interpreted from the stress-strain curves. These mobilised shear strength envelopes at various axial strains are the intrinsic property and unique for the rock. Once this property has been established then it is being used to predict the stress-strain relationship at any confining pressure. The predicted stress-strain curves are compared against the curves obtained from the tests. A very close prediction is achieved to substantiate the applicability of this rock deformation model. This is a state-of-the art rock deformation theory which characterise the deformation base on the applied load and the developed mobilised shear strength within the rock body.

  19. Effectiveness of joint mobilisation after cast immobilisation for ankle fracture: a protocol for a randomised controlled trial [ACTRN012605000143628

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haas Marion

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Passive joint mobilisation is a technique frequently used by physiotherapists to reduce pain, improve joint movement and facilitate a return to activities after injury, but its use after ankle fracture is currently based on limited evidence. The primary aim of this trial is to determine if adding joint mobilisation to a standard exercise programme is effective and cost-effective after cast immobilisation for ankle fracture in adults. Methods/Design Ninety participants will be recruited from the physiotherapy departments of three teaching hospitals and randomly allocated to treatment or control groups using a concealed procedure. All participants will perform an exercise programme. Participants in the treatment group will also receive joint mobilisation twice a week for four weeks. Blinded follow-up assessments will be conducted four, 12 and 24 weeks after randomisation. The primary outcome measures will be the Lower Extremity Functional Scale and the Assessment of Quality of Life. Secondary outcomes will include measures of impairments, activity limitation and participation. Data on the use of physiotherapy services and participants' out-of-pocket costs will be collected for the cost-effective and cost-utility analyses. To test the effects of treatment, between-group differences will be examined with analysis of covariance using a regression approach. The primary conclusions will be based on the four-week follow-up data. Discussion This trial incorporates features known to minimise bias. It uses a pragmatic design to reflect clinical practice and maximise generalisability. Results from this trial will contribute to an evidence-based approach for rehabilitation after ankle fracture.

  20. Devenir victime des pesticides:Le recours au droit et ses effets sur la mobilisation des agriculteurs Phyto-victimes

    OpenAIRE

    Jouzel, Jean-Noël; Prete, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Cet article analyse les effets du recours au droit sur la mobilisation des travailleurs agricoles victimes des pesticides. Il repose sur une enquête qualitative auprès des membres de l’association Phyto-victimes, qui réunit ces agriculteurs, ainsi que de leurs proches et des professionnels du droit avec lesquels ils interagissent. À partir de ce matériau, nous retraçons les parcours suivis par les agriculteurs pour obtenir une reconnaissance de leur statut de victimes des pesticides. Nous ren...

  1. Devenir victime des pesticides : Le recours au droit et ses effets sur la mobilisation des agriculteurs Phyto-victimes

    OpenAIRE

    Jouzel , Jean-Noël; Prete , Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    International audience; A partir du cas de l’association Phyto-victimes, qui regroupe des agriculteurs souffrant de maladies chroniques qu’ils imputent aux pesticides, l’article met en évidence les effets ambigus du droit sur les mobilisations de victimes. L’article met en évidence les mécanismes par lesquels le droit amène des exploitants agricoles exposés à des pesticides et tombés malades à prendre conscience de leur statut de victimes, du préjudice qu’ils ont subi et des responsabilités e...

  2. Mobilisation of heavy metals into the urine by CaEDTA: relation to erythrocyte and plasma concentrations and exposure indicators.

    OpenAIRE

    Araki, S; Aono, H; Murata, K

    1986-01-01

    To investigate the effects of calcium disodium ethylenediamine tetra-acetate (CaEDTA) on the urinary excretion, erythrocyte, and plasma concentrations and exposure indicators of seven heavy metals, CaEDTA was administered by intravenous infusion to 20 workers exposed to lead, zinc, and copper. The workers' blood lead concentrations ranged from 22 to 59 micrograms/dl (mean 38 micrograms/dl (1.8 mumol/l]. The 24 hour urinary excretion of metals after CaEDTA administration (mobilisation yield) w...

  3. Simulation modelling as a tool for knowledge mobilisation in health policy settings: a case study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freebairn, L; Atkinson, J; Kelly, P; McDonnell, G; Rychetnik, L

    2016-09-21

    commitment, influence and confidence of stakeholders in implementing policy and program decisions identified in the modelling process; and the impact of the process in terms of policy and program change. The study will generate empirical evidence on the feasibility and potential value of simulation modelling to support knowledge mobilisation and consensus building in health settings.

  4. Measurement of tributyl phosphate (TBP) in groundwater at a legacy radioactive waste site and its possible role in contaminant mobilisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowling, Brett; Kinsela, Andrew S; Comarmond, M Josick; Hughes, Catherine E; Harrison, Jennifer J; Johansen, Mathew P; Payne, Timothy E

    2017-11-01

    At many legacy radioactive waste sites, organic compounds have been co-disposed, which may be a factor in mobilisation of radionuclides at these sites. Tri-butyl phosphate (TBP) is a component of waste streams from the nuclear fuel cycle, where it has been used in separating actinides during processing of nuclear fuels. Analyses of ground waters from the Little Forest Legacy Site (LFLS) in eastern Australia were undertaken using solid-phase extraction (SPE) followed by gas chromatographic mass spectrometry (GCMS). The results indicate the presence of TBP several decades after waste disposal, with TBP only being detected in the immediate vicinity of the main disposal area. TBP is generally considered to degrade in the environment relatively rapidly. Therefore, it is likely that its presence is due to relatively recent releases of TBP, possibly stemming from leakage due to container degradation. The ongoing presence and solubility of TBP has the potential to provide a mechanism for nuclide mobilisation, with implications for long term management of LFLS and similar legacy waste sites. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Cost and cost-effectiveness analysis of a community mobilisation intervention to reduce intimate partner violence in Kampala, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaels-Igbokwe, Christine; Abramsky, Tanya; Devries, Karen; Michau, Lori; Musuya, Tina; Watts, Charlotte

    2016-02-29

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) poses a major public health concern. To date there are few rigorous economic evaluations of interventions aimed at preventing IPV in low-income settings. This study provides a cost and cost effectiveness analysis of SASA!, a community mobilisation intervention to change social norms and prevent IPV. An economic evaluation alongside a cluster randomised controlled trial. Both financial and economic costs were collected retrospectively from the provider's perspective to generate total and unit cost estimates over four years of intervention programming. Univariate sensitivity analysis is conducted to estimate the impact of uncertainty in cost and outcome measures on results. The total cost of developing the SASA! Activist Kit is estimated as US$138,598. Total intervention costs over four years are estimated as US$553,252. The annual cost of supporting 351 activists to conduct SASA! activities was approximately US$389 per activist and the average cost per person reached in intervention communities was US$21 over the full course of the intervention, or US$5 annually. The primary trial outcome was past year experience of physical IPV with an estimated 1201 cases averted (90% CI: 97-2307 cases averted). The estimated cost per case of past year IPV averted was US$460. This study provides the first economic evaluation of a community mobilisation intervention aimed at preventing IPV. SASA! unit costs compare favourably with gender transformative interventions and support services for survivors of IPV. ClinicalTrials.gov # NCT00790959.

  6. PCB-153 shows different dynamics of mobilisation from differentiated rat adipocytes during lipolysis in comparison with PCB-28 and PCB-118.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, Caroline; Tinant, Gilles; Mignolet, Eric; Thomé, Jean-Pierre; Debier, Cathy

    2014-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants. Due to their lipophilic character, they are preferentially stored within the adipose tissue. During the mobilisation of lipids, PCBs might be released from adipocytes into the bloodstream. However, the mechanisms associated with the release of PCBs have been poorly studied. Several in vivo studies followed their dynamics of release but the complexity of the in vivo situation, which is characterised by a large range of pollutants, does not allow understanding precisely the behaviour of individual congeners. The present in vitro experiment studied the impact of (i) the number and position of chlorine atoms of PCBs on their release from adipocytes and (ii) the presence of other PCB congeners on the mobilisation rate of such molecules. Differentiated rat adipocytes were used to compare the behaviour of PCB-28, -118 and -153. Cells were contaminated with the three congeners, alone or in cocktail, and a lipolysis was then induced with isoproterenol during 12 hours. Our data indicate that the three congeners were efficiently released from adipocytes and accumulated in the medium during the lipolysis. Interestingly, for a same level of cell lipids, PCB-153, a hexa-CB with two chlorine atoms in ortho-position, was mobilised slower than PCB-28, a tri-CB, and PCB-118, a penta-CB, which are both characterised by one chlorine atom in ortho-position. It suggests an impact of the chemical properties of pollutants on their mobilisation during periods of negative energy balance. Moreover, the mobilisation of PCB congeners, taken individually, did not seem to be influenced by the presence of other congeners within adipocytes. These results not only highlight the obvious mobilisation of PCBs from adipocytes during lipolysis, in parallel to lipids, but also demonstrate that the structure of congeners defines their rate of release from adipocytes.

  7. Strength training alone, exercise therapy alone, and exercise therapy with passive manual mobilisation each reduce pain and disability in people with knee osteoarthritis: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Mariette J; Viechtbauer, Wolfgang; Lenssen, Antoine F; Hendriks, Erik J M; de Bie, Rob A

    2011-01-01

    What are the effects of strength training alone, exercise therapy alone, and exercise with additional passive manual mobilisation on pain and function in people with knee osteoarthritis compared to control? What are the effects of these interventions relative to each other? A meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Adults with osteoarthritis of the knee. INTERVENTION TYPES: Strength training alone, exercise therapy alone (combination of strength training with active range of motion exercises and aerobic activity), or exercise with additional passive manual mobilisation, versus any non-exercise control. Comparisons between the three interventions were also sought. The primary outcome measures were pain and physical function. 12 trials compared one of the interventions against control. The effect size on pain was 0.38 (95% CI 0.23 to 0.54) for strength training, 0.34 (95% CI 0.19 to 0.49) for exercise, and 0.69 (95% CI 0.42 to 0.96) for exercise plus manual mobilisation. Each intervention also improved physical function significantly. No randomised comparisons of the three interventions were identified. However, meta-regression indicated that exercise plus manual mobilisations improved pain significantly more than exercise alone (p = 0.03). The remaining comparisons between the three interventions for pain and physical function were not significant. Exercise therapy plus manual mobilisation showed a moderate effect size on pain compared to the small effect sizes for strength training or exercise therapy alone. To achieve better pain relief in patients with knee osteoarthritis physiotherapists or manual therapists might consider adding manual mobilisation to optimise supervised active exercise programs. Copyright © 2011 Australian Physiotherapy Association. Published by .. All rights reserved.

  8. Cyclic fatigue resistances of several nickel-titanium glide path rotary and reciprocating instruments at body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, K; Uslu, G; Gündoğar, M; Özyürek, T; Grande, N M; Plotino, G

    2018-01-31

    To compare the cyclic fatigue resistance of the One G, ProGlider, HyFlex EDM and R-Pilot glide path NiTi files at body temperature. Twenty One G (size 14, .03 taper), 20 ProGlider (size 16, .02 taper), 20 HyFlex EDM (size 10, .05 taper) and 20 R-Pilot (size 12.5, .04 taper) instruments were operated in rotation at 300 rpm (One G, ProGlider and HyFlex) or in reciprocation (R-Pilot) at 35 °C in artificial canals that were manufactured by reproducing the size and taper of the instrument until fracture occurred. The time to fracture was recorded in seconds using a digital chronometer, and the length of the fractured fragments was registered. Mean data were analysed statistically using the Kruskal-Wallis test and post hoc Tukey tests via SPSS 21.0 software. The statistical significance level was set at 5%. The cyclic fatigue resistance of the R-Pilot files was significantly greater than the other instruments, and the One G was significantly lower (P EDM and the ProGlider (P > 0.05). No significant difference (P > 0.05) was evident in the mean length of the fractured fragments of the various instruments. The cyclic fatigue resistance of the R-Pilot reciprocating glide path file was significantly greater than that of the rotary HyFlex EDM, ProGlider and One G glide path files. © 2018 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Functional Conservation of the Glide/Gcm Regulatory Network Controlling Glia, Hemocyte, and Tendon Cell Differentiation in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattenoz, Pierre B.; Popkova, Anna; Southall, Tony D.; Aiello, Giuseppe; Brand, Andrea H.; Giangrande, Angela

    2016-01-01

    High-throughput screens allow us to understand how transcription factors trigger developmental processes, including cell specification. A major challenge is identification of their binding sites because feedback loops and homeostatic interactions may mask the direct impact of those factors in transcriptome analyses. Moreover, this approach dissects the downstream signaling cascades and facilitates identification of conserved transcriptional programs. Here we show the results and the validation of a DNA adenine methyltransferase identification (DamID) genome-wide screen that identifies the direct targets of Glide/Gcm, a potent transcription factor that controls glia, hemocyte, and tendon cell differentiation in Drosophila. The screen identifies many genes that had not been previously associated with Glide/Gcm and highlights three major signaling pathways interacting with Glide/Gcm: Notch, Hedgehog, and JAK/STAT, which all involve feedback loops. Furthermore, the screen identifies effector molecules that are necessary for cell-cell interactions during late developmental processes and/or in ontogeny. Typically, immunoglobulin (Ig) domain–containing proteins control cell adhesion and axonal navigation. This shows that early and transiently expressed fate determinants not only control other transcription factors that, in turn, implement a specific developmental program but also directly affect late developmental events and cell function. Finally, while the mammalian genome contains two orthologous Gcm genes, their function has been demonstrated in vertebrate-specific tissues, placenta, and parathyroid glands, begging questions on the evolutionary conservation of the Gcm cascade in higher organisms. Here we provide the first evidence for the conservation of Gcm direct targets in humans. In sum, this work uncovers novel aspects of cell specification and sets the basis for further understanding of the role of conserved Gcm gene regulatory cascades. PMID:26567182

  10. A Middle Triassic thoracopterid from China highlights the evolutionary origin of overwater gliding in early ray-finned fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guang-Hui; Zhao, Li-Jun; Shen, Chen-Chen

    2015-01-01

    Gliding adaptations in thoracopterid flying fishes represent a remarkable case of convergent evolution of overwater gliding strategy with modern exocoetid flying fishes, but the evolutionary origin of this strategy was poorly known in the thoracopterids because of lack of transitional forms. Until recently, all thoracopterids, from the Late Triassic of Austria and Italy and the Middle Triassic of South China, were highly specialized 'four-winged' gliders in having wing-like paired fins and an asymmetrical caudal fin with the lower caudal lobe notably larger than the upper lobe. Here, we show that the new genus Wushaichthys and the previously alleged 'peltopleurid' Peripeltopleurus, from the Middle Triassic (Ladinian, 235-242 Ma) of South China and near the Ladinian/Anisian boundary of southern Switzerland and northern Italy, respectively, represent the most primitive and oldest known thoracopterids. Wushaichthys, the most basal thoracopterid, shows certain derived features of this group in the skull. Peripeltopleurus shows a condition intermediate between Wushaichthys and Thoracopterus in having a slightly asymmetrical caudal fin but still lacking wing-like paired fins. Phylogenetic studies suggest that the evolution of overwater gliding of thoracopterids was gradual in nature; a four-stage adaption following the 'cranial specialization-asymmetrical caudal fin-enlarged paired fins-scale reduction' sequence has been recognized in thoracopterid evolution. Moreover, Wushaichthys and Peripeltopleurus bear hooklets on the anal fin of supposed males, resembling those of modern viviparious teleosts. Early thoracopterids probably had evolved a live-bearing reproductive strategy. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  11. [Effectiveness of the GlideScope video laryngoscope in a case of unexpected difficult airway due to lingual tonsil hypertrophy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, P; Alarcón, L; Del Castillo, T; Cabrerizo, P; Díaz, S

    2015-05-01

    Lingual tonsil hypertrophy can cause varying degrees of airway obstruction and is considered a risk factor for difficult mask ventilation and tracheal intubation. We report a case of unexpected difficult airway in a patient with unknown lingual tonsil hypertrophy that was solved with the use of the GlideScope video laryngoscope. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Self-interstitial atom clusters as obstacles to glide of 1/3{11-bar 00} edge dislocations in α-zirconium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voskoboynikov, R.E.; Osetsky, Yu.N.; Bacon, D.J.

    2005-01-01

    Atomic-scale details of interaction of a 1/3 {11-bar 00} edge dislocation with clusters of self-interstitial atoms (SIAs) in α-zirconium has been studied by computer simulation. Four typical clusters are considered. A triangular cluster of five SIAs lying within a basal plane bisected by the dislocation glide plane is not absorbed by the dislocation but acts as a moderately strong obstacle. A 3-D SIA cluster lying across the glide plane is completely absorbed by the dislocation by creation of super-jogs, and is a weak obstacle. Interaction of the dislocation with glissile SIA loops with perfect Burgers vector inclined at 60 deg. to the dislocation glide plane shows that the process depends on the vector orientation. Defects of the two orientations are strong obstacles, and one, which initially forms a sessile segment on the dislocation line, is particularly so

  13. Sailplane Glide Performance and Control Using Fixed and Articulating Winglets. M.S. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colling, James David

    1995-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted to investigate the effects of controllable articulating winglets on glide performance and yawing moments of high performance sailplanes. Testing was conducted in the Texas A&M University 7 x 10 foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel using a full-scale model of the outboard 5.6 feet of a 15 meter class high performance sailplane wing. Different wing tip configurations could be easily mounted to the wing model. A winglet was designed in which the cant and toe angles as well as a rudder on the winglet could be adjusted to a range of positions. Cant angles used in the investigation consisted of 5, 25, and 40 degrees measured from the vertical axis. Toe-out angles ranged from 0 to 22.5 degrees. A rudder on the winglet was used to study the effects of changing the camber of the winglet airfoil on wing performance and wing yawing moments. Rudder deflections consisted of-10, 0, and 10 degrees. Test results for a fixed geometry winglet and a standard wing tip are presented to show the general behavior of winglets on sailplane wings, and the effects of boundary-layer turbulators on the winglets are also presented. By tripping the laminar boundary-layer to turbulent before laminar separation occurs, the wing performance was increased at low Reynolds numbers. The effects on the lift and drag, yawing moment, pitching moment, and wing root bending moment of the model are presented. Oil flows were used on the wing model with the fixed geometry winglet and the standard wing tip to visualize flow directions and areas of boundary layer transition. A cant angle of 25 degrees and a toe-out angle of 2.5 degrees provided an optimal increase in wing performance for the cant and toe angles tested. Maximum performance was obtained when the winglet rudder remained in the neutral position of zero degrees. By varying the cant, toe, and rudder angles from their optimized positions, wing performance decreases. Although the winglet rudder proved to be more effective in

  14. Torsional Performance of ProTaper Gold Rotary Instruments during Shaping of Small Root Canals after 2 Different Glide Path Preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Ana; de Vasconcelos, Rafaela Andrade; Hernández, Alexis; Peters, Ove A

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the ex vivo torsional performance of a novel rotary system in small root canals after 2 different glide path preparations. Each independent canal of 8 mesial roots of mandibular molars was randomly assigned to achieve a reproducible glide path with a new set of either PathFile #1 (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) and #2 or ProGlider (Dentsply Maillefer) after negotiation with a 10 K-file. After glide path preparation, root canals in both groups were shaped with the same sequence of ProTaper Gold (Dentsply Tulsa Dental Specialties, Tulsa, OK) following the directions for use recommended by the manufacturer. A total of 16 new sets of each instrument of the ProTaper Gold (PTG) system were used. The tests were run in a standardized fashion in a torque-testing platform. Peak torque (Ncm) and force (N) were registered during the shaping procedure and compared with Student t tests after normal distribution of data was confirmed. No significant differences were found for any of the instruments in peak torque or force after the 2 different glide path preparations (P > .05). Data presented in this study also serve as a basis for the recommended torque for the use of PTG instruments. Under the conditions of this study, differences in the torsional performance of PTG rotary instruments after 2 different glide path preparations could not be shown. The different geometry of glide path rotary systems seemed to have no effect on peak torque and force induced by PTG rotary instruments when shaping small root canals in extracted teeth. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Influence of glide path on the screw-in effect and torque of nickel-titanium rotary files in simulated resin root canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Hong Ha

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate the screw-in effect and torque generation depending on the size of glide path during root canal preparation. Materials and Methods Forty Endo-Training Blocks (REF A 0177, Dentsply Maillefer were used. They were divided into 4 groups. For groups 1, 2, 3, and 4, the glide path was established with ISO #13 Path File (Dentsply Maillefer, #15 NiTi K-file NITIFLEX (Dentsply Maillefer, modified #16 Path File (equivalent to #18, and #20 NiTi K-file NITIFLEX, respectively. The screw-in force and resultant torque were measured using a custom-made experimental apparatus while canals were instrumented with ProTaper S1 (Dentsply Maillefer at a constant speed of 300 rpm with an automated pecking motion. A statistical analysis was performed using one-way analysis of variance and the Duncan post hoc comparison test. Results Group 4 showed lowest screw-in effect (2.796 ± 0.134 among the groups (p < 0.05. Torque was inversely proportional to the glide path of each group. In #20 glide path group, the screw-in effect and torque decreased at the last 1 mm from the apical terminus. However, in the other groups, the decrease of the screw-in effect and torque did not occur in the last 1 mm from the apical terminus. Conclusions The establishment of a larger glide path before NiTi rotary instrumentation appears to be appropriate for safely shaping the canal. It is recommended to establish #20 glide path with NiTi file when using ProTaper NiTi rotary instruments system safely.

  16. 'Proyecto Orgullo', an HIV prevention, empowerment and community mobilisation intervention for gay men and transgender women in Callao/Lima, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiorana, Andres; Kegeles, Susan; Salazar, Ximena; Konda, Kelika; Silva-Santisteban, Alfonso; Cáceres, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    We used qualitative, quantitative, and observational methods to assess the feasibility, acceptability, and potential efficacy of Proyecto Orgullo (PO), a pilot community mobilisation intervention to decrease sexual risk, promote health-seeking behaviours, and facilitate personal and community empowerment among gay men (GM) and transgender women (TW) in Peru. PO was adapted from Mpowerment and Hermanos de Luna y Sol, two US interventions. PO included six interrelated core elements: (1) Self-reflection Small Group sessions; (2) Supporting peers in HIV prevention; (3) Mobilisation Activities addressing HIV, GM/TW issues, and community empowerment; (4) A Core Group (staff + GM/TW volunteers) designing/implementing those activities; (5) A Project Space; (6) Publicity. PO included specific components for TW, but promoted that GM/TW, who historically have not worked well together, collaborate for a common goal. We found that PO was embraced by GM/TW. PO positively influenced GM/TW's HIV prevention beliefs, self-efficacy, and behaviours; provided social support and created community; facilitated individual and community empowerment; achieved that GM/TW collaborate; and established a functional Community Centre for socialising/conducting mobilisation activities. Community mobilisation strategies, lacking from HIV prevention efforts in Peru but considered key to HIV prevention, can help improve health-seeking behaviours and consolidate social norms supporting preventive behaviours among GM/TW.

  17. The Screw-Like Movement of a Gliding Bacterium Is Powered by Spiral Motion of Cell-Surface Adhesins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastava, Abhishek; Roland, Thibault; Berg, Howard C

    2016-09-06

    Flavobacterium johnsoniae, a rod-shaped bacterium, glides over surfaces at speeds of ∼2 μm/s. The propulsion of a cell-surface adhesin, SprB, is known to enable gliding. We used cephalexin to generate elongated cells with irregular shapes and followed their displacement in three dimensions. These cells rolled about their long axes as they moved forward, following a right-handed trajectory. We coated gold nanoparticles with an SprB antibody and tracked them in three dimensions in an evanescent field where the nanoparticles appeared brighter when they were closer to the glass. The nanoparticles followed a right-handed spiral trajectory on the surface of the cell. Thus, if SprB were to adhere to the glass rather than to a nanoparticle, the cell would move forward along a right-handed trajectory, as observed, but in a direction opposite to that of the nanoparticle. Copyright © 2016 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluation of selected mechanical properties of NiTi rotary glide path files manufactured from controlled memory wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishijo, Miki; Ebihara, Arata; Tokita, Daisuke; Doi, Hisashi; Hanawa, Takao; Okiji, Takashi

    2018-03-28

    This study aimed to investigate mechanical properties related to flexibility and fracture resistance of controlled memory wiremanufactured nickel-titanium rotary glide path files [HyFlex EDM Glide Path File (EDM) and HyFlex GPF (GPF)]. Scout RaCe (RaCe) served as control. Bending loads, torsional/cyclic fatigue resistance, and screw-in forces were measured. EDM showed a significantly larger torque at fracture, a longer time to cyclic fracture in reciprocation and a larger screw-in force compared with GPF and RaCe. GPF showed significantly lower bending loads and higher angular deflection values than EDM and RaCe, and a significantly longer time to cyclic fracture than RaCe. The time to cyclic fracture was significantly longer in reciprocation compared with continuous rotation in EDM and GPF. It can be concluded that EDM and/or GPF showed higher flexibility and cyclic/torsional fatigue resistance compared with RaCe; and that reciprocation conferred better cyclic fatigue resistance to EDM and GPF.

  19. A versatile class of cell surface directional motors gives rise to gliding motility and sporulation in Myxococcus xanthus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgane Wartel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Eukaryotic cells utilize an arsenal of processive transport systems to deliver macromolecules to specific subcellular sites. In prokaryotes, such transport mechanisms have only been shown to mediate gliding motility, a form of microbial surface translocation. Here, we show that the motility function of the Myxococcus xanthus Agl-Glt machinery results from the recent specialization of a versatile class of bacterial transporters. Specifically, we demonstrate that the Agl motility motor is modular and dissociates from the rest of the gliding machinery (the Glt complex to bind the newly expressed Nfs complex, a close Glt paralogue, during sporulation. Following this association, the Agl system transports Nfs proteins directionally around the spore surface. Since the main spore coat polymer is secreted at discrete sites around the spore surface, its transport by Agl-Nfs ensures its distribution around the spore. Thus, the Agl-Glt/Nfs machineries may constitute a novel class of directional bacterial surface transporters that can be diversified to specific tasks depending on the cognate cargo and machinery-specific accessories.

  20. Glitter-like iridescence within the bacteroidetes especially Cellulophaga spp.: optical properties and correlation with gliding motility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betty Kientz

    Full Text Available Iridescence results from structures that generate color. Iridescence of bacterial colonies has recently been described and illustrated. The glitter-like iridescence class, created especially for a few strains of Cellulophaga lytica, exhibits an intense iridescence under direct illumination. Such color appearance effects were previously associated with other bacteria from the Bacteroidetes phylum, but without clear elucidation and illustration. To this end, we compared various bacterial strains to which the iridescent trait was attributed. All Cellulophaga species and additional Bacteroidetes strains from marine and terrestrial environments were investigated. A selection of bacteria, mostly marine in origin, were found to be iridescent. Although a common pattern of reflected wavelengths was recorded for the species investigated, optical spectroscopy and physical measurements revealed a range of different glitter-like iridescence intensity and color profiles. Importantly, gliding motility was found to be a common feature of all iridescent colonies. Dynamic analyses of "glitter" formation at the edges of C. lytica colonies showed that iridescence was correlated with layer superposition. Both gliding motility, and unknown cell-to-cell communication processes, may be required for the establishment, in time and space, of the necessary periodic structures responsible for the iridescent appearance of Bacteroidetes.

  1. More Than Gliding: Involvement of GldD and GldG in the Virulence of Flavobacterium psychrophilum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Pérez-Pascual

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A fascinating characteristic of most members of the genus Flavobacterium is their ability to move over surfaces by gliding motility. Flavobacterium psychrophilum, an important pathogen of farmed salmonids worldwide, contains in its genome the 19 gld and spr genes shown to be required for gliding or spreading in Flavobacterium johnsoniae; however, their relative role in its lifestyle remains unknown. In order to address this issue, two spreading deficient mutants were produced as part of a Tn4351 mutant library in F. psychrophilum strain THCO2-90. The transposons were inserted in gldD and gldG genes. While the wild-type strain is proficient in adhesion, biofilm formation and displays strong proteolytic activity, both mutants lost these characteristics. Extracellular proteome comparisons revealed important modifications for both mutants, with a significant reduction of the amounts of proteins likely transported through the outer membrane by the Type IX secretion system, indicating that GldD and GldG proteins are required for an effective activity of this system. In addition, a significant decrease in virulence was observed using rainbow trout bath and injection infection models. Our results reveal additional roles of gldD and gldG genes that are likely of importance for the F. psychrophilum lifestyle, including virulence.

  2. A comparison between complete immobilisation and protected active mobilisation in sensory nerve recovery following isolated digital nerve injury.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Henry, F P

    2012-06-01

    Post-operative immobilisation following isolated digital nerve repair remains a controversial issue amongst the microsurgical community. Protocols differ from unit to unit and even, as evidenced in our unit, may differ from consultant to consultant. We undertook a retrospective review of 46 patients who underwent isolated digital nerve repair over a 6-month period. Follow-up ranged from 6 to 18 months. Twenty-four were managed with protected active mobilisation over a 4-week period while 22 were immobilised over the same period. Outcomes such as return to work, cold intolerance, two-point discrimination and temperature differentiation were used as indicators of clinical recovery. Our results showed that there was no significant difference noted in either clinical assessment of recovery or return to work following either post-operative protocol, suggesting that either regime may be adopted, tailored to the patient\\'s needs and resources of the unit.

  3. Mobilisation of the potential for the renewal of energy systems in existing buildings; Mobilisierung der energetischen Erneuerungspotenziale im Wohnbaubestand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ott, W.; Baur, M.; Kaufmann, Y. [econcept AG, Zuerich (Switzerland); Jakob, M.; Ott, A. [Centre for Energy Policy and Economics (CEPE), ETH Zuerich, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2005-07-01

    This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) summarises the findings of an energy-policy project that looked into the potential for the renewal of energy systems in existing buildings. The report presents an analysis of the situation as far as buildings, their ownership and the development of renovation work is concerned. Also, the results of a survey made under the owners of buildings and managers of real estate with respect to building renovation aspects are presented and discussed. Further, an analysis of problems arising from deficits in the renewal of energy-relevant components is provided and background and motivation for the renewal of buildings are looked at. Also, economic aspects and sustainability issues are considered. A further chapter covers strategies and measures that can be used to mobilise the renewal potential, including legislature and labelling systems.

  4. Which green way: description of the intervention for mobilising against Aedes aegypti under difficult security conditions in southern Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arcadio Morales-Perez

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Community mobilisation for prevention requires engagement with and buy in from those communities. In the Mexico state of Guerrero, unprecedented social violence related to the narcotics trade has eroded most community structures. A recent randomised controlled trial in 90 coastal communities achieved sufficient mobilisation to reduce conventional vector density indicators, self-reported dengue illness and serologically proved dengue virus infection. Methods The Camino Verde intervention was a participatory research protocol promoting local discussion of baseline evidence and co-design of vector control solutions. Training of facilitators emphasised community authorship rather than trying to convince communities to do specific activities. Several discussion groups in each intervention community generated a loose and evolving prevention plan. Facilitators trained brigadistas, the first wave of whom received a small monthly stipend. Increasing numbers of volunteers joined the effort without pay. All communities opted to work with schoolchildren and for house-to-house visits by brigadístas. Children joined the neighbourhood vector control movements where security conditions permitted. After 6 months, a peer evaluation involved brigadista visits between intervention communities to review and to share progress. Discussion Although most communities had no active social institutions at the outset, local action planning using survey data provided a starting point for community authorship. Well-known in their own communities, brigadistas faced little security risk compared with the facilitators who visited the communities, or with governmental programmes. We believe the training focus on evidence-based dialogue and a plural community ownership through multiple design groups were key to success under challenging security conditions. Trial registration ISRCTN27581154 .

  5. Influence of the dislocation core on the glide of the 1/2 < 111 >{110} edge dislocation in bcc-iron: An embedded atom method study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Haghighat, S.M.H.; von Pezold, J.; Race, C. P.; Kormann, F.; Friák, Martin; Neugebauer, J.; Raabe, D.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 87, MAY (2014), s. 274-282 ISSN 0927-0256 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Molecular dynamics * Edge dislocation * Core structure * Dislocation glide * Iron Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.131, year: 2014

  6. Anatomy and histochemistry of spread-wing posture in birds. 2. Gliding flight in the California gull, Larus californicus: a paradox of fast fibers and posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, R A; Mathias, E

    1997-09-01

    Gliding flight is a postural activity which requires the wings to be held in a horizontal position to support the weight of the body. Postural behaviors typically utilize isometric contractions in which no change in length takes place. Due to longer actin-myosin interactions, slow contracting muscle fibers represent an economical means for this type of contraction. In specialized soaring birds, such as vultures and pelicans, a deep layer of the pectoralis muscle, composed entirely of slow fibers, is believed to perform this function. Muscles involved in gliding posture were examined in California gulls (Larus californicus) and tested for the presence of slow fibers using myosin ATPase histochemistry and antibodies. Surprisingly small numbers of slow fibers were found in the M. extensor metacarpi radialis, M. coracobrachialis cranialis, and M. coracobrachialis caudalis, which function in wrist extension, wing protraction, and body support, respectively. The low number of slow fibers in these muscles and the absence of slow fibers in muscles associated with wing extension and primary body support suggest that gulls do not require slow fibers for their postural behaviors. Gulls also lack the deep belly to the pectoralis found in other gliding birds. Since bird muscle is highly oxidative, we hypothesize that fast muscle fibers may function to maintain wing position during gliding flight in California gulls.

  7. The potential of beech seedlings to adapt to low P availability in soil - plant versus microbial effects on P mobilising potential in the rhizosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meller, Sonia; Frey, Beat; Frossard, Emmanuel; Spohn, Marie; Schack-Kirchner, Helmer; Luster, Jörg

    2016-04-01

    The objective of our work was to investigate to what extent tree seedlings (Fagus sylvatica) are able to adapt the process of P mobilisation in the rhizosphere according to P speciation in the soil. Such mobilisation activity can include root exudation of P mobilising compounds or stimulation of specific P mobilising soil microbes. We hypothesized that Fagus sylvatica seedlings can adapt their own activity based on their P nutritional status and genetic memory of how to react under a given nutritional situation. To test the hypothesis, we set up a cross-growth experiment with beech of different provenances growing in soil from their own provenance site and in soil differing in P availability. Experiments were performed as a greenhouse experiment, with temperature control and natural light, during one vegetation period in rhizoboxes . We used two acidic forest soils, contrasting in P availability, collected at field sites of the German research priority program "Ecosystem Nutrition". Juvenile trees were collected along with the soils at the sites and planted respectively. The occurrence of P mobilising compounds and available P in the rhizosphere and in bulk soil were measured during the active growth season of the plants. In particular, we assessed phosphatase activity, (measured with zymography and plate enzymatic assay at pH 4,6.5, and 11) carboxylates and phosphate (measured by application of ion exchange membranes to specific soil micro zones, and by microdialysis), and pH (mapping with optodes). Plant P nutrition status was assessed by total P, N/P, phosphatase activity, and metabolic (TCA extractable) P in the leaves. The P-nutritional status of the beech provenances differed markedly independent from the P status of the soil where they were actually grown during experiment. In particular, the juvenile trees from the site rich in mineral P were sufficient in P, while those from the P-poor site with mostly organic P, were deficient. Enzymatic activity at the

  8. In-situ determination of the mechanical properties of gliding or non-motile bacteria by atomic force microscopy under physiological conditions without immobilization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samia Dhahri

    Full Text Available We present a study about AFM imaging of living, moving or self-immobilized bacteria in their genuine physiological liquid medium. No external immobilization protocol, neither chemical nor mechanical, was needed. For the first time, the native gliding movements of Gram-negative Nostoc cyanobacteria upon the surface, at speeds up to 900 µm/h, were studied by AFM. This was possible thanks to an improved combination of a gentle sample preparation process and an AFM procedure based on fast and complete force-distance curves made at every pixel, drastically reducing lateral forces. No limitation in spatial resolution or imaging rate was detected. Gram-positive and non-motile Rhodococcus wratislaviensis bacteria were studied as well. From the approach curves, Young modulus and turgor pressure were measured for both strains at different gliding speeds and are ranging from 20±3 to 105±5 MPa and 40±5 to 310±30 kPa depending on the bacterium and the gliding speed. For Nostoc, spatially limited zones with higher values of stiffness were observed. The related spatial period is much higher than the mean length of Nostoc nodules. This was explained by an inhomogeneous mechanical activation of nodules in the cyanobacterium. We also observed the presence of a soft extra cellular matrix (ECM around the Nostoc bacterium. Both strains left a track of polymeric slime with variable thicknesses. For Rhodococcus, it is equal to few hundreds of nanometers, likely to promote its adhesion to the sample. While gliding, the Nostoc secretes a slime layer the thickness of which is in the nanometer range and increases with the gliding speed. This result reinforces the hypothesis of a propulsion mechanism based, for Nostoc cyanobacteria, on ejection of slime. These results open a large window on new studies of both dynamical phenomena of practical and fundamental interests such as the formation of biofilms and dynamic properties of bacteria in real physiological conditions.

  9. In-Situ Determination of the Mechanical Properties of Gliding or Non-Motile Bacteria by Atomic Force Microscopy under Physiological Conditions without Immobilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhahri, Samia; Ramonda, Michel; Marlière, Christian

    2013-01-01

    We present a study about AFM imaging of living, moving or self-immobilized bacteria in their genuine physiological liquid medium. No external immobilization protocol, neither chemical nor mechanical, was needed. For the first time, the native gliding movements of Gram-negative Nostoc cyanobacteria upon the surface, at speeds up to 900 µm/h, were studied by AFM. This was possible thanks to an improved combination of a gentle sample preparation process and an AFM procedure based on fast and complete force-distance curves made at every pixel, drastically reducing lateral forces. No limitation in spatial resolution or imaging rate was detected. Gram-positive and non-motile Rhodococcus wratislaviensis bacteria were studied as well. From the approach curves, Young modulus and turgor pressure were measured for both strains at different gliding speeds and are ranging from 20±3 to 105±5 MPa and 40±5 to 310±30 kPa depending on the bacterium and the gliding speed. For Nostoc, spatially limited zones with higher values of stiffness were observed. The related spatial period is much higher than the mean length of Nostoc nodules. This was explained by an inhomogeneous mechanical activation of nodules in the cyanobacterium. We also observed the presence of a soft extra cellular matrix (ECM) around the Nostoc bacterium. Both strains left a track of polymeric slime with variable thicknesses. For Rhodococcus, it is equal to few hundreds of nanometers, likely to promote its adhesion to the sample. While gliding, the Nostoc secretes a slime layer the thickness of which is in the nanometer range and increases with the gliding speed. This result reinforces the hypothesis of a propulsion mechanism based, for Nostoc cyanobacteria, on ejection of slime. These results open a large window on new studies of both dynamical phenomena of practical and fundamental interests such as the formation of biofilms and dynamic properties of bacteria in real physiological conditions. PMID:23593493

  10. Morphology of single Shockley-type stacking faults generated by recombination enhanced dislocation glide in 4H-SiC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuhata, Hirofumi; Sekiguchi, Takashi

    2018-04-01

    Morphology of single Shockley-type stacking faults (SFs) generated by recombination enhanced dislocation glide (REDG) in 4H-SiC are discussed and analysed. A complete set of the 12 different dissociated states of basal-plane dislocation loops is obtained using the crystallographic space group operations. From this set, six different double rhombic-shaped SFs are derived. These tables indicate the rules that connect shapes of SFs with the locations of partial dislocations having different core structures, the positions of slip planes in a unit cell, and the Burgers vectors of partial dislocations. We applied these tables for the analysis of SFs generated by the REDG effect reported in the past articles. Shapes, growing process of SFs and perfect dislocations for origins of SFs were well analysed systematically.

  11. Solid solution hardening in face centered binary alloys: Gliding statistics of a dislocation in random solid solution by atomistic simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patinet, S.

    2009-12-01

    The glide of edge and screw dislocation in solid solution is modeled through atomistic simulations in two model alloys of Ni(Al) and Al(Mg) described within the embedded atom method. Our approach is based on the study of the elementary interaction between dislocations and solutes to derive solid solution hardening of face centered cubic binary alloys. We identify the physical origins of the intensity and range of the interaction between a dislocation and a solute atom. The thermally activated crossing of a solute atom by a dislocation is studied at the atomistic scale. We show that hardening of edge and screw segments are similar. We develop a line tension model that reproduces quantitatively the atomistic calculations of the flow stress. We identify the universality class to which the dislocation depinning transition in solid solution belongs. (author)

  12. Atomic-scale nanoindentation: detection and identification of single glide events in three dimensions by force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egberts, P; Bennewitz, R

    2011-01-01

    Indentation experiments on the nanometre scale have been performed by means of atomic force microscopy in ultra-high vacuum on KBr(100) surfaces. The surfaces yield in the form of discrete surface displacements with a typical length scale of 1 A. These surface displacements are detected in both normal and lateral directions. Measurement of the lateral tip displacement requires a load-dependent calibration due to the load dependence of the effective lateral compliance. Correlation of the lateral and normal displacements for each glide event allow identification of the activated slip system. The results are discussed in terms of the resolved shear stress in indentation experiments and of typical results in atomistic simulations of nanometre-scale indentation.

  13. Association of a new type of gliding, filamentous, purple phototrophic bacterium inside bundles of Microcoleus chthonoplastes in hypersaline cyanobacterial mats

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amelio, E. D.; Cohen, Y.; Des Marais, D. J.

    1987-01-01

    An unidentified filamentous purple bacterium, probably belonging to a new genus or even a new family, is found in close association with the filamentous, mat-forming cyanobacterium Microcoleus chthonoplastes in a hypersaline pond at Guerrero Negro, Baja California Sur, Mexico, and in Solar Lake, Sinai, Egypt. This organism is a gliding, segmented trichome, 0.8-0.9 micrometer wide. It contains intracytoplasmic stacked lamellae which are perpendicular and obliquely oriented to the cell wall, similar to those described for the purple sulfur bacteria Ectothiorhodospira. These bacteria are found inside the cyanobacterial bundle, enclosed by the cyanobacterial sheath. Detailed transmission electron microscopical analyses carried out in horizontal sections of the upper 1.5 mm of the cyanobacterial mat show this cyanobacterial-purple bacterial association at depths of 300-1200 micrometers, corresponding to the zone below that of maximal oxygenic photosynthesis. Sharp gradients of oxygen and sulfide are established during the day at this microzone in the two cyanobacterial mats studied. The close association, the distribution pattern of this association and preliminary physiological experiments suggest a co-metabolism of sulfur by the two-membered community. This probable new genus of purple bacteria may also grow photoheterotrophically using organic carbon excreted by the cyanobacterium. Since the chemical gradients in the entire photic zone fluctuate widely in a diurnal cycle, both types of metabolism probably take place. During the morning and afternoon, sulfide migrates up to the photic zone allowing photoautotrophic metabolism with sulfide as the electron donor. During the day the photic zone is highly oxygenated and the purple bacteria may either use oxidized species of sulfur such as elemental sulfur and thiosulfate in the photoautotrophic mode or grow photoheterotrophically using organic carbon excreted by M. chthonoplastes. The new type of filamentous purple sulfur

  14. Exploration of clinical changes following a novel mobilisation technique for treatment of chronic low back pain: A single cohort design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Gail C; Jones, Bruce; Bacon, Catherine J; Moran, Robert W

    2016-07-01

    To explore clinical changes following a novel manual mobilisation technique, 24 participants who experienced 'moderate' to 'severe' chronic low back pain were recruited from new patients attending a suburban osteopathy clinic. The intervention was a previously undescribed side-lying mobilisation technique targeting the lumbosacral spine (median of 6 treatment sessions). After 8 weeks reductions were shown in Oswestry Disability Index of 15 points (95% CI: 9.3, 22.7; p pain intensity, disability and function improved in most participants following treatment. Further investigation is indicated using more robust research designs to compare this approach with other treatment approaches and usual care for the treatment of chronic low back pain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Decree nr 2016-1134 of the August 19, 2016 related to the national strategy of mobilisation of biomass and to biomass regional schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valls, Manuel; Royal, Segolene; Le Foll, Stephane; Cosse, Emmanuelle; Macron, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    This decree concern operators of some specific sectors (agriculture, forest and wood, waste collection and management, fishery, algae and aquaculture) and local authorities, and addresses the implementation of regional biomass schemes and the national strategy of mobilisation of biomass. It determines the content of this strategy and of these regional schemes with application of various legal articles of the Code of Energy and of the Code of the Environment

  16. Mobilisation and remobilisation of a large archetypal pathogenicity island of uropathogenic Escherichia coli in vitro support the role of conjugation for horizontal transfer of genomic islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hochhut Bianca

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A substantial amount of data has been accumulated supporting the important role of genomic islands (GEIs - including pathogenicity islands (PAIs - in bacterial genome plasticity and the evolution of bacterial pathogens. Their instability and the high level sequence similarity of different (partial islands suggest an exchange of PAIs between strains of the same or even different bacterial species by horizontal gene transfer (HGT. Transfer events of archetypal large genomic islands of enterobacteria which often lack genes required for mobilisation or transfer have been rarely investigated so far. Results To study mobilisation of such large genomic regions in prototypic uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC strain 536, PAI II536 was supplemented with the mobRP4 region, an origin of replication (oriVR6K, an origin of transfer (oriTRP4 and a chloramphenicol resistance selection marker. In the presence of helper plasmid RP4, conjugative transfer of the 107-kb PAI II536 construct occured from strain 536 into an E. coli K-12 recipient. In transconjugants, PAI II536 existed either as a cytoplasmic circular intermediate (CI or integrated site-specifically into the recipient's chromosome at the leuX tRNA gene. This locus is the chromosomal integration site of PAI II536 in UPEC strain 536. From the E. coli K-12 recipient, the chromosomal PAI II536 construct as well as the CIs could be successfully remobilised and inserted into leuX in a PAI II536 deletion mutant of E. coli 536. Conclusions Our results corroborate that mobilisation and conjugal transfer may contribute to evolution of bacterial pathogens through horizontal transfer of large chromosomal regions such as PAIs. Stabilisation of these mobile genetic elements in the bacterial chromosome result from selective loss of mobilisation and transfer functions of genomic islands.

  17. Physical Modelling of Axisymmetric Turbulent Impinging Jets as used within the Nuclear Industry for Mobilisation of Sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKendrick, D.; Biggs, S.R.; Fairweather, M.; Rhodes, D.

    2008-01-01

    The impingement of a fluid jet onto a surface has broad applications across many industries. Within the UK nuclear industry, during the final stages of fuel reprocessing, impinging fluid jets are utilised to mobilise settled sludge material within storage tanks and ponds in preparation for transfer and ultimate immobilisation through vitrification. Despite the extensive applications of impinging jets within the nuclear and other industries, the study of two-phase, solid loaded, impinging jets is limited, and generally restricted to computational modelling. Surprisingly, very little fundamental understanding of the turbulence structure within such fluid flows through experimental investigation is found within the literature. The physical modelling of impinging jet systems could successfully serve to aid computer model validation, determine operating requirements, evaluate plant throughput requirements, optimise process operations and support design. Within this project a method is illustrated, capable of exploring the effects of process and material variables on flow phenomena of impinging jets. This is achieved via the use of non-intrusive measurement techniques Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV), Ultrasonic Doppler Velocity Profiler (UDVP) and high speed imaging. The turbulence structure for impinging jets, and their resultant radial wall jets, is presented at different jet-to-plate ratios, jet Reynolds numbers and jet outlet diameters. (authors)

  18. [Mutual guiding and following of movement - The interaction process in mobilisation based on the example of kinaesthetics: A qualitative study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Carola; Vosseler, Birgit; Senn, Beate; Gattinger, Heidrun

    2018-06-01

    Background: Mobility impairment is often seen as a reason for needing long-term care. Thus, promoting mobility becomes increasingly significant in nursing homes. The kinaesthetic approach offers a way to support nursing home residents in using their own resources to maintain or improve their mobility. Aim: The present study intends to identify the characteristics of the interaction between nursing home residents with impaired mobility and kinaesthetic trainers during mobilisation. Methods: This secondary analysis comprises nine video sequences interpreted according to Grounded Theory-principles. The findings are described in a basic model. Results: The interaction with nursing home residents is focused on adapted movement support. This assistance shows a positive effect on residents’ self-activity in the tracking process and in the context of other strategies. Intervening conditions like residents’ daily constitution have an influence on nurses’ kinaesthetic strategies. Thereby, nurses have to be highly competent in self-perception. Conclusion: Adapted movement support proves to be a phenomenon basing on the nurse-resident-interaction and allowing residents to actively participate in collaborative action.

  19. The effects of posterior talar glide with dorsiflexion of the ankle on mobility, muscle strength and balance in stroke patients: a randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jin; Kim, Ju-O; Lee, Byoung-Hee

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of posterior talar glide (PTG) with dorsiflexion of the ankle on stroke patients ankle mobility, muscle strength, and balance ability. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-four subjects were randomly assigned to either a PTG with dorsiflexion group (PTG; n=17), or a weight-bearing with placebo PTG group (control; n=17). Subjects in the PTG group performed PTG with dorsiflexion, designed to improve ankle mobility, muscle strength an...

  20. Micro-CT evaluation of several glide path techniques and ProTaper Next shaping outcomes in maxillary first molar curved canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alovisi, M; Cemenasco, A; Mancini, L; Paolino, D; Scotti, N; Bianchi, C C; Pasqualini, D

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate the ability of ProGlider instruments, PathFiles and K-files to maintain canal anatomy during glide path preparation using X-ray computed micro-tomography (micro-CT). Forty-five extracted maxillary first permanent molars were selected. Mesio-buccal canals were randomly assigned (n = 15) to manual K-file, PathFile or ProGlider groups for glide path preparation. Irrigation was achieved with 5% NaOCl and 10% EDTA. After glide path preparation, each canal was shaped with ProTaper Next X1 and X2 to working length. Specimens were scanned (isotropic voxel size 9.1 μm) for matching volumes and surface areas and post-treatment analyses. Canal volume, surface area, centroid shift, canal geometry variation through ratio of diameter ratios and ratio of cross-sectional areas were assessed in the apical and coronal levels and at the point of maximum canal curvature. One-way factorial anovas were used to evaluate the significance of instrument in the various canal regions. Post-glide path analysis revealed that instrument factor was significant at the apical level for both the ratio of diameter ratios and the ratio of cross-sectional areas (P flare the root canal compared with K-file and PathFile. PathFile and ProGlider demonstrated a significantly lower centroid shift compared with K-file at the apical level (P = 0.023). Post-shaping analysis demonstrated a more centred preparation of ProGlider, compared with PathFile and K-files, with no significant differences for other parameters. Use of ProGlider instruments led to less canal transportation than PathFiles and K-files. © 2016 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Effect of Glide Path Creating on Cyclic Fatigue Resistance of Reciproc and Reciproc Blue Nickel-titanium Files: A Laboratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özyürek, Taha; Uslu, Gülşah; Yılmaz, Koray; Gündoğar, Mustafa

    2018-06-01

    The purpose of this article was to compare the cyclic fatigue resistance of Reciproc and Reciproc Blue files (VDW GmbH, Munich, Germany) that were used to prepare root canals of mandibular molar teeth with or without a glide path. Sixty Reciproc R25 and 60 Reciproc Blue R25 files were used. The Reciproc and Reciproc Blue groups were divided into 3 subgroups (ie, as received condition, used without a glide path, and used with a glide path). All the instruments were rotated in a stainless steel artificial canal with an inner diameter of 1.5 mm, a 60° angle of curvature, and a radius of curvature of 5 mm until fracture occurred. The number of cycle to fracture was calculated, and the length of the fractured segments was measured. The Kruskal-Wallis test was performed to statistically analyze the data using SPSS 21.0 software (IBM Corp, Armonk, NY) at a 5% significance level. The cyclic fatigue resistance of as received condition Reciproc Blue files was found to be higher than as received condition Reciproc files (P  .05). There was no statistically significant difference in the mean length of the fractured fragments of the instruments (P > .05). Within the limitations of this in vitro study, it was concluded that creating a glide path using ProGlider files had no effect on the cyclic fatigue resistance of RPC and RPC Blue files. Copyright © 2018 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Hydroxyurea Therapy Mobilises Arachidonic Acid from Inner Cell Membrane Aminophospholipids in Patients with Homozygous Sickle Cell Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Daak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The cytotoxic compound hydroxyurea (HU is effective therapy for sickle cell disease. However, its effect on unsaturated membrane lipids is unknown. Red cell fatty acids were investigated in HU-treated (n=19 and HU-untreated (n=17 sickle cell patients and controls (n=20. The HU-treated compared with the HU-untreated patients had lower arachidonic (AA acid level in ethanolamine, physphoglycerids (EPG (22.9±1.2   versus   24.0±1.1%,  P<0.05 serine SPG (22.13±2.2   versus   24.9±2.3%,  P<0.01 phosphoglycerides. The treated patients and controls had comparable levels of docosahexaenoic (DHA and total n-3 fatty acids in EPG and choline phosphoglycerides (CPG. In contrast, the untreated group had significantly (P<0.05 lower DHA and total n-3 compared with the controls in EPG (2.7±0.4   versus   3.2±0.6% and 4.6±0.5   versus   5.2±0.7% and CPG (0.7±0.2   versus   1.0±0.2% and 1.2±0.2   versus   1.4±0.3. HU is known to activate cytosolic phospholipase A2 and cyclooxygenase 2, and from this study, it appears to induce mobilisation of AA from the inner cell membrane EPG and SPG. Hence, eicosanoids generated from the released AA may play a role in clinical improvements which occur in HU-treated patients.

  3. Social marketing and community mobilisation to reduce underage alcohol consumption in Australia: A cluster randomised community trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Bosco Charles; Williams, Joanne; Smith, Rachel; Hall, Jessica Kate; Osborn, Amber; Kremer, Peter; Kelly, Adrian B; Leslie, Eva; Patton, George; Mohebbi, Mohammadreza; Toumbourou, John W

    2018-08-01

    In many countries adolescent alcohol use is a major health problem. To supplement national policies, it is important to trial community interventions as a potential strategy to prevent adolescent alcohol use. This study evaluated a multicomponent community intervention that included community mobilisation, social marketing, and the monitoring of alcohol sales to minors. Evaluation was a clustered randomised trial design with 14 intervention and 14 control communities. Prior to randomisation, communities were matched on socioeconomic status and location. Intervention communities were not blinded. 3545 Year 8 students (M = 12 years) were surveyed at baseline from 75 schools; 3377 students were surveyed post intervention in 2013 from 54 schools. It was hypothesised that the primary outcome, individual alcohol consumption in last 30 days, after the intervention would be 15% lower in intervention communities. Secondary outcomes were consumption in the past year and intention not to drink before age 18. The intervention communities showed larger relative reductions compared to the controls in last 30-day consumption and past year (10%), but not significantly different. A significantly lower proportion of participants in the intervention community (63%), compared to the controls (71%), reported intending to drink before 18 years old. Subgroup analysis identified regional and state differences for some secondary measures. Intervention assignment was associated with lower adolescent intention to drink before the age of 18. However, more intensive and longer-term intervention may be required to measure significant differences in behaviour change. ACTRN12612000384853. Rowland B, Toumbourou JW, Osborn A, et al. BMJ Open 2013;3:e002423. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2012-002423. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Rate controlling mechanisms during hot deformation of Mg–3Gd–1Zn magnesium alloy: Dislocation glide and climb, dynamic recrystallization, and mechanical twinning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirzadeh, H.; Roostaei, M.; Parsa, M.H.; Mahmudi, R.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Hot deformation behavior and dynamic recrystallization of GZ31 magnesium alloy. • Deducing the operative deformation mechanisms by constitutive analysis. • Viscous glide as the rate controlling step during hot working of GZ31 alloy. • Characterization of the effect of mechanical twinning on constitutive relations. - Abstract: The flow behavior of the Mg–3Gd–1Zn (GZ31) magnesium alloy during hot working was critically analyzed and dislocation glide in the form of a viscous drag process (viscous glide) was identified as the rate controlling mechanism due to interaction of rare earth Gd atoms with the moving dislocations. Mechanical twinning was shown to significantly affect the level of flow stress at high Zener–Hollomon parameters, i.e. low forming temperatures and high strain rates. Moreover, dynamic recrystallization (DRX) was found to be another responsible phenomenon for deviation of constitutive equations from the theoretical ones, namely the deformation activation energy based on diffusivity and the pre-defined Garofalo’s type hyperbolic sine power, during high-temperature thermomechanical processing of this creep resistant light alloy

  5. Experimental protocols for and studies of the effects of surface passivation and water isotopes on the gliding speed of microtubules propelled by kinesin-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Roger Andrew

    This dissertation explores how the kinesin-1 and microtubule system is affected by surface passivation and water isotopes. Surface passivation was found to affect the gliding speed that microtubules exhibit in the gliding motility assay and the lengths of microtubules supported by the passivation. It was also found that gliding speeds of microtubules are very sensitive to temperature changes. Studies changing the water isotope were a first attempt to investigate if changing the solvent changed the osmotic pressure of the solution kinesin and microtubules were in. No osmotic pressure changes were observed, however, the experiments using different isotopes of water did illuminate the possibility that kinesin may be sensitive to viscosity changes in the solvent. This experiment also suggests further experiments that can be specifically designed to probe osmotic pressure changes. This thesis was also the first thesis ever, to the best of the author's knowledge, to be done in a completely open format. All information and notebook entries that are related to it, as well as the thesis itself, can be found on the website OpenWetWare. The thesis can also be found there including all the different versions that went into its editing. The philosophy and process of making data open and accessible to every one is also discussed.

  6. Asymmetric, compressive, SiGe epilayers on Si grown by lateral liquid-phase epitaxy utilizing a distinction between dislocation nucleation and glide critical thicknesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Andrew J.; Quitoriano, Nathaniel

    2018-01-01

    Uniaxially strained Si1-xGex channels have been proposed as a solution for high mobility channels in next-generation MOSFETS to ensure continued device improvement as the benefits from further miniaturisation are diminishing. Previously proposed techniques to deposit uniaxially strained Si1-xGex epilayers on Si (0 0 1) substrates require multiple deposition steps and only yielded thin strips of uniaxially strained films. A lateral liquid-phase epitaxy (LLPE) technique was developed to deposit a blanket epilayer of asymmetrically strained Si97.4Ge2.6 on Si in a single step, where the epilayer was fully strained in the growth direction and 31% strain-relaxed in the orthogonal direction. The LLPE technique promoted the glide of misfit dislocations, which nucleated in a region with an orthogonal misfit dislocation network, into a region where the dislocation nucleation was inhibited. This created an array of parallel misfit dislocations which were the source of the asymmetric strain. By observing the thicknesses at which the dislocation network transitions from orthogonal to parallel and at which point dislocation glide is exhausted, the separate critical thicknesses for dislocation nucleation and dislocation glide can be determined.

  7. A new stem-neopterygian fish from the Middle Triassic of China shows the earliest over-water gliding strategy of the vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guang-Hui; Zhao, Li-Jun; Gao, Ke-Qin; Wu, Fei-Xiang

    2013-01-07

    Flying fishes are extraordinary aquatic vertebrates capable of gliding great distances over water by exploiting their enlarged pectoral fins and asymmetrical caudal fin. Some 50 species of extant flying fishes are classified in the Exocoetidae (Neopterygii: Teleostei), which have a fossil record no older than the Eocene. The Thoracopteridae is the only pre-Cenozoic group of non-teleosts that shows an array of features associated with the capability of over-water gliding. Until recently, however, the fossil record of the Thoracopteridae has been limited to the Upper Triassic of Austria and Italy. Here, we report the discovery of exceptionally well-preserved fossils of a new thoracopterid flying fish from the Middle Triassic of China, which represents the earliest evidence of an over-water gliding strategy in vertebrates. The results of a phylogenetic analysis resolve the Thoracopteridae as a stem-group of the Neopterygii that is more crown-ward than the Peltopleuriformes, yet more basal than the Luganoiiformes. As the first record of the Thoracopteride in Asia, this new discovery extends the geographical distribution of this group from the western to eastern rim of the Palaeotethys Ocean, providing new evidence to support the Triassic biological exchanges between Europe and southern China. Additionally, the Middle Triassic date of the new thoracopterid supports the hypothesis that the re-establishment of marine ecosystems after end-Permian mass extinction is more rapid than previously thought.

  8. The ETRAMP family member SEP2 is expressed throughout Plasmodium berghei life cycle and is released during sporozoite gliding motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currà, Chiara; Di Luca, Marco; Picci, Leonardo; de Sousa Silva Gomes dos Santos, Carina; Siden-Kiamos, Inga; Pace, Tomasino; Ponzi, Marta

    2013-01-01

    The early transcribed membrane proteins ETRAMPs belong to a family of small, transmembrane molecules unique to Plasmodium parasite, which share a signal peptide followed by a short lysine-rich stretch, a transmembrane domain and a variable, highly charged C-terminal region. ETRAMPs are usually expressed in a stage-specific manner. In the blood stages they localize to the parasitophorous vacuole membrane and, in described cases, to vesicle-like structures exported to the host erythrocyte cytosol. Two family members of the rodent parasite Plasmodium berghei, uis3 and uis4, localize to secretory organelles of sporozoites and to the parasitophorous membrane vacuole of the liver stages. By the use of specific antibodies and the generation of transgenic lines, we showed that the P. berghei ETRAMP family member SEP2 is abundantly expressed in gametocytes as well as in mosquito and liver stages. In intracellular parasite stages, SEP2 is routed to the parasitophorous vacuole membrane while, in invasive ookinete and sporozoite stages, it localizes to the parasite surface. To date SEP2 is the only ETRAMP protein detected throughout the parasite life cycle. Furthermore, SEP2 is also released during gliding motility of salivary gland sporozoites. A limited number of proteins are known to be involved in this key function and the best characterized, the CSP and TRAP, are both promising transmission-blocking candidates. Our results suggest that ETRAMP members may be viewed as new potential candidates for malaria control.

  9. Utilization of exploration-based learning and video-assisted learning to teach GlideScope videolaryngoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Lindsay C; Auerbach, Marc; Kappus, Liana; Emerson, Beth; Zigmont, Jason; Sudikoff, Stephanie N

    2014-01-01

    GlideScope (GS) is used in pediatric endotracheal intubation (ETI) but requires a different technique compared to direct laryngoscopy (DL). This article was written to evaluate the efficacy of exploration-based learning on procedural performance using GS for ETI of simulated pediatric airways and establish baseline success rates and procedural duration using DL in airway trainers among pediatric providers at various levels. Fifty-five pediatric residents, fellows, and faculty from Pediatric Critical Care, NICU, and Pediatric Emergency Medicine were enrolled. Nine physicians from Pediatric Anesthesia benchmarked expert performance. Participants completed a demographic survey and viewed a video by the GS manufacturer. Subjects spent 15 minutes exploring GS equipment and practicing the intubation procedure. Participants then intubated neonatal, infant, child, and adult airway simulators, using GS and DL, in random order. Time to ETI was recorded. Procedural performance after exploration-based learning, measured as time to successful ETI, was shorter for DL than for GS for neonatal and child airways at the.05 significance level. Time to ETI in adult airway using DL was correlated with experience level (p =.01). Failure rates were not different among subgroups. A brief video and period of exploration-based learning is insufficient for implementing a new technology. Pediatricians at various levels of training intubated simulated airways faster using DL than GS.

  10. Reversible control of kinesin activity and microtubule gliding speeds by switching the doping states of a conducting polymer support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Brett D [US Naval Research Laboratory, Code 6930, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Velea, Luminita M [US Naval Research Laboratory, Code 6930, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Soto, Carissa M [US Naval Research Laboratory, Code 6930, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Whitaker, Craig M [US Naval Academy, Department of Chemistry, Annapolis, MD 21402 (United States); Gaber, Bruce P [US Naval Research Laboratory, Code 6930, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Ratna, Banahalli [US Naval Research Laboratory, Code 6930, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

    2007-02-07

    We describe a method for reversibly controlling the ATPase activity of streptavidin-linked kinesin by changing the doping states of a conducting polymer support. When the polymer (poly(CH{sub 2}OH-EDOT)) was electrochemically switched from its dedoped (semiconducting) state to its doped (conducting) state, the ATPase activity of the adsorbed kinesin complex decreased by 35% with a concomitant decrease in the gliding speeds of kinesin-driven microtubules. When the polymer was switched back to its original dedoped state, nearly identical increases were observed in the kinesin ATPase activity and microtubule speeds. Use of a fluorescent ATP substrate analogue showed that the total amount of kinesin adsorbed on the poly(CH{sub 2}OH-EDOT) surface remained constant as the doping state of the polymer was switched. The microtubules exhibited nearly identical speed differences on the doped and dedoped surfaces for both chemical and electrochemical doping methods. Michaelis-Menten modelling suggests that the doped surface acts as an 'uncompetitive inhibitor' of kinesin. This work represents an investigation into the phenomenon of an electrically switchable surface exerting a moderating effect on the activity of an adsorbed protein that does not contain a bound, electroactive metal ion.

  11. Porphyromonas gingivalis and related bacteria: from colonial pigmentation to the type IX secretion system and gliding motility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, K

    2015-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis is a gram-negative, non-motile, anaerobic bacterium implicated as a major pathogen in periodontal disease. P. gingivalis grows as black-pigmented colonies on blood agar, and many bacteriologists have shown interest in this property. Studies of colonial pigmentation have revealed a number of important findings, including an association with the highly active extracellular and surface proteinases called gingipains that are found in P. gingivalis. The Por secretion system, a novel type IX secretion system (T9SS), has been implicated in gingipain secretion in studies using non-pigmented mutants. In addition, many potent virulence proteins, including the metallocarboxypeptidase CPG70, 35 kDa hemin-binding protein HBP35, peptidylarginine deiminase PAD and Lys-specific serine endopeptidase PepK, are secreted through the T9SS. These findings have not been limited to P. gingivalis but have been extended to other bacteria belonging to the phylum Bacteroidetes. Many Bacteroidetes species possess the T9SS, which is associated with gliding motility for some of these bacteria. PMID:25546073

  12. Effect of Isothermal Aging on the Long-Term Reliability of Fine-Pitch Sn-Ag-Cu and Sn-Ag Solder Interconnects With and Without Board-Side Ni Surface Finish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tae-Kyu; Duh, Jeng-Gong

    2014-11-01

    The combined effects on long-term reliability of isothermal aging and chemically balanced or unbalanced surface finish have been investigated for fine-pitch ball grid array packages with Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu (SAC305) (wt.%) and Sn-3.5Ag (SnAg) (wt.%) solder ball interconnects. Two different printed circuit board surface finishes were selected to compare the effects of chemically balanced and unbalanced structure interconnects with and without board-side Ni surface finish. NiAu/solder/Cu and NiAu/solder/NiAu interconnects were isothermally aged and thermally cycled to evaluate long-term thermal fatigue reliability. Weibull plots of the combined effects of each aging condition and each surface finish revealed lifetime for NiAu/SAC305/Cu was reduced by approximately 40% by aging at 150°C; less degradation was observed for NiAu/SAC305/NiAu. Further reduction of characteristic life-cycle number was observed for NiAu/SnAg/NiAu joints. Microstructure was studied, focusing on its evolution near the board and package-side interfaces. Different mechanisms of aging were apparent under the different joint configurations. Their effects on the fatigue life of solder joints are discussed.

  13. Is scale-up of community mobilisation among sex workers really possible in complex urban environments? The case of Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongelf, Anine; Bandewar, Sunita V S; Bharat, Shalini; Collumbien, Martine

    2015-01-01

    In the last decade, community mobilisation (CM) interventions targeting female sex workers (FSWs) have been scaled-up in India's national response to the HIV epidemic. This included the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation's Avahan programme which adopted a business approach to plan and manage implementation at scale. With the focus of evaluation efforts on measuring effectiveness and health impacts there has been little analysis thus far of the interaction of the CM interventions with the sex work industry in complex urban environments. Between March and July 2012 semi-structured, in-depth interviews and focus group discussions were conducted with 63 HIV intervention implementers, to explore challenges of HIV prevention among FSWs in Mumbai. A thematic analysis identified contextual factors that impact CM implementation. Large-scale interventions are not only impacted by, but were shown to shape the dynamic social context. Registration practices and programme monitoring were experienced as stigmatising, reflected in shifting client preferences towards women not disclosing as 'sex workers'. This combined with urban redevelopment and gentrification of traditional red light areas, forcing dispersal and more 'hidden' ways of solicitation, further challenging outreach and collectivisation. Participants reported that brothel owners and 'pimps' continued to restrict access to sex workers and the heterogeneous 'community' of FSWs remains fragmented with high levels of mobility. Stakeholder engagement was poor and mobilising around HIV prevention not compelling. Interventions largely failed to respond to community needs as strong target-orientation skewed activities towards those most easily measured and reported. Large-scale interventions have been impacted by and contributed to an increasingly complex sex work environment in Mumbai, challenging outreach and mobilisation efforts. Sex workers remain a vulnerable and disempowered group needing continued support and more

  14. Is scale-up of community mobilisation among sex workers really possible in complex urban environments? The case of Mumbai, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anine Kongelf

    Full Text Available In the last decade, community mobilisation (CM interventions targeting female sex workers (FSWs have been scaled-up in India's national response to the HIV epidemic. This included the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation's Avahan programme which adopted a business approach to plan and manage implementation at scale. With the focus of evaluation efforts on measuring effectiveness and health impacts there has been little analysis thus far of the interaction of the CM interventions with the sex work industry in complex urban environments.Between March and July 2012 semi-structured, in-depth interviews and focus group discussions were conducted with 63 HIV intervention implementers, to explore challenges of HIV prevention among FSWs in Mumbai. A thematic analysis identified contextual factors that impact CM implementation. Large-scale interventions are not only impacted by, but were shown to shape the dynamic social context. Registration practices and programme monitoring were experienced as stigmatising, reflected in shifting client preferences towards women not disclosing as 'sex workers'. This combined with urban redevelopment and gentrification of traditional red light areas, forcing dispersal and more 'hidden' ways of solicitation, further challenging outreach and collectivisation. Participants reported that brothel owners and 'pimps' continued to restrict access to sex workers and the heterogeneous 'community' of FSWs remains fragmented with high levels of mobility. Stakeholder engagement was poor and mobilising around HIV prevention not compelling. Interventions largely failed to respond to community needs as strong target-orientation skewed activities towards those most easily measured and reported.Large-scale interventions have been impacted by and contributed to an increasingly complex sex work environment in Mumbai, challenging outreach and mobilisation efforts. Sex workers remain a vulnerable and disempowered group needing continued support

  15. Comparison of the reusable standard GlideScope® video laryngoscope and the disposable cobalt GlideScope® video laryngoscope for tracheal intubation in an academic emergency department: a retrospective review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakles, John C; Patanwala, Asad E; Mosier, Jarrod; Dicken, John; Holman, Nathan

    2014-04-01

    The objective was to compare the first-pass success and clinical performance characteristics of the reusable standard GlideScope® video laryngoscope (sGVL) and the disposable Cobalt GlideScope® video laryngoscope (cGVL). This was a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data recorded into a continuous quality improvement database at an urban academic emergency department (ED). The intent of the database is to evaluate operator performance and to track practice patterns used for intubation in the ED. Between July 1, 2007, and June 30, 2013, operators recorded all consecutive intubations performed in the ED. The database included patient demographics and detailed information about each intubation, such as device(s) used, reason for device selection, method of intubation, difficult airway characteristics, number of intubation attempts, and outcome of each attempt. The operator also evaluated the presence of lens fogging and extent of lens contamination. The primary outcome measure was first-pass success. Secondary outcome measures were ultimate success, Cormack-Lehane (CL) view of the airway, presence of lens fogging, and extent of lens contamination. Only adult patients age 18 years or older intubated with the sGVL or cGVL using a stylet, and who had data forms completed at the time of intubation, were included in this study. A total of 583 intubations were included in the study, 504 with the sGVL and 79 with cGVL. First pass success was achieved in 81.0% (95% confidence interval [CI]=77.3% to 84.3%) of patients in the sGVL group and in 58.2% (95% CI=46.6% to 69.2%) of patients in the cGVL group. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, the sGVL was associated with a higher first pass success than the cGVL (odds ratio [OR]=3.3, 95% CI=1.9 to 5.8). The ultimate success of the sGVL was 92.1% (95% CI=89.4% to 94.3%) and the cGVL was 72.2% (95% CI=60.9% to 81.7%). A CL grade I or II view was obtained in 93.2% (95% CI=90.7% to 95.3%) in the sGVL group

  16. A rapid assessment and response approach to review and enhance Advocacy, Communication and Social Mobilisation for Tuberculosis control in Odisha state, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyanarayana Srinath

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tuberculosis remains a major public health problem in India with the country accounting for 1 in 5 of all TB cases reported globally. An advocacy, communication and social mobilisation project for Tuberculosis control was implemented and evaluated in Odisha state of India. The purpose of the study was to identify the impact of project interventions including the use of 'Interface NGOs' and involvement of community groups such as women's self-help groups, local government bodies, village health sanitation committees, and general health staff in promoting TB control efforts. Methods The study utilized a rapid assessment and response (RAR methodology. The approach combined both qualitative field work approaches, including semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions with empirical data collection and desk research. Results Results revealed that a combination of factors including the involvement of Interface NGOs, coupled with increased training and engagement of front line health workers and community groups, and dissemination of community based resources, contributed to improved awareness and knowledge about TB in the targeted districts. Project activities also contributed towards improving health worker and community effectiveness to raise the TB agenda, and improved TB literacy and treatment adherence. Engagement of successfully treated patients also assisted in reducing community stigma and discrimination. Conclusion The expanded use of advocacy, communication and social mobilisation activities in TB control has resulted in a number of benefits. These include bridging pre-existing gaps between the health system and the community through support and coordination of general health services stakeholders, NGOs and the community. The strategic use of 'tailored messages' to address specific TB problems in low performing areas also led to more positive behavioural outcomes and improved efficiencies in service delivery

  17. Origin and availability of organic matter leading to arsenic mobilisation in aquifers of the Red River Delta, Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eiche, Elisabeth; Berg, Michael; Hönig, Sarah-Madeleine; Neumann, Thomas; Lan, Vi Mai; Pham, Thi Kim Trang; Pham, Hung Viet

    2017-01-01

    Groundwater arsenic (As) concentrations in the Red River Delta (Vietnam) are often patchy and related to the microbially induced reduction of Fe oxy-hydroxides. In this study, we explored the influence of the origin, composition and availability of natural organic matter on the hydrochemical variability in the aquifers of Van Phuc. Carbon isotope signatures (δ"1"3C_o_r_g) and C/N ratios were assessed in combination with lithology, geochemistry, hydrochemistry, hydrology and the distribution of specific biomarkers. The elationship of C/N ratios and δ"1"3C_o_r_g distinguished four groups of sediment types that differ in their organic carbon sources. This includes organic carbon originating predominantly from vascular C_3 plants (C/N: 15.4–21.0, δ"1"3C_o_r_g: −28.6 to −26.7‰), C_4 plants (C/N: 10.6; δ"1"3C_o_r_g: −14.8‰), freshwater derived particulate organic carbon (C/N: ≤8; δ"1"3C_o_r_g:≤−24‰) as well as mixtures incorporating both sources. At the high As sites, we found particulate organic carbon (POC) being 1–2‰ less depleted in δ"1"3C_o_r_g than at low As sites. More importantly, however, our assessment shows that, the availability of organic matter has to be considered decisive with regard to groundwater As contamination. Fine-grained clayey sediments overlaying sands generally protect organic matter from substantial degradation and its leaching into an adjacent aquifer. However, at the sites that are high in dissolved As in Van Phuc, sediment layers rich in organic matter are hydraulically connected to the underlying aquifer. Here, soluble organic matter seeping into the aquifer can induce and/or enhance reducing conditions, thereby mobilising As from Fe oxy-hydroxides. Our study shows that both the clay content as well as the origin of organic matter are largely controlled by the depositional environment of the sediments. - Highlights: • Particulate organic carbon (POC) from C_3/C_4 plants and freshwater is a main source of

  18. Inclusion as political mobilisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Anne Mette; Muwanga, Nansozi

    2016-01-01

    constituencies. Finally, there is relatively weak pressure to push through education quality-enhancing reforms, be it from civil society in general, powerful interest groups, or parliament. At the local level, we find that how a school is situated within local elite networks is important in explaining local...... to implement qualityenhancing policies, first, because the formal and informal governance arrangements allow for a system of decentralised rent management that serves to appease lower level factions. Secondly, the NRM government is caught in the rhetoric of allowing free education in an appeal to rural......Uganda has been successful in broadening access to education. However, this achievement has been undermined by low literacy and numeracy levels and high drop-out rates. A political settlement perspective sheds light on the politics of education reforms. We find that there are weak political drives...

  19. Investigation of the glide modes of single crystals of beryllium; Etude des modes de glissement de monocristaux de beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regnier, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-05-01

    The flow characteristics of single crystals of beryllium specially oriented for slip along a single plane and a single direction have been thoroughly investigated. The elastic limit and the strain hardening in basal glide have been investigated in the temperature range (-195 deg. C, 400 deg. C) in tension as well as in compression. Observation of the slip lines and of the dislocation configurations have also been made in addition to the mechanical tests. The prismatic slip has been studied in greater detail: tensile tests have been performed on specimens carefully oriented at different temperatures, strain rates and with varying orientations of the basal and of the prism planes. Tests have also been made in the micro-strain range; the slip lines and the dislocation arrangements were observed in detail. The very unusual variation of the elastic limit with temperature is not due to impurities but to a cross slip mechanism. A model of dislocation locking is proposed to account for the experimental results. This mechanism assumes that the a-bar dislocations may also dissociate on the prism planes [101-bar 0]. Various possible dissociations are suggested, the most probable of which corresponds to the phase transformation: Hexagonal close packed to body centered cubic. This proposal can be extended to account for the relative ease of glide on the different systems in the hexagonal close packed metals. (author) [French] L' ecoulement de monocristaux de berylliurn deformes en glissement basal et en glissement prismatique a ete etudie sur des echantillons orientes de maniere a favoriser au maximum la deformation suivant une seule direction d'un seul systeme de glissement. L'influence de la temperature sur la limite elastique et la consolidation en glissement basal a ete etudie depuis -195 deg. C jusqu' 400 deg. C sur des echantillons deformes en tension et sur d'autres deformes en compression. Ces essais mecaniques ont ete completes par l'observation des lignes de

  20. Thoracic mobilisation and periscapular soft tissue manipulations in the management of chronic Prolapsed Intervertebral Disc (PIVD - An innovative manual therapy approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj Kiran

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background The most common cause of CLBP is discogenic lower back pain. Researches haveshown that connective tissue remodelling occurs in CLBP and thoracic spinal mobility and thoracolumbar mobility have higher correlations with LBP. Aims To see the effect of upper back fascia and periscapular muscles stretching and thoracic mobilisation to reduce symptoms in subjects with CLBP due to lumbar disk herniation. Methods A total of 40 subjects with CLBP due to Prolapsed Intervertebral Disc (PIVD were recruited and randomly distributed in two groups. Group 1 was given stretching of upper back fascia and periscapular muscles and thoracic mobilization along with conventional exercises (Cyriax listing correction -I followed by repeated McKenzie back extension exercise and Core muscle strengthening. Group 2 received only conventional exercises. Outcome Measures: visual analog scale, Oswestry Disability Index and Modified Schober's Test. Measurements were taken before and after three weeks of treatment, for five days/week. Results Overall results of the study, both Group 1 and Group 2 showed improvement in pain, function and lumbar Range of Motion (ROM after three weeks of intervention. However, Group 1 improved significantly to a greater extent in pain, ROM and function than the Group 2. Conclusion Stretching of periscapular muscles and fascia of the upper back and mobilisation of upper thoracic spine is found to be effective for the management of chronic low back pain due to PIVD.

  1. Des gentrifieurs mobilisés. Les associations de quartier du South End à Boston The mobilised gentrifiers. The neighbourhood associations of South End, Boston

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Tissot

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Cet article porte sur un processus de gentrification dans un quartier d’une grande agglomération des États-Unis, Boston. Il montre que ce processus n’a pas seulement résulté de l’évolution des forces du marché et du retour des capitaux dans les centres-villes, des politiques de rénovation urbaine et de transformations culturelles. La mobilisation collective des nouveaux propriétaires a eu un impact décisif, via les associations de quartier dans lesquelles ils se sont engagés depuis les années 1960.This article concerns the process of gentrification in a district of a large urban area in the United States, Boston. It shows that this process has resulted not only from the evolution of market forces and the return of wealth to the inner cities, urban renewal policies and cultural transformations. The collective mobilisation of new property owners has also had a decisive impact, via the neighbourhood associations in which they have been involved since the 1960s.

  2. Molecular and cultivation-dependent analysis of metal-reducing bacteria implicated in arsenic mobilisation in south-east asian aquifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hery, Marina; Gault, Andrew G.; Rowland, Helen A.L.; Lear, Gavin; Polya, David A.; Lloyd, Jonathan R.

    2008-01-01

    The reduction of sorbed As(V) to the potentially more mobile As(III) by As-respiring anaerobic bacteria has been implicated in the mobilisation of the toxic metalloid in aquifer sediments in SE Asia. However, there is currently only a limited amount of information on the identity of the organisms that can respire As(V) in these sediment systems. Here experiments are described that have targeted As(V)-respiring bacteria using cultivation-independent molecular techniques, and also more traditional microbiological approaches that have used growth media highly selective for organisms that can grow using arsenate as the sole electron acceptor supplied for anaerobic growth. The molecular techniques used have initially targeted DNA from microcosms displaying maximal rates of arsenate reduction, both with and without added electron donor. More recent studies from the authors' laboratory have used stable isotope probing techniques, targeting DNA from the active microbial fraction in microcosms labelled with [ 13 C]acetate supplied as an electron donor for arsenate reduction. Phylogenetic analyses using a highly conserved genetic marker (the 16S rRNA gene) have suggested the involvement of Sulfurospirillum and Geobacter species in arsenate-respiration, and this has been supported further by complimentary experiments using more traditional microbiological techniques. Additional research required to clarify the role of these organisms in the mobilisation of As in situ are discussed

  3. Quantitative analysis of Plasmodium ookinete motion in three dimensions suggests a critical role for cell shape in the biomechanics of malaria parasite gliding motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Andrey; Tan, Yan-Hong; Angrisano, Fiona; Hanssen, Eric; Rogers, Kelly L; Whitehead, Lachlan; Mollard, Vanessa P; Cozijnsen, Anton; Delves, Michael J; Crawford, Simon; Sinden, Robert E; McFadden, Geoffrey I; Leckie, Christopher; Bailey, James; Baum, Jake

    2014-05-01

    Motility is a fundamental part of cellular life and survival, including for Plasmodium parasites--single-celled protozoan pathogens responsible for human malaria. The motile life cycle forms achieve motility, called gliding, via the activity of an internal actomyosin motor. Although gliding is based on the well-studied system of actin and myosin, its core biomechanics are not completely understood. Currently accepted models suggest it results from a specifically organized cellular motor that produces a rearward directional force. When linked to surface-bound adhesins, this force is passaged to the cell posterior, propelling the parasite forwards. Gliding motility is observed in all three life cycle stages of Plasmodium: sporozoites, merozoites and ookinetes. However, it is only the ookinetes--formed inside the midgut of infected mosquitoes--that display continuous gliding without the necessity of host cell entry. This makes them ideal candidates for invasion-free biomechanical analysis. Here we apply a plate-based imaging approach to study ookinete motion in three-dimensional (3D) space to understand Plasmodium cell motility and how movement facilitates midgut colonization. Using single-cell tracking and numerical analysis of parasite motion in 3D, our analysis demonstrates that ookinetes move with a conserved left-handed helical trajectory. Investigation of cell morphology suggests this trajectory may be based on the ookinete subpellicular cytoskeleton, with complementary whole and subcellular electron microscopy showing that, like their motion paths, ookinetes share a conserved left-handed corkscrew shape and underlying twisted microtubular architecture. Through comparisons of 3D movement between wild-type ookinetes and a cytoskeleton-knockout mutant we demonstrate that perturbation of cell shape changes motion from helical to broadly linear. Therefore, while the precise linkages between cellular architecture and actomyosin motor organization remain unknown, our

  4. Dislocation glide in Ni-Al solid solutions from the atomic scale up: a molecular dynamics study; Etude du glissement des dislocations dans la solution solide Ni-Al par simulation a l'echelle atomique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodary, E

    2003-01-01

    The glide of an edge dislocation in solid solutions is studied by molecular dynamics, at fixed temperature and imposed external stress. We have optimized an EAM potential for Ni(1 a 8% A1): it well reproduces the lattice expansion, local atomic order, stacking fault energy as a function of composition, as well as the elastic properties of the {gamma}' phase with L1{sub 2} structure. On increasing the stress, the dislocation is first immobile, then glides with a velocity proportional to the stress and the velocity saturates on reaching the transverse sound velocity. However, only beyond a static threshold stress, {sigma}{sub s}, does the dislocation glide a distance large enough to allow macroscopic shear; the linear part of the velocity-stress curve extrapolates to zero at a dynamical threshold stress, {sigma}{sub d}, The friction coefficient, and the threshold stresses ({sigma}{sub s} and {sigma}{sub d}), increase with the A1 concentration and decrease with temperature (300 and 500 K). Close to the critical shear stress, {sigma}{sub s}, the dislocation glide is analysed with a 'stop and go' model. The latter yields the flight velocity between obstacles, the mean obstacle density and the distribution of the waiting time on each obstacle as a function of stress, composition and temperature. The obstacle to the glide is proposed to be the strong repulsion between Al atoms brought into nearest neighbour position by the glide process, and not the dislocation-solute interaction. The microscopic parameters so defined are introduced into a micro-mechanical model, which well reproduces the known behaviour of nickel base solid solutions. (author)

  5. Cost-effectiveness and affordability of community mobilisation through women's groups and quality improvement in health facilities (MaiKhanda trial) in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbourn, Tim; Pulkki-Brännström, Anni-Maria; Nambiar, Bejoy; Kim, Sungwook; Bondo, Austin; Banda, Lumbani; Makwenda, Charles; Batura, Neha; Haghparast-Bidgoli, Hassan; Hunter, Rachael; Costello, Anthony; Baio, Gianluca; Skordis-Worrall, Jolene

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the cost-effectiveness and affordability of interventions to reduce maternal and newborn deaths is critical to persuading policymakers and donors to implement at scale. The effectiveness of community mobilisation through women's groups and health facility quality improvement, both aiming to reduce maternal and neonatal mortality, was assessed by a cluster randomised controlled trial conducted in rural Malawi in 2008-2010. In this paper, we calculate intervention cost-effectiveness and model the affordability of the interventions at scale. Bayesian methods are used to estimate the incremental cost-effectiveness of the community and facility interventions on their own (CI, FI), and together (FICI), compared to current practice in rural Malawi. Effects are estimated with Monte Carlo simulation using the combined full probability distributions of intervention effects on stillbirths, neonatal deaths and maternal deaths. Cost data was collected prospectively from a provider perspective using an ingredients approach and disaggregated at the intervention (not cluster or individual) level. Expected Incremental Benefit, Cost-effectiveness Acceptability Curves and Expected Value of Information (EVI) were calculated using a threshold of $780 per disability-adjusted life-year (DALY) averted, the per capita gross domestic product of Malawi in 2013 international $. The incremental cost-effectiveness of CI, FI, and combined FICI was $79, $281, and $146 per DALY averted respectively, compared to current practice. FI is dominated by CI and FICI. Taking into account uncertainty, both CI and combined FICI are highly likely to be cost effective (probability 98% and 93%, EVI $210,423 and $598,177 respectively). Combined FICI is incrementally cost effective compared to either intervention individually (probability 60%, ICER $292, EIB $9,334,580 compared to CI). Future scenarios also found FICI to be the optimal decision. Scaling-up to the whole of Malawi, CI is of greatest

  6. Ceratoplastia endotelial com desnudamento da Descemet(DSEK utilizando o dispositivo TAN EndoGlideTM: série de casos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Santiago Baltar Pazos

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Relatar os resultados da ceratoplastia endotelial com desnudamento da Descemet (DSEK utilizando o dispositivo TAN EndoGlideTM para facilitar a introdução da membrana endotelial. MÉTODOS: Série de casos consecutivos, prospectiva. Foram incluídos 9 pacientes com edema corneano secundário à disfunção endotelial. Melhor acuidade visual corrigida, refração, astigmatismo ceratométrico, espessura corneana central, densidade das células endoteliais e complicações foram analisadas após seguimento de seis meses. RESULTADOS: Houve melhora do edema de córnea e da visão em 7 pacientes (77,78%. A melhor acuidade visual corrigida ficou entre 20/40 e 20/200. A densidade endotelial média após 6 meses variou entre 1.305 céls/mm² e 2.346 céls/mm² com média de perda de 33,14%. Desprendimento de parte do enxerto ocorreu em 1 olho (11,11%, falência primária do transplante endotelial em 2 olhos (22,22%. CONCLUSÃO: O dispositivo TAN EndoGlideTM facilita a introdução do enxerto na ceratoplastia endotelial com desnudamento da Descemet.

  7. Incidence of dentinal defects after preparation of severely curved root canals using the Reciproc single-file system with and without prior creation of a glide path.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saber, S E D M; Schäfer, E

    2016-11-01

    To investigate the incidence of dentinal defects after preparation of severely curved root canals using the Reciproc single-file system with and without prior creation of a glide path. Mesial roots from extracted mandibular first molars were collected and scanned with CBCT to assess the morphology of the root canal systems. Three groups of 20 anatomically comparable specimens were generated. The control group was left unprepared, whilst the experimental groups were prepared with Reciproc R25 with and without a glide path (groups RG and R, respectively). Roots were then sectioned perpendicular to the long axis at 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 mm from the apex, and coloured photographs of the sections at 40× were obtained. Two blinded examiners registered the presence of dentinal defects twice at 2-week interval. Data were statistically analysed using the Fisher exact and Cochran's Q tests. No defects were observed in the control group. The overall incidence of dentinal defects was 26% in group R and 24% in group RG, with no significant differences between them (P > 0.05). Dentinal defects occurred significantly more often in the middle and coronal thirds compared to the apical third of the canals (P files. © 2015 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. The influence of torque and manual glide path on the defect or separation rate of NiTi rotary instruments in root canal therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarrabi M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the effecting factors in prognosis of root canal therapy is accidental procedure as broken files that may be unpreventable. Many manufacturers have designed and marketed various electromotors that can control rotational speed and torque. On the other hand, some studies have recommended applying a manual glide path to diminish contact area between the file and canal walls. The purpose of this study was evaluation of the effect of torque and a manual glide path on defects as separation of Nickel-titanium (NiTi rotary files. Materials and Methods: This ex vivo randomized controlled trial study was carried out on 160 canals of human′s matured molars with mild curvature (15-338. After initial preparation of samples and checking for inclusion criteria, in first group, preparation was carried out with air-driven handpiece, and in group two, Endo IT was used as electromotor. In both groups, Mtwo files with simultaneous technique were used for preparation. Then all data were collected and analyzed with Mann Whitny, Mantel Cox, and t-test. Results: No significant differences between two groups (P < 0.05 were observed. Based on survival analysis, safety probability of files after preparation of nine canals is 64% in group one and 69.9% in group two. There was no significant differences between this safety probability in two groups (P = 0.272. Conclusion: Usage of torque control handpiece is not an important factor, comparing instrumentation technique.

  9. Powered Hang Gliding

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    easy to invent a flying machine. More difficult to ... For Lilienthal, the only means of developing a flying machine .... Learning to fly a trike is probably a little more difficult than .... tory to maintain a log book that records the details of each flight.

  10. Monitoring community mobilisation and organisational capacity among high-risk groups in a large-scale HIV prevention programme in India: selected findings using a Community Ownership and Preparedness Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Pradeep; Moulasha, K; Wheeler, Tisha; Baer, James; Bharadwaj, Sowmyaa; Ramanathan, T V; Thomas, Tom

    2012-10-01

    In a participatory approach to health and development interventions, defining and measuring community mobilisation is important, but it is challenging to do this effectively, especially at scale. A cross-sectional, participatory monitoring tool was administered in 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 across a representative sample of 25 community-based groups (CBGs) formed under the Avahan India AIDS Initiative, to assess their progress in mobilisation, and to inform efforts to strengthen the groups and make them sustainable. The survey used a weighted index to capture both qualitative and quantitative data in numeric form. The index permitted broad, as well as highly detailed, analysis of community mobilisation, relevant at the level of individual groups, as well as state-wide and across the whole programme. The survey demonstrated that leadership and programme management were the strongest areas among the CBGs, confirming the programme's investment in these areas. Discussion of the Round 1 results led to efforts to strengthen governance and democratic decision making in the groups, and progress was reflected in the Round 2 survey results. CBG engagement with state authorities to gain rights and entitlements and securing the long-term financial stability of groups remain a challenge. The survey has proven useful for informing the managers of programmes about what is happening on the ground, and it has opened spaces for discussion within community groups about the nature of leadership, decision making and their goals, which is leading to accelerated progress. The tool provided useful data to manage community mobilisation in Avahan.

  11. Thoughts on implementation of the recommendations of the GBIF Task Group on a Global Strategy and Action Plan for Mobilisation of Natural History Collections Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas King

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF has a mandate to facilitate free and open access to primary biodiversity data worldwide. This Special Issue of Biodiversity Informatics publishes the findings of the recent GBIF Task Group on a Global Strategy and Action Plan for Mobilisation of Natural History Collections Data (GSAP-NHC. The GSAP-NHC Task Group has made three primary recommendations dealing with discovery, capture, and publishing of natural history collections data. This overview article provides insight on various activities initiated by GBIF to date to assist with an early uptake and implementation of these recommendations. It calls for proactive participation by all relevant players and stakeholder communities. Given recent technological progress and growing recognition and attention to biodiversity science worldwide, we think rapid progress in discovery, publishing and access to large volumes of useful collection data can be achieved for the immediate benefit of science and society.

  12. 'SASA! is the medicine that treats violence'. Qualitative findings on how a community mobilisation intervention to prevent violence against women created change in Kampala, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyegombe, Nambusi; Starmann, Elizabeth; Devries, Karen M; Michau, Lori; Nakuti, Janet; Musuya, Tina; Watts, Charlotte; Heise, Lori

    2014-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) violates women's human rights and is a serious public health concern. Historically strategies to prevent IPV have focussed on individuals and their relationships without addressing the context under which IPV occurs. Primary prevention of IPV is a relatively new focus of international efforts and what SASA!, a phased community mobilisation intervention, seeks to achieve. Conducted in Kampala, Uganda, between 2007 and 2012, the SASA! Study is a cluster randomised controlled trial to assess the community-level impact of SASA! This nested qualitative study explores pathways of individual- and community-level change as a result of SASA! Forty in-depth interviews with community members (20 women, 20 men) were conducted at follow-up, audio recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using thematic analysis complemented by constant comparative methods. SASA! influenced the dynamics of relationships and broader community norms. At the relationship level, SASA! is helping partners to explore the benefits of mutually supportive gender roles; improve communication on a variety of issues; increase levels of joint decision-making and highlight non-violent ways to deal with anger or disagreement. Not all relationships experienced the same breadth and depth of change. At the community level, SASA! has helped foster a climate of non-tolerance of violence by reducing the acceptability of violence against women and increasing individuals' skills, willingness, and sense of responsibility to act to prevent it. It has also developed and strengthened community-based structures to catalyse and support on-going activism to prevent IPV. This paper provides evidence of the ways in which community-based violence prevention interventions may reduce IPV in low-income settings. It offers important implications for community mobilisation approaches and for prevention of IPV against women. This research has demonstrated the potential of social norm change

  13. Impacts of erosion and restoration on POC flux and pollutant mobilisation in the peatlands of the Peak District National Park, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuttleworth, E. L.; Evans, M. G.; Rothwell, J. J.; Hutchinson, S. M.

    2012-04-01

    Peatlands represent major carbon stores. However, much of the UK's blanket peat is significantly degraded and actively eroding which significantly impacts carbon storage through the physical export of particulate organic carbon (POC). The stability of peatlands is therefore important for the preservation this carbon store and the restoration of the eroded peat of the Peak District, southern Pennines, UK has been a major conservation concern for several decades. The near-surface layer of these blanket peats is severely contaminated with high concentrations of atmospherically deposited lead - a legacy of Britain's Industrial Revolution. Recently there has been growing interest in the mobilisation of this heavy metal which has been shown to be associated with POC. However, little is known about the source and quality of sediment still entering the fluvial system in revegetated catchments. Understanding the physical process dynamics relating to revegetation and sediment flux is required in order to assess the efficacy of peatland restoration operations in reducing POC and lead release. Three sites have been studied in the Bleaklow area of the Peak District; each representing different surface conditions: (i) actively eroding, (ii) recently revegetated and, (iii) intact. The contaminated nature of the near surface peat distinguishes POC mobilised from the peat surface from that eroded from gully walls. This has allowed a fingerprinting approach to be adopted as a means of characterising and identifying the sources of sediment entering the fluvial system. A survey of surface lead concentrations at each site was conducted and other catchment sources were identified and their relative contribution to the suspended load assessed. POC fluxes are greatly reduced following restoration to levels comparable to intact sites. Lead flux is also significantly reduced but surface condition makes little difference to the quality of the sediment, i.e. the concentration of lead

  14. A clustered randomised trial examining the effect of social marketing and community mobilisation on the age of uptake and levels of alcohol consumption by Australian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Bosco; Toumbourou, John Winston; Osborn, Amber; Smith, Rachel; Hall, Jessica Kate; Kremer, Peter; Kelly, Adrian B; Williams, Joanne; Leslie, Eva

    2013-01-24

    Throughout the world, alcohol consumption is common among adolescents. Adolescent alcohol use and misuse have prognostic significance for several adverse long-term outcomes, including alcohol problems, alcohol dependence, school disengagement and illicit drug use. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether randomisation to a community mobilisation and social marketing intervention reduces the proportion of adolescents who initiate alcohol use before the Australian legal age of 18, and the frequency and amount of underage adolescent alcohol consumption. The study comprises 14 communities matched with 14 non-contiguous communities on socioeconomic status (SES), location and size. One of each pair was randomly allocated to the intervention. Baseline levels of adolescent alcohol use were estimated through school surveys initiated in 2006 (N=8500). Community mobilisation and social marketing interventions were initiated in 2011 to reduce underage alcohol supply and demand. The setting is communities in three Australian states (Victoria, Queensland and Western Australia). Students (N=2576) will complete school surveys in year 8 in 2013 (average age 12). (1) lifetime initiation and (2) monthly frequency of alcohol use. Reports of social marketing and family and community alcohol supply sources will also be assessed. Point estimates with 95% CIs will be compared for student alcohol use in intervention and control communities. Changes from 2006 to 2013 will be examined; multilevel modelling will assess whether random assignment of communities to the intervention reduced 2013 alcohol use, after accounting for community level differences. Analyses will also assess whether exposure to social marketing activities increased the intervention target of reducing alcohol supply by parents and community members. ACTRN12612000384853.

  15. Preservation of root canal anatomy using self-adjusting file instrumentation with glide path prepared by 20/0.02 hand files versus 20/0.04 rotary files

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Niharika; Pawar, Ajinkya M.; Ukey, Piyush D.; Jain, Prashant K.; Thakur, Bhagyashree; Gupta, Abhishek

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the relative axis modification and canal concentricity after glide path preparation with 20/0.02 hand K-file (NITIFLEX®) and 20/0.04 rotary file (HyFlex™ CM) with subsequent instrumentation with 1.5 mm self-adjusting file (SAF). Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty ISO 15, 0.02 taper, Endo Training Blocks (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) were acquired and randomly divided into following two groups (n = 60): group 1, establishing glide path till 20/0.02 hand K-file (NITIFLEX®) followed by instrumentation with 1.5 mm SAF; and Group 2, establishing glide path till 20/0.04 rotary file (HyFlex™ CM) followed by instrumentation with 1.5 mm SAF. Pre- and post-instrumentation digital images were processed with MATLAB R 2013 software to identify the central axis, and then superimposed using digital imaging software (Picasa 3.0 software, Google Inc., California, USA) taking five landmarks as reference points. Student's t-test for pairwise comparisons was applied with the level of significance set at 0.05. Results: Training blocks instrumented with 20/0.04 rotary file and SAF were associated less deviation in canal axis (at all the five marked points), representing better canal concentricity compared to those, in which glide path was established by 20/0.02 hand K-files followed by SAF instrumentation. Conclusion: Canal geometry is better maintained after SAF instrumentation with a prior glide path established with 20/0.04 rotary file. PMID:28855752

  16. Increase in the Hydrophilicity and Lewis Acid-Base Properties of Solid Surfaces Achieved by Electric Gliding Discharge in Humid Air: Effects on Bacterial Adherence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamgang, J. O.; Brisset, J.-L.; Naitali, M.; Herry, J.-M.; Bellon-Fontaine, M.-N.; Briandet, R.

    2009-01-01

    This study addressed the effects of treatment with gliding discharge plasma on the surface properties of solid materials, as well as the consequences concerning adherence of a model bacterium. As evaluated by contact angles with selected liquids, plasma treatment caused an increase in surface hydrophilicity and in the Lewis acid-base components of the surface energy of all materials tested. These modifications were more marked for low density polyethylene and stainless steel than for polytetrafluoroethylene. After treatment, the hydrophilicity of the materials remained relatively stable for at least 20 days. Moreover, analysis of the topography of the materials by atomic force microscopy revealed that the roughness of both polymers was reduced by glidarc plasma treatment. As a result of all these modifications, solid substrates were activated towards micro-organisms and the adherence of S. epidermidis, a negatively charged Lewis-base and mildly hydrophilic strain selected as the model, was increased in almost all the cases tested. (plasma technology)

  17. Comparison among manual instruments and PathFile and Mtwo rotary instruments to create a glide path in the root canal preparation of curved canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Vanessa de Oliveira; Bueno, Carlos Eduardo da Silveira; Cunha, Rodrigo Sanches; Pinheiro, Sérgio Luiz; Fontana, Carlos Eduardo; de Martin, Alexandre Sigrist

    2012-01-01

    Nickel-titanium rotary instruments reduce procedural errors and the time required to finish root canal preparation. The goal of this study was to evaluate the occurrences of apical transportation and canal aberrations produced with different instruments used to create a glide path in the preparation of curved root canals, namely manual K-files (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) and PathFile (Dentsply Maillefer) and Mtwo (Sweden and Martina, Padua, Italy) nickel-titanium rotary files. The mesial canals of 45 mandibular first and second molars (with curvature angles between 25° and 35°) were selected for this study. The specimens were divided randomly into 3 groups with 15 canals each, and canal preparation was performed by an endodontist using #10-15-20 K-type stainless steel manual files (group M), #13-16-19 PathFile rotary instruments (group PF), and #10-15-20 Mtwo rotary instruments (group MT). The double digital radiograph technique was used, pre- and postinstrumentation, to assess whether apical transportation and/or aberration in root canal morphology occurred. The initial and final images of the central axis of the canals were compared by superimposition through computerized analysis and with the aid of magnification. The specimens were analyzed by 3 evaluators, whose calibration was checked using the Kendall agreement test. No apical transportation or aberration in root canal morphology occurred in any of the teeth; therefore, no statistical analysis was conducted. Neither the manual instruments nor the PathFile or Mtwo rotary instruments used to create a glide path had any influence on the occurrence of apical transportation or produced any canal aberration. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Tracheal intubation in the emergency department: a comparison of GlideScope® video laryngoscopy to direct laryngoscopy in 822 intubations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakles, John C; Mosier, Jarrod M; Chiu, Stephen; Keim, Samuel M

    2012-04-01

    Video laryngoscopy has, in recent years, become more available to emergency physicians. However, little research has been conducted to compare their success to conventional direct laryngoscopy. To compare the success rates of GlideScope(®) (Verathon Inc., Bothell, WA) videolaryngoscopy (GVL) with direct laryngoscopy (DL) for emergency department (ED) intubations. This was a 24-month retrospective observational study of all patients intubated in a single academic ED with a level I trauma center. Structured data forms were completed after each intubation and entered into a continuous quality improvement database. All patients intubated in the ED with either the GlideScope(®) standard, Cobalt, Ranger, or traditional Macintosh or Miller laryngoscopes were included. All patients intubated before arrival were excluded. Primary analysis evaluated overall and first-attempt success rates, operator experience level, performance characteristics of GVL, complications, and reasons for failure. There were 943 patients intubated during the study period; 120 were excluded due to alternative management strategies. DL was used in 583 (62%) patients, and GVL in 360 (38%). GVL had higher first-attempt success (75%, p = 0.03); DL had a higher success rate when more than one attempt was required (57%, p = 0.003). The devices had statistically equivalent overall success rates. GVL had fewer esophageal intubations (n = 1) than DL (n = 18); p = 0.005. The two techniques performed equivalently overall, however, GVL had a higher overall success rate, and lower number of esophageal complications. In the setting of ED intubations, GVL offers an excellent option to maximize first-attempt success for airway management. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Community Mobilisation and Empowerment Interventions as Part of HIV Prevention for Female Sex Workers in Southern India: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassall, Anna; Chandrashekar, Sudhashree; Pickles, Michael; Beattie, Tara S.; Shetty, Govindraj; Bhattacharjee, Parinita; Boily, Marie-Claude; Vickerman, Peter; Bradley, Janet; Alary, Michel; Moses, Stephen; Watts, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Background Most HIV prevention for female sex workers (FSWs) focuses on individual behaviour change involving peer educators, condom promotion and the provision of sexual health services. However, there is a growing recognition of the need to address broader societal, contextual and structural factors contributing to FSW risk behaviour. We assess the cost-effectiveness of adding community mobilisation (CM) and empowerment interventions (eg. community mobilisation, community involvement in programme management and services, violence reduction, and addressing legal policies and police practices), to core HIV prevention services delivered as part of Avahan in two districts (Bellary and Belgaum) of Karnataka state, Southern India. Methods An ingredients approach was used to estimate economic costs in US$ 2011 from an HIV programme perspective of CM and empowerment interventions over a seven year period (2004–2011). Incremental impact, in terms of HIV infections averted, was estimated using a two-stage process. An ‘exposure analysis’ explored whether exposure to CM was associated with FSW’s empowerment, risk behaviours and HIV/STI prevalence. Pathway analyses were then used to estimate the extent to which behaviour change may be attributable to CM and to inform a dynamic HIV transmission model. Findings The incremental costs of CM and empowerment were US$ 307,711 in Belgaum and US$ 592,903 in Bellary over seven years (2004–2011). Over a 7-year period (2004–2011) the mean (standard deviation, sd.) number of HIV infections averted through CM and empowerment is estimated to be 1257 (308) in Belgaum and 2775 (1260) in Bellary. This translates in a mean (sd.) incremental cost per disability adjusted life year (DALY) averted of US$ 14.12 (3.68) in Belgaum and US$ 13.48 (6.80) for Bellary - well below the World Health Organisation recommended willingness to pay threshold for India. When savings from ART are taken into account, investments in CM and empowerment are

  20. Community mobilisation and empowerment interventions as part of HIV prevention for female sex workers in Southern India: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassall, Anna; Chandrashekar, Sudhashree; Pickles, Michael; Beattie, Tara S; Shetty, Govindraj; Bhattacharjee, Parinita; Boily, Marie-Claude; Vickerman, Peter; Bradley, Janet; Alary, Michel; Moses, Stephen; Watts, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Most HIV prevention for female sex workers (FSWs) focuses on individual behaviour change involving peer educators, condom promotion and the provision of sexual health services. However, there is a growing recognition of the need to address broader societal, contextual and structural factors contributing to FSW risk behaviour. We assess the cost-effectiveness of adding community mobilisation (CM) and empowerment interventions (eg. community mobilisation, community involvement in programme management and services, violence reduction, and addressing legal policies and police practices), to core HIV prevention services delivered as part of Avahan in two districts (Bellary and Belgaum) of Karnataka state, Southern India. An ingredients approach was used to estimate economic costs in US$ 2011 from an HIV programme perspective of CM and empowerment interventions over a seven year period (2004-2011). Incremental impact, in terms of HIV infections averted, was estimated using a two-stage process. An 'exposure analysis' explored whether exposure to CM was associated with FSW's empowerment, risk behaviours and HIV/STI prevalence. Pathway analyses were then used to estimate the extent to which behaviour change may be attributable to CM and to inform a dynamic HIV transmission model. The incremental costs of CM and empowerment were US$ 307,711 in Belgaum and US$ 592,903 in Bellary over seven years (2004-2011). Over a 7-year period (2004-2011) the mean (standard deviation, sd.) number of HIV infections averted through CM and empowerment is estimated to be 1257 (308) in Belgaum and 2775 (1260) in Bellary. This translates in a mean (sd.) incremental cost per disability adjusted life year (DALY) averted of US$ 14.12 (3.68) in Belgaum and US$ 13.48 (6.80) for Bellary--well below the World Health Organisation recommended willingness to pay threshold for India. When savings from ART are taken into account, investments in CM and empowerment are cost saving. Our findings suggest that CM

  1. Scale model helps Duke untie construction snags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    A nuclear power plant model, only 60 percent complete, has helped Duke Power identify over 150 major design interferences, which, when resolved, will help cut capital expense and eliminate scheduling problems that normally crop up as revisions are made during actual plant construction. The model has been used by construction, steam production, and design personnel to recommend changes that should improve material handling, operations, and maintenance procedures as well as simplifying piping and cabling. The company has already saved many man-hours in material take-off, material management, and detailed drafting and expects to save even more with greater use of, and improvement in, its modeling program. Duke's modeling program was authorized and became operational in November 1974, with the first model to be the Catawba Nuclear Station. This plant is a two-unit station using Westinghouse nuclear steam supply systems in tandem with General Electric turbine-generators, horizontal feedwater heaters, and Foster Wheeler triple pressure condensers. Each unit is rated 1142 MWe

  2. I 'like' MPOWER: using Facebook, online ads and new media to mobilise tobacco control communities in low-income and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamill, Stephen; Turk, Tahir; Murukutla, Nandita; Ghamrawy, Mohamed; Mullin, Sandra

    2015-05-01

    New media campaigns hold great potential to grow public awareness about the dangers of tobacco use and advance tobacco control policies, including in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs), which have shared in a decade of explosive growth in mobile and internet penetration. With the majority of deaths from the tobacco epidemic occurring in LMICs, new media must be harnessed both as an advocacy tool to promote social mobilisation around tobacco issues and to build public support for MPOWER policies. This paper examines three consecutive new media advocacy campaigns that used communication channels such as mobile SMS, Facebook and online advertising to promote tobacco control policies. It includes some of the lessons learned, such as the pitfalls of relying on viral growth as a strategy for obtaining reach and campaign growth; the challenge of translating strategies from traditional media to new media; and the importance of incorporating marketing strategies such as paid advertising, community organising or public relations. It also identifies some of the many knowledge gaps and proposes future research directions. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  3. Contact metamorphic effects of the basic intrusive rocks on the Proterozoic uraniferous dolostone in Cuddapah basin, Andhra Pradesh: implications on uranium mobilisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Minati; Panda, Arjuna; Dhana Raju, R.

    1997-01-01

    Mafic intrusive rocks in the Vempalle formation of the mid-Proterozoic Cuddapah basin occur as sills and dykes. These include minor bodies of gabbro, olivine gabbro, olivine norite, basalt and mainly dolerite with basaltic andesite. The metamorphic effects of these intrusive rocks on the uraniferous phosphatic siliceous dolostone are mainly mineralogical (thermal) with subordinate changes in chemistry. These are manifested by (a) formation of plagioclase-hornblende hornfels, (b) notable mineralogical changes in the dolostone leading to enrichment of magnetite, epidote, anatase and de-dolomitised calcite, (c) decrease in specific gravity of dolostone from 3.0 to 2.8 due to volatilisation reaction products of epidote and smectite, and (d) formation of wollastonite, chalcedony, and secondary uranium minerals (autunite and uranophane) at places, in the contact aureole that led to notable changes in the chemistry of the intrusive body and the host rock. Intrusive rocks at the contact show enrichment in Fe 2+ , Mg, Cu, Cr, Pb, Zn, Ni, and depletion in Ca and Fe 3+ , whereas the dolostone shows enrichment in Ti, Ca, and depletion in Si, Al, alkalies and P. Depletion of uranium in the affected parts (0.003% U 3 O 8 ) of mineralised dolostone (0.062% U 3 O 8 ) adjacent to the basic intrusive rocks suggests its mobilisation, due to increase in temperature, resulting in baking. This phenomenon is also manifested, at places, in the formation of secondary uranium minerals - result of remobilisation of uranium from primary phases and its subsequent precipitation. (author)

  4. Spa therapy together with supervised self-mobilisation improves pain, function and quality of life in patients with chronic shoulder pain: a single-blind randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chary-Valckenaere, Isabelle; Loeuille, Damien; Jay, Nicolas; Kohler, François; Tamisier, Jean-Noë; Roques, Christian-François; Boulange, Michel; Gay, Gérard

    2018-02-01

    To determine whether spa therapy has a beneficial effect on pain and disability in patients with chronic shoulder pain, this single-blind randomised controlled clinical trial included patients with chronic shoulder pain due to miscellaneous conditions attending one of four spa centres as outpatients. Patients were randomised into two groups: spa therapy (18 days of standardised treatment combining thermal therapy together with supervised mobilisation in a thermal pool) and controls (spa therapy delayed for 6 months: `immediate versus delayed treatment' paradigm). All patients continued usual treatments during the 6-month follow-up period. The main endpoint was the mean change in the French-Quick DASH (F-QD) score at 6 months. The effect size of spa therapy was calculated, and the proportion of patients reaching minimal clinically important improvement (MCII) was compared. Secondary endpoints were the mean change in SF-36, treatment use and tolerance. One hundred eighty-six patients were included (94 patients as controls, 92 in the spa group) and analysed by intention to treat. At 6 months, the mean change in the F-QD score was statistically significantly greater among spa therapy patients than controls (- 32.6 versus - 8.15%; p impact on SF-36 components but not on drug intake. Spa therapy provided a statistically significant benefit on pain, function and quality of life in patients with chronic shoulder pain after 6 months compared with usual care.

  5. Demand generation and social mobilisation for integrated community case management (iCCM) and child health: Lessons learned from successful programmes in Niger and Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkey, Alyssa B; Martin, Sandrine; Cerveau, Teresa; Wetzler, Erica; Berzal, Rocio

    2014-12-01

    We present the approaches used in and outcomes resulting from integrated community case management (iCCM) programmes in Niger and Mozambique with a strong focus on demand generation and social mobilisation. We use a case study approach to describe the programme and contextual elements of the Niger and Mozambique programmes. Awareness and utilisation of iCCM services and key family practices increased following the implementation of the Niger and Mozambique iCCM and child survival programmes, as did care-seeking within 24 hours and care-seeking from appropriate, trained providers in Mozambique. These approaches incorporated interpersonal communication activities and community empowerment/participation for collective change, partnerships and networks among key stakeholder groups within communities, media campaigns and advocacy efforts with local and national leaders. iCCM programmes that train and equip community health workers and successfully engage and empower community members to adopt new behaviours, have appropriate expectations and to trust community health workers' ability to assess and treat illnesses can lead to improved care-seeking and utilisation, and community ownership for iCCM.

  6. Demand generation and social mobilisation for integrated community case management (iCCM and child health: Lessons learned from successful programmes in Niger and Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyssa B Sharkey

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We present the approaches used in and outcomes resulting from integrated community case management (iCCM programmes in Niger and Mozambique with a strong focus on demand generation and social mobilisation. We use a case study approach to describe the programme and contextual elements of the Niger and Mozambique programmes. Awareness and utilisation of iCCM services and key family practices increased following the implementation of the Niger and Mozambique iCCM and child survival programmes, as did care–seeking within 24 hours and care–seeking from appropriate, trained providers in Mozambique. These approaches incorporated interpersonal communication activities and community empowerment/participation for collective change, partnerships and networks among key stakeholder groups within communities, media campaigns and advocacy efforts with local and national leaders. iCCM programmes that train and equip community health workers and successfully engage and empower community members to adopt new behaviours, have appropriate expectations and to trust community health workers’ ability to assess and treat illnesses can lead to improved care–seeking and utilisation, and community ownership for iCCM.

  7. Sequential extraction combined with isotope analysis as a tool for the investigation of lead mobilisation in soils: Application to organic-rich soils in an upland catchment in Scotland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacon, Jeffrey R.; Farmer, John G.; Dunn, Sarah M.; Graham, Margaret C.; Vinogradoff, Susan I.

    2006-01-01

    Sequential extraction (modified BCR procedure) combined with isotope analysis has been investigated as a tool for assessing mobilisation of lead into streams at an upland catchment in NE Scotland. The maximum lead concentrations (up to 110 mg kg -1 in air-dried soil) occurred not at the surface but at about 10 cm depth. The lowest 206 Pb/ 207 Pb ratios in any profile occurred, with one exception, at 2.5-5 cm depth. In the one exception, closest to the only road in the area, significantly lower 206 Pb/ 207 Pb ratios in the surface soil together with much increased chloride concentrations (in comparison to other surface waters) indicated the possible mobilisation of roadside lead and transfer to the stream. The 206 Pb/ 207 Pb ratios in extractable fractions tended at depth towards the ratio measured in the residual phase but the ratios in the oxidizable fraction increased to a value higher than that of the residual phase. - Sequential extraction combined with isotope analysis was used as a tool to assess mobilisation of lead into streams

  8. L’appel du travail. Technologies et mobilisation subjective d’intérimaires « non-qualifiés » The call of work. Subjective mobilisation of “unqualified” temporary workers El llamado del trabajo. Tecnologías y movilización subjetiva de trabajadores temporales “no calificados”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Rosini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Cet article traite de la mobilisation de travailleurs temporaires au travers des propositions de missions qu’ils peuvent recevoir, à tout moment, sur leurs téléphones portables. Il s’agit de montrer comment les intérimaires composent avec ces offres d’emploi en fonction de leurs positions sociales et du rapport qu’ils entretiennent à leur condition de « temporaire ». Il ressort que ces sollicitations soudaines et irrégulières contribuent à intensifier la disponibilité des candidats à l’embauche temporaire autant que la concurrence entre eux. Ce dispositif managérial s’appuie largement sur l’insécurité temporelle inhérente à ce régime d’emploi dont la plupart des intérimaires (« non qualifiés » souhaitent se détacher. À travers l’usage d’un objet technique, l’auteur examine certains mécanismes qui participent à la mobilisation numérique (obtenir le nombre d’intérimaires nécessaire mais également subjective des salariés.The article speaks to the mobilisation of temporary workers through the mission proposals that they might receive at any time on their mobile phones. Its purpose is to demonstrate how temporary workers cope with such job offers in light of their social position and how they relate to their “temporary” status. It discovers that sudden and irregular requests of this sort help to increase the number of applicants willing to accept temporary positions, while intensifying the competition between them. This type of management is largely predicated on the temporary insecurity that is inherent to such work, one that most “unqualified” temporary workers would like to avoid. The author uses a technical object to examine some of the mechanisms that help to mobilise employees both numerically (obtaining the necessary number of temporary workers and subjectively.El presente artículo aborda la movilización de los trabajadores temporales a partir de propuestas de trabajo que

  9. Computed micro-tomographic evaluation of glide path with nickel-titanium rotary PathFile in maxillary first molars curved canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqualini, Damiano; Bianchi, Caterina Chiara; Paolino, Davide Salvatore; Mancini, Lucia; Cemenasco, Andrea; Cantatore, Giuseppe; Castellucci, Arnaldo; Berutti, Elio

    2012-03-01

    X-ray computed micro-tomography scanning allows high-resolution 3-dimensional imaging of small objects. In this study, micro-CT scanning was used to compare the ability of manual and mechanical glide path to maintain the original root canal anatomy. Eight extracted upper first permanent molars were scanned at the TOMOLAB station at ELETTRA Synchrotron Light Laboratory in Trieste, Italy, with a microfocus cone-beam geometry system. A total of 2,400 projections on 360° have been acquired at 100 kV and 80 μA, with a focal spot size of 8 μm. Buccal root canals of each specimen (n = 16) were randomly assigned to PathFile (P) or stainless-steel K-file (K) to perform glide path at the full working length. Specimens were then microscanned at the apical level (A) and at the point of the maximum curvature level (C) for post-treatment analyses. Curvatures of root canals were classified as moderate (≤35°) or severe (≥40°). The ratio of diameter ratios (RDRs) and the ratio of cross-sectional areas (RAs) were assessed. For each level of analysis (A and C), 2 balanced 2-way factorial analyses of variance (P < .05) were performed to evaluate the significance of the instrument factor and of canal curvature factor as well as the interactions of the factors both with RDRs and RAs. Specimens in the K group had a mean curvature of 35.4° ± 11.5°; those in the P group had a curvature of 38° ± 9.9°. The instrument factor (P and K) was extremely significant (P < .001) for both the RDR and RA parameters, regardless of the point of analysis. Micro-CT scanning confirmed that NiTi rotary PathFile instruments preserve the original canal anatomy and cause less canal aberrations. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Seismogenic rotational slumps and translational glides in pelagic deep-water carbonates. Upper Tithonian-Berriasian of Southern Tethyan margin (W Sicily, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basilone, Luca

    2017-07-01

    Soft-sediment deformation structures (SSDSs), which reflect sediment mobilization processes, are helpful to identify punctual events of paleoenvironmental stresses. In the upper Tithonian-Berriasian calpionellid pelagic limestone of the Lattimusa Fm. outcropping in the Barracù section (W Sicily), paleoenvironmental restoration reveals the occurrence of a deep-water flat basin, characterised by undeformed planar bedding, laterally passing to a gentle slope where the deformed horizons alternate with undeformed beds. Here, two types of gravity slides have been differentiated on the basis of different kinds of SSDSs, brittle deformation, involved lithofacies, geometry and morphology. Type 1 slump sheets, involving marl-limestone couplets, are characterised by chaotic stratification, truncated beds, recumbent folds, tension gashes, clastic dikes and small-scale listric normal faults and thrusts. They moved downslope as a rotational slump, displaying the typical wedge-shaped morphology, becoming thicker toe-wards. Type 2 slump sheets, involving bed packages of lime mudstone, are characterised by arcuate slump scars developing downwards as listric normal faults, associated with rotational beds and bulging. Displaying tabular geometries, they moved coherently along an overall bedding parallel detachment surface as a translational glide characterised by sediment creep. Regional geology indicates that the basin (Sicanian), bordered by a stepped carbonate platform, was affected by synsedimentary tectonics throughout the Mesozoic. The synsedimentary extensional tectonics that affect the Upper Triassic-Jurassic deposits with steeped normal faults, causing tilt-block and instability of the seafloor through fluidization processes, triggered the rotational slumps of the lower portion of the section. Seismic shocks, induced by outside sector tectonics, like those recorded in the adjacent Busambra stepped carbonate platform margin, triggered the rotational slumps that are not

  11. Cyclic fatigue resistance of R-Pilot, HyFlex EDM and PathFile nickel-titanium glide path files in artificial canals with double (S-shaped) curvature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uslu, G; Özyürek, T; Yılmaz, K; Gündoğar, M

    2018-05-01

    To examine the cyclic fatigue resistances of R-Pilot, HyFlex EDM and PathFile NiTi glide path files in S-shaped artificial canals. Twenty R-Pilot (12.5/.04), 20 HyFlex EDM (10/.05) and 20 PathFile (19/.02) single-file glide path files were included. Sixty files (n: 20/each) were subjected to static cyclic fatigue testing using double-curved canals until fracture occurred (TF). The number of cycles to fracture (NCF) was calculated by multiplying the rpm value by the TF. The length of the fractured fragment (FL) was determined by a digital microcaliper. Six samples of fractured files (n: 2/each) were examined by SEM to determine the fracture mode. The NCF and the FL data were analysed using one-way anova, post hoc Tamhane and Kruskal-Wallis tests using SPPS 21 software. The significance level was set at 5%. In the double-curved canal, all the files fractured first in the apical curvature and then in the coronal curvature. The NCF values revealed that the R-Pilot had the greatest cyclic fatigue resistance, followed by the HyFlex EDM and PathFile in both the apical and coronal curvatures (P < 0.05). R-Pilot NiTi glide path files, used in a reciprocating motion, had the greatest cyclic fatigue resistance amongst the tested NiTi glide path files in an artificial S-shaped canal. © 2017 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Camino Verde (The Green Way: evidence-based community mobilisation for dengue control in Nicaragua and Mexico: feasibility study and study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Andersson

    2017-05-01

    informed community mobilisation adds effectiveness in controlling dengue. Trial registration ISRCTN27581154 .

  13. Camino Verde (The Green Way): evidence-based community mobilisation for dengue control in Nicaragua and Mexico: feasibility study and study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Neil; Arostegui, Jorge; Nava-Aguilera, Elizabeth; Harris, Eva; Ledogar, Robert J

    2017-05-30

    Since the Aedes aegypti mosquitoes that transmit dengue virus can breed in clean water, WHO-endorsed vector control strategies place sachets of organophosphate pesticide, temephos (Abate), in household water storage containers. These and other pesticide-dependent approaches have failed to curb the spread of dengue and multiple dengue virus serotypes continue to spread throughout tropical and subtropical regions worldwide. A feasibility study in Managua, Nicaragua, generated instruments, intervention protocols, training schedules and impact assessment tools for a cluster randomised controlled trial of community-based approaches to vector control comprising an alternative strategy for dengue prevention and control in Nicaragua and Mexico. The Camino Verde (Green Way) is a pragmatic parallel group trial of pesticide-free dengue vector control, adding effectiveness to the standard government dengue control. A random sample from the most recent census in three coastal regions of Guerrero state in Mexico will generate 90 study clusters and the equivalent sampling frame in Managua, Nicaragua will generate 60 clusters, making a total of 150 clusters each of 137-140 households. After a baseline study, computer-driven randomisation will allocate to intervention one half of the sites, stratified by country, evidence of recent dengue virus infection in children aged 3-9 years and, in Nicaragua, level of community organisation. Following a common evidence-based education protocol, each cluster will develop and implement its own collective interventions including house-to-house visits, school-based programmes and inter-community visits. After 18 months, a follow-up study will compare dengue history, serological evidence of recent dengue virus infection (via measurement of anti-dengue virus antibodies in saliva samples) and entomological indices between intervention and control sites. Our hypothesis is that informed community mobilisation adds effectiveness in controlling

  14. Fe(III) mobilisation by carbonate in low temperature environments: Study of the solubility of ferrihydrite in carbonate media and the formation of Fe(III) carbonate complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grivé, Mireia; Duro, Lara; Bruno, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We have determined thermodynamic stabilities of Fe(III)-carbonate species. • We have determined the effect of those species on the solubility of ferrihydrite. • Results. • Highlight the importance of two Fe(III)-carbonate: FeOHCO 3 and Fe(CO 3 ) 3 3− . - Abstract: The linkage between the iron and the carbon cycles is of paramount importance to understand and quantify the effect of increased CO 2 concentrations in natural waters on the mobility of iron and associated trace elements. In this context, we have quantified the thermodynamic stability of mixed Fe(III) hydroxo-carbonate complexes and their effect on the solubility of Fe(III) oxihydroxides. We present the results of carefully performed solubility measurements of 2-line ferrihydrite in the slightly acidic to neutral–alkaline pH ranges (3.8–8.7) under constant pCO 2 varying between (0.982–98.154 kPa) at 25 °C. The outcome of the work indicates the predominance of two Fe(III) hydroxo carbonate complexes FeOHCO 3 and Fe(CO 3 ) 3 3− , with formation constants log * β° 1,1,1 = 10.76 ± 0.38 and log β° 1,0,3 = 24.24 ± 0.42, respectively. The solubility constant for the ferrihydrite used in this study was determined in acid conditions (pH: 1.8–3.2) in the absence of CO 2 and at T = (25 ± 1) °C, as log * K s,0 = 1.19 ± 0.41. The relative stability of the Fe(III)-carbonate complexes in alkaline pH conditions has implications for the solubility of Fe(III) in CO 2 -rich environments and the subsequent mobilisation of associated trace metals that will be explored in subsequent papers

  15. Spa therapy together with supervised self-mobilisation improves pain, function and quality of life in patients with chronic shoulder pain: a single-blind randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chary-Valckenaere, Isabelle; Loeuille, Damien; Jay, Nicolas; Kohler, François; Tamisier, Jean-Noë; Roques, Christian-François; Boulange, Michel; Gay, Gérard

    2018-06-01

    To determine whether spa therapy has a beneficial effect on pain and disability in patients with chronic shoulder pain, this single-blind randomised controlled clinical trial included patients with chronic shoulder pain due to miscellaneous conditions attending one of four spa centres as outpatients. Patients were randomised into two groups: spa therapy (18 days of standardised treatment combining thermal therapy together with supervised mobilisation in a thermal pool) and controls (spa therapy delayed for 6 months: `immediate versus delayed treatment' paradigm). All patients continued usual treatments during the 6-month follow-up period. The main endpoint was the mean change in the French-Quick DASH (F-QD) score at 6 months. The effect size of spa therapy was calculated, and the proportion of patients reaching minimal clinically important improvement (MCII) was compared. Secondary endpoints were the mean change in SF-36, treatment use and tolerance. One hundred eighty-six patients were included (94 patients as controls, 92 in the spa group) and analysed by intention to treat. At 6 months, the mean change in the F-QD score was statistically significantly greater among spa therapy patients than controls (- 32.6 versus - 8.15%; p < 0.001) with an effect size of 1.32 (95%CI: 0.97-1.68). A significantly greater proportion of spa therapy patients reached MCII (59.3 versus 17.9%). Spa therapy was well tolerated with a significant impact on SF-36 components but not on drug intake. Spa therapy provided a statistically significant benefit on pain, function and quality of life in patients with chronic shoulder pain after 6 months compared with usual care.

  16. Community Mobilisation, Gender Equality and Resource Mobilisation in Adult Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Komal; Patel, Ila

    2006-01-01

    Despite an overall improvement in the educational situation of girls and women in India, there are considerable gender inequalities in education. In the last decade, the Government of India introduced the campaign approach to tackle the problem of widespread illiteracy among women and other socio-economically disadvantaged groups in collaboration…

  17. Influence of knee flexion and atraumatic mobilisation of infrapatellar fat pad on incidence and severity of anterior knee pain after tibial nailing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankovic, Andrija; Korac, Zelimir; Bozic, Nenad-Bozo; Stedul, Ivan

    2013-09-01

    We evaluated the incidence and aetiology of anterior knee pain (AKP) in a series of patients that underwent intramedullary nailing for stabilisation of tibial fractures. During the preparation of the entry site no excision of the infrapatellar fat was allowed and electrical haemostasis was kept at the lowest level. Medullary canal was reamed and the nails inserted in position of knee flexion over 100 degrees. All fractures were fixed using medial paratendinous approach. Functional outcome was measured using Lysholm knee score. The knee range of movement and return to previous level of activity were also documented and analysed. Mean follow up was 38.9 months (range 12-84 months). In total 60 patients with 62 tibial shaft fractures were analysed. The mean age at the time of final follow up was 49.4 years (range 20-87). In 22 (35.5%) a newly developed and persisting pain in the anterior region of the operated knee was reported. According to VAP scale, the pain was mild (VAS 1-3) in 12 cases (19.4%) and moderate (VAS 4-6) in 10 (16.1%). In 16 cases (73%) the pain was noticed 6-12 months after injury and subjectively related to return to full range of working and recreational activities. The mean Lysholm knee score in the group without AKP was 90.8. In the AKP group with mild pain it was 88.4 and in the group with moderate AKP it was 79.9. Complete return to previous professional and recreational activities occurred in 49/60 patients (81.7%). Content with the treatment regarding expectations in recovery dynamics and return to desired level of activity was present in 98.3% of patients; one patient was unsatisfied with the treatment. Our results indicate that respecting the physiological motion of Hoffa pad and menisci during knee flexion, accompanied with atraumatic mobilisation of retrotendinous fat, reduces incidence and severity of anterior knee pain following intramedullary fixation of tibial shaft fractures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Improving mapping for Ebola response through mobilising a local community with self-owned smartphones: Tonkolili District, Sierra Leone, January 2015.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura M Nic Lochlainn

    Full Text Available During the 2014-16 Ebola virus disease (EVD outbreak, the Magburaka Ebola Management Centre (EMC operated by Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF in Tonkolili District, Sierra Leone, identified that available district maps lacked up-to-date village information to facilitate timely implementation of EVD control strategies. In January 2015, we undertook a survey in chiefdoms within the MSF EMC catchment area to collect mapping and village data. We explore the feasibility and cost to mobilise a local community for this survey, describe validation against existing mapping sources and use of the data to prioritise areas for interventions, and lessons learned.We recruited local people with self-owned Android smartphones installed with open-source survey software (OpenDataKit (ODK and open-source navigation software (OpenStreetMap Automated Navigation Directions (OsmAnd. Surveyors were paired with local motorbike drivers to travel to eligible villages. The collected mapping data were validated by checking for duplication and comparing the village names against a pre-existing village name and location list using a geographic distance and text string-matching algorithm.The survey teams gained sufficient familiarity with the ODK and OsmAnd software within 1-2 hours. Nine chiefdoms in Tonkolili District and three in Bombali District were surveyed within two weeks. Following de-duplication, the surveyors collected data from 891 villages with an estimated 127,021 households. The overall survey cost was €3,395; €3.80 per village surveyed. The MSF GIS team (MSF-OCG created improved maps for the MSF Magburaka EMC team which were used to support surveillance, investigation of suspect EVD cases, hygiene-kit distribution and EVD survivor support. We shared the mapping data with OpenStreetMap, the local Ministry of Health and Sanitation and Sierra Leone District and National Ebola Response Centres.Involving local community and using accessible technology allowed

  19. Improving mapping for Ebola response through mobilising a local community with self-owned smartphones: Tonkolili District, Sierra Leone, January 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nic Lochlainn, Laura M; Gayton, Ivan; Theocharopoulos, Georgios; Edwards, Robin; Danis, Kostas; Kremer, Ronald; Kleijer, Karline; Tejan, Sumaila M; Sankoh, Mohamed; Jimissa, Augustin; Greig, Jane; Caleo, Grazia

    2018-01-01

    During the 2014-16 Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak, the Magburaka Ebola Management Centre (EMC) operated by Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) in Tonkolili District, Sierra Leone, identified that available district maps lacked up-to-date village information to facilitate timely implementation of EVD control strategies. In January 2015, we undertook a survey in chiefdoms within the MSF EMC catchment area to collect mapping and village data. We explore the feasibility and cost to mobilise a local community for this survey, describe validation against existing mapping sources and use of the data to prioritise areas for interventions, and lessons learned. We recruited local people with self-owned Android smartphones installed with open-source survey software (OpenDataKit (ODK)) and open-source navigation software (OpenStreetMap Automated Navigation Directions (OsmAnd)). Surveyors were paired with local motorbike drivers to travel to eligible villages. The collected mapping data were validated by checking for duplication and comparing the village names against a pre-existing village name and location list using a geographic distance and text string-matching algorithm. The survey teams gained sufficient familiarity with the ODK and OsmAnd software within 1-2 hours. Nine chiefdoms in Tonkolili District and three in Bombali District were surveyed within two weeks. Following de-duplication, the surveyors collected data from 891 villages with an estimated 127,021 households. The overall survey cost was €3,395; €3.80 per village surveyed. The MSF GIS team (MSF-OCG) created improved maps for the MSF Magburaka EMC team which were used to support surveillance, investigation of suspect EVD cases, hygiene-kit distribution and EVD survivor support. We shared the mapping data with OpenStreetMap, the local Ministry of Health and Sanitation and Sierra Leone District and National Ebola Response Centres. Involving local community and using accessible technology allowed rapid

  20. Peintures murales en Irlande du Nord et au Pays basque : mobilisation populaire et création d’identité nationale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Pragnère

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Cet article explore les différentes fonctions des peintures murales en Irlande du Nord et au Pays basque. Il montre comment les peintures murales, particulièrement visibles, ont la capacité de diffuser un message en permanence. En ce sens, comme les avancées conceptuelles sur la question de l’identification nationale permettent de le définir, elles constituent un support des processus de définition et de redéfinition des références identificatoires, et elles permettent de maintenir les dynamiques de polarisation communautaire comme éléments dominants de la structuration de l’espace public. Il n’y a que peu voire pas d’espace pour d’autres représentations de la vie sociale. Les peintures murales sont un outil de légitimation de la lutte, ce qui peut provoquer adhésion, soutien, ou mobilisation. Elles actualisent et élargissent le champ des références disponibles pour les processus d’identification, et rendent ce corpus de références toujours accessible à la population. Ainsi, elles participent activement à la dynamique du conflit.This article explores the several functions of mural paintings in Northern Ireland and in the Basque Country. It shows how the murals (which are particularly visible have the capacity to broadcast a message on a permanent basis. Recent conceptual progress on the question of national identification allows defining them as a basis for processes of definitions and re-definitions of identity references; they are also a means of keeping community polarization dynamics as the dominant elements in structuring the public space. Little or no space is left for other representations of social life. Murals are a tool for legitimising the struggle, which can stimulate adhesion, support or mobilization. They update and widen the field of references available for the identification processes, and make this corpus of references ready for use at any time for the population. Thus, they play an active part

  1. Comparing the Suitability of Autodock, Gold and Glide for the Docking and Predicting the Possible Targets of Ru(II-Based Complexes as Anticancer Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adebayo A. Adeniyi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In cancer chemotherapy, metal-based complexes have been recognized as the most promising means of inhibiting cancer growth due to the successful application of cis-platin and its derivatives above many of the existing organic anticancer agents. The limitations in their rational design can be traced to the complexity of the mechanism of their operations, lack of proper knowledge of their targets and lack of force fields in docking packages to appropriately define the metal centre of the organometallic complexes. In this paper, some of the promising anticancer complexes of Ru(II such as the rapta-based complexes formulated as [Ru(η6-p-cymeneL2(pta] and those with unusual ligands are considered. CatB and kinases which have been experimentally confirmed as possible targets of the complexes are also predicted by the three methods as one of the most targeted receptors while TopII and HDAC7 are predicted by two and one of the methods as best targets. The interesting features of the binding of the complexes show that some of the complexes preferentially target specific macromolecules than the others, which is an indication of their specificity and possibility of their therapeutic combination without severe side effects that may come from competition for the same target. Also, introduction of unusual ligands is found to significantly improve the activities of most of the complexes studied. Strong correlations are observed for the predicted binding sites and the orientation of the complexes within the binding site by the three methods of docking. However there are disparities in the ranking of the complexes by the three method of docking, especially that of Glide.

  2. Mobilising knowledge for ecosystem assessments

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Fabricius, C

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available from regional to local, the balance of information availability shifted from formal, documented data, typically regarded as being in the “scientific domain,” toward informal, tacit information contained in the life experience of local residents...

  3. Insect neuropeptides regulating substrate mobilisation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1997-09-25

    Sep 25, 1997 ... Insect flight muscles perform their work completely aerobically, and working flight musdes are ... locusts where they are involved in the control of carbohydrate ... the vertebrate hypothalamo/hypophyseal system, and it can.

  4. Youth Mobilisation as Social Navigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigh, Henrik Erdman

    2010-01-01

     ties and options that arise in such situations. Building on the Guinean Creole term of dubriagem, the article proposes the concept of social navigation as an analytical optic able to shed light on praxis in unstable environments. The concept of social navigation makes it possible to focus on the way we move within changing social environments. It is processuality squared, illuminating motion within motion. The article thus advocates an analysis of praxis that takes its point of departure in a Batesonian and intermorphological understanding of action in order to further our understanding of the acts of youth in conflict....

  5. Radon - To mobilise civil society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    As radon is one of the two main sources of exposure of population to ionizing radiations in France, is notably said to be responsible of 1.000 to 3.000 deaths for lung cancer per year, and could be at the origin of other cancers like child leukaemia, this set of articles evokes the different factors which promote radon transfer from soils to buildings, studies performed to better identify geological sources of radon, actions implemented to assess radon presence in dwellings (distribution of 'radon kits' in Brittany), the performance of radiological expertise by the IRSN on the request of public authorities, the project of dwelling inventory and population information. A second article reports examples of intervention by the IRSN to inform local authorities, inhabitants, academics, public utilities, building professions, and even children. Technical solutions adopted in the United Kingdom are briefly evoked

  6. Greater rate of cephalic screw mobilisation following proximal femoral nailing in hip fractures with a tip-apex distance (TAD) and a calcar referenced TAD greater than 25 mm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aicale, Rocco; Maffulli, Nicola

    2018-05-02

    To ascertain whether the tip-apex distance (TAD), calcar referenced TAD (CalTAD), and the sum of both (TADcalTAD) are predictive measurements of mobilisation of the cephalic screw in patients with trochanteric hip fractures. Between 2014 and 2015, 68 patients (mean age 86 years, 45 females, 23 males) with a trochanteric hip fracture underwent intramedullary nailing. The TAD and CalTAD were measured, and for each parameter, we calculated sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV). There is evidence of a statistically significant association between a TAD and CalTAD greater than 25 mm and a TADcalTAD greater than 50 mm and mobilisation of the cephalic screw. All measurements have similar sensitivity, but the TAD presents the highest specificity (p TAD and CalTAD less than 25 mm and a TADcalTAD less than 50 mm when using intramedullary fixation.

  7. Degradation of the endosperm cell walls of Lactuca sativa L., cv. grand rapids in relation to the mobilisation of proteins and the production of hydrolytic enzymes in the axis, cotyledons and endosperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, D W; Reid, J S; Bewley, J D

    1979-01-01

    The timing of changes in total nitrogen and soluble amino nitrogen content, and in the activities of proteinase (pH 7.0), isocitrate lyase, catalase, phytase, phosphatase (pH 5.0), α-galactosidase and β-mannosidase were studied in extracts from the cotyledons, axis and endosperms of germinating and germinated light-promoted lettuce seeds. The largest amount of total nitrogen (2.7% seed dry weight) occurs within the cotyledons, as storage protein. As this decreases the total nitrogen content of the axis increases and the soluble amino nitrogen in the cotyledons and axis increases. Proteinase activity in the cotyledons increases coincidentally with the depletion of total nitrogen therein. Enzymes for phytate mobilisation and for gluconeogenesis of hydrolysed lipids increase in activity in the cotyledons as the appropriate stored reserves decline. Beta-mannosidase, an enzyme involved in the hydrolysis of oligo-mannans released by the action of endo-β-mannase on mannan reserves in the endosperm, arises within the cotyledons. This indicates that complete hydrolysis of mannans to the monomer does not occur within the endosperm. Mobilisation of all cotyledon reserves occurs after the endosperm has been degraded, providing further evidence that the endosperm is an early source of food reserves for the growing embryo.

  8. In vitro comparison of the cyclic fatigue resistance of HyFlex EDM, One G, and ProGlider nickel titanium glide path instruments in single and double curvature canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Koray; Uslu, Gülşah; Özyürek, Taha

    2017-11-01

    It was aimed to compare the cyclic fatigue resistances of ProGlider (PG), One G (OG), and HyFlex EDM (HEDM) nickel titanium glide path files in single- and double-curved artificial canals. 40 PG (16/0.02), 40 OG (14/0.03), and 40 HEDM (10/0.05) single-file glide path files were used in the present study. Sixty files were subjected to cyclic fatigue test by using double-curved canals and 60 files by using single-curved canal ( n = 20). The number of cycles to fracture (NCF) was calculated and the length of the fractured fragment (FL) was determined by a digital micro-caliper. Twelve pieces of fractured files were examined with scanning electron microscope to determine fracture types of the files ( n = 2). The NCF and the FL data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and post hoc Tukey test using SPSS 21 software ( p < 0.05). In all of the groups, NCF values were significantly lower in double-curved canals when compared to single-curved canals ( p < 0.05). For both of single- and double-curved canals, NCF values of HEDM group in apical and coronal curvatures were found to be significantly higher than NCF values of PG and OG groups ( p < 0.05). In both of single- and double-curved canals, NCF value of PG group was found significantly higher than OG group ( p < 0.05). Within the limitations of this study, HEDM glide path files were found to have the highest cyclic fatigue resistance in both of single- and double-curved canals.

  9. Using genetics to test the causal relationship of total adiposity and periodontitis: Mendelian randomization analyses in the Gene-Lifestyle Interactions and Dental Endpoints (GLIDE) Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shungin, Dmitry; Cornelis, Marilyn C; Divaris, Kimon; Holtfreter, Birte; Shaffer, John R; Yu, Yau-Hua; Barros, Silvana P; Beck, James D; Biffar, Reiner; Boerwinkle, Eric A; Crout, Richard J.; Ganna, Andrea; Hallmans, Goran; Hindy, George; Hu, Frank B; Kraft, Peter; McNeil, Daniel W; Melander, Olle; Moss, Kevin L; North, Kari E; Orho-Melander, Marju; Pedersen, Nancy L; Ridker, Paul M; Rimm, Eric B; Rose, Lynda M; Rukh, Gull; Teumer, Alexander; Weyant, Robert J; Chasman, Daniel I; Joshipura, Kaumudi; Kocher, Thomas; Magnusson, Patrik KE; Marazita, Mary L; Nilsson, Peter; Offenbacher, Steve; Davey Smith, George; Lundberg, Pernilla; Palmer, Tom M; Timpson, Nicholas J; Johansson, Ingegerd; Franks, Paul W

    2015-01-01

    Background: The observational relationship between obesity and periodontitis is widely known, yet causal evidence is lacking. Our objective was to investigate causal associations between periodontitis and body mass index (BMI). Methods: We performed Mendelian randomization analyses with BMI-associated loci combined in a genetic risk score (GRS) as the instrument for BMI. All analyses were conducted within the Gene-Lifestyle Interactions and Dental Endpoints (GLIDE) Consortium in 13 studies from Europe and the USA, including 49 066 participants with clinically assessed (seven studies, 42.1% of participants) and self-reported (six studies, 57.9% of participants) periodontitis and genotype data (17 672/31 394 with/without periodontitis); 68 761 participants with BMI and genotype data; and 57 871 participants (18 881/38 990 with/without periodontitis) with data on BMI and periodontitis. Results: In the observational meta-analysis of all participants, the pooled crude observational odds ratio (OR) for periodontitis was 1.13 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03, 1.24] per standard deviation increase of BMI. Controlling for potential confounders attenuated this estimate (OR = 1.08; 95% CI:1.03, 1.12). For clinically assessed periodontitis, corresponding ORs were 1.25 (95% CI: 1.10, 1.42) and 1.13 (95% CI: 1.10, 1.17), respectively. In the genetic association meta-analysis, the OR for periodontitis was 1.01 (95% CI: 0.99, 1.03) per GRS unit (per one effect allele) in all participants and 1.00 (95% CI: 0.97, 1.03) in participants with clinically assessed periodontitis. The instrumental variable meta-analysis of all participants yielded an OR of 1.05 (95% CI: 0.80, 1.38) per BMI standard deviation, and 0.90 (95% CI: 0.56, 1.46) in participants with clinical data. Conclusions: Our study does not support total adiposity as a causal risk factor for periodontitis, as the point estimate is very close to the null in the causal inference analysis, with wide

  10. Gliding flight: drag and torque of a hawk and a falcon with straight and turned heads, and a lower value for the parasite drag coefficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, V A

    2000-12-01

    used for calculating the gliding performance of a peregrine. The accuracy with which drag coefficients measured on wingless bird bodies in a wind tunnel represent the C(D,par) of a living bird is unknown. Another method for determining C(D,par) selects values that improve the fit between speeds predicted by mathematical models and those observed in living birds. This method yields lower values for C(D,par) (0.05-0.07) than wind tunnel measurements, and the present study suggests a value of 0.1 for raptors as a compromise.

  11. Optimal Paths in Gliding Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolek, Artur

    Underwater gliders are robust and long endurance ocean sampling platforms that are increasingly being deployed in coastal regions. This new environment is characterized by shallow waters and significant currents that can challenge the mobility of these efficient (but traditionally slow moving) vehicles. This dissertation aims to improve the performance of shallow water underwater gliders through path planning. The path planning problem is formulated for a dynamic particle (or "kinematic car") model. The objective is to identify the path which satisfies specified boundary conditions and minimizes a particular cost. Several cost functions are considered. The problem is addressed using optimal control theory. The length scales of interest for path planning are within a few turn radii. First, an approach is developed for planning minimum-time paths, for a fixed speed glider, that are sub-optimal but are guaranteed to be feasible in the presence of unknown time-varying currents. Next the minimum-time problem for a glider with speed controls, that may vary between the stall speed and the maximum speed, is solved. Last, optimal paths that minimize change in depth (equivalently, maximize range) are investigated. Recognizing that path planning alone cannot overcome all of the challenges associated with significant currents and shallow waters, the design of a novel underwater glider with improved capabilities is explored. A glider with a pneumatic buoyancy engine (allowing large, rapid buoyancy changes) and a cylindrical moving mass mechanism (generating large pitch and roll moments) is designed, manufactured, and tested to demonstrate potential improvements in speed and maneuverability.

  12. Legal contamination of food products in case of nuclear accident. The CRIIRAD criticizes the outrageous work performed by Euratom experts, and calls for a massive mobilisation against the project of the European Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castanier, Corinne

    2015-01-01

    After having recalled the content of the project of the European Commission on the definition of maximum permissible levels of radioactive contamination of food products which will be applied in case of nuclear accident, this report first outlines that the associated risk levels are unacceptable (the maximum dose limit would not be respected by far). The authors outline numerous extremely severe anomalies and errors which occurred in the process of elaboration of the project. They try to identify responsibilities for these errors, and wander whether they are due to incompetence, or made on purpose as they always go in the same direction. The CRIIRAD therefore calls for a European mobilisation to sign a petition for a complete review of the applicable regulation. Letters written to or by members of European institutions are provided

  13. Strategic and operational plan for energy transition for the Mulhouse Alsace agglomeration - housing, planning, mobilisation, energy mix, green growth, transport, awareness, consumption. The contribution of the Mulhouse agglomeration to the COP 21

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bockel, Jean-Marie; Spiegel, Jo

    2016-02-01

    This document notably refers to 20 actual short-term projects implemented in the Mulhouse region for energy transition. After a recall of the meaning and interest of energy transition, a description of the international, European, national and regional context, and a brief introduction to the commitment of the agglomeration, it indicates and comments its evolutions and objectives regarding the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, and describes the implemented governance which involves several actors, bodies organisations and partnerships. The next part presents orientations of the strategic and operational plan for energy transition: mobilisation of the territory and inhabitants, optimisation of energy efficiency in public patrimony and for individuals, promotion of an energy mix and development of renewable energies, transports as a vector of energy transition, support to local communities, support to innovation and to green growth. For each of these themes, the report indicates assessment elements, the initiated dynamics, quantitative objectives to be reached, and actual implemented short-term projects

  14. Speciation of the immediately mobilisable As(III), As(V), MMA and DMA in river sediments by high performance liquid chromatography-hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry following ultrasonic extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huerga, A.; Lavilla, I.; Bendicho, C.

    2005-01-01

    In this work, a fast method is developed for the speciation of As(III), As(V), MMA and DMA in the immediately mobilisable fraction of river sediments (i.e. water-soluble and phosphate-exchangeable) by high performance liquid chromatography-hydride generation-atomic fluorescence detection (HPLC-HG-AFD) after extraction using focused ultrasound. The influence of relevant parameters influencing an ion-pairing chromatographic separation following isocratic elution (i.e. amount of MeOH in the mobile phase, ion pair reagent concentration, pH, flow rate) was studied. Focused ultrasound transmitted from an ultrasonic probe provided the same extractable contents as conventional extraction with no changes in the species distribution. The effect of the drying step over extraction of As species was investigated. The following drying procedures were compared: freeze-, oven-, microwave- and air-drying. No influence of the drying operation on the water-extractable fraction was observed. However, freeze- and air-drying yielded significantly higher phosphate-extractable amounts of As(III) and As(V) as compared to oven and microwaves. Detection limits for the As species were in the range 1.3-4.1 ng/g for the water-soluble fraction and 1.6-4.8 ng/g for the phosphate buffer exchangeable fraction. The method was applied to the speciation of immediately mobilisable As(III), As(V), DMA and MMA in 11 sediment samples collected along the beds of the Louro River (southern Galicia, Spain)

  15. Stem cell collection in unmanipulated HLA-haploidentical/mismatched related transplantation with combined granulocyte-colony stimulating factor-mobilised blood and bone marrow for patients with haematologic malignancies: the impact of donor characteristics and procedural settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C; Chen, X-H; Zhang, X; Gao, L; Gao, L; Kong, P-Y; Peng, X-G; Sun, A-H; Gong, Y; Zeng, D-F; Wang, Q-Y

    2010-06-01

    Unmanipulated haploidentical/mismatched related transplantation with combined granulocyte-colony stimulating factor-mobilised peripheral blood stem cells (G-PBSCs) and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor-mobilised bone marrow (G-BM) has been developed as an alternative transplantation strategy for patients with haematologic malignancies. However, little information is available about the factors predicting the outcome of peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) collection and bone marrow (BM) harvest in this transplantation. The effects of donor characteristics and procedure factors on CD34(+) cell yield were investigated. A total of 104 related healthy donors received granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) followed by PBSC collection and BM harvest. Male donors had significantly higher yields compared with female donors. In multiple regression analysis for peripheral blood collection, age and flow rate were negatively correlated with cell yield, whereas body mass index, pre-aphaeresis white blood cell (WBC) and circulating immature cell (CIC) counts were positively correlated with cell yields. For BM harvest, age was negatively correlated with cell yields, whereas pre-BM collection CIC counts were positively correlated with cell yield. All donors achieved the final product of >or=6 x10(6) kg(-1) recipient body weight. This transplantation strategy has been shown to be a feasible approach with acceptable outcomes in stem cell collection for patients who received HLA-haploidentical/mismatched transplantation with combined G-PBSCs and G-BM. In donors with multiple high-risk characteristics for poor aphaeresis CD34(+) cell yield, BM was an alternative source.

  16. A community mobilisation intervention to prevent violence against women and reduce HIV/AIDS risk in Kampala, Uganda (the SASA! Study): study protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramsky, Tanya; Devries, Karen; Kiss, Ligia; Francisco, Leilani; Nakuti, Janet; Musuya, Tina; Kyegombe, Nambusi; Starmann, Elizabeth; Kaye, Dan; Michau, Lori; Watts, Charlotte

    2012-06-29

    Gender based violence, including violence by an intimate partner, is a major global human rights and public health problem, with important connections with HIV risk. Indeed, the elimination of sexual and gender based violence is a core pillar of HIV prevention for UNAIDS. Integrated strategies to address the gender norms, relations and inequities that underlie both violence against women and HIV/AIDS are needed. However there is limited evidence about the potential impact of different intervention models. This protocol describes the SASA! an evaluation of a community mobilisation intervention to prevent violence against women and reduce HIV/AIDS risk in Kampala, Uganda. The SASA! STUDY is a pair-matched cluster randomised controlled trial being conducted in eight communities in Kampala. It is designed to assess the community-level impact of the SASA! intervention on the following six primary outcomes: attitudes towards the acceptability of violence against women and the acceptability of a woman refusing sex (among male and female community members); past year experience of physical intimate partner violence and sexual intimate partner violence (among females); community responses to women experiencing violence (among women reporting past year physical/sexual partner violence); and past year concurrency of sexual partners (among males). 1583 women and men (aged 18-49 years) were surveyed in intervention and control communities prior to intervention implementation in 2007/8. A follow-up cross-sectional survey of community members will take place in 2012. The primary analysis will be an adjusted cluster-level intention to treat analysis, comparing outcomes in intervention and control communities at follow-up. Complementary monitoring and evaluation and qualitative research will be used to explore and describe the process of intervention implementation and the pathways through which change is achieved. This is one of few cluster randomised trials globally to assess

  17. A community mobilisation intervention to prevent violence against women and reduce HIV/AIDS risk in Kampala, Uganda (the SASA! Study: study protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abramsky Tanya

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gender based violence, including violence by an intimate partner, is a major global human rights and public health problem, with important connections with HIV risk. Indeed, the elimination of sexual and gender based violence is a core pillar of HIV prevention for UNAIDS. Integrated strategies to address the gender norms, relations and inequities that underlie both violence against women and HIV/AIDS are needed. However there is limited evidence about the potential impact of different intervention models. This protocol describes the SASA! Study: an evaluation of a community mobilisation intervention to prevent violence against women and reduce HIV/AIDS risk in Kampala, Uganda. Methods/Design The SASA! Study is a pair-matched cluster randomised controlled trial being conducted in eight communities in Kampala. It is designed to assess the community-level impact of the SASA! intervention on the following six primary outcomes: attitudes towards the acceptability of violence against women and the acceptability of a woman refusing sex (among male and female community members; past year experience of physical intimate partner violence and sexual intimate partner violence (among females; community responses to women experiencing violence (among women reporting past year physical/sexual partner violence; and past year concurrency of sexual partners (among males. 1583 women and men (aged 18–49 years were surveyed in intervention and control communities prior to intervention implementation in 2007/8. A follow-up cross-sectional survey of community members will take place in 2012. The primary analysis will be an adjusted cluster-level intention to treat analysis, comparing outcomes in intervention and control communities at follow-up. Complementary monitoring and evaluation and qualitative research will be used to explore and describe the process of intervention implementation and the pathways through which change is achieved

  18. Community mobilisation with women's groups facilitated by Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs to improve maternal and newborn health in underserved areas of Jharkhand and Orissa: study protocol for a cluster-randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinha Rajesh

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Around a quarter of the world's neonatal and maternal deaths occur in India. Morbidity and mortality are highest in rural areas and among the poorest wealth quintiles. Few interventions to improve maternal and newborn health outcomes with government-mandated community health workers have been rigorously evaluated at scale in this setting. The study aims to assess the impact of a community mobilisation intervention with women's groups facilitated by ASHAs to improve maternal and newborn health outcomes among rural tribal communities of Jharkhand and Orissa. Methods/design The study is a cluster-randomised controlled trial and will be implemented in five districts, three in Jharkhand and two in Orissa. The unit of randomisation is a rural cluster of approximately 5000 population. We identified villages within rural, tribal areas of five districts, approached them for participation in the study and enrolled them into 30 clusters, with approximately 10 ASHAs per cluster. Within each district, 6 clusters were randomly allocated to receive the community intervention or to the control group, resulting in 15 intervention and 15 control clusters. Randomisation was carried out in the presence of local stakeholders who selected the cluster numbers and allocated them to intervention or control using a pre-generated random number sequence. The intervention is a participatory learning and action cycle where ASHAs support community women's groups through a four-phase process in which they identify and prioritise local maternal and newborn health problems, implement strategies to address these and evaluate the result. The cycle is designed to fit with the ASHAs' mandate to mobilise communities for health and to complement their other tasks, including increasing institutional delivery rates and providing home visits to mothers and newborns. The trial's primary endpoint is neonatal mortality during 24 months of intervention. Additional

  19. Dengue occurrence relations and serology: cross-sectional analysis of results from the Guerrero State, Mexico, baseline for a cluster-randomised controlled trial of community mobilisation for dengue prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava-Aguilera, Elizabeth; Morales-Pérez, Arcadio; Balanzar-Martínez, Alejandro; Rodríguez-Ramírez, Ofelia; Jiménez-Alejo, Abel; Flores-Moreno, Miguel; Gasga-Salinas, David; Legorreta-Soberanis, José; Paredes-Solís, Sergio; Morales-Nava, Pedro Antonio; de Lourdes Soto-Ríos, María; Ledogar, Robert J; Coloma, Joséfina; Harris, Eva; Andersson, Neil

    2017-05-30

    The Mexican arm of the Camino Verde trial of community mobilisation for dengue prevention covered three coastal regions of Guerrero state: Acapulco, Costa Grande and Costa Chica. A baseline cross-sectional survey provided data for community mobilisation and for adapting the intervention design to concrete conditions in the intervention areas. Trained field teams constructed community profiles in randomly selected clusters, based on observation and key informant interviews. In each household they carried out an entomological inspection of water containers, collected information on socio-demographic variables and cases of dengue illness among household members in the last year, and gathered paired saliva samples from children aged 3-9 years, which were subjected to ELISA testing to detect recent dengue infection. We examined associations with dengue illness and recent dengue infection in bivariate and then multivariate analysis. In 70/90 clusters, key informants were unable to identify any organized community groups. Some 1.9% (1029/55,723) of the household population reported dengue illness in the past year, with a higher rate in Acapulco region. Among children 3-9 years old, 6.1% (392/6382) had serological evidence of recent dengue infection. In all three regions, household use of anti-mosquito products, household heads working, and households having less than 5 members were associated with self-reported dengue illness. In Acapulco region, people aged less than 25 years, those with a more educated household head and those from urban sites were also more likely to report dengue illness, while in Costa Chica and Costa Grande, females were more likely to report dengue illness. Among children aged 3-9 years, those aged 3-4 years and those living in Acapulco were more likely to have evidence of recent dengue infection. The evidence from the baseline survey provided important support for the design and implementation of the trial intervention. The weakness of

  20. A community mobilisation intervention to prevent violence against women and reduce HIV/AIDS risk in Kampala, Uganda (the SASA! Study): study protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Gender based violence, including violence by an intimate partner, is a major global human rights and public health problem, with important connections with HIV risk. Indeed, the elimination of sexual and gender based violence is a core pillar of HIV prevention for UNAIDS. Integrated strategies to address the gender norms, relations and inequities that underlie both violence against women and HIV/AIDS are needed. However there is limited evidence about the potential impact of different intervention models. This protocol describes the SASA! Study: an evaluation of a community mobilisation intervention to prevent violence against women and reduce HIV/AIDS risk in Kampala, Uganda. Methods/Design The SASA! Study is a pair-matched cluster randomised controlled trial being conducted in eight communities in Kampala. It is designed to assess the community-level impact of the SASA! intervention on the following six primary outcomes: attitudes towards the acceptability of violence against women and the acceptability of a woman refusing sex (among male and female community members); past year experience of physical intimate partner violence and sexual intimate partner violence (among females); community responses to women experiencing violence (among women reporting past year physical/sexual partner violence); and past year concurrency of sexual partners (among males). 1583 women and men (aged 18–49 years) were surveyed in intervention and control communities prior to intervention implementation in 2007/8. A follow-up cross-sectional survey of community members will take place in 2012. The primary analysis will be an adjusted cluster-level intention to treat analysis, comparing outcomes in intervention and control communities at follow-up. Complementary monitoring and evaluation and qualitative research will be used to explore and describe the process of intervention implementation and the pathways through which change is achieved. Discussion This is one of few

  1. Mobilisation of heavy metals and arsenic by acid mine drainage in polluted sites of the Ag-Pb-Zn deposit near Wiesloch; Mobilisierbarkeit von Schwermetallen und Arsen durch saure Grubenabwaesser in Bergbaualtlasten der Ag-Pb-Zn-Lagerstaette in Wiesloch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kappes, B.A.

    2000-07-01

    2000 years of small scale Ag-Pb-Zn mining has created a legacy of potentially hazardous waste material in Wiesloch. The objective of our study is to investigate the processes to identify the that might lead to a mobilisation of heavy metals and arsenic and their fate at this specific site. The objective of this study is: a) to examine in more detail the chemical and mineralogical composition of ore, dressing and slag material and b) to compare the heavy metal release potential to toxic elements of primary ore versus processing material if subjected to weathering. Three depth profiles due to drilling-operations retrieved mineralogical, chemical and physical data. The three most important pollutants are primary ore, dressing residue and slag. Apart from a chemical characterisation of these materials in order to establish the heavy metal and arsenic content field and laboratory experiments simulated worst case weathering conditions. Elution experiments demonstrated that heavy metal release is very much pH-dependent. The highest release potential was observed in flotation material from the dressing residue whereas primary ore and slag material released 10 times fewer heavy metals and arsenic. (orig.)

  2. Scanning electron microscopic evaluation of the influence of manual and mechanical glide path on the surface of nickel-titanium rotary instruments in moderately curved root canals: An in-vivo study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Dishant; Bashetty, Kusum; Srirekha, A.; Archana, S.; Savitha, B.; Vijay, R.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of manual versus mechanical glide path (GP) on the surface changes of two different nickel-titanium rotary instruments used during root canal therapy in a moderately curved root canal. Materials and Methods: Sixty systemically healthy controls were selected for the study. Controls were divided randomly into four groups: Group 1: Manual GP followed by RaCe rotary instruments, Group 2: Manual GP followed by HyFlex rotary instruments, Group 3: Mechanical GP followed by RaCe rotary instruments, Group 4: Mechanical GP followed by HyFlex rotary instruments. After access opening, GP was prepared and rotary instruments were used according to manufacturer's instructions. All instruments were evaluated for defects under standard error mean before their use and after a single use. The scorings for the files were given at apical and middle third. Statistical Analysis Used: Chi-squared test was used. Results: The results showed that there is no statistical difference between any of the groups. Irrespective of the GP and rotary files used, more defects were present in the apical third when compared to middle third of the rotary instrument. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that there was no effect of manual or mechanical GP on surface defects of subsequent rotary file system used. PMID:27994317

  3. C in CS1: Snags and Viable Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shumail Naveed

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Programming is one of the career rewarding skills; however, learning programming skill is extremely hard and arduous as supported by several studies. The first programming language has an everlasting impact on the programmer’s program’s development abilities. In most of the universities the imperative paradigm is used for introductory programming courses and generally C language is used as a base language of a first programming course. The C language is a leading programming language and extensively utilized for commercial applications. The majority of the programming languages are highly motivated from the C language, yet its intrinsic complexities and non-pedagogic origin evidently makes it hard and a complex choice for a first programming course. This paper proposed a rational and realizable solution that can make a C language a suitable choice for a first the course of programming.

  4. SnagIt, Version 6.1 For Windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Don C. Bragg

    2002-01-01

    As with most other professions, ecology has become increasingly dependent on information technology and on the ability to service journals, scientists, resource managers, and the taxpaying public with digital files. Ecologists who once devoted their careers to field experimentation now find themselves scrambling to organize web sites and multimedia presentations, or...

  5. C in CS1: Snags and viable solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naveed, S.; Sarim, M.; Nadeem, A.

    2018-01-01

    Programming is one of the career rewarding skills; however, learning programming skill is extremely hard and arduous as supported by several studies. The first programming language has an everlasting impact on the programmer’s program’s development abilities. In most of the universities the imperative paradigm is used for introductory programming courses and generally C language is used as a base language of a first programming course. The C language is a leading programming language and extensively utilized for commercial applications. The majority of the programming languages are highly motivated from the C language, yet its intrinsic complexities and non-pedagogic origin evidently makes it hard and a complex choice for a first programming course. This paper proposed a rational and realizable solution that can make a C language a suitable choice for a first the course of programming. (author)

  6. Rural emergency care 360°: mobilising healthcare professionals, decision-makers, patients and citizens to improve rural emergency care in the province of Quebec, Canada: a qualitative study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleet, Richard; Dupuis, Gilles; Fortin, Jean-Paul; Gravel, Jocelyn; Ouimet, Mathieu; Poitras, Julien; Légaré, France

    2017-08-17

    Emergency departments (EDs) are an important safety net for rural populations. Results of our earlier studies suggest that rural Canadian hospitals have limited access to advanced imaging services and intensive care units and that patients are transferred over large distances. They also revealed significant geographical variations in rural services. In the absence of national standards, our studies raise questions about inequities in rural access to emergency services and the risks for citizens. Our goal is to build recommendations for improving services by mobilising stakeholders interested in rural emergency care. With help and full engagement of stakeholders, we will (1) identify solutions for improving quality and performance in rural EDs; (2) formulate and prioritise recommendations; (3) transfer knowledge of the recommendations to rural EDs and support operationalisation and (4) assess knowledge transfer and explore further impacts of this participatory action research project. We will use a participatory action research approach. We will plan for a governance structure that includes all stakeholders’ representatives, so throughout this project, stakeholders are fully engaged at every step. Our sample will be 26 EDs in rural Quebec. We will conduct semistructured individual and focus group interviews with relevant and representative participants, including patients and citizens (estimated n=200). Interviews will be thematically analysed to extract potential solutions and other qualitative information.An expert panel (±15) will use an analysis grid to develop consensus recommendations from solutions suggested and will evaluate feasibility, impacts, costs, conditions for implementation and establish monitoring indicators. Recommendations will be transferred to stakeholders using tailored knowledge translation strategies (web platform, meetings and so on). This study will result in a comprehensive consensus list of feasible and high

  7. Mobilising indigenous resources for anthropologically designed HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose was to discover what aspects of indigenous leadership and cultural resources might be accessed and developed to influence individual behaviour as well as the prevailing community norms, values, sanctions and social controls that are related to sexual behaviour. The indigenous leaders participating in the ...

  8. Knowledge Mobilisation in the Polish Education System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazlagic, Jan; Erkol, Arif

    2015-01-01

    Poland has made substantial progress in improving the quality of its education system in recent years. This paper aims to describe the situation of the Polish education system from a knowledge management perspective and, to some extent, through innovation policies in education. The many challenges, this paper argues, can be tackled only through…

  9. Collective Remittance Mobilisation Strategies of Ghanaian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    prevalence at the destination, might influence the choice of collective ..... donors', some Ghanaian migrant associations aim to make a return on their investment, but ... Kojo's reference to 'a lot of the Ghanaian community people are here' is ... These include casual friends, acquaintances, distant relatives, and even friends of.

  10. The mobilisation model and parameter sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blok, B.M.

    1993-12-01

    In the PRObabillistic Safety Assessment (PROSA) of radioactive waste in a salt repository one of the nuclide release scenario's is the subrosion scenario. A new subrosion model SUBRECN has been developed. In this model the combined effect of a depth-dependent subrosion, glass dissolution, and salt rise has been taken into account. The subrosion model SUBRECN and the implementation of this model in the German computer program EMOS4 is presented. A new computer program PANTER is derived from EMOS4. PANTER models releases of radionuclides via subrosion from a disposal site in a salt pillar into the biosphere. For uncertainty and sensitivity analyses the new subrosion model Latin Hypercube Sampling has been used for determine the different values for the uncertain parameters. The influence of the uncertainty in the parameters on the dose calculations has been investigated by the following sensitivity techniques: Spearman Rank Correlation Coefficients, Partial Rank Correlation Coefficients, Standardised Rank Regression Coefficients, and the Smirnov Test. (orig./HP)

  11. L'Iran mobilise des scientifiques

    CERN Multimedia

    Brouet, Anne-Muriel

    2005-01-01

    An Open Letter to the General Secretary of UNO circulates in the laboratories of CERN. This letter is to protest against the tension between Iran from one part, and USA and Europe on the other part (½ page)

  12. Mobilising for environmental justice in China

    OpenAIRE

    Balme, Richard

    2014-01-01

    This article assesses the situation of environmental rights in China in terms of political interactions and their implications for Chinese politics. Environmental justice is primarily conceived as equity in access to environmental goods and fairness in social processes dealing with market or government failures to provide environmental security. The argument is that environmental deterioration has a significant influence on the pattern of inequalities in the PRC, occasionally creating situati...

  13. Mass mobilisation for a realistic manpower plan

    CERN Multimedia

    Association du personnel

    2007-01-01

    The CERN staff turned out in force on Thursday to sign the Staff Association petition. The staff showed in a responsible manner its desire to keep staff numbers at a vital level to guarantee the future of the Organization.

  14. Mobilising the Micro-Political Voice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mcilvenny, Paul Bruce

    2017-01-01

    A notable feature of the participatory communication repertoire developed by the Occupy movement is known as the “Human Microphone” or “People’s Mic”, reminiscent of the call-and-response format of action. A collection was made of more than 160 online amateur videos recorded at an Occupy protest...... site or event in which the Human Mic and the disaffiliative “mic check” were used in diverse ways. In 19 separate cases, more than one video recording was independently uploaded of the same event, thus giving a unique insight into the constitution of participation in a collective (and yet potentially...... dissensual) politico-interactional space from disparate technology-mediated spatial positions at the site. Ethnomethodological conversation analysis (EMCA) is used to analyse the social interactional accomplishment and collective organisation of the ‘voice’ of the Human Mic, including its propagation...

  15. Mobilisation of reserves during germination of Jatropha seeds Mobilização de reservas durante a germinação de sementes de Pinhão manso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lineker de Sousa Lopes

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Phanerogam species reserve nutrients in their seeds in order to sustain propagation. Their chemical composition and the way the metabolites are used vary, according to genotype, the environment and the interaction between these factors. As the jatropha is considered a strategic oilseed crop in biofuel production, the aim of this work was to quantify the major reserve components (starch, protein, soluble sugar and lipid of the jatropha seed and its disposition in the cells during different periods of germination, in order to understand the process of reserve mobilisation and to determine the potentially right time for the extraction of vegetable oil for that species. The seeds were soaked in water for 0; 12; 24; 36; 42; 45 and 48 hours, following a completely randomised design and evaluated for wet and dry biomass, chemical characteristics of the reserves and the disposition of the reserve compounds. Through research, it was observed that the levels of lipids increased up to 43% at the moment of protrusion. The carbohydrate levels, in both the endosperm and the embryo are minimal during protrusion and shortly after, indicating the maximum use of carbohydrates in the germination process. Greatest protein synthesis occurs with the greatest moisture gain, with a reduction in and agglomeration of protein bodies during embryo root growth after protrusion. Despite the presence of starch in the endosperm of jatropha curcas L., starch cannot be considered a source of sugars during the period of germination studied.As espécies fanerógamas reservam nutrientes em suas sementes para sustentar sua propagação. A composição química e a forma de uso dos metabólitos são variáveis segundo o genótipo, o ambiente e interação desses fatores. O pinhão manso é considerado uma oleaginosa estratégica para produção de biocombustível, a partir disto, buscou-se quantificar os principais constituintes de reserva (amido, proteína, açúcar solúvel e lip

  16. De la mobilisation collective de décembre  2008 en  Guyane francaise  au référendum de janvier 2010, une année de crise Since the collective mobilization of December 2008 until Referendum of January 2010: One year of Crisis in French Guiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Catherine Ho Yick Cheong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available À la suite à d’une envolée des prix du carburant en Guyane, alors même que le cours du baril de pétrole mondial est en chute, les Guyanais s’emploient à mobiliser toute la société. En date du 24 novembre 2008, débute une manifestation contre la hausse du prix du carburant,  et plus globalement contre la vie chère. La Guyane, paralysée pendant plus de dix jours au départ, connaîtra une crise qui durera près d’un an. Elle a su transformer admirablement une contestation isolée en une mobilisation collective non conventionnelle et l’inscrire dans une logique décrite au plan théorique par A. Touraine : elle a transformé une particularité en « Totalité » (revendication globale, donné au mouvement une « Identité » en propulsant à sa tête un puissant acteur de classe et entrepreneur du mouvement, désigné un « Adversaire » de classe, en l’occurrence la puissance publique avec laquelle elle partage les mêmes objectifs (peser sur l’historicité de la collectivité mais en dispute les moyens. Deux consultations populaires ont marqué par la voie référendaire un attachement de la Guyane à la métropole (1ère consultation du 10 janvier 2010 et la volonté d’une simplification administrative des décisions (2nde consultation du 24 janvier 2010.In 2008, fuel prices increased in French Guyana, whilst at the same time world fuel prices fell.  In reaction to this the Guyanese began a protest on November 24th, 2008 against the rise of fuel prices and the high cost of living in general. Paralyzed for more than ten days during the protest, the country suffered a year long a crisis. This small isolated protest was transformed into an unconventional collective movement. The situation in Guyana can be applied to the A. Touraine’s theory of how a movement can give a country and its people an identity, which allows them to fight against the adversary. The public power with whom they share the same objectives

  17. Intégrer la notion d’équité : création d'un cadre d'action pour placer la mobilisation du savoir et l’équité en santé au coeur des rapports sur l’état de santé des populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley Ann Dyck

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Les centres de collaboration nationale en santé publique (CCNSP ont collaboré à l’élaboration d’un cadre d’action visant à intégrer la notion d’équité dans les rapports sur l’état de santé des populations (RESP. Ce cadre d’action rassemble les comptes rendus de recherche et une expérience de terrain fondée sur une approche originale d’apprentissage collaboratif faisant appel aux praticiens en santé publique du Canada. Dans cet article, nous présentons le cadre d’action, nous décrivons le processus d’apprentissage et nous situons les RESP au sein des travaux en cours dans le secteur de la santé publique. Nous analysons ensuite la nature des données probantes sur les déterminants sociaux de la santé à titre de dimension clé pour déterminer sur quoi portent les rapports et comment ces données y sont intégrées. Enfin, nous établissons le lien entre les données et la mise en oeuvre en explorant le concept de renseignements exploitables et en détaillant le cadre d’action visant à intégrer la notion d’équité dans les RESP. Nous concluons sur l’importance de placer la mobilisation du savoir au coeur du processus d’élaboration des RESP et nous apportons des suggestions pour les prochaines étapes. Notre objectif est d’encourager les praticiens à utiliser le cadre d’action, à en discuter et, ultimement, à le renforcer.

  18. Reviews Book: SEP Communications: Transmitting and Receiving Signals Book: Gliding for Gold Book: Radioactivity: A History of a Mysterious Science Book: The New Quantum Age Books: The Art of Science and The Oxford Book of Modern Science Writing Equipment: SEP Analogue/digital transmission unit Equipment: SEP Optical signal transmission set Book: Stars and their Spectra Book: Voicebox: The Physics and Evolution of Speech Web Watch

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    WE RECOMMEND Transmitting and Receiving Signals SEP booklet transmits knowledge The New Quantum Age Understanding modern quantum theory The Art of Science and The Oxford Book of Modern Science Writing Anthologies bring science to life SEP Analogue/digital transmission unit Kit transmits signal between two points SEP Optical signal transmission set Optical kit shows light transmission Stars and their Spectra New book for teaching astrophysics WORTH A LOOK Gliding for Gold Take a journey through the physics of winter sports Radioactivity: A History of a Mysterious Science Book looks at history of radioactivity Voicebox: The Physics and Evolution of Speech TExploring the evolution of the voice WEB WATCH An interactive program with promise?

  19. Mobilising for marine wind energy in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jay, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Since 2000, the United Kingdom has enthusiastically adopted marine wind energy as a potentially major source of electricity production and has become the leading nation in terms of output. This is in contrast to its relatively poor attainment of wind energy on land, and raises questions about the reasons for this difference in performance. This article traces the phases of development of marine wind energy in the UK with reference to factors that are instrumental in the uptake of this form of renewable energy. A number of features emerge from this analysis that stand in some contrast to the situation on land and help to explain the UK's current status. These include: recognition of an exceptional resource and relative ease of exploitation; government commitment and policy geared to controlled growth and strategic oversight, adequate economic support and start-up investment; the unusual rights and interests of the Crown Estate; and growing scale, confidence and organisation on the part of the industry. Set against these factors are the complexities of consenting, supply bottlenecks, and some stakeholder and public resistance, though these are outmatched by the drivers in favour of development and are being partly addressed. - Highlights: → The United Kingdom is demonstrating enthusiastic commitment to marine wind energy. → The features contributing to marine wind energy growth are analysed. → The UK has unique factors favouring the uptake of marine wind energy. → UK policy is geared to controlled growth and strategic oversight. → The Crown Estate's seabed rights and interests are a driver in implementation.

  20. Sociopolitical development of private school children mobilising for disadvantaged others

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeg, Darren; Lemelin, Nathalie; Bencze, John Lawrence

    2015-12-01

    A contemporary focus on democratic decision-making has occurred in school science through curricular developments such as socioscientific issues (SSIs) and Science, Technology, Society and Environment (STSE), creates opportunities for inclusion of activist education. However, it appears these components are often taught, if at all, as simply add-on content. Private schools represent a domain of education that has received relatively little attention in research literature regarding sociopolitical activism for addressing SSIs. In this study, we aimed to document the extent to which private school students were able to implement socioscientific activism and to map their socio-political development in the context of a project on child labour. Data collected from student projects and interviews indicate, in many cases, dramatic development of socially critical views and activist orientations that took place over time, and in various steps. A discussion of the factors enabling students' activist development, such as the school culture, the curriculum, and their teacher, are discussed.

  1. Investigation of The Effects of Connective Tissue Mobilisation on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Connective Tissue Massage (CTM) or Manipulation is a bodywork technique which lies at the interface between alternative approaches. The autonomic balancing responses to CTM can be useful in the treatment of anxiety. Aim: This study was planned to investigate the effects of connective tissue mobilization ...

  2. Tweets and Mobilisation: Collective Action Theory and Social Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cody McClain Brown

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the relationship between social protest and social media from the theoretical perspective of the Collective Action Research Program. While the literature shows strong empirical evidence for a positive relationship between social media use and incidents of social protest, the theoretical underpinnings of this relationship remain contested and often unspecified. In order to provide a stronger theoretical basis for this relationship this paper explores theories of collective action, focusing on how social media can assist in solving the dissident collective action problem. It argues that using collective action theory to understand social media and protest can better inform our understanding of how and why social media shares a positive relationship with incidents of social protest.

  3. Investigation of the immobilisation/mobilisation of nickel, copper ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DRINIE

    nitrate, manganese hydroxides, iron hydroxides, sulphate and carbon dioxide). ... standard solution contained (g·l-1 dH2O): ferrous ammonium sulphate, 39.21; ferric ... (AAS) with a nitrous oxide-acetylene flame, to minimise chemical interferences, was ... The synthetic refuse used facilitated the production of volatile fatty ...

  4. Mobilising Community? Place, Identity Formation and New Teachers' Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somerville, Margaret; Rennie, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses data from a longitudinal study which foregrounds the category of "place" to ask: How do new teachers learn to do their work, and how do they learn about the places and communities in which they begin teaching? Surveys and ethnographic interviews were carried out with 35 new teachers over a three-year period in a…

  5. Modernising Education and Training: Mobilising Technology for Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attewell, Jill; Savill-Smith, Carol; Douch, Rebecca; Parker, Guy

    2010-01-01

    In recent years there have been amazing advances in consumer technology. The Mobile Learning Network (MoLeNET) initiative has enabled colleges and schools to harness some of this technology in order to modernise aspects of teaching, learning and training. The result has been improvements in learner engagement, retention, achievement and…

  6. Mobilisation of toxic trace elements under various beach nourishments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pit, I.R.; Dekker, S.C.; Kanters, T.J.; Wassen, M.J.; Griffioen, J.

    2017-01-01

    To enhance protection and maintain wide beaches for recreation, beaches are replenished with sand: socalled beach nourishments. We compared four sites: two traditional beach nourishments, a mega beach nourishment and a reference without beach nourishment. Two sites contain calcareous-rich sand,

  7. Mobilising the Ethiopian Knowledge Diasporas: Framing the Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amazan, Rose C.

    2008-01-01

    The number of highly skilled Africans leaving their country of origin, many with PhDs, has reached disturbing proportions. Meanwhile, Africa spends billions per year to fill the capacity gaps that are created by the exodus of the highly skilled. In Africa, Ethiopia ranked first in terms of rate of loss of human capital. Many African governments…

  8. Mobilisation and Contestation Between Egyptian Student Movement and the State

    OpenAIRE

    Khatib, Hakim

    2015-01-01

    The role of social groups in making historical events succeed takes shape according to two important factors: Their ability to change and the kind of their contribution to the development of that change in a way or another. The role of social groups especially emerges at times of revolutions and their subsequent changes on the political, socioeconomic and even intellectual levels. The most active and capable group to achieve change is the group of youth and students. In the revolutionary move...

  9. Mobilising voluntary contributions in public urban regeneration – a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jacob Norvig; Jensen, Jesper Ole; Agger, Annika

    Research on volunteerism indicates that one third of all adults in Denmark regularly contribute with voluntary labour in social relief work, community-based organizations, non-governmental organizations, or otherwise. In this paper we ask if and how urban regeneration might benefit from...... in relation to public policy arenas and activities, particularly within urban policy and the community development fields. A categorization is proposed as regards different ways and models of civic engagement and major challenges are outlined. The paper is first step of a research project exploring potential...... the apparently strong growth in voluntarism. Although there seems to be a large potential for involving volunteers and voluntary organisations, systematic analysis of recent years’ urban regeneration projects in Denmark shows that the sustainability of voluntary contributions is limited. While initial enrolling...

  10. Legacy, resource mobilisation and the olympic movement | Girginov ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There has been a growing interest in legacies of the Olympic Games focusing on external tangible outcomes, such as the number of sport competitions, participants and jobs created. Little is still known about the equally valuable internal benefits to individuals and organisational capacities of national sport systems.

  11. FM contract relationships: from mobilisation to sustainable partnership

    OpenAIRE

    Ellison, I.; Owen, S.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose / theory\\ud Outsourcing is a fundamental business model for the Facilities Management (FM) industry. To enable sustained mutual success the parties involved must seek to understand the unique, socially constructed, and often highly complex situational realities of the organisational ecologies they are engaged in. The FM industry can unlock improved performance and strategic credibility through an appreciation of the need for different conversations.\\ud Design / methodology / approach\\...

  12. Molecular microbial ecology of lignocellulose mobilisation as a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The community structure of complex microbial consortia which develop in lignocellulose packed passive treatment systems for acid mine drainage remediation were investigated. An understanding of interactions between these populations is important in determining mechanisms by which such systems operate.

  13. Mobilising Funds of Identity in and out of School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subero, David; Vujasinovic, Ellen; Esteban-Guitart, Moises

    2017-01-01

    Learning happens through participation in formal community events and informal community activities. However, learning activities that take place in and out of school are often not mutually recognised. "Funds of knowledge" projects foster new ways of exchanging learning experiences in and out of school. "Funds of identity" can…

  14. Mobiliser les jeunes, enraciner la démocratie

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    C'est là où la lutte en faveur de la démocratie prend sa source. Patrick Watson, auteur et homme de télévision canadien. Ricardo Funari / BrazilPhotos.com. LA RECHERCHE BIEN ... Mais ce n'est qu'un côté de la médaille, car il y a aussi beaucoup de .... Les jeunes associent violence et criminalité à une foule d'autres.

  15. Pain in leprosy patients undergoing neural mobilisation treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Véras, Larissa Sales Téles; Vale, Rodrigo Gomes de Souza; Mello, Danielli Braga de; Castro, José Adail Fonseca de; Dantas, Estélio Henrique Martin

    2011-01-01

    Este estudo tem como objetivo avaliar o efeito da técnica de mobilização neural sobre a percepção da dor em portadores de hanseníase. A amostra de 56 indivíduos portadores de hanseníase foi randomizada em: grupo experimental (GMN) composto por 29 indivíduos submetidos ao tratamento com mobilização neural e grupo controle (GC) composto por 27 indivíduos que foram submetidos ao tratamento convencional. A percepção da dor foi avaliada através da Escala Visual Analógica, indicando-se em uma extre...

  16. Mobilising the market potential of biogas installations in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umbach-Daniel, A.; Ruetter, H.

    2004-01-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a preliminary study that aimed to provide a synthesis of all available knowledge on obstacles to the construction of agricultural and commercial/industrial biogas installations and promotional factors. Social, political and cultural factors are examined that can promote or hinder the introduction of the technology and comparison is made to the introduction of organic farming methods in agriculture. In particular, an 'adoption/diffusion' model is looked at. A second part of the report deals with the economic findings and deals with the economic viability of biogas installations and the investments and costs involved. Here, too, economic factors that promote or hinder the use of biogas are examined. Finally, the various players and factors influencing the Swiss biogas scene are looked at and the findings of the study are summarised

  17. Mobilisation of satellite cells following ischaemia and reperfusion in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    inar is not disturbed, and migration to adjacent myofibres using tissue bridges ... or in group 2, the novel observation of the satellite cell breaking away ... satellite cells of group 1 were significantly longer than the group 2 cells .... Statistical analysis was by unpaired t-test with Welch's cor- ... or fully motile, interfibre myoblasts.

  18. Social mobilisation and violence at the mining frontier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middeldorp, Nick; Morales, Carlos; Haar, van der Gemma

    2016-01-01

    This paper documents opposition to mining in Honduras, a country at the verge of an attempted ‘mining boom’ since the ratification of a new mining law in April 2013. It analyses how a broad movement – involving NGOs, social movements and local communities – engages in opposition to the extractive

  19. Mobilising Uncertainty and the Making of Responsible Sovereigns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalberts, T.E.; Werner, W.G.

    2011-01-01

    The past few decades have witnessed a fundamental change in the perception of threats to the security of states and individuals. Issues of security are no longer primarily framed in terms of threats posed by an identifiable, conventional enemy. Instead, post-Cold War security policies have

  20. Mobilisation of satellite cells following ischaemia and reperfusion in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To describe the morphological and morphometric features of activated skeletal muscle satellite cells in primates, using an ischaemic reperfusion model. Setting. The study was undertaken at the Biomedical Resource Centre and the Electron Microscopy Unit of the University of KwaZulu-Natal. Interventions.

  1. Molecular microbial ecology of lignocellulose mobilisation as a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    driniev

    ever, several studies suggest that the contribution of anaerobic organisms to degradation of ... performed on Hybaind PCR Sprint thermocycler using touchdown ... phoresis cell (Sigma-Aldrich) with 1 x TAE buffer (Tris-acetate-. EDTA) at .... viridosporus: Isolation and characterization of a new polymeric lignin degradation ...

  2. MaiMwana women's groups: a community mobilisation intervention ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    intervention involving women's groups in Mchinji District, Malawi. The intervention was ... live below the poverty line of less than $1.25 per day and. 90.4% live below the .... (India), Salima, Kasungu, Lilongwe and Ntcheu districts. (Malawi) and ...

  3. Mobilising our greatest resource for continuity and change: People

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sherwood, S.G.

    2010-01-01

    extension, andean region, bolivia, ecological farming, ecuador, farmer field schools, integrated pest management, peru, potatoes, agricultural technology, biodiversity, gene banks, genetic conservation, genetic diversity, genetic resources, integrated farming, participatory approaches, participatory

  4. De la mobilisation des connaissances au partenariat de recherche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Belleau

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Notre hypothèse de départ dans cette étude était que les résultats d’une recherche développée en partenariat seraient plus adaptés aux besoins des divers acteurs impliqués que ceux découlant d’une recherche plus « classique » et qu’il en résulterait nécessairement des retombées plus nombreuses dans les milieux des partenaires impliqués. Au terme de notre analyse, nous constatons que l’hypothèse initiale n’a pu être confirmée que partiellement. Le modèle de la Traduction développé par Callon et al. (2001, permet de cerner les limites de cette approche dans le contexte étudié. Ce qui semble avoir invalidé notre hypothèse de départ tient en partie aux « mesures de précaution » mises en œuvre par les partenaires lors de la mise à l’épreuve des connaissances nouvelles mais aussi le retour aux anciens modes de fonctionnement entre intervenants et chercheurs.From mobilization of knowledge to partnership research. The example of « Portrait des jeunes du quartier Bordeaux-Cartierville » in Montreal, QcOur initial hypothesis was that results from a research study developed in partnership would be better adapted to the needs of the various participants than results from a more « classic » research method. The former would also lead to more spin-offs in the fields of the partners involved. During our analysis, however, it became clear that the initial hypothesis could only be partially confirmed. The Translation Model, developed by Callon et al. (2001 allows us to determine the limits of this approach within the context under study. Our initial hypothesis seems to have been invalidated in part by « precautionary measures » set up by partners when new knowledge is put to the test, and also by the return to earlier modes of operation between stakeholders and researchers.De la puesta en práctica del conocimiento en la colaboración dentro de la investigación: el caso del « Retrato de los jóvenes del barrio Bordeaux-Cartierville » en MontréalNuestra hipótesis de partida en este trabajo era que los resultados de una investigación desarrollada en colaboración podrían estar más adaptadas a las necesidades de los diversos agentes implicados que durante una encuesta clásica y que los datos obtenidos serían más numerosos cuando las encuestas se efectúan en colaboración. Pero esta hipótesis solo ha podido ser confirmada de manera parcial. El modelo de la Traducción desarrollado por Callon et al. (2001 permite vislumbrar los límites de esta aproximación en este contexto. Lo que parece que haya invalidado nuestra hipótesis es que las « medidas de precaución » aplicadas por los diferentes colaboradores en el momento en que los nuevos conocimientos son aplicados han sido contraproductivas y también la tendencia a utilizar los antiguos modos de funcionamiento entre los agentes y los investigadores que colaboraban juntos.

  5. Grass-root Mobilisation and Citizen Participation: Issues and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasoo, S.

    1991-01-01

    Mobilization of citizen participation in grassroots organizations can be adversely affected when grassroots leaders perceive a lack of support. Periodic organizational diagnosis can lead to more equitable division of responsibilities and recruitment of more leaders and skilled participants. (SK)

  6. Speleothem records of acid sulphate deposition and organic carbon mobilisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, Peter; Fairchild, Ian; Bourdin, Clement; Baldini, James; Muller, Wolfgang; Hartland, Adam; Bartlett, Rebecca

    2017-04-01

    Dramatic increases in measured surface water DOC in recent decades have been variously attributed to either temperature rise, or destabilisation of long-term soil carbon pools following sulphur peak emissions status. However, whilst both drivers of DOC dynamics are plausible, they remain difficult to test due to the restricted nature of the available records of riverine DOC flux (1978 to present), and the limited availability of SO2 emissions inventory data at the regional scale. Speleothems offer long term records of both sulphur and carbon. New techniques to extract sulphur concentrations and isotopes from speleothem calcite have enabled archives of pollution history and environmental acidification to be reconstructed. Due to the large dynamic range in sulphur isotopic values from end member sources (marine aerosol +21 ‰ to continental biogenic emissions -30 ‰) and limited environmental fractionation under oxidising conditions, sulphur isotopes form an ideal tracer of industrial pollution and environmental acidification in the palaeo-record. We couple this acidification history to the carbon record, using organic matter fluorescence and trace metals. Trace metal ratios and abundance can be used to infer the type and size of organic ligand and are therefore sensitive to changes in temperature as a driver of organic carbon processing and biodegradation. This allows fluorescent properties and ratios of trace metals in speleothem carbonate to be used to represent both the flux of organic carbon into the cave as well as the degradation pathway. Here we present some of the first results of this work, exploring sulphur acidification as a mechanistic control on carbon solubility and export throughout the twentieth century.

  7. Snag Fields and Roosting and Nesting Sites - Salton Sea [ds393

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This data set shows all the on-water or very nearshore avian resources used for nesting and roosting by specific bird species of interest around the Salton Sea....

  8. Indiana bats roost in ephemeral, fire-dependent pine snags in the southern Appalachian Mountains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joy M. O' Keefe; Susan C. Loeb

    2017-01-01

    The Indiana bat (Myotis sodalis), a species that is federally endangered in the U.S., is being impacted by white-nose  yndrome and habitat loss across much of its range. A better understanding of summer roost ecology of the species will enable us to develop management strategies that promote summer survival for breeding adult females and their pups. We conducted a 5...

  9. Incorporating shrub and snag specific LiDAR data into GAP wildlife models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teresa J Lorenz; Kerri T Vierling; Jody Vogeler; Jeffrey Lonneker; Jocelyn Aycrigg

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey’s Gap Analysis Program (hereafter, GAP) is a nationally based program that uses land cover, vertebrate distributions, and land ownership to identify locations where gaps in conservation coverage exist, and GAP products are commonly used by government agencies, nongovernmental organizations, and private citizens. The GAP land-cover...

  10. Gliding and Saccadic Gaze Gesture Recognition in Real Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rozado, David; San Agustin, Javier; Rodriguez, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    , and their corresponding real-time recognition algorithms, Hierarchical Temporal Memory networks and the Needleman-Wunsch algorithm for sequence alignment. Our results show how a specific combination of gaze gesture modality, namely saccadic gaze gestures, and recognition algorithm, Needleman-Wunsch, allows for reliable...... usage of intentional gaze gestures to interact with a computer with accuracy rates of up to 98% and acceptable completion speed. Furthermore, the gesture recognition engine does not interfere with otherwise standard human-machine gaze interaction generating therefore, very low false positive rates...

  11. Quantum effect on thermally activated glide of dislocations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proville, Laurent; Maricina, Mihai-Cosmin; Rodney, David

    2012-01-01

    Crystal plasticity involves the motion of dislocations under stress. So far, atomistic simulations of this process have predicted Peierls stresses, the stress needed to overcome the crystal resistance in the absence of thermal fluctuations, of more than twice the experimental values, a discrepancy best-known in body-centred cubic crystals. Here we show that a large contribution arises from the crystal zero-point vibrations, which ease dislocation motion below typically half the Debye temperature. Using Wigner's quantum transition state theory in atomistic models of crystals, we found a large decrease of the kink-pair formation enthalpy due to the quantization of the crystal vibrational modes. Consequently, the flow stress predicted by Orowan's law is strongly reduced when compared with its classical approximation and in much closer agreement with experiments. This work advocates that quantum mechanics should be accounted for in simulations of materials and not only at very low temperatures or in light-atom systems. (authors)

  12. Analysis of localizer and glide slope Flight Technical Error

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-09

    A new wake turbulence procedure has been developed that permits two dependent arrival traffic streams during instrument meteorological conditions : to runways with centerline separations less than 2500 ft. For the proposed procedure, aircraft approac...

  13. Determination of Trajectories for a Gliding Parachute System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-04-01

    use of such items. Destroy this report when no longer needed. Do not return it to the originator. * jiT >T^>’TyT>’V’v,>T>’*.y^jrw\\gwJ^ "-’ v*»’v -*iv...The terminal error serves as a penalty function which penalizes undesirable terminal states by the extent to which they deviate from the desired...the open-loop control becomes, in effect , feedback control with the sequence of initial conditions serving as the current state. The major advantage

  14. Femoropatellar gliding movement during active stretching of the knee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brossmann, J.; Muhle, C.; Melchert, U.H.; Spielmann, R.P.; Schroeder, C.; Hassenpflug, J.

    1992-01-01

    By means of motion-triggered MRT it has been possible for the first time to demonstrate movements in the patello-femoral joint by means of MRT. Patello-femoral movement was studied during active extension of the knee between 30deg flexion and complete extension. The knees of 5 normal females and 7 normal males were studied together with 2 women with recurrent lateral patellar luxation. In normal women there was an average 16deg (10 to 18deg), in men an average of 12deg (10 to 14deg) of lateralisation of the patella during complete extension of the knee. In 1 patient there was 10deg medial displacement of the patella before extension. In 2 knees with recurrent lateral subluxation there was a 20 and 24deg displacement of the patella. (orig.) [de

  15. Diagnostics of E x B-driven gliding discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gossye, G.; Leys, C.

    2001-01-01

    The concept of magnetic stabilization is investigated as a means to obtain non-thermal plasmas at elevated pressures. Electrical and optical diagnostics are deployed to measure the magnetic drift velocity and the plasma column width

  16. Development of Control Algorithm for the Autonomous Gliding Delivery System

    OpenAIRE

    Kaminer, I.; Yakimenko, O.

    2003-01-01

    Proceedings of 17th AIAA Aerodynamic Decelerator Systems Technology Conference and Seminar, Monterey, CA, May 19-22, 2003. An autonomous HAHO (high altitude, high-opening) parafoil system design is presented as a solution to the final descent phase of an on-demand International Space Station (ISS) sample return concept. The system design is tailored to meet specific constraints defined by a larger study at NASA Ames Research Center, called SPQR (Small Payload Quick-Return). Building ...

  17. A Novel Strategy for Controlling the Metastatic Phenotype: Targeting the SNAG Repression Domain in the SNAIL Zinc-Finger Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Kingdom; anti– pan -cadherin and anti–"-SMA antibodies were from The Journal of Clinical Investigation http://www.jci.org Volume 117 Number 2...23. Lie-Venema, H., et al. 2003. Ets-1 and Ets-2 tran- scription factors are essential for normal coronary and myocardial development in chicken ...transcription. J. Biol. Chem. 273:18881–18890. 38. Weisman-Shomer, P., Cohen, E., and Fry , M. 2002. Distinct domains in the CArG-box binding fac- tor

  18. Phase diagram prediction and particle characterisation of Sn-Ag nano alloy for low melting point lead-free solders

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sopoušek, J.; Vřešťál, J.; Zemanová, Adéla; Buršík, Jiří

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 3 (2012), s. 419-425 ISSN 1450-5339 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA106/09/0700 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : tin * silver * nanoparticle Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 1.435, year: 2012

  19. Roost selection by big brown bats in forests of Arkansas: importance of pine snags and open forest habitats to males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger W. Perry; Ronald E. Thill

    2008-01-01

    Although Eptesicus fuscus (Big Brown Bat) has been widely studied, information on tree-roosting in forests by males is rare, and little information is available on tree roosting in the southeastern United States. Our objectives were to characterize diurnal summer roosts, primarily for male Big Brown Bats, and to determine relationships between forest...

  20. To Glide or Not to Glide.... Response to Havriluk's Comment on "Arm Coordination and Performance Level in the 400-m Front Crawl"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnitzler, Christophe; Seifert, Ludovic; Chollet, Didier

    2012-01-01

    We recently published an article on arm coordination and performance level in 400-m front-crawl swimming in Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport (Schnitzler, Seifert, & Chollet, 2011). The index of coordination (IdC) was used to quantify interarm coordination. Our results showed that expert swimmers exhibited lower IdC than recreational…