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Sample records for glial scar formation

  1. Biodegradable chitin conduit tubulation combined with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation for treatment of spinal cord injury by reducing glial scar and cavity formation

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    Feng Xue

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined the restorative effect of modified biodegradable chitin conduits in combination with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation after right spinal cord hemisection injury. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that biological conduit sleeve bridging reduced glial scar formation and spinal muscular atrophy after spinal cord hemisection. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells survived and proliferated after transplantation in vivo, and differentiated into cells double-positive for S100 (Schwann cell marker and glial fibrillary acidic protein (glial cell marker at 8 weeks. Retrograde tracing showed that more nerve fibers had grown through the injured spinal cord at 14 weeks after combination therapy than either treatment alone. Our findings indicate that a biological conduit combined with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation effectively prevented scar formation and provided a favorable local microenvironment for the proliferation, migration and differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in the spinal cord, thus promoting restoration following spinal cord hemisection injury.

  2. Biodegradable chitin conduit tubulation combined with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation for treatment of spinal cord injury by reducing glial scar and cavity formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Feng; Wu, Er-jun; Zhang, Pei-xun; Li-ya, A; Kou, Yu-hui; Yin, Xiao-feng; Han, Na

    2015-01-01

    We examined the restorative effect of modified biodegradable chitin conduits in combination with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation after right spinal cord hemisection injury. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that biological conduit sleeve bridging reduced glial scar formation and spinal muscular atrophy after spinal cord hemisection. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells survived and proliferated after transplantation in vivo, and differentiated into cells double-positive for S100 (Schwann cell marker) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (glial cell marker) at 8 weeks. Retrograde tracing showed that more nerve fibers had grown through the injured spinal cord at 14 weeks after combination therapy than either treatment alone. Our findings indicate that a biological conduit combined with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation effectively prevented scar formation and provided a favorable local microenvironment for the proliferation, migration and differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in the spinal cord, thus promoting restoration following spinal cord hemisection injury. PMID:25788929

  3. Understanding the NG2 glial scar after spinal cord injury

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    Amber R Hackett

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available NG2 cells, also known as oligodendrocyte progenitor cells, are located throughout the central nervous system and serve as a pool of progenitors to differentiate into oligodendrocytes. In response to spinal cord injury, NG2 cells increase their proliferation and differentiation into remyelinating oligodendrocytes. While astrocytes are typically associated with being the major cell type in the glial scar, many NG2 cells also accumulate within the glial scar but their function remains poorly understood. Similar to astrocytes, these cells hypertrophy, upregulate expression of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans, inhibit axon regeneration, contribute to the glial-fibrotic scar border, and some even differentiate into astrocytes. Whether NG2 cells also have a role in other astrocyte functions, such as preventing the spread of infiltrating leukocytes and expression of inflammatory cytokines, is not yet known. Thus, NG2 cells are not only important for remyelination after spinal cord injury, but are also a major component of the glial scar with functions that overlap with astrocytes in this region. In this review, we describe the signaling pathways important for the proliferation and differentiation of NG2 cells, as well as the role of NG2 cells in scar formation and tissue repair.

  4. Mathematical modeling of chemotaxis and glial scarring around implanted electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silchenko, Alexander N; Tass, Peter A

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that the implantation of electrodes for deep brain stimulation or microelectrode probes for the recording of neuronal activity is always accompanied by the response of the brain’s immune system leading to the formation of a glial scar around the implantation sites. The implantation of electrodes causes massive release of adenosine-5′-triphosphate (ATP) and different cytokines into the extracellular space and activates the microglia. The released ATP and the products of its hydrolysis, such as ADP and adenosine, become the main elements mediating chemotactic sensitivity and motility of microglial cells via subsequent activation of P2Y 2,12 as well as A3A/A2A adenosine receptors. The size and density of an insulating sheath around the electrode, formed by microglial cells, are important criteria for the optimization of the signal-to-noise ratio during microelectrode recordings or parameters of electrical current delivered to the brain tissue. Here, we study a purinergic signaling pathway underlying the chemotactic motion of microglia towards implanted electrodes as well as the possible impact of an anti-inflammatory coating consisting of the interleukin-1 receptor antagonist. We present a model describing the formation of a stable aggregate around the electrode due to the joint chemo-attractive action of ATP and ADP and the mixed influence of extracellular adenosine. The bioactive coating is modeled as a source of chemo-repellent located near the electrode surface. The obtained analytical and numerical results allowed us to reveal the dependences of size and spatial location of the insulating sheath on the amount of released ATP and estimate the impact of immune suppressive coating on the scarring process. (paper)

  5. The soft mechanical signature of glial scars in the central nervous system

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    Moeendarbary, Emad; Weber, Isabell P.; Sheridan, Graham K.; Koser, David E.; Soleman, Sara; Haenzi, Barbara; Bradbury, Elizabeth J.; Fawcett, James; Franze, Kristian

    2017-03-01

    Injury to the central nervous system (CNS) alters the molecular and cellular composition of neural tissue and leads to glial scarring, which inhibits the regrowth of damaged axons. Mammalian glial scars supposedly form a chemical and mechanical barrier to neuronal regeneration. While tremendous effort has been devoted to identifying molecular characteristics of the scar, very little is known about its mechanical properties. Here we characterize spatiotemporal changes of the elastic stiffness of the injured rat neocortex and spinal cord at 1.5 and three weeks post-injury using atomic force microscopy. In contrast to scars in other mammalian tissues, CNS tissue significantly softens after injury. Expression levels of glial intermediate filaments (GFAP, vimentin) and extracellular matrix components (laminin, collagen IV) correlate with tissue softening. As tissue stiffness is a regulator of neuronal growth, our results may help to understand why mammalian neurons do not regenerate after injury.

  6. NG2/CSPG4 and progranulin in the posttraumatic glial scar.

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    Schäfer, Michael K E; Tegeder, Irmgard

    2018-08-01

    Traumatic injury of the central nervous system is one of the leading causes of death and disability in young adults. Failure of regeneration is caused by autonomous neuronal obstacles and by formation of the glial scar, which is essential to seal the injury but also constitutes a barrier for regrowing axons. The scar center is highly inflammatory and populated by NG2+ glia, whereas astrocytes form the sealing border and trap regrowing axons, suggesting that the non-permissive environment of activated astrocytes and extracellular matrix components is one of the reasons for the regenerative failure. Particularly, secreted chondroitin-sulfate proteoglycans, CSPGs, of the lectican family hinder axonal regrowth. In contrast, the transmembrane CSPG, NG2/CSPG4, appears to be functionally closer related to axon growth permissive heparan sulfate proteoglycans, HSPGs, and synaptic adhesion molecules, which all regulate synaptic signaling and plasticity upon alpha-secretase mediated shedding. Consequently, knockout of NG2/CSPG4 aggravates tissue loss, inflammation and neurologic deficits after brain injury, a phenotype partly mimicked by deletion of HSPG-binding proteins such as the HSPG2/perlecan-interacting protein, progranulin that is also a functional ligand of Notch and Eph2a. Indeed, structural features or progranulin's targets and NG2 may point to direct reciprocal regulations that may act in concert to overcome injury-evoked inflammation and neuronal dystrophy. This review provides an overview of the pathophysiology of the glial scar after brain injury, with a specific focus on NG2/CSPG4, its functions before and after shedding and putative reciprocal influences with the glycoprotein progranulin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A three dimensional in vitro glial scar model to investigate the local strain effects from micromotion around neural implants.

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    Spencer, Kevin C; Sy, Jay C; Falcón-Banchs, Roberto; Cima, Michael J

    2017-02-28

    Glial scar formation remains a significant barrier to the long term success of neural probes. Micromotion coupled with mechanical mismatch between the probe and tissue is believed to be a key driver of the inflammatory response. In vitro glial scar models present an intermediate step prior to conventional in vivo histology experiments as they enable cell-device interactions to be tested on a shorter timescale, with the ability to conduct broader biochemical assays. No established in vitro models have incorporated methods to assess device performance with respect to mechanical factors. In this study, we describe an in vitro glial scar model that combines high-precision linear actuators to simulate axial micromotion around neural implants with a 3D primary neural cell culture in a collagen gel. Strain field measurements were conducted to visualize the local displacement within the gel in response to micromotion. Primary brain cell cultures were found to be mechanically responsive to micromotion after one week in culture. Astrocytes, as determined by immunohistochemical staining, were found to have significantly increased in cell areas and perimeters in response to micromotion compared to static control wells. These results demonstrate the importance of micromotion when considering the chronic response to neural implants. Going forward, this model provides advantages over existing in vitro models as it will enable critical mechanical design factors of neural implants to be evaluated prior to in vivo testing.

  8. In vivo monitoring of glial scar proliferation on chronically implanted neural electrodes by fiber optical coherence tomography

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    Xie, Yijing; Martini, Nadja; Hassler, Christina; Kirch, Robert D.; Stieglitz, Thomas; Seifert, Andreas; Hofmann, Ulrich G.

    2014-01-01

    In neural prosthetics and stereotactic neurosurgery, intracortical electrodes are often utilized for delivering therapeutic electrical pulses, and recording neural electrophysiological signals. Unfortunately, neuroinflammation impairs the neuron-electrode-interface by developing a compact glial encapsulation around the implants in long term. At present, analyzing this immune reaction is only feasible with post-mortem histology; currently no means for specific in vivo monitoring exist and most applicable imaging modalities can not provide information in deep brain regions. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a well established imaging modality for in vivo studies, providing cellular resolution and up to 1.2 mm imaging depth in brain tissue. A fiber based spectral domain OCT was shown to be capable of minimally invasive brain imaging. In the present study, we propose to use a fiber based spectral domain OCT to monitor the progression of the tissue's immune response through scar encapsulation progress in a rat animal model. A fine fiber catheter was implanted in rat brain together with a flexible polyimide microelectrode in sight both of which acts as a foreign body and induces the brain tissue immune reaction. OCT signals were collected from animals up to 12 weeks after implantation and thus gliotic scarring in vivo monitored for that time. Preliminary data showed a significant enhancement of the OCT backscattering signal during the first 3 weeks after implantation, and increased attenuation factor of the sampled tissue due to the glial scar formation. PMID:25191264

  9. The glial scar-monocyte interplay: a pivotal resolution phase in spinal cord repair.

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    Ravid Shechter

    Full Text Available The inflammatory response in the injured spinal cord, an immune privileged site, has been mainly associated with the poor prognosis. However, recent data demonstrated that, in fact, some leukocytes, namely monocytes, are pivotal for repair due to their alternative anti-inflammatory phenotype. Given the pro-inflammatory milieu within the traumatized spinal cord, known to skew monocytes towards a classical phenotype, a pertinent question is how parenchymal-invading monocytes acquire resolving properties essential for healing, under such unfavorable conditions. In light of the spatial association between resolving (interleukin (IL-10 producing monocytes and the glial scar matrix chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG, in this study we examined the mutual relationship between these two components. By inhibiting the de novo production of CSPG following spinal cord injury, we demonstrated that this extracellular matrix, mainly known for its ability to inhibit axonal growth, serves as a critical template skewing the entering monocytes towards the resolving phenotype. In vitro cell culture studies demonstrated that this matrix alone is sufficient to induce such monocyte polarization. Reciprocal conditional ablation of the monocyte-derived macrophages concentrated at the lesion margins, using diphtheria toxin, revealed that these cells have scar matrix-resolving properties. Replenishment of monocytic cell populations to the ablated mice demonstrated that this extracellular remodeling ability of the infiltrating monocytes requires their expression of the matrix-degrading enzyme, matrix metalloproteinase 13 (MMP-13, a property that was found here to be crucial for functional recovery. Altogether, this study demonstrates that the glial scar-matrix, a known obstacle to regeneration, is a critical component skewing the encountering monocytes towards a resolving phenotype. In an apparent feedback loop, monocytes were found to regulate scar resolution. This

  10. Formation of hypertrophic scars: Evolution and susceptibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahdavian Delavary, B.; van der Veer, W.M.; Ferreira, J.A.; Niessen, F.B.

    2012-01-01

    Formation of hypertrophic scars is a common complication of wound healing, and at present little is known about the incidence and risk factors. Our aim was to analyse the incidence, progression, and regression of postoperative hypertrophic scars over time and to identify risk factors of hypertrophic

  11. Prevention and curative management of hypertrophic scar formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemen, M.C.; Veer, van der W.M.; Ulrich, M.; Zuijlen, van P.P.; Niessen, F.B.; Middelkoop, E.

    2009-01-01

    Although hypertrophic scarring commonly occurs following burns, many aspects such as incidence of and optimal treatment for scar hypertrophy remain unclear. This review will focus on hypertrophic scar formation after burn in particular, exploring multiple treatment options and describing their

  12. Renal scar formation after urinary tract infection in children

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    Young Seo Park

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infection (UTI is a common bacterial illness in children. Acute pyelonephritis in children may lead to renal scarring with the risk of later hypertension, preeclampsia during pregnancy, proteinuria, and renal insufficiency. Until now, vesicoureteral reflux (VUR has been considered the most important risk factor for post-UTI renal scar formation in children. VUR predisposes children with UTI to pyelonephritis, and both are associated with renal scarring. However, reflux nephropathy is not always acquired; rather, it reflects refluxassociated congenital dysplastic kidneys. The viewpoint that chronic kidney disease results from renal maldevelopment-associated VUR has led to questioning the utility of any regimen directed at identifying or treating VUR. Despite the recognition that underlying renal anomalies may be the cause of renal scarring that was previously attributed to infection, the prevention of renal scarring remains the goal of all therapies for childhood UTI. Therefore, children at high risk of renal scar formation after UTI should be treated and investigated until a large clinical study and basic research give us more information.

  13. Etiopathogenesis of Post-endodontic Periapical Scar Formation

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    Edita Horká

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A periapical scar represents a clinically asymptomatic, non-progressive, small, periapical radiolucency in patients with a previously well-performed root canal treatment.The hypothesis: We introduce a hypothesis that periapical scar formation is caused by osseoinhibitory molecular signaling from the epithelial cell rests of Malassez.Evaluation of the hypothesis: When epithelial cell rests of Malassez are present in teeth with an infected root canal system, a periapical cyst develops, whereas in the case of a treated root canal system infection, periapical inflammation is diminished and the periapical leasion heals until the regeneration process reaches the apical part of the tooth where epithelial cell rests of Malassez are present. Cytokines cause rapidly progressive defensive fibroproduction and scar formation, in which osteoblasts cannot differentiate into

  14. Triterpenes for Well-Balanced Scar Formation in Superficial Wounds

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    Stefan Kindler

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Triterpenes are demonstrably effective for accelerating re-epithelialisation of wounds and known to improve scar formation for superficial lesions. Among the variety of triterpenes, betuline is of particular medical interest. Topical betuline gel (TBG received drug approval in 2016 from the European Commission as the first topical therapeutic agent with the proven clinical benefit of accelerating wound healing. Two self-conducted randomized intra-individual comparison clinical studies with a total of 220 patients involved in TBG treatment of skin graft surgical wounds have been screened for data concerning the aesthetic aspect of wound healing. Three months after surgery wound treatment with TBG resulted in about 30% of cases with more discreet scars, and standard of care in about 10%. Patients themselves appreciate the results of TBG after 3 months even more (about 50% compared to standard of care (about 10%. One year after surgery, the superiority of TBG counts for about 25% in comparison with about 10%, and from the patients’ point of view, for 25% compared to 4% under standard of care. In the majority of wound treatment cases, there is no difference visible between TBG treatment and standard of care after 1 year of scar formation. However, in comparison, TBG still offers a better chance for discreet scars and therefore happens to be superior in good care of wounds.

  15. Blockade of mast cell activation reduces cutaneous scar formation.

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    Lin Chen

    Full Text Available Damage to the skin initiates a cascade of well-orchestrated events that ultimately leads to repair of the wound. The inflammatory response is key to wound healing both through preventing infection and stimulating proliferation and remodeling of the skin. Mast cells within the tissue are one of the first immune cells to respond to trauma, and upon activation they release pro-inflammatory molecules to initiate recruitment of leukocytes and promote a vascular response in the tissue. Additionally, mast cells stimulate collagen synthesis by dermal fibroblasts, suggesting they may also influence scar formation. To examine the contribution of mast cells in tissue repair, we determined the effects the mast cell inhibitor, disodium cromoglycate (DSCG, on several parameters of dermal repair including, inflammation, re-epithelialization, collagen fiber organization, collagen ultrastructure, scar width and wound breaking strength. Mice treated with DSCG had significantly reduced levels of the inflammatory cytokines IL-1α, IL-1β, and CXCL1. Although DSCG treatment reduced the production of inflammatory mediators, the rate of re-epithelialization was not affected. Compared to control, inhibition of mast cell activity caused a significant decrease in scar width along with accelerated collagen re-organization. Despite the reduced scar width, DSCG treatment did not affect the breaking strength of the healed tissue. Tryptase β1 exclusively produced by mast cells was found to increase significantly in the course of wound healing. However, DSCG treatment did not change its level in the wounds. These results indicate that blockade of mast cell activation reduces scar formation and inflammation without further weakening the healed wound.

  16. Data-driven model comparing the effects of glial scarring and interface interactions on chronic neural recordings in non-human primates

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    Malaga, Karlo A.; Schroeder, Karen E.; Patel, Paras R.; Irwin, Zachary T.; Thompson, David E.; Bentley, J. Nicole; Lempka, Scott F.; Chestek, Cynthia A.; Patil, Parag G.

    2016-02-01

    Objective. We characterized electrode stability over twelve weeks of impedance and neural recording data from four chronically-implanted Utah arrays in two rhesus macaques, and investigated the effects of glial scarring and interface interactions at the electrode recording site on signal quality using a computational model. Approach. A finite-element model of a Utah array microelectrode in neural tissue was coupled with a multi-compartmental model of a neuron to quantify the effects of encapsulation thickness, encapsulation resistivity, and interface resistivity on electrode impedance and waveform amplitude. The coupled model was then reconciled with the in vivo data. Histology was obtained seventeen weeks post-implantation to measure gliosis. Main results. From week 1-3, mean impedance and amplitude increased at rates of 115.8 kΩ/week and 23.1 μV/week, respectively. This initial ramp up in impedance and amplitude was observed across all arrays, and is consistent with biofouling (increasing interface resistivity) and edema clearing (increasing tissue resistivity), respectively, in the model. Beyond week 3, the trends leveled out. Histology showed that thin scars formed around the electrodes. In the model, scarring could not match the in vivo data. However, a thin interface layer at the electrode tip could. Despite having a large effect on impedance, interface resistivity did not have a noticeable effect on amplitude. Significance. This study suggests that scarring does not cause an electrical problem with regard to signal quality since it does not appear to be the main contributor to increasing impedance or significantly affect amplitude unless it displaces neurons. This, in turn, suggests that neural signals can be obtained reliably despite scarring as long as the recording site has sufficiently low impedance after accumulating a thin layer of biofouling. Therefore, advancements in microelectrode technology may be expedited by focusing on improvements to the

  17. Keratinocyte-derived growth factors play a role in the formation of hypertrophic scars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niessen, FB; Andriessen, MP; Schalkwijk, J; Visser, L; Timens, W

    In predisposed individuals, wound healing can lead to hypertrophic scar or keloid formation, characterized by an overabundant extracellular matrix. It has recently been shown that hypertrophic scars are accompanied by abnormal keratinocyte differentiation and proliferation, and significantly

  18. Disruption of spinal cord white matter and sciatic nerve geometry inhibits axonal growth in vitro in the absence of glial scarring

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    Crutcher Keith A

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Axons within the mature mammalian central nervous system fail to regenerate following injury, usually resulting in long-lasting motor and sensory deficits. Studies involving transplantation of adult neurons into white matter implicate glial scar-associated factors in regeneration failure. However, these studies cannot distinguish between the effects of these factors and disruption of the spatial organization of cells and molecular factors (disrupted geometry. Since white matter can support or inhibit neurite growth depending on the geometry of the fiber tract, the present study sought to determine whether disrupted geometry is sufficient to inhibit neurite growth. Results Embryonic chick sympathetic neurons were cultured on unfixed longitudinal cryostat sections of mature rat spinal cord or sciatic nerve that had been crushed with forceps ex vivo then immediately frozen to prevent glial scarring. Neurite growth on uncrushed portions of spinal cord white matter or sciatic nerve was extensive and highly parallel with the longitudinal axis of the fiber tract but did not extend onto crushed portions. Moreover, neurite growth from neurons attached directly to crushed white matter or nerve tissue was shorter and less parallel compared with neurite growth on uncrushed tissue. In contrast, neurite growth appeared to be unaffected by crushed spinal cord gray matter. Conclusions These observations suggest that glial scar-associated factors are not necessary to block axonal growth at sites of injury. Disruption of fiber tract geometry, perhaps involving myelin-associated neurite-growth inhibitors, may be sufficient to pose a barrier to regenerating axons in spinal cord white matter and peripheral nerves.

  19. Transient activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling reporter in fibrotic scar formation after compression spinal cord injury in adult mice.

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    Yamagami, Takashi; Pleasure, David E; Lam, Kit S; Zhou, Chengji J

    2018-02-19

    After traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI), a scar may form with a fibrotic core (fibrotic scar) and surrounding reactive astrocytes (glial scar) at the lesion site. The scar tissue is considered a major obstacle preventing regeneration both as a physical barrier and as a source for secretion of inhibitors of axonal regeneration. Understanding the mechanism of scar formation and how to control it may lead to effective SCI therapies. Using a compression-SCI model on adult transgenic mice, we demonstrate that the canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling reporter TOPgal (TCF/Lef1-lacZ) positive cells appeared at the lesion site by 5 days, peaked on 7 days, and diminished by 14 days post injury. Using various representative cell lineage markers, we demonstrate that, these transiently TOPgal positive cells are a group of Fibronectin(+);GFAP(-) fibroblast-like cells in the core scar region. Some of them are proliferative. These results indicate that Wnt/β-catenin signaling may play a key role in fibrotic scar formation after traumatic spinal cord injury. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Mdivi-1 inhibits astrocyte activation and astroglial scar formation and enhances axonal regeneration after spinal cord injury in rats

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    gang li

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available After spinal cord injury (SCI, astrocytes become hypertrophic and proliferative, forming a dense network of astroglial processes at the site of the lesion. This constitutes a physical and biochemical barrier to axonal regeneration. Mitochondrial fission regulates cell cycle progression; inhibiting the cell cycle of astrocytes can reduce expression levels of axon growth-inhibitory molecules as well as astroglial scar formation after SCI. We therefore investigated how an inhibitor of mitochondrial fission, Mdivi-1, would affect astrocyte proliferation, astroglial scar formation, and axonal regeneration following SCI in rats. Western blot and immunofluorescent double-labeling showed that Mdivi-1 markedly reduced the expression of the astrocyte marker glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, and a cell proliferation marker, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, in astrocytes 3 days after SCI. Moreover, Mdivi-1 decreased the expression of GFAP and neurocan, a chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan. Notably, immunofluorescent labeling and Nissl staining showed that Mdivi-1 elevated the production of growth-associated protein-43 and increased neuronal survival at 4 weeks after SCI. Finally, hematoxylin-eosin staining and behavioral evaluation of motor function indicated that Mdivi-1 also reduced cavity formation and improved motor function 4 weeks after SCI. Our results confirm that Mdivi-1 promotes motor function after SCI, and indicate that inhibiting mitochondrial fission using Mdivi-1 can inhibit astrocyte activation and astroglial scar formation and contribute to axonal regeneration after SCI in rats.

  1. Macrophage Phenotypes Regulate Scar Formation and Chronic Wound Healing.

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    Hesketh, Mark; Sahin, Katherine B; West, Zoe E; Murray, Rachael Z

    2017-07-17

    Macrophages and inflammation play a beneficial role during wound repair with macrophages regulating a wide range of processes, such as removal of dead cells, debris and pathogens, through to extracellular matrix deposition re-vascularisation and wound re-epithelialisation. To perform this range of functions, these cells develop distinct phenotypes over the course of wound healing. They can present with a pro-inflammatory M1 phenotype, more often found in the early stages of repair, through to anti-inflammatory M2 phenotypes that are pro-repair in the latter stages of wound healing. There is a continuum of phenotypes between these ranges with some cells sharing phenotypes of both M1 and M2 macrophages. One of the less pleasant consequences of quick closure, namely the replacement with scar tissue, is also regulated by macrophages, through their promotion of fibroblast proliferation, myofibroblast differentiation and collagen deposition. Alterations in macrophage number and phenotype disrupt this process and can dictate the level of scar formation. It is also clear that dysregulated inflammation and altered macrophage phenotypes are responsible for hindering closure of chronic wounds. The review will discuss our current knowledge of macrophage phenotype on the repair process and how alterations in the phenotypes might alter wound closure and the final repair quality.

  2. Fibrotic scar formation in central serous chorioretinopathy developed during systemic treatment with corticosteroids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooymans, JMM

    1998-01-01

    Background: The purpose of the study is to demonstrate the development of subretinal fibrotic scar formation in central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR) that developed during systemic corticosteroid treatment. Methods: The clinical and photographic records of a patient in whom an unusual

  3. The cosmetic outcome of the scar formation after cesarean section

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholt, Jes Sanddal; Möller-Christensen, T; Steele, R E

    1994-01-01

    Three methods of skin closure after cesarean section were tested and compared in a prospective trial. Eighty-nine (82.5%) appeared for follow-up investigation 4-5 months after delivery. The mean scar width was significantly narrower after phannenstiel incision compared with percutaneous nylon sut...

  4. Scar formation and tuberculin conversion following BCG vaccination in infants: A prospective cohort study

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    Sara S Dhanawade

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is considerable variation in BCG scar failure rate on available data and correlation between BCG scar and tuberculin conversion remains controversial. Through this study we aimed to determine the scar failure rate and tuberculin conversion in term infants vaccinated with BCG within the first month. Materials and Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted among 85 consecutive infants weighing >2 kg attending the immunization clinic of a medical college hospital. Fifteen subjects who could not complete the follow up were excluded. Total of 70 cases were analyzed. All babies were administered 0.1 ml of BCG and examined at 3 months (+1 week for scar. Tuberculin test was done with 5TU PPD. An induration of >5 mm was considered positive. Statistical analysis was done using Microsoft Excel and SPSS-22. Results: Out of the 70 infants, 41 (58.6% were males. Although majority (72.9% of infants were vaccinated within 7 days, only 18 (25.7% received BCG within 48 hours of birth. Sixty-four (91.4% had a visible scar at 12 weeks post vaccination representing a scar failure rate of 8.6%. Tuberculin test was positive in 50 (71.4%. The mean ± s.d. for scar and tuberculin skin test (TST reaction size was 4.93 ± 2.01 mm and 6.01 ± 3.22 mm, respectively. The association between scar formation and tuberculin positivity was highly significant (P < 0.001. There was significant correlation between scar size and TST size (r = 0.401, P = 0.001 Conclusions: Less than 10% of infants fail to develop a scar following BCG vaccination. There is good correlation between scar positivity and tuberculin conversion.

  5. Etiopathogenesis of post-endodontic periapical scar formation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horká, E.; Foltán, R.; Hanzelka, T.; Pavlíková, G.; Klíma, K.; Šedý, Jiří

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 1 (2012), s. 5-15 ISSN 2155-8213 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0538; GA MŠk(CZ) LC554; GA ČR GAP304/10/0320 Grant - others:UK(CZ) UNCE 204021 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390703 Keywords : postendodontic scar * endodontics * tooth Subject RIV: FH - Neurology

  6. Fire-scar formation in Jeffrey pine - mixed conifer forests in the Sierra San Pedro Martir, Mexico

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    Scott L. Stephens; Danny L. Fry; Brandon M. Collins; Carl N. Skinner; Ernesto Franco-Vizcaino; Travis J. Freed

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about the probability of fire-scar formation. In this study, we examined all mixed conifer trees for fire-scar formation in a 16 ha watershed that burned as part of a 2003 wildfire in Sierra San Pedro Ma´rtir National Park (SSPM), Mexico. In addition, we examine the probability of fire-scar formation in relation to the previous fire interval in forests...

  7. Experimental and clinical research on the inhibition of scarring formation after glaucoma surgery 90Sr radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Meien; Wang Guzhu; Li Shuqing

    1994-01-01

    Beta radiation of 90 Sr can inhibit the scarring formation so that the success rate of filtration surgery may be improved. After success in animal experiment, trabeculectomy was performed with small sclera flap on 31 eyes of 23 cases of patients with a high risk of scarring formation. Local 90 Sr radiation with a total dosage of 30.24 Gy were given by several times 3 days postoperatively, combined with local use of steroids. The patients were followed-up at 1 to 24 months, averaging 7 months. The intraocular pressure were successfully controlled in 90.3% of the patients. No lens impairment and other complications were observed. This procedure is an adoptive method in preventing scarring formation after glaucoma filtering surgery

  8. Radiation-induced reduction of the glial population during development disrupts the formation of olfactory glomeruli in an insect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oland, L.A.; Tolbert, L.P.; Mossman, K.L.

    1988-01-01

    Interactions between neurons and between neurons and glial cells have been shown by a number of investigators to be critical for normal development of the nervous system. In the olfactory system of Manduca sexta, sensory axons have been shown to induce the formation of synaptic glomeruli in the antennal lobe of the brain. Oland and Tolbert (1987) found that the growth of sensory axons into the developing antennal lobe causes changes in glial shape and disposition that presage the establishment of glomeruli, each surrounded by a glial envelope. Several lines of evidence lead us to hypothesize that the glial cells of the lobe may be acting as intermediaries in developmental interactions between sensory axons and neurons of the antennal lobe. In the present study, we have tested this hypothesis by using gamma-radiation to reduce the number of glial cells at a time when neurons of the antennal system are postmitotic but glomeruli have not yet developed. When glial numbers are severely reduced, the neuropil of the resulting lobe lacks glomeruli. Despite the presence of afferent axons, the irradiated lobe has many of the features of a lobe that developed in the absence of afferent axons. Our findings indicate that the glial cells must play a necessary role in the inductive influence of the afferent axons

  9. The heme-heme oxygenase system in wound healing; implications for scar formation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagener, F.A.D.T.G.; Scharstuhl, A.; Tyrrell, R.M.; Hoff, J.W. Von den; Jozkowicz, A.; Dulak, J.; Russel, F.G.M.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Wound healing is an intricate process requiring the concerted action of keratinocytes, fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and macrophages. Here, we review the literature on normal wound healing and the pathological forms of wound healing, such as hypertrophic or excessive scar formation, with special

  10. Modulation of scar tissue formation using different dermal regeneration templates in the treatment of experimental full-thickness wounds.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Druecke, D.; Lamme, E.N.; Hermann, S.; Pieper, J.S.; May, P.S.; Steinau, H.U.; Steinstraesser, L.

    2004-01-01

    The recovery of skin function is the goal of each burn surgeon. Split-skin graft treatment of full-thickness skin defects leads to scar formation, which is often vulnerable and instable. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze wound healing and scar tissue formation in acute full-thickness

  11. Collagen cross-linking by adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal cells and scar-derived mesenchymal cells: Are mesenchymal stromal cells involved in scar formation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogaerdt, van den A.J.; Veen, van der A.G.; Zuijlen, van P.P.; Reijnen, L.; Verkerk, M.; Bank, R.A.; Middelkoop, E.; Ulrich, M.

    2009-01-01

    In this work, different fibroblast-like (mesenchymal) cell populations that might be involved in wound healing were characterized and their involvement in scar formation was studied by determining collagen synthesis and processing. Depending on the physical and mechanical properties of the tissues,

  12. Collagen cross-linking by adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal cells and scar-derived mesenchymal cells : Are mesenchymal stromal cells involved in scar formation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bogaerdt, Antoon J.; van der Veen, Vincent C.; van Zuijlen, Paul P. M.; Reijnen, Linda; Verkerk, Michelle; Bank, Ruud A.; Middelkoop, Esther; Ulrich, Magda M. W.

    2009-01-01

    In this work, different fibroblast-like (mesenchymal) cell populations that might be involved in wound healing were characterized and their involvement in scar formation was studied by determining collagen synthesis and processing. Depending on the physical and mechanical properties of the tissues,

  13. Control of Scar Tissue Formation in the Cornea: Strategies in Clinical and Corneal Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha L. Wilson

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Corneal structure is highly organized and unified in architecture with structural and functional integration which mediates transparency and vision. Disease and injury are the second most common cause of blindness affecting over 10 million people worldwide. Ninety percent of blindness is permanent due to scarring and vascularization. Scarring caused via fibrotic cellular responses, heals the tissue, but fails to restore transparency. Controlling keratocyte activation and differentiation are key for the inhibition and prevention of fibrosis. Ophthalmic surgery techniques are continually developing to preserve and restore vision but corneal regression and scarring are often detrimental side effects and long term continuous follow up studies are lacking or discouraging. Appropriate corneal models may lead to a reduced need for corneal transplantation as presently there are insufficient numbers or suitable tissue to meet demand. Synthetic optical materials are under development for keratoprothesis although clinical use is limited due to implantation complications and high rejection rates. Tissue engineered corneas offer an alternative which more closely mimic the morphological, physiological and biomechanical properties of native corneas. However, replication of the native collagen fiber organization and retaining the phenotype of stromal cells which prevent scar-like tissue formation remains a challenge. Careful manipulation of culture environments are under investigation to determine a suitable environment that simulates native ECM organization and stimulates keratocyte migration and generation.

  14. Brain glutamine synthesis requires neuronal-born aspartate as amino donor for glial glutamate formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, Beatriz; Rodrigues, Tiago B; Contreras, Laura; Garzón, Miguel; Llorente-Folch, Irene; Kobayashi, Keiko; Saheki, Takeyori; Cerdan, Sebastian; Satrústegui, Jorgina

    2011-01-01

    The glutamate-glutamine cycle faces a drain of glutamate by oxidation, which is balanced by the anaplerotic synthesis of glutamate and glutamine in astrocytes. De novo synthesis of glutamate by astrocytes requires an amino group whose origin is unknown. The deficiency in Aralar/AGC1, the main mitochondrial carrier for aspartate-glutamate expressed in brain, results in a drastic fall in brain glutamine production but a modest decrease in brain glutamate levels, which is not due to decreases in neuronal or synaptosomal glutamate content. In vivo (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance labeling with (13)C(2)acetate or (1-(13)C) glucose showed that the drop in brain glutamine is due to a failure in glial glutamate synthesis. Aralar deficiency induces a decrease in aspartate content, an increase in lactate production, and lactate-to-pyruvate ratio in cultured neurons but not in cultured astrocytes, indicating that Aralar is only functional in neurons. We find that aspartate, but not other amino acids, increases glutamate synthesis in both control and aralar-deficient astrocytes, mainly by serving as amino donor. These findings suggest the existence of a neuron-to-astrocyte aspartate transcellular pathway required for astrocyte glutamate synthesis and subsequent glutamine formation. This pathway may provide a mechanism to transfer neuronal-born redox equivalents to mitochondria in astrocytes.

  15. A novel and efficient gene transfer strategy reduces glial reactivity and improves neuronal survival and axonal growth in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Desclaux, Mathieu; Teigell, Marisa; Amar, Lahouari; Vogel, Roland; Giménez y Ribotta, Minerva; Privát, Alain M.; Mallet, Jacques

    2009-01-01

    Background: The lack of axonal regeneration in the central nervous system is attributed among other factors to the formation of a glial scar. This cellular structure is mainly composed of reactive astrocytes that overexpress two intermediate filament proteins, the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and vimentin. Indeed, in vitro, astrocytes lacking GFAP or both GFAP and vimentin were shown to be the substrate for increased neuronal plasticity. Moreover, double knockout mice lacking both G...

  16. The Effect of Dry Eye Disease on Scar Formation in Rabbit Glaucoma Filtration Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Ji

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The success rate of glaucoma filtration surgery is closely related to conjunctival inflammation, and the main mechanism of dry eye disease (DED is inflammation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of DED on bleb scar formation after rabbit glaucoma filtration surgery. Sixteen New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into control and DED groups. A DED model was induced by twice-daily topical administration of 0.1% benzalkonium chloride (BAC drops for three weeks. Ocular examinations were performed to verify the DED model. Surgical effects were assessed, and histologic assessments were performed on the 28th postoperative day. Higher fluorescein staining scores, lower basal tear secretion levels and goblet cell counts, and increased interleukin 1β (IL-1β levels were observed in the DED group. The DED eyes displayed significantly higher intraocular pressure (IOP% on the 14th postoperative day; a smaller bleb area on days 14, 21 and 28; and a shorter bleb survival time. Moreover, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA and alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA levels were significantly increased in the DED group. These results demonstrate that DED promotes filtering bleb scar formation and shortens bleb survival time; these effects may be mediated via IL-1β.

  17. Delayed expression of cell cycle proteins contributes to astroglial scar formation and chronic inflammation after rat spinal cord contusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Junfang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI induces secondary tissue damage that is associated with astrogliosis and inflammation. We previously reported that acute upregulation of a cluster of cell-cycle-related genes contributes to post-mitotic cell death and secondary damage after SCI. However, it remains unclear whether cell cycle activation continues more chronically and contributes to more delayed glial change. Here we examined expression of cell cycle-related proteins up to 4 months following SCI, as well as the effects of the selective cyclin-dependent kinase (CDKs inhibitor CR8, on astrogliosis and microglial activation in a rat SCI contusion model. Methods Adult male rats were subjected to moderate spinal cord contusion injury at T8 using a well-characterized weight-drop model. Tissue from the lesion epicenter was obtained 4 weeks or 4 months post-injury, and processed for protein expression and lesion volume. Functional recovery was assessed over the 4 months after injury. Results Immunoblot analysis demonstrated a marked continued upregulation of cell cycle-related proteins − including cyclin D1 and E, CDK4, E2F5 and PCNA − for 4 months post-injury that were highly expressed by GFAP+ astrocytes and microglia, and co-localized with inflammatory-related proteins. CR8 administrated systemically 3 h post-injury and continued for 7 days limited the sustained elevation of cell cycle proteins and immunoreactivity of GFAP, Iba-1 and p22PHOX − a key component of NADPH oxidase − up to 4 months after SCI. CR8 treatment significantly reduced lesion volume, which typically progressed in untreated animals between 1 and 4 months after trauma. Functional recovery was also significantly improved by CR8 treatment after SCI from week 2 through week 16. Conclusions These data demonstrate that cell cycle-related proteins are chronically upregulated after SCI and may contribute to astroglial scar

  18. Evidence that stress activates glial lactate formation in vivo assessed with rat hippocampus lactography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elekes, O; Venema, K; Postema, F; Dringen, R; Hamprecht, B; Korf, J

    1996-01-01

    Extracellular lactate of the rat hippocampus is inter alia increased by immobilization stress. The origin of lactate is, however, not well established, so it is not known whether it is mainly derived form neurons or glial cells. Dialysates were collected shortly (1 or 2 days) or with a delay (14 or

  19. Topical hemostatic powder promotes reepithelialization and reduces scar formation after extensive esophageal mucosal resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beye, B; Barret, M; Alatawi, A; Beuvon, F; Nicco, C; Pratico, C A; Chereau, C; Chaussade, S; Batteux, F; Prat, F

    2016-08-01

    The development of techniques for endoscopic resection has provided new strategies for radical conservative treatment of superficial esophageal neoplasms, even those that are circumferential, such as Barrett's neoplasia. However, it is necessary to prevent the formation of scar tissue that can be responsible for esophageal strictures following circumferential resection. Preliminary data have suggested the possible efficacy of a hemostatic powder in the promotion of wound healing. The study aims to assess the effectiveness of Hemospray (Cook Medical) in a swine model of post-endoscopic esophageal stricture. Our prospective controlled study included 21 pigs. A 6-cm circumferential submucosal dissection of the esophagus (CESD) was performed in each pig. Group 1 (n = 11) only underwent CESD and Group 2 (n = 10) had repeated Hemospray applications after CESD. Clinical, endoscopic, and radiological monitoring were performed, blood levels of four inflammatory or pro-fibrotic cytokines were assessed, and histological analysis was performed. Median esophageal diameter was greater in the group treated with Hemospray (2 mm [1-3] vs. 3 mm [2-4], P = 0.01), and the rate of symptomatic esophageal stricture was 100% and 60% in Groups 1 and 2, respectively (P = 0.09). The thicknesses of esophageal fibrosis and inflammatory cell infiltrate were significantly lower in Group 2 than in Group 1 (P = 0.002 and 0.0003, respectively). The length of the neoepithelium was greater in Group 2 than in Group 1 (P = 0.0004). Transforming growth factor-β levels were significantly lower in Group 2 than in Group 1 (P = 0.01). The application of Hemospray after esophageal CESD reduces scar tissue formation and promotes reepithelialization, and therefore is a promising therapeutic approach in the prevention of post-endoscopic esophageal stricture. © 2015 International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus.

  20. Extracorporeal shock wave therapy with low-energy flux density inhibits hypertrophic scar formation in an animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing-Chun; Zhang, Bo-Ru; Hong, Lei; Shi, Kai; Wu, Wei-Wei; Yu, Jia-Ao

    2018-04-01

    Hypertrophic scar is characterized by excessive deposits of collagen during skin wound healing, which could become a challenge to clinicians. This study assessed the effects of the extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) on hypertrophic scar formation and the underlying gene regu-lation. A rabbit ear hypertrophic scar model was generated and randomly divided into three groups: L-ESWT group to receive L-ESWT (energy flux density of 0.1 mJ/mm2), H-ESWT (energy flux density of 0.2 mJ/mm2) and sham ESWT group (S-ESWT). Hypertrophic scar tissues were then collected and stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and Masson's trichrome staining, respectively, to assess scar elevation index (SEI), fibroblast density and collagen fiber arrangement. Expression of cell proliferation marker proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) were assessed using RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry in hypertrophic scar tissues. H&E staining sections showed significant reduction of SEI and fibroblast density in both ESWT treatment groups compared to S-ESWT, but there was no dramatic difference between L-ESWT and H-ESWT groups. Masson's trichrome staining showed that collagen fibers were more slender and broader and oriented in parallel to skin surface after administration of ESWT compared to control tissues. At the gene level, PCNA‑positive fibroblasts and α-SMA-positive myofibroblasts were significantly decreased after L-ESWT or H-ESWT compared to the controls. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in expression of PCNA mRNA between L-ESWT or H-ESWT and S-ESWT, whereas expression of α-SMA mRNA significantly decreased in L-ESWT compared to that of H-ESWT and S-ESWT (P=0.002 and P=0.030, respectively). In conclusion, L-ESWT could be effective on suppression of hypertrophic scar formation by inhibition of scar elevation index and fibroblast density as well as α-SMA expression in hypertrophic scar tissues of the rabbit model.

  1. Scar formation following excisional and burn injuries in a red Duroc pig model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackstone, Britani N; Kim, Jayne Y; McFarland, Kevin L; Sen, Chandan K; Supp, Dorothy M; Bailey, J Kevin; Powell, Heather M

    2017-08-01

    Scar research is challenging because rodents do not naturally form excessive scars, and burn depth, size, and location cannot be controlled in human longitudinal studies. The female, red Duroc pig model has been shown to form robust scars with biological and anatomical similarities to human hypertrophic scars. To more closely mimic the mode of injury, recreate the complex chemical milieu of the burn wound environment and enhance scar development, an animal model of excessive burn-induced scarring was developed and compared with the more commonly used model, which involves excisional wounds created via dermatome. Standardized, full-thickness thermal wounds were created on the dorsum of female, red Duroc pigs. Wounds for the dermatome model were created using two different total dermatome settings: ∼1.5 mm and ≥ 1.9 mm. Results from analysis over 150 days showed that burn wounds healed at much slower rate and contracted more significantly than dermatome wounds of both settings. The burn scars were hairless, had mixed pigmentation, and displayed fourfold and twofold greater excess erythema values, respectively, compared with ∼1.5 mm and ≥ 1.9 mm deep dermatome injuries. Burn scars were less elastic, less pliable, and weaker than scars resulting from excisional injuries. Decorin and versican gene expression levels were elevated in the burn group at day 150 compared with both dermatome groups. In addition, transforming growth factor-beta 1 was significantly up-regulated in the burn group vs. the ∼1.5 mm deep dermatome group at all time points, and expression remained significantly elevated vs. both dermatome groups at day 150. Compared with scars from dermatome wounds, the burn scar model described here demonstrates greater similarity to human hypertrophic scar. Thus, this burn scar model may provide an improved platform for studying the pathophysiology of burn-related hypertrophic scarring, investigating current anti-scar therapies, and development of

  2. The use of silicone occlusive sheeting (Sil-K) and silicone occlusive gel (epiderm) in the prevention of hypertrophic scar formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niessen, FB; Spauwen, PHM; Robinson, PH; Fidler, [No Value; Kon, M

    The development of hypertrophic scars and keloids is an unsolved problem in the process of found healing. For this reason, a successful treatment to prevent excessive scar formation still has not been found. Over the last decade, however, a promising new treatment has been introduced. Silicone

  3. The role of γ-ray-induced fibroblast apoptosis in inhibiting biliary duct hypertrophic scar formation in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Guijin; Zhang Hong; Gao Xinyi; Xu Shuhe; Gao Hong; Jiang Weiguo; Jiangtao; Dai Xianwei; Ma Kai

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the role of γ-ray-induced fibroblast apoptosis in the inhibition of biliary duct hypertrophic scar formation in dogs. Methods: γ-radiation-induced apoptotic fibroblast cells were analysed by using transmission electron microscopy and DNA from frozen biliary duct tissue was extracted with phenol chloroform. DNA ladder profile after extraction of RNA was observed, and apoptosis cells in paraffinem-bedded biliary duct tissue sections were examined used immuno-histochemical method. Dog biliary duct cross-sections were stained with hematoxylin-erosin, Masson's trichrome, and Verhoeff-van Giesen stains. Muscle formation area, lumen circumference, and stenosis degree were determined by a computer-assisted image analysis system. Results: 103 Pd radioactive stent significantly inhibited fibroblast proliferation. The features of fibroblast apoptosis (e.g, apoptic bodies, DNA ladder band) could be seen in the 103 Pd radioactive stent group. The fibroblast apoptotic rate was significantly increased in the 103 Pd radioactive stent group than in the control group (P 103 Pd radioactive stent significantly reduced biliary muscular formation. Conclusion: 103 Pd radioactive stent could have the effect of inhibiting the proliferation of scar-forming fibroblast, and thus could be used for treatment and (or) prevention of hypertrophic scar formation in biliary duct. (authors)

  4. Modulation of Wound Healing and Scar Formation by MG53 Protein-mediated Cell Membrane Repair*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haichang; Duann, Pu; Lin, Pei-Hui; Zhao, Li; Fan, Zhaobo; Tan, Tao; Zhou, Xinyu; Sun, Mingzhai; Fu, Minghuan; Orange, Matthew; Sermersheim, Matthew; Ma, Hanley; He, Duofen; Steinberg, Steven M.; Higgins, Robert; Zhu, Hua; John, Elizabeth; Zeng, Chunyu; Guan, Jianjun; Ma, Jianjie

    2015-01-01

    Cell membrane repair is an important aspect of physiology, and disruption of this process can result in pathophysiology in a number of different tissues, including wound healing, chronic ulcer and scarring. We have previously identified a novel tripartite motif family protein, MG53, as an essential component of the cell membrane repair machinery. Here we report the functional role of MG53 in the modulation of wound healing and scarring. Although MG53 is absent from keratinocytes and fibroblasts, remarkable defects in skin architecture and collagen overproduction are observed in mg53−/− mice, and these animals display delayed wound healing and abnormal scarring. Recombinant human MG53 (rhMG53) protein, encapsulated in a hydrogel formulation, facilitates wound healing and prevents scarring in rodent models of dermal injuries. An in vitro study shows that rhMG53 protects against acute injury to keratinocytes and facilitates the migration of fibroblasts in response to scratch wounding. During fibrotic remodeling, rhMG53 interferes with TGF-β-dependent activation of myofibroblast differentiation. The resulting down-regulation of α smooth muscle actin and extracellular matrix proteins contributes to reduced scarring. Overall, these studies establish a trifunctional role for MG53 as a facilitator of rapid injury repair, a mediator of cell migration, and a modulator of myofibroblast differentiation during wound healing. Targeting the functional interaction between MG53 and TGF-β signaling may present a potentially effective means for promoting scarless wound healing. PMID:26306047

  5. miR-29b promotes skin wound healing and reduces excessive scar formation by inhibition of the TGF-β1/Smad/CTGF signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jingdong; Lin, Quan; Shao, Ying; Rong, Li; Zhang, Duo

    2017-04-01

    The hypertrophic scar is a medical difficulty of humans, which has caused great pain to patients. Here, we investigated the inhibitory effect of miR-29b on scar formation. The scalded model was established in mice and miR-29b mimics or a negative control was subcutaneously injected into the injury skin. Then various molecular biological experiments were performed to assess the effect of miR-29b on scar formation. According to our present study, first, the results demonstrated that miR-29b was down-regulated in thermal injury tissue and miR-29b treatment could promote wound healing, inhibit scar formation, and alleviate histopathological morphologic alteration in scald tissues. Additionally, miR-29b treatment suppressed collagen deposition and fibrotic gene expression in scar tissues. Finally, we found that miR-29b treatment inhibited the TGF-β1/Smad/CTGF signaling pathway. Taken together, our data suggest that miR-29b treatment has an inhibitory effect against scar formation via inhibition of the TGF-β1/Smad/CTGF signaling pathway and may provide a potential molecular basis for future treatments for hypertrophic scars.

  6. Modulation of wound healing and scar formation by MG53 protein-mediated cell membrane repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haichang; Duann, Pu; Lin, Pei-Hui; Zhao, Li; Fan, Zhaobo; Tan, Tao; Zhou, Xinyu; Sun, Mingzhai; Fu, Minghuan; Orange, Matthew; Sermersheim, Matthew; Ma, Hanley; He, Duofen; Steinberg, Steven M; Higgins, Robert; Zhu, Hua; John, Elizabeth; Zeng, Chunyu; Guan, Jianjun; Ma, Jianjie

    2015-10-02

    Cell membrane repair is an important aspect of physiology, and disruption of this process can result in pathophysiology in a number of different tissues, including wound healing, chronic ulcer and scarring. We have previously identified a novel tripartite motif family protein, MG53, as an essential component of the cell membrane repair machinery. Here we report the functional role of MG53 in the modulation of wound healing and scarring. Although MG53 is absent from keratinocytes and fibroblasts, remarkable defects in skin architecture and collagen overproduction are observed in mg53(-/-) mice, and these animals display delayed wound healing and abnormal scarring. Recombinant human MG53 (rhMG53) protein, encapsulated in a hydrogel formulation, facilitates wound healing and prevents scarring in rodent models of dermal injuries. An in vitro study shows that rhMG53 protects against acute injury to keratinocytes and facilitates the migration of fibroblasts in response to scratch wounding. During fibrotic remodeling, rhMG53 interferes with TGF-β-dependent activation of myofibroblast differentiation. The resulting down-regulation of α smooth muscle actin and extracellular matrix proteins contributes to reduced scarring. Overall, these studies establish a trifunctional role for MG53 as a facilitator of rapid injury repair, a mediator of cell migration, and a modulator of myofibroblast differentiation during wound healing. Targeting the functional interaction between MG53 and TGF-β signaling may present a potentially effective means for promoting scarless wound healing. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. A study on scar revision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashutosh Talwar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Scars are psychologically distressing for the patients and have an impact on the quality of life and self esteem of the patients. Scar revision is an aesthetic skill which is mastered by plastic surgeons and encroached now by dermatosurgeons. Scars on the face are aesthetically unacceptable and various techniques have been improvised for making a scar aesthetically acceptable. Various types of techniques are used for scar revision like W plasty, Z plasty and VY plasty. Aims: To see the efficacy of various scar revision techniques including Z plasty, VY plasty and W plasty in 30 patients with disfiguring scars. Methods: We selected twenty patients of disfiguring scars for the study. The scars from various causes including trauma and burns were included in our study. Various techniques of scar revision include Z plasty, W plasty and VY plasty were performed according to the type and site of scar. Results: Male: female was 1.5: 1. The scar revision surgery yielded excellent results with minimal complications including haematoma formation, secondary infection and delayed healing seen in 5% patients each. Regarding the efficacy of scar revision, excellent improvement was seen in 60% patients, moderate improvement was seen in 30% patients and mild improvement was seen in 10% patients. Conclusions: Dermatologists can employ a number of surgical scar revision techniques. While some are better suited to treat specific types of scars, they can be used in combination with each other or with adjunctive therapies to achieve optimal results.

  8. Acne Scars

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or scrubbing scarred areas can further reduce skin elasticity and heighten the appearance of the scar. Pick ... technique or procedure is appropriate for my skin type? Did the doctor show me before-and-after ...

  9. Renal scar formation and kidney function following antibiotic-treated murine pyelonephritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick D. Olson

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a new preclinical model to study treatment, resolution and sequelae of severe ascending pyelonephritis. Urinary tract infection (UTI, primarily caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC, is a common disease in children. Severe pyelonephritis is the primary cause of acquired renal scarring in childhood, which may eventually lead to hypertension and chronic kidney disease in a small but important fraction of patients. Preclinical modeling of UTI utilizes almost exclusively females, which (in most mouse strains exhibit inherent resistance to severe ascending kidney infection; consequently, no existing preclinical model has assessed the consequences of recovery from pyelonephritis following antibiotic treatment. We recently published a novel mini-surgical bladder inoculation technique, with which male C3H/HeN mice develop robust ascending pyelonephritis, highly prevalent renal abscesses and evidence of fibrosis. Here, we devised and optimized an antibiotic treatment strategy within this male model to more closely reflect the clinical course of pyelonephritis. A 5-day ceftriaxone regimen initiated at the onset of abscess development achieved resolution of bladder and kidney infection. A minority of treated mice displayed persistent histological abscess at the end of treatment, despite microbiological cure of pyelonephritis; a matching fraction of mice 1 month later exhibited renal scars featuring fibrosis and ongoing inflammatory infiltrates. Successful antibiotic treatment preserved renal function in almost all infected mice, as assessed by biochemical markers 1 and 5 months post-treatment; hydronephrosis was observed as a late effect of treated pyelonephritis. An occasional mouse developed chronic kidney disease, generally reflecting the incidence of this late sequela in humans. In total, this model offers a platform to study the molecular pathogenesis of pyelonephritis, response to antibiotic therapy and emergence of sequelae

  10. Modified Lengthening Temporalis Myoplasty Involving an Extended Lazy-S Incision to Avoid Facial Scar Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oji, Tomito; Hayashi, Akiteru; Ogino, Akihiro; Onishi, Kiyoshi

    2018-05-01

    Lengthening temporalis myoplasty is a faster and less invasive alternative to free muscle transfer for smile reconstruction. However, it requires a nasolabial fold incision, which leaves a midfacial scar. Based on esthetic considerations, a modified approach, involving an extended lazy-S (parotidectomy) incision instead of a nasolabial fold incision, was developed. A cadaveric study involving 10 hemifaces was conducted. From February 2013 to March 2016, the modified lengthening temporalis myoplasty procedure was employed in 10 patients. The results were graded from 1 (poor) to 5 (excellent) according to the Terzis grading system. The excursion of the oral commissure was also measured. The extended lazy-S incision provides easy and safe access to the coronoid process and good visibility. The patients' mean age was 56.5 years, and the mean duration of the postoperative follow-up period was 22.2 months. The patients' underlying conditions included acoustic neuroma (n = 2), Bell palsy (n = 3), congenital conditions (n = 2), brain infarction (n = 1), Ramsay Hunt syndrome (n = 1), and malignant parotid lymphoma (n = 1). One patient suffered a surgical site infection, which was successfully treated with irrigation. All the patients achieved improvements in smile symmetry: 2, 5, and 3 patients obtained excellent, good, and moderate results, respectively. The excursion of the oral commissure ranged from 5 to 10 mm. The modified lengthening temporalis myoplasty procedure provides satisfactory functional outcomes without causing significant complications. It does not leave a facial scar and is a preferable option, especially for young and female patients, and patients who have undergone ablative surgery involving the parotid region.

  11. Postlaminectomy Bone and Scar Formations in Presence of Ankaferd Blood Stopper and Bitter Melon (Momordica Charantia): An Experimental Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuruoglu, Enis; Onger, Mehmet Emin; Marangoz, Abdullah Hilmi; Kocacan, Suleyman Emre; Cokluk, Cengiz; Kaplan, Suleyman

    2017-01-01

    A quantitative model of postlaminectomy was designed in rats. The effects of Momordica Charantia (MC) and Ankaferd blood stopper (ABS) on the bone and scar formation after laminectomy were concurrently evaluated. Eighteen adult Wistar albino rats underwent lumbar laminectomy at L2-L3 vertebral levels, and were randomly assigned to one of three groups of six rats each. The Treatment group received MC and ABS treatment and the Control group was left untreated. Rats were sacrificed 4 weeks after treatment. Then; the lumbar spine was excised en-block, fixed and decalcified. Sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and Masson"s trichrome, and evaluated for peridural fibrosis (PF), new bone formation, and vascular proliferation. Total volume of new bone in the MC group was significantly increased in comparison to the Control group (p < 0.05). Also; there was highly significant increase in terms of the total volume of fibrous tissue in the MC and ABS groups when compared with the Control group (p < 0.01). Besides; there was a highly significant difference between the MC and the Control groups (p < 0.01) in point of total volume of vessel. Both MC and ABS are not convenient to prevent the PF formation and MC may promote new bone formation and angiogenesis after lumbar laminectomy in rats.

  12. Curcumin-induced fibroblast apoptosis and in vitro wound contraction are regulated by antioxidants and heme oxygenase: implications for scar formation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scharstuhl, A.; Mutsaers, H.A.M.; Pennings, S.W.C.; Szarek, W.A.; Russel, F.G.M.; Wagener, F.A.D.T.G.

    2009-01-01

    Fibroblast apoptosis plays a crucial role in normal and pathological scar formation and therefore we studied whether the putative apoptosis-inducing factor curcumin affects fibroblast apoptosis and may function as a novel therapeutic. We show that 25-microM curcumin causes fibroblast apoptosis and

  13. The impact of therapeutic delay time on acute scintigraphic lesion and ultimate scar formation in children with first febrile UTI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Mi Mi; Kim, Jin Wook; Park, Min Gu; Kim, Je Jong; Yoo, Kee Hwan; Moon, Du Geon

    2012-03-01

    We assessed the role of therapeutic delay time (TDT) in acute renal cortical scintigraphic lesion (ASL) and ultimate scar formation (USF) in children with first febrile UTI and whether it is affected by the presence of vesico-ureteral reflux (VUR). 230 children, 90 girls and 140 boys with first febrile UTI were included. Radiologic (USG, DMSA, and VCUG), clinical (age, gender, peak fever, therapeutic delay time) and laboratory (CBC with differential count, ANC (absolute neutrophil count), BUN, Creatinine, urine analysis, gram stain, culture, CRP and ESR) variables were analysed. DMSA was performed within 5 days and after six months. VCUG was performed after acute phase of UTI. The differences in TDT according to the presence of ASL, USF and VUR were assessed. And the correlation between ASL or USF with the duration of TDT was assessed. Of 230 patients enrolled, 142 patients had refluxing UTI and 88 patients had non-refluxing UTI. TDT was the risk factor associated with ASL and USF along with presence of VUR. TDT was longer in ASL positive group compared with the ASL negative group. Also USF group showed longer TDT compared with those without USF in both refluxing UTI and non refluxing UTI. The TDT was significantly shorter in USF group with the presence of VUR. Positive linear association was noted between prevalence of ASL and USF and duration of TDT. In conclusion, the impact of UTI on formation of USF may be enhanced by the presence of VUR with shorter duration of TDT.

  14. A novel and efficient gene transfer strategy reduces glial reactivity and improves neuronal survival and axonal growth in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Desclaux

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The lack of axonal regeneration in the central nervous system is attributed among other factors to the formation of a glial scar. This cellular structure is mainly composed of reactive astrocytes that overexpress two intermediate filament proteins, the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP and vimentin. Indeed, in vitro, astrocytes lacking GFAP or both GFAP and vimentin were shown to be the substrate for increased neuronal plasticity. Moreover, double knockout mice lacking both GFAP and vimentin presented lower levels of glial reactivity in vivo, significant axonal regrowth and improved functional recovery in comparison with wild-type mice after spinal cord hemisection. From these results, our objective was to develop a novel therapeutic strategy for axonal regeneration, based on the targeted suppression of astroglial reactivity and scarring by lentiviral-mediated RNA-interference (RNAi. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In this study, we constructed two lentiviral vectors, Lv-shGFAP and Lv-shVIM, which allow efficient and stable RNAi-mediated silencing of endogenous GFAP or vimentin in vitro. In cultured cortical and spinal reactive astrocytes, the use of these vectors resulted in a specific, stable and highly significant decrease in the corresponding protein levels. In a second model -- scratched primary cultured astrocytes -- Lv-shGFAP, alone or associated with Lv-shVIM, decreased astrocytic reactivity and glial scarring. Finally, in a heterotopic coculture model, cortical neurons displayed higher survival rates and increased neurite growth when cultured with astrocytes in which GFAP and vimentin had been invalidated by lentiviral-mediated RNAi. CONCLUSIONS: Lentiviral-mediated knockdown of GFAP and vimentin in astrocytes show that GFAP is a key target for modulating reactive gliosis and monitoring neuron/glia interactions. Thus, manipulation of reactive astrocytes with the Lv-shGFAP vector constitutes a promising therapeutic strategy for

  15. A novel and efficient gene transfer strategy reduces glial reactivity and improves neuronal survival and axonal growth in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desclaux, Mathieu; Teigell, Marisa; Amar, Lahouari; Vogel, Roland; Gimenez Y Ribotta, Minerva; Privat, Alain; Mallet, Jacques

    2009-07-14

    The lack of axonal regeneration in the central nervous system is attributed among other factors to the formation of a glial scar. This cellular structure is mainly composed of reactive astrocytes that overexpress two intermediate filament proteins, the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and vimentin. Indeed, in vitro, astrocytes lacking GFAP or both GFAP and vimentin were shown to be the substrate for increased neuronal plasticity. Moreover, double knockout mice lacking both GFAP and vimentin presented lower levels of glial reactivity in vivo, significant axonal regrowth and improved functional recovery in comparison with wild-type mice after spinal cord hemisection. From these results, our objective was to develop a novel therapeutic strategy for axonal regeneration, based on the targeted suppression of astroglial reactivity and scarring by lentiviral-mediated RNA-interference (RNAi). In this study, we constructed two lentiviral vectors, Lv-shGFAP and Lv-shVIM, which allow efficient and stable RNAi-mediated silencing of endogenous GFAP or vimentin in vitro. In cultured cortical and spinal reactive astrocytes, the use of these vectors resulted in a specific, stable and highly significant decrease in the corresponding protein levels. In a second model -- scratched primary cultured astrocytes -- Lv-shGFAP, alone or associated with Lv-shVIM, decreased astrocytic reactivity and glial scarring. Finally, in a heterotopic coculture model, cortical neurons displayed higher survival rates and increased neurite growth when cultured with astrocytes in which GFAP and vimentin had been invalidated by lentiviral-mediated RNAi. Lentiviral-mediated knockdown of GFAP and vimentin in astrocytes show that GFAP is a key target for modulating reactive gliosis and monitoring neuron/glia interactions. Thus, manipulation of reactive astrocytes with the Lv-shGFAP vector constitutes a promising therapeutic strategy for increasing glial permissiveness and permitting axonal regeneration

  16. Paracrine action of mesenchymal stromal cells delivered by microspheres contributes to cutaneous wound healing and prevents scar formation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Sha; Wu, Yan; Gao, Dongyun; Fu, Xiaobing

    2015-07-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) participate in wound healing to favor tissue regeneration and inhibit fibrotic tissue formation. However, the evidence of MSCs to suppress cutaneous scar is extremely rare, and the mechanism remains unidentified. This study aimed to demonstrate whether MSCs-as the result of their paracrine actions on damaged tissues-would accelerate wound healing and prevent cutaneous fibrosis. For efficient delivery of MSCs to skin wounds, microspheres were used to maintain MSC potency. Whether MSCs can accelerate wound healing and alleviate cutaneous fibrosis through paracrine action was investigated with the use of a Transwell co-culture system in vitro and a murine model in vivo. MSCs cultured on gelatin microspheres fully retained their cell surface marker expression profile, proliferation, differentiation and paracrine potential. Co-cultures of MSCs and fibroblasts indicated that the benefits of MSCs on suppressing fibroblast proliferation and its fibrotic behavior induced by inflammatory cytokines probably were caused by paracrine actions. Importantly, microspheres successfully delivered MSCs into wound margins and significantly accelerated wound healing and concomitantly reduced the fibrotic activities of cells within the wounds and excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix as well as the transforming growth factor-β1/transforming growth factor-β3 ratio. This study provides insight into what we believe to be a previously undescribed, multifaceted role of MSC-released protein in reducing cutaneous fibrotic formation. Paracrine action of MSCs delivered by microspheres may thus qualify as a promising strategy to enhance tissue repair and to prevent excessive fibrosis during cutaneous wound healing. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Wound healing during hibernation by black bears (Ursus americanus) in the wild: elicitation of reduced scar formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iaizzo, Paul A; Laske, Timothy G; Harlow, Henry J; McClay, Carolyn B; Garshelis, David L

    2012-03-01

    Even mildly hypothermic body or limb temperatures can retard healing processes in mammals. Despite this, we observed that hibernating American black bears (Ursus americanus Pallas, 1780) elicit profound abilities in mounting inflammatory responses to infection and/or foreign bodies. In addition, they resolve injuries during hibernation while maintaining mildly hypothermic states (30-35 °C) and without eating, drinking, urinating or defecating. We describe experimental studies on free-ranging bears that document their abilities to completely resolve cutaneous cuts and punctures incurred during or prior to hibernation. We induced small, full-thickness cutaneous wounds (biopsies or incisions) during early denning, and re-biopsied sites 2-3 months later (near the end of denning). Routine histological methods were used to characterize these skin samples. All biopsied sites with respect to secondary intention (open circular biopsies) and primary intention (sutured sites) healed, with evidence of initial eschar (scab) formation, completeness of healed epidermis and dermal layers, dyskeratosis (inclusion cysts), and abilities to produce hair follicles. These healing abilities of hibernating black bears are a clear survival advantage to animals injured before or during denning. Bears are known to have elevated levels of hibernation induction trigger (delta-opioid receptor agonist) and ursodeoxycholic acid (major bile acid within plasma, mostly conjugated with taurine) during hibernation, which may relate to these wound-healing abilities. Further research as to the underlying mechanisms of wound healing during hibernation could have applications in human medicine. Unique approaches may be found to improve healing for malnourished, hypothermic, diabetic and elderly patients or to reduce scarring associated with burns and traumatic injuries. © 2012 ISZS, Blackwell Publishing and IOZ/CAS.

  18. Recombinant nAG (a Salamander-Derived Protein Decreases the Formation of Hypertrophic Scarring in the Rabbit Ear Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad M. Al-Qattan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available nAG (newt-Anterrior Gradient protein is the key mediator of regrowth of amputated limbs in salamanders. In a previous work in our lab, a new nAG gene (suitable for humans was designed and cloned. The cloned vector was transfected into primary human fibroblasts. The expression of nAG in human primary fibroblasts was found to suppress collagen expression. The current study shows that local injection of recombinant nAG reduces scar hypertrophy in the rabbit ear model. This is associated with lower scar elevation index (SEI, lower levels of collagen I & III, higher levels of MMP1, and a higher degree of scar maturation in experimental wounds compared to controls.

  19. Neuronal-glial trafficking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachelard, H.S.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The name 'glia' originates from the Greek word for glue, because astro glia (or astrocytes) were thought only to provide an anatomical framework for the electrically-excitable neurones. However, awareness that astrocytes perform vital roles in protecting the neurones, which they surround, emerged from evidence that they act as neuroprotective K + -sinks, and that they remove potentially toxic extracellular glutamate from the vicinity of the neurones. The astrocytes convert the glutamate to non-toxic glutamine which is returned to the neurones and used to replenish transmitter glutamate. This 'glutamate-glutamine cycle' (established in the 1960s by Berl and his colleagues) also contributes to protecting the neurones against a build-up of toxic ammonia. Glial cells also supply the neurones with components for free-radical scavenging glutathione. Recent studies have revealed that glial cells play a more positive interactive role in furnishing the neurones with fuels. Studies using radioactive 14 C, 13 C-MRS and 15 N-GCMS have revealed that glia produce alanine, lactate and proline for consumption by neurones, with increased formation of neurotransmitter glutamate. On neuronal activation the release of NH 4 + and glutamate from the neurones stimulates glucose uptake and glycolysis in the glia to produce more alanine, which can be regarded as an 'alanine-glutamate cycle' Use of 14 C-labelled precursors provided early evidence that neurotransmitter GABA may be partly derived from glial glutamine, and this has been confirmed recently in vivo by MRS isotopomer analysis of the GABA and glutamine labelled from 13 C-acetate. Relative rates of intermediary metabolism in glia and neurones can be calculated using a combination of [1- 13 C] glucose and [1,2- 13 C] acetate. When glutamate is released by neurones there is a net neuronal loss of TCA intermediates which have to be replenished. Part of this is derived from carboxylation of pyruvate, (pyruvate carboxylase

  20. Usefulness of direct W-plasty application to wound debridement for minimizing scar formation in the ED.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Jin Hong; Park, Kyung Hye; Choi, Hong Lak; Park, Jung Soo; Lee, Ji Han; Kim, Hoon; Lee, Byung Kook; Lee, Dong Hun; Lee, Taek Gu

    2017-12-01

    A suture line placed with the same direction as the relaxed skin tension line leads to good healing, but a suture line with over 30 degrees of angle from the relaxed skin tension line leads to longer healing time and more prominent scarring. W-plasty is widely used to change the direction of the scar or to divide it into several split scars. In this study, we applied W-plasty to patients with facial lacerations in the emergency department. From June 2012 to December 2014, 35 patients underwent simple repair or W-plasty for facial lacerations. Patients in the simple repair group underwent resection following a thermal margin, and the W-plasty group was resected within a pre-designed margin of W-shaped laceration. We assessed prognosis using the Stony Brook Scar Evaluation Scale (SBSES) after 10 days (short-term) and six months (long-term), respectively, following suture removal. Among 35 patients, 15 (42.9%) underwent simple debridement and 20 (57.1%) underwent W-plasty. In the W-plasty group, there was no difference between short-term and long-term follow-up showing high SBSES, but in the simple debridement group, long-term follow-up SBSES significantly decreased. W-plasty SBSES was higher than simple debridement at short-term as well as long-term follow-up. We experienced good results of direct W-plasty application at six-month long-term follow-up. Therefore, W-plasty application is more effective in reducing scar appearance than a simple debridement method for facial laceration patients with an angle of 30 degrees or more to the relaxed skin tension line. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The multifaceted effects of agmatine on functional recovery after spinal cord injury through Modulations of BMP-2/4/7 expressions in neurons and glial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Mi Park

    Full Text Available Presently, few treatments for spinal cord injury (SCI are available and none have facilitated neural regeneration and/or significant functional improvement. Agmatine (Agm, a guanidinium compound formed from decarboxylation of L-arginine by arginine decarboxylase, is a neurotransmitter/neuromodulator and been reported to exert neuroprotective effects in central nervous system injury models including SCI. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the multifaceted effects of Agm on functional recovery and remyelinating events following SCI. Compression SCI in mice was produced by placing a 15 g/mm(2 weight for 1 min at thoracic vertebra (Th 9 segment. Mice that received an intraperitoneal (i.p. injection of Agm (100 mg/kg/day within 1 hour after SCI until 35 days showed improvement in locomotor recovery and bladder function. Emphasis was made on the analysis of remyelination events, neuronal cell preservation and ablation of glial scar area following SCI. Agm treatment significantly inhibited the demyelination events, neuronal loss and glial scar around the lesion site. In light of recent findings that expressions of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs are modulated in the neuronal and glial cell population after SCI, we hypothesized whether Agm could modulate BMP- 2/4/7 expressions in neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and play key role in promoting the neuronal and glial cell survival in the injured spinal cord. The results from computer assisted stereological toolbox analysis (CAST demonstrate that Agm treatment dramatically increased BMP- 2/7 expressions in neurons and oligodendrocytes. On the other hand, BMP- 4 expressions were significantly decreased in astrocytes and oligodendrocytes around the lesion site. Together, our results reveal that Agm treatment improved neurological and histological outcomes, induced oligodendrogenesis, protected neurons, and decreased glial scar formation through modulating the BMP- 2/4/7 expressions following

  2. The Multifaceted Effects of Agmatine on Functional Recovery after Spinal Cord Injury through Modulations of BMP-2/4/7 Expressions in Neurons and Glial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yu Mi; Lee, Won Taek; Bokara, Kiran Kumar; Seo, Su Kyoung; Park, Seung Hwa; Kim, Jae Hwan; Yenari, Midori A.; Park, Kyung Ah; Lee, Jong Eun

    2013-01-01

    Presently, few treatments for spinal cord injury (SCI) are available and none have facilitated neural regeneration and/or significant functional improvement. Agmatine (Agm), a guanidinium compound formed from decarboxylation of L-arginine by arginine decarboxylase, is a neurotransmitter/neuromodulator and been reported to exert neuroprotective effects in central nervous system injury models including SCI. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the multifaceted effects of Agm on functional recovery and remyelinating events following SCI. Compression SCI in mice was produced by placing a 15 g/mm2 weight for 1 min at thoracic vertebra (Th) 9 segment. Mice that received an intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of Agm (100 mg/kg/day) within 1 hour after SCI until 35 days showed improvement in locomotor recovery and bladder function. Emphasis was made on the analysis of remyelination events, neuronal cell preservation and ablation of glial scar area following SCI. Agm treatment significantly inhibited the demyelination events, neuronal loss and glial scar around the lesion site. In light of recent findings that expressions of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are modulated in the neuronal and glial cell population after SCI, we hypothesized whether Agm could modulate BMP- 2/4/7 expressions in neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and play key role in promoting the neuronal and glial cell survival in the injured spinal cord. The results from computer assisted stereological toolbox analysis (CAST) demonstrate that Agm treatment dramatically increased BMP- 2/7 expressions in neurons and oligodendrocytes. On the other hand, BMP- 4 expressions were significantly decreased in astrocytes and oligodendrocytes around the lesion site. Together, our results reveal that Agm treatment improved neurological and histological outcomes, induced oligodendrogenesis, protected neurons, and decreased glial scar formation through modulating the BMP- 2/4/7 expressions following SCI. PMID

  3. MicroRNA-143-3p inhibits hyperplastic scar formation by targeting connective tissue growth factor CTGF/CCN2 via the Akt/mTOR pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Shengzhi; Kang, Bei; Zeng, Weihui; Sun, Yaowen; Yang, Fan

    2016-05-01

    Post-traumatic hypertrophic scar (HS) is a fibrotic disease with excessive extracellular matrix (ECM) production, which is a response to tissue injury by fibroblasts. Although emerging evidence has indicated that miRNA contributes to hypertrophic scarring, the role of miRNA in HS formation remains unclear. In this study, we found that miR-143-3p was markedly downregulated in HS tissues and fibroblasts (HSFs) using qRT-PCR. The expression of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2) was upregulated both in HS tissues and HSFs, which is proposed to play a key role in ECM deposition in HS. The protein expression of collagen I (Col I), collagen III (Col III), and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) was obviously inhibited after treatment with miR-143-3p in HSFs. The CCK-8 assay showed that miR-143-3p transfection reduced the proliferation ability of HSFs, and flow cytometry showed that either early or late apoptosis of HSFs was upregulated by miR-143-3p. In addition, the activity of caspase 3 and caspase 9 was increased after miR-143-3p transfection. On the contrary, the miR-143-3p inhibitor was demonstrated to increase cell proliferation and inhibit apoptosis of HSFs. Moreover, miR-143-3p targeted the 3'-UTR of CTGF and caused a significant decrease of CTGF. Western blot demonstrated that Akt/mTOR phosphorylation and the expression of CTGF, Col I, Col III, and α-SMA were inhibited by miR-143-3p, but increased by CTGF overexpression. In conclusion, we found that miR-143-3p inhibits hypertrophic scarring by regulating the proliferation and apoptosis of human HSFs, inhibiting ECM production-associated protein expression by targeting CTGF, and restraining the Akt/mTOR pathway.

  4. Interventional bleeding, hematoma and scar-formation after vacuum-biopsy under stereotactic guidance: Mammotome®-system 11g/8g vs. ATEC®-system 12g/9g

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, F.K.W.; Order, B.M.; Eckmann-Scholz, C.; Strauss, A.; Hilpert, F.; Kroj, K.; Biernath-Wüpping, J.; Heller, M.; Jonat, W.; Schaefer, P.J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate prospectively the correlation of scar-formations after vacuum-assisted biopsy with different systems and needle-sizes and interventional bleeding/post-interventional hematoma. Methods and materials: Between 01/2008 and 12/2009, 479 patients underwent vacuum-assisted biopsy under stereotactic-guidance, using the Mammotome ® -system with 11/8-gauge and ATEC ® -system with 12/9-gauge, whereas in 178 cases with representative benign histology no surgical-biopsy after vacuum-assisted biopsy was performed and at least a 2-plane-follow-up-mammogram after 6 month post-vacuum-assisted biopsy was available. Bleeding during intervention, hematoma post-intervention and scar-tissue was scored as minimal and moderate/severe. Statistical analysis included Chi-Square-trend-test, p-value ® -system vs. 11-gauge-Mammotome ® -system (41.9% vs. 8.4%, p ® -systems 9-gauge vs. 12-gauge (26.9% vs. 29.7%, p = 0.799/42.3% vs. 43.2%, p = 0.596). 11-gauge-Mammotome ® -system vs. ATEC ® -12-gauge-system revealed significantly less bleedings/hematomas (8.4% vs. 29.7%, p = 0.015/16.7% vs. 43.2%, p = 0.001), no significant differences for the large-systems (p = 0.135/p = 0.352). Follow-up of Mammotome ® -11/8-gauge-system system has shown 13.1/16.1% minimal scar-formation and 1.2/3.2% moderate/severe scars, whereas ATEC ® -12/9-gauge-system has shown 10.8/3.8% minimal scar-formation and 0/11.5% moderate/severe scars, no significant differences. No significant difference was found when comparing Mammotome ® -11/8-g-systems vs. ATEC ® -12/9-g-systems (p = 0.609/p = 0.823). There was also no correlation between risk of scar-formation after occurrence of bleeding or hematoma with any examined VAB-system or any needle size in this study (p = 0.800). Conclusion: Using larger needle-sizes significantly (Mammotome ®) /not significant for ATEC ® ) more interventional bleedings and post-interventional hematomas were detected, only a tendency concerning scar-formation.

  5. Post-burn scars and scar contractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goel Arun

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The mortality and morbidity from burns have diminished tremendously over the last six to seven decades. However, these do not truly reflect whether the victim could go back to society as a useful person or not and lead a normal life because of the inevitable post-burn scars, contractures and other deformities which collectively have aesthetic and functional considerations. This article gives an overview of the post-burn scars and scar contractures, especially their prevention, minimisation and principles of management.

  6. SCAR/WAVE: A complex issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Andrew J; Insall, Robert H

    2013-11-01

    The SCAR/WAVE complex drives the actin polymerisation that underlies protrusion of the front of the cell and thus drives migration. However, it is not understood how the activity of SCAR/WAVE is regulated to generate the infinite range of cellular shape changes observed during cell motility. What are the relative roles of the subunits of the SCAR/WAVE complex? What signaling molecules do they interact with? And how does the complex integrate all this information in order to control the temporal and spatial polymerisation of actin during protrusion formation? Unfortunately, the interdependence of SCAR complex members has made genetic dissection hard. In our recent paper,(1) we describe stabilization of the Dictyostelium SCAR complex by a small fragment of Abi. Here we summarize the main findings and discuss how this approach can help reveal the inner workings of this impenetrable complex.

  7. Soman poisoning increases neural progenitor proliferation and induces long-term glial activation in mouse brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collombet, Jean-Marc; Four, Elise; Bernabe, Denis; Masqueliez, Catherine; Burckhart, Marie-France; Baille, Valerie; Baubichon, Dominique; Lallement, Guy

    2005-01-01

    To date, only short-term glial reaction has been extensively studied following soman or other warfare neurotoxicant poisoning. In a context of cell therapy by neural progenitor engraftment to repair brain damage, the long-term effect of soman on glial reaction and neural progenitor division was analyzed in the present study. The effect of soman poisoning was estimated in mouse brains at various times ranging from 1 to 90 days post-poisoning. Using immunochemistry and dye staining techniques (hemalun-eosin staining), the number of degenerating neurons, the number of dividing neural progenitors, and microglial, astroglial or oligodendroglial cell activation were studied. Soman poisoning led to rapid and massive (post-soman day 1) death of mature neurons as assessed by hemalun-eosin staining. Following this acute poisoning phase, a weak toxicity effect on mature neurons was still observed for a period of 1 month after poisoning. A massive short-termed microgliosis peaked on day 3 post-poisoning. Delayed astrogliosis was observed from 3 to 90 days after soman poisoning, contributing to glial scar formation. On the other hand, oligodendroglial cells or their precursors were practically unaffected by soman poisoning. Interestingly, neural progenitors located in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus (SGZ) or in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the brain survived soman poisoning. Furthermore, soman poisoning significantly increased neural progenitor proliferation in both SGZ and SVZ brain areas on post-soman day 3 or day 8, respectively. This increased proliferation rate was detected up to 1 month after poisoning

  8. [Physical therapy for scars].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masanovic, Marguerite Guillot

    2013-01-01

    Physical therapy consists notably of hand or mechanical massages, pressure therapy using various fabrics or splints, cryotherapy, laser therapy, etc. It forms part of the range of therapies used to treat pathological scars, including medical and surgical treatment. While the results are often satisfactory for hypertrophic scars, they remain uncertain for major keloids.

  9. Facial Scar Revision: Understanding Facial Scar Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... keep the head elevated when lying down, to use cold compresses to reduce swelling, and to avoid any activity that places undue stress on the area of the incision. Depending on the surgery performed and the site of the scar, the facial plastic surgeon will explain the types of activities to ...

  10. Different effects of BCG strains - A natural experiment evaluating the impact of the Danish and the Russian BCG strains on morbidity and scar formation in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frankel, H; Byberg, S; Andersen, Morten Bjerregaard

    2016-01-01

    's urban study area received the Danish or Russian BCG in a natural experiment. Health center consultations were registered at point of care and scar status and size at age 4½ months. We assessed the effect of strain on consultation rates between vaccination and age 45days in Cox proportional hazards...

  11. A Comparative Study on the Formation Mechanism of Wear Scars during the Partial and Full Scale Fretting Wear Tests of Spacer Grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young Ho; Shin, Chang Hwan; Oh, Dong Seok; Kang, Heung Seok [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    Fretting wear studies for evaluating the contact damages of nuclear fuel rods have been focused on the contact shape, rod motion, contact condition, environment, etc.. However, fretting wear mechanism was dramatically changed with slight variation of test variables such as test environments and contact shapes. For example, in an unlubricated condition, effects of wear debris and/or its layer on the fretting wear mechanism showed that the formation of a well-developed layer on the contact surfaces has a beneficial effect for decreasing a friction coefficient. Otherwise, a severe wear was happened due to a third body abrasion. In addition, in water lubrication condition, some of wear debris was remained on worn surface of fuel rod specimens at both sliding and impacting loading conditions. So, it is apparent that a wear rate of fuel rod specimen was easily accelerated by the third-body abrasion. This is because the restrained agglomeration behavior between generated wear particles results in rapid removal of wear debris and its layer. In case of contact shape effects, previous studies show that wear debris are easily trapped between contact surfaces and its debris layer was well developed in a localized area especially in a concave spring rather than a convex spring shape. Consequently, localized wear was happened at both ends of a concave spring and center region of a convex spring. So, it is useful for determining the fretting wear resistance of spacer gird spring and dimple by using part unit in the various lubricated conditions. It is well known that the fretting wear phenomenon of nuclear fuel rod is originated from a flow-induced vibration (FIV) due to the rapid primary coolant. This means that both rod vibration and debris removal behavior were affected by flow fields around the contact regions between fuel rod and spring/dimple. However, all most of the fretting tests were performed by simulating rod vibrating motions such as axial vibration, conservative rod

  12. A Comparative Study on the Formation Mechanism of Wear Scars during the Partial and Full Scale Fretting Wear Tests of Spacer Grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young Ho; Shin, Chang Hwan; Oh, Dong Seok; Kang, Heung Seok

    2012-01-01

    Fretting wear studies for evaluating the contact damages of nuclear fuel rods have been focused on the contact shape, rod motion, contact condition, environment, etc.. However, fretting wear mechanism was dramatically changed with slight variation of test variables such as test environments and contact shapes. For example, in an unlubricated condition, effects of wear debris and/or its layer on the fretting wear mechanism showed that the formation of a well-developed layer on the contact surfaces has a beneficial effect for decreasing a friction coefficient. Otherwise, a severe wear was happened due to a third body abrasion. In addition, in water lubrication condition, some of wear debris was remained on worn surface of fuel rod specimens at both sliding and impacting loading conditions. So, it is apparent that a wear rate of fuel rod specimen was easily accelerated by the third-body abrasion. This is because the restrained agglomeration behavior between generated wear particles results in rapid removal of wear debris and its layer. In case of contact shape effects, previous studies show that wear debris are easily trapped between contact surfaces and its debris layer was well developed in a localized area especially in a concave spring rather than a convex spring shape. Consequently, localized wear was happened at both ends of a concave spring and center region of a convex spring. So, it is useful for determining the fretting wear resistance of spacer gird spring and dimple by using part unit in the various lubricated conditions. It is well known that the fretting wear phenomenon of nuclear fuel rod is originated from a flow-induced vibration (FIV) due to the rapid primary coolant. This means that both rod vibration and debris removal behavior were affected by flow fields around the contact regions between fuel rod and spring/dimple. However, all most of the fretting tests were performed by simulating rod vibrating motions such as axial vibration, conservative rod

  13. Prosthodontist contribution in treating post-burn hypertrophic facial scars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padmanabhan T

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The formation of hypertrophic scars is common following healing of the burn wound, particularly in children. The face is one of the areas of the body most frequently affected by burns. Scar formation as a result of burn wounds leads to contraction of the formed granulation tissue, which causes both aesthetic and functional impairment for the patient. Scarring has major psychological and physical repercussions. Scarring on the face and visible regions of the body can be very distressing for the patient. Prevention of scars involves early and continuous use of a compressive orthesis. However, their efficacy is often limited to the facial region because of the contours of this area of body. This paper describes a clinical case of post-burn hypertrophic scars treated with silicone gel sheeting applied with pressure under custom made auto-polymerizing resin stent.

  14. Injury-induced ctgfa directs glial bridging and spinal cord regeneration in zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokalled, Mayssa H.; Patra, Chinmoy; Dickson, Amy L.; Endo, Toyokazu; Stainier, Didier Y. R.; Poss, Kenneth D.

    2016-01-01

    Unlike mammals, zebrafish efficiently regenerate functional nervous system tissue after major spinal cord injury. Whereas glial scarring presents a roadblock for mammalian spinal cord repair, glial cells in zebrafish form a bridge across severed spinal cord tissue and facilitate regeneration, a relatively unexplored process. Here, we performed a genome-wide profiling screen for secreted factors that are upregulated during zebrafish spinal cord regeneration. We find that connective tissue growth factor a (ctgfa) is induced in and around glial cells that participate in initial bridging events. Mutations in ctgfa disrupt spinal cord repair, while transgenic ctgfa overexpression and local human CTGF recombinant protein delivery accelerate bridging and functional regeneration. Our study reveals that CTGF is necessary and sufficient to stimulate glial bridging and natural spinal cord regeneration. PMID:27811277

  15. Keloids and Hypertrophic Scars

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to the skin both skin cells and connective tissue cells (fibroblasts) begin multiplying to repair the damage. A scar is made up of 'connective tissue', gristle-like fibers deposited in the skin by ...

  16. Radiation scars on mammograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, H.; Breining, H.; Knappschafts-Krankenhaus Essen

    1985-01-01

    Six patients with radiation scars are described. In each case the diagnosis was confirmed histologically in five cases corresponding mammograms were available. The histological appearances of radiation scars are described and the radiological features are presented. These lesions can be diagnosed mammographically in vivo. Macroscopically differentiation from a scirrhous carcinoma is not possible and therefore a radiation scar must always be excised; this also leads to definitive cure. On mammographic screening the incidence is 0.5 to 0.9 per thousand. The significance of radiation scars depends on the fact that they are pre-cancerous and therefore are equivalent to the early diagnosis of a carcinoma with the possibility of a complete cure. (orig.) [de

  17. Studying the glial cell response to biomaterials and surface topography for improving the neural electrode interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ereifej, Evon S.

    Neural electrode devices hold great promise to help people with the restoration of lost functions, however, research is lacking in the biomaterial design of a stable, long-term device. Current devices lack long term functionality, most have been found unable to record neural activity within weeks after implantation due to the development of glial scar tissue (Polikov et al., 2006; Zhong and Bellamkonda, 2008). The long-term effect of chronically implanted electrodes is the formation of a glial scar made up of reactive astrocytes and the matrix proteins they generate (Polikov et al., 2005; Seil and Webster, 2008). Scarring is initiated when a device is inserted into brain tissue and is associated with an inflammatory response. Activated astrocytes are hypertrophic, hyperplastic, have an upregulation of intermediate filaments GFAP and vimentin expression, and filament formation (Buffo et al., 2010; Gervasi et al., 2008). Current approaches towards inhibiting the initiation of glial scarring range from altering the geometry, roughness, size, shape and materials of the device (Grill et al., 2009; Kotov et al., 2009; Kotzar et al., 2002; Szarowski et al., 2003). Literature has shown that surface topography modifications can alter cell alignment, adhesion, proliferation, migration, and gene expression (Agnew et al., 1983; Cogan et al., 2005; Cogan et al., 2006; Merrill et al., 2005). Thus, the goals of the presented work are to study the cellular response to biomaterials used in neural electrode fabrication and assess surface topography effects on minimizing astrogliosis. Initially, to examine astrocyte response to various materials used in neural electrode fabrication, astrocytes were cultured on platinum, silicon, PMMA, and SU-8 surfaces, with polystyrene as the control surface. Cell proliferation, viability, morphology and gene expression was measured for seven days in vitro. Results determined the cellular characteristics, reactions and growth rates of astrocytes

  18. High-Mobility Group Box 1 Mediates Fibroblast Activity via RAGE-MAPK and NF-κB Signaling in Keloid Scar Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihee Kim

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Emerging studies have revealed the involvement of high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1 in systemic fibrotic diseases, yet its role in the cutaneous scarring process has not yet been investigated. We hypothesized that HMGB1 may promote fibroblast activity to cause abnormal cutaneous scarring. In vitro wound healing assay with normal and keloid fibroblasts demonstrated that HMGB1 administration promoted the migration of both fibroblasts with increased speed and a greater traveling distance. Treatment of the HMGB1 inhibitor glycyrrhizic acid (GA showed an opposing effect on both activities. To analyze the downstream mechanism, the protein levels of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK 1/2, protein kinase B (AKT, and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB were measured by western blot analysis. HMGB1 increased the expression levels of ERK1/2, AKT, and NF-κB compared to the control, which was suppressed by GA. HMGB1 promoted both normal and keloid fibroblasts migration to a degree equivalent to that achieved with TGF-β. We concluded that HMGB1 activates fibroblasts via the receptor for advanced glycation end product (RAGE—mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK and NF-κB interaction signaling pathways. Further knowledge of the relationship of HMGB1 with skin fibrosis may lead to a promising clinical approach to manage abnormal scarring.

  19. High-Mobility Group Box 1 Mediates Fibroblast Activity via RAGE-MAPK and NF-κB Signaling in Keloid Scar Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jihee; Park, Jong-Chul; Lee, Mi Hee; Yang, Chae Eun; Lee, Ju Hee; Lee, Won Jai

    2017-12-28

    Emerging studies have revealed the involvement of high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) in systemic fibrotic diseases, yet its role in the cutaneous scarring process has not yet been investigated. We hypothesized that HMGB1 may promote fibroblast activity to cause abnormal cutaneous scarring. In vitro wound healing assay with normal and keloid fibroblasts demonstrated that HMGB1 administration promoted the migration of both fibroblasts with increased speed and a greater traveling distance. Treatment of the HMGB1 inhibitor glycyrrhizic acid (GA) showed an opposing effect on both activities. To analyze the downstream mechanism, the protein levels of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2, protein kinase B (AKT), and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) were measured by western blot analysis. HMGB1 increased the expression levels of ERK1/2, AKT, and NF-κB compared to the control, which was suppressed by GA. HMGB1 promoted both normal and keloid fibroblasts migration to a degree equivalent to that achieved with TGF-β. We concluded that HMGB1 activates fibroblasts via the receptor for advanced glycation end product (RAGE)-mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) and NF-κB interaction signaling pathways. Further knowledge of the relationship of HMGB1 with skin fibrosis may lead to a promising clinical approach to manage abnormal scarring.

  20. An objective device for measuring surface roughness of skin and scars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemen, Monica C. T.; van Gerven, Maaike S.; van der Wal, Martijn B. A.; Verhaegen, Pauline D. H. M.; Middelkoop, Esther

    2011-01-01

    Scar formation remains a major clinical problem; therefore, various therapies have been developed to improve scar quality. To evaluate the effectiveness of these therapies, objective measurement tools are necessary. An appropriate, objective measuring instrument for assessment of surface roughness

  1. An objective device for measuring surface roughness of skin and scars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemen, M.C.T.; van Gerven, M.S.; van der Wal, M.B.A.; Verhaegen, P.D.H.M.; Middelkoop, E.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Scar formation remains a major clinical problem; therefore, various therapies have been developed to improve scar quality. To evaluate the effectiveness of these therapies, objective measurement tools are necessary. An appropriate, objective measuring instrument for assessment of surface

  2. Glial tumors with neuronal differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chul-Kee; Phi, Ji Hoon; Park, Sung-Hye

    2015-01-01

    Immunohistochemical studies for neuronal differentiation in glial tumors revealed subsets of tumors having both characteristics of glial and neuronal lineages. Glial tumors with neuronal differentiation can be observed with diverse phenotypes and histologic grades. The rosette-forming glioneuronal tumor of the fourth ventricle and papillary glioneuronal tumor have been newly classified as distinct disease entities. There are other candidates for classification, such as the glioneuronal tumor without pseudopapillary architecture, glioneuronal tumor with neuropil-like islands, and the malignant glioneuronal tumor. The clinical significance of these previously unclassified tumors should be confirmed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Cutaneous Scar Prevention and Management; Overview of current therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultan Al-Shaqsi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous scarring is common after trauma, surgery and infection and occurs when normal skin tissue is replaced by fibroblastic tissue during the healing process. The pathophysiology of scar formation is not yet fully understood, although the degree of tension across the wound edges and the speed of cell growth are believed to play central roles. Prevention of scars is essential and can be achieved by attention to surgical techniques and the use of measures to reduce cell growth. Grading and classifying scars is important to determine available treatment strategies. This article presents an overview of the current therapies available for the prevention and treatment of scars. It is intended to be a practical guide for surgeons and other health professionals involved with and interested in scar management.

  4. Cesarean scar pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kathrine Birch; Hoffmann, Elise; Rifbjerg Larsen, Christian

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study treatment modalities for cesarean scar pregnancies (CSPs), focusing on efficacy and complications in relation to study quality. DESIGN: Systematic review. SETTING: Not applicable. PATIENT(S): A total of 2,037 women with CSP. INTERVENTION(S): Review of MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Coch......OBJECTIVE: To study treatment modalities for cesarean scar pregnancies (CSPs), focusing on efficacy and complications in relation to study quality. DESIGN: Systematic review. SETTING: Not applicable. PATIENT(S): A total of 2,037 women with CSP. INTERVENTION(S): Review of MEDLINE, EMBASE...

  5. Scar-free cutaneous wound healing in the leopard gecko, Eublepharis macularius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Hanna M; Gilbert, Emily A B; Vickaryous, Matthew K

    2015-11-01

    Cutaneous wounds heal with two possible outcomes: scarification or near-perfect integumentary restoration. Whereas scar formation has been intensively investigated, less is known about the tissue-level events characterising wounds that spontaneously heal scar-free, particularly in non-foetal amniotes. Here, a spatiotemporal investigation of scar-free cutaneous wound healing following full-thickness excisional biopsies to the tail and body of leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius) is provided. All injuries healed without scarring. Cutaneous repair involves the development of a cell-rich aggregate within the wound bed, similar to scarring wounds. Unlike scar formation, scar-free healing involves a more rapid closure of the wound epithelium, and a delay in blood vessel development and collagen deposition within the wound bed. It was found that, while granulation tissue of scarring wounds is hypervascular, scar-free wound healing conspicuously does not involve a period of exuberant blood vessel formation. In addition, during scar-free wound healing the newly formed blood vessels are typically perivascular cell-supported. Immunohistochemistry revealed widespread expression of both the pro-angiogenic factor vascular endothelial growth factor A and the anti-angiogenic factor thrombospondin-1 within the healing wound. It was found that scar-free wound healing is an intrinsic property of leopard gecko integument, and involves a modulation of the cutaneous scar repair program. This proportional revascularisation is an important factor in scar-free wound healing. © 2015 Anatomical Society.

  6. Early treatment using fractional CO2 laser before skin suture during scar revision surgery in Asians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Feiya; Yu, Yusheng; Zhou, Zhiqin; Wang, Liujia; Zheng, Shusen

    2018-04-01

    Fractional CO 2 laser is one of the most effective treatment options used to resurface scars. However, most previous studies have been performed on mature scars at least 2 months after surgery. Recent studies have emphasized the importance of early treatment to reduce scar formation. In the present study, we described our experience with fractional CO 2 laser intervention before skin suture during scar revision surgery in Asians, and found the treatment was safe and effective.

  7. Identification of raw as a regulator of glial development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Luong

    Full Text Available Glial cells perform numerous functions to support neuron development and function, including axon wrapping, formation of the blood brain barrier, and enhancement of synaptic transmission. We have identified a novel gene, raw, which functions in glia of the central and peripheral nervous systems in Drosophila. Reducing Raw levels in glia results in morphological defects in the brain and ventral nerve cord, as well as defects in neuron function, as revealed by decreased locomotion in crawling assays. Examination of the number of glia along peripheral nerves reveals a reduction in glial number upon raw knockdown. The reduced number of glia along peripheral nerves occurs as a result of decreased glial proliferation. As Raw has been shown to negatively regulate Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK signaling in other developmental contexts, we examined the expression of a JNK reporter and the downstream JNK target, matrix metalloproteinase 1 (mmp1, and found that raw knockdown results in increased reporter activity and Mmp1 levels. These results are consistent with previous studies showing increased Mmp levels lead to nerve cord defects similar to those observed upon raw knockdown. In addition, knockdown of puckered, a negative feedback regulator of JNK signaling, also causes a decrease in glial number. Thus, our studies have resulted in the identification of a new regulator of gliogenesis, and demonstrate that increased JNK signaling negatively impacts glial development.

  8. Immunohistochemical demonstration of glial markers in retinoblastomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, H D

    1987-01-01

    Twenty retinoblastomas were studied immunohistochemically in order to visualize glial cells. In the retina, the glial cells in the ganglion cell layer and the Müller cells were GFAP positive, while only the glial cells of the ganglion cell layer expressed S-100 reactivity. In the tumours S-100/GFAP...... cells reactive for both S-100 and GFAP were demonstrated. The latter findings may represent differentiation in a glial direction in the more mature parts of retinoblastoma....

  9. Acne Scar Treatment: A Multimodality Approach Tailored to Scar Type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaleski-Larsen, Lisa A; Fabi, Sabrina G; McGraw, Timothy; Taylor, Mark

    2016-05-01

    Acne scarring can be classified into atrophic icepick, boxcar, and rolling scars in addition to keloidal and hypertrophic scars. Additionally, these scars can be erythematous, hyperpigmented, and/or hypopigmented. Each scar type has a different structural cause warranting a customized approach. Many cosmetic options exist to address these changes individually, but little literature exists about the safety and efficacy of combining such procedures and devices. A Medline search was performed on combination treatments because it relates to facial acne scarring, and results are summarized. Practical applications for these combinations of procedures are also discussed. Studies examining the efficacy and safety of ablative, nonablative, fractionated, and nonfractionated lasers, dermabrasion, chemical peels, needling, subcision, radiofrequency, stem cell therapy, fat transplantation, platelet-rich plasma, and hyaluronic acid dermal fillers for acne scars were found. The authors review their experience in combining these techniques. Review of the literature revealed multiple single options for facial acne scarring treatment with minimal evidence in the literature found on the safety and efficacy of combining such procedures and devices. The authors' experience is that combining acne scar treatment techniques can be performed safely and synergistically with optimal patient outcomes.

  10. Fibromodulin reduces scar size and increases scar tensile strength in normal and excessive-mechanical-loading porcine cutaneous wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wenlu; Ting, Kang; Lee, Soonchul; Zara, Janette N; Song, Richard; Li, Chenshuang; Chen, Eric; Zhang, Xinli; Zhao, Zhihe; Soo, Chia; Zheng, Zhong

    2018-04-01

    Hypertrophic scarring is a major postoperative complication which leads to severe disfigurement and dysfunction in patients and usually requires multiple surgical revisions due to its high recurrence rates. Excessive-mechanical-loading across wounds is an important initiator of hypertrophic scarring formation. In this study, we demonstrate that intradermal administration of a single extracellular matrix (ECM) molecule-fibromodulin (FMOD) protein-can significantly reduce scar size, increase tensile strength, and improve dermal collagen architecture organization in the normal and even excessive-mechanical-loading red Duroc pig wound models. Since pig skin is recognized by the Food and Drug Administration as the closest animal equivalent to human skin, and because red Duroc pigs show scarring that closely resembles human proliferative scarring and hypertrophic scarring, FMOD-based technologies hold high translational potential and applicability to human patients suffering from scarring-especially hypertrophic scarring. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  11. Roentgenodiagnosis of stomach postulcer scar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strunin, A.E.

    1985-01-01

    A study was made of the X-ray picture of the stomach postulcer scar in correlation with fibrogastroscopy in 39 patients. The X-ray picture was characterized by considerable polymorphism and at the same time it was difficult to single out pathognomonic features. For specified diagnosis and differentiation the detection of the postulcer scar must become a multifaceted roentgenoendoscopic problem. Stomach ulcers may scar, sometimes with the complete regeneration of the mucosa relief, however their recurrences can develop in the zone of the postulcer scar

  12. Sequential treatment with intradermal incision (intracision) and 2,940-nm Er:YAG laser for chicken pox scars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Ju; Kim, Young Koo; Choi, Sun Young; Park, Kui Young; Seo, Seong Jun

    2014-01-01

    Boxcar scars, such as chicken pox scars, are round to oval depressions with sharply defined vertical edges. Subcision is a simple and safe procedure for treatment of atrophic and depressed scars, but boxcar scars are generally not eliminated by subcision. Intradermal incision technique (intracision) can treat chicken pox scars by untethering fibrotic strands, raising collagen synthesis, and having additional intradermal blood pocket formation. We have found that chicken pox scars further improve when intracision is followed by laser skin resurfacing. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Can Acne Scars Be Removed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Can Acne Scars Be Removed? KidsHealth / For Teens / Can Acne ... eliminar las cicatrices del acné? Different Types of Acne Scars from acne can seem like double punishment — ...

  14. Predictors of renal scar in children with urinary infection and vesicoureteral reflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soylu, Alper; Demir, Belde Kasap; Türkmen, Mehmet; Bekem, Ozlem; Saygi, Murat; Cakmakçi, Handan; Kavukçu, Salih

    2008-12-01

    We evaluated the predictors of renal scar in children with urinary tract infections (UTIs) having primary vesicoureteral reflux (VUR). Data of patients who were examined by dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scintigraphy between 1995 and 2005 were evaluated retrospectively. Gender, age, reflux grade, presence/development of scarring, breakthrough UTIs, and resolution of reflux, were recorded. The relation of gender, age and VUR grade to preformed scarring and the relation of gender, age, VUR grade, presence of preformed scarring, number of breakthrough UTIs and reflux resolution to new scarring were assessed. There were 138 patients [male/female (M/F) 53/85]. Multivariate analysis showed that male gender [odds ratio (OR) 2.5], age > or = 27 months in girls (OR 4.2) and grades IV-V reflux (OR 12.4) were independent indicators of renal scarring. On the other hand, only the presence of previous renal scarring was found to be an independent indicator for the development of new renal scar (OR 13.4). In conclusion, while the most predictive variables for the presence of renal scarring among children presenting with a UTI were male gender, age > or = 27 months in girls, and grades IV-V reflux, the best predictor of new scar formation was presence of previous renal scarring.

  15. Bioengineered Hydrogel to Inhibit Post-Traumatic Central Nervous System Scarring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0586 TITLE: Bioengineered Hydrogel to Inhibit Post-Traumatic Central Nervous System Scarring PRINCIPAL...Hydrogel to Inhibit Post-Traumatic Central Nervous System Scarring 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0586 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH- 14-1-0586 5c...barriers that prevent the optimal delivery of biologics and cells to the injured nervous system . A significant problem is the formation of scar tissue

  16. Tuberculin reaction and BCG scar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timmermann, Clara Amalie Gade; Biering-Sørensen, Sofie; Aaby, Peter

    2015-01-01

    rate ratio (MRR) comparing children with a BCG scar with those without was 0.42 (95% CI = 0.19; 0.93). There was a similar tendency for TST positivity: MRR = 0.47 (95% CI = 0.14; 1.54). For LBW children who had both a positive TST reaction and a scar, the MRR was 0.22 (95% CI = 0.05; 0.87). For NBW...

  17. The Drosophila blood-brain barrier: Development and function of a glial endothelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie eLimmer

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of neuronal function requires a well-balanced extracellular ion homeostasis and a steady supply with nutrients and metabolites. Therefore, all organisms equipped with a complex nervous system developed a so-called blood-brain barrier, protecting it from an uncontrolled entry of solutes, metabolites or pathogens. In higher vertebrates, this diffusion barrier is established by polarized endothelial cells that form extensive tight junctions, whereas in lower vertebrates and invertebrates the blood-brain barrier is exclusively formed by glial cells. Here, we review the development and function of the glial blood-brain barrier of Drosophila melanogaster. In the Drosophila nervous system, at least seven morphologically distinct glial cell classes can be distinguished. Two of these glial classes form the blood-brain barrier. Perineurial glial cells participate in nutrient uptake and establish a first diffusion barrier. The subperineurial glial cells form septate junctions, which block paracellular diffusion and thus seal the nervous system from the hemolymph. We summarize the molecular basis of septate junction formation and address the different transport systems expressed by the blood-brain barrier forming glial cells.

  18. The Drosophila blood-brain barrier: development and function of a glial endothelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limmer, Stefanie; Weiler, Astrid; Volkenhoff, Anne; Babatz, Felix; Klämbt, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The efficacy of neuronal function requires a well-balanced extracellular ion homeostasis and a steady supply with nutrients and metabolites. Therefore, all organisms equipped with a complex nervous system developed a so-called blood-brain barrier, protecting it from an uncontrolled entry of solutes, metabolites or pathogens. In higher vertebrates, this diffusion barrier is established by polarized endothelial cells that form extensive tight junctions, whereas in lower vertebrates and invertebrates the blood-brain barrier is exclusively formed by glial cells. Here, we review the development and function of the glial blood-brain barrier of Drosophila melanogaster. In the Drosophila nervous system, at least seven morphologically distinct glial cell classes can be distinguished. Two of these glial classes form the blood-brain barrier. Perineurial glial cells participate in nutrient uptake and establish a first diffusion barrier. The subperineurial glial (SPG) cells form septate junctions, which block paracellular diffusion and thus seal the nervous system from the hemolymph. We summarize the molecular basis of septate junction formation and address the different transport systems expressed by the blood-brain barrier forming glial cells.

  19. Macrophage-Mediated Glial Cell Elimination in the Postnatal Mouse Cochlea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LaShardai N. Brown

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Hearing relies on the transmission of auditory information from sensory hair cells (HCs to the brain through the auditory nerve. This relay of information requires HCs to be innervated by spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs in an exclusive manner and SGNs to be ensheathed by myelinating and non-myelinating glial cells. In the developing auditory nerve, mistargeted SGN axons are retracted or pruned and excessive cells are cleared in a process referred to as nerve refinement. Whether auditory glial cells are eliminated during auditory nerve refinement is unknown. Using early postnatal mice of either sex, we show that glial cell numbers decrease after the first postnatal week, corresponding temporally with nerve refinement in the developing auditory nerve. Additionally, expression of immune-related genes was upregulated and macrophage numbers increase in a manner coinciding with the reduction of glial cell numbers. Transient depletion of macrophages during early auditory nerve development, using transgenic CD11bDTR/EGFP mice, resulted in the appearance of excessive glial cells. Macrophage depletion caused abnormalities in myelin formation and transient edema of the stria vascularis. Macrophage-depleted mice also showed auditory function impairment that partially recovered in adulthood. These findings demonstrate that macrophages contribute to the regulation of glial cell number during postnatal development of the cochlea and that glial cells play a critical role in hearing onset and auditory nerve maturation.

  20. Interrupted or continuous-intradermal suturing? Statistical analysis of postoperative scars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Sarı

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Postoperative scar development is an important problem for patients treated in plastic surgery clinics. Most patients think that continuous intradermal suturing is superior to interrupted suturing because they assume that it creates less scarring. We evaluated scars that form following intradermal and interrupted suturing. This article presents our controlled study that objectively compared the scars on patients' faces using a wound evaluation scale. Materials and Methods: Thirty-five patients, who had undergone operations on the bilateral cheeks, were included in this study. Thirty patients were female; five patients were male. Their mean age was 40.05 years. The average scar evaluation time after surgery was 9.05 months. Elliptical excisions were made on the lesions under local anesthesia. The incisions on the right cheeks were sutured with 6/0 monofilament nonabsorbable sutures using the continuous intradermal suturing technique. The left cheek incisions were sutured with same sutures using the interrupted suturing method. Results: The patients were evaluated 7–11 months after operation (mean: 9.05 months using the Stony Brook Scar Evaluation Scale. A Related Samples T-test was used for statistical evaluation of the differences between the suturing techniques. No significant differences were noted in scar formation between the two suturing methods (p>0.05. Conclusion: We found no differences in scar formation between the two frequently used suturing techniques studied here. We believe that the suturing technique is a less important determinant of scar formation than are other factors.

  1. Nasal Glial Heterotopia with Cleft Palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandna, Sudhir; Mehta, Milind A; Kulkarni, Abhishek Kishore

    2018-01-01

    Congenital midline nasal masses are rare anomalies of which nasal glial heterotopia represents an even rarer subset. We report a case of a 25-day-old male child with nasal glial heterotopia along with cleft palate suggesting embryonic fusion anomaly which was treated with excision and primary closure for nasal mass followed by palatal repair at later date.

  2. Glial heterotopia of maxilla: A clinical surprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Kumar Mahalik

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Glial heterotopia is a rare congenital mass lesion which often presents as a clinical surprise. We report a case of extranasal glial heterotopia in a neonate with unusual features. The presentation, management strategy, etiopathogenesis and histopathology of the mass lesion has been reviewed.

  3. Nasal glial heterotopia with cleft palate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhir Chandna

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital midline nasal masses are rare anomalies of which nasal glial heterotopia represents an even rarer subset. We report a case of a 25-day-old male child with nasal glial heterotopia along with cleft palate suggesting embryonic fusion anomaly which was treated with excision and primary closure for nasal mass followed by palatal repair at later date.

  4. Pediatric Glial Heterotopia in the Medial Canthus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soung Min; Amponsah, Emmanuel Kofi; Eo, Mi Young; Cho, Yun Ju; Lee, Suk Keun

    2017-11-01

    Glial heterotopias are rare, benign, congenital, midline, and nonteratomatous extracranial glial tissue. They may be confused as encephalocele or dermoid cysts and are mostly present in the nose.An 8-month-old African female child presented with a slow growing paranasal mass. The mass had been present at the left upper medial canthus since birth and had slowly and progressively enlarged. There was no communication between the mass and the cranial cavity during the operational procedure. The mass was immunohistochemically positive for S-100 protein as well as for glial fibrillary acidic protein, but negative for proliferating cell nuclear antigen. This suggested that the mass was composed of benign glial tissues with many astrocytes.The purpose of this report is to demonstrate the first patient with pediatric glial heterotopic tissue in the medial canthus and to report the clinical importance of its immunohistochemical findings.

  5. A clinical study and the diagnosis in magnetic resonance imaging of renal scarring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsugaya, Masayuki; Hirao, Noriaki; Ohtaguro, Kazuo; Kato, Jiro.

    1989-01-01

    Twenty-nine kidneys of seventeen patients (nine boys and eight girls) with vesicoureteral reflux and repeated urinary tract infection were studied by magnetic resonance imaging for diagnosis of renal scarring and correlation between clinical data and the degree renal scarring. Renal scarring is classified into three types according to findings in magnetic resonance imaging. The degree of renal scarring are classified into five grades according to traditional grading of intravenous pyelogram. If a fine deformity of calyx is shown on intravenous pyelogram, magnetic resonance imaging demonstrates renal scarring. Magnetic resonance imaging without irradiation is exceedingly valuable for the diagnosis of renal scarring. The appearances of magnetic resonance imaging were supported by X-ray computed tomography. There is a substantial correlation between serum creatinine and the grades of renal scarring by magnetic resonance imaging. There is a substantial correlation between fever attacks and the grade of renal scarring, and there is a significant reverse correlation between the age of the onset of upper urinary tract infection and the grade of renal scarring. It is suggested that upper urinary tract infection is the most significant factor in scar formation. (author)

  6. Updated Scar Management Practical Guidelines: Non-invasive and invasive measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monstrey, S.; Middelkoop, E.; Vranckx, J.J.; Bassetto, F.; Ziegler, U.E.; Meaume, S.; Teot, L.

    2014-01-01

    Hypertrophic scars and keloids can be aesthetically displeasing and lead to severe psychosocial impairment. Many invasive and non-invasive options are available for the plastic (and any other) surgeon both to prevent and to treat abnormal scar formation. Recently, an updated set of practical

  7. Rare complications of cesarean scar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahajan, Divyesh; Kang, Mandeep; Sandhu, Manavjit Singh; Jain, Vanita; Kalra, Naveen; Khandelwal, Niranjan

    2013-01-01

    Cesarean scar pregnancy (CSP) and cesarean scar dehiscence (CSD) are the most dreaded complications of cesarean scar (CS). As the incidence of CS is increasing worldwide, so is the incidence of CSP, especially in cases with assisted reproduction techniques. It is of utmost importance to diagnose CSP in the early first trimester, as it can lead to myometrial rupture with fatal outcome. On the other hand, CSD may be encountered during pregnancy or in the postpartum period. CSD in the postpartum period is very rare and can cause secondary postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) leading to increased maternal morbidity or even death if not diagnosed and managed promptly. Both complications can be diagnosed on ultrasonography (USG) and confirmed on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). These two conditions carry high morbidity and mortality. In this article, we highlight the role of imaging in the early diagnosis and management of these conditions

  8. Rare complications of cesarean scar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divyesh Mahajan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cesarean scar pregnancy (CSP and cesarean scar dehiscence (CSD are the most dreaded complications of cesarean scar (CS. As the incidence of CS is increasing worldwide, so is the incidence of CSP, especially in cases with assisted reproduction techniques. It is of utmost importance to diagnose CSP in the early first trimester, as it can lead to myometrial rupture with fatal outcome. On the other hand, CSD may be encountered during pregnancy or in the postpartum period. CSD in the postpartum period is very rare and can cause secondary postpartum hemorrhage (PPH leading to increased maternal morbidity or even death if not diagnosed and managed promptly. Both complications can be diagnosed on ultrasonography (USG and confirmed on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. These two conditions carry high morbidity and mortality. In this article, we highlight the role of imaging in the early diagnosis and management of these conditions.

  9. Glial heterotopia of the oral cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhames E. Lizardo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We report an unusual case of a glial heterotopia arising from the oral cavity of an African neonate. The patient presented with an external pedunculated oral mass which was connected to the anterior hard palate by a firm, rubbery stalk of mucosal tissue. While the mass appeared painless, it interfered with the infant's feeding and was disturbing to the parents. After a computed tomography scan excluded an intracranial connection, the mass was excised at its base and sent for biopsy. Histopathology examination confirmed glial heterotopia. Glial heterotopias should be included in the differential diagnosis of congenital masses in the oral region.

  10. Scars of the Wigner Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toscano; de Aguiar MA; Ozorio De Almeida AM

    2001-01-01

    We propose a picture of Wigner function scars as a sequence of concentric rings along a two-dimensional surface inside a periodic orbit. This is verified for a two-dimensional plane that contains a classical hyperbolic orbit of a Hamiltonian system with 2 degrees of freedom. The stationary wave functions are the familiar mixture of scarred and random waves, but the spectral average of the Wigner functions in part of the plane is nearly that of a harmonic oscillator and individual states are also remarkably regular. These results are interpreted in terms of the semiclassical picture of chords and centers.

  11. Classical resonances and quantum scarring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manderfeld, Christopher

    2003-01-01

    We study the correspondence between phase-space localization of quantum (quasi-)energy eigenstates and classical correlation decay, given by Ruelle-Pollicott resonances of the Frobenius-Perron operator. It will be shown that scarred (quasi-)energy eigenstates are correlated: pairs of eigenstates strongly overlap in phase space (scar in same phase-space regions) if the difference of their eigenenergies is close to the phase of a leading classical resonance. Phase-space localization of quantum states will be measured by L 2 norms of their Husimi functions

  12. Human iPSC Glial Mouse Chimeras Reveal Glial Contributions to Schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Windrem, Martha S.; Osipovitch, Mikhail; Liu, Zhengshan

    2017-01-01

    with childhood-onset SCZ. After neonatal implantation into myelin-deficient shiverer mice, SCZ GPCs showed premature migration into the cortex, leading to reduced white matter expansion and hypomyelination relative to controls. The SCZ glial chimeras also showed delayed astrocytic differentiation and abnormal...... astrocytic morphologies. When established in myelin wild-type hosts, SCZ glial mice showed reduced prepulse inhibition and abnormal behavior, including excessive anxiety, antisocial traits, and disturbed sleep. RNA-seq of cultured SCZ human glial progenitor cells (hGPCs) revealed disrupted glial...

  13. Endometriosis in an episiotomy scar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mine islimye Taskin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Endometriosis that is defined as the presence of functional endometrial tissue outside the uterine cavity is seen 5-10% of reproductive age women. Endometriosis can be seen any other site of the body; but the most frequently affected areas are ovaries, pelvic peritoneum, uterosacral ligament and Douglas pouche. Several teories exist for the development of endometriosis including retrograde menstruation, venous or lymphatic metastasis and immun dysfunction. Endometriosis of the perineum and vulva are extremely rare with the most common sites being episiotomy scars. Scar endometriosis is likely to be caused by mechanical transplantation of endometrium from the uterine cavity into the wound at the time of the surgery. The primary treatment for scar endometriosis is total surgical excision of the lesion. It is important not to leave residual tissue during surgery to prevent the recurrence. Here we present a patient who had her vaginal delivery 5 years ago, have a complaint of painful vulvar lump at the right mediolateral episiotomy scar since 1 year during her every menstruation period and whose final diagnosis was endometriosis after surgical removal and histopathologic examination. Althought vulvar endometrosis is rare, it should be considered in the patients who had a vaginal delivery and complaining painful vulvar lump with swelling in her mestrual cycle. [Cukurova Med J 2016; 41(1.000: 164-166

  14. Skin cancer full-grown from scar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zikiryakhodjaev, D.Z.; Sanginov, D.R.

    2001-01-01

    In this chapter authors investigate the peculiarities of skin cancer full-grown from scar, the theory of it's descent, quote some statistical data on skin cancer full-grown from scar and variety clinical forms of skin cancer full-grown from scar was shown, quote some methods of treatment

  15. Techniques for Optimizing Surgical Scars, Part 2: Hypertrophic Scars and Keloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Kathryn; Konda, Sailesh; Ren, Vicky Zhen; Wang, Apphia Lihan; Srinivasan, Aditya; Chilukuri, Suneel

    2017-01-01

    Surgical management of benign or malignant cutaneous tumors may result in noticeable scars that are of great concern to patients, regardless of sex, age, or ethnicity. Techniques to optimize surgical scars are discussed in this three-part review. Part 2 focuses on scar revision for hypertrophic and keloids scars. Scar revision options for hypertrophic and keloid scars include corticosteroids, bleomycin, fluorouracil, verapamil, avotermin, hydrogel scaffold, nonablative fractional lasers, ablative and fractional ablative lasers, pulsed dye laser (PDL), flurandrenolide tape, imiquimod, onion extract, silicone, and scar massage.

  16. Hypertrophic scars and keloids in surgery: current concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Colin

    2014-09-01

    Hypertrophic scars and keloids remain a challenge in surgery. We appreciate that our understanding of the process at cellular and molecular level, profound as it is, when it comes to the clinical evidence much is left to be desired. Although the bench to bedside conundrum remains, the science of translational research calls for an even higher level of cooperation between the scientist and the clinician for the impetus to succeed.The clinicians alerted us to the possible theories in the pathogenesis of keloid formation, inter alia, the ischemia theory, mast cell theory, immune theory, transforming growth factor β interaction, mechanical theory, and the melanocyte stimulating hormone theory. All of the above presupposed a stimulus that would result in an uncontrolled upregulation of collagen and extracellular matrix expression in the pathogenesis of the keloid. This bedside to bench initiative, as in true science, realized more ponderables than possibilities.By the same token, research into the epidermal-mesenchymal signaling, molecular biology, genomics, and stem cell research holds much promise in the bench top arena. To assess efficacy, many scar assessment scores exist in the literature. The clinical measurement of scar maturity can aid in determining end points for therapeutics. Tissue oxygen tension and color assessment of scars by standardized photography proved to be useful.In surgery, the use of dermal substitutes holds some promise as we surmise that quality scars that arise from dermal elements, molecular and enzyme behavior, and balance. Although a systematic review shows some benefit for earlier closure and healing of wounds, no such review exists at this point in time for the use of dermal substitutes in scars.Adipose-derived stem cell, as it pertains to scars, will hopefully realize the potential of skin regeneration rather than by repair in which we are familiar with as well as the undesirable scarring as a result of healing through the inflammatory

  17. Forensic analysis of rockfall scars

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vilder, Saskia J.; Rosser, Nick J.; Brain, Matthew J.

    2017-10-01

    We characterise and analyse the detachment (scar) surfaces of rockfalls to understand the mechanisms that underpin their failure. Rockfall scars are variously weathered and comprised of both discontinuity release surfaces and surfaces indicative of fracturing through zones of previously intact rock, known as rock bridges. The presence of rock bridges and pre-existing discontinuities is challenging to quantify due to the difficulty in determining discontinuity persistence below the surface of a rock slope. Rock bridges form an important control in holding blocks onto rockslopes, with their frequency, extent and location commonly modelled from the surface exposure of daylighting discontinuities. We explore an alternative approach to assessing their role, by characterising failure scars. We analyse a database of multiple rockfall scar surfaces detailing the areal extent, shape, and location of broken rock bridges and weathered surfaces. Terrestrial laser scanning and gigapixel imagery were combined to record the detailed texture and surface morphology. From this, scar surfaces were mapped via automated classification based on RGB pixel values. Our analysis of the resulting data from scars on the North Yorkshire coast (UK) indicates a wide variation in both weathering and rock bridge properties, controlled by lithology and associated rock mass structure. Importantly, the proportion of rock bridges in a rockfall failure surface does not increase with failure size. Rather larger failures display fracturing through multiple rock bridges, and in contrast smaller failures fracture occurs only through a single critical rock bridge. This holds implications for how failure mechanisms change with rockfall size and shape. Additionally, the location of rock bridges with respect to the geometry of an incipient rockfall is shown to determine failure mode. Weathering can occur both along discontinuity surfaces and previously broken rock bridges, indicating the sequential stages of

  18. Two dimensional unstable scar statistics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warne, Larry Kevin; Jorgenson, Roy Eberhardt; Kotulski, Joseph Daniel; Lee, Kelvin S. H. (ITT Industries/AES Los Angeles, CA)

    2006-12-01

    This report examines the localization of time harmonic high frequency modal fields in two dimensional cavities along periodic paths between opposing sides of the cavity. The cases where these orbits lead to unstable localized modes are known as scars. This paper examines the enhancements for these unstable orbits when the opposing mirrors are both convex and concave. In the latter case the construction includes the treatment of interior foci.

  19. NMDA Receptors in Glial Cells: Pending Questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzamba, David; Honsa, Pavel; Anderova, Miroslava

    2013-05-01

    Glutamate receptors of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) type are involved in many cognitive processes, including behavior, learning and synaptic plasticity. For a long time NMDA receptors were thought to be the privileged domain of neurons; however, discoveries of the last 25 years have demonstrated their active role in glial cells as well. Despite the large number of studies in the field, there are many unresolved questions connected with NMDA receptors in glia that are still a matter of debate. The main objective of this review is to shed light on these controversies by summarizing results from all relevant works concerning astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and polydendrocytes (also known as NG2 glial cells) in experimental animals, further extended by studies performed on human glia. The results are divided according to the study approach to enable a better comparison of how findings obtained at the mRNA level correspond with protein expression or functionality. Furthermore, special attention is focused on the NMDA receptor subunits present in the particular glial cell types, which give them special characteristics different from those of neurons - for example, the absence of Mg(2+) block and decreased Ca(2+) permeability. Since glial cells are implicated in important physiological and pathophysiological roles in the central nervous system (CNS), the last part of this review provides an overview of glial NMDA receptors with respect to ischemic brain injury.

  20. Effect of skin graft thickness on scar development in a porcine burn model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBruler, Danielle M; Blackstone, Britani N; McFarland, Kevin L; Baumann, Molly E; Supp, Dorothy M; Bailey, J Kevin; Powell, Heather M

    2018-06-01

    Animal models provide a way to investigate scar therapies in a controlled environment. It is necessary to produce uniform, reproducible scars with high anatomic and biologic similarity to human scars to better evaluate the efficacy of treatment strategies and to develop new treatments. In this study, scar development and maturation were assessed in a porcine full-thickness burn model with immediate excision and split-thickness autograft coverage. Red Duroc pigs were treated with split-thickness autografts of varying thickness: 0.026in. ("thin") or 0.058in. ("thick"). Additionally, the thin skin grafts were meshed and expanded at 1:1.5 or 1:4 to evaluate the role of skin expansion in scar formation. Overall, the burn-excise-autograft model resulted in thick, raised scars. Treatment with thick split-thickness skin grafts resulted in less contraction and reduced scarring as well as improved biomechanics. Thin skin autograft expansion at a 1:4 ratio tended to result in scars that contracted more with increased scar height compared to the 1:1.5 expansion ratio. All treatment groups showed Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) and Transforming Growth Factor β1 (TGF-β1) expression that increased over time and peaked 4 weeks after grafting. Burns treated with thick split-thickness grafts showed decreased expression of pro-inflammatory genes 1 week after grafting, including insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and TGF-β1, compared to wounds treated with thin split-thickness grafts. Overall, the burn-excise-autograft model using split-thickness autograft meshed and expanded to 1:1.5 or 1:4, resulted in thick, raised scars similar in appearance and structure to human hypertrophic scars. This model can be used in future studies to study burn treatment outcomes and new therapies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  1. [Clinical study of influential factors on renal scarring after ESWL monotherapy for renal stone disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishito, Noritaka; Takamoto, Hitoshi; Kunitomi, Kimito; Satoh, Eiichi; Ishii, Ayano; Shiotuka, Youichi; Sako, Shinichi; Ohta, Naoki; Araki, Tohru

    2002-11-01

    ESWL is now widely used for the treatment of renal stone disease. Although ESWL has many advantages for patients' quality of life, few reports have demonstrated the long-term outcomes of the alterations of renal morphology after ESWL. We reported renal scarring after ESWL monotherapy in patients with renal calyceal stones. In this study, we evaluated a large series of patients' cohort treated at our institution, and assessed the causal effect of ESWL on the late occurrence of renal scar formation. ESWL was performed with EDAP (LT-01,02) that generates shock wave energy by piezoelectric discharge. We analyzed the records of 285 kidneys treated between Dec. 1986 and Nov. 1998. Renal scarring was noted in 44 kidneys and not in 241 kidneys with periodical ultrasonography. We compared the backgrounds of the two groups using chi-square or non-parametric analysis. The Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression model determined the analysis of renal scar formation. Univariate and multiple regression analysis revealed that the total amount of ESWL emission and hyperuricemia independently affected the probability of renal scar formation. Over-emission of ESWL (over 10,000 shots) must be care for the prevention of renal scarring in patients with renal calyceal calculi, especially when associated with hyperuricemia. After ESWL, periodical checkups with ultrasonography will provide useful information for the clinical diagnosis of renal scarring.

  2. Neocortical glial cell numbers in human brains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelvig, D.P.; Pakkenberg, H.; Stark, A.K.

    2008-01-01

    Stereological cell counting was applied to post-mortem neocortices of human brains from 31 normal individuals, age 18-93 years, 18 females (average age 65 years, range 18-93) and 13 males (average age 57 years, range 19-87). The cells were differentiated in astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, microglia...... while the total astrocyte number is constant through life; finally males have a 28% higher number of neocortical glial cells and a 19% higher neocortical neuron number than females. The overall total number of neocortical neurons and glial cells was 49.3 billion in females and 65.2 billion in males...... and neurons and counting were done in each of the four lobes. The study showed that the different subpopulations of glial cells behave differently as a function of age; the number of oligodendrocytes showed a significant 27% decrease over adult life and a strong correlation to the total number of neurons...

  3. Glial K(+) Clearance and Cell Swelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macaulay, Nanna; Zeuthen, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    An important feature of neuronal signalling is the increased concentration of K(+) in the extracellular space. The K(+) concentration is restored to its original basal level primarily by uptake into nearby glial cells. The molecular mechanisms by which K(+) is transferred from the extracellular...... space into the glial cell are debated. Although spatial buffer currents may occur, their quantitative contribution to K(+) clearance is uncertain. The concept of spatial buffering of K(+) precludes intracellular K(+) accumulation and is therefore (i) difficult to reconcile with the K(+) accumulation...

  4. A Case of Multiple Spontaneous Keloid Scars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulhadi Jfri

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Keloid scars result from an abnormal healing response to cutaneous injury or inflammation that extends beyond the borders of the original wound. Spontaneous keloid scars forming in the absence of any previous trauma or surgical procedure are rare. Certain syndromes have been associated with this phenomenon, and few reports have discussed the evidence of single spontaneous keloid scar, which raises the question whether they are really spontaneous. Here, we present a 27-year-old mentally retarded single female with orbital hypertelorism, broad nasal bridge, repaired cleft lip and high-arched palate who presented with progressive multiple spontaneous keloid scars in different parts of her body which were confirmed histologically by the presence of typical keloidal collagen. This report supports the fact that keloid scars can appear spontaneously and are possibly linked to a genetic factor. Furthermore, it describes a new presentation of spontaneous keloid scars in the form of multiple large lesions in different sites of the body.

  5. [Investigation and analysis of the cognition degree of parents of 150 pediatric burn patients on scar rehabilitation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Da-wei; Fu, Jin-feng; Yan, Gang; Jiang, He; Liu, Wen-jun

    2013-02-01

    To analyze the cognition degree of parents of pediatric burn patients on hyperplasia of scar and its prevention and rehabilitation, so as to provide a guidance for preventing deformity and dysfunction caused by scar hyperplasia. Questionnaire survey was carried out among parents of 150 pediatric burn patients hospitalized from October 2010 to November 2011 to analyze the cognition degree of patients on the formation of scar after burns, the demand degree for scar treatment between parents of different genders of patients and among parents of patients with burn injury occurred in different body sites, the relationship between the literacy level of parents and their degree of willingness of undergoing scar treatment, and the degree of comprehension and acceptance on the part of parents regarding the methods of prevention and treatment of scar. Data were processed with chi-square test or Fisher's exact test. (1) Only the parents of 19 pediatric burn patients (accounting for 12.7%) realized the possibility of scar formation before admission. After admission, more than half of the parents were told that their children would bear scar and need regular follow-up, while only parents of 52 patients (34.7%) were instructed the methods of preventing and treating scar. (2) One hundred and forty parents (93.3%) considered their children need prevention and treatment of scar after burns. There was no statistically significant difference between parents of male patients and female patients in the demand for scar treatment (χ(2) = 0.825, P > 0.05). The demand degree of parents for rehabilitation treatment for the upper limbs after burns surpassed those of the other sites of body, and altogether there were 85 parents accounting for 97.7% of all. (3) The difference among parents with different levels of literacy was not obvious in the willingness of receiving treatment for scar hyperplasia (P > 0.05). (4) Eight methods were chosen by parents to prevent and treat scars of patients

  6. Mammographic scar for stereotaxic biopsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzman Tattis; Hincapie U, Ana Lucia; Patino P, Jairo Hernando

    1997-01-01

    It is reported the case of 56 years old woman who underwent a stereotactic biopsy because of having a circumscribed breast nodule. The histologic diagnosis was benign. After six months, during the mammographic control, it was noticed that the nodule showed irregular contours, because of that a surgical biopsy was performed. The histopathology was reported as benign. it is considered then, that the mammographic changes observed in the mammographic control are due to scar phenomenon after stereotactic biopsy. This findings has not been reported previously

  7. AKAP12 mediates barrier functions of fibrotic scars during CNS repair.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Ho Cha

    Full Text Available The repair process after CNS injury shows a well-organized cascade of three distinct stages: inflammation, new tissue formation, and remodeling. In the new tissue formation stage, various cells migrate and form the fibrotic scar surrounding the lesion site. The fibrotic scar is known as an obstacle for axonal regeneration in the remodeling stage. However, the role of the fibrotic scar in the new tissue formation stage remains largely unknown. We found that the number of A-kinase anchoring protein 12 (AKAP12-positive cells in the fibrotic scar was increased over time, and the cells formed a structure which traps various immune cells. Furthermore, the AKAP12-positive cells strongly express junction proteins which enable the structure to function as a physical barrier. In in vivo validation, AKAP12 knock-out (KO mice showed leakage from a lesion, resulting from an impaired structure with the loss of the junction complex. Consistently, focal brain injury in the AKAP12 KO mice led to extended inflammation and more severe tissue damage compared to the wild type (WT mice. Accordingly, our results suggest that AKAP12-positive cells in the fibrotic scar may restrict excessive inflammation, demonstrating certain mechanisms that could underlie the beneficial actions of the fibrotic scar in the new tissue formation stage during the CNS repair process.

  8. 40 CFR 79.67 - Glial fibrillary acidic protein assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Glial fibrillary acidic protein assay... Glial fibrillary acidic protein assay. (a) Purpose. Chemical-induced injury of the nervous system, i.e... paragraph (e)(3) in this section). Assays of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), the major intermediate...

  9. Cutaneous osteosarcoma arising from a burn scar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Min A.; Yi, Jaehyuck [Kyungpook National University, Department of Radiology, College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kyungpook National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Chae, Jong Min [Kyungpook National University, Department of Pathology, College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    Tumors that develop in old burn scars are usually squamous cell carcinomas. Sarcomas have also been reported, albeit rarely. To our knowledge, there has been only one case report of an extraskeletal osteosarcoma arising in a prior burn scar reported in the English-language literature, mainly discussing the clinicopathological features. Herein, we present a case of cutaneous osteosarcoma visualized as a mineralized soft-tissue mass arising from the scar associated with a previous skin burn over the back. This seems to be the first report describing the imaging features of a cutaneous osteosarcoma from an old burn scar. (orig.)

  10. Outcome after burns: An observational study on burn scar maturation and predictors for severe scarring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wal, M.B.A.; Vloemans, J.F.P.M.; Tuinebreijer, W.E.; van de Ven, P.M.; van Unen, E.; van Zuijlen, P.P.M.; Middelkoop, E.

    2012-01-01

    Long-term outcome of burn scars as well as the relation with clinically relevant parameters has not been studied quantitatively. Therefore, we conducted a detailed analysis on the clinical changes of burn scars in a longitudinal setup. In addition, we focused on the differences in scar quality in

  11. Glial-glial and glial-neuronal interfaces in radiation-induced, glia-depleted spinal cord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilmore, S.A.; Sims, T.J.

    1997-01-01

    This review summarises some of the major findings derived from studies using the model of a glia-depleted environment developed and characterised in this laboratory. Glial depletion is achieved by exposure of the immature rodent spinal cord to x-radiation which markedly reduces both astrocyte and oligodendrocyte populations and severely impairs myelination. This glia-depleted, hypomylinated state presents a unique opportunity to examine aspects of spinal cord maturation in the absence of a normal glial population. An associated sequela within 2-3 wk following irradiation is the appearance of Schwann cells in the dorsal portion of the spinal cord. Characteristics of these intraspinal Schwann cells, their patterns of myelination or ensheathment, and their interrelations with the few remaining central glia have been examined. A later sequela is the development of Schwann cells in the ventral aspect of the spinal cord where they occur predominantly in the grey matter. (author)

  12. Cutaneous leiomyosarcoma arising in a smallpox scar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol, Robert A.; Dannenberg, Hilde; Robertus, Jan-Lukas; van Ginkel, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Cutaneous leiomyosarcoma (CLM) is a very rare smooth muscle tumour that accounts for about 2-3% of all superficial soft tissue sarcomas. Although the development of various malignancies in scar tissue is well known, we report the first case of a CLM developing in a small pox scar. Case

  13. Echocardiography as a Screening Test for Myocardial Scarring in Children with Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Compton

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM is burdened with morbidity and mortality including tachyarrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. These complications are attributed in part to the formation of proarrhythmic scars in the myocardium. The presence of extensive LGE is a risk factor for adverse outcomes in HCM. Late gadolinium enhancement (LGE cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (cMRI is the standard for the noninvasive evaluation of myocardial scars. However, echocardiography represents an attractive screening tool for myocardial scarring. The aim of this study was to compare the suitability of echocardiography to detect myocardial scars to the standard of cMRI-LGE. Methods. The cMRI studies and echocardiograms from 56 consecutive children with HCM were independently evaluated for the presence of cMRI-LGE and echocardiographic evidence of scarring by expert readers. Results. Echocardiography had a high sensitivity (93% and negative predictive value (94% in comparison to LGE. The false positive rate was high, leading to a low specificity (37% and a low positive predictive value (35%. Conclusions. Given the poor specificity and positive predictive value, echocardiography is not a suitable screening test for the presence of myocardial scarring in children with HCM. However, children without echocardiographic evidence of myocardial scarring may not need to undergo cardiac magnetic resonance imaging to “rule in” LGE.

  14. Strong quantum scarring by local impurities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luukko, Perttu J. J.; Drury, Byron; Klales, Anna; Kaplan, Lev; Heller, Eric J.; Räsänen, Esa

    2016-11-01

    We discover and characterise strong quantum scars, or quantum eigenstates resembling classical periodic orbits, in two-dimensional quantum wells perturbed by local impurities. These scars are not explained by ordinary scar theory, which would require the existence of short, moderately unstable periodic orbits in the perturbed system. Instead, they are supported by classical resonances in the unperturbed system and the resulting quantum near-degeneracy. Even in the case of a large number of randomly scattered impurities, the scars prefer distinct orientations that extremise the overlap with the impurities. We demonstrate that these preferred orientations can be used for highly efficient transport of quantum wave packets across the perturbed potential landscape. Assisted by the scars, wave-packet recurrences are significantly stronger than in the unperturbed system. Together with the controllability of the preferred orientations, this property may be very useful for quantum transport applications.

  15. Outcome after burns: an observational study on burn scar maturation and predictors for severe scarring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wal, Martijn B A; Vloemans, Jos F P M; Tuinebreijer, Wim E; van de Ven, Peter; van Unen, Ella; van Zuijlen, Paul P M; Middelkoop, Esther

    2012-01-01

    Long-term outcome of burn scars as well as the relation with clinically relevant parameters has not been studied quantitatively. Therefore, we conducted a detailed analysis on the clinical changes of burn scars in a longitudinal setup. In addition, we focused on the differences in scar quality in relation to the depth, etiology of the burn wound and age of the patient. Burn scars of 474 patients were subjected to a scar assessment protocol 3, 6, and 12 months postburn. Three different age groups were defined (≤5, 5-18, and ≥18 years). The observer part of the patient and observer scar assessment scale revealed a significant (p burned (p  0.230) have no significant influence on scar quality when corrected for sex, total body surface area burned, time, and age or etiology, respectively. © 2012 by the Wound Healing Society.

  16. White Matter Glial Pathology in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-12-1-0302 TITLE: White Matter Glial Pathology in Autism PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Gregory A. Ordway, Ph.D. CONTRACTING...Pathology in Autism 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0302 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Gregory A. Ordway, Ph.D...Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Methods used to directly study the autism brain include brain

  17. Neocortical glial cell numbers in human brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelvig, D P; Pakkenberg, H; Stark, A K; Pakkenberg, B

    2008-11-01

    Stereological cell counting was applied to post-mortem neocortices of human brains from 31 normal individuals, age 18-93 years, 18 females (average age 65 years, range 18-93) and 13 males (average age 57 years, range 19-87). The cells were differentiated in astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, microglia and neurons and counting were done in each of the four lobes. The study showed that the different subpopulations of glial cells behave differently as a function of age; the number of oligodendrocytes showed a significant 27% decrease over adult life and a strong correlation to the total number of neurons while the total astrocyte number is constant through life; finally males have a 28% higher number of neocortical glial cells and a 19% higher neocortical neuron number than females. The overall total number of neocortical neurons and glial cells was 49.3 billion in females and 65.2 billion in males, a difference of 24% with a high biological variance. These numbers can serve as reference values in quantitative studies of the human neocortex.

  18. Fractionated dose skews differentiation of Glial progenitor cells into immature oligodendrocytes and astrocytes, with lower mature oligodendrocytes formation, as compared to singe low dose of low and high LET radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, Zina; Pena, Louis; Naidu, Mamta

    2010-01-01

    In the proposed study, the effect of fractionated, low dose versus single low dose of low LET X-rays and charged particles on induction of base excision repair enzyme Apurinic Endonuclease-1 (Ape1) are determined, which is known to inhibit cell differentiation, and found that at lower doses of 10,25 and 50 cGy there was a very significant induction of Apel which correlated to number of fractions, whereas at 100 cGy this induction was significantly lower. Also, there was a clear correlation between increase in fractions and higher immature OL and astrocyte formation

  19. Presentation and management of keloid scarring following median sternotomy: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javangula Kalyana C

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Keloid scars following median sternotomy are rare and occur more frequently in pigmented skin. Different management strategies have been described with variable success. We present a case of keloid scar formation following cardiac surgery including our management and the final aesthetic result. Case description A 64 year old female of fair complexion underwent mitral valve replacement. The procedure and postoperative recovery were uncomplicated, however, during the following year, thick keloid scars formed over the incision sites. Initial non surgical measures failed to relieve pain and did not offer any tangible aesthetic benefit. Eventually surgical excision was attempted. She presented to our clinic for nine months follow up with significant improvement in pain and aesthetic result. Discussion and Evaluation Several theories have attempted to explore the pathophysiology of keloid scar formation. A number of predisposing factors have been documented however none existed in this case. A variety of invasive and non invasive approaches have been described but significant differences in success rates and methodology of investigations still precludes a standardized management protocol. Conclusions In this case study a rare presentation of keloid scar has been presented. The variety of methods used to improve pain and aesthetic result demonstrates the propensity of keloid scars to recur and the therapeutic challenges that surgeons have to face in their quest for a satisfactory patient outcome.

  20. Cutaneous leiomyosarcoma arising in a smallpox scar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pol, Robert A; Dannenberg, Hilde; Robertus, Jan-Lukas; van Ginkel, Robert J

    2012-07-16

    Cutaneous leiomyosarcoma (CLM) is a very rare smooth muscle tumour that accounts for about 2-3% of all superficial soft tissue sarcomas. Although the development of various malignancies in scar tissue is well known, we report the first case of a CLM developing in a small pox scar. A 66-year-old man presented with a painless, slow-growing lump in a small pox scar on his left shoulder. Histological biopsies showed the lesion to be a primary, well-differentiated cutaneous leiomyosarcoma. A CT scan of the thorax was conducted, which showed no signs of metastases. The complete lesion was then surgically excised, and histopathological examination revealed a radically excised cutaneous type leiomyosarcoma After 13 months' review the patient was doing well with no evidence of tumour recurrence. This is the first report of a CLM arising in a small pox scar. Although the extended time interval between scarring and malignant changes makes it difficult to advise strict follow-up for patients with small pox scars, one should be aware that atypical changes and/or symptoms occurring in a small pox scar could potentially mean malignant transformation.

  1. Cutaneous leiomyosarcoma arising in a smallpox scar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pol Robert A

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cutaneous leiomyosarcoma (CLM is a very rare smooth muscle tumour that accounts for about 2–3% of all superficial soft tissue sarcomas. Although the development of various malignancies in scar tissue is well known, we report the first case of a CLM developing in a small pox scar. Case presentation A 66-year-old man presented with a painless, slow-growing lump in a small pox scar on his left shoulder. Histological biopsies showed the lesion to be a primary, well-differentiated cutaneous leiomyosarcoma. A CT scan of the thorax was conducted, which showed no signs of metastases. The complete lesion was then surgically excised, and histopathological examination revealed a radically excised cutaneous type leiomyosarcoma After 13 months’ review the patient was doing well with no evidence of tumour recurrence. Conclusions This is the first report of a CLM arising in a small pox scar. Although the extended time interval between scarring and malignant changes makes it difficult to advise strict follow-up for patients with small pox scars, one should be aware that atypical changes and/or symptoms occurring in a small pox scar could potentially mean malignant transformation.

  2. Values of a Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale to Evaluate the Facial Skin Graft Scar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Jin Kyung; Kim, Jeong Hee; Kim, Eun Jung; Park, Kun

    2016-10-01

    The patient and observer scar assessment scale (POSAS) recently emerged as a promising method, reflecting both observer's and patient's opinions in evaluating scar. This tool was shown to be consistent and reliable in burn scar assessment, but it has not been tested in the setting of skin graft scar in skin cancer patients. To evaluate facial skin graft scar applied to POSAS and to compare with objective scar assessment tools. Twenty three patients, who diagnosed with facial cutaneous malignancy and transplanted skin after Mohs micrographic surgery, were recruited. Observer assessment was performed by three independent rates using the observer component of the POSAS and Vancouver scar scale (VSS). Patient self-assessment was performed using the patient component of the POSAS. To quantify scar color and scar thickness more objectively, spectrophotometer and ultrasonography was applied. Inter-observer reliability was substantial with both VSS and the observer component of the POSAS (average measure intraclass coefficient correlation, 0.76 and 0.80, respectively). The observer component consistently showed significant correlations with patients' ratings for the parameters of the POSAS (all p -valuesskin graft scar assessment in skin cancer patients, the POSAS showed acceptable inter-observer reliability. This tool was more comprehensive and had higher correlation with patient's opinion.

  3. Primary culture of glial cells from mouse sympathetic cervical ganglion: a valuable tool for studying glial cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida-Leite, Camila Megale; Arantes, Rosa Maria Esteves

    2010-12-15

    Central nervous system glial cells as astrocytes and microglia have been investigated in vitro and many intracellular pathways have been clarified upon various stimuli. Peripheral glial cells, however, are not as deeply investigated in vitro despite its importance role in inflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases. Based on our previous experience of culturing neuronal cells, our objective was to standardize and morphologically characterize a primary culture of mouse superior cervical ganglion glial cells in order to obtain a useful tool to study peripheral glial cell biology. Superior cervical ganglia from neonatal C57BL6 mice were enzymatically and mechanically dissociated and cells were plated on diluted Matrigel coated wells in a final concentration of 10,000cells/well. Five to 8 days post plating, glial cell cultures were fixed for morphological and immunocytochemical characterization. Glial cells showed a flat and irregular shape, two or three long cytoplasm processes, and round, oval or long shaped nuclei, with regular outline. Cell proliferation and mitosis were detected both qualitative and quantitatively. Glial cells were able to maintain their phenotype in our culture model including immunoreactivity against glial cell marker GFAP. This is the first description of immunocytochemical characterization of mouse sympathetic cervical ganglion glial cells in primary culture. This work discusses the uses and limitations of our model as a tool to study many aspects of peripheral glial cell biology. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The role of glial cells in neuronal acetylcholine synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasa, P.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents data on the role of glial cells in neuronal ACh synthesis. It is noted that central neurons fare better in cultures when in contact with non-neuronal cells, and especially glial cells. Since neither the fate of the Ch released from the glial cells nor the role of the contact between glial cells and neurons has yet been elucidated, the author investigates these phenomena. Glial cells from 14-day-old chickbrain were cultured for 14 days. ( 14 C) - choline incorporated into lipids, phosphocholine, betaine and ACh, as well as the free ( 14 C) -choline, were determined in the pure glial cell cultures after 24 h, and in the combined cultures after 7 days. The ( 14 C) - choline influx into the incubation medium and the uptake by the neurons were measured. Results are presented

  5. Flavonoids Modulate the Proliferation of Neospora caninum in Glial Cell Primary Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa de Matos, Rosan; Braga-de-Souza, Suzana; Pena Seara Pitanga, Bruno; Amaral da Silva, Victor Diógenes; Viana de Jesus, Erica Etelvina; Morales Pinheiro, Alexandre; Dias Costa, Maria de Fátima; dos Santos El-Bacha, Ramon; de Oliveira Ribeiro, Cátia Suse

    2014-01-01

    Neospora caninum (Apicomplexa; Sarcocystidae) is a protozoan that causes abortion in cattle, horses, sheep, and dogs as well as neurological and dermatological diseases in dogs. In the central nervous system of dogs infected with N. caninum, cysts were detected that exhibited gliosis and meningitis. Flavonoids are polyphenolic compounds that exhibit antibacterial, antiparasitic, antifungal, and antiviral properties. In this study, we investigated the effects of flavonoids in a well-established in vitro model of N. caninum infection in glial cell cultures. Glial cells were treated individually with 10 different flavonoids, and a subset of cultures was also infected with the NC-1 strain of N. caninum. All of the flavonoids tested induced an increase in the metabolism of glial cells and many of them increased nitrite levels in cultures infected with NC-1 compared to controls and uninfected cultures. Among the flavonoids tested, 3',4'-dihydroxyflavone, 3',4',5,7-tetrahydroxyflavone (luteolin), and 3,3',4',5,6-pentahydroxyflavone (quercetin), also inhibited parasitophorous vacuole formation. Taken together, our findings show that flavonoids modulate glial cell responses, increase NO secretion, and interfere with N. caninum infection and proliferation. PMID:25548412

  6. Medical makeup for concealing facial scars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mee, Donna; Wong, Brian J F

    2012-10-01

    Surgical, laser, and pharmacological therapies are all used to correct scars and surgical incisions, though have limits with respect to how well facial skin can be restored or enhanced. The use of cosmetics has long been a relevant adjunct to all scar treatment modalities. In recent years, technical advancements in the chemistry and composition of cosmetic products have provided the patient with a broader range of products to employ for concealing scars. This review will provide an overview of contemporary methods for concealing facial scars, birthmarks, and pigmentary changes without the use of traditional/dated, heavy appearing camouflage products. Additionally, general guidelines and information will be provided with respect to identifying competent makeup artists for care of the medical patient. The article by no means is meant to be a tutorial, but rather serves as a starting point in this allied field of medicine. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  7. Lumican alleviates hypertrophic scarring by suppressing integrin-FAK signaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Yuqian; Li, Xueyong; Xu, Xiaoli; He, Zhi; Cui, Lei; Lv, Xiaoxing

    2016-01-01

    Hypertrophic scarring (HS) is an overcompensation of wound healing that increases the risk of cosmetic disfigurement and functional impairment. No gold standard has been established for the treatment or prevention of HS. Our study aims to elucidate the expression and function of lumican in the pathogenesis of HS as well as the underlying mechanism involved in this procedure. An animal model of HS (rabbit ear) was established, and the Ad-lumican vectors were locally injected. Primary fibroblasts isolated from patients with hypertrophic burn scars were used in vitro. Histological and molecular changes in HS pathogenesis were evaluated. The results showed that lumican is significantly reduced in HS tissues and fibroblasts from HS patients as compared to normal skin or cells. Lumican levels were further suppressed in response to TGF-β stimulation. However, lumican upregulation effectively thinned the scar area and inhibited fibroblast proliferation and the cell cycle. Meanwhile, Ad-lumican administration suppressed the deposition of extracellular matrix, such as collagen and CTGF. Ad-lumican injected animals or fibroblasts presented comparable integrin α 2 β 1 expression while greatly reduced phosphorylation of FAK compared to the negative control. Moreover, Ad-lumican administration largely enhanced the binding of lumican to integrin α 2 β 1 and may thus inhibit the signaling propagation of collagen-integrin α 2 β 1 . Overall, the restoration of lumican levels contributed to suppressing the HS progression by inhibiting collagen-integrin α 2 β 1 -FAK signaling. - Highlights: • Lumican is downregulated during hypertrophic scar formation. • Lumican inhibits fibroblast proliferation. • Lumican inhibits extracellular matrix deposition. • Lumican suppresses collagen-integrin-FAK signaling.

  8. Assessment of scar quality after cleft lip closure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frans, Franceline A.; van Zuijlen, Paul P. M.; Griot, J. P. W. Don; van der Horst, Chantal M. A. M.

    2012-01-01

    To assess scar quality after cleft lip repair. The linear scars of patients with cleft lip with or without cleft palate were evaluated in a prospective study using the Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale. Linear regression was performed to identify which scar characteristics were important

  9. [How to optimize scarring in dermatologic surgery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amici, J M; Chaussade, V

    2016-12-01

    Scarring is the response elicited by the skin surface to injury and loss of tissue material. Wound healing takes place through a complex natural repair system consisting of vascular, inflammatory and proliferative phenomena, followed by a remodelling and cell apoptosis phase. This incredible repair system is inevitable, but sometimes unpredictable due to individual differences based on multiple factors. The scar is the objective criterion of a skin surgery, both for the patient and the dermsurgeon. It is therefore crucial to establish with the patient during the preoperative consultation, the size and positioning of the expected scar, taking into account the oncologic, anatomic and surgical constraints. Scars can ideally blend into normal skin, but may also give rise to various abnormalities. We can manage and prevent these abnormalities by mastering initial inflammation, that may induce hyperpigmentation and hypertrophy. Early massage using cortocosteroid topic or anti-inflammatory moisturizers may be effective. Random individual scarring may be minimized by a dynamic personalized accompanying scarring. © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. Tous droits réservés.

  10. Overview of surgical scar prevention and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Daegu; Harijan, Aram

    2014-06-01

    Management of incisional scar is intimately connected to stages of wound healing. The management of an elective surgery patient begins with a thorough informed consent process in which the patient is made aware of personal and clinical circumstances that cannot be modified, such as age, ethnicity, and previous history of hypertrophic scars. In scar prevention, the single most important modifiable factor is wound tension during the proliferative and remodeling phases, and this is determined by the choice of incision design. Traditional incisions most often follow relaxed skin tension lines, but no such lines exist in high surface tension areas. If such incisions are unavoidable, the patient must be informed of this ahead of time. The management of a surgical incision does not end when the sutures are removed. Surgical scar care should be continued for one year. Patient participation is paramount in obtaining the optimal outcome. Postoperative visits should screen for signs of scar hypertrophy and has a dual purpose of continued patient education and reinforcement of proper care. Early intervention is a key to control hyperplastic response. Hypertrophic scars that do not improve by 6 months are keloids and should be managed aggressively with intralesional steroid injections and alternate modalities.

  11. Scar modification. Techniques for revision and camouflage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horswell, B B

    1998-09-01

    The surgery and management of scars is a protracted and staged process that includes preparation of the skin through hygienic measures, scar softening (if indicated) with steroids, massage and pressure dressings, skilled execution of the surgical plan, and thorough postoperative wound care. This process generally covers a 1-year period for the various stages mentioned. Many general host and local skin factors will directly affect the final revision result. The two most important indirect factors that the surgeon must endeavor to control are optimal patient preparation and cutaneous health, and patient compliance with, and an ability to carry out, those wound care measures that the surgeon prescribes. Keloid and burn contracture scars represent two entities that are complicated and challenging to treat owing to their abnormal morphophysiologic features. Management of these scars is prolonged, and the patient must understand that the ultimate result will usually be a compromise. New grafting techniques, such as cultured autodermal grafts, offer improved initial management of burn wounds that may subsequently optimize scar revision in these patients. Keloids, and to a lesser extent hypertrophic scars, require steroid injections, pressure treatment, careful surgery, and protracted wound support and pressure treatment (exceeding 6 months) after surgery.

  12. Nasopharyngeal glial heterotopia with delayed postoperative meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Kenichi; Furuno, Kenji; Chong, Pin Fee; Morioka, Takato

    2017-06-22

    A male infant, who underwent radical resection of a large glial heterotopia at the nasopharynx at 8 days, developed delayed postoperative bacterial meningitis at 9 months. Neuroradiological examination clearly demonstrated that meningitis had occurred because of the intracranial and extracranial connections, which were scarcely seen in the perioperative period. A transsphenoidal extension of hypothalamic hamartoma is possible because the connection started from the right optic nerve, running through the transsphenoidal canal in the sphenoid bone and terminating at the recurrent mass in the nasopharyngeal region. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  13. [Nasal glial heterotopia: Clinical and morphological characteristics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bykova, V P; Bakhtin, A A; Polyakov, D P; Yunusov, A S; Daikhes, N A

    The paper describes a case of nasal glial heterotopia in a 10-month-old girl with a mixed (intranasal and subcutaneous) localization, which is accompanied by the divergence of the nasal bones. Histological examination supplemented by immunohistochemical reactions with antibodies to vimentin, S100 protein, neuron-specific enolase, as well as Ki-67 and smooth muscle actin confirmed the neural nature of the tumor. Fields of mature astrocytic glia including individual cells with neuronal differentiation were found among the fibrous and fibrovascular tissues. The paper provides a brief overview of the discussed pathology.

  14. Cerebral radiation necrosis: vascular and glial features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Husain, M M; Garcia, J H

    1976-12-21

    Glial and vascular abnormalities in brain, simulating intracranial neoplasia, are described in a patient who received radiation to the pituitary region for treatment of an adenoma, 13 months before death. In addition to the expected changes of cerebral radionecrosis, four interesting features are cited: (1) diffuse hyperplasia of capillaries in the cerebral cortex with marked endothelial hypertrophy; (2) abundant, large multipolar bizarre cells in the perivascular connective tissues; (3) focal astrocytic proliferation with many cells resembling either Alzheimer type I astrocytes or neoplastic cells, and (4) radiation changes in the non-irradiated brain.

  15. Enhanced secretion of TIMP-1 by human hypertrophic scar keratinocytes could contribute to fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Franck; Bergeron, Daniele; Larochelle, Sébastien; Lopez-Vallé, Carlos A; Genest, Hervé; Armour, Alexis; Moulin, Véronique J

    2012-05-01

    Hypertrophic scars are a pathological process characterized by an excessive deposition of extracellular matrix components. Using a tissue-engineered reconstructed human skin (RHS) method, we previously reported that pathological keratinocytes induce formation of a fibrotic dermal matrix. We further investigated keratinocyte action using conditioned media. Results showed that conditioned media induce a similar action on dermal thickness similar to when an epidermis is present. Using a two-dimensional electrophoresis technique, we then compared conditioned media from normal or hypertrophic scar keratinocytes and determined that TIMP-1 was increased in conditioned media from hypertrophic scar keratinocytes. This differential profile was confirmed using ELISA, assaying TIMP-1 presence on media from monolayer cultured keratinocytes and from RHS. The dermal matrix of these RHS was recreated using mesenchymal cells from three different origins (skin, wound and hypertrophic scar). The effect of increased TIMP-1 levels on dermal fibrosis was also validated independently from the mesenchymal cell origin. Immunodetection of TIMP-1 showed that this protein was increased in the epidermis of hypertrophic scar biopsies. The findings of this study represent an important advance in understanding the role of keratinocytes as a direct potent modulator for matrix degradation and scar tissue remodeling, possibly through inactivation of MMPs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  16. Risk factors for renal scarring in children with primary vesicoureteral reflux disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevgi Mir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the incidence of renal scarring among patients with primary vesicoureteral reflux (VUR and the possible risk factor(s, we studied 90 children (60 girls and 30 boys with VUR followed in the Pediatric Nephrology Unit at the Ege University Hospital from 1998 to 2003. All the patients were assessed for VUR grade by voiding cystoureterography and for presence of renal scarring by (99 m technetium dimercapto-succinic acid scintigraphy. All infants with VUR were given low-dose prophylactic antibiotics and followed-up until resolution of the reflux. Grade of reflux and number of urinary tract infection (UTI episodes (≥3 were found to be statistically significant risk factors for renal scarring (P 0.05. Similarly, there was no statistically significant difference of frequency of renal scarring among the different age groups (P >0.05. We conclude that recurrences of UTI and VUR severity are significant risk factors for renal scarring in children with VUR. Therefore, identification of VUR at an early age may offer the opportunity to prevent episodes of UTI and possible formation of renal scars that may result in end-stage renal failure.

  17. The role of massage in scar management: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Thuzar M; Bordeaux, Jeremy S

    2012-03-01

    Many surgeons recommend postoperative scar massage to improve aesthetic outcome, although scar massage regimens vary greatly. To review the regimens and efficacy of scar massage. PubMed was searched using the following key words: "massage" in combination with "scar," or "linear," "hypertrophic," "keloid," "diasta*," "atrophic." Information on study type, scar type, number of patients, scar location, time to onset of massage therapy, treatment protocol, treatment duration, outcomes measured, and response to treatment was tabulated. Ten publications including 144 patients who received scar massage were examined in this review. Time to treatment onset ranged from after suture removal to longer than 2 years. Treatment protocols ranged from 10 minutes twice daily to 30 minutes twice weekly. Treatment duration varied from one treatment to 6 months. Overall, 65 patients (45.7%) experienced clinical improvement based on Patient Observer Scar Assessment Scale score, Vancouver Scar Scale score, range of motion, pruritus, pain, mood, depression, or anxiety. Of 30 surgical scars treated with massage, 27 (90%) had improved appearance or Patient Observer Scar Assessment Scale score. The evidence for the use of scar massage is weak, regimens used are varied, and outcomes measured are neither standardized nor reliably objective, although its efficacy appears to be greater in postsurgical scars than traumatic or postburn scars. Although scar massage is anecdotally effective, there is scarce scientific data in the literature to support it. © 2011 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Effectiveness of Onion Extract Gel on Surgical Scars in Asians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumutnart Chanprapaph

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Onion extracts have been shown in vitro to accelerate wound healing. Results from clinical studies on surgical scars in Caucasians were disappointing. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of onion extract gel in improving the cosmetic and symptoms of surgical scars in Asians. Patients/Methods. Twenty Asians who had new Pfannenstiel’s cesarean section scars were recruited in this prospective double-blinded, split-scar study. Each side was randomly assigned treatment with onion extract gel or placebo at 7 days after surgery. The product was applied three times daily for 12 weeks. Subjects were evaluated at baseline and 4th and 12th weeks. Scar redness was assessed by calorimeter, scar height and pliability were assessed by blinded investigators, and scar symptoms and overall cosmetic improvement were assessed by subjects. Results. Sixteen subjects completed the study. A statistically significant difference between two sides of scar in terms of scar height and scar symptoms was found. There was no statistically significant difference in scar redness, scar pliability, and overall cosmetic appearance between two sides. Conclusions. The early use of topical 12% onion extract gel on Pfannenstiel’s cesarean section scar in Asians resulted in the improvement of scar height and scar symptoms.

  19. Vertical scar versus the inverted-T scar reduction mammaplasty : A 10-year follow-up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwer, Lesley R.; van der Biezen, Jan Jaap; Spronk, Cees A.; van der Lei, Berend

    2012-01-01

    A retrospective study was undertaken to evaluate whether the initial outcome of two types of reduction mammaplasty techniques (vertical scar reduction mammaplasty vs. the inverted-T scar reduction mammaplasty) remains stable in the long term: Sixty-nine patients who had undergone breast reduction

  20. Periauricular Keloids on Face-Lift Scars in a Patient with Facial Nerve Paralysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayo Aoki, MD, PhD

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Summary:. Keloids are caused by excessive scar formation that leads to scar growth beyond the initial scar boundaries. Keloid formation and progression is promoted by mechanical stress such as skin stretch force. Consequently, keloids rarely occur in paralyzed areas and areas with little skin tension, such as the periauricular region. Therefore, periauricular incision is commonly performed for face lifts. We report a rare case of keloids that arose from face-lift scars in a patient with bilateral facial nerve paralysis. A 51-year-old Japanese man presented with abnormal proliferative skin masses in bilateral periauricular scars. Seventeen years before, he had a cerebral infarction that resulted in permanent bilateral facial nerve paralysis. Three years before presentation, the patient underwent face-lift surgery with periauricular incisions. We diagnosed multiple keloids. We removed the masses surgically, closed the wounds with sutures in the superficial musculoaponeurotic system layer to reduce tension on the wound edges, reconstructed the earlobes with local skin flaps, and provided 2 consecutive days of radiotherapy. The wounds/scars were managed with steroid plasters and injections. Histology confirmed that the lesions were keloids. Ten months after surgery, the lesions did not exhibit marked regrowth. The keloids appeared to be caused by the patient's helmet, worn during his 3-hour daily motorcycle rides, which placed repeated tension on the periauricular area. This rare case illustrates how physical force contributes to auricular and periauricular keloid development and progression. It also shows that when performing surgery with periauricular incisions, care should be taken to eliminate wound/scar stretching.

  1. Glial heterotopia in an adult: A rare orbital mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Dabir Sundaresh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Heterotopic glial tissue is very rare in the orbit. Our case was an adult, which is unique since most cases reported in literature involve children. We describe a case of a 60-year-old man who presented with an orbital mass, which histopathologically revealed heterotopic glial tissue.

  2. Glial heterotopia in an adult: A rare orbital mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaresh, Divya Dabir; Mangala Gouri, S R

    2016-11-01

    Heterotopic glial tissue is very rare in the orbit. Our case was an adult, which is unique since most cases reported in literature involve children. We describe a case of a 60-year-old man who presented with an orbital mass, which histopathologically revealed heterotopic glial tissue.

  3. Glial Cells: The Other Cells of the Nervous System

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 7; Issue 1. Glial Cells: The Other Cells of the Nervous System - An Introduction to Glial Cells. Medha S Rajadhyaksha Yasmin Khan. Series Article Volume 7 Issue 1 January 2002 pp 4-10 ...

  4. Glial heterotopia of the lip: A rare presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadaci, Mehmet; Bayram, Fazli Cengiz; Ince, Bilsev; Bilgen, Fatma

    2016-01-01

    Glial heterotopia represents collections of normal glial tissue in an abnormal location distant to the central nervous system or spinal canal with no intracranial connectivity. Nasal gliomas are non-neoplastic midline tumours, with limited growth potential and no similarity to the central nervous system gliomas. The nose and the nasopharynx are the most common sites of location. Existence of glial heterotopia in the lip region is a rare developmental disorder. We report a case of large glial heterotopia in the upper lip region in a full-term female newborn which had intracranial extension with a fibrotic band. After the surgery, there was no recurrence in the follow-up period of 3 years. When glial heterotopia, which is a rare midline anomaly, is suspected, possible intracranial connection and properties of the mass should be evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging. By this way, lower complication rate and better aesthetic results can be achieved with early diagnosis and proper surgery.

  5. Glial heterotopia of the lip: A rare presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Dadaci

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Glial heterotopia represents collections of normal glial tissue in an abnormal location distant to the central nervous system or spinal canal with no intracranial connectivity. Nasal gliomas are non-neoplastic midline tumours, with limited growth potential and no similarity to the central nervous system gliomas. The nose and the nasopharynx are the most common sites of location. Existence of glial heterotopia in the lip region is a rare developmental disorder. We report a case of large glial heterotopia in the upper lip region in a full-term female newborn which had intracranial extension with a fibrotic band. After the surgery, there was no recurrence in the follow-up period of 3 years. When glial heterotopia, which is a rare midline anomaly, is suspected, possible intracranial connection and properties of the mass should be evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging. By this way, lower complication rate and better aesthetic results can be achieved with early diagnosis and proper surgery.

  6. The Subunit Principle in Scar Face Revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshahat, Ahmed; Lashin, Riham

    2017-06-01

    Facial scaring is considered one of the most difficult cosmetic problems for any plastic surgeon to solve. The condition is more difficult if the direction of the scar is not parallel to relaxed skin tension lines. Attempts to manage this difficult situation included revisions using geometric designs, Z plasties or W plasties to camouflage the straight line visible scaring. The use of long-lasting resorbable sutures was tried too. Recently, the use of botulinum toxin during revision improved the results. Fractional CO2 lasers, microfat grafts, and platelet-rich plasma were added to the armamentarium. The scar is least visible if placed in the junction between the facial subunits. The aim of this study is to investigate the use of the subunit principle to improve the results of scar revision. Four patients were included in this study. Tissue expansion of the intact part of the subunit allowed shifting the scar to the junction between the affected subunit and the adjacent one. Tissue expansion, delivery of the expanders, and advancement of the flaps were successful in all patients. The fact that this is a 2-stage procedure and sacrifices some of the intact skin from the affected facial subunit, makes this technique reserved to patients with ugly facial scars who are ambitious to improve their appearance.

  7. In search of scar seeking radiopharmaceuticals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salehi, N.; Lawlor, J.M.; Lichtenstein, M.; Allaway, M.; Barencevic, A. [Royal Melbourne Hospital, Melbourne, VIC (Australia). Department of Nuclear Medicine]|[University of Melbourne, VIC (Australia)

    1998-03-01

    Full text: Sensitive detection of acute peri-osseous scar tissue should be valuable for detection of partial ligamentous, tears and other common rheumatological conditions including back pain and ligamentous scars. Our aim was to investigate acute scar uptake of {sup 99m}Tc(V)-DMSA (dimercapto-succinic-acid), {sup 99m}Tc-DMAD (di- methyl-aminodiphosphonate) compared to {sup 99m}Tc-MDP (methylen-diphosphonate), the standard bone-scanning radiopharmaceutical. New Zealand white rabbits were anaesthetised and had 5-7cm of their mid-line abdominal wall surgically incised. At 24, 48, 72, 96 and 240 hours post surgery, 74 MBq (2 mCi) of the above radiopharmaceuticals were injected intravenously and scintigraphy performed 2.5 hours later. Relative count rate in scar is tabulated. In conclusion, the increased activity in the acute surgical site and lesser bone uptake confirmed that Tc (V)-DMSA and Tc-DMAD are superior to Tc- MDP for detection of new scar tissue in the region of bone. 1 tab.

  8. Photodynamic damage of glial cells in crayfish ventral nerve cord

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolosov, M. S.; Duz, E.; Uzdensky, A. B.

    2011-03-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a promising method for treatment of brain tumors, the most of which are of glial origin. In the present work we studied PDT-mediated injury of glial cells in nerve tissue, specifically, in abdominal connectives in the crayfish ventral nerve cord. The preparation was photosensitized with alumophthalocyanine Photosens and irradiated 30 min with the diode laser (670 nm, 0.1 or 0.15 W/cm2). After following incubation in the darkness during 1- 10 hours it was fluorochromed with Hoechst 33342 and propidium iodide to reveal nuclei of living, necrotic and apoptotic cells. The chain-like location of the glial nuclei allowed visualization of those enveloping giant axons and blood vessels. The level of glial necrosis in control preparations was about 2-5 %. Apoptosis was not observed in control preparations. PDT significantly increased necrosis of glial cells to 52 or 67 % just after irradiation with 0.1 or 0.15 W/cm2, respectively. Apoptosis of glial cells was observed only at 10 hours after light exposure. Upper layers of the glial envelope of the connectives were injured stronger comparing to deep ones: the level of glial necrosis decreased from 100 to 30 % upon moving from the connective surface to the plane of the giant axon inside the connective. Survival of glial cells was also high in the vicinity of blood vessels. One can suggest that giant axons and blood vessels protect neighboring glial cells from photodynamic damage. The mechanism of such protective action remains to be elucidated.

  9. Fraxelated radiofrequency device for acne scars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Babar K.; Khokher, Sairah

    2012-09-01

    Acne scars can be improved with various treatments such as topical creams, chemical peels, dermal fillers, microdermabrasion, laser, and radiofrequency devices. Some of these treatments especially lasers and deep chemical peels can have significant side effects such as post inflammatory hyperpigmentation in darker skin types. Fraxelated RF Laser devices have been reported to have lower incidence of side effects in all skin phototypes. Nine patients between ages 18 and 35 of various skin phototypes were selected from a private practice and treated with a RF fraxelated device (E-matrix) for acne scars. Outcomes were measured by physician observation, subjective feedback received by patients, and comparison of before and after photographs. In this small group of patients with various skin phototypes, fraxelated radiofrequency device improved acne scars with minimal side effects and downtime.

  10. Pathological mechanism for delayed hyperenhancement of chronic scarred myocardium in contrast agent enhanced magnetic resonance imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Wang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To evaluate possible mechanism for delayed hyperenhancement of scarred myocardium by investigating the relationship of contrast agent (CA first pass and delayed enhancement patterns with histopathological changes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighteen pigs underwent 4 weeks ligation of 1 or 2 diagonal coronary arteries to induce chronic infarction. The hearts were then removed and perfused in a Langendorff apparatus. The hearts firstly experienced phosphorus 31 MR spectroscopy. The hearts in group I (n = 9 and II (n = 9 then received the bolus injection of Gadolinium diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (0.05 mmol/kg and gadolinium-based macromolecular agent (P792, 15 µmol/kg, respectively. First pass T2* MRI was acquired using a gradient echo sequence. Delayed enhanced T1 MRI was acquired with an inversion recovery sequence. Masson's trichrome and anti- von Willebrand Factor (vWF staining were performed for infarct characterization. RESULTS: Wash-in of both kinds of CA caused the sharp and dramatic T2* signal decrease of scarred myocardium similar to that of normal myocardium. Myocardial blood flow and microvessel density were significantly recovered in 4-week-old scar tissue. Steady state distribution volume (ΔR1 relaxation rate of Gd-DTPA was markedly higher in scarred myocardium than in normal myocardium, whereas ΔR1 relaxation rate of P792 did not differ significantly between scarred and normal myocardium. The ratio of extracellular volume to the total water volume was significantly greater in scarred myocardium than in normal myocardium. Scarred myocardium contained massive residual capillaries and dilated vessels. Histological stains indicated the extensively discrete matrix deposition and lack of cellular structure in scarred myocardium. CONCLUSIONS: Collateral circulation formation and residual vessel effectively delivered CA into scarred myocardium. However, residual vessel without abnormal hyperpermeability allowed Gd

  11. Wound healing in a fetal, adult, and scar tissue model: a comparative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coolen, N.A.; Schouten, K.C.; Boekema, B.K.; Middelkoop, E.; Ulrich, M.

    2010-01-01

    Early gestation fetal wounds heal without scar formation. Understanding the mechanism of this scarless healing may lead to new therapeutic strategies for improving adult wound healing. The aims of this study were to develop a human fetal wound model in which fetal healing can be studied and to

  12. Radiation adaptive response for the growth of cultured glial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, S.; Miura, Y.; Kano, M.; Toda, T.; Urano, S.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: To examine the molecular mechanism of radiation adaptive response (RAR) for the growth of cultured glial cells and to investigate the influence of aging on the response, glial cells were cultured from young and aged rats (1 month and 24 months old). RAR for the growth of glial cells conditioned with a low dose of X-rays and subsequently exposed to a high dose of X-rays was examined for cell number and BrdU incorporation. Involvement of the subcellular signaling pathway factors in RAR was investigated using their inhibitors, activators and mutated glial cells. RAR was observed in cells cultured from young rats, but was not in cells from aged rats. The inhibitors of protein kinase C (PKC) and DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) or phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) suppressed RAR. The activators of PKC instead of low dose irradiation also caused RAR. Moreover, glial cells cultured from severe combined immunodeficiency (scid) mice (CB-17 scid) and ataxia-telangiectasia (AT) cells from AT patients showed no RAR. These results indicated that PKC, ATM, DNAPK and/or PI3K were involved in RAR for growth and BrdU incorporation of cultured glial cells and RAR decreased with aging. Proteomics data of glial cells exposed to severe stress of H 2 O 2 or X-rays also will be presented in the conference since little or no difference has not been observed with slight stress yet

  13. MRI guided needle localization in a patient with recurrence pleomorphic sarcoma and post-operative scarring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Ching-Di [Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung (China); Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA (United States); Wei, Jesse; Wu, Jim S. [Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA (United States); Goldsmith, Jeffrey D. [Harvard Medical School, Department of Pathology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA (United States); Gebhardt, Mark C. [Harvard Medical School, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA (United States)

    2017-07-15

    MRI-guided wire localization is commonly used for surgical localization of breast lesions. Here we introduce an alternative use of this technique to help with surgical resection of a recurrent pleomorphic sarcoma embedded in extensive post-treatment scar tissue. We describe a case of recurrent pleomorphic soft tissue sarcoma in the thigh after treatment with neoadjuvant therapy, surgery, and radiation. Due to the distortion of the normal tissue architecture and formation of extensive scar tissue from prior treatment, wire localization under MRI was successfully used to assist the surgeon in identifying the recurrent tumor for removal. (orig.)

  14. The clinical outcome of cesarean scar pregnancies implanted "on the scar" versus "in the niche".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaelin Agten, Andrea; Cali, Giuseppe; Monteagudo, Ana; Oviedo, Johana; Ramos, Joanne; Timor-Tritsch, Ilan

    2017-05-01

    The term cesarean scar pregnancy refers to placental implantation within the scar of a previous cesarean delivery. The rising numbers of cesarean deliveries in the last decades have led to an increased incidence of cesarean scar pregnancy. Complications of cesarean scar pregnancy include morbidly adherent placenta, uterine rupture, severe hemorrhage, and preterm labor. It is suspected that cesarean scar pregnancies that are implanted within a dehiscent scar ("niche") behave differently compared with those implanted on top of a well-healed scar. To date there are no studies that have compared pregnancy outcomes between cesarean scar pregnancies implanted either "on the scar" or "in the niche." The purpose of this study was to determine the pregnancy outcome of cesarean scar pregnancy implanted either "on the scar" or "in the niche." This was a retrospective 2-center study of 17 patients with cesarean scar pregnancy that was diagnosed from 5-9 weeks gestation (median, 8 weeks). All cesarean scar pregnancies were categorized as either implanted or "on the scar" (group A) or "in the niche" (group B), based on their first-trimester transvaginal ultrasound examination. Clinical outcomes based on gestational age at delivery, mode of delivery, blood loss at delivery, neonate weight and placental histopathologic condition were compared between the groups with the use of the Mann-Whitney U test. Myometrial thickness overlying the placenta was compared among all the patients who required hysterectomy and those who did not with the use of the Mann-Whitney U test. Myometrial thickness was also correlated with gestational age at delivery with the use of Spearman's correlation. Group A consisted of 6 patients; group B consisted of 11 patients. Gestational age at delivery was lower in group B (median, 34 weeks; range, 20-36 weeks) than in group A (median, 38 weeks; range, 37-39 weeks; P=.001). In group A, 5 patients were delivered via cesarean delivery (with normal placenta), and

  15. Abnormalities in the basement membrane structure promote basal keratinocytes in the epidermis of hypertrophic scars to adopt a proliferative phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shaowei; Sun, Yexiao; Geng, Zhijun; Ma, Kui; Sun, Xiaoyan; Fu, Xiaobing

    2016-05-01

    The majority of studies on scar formation have mainly focused on the dermis and little is known of the involvement of the epidermis. Previous research has demonstrated that the scar tissue-derived keratinocytes are different from normal cells at both the genetic and cell biological levels; however, the mechanisms responsible for the fundamental abnormalities in keratinocytes during scar development remain elusive. For this purpose, in this study, we used normal, wound edge and hypertrophic scar tissue to examine the morphological changes which occur during epidermal regeneration as part of the wound healing process and found that the histological structure of hypertrophic scar tissues differed from that of normal skin, with a significant increase in epidermal thickness. Notably, staining of the basement membrane (BM) appeared to be absent in the scar tissues. Moreover, immunofluorescence staining for cytokeratin (CK)10, CK14, CK5, CK19 and integrin-β1 indicated the differential expression of cell markers in the epidermal keratinocytes among the normal, wound edge and hypertrophic scar tissues, which corresponded with the altered BM structures. By using a panel of proteins associated with BM components, we validated our hypothesis that the BM plays a significant role in regulating the cell fate decision of epidermal keratinocytes during skin wound healing. Alterations in the structure of the BM promote basal keratinocytes to adopt a proliferative phenotype both in vivo and in vitro.

  16. Modeling cognition and disease using human glial chimeric mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldman, Steven A.; Nedergaard, Maiken; Windrem, Martha S.

    2015-01-01

    , oligodendrocytes as well. As a result, the recipient brains may become inexorably humanized with regards to their resident glial populations, yielding human glial chimeric mouse brains. These brains provide us a fundamentally new tool by which to assess the species-specific attributes of glia in modulating human...... for studying the human-specific contributions of glia to psychopathology, as well as to higher cognition. As such, the assessment of human glial chimeric mice may provide us new insight into the species-specific contributions of glia to human cognitive evolution, as well as to the pathogenesis of human...

  17. "Scars" connect classical and quantum theory

    CERN Multimedia

    Monteiro, T

    1990-01-01

    Chaotic systems are unstable and extremely sensitive to initial condititions. So far, scientists have been unable to demonstrate that the same kind of behaviour exists in quantum or microscopic systems. New connections have been discovered though between classical and quantum theory. One is the phenomena of 'scars' which cut through the wave function of a particle (1 page).

  18. Recombinant human endostatin reduces hypertrophic scar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Sixteen New Zealand white rabbits were used to establish HS models. Then, rabbit ears containing HS were randomly assigned to either the Endostar group or the control group. The changes of appearance and histology were evaluated using the naked eye, hematoxylin eosin staining, and a scar elevation index.

  19. 9 CFR 11.3 - Scar rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scar rule. 11.3 Section 11.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL... inflammation, and, other bilateral evidence of abuse indicative of soring including, but not limited to...

  20. Persistent scarring and dilated cardiomyopathy suggest incomplete regeneration of the apex resected neonatal mouse myocardium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ditte Caroline; Jensen, Charlotte Harken; Baun, Christina

    2016-01-01

    Heart damage in mammals is generally considered to result in scar formation, whereas zebrafish completely regenerate their hearts following an intermediate and reversible state of fibrosis after apex resection (AR). Recently, using the AR procedure, one-day-old mice were suggested to have full...... capacity for cardiac regeneration as well. In contrast, using the same mouse model others have shown that the regeneration process is incomplete and that scarring still remains 21days after AR. The present study tested the hypothesis that like in zebrafish, fibrosis in neonatal mammals could...... be an intermediate response before the onset of complete heart regeneration. Myocardial damage was performed by AR in postnatal day 1 C57BL/6 mice, and myocardial function and scarring assessed at day 180 using F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and histology, respectively. AR mice...

  1. Predisposing factors for renal scarring in children with urinary tract infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Beiraghdar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to determine the predisposing factors for renal scarring in children with urinary tract infection. In this prospective cohort study, 176 children with documented urinary tract infection were categorized into four groups: ≤1 year old, 1-2 years old, 2-7 years and 7-14 years old. Ultrasonography and Technetium-99 m-DMSA scan were used to detect the possible abnormalities. Infants under 12 months old presented as the most common group for renal scarring (27 cases, 52.9%, and vesicoureteral reflux (VUR was diagnosed in 29 cases (56.8%. Fifteen (41.67% children between the ages of one and two years had renal scar, and VUR was detected in half of the patients. In the third group, 36.3%, and in fourth group, 41.6% of the patients had renal scar. Also, 38.6% in group three and 50% in the final group had VUR. A co-incidental finding that was observed in this study was the high incidence of pseudohypoaldesteronism (PHA in our patients: in 39.2% of the children in group one, 22.2% in group two and 4% in group three. In group four however, none of the patients had PHA. Risk of scar formation with urinary tract infection (UTI was higher in the younger age group and in those with recurrent UTIs.

  2. Perioperative interstitial brachytherapy for recurrent keloid scars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rio, E.; Bardet, E.; Peuvrel, P.; Martinet, L.; Perrot, P.; Baraer, F.; Loirat, Y.; Sartre, J.Y.; Malard, O.; Ferron, C.; Dreno, B.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Evaluation of the results of perioperative interstitial brachytherapy with low dose-rate (L.D.R.) Ir-192 in the treatment of keloid scars. Patients and methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of 73 histologically confirmed keloids (from 58 patients) resistant to medico surgical treated by surgical excision plus early perioperative brachytherapy. All lesions were initially symptomatic. Local control was evaluated by clinical evaluation. Functional and cosmetic results were assessed in terms of patient responses to a self-administered questionnaire. Results: Median age was 28 years (range 13-71 years). Scars were located as follows: 37% on the face, 32% on the trunk or abdomen, 16% on the neck, and 15% on the arms or legs. The mean delay before loading was four hours (range, 1-6 h). The median dose was 20 Gy (range, 15-40 Gy). Sixty-four scars (from 53 patients) were evaluated. Local control was 86% (follow-up, 44.5 months; range, 14-150 months). All relapses occurred early within 2 years posttreatment. At 20 months, survival without recurrence was significantly lower when treated lengths were more than 6 cm long. The rate was 100% for treated scars below 4.5 cm in length, 95% (95% CI: 55-96) for those 4.5-6 cm long, and 75% (95% CI: 56-88) beyond 6 cm (p = 0.038). Of the 35 scars (28 patients) whose results were reassessed, six remained symptomatic and the esthetic results were considered to be good in 51% (18/35) and average in 37% (13/35) (median follow-up, 70 months; range, 16-181 months). Conclusion: Early perioperative L.D.R. brachytherapy delivering 20 Gy at 5 mm reduced the rate of recurrent keloids resistant to other treatments and gave good functional results. (authors)

  3. MR imaging findings in cesarean scar pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiangqun; Xu Yikai; Luo Xiaoqin

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To analyze MRI findings of cesarean scar pregnancy (CSP). Methods: The MR findings in 18 patients who were diagnosed as CSP by surgery from March 2010 to November 2011 were retrospectively analyzed, and comparison was made between the MRI findings and surgical results. Results: All Gestational sacs (18) were clearly detected by MRI. Among the 18 cases,gestational sac presented as cystic mass with smooth margin located within the scar of uterine wall at the lower anterior uterus in 16 cases. In 2 of the 16 cases, gestational sac was found within the myometrium, whereas in the remaining 14 cases, gestational sac was found partially within the myometrium with extension into the uterine cavity. The anterior wall of isthmus uteri became thinner. In the remaining 2 of the 18 cases, gestational sac presented as irregular, multilobolated mass, growing deep into the myometrium as well as into the uterine cavity. On T 2 WI, the mass showed heterogeneous signal intensity. A small amount of hemorrhage within the mass and uterine cavity could be seen on T 1 WI. An enhancing solid component with a heterogeneous mass could be seen. All gestational sacs in 18 cases were located at or adjacent to the previous cesarean scar. In the area of cesarean scar,the signal of the uterine wall was disconnected, with focal indentation or thinning and the previous cesarean scar exhibited hypointensity on both T 1 WI and T 2 WI. Conclusion: CSP has its unique findings on MRI, these specific features can provide useful information in the management of CSP. (authors)

  4. Implications of glial nitric oxyde in neurodegenerative diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Enrique eYuste

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO is a pleiotropic janus-faced molecule synthesized by nitric oxide synthases (NOS which plays a critical role in a number of physiological and pathological processes in humans. The physiological roles of NO depend on its local concentrations, as well as its availability and the nature of downstream target molecules. Its double-edged sword action has been linked to neurodegenerative disorders. Excessive NO production, as the evoked by inflammatory signals, has been identified as one of the major causative reasons for the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative diseases. Moreover, excessive NO synthesis under neuroinflammation leads to the formation of reactive nitrogen species and neuronal cell death. There is an intimate relation between microglial activation, NO and neuroinflammation in the human brain. The role of NO in neuroinflammation has been defined in animal models where this neurotransmitter can modulate the inflammatory process acting on key regulatory pathways, such as those associated with excitotoxicity processes induced by glutamate accumulation and microglial activation. Activated glia express inducible NOS and produce NO that triggers calcium mobilization from the endoplasmic reticulum, activating the release of vesicular glutamate from astroglial cells resulting in neuronal death. This change in microglia potentially contributes to the increased age-associated susceptibility and neurodegeneration. In the current review, information is provided about the role of NO, glial activation and age-related processes in the central nervous system (CNS that may be helpful in the isolation of new therapeutic targets for aging and neurodegenerative diseases.

  5. Endothelium in brain: Receptors, mitogenesis, and biosynthesis in glial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacCumber, M.W.; Ross, C.A.; Snyder, S.H.

    1990-01-01

    The authors have explored the cellular loci of endothelin (ET) actions and formation in the brain, using cerebellar mutant mice was well as primary and continuous cell cultures. A glial role is favored by several observations: (1) mutant mice lacking neuronal Purkinje cells display normal ET receptor binding and enhanced stimulation by ET of inositolphospholipid turnover; (ii) in weaver mice lacking neuronal granule cells, ET stimulation of inositolphospholipid turnover is not significantly diminished; (iii) C 6 glioma cells and primary cultures of cerebellar astroglia exhibit substantial ET receptor binding and ET-induced stimulation of inositolphospholipid turnover; (iv) ET promotes mitogenesis of C 6 glioma cells and primary cerebellar astroglia; and (v) primary cultures of cerebellar astroglia contain ET mRNA. ET also appears to have a neuronal role, since it stimulates inositolphospholipid turnover in primary cultures of cerebellar granule cells, and ET binding declines in granule cell-deficient mice. Thus, ET can be produced by glia and act upon both glia and neurons in a paracrine fashion

  6. Combination therapy in the management of atrophic acne scars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilpa Garg

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Atrophic acne scars are difficult to treat. The demand for less invasive but highly effective treatment for scars is growing. Objective: To assess the efficacy of combination therapy using subcision, microneedling and 15% trichloroacetic acid (TCA peel in the management of atrophic scars. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients with atrophic acne scars were graded using Goodman and Baron Qualitative grading. After subcision, dermaroller and 15% TCA peel were performed alternatively at 2-weeks interval for a total of 6 sessions of each. Grading of acne scar photographs was done pretreatment and 1 month after last procedure. Patients own evaluation of improvement was assessed. Results: Out of 16 patients with Grade 4 scars, 10 (62.5% patients improved to Grade 2 and 6 (37.5% patients improved to Grade 3 scars. Out of 22 patients with Grade 3 scars, 5 (22.7% patients were left with no scars, 2 (9.1% patients improved to Grade 1and 15 (68.2% patients improved to Grade 2. All 11 (100% patients with Grade 2 scars were left with no scars. There was high level of patient satisfaction. Conclusion: This combination has shown good results in treating not only Grade 2 but also severe Grade 4 and 3 scars.

  7. A Rat Excised Larynx Model of Vocal Fold Scar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welham, Nathan V.; Montequin, Douglas W.; Tateya, Ichiro; Tateya, Tomoko; Choi, Seong Hee; Bless, Diane M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To develop and evaluate a rat excised larynx model for the measurement of acoustic, aerodynamic, and vocal fold vibratory changes resulting from vocal fold scar. Method: Twenty-four 4-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to 1 of 4 experimental groups: chronic vocal fold scar, chronic vocal fold scar treated with 100-ng basic…

  8. Prevalence of scar contractures after burn : A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterwijk, Anouk M; Mouton, Leonora J; Schouten, Hennie; Disseldorp, Laurien M; van der Schans, Cees P.; Nieuwenhuis, Marianne K

    OBJECTIVE: Burn scar contractures are the pathological outcome of excessive scarring and ongoing scar contraction. Impairment of joint range of motion is a threat to performing activities in daily living. To direct treatment strategies to prevent and/or correct such contractures, insight into the

  9. Pulmonary scar carcinoma in South Africa | Jenkins | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Post-obstructive bronchiectasis and other changes secondary to cancer were considered not to represent scarring. Results. We identified 435 cases of primary lung cancer. In total, 95 patients (21.8%) had CT evidence of pulmonary scarring. Eighty-three of 85 patients (97.6%) had focal scarring in the same lobe as the ...

  10. Glial cell biology in the Great Lakes region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, Douglas L; Skoff, Robert P

    2016-03-31

    We report on the tenth bi-annual Great Lakes Glial meeting, held in Traverse City, Michigan, USA, September 27-29 2015. The GLG meeting is a small conference that focuses on current research in glial cell biology. The array of functions that glial cells (astrocytes, microglia, oligodendrocytes, Schwann cells) play in health and disease is constantly increasing. Despite this diversity, GLG meetings bring together scientists with common interests, leading to a better understanding of these cells. This year's meeting included two keynote speakers who presented talks on the regulation of CNS myelination and the consequences of stress on Schwann cell biology. Twenty-two other talks were presented along with two poster sessions. Sessions covered recent findings in the areas of microglial and astrocyte activation; age-dependent changes to glial cells, Schwann cell development and pathology, and the role of stem cells in glioma and neural regeneration.

  11. Complex and differential glial responses in Alzheimer's disease and ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, José J; Butt, Arthur M; Gardenal, Emanuela; Parpura, Vladimir; Verkhratsky, Alexei

    2016-01-01

    Glial cells and their association with neurones are fundamental for brain function. The emergence of complex neurone-glial networks assures rapid information transfer, creating a sophisticated circuitry where both types of neural cells work in concert, serving different activities. All glial cells, represented by astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, microglia and NG2-glia, are essential for brain homeostasis and defence. Thus, glia are key not only for normal central nervous system (CNS) function, but also to its dysfunction, being directly associated with all forms of neuropathological processes. Therefore, the progression and outcome of neurological and neurodegenerative diseases depend on glial reactions. In this review, we provide a concise account of recent data obtained from both human material and animal models demonstrating the pathological involvement of glia in neurodegenerative processes, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), as well as physiological ageing.

  12. Glial Cells: The Other Cells of the Nervous System

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    nervous system and that glial cells were a mere glue holding neurons in place, Schleich ... fact that these cells did not show any electrical activity like neurons or muscles ... membrane potential higher than that of the surrounding neu- rons.

  13. Glial heterotopia of the orbit: a rare cause of proptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhti, Souad; Terkmani, Fella; Tighilt, Nabila; Benmouma, Youcef; Boumehdi, Nazim; Djennas, Mohamed

    2016-11-01

    Glial heterotopia is defined as presence of normal glial tissue in an unusual location without connection with the brain. It is a very rare clinical entity occuring mostly in the head and neck region which is generally present at birth. Orbital location is very rare. We report a case of a 4-month-old girl presenting congenital proptosis with progressive increase. CT scan revealed an intraorbital mass without bony defect. The patient was operated, and resection was subtotal. Histologically, the tumor was composed of glial tissue with plexus choroid and pathologist concluded glial heterotopia. The child is under constant medical supervision because recurrences can be observed after incomplete resection; she had no new clinical signs at 18 months follow-up.

  14. Quantitation of glial fibrillary acidic protein in human brain tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, S; Bock, E; Warecka, K

    1980-01-01

    The glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFA) content of 58 human brain tumours was determined by quantitative immunoelectrophoresis, using monospecific antibody against GFA. Astrocytomas, glioblastomas, oligodendrogliomas, spongioblastomas, ependymomas and medulloblastomas contained relatively high...

  15. Glial Cells: The Other Cells of the Nervous System

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    secrete growth factors that act on neurons and other glial cells. from activated microglia. .... Microglia in Alzheimer's disease: Alzheimer's disease is charac- terized by deposition of ... trigger the recruitment ofT lymphocytes into the inflammatory.

  16. Glial hemichannels and their involvement in aging and neurodegenerative diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orellana, Juan A; von Bernhardi, Rommy; Giaume, Christian; Sáez, Juan C

    2012-01-26

    During the last two decades, it became increasingly evident that glial cells accomplish a more important role in brain function than previously thought. Glial cells express pannexins and connexins, which are member subunits of two protein families that form membrane channels termed hemichannels. These channels communicate intra- and extracellular compartments and allow the release of autocrine/paracrine signaling molecules [e.g., adenosine triphosphate (ATP), glutamate, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, and prostaglandin E2] to the extracellular milieu, as well as the uptake of small molecules (e.g., glucose). An increasing body of evidence has situated glial hemichannels as potential regulators of the beginning and maintenance of homeostatic imbalances observed in diverse brain diseases. Here, we review and discuss the current evidence about the possible role of glial hemichannels on neurodegenerative diseases. A subthreshold pathological threatening condition leads to microglial activation, which keeps active defense and restores the normal function of the central nervous system. However, if the stimulus is deleterious, microglial cells and the endothelium become overactivated, both releasing bioactive molecules (e.g., glutamate, cytokines, prostaglandins, and ATP), which increase the activity of glial hemichannels, reducing the astroglial neuroprotective functions, and further reducing neuronal viability. Because ATP and glutamate are released via glial hemichannels in neurodegenerative conditions, it is expected that they contribute to neurotoxicity. More importantly, toxic molecules released via glial hemichannels could increase the Ca2+ entry in neurons also via neuronal hemichannels, leading to neuronal death. Therefore, blockade of hemichannels expressed by glial cells and/or neurons during neuroinflammation might prevent neurodegeneration.

  17. Combination laser treatment for immediate post-surgical scars: a retrospective analysis of 33 immature scars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yongsoo; Kim, Wooram

    2017-07-01

    The application of laser treatments beginning on the day of stitch removal has been demonstrated to improve scar quality. However, there are few guidelines for the treatment of immature scars (ISs), which are defined as "scars whose features are not yet expressed." The purpose of this study was to extract information about early combination laser treatment (CLT) beyond what is currently known by analyzing 33 pairs of pre-treatment and post-treatment photographs of ISs. Two hundred fifty medical records of patients with scars were reviewed, and 33 scars were included in the study. The included scars were treated with vascular lasers (585 or 532 nm) followed by 1550-nm fractional lasers from May 2014 to July 2015 (fewer than 52 days after stitch removal, Fitzpatrick's skin types III-IV, mean age = 16.0 years). Blinded evaluators (one plastic surgeon and two dermatologists) evaluated the pre-treatment and post-treatment photographs. The pre-treatment photographs were scored on a spectrum from "0," when no difference with the surrounding unaffected skin was observed, to "100," when the worst scarring was present. The pre-treatment and post-treatment photographs were compared, and the results were graded on a spectrum from 0, when no difference between the pre-treatment and post-treatment photographs was observed, to 100, when no difference was observed between the post-treatment skin and the surrounding unaffected skin. Statistical analyses were performed with PASW 17.0, SPSS Korea, Seoul, Korea (p laser groups. Patient age and Wtd score were negatively correlated, and a significant difference was observed in the Wtd scores between the age groups (≥15 and lasers are equally effective for CLT of ISs.

  18. Current options for the treatment of pathological scarring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poetschke, Julian; Gauglitz, Gerd G

    2016-05-01

    Scarring is the consequence of surgery, trauma or different skin diseases. Apart from fresh, immature scars,that transform into mature scars over the course of would healing and that do not require further treatment,linear hypertrophic scars, widespread hypertrophic scars, keloids and atrophic scars exist. Symptoms like pruritusand pain, stigmatization as well as functional and aesthetic impairments that are very disturbing for the affected patients can bethe basis for the desire for treatment. Today, a multitude of options for the treatment and prevention of scars exists. Topical agents based on silicone or onion extract, intralesional injections of cristalline glucocorticoids (oftentimes in combinationwith cryotherapy) or 5-Fluorouracil as well as ablative and nonablative laser treatment are used. Current guidelines summarize the multitude of available treatment options and the currently available datafor the treating physicians, allowing them to make clear therapy recommendations for every single scar type. Relieving patients of their discomfort and doing their aesthetic demands justice is thus possible. Apart from scar prevention becoming more and more important, the increased use of modernlaser treatment options constitutes a key point in clinical scar treatment. At the same time the attention is turned to evaluating current therapeutic options with the help of contemporary study designs so as to graduallyimprove the level of evidence in scar treatment. © 2016 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Umbilical scarring in hatchling American alligators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiebe, J.J.; Sepulveda, M.S.; Buckland, J.E.; Anderson, S.R.; Gross, T.S.

    2004-01-01

    Umbilical scarring is the presence of excess scar tissue deposited between abdominal dermal layers at the site of yolk sac absorption in hatchling American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis). The presence of this dermal condition plays a key evaluatory role in the overall quality and subsequent value for various commercial leather products. Despite the prevalent nature of this condition, currently the industry has no standardized protocols for its quantification. The objectives of this study were to examine the relationship between hatchling weight and age and incidence of umbilical scarring and to develop a quantifiable and reproducible technique to measure this dermal condition in hatchling American alligators. Thirty eggs from each of nine clutches were incubated in two separate incubators at different facilities and hatchling umbilical scarring was measured at 2 and 10 days of age using digital calipers. Umbilical area was calculated by multiplying umbilical length times umbilical width. There was a significant effect of both age and clutch on umbilical area (overall decline of 64%) by 10 days post-hatch. However, only five of the nine clutches utilized expressed a noticeable decline in the size of this dermal condition (range 67-74%). We had hypothesized that larger hatchlings would have larger umbilical areas and a slower rate of improvement in this condition during the first few days post-hatch. The differences in umbilical area and percent decline with age across clutches, however, were not associated with differences in initial hatchling weights. Within clutches and time periods, hatchling weight had no significant effect on the size and/or rate of decline of this condition. ?? 2004 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Overcoming scarring in the urethra: Challenges for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simsek, Abdulmuttalip; Aldamanhori, Reem; Chapple, Christopher R; MacNeil, Sheila

    2018-04-01

    Urethral stricture disease is increasingly common occurring in about 1% of males over the age of 55. The stricture tissue is rich in myofibroblasts and multi-nucleated giant cells which are thought to be related to stricture formation and collagen synthesis. An increase in collagen is associated with the loss of the normal vasculature of the normal urethra. The actual incidence differs based on worldwide populations, geography, and income. The stricture aetiology, location, length and patient's age and comorbidity are important in deciding the course of treatment. In this review we aim to summarise the existing knowledge of the aetiology of urethral strictures, review current treatment regimens, and present the challenges of using tissue-engineered buccal mucosa (TEBM) to repair scarring of the urethra. In asking this question we are also mindful that recurrent fibrosis occurs in other tissues-how can we learn from these other pathologies?

  1. The Efficacy of a Silicone Sheet in Postoperative Scar Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Sam; Hong, Joon Pio; Choi, Jong Woo; Seo, Dong Kyo; Lee, Eun Sook; Lee, Ho Seong

    2016-09-01

    Silicone gel sheeting has been introduced to prevent scarring, but objective evidence for its usefulness in scar healing is limited. Therefore, the authors' objective was to examine the effectiveness of silicone gel sheeting by randomly applying it to only unilateral scars from a bilateral hallux valgus surgery with symmetrical closure. In a prospective randomized, blinded, intraindividual comparison study, the silicone gel sheeting was applied to 1 foot of a hallux valgus incision scar (an experiment group) for 12 weeks upon removal of the stitches, whereas the symmetrical scar from the other foot was left untreated (a control group). The scars were evaluated at 4 and 12 weeks after the silicon sheet application. The Vancouver Scar Scale was used to measure the vascularity, pigmentation, pliability, height, and length of the scars. Adverse effects were also evaluated, and they included pain, itchiness, rash, erythema, and skin softening. At weeks 4 and 12, the experiment group scored significantly better on the Vancouver Scar Scale in all items, except length (P sheet does not cause adverse effects (P sheet application did show a significant improvement in prevention of postoperative scarring.

  2. Sonographic evaluation of surgical repair of uterine cesarean scar defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomorski, Michal; Fuchs, Tomasz; Rosner-Tenerowicz, Anna; Zimmer, Mariusz

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the clinical outcomes of surgical repair of uterine cesarean scar defects with sonography (US). Seven nonpregnant women with history of cesarean section and a large uterine scar defect were enrolled. The surgical repair was performed by minilaparotomy. The US assessment of the uterine scar was performed using a standardized approach at baseline, then at a first visit 2-3 days following the surgical intervention (V1) and at a follow-up visit 3 months later (V2). Residual myometrial thickness (RMT), width, and depth of the scar defect were measured. The mean RMT increased significantly from 1.9 mm at baseline to 8.8 mm at V1 and 8.0 mm at V2. No intraoperative complications were observed. Postmenstrual spotting and abdominal pain reported preoperatively resolved after the operation. A surgical repair procedure for an incompletely healed uterine cesarean scar is effective in increasing RMT thickness, decreasing the depth of the scar, and reducing symptoms related to the cesarean section scar defect. Further studies on post-repair pregnancy outcomes are required to evaluate whether the procedure affects the rate of cesarean scar pregnancy, morbidly adherent placenta, and/or uterine scar dehiscence and rupture. The repair of a cesarean scar defect is recommended only for symptomatic women. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Ultrasound 45:455-460, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Glial Heterotopia of the orbit: A rare presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Glial heterotopias are rare, benign, congenital, midline, non-teratomatous extracranial glial tissue. They may masquerade as encephalocoele or dermoid cyst and mostly present in nose. Herein, we present an unusual case of glial heterotopia of the orbit with unilateral blindness. Case presentation A 6 year-old-boy presented with a progressive painless mass over the nose and medial aspect of the left eye noticed since birth. On examination, the globe was displaced laterally by a firm, regular, mobile, non-pulsatile and non-tender medial mass. The affected eye had profound loss of vision. Computed tomography scan showed a large hypodense mass in the extraconal space with no intracranial connectivity and bony erosion. The child underwent total surgical excision of the mass and histopathological examination confirmed glial heterotopia of the orbit. Conclusion Though the incidence of this condition is rare, the need of appropriate diagnosis and management of such mass to prevent the visual and cosmetic deterioration is warranted. To our knowledge this is the first reported case of Glial heterotopia of orbit causing unilateral blindness. PMID:22088230

  4. Glial Heterotopia of the orbit: A rare presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sitaula Ranju

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glial heterotopias are rare, benign, congenital, midline, non-teratomatous extracranial glial tissue. They may masquerade as encephalocoele or dermoid cyst and mostly present in nose. Herein, we present an unusual case of glial heterotopia of the orbit with unilateral blindness. Case presentation A 6 year-old-boy presented with a progressive painless mass over the nose and medial aspect of the left eye noticed since birth. On examination, the globe was displaced laterally by a firm, regular, mobile, non-pulsatile and non-tender medial mass. The affected eye had profound loss of vision. Computed tomography scan showed a large hypodense mass in the extraconal space with no intracranial connectivity and bony erosion. The child underwent total surgical excision of the mass and histopathological examination confirmed glial heterotopia of the orbit. Conclusion Though the incidence of this condition is rare, the need of appropriate diagnosis and management of such mass to prevent the visual and cosmetic deterioration is warranted. To our knowledge this is the first reported case of Glial heterotopia of orbit causing unilateral blindness.

  5. The Purinergic System and Glial Cells: Emerging Costars in Nociception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Magni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is now well established that glial cells not only provide mechanical and trophic support to neurons but can directly contribute to neurotransmission, for example, by release and uptake of neurotransmitters and by secreting pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators. This has greatly changed our attitude towards acute and chronic disorders, paving the way for new therapeutic approaches targeting activated glial cells to indirectly modulate and/or restore neuronal functions. A deeper understanding of the molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways involved in neuron-to-glia and glia-to-glia communication that can be pharmacologically targeted is therefore a mandatory step toward the success of this new healing strategy. This holds true also in the field of pain transmission, where the key involvement of astrocytes and microglia in the central nervous system and satellite glial cells in peripheral ganglia has been clearly demonstrated, and literally hundreds of signaling molecules have been identified. Here, we shall focus on one emerging signaling system involved in the cross talk between neurons and glial cells, the purinergic system, consisting of extracellular nucleotides and nucleosides and their membrane receptors. Specifically, we shall summarize existing evidence of novel “druggable” glial purinergic targets, which could help in the development of innovative analgesic approaches to chronic pain states.

  6. Scar formation in mice deafened with kanamycin and furosemide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zak, Magdalena; van der Linden, Cynthia A; Bezdjian, Aren; Hendriksen, Ferry G; Klis, Sjaak F L; Grolman, Wilko

    In mammals, hair cell loss is irreversible and leads to hearing loss. To develop and test the functioning of different strategies aiming at hair cell regeneration, animal models of sensorineural hearing loss are essential. Although cochleae of these animals should lack hair cells, supporting cells

  7. Pathway analyses implicate glial cells in schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laramie E Duncan

    Full Text Available The quest to understand the neurobiology of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder is ongoing with multiple lines of evidence indicating abnormalities of glia, mitochondria, and glutamate in both disorders. Despite high heritability estimates of 81% for schizophrenia and 75% for bipolar disorder, compelling links between findings from neurobiological studies, and findings from large-scale genetic analyses, are only beginning to emerge.Ten publically available gene sets (pathways related to glia, mitochondria, and glutamate were tested for association to schizophrenia and bipolar disorder using MAGENTA as the primary analysis method. To determine the robustness of associations, secondary analyses were performed with: ALIGATOR, INRICH, and Set Screen. Data from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC were used for all analyses. There were 1,068,286 SNP-level p-values for schizophrenia (9,394 cases/12,462 controls, and 2,088,878 SNP-level p-values for bipolar disorder (7,481 cases/9,250 controls.The Glia-Oligodendrocyte pathway was associated with schizophrenia, after correction for multiple tests, according to primary analysis (MAGENTA p = 0.0005, 75% requirement for individual gene significance and also achieved nominal levels of significance with INRICH (p = 0.0057 and ALIGATOR (p = 0.022. For bipolar disorder, Set Screen yielded nominally and method-wide significant associations to all three glial pathways, with strongest association to the Glia-Astrocyte pathway (p = 0.002.Consistent with findings of white matter abnormalities in schizophrenia by other methods of study, the Glia-Oligodendrocyte pathway was associated with schizophrenia in our genomic study. These findings suggest that the abnormalities of myelination observed in schizophrenia are at least in part due to inherited factors, contrasted with the alternative of purely environmental causes (e.g. medication effects or lifestyle. While not the primary purpose of our study

  8. Cesarean Scar Ectopic Pregnancy: Laparoscopic Resection and Total Scar Dehiscence Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahgoub, Sara; Gabriele, Victor; Faller, Emilie; Langer, Bruno; Wattiez, Arnaud; Lecointre, Lise; Akladios, Cherif

    2018-02-01

    To illustrate a laparoscopic technique for the resection of cesarean scar ectopic pregnancy, associated with isthmocele repair. Case report (Canadian Task Force classification III). A tertiary referral center in Strasbourg, France. Cesarean scar pregnancy is a rare form of ectopic pregnancy. The major risk of this type of pregnancy is the early uterine rupture with massive, sometimes life-threatening, bleeding. Thus, active management of these pregnancies starting immediately after diagnosis is crucial. Therapeutic options can be medical, surgical, or a combination. Numerous case reports or case series can be found in the literature, but there are few clinical studies, which are difficult to conduct because of case rarity and inconclusiveness. A 2016 meta-analysis that included 194 articles published between 1978 and 2014 (126 case reports, 45 cases series, and 23 clinical studies) concluded that hysteroscopy or laparoscopic hysterotomy seems to be the best first-line approach to treating cesarean scar ectopic pregnancy, with uterine artery embolization reserved for significant bleeding and/or a high suspicion index for arteriovenous malformation [1]. There is no consensus on the treatment of reference, however. The case involves a 38-year-old primiparous women who underwent a cesarean section delivery in 2010 and who was diagnosed by ultrasound scan at 7 weeks gestation with cesarean scar ectopic pregnancy, which was confirmed by pelvic magnetic resonance imaging. The patient initially received medical treatment with 2 intramuscular injections of methotrexate and one local intragestational injection of KCl. Her initial human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) level was 82 000 IU/L. Rigorous weekly biological and ultrasound monitoring revealed an involution of the ectopic pregnancy associated with decreasing hCG. No bleeding or infectious complications occurred during this period. After 10 weeks of monitoring, her hCG had stabilized at 300 IU/L, and a residual image

  9. Glial progenitor cell-based treatment of the childhood leukodystrophies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osório, M. Joana; Goldman, Steven A.

    2016-01-01

    stem cell-derived human neural or glial progenitor cells may comprise a promising strategy for both structural remyelination and metabolic rescue. A broad variety of pediatric white matter disorders, including the primary hypomyelinating disorders, the lysosomal storage disorders, and the broader group...... genetic editing of pluripotent stem cells. Yet these challenges notwithstanding, the promise of glial progenitor cell-based treatment of the childhood myelin disorders offers hope to the many victims of this otherwise largely untreatable class of disease....... and astrocytes are the major affected cell populations, and are either structurally impaired or metabolically compromised through cell-intrinsic pathology, or are the victims of mis-accumulated toxic byproducts of metabolic derangement. In either case, glial cell replacement using implanted tissue or pluripotent...

  10. A Case of Nasal Glial Heterotopia in an Adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Hagiwara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a rare case of nasal glial heterotopia in an adult. After the surgery, frontal lobe cerebral hemorrhage developed. A 58-year-old man had unilateral nasal obstruction that progressed for one year. He had been treated for hypertension, chronic heart failure, and cerebral infarction with aspirin and warfarin. A computed tomography scan showed that the tumor occupied the right nasal cavity and the sinuses with small defect in the cribriform plate. The tumor was removed totally with endoscopy. After the operation, the patient developed convulsions and frontal lobe cerebral hemorrhage. The hemorrhage site was located near a defect in the cribriform plate. Nasal glial heterotopia is a rare developmental abnormality, particularly rare in adult. Only few cases were reported. We could not find any report of adult nasal glial heterotopias that developed cerebral hemorrhage as a complication of the surgery.

  11. Microneedle physical contact as a therapeutic for abnormal scars

    OpenAIRE

    Yeo, David C.; Balmayor, Elizabeth R.; Schantz, Jan-Thorsten; Xu, Chenjie

    2017-01-01

    Background Abnormal (keloid and hypertrophic) scars are a significant affliction with no satisfactory single modality therapy to-date. Available options are often ineffective, painful, potentially hazardous, and require healthcare personnel involvement. Herein a self-administered microneedle device based on drug-free physical contact for inhibiting abnormal scars is reported. Its therapeutic activity through microneedle contact eliminates hazards associated with toxic anti-scarring drugs whil...

  12. Giant Glial Cell: New Insight Through Mechanism-Based Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postnov, D. E.; Ryazanova, L. S.; Brazhe, Nadezda

    2008-01-01

    The paper describes a detailed mechanism-based model of a tripartite synapse consisting of P- and R-neurons together with a giant glial cell in the ganglia of the medical leech (Hirudo medicinalis), which is a useful object for experimental studies in situ. We describe the two main pathways...... of the glial cell activation: (1) via IP3 production and Ca2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum and (2) via increase of the extracellular potassium concentration, glia depolarization, and opening of voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels. We suggest that the second pathway is the more significant...

  13. Scarred resonances and steady probability distribution in a chaotic microcavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Soo-Young; Rim, Sunghwan; Kim, Chil-Min; Ryu, Jung-Wan; Kwon, Tae-Yoon

    2005-01-01

    We investigate scarred resonances of a stadium-shaped chaotic microcavity. It is shown that two components with different chirality of the scarring pattern are slightly rotated in opposite ways from the underlying unstable periodic orbit, when the incident angles of the scarring pattern are close to the critical angle for total internal reflection. In addition, the correspondence of emission pattern with the scarring pattern disappears when the incident angles are much larger than the critical angle. The steady probability distribution gives a consistent explanation about these interesting phenomena and makes it possible to expect the emission pattern in the latter case

  14. NEW MOLECULAR MEDICINE-BASED SCAR MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arno, Anna I; Gauglitz, Gerd G; Barret, Juan P; Jeschke, Marc G

    2014-01-01

    Keloids and hypertrophic scars are prevalent disabling conditions with still suboptimal treatments. Basic science and molecular-based medicine research has contributed to unravel new bench-to-bedside scar therapies, and to dissect the complex signaling pathways involved. Peptides such as transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) superfamily, with SMADs, Ski, SnoN, Fussels, endoglin, DS-Sily, Cav-1p, AZX100, thymosin-β4 and other related molecules may emerge as targets to prevent and treat keloids and hypertrophic scars. The aim of this review is to describe the basic complexity of these new molecular scar management strategies, and point out new fibrosis research lines. PMID:24438742

  15. Abnormal pigmentation within cutaneous scars: A complication of wound healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Chadwick

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abnormally pigmented scars are an undesirable consequence of cutaneous wound healing and are a complication every single individual worldwide is at risk of. They present a challenge for clinicians, as there are currently no definitive treatment options available, and render scars much more noticeable making them highly distressing for patients. Despite extensive research into both wound healing and the pigment cell, there remains a scarcity of knowledge surrounding the repigmentation of cutaneous scars. Pigment production is complex and under the control of many extrinsic and intrinsic factors and patterns of scar repigmentation are unpredictable. This article gives an overview of human skin pigmentation, repigmentation following wounding and current treatment options.

  16. Lipid metabolism in myelinating glial cells: lessons from human inherited disorders and mouse models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrast, Roman; Saher, Gesine; Nave, Klaus-Armin; Verheijen, Mark H G

    2011-03-01

    The integrity of central and peripheral nervous system myelin is affected in numerous lipid metabolism disorders. This vulnerability was so far mostly attributed to the extraordinarily high level of lipid synthesis that is required for the formation of myelin, and to the relative autonomy in lipid synthesis of myelinating glial cells because of blood barriers shielding the nervous system from circulating lipids. Recent insights from analysis of inherited lipid disorders, especially those with prevailing lipid depletion and from mouse models with glia-specific disruption of lipid metabolism, shed new light on this issue. The particular lipid composition of myelin, the transport of lipid-associated myelin proteins, and the necessity for timely assembly of the myelin sheath all contribute to the observed vulnerability of myelin to perturbed lipid metabolism. Furthermore, the uptake of external lipids may also play a role in the formation of myelin membranes. In addition to an improved understanding of basic myelin biology, these data provide a foundation for future therapeutic interventions aiming at preserving glial cell integrity in metabolic disorders.

  17. Reliable scar scoring system to assess photographs of burn patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mecott, Gabriel A; Finnerty, Celeste C; Herndon, David N; Al-Mousawi, Ahmed M; Branski, Ludwik K; Hegde, Sachin; Kraft, Robert; Williams, Felicia N; Maldonado, Susana A; Rivero, Haidy G; Rodriguez-Escobar, Noe; Jeschke, Marc G

    2015-12-01

    Several scar-scoring scales exist to clinically monitor burn scar development and maturation. Although scoring scars through direct clinical examination is ideal, scars must sometimes be scored from photographs. No scar scale currently exists for the latter purpose. We modified a previously described scar scale (Yeong et al., J Burn Care Rehabil 1997) and tested the reliability of this new scale in assessing burn scars from photographs. The new scale consisted of three parameters as follows: scar height, surface appearance, and color mismatch. Each parameter was assigned a score of 1 (best) to 4 (worst), generating a total score of 3-12. Five physicians with burns training scored 120 representative photographs using the original and modified scales. Reliability was analyzed using coefficient of agreement, Cronbach alpha, intraclass correlation coefficient, variance, and coefficient of variance. Analysis of variance was performed using the Kruskal-Wallis test. Color mismatch and scar height scores were validated by analyzing actual height and color differences. The intraclass correlation coefficient, the coefficient of agreement, and Cronbach alpha were higher for the modified scale than those of the original scale. The original scale produced more variance than that in the modified scale. Subanalysis demonstrated that, for all categories, the modified scale had greater correlation and reliability than the original scale. The correlation between color mismatch scores and actual color differences was 0.84 and between scar height scores and actual height was 0.81. The modified scar scale is a simple, reliable, and useful scale for evaluating photographs of burn patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Progenitor cell-based treatment of glial disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldman, Steven A

    2017-01-01

    -based neurodegenerative conditions may now be compelling targets for cell-based therapy. As such, glial cell-based therapies may offer potential benefit to a broader range of diseases than ever before contemplated, including disorders such as Huntington's disease and the motor neuron degeneration of amyotrophic lateral...

  19. Glial Cells - The Key Elements of Alzheimer's Disease

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Džamba, Dávid; Harantová, Lenka; Butenko, Olena; Anděrová, Miroslava

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 8 (2016), s. 894-911 ISSN 1567-2050 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP304/12/G069 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : alzheimer 's disease * astrocytes * glial cells Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.952, year: 2016

  20. A series of parapharyngeal glial heterotopia mimicking lymphatic malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haloob, Nora; Pepper, Christopher; Hartley, Benjamin

    2015-12-01

    Otolaryngologists will most frequently encounter extra-cranial glial tissue within the nasal cavity, where it is known as a 'nasal glioma', and may communicate with the dura. However, glial tissue can also present extra-nasally in the form of a neck mass with no intracranial connection. In these rare cases, they can present soon after birth as an enlarging neck mass, causing compressive symptoms with airway obstruction and feeding difficulties. In this way, it is often initially misdiagnosed as a more common lesion such as a lymphatic malformation, teratoma, branchial anomaly or vascular malformation. As with many congenital head and neck masses, offering the most the appropriate management relies heavily on radiological imaging and, where possible, histopathology from a diagnostic biopsy. Once the diagnosis of extra-nasal glial heterotopia has been confirmed, the gold standard management is complete surgical excision. We review three cases of extra-nasal glial heterotopia presenting to our institution over an eleven year period as a large neck mass, which mimicked other congenital neck lumps, and discuss them in the context of those in the literature. We highlight how their clinical and radiological features can easily be confused with lymphatic malformations, and the potential implications of misdiagnosis. Raising awareness of this diagnostic confusion will highlight the need for management of these cases within an appropriate paediatric multidisciplinary setting. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Rapid method for culturing embryonic neuron-glial cell cocultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenningsen, Åsa Fex; Shan, Wei-Song; Colman, David R

    2003-01-01

    neurons is seen after 3 weeks (2 weeks in ascorbic acid), suggesting that basal lamina production is important even for glial ensheathment in the enteric nervous system. No overgrowth of fibroblasts or other nonneuronal cells was noted in any cultures, and myelination of the peripheral nervous system...

  2. Peripheral Glial Cells in the Development of Diabetic Neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Nádia Pereira; Vægter, Christian Bjerggaard; Pallesen, Lone Tjener

    2018-01-01

    The global prevalence of diabetes is rapidly increasing, affecting more than half a billion individuals within the next few years. As diabetes negatively affects several physiological systems, this dramatic increase represents not only impaired quality of life on the individual level but also a huge socioeconomic challenge. One of the physiological consequences affecting up to half of diabetic patients is the progressive deterioration of the peripheral nervous system, resulting in spontaneous pain and eventually loss of sensory function, motor weakness, and organ dysfunctions. Despite intense research on the consequences of hyperglycemia on nerve functions, the biological mechanisms underlying diabetic neuropathy are still largely unknown, and treatment options lacking. Research has mainly focused directly on the neuronal component, presumably from the perspective that this is the functional signal-transmitting unit of the nerve. However, it is noteworthy that each single peripheral sensory neuron is intimately associated with numerous glial cells; the neuronal soma is completely enclosed by satellite glial cells and the length of the longest axons covered by at least 1,000 Schwann cells. The glial cells are vital for the neuron, but very little is still known about these cells in general and especially how they respond to diabetes in terms of altered neuronal support. We will discuss current knowledge of peripheral glial cells and argue that increased research in these cells is imperative for a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying diabetic neuropathy. PMID:29770116

  3. Hypertrophic Scars: Are Vitamins and Inflammatory Biomarkers Related with the Pathophysiology of Wound Healing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia-Sá, Inês; Serrão, Paula; Marques, Marisa; Vieira-Coelho, Maria A

    2017-12-01

    Hypertrophic scars are a consequence of wound healing. The objective of the present study is to evaluate vitamin D and inflammatory biomarker plasma levels during wound healing. A prospective study was performed in patients (n = 63) submitted to body contouring surgery. Blood samples were collected before (t 0 ) and 5 days after surgery (t 5 ). Blood cell count, protein inflammatory biomarkers, and circulating plasma levels of 25(OH)D, vitamin A and vitamin E were quantified. Six months after surgery, scars were evaluated and classified as normal or hypertrophic. At the end of the study, 73% of the patients developed a normal scar (control group, n = 46) and 27% of the patients presented hypertrophic scars (HT group, n = 17). The patients in the HT group presented higher eosinophil (0.145 × 10 9 /L vs. 0.104 × 10 9 /L, p = 0.028) and basophil count (0.031 × 10 9 /L vs. 0.22 × 10 9 /L, p = 0.049) and C-reactive protein levels (6.12 mg/L vs. 2.30 mg/L, p = 0.015) in t 0 than the patients in the control group. At t 5 , the patients in the HT group showed a decrease in neutrophil (3.144 × 10 9/L vs. 4.03 × 10 9 /L, p = 0.031) and an increase in basophil (0.024 × 10 9 /L vs. 0.015 × 10 9 /L, p = 0.005) and lymphocyte count (1.836 × 10 9 /L vs. 1.557 × 10 9 /L; p = 0.028). Before surgery, vitamin D plasma levels were found to be decreased by almost 50% (23.52 ng/mL vs. 15.46 ng/mL, p = 0.031) in the patients who developed hypertrophic scars. Thirty-one percent of the patients submitted to bariatric surgery had more hypertrophic scars, versus 24% of the patients with no previous bariatric surgery. There is a different systemic inflammatory profile response in the patients during the formation of hypertrophic scars. Vitamin D plasma levels are marked reduced in these patients. Considering the powerful anti-inflammatory effect of vitamin D, these findings could be related.

  4. Distinct types of glial cells populate the Drosophila antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhaveri Dhanisha

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The development of nervous systems involves reciprocal interactions between neurons and glia. In the Drosophila olfactory system, peripheral glial cells arise from sensory lineages specified by the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, Atonal. These glia wrap around the developing olfactory axons early during development and pattern the three distinct fascicles as they exit the antenna. In the moth Manduca sexta, an additional set of central glia migrate to the base of the antennal nerve where axons sort to their glomerular targets. In this work, we have investigated whether similar types of cells exist in the Drosophila antenna. Results We have used different P(Gal4 lines to drive Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP in distinct populations of cells within the Drosophila antenna. Mz317::GFP, a marker for cell body and perineural glia, labels the majority of peripheral glia. An additional ~30 glial cells detected by GH146::GFP do not derive from any of the sensory lineages and appear to migrate into the antenna from the brain. Their appearance in the third antennal segment is regulated by normal function of the Epidermal Growth Factor receptor and small GTPases. We denote these distinct populations of cells as Mz317-glia and GH146-glia respectively. In the adult, processes of GH146-glial cells ensheath the olfactory receptor neurons directly, while those of the Mz317-glia form a peripheral layer. Ablation of GH146-glia does not result in any significant effects on the patterning of the olfactory receptor axons. Conclusion We have demonstrated the presence of at least two distinct populations of glial cells within the Drosophila antenna. GH146-glial cells originate in the brain and migrate to the antenna along the newly formed olfactory axons. The number of cells populating the third segment of the antenna is regulated by signaling through the Epidermal Growth Factor receptor. These glia share several features of the sorting

  5. External charring and fire scarring in three western conifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. K. Sutherland; Josh Farella; David K Wright; Ian Hyp; K. T. Smith; Donald A. Falk; Estelle Arbellay; Markus Stoffel

    2013-01-01

    Fires that injure but do not kill trees cause scars used as proxies for the reconstruction of wildfire history. Understanding about these wildfires - and their relationship to vegetation dynamics and climate - has profoundly affected wildfire and land management policy globally. To better understand scarring in the context of wildfire behavior, landscape and biological...

  6. Macroanatomy of compartmentalization in fire scars of three western conifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith; Elaine Sutherland; Estelle Arbellay; Markus Stoffel; Donald. Falk

    2013-01-01

    Fire scars are visible evidence of compartmentalization and closure processes that contribute to tree survival after fire injury. Preliminary observations of dissected fire scars from trees injured within the last decade showed centripetal development of wound-initiated discoloration (WID) through 2-3 decades of former sapwood in Larix occidentalis and Pseudotsuga...

  7. Fractional CO2 laser resurfacing for atrophic acne scars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedelund, Lene; Haak, Christina Skovbølling; Togsverd-Bo, Katrine

    2012-01-01

    The treatment of acne scars with fractional CO(2) lasers is gaining increasing impact, but has so far not been compared side-by-side to untreated control skin.......The treatment of acne scars with fractional CO(2) lasers is gaining increasing impact, but has so far not been compared side-by-side to untreated control skin....

  8. Relationship between tuberculous scar and carcinomas of the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, S.; Hirsch, A.; Bickel, M.

    1987-01-01

    Results of a transversal case-control study are reported which shows that there is a statistically significant association between tuberculous scars and carcinoma of the lung. Accordingly the possibility of malignancy has to be kept in mind when radiological or scintigraphic scanning reveal the presence of lung scars. (orig.)

  9. Trachomatous Scar Ranking: A Novel Outcome for Trachoma Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Angela; Ryner, Alexander M; Tadesse, Zerihun; Shiferaw, Ayalew; Callahan, Kelly; Fry, Dionna M; Zhou, Zhaoxia; Lietman, Thomas M; Keenan, Jeremy D

    2017-06-01

    AbstractWe evaluated a new trachoma scarring ranking system with potential use in clinical research. The upper right tarsal conjunctivas of 427 individuals from Ethiopian villages with hyperendemic trachoma were photographed. An expert grader first assigned a scar grade to each photograph using the 1981 World Health Organization (WHO) grading system. Then, all photographs were ranked from least (rank = 1) to most scarring (rank = 427). Photographic grading found 79 (18.5%) conjunctivae without scarring (C0), 191 (44.7%) with minimal scarring (C1), 105 (24.6%) with moderate scarring (C2), and 52 (12.2%) with severe scarring (C3). The ranking method demonstrated good internal validity, exhibiting a monotonic increase in the median rank across the levels of the 1981 WHO grading system. Intrarater repeatability was better for the ranking method (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.84, 95% CI = 0.74-0.94). Exhibiting better internal and external validity, this ranking method may be useful for evaluating the difference in scarring between groups of individuals.

  10. Intralesional Cryotherapy for Treatment of Keloid Scars: A Prospective Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, M.C.E.; van der Wal, M.B.A.; Bulstra, A.E.J.; Galindo Garre, F.; Molier, J.; van Zuijlen, P.P.M.; van Leeuwen, P.A.M.; Niessen, F.B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Intralesional cryotherapy is a novel treatment for keloid scars in which the scar is frozen from inside. Published results are promising, but the treatment has only been tested in a Caucasian patient population. Therefore, the authors evaluated intralesional cryotherapy in a patient

  11. Patient reported facial scar assessment: directions for the professional

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogewerf, C.J.; van Baar, M.E.; Middelkoop, E.; van Loey, N.E.

    2014-01-01

    Background The face is central to our identity and provides our most expressive means of communication. Currently, the role of facial scarring in relation to self-esteem is unclear and the value of self-reported scar assessment is insufficiently understood. The aim of this study was twofold: (1) to

  12. Patient reported facial scar assessment : directions for the professional

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogewerf, Cornelis J; van Baar, Margriet E; Middelkoop, Esther; Van Loey, N.E.E.

    BACKGROUND: The face is central to our identity and provides our most expressive means of communication. Currently, the role of facial scarring in relation to self-esteem is unclear and the value of self-reported scar assessment is insufficiently understood. The aim of this study was twofold: (1) to

  13. Semiclassical scar functions in phase space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivas, Alejandro M F

    2007-01-01

    We develop a semiclassical approximation for the scar function in the Weyl-Wigner representation in the neighborhood of a classically unstable periodic orbit of chaotic two-dimensional systems. The prediction of hyperbolic fringes, asymptotic to the stable and unstable manifolds, is verified computationally for a (linear) cat map, after the theory is adapted to a discrete phase space appropriate to a quantized torus. Characteristic fringe patterns can be distinguished even for quasi-energies where the fixed point is not Bohr-quantized. Also the patterns are highly localized in the neighborhood of the periodic orbit and along its stable and unstable manifolds without any long distance patterns that appear for the case of the spectral Wigner function

  14. Breast Cancer from the Excisional Scar of a Benign Mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Min Jung; Kim, Eun Kyung; Lee, Ji Young; Youk, Ji Hyun; Park, Byeong Woo; Kim, Hae Ryoung; Oh, Ki Keun

    2007-01-01

    Burns and chronic inflammation are well-known circumstances in which malignant transformation may occur during wound healing. There are many reports of malignancies developing from a burn scar; however, there are only a few reports of malignancy arising from chronic inflammation or from the skin of a surgical scar following excision of a benign mass, in any part of the body. There are only twelve reported cases of breast cancer developing from a surgical scar, moreover, there have been no reports in the last 30 years. This case is a recent example of breast cancer developing in a surgical scar that showed subtle changes on sequential sonograms. The imaging findings of this case were subtle but the mass that had been shrinking developed an angular margin in one region. These findings, along with the penetrating vascularity revealed on Doppler, prompted us to proceed to a biopsy of the lesion. It was of critical importance to compare the size and the shape of the lesion with previous ultrasounds in order to exclude malignancy in any iatrogenically altered lesion. Based on this case, we conclude that whenever a subtle change is detected, at a surgical site, a biopsy should be performed. Breast cancer developing from a surgical scar is rare; this type of malignancy has been reported in only 12 cases to date. Herein, we report on a 52-year-old female who developed infiltrating ductal carcinoma in a surgical scar following excision of a benign mass. Two years previously, the patient underwent surgery and radiotherapy for invasive ductal carcinoma of the contralateral breast. The initial appearance of the scar was similar to fat necrosis; it was observed to be progressively shrinking on follow-up sonography. On the two year follow-up ultrasound, the appearance changed, an angular margin and vascularity at the periphery of the scar were noted. A biopsy and subsequent excision of the scar were performed; the diagnosis of infiltrating ductal carcinoma of the scar was

  15. A Case of Atrial Tachycardia Circulating around a Left Atrial Roof Scar with Diabetes Mellitus and Renal Failure on Hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoko Hijioka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Little is known about the effects of volume change by hemodialysis (HD and mechanical stress caused by an anatomical structure being in contact with the left atrium on the progression of atrial remodeling. We experienced a case of atrial tachycardia (AT in a patient who had left atrial (LA scarring at the LA roof and a low-voltage area with slow conduction around the LA scar as components of AT circuit. Here, we present the conceivable hypothesis of the LA scar and the low-voltage area formation. Our concept can be useful in developing a strategy for ablation in a patient with chronic renal failure (CRF on HD. Case Report. A 65-year-old man with CRF on HD was referred for AT ablation. Three-dimensional electroanatomical mapping revealed that the AT conducted around an LA scar in a counterclockwise fashion. There was a slow conduction area at the superior side of the LA scar, where the AT was terminated during the ablation. Computed tomography indicated a close relationship between the LA and the anatomical structures (ascending aorta and pulmonary artery. Conclusion. Volume change by HD and close contact of anatomical structures to the LA can promote atrial remodeling, resulting in AT occurrence.

  16. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles inhibit proliferation and induce morphological changes and apoptosis in glial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Márquez-Ramírez, Sandra Gissela; Delgado-Buenrostro, Norma Laura; Chirino, Yolanda Irasema; Iglesias, Gisela Gutiérrez; López-Marure, Rebeca

    2012-01-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO 2 NPs) are widely used in the chemical, electrical and electronic industries. TiO 2 NPs can enter directly into the brain through the olfactory bulb and be deposited in the hippocampus region. We determined the effect of TiO 2 NPs on rat and human glial cells, C6 and U373, respectively. We evaluated proliferation by crystal violet staining, internalization of TiO 2 NPs, and cellular morphology by TEM analysis, as well as F-actin distribution by immunostaining and cell death by detecting active caspase-3 and DNA fragmentation. TiO 2 NPs inhibited proliferation and induced morphological changes that were related with a decrease in immuno-location of F-actin fibers. TiO 2 NPs were internalized and formation of vesicles was observed. TiO 2 NPs induced apoptosis after 96 h of treatment. Hence, TiO 2 NPs had a cytotoxic effect on glial cells, suggesting that exposure to TiO 2 NPs could cause brain injury and be hazardous to health.

  17. Telmisartan Modulates Glial Activation: In Vitro and In Vivo Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nofar Torika

    Full Text Available The circulating renin-angiotensin system (RAS, including the biologically active angiotensin II, is a fundamental regulatory mechanism of blood pressure conserved through evolution. Angiotensin II components of the RAS have also been identified in the brain. In addition to pro-inflammatory cytokines, neuromodulators, such as angiotensin II can induce (through angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R some of the inflammatory actions of brain glial cells and influence brain inflammation. Moreover, in Alzheimer's disease (AD models, where neuroinflammation occurs, increased levels of cortical AT1Rs have been shown. Still, the precise role of RAS in neuroinflammation is not completely clear. The overall aim of the present study was to elucidate the role of RAS in the modulation of glial functions and AD pathology. To reach this goal, the specific aims of the present study were a. to investigate the long term effect of telmisartan (AT1R blocker on tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, interleukin 1-β (IL1-β and nitric oxide (NO release from glial cells. b. to examine the effect of intranasally administered telmisartan on amyloid burden and microglial activation in 5X familial AD (5XFAD mice. Telmisartan effects in vivo were compared to those of perindopril (angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor. Long-term-exposure of BV2 microglia to telmisartan significantly decreased lipopolysaccharide (LPS -induced NO, inducible NO synthase, TNF-α and IL1-β synthesis. The effect of Telmisartan on NO production in BV2 cells was confirmed also in primary neonatal rat glial cells. Intranasal administration of telmisartan (1 mg/kg/day for up to two months significantly reduced amyloid burden and CD11b expression (a marker for microglia both in the cortex and hipoccampus of 5XFAD. Based on the current view of RAS and our data, showing reduced amyloid burden and glial activation in the brains of 5XFAD transgenic mice, one may envision potential intervention with the

  18. Imaging of glial cell morphology, SOD1 distribution and elemental composition in the brainstem and hippocampus of the ALS hSOD1G93A rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamenković, Stefan; Dučić, Tanja; Stamenković, Vera; Kranz, Alexander; Andjus, Pavle R

    2017-08-15

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disorder affecting motor and cognitive domains of the CNS. Mutations in the Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) cause 20% of familial ALS and provoke formation of intracellular aggregates and copper and zinc unbinding, leading to glial activation and neurodegeneration. Therefore, we investigated glial cell morphology, intracellular SOD1 distribution, and elemental composition in the brainstem and hippocampus of the hSOD1 G93A transgenic rat model of ALS. Immunostaining for astrocytes, microglia and SOD1 revealed glial proliferation and progressive tissue accumulation of SOD1 in both brain regions of ALS rats starting already at the presymptomatic stage. Glial cell morphology analysis in the brainstem of ALS rats revealed astrocyte activation occurring before disease symptoms onset, followed by activation of microglia. Hippocampal ALS astrocytes exhibited an identical reactive profile, while microglial morphology was unchanged. Additionally, ALS brainstem astrocytes demonstrated progressive SOD1 accumulation in the cell body and processes, while microglial SOD1 levels were reduced and its distribution limited to distal cell processes. In the hippocampus both glial cell types exhibited SOD1 accumulation in the cell body. X-ray fluorescence imaging revealed decreased P and increased Ca, Cl, K, Ni, Cu and Zn in the brainstem, and higher levels of Cl, Ni and Cu, but lower levels of Zn in the hippocampus of symptomatic ALS rats. These results bring new insights into the glial response during disease development and progression in motor as well as in non-motor CNS structures, and indicate disturbed tissue elemental homeostasis as a prominent hallmark of disease pathology. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. High affinity (3H) β-Alanine uptake by scar margins of ferric chloride-induced epileptogenic foci in rat isocortex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robitaille, Y.; Sherwin, A.

    1984-01-01

    Cortical astrocytes of normal mammalian brain are endowed with a high affinity uptake system for β-Alanine which is competitively inhibited by gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA), a neurotransmitter strongly implicated in epileptogenesis. The authors evaluated ( 3 H) β-Alanine uptake by reactive astrocytes proliferating within scar of epileptogenic foci induced in rat motor cortex by microinjections of 100 mM ferric chloride. Following in vitro incubation of scar tissue with ( 3 H) β-Alanine, ultrastructural morphometry of grain patterns at 5, 30 and 120 days post injection revealed early and significant grain count increases over astroglial processes, predominantly those related to perivascular glial end-feet. Astrocytic cell body and endothelial cell counts showed a more gradual and stepwise increase. Similar data were obtained by comparing visual and edited mean astrocytic grain counts. These results suggest that the enhanced uptake of reactive astrocytes may reflect a marked decrease of inhibitory GABAergic neurons within ferric chloride-induced scars. 7 figures, 1 table

  20. Medicinal Plants for the Treatment of Hypertrophic Scars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Ye

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypertrophic scar is a complication of wound healing and has a high recurrence rate which can lead to significant abnormity in aesthetics and functions. To date, no ideal treatment method has been established. Meanwhile, the underlying mechanism of hypertrophic scarring has not been clearly defined. Although a large amount of scientific research has been reported on the use of medicinal plants as a natural source of treatment for hypertrophic scarring, it is currently scattered across a wide range of publications. Therefore, a systematic summary and knowledge for future prospects are necessary to facilitate further medicinal plant research for their potential use as antihypertrophic scar agents. A bibliographic investigation was accomplished by focusing on medicinal plants which have been scientifically tested in vitro and/or in vivo and proved as potential agents for the treatment of hypertrophic scars. Although the chemical components and mechanisms of action of medicinal plants with antihypertrophic scarring potential have been investigated, many others remain unknown. More investigations and clinical trials are necessary to make use of these medical plants reasonably and phytotherapy is a promising therapeutic approach against hypertrophic scars.

  1. External rhinoplasty for the Arabian nose: a columellar scar analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, Hossam M T

    2004-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate columellar scar problems after external rhinoplasty in the Arabian population, and to analyze the technical factors that help prevent such problems and maximize the scar cosmesis. The investigation was conducted in university and private practice settings of the author in Alexandria, Egypt. A total of 600 Arab patients who underwent external rhinoplasty were included in the study. All the patients underwent surgery using the external rhinoplasty approach, in which bilateral alar marginal incisions were connected by an inverted V-shaped transcolumellar incision. At completion of the procedure, a two-layer closure of the columellar incision was performed. At a minimum of 1 year postoperatively, the columellar scar was evaluated subjectively by means of a patient questionnaire, and objectively by clinical examination and comparison of the close-up pre- and postoperative basal view photographs. Objectively, anything less than a barely visible, leveled, thin, linear scar was considered unsatisfactory. Subjectively, 95.5% of the patients rated the scar as unnoticeable, 3% as noticeable but acceptable, and 1.5% as unacceptable. Objectively, the scar was unsatisfactory in 7% of the cases. This was because of scar widening with or without depression (5%), hyperpigmentation (1.5%), and columellar rim notching (0.5%). The use of a deep 6/0 polydioxanon (PDS) suture significantly decreased the incidence of scar widening (p < 0.005).The columellar incision can be used safely in the Arab population regardless of their thick, dark, and oily skin. Technical factors that contributed to the favorable outcome of the columellar scar included proper planning of location and design of the incision used, precise execution, meticulous multilayered closure, and good postoperative care.

  2. Nonlinear optics for the study of human scar tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, D. P.; Vieira-Damiani, G.; Adam, R. L.; Cesar, C. L.; Metze, Konradin

    2012-03-01

    Collagen fibers are an essential component of the dynamic process of scarring, which accompanies various diseases. Scar tissue may reveal different morphologic expressions, such as hypertrophic scars or keloids. Collagen fibers can be visualized by fluorescent light when stained with eosin. Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) creates a non linear signal that occurs only in molecules without inversion symmetry and is particularly strong in the collagen fibers arranged in triple helices. The aim of this study was to describe the methodology for the analysis of the density and texture of collagen in keloids, hypertrophic scars and conventional scars. Samples were examined in the National Institute of Science and Technology on Photonics Applied to Cell Biology (INFABIC) at the State University of Campinas. The images were acquired in a multiphoton microscopy LSM 780-NLO Zeiss 40X. Both signals, two-photon fluorescence (TPEF) and SHG, were excited by a Mai-Tai Ti:Sapphire laser at 940 nm. We used a LP490/SP485 NDD filter for SHG, and a BP565-610 NDD filter for fluorescence In each case, ten images were acquired serially (512×512 μm) in Z-stack and joined together to one patchwork-image . Image analysis was performed by a gliding-box-system with in-house made software. Keloids, hypertrophic scars and normal scar tissue show different collagen architecture. Inside an individual case differences of the scar process may be found between central and peripheral parts. In summary, the use of nonlinear optics is a helpful tool for the study of scars tissue.

  3. Microneedle physical contact as a therapeutic for abnormal scars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, David C; Balmayor, Elizabeth R; Schantz, Jan-Thorsten; Xu, Chenjie

    2017-08-14

    Abnormal (keloid and hypertrophic) scars are a significant affliction with no satisfactory single modality therapy to-date. Available options are often ineffective, painful, potentially hazardous, and require healthcare personnel involvement. Herein a self-administered microneedle device based on drug-free physical contact for inhibiting abnormal scars is reported. Its therapeutic activity through microneedle contact eliminates hazards associated with toxic anti-scarring drugs while self-treatment enables administration flexibility. The microneedle patch was fabricated with FDA-approved liquid crystalline polymer under good manufacturing practice. It was first tested to ascertain its ability to inhibit (keloid) fibroblast proliferation. Later the microneedle patch was examined on the rabbit ear hypertrophic scar model to explore its potential in inhibiting the generation of abnormal scars post-injury. Finally, the microneedle patch was applied to the caudal region of a hypertrophic scar located on a female patient's dorsum to verify clinical efficacy. On untreated control cultures, barely any non-viable fibroblasts could be seen. After 12-h treatment with the microneedle patch, the non-viable proportion increased to 83.8 ± 11.96%. In rabbit ear hypertrophic scar model, 100% of the control wounds without the presence of patches on rabbit ears generated regions of raised dermis originating from the wound site (3/3), whereas microneedle treatment prevented dermis tissue thickening in 83.33% of the wounds (15/18). In the clinical test, the microneedle patch was well tolerated by the patient. Compared to the untreated region, microneedle treatment decreased the number of infiltrated inflammatory cells, with less disrupted dermis tissue architecture and more flattened appearance. A self-administered, drug-free microneedle patch appears highly promising in reducing abnormal scarring as observed from in vitro, in vivo and clinical experiments. Larger cohort clinical

  4. Sleep and immune function: glial contributions and consequences of aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingiosi, Ashley M; Opp, Mark R; Krueger, James M

    2013-10-01

    The reciprocal interactions between sleep and immune function are well-studied. Insufficient sleep induces innate immune responses as evidenced by increased expression of pro-inflammatory mediators in the brain and periphery. Conversely, immune challenges upregulate immunomodulator expression, which alters central nervous system-mediated processes and behaviors, including sleep. Recent studies indicate that glial cells, namely microglia and astrocytes, are active contributors to sleep and immune system interactions. Evidence suggests glial regulation of these interactions is mediated, in part, by adenosine and adenosine 5'-triphosphate actions at purinergic type 1 and type 2 receptors. Furthermore, microglia and astrocytes may modulate declines in sleep-wake behavior and immunity observed in aging. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Glial activation colocalizes with structural abnormalities in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshikho, Mohamad J; Zürcher, Nicole R; Loggia, Marco L; Cernasov, Paul; Chonde, Daniel B; Izquierdo Garcia, David; Yasek, Julia E; Akeju, Oluwaseun; Catana, Ciprian; Rosen, Bruce R; Cudkowicz, Merit E; Hooker, Jacob M; Atassi, Nazem

    2016-12-13

    In this cross-sectional study, we aimed to evaluate brain structural abnormalities in relation to glial activation in the same cohort of participants. Ten individuals with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and 10 matched healthy controls underwent brain imaging using integrated MR/PET and the radioligand [ 11 C]-PBR28. Diagnosis history and clinical assessments including Upper Motor Neuron Burden Scale (UMNB) were obtained from patients with ALS. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) analyses including tract-based spatial statistics and tractography were applied. DTI metrics including fractional anisotropy (FA) and diffusivities (mean, axial, and radial) were measured in regions of interest. Cortical thickness was assessed using surface-based analysis. The locations of structural changes, measured by DTI and the areas of cortical thinning, were compared to regional glial activation measured by relative [ 11 C]-PBR28 uptake. In this cohort of individuals with ALS, reduced FA and cortical thinning colocalized with regions demonstrating higher radioligand binding. [ 11 C]-PBR28 binding in the left motor cortex was correlated with FA (r = -0.68, p < 0.05) and cortical thickness (r = -0.75, p < 0.05). UMNB was correlated with glial activation (r = +0.75, p < 0.05), FA (r = -0.77, p < 0.05), and cortical thickness (r = -0.75, p < 0.05) in the motor cortex. Increased uptake of the glial marker [ 11 C]-PBR28 colocalizes with changes in FA and cortical thinning. This suggests a link between disease mechanisms (gliosis and inflammation) and structural changes (cortical thinning and white and gray matter changes). In this multimodal neuroimaging work, we provide an in vivo model to investigate the pathogenesis of ALS. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  6. Measuring Glial Metabolism in Repetitive Brain Trauma and Alzheimers Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    4: Correlate the glial and glutamate metabolic rates with additional measures obtained in the parent studies including of a) serum, CSF, and genetic...resonances as a linear combination model. Note the high SNR of glutamate and its separation from other metabolites that would overlap at 3 Tesla. 3.3... separate protocol offered to participants in the study but will not be mandatory and thus will not impact this study in any way. 3.4. Results

  7. Peripheral nerve injury induces glial activation in primary motor cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Julieta Troncoso; Julieta Troncoso; Efraín Buriticá; Efraín Buriticá

    2015-01-01

    Preliminary evidence suggests that peripheral facial nerve injuries are associated with sensorimotor cortex reorganization. We have characterized facial nerve lesion-induced structural changes in primary motor cortex layer 5 pyramidal neurons and their relationship with glial cell density using a rodent facial paralysis model. First, we used adult transgenic mice expressing green fluorescent protein in microglia and yellow fluorescent protein in pyramidal neurons which were subjected to eithe...

  8. Glial alterations from early to late stages in a model of Alzheimer's disease: Evidence of autophagy involvement in Aβ internalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomilio, Carlos; Pavia, Patricio; Gorojod, Roxana Mayra; Vinuesa, Angeles; Alaimo, Agustina; Galvan, Veronica; Kotler, Monica Lidia; Beauquis, Juan; Saravia, Flavia

    2016-02-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease without effective therapy. Brain amyloid deposits are classical histopathological hallmarks that generate an inflammatory reaction affecting neuronal and glial function. The identification of early cell responses and of brain areas involved could help to design new successful treatments. Hence, we studied early alterations of hippocampal glia and their progression during the neuropathology in PDAPP-J20 transgenic mice, AD model, at 3, 9, and 15 months (m) of age. At 3 m, before deposits formation, microglial Iba1+ cells from transgenic mice already exhibited signs of activation and larger soma size in the hilus, alterations appearing later on stratum radiatum. Iba1 immunohistochemistry revealed increased cell density and immunoreactive area in PDAPP mice from 9 m onward selectively in the hilus, in coincidence with prominent amyloid Congo red + deposition. At pre-plaque stages, GFAP+ astroglia showed density alterations while, at an advanced age, the presence of deposits was associated with important glial volume changes and apparently being intimately involved in amyloid degradation. Astrocytes around plaques were strongly labeled for LC3 until 15 m in Tg mice, suggestive of increased autophagic flux. Moreover, β-Amyloid fibrils internalization by astrocytes in in vitro conditions was dependent on autophagy. Co-localization of Iba1 with ubiquitin or p62 was exclusively found in microglia contacting deposits from 9 m onward, suggesting torpid autophagy. Our work characterizes glial changes at early stages of the disease in PDAPP-J20 mice, focusing on the hilus as an especially susceptible hippocampal subfield, and provides evidence that glial autophagy could play a role in amyloid processing at advanced stages. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Radiosensitivity of glial progenitor cells of the perinatal and adult rat optic nerve studied by an in vitro clonogenic assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maazen, R.W.M. van der; Verhagen, I.; Kleiboer, B.J.; Kogel, A.J. van der

    1991-01-01

    The cellular basis of radiation-induced demyelination and white matter necrosis of the central nervous system (CNS), is poorly understood. Glial cells responsible for myelination in the CNS might be the target cells of this type of damage. Glial cells with stem cell properties derived from the perinatal and adult rat CNS can be cultured in vitro. These cells are able to differentiate into oligodendrocytes or type-2 astrocytes (O-2A) depending on the culture conditions. Growth factors produced by monolayers of type-1 astrocytes inhibit premature differentiation of O-2A progenitor cells and allow colony formation. A method which employs these monolayers of type-1 astrocytes to culture O-2A progenitor cells has been adapted to allow the analysis of colonies of surviving cells after X-irradiation. In vitro survival curves were obtained for glial progenitor cells derived from perinatal and adult optic nerves. The intrinsic radiosensitivity of perinatal and adult O-2A progenitor cells showed a large difference. Perinatal O-2A progenitor cells are quite radiosensitive, in contrast to adult O-2A progenitor cells. For both cell types an inverse relationship was found between the dose and the size of colonies derived from surviving cells. Surviving O-2A progenitor cells maintain their ability to differentiate into oligo-dendrocytes or type-2 astrocytes. This system to assess radiation-induced damage to glial progenitor cells in vitro systems to have a great potential in unraveling the cellular basis of radiation-induced demyelinating syndromes of the CNS. (author). 28 refs.; 4 figs.; 1 tab

  10. Overcoming scarring in the urethra: Challenges for tissue engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulmuttalip Simsek

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Urethral stricture disease is increasingly common occurring in about 1% of males over the age of 55. The stricture tissue is rich in myofibroblasts and multi-nucleated giant cells which are thought to be related to stricture formation and collagen synthesis. An increase in collagen is associated with the loss of the normal vasculature of the normal urethra. The actual incidence differs based on worldwide populations, geography, and income. The stricture aetiology, location, length and patient's age and comorbidity are important in deciding the course of treatment. In this review we aim to summarise the existing knowledge of the aetiology of urethral strictures, review current treatment regimens, and present the challenges of using tissue-engineered buccal mucosa (TEBM to repair scarring of the urethra. In asking this question we are also mindful that recurrent fibrosis occurs in other tissues—how can we learn from these other pathologies? Keywords: Urethral strictures, Fibrosis, Tissue-engineered buccal mucosa, Augmentation urethroplasty

  11. Connecting Malfunctioning Glial Cells and Brain Degenerative Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminsky, Natalie; Bihari, Ofer; Kanner, Sivan; Barzilai, Ari

    2016-06-01

    The DNA damage response (DDR) is a complex biological system activated by different types of DNA damage. Mutations in certain components of the DDR machinery can lead to genomic instability disorders that culminate in tissue degeneration, premature aging, and various types of cancers. Intriguingly, malfunctioning DDR plays a role in the etiology of late onset brain degenerative disorders such as Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, and Huntington's diseases. For many years, brain degenerative disorders were thought to result from aberrant neural death. Here we discuss the evidence that supports our novel hypothesis that brain degenerative diseases involve dysfunction of glial cells (astrocytes, microglia, and oligodendrocytes). Impairment in the functionality of glial cells results in pathological neuro-glial interactions that, in turn, generate a "hostile" environment that impairs the functionality of neuronal cells. These events can lead to systematic neural demise on a scale that appears to be proportional to the severity of the neurological deficit. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Nasal glial heterotopia or congenital hemangioma? A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lartizien, R; Durand, C; Blaise, S; Morand, B

    2017-10-01

    Nasal glial heterotopia (NGH) is a rare benign tumor of the median line. We describe the case of a child presenting a lateral nasal mass. The characteristics of the prenatal ultrasound and the postnatal clinical examination argued in favor of a congenital hemangioma (CH). The MRI performed at 6 weeks of life suggested glial heterotopia. This diagnosis was confirmed by the pathological analysis. Congenital hemangiomas and nasal glial heterotopies have similar clinical presentations. Prenatal ultrasound diagnosis between NGH and CH is difficult. Fetal MRI is not yet highly specific for these two lesions, but it can eliminate an intracerebral connection in cases of NGH. Postnatal exams are more specific. Flow on the Doppler exam is rapid for CH and slow for NGH. On MRI, these two lesions appear as a hypersignal on T2-weighted sequences, but less intense for NGH than for CH. Distinguishing between NGH and CH can be difficult. This does not have a direct incidence on treatment because it is surgical in both cases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Imaging of intracranial neuronal and mixed neuronal-glial tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Shimin; Qin Jinxi; Zhang Leili; Liu Meili; Jin Song; Yan Shixin; Liu Li; Dai Weiying; Li Tao; Gao Man

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the characteristic clinical, imaging , and pathologic findings of intracranial neuronal and mixed neuronal-glial tumours. Methods: The imaging findings of surgery and pathobiology proved intracranial neuronal and mixed neuronal-glial tumours in 14 cases (7 male and 7 female, ranging in age from 6-56 years; mean age 33.8 years) were retrospectively analyzed. Results: Eight gangliogliomas were located in the frontal lobe (4 cases), temporal lobe (1 case), front- temporal lobe (2 cases), and pons (1 case). They appeared as iso-or low density on CT, iso-or low signal intensity on T 1 WI, and high signal intensity on T 2 WI on MR imaging. Two central neurocytomas were located in the supratentorial ventricles. Four desmoplastic gangliogliomas were seen as cystic masses, appearing as low signal intensity on T 1 WI and high signal intensity on T 2 WI. Conclusion: Intracranial neuronal and mixed neuronal-glial tumours had imaging characteristics. Combined with clinical history, it was possible to make a tendency preoperative diagnosis using CT or MR

  14. Responses of fibroblasts and glial cells to nanostructured platinum surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennisi, C P; Sevcencu, C; Yoshida, K [Center for Sensory-Motor Interaction (SMI), Aalborg University, Aalborg (Denmark); Dolatshahi-Pirouz, A; Foss, M; Larsen, A Nylandsted; Besenbacher, F [Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center (iNANO), Aarhus University, Aarhus (Denmark); Hansen, J Lundsgaard [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Aarhus (Denmark); Zachar, V, E-mail: cpennisi@hst.aau.d [Laboratory for Stem Cell Research, Aalborg University (Denmark)

    2009-09-23

    The chronic performance of implantable neural prostheses is affected by the growth of encapsulation tissue onto the stimulation electrodes. Encapsulation is associated with activation of connective tissue cells at the electrode's metallic contacts, usually made of platinum. Since surface nanotopography can modulate the cellular responses to materials, the aim of the present work was to evaluate the 'in vitro' responses of connective tissue cells to platinum strictly by modulating its surface nanoroughness. Using molecular beam epitaxy combined with sputtering, we produced platinum nanostructured substrates consisting of irregularly distributed nanopyramids and investigated their effect on the proliferation, cytoskeletal organization and cellular morphology of primary fibroblasts and transformed glial cells. Cells were cultured on these substrates and their responses to surface roughness were studied. After one day in culture, the fibroblasts were more elongated and their cytoskeleton less mature when cultured on rough substrates. This effect increased as the roughness of the surface increased and was associated with reduced cell proliferation throughout the observation period (4 days). Morphological changes also occurred in glial cells, but they were triggered by a different roughness scale and did not affect cellular proliferation. In conclusion, surface nanotopography modulates the responses of fibroblasts and glial cells to platinum, which may be an important factor in optimizing the tissue response to implanted neural electrodes.

  15. Connecting Malfunctioning Glial Cells and Brain Degenerative Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Kaminsky

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The DNA damage response (DDR is a complex biological system activated by different types of DNA damage. Mutations in certain components of the DDR machinery can lead to genomic instability disorders that culminate in tissue degeneration, premature aging, and various types of cancers. Intriguingly, malfunctioning DDR plays a role in the etiology of late onset brain degenerative disorders such as Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s, and Huntington’s diseases. For many years, brain degenerative disorders were thought to result from aberrant neural death. Here we discuss the evidence that supports our novel hypothesis that brain degenerative diseases involve dysfunction of glial cells (astrocytes, microglia, and oligodendrocytes. Impairment in the functionality of glial cells results in pathological neuro-glial interactions that, in turn, generate a “hostile” environment that impairs the functionality of neuronal cells. These events can lead to systematic neural demise on a scale that appears to be proportional to the severity of the neurological deficit.

  16. Surgical correction of gynecomastia with minimal scarring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun-Ho; Kim, Il-Kug; Kim, Tae-Gon; Kim, Yong-Ha

    2012-12-01

    Gynecomastia is a benign, excessive development of the male breast that occurs at an overall incidence of 32-36 %. The authors effectively removed peripheral fat tissues with power-assisted liposuction (PAL) and periareolar glandular tissues with a cartilage shaver in a series of patients. The small periareolar incisions were not easily recognized. Between February 2010 and April 2012, the charts of 15 patients (28 breasts) treated with PAL and a cartilage shaver were retrospectively reviewed. The mean volume of fat tissue removed with liposuction was 319 mL, and the mean volume of glandular tissue removed with the cartilage shaver was 70 mL. The mean follow-up period was 11.2 months. No infection, nipple-areola complex necrosis, nipple retraction, or saucer deformity was encountered in this series. Intraoperative bleeding occurred in one patient. Mild asymmetries developed in three patients. Use of PAL and a cartilage shaver for the treatment of gynecomastia allows for effective removal of both the fat and the glandular tissue of the breast through a minimal periareolar incision. This technique can achieve excellent aesthetic results with inconspicuous scarring. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  17. Neuron-glial communication mediated by TNF-α and glial activation in dorsal root ganglia in visceral inflammatory hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Dan-dan; Li, Yong; Tang, Dong; Huang, Li-ya; Yuan, Yao-zong

    2014-05-01

    Communication between neurons and glia in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and the central nervous system is critical for nociception. Both glial activation and proinflammatory cytokine induction underlie this communication. We investigated whether satellite glial cell (SGC) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) activation in DRG participates in a 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced rat model of visceral hyperalgesia. In TNBS-treated rats, TNF-α expression increased in DRG and was colocalized to SGCs enveloping a given neuron. These SGCs were activated as visualized under electron microscopy: they had more elongated processes projecting into the connective tissue space and more gap junctions. When nerves attached to DRG (L6-S1) were stimulated with a series of electrical stimulations, TNF-α were released from DRG in TNBS-treated animals compared with controls. Using a current clamp, we noted that exogenous TNF-α (2.5 ng/ml) increased DRG neuron activity, and visceral pain behavioral responses were reversed by intrathecal administration of anti-TNF-α (10 μg·kg(-1)·day(-1)). Based on our findings, TNF-α and SGC activation in neuron-glial communication are critical in inflammatory visceral hyperalgesia.

  18. Sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers-based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-12-19

    Dec 19, 2011 ... reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), differential-display .... were synthesized by Sangon Biological Engineering Technology and. Services ..... to cold tolerance to scar markers in common carp. J. Dalian.

  19. Managing Caesarean Scar Pregnancy in low Resource Settings: 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    ultrasound guided approach with dilatation of uterine cervix and subsequent evacuation of uterine ... Keywords: caesarean scar pregnancy, transrectal ultrasound guided surgical approach. ... a viable embryo with a crown rump length (CRL).

  20. Before and After Photos: Treatment of Hypertrophic Scars

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products In This Section Dermatologic Surgery What is dermatologic ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products Before and after photos: Treatment of hypertrophic scars ...

  1. Before and After Photos: Treatment of Hypertrophic Scars

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Back Injectable Deoxycholic Acid Injectable Hyaluronic Acid Injectable Poly-l-lactic Acid Injectable Polymethylmethacrylate + Bovine Collagen Filler ... Does acne scar removal hurt? What are my pain management and anesthesia options? How long is the ...

  2. Matrix Metalloproteinases Are Differentially Regulated and Responsive to Compression Therapy in a Red Duroc Model of Hypertrophic Scar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, Taryn E; Ghassemi, Pejhman; Prindeze, Nicholas J; Moffatt, Lauren T; Carney, Bonnie C; Alkhalil, Abdulnaser; Ramella-Roman, Jessica C; Shupp, Jeffrey W

    2018-01-01

    Objective: Proteins of the matrix metalloproteinases family play a vital role in extracellular matrix maintenance and basic physiological processes in tissue homeostasis. The function and activities of matrix metalloproteinases in response to compression therapies have yet to be defined. Here, a swine model of hypertrophic scar was used to profile the transcription of all known 26 matrix metalloproteinases in scars treated with a precise compression dose. Methods: Full-thickness excisional wounds were created. Wounds underwent healing and scar formation. A subset of scars underwent 2 weeks of compression therapy. Biopsy specimens were preserved, and microarrays, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry were performed to characterize the transcription and expression of various matrix metalloproteinase family members. Results: Microarray results showed that 13 of the known 26 matrix metalloproteinases were differentially transcribed in wounds relative to the preinjury skin. The predominant upregulation of these matrix metalloproteinases during early wound-healing stages declined gradually in later stages of wound healing. The use of compression therapy reduced this decline in 10 of the 13 differentially regulated matrix metalloproteinases. Further investigation of MMP7 using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction confirmed the effect of compression on transcript levels. Assessment of MMP7 at the protein level using Western blotting and immunohistochemistry was concordant. Conclusions: In a swine model of hypertrophic scar, the application of compression to hypertrophic scar attenuated a trend of decreasing levels of matrix metalloproteinases during the process of hypertrophic wound healing, including MMP7, whose enzyme regulation was confirmed at the protein level.

  3. Prevention of vocal fold scarring by local application of basic fibroblast growth factor in a rat vocal fold injury model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Ryo; Kawai, Yoshitaka; Tsuji, Takuya; Hiwatashi, Nao; Kishimoto, Yo; Tateya, Ichiro; Nakamura, Tatsuo; Hirano, Shigeru

    2017-02-01

    Vocal fold scarring, which causes severe hoarseness, is intractable. The optimal treatment for vocal fold scarring has not been established; therefore, prevention of scarring is important. The aim of this study was to clarify the effectiveness of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) for prevention of postsurgical vocal fold scarring. Prospective animal experiments with controls. The vocal folds of Sprague-Dawley rats were injured unilaterally or bilaterally after local application of a 10 μL solution of bFGF. Larynges ware harvested for histological and immunohistochemical examination 2 months postoperation and for quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis 1 week postoperation. Histological examination showed significantly increased hyaluronic acid and decreased deposition of dense collagen in the bFGF-treated group at 100 ng/10 μL compared with the sham-treated group. Immunohistochemical examination showed significantly decreased collagen type III deposition in the bFGF-treated group at 100 ng/10 μL compared with the sham-treated group. qRT-PCR revealed that hyaluronan synthase 2 (Has2), Has3, and hepatocyte growth factor were upregulated in bFGF-treated groups compared with sham-treated group. The current results suggest that local application of bFGF at the time of injury has the potential to prevent vocal fold scarring. Preventive injection of bFGF could be applied at the time of phonomicrosurgery to avoid postoperative scar formation. N/A. Laryngoscope, 2016 127:E67-E74, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  4. Flow Cytometric Detection of PrPSc in Neurons and Glial Cells from Prion-Infected Mouse Brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Takeshi; Suzuki, Akio; Hasebe, Rie; Horiuchi, Motohiro

    2018-01-01

    In prion diseases, an abnormal isoform of prion protein (PrP Sc ) accumulates in neurons, astrocytes, and microglia in the brains of animals affected by prions. Detailed analyses of PrP Sc -positive neurons and glial cells are required to clarify their pathophysiological roles in the disease. Here, we report a novel method for the detection of PrP Sc in neurons and glial cells from the brains of prion-infected mice by flow cytometry using PrP Sc -specific staining with monoclonal antibody (MAb) 132. The combination of PrP Sc staining and immunolabeling of neural cell markers clearly distinguished neurons, astrocytes, and microglia that were positive for PrP Sc from those that were PrP Sc negative. The flow cytometric analysis of PrP Sc revealed the appearance of PrP Sc -positive neurons, astrocytes, and microglia at 60 days after intracerebral prion inoculation, suggesting the presence of PrP Sc in the glial cells, as well as in neurons, from an early stage of infection. Moreover, the kinetic analysis of PrP Sc revealed a continuous increase in the proportion of PrP Sc -positive cells for all cell types with disease progression. Finally, we applied this method to isolate neurons, astrocytes, and microglia positive for PrP Sc from a prion-infected mouse brain by florescence-activated cell sorting. The method described here enables comprehensive analyses specific to PrP Sc -positive neurons, astrocytes, and microglia that will contribute to the understanding of the pathophysiological roles of neurons and glial cells in PrP Sc -associated pathogenesis. IMPORTANCE Although formation of PrP Sc in neurons is associated closely with neurodegeneration in prion diseases, the mechanism of neurodegeneration is not understood completely. On the other hand, recent studies proposed the important roles of glial cells in PrP Sc -associated pathogenesis, such as the intracerebral spread of PrP Sc and clearance of PrP Sc from the brain. Despite the great need for detailed analyses

  5. Quantitative measurement of hypertrophic scar: interrater reliability and concurrent validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedelec, Bernadette; Correa, José A; Rachelska, Grazyna; Armour, Alexis; LaSalle, Léo

    2008-01-01

    Research into the pathophysiology and treatment of hypertrophic scar (HSc) remains limited by the heterogeneity of scar and the imprecision with which its severity is measured. The objective of this study was to test the interrater reliability and concurrent validity of the Cutometer measurement of elasticity, the Mexameter measurement of erythema and pigmentation, and total thickness measure of the DermaScan C relative to the modified Vancouver Scar Scale (mVSS) in patient-matched normal skin, normal scar, and HSc. Three independent investigators evaluated 128 sites (severe HSc, moderate or mild HSc, donor site, and normal skin) on 32 burn survivors using all of the above measurement tools. The intraclass correlation coefficient, which was used to measure interrater reliability, reflects the inherent amount of error in the measure and is considered acceptable when it is >0.75. Interrater reliability of the totals of the height, pliability, and vascularity subscales of the mVSS fell below the acceptable limit ( congruent with0.50). The individual subscales of the mVSS fell well below the acceptable level (0.89) for each study site with the exception of severe scar. Mexameter and DermaScan C reliability measurements were acceptable for all sites (>0.82). Concurrent validity correlations with the mVSS were significant except for the comparison of the mVSS pliability subscale and the Cutometer maximum deformation measure comparison in severe scar. In conclusion, the Mexameter and DermaScan C measurements of scar color and thickness of all sites, as well as the Cutometer measurement of elasticity in all but the most severe scars shows high interrater reliability. Their significant concurrent validity with the mVSS confirms that these tools are measuring the same traits as the mVSS, and in a more objective way.

  6. Do Preexisting Abdominal Scars Threaten Wound Healing in Abdominoplasty?

    OpenAIRE

    Shermak, Michele A.; Mallalieu, Jessie; Chang, David

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Abdominal scars may impair healing after abdominoplasty. We aimed to determine whether right subcostal or upper midline scars led to increased wound healing problems. Methods and Materials: Review of all patients who had abdominoplasty from March 1998 to February 2008 was performed. Variables studied included age, gender, body mass index (BMI), medical history, and postoperative complications. Statistical analysis was performed in Stata SE, version 10. Results: Of 420 abdominoplasty ...

  7. Integra artificial skin dermal regeneration templates in burn scar surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rexon Ngim

    1999-01-01

    Integra artificial skin is a porous matrix used as a permanent dermal replacement. Developed in the 1970's, it has been used successfully in the treatment of acute bums requiring full or deep partial thickness skin replacement. Three patients with burn scars received Integra Artificial Skin to resurface various areas of burn scars and also contractures. The first was a 24-year-old woman who had two pieces of Integra to resurface a forearm/elbow/wrist defect. The second was a 28-year-old woman who had two pieces of Integra to resurface a neck contracture. The third was a 44 year-old woman who had two pieces to correct severe burn contractures/ scars of her hands. The results of these three patients, probably the first time Integra was used for bum scar and contracture revision, indicate that there is a place for Integra in Burn Scar surgery. However, the basic principle of its application must be adhered to. These include excision to remove the complete scar, recreation of original size of skin defect and meticulous application of the Artificial Skin and its care post-operatively. Details of its application will be highlighted

  8. Glial cell adhesion and protein adsorption on SAM coated semiconductor and glass surfaces of a microfluidic structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Darryl Y.; Cox, Jimmy D.; Follstaedt, Susan C.; Curry, Mark S.; Skirboll, Steven K.; Gourley, Paul L.

    2001-05-01

    The development of microsystems that merge biological materials with microfabricated structures is highly dependent on the successful interfacial interactions between these innately incompatible materials. Surface passivation of semiconductor and glass surfaces with thin organic films can attenuate the adhesion of proteins and cells that lead to biofilm formation and biofouling of fluidic structures. We have examined the adhesion of glial cells and serum albumin proteins to microfabricated glass and semiconductor surfaces coated with self-assembled monolayers of octadecyltrimethoxysilane and N-(triethoxysilylpropyl)-O- polyethylene oxide urethane, to evaluate the biocompatibility and surface passivation those coatings provide.

  9. Lin28B promotes Müller glial cell de-differentiation and proliferation in the regenerative rat retinas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Zui; Zhao, Chen; Jian, Qian; Gillies, Mark; Xu, Haiwei; Yin, Zheng Qin

    2016-01-01

    Retinal regeneration and repair are severely impeded in higher mammalian animals. Although Müller cells can be activated and show some characteristics of progenitor cells when injured or under pathological conditions, they quickly form gliosis scars. Unfortunately, the basic mechanisms that impede retinal regeneration remain unknown. We studied retinas from Royal College of Surgeon (RCS) rats and found that let-7 family molecules, let-7e and let-7i, were significantly overexpressed in Müller cells of degenerative retinas. It demonstrated that down-regulation of the RNA binding protein Lin28B was one of the key factors leading to the overexpression of let-7e and let-7i. Lin28B ectopic expression in the Müller cells suppressed overexpression of let-7e and let-7i, stimulated and mobilized Müller glia de-differentiation, proliferation, promoted neuronal commitment, and inhibited glial fate acquisition of de-differentiated Müller cells. ERG recordings revealed that the amplitudes of a-wave and b-wave were improved significantly after Lin28B was delivered into the subretinal space of RCS rats. In summary, down-regulation of Lin28B as well as up-regulation of let-7e and let-7i may be the main factors that impede Müller cell de-differentiation and proliferation in the retina of RCS rats. PMID:27384999

  10. Quantitative measurement of hypertrophic scar: intrarater reliability, sensitivity, and specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedelec, Bernadette; Correa, José A; Rachelska, Grazyna; Armour, Alexis; LaSalle, Léo

    2008-01-01

    The comparison of scar evaluation over time requires measurement tools with acceptable intrarater reliability and the ability to discriminate skin characteristics of interest. The objective of this study was to evaluate the intrarater reliability and sensitivity and specificity of the Cutometer, the Mexameter, and the DermaScan C relative to the modified Vancouver Scar Scale (mVSS) in patient-matched normal skin, normal scar (donor sites), and hypertrophic scar (HSc). A single investigator evaluated four tissue types (severe HSc, less severe HSc, donor site, and normal skin) in 30 burn survivors with all four measurement tools. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for the Cutometer was acceptable (> or =0.75) for the maximum deformation measure for the donor site and normal skin (>0.78) but was below the acceptable range for the HSc sites and all other parameters. The ICC for the Mexameter erythema (>0.75) and melanin index (>0.89) and the DermaScan C total thickness measurement (>0.82) were acceptable for all sites. The ICC for the total of the height, pliability, and vascularity subscales of the mVSS was acceptable (0.81) for normal scar but below the acceptable range for the scar sites. The DermaScan C was clearly able to discriminate HSc from normal scar and normal skin based on the total thickness measure. The Cutometer was less discriminating but was still able to discriminate HSc from normal scar and normal skin. The Mexameter erythema index was not a good discriminator of HSc and normal scar. Receiver operating characteristic curves were generated to establish the best cutoff point for the DermaScan C total thickness and the Cutometer maximum deformation, which were 2.034 and 0.387 mm, respectively. This study showed that although the Cutometer, the DermaScan C, and the Mexameter have measurement properties that make them attractive substitutes for the mVSS, caution must be used when interpreting results since the Cutometer has a ceiling effect when

  11. Comparative study of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors of human and rat cortical glial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demushkin, V.P.; Burbaeva, G.S.; Dzhaliashvili, T.A.; Plyashkevich, Y.G.

    1985-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation was a comparative studyof muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in human and rat glial cells. ( 3 H)Quinuclidinyl-benzylate (( 3 H)-QB), atropine, platiphylline, decamethonium, carbamylcholine, tubocurarine, and nicotine were used. The glial cell fraction was obtained from the cerebral cortex of rats weighing 130-140 g and from the frontal pole of the postmortem brain from men aged 60-70 years. The use of the method of radioimmune binding of ( 3 H)-QB with human and rat glial cell membranes demonstrated the presence of a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor in the glial cells

  12. An in vitro clonogenic assay to assess radiation damage in rat CNS glial progenitor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maazen, R.W.M. van der; Verhagen, I.; Kogel, A.J. van der

    1990-01-01

    Normal glial progenitor cells can be isolated from the rat central nervous system (CNS) and cultured in vitro on a monolayer of type-1 astrocytes. These monolayers are able to support and stimulate explanted glial progenitor cells to proliferate. Employing these in vitro interactions of specific glial cell types, an in vivo-in vitro clonogenic assay has been developed. This method offers the possibility to study the intrinsic radiosensitivity, repair and regeneration of glial progenitor cells after in vitro or in vivo irradiation. (author)

  13. Neuroinflammation induces glial aromatase expression in the uninjured songbird brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saldanha Colin J

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Estrogens from peripheral sources as well as central aromatization are neuroprotective in the vertebrate brain. Under normal conditions, aromatase is only expressed in neurons, however following anoxic/ischemic or mechanical brain injury; aromatase is also found in astroglia. This increased glial aromatization and the consequent estrogen synthesis is neuroprotective and may promote neuronal survival and repair. While the effects of estradiol on neuroprotection are well studied, what induces glial aromatase expression remains unknown. Methods Adult male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata were given a penetrating injury to the entopallium. At several timepoints later, expression of aromatase, IL-1β-like, and IL-6-like were examined using immunohisotchemistry. A second set of zebra birds were exposed to phytohemagglutinin (PHA, an inflammatory agent, directly on the dorsal surface of the telencephalon without creating a penetrating injury. Expression of aromatase, IL-1β-like, and IL-6-like were examined using both quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction to examine mRNA expression and immunohistochemistry to determine cellular expression. Statistical significance was determined using t-test or one-way analysis of variance followed by the Tukey Kramers post hoc test. Results Following injury in the zebra finch brain, cytokine expression occurs prior to aromatase expression. This temporal pattern suggests that cytokines may induce aromatase expression in the damaged zebra finch brain. Furthermore, evoking a neuroinflammatory response characterized by an increase in cytokine expression in the uninjured brain is sufficient to induce glial aromatase expression. Conclusions These studies are among the first to examine a neuroinflammatory response in the songbird brain following mechanical brain injury and to describe a novel neuroimmune signal to initiate aromatase expression in glia.

  14. Allergic Inflammation Leads to Neuropathic Pain via Glial Cell Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Ryo; Fujii, Takayuki; Wang, Bing; Masaki, Katsuhisa; Kido, Mizuho A; Yoshida, Mari; Matsushita, Takuya; Kira, Jun-Ichi

    2016-11-23

    Allergic and atopic disorders have increased over the past few decades and have been associated with neuropsychiatric conditions, such as autism spectrum disorder and asthmatic amyotrophy. Myelitis presenting with neuropathic pain can occur in patients with atopic disorder; however, the relationship between allergic inflammation and neuropathic pain, and the underlying mechanism, remains to be established. We studied whether allergic inflammation affects the spinal nociceptive system. We found that mice with asthma, atopic dermatitis, or atopic diathesis had widespread and significantly more activated microglia and astroglia in the spinal cord than those without atopy, and displayed tactile allodynia. Microarray analysis of isolated microglia revealed a dysregulated phenotype showing upregulation of M1 macrophage markers and downregulation of M2 markers in atopic mice. Among the cell surface protein genes, endothelin receptor type B (EDNRB) was most upregulated. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that EDNRB expression was enhanced in microglia and astroglia, whereas endothelin-1, an EDNRB ligand, was increased in serum, lungs, and epidermis of atopic mice. No EDNRA expression was found in the spinal cord. Expression of FBJ murine osteosarcoma viral oncogene homolog B was significantly higher in the dorsal horn neurons of asthma mice than nonatopic mice. The EDNRB antagonist BQ788 abolished glial and neural activation and allodynia. We found increased serum endothelin-1 in atopic patients with myelitis and neuropathic pain, and activation of spinal microglia and astroglia with EDNRB upregulation in an autopsied case. These results suggest that allergic inflammation induces diffuse glial activation, influencing the nociceptive system via the EDNRB pathway. The prevalence of allergic disorders has markedly increased over the past few decades. Allergic disorders are associated with neuropsychiatric conditions; however, the relationship between allergic inflammation

  15. Minocycline blocks glial cell activation and ventilatory acclimatization to hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Jennifer A; Arbogast, Tara E; Moya, Esteban A; Fu, Zhenxing; Powell, Frank L

    2017-04-01

    Ventilatory acclimatization to hypoxia (VAH) is the time-dependent increase in ventilation, which persists upon return to normoxia and involves plasticity in both central nervous system respiratory centers and peripheral chemoreceptors. We investigated the role of glial cells in VAH in male Sprague-Dawley rats using minocycline, an antibiotic that inhibits microglia activation and has anti-inflammatory properties, and barometric pressure plethysmography to measure ventilation. Rats received either minocycline (45mg/kg ip daily) or saline beginning 1 day before and during 7 days of chronic hypoxia (CH, Pi O 2  = 70 Torr). Minocycline had no effect on normoxic control rats or the hypercapnic ventilatory response in CH rats, but minocycline significantly ( P minocycline administration during only the last 3 days of CH did not reverse VAH. Microglia and astrocyte activation in the nucleus tractus solitarius was quantified from 30 min to 7 days of CH. Microglia showed an active morphology (shorter and fewer branches) after 1 h of hypoxia and returned to the control state (longer filaments and extensive branching) after 4 h of CH. Astrocytes increased glial fibrillary acidic protein antibody immunofluorescent intensity, indicating activation, at both 4 and 24 h of CH. Minocycline had no effect on glia in normoxia but significantly decreased microglia activation at 1 h of CH and astrocyte activation at 24 h of CH. These results support a role for glial cells, providing an early signal for the induction but not maintenance of neural plasticity underlying ventilatory acclimatization to hypoxia. NEW & NOTEWORTHY The signals for neural plasticity in medullary respiratory centers underlying ventilatory acclimatization to chronic hypoxia are unknown. We show that chronic hypoxia activates microglia and subsequently astrocytes. Minocycline, an antibiotic that blocks microglial activation and has anti-inflammatory properties, also blocks astrocyte activation in respiratory

  16. Combination effects of epidermal growth factor and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor on the in vitro developmental potential of porcine oocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valleh, Mehdi Vafaye; Rasmussen, Mikkel Aabech; Hyttel, Poul

    2016-01-01

    of improving this issue, the single and combined effects of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) on oocyte developmental competence were investigated. Porcine cumulus–oocyte cell complexes (COCs) were matured in serum-free medium supplemented with EGF (0, 10...... with the combination of EGF and GDNF was shown to significantly improve oocyte competence in terms of blastocyst formation, blastocyst cell number and blastocyst hatching rate (P

  17. Indoxyl Sulfate Affects Glial Function Increasing Oxidative Stress and Neuroinflammation in Chronic Kidney Disease: Interaction between Astrocytes and Microglia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Adesso

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Indoxyl sulfate (IS is a protein-bound uremic toxin resulting from the metabolism of dietary tryptophan which accumulates in patients with impaired renal function, such as chronic kidney disease (CKD. IS is a well-known nephrovascular toxin but little is known about its effects on central nervous system (CNS cells. Considering the growing interest in the field of CNS comorbidities in CKD, we studied the effect of IS on CNS cells. IS (15–60 μM treatment in C6 astrocyte cells increased reactive oxygen species release and decreased nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2-like 2 (Nrf2 activation, and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 and NAD(PH dehydrogenase quinone 1 expression. Moreover, IS increased Aryl hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR and Nuclear Factor-kB (NF-kB activation in these cells. Similiar observations were made in primary mouse astrocytes and mixed glial cells. Inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 expression, tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 release and nitrotyrosine formation were increased by IS (15–60 μM in primary mouse astrocytes and mixed glial cells. IS increased AhR and NF-kB nuclear translocation and reduced Nrf2 translocation and HO-1 expression in primary glial cells. In addition, IS induced cell death in neurons in a dose dependent fashion. Injection of IS (800 mg/kg, i.p. into mice induced histological changes and increased COX-2 expression and nitrotyrosine formation in thebrain tissue. Taken together, our results show a significant contribution of IS in generating a neurotoxic enviroment and it could also have a potential role in neurodegeneration. IS could be considered also a potential therapeutical target for CKD-associated neurodegenerative complications.

  18. The Effects of Topical Agent (Kelo-Cote or Contractubex Massage on the Thickness of Post-Burn Scar Tissue Formed in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won Jin Ko

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundWe conducted an experimental study to compare the effect of massage using topical agents (Kelo-cote or Contractubex on scar formation by massaging the healed burn wound on the dorsal area of Sprague-Dawley (SD rats.MethodsFour areas of second degree contact burn were made on the dorsal area of each of 15 SD rats, using a soldering iron 15 mm in diameter. After gross epithelialization in the defect, 15 SD rats were randomly divided into four groups: the Kelo-cote group, Contractubex group, Vaseline group, and control group. Rats in three of the groups (all but the Control group were massaged twice per day for 5 minutes each day, while those in the Control group were left unattended. For histologic analysis, we performed a biopsy and evaluated the thickness of scar tissue.ResultsIn the Kelo-cote and Contractubex groups, scar tissue thicknesses showed a significant decrease, compared with the Vaseline and control groups. However, no significant differences were observed between the Kelo-cote and Contractubex groups. In the Vaseline group, scar tissue thicknesses showed a significant decrease, compared with the control groups.ConclusionsThe findings of this study suggest that massage using a topical agent is helpful in the prevention of scar formation and that massage only with lubricant (no use of a topical agent also has a considerable effect, although not as much as the use of a topical agent. Thus, we recommend massage with a topical agent on the post-burn scar as an effective method for decreasing the scar thickness.

  19. ["Palimpsest scar" lesions in a context of torture (Darfur, Sudan)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlier, P; Bou Abdallah, F; Mostefai Dulac, Y; Deo, S; Jacqueline, S; Brun, L; Hervé, C

    2017-11-01

    As a result of the current exponentially growing refugee population from the Middle-East and East Africa (Sudan, Darfur, Eritrea), clinicians (including forensic pathologists) are seeing atypical skin lesions, mainly of a traumatic nature, but in some cases associated with long-standing lesions related to ethnic practices. A case of torture sequelae is presented herein in a patient originally from Darfur (Sudan): cutaneous incisions were made on old scars several times using a knife. The clinical presentation of scarification lesions and that of atypically healed wounds (presumably an effect of inflammation induced by the introduction of irritating foreign bodies such as sand, salt, etc.) are completely different: in all cases they indicate a relative timeframe of the facts, which the clinician should not overlook in reconstructing the patient's course and the injuries to which he has been subjected (hence the proposed designation of "palimpsest scar", in the sense that a palimpsest is a manuscript on a parchment that previously contained writing but has been scratched clean to be overwritten). Thus, a "palimpsest scar" constitutes a fresh scar on top of and hiding another (ritual) scar in a context of ethnic cleansing. The diagnostic and clinical significance comes from the importance of differentiating between ethnic-type lesions and those induced by physical violence and abuse in a context of war. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. [Comparision of Different Methods of Area Measurement in Irregular Scar].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, D; Li, W J; Sun, Q G; Li, J Q; Xia, Q

    2016-10-01

    To determine a measurement standard of irregular scar area by comparing the advantages and disadvantages of different measurement methods in measuring same irregular scar area. Irregular scar area was scanned by digital scanning and measured by coordinate reading method, AutoCAD pixel method, Photoshop lasso pixel method, Photoshop magic bar filled pixel method and Foxit PDF reading software, and some aspects of these methods such as measurement time, repeatability, whether could be recorded and whether could be traced were compared and analyzed. There was no significant difference in the scar areas by the measurement methods above. However, there was statistical difference in the measurement time and repeatability by one or multi performers and only Foxit PDF reading software could be traced back. The methods above can be used for measuring scar area, but each one has its advantages and disadvantages. It is necessary to develop new measurement software for forensic identification. Copyright© by the Editorial Department of Journal of Forensic Medicine

  1. Caesarean section greatly increases risk of scar endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nominato, Nilo Sérgio; Prates, Luis Felipe Victor Spyer; Lauar, Isabela; Morais, Jaqueline; Maia, Laura; Geber, Selmo

    2010-09-01

    To estimate the incidence of scar endometriosis after different surgical procedures. A retrospective study of 72 patients diagnosed with scar endometriosis between 1978 and 2003 was performed. Patient age, site of endometriosis, previous operations, time-gap between last surgery and onset of symptoms, nodule characteristics, and recurrence were evaluated. Age ranged from 16 to 48 years. Location varied according to the previous surgery: 46 caesarean section, one hysterectomy, one in abdominal surgery, 19 episiotomy, one was a relapse and two pelvic floor procedures, two women with no previous surgery. The incidence of scar endometriosis after caesarean section was significantly higher than after episiotomy (0.2 and 0.06%, respectively: p<0.00001) with a relative risk of 3.3. Pain was the most frequent symptom. The mean time between surgery and onset of symptoms was 3.7 years. Our findings confirm that scar endometriosis is a rare condition and indicate, probably for the first time, that caesarean section greatly increases the risk of developing scar endometriosis. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Emergent scar lines in chaotic advection of passive directors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejazi, Bardia; Mehlig, Bernhard; Voth, Greg A.

    2017-12-01

    We examine the spatial field of orientations of slender fibers that are advected by a two-dimensional fluid flow. The orientation field of these passive directors are important in a wide range of industrial and geophysical flows. We introduce emergent scar lines as the dominant coherent structures in the orientation field of passive directors in chaotic flows. Previous work has identified the existence of scar lines where the orientation rotates by π over short distances, but the lines that were identified disappeared as time progressed. As a result, earlier work focused on topological singularities in the orientation field, which we find to play a negligible role at long times. We use the standard map as a simple time-periodic two-dimensional flow that produces Lagrangian chaos. This class of flows produces persistent patterns in passive scalar advection and we find that a different kind of persistent pattern develops in the passive director orientation field. We identify the mechanism by which emergent scar lines grow to dominate these patterns at long times in complex flows. Emergent scar lines form where the recent stretching of the fluid element is perpendicular to earlier stretching. Thus these scar lines can be labeled by their age, defined as the time since their stretching reached a maximum.

  3. Lactic acid peeling in superficial acne scarring in Indian skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachdeva, Silonie

    2010-09-01

    Chemical peeling with both alpha and beta hydroxy acids has been used to improve acne scarring with pigmentation. Lactic acid, a mild alpha hydroxy acid, has been used in the treatment of various dermatological indications but no study is reported in acne scarring with pigmentation. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of full strength pure lactic acid 92% (pH 2.0) chemical peel in superficial acne scarring in Indian skin. Seven patients, Fitzpatrick skin type IV-V, in age group 20-30 years with superficial acne scarring were enrolled in the study. Chemical peeling was done with lactic acid at an interval of 2 weeks to a maximum of four peels. Pre- and post-peel clinical photographs were taken at every session. Patients were followed every month for 3 months after the last peel to evaluate the effects. At the end of 3 months, there was definite improvement in the texture, pigmentation, and appearance of the treated skin, with lightening of scars. Significant improvement (greater than 75% clearance of lesions) occurred in one patient (14.28%), good improvement (51-75% clearance) in three patients (42.84%), moderate improvement (26-50% clearance) in two patients (28.57%), and mild improvement (1-25% clearance) in one patient (14.28%). © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. High- and ultrahigh-field magnetic resonance imaging of na?ve, injured and scarred vocal fold mucosae in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Kishimoto, Ayami Ohno; Kishimoto, Yo; Young, David L.; Zhang, Jinjin; Rowland, Ian J.; Welham, Nathan V.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Subepithelial changes to the vocal fold mucosa, such as fibrosis, are difficult to identify using visual assessment of the tissue surface. Moreover, without suspicion of neoplasm, mucosal biopsy is not a viable clinical option, as it carries its own risk of iatrogenic injury and scar formation. Given these challenges, we assessed the ability of high- (4.7?T) and ultrahigh-field (9.4?T) magnetic resonance imaging to resolve key vocal fold subepithelial tissue structures in the rat, an...

  5. A Study Of 7 Cases Of Depressed Facial Scars Corrected By Subcision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malakar Subrata

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Seven (7 cases of depressed facial scars which included depressed distensile acne scars, depressed bound down scars of acne excluding deep ice pick scars, and scars of varicella constituted the study group. The scars were treated with a new method named subcuticular undermining. A tri-bevelled hypodermic needle was inserted through a puncture in the skin surface and its sharp edges were manouevered under the scar. The depression was lifted by the releasing action of the needle maneuevere and from connective tissue that forms in course of normal wound healing. Approximately 50% to 80% improvement of all the scars were noticed. Patient’s compliance was highly satisfactory. Subcision is an appropriate, option in depressed scars of black skin (Type IV-Type VI where dermabrasion and medium-depth and deep chemical peeling are contraindicated.

  6. Elastin Is Differentially Regulated by Pressure Therapy in a Porcine Model of Hypertrophic Scar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carney, Bonnie C; Liu, Zekun; Alkhalil, Abdulnaser; Travis, Taryn E; Ramella-Roman, Jessica; Moffatt, Lauren T; Shupp, Jeffrey W

    Beneficial effects of pressure therapy for hypertrophic scars have been reported, but the mechanisms of action are not fully understood. This study evaluated elastin and its contribution to scar pliability. The relationship between changes in Vancouver Scar Scale (VSS) scores of pressure-treated scars and differential regulation of elastin was assessed. Hypertrophic scars were created and assessed weekly using VSS and biopsy procurement. Pressure treatment began on day 70 postinjury. Treated scars were compared with untreated shams. Treatment lasted 2 weeks, through day 84, and scars were assessed weekly through day 126. Transcript and protein levels of elastin were quantified. Pressure treatment resulted in lower VSS scores compared with sham-treated scars. Pliability (VSSP) was a key contributor to this difference. At day 70 pretreatment, VSSP = 2. Without treatment, sham-treated scars became less pliable, while pressure-treated scars became more pliable. The percentage of elastin in scars at day 70 was higher than in uninjured skin. Following treatment, the percentage of elastin increased and continued to increase through day 126. Untreated sham scars did not show a similar increase. Quantification of Verhoeff-Van Gieson staining corroborated the findings and immunofluorescence revealed the alignment of elastin fibers. Pressure treatment results in increased protein level expression of elastin compared with sham-untreated scars. These findings further characterize the extracellular matrix's response to the application of pressure as a scar treatment, which will contribute to the refinement of rehabilitation practices and ultimately improvements in functional and psychosocial outcomes for patients.

  7. Glial processes at the Drosophila larval neuromuscular junction match synaptic growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deidre L Brink

    Full Text Available Glia are integral participants in synaptic physiology, remodeling and maturation from blowflies to humans, yet how glial structure is coordinated with synaptic growth is unknown. To investigate the dynamics of glial development at the Drosophila larval neuromuscular junction (NMJ, we developed a live imaging system to establish the relationship between glia, neuronal boutons, and the muscle subsynaptic reticulum. Using this system we observed processes from two classes of peripheral glia present at the NMJ. Processes from the subperineurial glia formed a blood-nerve barrier around the axon proximal to the first bouton. Processes from the perineurial glial extended beyond the end of the blood-nerve barrier into the NMJ where they contacted synapses and extended across non-synaptic muscle. Growth of the glial processes was coordinated with NMJ growth and synaptic activity. Increasing synaptic size through elevated temperature or the highwire mutation increased the extent of glial processes at the NMJ and conversely blocking synaptic activity and size decreased the presence and size of glial processes. We found that elevated temperature was required during embryogenesis in order to increase glial expansion at the nmj. Therefore, in our live imaging system, glial processes at the NMJ are likely indirectly regulated by synaptic changes to ensure the coordinated growth of all components of the tripartite larval NMJ.

  8. Three-dimensional graphene foams loaded with bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells promote skin wound healing with reduced scarring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zhonghua [Department of Burn and Plastic Surgery, Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan 250021 (China); Department of Burn and Plastic Surgery, The Fourth People' s Hospital Of Jinan, Jinan 250031 (China); Wang, Haiqin [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The Fifth People' s Hospital Of Jinan, Jinan 250022 (China); Yang, Bo; Sun, Yukai [Department of Burn and Plastic Surgery, The Fourth People' s Hospital Of Jinan, Jinan 250031 (China); Huo, Ran, E-mail: rhuo12@163.com [Department of Burn and Plastic Surgery, Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan 250021 (China)

    2015-12-01

    The regeneration of functional skin remains elusive, due to poor engraftment, deficient vascularization, and excessive scar formation. Aiming to overcome these issues, the present study proposed the combination of a three-dimensional graphene foam (GF) scaffold loaded with bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to improve skin wound healing. The GFs demonstrated good biocompatibility and promoted the growth and proliferation of MSCs. Meanwhile, the GFs loaded with MSCs obviously facilitated wound closure in animal model. The dermis formed in the presence of the GF structure loaded with MSCs was thicker and possessed a more complex structure at day 14 post-surgery. The transplanted MSCs correlated with upregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), which may lead to neo-vascularization. Additionally, an anti-scarring effect was observed in the presence of the 3D-GF scaffold and MSCs, as evidenced by a downregulation of transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1) and alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) together with an increase of TGF-β3. Altogether, the GF scaffold could guide the wound healing process with reduced scarring, and the MSCs were crucial to enhance vascularization and provided a better quality neo-skin. The GF scaffold loaded with MSCs possesses necessary bioactive cues to improve wound healing with reduced scarring, which may be of great clinical significance for skin wound healing. - Highlights: • The GFs promoted the growth and proliferation of MSCs. • The GFs loaded with MSCs obviously facilitated wound closure in the animal model. • An anti-scarring effect was observed in the presence of 3D-GF scaffold and MSCs. • The GF scaffold loaded with MSCs has great effect on skin wound healing.

  9. Three-dimensional graphene foams loaded with bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells promote skin wound healing with reduced scarring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Zhonghua; Wang, Haiqin; Yang, Bo; Sun, Yukai; Huo, Ran

    2015-01-01

    The regeneration of functional skin remains elusive, due to poor engraftment, deficient vascularization, and excessive scar formation. Aiming to overcome these issues, the present study proposed the combination of a three-dimensional graphene foam (GF) scaffold loaded with bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to improve skin wound healing. The GFs demonstrated good biocompatibility and promoted the growth and proliferation of MSCs. Meanwhile, the GFs loaded with MSCs obviously facilitated wound closure in animal model. The dermis formed in the presence of the GF structure loaded with MSCs was thicker and possessed a more complex structure at day 14 post-surgery. The transplanted MSCs correlated with upregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), which may lead to neo-vascularization. Additionally, an anti-scarring effect was observed in the presence of the 3D-GF scaffold and MSCs, as evidenced by a downregulation of transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1) and alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) together with an increase of TGF-β3. Altogether, the GF scaffold could guide the wound healing process with reduced scarring, and the MSCs were crucial to enhance vascularization and provided a better quality neo-skin. The GF scaffold loaded with MSCs possesses necessary bioactive cues to improve wound healing with reduced scarring, which may be of great clinical significance for skin wound healing. - Highlights: • The GFs promoted the growth and proliferation of MSCs. • The GFs loaded with MSCs obviously facilitated wound closure in the animal model. • An anti-scarring effect was observed in the presence of 3D-GF scaffold and MSCs. • The GF scaffold loaded with MSCs has great effect on skin wound healing

  10. Honeybee retinal glial cells transform glucose and supply the neurons with metabolic substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsacopoulos, M.; Evequoz-Mercier, V.; Perrottet, P.; Buchner, E.

    1988-01-01

    The retina of the honeybee drone is a nervous tissue in which glial cells and photoreceptor cells (sensory neurons) constitute two distinct metabolic compartments. Retinal slices incubated with 2-deoxy[ 3 H]glucose convert this glucose analogue to 2-deoxy[ 3 H]glucose 6-phosphate, but this conversion is made only in the glial cells. Hence, glycolysis occurs only in glial cells. In contrast, the neurons consume O 2 and this consumption is sustained by the hydrolysis of glycogen, which is contained in large amounts in the glia. During photostimulation the increased oxidative metabolism of the neurons is sustained by a higher supply of carbohydrates from the glia. This clear case of metabolic interaction between neurons and glial cells supports Golgi's original hypothesis, proposed nearly 100 years ago, about the nutritive function of glial cells in the nervous system

  11. Honeybee Retinal Glial Cells Transform Glucose and Supply the Neurons with Metabolic Substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsacopoulos, M.; Evequoz-Mercier, V.; Perrottet, P.; Buchner, E.

    1988-11-01

    The retina of the honeybee drone is a nervous tissue in which glial cells and photoreceptor cells (sensory neurons) constitute two distinct metabolic compartments. Retinal slices incubated with 2-deoxy[3H]glucose convert this glucose analogue to 2-deoxy[3H]glucose 6-phosphate, but this conversion is made only in the glial cells. Hence, glycolysis occurs only in glial cells. In contrast, the neurons consume O2 and this consumption is sustained by the hydrolysis of glycogen, which is contained in large amounts in the glia. During photostimulation the increased oxidative metabolism of the neurons is sustained by a higher supply of carbohydrates from the glia. This clear case of metabolic interaction between neurons and glial cells supports Golgi's original hypothesis, proposed nearly 100 years ago, about the nutritive function of glial cells in the nervous system.

  12. Disfiguring scarring following mesotherapy-associated Mycobacterium cosmeticum infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Kenneth; Waibel, Jill

    2009-04-01

    Mesotherapy is a popular procedure that poses risks that include scarring, contour changes and bacterial infections. The benefits of the procedure remain to be objectively delineated in a placebo-controlled, blinded study. Despite the lack of evidence to support its use, it is marketed as a "nonsurgical and safe" way to remove fat. The authors report a case of mycobacterial infection resulting from mesotherapy. This infection should be considered when a patient presents with a mesotherapy complication and should be discussed with the patient prior to the procedure. Options for treatment of the scarring are considered.

  13. The impact of obesity on febrile urinary tract infection and renal scarring in children with vesicoureteral reflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, H J; Ha, J Y; Jung, W; Kim, B H; Park, C H; Kim, C I

    2017-02-01

    via electronic medical records, and the small number of subjects. This study showed that obesity in patients with VUR has an effect on fUTI and renal scar formation. If the patients with VUR have obesity, close follow-up should be performed, and VUR patients should be started on a weight-loss program, which could reduce the number of patients with chronic kidney disease in the future. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Pediatric Urology Company. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Peripheral nerve injury induces glial activation in primary motor cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julieta Troncoso

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary evidence suggests that peripheral facial nerve injuries are associated with sensorimotor cortex reorganization. We have characterized facial nerve lesion-induced structural changes in primary motor cortex layer 5 pyramidal neurons and their relationship with glial cell density using a rodent facial paralysis model. First, we used adult transgenic mice expressing green fluorescent protein in microglia and yellow fluorescent protein in pyramidal neurons which were subjected to either unilateral lesion of the facial nerve or sham surgery. Two-photon excitation microscopy was then used for evaluating both layer 5 pyramidal neurons and microglia in vibrissal primary motor cortex (vM1. It was found that facial nerve lesion induced long-lasting changes in dendritic morphology of vM1 layer 5 pyramidal neurons and in their surrounding microglia. Pyramidal cells’ dendritic arborization underwent overall shrinkage and transient spine pruning. Moreover, microglial cell density surrounding vM1 layer 5 pyramidal neurons was significantly increased with morphological bias towards the activated phenotype. Additionally, we induced facial nerve lesion in Wistar rats to evaluate the degree and extension of facial nerve lesion-induced reorganization processes in central nervous system using neuronal and glial markers. Immunoreactivity to NeuN (neuronal nuclei antigen, GAP-43 (growth-associated protein 43, GFAP (glial fibrillary acidic protein, and Iba 1 (Ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1 were evaluated 1, 3, 7, 14, 28 and 35 days after either unilateral facial nerve lesion or sham surgery. Patches of decreased NeuN immunoreactivity were found bilaterally in vM1 as well as in primary somatosensory cortex (CxS1. Significantly increased GAP-43 immunoreactivity was found bilaterally after the lesion in hippocampus, striatum, and sensorimotor cortex. One day after lesion GFAP immunoreactivity increased bilaterally in hippocampus, subcortical white

  15. Sox2 promotes survival of satellite glial cells in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koike, Taro; Wakabayashi, Taketoshi; Mori, Tetsuji; Hirahara, Yukie; Yamada, Hisao

    2015-01-01

    Sox2 is a transcriptional factor expressed in neural stem cells. It is known that Sox2 regulates cell differentiation, proliferation and survival of the neural stem cells. Our previous study showed that Sox2 is expressed in all satellite glial cells of the adult rat dorsal root ganglion. In this study, to examine the role of Sox2 in satellite glial cells, we establish a satellite glial cell-enriched culture system. Our culture method succeeded in harvesting satellite glial cells with the somata of neurons in the dorsal root ganglion. Using this culture system, Sox2 was downregulated by siRNA against Sox2. The knockdown of Sox2 downregulated ErbB2 and ErbB3 mRNA at 2 and 4 days after siRNA treatment. MAPK phosphorylation, downstream of ErbB, was also inhibited by Sox2 knockdown. Because ErbB2 and ErbB3 are receptors that support the survival of glial cells in the peripheral nervous system, apoptotic cells were also counted. TUNEL-positive cells increased at 5 days after siRNA treatment. These results suggest that Sox2 promotes satellite glial cell survival through the MAPK pathway via ErbB receptors. - Highlights: • We established satellite glial cell culture system. • Function of Sox2 in satellite glial cell was examined using siRNA. • Sox2 knockdown downregulated expression level of ErbB2 and ErbB3 mRNA. • Sox2 knockdown increased apoptotic satellite glial cell. • Sox2 promotes satellite glial cell survival through ErbB signaling

  16. Sox2 promotes survival of satellite glial cells in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koike, Taro, E-mail: koiket@hirakata.kmu.ac.jp; Wakabayashi, Taketoshi; Mori, Tetsuji; Hirahara, Yukie; Yamada, Hisao

    2015-08-14

    Sox2 is a transcriptional factor expressed in neural stem cells. It is known that Sox2 regulates cell differentiation, proliferation and survival of the neural stem cells. Our previous study showed that Sox2 is expressed in all satellite glial cells of the adult rat dorsal root ganglion. In this study, to examine the role of Sox2 in satellite glial cells, we establish a satellite glial cell-enriched culture system. Our culture method succeeded in harvesting satellite glial cells with the somata of neurons in the dorsal root ganglion. Using this culture system, Sox2 was downregulated by siRNA against Sox2. The knockdown of Sox2 downregulated ErbB2 and ErbB3 mRNA at 2 and 4 days after siRNA treatment. MAPK phosphorylation, downstream of ErbB, was also inhibited by Sox2 knockdown. Because ErbB2 and ErbB3 are receptors that support the survival of glial cells in the peripheral nervous system, apoptotic cells were also counted. TUNEL-positive cells increased at 5 days after siRNA treatment. These results suggest that Sox2 promotes satellite glial cell survival through the MAPK pathway via ErbB receptors. - Highlights: • We established satellite glial cell culture system. • Function of Sox2 in satellite glial cell was examined using siRNA. • Sox2 knockdown downregulated expression level of ErbB2 and ErbB3 mRNA. • Sox2 knockdown increased apoptotic satellite glial cell. • Sox2 promotes satellite glial cell survival through ErbB signaling.

  17. Juliprosopine and juliprosine from prosopis juliflora leaves induce mitochondrial damage and cytoplasmic vacuolation on cocultured glial cells and neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Victor Diogenes A; Pitanga, Bruno P S; Nascimento, Ravena P; Souza, Cleide S; Coelho, Paulo Lucas C; Menezes-Filho, Noélio; Silva, André Mário M; Costa, Maria de Fátima D; El-Bachá, Ramon S; Velozo, Eudes S; Costa, Silvia L

    2013-12-16

    Prosopis juliflora is a shrub largely used for animal and human consumption. However, ingestion has been shown to induce intoxication in animals, which is characterized by neuromuscular alterations induced by mechanisms that are not yet well understood. In this study, we investigated the cytotoxicity of a total alkaloid extract (TAE) and one alkaloid fraction (F32) obtained from P. juliflora leaves to rat cortical neurons and glial cells. Nuclear magnetic resonance characterization of F32 showed that this fraction is composed of a mixture of two piperidine alkaloids, juliprosopine (majority constituent) and juliprosine. TAE and F32 at concentrations between 0.3 and 45 μg/mL were tested for 24 h on neuron/glial cell primary cocultures. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide test revealed that TAE and F32 were cytotoxic to cocultures, and their IC50 values were 31.07 and 7.362 μg/mL, respectively. Exposure to a subtoxic concentration of TAE or F32 (0.3-3 μg/mL) induced vacuolation and disruption of the astrocyte monolayer and neurite network, ultrastructural changes, characterized by formation of double-membrane vacuoles, and mitochondrial damage, associated with changes in β-tubulin III and glial fibrillary acidic protein expression. Microglial proliferation was also observed in cultures exposed to TAE or F32, with increasing levels of OX-42-positive cells. Considering that F32 was more cytotoxic than TAE and that F32 reproduced in vitro the main morphologic and ultrastructural changes of "cara torta" disease, we can also suggest that piperidine alkaloids juliprosopine and juliprosine are primarily responsible for the neurotoxic damage observed in animals after they have consumed the plant.

  18. Efficacy of Punch Elevation Combined with Fractional Carbon Dioxide Laser Resurfacing in Facial Atrophic Acne Scarring: A Randomized Split-face Clinical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faghihi, Gita; Nouraei, Saeid; Asilian, Ali; Keyvan, Shima; Abtahi-Naeini, Bahareh; Rakhshanpour, Mehrdad; Nilforoushzadeh, Mohammad Ali; Hosseini, Sayed Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    Background: A number of treatments for reducing the appearance of acne scars are available, but general guidelines for optimizing acne scar treatment do not exist. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical effectiveness and side effects of fractional carbon dioxide (CO2) laser resurfacing combined with punch elevation with fractional CO2 laser resurfacing alone in the treatment of atrophic acne scars. Materials and Methods: Forty-two Iranian subjects (age range 18–55) with Fitzpatrick skin types III to IV and moderate to severe atrophic acne scars on both cheeks received randomized split-face treatments: One side received fractional CO2 laser treatment and the other received one session of punch elevation combined with two sessions of laser fractional CO2 laser treatment, separated by an interval of 1 month. Two dermatologists independently evaluated improvement in acne scars 4 and 16 weeks after the last treatment. Side effects were also recorded after each treatment. Results: The mean ± SD age of patients was 23.4 ± 2.6 years. Clinical improvement of facial acne scarring was assessed by two dermatologists blinded to treatment conditions. No significant difference in evaluation was observed 1 month after treatment (P = 0.56). Their evaluation found that fractional CO2 laser treatment combined with punch elevation had greater efficacy than that with fractional CO2 laser treatment alone, assessed 4 months after treatment (P = 0.02). Among all side effects, coagulated crust formation and pruritus at day 3 after fractional CO2 laser treatment was significant on both treatment sides (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Concurrent use of fractional laser skin resurfacing with punch elevation offers a safe and effective approach for the treatment of acne scarring. PMID:26538695

  19. Efficacy of punch elevation combined with fractional carbon dioxide laser resurfacing in facial atrophic acne scarring: A randomized split-face clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gita Faghihi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A number of treatments for reducing the appearance of acne scars are available, but general guidelines for optimizing acne scar treatment do not exist. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical effectiveness and side effects of fractional carbon dioxide (CO 2 laser resurfacing combined with punch elevation with fractional CO 2 laser resurfacing alone in the treatment of atrophic acne scars. Materials and Methods: Forty-two Iranian subjects (age range 18-55 with Fitzpatrick skin types III to IV and moderate to severe atrophic acne scars on both cheeks received randomized split-face treatments: One side received fractional CO 2 laser treatment and the other received one session of punch elevation combined with two sessions of laser fractional CO 2 laser treatment, separated by an interval of 1 month. Two dermatologists independently evaluated improvement in acne scars 4 and 16 weeks after the last treatment. Side effects were also recorded after each treatment. Results: The mean ± SD age of patients was 23.4 ± 2.6 years. Clinical improvement of facial acne scarring was assessed by two dermatologists blinded to treatment conditions. No significant difference in evaluation was observed 1 month after treatment (P = 0.56. Their evaluation found that fractional CO 2 laser treatment combined with punch elevation had greater efficacy than that with fractional CO 2 laser treatment alone, assessed 4 months after treatment (P = 0.02. Among all side effects, coagulated crust formation and pruritus at day 3 after fractional CO 2 laser treatment was significant on both treatment sides (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Concurrent use of fractional laser skin resurfacing with punch elevation offers a safe and effective approach for the treatment of acne scarring.

  20. How do glial cells contribute to motor control?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Rasmus Kordt; Petersen, Anders Victor; Perrier, Jean-Francois Marie

    2013-01-01

    that glia play an active role in several physiological functions. The discovery that a bidirectional communication takes place between astrocytes (the star shaped glial cell of the brain) and neurons, was a major breakthrough in the field of synaptic physiology. Astrocytes express receptors that get...... activated by neurotransmitters during synaptic transmission. In turn they release other transmitters - called gliotransmitters - that bind to neuronal receptors and modulate synaptic transmission. This feedback, which led to the concept of the tripartite synapse, has been reported with various transmitters...... including glutamate, ATP, GABA or serine. In the present review we will focus on astrocytes and review the evidence suggesting and demonstrating their role in motor control. Rhythmic motor behaviors such as locomotion, swimming or chewing are generated by networks of neurons termed central pattern...

  1. Regulation of radial glial survival by signals from the meninges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radakovits, Randor; Barros, Claudia S; Belvindrah, Richard; Patton, Bruce; Müller, Ulrich

    2009-06-17

    Radial glial cells (RGCs) in the developing cerebral cortex are progenitors for neurons and glia, and their processes serve as guideposts for migrating neurons. So far, it has remained unclear whether RGC processes also control the function of RGCs more directly. Here, we show that RGC numbers and cortical size are reduced in mice lacking beta1 integrins in RGCs. TUNEL stainings and time-lapse video recordings demonstrate that beta1-deficient RGCs processes detach from the meningeal basement membrane (BM) followed by apoptotic death of RGCs. Apoptosis is also induced by surgical removal of the meninges. Finally, mice lacking the BM components laminin alpha2 and alpha4 show defects in the attachment of RGC processes at the meninges, a reduction in cortical size, and enhanced apoptosis of RGC cells. Our findings demonstrate that attachment of RGC processes at the meninges is important for RGC survival and the control of cortical size.

  2. CSF glial markers correlate with survival in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Süssmuth, S D; Sperfeld, A D; Hinz, A; Brettschneider, J; Endruhn, S; Ludolph, A C; Tumani, H

    2010-03-23

    In neurodegenerative diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), CSF biomarkers are increasingly studied to evaluate their relevance for differential diagnosis, disease progression, and understanding of pathophysiologic processes. To identify a biomarker profile of neuronal and glial CSF proteins to discriminate ALS from other motor neuron diseases (MND) and to assess whether baseline levels of CSF measures in ALS are associated with the course of the disease. A total of 122 consecutive subjects with MND were included in this cross-sectional study (ALS, n = 75; lower motor neuron syndrome, n = 39; upper motor neuron diseases, n = 8). Clinical follow-up included 76 patients. We determined baseline levels of protein tau and astroglial S100beta in CSF and microglial sCD14 in CSF and serum in relation to diagnosis, duration of disease, and survival. CSF tau was significantly elevated in ALS and upper motor neuron diseases as compared to lower motor neuron diseases and controls. CSF S100beta levels were significantly lower in lower motor neuron diseases as compared to other MND. CSF concentrations of S100beta and sCD14 correlated with the survival time in patients with ALS. In motor neuron diseases, CSF tau elevation indicates the degeneration of upper motor neurons, while S100 beta and sCD14 may indicate the activation of CNS glial cells. Because S100beta and sCD14 concentrations correlate with survival in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), we suppose that the combination of both markers may be useful to obtain prognostic information in patients with ALS.

  3. Depression as a Glial-Based Synaptic Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel eRial

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies combining pharmacological, behavioral, electrophysiological and molecular approaches indicate that depression results from maladaptive neuroplastic processing occurring in defined frontolimbic circuits responsible for emotional processing such as the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, amygdala and ventral striatum. However, the exact mechanisms controlling synaptic plasticity that are disrupted to trigger depressive conditions have not been elucidated. Since glial cells (astrocytes and microglia tightly and dynamically interact with synapses, engaging a bi-directional communication critical for the processing of synaptic information, we now revisit the role of glial cells in the etiology of depression focusing on a dysfunction of the ‘quad-partite’ synapse. This interest is supported by the observations that depressive-like conditions are associated with a decreased density and hypofunction of astrocytes and with an increase microglia ‘activation’ in frontolimbic regions, which is expected to contribute for the synaptic dysfunction present in depression. Furthermore, the traditional culprits of depression (glucocorticoids, biogenic amines, BDNF affect glia functioning, whereas antidepressant treatments (SSRIs, electroshock, deep brain stimulation recover glia functioning. In this context of a quad-partite synapse, systems modulating glia-synapse bidirectional communication - such as the purinergic neuromodulation system operated by ATP and adenosine - emerge as promising candidates to re-normalize synaptic function by combining direct synaptic effects with an ability to also control astrocyte and microglia function. This proposed triple action of purines to control aberrant synaptic function illustrates the rationale to consider the interference with glia dysfunction as a mechanism of action driving the design of future pharmacological tools to manage depression.

  4. Scar-free wound healing and regeneration following tail loss in the leopard gecko, Eublepharis macularius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delorme, Stephanie Lynn; Lungu, Ilinca Mihaela; Vickaryous, Matthew Kenneth

    2012-10-01

    Many lizards are able to undergo scar-free wound healing and regeneration following loss of the tail. In most instances, lizard tail loss is facilitated by autotomy, an evolved mechanism that permits the tail to be self-detached at pre-existing fracture planes. However, it has also been reported that the tail can regenerate following surgical amputation outside the fracture plane. In this study, we used the leopard gecko, Eublepharis macularius, to investigate and compare wound healing and regeneration following autotomy at a fracture plane and amputation outside the fracture plane. Both forms of tail loss undergo a nearly identical sequence of events leading to scar-free wound healing and regeneration. Early wound healing is characterized by transient myofibroblasts and the formation of a highly proliferative wound epithelium immunoreactive for the wound keratin marker WE6. The new tail forms from what is commonly referred to as a blastema, a mass of proliferating mesenchymal-like cells. Blastema cells express the protease matrix metalloproteinase-9. Apoptosis (demonstrated by activated caspase 3 immunostaining) is largely restricted to isolated cells of the original and regenerating tail tissues, although cell death also occurs within dermal structures at the original-regenerated tissue interface and among clusters of newly formed myocytes. Furthermore, the autotomized tail is unique in demonstrating apoptosis among cells adjacent to the fracture planes. Unlike mammals, transforming growth factor-β3 is not involved in wound healing. We demonstrate that scar-free wound healing and regeneration are intrinsic properties of the tail, unrelated to the location or mode of tail detachment. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Reduced FOXO1 expression accelerates skin wound healing and attenuates scarring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Ryoichi; Tanaka, Katsuya; de Kerckhove, Maiko; Okamoto, Momoko; Kashiyama, Kazuya; Tanaka, Katsumi; Kim, Sangeun; Kawata, Takuya; Komatsu, Toshimitsu; Park, Seongjoon; Ikematsu, Kazuya; Hirano, Akiyoshi; Martin, Paul; Shimokawa, Isao

    2014-09-01

    The forkhead box O (FOXO) family has been extensively investigated in aging and metabolism, but its role in tissue-repair processes remains largely unknown. Herein, we clarify the molecular aspect of the FOXO family in skin wound healing. We demonstrated that Foxo1 and Foxo3a were both up-regulated during murine skin wound healing. Partial knockout of Foxo1 in Foxo1(+/-) mice throughout the body led to accelerated skin wound healing with enhanced keratinocyte migration, reduced granulation tissue formation, and decreased collagen density, accompanied by an attenuated inflammatory response, but we observed no wound phenotype in Foxo3a(-/-) mice. Fibroblast growth factor 2, adiponectin, and notch1 genes were significantly increased at wound sites in Foxo1(+/-) mice, along with markedly altered extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and AKT phosphorylation. Similarly, transient knockdown of Foxo1 at the wound site by local delivery of antisense oligodeoxynucleotides enhanced skin wound healing. The link between FOXO1 and scarring extends to patients, in particular keloid scars, where we see FOXO1 expression markedly increased in fibroblasts and inflammatory cells within the otherwise normal dermis. This occurs in the immediate vicinity of the keloid by comparison to the center of the mature keloid, indicating that FOXO1 is associated with the overgrowth of this fibrotic response into adjacent normal skin. Overall, our data indicate that molecular targeting of FOXO1 may improve the quality of healing and reduce pathological scarring. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The persistence to slaughter age of scars resulting from damage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cut wounds were persistent to slaughter as were scratch marks, with only a small percentage of scratch wounds incurred at a young age not persisting to slaughter age. Mean scar size at slaughter became smaller with an increase in age at which the wounds were inflicted, except at 13 months of age where it was assumed ...

  7. Macular scar secondary to congenital toxoplasmosis | El Hamichi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 8 years old girl suffers from strabismus since her first months of life. Her visual acuity was very low and could only see fingers moving in her left eye. Her left eye fundus showed a chorioretinal scar in the macula due to congenital toxoplasmosis. The biological findings proved the diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis.

  8. Episiotomy scar endometriosis diagnosed on cytology - a case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Endometriosis, the presence of functioning endometrial tissue outside the uterus, is a common gynaecological condition. Perineal endometriosis is a rare disease characterized by the presence of ectopic endometrial stroma and glands in the perineum. Most commonly observed in the episiotomy scar after normal vaginal ...

  9. Basal Cell Carcinoma Arising in a Breast Augmentation Scar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Lisa R; Cresce, Nicole D; Russell, Mark A

    2017-04-01

    We report a case of a 46-year-old female who presented with a persistent lesion on the inferior right breast. The lesion was located within the scar from a breast augmentation procedure 12 years ago. The lesion had been treated as several conditions with no improvement. Biopsy revealed a superficial and nodular basal cell carcinoma, and the lesion was successfully removed with Mohs micrographic surgery. Basal cell carcinoma arising in a surgical scar is exceedingly rare with only 13 reported cases to date. This is the first reported case of basal cell carcinoma arising in a breast augmentation scar. We emphasize the importance of biopsy for suspicious lesions or those refractory to treatment, particularly those lesions that form within a scar. Level of Evidence V This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  10. Episiotomy Scar Endometriosis Diagnosed on Cytology - A Case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-06-30

    Jun 30, 2017 ... Dnyanada Kokode*, Anne Wilkinson, Sadhana Mahore and Trupti Dongre ... Endometriosis, the presence of functioning endometrial tissue outside the ... examination, a tender, irregular, raised nodule measuring .... hematoma, hypertrophic scar tissue, traumatic neuroma, ... CT and MRI seem to be useful in.

  11. Using a sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2010-09-13

    Sep 13, 2010 ... This work used sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker to detect the Bacillus cereus strain in strawberry fields. The purpose was to develop an effective molecular method for detecting the functional target microorganisms applied in agricultural fields. A 3×109. CFU/ml vegetative cell.

  12. The Purse-String Reinforced SMASectomy Short Scar Facelift

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Lei, Berend; Cromheecke, Michel; Hofer, Stefan O. P.

    Background: Over the last two decades, short scar facelifts, often referred to as "mini'' facelifts, have gained popularity. We use a purse-string reinforced (PRS) superficial musculoaponeurotic system rhytidectomy (SMASectomy) shortscar facelift that combines a SMASectomy in the vertical direction

  13. Terminology and biology of fire scars in selected central hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith; Elaine Kennedy Sutherland

    2001-01-01

    Dendrochronological analysis of fire scars requires tree survival of fire exposure. Trees survive fire exposure by: (1) avoidance of injury through constitutive protection and (2) induced defense. Induced defenses include (a) compartmentalization processes that resist the spread of injury and infection and (b) closure processes that restore the continuity of the...

  14. Histologic features of alopecias: part II: scarring alopecias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernárdez, C; Molina-Ruiz, A M; Requena, L

    2015-05-01

    The diagnosis of disorders of the hair and scalp can generally be made on clinical grounds, but clinical signs are not always diagnostic and in some cases more invasive techniques, such as a biopsy, may be necessary. This 2-part article is a detailed review of the histologic features of the main types of alopecia based on the traditional classification of these disorders into 2 major groups: scarring and nonscarring alopecias. Scarring alopecias are disorders in which the hair follicle is replaced by fibrous scar tissue, a process that leads to permanent hair loss. In nonscarring alopecias, the follicles are preserved and hair growth can resume when the cause of the problem is eliminated. In the second part of this review, we describe the histologic features of the main forms of scarring alopecia. Since a close clinical-pathological correlation is essential for making a correct histopathologic diagnosis of alopecia, we also include a brief description of the clinical features of the principal forms of this disorder. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  15. 5-Fluorouracil-Loaded Transfer some as Theranostics in Dermal Tumor of Hypertrophic Scar Tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Z.; Wang, X.; Chen, X.; Wo, Y.; Zhang, Y.; Biskup, E.

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the ability of transfersomal gel carrying the anti scarring agent (5-FU) to permeate hypertrophic scars in vivo and in vitro, scar permeation studies were performed after the agent was labeled with the fluorescent agent, rhodamine 6GO. Laser con focal microscope was employed to dynamically observe the effects of transfersomal gel carrying 5-FU at different time points. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to analyze the contents of the agent in the scar tissues at different hours after administration. Scar elevation index (SEI) was used to evaluate the changes of the ear scar models in rabbits. Compared with the PBS gel of 5-FU, the transfers omal gel displayed greater permeation rate and depth, as well as a higher content retention of the agent in scar tissues. Local administrations of the agent for some certain periods effectively inhibited the hyperplasia of ear scars in rabbits. Transfersomes can be chosen as a potential transdermal drug delivery system

  16. Fractional CO2 laser treatment of caesarean section scars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karmisholt, Katrine E; Taudorf, Elisabeth H; Wulff, Camilla B

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Caesarean section (c-section) scars can be pose functional and cosmetic challenges and ablative fractional laser (AFXL) treatment may offer benefit to patients. We evaluated textural and color changes over time in AFXL-treated versus untreated control scars. MATERIALS...... AND METHODS: A randomized, controlled, intra-individual split-scar trial with three sessions of AFXL-treatments for mature c-section scars. Settings of AFXL were adjusted to each individual scar. End-points were blinded on-site clinical evaluations at 1, 3, and 6 months follow-up (Patient and Observer Scar...... Assessment Scale [POSAS] and Vancouver Scar Scale [VSS]), blinded photo-evaluations, reflectance measurements, tissue histology, and patients satisfaction. RESULTS: Eleven of 12 patients completed the study. At 1 month follow-up, AFXL-treated scars were significantly improved in pliability (POSAS P = 0...

  17. Postmastectomy radiotherapy with integrated scar boost using helical tomotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rong Yi; Yadav, Poonam; Welsh, James S.; Fahner, Tasha; Paliwal, Bhudatt

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate helical tomotherapy dosimetry in postmastectomy patients undergoing treatment for chest wall and positive nodal regions with simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) in the scar region using strip bolus. Six postmastectomy patients were scanned with a 5-mm-thick strip bolus covering the scar planning target volume (PTV) plus 2-cm margin. For all 6 cases, the chest wall received a total cumulative dose of 49.3–50.4 Gy with daily fraction size of 1.7–2.0 Gy. Total dose to the scar PTV was prescribed to 58.0–60.2 Gy at 2.0–2.5 Gy per fraction. The supraclavicular PTV and mammary nodal PTV received 1.7–1.9 dose per fraction. Two plans (with and without bolus) were generated for all 6 cases. To generate no-bolus plans, strip bolus was contoured and overrode to air density before planning. The setup reproducibility and delivered dose accuracy were evaluated for all 6 cases. Dose-volume histograms were used to evaluate dose-volume coverage of targets and critical structures. We observed reduced air cavities with the strip bolus setup compared with what we normally see with the full bolus. The thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLD) in vivo dosimetry confirmed accurate dose delivery beneath the bolus. The verification plans performed on the first day megavoltage computed tomography (MVCT) image verified that the daily setup and overall dose delivery was within 2% accuracy compared with the planned dose. The hotspot of the scar PTV in no-bolus plans was 111.4% of the prescribed dose averaged over 6 cases compared with 106.6% with strip bolus. With a strip bolus only covering the postmastectomy scar region, we observed increased dose uniformity to the scar PTV, higher setup reproducibility, and accurate dose delivered beneath the bolus. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using a strip bolus over the scar using tomotherapy for SIB dosimetry in postmastectomy treatments.

  18. Radial scars detected mammographically in a breast cancer screening programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azavedo, E.; Svane, G.

    1992-01-01

    Radial scars are getting more and more common since implementation of mammography as diagnostic tool in screening women for breast cancer. At Karolinska Hospital, 18987 asymptomatic women, aged 50-69, were screened for breast cancer through mammography during August 1989-May 1991. A total of 735 (3.87%) were recalled for additional views after initial mammograms and 463 (2.44%) were assessed with help of cytology. In all 175 women (0.92%) were selected for surgery and 146 (0.77%) had histologically verified cancers. The remaining 29 (0.15%) had non- malignant lesions of which 11 (0.06%) were radial scars. All radial scars were diagnosed on mammograms and later confirmed with histology. The radiologic characteristics were found to be a) rather thick and long radiating structures accompanied by radiolucent linear structures parallel to some of the spicules, b) absence of calcifications, c) radiolucent areas in the body of the lesion, d) an average mean size of 6 mm and e) changing image in different views. Most of the lesions, 73% (8/11), were in moderately dense breasts and there was no specific relation to the right or left breast. A majority of radial scars, 64% (7/11), were found in the upper outer quadrants, 3/11 in the lower outer quadrants and 1/11 in the lower inner quadrant. Literature shows that histology uses many synonyms for radial scars and therefore team work between radiologists and pathologists is suggested for better conformity of the diagnosis. (author). 32 refs.; 1 fig

  19. Sodium channels in axons and glial cells of the optic nerve of Necturus maculosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, C M; Strichartz, G R; Orkand, R K

    1979-11-01

    Experiments investigating both the binding of radioactively labelled saxitoxin (STX) and the electrophysiological response to drugs that increase the sodium permeability of excitable membranes were conducted in an effort to detect sodium channels in glial cells of the optic nerve of Necturus maculosa, the mudpuppy. Glial cells in nerves from chronically enucleated animals, which lack optic nerve axons, show no saturable uptake of STX whereas a saturable uptake is clearly present in normal optic nerves. The normal nerve is depolarized by aconitine, batrachotoxin, and veratridine (10(-6)-10(-5) M), whereas the all-glial preparation is only depolarized by veratridine and at concentrations greater than 10(-3) M. Unlike the depolarization caused by veratridine in normal nerves, the response in the all-glial tissue is not blocked by tetrodotoxin nor enhanced by scorpion venom (Leiurus quinquestriatus). In glial cells of the normal nerve, where axons are also present, the addition of 10(-5) M veratridine does lead to a transient depolarization; however, it is much briefer than the axonal response to veratridine in this same tissue. This glial response to veratridine could be caused by the efflux of K+ from the drug-depolarized axons, and is similar to the glial response to extracellular K+ accumulation resulting from action potentials in the axon.

  20. An Adenosine-Mediated Glial-Neuronal Circuit for Homeostatic Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorness, Theresa E; Dale, Nicholas; Mettlach, Gabriel; Sonneborn, Alex; Sahin, Bogachan; Fienberg, Allen A; Yanagisawa, Masashi; Bibb, James A; Greene, Robert W

    2016-03-30

    Sleep homeostasis reflects a centrally mediated drive for sleep, which increases during waking and resolves during subsequent sleep. Here we demonstrate that mice deficient for glial adenosine kinase (AdK), the primary metabolizing enzyme for adenosine (Ado), exhibit enhanced expression of this homeostatic drive by three independent measures: (1) increased rebound of slow-wave activity; (2) increased consolidation of slow-wave sleep; and (3) increased time constant of slow-wave activity decay during an average slow-wave sleep episode, proposed and validated here as a new index for homeostatic sleep drive. Conversely, mice deficient for the neuronal adenosine A1 receptor exhibit significantly decreased sleep drive as judged by these same indices. Neuronal knock-out of AdK did not influence homeostatic sleep need. Together, these findings implicate a glial-neuronal circuit mediated by intercellular Ado, controlling expression of homeostatic sleep drive. Because AdK is tightly regulated by glial metabolic state, our findings suggest a functional link between cellular metabolism and sleep homeostasis. The work presented here provides evidence for an adenosine-mediated regulation of sleep in response to waking (i.e., homeostatic sleep need), requiring activation of neuronal adenosine A1 receptors and controlled by glial adenosine kinase. Adenosine kinase acts as a highly sensitive and important metabolic sensor of the glial ATP/ADP and AMP ratio directly controlling intracellular adenosine concentration. Glial equilibrative adenosine transporters reflect the intracellular concentration to the extracellular milieu to activate neuronal adenosine receptors. Thus, adenosine mediates a glial-neuronal circuit linking glial metabolic state to neural-expressed sleep homeostasis. This indicates a metabolically related function(s) for this glial-neuronal circuit in the buildup and resolution of our need to sleep and suggests potential therapeutic targets more directly related to

  1. Macroanatomy and compartmentalization of recent fire scars in three North American conifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith; Estelle Arbellay; Donald A. Falk; Elaine Kennedy Sutherland

    2016-01-01

    Fire scars are initiated by cambial necrosis caused by localized lethal heating of the tree stem. Scars develop as part of the linked survival processes of compartmentalization and wound closure. The position of scars within dated tree ring series is the basis for dendrochronological reconstruction of fire history. Macroanatomical features were described for western...

  2. Epithelioid sarcoma and squamous cell carcinoma arising in a burn scar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusum D Jashnani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of a malignant tumor is a well known complication of a chronic burn scar. Most of these tumors are squamous cell carcinomas and only 28 cases of burn scar sarcomas have been reported in literature. We report the first occurrence of the combination of squamous cell carcinoma and epithelioid sarcoma arising in a burn scar.

  3. Evidence-Based Scar Management: How to Improve Results with Technique and Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khansa, Ibrahim; Harrison, Bridget; Janis, Jeffrey E

    2016-09-01

    Scars represent the visible sequelae of trauma, injury, burn, or surgery. They may induce distress in the patient because of their aesthetically unpleasant appearance, especially if they are excessively raised, depressed, wide, or erythematous. They may also cause the patient symptoms of pain, tightness, and pruritus. Numerous products are marketed for scar prevention or improvement, but their efficacy is unclear. A literature review of high-level studies analyzing methods to prevent or improve hypertrophic scars, keloids, and striae distensae was performed. The evidence from these articles was analyzed to generate recommendations. Each intervention's effectiveness at preventing or reducing scars was rated as none, low, or high, depending on the strength of the evidence for that intervention. For the prevention of hypertrophic scars, silicone, tension reduction, and wound edge eversion seem to have high efficacy, whereas onion extract, pulsed-dye laser, pressure garments, and scar massage have low efficacy. For the treatment of existing hypertrophic scars, silicone, pulsed-dye laser, CO2 laser, corticosteroids, 5-fluorouracil, bleomycin, and scar massage have high efficacy, whereas onion extract and fat grafting seem to have low efficacy. For keloid scars, effective adjuncts to excision include corticosteroids, mitomycin C, bleomycin, and radiation therapy. No intervention seems to have significant efficacy in the prevention or treatment of striae distensae. Although scars can never be completely eliminated in an adult, this article presents the most commonly used, evidence-based methods to improve the quality and symptoms of hypertrophic scars, as well as keloid scars and striae distensae.

  4. Weather, logging, and tree growth associated with fir engraver attack scars in white fir

    Science.gov (United States)

    George T. Ferrell

    1973-01-01

    The boles of 32 recently killed, and 41 living, white fir were examined for embedded fir engraver (Scolytus ventralis) attack scars. Of 287 scars found in annual rings for the years 1934-69, only 2 to 3 percent represented reproductively successful attacks. Trends in scar abundance were directly correlated with trends in white fir killed by ...

  5. Prevention and Reduction of Atrophic Acne Scars with Adapalene 0.3%/Benzoyl Peroxide 2.5% Gel in Subjects with Moderate or Severe Facial Acne: Results of a 6-Month Randomized, Vehicle-Controlled Trial Using Intra-Individual Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dréno, Brigitte; Bissonnette, Robert; Gagné-Henley, Angélique; Barankin, Benjamin; Lynde, Charles; Kerrouche, Nabil; Tan, Jerry

    2018-04-01

    Very few clinical trials have investigated the effect of topical acne treatment on scarring. Our objective was to evaluate the efficacy of adapalene 0.3%/benzoyl peroxide 2.5% gel (A0.3/BPO2.5) in atrophic acne scar formation in patients with acne. In this multicenter, randomized, investigator-blinded, vehicle-controlled study, subjects with moderate or severe facial acne (Investigator's Global Assessment [IGA] score 3 or 4; ≥ 25 inflammatory lesions; ten or more atrophic acne scars) applied A0.3/BPO2.5 or vehicle daily per half face for 24 weeks. Subjects with acne requiring systemic treatment were excluded. Assessments included investigator atrophic acne scar count, Scar Global Assessment (SGA), acne lesion count, IGA, skin roughness and skin texture, subject self-assessment of clinical acne-related scars and satisfaction questionnaire, tolerability, and safety. Included subjects (n = 67) had mainly moderate acne (92.5% IGA 3); mean scores at baseline were approximately 40 acne lesions and 12 scars per half face. By week 24, the change from baseline in total scar count was - 15.5% for A0.3/BPO2.5 versus  + 14.4% for vehicle (approximately 30% difference), with a mean of 9.5 scars versus 13.3 per half face, respectively (p vehicle (p vehicle (p vehicle side, most commonly skin irritation (14.9 vs. 6%, respectively). Topical A0.3/BPO2.5 prevented and reduced atrophic scar formation. Scar count increased with vehicle (+ 14.4%) but decreased with A0.3/BPO2.5 (- 15.5%) over 24 weeks. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT02735421.

  6. Modulators of axonal growth and guidance at the brain midline with special reference to glial heparan sulfate proteoglycans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAVALCANTE LENY A.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Bilaterally symmetric organisms need to exchange information between the left and right sides of their bodies to integrate sensory input and to coordinate motor control. Thus, an important choice point for developing axons is the Central Nervous System (CNS midline. Crossing of this choice point is influenced by highly conserved, soluble or membrane-bound molecules such as the L1 subfamily, laminin, netrins, slits, semaphorins, Eph-receptors and ephrins, etc. Furthermore, there is much circumstantial evidence for a role of proteoglycans (PGs or their glycosaminoglycan (GAG moieties on axonal growth and guidance, most of which was derived from simplified models. A model of intermediate complexity is that of cocultures of young neurons and astroglial carpets (confluent cultures obtained from medial and lateral sectors of the embryonic rodent midbrain soon after formation of its commissures. Neurite production in these cocultures reveals that, irrespective of the previous location of neurons in the midbrain, medial astrocytes exerted an inhibitory or non-permissive effect on neuritic growth that was correlated to a higher content of both heparan and chondroitin sulfates (HS and CS. Treatment with GAG lyases shows minor effects of CS and discloses a major inhibitory or non-permissive role for HS. The results are discussed in terms of available knowledge on the binding of HSPGs to interative proteins and underscore the importance of understanding glial polysaccharide arrays in addition to its protein complement for a better understanding of neuron-glial interactions.

  7. A preliminary investigation into the impact of a pesticide combination on human neuronal and glial cell lines in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D Coleman

    Full Text Available Many pesticides are used increasingly in combinations during crop protection and their stability ensures the presence of such combinations in foodstuffs. The effects of three fungicides, pyrimethanil, cyprodinil and fludioxonil, were investigated together and separately on U251 and SH-SY5Y cells, which can be representative of human CNS glial and neuronal cells respectively. Over 48h, all three agents showed significant reductions in cellular ATP, at concentrations that were more than tenfold lower than those which significantly impaired cellular viability. The effects on energy metabolism were reflected in their marked toxic effects on mitochondrial membrane potential. In addition, evidence of oxidative stress was seen in terms of a fall in cellular thiols coupled with increases in the expression of enzymes associated with reactive species formation, such as GSH peroxidase and superoxide dismutase. The glial cell line showed significant responsiveness to the toxin challenge in terms of changes in antioxidant gene expression, although the neuronal SH-SY5Y line exhibited greater vulnerability to toxicity, which was reflected in significant increases in caspase-3 expression, which is indicative of the initiation of apoptosis. Cyprodinil was the most toxic agent individually, although oxidative stress-related enzyme gene expression increases appeared to demonstrate some degree of synergy in the presence of the combination of agents. This report suggests that the impact of some pesticides, both individually and in combinations, merits further study in terms of their impact on human cellular health.

  8. DNA synthesis during development and proliferation of glial cells in organotypic rat cerebellar culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renkawek, K.

    1977-01-01

    DNA synthesis was investigated in glial cells in vitro with 3 H thymidine in concentration 1 μCi/ml medium. Incorporation of isotope into the glial nuclei has been found both in the explant (7-21%) and in the outgrowth (22-56%). DNA synthesis was dependent on the age of culture and due to the contact inhibition in the outgrowth. Results point out that marked DNA synthesis is a characteristic feature of glia differentiation and of reactive character of glial cells in vitro. (author)

  9. Riding the glial monorail: a common mechanism for glial-guided neuronal migration in different regions of the developing mammalian brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatten, M E

    1990-05-01

    In vitro studies from our laboratory indicate that granule neurons, purified from early postnatal mouse cerebellum, migrate on astroglial fibers by forming a 'migration junction' with the glial fiber along the length of the neuronal soma and extending a motile 'leading process' in the direction of migration. Similar dynamics are seen for hippocampal neurons migrating along hippocampal astroglial fibers in vitro. In heterotypic recombinations of neurons and glia from mouse cerebellum and rat hippocampus, neurons migrate on astroglial processes with a cytology and neuron-glia relationship identical to that of homotypic neuronal migration in vitro. In all four cases, the migrating neuron presents a stereotyped posture, speed and mode of movement, suggesting that glial fibers provide a generic pathway for neuronal migration in developing brain. Studies on the molecular basis of glial-guided migration suggest that astrotactin, a neuronal antigen that functions as a neuron-glia ligand, is likely to play a crucial role in the locomotion of the neuron along glial fibers. The navigation of neurons from glial fibers into cortical layers, in turn, is likely to involve neuron-neuron adhesion ligands.

  10. Zonun’s regime (35% glycolic acid peel with microneedling followed by tretinoin 0.05% plus glycolic acid 12% application followed by salicylic acid 30% peeling for treatment of acne scars: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zonunsanga

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Acne scars are the result of inflammation within the dermis brought on by acne. The scar is created by the wound trying to heal itself resulting in too much collagen in one spot. Current treatment available are not much satisfactory. Microneedling injure the dermis, thereby stimulating collagen formation. Glycolic acid acts as vehicle for delivery of drugs to dermis: in addition to that, it also has a role in collagen induction. Tretinoin helps in collagen formation. Salicylic acid remodel the superficial skin after the treatment. Material and Methods: A total of 4 patients in which 3 out of 4 patient, grade 3 acne scars and 1 out of 4 had grade 2 scar were treated with the regime. After taking consent 35% Glycolic acid peeling was done followed by microneedling. From the next day 12% Glycolic acid plus 0.05% Tretinoin is applied once a day for 2 months. After 2 months 30% Salicylic acid peeling is done. Photographs were taken before treatment, after 1 month and after 2 months of completion of the therapy and compared. Objective assessment was done according to Global Acne Scarring Classification. Result: subjectively 2 patients reported excellent response and 2 patients reported good response. Objectively, all patients showed good to excellent response. Conclusion: Zonun’s regime may be effective for treatment of acne scars.

  11. Left ventricular volume during supine exercise: importance of myocardial scar in patients with coronary heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, D.L.; Scharf, J.; Ahnve, S.; Gilpin, E.

    1987-01-01

    Existing studies suggest that exercise-induced ischemia produces an increase in left ventricular end-diastolic volume; however, all of these studies have included patients with previous myocardial infarction. To test whether the end-diastolic volume response to exercise is related to the extent of myocardial scar, the results of gated radionuclide supine exercise tests performed on 130 subjects were reviewed. The patient group comprised 130 subjects were reviewed. The patient group comprised 130 men aged 35 to 65 years (mean +/- SD 52 +/- 5) with documented coronary heart disease. The extent of myocardial ischemia and scar formation was assessed by stress electrocardiography and thallium-201 scintigraphy. Patients were classified into three groups on the basis of left ventricular end-diastolic volume response at peak exercise: group 1 (n = 72) had an increase of end-diastolic volume greater than 10%, group 2 (n = 41) had a change in end-diastolic volume less than 10% and group 3 (n = 17) had a decrease in end-diastolic volume greater than 10% (n = 17). At rest there was no significant difference among groups in heart rate, systolic blood pressure, end-diastolic (EDVrest) or end-systolic volumes or ejection fraction (p greater than 0.05); however, at peak exercise the end-systolic volume response was significantly greater for group 1 (p less than 0.002)

  12. Scar evaluation of split thickness skin graft donor site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jani Muha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND. Split thickness skin graft harvesting causes a certain degree of scaring on the donor site. Donor site scar can cause aesthetic and functional sequelae on the patient's body. Our goal was to study the process of donor site selection, and then evaluate donor site scars and their impact on patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS. This retrospective study included 45 patients aged 5 to 61 years (in average 36, who have been treated with STSG in the 2004–2010 period. 57.8% of them were men. On a follow-up visit, we photographed healed skin defects and donor sites. We then determined and compared the surface areas of skin defect and the donor site using the Adobe® Illustrator® CS5 computer program. Donor site scars were assessed according to the Vancouver scar scale (VSS. We examined scar’s light touch sensitivity with monofilaments and skin colouring compared to adjacent healthy skin using colorimeter. Patients were also interviewed about their treatment course in a form of a standardized questionnaire. RESULTS. Our research has revealed that 20.0% of patients participated in the decision making process of choosing the donor site, while in 80.0% the donor site was chosen by the surgeon himself. 6.7% of patients were not satisfied with their donor site. Most of the patients (37/45 had donor sites on their thighs. In average, the donor site surface area was 94% bigger than the skin defect area. We found statistically significant differences in VSS values, light touch sensitivity and skin colouring between donor site scaring and adjacent healthy skin. CONCLUSIONS. Donor site scar can represent a lasting aesthetic and functional disability for patients. Our research has shown that most of the patients do not participate in the donor site selection process, but are satisfied with their donor site. In most cases, STGSs are harvested from the thigh, other anatomical regions, where scarring would be aesthetically less obtrusive, are underused

  13. Incidence of stunned, hibernating and scarred myocardium in ischaemic cardiomyopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez-Pampaloni, Miguel; Morita, Koichi; Dutka, David P.; Camici, Paolo G.; Bax, Jeroen J.

    2005-01-01

    Different criteria to identify residual viability in chronically dysfunctioning myocardium in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) can be derived by the combined assessment of myocardial blood flow (MBF) and glucose utilisation (MRG) using positron emission tomography (PET). The aim of this study was to evaluate, in a large number of patients, the prevalence of these different patterns by purely quantitative means. One hundred and sixteen consecutive patients with ischaemic cardiomyopathy (LVEF ≤40%) underwent resting 2D echocardiography to assess regional contractile function (16-segment model). PET with 15 O-labelled water (H 2 15 O) and 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) was used to quantify MBF and MRG during hyperinsulinaemic euglycaemic clamp. Dysfunctional segments with normal MBF (≥0.6 ml min -1 g -1 ) were classified as stunned, and segments with reduced MBF ( -1 g -1 ) as hibernating if MRG was ≥0.25 μmol min -1 g -1 . Segments with reduced MBF and MRG -1 g -1 were classified as transmural scars and segments with reduced MBF and MRG between 0.20 and 0.25 μmol min -1 g -1 as non-transmural scars. Eight hundred and thirty-four (46%) segments were dysfunctional. Of these, 601 (72%) were chronically stunned, with 368 (61%) having normal MRG (0.47±0.20 μmol min -1 g -1 ) and 233 (39%) reduced MRG (0.16±0.05 μmol min -1 g -1 ). Seventy-four (9%) segments with reduced MBF had preserved MRG (0.40±0.18 μmol min -1 g -1 ) and were classified as hibernating myocardium. In addition, 15% of segments were classified as transmural and 4% as non-transmural scar. The mean MBF was highest in stunned myocardium (0.95±0.32 ml min -1 g -1 ), intermediate in hibernating myocardium and non-transmural scars (0.47±0.09 ml min -1 g -1 and 0.48±0.08 ml min -1 g -1 , respectively), and lowest in transmural scars (0.40±0.14 ml min -1 g -1 , P -1 g -1 vs 0.46±0.20 μmol min -1 g -1 , NS), and lowest in stunned myocardium with reduced MRG and transmural scars

  14. Fractional ablative CO2 laser treatment versus scar subcision and autologous fat transfer in the treatment of atrophic acne scars: New technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laila Mohammad

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available There are different modalities for management of atrophic acne scars which include lasers. Ablative fractional CO2 laser was developed to address the shortcomings of traditional ablative lasers, with superior results to non-ablative fractional lasers. Autologous fat transfer has been utilized for nearly a decade in tissue augmentation and reconstruction.Present studies were designed to compare ablative fractional CO2 laser treatment with scar subcision and autologous fat transfer in the treatment of atrophic acne scars. 20 patients with atrophic acne scars were recruited: 10 patients were treated by three sessions of ablative fractional CO2 laser therapy, and 10 patients treated by subcision and autologous fat transfer. All patients were followed up for three months, and were assessed by digital photograph before and after treatment through the application of Goodman and Baron quantitative and qualitative grading systems, in addition to reports by three physicians committees and reports of patients’ satisfaction. Analysis of both groups showed significant improvements in all types of atrophic acne scars. The mean percentage of total quantitative improvement was more significant in the case of autologous fat transfer with regard to ice-pick and total number of scars. Therefore, scar subcision with autologous fat transfer proved to be as effective as, or even more effective than, ablative fractional CO2 laser in the treatment of atrophic acne scars with regard to the total number of scars as well as ice-pick type.

  15. Use of makeup, hairstyles, glasses, and prosthetics as adjuncts to scar camouflage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidle, Douglas M; Decker, Jennifer R

    2011-08-01

    Scars after facial trauma or surgery can be a source of distress for patients, and facial plastic surgeons are frequently called upon to help manage them. Although no technique can remove a scar, numerous treatment modalities have been developed to improve facial scar appearance with varying levels of invasiveness. This article reviews techniques that camouflage scars without surgical intervention. Topical scar treatments, camouflage cosmetics, use of hairstyling and glasses, and facial prosthetics are discussed. In addition, professional counseling is provided on selection and application of topical cosmetics for use as part of an office practice. 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A New Outlook on Mental Illnesses: Glial Involvement Beyond the Glue

    KAUST Repository

    Elsayed, Maha

    2015-12-16

    Mental illnesses have long been perceived as the exclusive consequence of abnormalities in neuronal functioning. Until recently, the role of glial cells in the pathophysiology of mental diseases has largely been overlooked. However recently, multiple lines of evidence suggest more diverse and significant functions of glia with behavior-altering effects. The newly ascribed roles of astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and microglia have led to their examination in brain pathology and mental illnesses. Indeed, abnormalities in glial function, structure and density have been observed in postmortem brain studies of subjects diagnosed with mental illnesses. In this review, we discuss the newly identified functions of glia and highlight the findings of glial abnormalities in psychiatric disorders. We discuss these preclinical and clinical findings implicating the involvement of glial cells in mental illnesses with the perspective that these cells may represent a new target for treatment.

  17. A New Outlook on Mental Illnesses: Glial Involvement Beyond the Glue

    KAUST Repository

    Elsayed, Maha; Magistretti, Pierre J.

    2015-01-01

    Mental illnesses have long been perceived as the exclusive consequence of abnormalities in neuronal functioning. Until recently, the role of glial cells in the pathophysiology of mental diseases has largely been overlooked. However recently, multiple lines of evidence suggest more diverse and significant functions of glia with behavior-altering effects. The newly ascribed roles of astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and microglia have led to their examination in brain pathology and mental illnesses. Indeed, abnormalities in glial function, structure and density have been observed in postmortem brain studies of subjects diagnosed with mental illnesses. In this review, we discuss the newly identified functions of glia and highlight the findings of glial abnormalities in psychiatric disorders. We discuss these preclinical and clinical findings implicating the involvement of glial cells in mental illnesses with the perspective that these cells may represent a new target for treatment.

  18. The effect of burn rehabilitation massage therapy on hypertrophic scar after burn: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yoon Soo; Jeon, Jong Hyun; Hong, Aram; Yang, Hyeong Tae; Yim, Haejun; Cho, Yong Suk; Kim, Do-Hern; Hur, Jun; Kim, Jong Hyun; Chun, Wook; Lee, Boung Chul; Seo, Cheong Hoon

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate the effect of burn rehabilitation massage therapy on hypertrophic scar after burn. One hundred and forty-six burn patients with hypertrophic scar(s) were randomly divided into an experimental group and a control group. All patients received standard rehabilitation therapy for hypertrophic scars and 76 patients (massage group) additionally received burn scar rehabilitation massage therapy. Both before and after the treatment, we determined the scores of visual analog scale (VAS) and itching scale and assessed the scar characteristics of thickness, melanin, erythema, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), sebum, and elasticity by using ultrasonography, Mexameter(®), Tewameter(®), Sebumeter(®), and Cutometer(®), respectively. The scores of both VAS and itching scale decreased significantly in both groups, indicating a significant intragroup difference. With regard to the scar characteristics, the massage group showed a significant decrease after treatment in scar thickness, melanin, erythema, TEWL and a significant intergroup difference. In terms of scar elasticity, a significant intergroup difference was noted in immediate distension and gross skin elasticity, while the massage group significant improvement in skin distensibility, immediate distension, immediate retraction, and delayed distension. Our results suggest that burn rehabilitation massage therapy is effective in improving pain, pruritus, and scar characteristics in hypertrophic scars after burn. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  19. Glial Alterations From Early to Late Stages in a Model of Alzheimer’s Disease: Evidence of Autophagy Involvement in Aβ Internalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomilio, Carlos; Pavia, Patricio; Gorojod, Roxana Mayra; Vinuesa, Angeles; Alaimo, Agustina; Galvan, Veronica; Kotler, Monica Lidia; Beauquis, Juan; Saravia, Flavia

    2017-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease without effective therapy. Brain amyloid deposits are classical histopathological hallmarks that generate an inflammatory reaction affecting neuronal and glial function. The identification of early cell responses and of brain areas involved could help to design new successful treatments. Hence, we studied early alterations of hippocampal glia and their progression during the neuropathology in PDAPP-J20 transgenic mice, AD model, at 3, 9, and 15 months (m) of age. At 3 m, before deposits formation, microglial Iba1 + cells from transgenic mice already exhibited signs of activation and larger soma size in the hilus, alterations appearing later on stratum radiatum. Iba1 immunohistochemistry revealed increased cell density and immunoreactive area in PDAPP mice from 9 m onward selectively in the hilus, in coincidence with prominent amyloid Congo red + deposition. At pre-plaque stages, GFAP+ astroglia showed density alterations while, at an advanced age, the presence of deposits was associated with important glial volume changes and apparently being intimately involved in amyloid degradation. Astrocytes around plaques were strongly labeled for LC3 until 15 m in Tg mice, suggestive of increased autophagic flux. Moreover, β-Amyloid fibrils internalization by astrocytes in in vitro conditions was dependent on autophagy. Co-localization of Iba1 with ubiquitin or p62 was exclusively found in microglia contacting deposits from 9 m onward, suggesting torpid autophagy. Our work characterizes glial changes at early stages of the disease in PDAPP-J20 mice, focusing on the hilus as an especially susceptible hippocampal subfield, and provides evidence that glial autophagy could play a role in amyloid processing at advanced stages. PMID:26235241

  20. Ectopic pregnancy in a Caesarean section scar: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Niziurski

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Implantation of a pregnancy in a scar after Caesarean section is one of the rarest locations of ectopic pregnancies. A diagnosis and/or treatment which is too late may lead to a uterine rupture, the necessity to remove the uterus and a significant increase in morbidity among mothers. The study presents a diagnostically difficult case of a 29-year-old woman, who was diagnosed with pregnancy in its seventh week, located in a scar after a Caesarean section, with highly increased values of human chorionic gonadotropin (β-HCG concentration in blood serum. The pregnancy was removed and the wound was stitched during laparotomy, without a need to remove the uterus.

  1. TDP-43 causes differential pathology in neuronal versus glial cells in the mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Sen; Wang, Chuan-En; Wei, Wenjie; Gaertig, Marta A; Lai, Liangxue; Li, Shihua; Li, Xiao-Jiang

    2014-05-15

    Mutations in TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) are associated with familial forms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal lobar degeneration. Although recent studies have revealed that mutant TDP-43 in neuronal and glial cells is toxic, how mutant TDP-43 causes primarily neuronal degeneration in an age-dependent manner remains unclear. Using adeno-associated virus (AAV) that expresses mutant TDP-43 (M337V) ubiquitously, we found that mutant TDP-43 accumulates preferentially in neuronal cells in the postnatal mouse brain. We then ubiquitously or selectively expressed mutant TDP-43 in neuronal and glial cells in the striatum of adult mouse brains via stereotaxic injection of AAV vectors and found that it also preferentially accumulates in neuronal cells. Expression of mutant TDP-43 in neurons in the striatum causes more severe degeneration, earlier death and more robust symptoms in mice than expression of mutant TDP-43 in glial cells; however, aging increases the expression of mutant TDP-43 in glial cells, and expression of mutant TDP-43 in older mice caused earlier onset of phenotypes and more severe neuropathology than that in younger mice. Although expression of mutant TDP-43 in glial cells via stereotaxic injection does not lead to robust neurological phenotypes, systemic inhibition of the proteasome activity via MG132 in postnatal mice could exacerbate glial TDP-43-mediated toxicity and cause mice to die earlier. Consistently, this inhibition increases the expression of mutant TDP-43 in glial cells in mouse brains. Thus, the differential accumulation of mutant TDP-43 in neuronal versus glial cells contributes to the preferential toxicity of mutant TDP-43 in neuronal cells and age-dependent pathology.

  2. Proliferation of differentiated glial cells in the brain stem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.C. Barradas

    1998-02-01

    Full Text Available Classical studies of macroglial proliferation in muride rodents have provided conflicting evidence concerning the proliferating capabilities of oligodendrocytes and microglia. Furthermore, little information has been obtained in other mammalian orders and very little is known about glial cell proliferation and differentiation in the subclass Metatheria although valuable knowledge may be obtained from the protracted period of central nervous system maturation in these forms. Thus, we have studied the proliferative capacity of phenotypically identified brain stem oligodendrocytes by tritiated thymidine radioautography and have compared it with known features of oligodendroglial differentiation as well as with proliferation of microglia in the opossum Didelphis marsupialis. We have detected a previously undescribed ephemeral, regionally heterogeneous proliferation of oligodendrocytes expressing the actin-binding, ensheathment-related protein 2'3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNPase, that is not necessarily related to the known regional and temporal heterogeneity of expression of CNPase in cell bodies. On the other hand, proliferation of microglia tagged by the binding of Griffonia simplicifolia B4 isolectin, which recognizes an alpha-D-galactosyl-bearing glycoprotein of the plasma membrane of macrophages/microglia, is known to be long lasting, showing no regional heterogeneity and being found amongst both ameboid and differentiated ramified cells, although at different rates. The functional significance of the proliferative behavior of these differentiated cells is unknown but may provide a low-grade cell renewal in the normal brain and may be augmented under pathological conditions.

  3. Molecular genetic studies of glial tumors in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. Soltan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Glioblastomas are the most frequent malignant neoplasm among primary brain tumors of childhood. Despite the advances in a multimodality treatment approach including neurosurgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, the overall survival of such patients remains poor and doesn’t exceed 14 months. The using of targeted agents such as gefitinib in unselected patient populations showed insufficient efficacy. Nowadays, the most perspective approach is a selection of patient populations potentially sensitive to targeted therapy based on predictive markers of response. We performed a comprehensive analysis of the mutational patterns in 30 glioblastomas of children. Data Analysis was based on the new method of mass spectrometry (OncoCarta v1.0, Sequenom that enabled us to estimate 298 mutations in 19 genes and to identify 10 mutations in 9 tumors (30 %. Mutations were found in BRAF, CDK, HRAS, EGFR, FGFR, MET and PI3K. The most mutated pathway was EGFR – in 20 % of the samples (6/30. The obtained results seem to be very promising in terms of possibilities of using new targeted agents including BRAF inhibitors for treatment of children with glial brain tumors.

  4. Moisturisers in scar management following burn: A survey report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klotz, Tanja; Kurmis, Rochelle; Munn, Zachary; Heath, Kathryn; Greenwood, John

    2017-08-01

    Scar management is a recognised key component of rehabilitation following burn. Moisturising often combined with massage is commenced once healing tissue has gained sufficient strength to tolerate surface friction, with the aim being to hydrate the dry scar. The studies on various moisturisers and creams provide some guidance on moisturiser selection, but many are inconclusive. This survey aimed to determine the current expert opinion regarding moisturiser recommendations, including the basis for these recommendations, across the burns community. A brief web-based survey was distributed to burn therapists via mailing lists of the Australian and New Zealand Burn Association (ANZBA), and American Burn Association (ABA) 'Occupational and Physical Therapist Burn Special Interest Group'. The fifty three respondents indicated that there were 29 different moisturisers commonly recommended in practice. Three main themes were indicated as influencing recommendations for moisturiser: the perceived effects on the scar/skin (48%); the general properties of the moisturiser (38%); the ingredients (14%). Therapists reported that the principle stimuli determining their recommendations were patient feedback and the choice of the previous burn therapist in their service. Many were also guided by medical staff, pharmacists and sales representatives. Only three respondents were able to provide citations for published evidence supporting their recommendations. There is a paucity of evidence currently to support optimal moisturiser choice. This survey demonstrates that conflicting opinions are held on the ideal moisturiser brand, properties and ingredients. The recommendations made are based on low level evidence. Further research is required to inform clinicians which moisturiser to recommend to their clients. An ideal moisturiser should be one that is conducive to scar maturation, non- or minimally irritant, prevent skin drying, minimise transepidermal water loss and have no negative

  5. The use of chemotherapeutics for the treatment of keloid scars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher David Jones

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Keloid scars are pathological scars, which develop as a result of exaggerated dermal tissue proliferation following cutaneous injury and often cause physical, psychological and cosmetic problems. Various theories regarding keloidogenesis exist, however the precise pathophysiological events remain unclear. Many different treatment modalities have been implicated in their management, but currently there is no entirely satisfactory method for treating all keloid lesions. We review a number of different chemotherapeutic agents which have been proposed for the treatment of keloid and hypertrophic scars while giving insight into some of the novel chemotherapeutic drugs which are currently being investigated. Non-randomized trials evaluating the influence of different chemotherapeutic agents, such as 5-fluorouracil (5-FU; mitomycin C; bleomycin and steroid injection, either alone or in combination with other chemotherapeutic agents or alternative treatment modalities, for the treatment of keloids were identified using a predefined PubMed search strategy. Twenty seven papers were identified. Scar improvement ≥50% was found in the majority of cases treated with 5-FU, with similar results found for mitomycin C, bleomycin and steroid injection. Combined intralesional 5-FU and steroid injection produced statistically significant improvements when compared to monotherapy. Monotherapy recurrence rates ranged from 0-47% for 5-FU, 0-15% for bleomycin and 0-50% for steroid injection. However, combined therapy in the form of surgical excision and adjuvant 5-FU or steroid injections demonstrated lower recurrence rates; 19% and 6% respectively. Currently, most of the literature supports the use of combination therapy (usually surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy as the mainstay treatment of keloids, however further investigation is necessary to determine success rates over longer time frames. Furthermore, there is the potential for novel therapies, but further

  6. Risk Factors for Recurrent Urinary Tract Infection and Renal Scarring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keren, Ron; Shaikh, Nader; Pohl, Hans; Gravens-Mueller, Lisa; Ivanova, Anastasia; Zaoutis, Lisa; Patel, Melissa; deBerardinis, Rachel; Parker, Allison; Bhatnagar, Sonika; Haralam, Mary Ann; Pope, Marcia; Kearney, Diana; Sprague, Bruce; Barrera, Raquel; Viteri, Bernarda; Egigueron, Martina; Shah, Neha; Hoberman, Alejandro

    2015-07-01

    To identify risk factors for recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI) and renal scarring in children who have had 1 or 2 febrile or symptomatic UTIs and received no antimicrobial prophylaxis. This 2-year, multisite prospective cohort study included 305 children aged 2 to 71 months with vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) receiving placebo in the RIVUR (Randomized Intervention for Vesicoureteral Reflux) study and 195 children with no VUR observed in the CUTIE (Careful Urinary Tract Infection Evaluation) study. Primary exposure was presence of VUR; secondary exposures included bladder and bowel dysfunction (BBD), age, and race. Outcomes were recurrent febrile or symptomatic urinary tract infection (F/SUTI) and renal scarring. Children with VUR had higher 2-year rates of recurrent F/SUTI (Kaplan-Meier estimate 25.4% compared with 17.3% for VUR and no VUR, respectively). Other factors associated with recurrent F/SUTI included presence of BBD at baseline (adjusted hazard ratio: 2.07 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.09-3.93]) and presence of renal scarring on the baseline (99m)Tc-labeled dimercaptosuccinic acid scan (adjusted hazard ratio: 2.88 [95% CI: 1.22-6.80]). Children with BBD and any degree of VUR had the highest risk of recurrent F/SUTI (56%). At the end of the 2-year follow-up period, 8 (5.6%) children in the no VUR group and 24 (10.2%) in the VUR group had renal scars, but the difference was not statistically significant (adjusted odds ratio: 2.05 [95% CI: 0.86-4.87]). VUR and BBD are risk factors for recurrent UTI, especially when they appear in combination. Strategies for preventing recurrent UTI include antimicrobial prophylaxis and treatment of BBD. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  7. Color doppler ultrasound diagonosis in cesarean scar pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Shanshan; Xia Fei; Shen Zongji; Xu Jianyin; Gu Xinxian

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To study the sonographic characteristics of cesarean scar pregnancy(CSP), and the value of color Doppler in the diagnosis of CSP. Methods: Twelve cases of CSP were all confirmed by transabdominal and transvaginal ultrasound. Results: The ultrasonogram of CSP could be divided into gestational sac type and mixed mass type. Conclusion: Color Doppler can give guidance to the early diagnosis, treatment and following-up of CSP because of the sonographic specifity of CSP. (authors)

  8. Diagnostic value of fragmented QRS complex in myocardial scar detection: systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Ramin; Dabbagh, Vahid-Reza; Tayyebi, Mohammad; Zakavi, Seyed Rasoul; Ayati, Narjess

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the diagnostic value of fragmented QRS complex (fQRS) on 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) for myocardial scar detection, and presented the results in a systematic review and meta-analysis format. Medline, SCOPUS, and ISI Web of Knowledge were searched electronically with "Fragmented QRS" or "fQRS" as key words. All related studies that had evaluated the accuracy of fQRS for myocardial scar diagnosis were included. Eight studies (2560 patients) were finally included in the systematic review. Specificity assessment could be evaluated only by five out of these eight articles. Overall pooled sensitivity of fQRS, Q wave, and mixed Q-fQRS was 68% (65-71), 51% (47-55), and 74% (69-79) and the pooled specificity was 80% (79-81), 97% (97-98) and 92% (91-93), respectively. Fragmented QRS is a novel ECG marker with more sensitivity and less specificity than Q wave. A combination of fQRS with Q wave in a 12-lead ECG results in up to 74% sensitivity and 92% specificity. Additional studies are needed to assess the significance of this ECG parameter for regional myocardial scar detection.

  9. Histological and immunohistochemical characterization of the inflammatory and glial cells in the central nervous system of goat fetuses and adult male goats naturally infected with Neospora caninum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Rafael Carneiro; Orlando, Débora Ribeiro; Abreu, Camila Costa; Nakagaki, Karen Yumi Ribeiro; Mesquita, Leonardo Pereira; Nascimento, Lismara Castro; Silva, Aline Costa; Maiorka, Paulo César; Peconick, Ana Paula; Raymundo, Djeison Lutier; Varaschin, Mary Suzan

    2014-12-14

    Neospora caninum is an apicomplexan protozoan that is considered one of the main agents responsible for abortion in ruminants. The lesions found in the central nervous system (CNS) of aborted fetuses show multifocal necrosis, gliosis, and perivascular cuffs of mononuclear cells, but the inflammatory and glial cells have not been immunophenotypically characterized. The lesions in the CNS of infected adult animals have rarely been described. Therefore, in this study, we characterized the lesions, the immunophenotypes of the inflammatory and glial cells and the expression of MHC-II and PCNA in the CNS of goats infected with N. caninum. The CNS of eight aborted fetuses and six adult male goats naturally infected with N. caninum were analyzed with lectin histochemistry (RCA1) and immunohistochemistry (with anti-CD3, -CD79α, -GFAP, -MHC-II, and -PCNA antibodies). All animals were the offspring of dams naturally infected with N. caninum. The microscopic lesions in the CNS of the aborted fetuses consisted of perivascular cuffs composed mainly of macrophages (RCA1(+)), rare T lymphocytes (CD3(+)), and rare B lymphocytes (CD79α(+)). Multifocal necrosis surrounded by astrocytes (GFAP(+)), gliosis composed predominantly of monocytic-lineage cells (macrophages and microglia, RCA1(+)), and the cysts of N. caninum, related (or not) to the lesions were present. Similar lesions were found in four of the six male goats, and multinucleate giant cells related to focal gliosis were also found in three adult goats. Anti-GFAP immunostaining showed astrocytes characterizing areas of glial scarring. Cysts of N. caninum were found in three adult male goats. The presence of N. caninum was evaluated with histopathology, immunohistochemistry, and PCR. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated anti-PCNA labeling of macrophages and microglia in the perivascular cuffs and the expression of MHC-II by microglia and endothelial cells in the CNS of the aborted fetuses and adult male goats. Macrophages and

  10. Outcome measures and scar aesthetics in minimally invasive video-assisted parathyroidectomy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Casserly, Paula

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare the scar outcome of video-assisted parathyroidectomy (VAP) with traditional bilateral cervical exploration (BCE) using previously validated scar assessment scales, and to examine the feasibility of introducing VAP into a general otolaryngology-head and neck practice. DESIGN: A retrospective review of medical records from a prospectively obtained database of patients and long-term follow-up of scar analysis. PATIENTS: The records of 60 patients undergoing parathyroidectomy were reviewed: 29 patients underwent VAP and 31 patients underwent an open procedure with BCE. The groups were matched for age and sex. A total of 46 patients were followed up to assess scar outcome. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was a comparison of patient and observer scar satisfaction between VAP and traditional BCE using validated scar assessment tools: the Patient Scar Assessment Scale and the Manchester Scar Scale. The secondary outcomes were to retrospectively evaluate our results with VAP and to assess the suitability of introducing this technique into a general otolaryngology-head and neck practice. RESULTS: The average scar length in the VAP group was 1.7 cm, and the average scar length in the BCE group was 4.3 cm. The patients in the BCE group scored higher than the patients in the VAP group on the Manchester Scar Scale (P < .01) and on the Patient and Observer Scar Scales (P = .02), indicating a worse scar outcome. The mean operative time in the VAP group was 41 minutes compared with 115 minutes in the open procedure BCE group. There was no difference between the 2 groups in terms of postoperative complications. CONCLUSIONS: Video-assisted parathyroidectomy is a safe and feasible procedure in the setting of a general otolaryngology-head and neck practice, with outcomes and complication rates that are comparable to those of traditional bilateral neck exploration. Both patient and observer analysis demonstrated that VAP was associated with a more

  11. Retrospective analysis of factors affecting the efficacy of surgical treatment of the scar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Z; Shi, X; Zhang, Y; Wang, S; Lei, Z; Liu, X; Fan, D

    2014-04-01

    The scar is a major problem in the medical profession. Its timely treatment is very important for the better outcome of the scar treatment and for the improvement of the life quality of the patients. The aim of this study was retrospectively analyzed the epidemiological characteristics affecting the efficacy of the scar surgical treatment of the people in the western part of China. Total 414 scar cases were retrospectively analyzed to clarify the epidemiological characteristics and the factors affecting the scar surgical treatment efficacy. The factors included were sex, age, area distribution, treatment seasons, injury sites, injury causes, and the time from scarring to the surgical treatment. All scar cases were surgically treated with the repairing technology including skin graft, flap and soft tissue dilation. There were 206 males and 208 females with the average age 20.53±12.9 years (age range 1-68 years). The patient proportions in the age groups of 0-20, 21-40 and >40 years were 61.4% (254 cases), 29.2% (121 cases), and 9.4% (39 cases) respectively. The patient's attendance rate reached the highest during the summer and winter. Most patients were from the rural areas with an increasing tendency each year. The burn scars were the most abundant and the injury sites were mostly the head and face. Univariate analysis showed that the time from scarring to the surgical treatment and the injury sites were significantly influenced the scar surgical treatment efficacy. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that the injured sites of the head and face significantly influenced the scar surgical treatment efficacy. With the development of economy in China, more scar patients especially younger and children visit doctors predominantely from the rural areas. Usually, they get their scars in the exposed area of their bodies (head and face) which seriously affect the patient's appearance and function. Factors influencing the scar surgical treatment efficacy has

  12. The glia doctrine: addressing the role of glial cells in healthy brain ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagelhus, Erlend A; Amiry-Moghaddam, Mahmood; Bergersen, Linda H; Bjaalie, Jan G; Eriksson, Jens; Gundersen, Vidar; Leergaard, Trygve B; Morth, J Preben; Storm-Mathisen, Jon; Torp, Reidun; Walhovd, Kristine B; Tønjum, Tone

    2013-10-01

    Glial cells in their plurality pervade the human brain and impact on brain structure and function. A principal component of the emerging glial doctrine is the hypothesis that astrocytes, the most abundant type of glial cells, trigger major molecular processes leading to brain ageing. Astrocyte biology has been examined using molecular, biochemical and structural methods, as well as 3D brain imaging in live animals and humans. Exosomes are extracelluar membrane vesicles that facilitate communication between glia, and have significant potential for biomarker discovery and drug delivery. Polymorphisms in DNA repair genes may indirectly influence the structure and function of membrane proteins expressed in glial cells and predispose specific cell subgroups to degeneration. Physical exercise may reduce or retard age-related brain deterioration by a mechanism involving neuro-glial processes. It is most likely that additional information about the distribution, structure and function of glial cells will yield novel insight into human brain ageing. Systematic studies of glia and their functions are expected to eventually lead to earlier detection of ageing-related brain dysfunction and to interventions that could delay, reduce or prevent brain dysfunction. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Chronic lead intoxication affects glial and neural systems and induces hypoactivity in adult rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansar, Wafa; Ahboucha, Samir; Gamrani, Halima

    2011-10-01

    Lead is an environmental toxin and its effects are principally manifested in the brain. Glial and neuronal changes have been described during development following chronic or acute lead intoxication, however, little is known about the effects of chronic lead intoxication in adults. In this study we evaluated immunohistochemically the glial and dopaminergic systems in adult male Wistar rats. 0.5% (v/v) lead acetate in drinking water was administrated chronically over a 3-month period. Hypertrophic immunoreactive astrocytes were observed in the frontal cortex and other brain structures of the treated animals. Analysis of the astroglial features showed increased number of astrocyte cell bodies and processes in treated rats, an increase confirmed by Western blot. Particular distribution of glial fibrillary acidic protein immunoreactivity was observed within the blood vessel walls in which dense immunoreactive glial processes emanate from astrocytes. Glial changes in the frontal cortex were concomitant with reduced tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive neuronal processes, which seem to occur as a consequence of significantly reduced dopaminergic neurons within the nucleus of origin in the substantia nigra. These glial and neuronal changes following lead intoxication may affect animal behavior as evidenced by reduced locomotor activity in an open field test. These findings demonstrate that chronic lead exposure induces astroglial changes, which may compromise neuronal function and consequently animal behavior. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Opioid-Induced Glial Activation: Mechanisms of Activation and Implications for Opioid Analgesia, Dependence, and Reward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark R. Hutchinson

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This review will introduce the concept of toll-like receptor (TLR–mediated glial activation as central to all of the following: neuropathic pain, compromised acute opioid analgesia, and unwanted opioid side effects (tolerance, dependence, and reward. Attenuation of glial activation has previously been demonstrated both to alleviate exaggerated pain states induced by experimental pain models and to reduce the development of opioid tolerance. Here we demonstrate that selective acute antagonism of TLR4 results in reversal of neuropathic pain as well as potentiation of opioid analgesia. Attenuating central nervous system glial activation was also found to reduce the development of opioid dependence, and opioid reward at a behavioral (conditioned place preference and neurochemical (nucleus accumbens microdialysis of morphine-induced elevations in dopamine level of analysis. Moreover, a novel antagonism of TLR4 by (+- and (˗-isomer opioid antagonists has now been characterized, and both antiallodynic and morphine analgesia potentiating activity shown. Opioid agonists were found to also possess TLR4 agonistic activity, predictive of glial activation. Targeting glial activation is a novel and as yet clinically unexploited method for treatment of neuropathic pain. Moreover, these data indicate that attenuation of glial activation, by general or selective TLR antagonistic mechanisms, may also be a clinical method for separating the beneficial (analgesia and unwanted (tolerance, dependence, and reward actions of opioids, thereby improving the safety and efficacy of their use.

  15. Ethanol-Induced Neurodegeneration and Glial Activation in the Developing Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariko Saito

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol induces neurodegeneration in the developing brain, which may partially explain the long-lasting adverse effects of prenatal ethanol exposure in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD. While animal models of FASD show that ethanol-induced neurodegeneration is associated with glial activation, the relationship between glial activation and neurodegeneration has not been clarified. This review focuses on the roles of activated microglia and astrocytes in neurodegeneration triggered by ethanol in rodents during the early postnatal period (equivalent to the third trimester of human pregnancy. Previous literature indicates that acute binge-like ethanol exposure in postnatal day 7 (P7 mice induces apoptotic neurodegeneration, transient activation of microglia resulting in phagocytosis of degenerating neurons, and a prolonged increase in glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive astrocytes. In our present study, systemic administration of a moderate dose of lipopolysaccharides, which causes glial activation, attenuates ethanol-induced neurodegeneration. These studies suggest that activation of microglia and astrocytes by acute ethanol in the neonatal brain may provide neuroprotection. However, repeated or chronic ethanol can induce significant proinflammatory glial reaction and neurotoxicity. Further studies are necessary to elucidate whether acute or sustained glial activation caused by ethanol exposure in the developing brain can affect long-lasting cellular and behavioral abnormalities observed in the adult brain.

  16. Distinct angiotensin II receptor in primary cultures of glial cells from rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raizada, M.K.; Phillips, M.I.; Crews, F.T.; Sumners, C.

    1987-01-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang-II) has profound effects on the brain. Receptors for Ang-II have been demonstrated on neurons, but no relationship between glial cells and Agn-II has been established. Glial cells (from the hypothalamus and brain stem of 1-day-old rat brains) in primary culture have been used to demonstrate the presence of specific Ang-II receptors. Binding of 125 I-Ang-II to glial cultures was rapid, reversible, saturable, and specific for Ang-II. The rank order of potency of 125 I-Ang-II binding was determined. Scatchard analysis revealed a homogeneous population of high-affinity binding sites with a B/sub max/ of 110 fmol/mg of protein. Light-microscopic autoradiography of 125 I-Ang-II binding supported the kinetic data, documenting specific Ang-II receptors on the glial cells. Ang-II stimulated a dose-dependent hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositols in glial cells, an effect mediated by Ang-II receptors. However, Ang-II failed to influence [ 3 H] norepinephrine uptake, and catecholamines failed to regulate Ang-II receptors, effects that occur in neurons. These observations demonstrate the presence of specific Ang-II receptors on the glial cells in primary cultures derived from normotensive rat brain. The receptors are kinetically similar to, but functionally distinct from, the neuronal Ang-II receptors

  17. Three-Dimensional Electromagnetic High Frequency Axisymmetric Cavity Scars.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warne, Larry Kevin; Jorgenson, Roy Eberhardt

    2014-10-01

    This report examines the localization of high frequency electromagnetic fi elds in three-dimensional axisymmetric cavities along periodic paths between opposing sides of the cavity. The cases where these orbits lead to unstable localized modes are known as scars. This report treats both the case where the opposing sides, or mirrors, are convex, where there are no interior foci, and the case where they are concave, leading to interior foci. The scalar problem is treated fi rst but the approximations required to treat the vector fi eld components are also examined. Particular att ention is focused on the normalization through the electromagnetic energy theorem. Both projections of the fi eld along the scarred orbit as well as point statistics are examined. Statistical comparisons are m ade with a numerical calculation of the scars run with an axisymmetric simulation. This axisymmetric cas eformstheoppositeextreme(wherethetwomirror radii at each end of the ray orbit are equal) from the two -dimensional solution examined previously (where one mirror radius is vastly di ff erent from the other). The enhancement of the fi eldontheorbitaxiscanbe larger here than in the two-dimensional case. Intentionally Left Blank

  18. Diffusion, capture and recycling of SCAR/WAVE and Arp2/3 complexes observed in cells by single-molecule imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millius, Arthur; Watanabe, Naoki; Weiner, Orion D.

    2012-01-01

    The SCAR/WAVE complex drives lamellipodium formation by enhancing actin nucleation by the Arp2/3 complex. Phosphoinositides and Rac activate the SCAR/WAVE complex, but how SCAR/WAVE and Arp2/3 complexes converge at sites of nucleation is unknown. We analyzed the single-molecule dynamics of WAVE2 and p40 (subunits of the SCAR/WAVE and Arp2/3 complexes, respectively) in XTC cells. We observed lateral diffusion of both proteins and captured the transition of p40 from diffusion to network incorporation. These results suggest that a diffusive 2D search facilitates binding of the Arp2/3 complex to actin filaments necessary for nucleation. After nucleation, the Arp2/3 complex integrates into the actin network and undergoes retrograde flow, which results in its broad distribution throughout the lamellipodium. By contrast, the SCAR/WAVE complex is more restricted to the cell periphery. However, with single-molecule imaging, we also observed WAVE2 molecules undergoing retrograde motion. WAVE2 and p40 have nearly identical speeds, lifetimes and sites of network incorporation. Inhibition of actin retrograde flow does not prevent WAVE2 association and disassociation with the membrane but does inhibit WAVE2 removal from the actin cortex. Our results suggest that membrane binding and diffusion expedites the recruitment of nucleation factors to a nucleation site independent of actin assembly, but after network incorporation, ongoing actin polymerization facilitates recycling of SCAR/WAVE and Arp2/3 complexes. PMID:22349699

  19. Protein kinase A and Epac activation by cAMP regulates the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein in glial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugimoto Naotoshi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP controls differentiation in several types of cells during brain development. However, the molecular mechanism of cAMP-controlled differentiation is not fully understood. We investigated the role of protein kinase A (PKA and exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac on cAMP-induced glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, an astrocyte marker, in cultured glial cells. B92 glial cells were treated with cAMP-elevating drugs, an activator of adenylate cyclase, phosphodiesterase inhibitor and a ß adrenal receptor agonist. These cAMP-elevating agents induced dramatic morphological changes and expression of GFAP. A cAMP analog, 8-Br-cAMP, which activates Epac as well as PKA, induced GFAP expression and morphological changes, while another cAMP analog, 8-CPT-cAMP, which activates Epac with greater efficacy when compared to PKA, induced GFAP expression but very weak morphological changes. Most importantly, the treatment with a PKA inhibitor partially reduced cAMP-induced GFAP expression. Taken together, these results indicate that cAMP-elevating drugs lead to the induction of GFAP via PKA and/or Epac activation in B92 glial cells.

  20. A prospective study of time to healing and hypertrophic scarring in paediatric burns: every day counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chipp, Elizabeth; Charles, Lisa; Thomas, Clare; Whiting, Kate; Moiemen, Naiem; Wilson, Yvonne

    2017-01-01

    It is commonly accepted that burns taking longer than 3 weeks to heal have a much higher rate of hypertrophic scarring than those which heal more quickly. However, some of our patients develop hypertrophic scars despite healing within this 3-week period. We performed a prospective study of 383 paediatric burns treated non-operatively at a regional burns centre over a 2-year period from May 2011 to April 2013. Scar assessment was performed by a senior burns therapist using the Vancouver Scar Scale. Overall rates of hypertrophic scarring were 17.2%. Time to healing was the strongest predictor of developing hypertrophic scarring, and the earliest hypertrophic scar developed in a patient who was healed after 8 days. The risk of hypertrophic scarring was multiplied by 1.138 for every additional day taken for the burn wound to heal. There was a trend towards higher rates of hypertrophic scarring in non-white skin types but this did not reach statistical significance. The risk of hypertrophic scarring increases with every day and, therefore, every effort should be made to get the wound healed as quickly as possible, even within the traditional 3-week period usually allowed for healing. We believe that the traditional dogma of aiming for healing within 3 weeks is overly simplistic and should be abandoned: in paediatric burns, every day counts. Not applicable.

  1. Probability mapping of scarred myocardium using texture and intensity features in CMR images

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The myocardium exhibits heterogeneous nature due to scarring after Myocardial Infarction (MI). In Cardiac Magnetic Resonance (CMR) imaging, Late Gadolinium (LG) contrast agent enhances the intensity of scarred area in the myocardium. Methods In this paper, we propose a probability mapping technique using Texture and Intensity features to describe heterogeneous nature of the scarred myocardium in Cardiac Magnetic Resonance (CMR) images after Myocardial Infarction (MI). Scarred tissue and non-scarred tissue are represented with high and low probabilities, respectively. Intermediate values possibly indicate areas where the scarred and healthy tissues are interwoven. The probability map of scarred myocardium is calculated by using a probability function based on Bayes rule. Any set of features can be used in the probability function. Results In the present study, we demonstrate the use of two different types of features. One is based on the mean intensity of pixel and the other on underlying texture information of the scarred and non-scarred myocardium. Examples of probability maps computed using the mean intensity of pixel and the underlying texture information are presented. We hypothesize that the probability mapping of myocardium offers alternate visualization, possibly showing the details with physiological significance difficult to detect visually in the original CMR image. Conclusion The probability mapping obtained from the two features provides a way to define different cardiac segments which offer a way to identify areas in the myocardium of diagnostic importance (like core and border areas in scarred myocardium). PMID:24053280

  2. Ghrelin is involved in the paracrine communication between neurons and glial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avau, B; De Smet, B; Thijs, T; Geuzens, A; Tack, J; Vanden Berghe, P; Depoortere, I

    2013-09-01

    Ghrelin is the only known peripherally active orexigenic hormone produced by the stomach that activates vagal afferents to stimulate food intake and to accelerate gastric emptying. Vagal sensory neurons within the nodose ganglia are surrounded by glial cells, which are able to receive and transmit chemical signals. We aimed to investigate whether ghrelin activates or influences the interaction between both types of cells. The effect of ghrelin was compared with that of leptin and cholecystokinin (CCK). Cultures of rat nodose ganglia were characterized by immunohistochemistry and the functional effects of peptides, neurotransmitters, and pharmacological blockers were measured by Ca(2+) imaging using Fluo-4-AM as an indicator. Neurons responded to KCl and were immunoreactive for PGP-9.5 whereas glial cells responded to lysophosphatidic acid and had the typical SOX-10-positive nuclear staining. Neurons were only responsive to CCK (31 ± 5%) whereas glial cells responded equally to the applied stimuli: ghrelin (27 ± 2%), leptin (21 ± 2%), and CCK (30 ± 2%). In contrast, neurons stained more intensively for the ghrelin receptor than glial cells. ATP induced [Ca(2+) ]i rises in 90% of the neurons whereas ACh and the NO donor, SIN-1, mainly induced [Ca(2+) ]i changes in glial cells (41 and 51%, respectively). The percentage of ghrelin-responsive glial cells was not affected by pretreatment with suramin, atropine, hexamethonium or 1400 W, but was reduced by l-NAME and by tetrodotoxin. Neurons were shown to be immunoreactive for neuronal NO-synthase (nNOS). Our data show that ghrelin induces Ca(2+) signaling in glial cells of the nodose ganglion via the release of NO originating from the neurons. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Hypertrophic scarring in cleft lip repair: a comparison of incidence among ethnic groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soltani AM

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Ali M Soltani, Cameron S Francis, Arash Motamed, Ashley L Karatsonyi, Jeffrey A Hammoudeh, Pedro A Sanchez-Lara, John F Reinisch, Mark M UrataDivision of Plastic and Maxillofacial Surgery at Children's Hospital Los Angeles, CA, USA; The Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery at the Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USABackground: Although hypertrophic scar (HTS formation following cleft lip repair is relatively common, published rates vary widely, from 1% to nearly 50%. The risk factors associated with HTS formation in cleft patients are not well characterized. The primary aim of this retrospective study of 180 cleft lip repairs is to evaluate the frequency of postoperative HTS among various ethnic groups following cleft lip repair.Methods: A retrospective chart view of patients undergoing primary cleft lip repair over a 16-year period (1990–2005 by the senior surgeon was performed. The primary outcome was the presence of HTS at 1 year postoperatively. Bivariate analysis and multivariable logistic regression were used to evaluate potential risk factors for HTS, including ethnicity, type and laterality of cleft, and gender.Results: One hundred and eighty patients who underwent cleft lip repair were included in the study. The overall rate of postoperative HTS formation was 25%. Ethnicity alone was found to be an independent predictor of HTS formation. Caucasian patients had the lowest rate of HTS formation (11.8% and were used as the reference group. HTS rates were significantly higher in the other ethnicities, 32.2% in Hispanic patients (odds ratio [OR]: 3.51; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.53–8.85, and 36.3% for Asian patients (OR 4.27; 95% CI: 1.36–13.70. Sex, cleft type, and cleft laterality were not associated with increased rates of HTS.Conclusions: Differences in ethnic makeup of respective patient populations may be a major factor influencing the wide variability of reported

  4. Review: Biological and Molecular Differences between Tail Regeneration and Limb Scarring in Lizard: An Inspiring Model Addressing Limb Regeneration in Amniotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alibardi, Lorenzo

    2017-09-01

    Tissue regeneration in lizards represents a unique model of regeneration and scarring in amniotes. The tail and limb contain putative stem cells but also dedifferentiating cells contribute to regeneration. Following tail amputation, inflammation is low and cell proliferation high, leading to regeneration while the intense inflammation in the limb leads to low proliferation and scarring. FGFs stimulate tail and limb regeneration and are present in the wound epidermis and blastema while they disappear in the limb wound epidermis 2-3 weeks postamputation in the scarring outgrowth. FGFs localize in the tail blastema and the apical epidermal peg (AEP), an epidermal microregion that allows tail growth but is absent in the limb. Inflammatory cells invade the limb blastema and wound epidermis, impeding the formation of an AEP. An embryonic program of growth is activated in the tail, dominated by Wnt-positive and -negative regulators of cell proliferation and noncoding RNAs, that represent the key regenerative genes. The balanced actions of these regulators likely impede the formation of a tumor in the tail tip. Genes for FACIT and fibrillar collagens, protease inhibitors, and embryonic keratins are upregulated in the regenerating tail blastema. A strong downregulation of genes for both B and T-lymphocyte activation suggests the regenerating tail blastema is a temporal immune-tolerated organ, whereas a scarring program is activated in the limb. Wnt inhibitors, pro-inflammatory genes, negative regulators of cell proliferation, downregulation of myogenic genes, proteases, and oxidases favoring scarring are upregulated. The evolution of an efficient immune system may be the main limiting barrier for organ regeneration in amniotes, and the poor regeneration of mammals and birds is associated with the efficiency of their mature immune system. This does not tolerate embryonic antigens formed in reprogrammed embryonic cells (as for neoplastic cells) that are consequently

  5. Astrocyte-like glial cells physiologically regulate olfactory processing through the modification of ORN-PN synaptic strength in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, He; Zhou, Bangyu; Yan, Wenjun; Lei, Zhengchang; Zhao, Xiaoliang; Zhang, Ke; Guo, Aike

    2014-09-01

    Astrocyte-like glial cells are abundant in the central nervous system of adult Drosophila and exhibit morphology similar to astrocytes of mammals. Previous evidence has shown that astrocyte-like glial cells are strongly associated with synapses in the antennal lobe (AL), the first relay of the olfactory system, where olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) transmit information into projection neurons (PNs). However, the function of astrocyte-like glia in the AL remains obscure. In this study, using in vivo calcium imaging, we found that astrocyte-like glial cells exhibited spontaneous microdomain calcium elevations. Using simultaneous manipulation of glial activity and monitoring of neuronal function, we found that the astrocyte-like glial activation, but not ensheathing glial activation, could inhibit odor-evoked responses of PNs. Ensheathing glial cells are another subtype of glia, and are of functional importance in the AL. Electrophysiological experiments indicated that astrocyte-like glial activation decreased the amplitude and slope of excitatory postsynaptic potentials evoked through electrical stimulation of the antennal nerve. These results suggest that astrocyte-like glial cells may regulate olfactory processing through negative regulation of ORN-PN synaptic strength. Beyond the antennal lobe we observed astrocyte-like glial spontaneous calcium activities in the ventromedial protocerebrum, indicating that astrocyte-like glial spontaneous calcium elevations might be general in the adult fly brain. Overall, our study demonstrates a new function for astrocyte-like glial cells in the physiological modulation of olfactory information transmission, possibly through regulating ORN-PN synapse strength. © 2014 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Risk factors for hypertrophic burn scar pain, pruritus, and paresthesia development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yongqiang; Sun, Yu; Zhu, Banghui; Wang, Kangan; Liang, Pengfei; Liu, Wenjun; Fu, Jinfeng; Zheng, Shiqing; Xiao, Shichu; Xia, Zhaofan

    2018-05-02

    Hypertrophic scar pain, pruritus, and paresthesia symptoms are major and particular concerns for burn patients. However, because no effective and satisfactory methods exist for their alleviation, the clinical treatment for these symptoms is generally considered unsatisfactory. Therefore, their risk factors should be identified and prevented during management. We reviewed the medical records of 129 post-burn hypertrophy scar patients and divided them into two groups for each of three different symptoms based on the University of North Carolina "4P" Scar Scale: patients with scar pain requiring occasional or continuous pharmacological intervention (HSc pain, n=75) vs. patients without such scar pain (No HSc pain, n=54); patients with scar pruritus requiring occasional or continuous pharmacological intervention (HSc pruritus, n=63) vs. patients without such scar pruritus (No HSc pruritus, n=66); patients with scar paresthesia that influenced the patients' daily activities (HSc paresthesia, n=31) vs. patients without such scar paresthesia (No HSc paresthesia, n=98). Three multivariable logistic regression models were built, respectively, to identify the risk factors for hypertrophic burn scar pain, pruritus, and paresthesia development. Multivariable analysis showed that hypertrophic burn scar pain development requiring pharmacological intervention was associated with old age (odds ratio [OR]=1.046; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.011-1.082, p=0.009), high body mass index(OR=1.242; 95%CI,1.068-1.445, p=0.005), 2-5-mm-thick post-burn hypertrophic scars (OR=3.997; 95%CI, 1.523-10.487; p=0.005), and 6-12-month post-burn hypertrophic scars (OR=4.686; 95%CI; 1.318-16.653; p=0.017). Hypertrophic burn scar pruritus development requiring pharmacological intervention was associated with smoking (OR=3.239; 95%CI, 1.380-7.603; p=0.007), having undergone surgical operation (OR=2.236; 95%CI, 1.001-4.998; p=0.049), and firm scars (OR=3.317; 95%CI, 1.237-8.894; p=0.017). Finally

  7. Fibrous scar in the infrapatellar fat pad after arthroscopy. MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Guangyu; Niitsu, Mamoru; Ikeda, Kotaro; Itai, Yuji [Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Inst. of Clinical Medicine; Endo, Hideho

    2000-02-01

    We describe the MR appearance of fibrous scars in the infrapatellar fat pad after arthroscopy. The subjects were 96 patients who underwent arthroscope-assisted anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction and were examined by oblique sagittal MR imaging at different follow-up intervals. Two observers evaluated the characteristics of the fibrous scars in the infrapatellar fat pad. All fibrous scars with low signal intensity were accentuated at the portal and coursed horizontally through the infrapatellar fat pad. The fibrous scar within the fat pad occurred and peaked within 6 months after arthroscopy. It then subsided gradually and had disappeared by one year later in nearly half of the patients. Identifying MR imaging characteristics of fibrous scars in the fat pad after arthroscopy may be clinically helpful to differentiate these scars from other abnormalities that involve the infrapatellar fat pad. (author)

  8. Non-ablative fractional laser provides long-term improvement of mature burn scars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taudorf, Elisabeth H; Danielsen, Patricia L; Paulsen, Ida F

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Non-ablative fractional laser-treatment is evolving for burn scars. The objective of this study was to evaluate clinical and histological long-term outcome of 1,540 nm fractional Erbium: Glass laser, targeting superficial, and deep components of mature burn scars....... MATERIALS & METHODS: Side-by-side scar-areas were randomized to untreated control or three monthly non-ablative fractional laser-treatments using superficial and extra-deep handpieces. Patient follow-up were at 1, 3, and 6 months. Primary outcome was improvement in overall scar-appearance on a modified...... of scar-appearance. CONCLUSIONS: Combined superficial and deep non-ablative fractional laser-treatments induce long-term clinical and histological improvement of mature burn scars....

  9. Fibrous scar in the infrapatellar fat pad after arthroscopy. MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Guangyu; Niitsu, Mamoru; Ikeda, Kotaro; Itai, Yuji; Endo, Hideho

    2000-01-01

    We describe the MR appearance of fibrous scars in the infrapatellar fat pad after arthroscopy. The subjects were 96 patients who underwent arthroscope-assisted anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction and were examined by oblique sagittal MR imaging at different follow-up intervals. Two observers evaluated the characteristics of the fibrous scars in the infrapatellar fat pad. All fibrous scars with low signal intensity were accentuated at the portal and coursed horizontally through the infrapatellar fat pad. The fibrous scar within the fat pad occurred and peaked within 6 months after arthroscopy. It then subsided gradually and had disappeared by one year later in nearly half of the patients. Identifying MR imaging characteristics of fibrous scars in the fat pad after arthroscopy may be clinically helpful to differentiate these scars from other abnormalities that involve the infrapatellar fat pad. (author)

  10. Time course of epidural scar enhancement with Gd-DTPA in an animal model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaser, S.I.; Ross, J.S.; Berridge, M.; Emery, S.; Bolesta, M.J.; Modic, M.T.; Masaryk, T.J.; Bohlman, H.

    1988-01-01

    In eight beagles following laminectomies, dynamic contrast enhancement of posterior epidural scar was assessed sequentially over 4 months by means of FLASH sequence (20/10/50) following Gd-DTPA. A consistent pattern of enhancement was apparent in all dogs. Maximum enhancement occurred after 1 month (80%-130%), with peak enhancement at 7-10 minutes. There was decreased enhancement each succeeding month with a similar time to peak. Time curves were obtained for blood, muscle, and scar following injection of 40 μCi Gd-153 DTPA and correlated well with in vivo MR image intensities. Histology showed granulation tissue early following surgery, which matured to scar by 4 months. These findings are in contrast to reports of enhancement of anterior scar in humans irrespective of age. The difference may be secondary to location in that posterior scar does not receive the trauma and stress acting on anterior scar associated with a degenerative disk

  11. Minimizing surgical skin incision scars with a latex surgical glove.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, So-Eun; Ryoo, Suk-Tae; Lim, So Young; Pyon, Jai-Kyung; Bang, Sa-Ik; Oh, Kap-Sung; Mun, Goo-Hyun

    2013-04-01

    The current trend in minimally invasive surgery is to make a small surgical incision. However, the excessive tensile stress applied by the retractors to the skin surrounding the incision often results in a long wound healing time and extensive scarring. To minimize these types of wound problems, the authors evaluated a simple and cost-effective method to minimize surgical incision scars based on the use of a latex surgical glove. The tunnel-shaped part of a powder-free latex surgical glove was applied to the incision and the dissection plane. It was fixed to the full layer of the dissection plane with sutures. The glove on the skin surface then was sealed with Ioban (3 M Health Care, St. Paul, MN, USA) to prevent movement. The operation proceeded as usual, with the retractor running through the tunnel of the latex glove. It was possible to complete the operation without any disturbance of the visual field by the surgical glove, and the glove was neither torn nor separated by the retractors. The retractors caused traction and friction during the operation, but the extent of damage to the postoperative skin incision margin was remarkably less than when the operation was performed without a glove. This simple and cost-effective method is based on the use of a latex surgical glove to protect the surgical skin incision site and improve the appearance of the postoperative scar. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  12. Molecular mechanism of the relation of monoamine oxidase B and its inhibitors to Parkinson's disease: possible implications of glial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatsu, T; Sawada, M

    2006-01-01

    Monoamine oxidases A and B (MAO A and MAO B) are the major enzymes that catalyze the oxidative deamination of monoamine neurotaransmitters such as dopamine (DA), noradrenaline, and serotonin in the central and peripheral nervous systems. MAO B is mainly localized in glial cells. MAO B also oxidizes the xenobiotic 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) to a parkinsonism-producing neurotoxin, 1-methyl-4-phenyl-pyridinium (MPP+). MAO B may be closely related to the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD), in which neuromelanin-containing DA neurons in the substantia nigra projecting to the striatum in the brain selectively degenerate. MAO B degrades the neurotransmitter DA that is deficient in the nigro-striatal region in PD, and forms H2O2 and toxic aldehyde metabolites of DA. H2O2 produces highly toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) by Fenton reaction that is catalyzed by iron and neuromelanin. MAO B inhibitors such as L-(-)-deprenyl (selegiline) and rasagiline are effective for the treatment of PD. Concerning the mechanism of the clinical efficacy of MAO B inhibitors in PD, the inhibition of DA degradation (a symptomatic effect) and also the prevention of the formation of neurotoxic DA metabolites, i.e., ROS and dopamine derived aldehydes have been speculated. As another mechanism of clinical efficacy, MAO B inhibitors such as selegiline are speculated to have neuroprotective effects to prevent progress of PD. The possible mechanism of neuroprotection of MAO B inhibitors may be related not only to MAO B inhibition but also to induction and activation of multiple factors for anti-oxidative stress and anti-apoptosis: i.e., catalase, superoxide dismutase 1 and 2, thioredoxin, Bcl-2, the cellular poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation, and binding to glyceraldehydes-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). Furthermore, it should be noted that selegiline increases production of neurotrophins such as nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and glial

  13. Colour evaluation in scars: tristimulus colorimeter, narrow-band simple reflectance meter or subjective evaluation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draaijers, Lieneke J; Tempelman, Fenike R H; Botman, Yvonne A M; Kreis, Robert W; Middelkoop, Esther; van Zuijlen, Paul P M

    2004-03-01

    The evaluation of scar colour is, at present, usually limited to an assessment according to a scar assessment scale. Although useful, these assessment scales only evaluate subjectively the degree of scar colour. In this study, the reliability of the subjective assessment of scar colour by observers is compared to the reliability of the measurements of two objective colour measurement instruments. Four independent observers subjectively assessed the vascularisation and pigmentation of 49 scar areas in 20 patients. The degree of vascularisation and pigmentation was scored according to a scale ranging from '1', when it appeared to be like healthy skin, to '10', which corresponds to the worst imaginable outcome of vascularisation or pigmentation. The observers also scored the pigmentation categories of the scar (hypopigmention, hyperpigmention or mixed pigmentation). Finally, each observer measured the scar areas with a tristimulus colorimeter (Minolta Chromameter) and a narrow-band simple reflectance meter (DermaSpectrometer). A single observer could reliably carry out measurements of the DermaSpectrometer and the Minolta Chromameter for the evaluation of scar colour (r = 0.72). The vascularisation of scars could also be assessed reliably with a single observer (r = 0.76) whereas for a reliable assessment of pigmentation at least three observers were necessary (r > or = 0.77). The agreement between the observers for the pigmentation categories also turned out to be unacceptably low (k = 0.349). This study shows that an overall evaluation of scar colour with the DermaSpectrometer and the Minolta Chromameter is more reliable than the evaluation of scar colour with observers. Of both instruments for measuring scar colour, we prefer, because of its feasibility, the DermaSpectrometer.

  14. A novel experimental rat model of peripheral nerve scarring that reliably mimics post-surgical complications and recurring adhesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Lemke

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation, fibrosis and perineural adhesions with the surrounding tissue are common pathological processes following nerve injury and surgical interventions on peripheral nerves in human patients. These features can reoccur following external neurolysis, currently the most common surgical treatment for peripheral nerve scarring, thus leading to renewed nerve function impairment and chronic pain. To enable a successful evaluation of new therapeutic approaches, it is crucial to use a reproducible animal model that mimics the main clinical symptoms occurring in human patients. However, a clinically relevant model combining both histological and functional alterations has not been published to date. We therefore developed a reliable rat model that exhibits the essential pathological processes of peripheral nerve scarring. In our study, we present a novel method for the induction of nerve scarring by applying glutaraldehyde-containing glue that is known to cause nerve injury in humans. After a 3-week contact period with the sciatic nerve in female Sprague Dawley rats, we could demonstrate severe intra- and perineural scarring that resulted in grade 3 adhesions and major impairments in the electrophysiological peak amplitude compared with sham control (P=0.0478. Immunohistochemical analysis of the nerve structure revealed vigorous nerve inflammation and recruitment of T cells and macrophages. Also, distinct nerve degeneration was determined by immunostaining. These pathological alterations were further reflected in significant functional deficiencies, as determined by the analysis of relevant gait parameters as well as the quantification of the sciatic functional index starting at week 1 post-operation (P<0.01. Moreover, with this model we could, for the first time, demonstrate not only the primary formation, but also the recurrence, of severe adhesions 1 week after glue removal, imitating a major clinical challenge. As a comparison, we tested a

  15. The effects of centrally administered fluorocitrate via inhibiting glial cells on working memory in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Although prefrontal and hippocampal neurons are critical for spatial working memory,the function of glial cells in spatial working memory remains uncertain.In this study we investigated the function of glial cells in rats’ working memory.The glial cells of rat brain were inhibited by intracerebroventricular(icv) injection of fluorocitrate(FC).The effects of FC on the glial cells were examined by using electroencephalogram(EEG) recordings and delayed spatial alternation tasks.After icv injection of 10 μL of 0.5 nmol/L or 5 nmol/L FC,the EEG power spectrum recorded from the hippocampus increased,but the power spectrum for the prefrontal cortex did not change,and working memory was unaffected.Following an icv injection of 10 μL of 20 nmol/L FC,the EEG power spectra in both the prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus increased,and working memory improved.The icv injection of 10 μL of 50 nmol/L FC,the EEG power spectra in both the prefrontal cortex and in the hippocampus decreased,and working memory was impaired.These results suggest that spatial working memory is affected by centrally administered FC,but only if there are changes in the EEG power spectrum in the prefrontal cortex.Presumably,the prefrontal glial cells relate to the working memory.

  16. Plasticity of Neuron-Glial Transmission: Equipping Glia for Long-Term Integration of Network Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne Croft

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The capacity of synaptic networks to express activity-dependent changes in strength and connectivity is essential for learning and memory processes. In recent years, glial cells (most notably astrocytes have been recognized as active participants in the modulation of synaptic transmission and synaptic plasticity, implicating these electrically nonexcitable cells in information processing in the brain. While the concept of bidirectional communication between neurons and glia and the mechanisms by which gliotransmission can modulate neuronal function are well established, less attention has been focussed on the computational potential of neuron-glial transmission itself. In particular, whether neuron-glial transmission is itself subject to activity-dependent plasticity and what the computational properties of such plasticity might be has not been explored in detail. In this review, we summarize current examples of plasticity in neuron-glial transmission, in many brain regions and neurotransmitter pathways. We argue that induction of glial plasticity typically requires repetitive neuronal firing over long time periods (minutes-hours rather than the short-lived, stereotyped trigger typical of canonical long-term potentiation. We speculate that this equips glia with a mechanism for monitoring average firing rates in the synaptic network, which is suited to the longer term roles proposed for astrocytes in neurophysiology.

  17. Neuronal-glial interactions in rats fed a ketogenic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melø, Torun Margareta; Nehlig, Astrid; Sonnewald, Ursula

    2006-01-01

    Glucose is the preferred energy substrate for the adult brain. However, during periods of fasting and consumption of a high fat, low carbohydrate (ketogenic) diet, ketone bodies become major brain fuels. The present study was conducted to investigate how the ketogenic diet influences neuronal-glial interactions in amino acid neurotransmitter metabolism. Rats were kept on a standard or ketogenic diet. After 21 days all animals received an injection of [1-(13)C]glucose plus [1,2-(13)C]acetate, the preferential substrates of neurons and astrocytes, respectively. Extracts from cerebral cortex and plasma were analyzed by (13)C and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and HPLC. Increased amounts of valine, leucine and isoleucine and a decreased amount of glutamate were found in the brains of rats receiving the ketogenic diet. Glycolysis was decreased in ketotic rats compared with controls, evidenced by the reduced amounts of [3-(13)C]alanine and [3-(13)C]lactate. Additionally, neuronal oxidative metabolism of [1-(13)C]glucose was decreased in ketotic rats compared with controls, since amounts of [4-(13)C]glutamate and [4-(13)C]glutamine were lower than those of controls. Although the amount of glutamate from [1-(13)C]glucose was decreased, this was not the case for GABA, indicating that relatively more [4-(13)C]glutamate is converted to GABA. Astrocytic metabolism was increased in response to ketosis, shown by increased amounts of [4,5-(13)C]glutamine, [4,5-(13)C]glutamate, [1,2-(13)C]GABA and [3,4-(13)C]-/[1,2-(13)C]aspartate derived from [1,2-(13)C]acetate. The pyruvate carboxylation over dehydrogenation ratio for glutamine was increased in the ketotic animals compared to controls, giving further indication of increased astrocytic metabolism. Interestingly, pyruvate recycling was higher in glutamine than in glutamate in both groups of animals. An increase in this pathway was detected in glutamate in response to ketosis. The decreased glycolysis and oxidative

  18. [THE PECULIARITIES OF UTERINE STRUCTURE AFTER DELIVERY IN RATS WITH THE MYOMETRIAL SCAR].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiborodin, I V; Pekarev, O G; Yakimova, N V; Pekareva, Ye O; Maiborodina, V I; Perminova, Ye I

    2015-01-01

    The uterine tissues of female rats (n=30) with a scarred myometrium were examined by methods of light microscopy after the delivery. 1.5-2 months after the delivery no significant differences in the parameters of blood and lymph flow in the deep layers of the endometrium, myometrium and the myometrial scar tissue were found between the intact rats, nulliparous rats with a scarred uterus, rats that gave birth after laparotomy only and those that gave birth under the conditions of myometrial scar. In the course of pregnancy and labor activity, the damage of the tissues was observed not in the uterine scar proper, but at its borders with the myometrium. This is supported by the old hemorrhages and lymphostasis phenomena, greater number of lymphocytes, neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages and erythrocytes. In determining the indications and contraindications to vaginal childbirth in women with scarred uterus it is necessary to examine not only the scar proper, but also its border with the myometrium. The myometrial scar by itself, is not an absolute contraindication to vaginal delivery, the natural delivery is feasible in the absence of cavities with liquid and hemorrhages in the tissues of the uterine scar and at its border with myometrium.

  19. Relationship Between Scarring and Dog Aggression in Pit Bull-Type Dogs Involved in Organized Dogfighting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine A. Miller

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available When pit bull-type dogs are seized in an investigation of organized dogfighting, heavily scarred dogs are often assumed to be highly dog aggressive due to a history of fighting. These dogs may be deemed dangerous and euthanized based on scarring alone. We analyzed our existing data on dogs seized from four dogfighting investigations, examining the relationship between the dogs’ scars with aggression towards other dogs. Scar and wound data were tallied in three body zones where dogfighting injuries tend to be concentrated. Dog aggression was assessed using a model dog and a friendly stimulus dog in a standardized behavior evaluation. Scarring and dog aggression were significantly related, more strongly among male (Fisher’s Exact p < 0.001 than female dogs (Fisher’s Exact p = 0.05. Ten or more scars in the three body zones was a reasonable threshold with which to classify a dog as high risk for dog aggression: 82% of males and 60% of females with such scarring displayed dog aggression. However, because many unscarred dogs were dog aggressive while some highly scarred dogs were not, we recommend collecting behavioral information to supplement scar counts when making disposition decisions about dogs seized in dogfighting investigations.

  20. Comparative efficacy of intralesional verapamil hydrochloride and triamcinolone acetonide in hypertrophic scars and keloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, Rajeev B; Chatterjee, Pallab

    2014-06-01

    There is not much level 1 evidence based literature to guide management of hypertrophic scars and keloids despite an array of therapeutic modalities at disposal. Intralesional (i/l) triamcinolone injections have remained a gold standard in non surgical management. Sporadic reports on use of i/l verapamil suggest its efficacy. Since verapamil has not found sufficient mention as an effective alternative modality, it was decided to undertake a randomized study which could also address some additional clinical parameters. A randomized, parallel group and observer blinded comparison with 40 patients (48 scars) was carried out to compare the effects of i/l triamcinolone (T) (22 scars) and verapamil injections (V) (26 scars). 1.5 ml was the maximum indicative volume decided in the study protocol for both the drugs (triamcinolone @40 mg/ml and verapamil @ 2.5 mg/ml). Patients included were aged between 15-60 years with scars ranging between 0.5-5 cm (but total area roughly scars under 2 years duration. Patients with keloidal diathesis were excluded. Injections were scheduled every three weeks until complete flattening of the scar or eight sessions, which ever came earlier. No concomitant therapies like massage, silicone gel or pressure garments were used. Scar evaluation at each stage was done by serial photographic records as well as by Vancouver Scar Scale (VSS). Comparative survival analysis between the two drugs was done using Kaplan Meier curves, and VSS scores were analyzed using Wilcoxon test and log rank test. Mean zero VSS scores were achieved with treatments in respect of scar height (T-12 weeks, V-21 weeks), vascularity (T-15 weeks, V-18 weeks) and pliability (T-15 weeks, V-21 weeks). The improvement in scar vascularity and pliability kept pace with decrease in scar height, in both the groups. There was not much difference in the rate of change of scar pigmentation with either drug but almost 60% patients in both the groups regained normal pigmentation. Our

  1. Treatment of a traumatic atrophic depressed scar with hyaluronic acid fillers: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain SN

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Syed Nazim Hussain,1 Greg J Goodman,2,3 Eqram Rahman4 1Royal Lush Skin Hair & Laser Clinic, Saket, New Delhi, India; 2Department of Primary Care, Monash University, Clayton, 3Skin and Cancer Foundation Inc, Carlton, VIC, Australia; 4Faculty of Medical Science, Postgraduate Medical Institute, Anglia Ruskin University, Chelmsford, UK Background: Hyaluronic acid filler has been documented in the treatment of atrophic depressed acne scars relatively frequently in the literature but rarely in chronic depressed traumatic atrophic facial scars.Methods: This case report discusses the use of hyaluronic acid fillers in the correction of a post-traumatic facial atrophic scar on the right cheek.Results: The right cheek scar was substantially corrected with one session of two different hyaluronic acids injected in a deep and superficial plane.Conclusion: Relatively accurate, simple and effective correction of this atrophic traumatic scar may suggest that fillers are a suitable alternative to surgery for such scars. Keywords: scarring, scar correction, filler, hyaluronic acid, facial scar

  2. Use of radiofrequency in cosmetic dermatology: focus on nonablative treatment of acne scars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simmons BJ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Brian J Simmons, Robert D Griffith, Leyre A Falto-Aizpurua, Keyvan Nouri Department of Dermatology and Cutaneous Surgery, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA Abstract: Acne is a common affliction among many teens and some adults that usually resolves over time. However, the severe sequela of acne scarring can lead to long-term psychological and psychiatric problems. There exists a multitude of modalities to treat acne scars such as more invasive surgical techniques, subcision, chemical peels, ablative lasers, fractional lasers, etc. A more recent technique for the treatment of acne scars is nonablative radiofrequency (RF that works by passing a current through the dermis at a preset depth to produce small thermal wounds in the dermis which, in turn, stimulates dermal remodeling to produce new collagen and soften scar defects. This review article demonstrates that out of all RF modalities, microneedle bipolar RF and fractional bipolar RF treatments offers the best results for acne scarring. An improvement of 25%–75% can be expected after three to four treatment sessions using one to two passes per session. Treatment results are optimal approximately 3 months after final treatment. Common side effects can include transient pain, erythema, and scabbing. Further studies are needed to determine what RF treatment modalities work best for specific scar subtypes, so that further optimization of RF treatments for acne scars can be determined. Keywords: acne scarring, radiofrequency treatments, nonablative radiofrequency treatments, scars

  3. Interobserver variation in measurements of Cesarean scar defect and myometrium with 3D ultrasonography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Lene Duch; Glavind, Julie; Uldbjerg, Niels

    Objectives: To evaluate the Cesarean scar defect depth and the residual myometrial thickness with 3-dimensional (3D) sonography concerning interobserver variation. Methods: Ten women were randomly selected from a larger cohort of Cesarean scar ultrasound evaluations. All women were examined 6......-16 months after their first Cesarean section with 2D transvaginal sonography and had 3D volumes recorded. Two observers independently evaluated “off-line” each of the 3D volumes stored. Residual myometrial thickness (RMT) and Cesarean scar defect depth (D) was measured in the sagittal plane with an interval...... of Cesarean section scar size and residual myometrium needs further investigation....

  4. Ultrasound assessed thickness of burn scars in association with laser Doppler imaging determined depth of burns in paediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue-Qing; Mill, Julie; Kravchuk, Olena; Kimble, Roy M

    2010-12-01

    This study describes the ultrasound assessment of burn scars in paediatric patients and the association of these scar thickness with laser Doppler imaging (LDI) determined burn depth. A total of 60 ultrasound scar assessments were conducted on 33 scars from 21 paediatric burn patients at 3, 6 and 9 months after-burn. The mean of peak scar thickness was 0.39±0.032 cm, with the thickest at 6 months (0.40±0.036 cm). There were 17 scald burn scars (0.34±0.045 cm), 4 contact burn scars (0.61±0.092 cm), and 10 flame burn scars (0.42±0.058 cm). Each group of scars followed normal distributions. Twenty-three scars had original burns successfully scanned by LDI and various depths of burns were presented by different colours according to blood perfusion units (PU), with dark blue burns, with the thinnest scars for green coloured burns and the thickest for dark blue coloured burns. Within light blue burns, grafted burns healed with significantly thinner scars than non-grafted burns. This study indicates that LDI can be used for predicting the risk of hypertrophic scarring and for guiding burn care. To our knowledge, this is the first study to correlate the thickness of burns scars by ultrasound scan with burn depth determined by LDI. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  5. Correction of accessory axillary breast tissue without visible scar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Soo

    2004-01-01

    Various methods for correction of accessory axillary breast tissue have been proposed, including simple excision, diamond-shaped excision, a Y-V technique, and lipoplasty. We present an effective method for correction of a prominent axillary mound that combines lipoplasty with excision of accessory breast tissue along the axillary transverse line. Preoperative markings included an incision within the natural wrinkle line in the axillary fold, and demarcation of areas in which lipoplasty and excision were to be performed. After lipoplasty, deep dissection was performed to isolate and remove accessory breast tissue and excess fat tissue. A compression dressing was applied for 1 to 2 weeks postoperatively, and the patient was instructed to wear a sports bra for 1 to 2 months after removal of the dressing. We treated 7 patients using this procedure between October 1999 and March 2003. No major postoperative complications were detected and recurrence was not noted during the follow-up periods. Aesthetic results were satisfactory. We believe that a procedure that combines lipoplasty and excision provides numerous advantages as a surgical option in treating a prominent axillary mound. The main advantage is that the final scar is laid in the natural axillary fold, rendering scars less conspicuous and eliminating the need to remove excess skin. The one disadvantage was that elevation of the skin flap via small, remote incisions initially produced surgical difficulties, but these were overcome with experience.

  6. Indium-111 octreotide uptake in the surgical scar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Degirmenci, B.; Bekis, R.; Durak, H.; Derebeck, E. [Dokuz Eylul Univ., Izmir (Turkey). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Sen, M. [Dokuz Eylul Univ., Izmir (Turkey). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    1999-07-01

    Indium-111 octreotide uptake has been reported in various somatostatin receptor positive tumors, granulomas and autoimmune diseases in which activated leucocytes may play a role, subcutaneous cavernous hemangioma and angiofibroma. We present Indium-111 octreotide uptake in a surgical abdominal scar tissue 1.5 to 6 months after surgery in a patient who had been treated for recurrent carcinoid tumor in the rectosigmoid junction. Indium-111 octreotide uptake in a surgical scar may be related to the binding to somatostatin receptors in the activated lymphocytes and fibroblasts that is previously reported. (orig.) [German] In verschiedenen Somatostatinrezeptor-positiven Tumoren, Granulomen, bei Autoimmunerkrankungen, in denen aktivierte Leukozyten eine Rolle spielen, subcutanen kavernoesen Hammangiomen und Angiofibromen wurde ueber die Anreicherung von Indium-111-Oktreotid berichtet. Wir berichten ueber die Anreicherung von Indium-111-Oktreotid in einer chirurgischen Narbe ueber dem Abdomen nach 1,5 und 6 Monaten bei einem Patienten mit einem Rezidiv-Karzinoid im rektosigmoidalen Uebergang. Die Anreicherung von Indium-111-Oktreotid in chirurgischen Narbengewebe koennte in Zusammenhang stehen mit einer Bindung an Somatostationrezeptoren in aktivierten Lymphozyten und Fibroblasten, ueber die schon berichtet wurde. (orig.)

  7. The Role of Vitamin D in Non-Scarring Alopecia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Gerkowicz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Non-scarring hair loss is a common problem that affects both male and female patients. Since any disturbances in the hair follicle cycle may lead to hair shedding, or alopecia, it is not surprising that the possible role of vitamin D in alopecia was investigated in many studies. Vitamin D has been shown to have many important functions. A growing body of evidence shows that vitamin D and its receptor are responsible for maintaining not only calcium homeostasis but also skin homeostasis. Moreover, vitamin D could also regulate cutaneous innate and adaptive immunity. This paper presents a review of current literature considering the role of vitamin D in alopecia areata, telogen effluvium, and female pattern hair loss. The majority of studies revealed decreased serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in patients with different types of non-scarring alopecia, which could suggest its potential role in the pathogenesis of hair loss. According to the authors, vitamin D supplementation could be a therapeutic option for patients with alopecia areata, female pattern hair loss, or telogen effluvium. However, further studies on a larger group of patients are required.

  8. Advancements in the Underlying Pathogenesis of Schizophrenia: Implications of DNA Methylation in Glial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xing-Shu; Huang, Nanxin; Michael, Namaka; Xiao, Lan

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia (SZ) is a chronic and severe mental illness for which currently there is no cure. At present, the exact molecular mechanism involved in the underlying pathogenesis of SZ is unknown. The disease is thought to be caused by a combination of genetic, biological, psychological, and environmental factors. Recent studies have shown that epigenetic regulation is involved in SZ pathology. Specifically, DNA methylation, one of the earliest found epigenetic modifications, has been extensively linked to modulation of neuronal function, leading to psychiatric disorders such as SZ. However, increasing evidence indicates that glial cells, especially dysfunctional oligodendrocytes undergo DNA methylation changes that contribute to the pathogenesis of SZ. This review primarily focuses on DNA methylation involved in glial dysfunctions in SZ. Clarifying this mechanism may lead to the development of new therapeutic interventional strategies for the treatment of SZ and other illnesses by correcting abnormal methylation in glial cells.

  9. Advancements in the Underlying Pathogenesis of Schizophrenia: Implications of DNA Methylation in Glial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Shu eChen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia (SZ)is a chronic and severe mental illness for which currently there is no cure. At present, the exact molecular mechanism involved in the underlying pathogenesis of SZ is unknown. The disease is thought to be caused by a combination of genetic, biological, psychological, and environmental factors. Recent studies have shown that epigenetic regulation is involved in SZ pathology. Specifically, DNA methylation, one of the earliest found epigenetic modifications, has been extensively linked to modulation of neuronal function, leading to psychiatric disorders such as SZ. However, increasing evidence indicates that glial cells, especially dysfunctional oligodendrocytes undergo DNA methylation changes that contribute to the pathogenesis of SZ. This review primarily focuses on DNA methylation involved in glial dysfunctions in SZ. Clarifying this mechanism may lead to the development of new therapeutic interventional strategies for the treatment of SZ and other illnesses by correcting abnormal methylation in glial cells.

  10. Opioid-dependent growth of glial cultures: Suppression of astrocyte DNA synthesis by met-enkephalin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stiene-Martin, A.; Hauser, K.F.

    1990-01-01

    The action of met-enkephalin on the growth of astrocytes in mixed-glial cultures was examined. Primary, mixed-glial cultures were isolated from 1 day-old mouse cerebral hemispheres and continuously treated with either basal growth media, 1 μM met-enkephalin, 1 μM met-enkephalin plus the opioid antagonist naloxone, or naloxone alone. Absolute numbers of neural cells were counted in unstained preparations, while combined [ 3 H]-thymidine autoradiography and glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP) immunocytochemistry was performed to identify specific changes in astrocytes. When compared to control and naloxone treated cultures, met-enkephalin caused a significant decrease in both total cell numbers, and in [ 3 H]-thymidine incorporation by GFAP-positive cells with flat morphology. These results indicate that met-enkephalin suppresses astrocyte growth in culture

  11. Opioid-dependent growth of glial cultures: Suppression of astrocyte DNA synthesis by met-enkephalin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stiene-Martin, A.; Hauser, K.F. (Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington (USA))

    1990-01-01

    The action of met-enkephalin on the growth of astrocytes in mixed-glial cultures was examined. Primary, mixed-glial cultures were isolated from 1 day-old mouse cerebral hemispheres and continuously treated with either basal growth media, 1 {mu}M met-enkephalin, 1 {mu}M met-enkephalin plus the opioid antagonist naloxone, or naloxone alone. Absolute numbers of neural cells were counted in unstained preparations, while combined ({sup 3}H)-thymidine autoradiography and glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP) immunocytochemistry was performed to identify specific changes in astrocytes. When compared to control and naloxone treated cultures, met-enkephalin caused a significant decrease in both total cell numbers, and in ({sup 3}H)-thymidine incorporation by GFAP-positive cells with flat morphology. These results indicate that met-enkephalin suppresses astrocyte growth in culture.

  12. A new argon gas-based device for the treatment of keloid scars with the use of intralesional cryotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, Michiel C E; Bulstra, Anne-Eva J; van Leeuwen, Paul A M; Niessen, Frank B

    2014-12-01

    Intralesional (IL) cryotherapy is a new promising technique for the treatment of keloid scars, in which the scar is frozen from inside. Multiple devices are available, mostly based on a simple liquid nitrogen Dewar system, which have a limited freezing capacity. Argon gas-based systems ensure accurate and highly controlled freezing and have shown to be effective within the field of oncologic surgery. However, this technique has never been used for the treatment of keloid scars. This prospective study evaluates an argon gas-based system for the treatment of keloids in a patient population including all Fitzpatrick skin types with a 1-year follow-up. Twenty-five patients with 30 keloid scars were included and treated with a device called Seednet (Galil Medical, Yokneam, Israel). Scar quality and possible scar recurrence were assessed before treatment and post treatment (6 and 12 months) with objective devices determining scar color, scar elasticity, scar volume, and patient's skin type. In addition, scars were evaluated using the Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale. After 12 months, a significant volume reduction of 62% was obtained, p = 0.05. Moreover, complaints of pain and itching were alleviated and scar quality had improved according to the Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale. Scar pigmentation recovered in 62% of all keloid scars within 12 months. Five out of 30 (17%) scars recurred within 12 months, three of which had previously been treated with liquid nitrogen-based IL cryotherapy. Both recurrent and persistent hypopigmentation were mainly seen in Afro-American patients. IL cryotherapy with the use of an argon gas-based system proves to be effective in the treatment of keloid scars, yielding volume reduction and low recurrence rates. Although hypopigmentation recovered in most cases, it is strongly related to non-Caucasian patients. Finally, additional treatment of keloid scars previously unresponsive to IL cryotherapy is predisposed to a high

  13. Spatial organization of NG2 glial cells and astrocytes in rat hippocampal CA1 region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guangjin; Wang, Wei; Zhou, Min

    2014-04-01

    Similar to astrocytes, NG2 glial cells are uniformly distributed in the central nervous system (CNS). However, little is known about the interspatial relationship, nor the functional interactions between these two star-shaped glial subtypes. Confocal morphometric analysis showed that NG2 immunostained cells are spatially organized as domains in rat hippocampal CA1 region and that each NG2 glial domain occupies a spatial volume of ∼178, 364 μm(3) . The processes of NG2 glia and astrocytes overlap extensively; each NG2 glial domain interlaces with the processes deriving from 5.8 ± 0.4 neighboring astrocytes, while each astrocytic domain accommodates processes stemming from 4.5 ± 0.3 abutting NG2 glia. In CA1 stratum radiatum, the cell bodies of morphologically identified glial cells often appear to make direct somatic-somata contact, termed as doublets. We used dual patch recording and postrecording NG2/GFAP double staining to determine the glial identities of these doublets. We show that among 44 doublets, 50% were NG2 glia-astrocyte pairs, while another 38.6% and 11.4% were astrocyte-astrocyte and NG2 glia-NG2 glia pairs, respectively. In dual patch recording, neither electrical coupling nor intercellular biocytin transfer was detected in astrocyte-NG2 glia or NG2 glia-NG2 glia doublets. Altogether, although NG2 glia and astrocytes are not gap junction coupled, their cell bodies and processes are interwoven extensively. The anatomical and physiological relationships revealed in this study should facilitate future studies to understand the metabolic coupling and functional communication between NG2 glia and astrocytes. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. FACTORS INFLUENCING THE OCCURRENCE OF HYPERTROPHIC SCARS AMONG POSTOPERATIVE PATIENTS IN GARUT, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andri Nugraha

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypertrophic scar causes physical and psychological problems. Thus understanding the factors related to the occurrence of hypertrophic scar tissue is needed. Little is known about its influencing factors in Indonesia, especially in Garut. Objective: This study aims to examine the relationships between hypertrophic scar and its influencing factors, and identify the most dominant factor of the occurrence of hypertrophic scars. Methods: This was an observational case control study using retrospective approach in Polyclinic of Surgery of Regional Public Hospital of dr. Slamet of Garut Regency. There were 40 samples recruited in this study by purposive sampling, which was divided to be case group (20 patients and control group (20 patients. Data were collected using Stony Brook Scar Evaluation Scale by observation and documentation of the medical records of patients. Data were analyzed using logistic regression analysis Results: Findings indicated that there were significant relationships between the surgical wound infection (p = 0.02, family history (p = 0.026, and type of suture (p = 0.043 with the occurrence of hypertrophic scars. The most dominant factor on the occurrence of hypertrophic scars was type of suture, acid polyglactin 910. The variables that had no significant relationships with the occurrence of hypertrophic scar tissue were age (p = 0.34, area of surgical wound (p = 0.177, and smoking habit (p = 0.479. Conclusion: There were significant relationships between infection of surgical wound, genetic history, the type of suture, and the occurrence of hypertrophic scar tissue. The most dominant factor that influenced the occurrence of hypertrophic scar tissue was the type of suture. Therefore, it is suggested to health professionals to modify the using of acid polyglactin 910 sutures, and nurses particularly need to provide the information regarding the family history and genetic-related hypertrophic scar, and prevent the

  15. Paediatric post-burn scar management in the UK: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liuzzi, Francesca; Chadwick, Sarah; Shah, Mamta

    2015-03-01

    Thermal injuries affect 250,000 people annually in the United Kingdom. As burn survival improves, good scar management is paramount to help individuals living with the resultant scars lead a life without restrictions. Post-burn hypertrophic scars can limit growth in children, interfere with function and cause psychological problems. In the current literature there is great variation in post-burn scar management across the world and in the evidence available for the efficacy of these management modalities. The aim of this study was to investigate the variances if any, in the management of post-burn scarring in children across the UK. A telephone survey of UK paediatric burn services was conducted to obtain information on post-burn scar management and advice given to patients/carers. Of the 19 burn services that participated, all advised moisturising of scars but with variable emphasis on massaging. Silicones and pressure therapy were used by 18 services but commencement of use varied from soon after healing to onset of hypertrophic scarring. Laser therapy, ultrasound therapy and steroid therapy were used sporadically. This study highlights the common modalities of post-burn scar management in children across the UK. However, there is marked variation in timing and selection of the commonly used modalities. Although this study did not investigate the outcomes of scar management, it clearly identifies the need for a well-designed multi-centred study to establish evidence-based best practice in the management of post-burn scarring in children as these modalities are time consuming and not without potential complications. Evidence based practice could potentially lead to significant financial savings to the health service. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  16. Glial modulation by N-acylethanolamides in brain injury and neurodegeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Inés Herrera

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Neuroinflammation involves the activation of glial cells and represents a key element in normal aging and pathophysiology of brain damage. N-acylethanolamides (NAEs, naturally occurring amides, are known for their pro-homeostatic effects. An increase of NAEs has been reported in vivo and in vitro in the aging brain and in brain injury. Treatment with NAEs may promote neuroprotection and exert anti-inflammatory actions via PPARα activation and/or by counteracting gliosis. This review aims to provide an overview of endogenous and exogenous properties of NAEs in neuroinflammation and to discuss their interaction with glial cells.

  17. DMPD: Multifunctional effects of bradykinin on glial cells in relation to potentialanti-inflammatory effects. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17669557 Multifunctional effects of bradykinin on glial cells in relation to potent... Epub 2007 Jun 27. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Multifunctional effects of bradykinin on glial cells i...n relation to potentialanti-inflammatory effects. PubmedID 17669557 Title Multifunction

  18. New Atrophic Acne Scar Classification: Reliability of Assessments Based on Size, Shape, and Number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sewon; Lozada, Vicente Torres; Bettoli, Vincenzo; Tan, Jerry; Rueda, Maria Jose; Layton, Alison; Petit, Lauren; Dréno, Brigitte

    2016-06-01

    Post-acne atrophic scarring is a major concern for which standardized outcome measures are needed. Traditionally, this type of scar has been classified based on shape; but survey of practicing dermatologists has shown that atrophic scar morphology has not been well enough defined to allow good agreement in clinical classification. Reliance on clinical assessment is still needed at the current time, since objective tools are not yet available in routine practice. Evaluate classification for atrophic acne scars by shape, size, and facial location and establish reliability in assessments. We conducted a non-interventional study with dermatologists performing live clinical assessments of atrophic acne scars. To objectively compare identification of lesions, individual lesions were marked on a high-resolution photo of the patient that was displayed on a computer during the clinical evaluation. The Jacob clinical classification system was used to define three primary shapes of scars 1) icepick, 2) boxcar, and 3) rolling. To determine agreement for classification by size, independent technicians assessed the investigators' markings on digital images. Identical localization of scars was denoted if the maximal distance between their centers was ≤ 60 pixels (approximately 3 mm). Raters assessed scars on the same patients twice (morning/afternoon). Aggregate models of rater assessments were created and analyzed for agreement. Raters counted a mean scar count per subject ranging from 15.75 to 40.25 scars. Approximately 50% of scars were identified by all raters and ~75% of scars were identified by at least 2 of 3 raters (weak agreement, Kappa pairwise agreement 0.30). Agreement between consecutive counts was moderate, with Kappa index ranging from 0.26 to 0.47 (after exclusion of one outlier investigator who had significantly higher counts than all others). Shape classifications of icepick, boxcar, and rolling differed significantly between raters and even for same raters at

  19. Evidences of autologous fat grafting for the treatment of keloids and hypertrophic scars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VINÍCIUS ZOLEZI DA SILVA

    Full Text Available SUMMARY Introduction Since the 1980s, the use of autologous fat grafting has been growing in plastic surgery. Recently, this procedure has come to be used as a treatment for keloids and hypertrophic scars mainly due to the lack of satisfactory results with other techniques. So far, however, it lacks more consistent scientific evidence to recommend its use. The aim of this study was to review the current state of autologous fat grafting for the treatment of keloids and hypertrophic scars, their benefits and scientific evidences in the literature. Method A review in the Pubmed database was performed using the keywords “fat grafting and scar”, “fat grafting and keloid scar” and “fat grafting and hypertrophic scar.” Inclusion criteria were articles written in English and published in the last 10 years, resulting in 15 studies. Results These articles indicate that autologous fat grafting carried out at sites with pathological scars leads to a reduction of the fibrosis and pain, an increased range of movement in areas of scar contraction, an increase in their flexibility, resulting in a better quality of scars. Conclusion So far, evidences suggest that autologous fat grafting for the treatment of keloids and hypertrophic scars is associated with a better quality of scars, leading to esthetic and functional benefits. However, this review has limitations and these findings should be treated with reservations, since they mostly came from studies with low levels of evidence.

  20. Vaccinia scars associated with improved survival among adults in rural Guinea-Bissau.

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    Mette Lundsby Jensen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In urban Guinea-Bissau, adults with a vaccinia scar had better survival but also a higher prevalence of HIV-2 infection. We therefore investigated the association between vaccinia scar and survival and HIV infection in a rural area of Guinea-Bissau. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In connection with a study of HIV in rural Guinea-Bissau, we assessed vaccinia and BCG scars in 193 HIV-1 or HIV-2 infected and 174 uninfected participants. Mortality was assessed after 2(1/2-3 years of follow-up. The analyses were adjusted for age, sex, village, and HIV status. The prevalence of vaccinia scar was associated with age, village, and HIV-2 status but not with sex and schooling. Compared with individuals without any scar, individuals with a vaccinia scar had better survival (mortality rate ratio (MR = 0.22 (95% CI 0.08-0.61, the MR being 0.19 (95% CI 0.06-0.57 for women and 0.40 (95% CI 0.04-3.74 for men. Estimates were similar for HIV-2 infected and HIV-1 and HIV-2 uninfected individuals. The HIV-2 prevalence was higher among individuals with a vaccinia scar compared to individuals without a vaccinia scar (RR = 1.57 (95% CI 1.02-2.36. CONCLUSION: The present study supports the hypothesis that vaccinia vaccination may have a non-specific beneficial effect on adult survival.

  1. Establishing a Reproducible Hypertrophic Scar following Thermal Injury: A Porcine Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott J. Rapp, MD

    2015-02-01

    Conclusions: Deep partial-thickness thermal injury to the back of domestic swine produces an immature hypertrophic scar by 10 weeks following burn with thickness appearing to coincide with the location along the dorsal axis. With minimal pig to pig variation, we describe our technique to provide a testable immature scar model.

  2. Treatment of hypertrophic scars and keloids using intense pulsed light (IPL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erol, O Onur; Gurlek, Ali; Agaoglu, Galip; Topcuoglu, Ela; Oz, Hayat

    2008-11-01

    Keloids and hypertrophic scars are extremely disturbing to patients, both physically and psychologically. This study prospectively assessed the safety and efficacy of intense pulsed light (IPL) on scars originating from burns, trauma, surgery, and acne. Hypertrophic scars in 109 patients, originating from surgical incisions (n = 55), traumatic cuts (traffic accidents) (n = 24), acne scars (n = 6), keloids (n = 5), and burns (n = 19), were treated using an IPL Quantum device. Treatment was administered at 2-4-week intervals, and patients received an average of 8 treatments (range = 6-24). Using digital photographs, Changes in scar appearance were assessed by two physicians who were blinded to the study patients and treatments. The photographs were graded on a scale of 0 to 4 (none, minimal, moderate, good, excellent) for improvement in overall clinical appearance and reduction in height, erythema, and hardness. An overall clinical improvement in the appearance of scars and reductions in height, erythema, and hardness were seen in the majority of the patients (92.5%). Improvement was excellent in 31.2% of the patients, good in 25.7%, moderate in 34%, and minimal in 9.1%. Over half the patients had good or excellent improvement. In the preventive IPL treatment group, 65% had good to excellent improvement in clinical appearance. Patient satisfaction was very high. This study suggests that IPL is effective not only in improving the appearance of hypertrophic scars and keloids regardless of their origin, but also in reducing the height, redness, and hardness of scars.

  3. Evaluation of microneedling fractional radiofrequency device for treatment of acne scars

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    Byalekere Shivanna Chandrashekar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Various treatment modalities including non-invasive methods such as chemical peels, topical retinoids, microdermabrasion, minimally invasive techniques such as microneedling, fractional lasers, microneedling radiofrequency devices and invasive procedures such as acne scar surgeries and ablative lasers are used for acne scars, each with its own unique advantages and disadvantages. This study is a retrospective assessment of efficacy and safety of microneedling fractional radiofrequency in the treatment of acne scars. Methods: Thirty one patients of skin types III-V with moderate and severe facial acne scarring received four sequential fractional radiofrequency treatments over a period of 6 months with an interval of 6 weeks between each session. Goodman & Baron′s acne scar grading system was used for assessment by a side by side comparison of preoperative and post- operative photographs taken at their first visit and at the end of 3 months after the last session. Results: Estimation of improvement with Goodman and Baron′s Global Acne Scarring System showed that by qualitative assessment of 31 patients with grade 3 and grade 4 acne scars, 80.64% showed improvement by 2 grades and 19.35% showed improvement by 1 grade. Quantitative assessment showed that 58% of the patients had moderate, 29% had minimal, 9% had good and 3% showed very good improvement. Adverse effects were limited to transient pain, erythema, edema and hyperpigmentation. Conclusion: Microneedling fractional radiofrequency is efficacious for the treatment of moderate and severe acne scars.

  4. Objective Color Measurements: Clinimetric Performance of Three Devices on Normal Skin and Scar Tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wal, Martijn; Bloemen, Monica; Verhaegen, Pauline; Tuinebreijer, Wim; de Vet, Henrica; van Zuijlen, Paul; Middelkoop, Esther

    2013-01-01

    Color measurements are an essential part of scar evaluation. Thus, vascularization (erythema) and pigmentation (melanin) are common outcome parameters in scar research. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinimetric properties and clinical feasibility of the Mexameter, Colorimeter, and the

  5. Early cessation of pressure garment therapy results in scar contraction and thickening.

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    Danielle M DeBruler

    Full Text Available Pressure garment therapy is often prescribed to improve scar properties following full-thickness burn injuries. Pressure garment therapy is generally recommended for long periods of time following injury (1-2 years, though it is plagued by extremely low patient compliance. The goal of this study was to examine the effects of early cessation of pressure garment therapy on scar properties. Full-thickness burn injuries were created along the dorsum of red Duroc pigs. The burn eschar was excised and wound sites autografted with split-thickness skin. Scars were treated with pressure garments within 1 week of injury and pressure was maintained for either 29 weeks (continuous pressure or for 17 weeks followed by cessation of pressure for an additional 12 weeks (pressure released; scars receiving no treatment served as controls. Scars that underwent pressure garment therapy were significantly smoother and less contracted with decreased scar height compared to control scars at 17 weeks. These benefits were maintained in the continuous pressure group until week 29. In the pressure released group, grafts significantly contracted and became more raised, harder and rougher after the therapy was discontinued. Pressure cessation also resulted in large changes in collagen fiber orientation and increases in collagen fiber thickness. The results suggest that pressure garment therapy effectively improves scar properties following severe burn injury; however, early cessation of the therapy results in substantial loss of these improvements.

  6. Early cessation of pressure garment therapy results in scar contraction and thickening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBruler, Danielle M; Zbinden, Jacob C; Baumann, Molly E; Blackstone, Britani N; Malara, Megan M; Bailey, J Kevin; Supp, Dorothy M; Powell, Heather M

    2018-01-01

    Pressure garment therapy is often prescribed to improve scar properties following full-thickness burn injuries. Pressure garment therapy is generally recommended for long periods of time following injury (1-2 years), though it is plagued by extremely low patient compliance. The goal of this study was to examine the effects of early cessation of pressure garment therapy on scar properties. Full-thickness burn injuries were created along the dorsum of red Duroc pigs. The burn eschar was excised and wound sites autografted with split-thickness skin. Scars were treated with pressure garments within 1 week of injury and pressure was maintained for either 29 weeks (continuous pressure) or for 17 weeks followed by cessation of pressure for an additional 12 weeks (pressure released); scars receiving no treatment served as controls. Scars that underwent pressure garment therapy were significantly smoother and less contracted with decreased scar height compared to control scars at 17 weeks. These benefits were maintained in the continuous pressure group until week 29. In the pressure released group, grafts significantly contracted and became more raised, harder and rougher after the therapy was discontinued. Pressure cessation also resulted in large changes in collagen fiber orientation and increases in collagen fiber thickness. The results suggest that pressure garment therapy effectively improves scar properties following severe burn injury; however, early cessation of the therapy results in substantial loss of these improvements.

  7. Clinical importance of appearance of cesarean hysterotomy scar at transvaginal ultrasonography in nonpregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikhareva Osser, Olga; Valentin, Lil

    2011-03-01

    To estimate the association between the appearance of cesarean hysterotomy scars at transvaginal ultrasound examination of nonpregnant women and the outcome of subsequent pregnancies and deliveries. A total of 162 women who had ever given birth by cesarean underwent transvaginal ultrasound examination of the hysterotomy scar 6 to 9 months after the latest cesarean delivery. Published ultrasound definitions of large scar defects were used. The appearance of the hysterotomy scar at ultrasound examination was compared with the outcome of subsequent pregnancies and deliveries. Clinical information on subsequent pregnancies was obtained from medical records. Six women were lost to follow-up, leaving 156 for analysis. Of these 156 women, 69 became pregnant after the ultrasound examination (99 pregnancies, 65 deliveries). There were no placental complications or scar pregnancies. At the first repeat cesarean delivery after the ultrasound examination, 5.3% (1/19) of the women with an intact scar or a small scar defect had uterine dehiscence or rupture compared with 42.9% (3/7) of those with a large defect (P=.047), odds ratio 11.8 (95% confidence interval 0.7-746). Our results point toward a likely association between large defects in the hysterotomy scar after cesarean delivery detected by transvaginal ultrasonography in nonpregnant women and uterine rupture or dehiscence in subsequent pregnancy.

  8. Bilateral Free Flap Breast Reconstruction Outcomes: Do Abdominal Scars Affect Bilateral Flaps?

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    Dmytro Unukovych, MD, PhD

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion:. Surgical outcomes of bilateral reconstructions in patients with abdominal scars are generally comparable with ones in patients without prior surgery; however, some problems have been identified. These procedures might have some intraoperative considerations and often require increased operative times. Apart from the traditional preoperative computed tomography angiography, intraoperative imaging (e.g., fluorescence angiography may be advocated in patients with abdominal scars.

  9. Long-term Observation of Soil Creep Activity around a Landslide Scar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rate of sediment infilling into landslide scars by soil creep is needed to estimate the timing of subsequent landslide activity at a particular site. However, knowledge about the spatial distribution of its activity around the landslide scar is scarce. Additionally, there are few...

  10. A comparative study of colour and perfusion between two different post surgical scars. Do the laser Doppler imager and the colorimeter measure the same features of a scar?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mermans, J F; Peeters, W J; Dikmans, R; Serroyen, J; van der Hulst, R R J W; Van den Kerckhove, E

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of different located post surgical scars on both perfusion and redness. The pattern of change and correlation between perfusion and redness of post surgical scars is also examined. In this study, we measured redness and perfusion of the abdominal and breast scar of 24 women undergoing breast reconstruction with Deep Inferior Epigastric Perforator Free Flap surgery with the Minolta Chromameter CR-400/410 and the Moor Instruments laser Doppler imager 12IR, respectively, at different intervals post-operatively. The laser Doppler imager gives significantly higher values for the abdominal compared with the breast scar. There was no consistent correlation found between perfusion and redness at the different test moments for both locations. The scores of both parameters were significantly associated after 9 months follow-up for both locations. Scars closed with higher mechanical force show higher perfusion and prolonged activity; and more redness is associated with more perfusion for both post surgical scars. Nevertheless, there was no consistent correlation found between these parameters making the laser Doppler imager and the Colorimeter still non-replaceable instruments. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Relevance of intraoperative indocyanine green injection in breast reconstruction using DIEP procedure for abdominal scars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louges, M A; Bellaiche, J; Correia, N; Chiriac, S; François, C

    2016-06-01

    The presence of midline sub-umbilical and/or suprapubic scar can sometimes hinder breast reconstruction using deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) procedure. We report the use of indocyanine green injection in a 60-year-old woman in the context of deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) procedure for unilateral breast reconstruction (bilateral breast cancer) with abdominal scar (midline sub-umbilical scar and Pfannenstiel incision scar). This technique underlines the importance of neoangiogenesis mechanisms and helped simplify the surgical gesture initially planned (in order to ensure volume in spite of the scars as a DIEP procedure with double anastomoses was initially planned). This intraoperative vascular imaging technique is a minimally invasive, simple and quick procedure allowing the precise visualization of vascularized territories. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Cesarean scar pregnancy treated by curettage and aspiration guided by laparoscopy

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    Shu S

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Shan-rong Shu, Xin Luo, Zhi-xin Wang, Yu-hong Yao Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The First Affiliated Hospital of JiNan University, HuangPu Road West, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Pregnancy in a cesarean scar is the rarest form of an ectopic pregnancy. The treatment for cesarean scar pregnancy mainly includes systemic methotrexate and uterine artery embolization. Here, we reported a case of cesarean scar pregnancy treated by curettage and aspiration guided by laparoscopy. The treatment plan included two phases. Three days after a combination of methotrexate and mifepristone was administered, the gestational sac was removed under laparoscopy, which enabled a successful treatment for the unruptured ectopic pregnancy in a previous cesarean scar and made it possible to preserve the reproductive capability of the patient. Keywords: cesarean scar pregnancy, laparoscopy, curettage and aspiration 

  13. Diffuse scarring alopecia in a female pattern hair loss distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergie, Bonnie; Khaira, Gurpreet; Howard, Vicki; de Zwaan, Sally

    2018-02-01

    We describe three cases of hair loss in a female pattern hair loss (FPHL) distribution with histologic features of lichen planopilaris (LPP). All patients had a history of diffuse, gradual hair loss in a Christmas tree pattern that clinically presented as FPHL on gross and dermoscopic examination. Notably, there were no characteristic clinical signs of LPP and no histologic features of FPHL. These cases are most consistent with cicatricial pattern hair loss (CPHL). This relatively new entity is similar to fibrosing alopecia in a pattern distribution (FAPD) in that they are both scarring alopecias confined to a FPHL distribution, but CPHL lacks the clinical signs of perifollicular erythema and perifollicular keratosis seen in FAPD. These three cases may present an early, subtle form of CPHL and will be of interest to clinicians and histopathologists alike. © 2017 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  14. Calcified pleural scars and pleural empyema with mural calcification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, W.G.H.; Huebener, K.H.

    1981-06-01

    The differential diagnosis between calcified pleural scars and pleural empyemas with mural calcification was studied by computer tomography, bearing in mind the patient's history. In view of the high complication rate of pleural empyemas, such as internal or external fistulae, it is desirable to elucidate every form of pleural shadowing which is more than 20 mm thick. Criteria are offered, which permit the differentiation of the pleural changes by means of conventional radiological examinations. Valuable additional information can be obtained by computer tomography. Forty-nine patients with calcification in the pleura were found among 1.900 chest x-rays which had been examined. Out of these, seven had a pleural empyema. In one case an echinococcus cyst with mural calcification was punctured under X-ray control.

  15. Calcified pleural scars and pleural empyema with mural calcification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, W.G.H.; Huebener, K.H.

    1981-01-01

    The differential diagnosis between calcified pleural scars and pleural empyemas with mural calcification was studied by computer tomography, bearing in mind the patient's history. In view of the high complication rate of pleural empyemas, such as internal or external fistulae, it is desirable to elucidate every form of pleural shadowing which is more than 20 mm thick. Criteria are offered, which permit the differentiation of the pleural changes by means of conventional radiological examinations. Valuable additional information can be obtained by computer tomography. Forty-nine patients with calcification in the pleura were found among 1.900 chest x-rays which had been examined. Out of these, seven had a pleural empyema. In one case an echinococcus cyst with mural calcification was punctured under X-ray control. (orig.) [de

  16. Measurement of electron blockage factors for mamma scars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques Fraguela, E.; Suero Rodrigo, M. A.

    2011-01-01

    Pencil Beam algorithm XiO CMS scheduler uses the applicator factor, instead of blocking factor in the calculation of monitor units (MU) shaped electron fields. This feature makes the algorithm for calculating an input field the same dose in the beam axis than it would if it were not blocked. It should, therefore, to correct the UM that provides the planner by a factor. The blocks used in electron treatment of the surgical mamma cancers often have a narrow elongated shape following the contour of the scar. Such openings have difficulty measuring the blocking factor with plane-parallel chambers recommended by national and international protocols (eg PTW Roos 34 001) as being so narrow that sometimes the camera is not completely irradiated. In this paper, we study the possibility of using a PTW 30010 Farmer cylindrical chamber for measuring the blocking factor of such openings.

  17. Management of periocular post burn scarring in the epileptics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheema, A.M.; Saeed, M.; Ghani, A.; Akhter, S.W.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To assess the clinical presentation and management of patients with epilepsy presenting with periocular post burn scarring. Results: There were 18 (78.26%) female and 5(21.73%) male patients. The age range was from 18 to 45 years with a mean of 28 years. In 17 (73.91%) patients, lid contracture was released to cover their eyeballs. In 6 (26.08%) patients the eyeball was lost due to late presentation. Conclusion: There should be a high index of suspicion in facial burns for ophthalmic damage and early referral to an ophthalmologist should be made to prevent complications. Early release of contracture with application of full or partial thickness skin grafts is advisable. (author)

  18. Phylogenetic Analysis of Apple scar skin viroid Isolates in Korea

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    Kang Hee Cho

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available To identify genome sequences of Apple scar skin viroid (ASSVd isolates in Korea, the field survey was performed from ‘Hongro’ apple orchards located in eight sites in South Korea (Bongwha, Cheongsong, Dangjin, Gimchoen, Muju, Mungyeong, Suwon, and Yeongwol. ASSVd was detected by RT-PCR and PCR fragments were cloned into cloning vector. Full-length viral genomes of eight ASSVd isolates were sequenced and compared with 21 isolates reported previously from Korea, India, China, Japan and Greece. Eight isolates in this study showed 92.2-99.7% nucleotide sequence identities with those reported previously. Phylogenetic analysis showed that seven isolates reported in this study belong to the same group distinct from other groups.

  19. Suspicious scars: physical child abuse vs Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadysinghe, Amal Nishantha; Wickramashinghe, Chatula Usari; Nanayakkara, Dineshi Nadira; Kaluarachchi, Chandishni Ishara

    2018-01-01

    Child abuse is a sensitive topic among many medical practitioners and the diagnosis of this entity requires awareness about conditions which can mimic physical child abuse. Here, the authors present a case of a 13-year-old school non-attendee who was referred due to multiple scars, over areas prone to accidental as well as non-accidental injury, who underwent medicolegal examination due to suspicion of physical child abuse. On further inquiry, it was discovered that she had easy bruising and poor wound healing. A diagnosis of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome was established and physical child abuse was excluded. This case emphasizes the importance of identifying conditions which may confound the diagnosis of physical child abuse. This is of utmost importance in avoiding adverse legal and psycho-social implications on the child, family and society.

  20. The Touch and Zap Method for In Vivo Whole-Cell Patch Recording of Intrinsic and Visual Responses of Cortical Neurons and Glial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, Adrien E.; Marinazzo, Daniele; Gener, Thomas; Graham, Lyle J.

    2014-01-01

    Whole-cell patch recording is an essential tool for quantitatively establishing the biophysics of brain function, particularly in vivo. This method is of particular interest for studying the functional roles of cortical glial cells in the intact brain, which cannot be assessed with extracellular recordings. Nevertheless, a reasonable success rate remains a challenge because of stability, recording duration and electrical quality constraints, particularly for voltage clamp, dynamic clamp or conductance measurements. To address this, we describe “Touch and Zap”, an alternative method for whole-cell patch clamp recordings, with the goal of being simpler, quicker and more gentle to brain tissue than previous approaches. Under current clamp mode with a continuous train of hyperpolarizing current pulses, seal formation is initiated immediately upon cell contact, thus the “Touch”. By maintaining the current injection, whole-cell access is spontaneously achieved within seconds from the cell-attached configuration by a self-limited membrane electroporation, or “Zap”, as seal resistance increases. We present examples of intrinsic and visual responses of neurons and putative glial cells obtained with the revised method from cat and rat cortices in vivo. Recording parameters and biophysical properties obtained with the Touch and Zap method compare favourably with those obtained with the traditional blind patch approach, demonstrating that the revised approach does not compromise the recorded cell. We find that the method is particularly well-suited for whole-cell patch recordings of cortical glial cells in vivo, targeting a wider population of this cell type than the standard method, with better access resistance. Overall, the gentler Touch and Zap method is promising for studying quantitative functional properties in the intact brain with minimal perturbation of the cell's intrinsic properties and local network. Because the Touch and Zap method is performed semi

  1. The Touch and Zap method for in vivo whole-cell patch recording of intrinsic and visual responses of cortical neurons and glial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, Adrien E; Marinazzo, Daniele; Gener, Thomas; Graham, Lyle J

    2014-01-01

    Whole-cell patch recording is an essential tool for quantitatively establishing the biophysics of brain function, particularly in vivo. This method is of particular interest for studying the functional roles of cortical glial cells in the intact brain, which cannot be assessed with extracellular recordings. Nevertheless, a reasonable success rate remains a challenge because of stability, recording duration and electrical quality constraints, particularly for voltage clamp, dynamic clamp or conductance measurements. To address this, we describe "Touch and Zap", an alternative method for whole-cell patch clamp recordings, with the goal of being simpler, quicker and more gentle to brain tissue than previous approaches. Under current clamp mode with a continuous train of hyperpolarizing current pulses, seal formation is initiated immediately upon cell contact, thus the "Touch". By maintaining the current injection, whole-cell access is spontaneously achieved within seconds from the cell-attached configuration by a self-limited membrane electroporation, or "Zap", as seal resistance increases. We present examples of intrinsic and visual responses of neurons and putative glial cells obtained with the revised method from cat and rat cortices in vivo. Recording parameters and biophysical properties obtained with the Touch and Zap method compare favourably with those obtained with the traditional blind patch approach, demonstrating that the revised approach does not compromise the recorded cell. We find that the method is particularly well-suited for whole-cell patch recordings of cortical glial cells in vivo, targeting a wider population of this cell type than the standard method, with better access resistance. Overall, the gentler Touch and Zap method is promising for studying quantitative functional properties in the intact brain with minimal perturbation of the cell's intrinsic properties and local network. Because the Touch and Zap method is performed semi

  2. Cesarean scar pregnancy and early placenta accreta share common histology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timor-Tritsch, I E; Monteagudo, A; Cali, G; Palacios-Jaraquemada, J M; Maymon, R; Arslan, A A; Patil, N; Popiolek, D; Mittal, K R

    2014-04-01

    To determine, by evaluation of histological slides, images and descriptions of early (second-trimester) placenta accreta (EPA) and placental implantation in cases of Cesarean scar pregnancy (CSP), whether these are pathologically indistinguishable and whether they both represent different stages in the disease continuum leading to morbidly adherent placenta in the third trimester. The database of a previously published review of CSP and EPA was used to identify articles with histopathological descriptions and electronic images for pathological review. When possible, microscopic slides and/or paraffin blocks were obtained from the original researchers. We also included from our own institutions cases of CSP and EPA for which pathology specimens were available. Two pathologists examined all the material independently and, blinded to each other's findings, provided a pathological diagnosis based on microscopic appearance. Interobserver agreement in diagnosis was determined. Forty articles were identified, which included 31 cases of CSP and 13 cases of EPA containing histopathological descriptions and/or images of the pathology. We additionally included six cases of CSP and eight cases of EPA from our own institutions, giving a total of 58 cases available for histological evaluation (37 CSP and 21 EPA) containing clear definitions of morbidly adherent placenta. In the 29 cases for which images/slides were available for histopathological evaluation, both pathologists attested to the various degrees of myometrial and/or scar tissue invasion by placental villi with scant or no intervening decidua, consistent with the classic definition of morbidly adherent placenta. Based on the reviewed material, cases with a diagnosis of EPA and those with a diagnosis of CSP showed identical histopathological features. Interobserver correlation was high (kappa = 0.93). EPA and placental implantation in CSP are histopathologically indistinguishable and may represent different stages in

  3. Fire Scars Area Estimation Using CHRIS PROBA Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filchev, Lachezar; Dimitrov, Petar

    2013-12-01

    The dawn of 21st century is marked by severe and unpredictable natural and man - made hazards and disasters linked as to climate change as to human impact on environment. To study their effects on natural landscapes and protected areas it is important to perform, in some restrict regime protected areas, a continuous monitoring. Earth observation by satellites is one of the most promising instruments for this as it has the necessary time, spatial, and spectral resolution for this as well as it provides for non-contact estimation of the overall condition of the environment. This study presents preliminary results of fire scars area estimation on the territory of Bistrishko Branishte UNESCO Man and Biosphere (MAB) reserve in Vitosha Mountain, Bulgaria using CHRIS/PROBA satellite data. During the summer and early autumn of 2012 CHRIS/PROBA instrument was tasked to perform a series of acquisitions with a view to study the vegetation structure. The study uses two CHRIS/PROBA scenes acquired subsequently on 22 June 2012 and on 28 September 2012. The wildfire, which effects are studied, took place during the first two weeks of July 2012. After it was settled the second acquisition of CHRIS/PROBA instrument made possible the analysis of the post fire situation. The methods used for the study are the standard methods for image change detection based on spectral data employed in ENVI software (Academic license). In order to perform the change detection, the CHRIS/PROBA source data was geometrically and atmospherically corrected as well as co-registered. The multi angle product of CHRIS/PROBA Mode 1, consisting of 5 images, was used to check to what extent the five viewing angles affect the area estimation of the fire scars in the mountainous area following same procedures. The results from the analysis shown that almost 60 hectares from the coniferous vegetation (dead and healthy tree stands) were devastated by the wildfire.

  4. SCAR marker specific to detect Magnaporthe grisea infecting finger millets (Eleusine coracana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnanasing Jesumaharaja, L; Manikandan, R; Raguchander, T

    2016-09-01

    To determine the molecular variability and develop specific Sequence Characterized Amplified Region (SCAR) marker for the detection of Magnaporthe grisea causing blast disease in finger millet. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) was performed with 14 isolates of M. grisea using 20 random primers. SCAR marker was developed for accurate and specific detection of M. grisea infecting only finger millets. The genetic similarity coefficient within each group and variation between the groups was observed. Among the primers, OPF-08 generated a RAPD polymorphic profile that showed common fragment of 478 bp in all the isolates. This fragment was cloned and sequenced. SCAR primers, Mg-SCAR-FP and Mg-SCAR-RP, were designed using sequence of the cloned product. The specificity of the SCAR primers was evaluated using purified DNA from M. grisea isolates from finger millets and other pathogens viz., Pyricularia oryzae, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Colletotrichum falcatum and Colletotrichum capcisi infecting different crops. The SCAR primers amplified only specific 460 bp fragment from DNA of M. grisea isolates and this fragment was not amplified in other pathogens tested. SCAR primers distinguish blast disease of finger millet from rice as there is no amplification in the rice blast pathogen. PCR-based SCAR marker is a convenient tool for specific and rapid detection of M. grisea in finger millets. Genetic diversity in fungal population helps in developing a suitable SCAR marker to identify the blast pathogen at the early stage of infection. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  5. ASSESSMENT OF MICRONEEDLING THERAPY IN THE MANAGEMENT OF ATROPHIC FACIAL ACNE SCARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available STUDY BACKGROUND Post acne scars are always a challenge to treat, especially the ones which are deep seated. There are many treatment options like laser resurfacing, dermabrasion, microdermabrasion and non-ablative laser resurfacing but with considerable morbidity and interference with the daily activities of the patient in the post-treatment period. Microneedling or dermaroller therapy is one of the new treatment options in the management of acne scars with satisfactory improvement and no significant side effect. The aim of the present study is to perform an objective evaluation the efficacy of microneedling in the treatment of atrophic acne scars. MATERIALS AND METHODS Thirty patients of skin type III-V having atrophic facial acne scars presenting to our dermatology OPD. were received multiple sittings of microneedling (dermaroller treatment with an interval of 6 weeks between each session. Goodman & Baron’s acne scar grading system was used for assessment of their scars and was evaluated clinically by serial photography at the start as well as at two months after the conclusion of the treatment. Patients on anticoagulant therapy, of keloidal tendency, with bleeding disorders, vitiligo patients, pregnant and lactating mothers and patients with active acne lesions were excluded from the study. The duration of this study was for ten months-from January 2014 to October 2014. RESULTS Any change in the grading of scars after the end of treatment and follow-up period was noted down. The efficacy and improvement of dermaroller treatment was assessed by Goodman and Baron’s Global Acne Scarring System. Out of 30 patients, 26(80.64% patients achieved a reduction in the severity of their scarring by one or two grades. Quantitative assessment showed that 13.3% of patients had minimal, 16.6% had good and 70% showed very good improvement. Adverse effects were limited to transient pain, erythema and edema. CONCLUSION Microneedling therapy seems to be

  6. Immunohistochemical Analysis of Scarring Trachoma Indicates Infiltration by Natural Killer and Undefined CD45 Negative Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Victor H; Luthert, Philip J; Derrick, Tamsyn; Pullin, James; Weiss, Helen A; Massae, Patrick; Mtuy, Tara; Makupa, William; Essex, David; Mabey, David C W; Bailey, Robin L; Holland, Martin J; Burton, Matthew J

    2016-05-01

    The phenotype and function of immune cells infiltrating the conjunctiva in scarring trachoma have yet to be fully characterized. We assessed tissue morphology and immunophenotype of cellular infiltrates found in trachomatous scarring compared to control participants. Clinical assessments and conjunctival biopsy samples were obtained from 34 individuals with trachomatous scarring undergoing trichiasis surgery and 33 control subjects undergoing cataract or retinal detachment surgery. Biopsy samples were fixed in buffered formalin and embedded in paraffin wax. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining was performed for assessment of the inflammatory cell infiltrate. Immunohistochemical staining of single markers on individual sections was performed to identify cells expressing CD3 (T-cells), CD4 (helper T-cells), CD8 (suppressor/cytotoxic T-cells and Natural Killer, NK, cells), NCR1 (NK cells), CD20 (B-cells), CD45 (nucleated hematopoietic cells), CD56 (NK and T-cells), CD68 (macrophages/monocytes) and CD83 (mature dendritic cells). The degree of scarring was assessed histologically using cross-polarized light to visualize collagen fibres. Scarring, regardless of clinical inflammation, was associated with increased inflammatory cell infiltrates on H&E and CD45 staining. Scarring was also associated with increased CD8+ and CD56+ cells, but not CD3+ cells, suggestive of a NK cell infiltrate. This was supported by the presence of NCR1+ cells. There was some increase in CD20+ cells, but no evidence for increased CD4+, CD68+ or CD83+ cells. Numerous CD45 negative cells were also seen in the population of infiltrating inflammatory cells in scarred conjunctiva. Disorganization of the normal collagen architecture was strongly associated with clinical scarring. These data point to the infiltration of immune cells with a phenotype suggestive of NK cells in conjunctival trachomatous scarring. A large proportion of CD45 negative inflammatory cells were also present. Future work should

  7. Electron microscopy of glial cells of the central nervous system in the crab Ucides cordatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allodi S.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Invertebrate glial cells show a variety of morphologies depending on species and location. They have been classified according to relatively general morphological or functional criteria and also to their location. The present study was carried out to characterize the organization of glial cells and their processes in the zona fasciculata and in the protocerebral tract of the crab Ucides cordatus. We performed routine and cytochemical procedures for electron microscopy analysis. Semithin sections were observed at the light microscope. The Thiéry procedure indicated the presence of carbohydrates, particularly glycogen, in tissue and in cells. To better visualize the axonal ensheathment at the ultrastructural level, we employed a method to enhance the unsaturated fatty acids present in membranes. Our results showed that there are at least two types of glial cells in these nervous structures, a light one and a dark one. Most of the dark cell processes have been mentioned in the literature as extracellular matrix, but since they presented an enveloping membrane, glycogen and mitochondria - intact and with different degrees of disruption - they were considered to be glial cells in the present study. We assume that they correspond to the perineurial cells on the basis of their location. The light cells must correspond to the periaxonal cells. Some characteristics of the axons such as their organization, ensheathment and subcellular structures are also described.

  8. Involvement of glial cells in the neurotoxicity of parathion and chlorpyrifos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zurich, M.-G.; Honegger, P.; Schilter, B.; Costa, L.G.; Monnet-Tschudi, F.

    2004-01-01

    An in vitro model, the aggregating brain cell culture of fetal rat telencephalon, has been used to investigate the influence of glial cells on the neurotoxicity of two organophosphorus pesticides (OPs), chlorpyrifos and parathion. Mixed-cell aggregate cultures were treated continuously for 10 days between DIV 5 and 15. Parathion induced astrogliosis at concentration at which MAP-2 immunostaining, found here to be more sensitive than neuron-specific enzyme activities, was not affected. In contrast, chlorpyrifos induced a comparatively weak gliotic reaction, and only at concentrations at which neurons were already affected. After similar treatments, increased neurotoxicity of parathion and chlorpyrifos was found in aggregate cultures deprived of glial cells. These results suggest that glial cells provide neuroprotection against OPs toxicity. To address the question of the difference in toxicity between parathion and chlorpyrifos, the toxic effects of their leaving groups, p-nitrophenol and trichloropyridinol, were studied in mixed-cell aggregates. General cytotoxicity was more pronounced for trichloropyridinol and both compounds had similar toxic effects on neuron-specific enzyme activities. In contrast, trichloropyridinol induced a much stronger decrease in glutamine synthetase activity, the enzymatic marker of astrocytes. Trichloropyridinol may exert a toxic effect on astrocytes, compromising their neuroprotective function, thus exacerbating the neurotoxicity of chlorpyrifos. This is in line with the suggestion that glial cells may contribute to OPs neurotoxicity, and with the view that OPs may exert their neurotoxic effects through different mechanisms

  9. Dampak Hipoksia Sistemik terhadap Malondialdehida, Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein dan Aktivitas Asetilkolin Esterase Otak Tikus

    OpenAIRE

    Andriani Andriani; Ani Retno Prijanti; Ninik Mudjihartini; Sri Widia A. Jusman

    2016-01-01

    Hipoksia sistemik menyebabkan berkurangnya oksigen dan energi di otak sehingga memicupenglepasan neurotransmiter asetilkolin, meningkatkan radikal bebas dan glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)yang berfungsi menjaga kekuatan membran. Tujuan penelitian untuk melihat gambaran adaptasi otak padahipoksia sistemik terhadap fungsi asetilkolin esterase, kerusakan membran sel neuron dan astrosit. Penelitiandilakukan di Laboratorium Biokimia & Biologi Molekuler FK Universitas Indonesia, pada ta...

  10. Controlled adhesion and growth of long term glial and neuronal cultures on Parylene-C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelos Delivopoulos

    Full Text Available This paper explores the long term development of networks of glia and neurons on patterns of Parylene-C on a SiO(2 substrate. We harvested glia and neurons from the Sprague-Dawley (P1-P7 rat hippocampus and utilized an established cell patterning technique in order to investigate cellular migration, over the course of 3 weeks. This work demonstrates that uncontrolled glial mitosis gradually disrupts cellular patterns that are established early during culture. This effect is not attributed to a loss of protein from the Parylene-C surface, as nitrogen levels on the substrate remain stable over 3 weeks. The inclusion of the anti-mitotic cytarabine (Ara-C in the culture medium moderates glial division and thus, adequately preserves initial glial and neuronal conformity to underlying patterns. Neuronal apoptosis, often associated with the use of Ara-C, is mitigated by the addition of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF. We believe that with the right combination of glial inhibitors and neuronal promoters, the Parylene-C based cell patterning method can generate structured, active neural networks that can be sustained and investigated over extended periods of time. To our knowledge this is the first report on the concurrent application of Ara-C and BDNF on patterned cell cultures.

  11. Glial Cells: The Other Cells of the Nervous System-Microglia–The ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 7; Issue 10. Glial Cells: The Other Cells of the Nervous System - Microglia – The Guardians of the CNS. Medha S Rajadhyaksha Daya Manghani. Series Article Volume 7 Issue 10 October 2002 pp 23-29 ...

  12. Gemfibrozil, a Lipid-lowering Drug, Induces Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling 3 in Glial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Arunava; Pahan, Kalipada

    2012-01-01

    Glial inflammation is an important feature of several neurodegenerative disorders. Suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins play a crucial role in inhibiting cytokine signaling and inflammatory gene expression in various cell types, including glial cells. However, mechanisms by which SOCS genes could be up-regulated are poorly understood. This study underlines the importance of gemfibrozil, a Food and Drug Administration-approved lipid-lowering drug, in up-regulating the expression of SOCS3 in glial cells. Gemfibrozil increased the expression of Socs3 mRNA and protein in mouse astroglia and microglia in both a time- and dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, gemfibrozil induced the activation of type IA phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase and AKT. Accordingly, inhibition of PI 3-kinase and AKT by chemical inhibitors abrogated gemfibrozil-mediated up-regulation of SOCS3. Furthermore, we demonstrated that gemfibrozil induced the activation of Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) via the PI 3-kinase-AKT pathway and that siRNA knockdown of KLF4 abrogated gemfibrozil-mediated up-regulation of SOCS3. Gemfibrozil also induced the recruitment of KLF4 to the distal, but not proximal, KLF4-binding site of the Socs3 promoter. This study delineates a novel property of gemfibrozil in up-regulating SOCS3 in glial cells via PI 3-kinase-AKT-mediated activation of KLF4 and suggests that gemfibrozil may find therapeutic application in neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:22685291

  13. Multiscale Vision Model Highlights Spontaneous Glial Calcium Waves Recorded by 2-Photon Imaging in Brain Tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brazhe, Alexey; Mathiesen, Claus; Lauritzen, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Intercellular glial calcium waves constitute a signaling pathway which can be visualized by fluorescence imaging of cytosolic Ca2+ changes. However, there is a lack of procedures for sensitive and reliable detection of calcium waves in noisy multiphoton imaging data. Here we extend multiscale...

  14. Glial GABA Transporters as Modulators of Inhibitory Signalling in Epilepsy and Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lie, Maria E K; Al-Khawaja, Anas; Damgaard, Maria

    2017-01-01

    is to provide an overview of glial GATs in regulating tonic inhibition, especially in epilepsy and stroke. This entails a comprehensive summary of changes known to occur in GAT expression levels and signalling following epileptic and ischemic insults. Further, we discuss the accumulating pharmacological...

  15. Axon Guidance of Sympathetic Neurons to Cardiomyocytes by Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (GDNF)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miwa, Keiko; Lee, Jong-Kook; Takagishi, Yoshiko; Opthof, Tobias; Fu, Xianming; Hirabayashi, Masumi; Watabe, Kazuhiko; Jimbo, Yasuhiko; Kodama, Itsuo; Komuro, Issei

    2013-01-01

    Molecular signaling of cardiac autonomic innervation is an unresolved issue. Here, we show that glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) promotes cardiac sympathetic innervation in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, ventricular myocytes (VMs) and sympathetic neurons (SNs) isolated from neonatal

  16. Chemokine expression by glial cells directs leukocytes to sites of axonal injury in the CNS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babcock, Alicia A; Kuziel, William A; Rivest, Serge

    2003-01-01

    Innate responses in the CNS are critical to first line defense against infection and injury. Leukocytes migrate to inflammatory sites in response to chemokines. We studied leukocyte migration and glial chemokine expression within the denervated hippocampus in response to axonal injury caused by e...

  17. Ammonia modifies enteric neuromuscular transmission through glial γ-aminobutyric acid signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, David E; Watson, Ralph E; Robson, Simon C; Gulbransen, Brian D

    2017-12-01

    Impaired gut motility may contribute, at least in part, to the development of systemic hyperammonemia and systemic neurological disorders in inherited metabolic disorders, or in severe liver and renal disease. It is not known whether enteric neurotransmission regulates intestinal luminal and hence systemic ammonia levels by induced changes in motility. Here, we propose and test the hypothesis that ammonia acts through specific enteric circuits to influence gut motility. We tested our hypothesis by recording the effects of ammonia on neuromuscular transmission in tissue samples from mice, pigs, and humans and investigated specific mechanisms using novel mutant mice, selective drugs, cellular imaging, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Exogenous ammonia increased neurogenic contractions and decreased neurogenic relaxations in segments of mouse, pig, and human intestine. Enteric glial cells responded to ammonia with intracellular Ca 2+ responses. Inhibition of glutamine synthetase and the deletion of glial connexin-43 channels in hGFAP :: Cre ER T2+/- /connexin43 f/f mice potentiated the effects of ammonia on neuromuscular transmission. The effects of ammonia on neuromuscular transmission were blocked by GABA A receptor antagonists, and ammonia drove substantive GABA release as did the selective pharmacological activation of enteric glia in GFAP::hM3Dq transgenic mice. We propose a novel mechanism whereby local ammonia is operational through GABAergic glial signaling to influence enteric neuromuscular circuits that regulate intestinal motility. Therapeutic manipulation of these mechanisms may benefit a number of neurological, hepatic, and renal disorders manifesting hyperammonemia. NEW & NOTEWORTHY We propose that local circuits in the enteric nervous system sense and regulate intestinal ammonia. We show that ammonia modifies enteric neuromuscular transmission to increase motility in human, pig, and mouse intestine model systems. The mechanisms underlying the

  18. Neuronal and glial release of (3H)GABA from the rat olfactory bulb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaffe, E.H.; Cuello, A.C.

    1981-12-01

    Neuronal versus glial components of the (3H)gamma-aminobutyric acid ((3H)GABA) release studies were performed with two different microdissected layers of the olfactory bulb of the rat. In some experiments substantia nigra was used as a GABAergic axonal system and the trigeminal ganglia as a peripheral glial model. Spontaneous release of (3H)GABA was always lower in neuronal elements as compared with glial cells. A veratridine-evoked release was observed from the ONL but not from the trigeminal ganglia. Tetrodotoxin (TTX) abolished the veratridine-evoked release from the ONL, which also showed a partial inhibition when high magnesium concentrations were used in a Ca2+-free solution. beta-Alanine was strongly exchanged with (3H)GABA from the ONL of animals with the olfactory nerve lesioned and from animals with no lesion; but only a small heteroexchange was found from the external plexiform layer. The beta-alanine heteroexchange was able to deplete the releasable GABA store from the ONL of lesioned animals. In nonlesioned animals and the external plexiform layer, the veratridine-stimulated release of (3H)GABA was not significantly reduced after the beta-alanine heteroexchange. Stimulation of the (3H)GABA release by high concentrations of potassium elicited a higher release rate from axonal terminals than from dendrites or glia. Neurones and glia showed a similar inhibition of (3H)GABA release when a high magnesium concentration was added to a calcium-free solution. When D-600 was used as a calcium-flux blocker no inhibition of the release was observed in glial cells, whereas an almost complete blockage was found in both neuronal preparations (substantia nigra and EPL). These results provide further evidence for differential release mechanisms of GABA from CNS neurones and glial cells.

  19. Transglial transmission at the dorsal root ganglion sandwich synapse: glial cell to postsynaptic neuron communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozanski, Gabriela M; Li, Qi; Stanley, Elise F

    2013-04-01

    The dorsal root ganglion (DRG) contains a subset of closely-apposed neuronal somata (NS) separated solely by a thin satellite glial cell (SGC) membrane septum to form an NS-glial cell-NS trimer. We recently reported that stimulation of one NS with an impulse train triggers a delayed, noisy and long-lasting response in its NS pair via a transglial signaling pathway that we term a 'sandwich synapse' (SS). Transmission could be unidirectional or bidirectional and facilitated in response to a second stimulus train. We have shown that in chick or rat SS the NS-to-SGC leg of the two-synapse pathway is purinergic via P2Y2 receptors but the second SGC-to-NS synapse mechanism remained unknown. A noisy evoked current in the target neuron, a reversal potential close to 0 mV, and insensitivity to calcium scavengers or G protein block favored an ionotropic postsynaptic receptor. Selective block by D-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoate (AP5) implicated glutamatergic transmission via N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors. This agent also blocked NS responses evoked by puff of UTP, a P2Y2 agonist, directly onto the SGC cell, confirming its action at the second synapse of the SS transmission pathway. The N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor NR2B subunit was implicated by block of transmission with ifenprodil and by its immunocytochemical localization to the NS membrane, abutting the glial septum P2Y2 receptor. Isolated DRG cell clusters exhibited daisy-chain and branching NS-glial cell-NS contacts, suggestive of a network organization within the ganglion. The identification of the glial-to-neuron transmitter and receptor combination provides further support for transglial transmission and completes the DRG SS molecular transmission pathway. © 2013 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. The number of unrecognized myocardial infarction scars detected at DE-MRI increases during a 5-year follow-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Themudo, Raquel; Johansson, Lars; Ebeling-Barbier, Charlotte; Ahlstroem, Haakan; Bjerner, Tomas [Uppsala University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Uppsala (Sweden); Lind, Lars [Uppsala University Hospital, Department of Medicine, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2017-02-15

    In an elderly population, the prevalence of unrecognized myocardial infarction (UMI) scars found via late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging was more frequent than expected. This study investigated whether UMI scars detected with LGE-CMR at age 70 would be detectable at age 75 and whether the scar size changed over time. From 248 participants that underwent LGE-CMR at age 70, 185 subjects underwent a follow-up scan at age 75. A myocardial infarction (MI) scar was defined as late enhancement involving the subendocardium. In the 185 subjects that underwent follow-up, 42 subjects had a UMI scar at age 70 and 61 subjects had a UMI scar at age 75. Thirty-seven (88 %) of the 42 UMI scars seen at age 70 were seen in the same myocardial segment at age 75. The size of UMI scars did not differ between age 70 and 75. The prevalence of UMI scars detected at LGE-CMR increases with age. During a 5-year follow-up, 88 % (37/42) of the UMI scars were visible in the same myocardial segment, reassuring that UMI scars are a consistent finding. The size of UMI scars detected during LGE-CMR did not change over time. (orig.)

  1. Spatial and temporal corroboration of a fire-scar-based fire history in a frequently burned ponderosa pine forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvin A. Farris; Christopher H. Baisan; Donald A. Falk; Stephen R. Yool; Thomas W. Swetnam

    2010-01-01

    Fire scars are used widely to reconstruct historical fire regime parameters in forests around the world. Because fire scars provide incomplete records of past fire occurrence at discrete points in space, inferences must be made to reconstruct fire frequency and extent across landscapes using spatial networks of fire-scar samples. Assessing the relative accuracy of fire...

  2. Radial scar/complex sclerosing lesion of the breast--value of ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunwald, S; Heyer, H; Kühl, A; Schwesinger, G; Schimming, A; Köhler, G; Ohlinger, R

    2007-04-01

    Although benign, radial scar/complex sclerosing adenosis is a lesion which histopathologically resembles tubular carcinoma. On physical examination, it is difficult to distinguish radial scar from a malignant tumour. Mammography cannot differentiate radial scar from malignancy. This clinical study aims to delineate the role of preoperative ultrasonography with emphasis on the question whether ultrasonography could lower the number of false-positive readings and therefore the number of open biopsies required. In this examination, we present the clinical, mammographic, ultrasonographic, and histopathological features of 6 cases of radial scars. Although most authors describe radial scars as non-palpable, 2 of 6 lesions were indeed palpable. On mammograms, radial scars have a spiculated appearance, a feature observed in all of our cases. Numerous ultrasonographic characteristics are listed in the literature, but ultrasonography is not reported to have clear-cut advantages. Although this study did not elucidate any unique ultrasonographic features to characterise these lesions, the analysis of all ultrasonographic results made us recognise a set of "nearly specific ultrasonographic features" of radial scars. Current B-mode imaging does not appear to lead to the desirable reduction of the rate of unnecessary open biopsies.

  3. Quality of life and mediating role of patient scar assessment in burn patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hyunjin; Boo, Sunjoo

    2017-09-01

    In this study, we examined the plausibility of the mediating effect of the levels of patient scar assessment on the relationship between burn severity measured with total body surface area and burn-specific health-related quality of life (HRQL) among patients with burns in South Korea. In this cross sectional descriptive study, we collected data from 100 burn patients in three burn centers specializing in burn care in South Korea. Patient scar assessment, burn specific HRQL, and burn-related characteristics were self-reported with anonymous, paper-based surveys. The findings showed a positive correlation between burn severity, patient scar assessment, and HRQL in burn patients. The evidence of this paper is that quality of life after burns more determined by scar characteristics than burn severity. In the light of the poor HRQL in burn patients, the results of this study support that improving scar status could improve patients' HRQL. Health care providers should keep in mind that patients' perspectives of their scars would be a great indicator of their HRQL, so the providers' focus should be on intensive scar management intervention in their care. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of intense pulsed light on immature burn scars: A clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arindam Sarkar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: As intense pulsed light (IPL is widely used to treat cutaneous vascular malformations and also used as non-ablative skin rejunuvation to remodel the skin collagen. A study has been undertaken to gauze the effect of IPL on immature burn scars with regard to vascularity, pliability and height. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted between June 2013 and May 2014, among patients with immature burn scars that healed conservatively within 2 months. Photographic evidence of appearance of scars and grading and rating was done with Vancouver Scar Scale parameters. Ratings were done for both case and control scar after the completion of four IPL treatment sessions and were compared. Results: Out of the 19 cases, vascularity, pliability and height improved significantly (P < 0.05 in 13, 14 and 11 scars respectively following IPL treatment. Conclusions: Intense pulsed light was well-tolerated by patients, caused good improvement in terms of vascularity, pliability, and height of immature burn scar.

  5. Acute Marjolin’s Ulcer in a Postauricular Scar after Mastoidectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kholoud A. Alhysoni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Marjolin’s ulcer is a rare, aggressive cutaneous malignancy that arises primarily in burn scars but can occur in other types of scars. Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common variant, and while malignant degeneration usually takes a long time, it can develop acutely. Case Report. a 30-year-old man who developed Marjolin’s ulcer acutely in a right postauricular scar after mastoidectomy and the incision and drainage of a mastoid abscess. To the best of our knowledge, this report is the first to describe a Marjolin’s ulcer in a postauricular surgical scar. However, it has been reported in others areas in the head and neck. Conclusion. Marjolin’s ulcer is most commonly observed after postburn scars, but it may be observed after any type of scars, as our patient developed an SCC with a postsurgical scar. Early diagnosis is essential, and a biopsy should be performed on any nonhealing wound or chronic wound that undergoes a sudden change. Tissue samples should be taken from both the centre and the margins of the wound.

  6. Impact of facial burns: relationship between depressive symptoms, self-esteem and scar severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogewerf, Cornelis Johannes; van Baar, Margriet Elisabeth; Middelkoop, Esther; van Loey, Nancy Elisa

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed the role of self-reported facial scar severity as a possible influencing factor on self-esteem and depressive symptoms in patients with facial burns. A prospective multicentre cohort study with a 6 months follow-up was conducted including 132 patients with facial burns. Patients completed the Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale, the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Structural Equation Modeling was used to assess the relations between depressive symptoms, self-esteem and scar severity. The model showed that patient-rated facial scar severity was not predictive for self-esteem and depressive symptoms six months post-burn. There was, however, a significant relationship between early depressive symptoms and both patient-rated facial scar severity and subsequent self-esteem. The variables in the model accounted for 37% of the variance in depressive symptoms six months post-burn and the model provided a moderately well-fitting representation of the data. The study suggests that self-esteem and depressive symptoms were not affected by self-reported facial scar severity but that earlier depressive symptoms were indicative for a more severe self-reported facial scar rating. Therefore, routine psychological screening during hospitalisation is recommended in order to identify patients at risk and to optimise their treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Semi-automated scar detection in delayed enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morisi, Rita; Donini, Bruno; Lanconelli, Nico; Rosengarden, James; Morgan, John; Harden, Stephen; Curzen, Nick

    2015-06-01

    Late enhancement cardiac magnetic resonance images (MRI) has the ability to precisely delineate myocardial scars. We present a semi-automated method for detecting scars in cardiac MRI. This model has the potential to improve routine clinical practice since quantification is not currently offered due to time constraints. A first segmentation step was developed for extracting the target regions for potential scar and determining pre-candidate objects. Pattern recognition methods are then applied to the segmented images in order to detect the position of the myocardial scar. The database of late gadolinium enhancement (LE) cardiac MR images consists of 111 blocks of images acquired from 63 patients at the University Hospital Southampton NHS Foundation Trust (UK). At least one scar was present for each patient, and all the scars were manually annotated by an expert. A group of images (around one third of the entire set) was used for training the system which was subsequently tested on all the remaining images. Four different classifiers were trained (Support Vector Machine (SVM), k-nearest neighbor (KNN), Bayesian and feed-forward neural network) and their performance was evaluated by using Free response Receiver Operating Characteristic (FROC) analysis. Feature selection was implemented for analyzing the importance of the various features. The segmentation method proposed allowed the region affected by the scar to be extracted correctly in 96% of the blocks of images. The SVM was shown to be the best classifier for our task, and our system reached an overall sensitivity of 80% with less than 7 false positives per patient. The method we present provides an effective tool for detection of scars on cardiac MRI. This may be of value in clinical practice by permitting routine reporting of scar quantification.

  8. Fractional CO 2 laser resurfacing as monotherapy in the treatment of atrophic facial acne scars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Majid

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: While laser resurfacing remains the most effective treatment option for atrophic acne scars, the high incidence of post-treatment adverse effects limits its use. Fractional laser photothermolysis attempts to overcome these limitations of laser resurfacing by creating microscopic zones of injury to the dermis with skip areas in between. Aim: The aim of the present study is to assess the efficacy and safety of fractional CO 2 laser resurfacing in atrophic facial acne scars. Materials and Methods: Sixty patients with moderate to severe atrophic facial acne scars were treated with 3-4 sessions of fractional CO 2 laser resurfacing at 6-week intervals. The therapeutic response to treatment was assessed at each follow up visit and then finally 6 months after the last laser session using a quartile grading scale. Response to treatment was labelled as ′excellent′ if there was >50% improvement in scar appearance and texture of skin on the grading scale while 25-50% response and <25% improvement were labelled as ′good′ and ′poor′ response, respectively. The overall satisfaction of the patients and any adverse reactions to the treatment were also noted. Results: Most of the patients showed a combination of different morphological types of acne scars. At the time of final assessment 6 months after the last laser session, an excellent response was observed in 26 patients (43.3% while 15 (25% and 19 patients (31.7% demonstrated a good and poor response respectively. Rolling and superficial boxcar scars responded the best while pitted scars responded the least to fractional laser monotherapy. The commonest reported adverse effect was transient erythema and crusting lasting for an average of 3-4 and 4-6 days, respectively while three patients developed post-inflammatory pigmentation lasting for 8-12 weeks. Conclusions: Fractional laser resurfacing as monotherapy is effective in treating acne scars especially rolling and superficial boxcar

  9. Asymmetry of disciform scarring in bilateral disease when one eye is treated with radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, P.M.; Archer, D.B.; Chakravarthy, U. [Queen`s Univ., Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom)

    1995-06-01

    A previous study has shown that in age-related macular degeneration a high degree of concordance of disciform scar size occurs in the two eyes of any one patient. In a study of 35 patients with choroidal neovascular membrane who were treated with low dose ionising radiation to the macula of the affected eye, 11 were found to have bilateral disease. The visual outcome and scar size and morphology in the two eyes of each of these patients were compared. This study has provided evidence in support of reduced scarring and maintenance of better central visual function in radiotherapy treated eyes when compared with untreated fellow eyes. (author).

  10. Asymmetry of disciform scarring in bilateral disease when one eye is treated with radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, P.M.; Archer, D.B.; Chakravarthy, U.

    1995-01-01

    A previous study has shown that in age-related macular degeneration a high degree of concordance of disciform scar size occurs in the two eyes of any one patient. In a study of 35 patients with choroidal neovascular membrane who were treated with low dose ionising radiation to the macula of the affected eye, 11 were found to have bilateral disease. The visual outcome and scar size and morphology in the two eyes of each of these patients were compared. This study has provided evidence in support of reduced scarring and maintenance of better central visual function in radiotherapy treated eyes when compared with untreated fellow eyes. (author)

  11. Relationship Between Scarring and Dog Aggression in Pit Bull-Type Dogs Involved in Organized Dogfighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Katherine A.; Touroo, Rachel; Spain, C. Victor; Jones, Kelly; Reid, Pamela; Lockwood, Randall

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Organizations responsible for placing dogs seized from dogfighting investigations often must determine if a particular dog should be euthanized because it is too dangerous or if it is safe to place the dog in an adoptive home. In this study, we examine whether the extent of scarring from dog fighting is a reliable predictor of aggression towards other dogs and therefore could be used to help make that decision. We found that dogs with 10 or more scars in the three body zones where dogfighting injuries tend to be concentrated were more likely, on average, to show aggression to other dogs. The relationship is imperfect, however. Many unscarred dogs were dog aggressive while some highly scarred dogs were not. Therefore, we recommend also assessing a dog’s behavior before making decisions about its disposition. Abstract When pit bull-type dogs are seized in an investigation of organized dogfighting, heavily scarred dogs are often assumed to be highly dog aggressive due to a history of fighting. These dogs may be deemed dangerous and euthanized based on scarring alone. We analyzed our existing data on dogs seized from four dogfighting investigations, examining the relationship between the dogs’ scars with aggression towards other dogs. Scar and wound data were tallied in three body zones where dogfighting injuries tend to be concentrated. Dog aggression was assessed using a model dog and a friendly stimulus dog in a standardized behavior evaluation. Scarring and dog aggression were significantly related, more strongly among male (Fisher’s Exact p < 0.001) than female dogs (Fisher’s Exact p = 0.05). Ten or more scars in the three body zones was a reasonable threshold with which to classify a dog as high risk for dog aggression: 82% of males and 60% of females with such scarring displayed dog aggression. However, because many unscarred dogs were dog aggressive while some highly scarred dogs were not, we recommend collecting behavioral information to

  12. [Early hypertrophic scar after surgery on the nasal region: value of long-acting corticosteroid injections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amici, J-M

    2014-01-01

    "Pincushioning" is a complication of post-surgical scarring following use of transposition flaps particularly when surgery is performed on the nasal region. The transposition flap technique is very useful for the repair of certain defects of the tip of the nose, the medial canthus or of the ala nasi. The aim of this study is to define the clinical characteristics of this scarring dystrophy, which we propose to call "early hypertrophy scarring", to clarify the nature thereof and to assess the efficacy of intralesional injection of corticosteroids at the first signs of hypertrophy. A prospective, open, non-comparative, single-centre study examined the clinical and histological characteristics of early hypertrophy scarring and the effectiveness of therapy with one or two injections of corticosteroids performed on the 15th day post-operatively and optionally repeated at D45 depending on the outcome. From January 2011 to January 2013, 12 consecutive patients with early hypertrophy scarring were included (ten men and two women - mean age: 64 years). All had undergone surgery for basal cell carcinoma under local anaesthesia with one-stage repair by means of a rhombic flap or a bilobed flap located in the nasal area. Scars were injected strictly intra-lesionally with triamcinolone acetate (40 mg/1 mL) until whitening occurred. A single injection was performed in three cases of rhombic flap while a second injection was given at D45 in the remaining nine cases. Complete regression of the early hypertrophy scarring was obtained in ten of the 12 patients by D90. Incomplete regression was observed but with a marked improvement in the other two patients. Early hypertrophy scarring is distinguished by its clinical characteristics of hypertrophic or keloid scars. Biopsy performed in two cases showed the fibrous but non-fatty nature of early hypertrophy scarring. Biomechanical factors particular to the nasal region and the transposition flap technique could account for the early

  13. SONOGRAPHIC PREDICTION OF SCAR DEHISCENCE IN WOMEN WITH PREVIOUS CAESAREAN SECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shubhada Suhas Jajoo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Caesarean section (Sectio Caesarea is a surgical method for the completion of delivery. After various historical modifications of operative techniques, modern approach consists in the transverse dissection of the anterior wall of the uterus. The rate of vaginal birth after caesarean section was significantly reduced from year to year and the rate of repeated caesarean section is increased during the past 10 years. Evaluation of scar thickness is done by ultrasound, but it is still debatable size of thick scar that would be guiding “cut-off value” for the completion of the delivery method. To better assess the risk of uterine rupture, some authors have proposed sonographic measurement of lower uterine segment thickness near term assuming that there is an inverse correlation between LUS thickness and the risk of uterine scar defect. Therefore, this assessment for the management of women with prior CS may increase safety during labour by selecting women with the lowest risk of uterine rupture. The aim of the study is to study the diagnostic accuracy of sonographic measurements of the Lower Uterine Segment (LUS thickness near term in predicting uterine scar defects in women with prior Caesarean Section (CS. We aim to ascertain the best cut-off values for predicting uterine rupture. MATERIALS AND METHODS 100 antenatal women with history of previous one LSCS who come to attend antenatal clinic will be assessed for scar thickness by transabdominal ultrasonography and its correlation with intraoperative findings. This prospective longitudinal study was conducted for 1 year after IEC approval with inclusion criteria previous one LSCS. Exclusion criteria- 1 Previous myomectomy scar; 2 Previous 2 LSCS; 3 Previous hysterotomy scar. RESULTS Our findings indicate that there is a strong association between degree of LUS thinning measured near term and the risk of uterine scar defect at birth. In our study, optimal cut-off value for predicting

  14. Customized toric intraocular lens implantation for correction of extreme corneal astigmatism due to corneal scarring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Bassily

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available R Bassily, J LuckOphthalmology Department, Royal United Hospital, Combe Park, Bath, UKAbstract: A 76-year-old woman presented with decreased visual function due to cataract formation. Twenty-five years prior she developed right sided corneal ulceration that left her with 10.8 diopters (D of irregular astigmatism at 71.8° (steep axis. Her uncorrected visual acuity was 6/24 and could only ever wear a balanced lens due to the high cylindrical error. Cataract surgery was planned with a custom designed toric intraocular lens (IOL with +16.0 D sphere inserted via a wound at the steep axis of corneal astigmatism. Postoperative refraction was -0.75/+1.50 × 177° with a visual acuity of 6/9 that has remained unchanged at six-week follow-up with no IOL rotation. This case demonstrates the value of high power toric IOLs for the correction of pathological corneal astigmatism.Keywords: intraocular lens, corneal ulceration, visual acuity, scarring

  15. Efficacy of a new fractional CO2 laser in the treatment of photodamage and acne scarring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluates the efficacy and safety of a novel fractional CO(2) laser device for improving facial rhytids, hyperpigmentation, enlarged pores, skin laxity, and acne scarring. Subjects (n= 15) were treated three to five times at 3-week intervals. Biopsy specimens were used to evaluate healing response and neocollagenesis. Clinical improvement was rated on a quartile rating scale from digital photographs. Subject discomfort during treatment was evaluated on a scale of 0 to 5. Fourteen subjects who completed the study achieved good to excellent improvement in overall appearance, with 60% rated excellent. Improvement in photodamage was good to excellent in 92% of subjects, and reduction in rhytids was good to excellent in 85%. A total of 79% of subjects achieved good to excellent improvement in pore sizes and skin laxity. Subject discomfort during treatment was 3.0 +/- 0.7. Erythema persisted for 2-3 days, and subjects resumed normal activities 1-2 days after the procedure. Histological slides after a single treatment showed new collagen formation. The SmartSkin fractional CO(2) system (Cynosure, Inc., Westford, MA, USA) provides significant improvement for the treatment of facial wrinkles, hyperpigmentation, pore size, and skin laxity associated with photodamage.

  16. Glial Draper Rescues Aβ Toxicity in a Drosophila Model of Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Arpita; Speese, Sean D; Logan, Mary A

    2017-12-06

    Pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) include amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques, neurofibrillary tangles, and reactive gliosis. Glial cells offer protection against AD by engulfing extracellular Aβ peptides, but the repertoire of molecules required for glial recognition and destruction of Aβ are still unclear. Here, we show that the highly conserved glial engulfment receptor Draper/MEGF10 provides neuroprotection in an AD model of Drosophila (both sexes). Neuronal expression of human Aβ42 arc in adult flies results in robust Aβ accumulation, neurodegeneration, locomotor dysfunction, and reduced lifespan. Notably, all of these phenotypes are more severe in draper mutant animals, whereas enhanced expression of glial Draper reverses Aβ accumulation, as well as behavioral phenotypes. We also show that the signal transducer and activator of transcription (Stat92E), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)/AP-1 signaling, and expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (Mmp1) are activated downstream of Draper in glia in response to Aβ42 arc exposure. Furthermore, Aβ42-induced upregulation of the phagolysosomal markers Atg8 and p62 was notably reduced in draper mutant flies. Based on our findings, we propose that glia clear neurotoxic Aβ peptides in the AD model Drosophila brain through a Draper/STAT92E/JNK cascade that may be coupled to protein degradation pathways such as autophagy or more traditional phagolysosomal destruction methods. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Alzheimer's disease (AD) and similar dementias are common incurable neurodegenerative disorders in the aging population. As the primary immune responders in the brain, glial cells are implicated as key players in the onset and progression of AD and related disorders. Here we show that the glial engulfment receptor Draper is protective in a Drosophila model of AD, reducing levels of amyloid β (Aβ) peptides, reversing locomotor defects, and extending lifespan. We further show that protein degradation pathways are

  17. Dampak Hipoksia Sistemik terhadap Malondialdehida, Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein dan Aktivitas Asetilkolin Esterase Otak Tikus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andriani Andriani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Hipoksia sistemik menyebabkan berkurangnya oksigen dan energi di otak sehingga memicupenglepasan neurotransmiter asetilkolin, meningkatkan radikal bebas dan glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAPyang berfungsi menjaga kekuatan membran. Tujuan penelitian untuk melihat gambaran adaptasi otak padahipoksia sistemik terhadap fungsi asetilkolin esterase, kerusakan membran sel neuron dan astrosit. Penelitiandilakukan di Laboratorium Biokimia & Biologi Molekuler FK Universitas Indonesia, pada tahun 2013.Penelitian ekperimental ini menggunakan hewan coba tikus spraque dawley yang diinduksi hipoksia sistemikyang diambil jaringan otak bagian korteks dan plasma tikus. Kelompok tikus terdiri atas kelompok kontrol,kelompok perlakuan induksi hipoksia hari ke-1, 3 hari, 5 hari dan hari ke-7. Parameter yang diukur adalahkadar malondialdehida (MDA otak dan plasma, aktivitas spesifik enzim AChE jaringan otak serta kadar GFAPjaringan otak. Hasil menunjukkan bahwa hipoksia sistemik tidak meningkatkankadar MDA otak dan plasma.Induksi hipoksia sistemik meningkatkan aktivitas spesifik enzim AChE dan kadar GFAP jaringan otak secarabermakna. Pada plasma tidak terjadi peningkatan kadar GFAP. Hipoksia sistemik selama hari ke-7 belummenyebabkan kerusakan oksidatif, namun memperlihatkan peningkatan aktivitas AChe dan adaptasi astrositmelalui peningkatan GFAP. Kata kunci: hipoksia, astrosit, glial fibrillary acidic protein, malondialdehida, asetilkolin esterase   Systemic Hypoxia Effect on Rat Brain Malondialdehyde, Glial FibrillaryAcidic Protein, and Acetylcholine Esterase Activity Abstract Sistemic hypoxia causes lack of oxygen and energy in brain that trigger the release of acetylcholine,free radical and Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, a specific protein in astrocyte cells that act to strenghtenastrocite membrane. The aim of the research was to evaluate the damages of brain in systemic hypoxiathrough activity of acetylcholine esterase, neuron and astrocyte membran

  18. SUMO-1 is associated with a subset of lysosomes in glial protein aggregate diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Mathew B; Goodwin, Jacob; Norazit, Anwar; Meedeniya, Adrian C B; Richter-Landsberg, Christiane; Gai, Wei Ping; Pountney, Dean L

    2013-01-01

    Oligodendroglial inclusion bodies characterize a subset of neurodegenerative diseases. Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is characterized by α-synuclein glial cytoplasmic inclusions and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is associated with glial tau inclusions. The ubiquitin homologue, SUMO-1, has been identified in inclusion bodies in MSA, located in discrete sub-domains in α-synuclein-positive inclusions. We investigated SUMO-1 associated with oligodendroglial inclusion bodies in brain tissue from MSA and PSP and in glial cell models. We examined MSA and PSP cases and compared to age-matched normal controls. Fluorescence immunohistochemistry revealed frequent SUMO-1 sub-domains within and surrounding inclusions bodies in both diseases and showed punctate co-localization of SUMO-1 and the lysosomal marker, cathepsin D, in affected brain regions. Cell counting data revealed that 70-75 % of lysosomes in inclusion body-positive oligodendrocytes were SUMO-1-positive consistently across MSA and PSP cases, compared to 20 % in neighbouring inclusion body negative oligodendrocytes and 10 % in normal brain tissue. Hsp90 co-localized with some SUMO-1 puncta. We examined the SUMO-1 status of lysosomes in 1321N1 human glioma cells over-expressing α-synuclein and in immortalized rat oligodendrocyte cells over-expressing the four repeat form of tau following treatment with the proteasome inhibitor, MG132. We also transfected 1321N1 cells with the inherently aggregation-prone huntingtin exon 1 mutant, HttQ74-GFP. Each cell model showed the association of SUMO-1-positive lysosomes around focal cytoplasmic accumulations of α-synuclein, tau or HttQ74-GFP, respectively. Association of SUMO-1 with lysosomes was also detected in glial cells bearing α-synuclein aggregates in a rotenone-lesioned rat model. SUMO-1 labelling of lysosomes showed a major increase between 24 and 48 h post-incubation of 1321N1 cells with MG132 resulting in an increase in a 90 kDa SUMO-1-positive band

  19. Thermokarst in pingos and adjacent collapse scar bogs in interior Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, T. A.; Turetsky, M. R.

    2017-12-01

    A region of discontinuous permafrost 50 kilometers southeast of Fairbanks, Alaska exhibits rapid thermokarst and landscape change. The area contains a dozen pingos (hydrolaccoliths), mounds of ice covered by earth material typically 100 meters across and 20 meters above the surrounding ground surface. The pingos have sunken craters in their centers formed through melting and collapse of an inner ice lens core. Adjacent to the pingos are collapse scar bogs in various states of formation and ice wedge terrain undergoing thaw subsidence to polygons and thermokarst mounds (baydzherakhs). With a mean annual temperature of -1 degree C the area contains warm ecosystem-protected permafrost vulnerable to thaw. We analyzed historical imagery to the 1970s to track water features in a subset of pingos. The craters have expanded over the past few decades suggesting melting and collapse of the ice cored center and potential permafrost degradation along pingo margins. Collapse scar bogs in adjacent low-elevation terrain are roughly the same size as the pingos but have little vertical elevation gradient compared to the surrounding terrain. Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) measurements, high resolution GPS surveys, SIPRE coring, and thaw depth probing were focused along nine 400 meter transects across three of the pingos to identify relationships between geophysical properties, permafrost composition, seasonal thaw, and ecological state. A large ( 40 meters across and 20 meters thick) lens shaped region of thawed permafrost is evident in the ERT results about 10 meters below the ground surface in the center of one pingo we surveyed in detail. This is believed to be the original ice cored region of the pingo that has melted. A thin (1-5 meters thick) layer of permafrost is present above this thawed region while the rampart margins surrounding the pingo are underlain by thick (10-30 m) permafrost. The pingo and thermokarst features reside in a location where rapid permafrost

  20. Pyelonephritis, renal scarring, and reflux nephropathy: a pediatric urologist's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Edwin A.

    2008-01-01

    Imaging of children with a clinical diagnosis of pyelonephritis is performed to characterize the extent of the infection, to identify associated renal injury and to uncover risk factors for future infections and renal damage. Although there is general agreement regarding the need for parenchymal imaging and the need to exclude processes that are either functionally or anatomically obstructive, there is controversy regarding the need for routine cystography, especially when parenchymal involvement has not been documented. A protocol that limits the use of cystography for evaluation of urinary tract infections must assume that the diagnosis of reflux is at least of variable clinical significance. It is now clear that vesicoureteral reflux and reflux nephropathy represent a diverse population that includes both congenital and acquired processes. MR imaging will improve our understanding of vesicoureteral reflux, pyelonephritis and renal scarring and might help us to identify and manage those patients most at risk for recurrent infections and renal injury. To recognize the potential contributions of this newer imaging technique it is helpful to look at our understanding of the pathophysiology of pyelonephritis, reflux and reflux nephropathy. (orig.)

  1. FRAGILE WOMEN-BEASTS: LIFE SCARS ON FEMALE SOUL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roselene Berbigeier Feil

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available On female characters Mia Couto delegates a mission: fly the route, or suf­fered mild, between the dream world and reality, adding them in both worlds pains of soul and body will leave indelible scars. Revelations about female behavior, submission in relation to male power and self-assertion in tough times are in the dream world of the satisfaction of desires more romantic and more feminine needs. Among the mishaps of everyday life and the hope of better days, women of Mia Couto transiting the impossible of possible, the absolute strength of weakness. In most novels the author Mozambique, among them The other foot mermaid (2006, Earth sleepwalker (2007 and Confession Lioness (2012 found women are overcoming model, women who make life a journey in search of spiritual comfort, since the emotional and material they seem unattainable. The aim is to test a meeting very par­ticular with Constance and Mwadia Malunga, Farida, Virgínia Pinto, Hanifa Assulua, Naftalinda Makwala and Mariamar Mpepe who will have the op­portunity to share a part of their rich and painful life experiences.

  2. Standard guidelines of care: Keloids and hypertrophic scars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somesh Gupta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Keloids and hypertrophic scars (HTS are the result of overgrowth of fibrous tissue, following healing of a cutaneous injury, and cause morbidity. There are several treatment modalities which are useful for the management of keloids, though no single modality is completely effective. The most commonly used modalities are pressure, silicone gel sheet, intralesional steroids, 5-fluorouracil (5 FU, cryotherapy, surgical excision, and lasers. They may be used either singly or, as is done more commonly, in combinations. Any qualified dermatologist who has attained postgraduate qualification in dermatology can treat keloids and HTS. Some procedures, such as cryosurgery and surgical excision, may require additional training in dermatologic surgery. Most modalities for keloids, including intralesional injections and mechanical therapies such as pressure and silicone gel based products, can be given/prescribed on OPD basis. Surgical excision requires a minor operation theater with the facility to handle emergencies. It is important to counsel the patient about the nature of the problem. One should realize that keloid will only improve and not disappear completely. Patients should be informed about the high recurrence rates. Different modalities carry risk of adverse effects and complications and the treating physician needs to be aware of these and patients should be informed about them.

  3. Applicability of SCAR markers to food genomics: olive oil traceability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pafundo, Simona; Agrimonti, Caterina; Maestri, Elena; Marmiroli, Nelson

    2007-07-25

    DNA analysis with molecular markers has opened a shortcut toward a genomic comprehension of complex organisms. The availability of micro-DNA extraction methods, coupled with selective amplification of the smallest extracted fragments with molecular markers, could equally bring a breakthrough in food genomics: the identification of original components in food. Amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) have been instrumental in plant genomics because they may allow rapid and reliable analysis of multiple and potentially polymorphic sites. Nevertheless, their direct application to the analysis of DNA extracted from food matrixes is complicated by the low quality of DNA extracted: its high degradation and the presence of inhibitors of enzymatic reactions. The conversion of an AFLP fragment to a robust and specific single-locus PCR-based marker, therefore, could extend the use of molecular markers to large-scale analysis of complex agro-food matrixes. In the present study is reported the development of sequence characterized amplified regions (SCARs) starting from AFLP profiles of monovarietal olive oils analyzed on agarose gel; one of these was used to identify differences among 56 olive cultivars. All the developed markers were purposefully amplified in olive oils to apply them to olive oil traceability.

  4. Microneedling combined with platelet-rich plasma or trichloroacetic acid peeling for management of acne scarring: A split-face clinical and histologic comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Domyati, Moetaz; Abdel-Wahab, Hossam; Hossam, Aliaa

    2018-02-01

    Minimally invasive procedures provide effective, safe, relatively long-lasting, and natural results without large damage to the skin. A combination treatment is considered an approach that includes at least 2 different and unrelated modalities. This study aims to evaluate the use and effectiveness of some combined minimally invasive procedures for management of acne scarring. Twenty-four volunteers with postacne atrophic scars were randomly divided into 3 equal groups according to performed procedure on each side of the face (microneedling by dermaroller alone or combined with platelet-rich plasma [PRP] or trichloroacetic acid [TCA] 15% peeling) and received 6 bi-weekly sessions of treatment. Photography and punch biopsies were taken before and after 3 months of treatment for clinical, histological, and histometrical evaluation. Combined treatment of dermaroller and PRP or dermaroller and TCA 15% showed significant improvement when compared with dermaroller alone (P = .015 and .011 respectively). Epidermal thickness showed statistically significant increase in studied groups, mainly after dermaroller and TCA 15%. Moreover, the 3 studied groups showed more organized collagen bundles and newly formed collagen formation and markedly decreased abnormal elastic fibers. Based on the clinical, histometrical, and histochemical assessment, inspite that most volunteers showed significant improvement after treatment, however, the combined use of dermaroller and TCA 15% was more effective in postacne atrophic scars than the use of dermaroller and PRP or dermaroller only. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Vaccinia scars associated with better survival for adults. An observational study from Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Gustafson, Per; Roth, Adam Anders Edvin

    2006-01-01

    Live vaccines including BCG and measles may have non-targeted beneficial effects on childhood survival in areas with high mortality. The authors therefore undertook a survey of vaccinia scars to evaluate subsequent mortality....

  6. Sulfates, Clouds and Radiation Brazil (SCAR-B) University of Washington C131A Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SCAR_B_UWC131A data are Smoke/Sulfates, Clouds and Radiation Experiment in Brazil data from instruments on board the University of Washington C131A aircraft in...

  7. Sulfates, Clouds and Radiation Brazil (SCAR-B) AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SCAR_B_AERONET data are Smoke, Clouds and Radiation Brazil (SCARB) Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) data for aerosol characterization.Smoke/Sulfates, Clouds and...

  8. Expanded flap to repair facial scar left by radiotherapy of hemangioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Donghong; Ma, Xinrong; Li, Jiang; Zhang, Lingfeng; Zhu, Baozhen

    2014-09-01

    This study explored the feasibility and clinical efficacy of expanded flap to repair facial scar left by radiotherapy of hemangioma. From March 2000 to April 2011, 13 cases of facial cicatrices left by radiotherapy of hemangioma have been treated with implantation surgery of facial skin dilator under local anesthesia. After water flood expansion for 1-2 months, resection of facial scar was performed, and wound repairing with expansion flap transfer was done. Thirteen patients were followed up from 5 months to 3 years. All patients tolerated flap transfer well; no contracture occurred during the facial expansion flap transfer. The incision scar was not obvious, and its color and texture were identical to surrounding skin. In conclusion, the use of expanded flap transfer to repair the facial scar left by radiotherapy of hemangioma is advantageous due to its simplicity, flexibility, and large area of repairing. This method does not affect the subsequent facial appearance.

  9. Multimodality treatment of hypertrophic scars using long-wave X-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Protsenko, T.V.

    1984-01-01

    The paper is concerned with a therapeutic method for hypertrophic scars inc cluding Bucky rays, pyrogenal, vitamins a, e, b 12 , sodium salicylate and dimexide ointment. Multimodality treatment of hypertrophic scars is effective, well tolerated and can be widely used in out-patient clinics. It makes it possible to reduce the period of therapy by 2-3 mos., and the summary dose by 20 000-3000 rad (18.6-27.9 Gy) as compared to common therapy with Wucky rays only Changes in the connective structure of scars in the process of multimodality th herapy are nonspecific and account for some mechanisms of scar regression and reaffirm the efficacy of this therapeutic method

  10. Quantum eigenstates of a strongly chaotic system and the scar phenomenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aurich, R.; Steiner, F.

    1993-04-01

    The quantum eigenstates of a strongly chaotic system (hyperbolic octagon) are studied with special emphasis on the scar phenomenon. The dynamics of a localized wavepacket is discussed which travels along a short periodic orbit yielding a test for the scar model developed by Heller. The autocorrelation function C(t) and the smeared weighted spectral density S τ (E) are in accordance with this model, but the conclusion that this implies the existence of scarred eigenstates is not confirmed. A random wavefunction model generates with the same probability intensity structures being localized near short periodic orbits as the wavefunctions obeying the Schroedinger equation. Although there are some eigenstates which are localized near a periodic orbit, the conclusion that their intensities differ significantly from the statistically expected ones cannot be drawn. Thus the scar phenomenon seems to be absent in the case of hyperbolic octagons. (orig.)

  11. Evaluation of effectiveness of irradiation of scar after radical mastectomy in patients with breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, E; Krajewska, B [Akademia Medyczna, Gdansk (Poland)

    1975-01-01

    The authors report the results of an analysis of recurrences in postoperative scar in patients with breast cancer for evaluation of the effectiveness of postoperative radiotherapy. In a group of 423 cases recurrences in scar were observed in 51 (12.1%). In the group of patients who had been given postoperative radiotherapy to the scar the frequency of recurrences was lower (8.1%) as compared with the group treated only surgically (16.5%), in the group treated by preoperative radiotherapy it was high (17.1%) and in the group with postoperative radiotherapy given only to regional lymph nodes it was even higher (18.0%). The results of analysis indicate the effectiveness of postoperative radiotherapy to the scar.

  12. Local melanoma recurrences in the scar after limited surgery for primary tumor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drzewiecki, K T; Andersson, A P

    1995-01-01

    The clinical and histologic records of 46 consecutive patients were reviewed who during the period 1980-1993 had recurrence from melanoma in the scar after limited surgery for a skin tumor. They constituted about 50% of all patients admitted with local recurrence from melanoma during this period....... At reexamination of the primary tumors, 16 were found to be malignant melanomas and 9 were nevi (four atypical and five benign). Twenty-one were missing, 11 of which had never been set for histologic examination. The median thickness of nine measurable melanomas was 0.66 mm. The recurrences in scar consisted of 34...... recurrences in the form of a new primary in a scar following limited surgery supports the theory of limited field change around a primary melanoma. Furthermore, limited procedures for primary melanoma, if followed by a recurrence in the scar, worsen the prognosis....

  13. Ultrasound evaluation of the cesarean scar: comparison between one- and two layer uterotomy closure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glavind, Julie; Madsen, Lene Duch; Uldbjerg, Niels

    Objectives: To compare the residual myometrial thickness and the size of the cesarean scar defect after one- and two layer uterotomy closure. Methods: From July 2010 a continuous two-layer uterotomy closure technique replaced a continuous one-layer technique after cesarean delivery...... at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at Aarhus University Hospital. A total of 149 consecutively invited women (68 women with one-layer and 81 women with two-layer closure) had their cesarean scar examined with 2D transvaginal sonography (TVS) 6-16 months post partum. Inclusion criteria were non......-pregnant women with one previous elective cesarean, no post-partum uterine infection or uterine re-operation, and no type 1 diabetes. Scar defect width, depth, and residual myometrial thickness were measured on the sagittal plane, and scar defect length was measured on the transverse plane. Results: The median...

  14. Effects of X-irradiation on glial cells in the developing rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrer, I.; Borras, D.

    1994-01-01

    Sprague-Dawley rats were given a single dose of 2Gy X-rays when 1 or 3 days of age. Dying cells in the germinal layer of the telencephalon reached peak values 6h after irradiation; dead cells were cleared 48h later. These effects were almost abolished with the injection of cyclohexamide (1 μg/g body weight) given at the time of irradiation. PCNA-immunoreactive cells (cells in late G 1 and S phases of the cell cycle) and PCNA-negative cells were sensitive to X-rays. Long-term effects on glial cell populations in the subcortical white matter of the cingulum were examined in irradiated rats, killed at postnatal day 30 (P30), by means of glial fibrillary acidic protein, vimentin and S-100 immunohistochemistry, as well as with anti-TGF-α (transformerly growth factor) antibodies that are used as putative oligodendrogial cell markers in the white matter of rat. (author)

  15. Enteric glial cells and their role in gastrointestinal motor abnormalities: Introducing the neuro-gliopathies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gabrio Bassotti; Vincenzo Villanacci; Simona Fisogni; Elisa Rossi; Paola Baronio; Carlo Clerici; Christoph A Maurer; Gieri Cathomas; Elisabetta Antonelli

    2007-01-01

    The role of enteric glial cells has somewhat changed from that of mere mechanical support elements, gluing together the various components of the enteric nervous system, to that of active participants in the complex interrelationships of the gut motor and inflammatory events. Due to their multiple functions, spanning from supporting elements in the myenteric plexuses to neurotransmitters, to neuronal homeostasis, to antigen presenting cells, this cell population has probably more intriguing abilities than previously thought. Recently,some evidence has been accumulating that shows how these cells may be involved in the pathophysiological aspects of some diseases. This review will deal with the properties of the enteric glial cells more strictly related to gastrointestinal motor function and the human pathological conditions in which these cells may play a role, suggesting the possibility of enteric neurogliopathies.

  16. [Activity of glial cells in trigeminal nervous system in rats with experimental pulpitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Bin; Liu, Na; Liu, Hongchen

    2014-04-29

    To observe the activity change of astrocyte in related nucleus caused by acute pulpitis in rats. Rat acute pulpitis model was induced by lipopolysaccharides (LPS). And, according to processing time, a total of 30 rats were divided into 5 groups of control, 6, 12, 24 and 48 h. Immunohistochemistry and Western blot were employed to detect the dynamic expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in spinal nucleus of trigeminal nerve (Vc). The relative gray value of ipsilateral Vc GFAP expression in experimental groups was 153 ± 11 at 12 h. And it significantly increased versus the control group (100 ± 4)(P pulpitis model, activated glial cells are probably involved in the processes of pulpitis and hyperalgesia.

  17. Reappraisal of Bergmann glial cells as modulators of cerebellar circuit function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris I De Zeeuw

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Just as there is a huge morphological and functional diversity of neuron types specialized for specific aspects of information processing in the brain, astrocytes have equally distinct morphologies and functions that aid optimal functioning of the circuits in which they are embedded. One type of astrocyte, the Bergmann glial cell of the cerebellum, is a prime example of a highly diversified astrocyte type, the architecture of which is adapted to the cerebellar circuit and facilitates an impressive range of functions that optimize information processing in the adult brain. In this review we expand on the function of the Bergmann glial cell in the cerebellum to highlight the importance of astrocytes not only in housekeeping functions, but also in contributing to plasticity and information processing in the cerebellum.

  18. Restraining reactive oxygen species in Listeria monocytogenes promotes the apoptosis of glial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sen; Li, Yixuan; Chen, Guowei; Zhang, Jingchen; Xu, Fei; Wu, Man

    2017-07-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a facultative anaerobic foodborne pathogen that can traverse the blood-brain barrier and cause brain infection. L. monocytogenes infection induces host cell apoptosis in several cell types. In this study, we investigated the apoptosis of human glioma cell line U251 invaded by L. monocytogenes and evaluated the function of bacterial reactive oxygen species (ROS) during infection. Bacterial ROS level was reduced by carrying out treatment with N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) and diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI). After infection, the apoptosis of U251 cells was examined by flow cytometry assay and propidium iodide staining. DPI and NAC efficiently decreased ROS level in L. monocytogenes without affecting bacterial growth. Moreover, the apoptosis of glial cells was enhanced upon invasion of DPI- and NAC-pretreated L. monocytogenes. Results indicate that the apoptosis of glial cells can be induced by L. monocytogenes, and that the inhibition of bacterial ROS increases the apoptosis of host cells.

  19. HIV-1 Tat protein induces glial cell autophagy through enhancement of BAG3 protein levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Anna Paola; De Simone, Francesca Isabella; Iorio, Vittoria; De Marco, Margot; Khalili, Kamel; Sariyer, Ilker Kudret; Capunzo, Mario; Nori, Stefania Lucia; Rosati, Alessandra

    2014-01-01

    BAG3 protein has been described as an anti-apoptotic and pro-autophagic factor in several neoplastic and normal cells. We previously demonstrated that BAG3 expression is elevated upon HIV-1 infection of glial and T lymphocyte cells. Among HIV-1 proteins, Tat is highly involved in regulating host cell response to viral infection. Therefore, we investigated the possible role of Tat protein in modulating BAG3 protein levels and the autophagic process itself. In this report, we show that transfection with Tat raises BAG3 levels in glioblastoma cells. Moreover, BAG3 silencing results in highly reducing Tat- induced levels of LC3-II and increasing the appearance of sub G0/G1 apoptotic cells, in keeping with the reported role of BAG3 in modulating the autophagy/apoptosis balance. These results demonstrate for the first time that Tat protein is able to stimulate autophagy through increasing BAG3 levels in human glial cells.

  20. Potential utility of MRI in the evaluation of children at risk of renal scarring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan Yuleung; Chan Kamwing; Roebuck, D.J.; Chu, W.C.W.; Metreweli, C.; Yeung Chungkwong; Lee Kimhung

    1999-01-01

    Background. Gadolinium-enhanced MRI has recently been employed in the diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis. Its potential utility in the diagnosis of renal scars in children is unknown. Objective. To evaluate the potential utility of MRI using fat-saturated T1-weighted (T1-W) and post-gadolinium, short-tau inversion-recovery (STIR) sequences in detecting renal scarring by comparison with technetium dimercaptosuccinic acid ( 99 m Tc-DMSA) renal scintigraphy in children at risk of renal scarring. Materials and methods. A group of 24 children with spina bifida and neurogenic bladder or anorectal anomaly was studied. No patient had a history of acute pyelonephritis. Documented urinary tract infection (UTI) was present in 10 children (42 %). The remaining 14 (58 %) children had a history of asymptomatic bacteriuria. None had clinical signs or symptoms of acute UTI at the time of the study. 99 m Tc-DMSA and MRI were performed to detect renal scarring. 99 m Tc-DMSA scans were supplemented with pinhole imaging. MRI of the kidneys employed a fat-saturated T1-W sequence and a post-gadolinium STIR sequence employing a short echo time. Results. Of the kidneys studied, 33 % (n = 16) had evidence of a renal parenchymal defect suggestive of scarring on 99 m Tc-DMSA. The concordance in the detection of a scarred kidney by post-gadolinium STIR sequence and 99 m Tc-DMSA is 94 %; that by fat-saturated T1-W sequence and 99 m Tc-DMSA is 82 %; that by both sequences (positive result on either sequence) and 99 m Tc-DMSA is 100 %. Using 99 m Tc-DMSA as the gold standard, MRI had a sensitivity of 100 % and a specificity of 78 % in the diagnosis of a scarred kidney. The concordance in the detection of a scarred zone by post-gadolinium STIR sequence and 99 m Tc-DMSA is 68 %; that by fat-saturated T1-W sequence and DMSA is 44 %; that by both sequences (positive result on either sequence) and 99 m Tc-DMSA is 84 %. MRI had a sensitivity of 84 % and a specificity of 86 % in the diagnosis of a

  1. High- and ultrahigh-field magnetic resonance imaging of naïve, injured and scarred vocal fold mucosae in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishimoto, Ayami Ohno; Kishimoto, Yo; Young, David L.; Zhang, Jinjin

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Subepithelial changes to the vocal fold mucosa, such as fibrosis, are difficult to identify using visual assessment of the tissue surface. Moreover, without suspicion of neoplasm, mucosal biopsy is not a viable clinical option, as it carries its own risk of iatrogenic injury and scar formation. Given these challenges, we assessed the ability of high- (4.7 T) and ultrahigh-field (9.4 T) magnetic resonance imaging to resolve key vocal fold subepithelial tissue structures in the rat, an important and widely used preclinical model in vocal fold biology. We conducted serial in vivo and ex vivo imaging, evaluated an array of acquisition sequences and contrast agents, and successfully resolved key anatomic features of naïve, acutely injured, and chronically scarred vocal fold mucosae on the ex vivo scans. Naïve lamina propria was hyperintense on T1-weighted imaging with gadobenate dimeglumine contrast enhancement, whereas chronic scar was characterized by reduced lamina propria T1 signal intensity and mucosal volume. Acutely injured mucosa was hypointense on T2-weighted imaging; lesion volume steadily increased, peaked at 5 days post-injury, and then decreased – consistent with the physiology of acute, followed by subacute, hemorrhage and associated changes in the magnetic state of hemoglobin and its degradation products. Intravenous administration of superparamagnetic iron oxide conferred no T2 contrast enhancement during the acute injury period. These findings confirm that magnetic resonance imaging can resolve anatomic substructures within naïve vocal fold mucosa, qualitative and quantitative features of acute injury, and the presence of chronic scar. PMID:27638667

  2. High- and ultrahigh-field magnetic resonance imaging of naïve, injured and scarred vocal fold mucosae in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishimoto, Ayami Ohno; Kishimoto, Yo; Young, David L; Zhang, Jinjin; Rowland, Ian J; Welham, Nathan V

    2016-11-01

    Subepithelial changes to the vocal fold mucosa, such as fibrosis, are difficult to identify using visual assessment of the tissue surface. Moreover, without suspicion of neoplasm, mucosal biopsy is not a viable clinical option, as it carries its own risk of iatrogenic injury and scar formation. Given these challenges, we assessed the ability of high- (4.7 T) and ultrahigh-field (9.4 T) magnetic resonance imaging to resolve key vocal fold subepithelial tissue structures in the rat, an important and widely used preclinical model in vocal fold biology. We conducted serial in vivo and ex vivo imaging, evaluated an array of acquisition sequences and contrast agents, and successfully resolved key anatomic features of naïve, acutely injured, and chronically scarred vocal fold mucosae on the ex vivo scans. Naïve lamina propria was hyperintense on T1-weighted imaging with gadobenate dimeglumine contrast enhancement, whereas chronic scar was characterized by reduced lamina propria T1 signal intensity and mucosal volume. Acutely injured mucosa was hypointense on T2-weighted imaging; lesion volume steadily increased, peaked at 5 days post-injury, and then decreased - consistent with the physiology of acute, followed by subacute, hemorrhage and associated changes in the magnetic state of hemoglobin and its degradation products. Intravenous administration of superparamagnetic iron oxide conferred no T2 contrast enhancement during the acute injury period. These findings confirm that magnetic resonance imaging can resolve anatomic substructures within naïve vocal fold mucosa, qualitative and quantitative features of acute injury, and the presence of chronic scar. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  3. High- and ultrahigh-field magnetic resonance imaging of naïve, injured and scarred vocal fold mucosae in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayami Ohno Kishimoto

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Subepithelial changes to the vocal fold mucosa, such as fibrosis, are difficult to identify using visual assessment of the tissue surface. Moreover, without suspicion of neoplasm, mucosal biopsy is not a viable clinical option, as it carries its own risk of iatrogenic injury and scar formation. Given these challenges, we assessed the ability of high- (4.7 T and ultrahigh-field (9.4 T magnetic resonance imaging to resolve key vocal fold subepithelial tissue structures in the rat, an important and widely used preclinical model in vocal fold biology. We conducted serial in vivo and ex vivo imaging, evaluated an array of acquisition sequences and contrast agents, and successfully resolved key anatomic features of naïve, acutely injured, and chronically scarred vocal fold mucosae on the ex vivo scans. Naïve lamina propria was hyperintense on T1-weighted imaging with gadobenate dimeglumine contrast enhancement, whereas chronic scar was characterized by reduced lamina propria T1 signal intensity and mucosal volume. Acutely injured mucosa was hypointense on T2-weighted imaging; lesion volume steadily increased, peaked at 5 days post-injury, and then decreased – consistent with the physiology of acute, followed by subacute, hemorrhage and associated changes in the magnetic state of hemoglobin and its degradation products. Intravenous administration of superparamagnetic iron oxide conferred no T2 contrast enhancement during the acute injury period. These findings confirm that magnetic resonance imaging can resolve anatomic substructures within naïve vocal fold mucosa, qualitative and quantitative features of acute injury, and the presence of chronic scar.

  4. MALDI mass spectrometry based molecular phenotyping of CNS glial cells for prediction in mammalian brain tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanrieder, Jørg; Wicher, Grzegorz; Bergquist, Jonas

    2011-01-01

    . Complementary proteomic experiments revealed the identity of these signature proteins that were predominantly expressed in the different glial cell types, including histone H4 for oligodendrocytes and S100-A10 for astrocytes. MALDI imaging MS was performed, and signature masses were employed as molecular...... tracers for prediction of oligodendroglial and astroglial localization in brain tissue. The different cell type specific protein distributions in tissue were validated using immunohistochemistry. ICMS of intact neuroglia is a simple and straightforward approach for characterization and discrimination...

  5. Differentiation of a bipotential glial progenitor cell in a single cell microculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, S; Raff, M C

    Although it is known that most cells of the vertebrate central nervous system (CNS) are derived from the neuroepithelial cells of the neural tube, the factors determining whether an individual neuroepithelial cell develops into a particular type of neurone or glial cell remain unknown. A promising model for studying this problem is the bipotential glial progenitor cell in the developing rat optic nerve; this cell differentiates into a particular type of astrocyte (a type-2 astrocyte) if cultured in 10% fetal calf serum (FCS) and into an oligodendrocyte if cultured in serum-free medium. As the oligodendrocyte-type-2 astrocyte (0-2A) progenitor cell can differentiate along either glial pathway in neurone-free cultures, living axons clearly are not required for its differentiation, at least in vitro. However, the studies on 0-2A progenitor cells were carried out in bulk cultures of optic nerve, and so it was possible that other cell-cell interactions were required for differentiation in culture. We show here that 0-2A progenitor cells can differentiate into type-2 astrocytes or oligodendrocytes when grown as isolated cells in microculture, indicating that differentiation along either glial pathway in vitro does not require signals from other CNS cells, apart from the signals provided by components of the culture medium. We also show that single 0-2A progenitor cells can differentiate along either pathway without dividing, supporting our previous studies using 3H-thymidine and suggesting that DNA replication is not required for these cells to choose between the two differentiation programmes.

  6. Substance P spinal signaling induces glial activation and nociceptive sensitization after fracture

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Wen-Wu; Guo, Tian-Zhi; Shi, Xiaoyou; Sun, Yuan; Wei, Tzuping; Clark, David J; Kingery, Wade S

    2015-01-01

    Tibia fracture in rodents induces substance P (SP)-dependent keratinocyte activation and inflammatory changes in the hindlimb, similar to those seen in complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). In animal pain models spinal glial cell activation results in nociceptive sensitization. This study tested the hypothesis that limb fracture triggers afferent C-fiber SP release in the dorsal horn, resulting in chronic glia activation and central sensitization. At 4 weeks after tibia fracture and casting ...

  7. Possible role of glial cells in the relationship between thyroid dysfunction and mental disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Noda, Mami

    2015-01-01

    It is widely accepted that there is a close relationship between the endocrine system and the central nervous system (CNS). Among hormones closely related to the nervous system, thyroid hormones (THs) are critical for the development and function of the CNS; not only for neuronal cells but also for glial development and differentiation. Any impairment of TH supply to the developing CNS causes severe and irreversible changes in the overall architecture and function of the human brain, leading ...

  8. Sex- and age-dependent effects of thyroid hormone on glial morphology and function

    OpenAIRE

    Noda, Mami; Mori, Yuki; Yoshioka, Yusaku

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid hormones (THs) are essential for the development and function of the central nervous system (CNS), not only for neuronal cells but also for glial development and differentiation. In adult CNS, both hypo- and hyper-thyroidism may affect psychological condition and potentially increase the risk of cognitive impairment and neurodegeneration including Alzheimer’s disease (AD). We have reported non-genomic effects of tri-iodothyronine (T3) on microglial functions and its signaling in vitro...

  9. Measuring Glial Metabolism in Repetitive Brain Trauma and Alzheimer’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    stages of repetitive brain trauma as well. Current methods of measure brain glutamate using proton spectroscopy is not specific to different cell...covering a representative range of clinical cases: a young female , young male , middle-aged male (all healthy volunteers) and a male patient with...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0412 TITLE: Measuring Glial Metabolism in Repetitive Brain Trauma and Alzheimer’s Disease PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR

  10. Fractional Nonablative 1540 nm Laser Resurfacing for Thermal Burn Scars: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haedersdal, M.; Moreau, K.E.R.; Beyer, D.M.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Objective: Burn scars cause permanent and disfiguring problems for many patients and limited treatments are available. Nonablative fractional lasers induce a wound healing response, which may lead to remodeling of burn sear texture. This randomized trial evaluates efficacy and adve......Background and Objective: Burn scars cause permanent and disfiguring problems for many patients and limited treatments are available. Nonablative fractional lasers induce a wound healing response, which may lead to remodeling of burn sear texture. This randomized trial evaluates efficacy...

  11. Endoscopic lysis of bladder scar associated with Hunner's lesions: A new technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Bahlani

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Patients with IC/BPS may be severely debilitated by a clinically significant decrease in their bladder capacity, especially in the face of HL. The use of the holmium laser to incise regions of scar and bladder wall tethering may produce a clinically significant and durable increase in bladder capacity. The use of this technique as a means of treating bladder scarring poses an excellent adjunct to existing treatment strategies.

  12. Combination of microneedling and glycolic acid peels for the treatment of acne scars in dark skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharad, Jaishree

    2011-12-01

      Acne scars can cause emotional and psychosocial disturbance to the patient. Various modalities have been used for the treatment of acne scars like punch excision, subcision, peels, microdermabrasion, unfractionated and fractioned lasers. The latest in the treatment armamentarium is microneedling. Acne scars commonly coexist with postinflammatory hyperpigmentation. A combination of microneedling and glycolic acid (GA) peels was found to give excellent results in the treatment of such scars. The aim was to study the efficacy of a combination of microneedling with glycolic peel for the treatment of acne scars in pigmented skin.   Thirty patients in the age group of 20-40 years with atrophic box type or rolling scars with postinflammatory hyperpigmentation were chosen for the study. Two groups were made. The first group comprised of 30 patients in whom only microneedling was performed once in 6 weeks for five sessions. In the second group of 30 patients, a combination of microneedling and 35% GA peels was carried out. Patients from both groups were evaluated on the basis of Echelle d'Evaluation clinique des Cicatrices d'acné classification.   Based on the objective scoring and its statistical analysis, there was significant improvement in superficial and moderately deep scars (grade 1-3). There was also improvement in skin texture, reduction in postacne pigmentation in the second group.   Microneedling is a simple, inexpensive office procedure with no downtime. It is safe in Indian skin (skin types III-IV). The combined sequential treatment with GA peel caused a significant improvement in the acne scars without increasing morbidity. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Autologous fat graft as treatment of post short stature surgical correction scars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maione, Luca; Memeo, Antonio; Pedretti, Leopoldo; Verdoni, Fabio; Lisa, Andrea; Bandi, Valeria; Giannasi, Silvia; Vinci, Valeriano; Mambretti, Andrea; Klinger, Marco

    2014-12-01

    Surgical limb lengthening is undertaken to correct pathological short stature. Among the possible complications related to this procedure, painful and retractile scars are a cause for both functional and cosmetic concern. Our team has already shown the efficacy of autologous fat grafting in the treatment of scars with varying aetiology, so we decided to apply this technique to scars related to surgical correction of dwarfism. A prospective study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of autologous fat grafting in the treatment of post-surgical scars in patients with short-limb dwarfism using durometer measurements and a modified patient and observer scar assessment scale (POSAS), to which was added a parameter to evaluate movement impairment. Between January 2009 and September 2012, 36 children (28 female and 8 male) who presented retractile and painful post-surgical scars came to our unit and were treated with autologous fat grafting. Preoperative and postoperative mean durometer measurements were analysed using the analysis of variance (ANOVA) test and POSAS parameters were studied using the Wilcoxon rank sum test. There was a statistically significant reduction in all durometer measurements (p-value treatment with autologous fat grafting. Surgical procedures to camouflage scars on lower limbs are not often used as a first approach and non-surgical treatments often lead to unsatisfactory results. In contrast, our autologous fat grafting technique in the treatment of post-surgical scars has been shown to be a valuable option in patients with short-limb dwarfism. There was a reduction of skin hardness and a clinical improvement of all POSAS parameters in all patients treated. Moreover, the newly introduced POSAS parameter appears to be reliable and we recommend that it is included to give a more complete evaluation of patient perception. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparative effect and safety of verapamil in keloid and hypertrophic scar treatment: a meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Li ZN; Jin ZH

    2016-01-01

    Zhouna Li, Zhehu Jin Department of Dermatology, Yanbian University Affiliated hospital, Yanji, Jilin, People’s Republic of China Background: Keloids and hypertrophic scars are the most common types of pathological scarring. Traditionally, keloids have been considered as a result of aberrant wound healing, involving excessive fibroblast participation that is characterized by hyalinized collagen bundles. However, the usefulness of this characterization has been questioned. In recent yea...

  15. Comparative effect and safety of verapamil in keloid and hypertrophic scar treatment: a meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Li,Zhouna; Jin,Zhehu

    2016-01-01

    Zhouna Li, Zhehu Jin Department of Dermatology, Yanbian University Affiliated hospital, Yanji, Jilin, People’s Republic of China Background: Keloids and hypertrophic scars are the most common types of pathological scarring. Traditionally, keloids have been considered as a result of aberrant wound healing, involving excessive fibroblast participation that is characterized by hyalinized collagen bundles. However, the usefulness of this characterization has been questioned. In recent...

  16. Studying Intense Pulsed Light Method Along With Corticosteroid Injection in Treating Keloid Scars

    OpenAIRE

    Shamsi Meymandi, Simin; Rezazadeh, Azadeh; Ekhlasi, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Background: Results of various studies suggest that the hypertrophic and keloid scars are highly prevalent in the general population and are irritating both physically and mentally. Objective: Considering the variety of existing therapies, intense pulsed light (IPL) method along with corticosteroid injection was evaluated in treating these scars. Materials and Methods: 86 subjects were included in this clinical trial. Eight sessions of therapeutic intervention were done with IPL along with co...

  17. Stem cell markers (cytokeratin 17 and cytokeratin 19 in scarring and nonscarring alopecia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalia El Sakka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alopecia is one of the most important hair follicle (HF disorders, which is divided into scarring (cicatricial and nonscarring (noncicatricial types. Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate the expression of stem cell (SC markers such as cytokeratin (CK 17 and CK19 in scarring and nonscarring alopecia. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients with scalp alopecia (15 with scarring alopecia and 15 without together with ten healthy volunteers were included in this study. Biopsies were taken from all participants and stained for CK17 and CK19 using immunohistochemistry. Results: There was a statistically significant difference between the nonscarring group and the control group with regard to CK17 expression in the outer layers of the HFs (P = 0.00 and CK19 staining of the inner layers of the HFs (P = 0.008. There was a statistically significant difference between the scarring and the control groups regarding CK17 expression in the outer (P = 0.00 and the inner layers (P = 0.00 of the HFs and CK19 expression in the inner layers of the HFs (P = 0.00. CK17 expression in the outer layers (P = 0.02 and the inner layers of the HFs (P = 0.00 together with CK19 expression in the inner layers of the HFs (P = 0.00 showed statistically significant differences between scarring and nonscarring alopecia groups. Conclusions: The presence of SC markers (CK17 and CK19 in the HFs was affected in both scarring and nonscarring alopecia, but the defect in scarring alopecia is more evident than that of nonscarring alopecia. The persistence of SC markers in some types of scarring alopecia could give a hope for the recovery of these lesions. Further studies are recommended to clarify the benefit from using HF SCs in the treatment of alopecia.

  18. Stem Cell Markers (Cytokeratin 17 and Cytokeratin 19) in Scarring and Nonscarring Alopecia

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Sakka, Dalia; Gaber, Mohamed Abdel Wahed; Abdou, Asmaa Gaber; Wahed, Moshira Abdel; Saleh, Ahmed Abdel-Wahab; Shehata, Walla

    2016-01-01

    Background: Alopecia is one of the most important hair follicle (HF) disorders, which is divided into scarring (cicatricial) and nonscarring (noncicatricial) types. Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate the expression of stem cell (SC) markers such as cytokeratin (CK) 17 and CK19 in scarring and nonscarring alopecia. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients with scalp alopecia (15 with scarring alopecia and 15 without) together with ten healthy volunteers were included in this study. Biopsies were taken from all participants and stained for CK17 and CK19 using immunohistochemistry. Results: There was a statistically significant difference between the nonscarring group and the control group with regard to CK17 expression in the outer layers of the HFs (P = 0.00) and CK19 staining of the inner layers of the HFs (P = 0.008). There was a statistically significant difference between the scarring and the control groups regarding CK17 expression in the outer (P = 0.00) and the inner layers (P = 0.00) of the HFs and CK19 expression in the inner layers of the HFs (P = 0.00). CK17 expression in the outer layers (P = 0.02) and the inner layers of the HFs (P = 0.00) together with CK19 expression in the inner layers of the HFs (P = 0.00) showed statistically significant differences between scarring and nonscarring alopecia groups. Conclusions: The presence of SC markers (CK17 and CK19) in the HFs was affected in both scarring and nonscarring alopecia, but the defect in scarring alopecia is more evident than that of nonscarring alopecia. The persistence of SC markers in some types of scarring alopecia could give a hope for the recovery of these lesions. Further studies are recommended to clarify the benefit from using HF SCs in the treatment of alopecia. PMID:27761086

  19. Ultrasound and MR-imaging in preoperative evaluation of two rare cases of scar endometriosis

    OpenAIRE

    Pados, George; Tympanidis, John; Zafrakas, Menelaos; Athanatos, Dimitrios; Bontis, John N

    2008-01-01

    Scar or incisional endometriosis is a rare, often misdiagnosed, pathologic condition of the abdominal wall. Two cases of incisional endometriosis are presented. Both patients presented with atypical cyclic pain and palpable nodules on scars of previous cesarean sections. In both cases, the mass was totally excised, after accurate preoperative evaluation with 2-D ultrasound, power Doppler and MRI. Microscopic examination confirmed the preoperatively presumed diagnosis of cutaneous endometriosi...

  20. Periodic Scarred States in Open Quantum Dots as Evidence of Quantum Darwinism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, A. M.; Akis, R.; Day, T. E.; Speyer, Gil; Ferry, D. K.; Bennett, B. R.

    2010-04-01

    Scanning gate microscopy (SGM) is used to image scar structures in an open quantum dot, which is created in an InAs quantum well by electron-beam lithography and wet etching. The scanned images demonstrate periodicities in magnetic field that correlate to those found in the conductance fluctuations. Simulations have shown that these magnetic transform images bear a strong resemblance to actual scars found in the dot that replicate through the modes in direct agreement with quantum Darwinism.