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Sample records for glass flow cells

  1. Yielding and flow of sheared colloidal glasses

    Petekidis, G; Vlassopoulos, D; Pusey, P N

    2004-01-01

    We have studied some of the rheological properties of suspensions of hard-sphere colloids with particular reference to behaviour near the concentration of the glass transition. First we monitored the strain on the samples during and after a transient step stress. We find that, at all values of applied step stress, colloidal glasses show a rapid, apparently elastic, recovery of strain after the stress is removed. This recovery is found even in samples which have flowed significantly during stressing. We attribute this behaviour to 'cage elasticity', the recovery of the stress-induced distorted environment of any particle to a more isotropic state when the stress is removed. Second, we monitored the stress as the strain rate dot γ of flowing samples was slowly decreased. Suspensions which are glassy at rest show a stress which becomes independent of dot γ as dot γ →0. This limiting stress can be interpreted as the yield stress of the glass and agrees well both with the yield stress deduced from the step stress and recovery measurements and that predicted by a recent mode coupling theory of sheared suspensions. Thus, the behaviours under steady shearing and transient step stress both support the idea that colloidal glasses have a finite yield stress. We note however that the samples do exhibit a slow accumulation of strain due to creep at stresses below the yield stress

  2. Countercurrent Flow of Molten Glass and Air during Siphon Tests

    Guerrero, H.N.

    2001-01-01

    Siphon tests of molten glass were performed to simulate potential drainage of a radioactive waste melter, the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site. Glass is poured from the melter through a vertical downspout that is connected to the bottom of the melter through a riser. Large flow surges have the potential of completely filling the downspout and creating a siphon effect that has the potential for complete draining of the melter. Visual observations show the exiting glass stream starts as a single-phase pipe flow, constricting into a narrow glass stream. Then a half-spherical bubble forms at the exit of the downspout. The bubble grows, extending upwards into the downspout, while the liquid flows counter-currently to one side of the spout. Tests were performed to determine what are the spout geometry and glass properties that would be conducive to siphoning, conditions for terminating the siphon, and the total amount of glass drained

  3. Theoretical predictions for glass flow into an evacuated canister

    Routt, K.R.; Crow, K.R.

    1983-01-01

    Radioactive waste currently stored at the Savannah River Plant in liquid form is to be immobilized by incorporating it into a borosilicate glass. The glass melter for this process will consist of a refractory lined, steel vessel operated at a glass temperature of 1150 0 C. At the end of a two-year projected melter lifetime, the glass inside the melter is to be drained prior to disposition of the melter vessel. One proposed technique for accomplishing this drainage is by sucking the glass into an evacuated canister. The theoretical bases for design of an evacuated canister for draining a glass melter have been developed and tested. The theoretical equations governing transient and steady-state flow were substantiated with both a silicone glass simulant and molten glass

  4. Modeling a novel glass immobilization waste treatment process using flow

    Ferrada, J.J.; Nehls, J.W. Jr.; Welch, T.D.; Giardina, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    One option for control and disposal of surplus fissile materials is the Glass Material Oxidation and Dissolution System (GMODS), a process developed at ORNL for directly converting Pu-bearing material into a durable high-quality glass waste form. This paper presents a preliminary assessment of the GMODS process flowsheet using FLOW, a chemical process simulator. The simulation showed that the glass chemistry postulated ion the models has acceptable levels of risks

  5. Responses of Cells to Flow in Vitro

    Shigehiro Hashimoto

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The response of cells to a flow has been studied in vitro. The response of cells was examined in two types of flow channels: a circumnutating flow in a donut-shaped open channel in a culture dish, and a one-way flow in a parallelepiped rhombus flow channel. Variation was made on the material of the parallelepiped channel to study on adhesion of cells to the plates: glass and polydimethylsiloxane. Behavior of cells on the plate was observed under a flow of a medium with an inverted phase-contrast-microscope. The shear stress on the plate is calculated with an estimated parabolic distribution of the velocity between the parallel plates. The adhesion of cells was evaluated with the cumulated shear, which is a product of the shear stress and the exposure time. The experimental results show that cells are responsive to the flow, which governs orientation, exfoliation, and differentiation. The response depends on the kinds of cells: endothelial cells orient along the stream line, although myocytes orient perpendicular to the stream line. The adhesion depends on the combination between scaffold and cell: myocytes are more adhesive to glass than cartilage cells, and fibroblasts are more adhesive to oxygenated polydimethylsiloxane than glass.

  6. Analysis of viscoelastic flow in tin phosphate glass

    Cha, Jaemin; Asida, Yuto; Takebe, Hiromichi

    2011-01-01

    The change of the viscoelastic flow near the imprinting temperature was analyzed by a penetration method with a commercial TMA and the result was compared with thermally-imprinted SnO-P 2 O 5 (SP) and SnO-B 2 O 3 -P 2 O 5 (SBP) glass samples by an imprint apparatus. The viscosity of SP glass increases monotonically with increasing SnO content and the specific movement is shown in viscoelastic flow under the optimized thermal imprinting temperature for SP glasses.

  7. Theoretical flow investigations of an all glass evacuated tubular collector

    Shah, Louise Jivan; Furbo, Simon

    2007-01-01

    Heat transfer and flow structures inside all glass evacuated tubular collectors for different operating conditions are investigated by means of computational fluid dynamics. The investigations are based on a collector design with horizontal tubes connected to a vertical 14 manifold channel. Three...... the highest efficiency, the optimal inlet flow rate was around 0.4-1 kg/min, the flow structures in the glass tubes were relatively uninfluenced by the inlet flow rate, Generally, the results showed only small variations in the efficiencies. This indicates that the collector design is well working for most...

  8. Cell approach to glass transition

    Aste, Tomaso; Coniglio, Antonio

    2003-01-01

    We present a novel theoretical approach to understanding the complex dynamics of glass-forming liquids, granular packings and amorphous solids. This theory, which is an elaboration of the free volume and inherent structure approaches, allows one to retrieve the thermodynamical properties of these systems from studies of geometrical and topological properties of local, static configurations alone. When applied to hard-sphere systems, the present theory reproduces with a good quantitative agreement the equation of state for the crystalline and the disordered glassy phases. Moreover, we find that, as the density approaches a critical value close to the random close-packing density, the configurational entropy approaches zero and the large relaxation time diverges according to the Vogel-Fulcher behaviour, following also the Adam-Gibbs relation

  9. Revealing flow behaviors of metallic glass based on activation of flow units

    Ge, T. P.; Wang, W. H.; Bai, H. Y., E-mail: hybai@iphy.ac.cn [Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2016-05-28

    Atomic level flow plays a critical role in the mechanical behavior of metallic glass (MG) while the connection between the flow and the heterogeneous microstructure of the glass remains unclear. We describe the heterogeneity of MGs as the elastic matrix with “inclusions” of nano-scale liquid-like flow units, and the plastic flow behavior of MGs is considered to be accommodated by the flow units. We show that the model can explain the various deformation behaviors, the transformation from inhomogeneous deformation to homogeneous flow upon strain rate or temperature, and the deformation map in MGs, which might provide insights into the flow mechanisms in glasses and inspiration for improving the plasticity of MGs.

  10. Flowing Air-Water Cooled Slab Nd: Glass Laser

    Lu, Baida; Cai, Bangwei; Liao, Y.; Xu, Shifa; Xin, Z.

    1989-03-01

    A zig-zag optical path slab geometry Nd: glass laser cooled through flowing air-water is developed by us. Theoretical studies on temperature distribution of slab and rod configurations in the unsteady state clarify the advantages of the slab geometry laser. The slab design and processing are also reported. In our experiments main laser output characteristics, e. g. laser efficiency, polarization, far-field divergence angle as well as resonator misalignment are investigated. The slab phosphate glass laser in combination with a crossed Porro-prism resonator demonstrates a good laser performance.

  11. Solid oxide fuel cell having a glass composite seal

    De Rose, Anthony J.; Mukerjee, Subhasish; Haltiner, Jr., Karl Jacob

    2013-04-16

    A solid oxide fuel cell stack having a plurality of cassettes and a glass composite seal disposed between the sealing surfaces of adjacent cassettes, thereby joining the cassettes and providing a hermetic seal therebetween. The glass composite seal includes an alkaline earth aluminosilicate (AEAS) glass disposed about a viscous glass such that the AEAS glass retains the viscous glass in a predetermined position between the first and second sealing surfaces. The AEAS glass provides geometric stability to the glass composite seal to maintain the proper distance between the adjacent cassettes while the viscous glass provides for a compliant and self-healing seal. The glass composite seal may include fibers, powders, and/or beads of zirconium oxide, aluminum oxide, yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ), or mixtures thereof, to enhance the desirable properties of the glass composite seal.

  12. Flow-induced elastic anisotropy of metallic glasses

    Sun, Y.H.; Concustell, A.; Carpenter, M.A.; Qiao, J.C.; Rayment, A.W.; Greer, A.L.

    2016-01-01

    As-cast bulk metallic glasses are isotropic, but anisotropy can be induced by thermomechanical treatments. For example, the diffraction halo in the structure function S(Q) observed in transmission becomes elliptical (rather than circular) after creep in uniaxial tension or compression. Published studies associate this with frozen-in anelastic strain and bond-orientational anisotropy. Results so far are inconsistent on whether viscoplastic flow of metallic glasses can induce anisotropy. Preliminary diffraction data suggest that the anisotropy, if any, is very low, while measurements of the elastic properties suggest that there is induced anisotropy, opposite in sign to that due to anelastic strain. We study three bulk metallic glasses, Ce 65 Al 10 Cu 20 Co 5 , La 55 Ni 10 Al 35 , and Pd 40 Ni 30 Cu 10 P 20 . By using resonant ultrasound spectroscopy to determine the full elasticity tensor, the effects of relaxation and rejuvenation can be reliably separated from uniaxial anisotropy (of either sign). The effects of viscoplastic flow in tension are reported for the first time. We find that viscoplastic flow of bulk metallic glasses, particularly in tension, can induce significant anisotropy that is distinct from that associated with frozen-in anelastic strain. The conditions for inducing such anisotropy are explored in terms of the Weissenberg number (ratio of relaxation times for primary relaxation and for shear strain rate). There is a clear need for further work to characterize the structural origins of flow-induced anisotropy and to explore the prospects for improved mechanical and other properties through induced anisotropy.

  13. In vitro stimulation of vascular endothelial growth factor by borate-based glass fibers under dynamic flow conditions

    Chen, Sisi; Yang, Qingbo; Brow, Richard K.; Liu, Kun; Brow, Katherine A.; Ma, Yinfa

    2017-01-01

    Bioactive borate glass has been recognized to have both hard and soft tissue repair and regeneration capabilities through stimulating both osteogenesis and angiogenesis. However, the underlying biochemical and cellular mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, dynamic flow culturing modules were designed to simulate the micro-environment near the vascular depletion and hyperplasia area in wound-healing regions, thus to better investigate the mechanisms underlying the biocompatibility and functionality of borate-based glass materials. Glass fibers were dosed either upstream or in contact with the pre-seeded cells in the dynamic flow module. Two types of borate glasses, doped with (1605) or without (13-93B3) CuO and ZnO, were studied along with the silicate-based glass, 45S5. Substantial fiber dissolution in cell culture medium was observed, leading to the release of ions (boron, sodium and potassium) and the deposition of a calcium phosphate phase. Different levels of vascular endothelial growth factor secretion were observed from cells exposed to these three glass fibers, and the copper/zinc containing borate 1605 fibers exhibited the most positive influence. These results indicate that dynamic studies of in vitro bioactivity provide useful information to understand the in vivo response to bioactive borate glasses. - Highlights: • Novel dynamic flow cell culture modules were designed. • Bioactive glass fibers were evaluated for their effects on VEGF secretion. • Borate-based glass fibers stimulate VEGF secretion under dynamic condition. • CuO and ZnO doped borate-based glass fibers stimulate the greatest VEGF release.

  14. In vitro stimulation of vascular endothelial growth factor by borate-based glass fibers under dynamic flow conditions

    Chen, Sisi [Department of Chemistry, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO 65409 (United States); Center for Biomedical Science and Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO 65409 (United States); Yang, Qingbo [Department of Chemistry, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO 65409 (United States); Center for Biomedical Science and Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO 65409 (United States); Center for Single Nanoparticle, Single Cell, and Single Molecule Monitoring, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO 65409 (United States); Brow, Richard K. [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO 65409 (United States); Center for Biomedical Science and Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO 65409 (United States); Liu, Kun [Department of Chemistry, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO 65409 (United States); Center for Single Nanoparticle, Single Cell, and Single Molecule Monitoring, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO 65409 (United States); Brow, Katherine A. [Department of Chemistry, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO 65409 (United States); Ma, Yinfa [Department of Chemistry, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO 65409 (United States); Center for Biomedical Science and Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO 65409 (United States); Center for Single Nanoparticle, Single Cell, and Single Molecule Monitoring, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO 65409 (United States); and others

    2017-04-01

    Bioactive borate glass has been recognized to have both hard and soft tissue repair and regeneration capabilities through stimulating both osteogenesis and angiogenesis. However, the underlying biochemical and cellular mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, dynamic flow culturing modules were designed to simulate the micro-environment near the vascular depletion and hyperplasia area in wound-healing regions, thus to better investigate the mechanisms underlying the biocompatibility and functionality of borate-based glass materials. Glass fibers were dosed either upstream or in contact with the pre-seeded cells in the dynamic flow module. Two types of borate glasses, doped with (1605) or without (13-93B3) CuO and ZnO, were studied along with the silicate-based glass, 45S5. Substantial fiber dissolution in cell culture medium was observed, leading to the release of ions (boron, sodium and potassium) and the deposition of a calcium phosphate phase. Different levels of vascular endothelial growth factor secretion were observed from cells exposed to these three glass fibers, and the copper/zinc containing borate 1605 fibers exhibited the most positive influence. These results indicate that dynamic studies of in vitro bioactivity provide useful information to understand the in vivo response to bioactive borate glasses. - Highlights: • Novel dynamic flow cell culture modules were designed. • Bioactive glass fibers were evaluated for their effects on VEGF secretion. • Borate-based glass fibers stimulate VEGF secretion under dynamic condition. • CuO and ZnO doped borate-based glass fibers stimulate the greatest VEGF release.

  15. Industrial opportunities of controlled melt flow during glass melting, part 1: Melt flow evaluation

    Dyrčíková, Petra; Hrbek, Lukáš; Němec, Lubomír

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 2 (2014), s. 111-117 ISSN 0862-5468 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA01010844 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : glass melting * controlled flow * space utilization Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass Impact factor: 0.435, year: 2014 http://www.ceramics-silikaty.cz/2014/pdf/2014_02_111.pdf

  16. Glass frits coated with silver nanoparticles for silicon solar cells

    Li, Yingfen; Gan, Weiping; Zhou, Jian; Li, Biyuan

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Silver-coated glass frits for solar cells were prepared by electroless plating. • Gum Arabic was used as the activating agent of glass frits. • Silver-coated glass frits can improve the photovoltaic performances of solar cells. - Abstract: Glass frits coated with silver nanoparticles were prepared by electroless plating. Gum Arabic (GA) was used as the activating agent of glass frits without the assistance of stannous chloride or palladium chloride. The silver-coated glass frits prepared with different GA dosages were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The characterization results indicated that silver-coated glass frits had the structures of both glass and silver. Spherical silver nanoparticles were distributed on the glass frits evenly. The density and particle size of silver nanoparticles on the glass frits can be controlled by adjusting the GA dosage. The silver-coated glass frits were applied to silver pastes to act as both the densification promoter and silver crystallite formation aid in the silver electrodes. The prepared silver-coated glass frits can improve the photovoltaic performances of solar cells

  17. Glass frits coated with silver nanoparticles for silicon solar cells

    Li, Yingfen, E-mail: lyf350857423@163.com; Gan, Weiping; Zhou, Jian; Li, Biyuan

    2015-06-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Silver-coated glass frits for solar cells were prepared by electroless plating. • Gum Arabic was used as the activating agent of glass frits. • Silver-coated glass frits can improve the photovoltaic performances of solar cells. - Abstract: Glass frits coated with silver nanoparticles were prepared by electroless plating. Gum Arabic (GA) was used as the activating agent of glass frits without the assistance of stannous chloride or palladium chloride. The silver-coated glass frits prepared with different GA dosages were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The characterization results indicated that silver-coated glass frits had the structures of both glass and silver. Spherical silver nanoparticles were distributed on the glass frits evenly. The density and particle size of silver nanoparticles on the glass frits can be controlled by adjusting the GA dosage. The silver-coated glass frits were applied to silver pastes to act as both the densification promoter and silver crystallite formation aid in the silver electrodes. The prepared silver-coated glass frits can improve the photovoltaic performances of solar cells.

  18. In vitro stimulation of vascular endothelial growth factor by borate-based glass fibers under dynamic flow conditions.

    Chen, Sisi; Yang, Qingbo; Brow, Richard K; Liu, Kun; Brow, Katherine A; Ma, Yinfa; Shi, Honglan

    2017-04-01

    Bioactive borate glass has been recognized to have both hard and soft tissue repair and regeneration capabilities through stimulating both osteogenesis and angiogenesis. However, the underlying biochemical and cellular mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, dynamic flow culturing modules were designed to simulate the micro-environment near the vascular depletion and hyperplasia area in wound-healing regions, thus to better investigate the mechanisms underlying the biocompatibility and functionality of borate-based glass materials. Glass fibers were dosed either upstream or in contact with the pre-seeded cells in the dynamic flow module. Two types of borate glasses, doped with (1605) or without (13-93B3) CuO and ZnO, were studied along with the silicate-based glass, 45S5. Substantial fiber dissolution in cell culture medium was observed, leading to the release of ions (boron, sodium and potassium) and the deposition of a calcium phosphate phase. Different levels of vascular endothelial growth factor secretion were observed from cells exposed to these three glass fibers, and the copper/zinc containing borate 1605 fibers exhibited the most positive influence. These results indicate that dynamic studies of in vitro bioactivity provide useful information to understand the in vivo response to bioactive borate glasses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. PDMS/glass microfluidic cell culture system for cytotoxicity tests and cells passage

    Ziolkowska, K.; Jedrych, E.; Kwapiszewski, R.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, hybrid (PDMS/glass) microfluidic cell culture system (MCCS) integrated with the concentration gradient generator (CGG) is presented. PDMS gas permeability enabled cells' respiration in the fabricated microdevices and excellent glass hydrophilicity allowed successful cells' seeding...

  20. Capture, isolation and release of cancer cells with aptamer-functionalized glass bead array.

    Wan, Yuan; Liu, Yaling; Allen, Peter B; Asghar, Waseem; Mahmood, M Arif Iftakher; Tan, Jifu; Duhon, Holli; Kim, Young-tae; Ellington, Andrew D; Iqbal, Samir M

    2012-11-21

    Early detection and isolation of circulating tumor cells (CTC) can enable better prognosis for cancer patients. A Hele-Shaw device with aptamer functionalized glass beads is designed, modeled, and fabricated to efficiently isolate cancer cells from a cellular mixture. The glass beads are functionalized with anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) aptamer and sit in ordered array of pits in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) channel. A PDMS encapsulation is then used to cover the channel and to flow through cell solution. The beads capture cancer cells from flowing solution depicting high selectivity. The cell-bound glass beads are then re-suspended from the device surface followed by the release of 92% cells from glass beads using combination of soft shaking and anti-sense RNA. This approach ensures that the cells remain in native state and undisturbed during capture, isolation and elution for post-analysis. The use of highly selective anti-EGFR aptamer with the glass beads in an array and subsequent release of cells with antisense molecules provide multiple levels of binding and release opportunities that can help in defining new classes of CTC enumeration devices.

  1. Simulation of the solidification in a channel of a water-cooled glass flow

    G. E. Ovando Chacon

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A computer simulation study of a laminar steady-state glass flow that exits from a channel cooled with water is reported. The simulations are carried out in a two-dimensional, Cartesian channel with a backward-facing step for three different angles of the step and different glass outflow velocities. We studied the interaction of the fluid dynamics, phase change and thermal behavior of the glass flow due to the heat that transfers to the cooling water through the wall of the channel. The temperature, streamline, phase change and pressure fields are obtained and analyzed for the glass flow. Moreover, the temperature increments of the cooling water are characterized. It is shown that, by reducing the glass outflow velocity, the solidification is enhanced; meanwhile, an increase of the step angle also improves the solidification of the glass flow.

  2. On turbulence structure in vertical pipe flow of fiber suspensions [refractivity, flow measurement, turbulent flow, glass fibers, fluid flow

    Steen, M.

    1989-01-01

    A suspension of glass fibers in alcohol has been used to investigate a upward vertical developing pipe flow. The refractive index of the alcohol was matched to that of the glass fibers, making the whole suspension transparent. Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA) was applied, and fluid velocities could then be measured for consistencies up to c = 12 g/l. Radial profiles of axial U-velocity and turbulence spectra have been recorded at various positions (z/D = 2, 5, 36) downstream of an orifice (step) with 64% open area. Measurements were taken for different consistencies (c = 1.2, 12 g/l), fiber lengths (l = 1, 3 mm) and Reynolds numbers (R e = 8.5 ⋅ 10 3 , 6.5 ⋅ 10 4 ). The fiber crowding factor (n f ) has been used to discuss the observed effects of the present fibers on momentum transfer and turbulence structure. The results show both an increase (l= 1 mm, c= 1.2 g/l) and decrease (l=3 mm, c = 12 g/l) in turbulence levels in the presence of fibers. Suspensions with long fibers at the highest consistency show plug flow in parts of the core. This causes damping of the turbulence mainly at smaller length scales. For short fibers at low consistency, the increased turbulent energy was mainly observed at small length scales in the spectrum. (author)

  3. Simplified model for a ventilated glass window under forced air flow conditions

    Ismail, K.A.R.; Henriquez, J.R.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a study on a ventilated window composed of two glass sheets separated by a spacing through which air is forced to flow. The proposed model is one dimensional and unsteady based upon global energy balance over the glass sheets and the flowing fluid. The external glass sheet of the cavity is subjected to variable heat flow due to the solar radiation as well as variable external ambient temperature. The exchange of radiation energy (infrared radiation) between the glass sheets is also included in the formulation. Effects of the spacing between the glass sheets, variation of the forced mass flow rate on the total heat gain and the shading coefficients are investigated. The results show that the effect of the increase of the mass flow rate is found to reduce the mean solar heat gain and the shading coefficients while the increase of the fluid entry temperature is found to deteriorate the window thermal performance

  4. Simplified model for a ventilated glass window under forced air flow conditions

    Ismail, K.A.R. [Depto. de Engenharia Termica e de Fluidos-FEM-UNICAMP CP: 6122 CEP 13083-970 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Henriquez, J.R. [Depto. de Eng. Mecanica-DEMEC, UFPE Av. Academico Helio Ramos, S/N CEP 50740-530, Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2006-02-01

    This paper presents a study on a ventilated window composed of two glass sheets separated by a spacing through which air is forced to flow. The proposed model is one dimensional and unsteady based upon global energy balance over the glass sheets and the flowing fluid. The external glass sheet of the cavity is subjected to variable heat flow due to the solar radiation as well as variable external ambient temperature. The exchange of radiation energy (infrared radiation) between the glass sheets is also included in the formulation. Effects of the spacing between the glass sheets, variation of the forced mass flow rate on the total heat gain and the shading coefficients are investigated. The results show that the effect of the increase of the mass flow rate is found to reduce the mean solar heat gain and the shading coefficients while the increase of the fluid entry temperature is found to deteriorate the window thermal performance. (author)

  5. Correlation between relaxations and plastic deformation, and elastic model of flow in metallic glasses and glass-forming liquids

    Wang Weihua

    2011-01-01

    We study the similarity and correlations between relaxations and plastic deformation in metallic glasses (MGs) and MG-forming liquids. It is shown that the microscope plastic events, the initiation and formation of shear bands, and the mechanical yield in MGs where the atomic sites are topologically unstable induced by applied stress, can be treated as the glass to supercooled liquid state transition induced by external shear stress. On the other hand, the glass transition, the primary and secondary relaxations, plastic deformation and yield can be attributed to the free volume increase induced flow, and the flow can be modeled as the activated hopping between the inherent states in the potential energy landscape. We then propose an extended elastic model to describe the flow based on the energy landscape theory. That is, the flow activation energy density is linear proportional to the instantaneous elastic moduli, and the activation energy density ρ E is determined to be a simple expression of ρ E =(10/11)G+(1/11)K. The model indicates that both shear and bulk moduli are critical parameters accounting for both the homogeneous and inhomogeneous flows in MGs and MG-forming liquids. The elastic model is experimentally certified. We show that the elastic perspectives offers a simple scenario for the flow in MGs and MG-forming liquids and are suggestive for understanding the glass transition, plastic deformation, and nature and characteristics of MGs

  6. Effect of binder burnout on the sealing performance of glass ceramics for solid oxide fuel cells

    Ertugrul, Tugrul Y.; Celik, Selahattin; Mat, Mahmut D.

    2013-11-01

    The glass ceramics composite sealants are among few materials suitable for the solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) due to their high operating temperatures (600 °C-850 °C). The glass ceramics chemically bond to both the metallic interconnector and the ceramic electrolyte and provide a gas tight connection. A careful and several stages manufacturing procedure is required to obtain a gas tight sealing. In this study, effects of binder burnout process on the sealing performance are investigated employing commercially available glass ceramic powders. The glass ceramic laminates are produced by mixing glass ceramic powders with the organic binders and employing a tape casting method. The laminates are sandwiched between the metallic interconnectors of an SOFC cell. The burnout and subsequent sealing quality are analyzed by measuring leakage rate and final macrostructure of sealing region. The effects of heating rate, dead weight load, solid loading, carrier gas and their flow rates are investigated. It is found that sealing quality is affected from all investigated parameters. While a slower heating rate is required for a better burnout, the mass flow rate of sweep gas must be adequate for removal of the burned gas. The leakage rate is reduced to 0.1 ml min-1 with 2 °C min-1 + 1 °C min-1 heating rate, 86.25% solid loading, 200 N dead weight load and 500 ml min-1 sweep gas flow rate.

  7. Glass/Ceramic Composites for Sealing Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    Bansal, Narottam P.; Choi, Sung R.

    2007-01-01

    A family of glass/ceramic composite materials has been investigated for use as sealants in planar solid oxide fuel cells. These materials are modified versions of a barium calcium aluminosilicate glass developed previously for the same purpose. The composition of the glass in mole percentages is 35BaO + 15CaO + 5Al2O3 + 10B2O3 + 35SiO2. The glass seal was found to be susceptible to cracking during thermal cycling of the fuel cells. The goal in formulating the glass/ ceramic composite materials was to (1) retain the physical and chemical advantages that led to the prior selection of the barium calcium aluminosilicate glass as the sealant while (2) increasing strength and fracture toughness so as to reduce the tendency toward cracking. Each of the composite formulations consists of the glass plus either of two ceramic reinforcements in a proportion between 0 and 30 mole percent. One of the ceramic reinforcements consists of alumina platelets; the other one consists of particles of yttria-stabilized zirconia wherein the yttria content is 3 mole percent (3YSZ). In preparation for experiments, panels of the glass/ceramic composites were hot-pressed and machined into test bars.

  8. Fabrication of Glass Microchannel via Glass Imprinting using a Vitreous Carbon Stamp for Flow Focusing Droplet Generator

    Refatul Haq, Muhammad; Kim, Youngkyu; Kim, Jun; Oh, Pyoung-hwa; Ju, Jonghyun; Kim, Seok-Min; Lim, Jiseok

    2017-01-01

    This study reports a cost-effective method of replicating glass microfluidic chips using a vitreous carbon (VC) stamp. A glass replica with the required microfluidic microstructures was synthesized without etching. The replication method uses a VC stamp fabricated by combining thermal replication using a furan-based, thermally-curable polymer with carbonization. To test the feasibility of this method, a flow focusing droplet generator with flow-focusing and channel widths of 50 µm and 100 µm, respectively, was successfully fabricated in a soda-lime glass substrate. Deviation between the geometries of the initial shape and the vitreous carbon mold occurred because of shrinkage during the carbonization process, however this effect could be predicted and compensated for. Finally, the monodispersity of the droplets generated by the fabricated microfluidic device was evaluated. PMID:29286341

  9. Fabrication of Glass Microchannel via Glass Imprinting using a Vitreous Carbon Stamp for Flow Focusing Droplet Generator

    Hyungjun Jang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study reports a cost-effective method of replicating glass microfluidic chips using a vitreous carbon (VC stamp. A glass replica with the required microfluidic microstructures was synthesized without etching. The replication method uses a VC stamp fabricated by combining thermal replication using a furan-based, thermally-curable polymer with carbonization. To test the feasibility of this method, a flow focusing droplet generator with flow-focusing and channel widths of 50 µm and 100 µm, respectively, was successfully fabricated in a soda-lime glass substrate. Deviation between the geometries of the initial shape and the vitreous carbon mold occurred because of shrinkage during the carbonization process, however this effect could be predicted and compensated for. Finally, the monodispersity of the droplets generated by the fabricated microfluidic device was evaluated.

  10. Note: Ultra-low birefringence dodecagonal vacuum glass cell

    Brakhane, Stefan, E-mail: brakhane@iap.uni-bonn.de; Alt, Wolfgang; Meschede, Dieter; Robens, Carsten; Moon, Geol; Alberti, Andrea [Institut für Angewandte Physik, Universität Bonn, Wegelerstr. 8, D-53115 Bonn (Germany)

    2015-12-15

    We report on an ultra-low birefringence dodecagonal glass cell for ultra-high vacuum applications. The epoxy-bonded trapezoidal windows of the cell are made of SF57 glass, which exhibits a very low stress-induced birefringence. We characterize the birefringence Δn of each window with the cell under vacuum conditions, obtaining values around 10{sup −8}. After baking the cell at 150 °C, we reach a pressure below 10{sup −10} mbar. In addition, each window is antireflection coated on both sides, which is highly desirable for quantum optics experiments and precision measurements.

  11. Standard practice for measurement of the glass dissolution rate using the single-pass flow-through test method

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This practice describes a single-pass flow-through (SPFT) test method that can be used to measure the dissolution rate of a homogeneous silicate glass, including nuclear waste glasses, in various test solutions at temperatures less than 100°C. Tests may be conducted under conditions in which the effects from dissolved species on the dissolution rate are minimized to measure the forward dissolution rate at specific values of temperature and pH, or to measure the dependence of the dissolution rate on the concentrations of various solute species. 1.2 Tests are conducted by pumping solutions in either a continuous or pulsed flow mode through a reaction cell that contains the test specimen. Tests must be conducted at several solution flow rates to evaluate the effect of the flow rate on the glass dissolution rate. 1.3 This practice excludes static test methods in which flow is simulated by manually removing solution from the reaction cell and replacing it with fresh solution. 1.4 Tests may be conducted wit...

  12. Flow analysis from PIV in engraved champagne tasting glasses: flute versus coupe

    Beaumont, Fabien; Liger-Belair, Gérard; Polidori, Guillaume

    2015-08-01

    Glass shape, and especially its open aperture, is suspected to play an important role as concerns the kinetics of CO2 and flavor release during champagne tasting. In recent years, much interest has been devoted to depict each and every parameter involved in the release of gaseous CO2 from glasses poured with champagne. One cannot understand the bubbling and aromatic exhalation events in champagne tasting, however, without studying the flow-mixing mechanisms inside the glass. Indeed, a key assumption is that a causal link may exist between flow structures created in the wine due to bubble motion and the process of CO2 release and flavor exhalation. In the present work, two quite emblematic types of champagne drinking vessels are studied. The particle image velocimetry technique has been used in order to reveal the velocity field of the liquid due to the ascending bubble-driven flow for both glasses poured with champagne. The contribution of glass shape on the flow patterns and CO2 release in both glasses are discussed by the use of experimental results. The results show that the continuous flow of ascending bubbles strongly modifies the mixing and convection conditions of the surrounding liquid medium whose behavior is strongly glass shape dependent.

  13. Viscous surface flow induced on Ti-based bulk metallic glass by heavy ion irradiation

    Zhang, Kun [Key Laboratory of Microgravity (National Microgravity Laboratory), Institute of Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Hu, Zheng [Key Laboratory of Microgravity (National Microgravity Laboratory), Institute of Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Science and Technology on Vehicle Transmission Laboratory, China North Vehicle Research Institute, Beijing 100072 (China); Li, Fengjiang [Key Laboratory of Microgravity (National Microgravity Laboratory), Institute of Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Wei, Bingchen, E-mail: weibc@imech.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Microgravity (National Microgravity Laboratory), Institute of Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: • Obvious smoothing and roughening phases on the Ti-based MG surface resulted, which correspond respectively to the normal and off-normal incidence angles. • Atomic force microscopy confirms two types of periodic ripples distributed evenly over the rough surface. • The irradiation-induced viscosity of MG is about 4×10{sup 12} Pa·s, which accords with the theoretical prediction for metallic glasses close to glass transition temperature. • Surface-confined viscous flow plays a dominant quantitative role, which is due to radiation-induced softening of the low-viscosity surface layer. - Abstract: Ti-based bulk metallic glass was irradiated by a 20 MeV Cl{sup 4+} ion beam under liquid-nitrogen cooling, which produced remarkable surface smoothing and roughening that respectively correspond to normal and off-normal incidence angles of irradiation. Atomic force microscopy confirms two types of periodic ripples distributed evenly over the rough glass surface. In terms of mechanism, irradiation-induced viscosity agrees with the theoretical prediction for metallic glasses near glass transition temperature. Here, a model is introduced, based on relaxation of confined viscous flow with a thin liquid-like layer, that explains both surface smoothing and ripple formation. This study demonstrates that bulk metallic glass has high morphological instability and low viscosity under ion irradiation, which assets can pave new paths for metallic glass applications.

  14. Local elastic expansion model for viscous-flow activation energies of glass-forming molecular liquids

    Dyre, Jeppe; Olsen, Niels Boye; Christensen, Tage Emil

    1996-01-01

    A model for the viscosity of glass-forming molecular liquids is proposed in which a "flow event" requires a local volume increase. The activation energy for a flow event is identified with the work done in shoving aside the surrounding liquid; this work is proportional to the high-frequency shear...

  15. Vibration-accelerated activation of flow units in a Pd-based bulk metallic glass

    Li, Ning, E-mail: hslining@mail.hust.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, and State Key Laboratory of Material Processing and Die & Mould Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Liu, Ze [Department of Engineering Mechanics, School of Civil Engineering, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Wang, Xinyun [School of Materials Science and Engineering, and State Key Laboratory of Material Processing and Die & Mould Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Zhang, Meng [Institute of Advanced Wear & Corrosion Resistant and Functional Materials, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China)

    2017-04-24

    Controlled activation of flow units and in-situ characterization of mechanical properties in metallic glasses are facing challenges thus far. Here, vibrational loading is introduced through nanoscale dynamic mechanical analysis technique to probe vibration-accelerated atomic level flow that plays a crucial role in the mechanical behavior of metallic glasses. The intriguing finding is that high vibrational frequency induces deep indentation depth, prominent pop-in events on load–depth curves and low storage modulus, exhibiting a vibration-facilitated activation of flow units in Pd{sub 40}Cu{sub 30}Ni{sub 10}P{sub 20} metallic glass. Theoretical analysis revealed that vibration-moderated activation time-scale accelerate the activation of flow units and responsible for the above scenario.

  16. Glasses

    Dyre, Jeppe

    2004-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the viscosity of most glassforming liquids is known to depart significantly from the classical Arrhenius behaviour of simple fluids. The discovery of an unexpected correlation between the extent of this departure and the Poisson ratio of the resulting glass could lead...... to new understanding of glass ageing and viscous liquid dynamics....

  17. Converting sunlight into red light in fluorosilicate glass for amorphous silicon solar cells

    Ming, Chengguo, E-mail: mingchengguo1978@163.com [Physics Department, School of Sciences, Tianjin University of Science & Technology, Tianjin 300457 (China); Song, Feng [Photonics Center, College of Physical Science, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Ren, Xiaobin [Physics Department, School of Sciences, Tianjin University of Science & Technology, Tianjin 300457 (China); Yuan, Fengying; Qin, Yueting [Physics Department, School of Sciences, Tianjin University of Science & Technology, Tianjin 300457 (China); Photonics Center, College of Physical Science, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); An, Liqun; Cai, Yuanxue [Physics Department, School of Sciences, Tianjin University of Science & Technology, Tianjin 300457 (China)

    2017-03-15

    Fluorosilicate glass was prepared by high-temperature melting method to explore highly efficient luminescence materials for amorphous silicon solar cells. Absorption, excitation and emission spectra of the glass were measured. The optical characters of the glass were discussed in details. The glass can efficiently convert sunlight into red light. Our glass can be applied to amorphous silicon solar cells as a converter of solar spectrum.

  18. Polycrystalline silicon thin-film solar cells on glass

    Gall, S.; Becker, C.; Conrad, E.; Dogan, P.; Fenske, F.; Gorka, B.; Lee, K.Y.; Rau, B.; Ruske, F.; Rech, B. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie GmbH (formerly Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin GmbH), Department Silicon Photovoltaics (SE1), Kekulestr. 5, D-12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    Poly-Si thin-film solar cells on glass feature the potential to reach single-junction efficiencies of 15% or even higher at low costs. In this paper innovative approaches are discussed, which could lead to substantial efficiency improvements and significant cost reductions: (i) preparation of large-grained poly-Si films using the 'seed layer concept' targeting at high material quality, (ii) utilization of ZnO:Al-coated glass enabling simple contacting and light-trapping schemes, (iii) utilization of high-rate electron-beam evaporation for the absorber deposition offering a high potential for cost reduction. (author)

  19. Whole cell quenched flow analysis.

    Chiang, Ya-Yu; Haeri, Sina; Gizewski, Carsten; Stewart, Joanna D; Ehrhard, Peter; Shrimpton, John; Janasek, Dirk; West, Jonathan

    2013-12-03

    This paper describes a microfluidic quenched flow platform for the investigation of ligand-mediated cell surface processes with unprecedented temporal resolution. A roll-slip behavior caused by cell-wall-fluid coupling was documented and acts to minimize the compression and shear stresses experienced by the cell. This feature enables high-velocity (100-400 mm/s) operation without impacting the integrity of the cell membrane. In addition, rotation generates localized convection paths. This cell-driven micromixing effect causes the cell to become rapidly enveloped with ligands to saturate the surface receptors. High-speed imaging of the transport of a Janus particle and fictitious domain numerical simulations were used to predict millisecond-scale biochemical switching times. Dispersion in the incubation channel was characterized by microparticle image velocimetry and minimized by using a horizontal Hele-Shaw velocity profile in combination with vertical hydrodynamic focusing to achieve highly reproducible incubation times (CV = 3.6%). Microfluidic quenched flow was used to investigate the pY1131 autophosphorylation transition in the type I insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-1R). This predimerized receptor undergoes autophosphorylation within 100 ms of stimulation. Beyond this demonstration, the extreme temporal resolution can be used to gain new insights into the mechanisms underpinning a tremendous variety of important cell surface events.

  20. Poiseuille flow of soft glasses in narrow channels: from quiescence to steady state.

    Chaudhuri, Pinaki; Horbach, Jürgen

    2014-10-01

    Using numerical simulations, the onset of Poiseuille flow in a confined soft glass is investigated. Starting from the quiescent state, steady flow sets in at a time scale which increases with a decrease in applied forcing. At this onset time scale, a rapid transition occurs via the simultaneous fluidization of regions having different local stresses. In the absence of steady flow at long times, creep is observed even in regions where the local stress is larger than the bulk yielding threshold. Finally, we show that the time scale to attain steady flow depends strongly on the history of the initial state.

  1. CFD Study of Fluid Flow in an All-glass Evacuated Tube Solar Water Heater

    Ai, Ning; Fan, Jianhua; Li, Yumin

    2008-01-01

    Abstract: The all-glass evacuated tube solar water heater is one of the most widely used solar thermal technologies. The aim of the paper is to investigate fluid flow in the solar water heater by means of computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The investigation was carried out with a focus on the co...... for future system optimization....

  2. Cell patterning on a glass surface by a mask-assisted ion implantation

    Jung, Chan-Hee; Kim, Dong-Ki; Hwang, In-Tae; Lim, Youn-Mook; Kim, Hae-Kyoung; Nho, Young-Chang [Radiation Research Division for Industry and Environment, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1266 Sinjeong-dong, Jeongeup-si, Jeollabuk-do 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jae-Hak [Radiation Research Division for Industry and Environment, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1266 Sinjeong-dong, Jeongeup-si, Jeollabuk-do 580-185 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: jaehakchoi@kaeri.re.kr

    2009-04-15

    A simple patterning method of cells on a glass has been developed by using ion implantation. The glass was implanted through a pattern mask with 150 keV Ar ions in the absence or presence of oxygen. Surface properties of the ion-implanted glass were investigated by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, contact angle measurement and cell culture test. The results showed that more hydrophilic groups were formed on the glass surface implanted in the presence of oxygen. Thus, the glass surface implanted in the presence of oxygen showed lower contact angle compared with the glass surface implanted in the absence of oxygen. The cells were strongly adhered to and proliferated on the ion-implanted regions of the glass. The cell population was found to be the highest on the glass implanted at a fluence of 1 x 10{sup 16} ions/cm{sup 2} in the presence of oxygen.

  3. Effects of Micromachining Processes on Electro-Osmotic Flow Mobility of Glass Surfaces

    Norihisa Miki

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Silica glass is frequently used as a device material for micro/nano fluidic devices due to its excellent properties, such as transparency and chemical resistance. Wet etching by hydrofluoric acid and dry etching by neutral loop discharge (NLD plasma etching are currently used to micromachine glass to form micro/nano fluidic channels. Electro-osmotic flow (EOF is one of the most effective methods to drive liquids into the channels. EOF mobility is affected by a property of the micromachined glass surfaces, which includes surface roughness that is determined by the manufacturing processes. In this paper, we investigate the effect of micromaching processes on the glass surface topography and the EOF mobility. We prepared glass surfaces by either wet etching or by NLD plasma etching, investigated the surface topography using atomic force microscopy, and attempted to correlate it with EOF generated in the micro-channels of the machined glass. Experiments revealed that the EOF mobility strongly depends on the surface roughness, and therefore upon the fabrication process used. A particularly strong dependency was observed when the surface roughness was on the order of the electric double layer thickness or below. We believe that the correlation described in this paper can be of great help in the design of micro/nano fluidic devices.

  4. FY2016 ILAW Glass Corrosion Testing with the Single-Pass Flow-Through Method

    Neeway, James J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Asmussen, Robert M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Parruzot, Benjamin PG [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Cordova, Elsa [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Williams, Benjamin D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Leavy, Ian I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stephenson, John R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McElroy, Erin M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-04-21

    The inventory of immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) produced at the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) will be disposed of at the near-surface, on-site Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). When groundwater comes into contact with the waste form, the glass will corrode and radionuclides will be released into the near-field environment. Because the release of the radionuclides is dependent on the dissolution rate of the glass, it is important that the performance assessment (PA) model accounts for the dissolution rate of the glass as a function of various chemical conditions. To accomplish this, an IDF PA model based on Transition State Theory (TST) can be employed. The model is able to account for changes in temperature, exposed surface area, and pH of the contacting solution as well as the effect of silicon concentrations in solution, specifically the activity of orthosilicic acid (H4SiO4), whose concentration is directly linked to the glass dissolution rate. In addition, the IDF PA model accounts for the alkali-ion exchange process as sodium is leached from the glass and into solution. The effect of temperature, pH, H4SiO4 activity, and the rate of ion-exchange can be parameterized and implemented directly into the PA rate law model. The rate law parameters are derived from laboratory tests with the single-pass flow-through (SPFT) method. To date, rate law parameters have been determined for seven ILAW glass compositions, thus additional rate law parameters on a wider range of compositions will supplement the existing body of data for PA maintenance activities. The data provided in this report can be used by ILAW glass scientists to further the understanding of ILAW glass behavior, by IDF PA modelers to use the rate law parameters in PA modeling efforts, and by Department of Energy (DOE) contractors and decision makers as they assess the IDF PA program.

  5. Measured anisotropic air flow resistivity and sound attenuation of glass wool

    Tarnow, Viggo

    2002-01-01

    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Bygning 358, DK 2800 Lyngby, Denmark The air flow resistivity of glass wool has been measured in different directions. The glass wool was delivered from the manufacturer as slabs measuring 100×600×900 mm3, where the surface 600...... 7.75 kPa s m**2. A formula for prediction of resistivity for other densities is given. By comparing measured values of sound attenuation with results calculated from resistivity data, it is demonstrated that the measured attenuation can be predicted in a simple manner. ©2002 Acoustical Society...

  6. Rheology of confined granular flows: scale invariance, glass transition, and friction weakening.

    Richard, P; Valance, A; Métayer, J-F; Sanchez, P; Crassous, J; Louge, M; Delannay, R

    2008-12-12

    We study fully developed, steady granular flows confined between parallel flat frictional sidewalls using numerical simulations and experiments. Above a critical rate, sidewall friction stabilizes the underlying heap at an inclination larger than the angle of repose. The shear rate is constant and independent of inclination over much of the flowing layer. In the direction normal to the free surface, the solid volume fraction increases on a scale equal to half the flowing layer depth. Beneath a critical depth at which internal friction is invariant, grains exhibit creeping and intermittent cage motion similar to that in glasses, causing gradual weakening of friction at the walls.

  7. Thermal history of Hawaiian pāhoehoe lava crusts at the glass transition: implications for flow rheology and emplacement

    Gottsmann, Joachim; Harris, Andrew J. L.; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2004-12-01

    We have investigated the thermal history of glassy pāhoehoe crusts across their glass transition. Ten different samples obtained between 1993 and 2003 from the active flow field of the Pu'u 'O'o-Kupaianaha eruption on Hawaii (USA) have been analysed using relaxation geospeedometry. This method employs differential scanning calorimetry to quantify the enthalpic relaxation of the glass to monitor the natural time-temperature (t-T) path followed by the melt during cooling across its glass transition. Cooling rates across the glass transition interval (at 1000- 900 K) have been found to vary between 8 and 140 K/min. The associated glass transition temperatures are up to 400 K, lower than previously anticipated by others. Melt viscosities at the glass transition for these crusts range from 10 9.4 to 10 10.7 Pa s. We have compared the t-T paths quantified via relaxation geospeedometry with those obtained from direct measurements on the active flow field. The calorimetrically determined cooling rates are consistent with either simple cooling from eruption temperatures to temperatures below the glass transition or more complex cooling paths, including periods of reheating and short-term annealing within the glass transition interval. By quantifying the relaxation times associated with these contrasting cooling histories, we show that secondary vesiculation of pāhoehoe flow crusts may be favoured by complex, nonlinear t-T paths within the glass transition. These constraints also allow us to evaluate the time scales associated with the crystallisation and inflation of flow lobes at the glass transition for different pāhoehoe lava flow types. Our results provide important quantifications of rheological parameters at the lower temperature range of viscoelastic deformation in basaltic lava flows. As such, the results may be helpful in refining models for the generation of continental flood basalt flows, as well as models of basaltic lava flow propagation for hazard

  8. Decoding flow unit evolution upon annealing from fracture morphology in metallic glasses

    Gao, M., E-mail: gaomeng10@hotmail.com; Cao, X.F.; Ding, D.W.; Wang, B.B.; Wang, W.H., E-mail: whw@iphy.ac.cn

    2017-02-16

    The intrinsic correlation between the fracture morphology evolution and the structural heterogeneity of flow units in a typical Zr{sub 52.5}Ti{sub 5}Cu{sub 17.9}Ni{sub 14.6}Al{sub 10} (vit105) metallic glass (MG) upon annealing was investigated. By systematically tuning the annealing time at temperature below the glass transition temperature, a series of dimple-like fracture morphology were obtained, which is the unique fingerprint-like pattern for every annealing state. Based on the structural relaxation model of flow units, the evolution of the typical dimple sizes, the largest and smallest dimple size, with annealing were well fitted. Then the evolution of flow unit density was estimated from the fracture morphology evolution, which displays the same evolution trend with that measured from thermal relaxation. A stochastic dynamic model considering the interaction of activated flow units was proposed to analyze the effect of the initial flow unit density and the flow unit interaction intensity on the dynamic evolution of dimple distribution. Our work may provide a novel scheme to investigate the structural fingerprint information on flow units from fracture morphology, and enlighten the microscopic structural origin of the ductile-to-brittle transition during structural relaxation in MGs.

  9. Glass promotes the differentiation of neuronal and non-neuronal cell types in the Drosophila eye

    Morrison, Carolyn A.; Chen, Hao; Cook, Tiffany; Brown, Stuart

    2018-01-01

    Transcriptional regulators can specify different cell types from a pool of equivalent progenitors by activating distinct developmental programs. The Glass transcription factor is expressed in all progenitors in the developing Drosophila eye, and is maintained in both neuronal and non-neuronal cell types. Glass is required for neuronal progenitors to differentiate as photoreceptors, but its role in non-neuronal cone and pigment cells is unknown. To determine whether Glass activity is limited to neuronal lineages, we compared the effects of misexpressing it in neuroblasts of the larval brain and in epithelial cells of the wing disc. Glass activated overlapping but distinct sets of genes in these neuronal and non-neuronal contexts, including markers of photoreceptors, cone cells and pigment cells. Coexpression of other transcription factors such as Pax2, Eyes absent, Lozenge and Escargot enabled Glass to induce additional genes characteristic of the non-neuronal cell types. Cell type-specific glass mutations generated in cone or pigment cells using somatic CRISPR revealed autonomous developmental defects, and expressing Glass specifically in these cells partially rescued glass mutant phenotypes. These results indicate that Glass is a determinant of organ identity that acts in both neuronal and non-neuronal cells to promote their differentiation into functional components of the eye. PMID:29324767

  10. Flow rate dependency of critical wall shear stress in a radial-flow cell

    Detry, J.G.; Jensen, Bo Boye Busk; Sindic, M.

    2009-01-01

    In the present work, a radial-flow cell was used to study the removal of starch particle aggregates from several solid substrates (glass, stainless steel, polystyrene and PTFE) in order to determine the critical wall shear stress value for each case. The particle aggregates were formed by aspersion...... of a water or ethanol suspension of starch granules on the surfaces. Depending on the substrate and on the suspending liquid, the aggregates differed in size and shape. Aggregate removal was studied at two flow rates. At the lower flow rate (Re-inlet = 955), the values of critical wall shear stress...... for the different surfaces suggested that capillary forces were, for all of them, playing an important role in aggregate adhesion since aqueous based aggregates were always more difficult to remove. At the higher flow rate (Re-inlet = 2016) the critical wall shear stress increased as a result of the change...

  11. Nocturnal reverse flow in water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters

    Tang, Runsheng; Yang, Yuqin

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Performance of water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters (SWH) at night was studied. • Experimental measurements showed that reverse flow occurred in SWHs at night. • Reverse flow in SWHs was very high but the heat loss due to reverse flow was very low. • Reverse flow seemed not sensitive to atmospheric clearness but sensitive to collector tilt-angle. - Abstract: In this work, the thermal performance of water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters (SWH) at nights was experimentally investigated. Measurements at nights showed that the water temperature in solar tubes was always lower than that in the water tank but higher than the ambient air temperature and T exp , the temperature of water inside tubes predicted in the case of the water in tubes being naturally cooled without reverse flow. This signified that the reverse flow in the system occurred at nights, making the water in solar tubes higher than T exp . It is found that the reverse flow rate in the SWH, estimated based on temperature measurements of water in solar tubes, seemed not sensitive to the atmospheric clearness but sensitive to the collector tilt-angle, the larger the tilt-angle of the collector, the higher the reverse flow rate. Experimental results also showed that, the reverse flow in the SWH was much higher as compared to that in a thermosyphonic domestic solar water heater with flat-plate collectors, but the heat loss from collectors to the air due to reverse flow in SWHs was very small and only took about 8–10% of total heat loss of systems

  12. Freezing of aluminium oxide and iron flowing upward in circular quartz glass tubes

    Kuhn, D.; Moeschke, M.; Werle, H.

    1983-10-01

    The freezing of aluminium oxide and iron flowing upward in circular quartz glass tubes has been studied in a series of experiments. Several tubes were used in the same test. This demonstrated a good reproducibility and allowed systematic parameter variations, especially of the channel diameter. The time-dependance of the penetration was observed with a film camera and these date provide a good basis for a detailed check of sophisticated models which are in development. (orig.) [de

  13. Bubble removal and sand dissolution in an electrically heated glass melting channel with defined melt flow examined by mathematical modelling

    Hrbek, L.; Kocourková, P.; Jebavá, Marcela; Cincibusová, P.; Němec, Lubomír

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 456, JAN 15 (2017), s. 101-113 ISSN 0022-3093 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : glass melt flow * mathematical modelling * energy distribution * space utilization * melting performance Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass OBOR OECD: Ceramics Impact factor: 2.124, year: 2016

  14. Modelling of the controlled melt flow in a glass melting space – Its melting performance and heat losses

    Jebavá, Marcela; Dyrčíková, Petra; Němec, Lubomír

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 430, DEC 15 (2015), s. 52-63 ISSN 0022-3093 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : glass melt flow * mathematical modelling * energy distribution * space utilizatios * melting performance Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass Impact factor: 1.825, year: 2015

  15. Fluorescent multiplex cell flow systems and methods

    Merzaban, Jasmeen

    2017-06-01

    Systems and methods are provided for simultaneously assaying cell adhesion or cell rolling for multiple cell specimens. One embodiment provides a system for assaying adhesion or cell rolling of multiple cell specimens that includes a confocal imaging system containing a parallel plate flow chamber, a pump in fluid communication with the parallel plate flow chamber via a flow chamber inlet line and a cell suspension in fluid communication with the parallel plate flow chamber via a flow chamber outlet line. The system also includes a laser scanning system in electronic communication with the confocal imaging system, and a computer in communication with the confocal imaging system and laser scanning system. In certain embodiments, the laser scanning system emits multiple electromagnetic wavelengths simultaneously it cause multiple fluorescent labels having different excitation wavelength maximums to fluoresce. The system can simultaneously capture real-time fluorescence images from at least seven cell specimens in the parallel plate flow chamber.

  16. Effects of flow on corrosion and surface film formation on an alkali borosilicate glass

    Clark, D.E.; Christensen, H.; Hermansson, H.P.; Sundvall, S.B.; Werme, L.

    1984-01-01

    Samples of the Swedish KBS glass type ABS 39 have been leached in doubly distilled water for 28 days at 90 0 C under static and flow conditions. After leaching, pH, weight loss, and elemental mass loss were determined. Surface film formation was studied by using IRRS, SEM-EDS, and SIMS analyses. Increasing the flow rate resulted in a decreased attack on the glass surface. Na and B were depleted while Al, Fe, La, and U were enriched at the surfaces of all the samples. The depth of the extensively leached layer determined by SIMS was approximately 6 μm on the low-flow-rate sample and about 2 μm on the high-flow-rate sample. SEM analysis also showed some variations in the thickness of the leached layers, but in general, the thickness of the layer on the 0.5 mL/h samples was about 3 times greater than on the 90 mL/g samples. Small particles ( 2 for the static and 0.5 mL/h samples and 6 g/m 2 for the 90 mL/h samples. This factor of 3 difference in weight loss between the low and high flow rates correlates well with the factor of 3 difference in their leached depths. A model is proposed to explain the results based on the effectiveness of protective surface layers

  17. Blood Cell Interactions and Segregation in Flow

    Munn, Lance L.; Dupin, Michael M.

    2008-01-01

    For more than a century, pioneering researchers have been using novel experimental and computational approaches to probe the mysteries of blood flow. Thanks to their efforts, we know that blood cells generally prefer to migrate to the axis of flow, that red and white cells segregate in flow, and that cell deformability and their tendency to reversibly aggregate contribute to the non-Newtonian nature of this unique fluid. All of these properties have beneficial physiological consequences, allo...

  18. Fuel cell with internal flow control

    Haltiner, Jr., Karl J.; Venkiteswaran, Arun [Karnataka, IN

    2012-06-12

    A fuel cell stack is provided with a plurality of fuel cell cassettes where each fuel cell cassette has a fuel cell with an anode and cathode. The fuel cell stack includes an anode supply chimney for supplying fuel to the anode of each fuel cell cassette, an anode return chimney for removing anode exhaust from the anode of each fuel cell cassette, a cathode supply chimney for supplying oxidant to the cathode of each fuel cell cassette, and a cathode return chimney for removing cathode exhaust from the cathode of each fuel cell cassette. A first fuel cell cassette includes a flow control member disposed between the anode supply chimney and the anode return chimney or between the cathode supply chimney and the cathode return chimney such that the flow control member provides a flow restriction different from at least one other fuel cell cassettes.

  19. Study of Seal Glass for Solid Oxide Fuel/Electrolyzer Cells

    Mahapatra, Manoj Kumar

    2009-01-01

    Seal glass is essential and plays a crucial role in solid oxide fuel/electrolyzer cell performance and durability. A seal glass should have a combination of thermal, chemical, mechanical, and electrical properties in order to seal different cell components and stacks and prevent gas leakage. All the desired properties can simultaneously be obtained in a seal glass by suitable compositional design. In this dissertation, SrO-La₂O₃-A₂O₃-B₂O₃3-SiO₂ based seal glasses have been developed and compo...

  20. Fabrication of high activity glasses in the cells VULCAIN and PIVER. Leaching at three temperatures of some of these glasses in the VULCAIN cell

    Jacquet-Francillon, N.; Laude, F.; Magnier, A.; Vernaz, E.

    1982-01-01

    The methods for manufacturing and leaching four blocks of glass and one of vitreous ceramic made as from actual solutions of fission products in the Vulcain cell are described. The four blocks of glass and the vitreous ceramic are in lumps weighing from 1.6 to 1.9 kg. The volatilities measured during the making of these blocks of glass by a pot (intermittent) method and expressed as a percentage of the total activity trapped in the condenser vary from 30.7 to 9.4 for ruthenium. In the case of cesium, strontium and cerium, the volatilization rates are between 0.01 and 0.5%. The behaviour under leaching of the vitreous ceramic is less good than its mother glass. The increase in leaching rates with temperature differs from one glass to the next and according to the components

  1. Non-Newtonian plastic flow of a Ni-Si-B metallic glass at low stresses

    Csach, K.; Fursova, Y.V.; Khonik, V.A.; Ocelik, V.

    1998-01-01

    The problem of the rheological behavior of metallic glasses (MGs) is quite important both from theoretical and practical viewpoints. Early experiments carried out on MGs at temperatures T > 300 K using low shear stress levels revealed plastic flow to be Newtonian while measurements at relative high shear stresses (more than 200 to 400 MPa, depending on temperature, thermal prehistory of samples and chemical composition) indicated a non-linear behavior with 1 < m < 12. Numerous investigations performed later both on as-cast and relaxed MGs of various chemical compositions using a number of testing methods (tensile creep, tensile and bend stress relaxation) showed that a transition from Newtonian behavior at low stresses to a non-linear flow at high stresses was observed. At present, such a situation is considered to be generally accepted. The authors performed precise creep measurements of a Ni-Si-B metallic glass. The results obtained indicate that plastic flow in this case at low tensile stress (12 le σ le 307 MPa) is clearly non-Newtonian and, consequently, the viscosity is stress dependent

  2. Blood cell interactions and segregation in flow.

    Munn, Lance L; Dupin, Michael M

    2008-04-01

    For more than a century, pioneering researchers have been using novel experimental and computational approaches to probe the mysteries of blood flow. Thanks to their efforts, we know that blood cells generally prefer to migrate to the axis of flow, that red and white cells segregate in flow, and that cell deformability and their tendency to reversibly aggregate contribute to the non-Newtonian nature of this unique fluid. All of these properties have beneficial physiological consequences, allowing blood to perform a variety of critical functions. Our current understanding of these unusual flow properties of blood have been made possible by the ingenuity and diligence of a number of researchers, including Harry Goldsmith, who developed novel technologies to visualize and quantify the flow of blood at the level of individual cells. Here we summarize efforts in our lab to continue this tradition and to further our understanding of how blood cells interact with each other and with the blood vessel wall.

  3. Atomistic Origin of Rate-Dependent Serrated Plastic Flow in Metallic Glasses

    Yao YG

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nanoindentation simulations on a binary metallic glass were performed under various strain rates by using molecular dynamics. The rate-dependent serrated plastic flow was clearly observed, and the spatiotemporal behavior of its underlying irreversible atomic rearrangement was probed. Our findings clearly validate that the serration is a temporally inhomogeneous characteristic of such rearrangements and not directly dependent on the resultant shear-banding spatiality. The unique spatiotemporal distribution of shear banding during nanoindentation is highlighted in terms of the potential energy landscape (PEL theory.

  4. Glass sealing

    Brow, R.K.; Kovacic, L.; Chambers, R.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Hernetic glass sealing technologies developed for weapons component applications can be utilized for the design and manufacture of fuel cells. Design and processing of of a seal are optimized through an integrated approach based on glass composition research, finite element analysis, and sealing process definition. Glass sealing procedures are selected to accommodate the limits imposed by glass composition and predicted calculations.

  5. Homogeneous viscous flow behavior of a Cu–Zr based bulk metallic glass composites

    Zhang, X.Y.; Yuan, Z.Z.; Feng, X.L.; Cui, L.Z.; Li, D.X.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, Cu 40 Zr 44 Ag 8 Al 8 bulk metallic glass composites (BMGCs) consisting of various volume fraction of nanocrystals embedded in the amorphous matrix was synthesized by controlled annealing treatment of an as-cast BMGCs. The high temperature compression behaviors of the BMGCs were characterized in the supercooled liquid region. Results show that the flow stresses keep increasing after an initial decrease with extension of the annealing time. With annealing the values of activation volume V act is determined to be increasing from 283.6216 Ǻ 3 to 305.553 Ǻ 3 , suggesting that the jump of atoms is a cooperative process during the high-temperature deformation. Flow behavior of the BMGCs annealed for less than 8 min transform from Newtonian to non-Newtonian dependant on the stain rate and can be successively fitted by the visco-plasticity model. Fitting results indicate that deformation behaviors of these samples are governed by homogeneous flow of the amorphous matrix and indeed determined by the viscosities in the Newtonian flow stage. However, the BMGCs annealed for 8 min exhibit a non-Newtonian flow over the entire compression process and fail to be fitted by the visco-plasticity model. Micrographs of the sample reflect an impinged structure, indicating that high temperature deformation behavior of the BMGCs with high volume fractions of particles is indeed controlled by that of a backbone of particles

  6. Mathematical modelling of bubble removal from a glass melting channel with defined melt flow and the relation between the optimal flow conditions of bubble removal and sand dissolution

    Cincibusová, Petra; Němec, L.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 2 (2015), s. 52-62 ISSN 1753-3546 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA01010844 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : glass melt * mathematical modelling * controlled flow * space utilization * temperature gradients Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass Impact factor: 0.362, year: 2015 http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/sgt/gta/2015/00000056/00000002/art00003

  7. Titanium phosphate glass microcarriers induce enhanced osteogenic cell proliferation and human mesenchymal stem cell protein expression

    Nilay J Lakhkar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we have developed 50- to 100-µm-sized titanium phosphate glass microcarriers (denoted as Ti5 that show enhanced proliferation of human mesenchymal stem cells and MG63 osteosarcoma cells, as well as enhanced human mesenchymal stem cell expression of bone differentiation markers, in comparison with commercially available glass microspheres at all time points. We also demonstrate that these microcarriers provide superior human mesenchymal stem cell proliferation with conventional Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle medium than with a specially developed commercial stem cell medium. The microcarrier proliferative capacity is revealed by a 24-fold increase in MG63 cell numbers in spinner flask bioreactor studies performed over a 7-day period, versus only a 6-fold increase in control microspheres under the same conditions; the corresponding values of Ti5 and control microspheres under static culture are 8-fold and 7-fold, respectively. The capability of guided osteogenic differentiation is confirmed by ELISAs for bone morphogenetic protein-2 and osteopontin, which reveal significantly greater expression of these markers, especially osteopontin, by human mesenchymal stem cells on the Ti5 microspheres than on the control. Scanning electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy images reveal favorable MG63 and human mesenchymal stem cell adhesion on the Ti5 microsphere surfaces. Thus, the results demonstrate the suitability of the developed microspheres for use as microcarriers in bone tissue engineering applications.

  8. Comparison of cutting efficiency with different diamond burs and water flow rates in cutting lithium disilicate glass ceramic.

    Siegel, Sharon C; Patel, Tejas

    2016-10-01

    This study compared different diamond burs and different water flow rates on the cutting efficiency of sectioning through lithium disilicate glass ceramic. The authors used a standardized cutting regimen with 4 brands of diamond burs to section through lithium disilicate glass ceramic blocks. Twelve diamonds of each brand cut through the blocks in randomized order. In the first part of the study, the authors recorded sectioning rates in millimeters per minute for each diamond bur as a measure of cutting efficiency. In the second part of the study, the authors compared sectioning rates using only 1 brand of diamond bur, with 3 different water flow rates. The authors averaged and compared cutting rates of each brand of diamond bur and the cutting rates for each flow rate using an analysis of variance and determined the differences with a Tukey honest significant difference test. One diamond bur cut significantly slower than the other 3, and one diamond bur cut significantly faster than 2 of the others. The diamond bur cutting efficiency through lithium disilicate glass ceramic with a 20 mL/min water flow rate was significantly higher than 15 mL/min. There are differences in cutting efficiency between diamond burs when sectioning lithium disilicate glass ceramic. Use a minimum of 20 mL/min of water coolant flow when sectioning lithium disilicate glass ceramic with dental diamond burs to maximize cutting efficiency. Recommendations for specific diamond burs with a coarse grit and water flow rate of 20 mL/min can be made when removing or adjusting restorations made from lithium disilicate glass ceramic. Copyright © 2016 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Flow cytometric characterization of cerebrospinal fluid cells.

    de Graaf, Marieke T; de Jongste, Arjen H C; Kraan, Jaco; Boonstra, Joke G; Sillevis Smitt, Peter A E; Gratama, Jan W

    2011-09-01

    Flow cytometry facilitates the detection of a large spectrum of cellular characteristics on a per cell basis, determination of absolute cell numbers and detection of rare events with high sensitivity and specificity. White blood cell (WBC) counts in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are important for the diagnosis of many neurological disorders. WBC counting and differential can be performed by microscopy, hematology analyzers, or flow cytometry. Flow cytometry of CSF is increasingly being considered as the method of choice in patients suspected of leptomeningeal localization of hematological malignancies. Additionally, in several neuroinflammatory diseases such as multiple sclerosis and paraneoplastic neurological syndromes, flow cytometry is commonly performed to obtain insight into the immunopathogenesis of these diseases. Technically, the low cellularity of CSF samples, combined with the rapidly declining WBC viability, makes CSF flow cytometry challenging. Comparison of flow cytometry with microscopic and molecular techniques shows that each technique has its own advantages and is ideally combined. We expect that increasing the number of flow cytometric parameters that can be simultaneously studied within one sample, will further refine the information on CSF cell subsets in low-cellular CSF samples and enable to define cell populations more accurately. Copyright © 2011 International Clinical Cytometry Society.

  10. Flow regimes in a trapped vortex cell

    Lasagna, D.; Iuso, G.

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents results of an experimental investigation on the flow in a trapped vortex cell, embedded into a flat plate, and interacting with a zero-pressure-gradient boundary layer. The objective of the work is to describe the flow features and elucidate some of the governing physical mechanisms, in the light of recent investigations on flow separation control using vortex cells. Hot-wire velocity measurements of the shear layer bounding the cell and of the boundary layers upstream and downstream are reported, together with spectral and correlation analyses of wall-pressure fluctuation measurements. Smoke flow visualisations provide qualitative insight into some relevant features of the internal flow, namely a large-scale flow unsteadiness and possible mechanisms driving the rotation of the vortex core. Results are presented for two very different regimes: a low-Reynolds-number case where the incoming boundary layer is laminar and its momentum thickness is small compared to the cell opening, and a moderately high-Reynolds-number case, where the incoming boundary layer is turbulent and the ratio between the momentum thickness and the opening length is significantly larger than in the first case. Implications of the present findings to flow control applications of trapped vortex cells are also discussed.

  11. Self-assembled nanotextures impart broadband transparency to glass windows and solar cell encapsulants

    Liapis, Andreas C.; Rahman, Atikur; Black, Charles T.

    2017-10-01

    Most optoelectronic components and consumer display devices require glass or plastic covers for protection against the environment. Optical reflections from these encapsulation layers can degrade the device performance or lessen the user experience. Here, we use a highly scalable self-assembly based approach to texture glass surfaces at the nanoscale, reducing reflections by such an extent so as to make the glass essentially invisible. Our nanotextures provide broadband antireflection spanning visible and infrared wavelengths (450-2500 nm) that is effective even at large angles of incidence. This technology can be used to improve the performance of photovoltaic devices by eliminating reflection losses, which can be as much as 8% for glass encapsulated cells. In contrast, solar cells encapsulated with nanotextured glass generate the same photocurrent as when operated without a cover. Ultra-transparent windows having surface nanotextures on both sides can withstand three times more optical fluence than commercial broadband antireflection coatings, making them useful for pulsed laser applications.

  12. Characterizing the adhesion of motile and nonmotile Escherichia coli to a glass surface using a parallel-plate flow chamber.

    McClaine, Jennifer W; Ford, Roseanne M

    2002-04-20

    A parallel-plate flow chamber was used to measure the attachment and detachment rates of Escherichia coli to a glass surface at various fluid velocities. The effect of flagella on adhesion was investigated by performing experiments with several E. coli strains: AW405 (motile); HCB136 (nonmotile mutant with paralyzed flagella); and HCB137 (nonmotile mutant without flagella). We compared the total attachment rates and the fraction of bacteria retained on the surface to determine how the presence and movement of the flagella influence transport to the surface and adhesion strength in this dynamic system. At the lower fluid velocities, there was no significant difference in the total attachment rates for the three bacterial strains; nonmotile strains settled at a rate that was of the same order of magnitude as the diffusion rate of the motile strain. At the highest fluid velocity, the effect of settling was minimized to better illustrate the importance of motility, and the attachment rates of both nonmotile strains were approximately five times slower than that of the motile bacteria. Thus, different processes controlled the attachment rate depending on the parameter regime in which the experiment was performed. The fractions of motile bacteria retained on the glass surface increased with increasing velocity, whereas the opposite trend was found for the nonmotile strains. This suggests that the rotation of the flagella enables cells to detach from the surface (at the lower fluid velocities) and strengthens adhesion (at higher fluid velocities), whereas nonmotile cells detach as a result of shear. There was no significant difference in the initial attachment rates of the two nonmotile species, which suggests that merely the presence of flagella was not important in this stage of biofilm development. Copyright 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Glass composition effects on the results of MCC-1, MCC-3 and pulsed-flow leach tests

    Barkatt, A.; Adiga, R.; Adel-Hadadi, M.A.; Barkatt, A.; Feng, X.; Sousanpour, W.

    1989-01-01

    Glass composition effects on the results of MCC-1, MCC-3 and pulsed-flow leach tests are summarized. Major components of the glasses studied are included. The leachant in all cases was de-ionized water and the temperature was 90 degree C. Test duration of the MCC-1 and MCC-3 was 28 days. The total time in the pulsed-flow test was 112 days. In the MCC-1 test, the results indicate that the forward rate characteristic of the kinetics of leaching in unsaturated environments is relatively independent (within a factor of 2) of such variations. The MCC-3 results reflect the extent of glass dissolution under conditions where the extent of interaction is large enough to cause the solution in contact with the glass to approach saturation with respect to silica and other scarcely soluble components. The pulsed-flow results show that at longer periods of time the dependence of leachate composition on glass composition decreases again and that leachate concentrations approach stabilization at levels which are much lower than the MCC-3 limits

  14. Coating extracellular matrix proteins on a (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane-treated glass substrate for improved cell culture.

    Masuda, Hiro-taka; Ishihara, Seiichiro; Harada, Ichiro; Mizutani, Takeomi; Ishikawa, Masayori; Kawabata, Kazushige; Haga, Hisashi

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate that a (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane-treated glass surface is superior to an untreated glass surface for coating with extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins when used as a cell culture substrate to observe cell physiology and behavior. We found that MDCK cells cultured on untreated glass coated with ECM removed the coated ECM protein and secreted different ECM proteins. In contrast, the cells did not remove the coated ECM protein when seeded on (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane-treated (i.e., silanized) glass coated with ECM. Furthermore, the morphology and motility of cells grown on silanized glass differed from those grown on non-treated glass, even when both types of glass were initially coated with laminin. We also found that cells on silanized glass coated with laminin had higher motility than those on silanized glass coated with fibronectin. Based on our results, we suggest that silanized glass is a more suitable cell culture substrate than conventional non-treated glass when coated by ECM for observations of ECM effects on cell physiology.

  15. Porous glass membranes for vanadium redox-flow battery application - Effect of pore size on the performance

    Mögelin, H.; Yao, G.; Zhong, H.; dos Santos, A. R.; Barascu, A.; Meyer, R.; Krenkel, S.; Wassersleben, S.; Hickmann, T.; Enke, D.; Turek, T.; Kunz, U.

    2018-02-01

    The improvement of redox-flow batteries requires the development of chemically stable and highly conductive separators. Porous glass membranes can be an attractive alternative to the nowadays most common polymeric membranes. Flat porous glass membranes with a pore size in the range from 2 to 50 nm and a thickness of 300 and 500 μm have been used for that purpose. Maximum values for voltage efficiency of 85.1%, coulombic efficiency of 97.9% and energy efficiency of 76.3% at current densities in the range from 20 to 60 mA cm-2 have been achieved. Furthermore, a maximum power density of 95.2 mW cm-2 at a current density of 140 mA cm-2 was gained. These results can be related to small vanadium crossover, high conductivity and chemical stability, confirming the great potential of porous glass membranes for vanadium redox-flow applications.

  16. A novel Deep Reactive Ion Etched (DRIE) glass micro-model for two-phase flow experiments

    Karadimitriou, N.K.; Joekar-Niasar, V.; Hassanizadeh, S.M.; Kleingeld, P.J.; Pyrak-Nolte, L.J.

    2012-01-01

    In the last few decades, micro-models have become popular experimental tools for two-phase flow studies. In this work, the design and fabrication of an innovative, elongated, glass-etched micromodel with dimensions of 5 6 35 mm2 and constant depth of 43 microns is described. This is the

  17. Cell survival and differentiation with nanocrystalline glass-like carbon using substantia nigra dopaminergic cells derived from transgenic mouse embryos.

    Noela Rodriguez-Losada

    Full Text Available Regenerative medicine requires, in many cases, physical supports to facilitate appropriate cellular architecture, cell polarization and the improvement of the correct differentiation processes of embryonic stem cells, induced pluripotent cells or adult cells. Because the interest in carbon nanomaterials has grown within the last decade in light of a wide variety of applications, the aim of this study was to test and evaluate the suitability and cytocompatibility of a particular nanometer-thin nanocrystalline glass-like carbon film (NGLC composed of curved graphene flakes joined by an amorphous carbon matrix. This material is a disordered structure with high transparency and electrical conductivity. For this purpose, we used a cell line (SN4741 from substantia nigra dopaminergic cells derived from transgenic mouse embryos. Cells were cultured either in a powder of increasing concentrations of NGLC microflakes (82±37μm in the medium or on top of nanometer-thin films bathed in the same culture medium. The metabolism activity of SN4741 cells in presence of NGLC was assessed using methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium (MTT and apoptosis/necrosis flow cytometry assay respectively. Growth and proliferation as well as senescence were demonstrated by western blot (WB of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA, monoclonal phosphorylate Histone 3 (serine 10 (PH3 and SMP30 marker. Specific dopaminergic differentiation was confirmed by the WB analysis of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH. Cell maturation and neural capability were characterized using specific markers (SYP: synaptophysin and GIRK2: G-protein-regulated inward-rectifier potassium channel 2 protein via immunofluorescence and coexistence measurements. The results demonstrated cell positive biocompatibility with different concentrations of NGLC. The cells underwent a process of adaptation of SN4741 cells to NGLC where their metabolism decreases. This process is related to a decrease of PH3 expression and

  18. Fluid flow analysis of E-glass fiber reinforced pipe joints in oil and gas industry

    Bobba, Sujith; Leman, Z.; Zainuddin, E. S.; Sapuan, S. M.

    2018-04-01

    Glass Fiber reinforced composites have become increasingly important over the past few years and now they are the first choice materials for fabricating pipes with low weight in combination with high strength and stiffness. In Oil And Gas Industry, The Pipelines transporting heavy crude oil are subjected to variable pressure waves causing fluctuating stress levels in the pipes. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis was performed using solid works flow stimulation software to study the effects of these pressure waves on some specified joints in the pipes. Depending on the type of heavy crude oil being used, the flow behavior indicated a considerable degree of stress levels in certain connecting joints, causing the joints to become weak over a prolonged period of use. This research proposes a new perspective that is still required to be developed regarding the change of the pipe material, fiber winding angle in those specified joints and finally implementing cad wind technology to check the output result of the stress levels so that the life of the pipes can be optimized.

  19. Hour-Glass Neural Network Based Daily Money Flow Estimation for Automatic Teller Machines

    Karungaru, Stephen; Akashi, Takuya; Nakano, Miyoko; Fukumi, Minoru

    Monetary transactions using Automated Teller Machines (ATMs) have become a normal part of our daily lives. At ATMs, one can withdraw, send or debit money and even update passbooks among many other possible functions. ATMs are turning the banking sector into a ubiquitous service. However, while the advantages for the ATM users (financial institution customers) are many, the financial institution side faces an uphill task in management and maintaining the cash flow in the ATMs. On one hand, too much money in a rarely used ATM is wasteful, while on the other, insufficient amounts would adversely affect the customers and may result in a lost business opportunity for the financial institution. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a daily cash flow estimation system using neural networks that enables better daily forecasting of the money required at the ATMs. The neural network used in this work is a five layered hour glass shaped structure that achieves fast learning, even for the time series data for which seasonality and trend feature extraction is difficult. Feature extraction is carried out using the Akamatsu Integral and Differential transforms. This work achieves an average estimation accuracy of 92.6%.

  20. Enhanced mechanical properties of single walled carbon nanotube-borosilicate glass composite due to cushioning effect and localized plastic flow

    Sujan Ghosh

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A borosilicate glass composite has been fabricated incorporating Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes (SWCNT in the glass matrix by melt-quench technique. Hardness and the fracture toughness of the composite, were found to increase moderately with respect to the base glass. Interestingly one can observe accumulation of SWCNT bundles around the crack zone though no such accumulation was observed in the crack free indentation zone. The enhanced hardness of the composite was discussed by correlating the cushioning as well as toughening behavior of the agglomerated SWCNT bundles. On the other hand enhanced plastic flow was proposed to be the prime reason for the accumulation of SWCNT bundles around the crack, which increases the toughness of the composite by reducing the crack length. Moreover to ascertain the enhanced plasticity of the composite than that of the glass we calculated the recovery resistance of glass and the composite where recovery resistance of composite was found to be higher than that of the glass.

  1. A novel deep reactive ion etched (DRIE) glass micro-model for two-phase flow experiments.

    Karadimitriou, N K; Joekar-Niasar, V; Hassanizadeh, S M; Kleingeld, P J; Pyrak-Nolte, L J

    2012-09-21

    In the last few decades, micro-models have become popular experimental tools for two-phase flow studies. In this work, the design and fabrication of an innovative, elongated, glass-etched micro-model with dimensions of 5 × 35 mm(2) and constant depth of 43 microns is described. This is the first time that a micro-model with such depth and dimensions has been etched in glass by using a dry etching technique. The micro-model was visualized by a novel setup that allowed us to monitor and record the distribution of fluids throughout the length of the micro-model continuously. Quasi-static drainage experiments were conducted in order to obtain equilibrium data points that relate capillary pressure to phase saturation. By measuring the flow rate of water through the flow network for known pressure gradients, the intrinsic permeability of the micro-model's flow network was also calculated. The experimental results were used to calibrate a pore-network model and test its validity. Finally, we show that glass-etched micro-models can be valuable tools in single and/or multi-phase flow studies and their applications.

  2. Measurement of radionuclides using ion chromatography and flow-cell scintillation counting with pulse shape discrimination

    DeVol, T.A.; Fjeld, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    A project has been initiated at Clemson Univ. to develop a HPLC/flow- cell system for analysis of non-gamma emitting radionuclides in environmental samples; an important component is development of a low background flow-cell detector that counts alpha and beta particles separately through pulse shape discrimination. Objective of the work presented here is to provide preliminary results of an evaluation of the following scintillators: CaF 2 :Eu, scintillating glass, and BaF 2 . Slightly acidic aqueous solutions of the alpha emitter 233 U and the beta emitter 45 Ca were used. Detection efficiencies and minimum detectable activities were determined

  3. Studying apoptotic cell death by flow cytometry

    Ormerod, Michael G.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Programmed cell death (PCD) is of fundamental importance in the normal development of an animal and also in tumour biology and radiation biology. During PCD a sequence of changes occurs in cells giving rise to an apoptotic cascade of events. The main elements of this cascade are rapidly being elucidated. Flow cytometry has been used to follow many of these changes. It also has been used to quantify the number of apoptotic cells in a culture and, more recently, in clinical samples. In this review, the properties of apoptotic cells and the main feature of apoptotic cascade will be described. How flow cytometry can be used to follow changes during the apoptotic cascade will be discussed

  4. Effects of Red Blood Cell Aggregation on the Apparent Viscosity of Blood Flow in Tubes.

    Hitt, Darren L.; Lowe, Mary L.

    1996-11-01

    In arterioles and venules (20-200μ diameter), the low shear rates enable red blood cells to form aggregate structures of varying sizes and morphology. The size and distribution of the aggregates affect the flow impedance within a microvascular network; this effect may be characterized by an "apparent viscosity". In this study, we measure the apparent viscosity of blood flow in 50μ glass tubes as a function of shear rate and red blood cell volume fraction (hematocrit); for a fixed tube geometry and an imposed flow rate, the viscosity is determined by measuring the pressure drop across the tube. To correlate the apparent viscosity with the size and spatial distribution of the aggregates in the flow, video images of the flow are recorded and analyzed using power spectral techniques. Pig blood and sheep blood are used as the models for aggregating and non-aggregating blood, respectively. Supported by NSF PFF Award CTS-9253633

  5. A monolithic glass chip for active single-cell sorting based on mechanical phenotyping.

    Faigle, Christoph; Lautenschläger, Franziska; Whyte, Graeme; Homewood, Philip; Martín-Badosa, Estela; Guck, Jochen

    2015-03-07

    The mechanical properties of biological cells have long been considered as inherent markers of biological function and disease. However, the screening and active sorting of heterogeneous populations based on serial single-cell mechanical measurements has not been demonstrated. Here we present a novel monolithic glass chip for combined fluorescence detection and mechanical phenotyping using an optical stretcher. A new design and manufacturing process, involving the bonding of two asymmetrically etched glass plates, combines exact optical fiber alignment, low laser damage threshold and high imaging quality with the possibility of several microfluidic inlet and outlet channels. We show the utility of such a custom-built optical stretcher glass chip by measuring and sorting single cells in a heterogeneous population based on their different mechanical properties and verify sorting accuracy by simultaneous fluorescence detection. This offers new possibilities of exact characterization and sorting of small populations based on rheological properties for biological and biomedical applications.

  6. Physicochemical properties of newly developed bioactive glass cement and its effects on various cells.

    Washio, Ayako; Nakagawa, Aika; Nishihara, Tatsuji; Maeda, Hidefumi; Kitamura, Chiaki

    2015-02-01

    Biomaterials used in dental treatments are expected to have favorable properties such as biocompatibility and an ability to induce tissue formation in dental pulp and periapical tissue, as well as sealing to block external stimuli. Bioactive glasses have been applied in bone engineering, but rarely applied in the field of dentistry. In the present study, bioactive glass cement for dental treatment was developed, and then its physicochemical properties and effects on cell responses were analyzed. To clarify the physicochemical attributes of the cement, field emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and pH measurement were carried out. Cell attachment, morphology, and viability to the cement were also examined to clarify the effects of the cement on odontoblast-like cells (KN-3 cells), osteoblastic cells (MC3T3-E1 cells), human periodontal ligament stem/progenitor cells and neuro-differentiative cells (PC-12 cells). Hydroxyapatite-like precipitation was formed on the surface of the hardened cement and the pH level changed from pH10 to pH9, then stabilized in simulate body fluid. The cement had no cytotxic effects on these cells, and particulary induced process elongation of PC-12 cells. Our results suggest that the newly developed bioactive glass cement have capability of the application in dental procedures as bioactive cement. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Cell Monitoring and Manipulation Systems (CMMSs based on Glass Cell-Culture Chips (GC3s

    Sebastian M. Buehler

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We developed different types of glass cell-culture chips (GC3s for culturing cells for microscopic observation in open media-containing troughs or in microfluidic structures. Platinum sensor and manipulation structures were used to monitor physiological parameters and to allocate and permeabilize cells. Electro-thermal micro pumps distributed chemical compounds in the microfluidic systems. The integrated temperature sensors showed a linear, Pt1000-like behavior. Cell adhesion and proliferation were monitored using interdigitated electrode structures (IDESs. The cell-doubling times of primary murine embryonic neuronal cells (PNCs were determined based on the IDES capacitance-peak shifts. The electrical activity of PNC networks was detected using multi-electrode arrays (MEAs. During seeding, the cells were dielectrophoretically allocated to individual MEAs to improve network structures. MEA pads with diameters of 15, 20, 25, and 35 µm were tested. After 3 weeks, the magnitudes of the determined action potentials were highest for pads of 25 µm in diameter and did not differ when the inter-pad distances were 100 or 170 µm. Using 25-µm diameter circular oxygen electrodes, the signal currents in the cell-culture media were found to range from approximately −0.08 nA (0% O2 to −2.35 nA (21% O2. It was observed that 60-nm thick silicon nitride-sensor layers were stable potentiometric pH sensors under cell-culture conditions for periods of days. Their sensitivity between pH 5 and 9 was as high as 45 mV per pH step. We concluded that sensorized GC3s are potential animal replacement systems for purposes such as toxicity pre-screening. For example, the effect of mefloquine, a medication used to treat malaria, on the electrical activity of neuronal cells was determined in this study using a GC3 system.

  8. Bioactive glass ions as strong enhancers of osteogenic differentiation in human adipose stem cells.

    Ojansivu, Miina; Vanhatupa, Sari; Björkvik, Leena; Häkkänen, Heikki; Kellomäki, Minna; Autio, Reija; Ihalainen, Janne A; Hupa, Leena; Miettinen, Susanna

    2015-07-01

    Bioactive glasses are known for their ability to induce osteogenic differentiation of stem cells. To elucidate the mechanism of the osteoinductivity in more detail, we studied whether ionic extracts prepared from a commercial glass S53P4 and from three experimental glasses (2-06, 1-06 and 3-06) are alone sufficient to induce osteogenic differentiation of human adipose stem cells. Cells were cultured using basic medium or osteogenic medium as extract basis. Our results indicate that cells stay viable in all the glass extracts for the whole culturing period, 14 days. At 14 days the mineralization in osteogenic medium extracts was excessive compared to the control. Parallel to the increased mineralization we observed a decrease in the cell amount. Raman and Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy analyses confirmed that the mineral consisted of calcium phosphates. Consistently, the osteogenic medium extracts also increased osteocalcin production and collagen Type-I accumulation in the extracellular matrix at 13 days. Of the four osteogenic medium extracts, 2-06 and 3-06 induced the best responses of osteogenesis. However, regardless of the enhanced mineral formation, alkaline phosphatase activity was not promoted by the extracts. The osteogenic medium extracts could potentially provide a fast and effective way to differentiate human adipose stem cells in vitro. Copyright © 2015 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Increased Efficiency of Solar Cells Protected by Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Anti-Reflecting Nanostructured Glasses.

    Baquedano, Estela; Torné, Lorena; Caño, Pablo; Postigo, Pablo A

    2017-12-14

    We investigated the fabrication of large-area (cm²) nanostructured glasses for solar cell modules with hydrophobic and hydrophilic properties using soft lithography and colloidal lithography. Both of these techniques entail low-cost and ease of nanofabrication. We explored the use of simple 1D and 2D nanopatterns (nanowires and nanocones) and the effect of introducing disorder in the nanostructures. We observed an increase in the transmitted light for ordered nanostructures with a maximum value of 99% for wavelengths >600 nm when ordered nanocones are fabricated on the two sides of the solar glass. They produced an increment in the efficiency of the packaged solar cell with respect to the glass without nanostructures. On the one hand, the wettability properties showed that the ordering of the nanostructures improved the hydrophobicity of the solar glasses and increased their self-cleaning capacity. On the other hand, the disordered nanostructures improved the hydrophilic properties of solar glasses, increasing their anti-fogging capacity. The results show that by selecting the appropriate nanopattern, the wettability properties (hydrophobic or hydrophilic) can be easily improved without decreasing the efficiency of the solar cell underneath.

  10. Stripe-like Clay Nanotubes Patterns in Glass Capillary Tubes for Capture of Tumor Cells.

    Liu, Mingxian; He, Rui; Yang, Jing; Zhao, Wei; Zhou, Changren

    2016-03-01

    Here, we used capillary tubes to evaporate an aqueous dispersion of halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) in a controlled manner to prepare a patterned surface with ordered alignment of the nanotubes . Sodium polystyrenesulfonate (PSS) was added to improve the surface charges of the tubes. An increased negative charge of HNTs is realized by PSS coating (from -26.1 mV to -52.2 mV). When the HNTs aqueous dispersion concentration is higher than 10%, liquid crystal phenomenon of the dispersion is found. A typical shear flow behavior and decreased viscosity upon shear is found when HNTs dispersions with concentrations higher than 10%. Upon drying the HNTs aqueous dispersion in capillary tubes, a regular pattern is formed in the wall of the tube. The width and spacing of the bands increase with HNTs dispersion concentration and decrease with the drying temperature for a given initial concentration. Morphology results show that an ordered alignment of HNTs is found especially for the sample of 10%. The patterned surface can be used as a model for preparing PDMS molding with regular micro-/nanostructure. Also, the HNTs rough surfaces can provide much higher tumor cell capture efficiency compared to blank glass surfaces. The HNTs ordered surfaces provide promising application for biomedical areas such as biosensors.

  11. Influence of shear on microbial adhesion to PEO-brushes and glass by convective-diffusion and sedimentation in a parallel plate flow chamber

    Roosjen, A; Boks, NP; van der Mei, HC; Busscher, HJ; Norde, W

    2005-01-01

    Microbial adhesion to surfaces often occurs despite high wall shear rates acting on the adhering microorganisms. In this paper, we compare the wall shear rates needed to prevent microbial adhesion to bare glass and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO)-brush coated glass in a parallel plate flow chamber.

  12. Controlling flow time delays in flexible manufacturing cells

    Slomp, J.; Caprihan, R.; Bokhorst, J. A. C.

    2009-01-01

    Flow time delays in Flexible Manufacturing Cells (FMCs) are caused by transport and clamping/reclamping activities. This paper shows how dynamic scheduling parameters may control the flow times of jobs and the available task windows for flow time delays.

  13. Investigation of bioactivity and cell effects of nano-porous sol–gel derived bioactive glass film

    Ma, Zhijun, E-mail: mokuu@zju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Luminescent Materials and Devices, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, 510640 (China); Ji, Huijiao [College of Life Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310028 (China); Hu, Xiaomeng [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, 510640 (China); Teng, Yu [State Key Laboratory of Luminescent Materials and Devices, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, 510640 (China); Zhao, Guiyun; Mo, Lijuan; Zhao, Xiaoli [College of Life Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310028 (China); Chen, Weibo [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, 510640 (China); Qiu, Jianrong, E-mail: qjr@scut.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Luminescent Materials and Devices, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, 510640 (China); Zhang, Ming, E-mail: zhangming201201@126.com [College of Life Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310028 (China)

    2013-11-01

    In orthopedic surgery, bioactive glass film coating is extensively studied to improve the synthetic performance of orthopedic implants. A lot of investigations have confirmed that nano-porous structure in bioactive glasses can remarkably improve their bioactivity. Nevertheless, researches on preparation of nano-porous bioactive glasses in the form of film coating and their cell response activities are scarce. Herein, we report the preparation of nano-porous bioactive glass film on commercial glass slide based on a sol–gel technique, together with the evaluation of its in vitro bioactivity through immersion in simulated body fluid and monitoring the precipitation of apatite-like layer. Cell responses of the samples, including attachment, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation, were also investigated using BMSCS (bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells) as a model. The results presented here provide some basic information on structural influence of bioactive glass film on the improvement of bioactivity and cellular effects.

  14. Investigation of bioactivity and cell effects of nano-porous sol-gel derived bioactive glass film

    Ma, Zhijun; Ji, Huijiao; Hu, Xiaomeng; Teng, Yu; Zhao, Guiyun; Mo, Lijuan; Zhao, Xiaoli; Chen, Weibo; Qiu, Jianrong; Zhang, Ming

    2013-11-01

    In orthopedic surgery, bioactive glass film coating is extensively studied to improve the synthetic performance of orthopedic implants. A lot of investigations have confirmed that nano-porous structure in bioactive glasses can remarkably improve their bioactivity. Nevertheless, researches on preparation of nano-porous bioactive glasses in the form of film coating and their cell response activities are scarce. Herein, we report the preparation of nano-porous bioactive glass film on commercial glass slide based on a sol-gel technique, together with the evaluation of its in vitro bioactivity through immersion in simulated body fluid and monitoring the precipitation of apatite-like layer. Cell responses of the samples, including attachment, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation, were also investigated using BMSCS (bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells) as a model. The results presented here provide some basic information on structural influence of bioactive glass film on the improvement of bioactivity and cellular effects.

  15. Experimental and theoretical studies of transient boiling and two-phase flow during the depressurisation of a simple glass vessel

    Ardron, K.H.; Furness, R.A.; Hall, P.C.

    1976-11-01

    Blowdown experiments using a glass pressure vessel containing saturated water at 4 bars have been performed to assist interpretation of the results of large scale experiments and aid understanding of the physical processes involved. Results have shown the strong dependence of depressurisation time, phase distribution and mass flow rate on the length to diameter ratio of the exit pipe. Preliminary observations of the flow regime in the discharge pipe are consistent with predictions of the flow regime map of Mandhane, Gregory and Aziz 1974. Different flow regimes have been observed at different axial positions along the pipe. Bubble growth rates during the non-equilibrium phase of blowdown are shown to be in reasonable agreement with a simple convective heat flux analysis previously used in blowdown calculations. The transient pressure and liquid distribution in the vessel have been compared with calculations using the blowdown code RELAP-UK. (U.K.)

  16. Nanoindentation study on the characteristic of shear transformation zone in a Pd-based bulk metallic glass during serrated flow

    Liao, G. K.; Long, Z. L.; Zhao, M. S. Z.; Peng, L.; Chai, W.; Ping, Z. H.

    2018-04-01

    This paper presents the research on the evolution of shear transformation zone (STZ) in a Pd-based bulk metallic glass (BMG) during serrated flow under nanoindentation. A novel method of estimating the STZ volume through statistical analysis of the serrated flow behavior was proposed for the first time. Based on the proposed method, the STZ volume of the studied BMG at various peak loads have been systematically investigated. The results indicate that the measured STZ volumes are in good agreement with that documented in literature, and the STZ size exhibits an increasing trend during indentation. Moreover, the correlation between the serrated flow dynamics and the STZ activation has also been evaluated. It is found that the STZ activation can promote the formation of self-organized critical (SOC) state during serrated flow.

  17. The battle of light - solar cells in glass facades

    Lauritzen, Hanne; Hansen, Ellen K.; Bjørn, Eirik

    2009-01-01

    Over the last years, a range of semi-transparent PV panels has appeared on the market. Although these panels inherently produce less energy than their light-blocking counterparts, they are considered an attrac-tive element in low-energy buildings as they can impact on the façade's ability to both...... of the PV panels' light-filtering abilities in a daylight laboratory, ar-chitectural sketches illustrating various façade-compositions with the actual PV panels integrated, a visuali-zation of the most promising sketches by means of mock-ups and finally computer simulations revealing the PV façade's impact...... on the building's net energy consumption. The results and experiences gained in the experimental work are carefully collected and analysed in an in-terdisciplinary context focussing on the full architectural potential of semi-transparent PV panels in glass facades....

  18. Solar concentrator modules with silicone-on-glass Fresnel lens panels and multijunction cells.

    Rumyantsev, Valery D

    2010-04-26

    High-efficiency multijunction (MJ) solar cells, being very expensive to manufacture, should only be used in combination with solar concentrators in terrestrial applications. An essential cost reduction of electric power produced by photovoltaic (PV) installations with MJ cells, may be expected by the creation of highly-effective, but inexpensive, elements for optical concentration and sun tracking. This article is an overview of the corresponding approach under development at the Ioffe Physical Technical Institute. The approach to R&D of the solar PV modules is based on the concepts of sunlight concentration by small-aperture area Fresnel lenses and "all-glass" module design. The small-aperture area lenses are arranged as a panel with silicone-on-glass structure where the glass plate serves as the front surface of a module. In turn, high-efficiency InGaP/(In)GaAs/Ge cells are arranged on a rear module panel mounted on a glass plate which functions as a heat sink and integrated protective cover for the cells. The developed PV modules and sun trackers are characterized by simple design, and are regarded as the prototypes for further commercialization.

  19. Flow and Fracture of Bulk Metallic Glass Alloys and their Composites

    Flores, K M; Suh, D; Howell, R; Asoka-Kumar, P; Dauskardt, R H

    2001-01-01

    The fracture and plastic deformation mechanisms of a Zr-Ti-Ni-Cu-Be bulk metallic glass and a composite utilizing a crystalline reinforcement phase are reviewed. The relationship between stress state, free volume and shear band formation are discussed. Positron annihilation techniques were used to confirm the predicted increase in free volume after plastic straining. Strain localization and failure were examined for a wide range of stress states. Finally, methods for toughening metallic glasses are considered. Significant increases in toughness are demonstrated for a composite bulk metallic glass containing a ductile second phase which stabilizes shear band formation and distributes plastic deformation

  20. Plasmon-Assisted Efficiency Enhancement of Eu3+-Doped Tellurite Glass-Covered Solar Cells

    Lima, Bismarck C.; Gómez-Malagón, L. A.; Gomes, A. S. L.; Garcia, J. A. M.; Kassab, L. R. P.

    2017-12-01

    Rare-earth-doped tellurite glass containing metallic nanoparticles can be exploited to manage the solar spectrum in order to increase solar cell efficiency. It is therefore possible to modify the incident solar spectrum profile to the spectrum that optimizes the solar cell recombination process by covering the solar cell with plasmonic luminescent downshifting layers. With this approach, the losses due to thermalization are minimized and the efficiency is increased. Due to the down-conversion process that couples the plasmon resonance of the metallic nanoparticles and the rare-earth electronic energy levels, it is possible to convert photons from the ultraviolet region to the visible and near-band-gap region of the semiconductor. It is demonstrated here that plasmon-assisted efficiency enhancements of 14.0% and 34.5% can be obtained for commercial Si and GaP solar cells, respectively, covered with Eu3+-doped TeO2-ZnO glass containing silver nanoparticles.

  1. Behaviour of moderately differentiated osteoblast-like cells cultured in contact with bioactive glasses

    Hattar S.

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Bioactive glasses have been shown to stimulate osteogenesis both in vivo and in vitro. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this process are still poorly understood. In this study, we have investigated the behaviour of osteoblast-like cells (MG63, cultured in the presence of bioglass particles. Three types of granules were used: 45S5registered bioactive glass, 45S5registered granules preincubated in tris buffer and 60S non-reactive glass, used as control. Phase contrast microscopy permitted step-by-step visualization of cell cultures in contact with the particles. Ultrastructural observations of undecalcified sections revealed direct contacts of the cells and an electron-dense layer located at the periphery of the material. Protein synthesis was evaluated biochemically and showed a gradual increase throughout the culture time in the three types of cultures. Alkaline phosphatase was detected in situ, in clusters of packed cells either in contact with the material or in the background cell layer. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis of the main osteoblastic markers showed that gene expression was maintained in all three cultures. The fact that osteocalcin was not detected, supports the fact that the MG63 cell line is composed of less differentiated osteogenic cells rather than mature osteoblasts. We also demonstrated for the first time in this cell line, the expression of Msx-2, Dlx-3 and Dlx-7 homeogenes, known to regulate in vivo foetal skeletogenesis as well as adult skeletal regeneration. However, no significant differences could be recognised in the expression pattern of bone markers between the three types of cultures. Yet these preliminary results indicate that bioactive glasses provided a suitable environment for the growth and proliferation of osteoblasts in vitro, since no drastic changes in phenotype expression of pre-osteoblasts was noted.

  2. Upright nanopyramid structured cover glass with light harvesting and self-cleaning effects for solar cell applications

    Amalathas, Amalraj Peter; Alkaisi, Maan M

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate the effect of upright nanopyramid (UNP) structured cover glass with light harvesting and self-cleaning functions on the device performance of monocrystalline Si solar cells. The UNP structures were fabricated on the surface of the glass substrate by simple, high throughput and low cost UV nanoimprint lithography, using a Si master mold with inverted nanopyramid (INP) structures. The diffuse transmittance and haze ratio values were significantly increased for UNP patterned glass, especially in the wavelength range 300–600 nm compared to the bare glass; this implies that antireflection and strong light scattering are due to the UNP structures. By replacing a bare cover glass with UNP patterned glass, the power conversion efficiency of the monocrystalline Si solar cell was substantially enhanced by about 10.97%; this is mainly due to the increased short-circuit current density J SC of 32.39 mA cm −2 compared to the reference cell with bare cover glass (i.e. J SC   =  31.60 mA cm −2 ). In addition, unlike the bare cover glass (i.e. θ CA ∼ 36°), the fluorinated UNP structured cover glass exhibited a hydrophobic surface with a water contact angle ( θ CA ) of ∼132° and excellent self-cleaning of dust particles by rolling down water droplets. (paper)

  3. Commercial alkaline earth boroaluminosilicate glasses for sealing solid oxide cell stacks. Part I: Development of glass-ceramic microstructure and thermomechanical properties

    Agersted, Karsten; Balic-Zunic, Tonci

    2018-01-01

    Sealing performance in solid oxide cell (SOC) stacks and the devitrification process of commercially available alkaline earth boroaluminosilicate glasses containing 48‐61 mol% SiO2, 18‐28 mol% CaO, 1‐7 mol% MgO, 7‐10 mol% Al2O3, 1‐11 mol% B2O3 plus minor amounts of Na2O, K2O, FeO, and TiO2 were...... investigated and quantified through analysis of phase assemblages as function of heat treatments above the glass transition temperatures using the electron microprobe and powder X‐ray diffraction. For two of these glasses devitrification behavior was compared to the devitrification behavior of similar glasses...... produced in the laboratory. Glasses were characterized after annealing in air at 800°C and 850°C for up to 6 weeks. Even though the glasses lie within a relatively narrow compositional range, sealing performance and the resulting microstructures differed significantly. Best thermomechanical properties...

  4. Silica nanoparticles on front glass for efficiency enhancement in superstrate-type amorphous silicon solar cells

    Das, Sonali; Banerjee, Chandan; Kundu, Avra; Dey, Prasenjit; Saha, Hiranmay; Datta, Swapan K.

    2013-10-01

    Antireflective coating on front glass of superstrate-type single junction amorphous silicon solar cells (SCs) has been applied using highly monodispersed and stable silica nanoparticles (NPs). The silica NPs having 300 nm diameter were synthesized by Stober technique where the size of the NPs was controlled by varying the alcohol medium. The synthesized silica NPs were analysed by dynamic light scattering technique and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The NPs were spin coated on glass side of fluorinated tin oxide (SnO2: F) coated glass superstrate and optimization of the concentration of the colloidal solution, spin speed and number of coated layers was done to achieve minimum reflection characteristics. An estimation of the distribution of the NPs for different optimization parameters has been done using field-emission scanning electron microscopy. Subsequently, the transparent conducting oxide coated glass with the layer having the minimum reflectance is used for fabrication of amorphous silicon SC. Electrical analysis of the fabricated cell indicates an improvement of 6.5% in short-circuit current density from a reference of 12.40 mA cm-2 while the open circuit voltage and the fill factor remains unaltered. A realistic optical model has also been proposed to gain an insight into the system.

  5. Silica nanoparticles on front glass for efficiency enhancement in superstrate-type amorphous silicon solar cells

    Das, Sonali; Kundu, Avra; Dey, Prasenjit; Saha, Hiranmay; Datta, Swapan K; Banerjee, Chandan

    2013-01-01

    Antireflective coating on front glass of superstrate-type single junction amorphous silicon solar cells (SCs) has been applied using highly monodispersed and stable silica nanoparticles (NPs). The silica NPs having 300 nm diameter were synthesized by Stober technique where the size of the NPs was controlled by varying the alcohol medium. The synthesized silica NPs were analysed by dynamic light scattering technique and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The NPs were spin coated on glass side of fluorinated tin oxide (SnO 2 : F) coated glass superstrate and optimization of the concentration of the colloidal solution, spin speed and number of coated layers was done to achieve minimum reflection characteristics. An estimation of the distribution of the NPs for different optimization parameters has been done using field-emission scanning electron microscopy. Subsequently, the transparent conducting oxide coated glass with the layer having the minimum reflectance is used for fabrication of amorphous silicon SC. Electrical analysis of the fabricated cell indicates an improvement of 6.5% in short-circuit current density from a reference of 12.40 mA cm −2 while the open circuit voltage and the fill factor remains unaltered. A realistic optical model has also been proposed to gain an insight into the system. (paper)

  6. Two-Dimensional Computational Flow Analysis and Frictional Characteristics Model for Red Blood Cell under Inclined Centrifuge Microscopy

    Funamoto, Kenichi; Hayase, Toshiyuki; Shirai, Atsushi

    Simplified two-dimensional flow analysis is performed in order to simulate frictional characteristics measurement of red blood cells moving on a glass plate in a medium with an inclined centrifuge microscope. Computation under various conditions reveals the influences of parameters on lift, drag, and moment acting on a red blood cell. Among these forces, lift appears only when the cell is longitudinally asymmetric. By considering the balance of forces, the frictional characteristics of the red blood cell are modeled as the sum of Coulomb friction and viscous drag. The model describes the possibility that the red blood cell deforms to expand in the front side in response to the inclined centrifugal force. When velocity exceeds some critical value, the lift overcomes the normal centrifugal force component, and the thickness of the plasma layer between the cell and the glass plate increases from the initial value of the plasma protein thickness.

  7. Texture-Etched SnO2 Glasses Applied to Silicon Thin-Film Solar Cells

    Bing-Rui Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Transparent electrodes of tin dioxide (SnO2 on glasses were further wet-etched in the diluted HCl:Cr solution to obtain larger surface roughness and better light-scattering characteristic for thin-film solar cell applications. The process parameters in terms of HCl/Cr mixture ratio, etching temperature, and etching time have been investigated. After etching process, the surface roughness, transmission haze, and sheet resistance of SnO2 glasses were measured. It was found that the etching rate was increased with the additions in etchant concentration of Cr and etching temperature. The optimum texture-etching parameters were 0.15 wt.% Cr in 49% HCl, temperature of 90°C, and time of 30 sec. Moreover, silicon thin-film solar cells with the p-i-n structure were fabricated on the textured SnO2 glasses using hot-wire chemical vapor deposition. By optimizing the texture-etching process, the cell efficiency was increased from 4.04% to 4.39%, resulting from the increment of short-circuit current density from 14.14 to 15.58 mA/cm2. This improvement in cell performances can be ascribed to the light-scattering effect induced by surface texturization of SnO2.

  8. Long term effects of bioactive glass particulates on dental pulp stem cells in vitro

    Gholami Sanaz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Bioactive glasses (BG are known for their ability to induce bone formation by the action of their dissolution products. Glasses can deliver active ions at a sustained rate, determined by their composition and surface area. Nanoporous sol-gel derived BGs can biodegrade rapidly, which can lead to a detrimental burst release of ions and a pHrise. The addition of phosphate into the glass can buffer the pH during dissolution. Here, dissolution of BG with composition 60 mol% SiO2, 28 mol% CaO and 12 mol% P2O5 at 600 μg/ml were investigated. Initially, the dissolution and apatite formation of the BG particulates were examined in simulated body fluid using FTIR and XRD. BG particulates were indirectly exposed to dental pulp stem cells, and the effect of 14 days continuous ion release on human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSC viability and differentiation was evaluated. Alamar blue assay showed that cell proliferation was not inhibited by the continuous release of Ca, P and soluble silica. In fact, hDPSC in the presence of BG particulate displayed a higher density of mineralized nodules than untreated cells, as assessed by Alizarin red. The results will have a great contribution to the in vivo application of this particular BG.

  9. Enhanced Stem Cell Osteogenic Differentiation by Bioactive Glass Functionalized Graphene Oxide Substrates

    Xiaoju Mo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An unmet need in engineered bone regeneration is to develop scaffolds capable of manipulating stem cells osteogenesis. Graphene oxide (GO has been widely used as a biomaterial for various biomedical applications. However, it remains challenging to functionalize GO as ideal platform for specifically directing stem cell osteogenesis. Herein, we report facile functionalization of GO with dopamine and subsequent bioactive glass (BG to enhance stem cell adhesion, spreading, and osteogenic differentiation. On the basis of graphene, we obtained dopamine functionalized graphene oxide/bioactive glass (DGO/BG hybrid scaffolds containing different content of DGO by loading BG nanoparticles on graphene oxide surface using sol-gel method. To enhance the dispersion stability and facilitate subsequent nucleation of BG in GO, firstly, dopamine (DA was used to modify GO. Then, the modified GO was functionalized with bioactive glass (BG using sol-gel method. The adhesion, spreading, and osteoinductive effects of DGO/BG scaffold on rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (rBMSCs were evaluated. DGO/BG hybrid scaffolds with different content of DGO could influence rBMSCs’ behavior. The highest expression level of osteogenic markers suggests that the DGO/BG hybrid scaffolds have great potential or elicit desired bone reparative outcome.

  10. Method of detaching adherent cells for flow cytometry

    Kaur, Mandeep

    2015-12-24

    In one aspect, a method for detaching adherent cells can include adding a cell lifting solution to the media including a sample of adherent cells and incubating the sample of adherent cells with the cell lifting solution. No scraping or pipetting is needed to facilitate cell detachment. The method do not require inactivation of cell lifting solution and no washing of detaching cells is required to remove cell lifting solution. Detached cells can be stained with dye in the presence of cell lifting solution and are further analyzed using flow cytometer. The method has been tested using 6 different cell lines, 4 different assays, two different plate formats (96 and 384 well plates) and two different flow cytometry instruments. The method is simple to perform, less time consuming, with no cell loss and makes high throughput flow cytometry on adherent cells a reality.

  11. Flow Cells for Scalable Energy Conversion and Storage

    Mukundan, Rangachary [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-10-26

    This project is a response to current flow systems that are V-aqueous and not cost effective. It will hopefully enable high energy/ power density flow cells through rational materials and system design.

  12. Measurement of Effect of Chemical Reactions on the Hydrologic Properties of Fractured Glass Media Using a Tri-axial Flow and Transport Apparatus

    Saripalli, Prasad; Lindberg, Michael J.; Meyer, P. D.

    2006-01-01

    Understanding the effect of chemical reactions on the hydrologic properties of sub-surface media is critical to many natural and engineered sub-surface systems. Methods and information for such characterization of fractured media are severely lacking. Influence of glass corrosion (precipitation and dissolution) reactions on fractured glass blocks HAN28 and LAWBP1, two candidate waste glass forms for a proposed immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) disposal facility at the Hanford, WA site, was investigated. Flow and tracer transport experiments were conducted in such randomly and multiply fractured ILAW glass blocks, before and after subjecting them to corrosion using Vapor Hydration Testing (VHT) at 200 C temperature and 200 psig (1379 KPa) pressure, causing the precipitation of alteration products. A tri-axial fractured media flow and transport experimental apparatus, which allows the simultaneous measurement of flow and transport properties and their anisotropy, has been designed and built for this purpose. Such apparatus for fractured media characterization are being reported in the literature only recently. Hydraulic properties of fractured blocks were measured in different orientations and along different cardinal directions, before and after glass corrosion reactions. Miscible displacement experiments using a non-reactive dye were also conducted, before and after glass corrosion reactions, to study the tracer transport behavior through such media. Initial efforts to analyze breakthrough curve (BTC) data using a 1D Advection Dispersion Equation (ADE) solution revealed that a different fractured media transport model may be necessary for such interpretation. It was found that glass reactions can have a significant influence on the hydrologic properties of fractured ILAW glass media. The methods and results are unique and useful to better understand the effect of chemical reactions on the hydrologic properties of fractured geomedia in general and glass media in

  13. Wide-field fluorescent microscopy and fluorescent imaging flow cytometry on a cell-phone.

    Zhu, Hongying; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2013-04-11

    Fluorescent microscopy and flow cytometry are widely used tools in biomedical research and clinical diagnosis. However these devices are in general relatively bulky and costly, making them less effective in the resource limited settings. To potentially address these limitations, we have recently demonstrated the integration of wide-field fluorescent microscopy and imaging flow cytometry tools on cell-phones using compact, light-weight, and cost-effective opto-fluidic attachments. In our flow cytometry design, fluorescently labeled cells are flushed through a microfluidic channel that is positioned above the existing cell-phone camera unit. Battery powered light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are butt-coupled to the side of this microfluidic chip, which effectively acts as a multi-mode slab waveguide, where the excitation light is guided to uniformly excite the fluorescent targets. The cell-phone camera records a time lapse movie of the fluorescent cells flowing through the microfluidic channel, where the digital frames of this movie are processed to count the number of the labeled cells within the target solution of interest. Using a similar opto-fluidic design, we can also image these fluorescently labeled cells in static mode by e.g. sandwiching the fluorescent particles between two glass slides and capturing their fluorescent images using the cell-phone camera, which can achieve a spatial resolution of e.g. - 10 μm over a very large field-of-view of - 81 mm(2). This cell-phone based fluorescent imaging flow cytometry and microscopy platform might be useful especially in resource limited settings, for e.g. counting of CD4+ T cells toward monitoring of HIV+ patients or for detection of water-borne parasites in drinking water.

  14. Packaging Glass with a Hierarchically Nanostructured Surface: A Universal Method to Achieve Self-Cleaning Omnidirectional Solar Cells

    Lin, Chin An; Tsai, Meng Lin; Wei, Wan-Rou; Lai, Kun Yu; He, Jr-Hau

    2015-01-01

    to the subwavelength feature of the nanorods and an efficient scattering ability of the honeycomb nanowalls. Si solar cells covered with the hierarchically structured packaging glass exhibit enhanced conversion efficiency by 5.2% at normal incidence

  15. Scalable air cathode microbial fuel cells using glass fiber separators, plastic mesh supporters, and graphite fiber brush anodes

    Zhang, Xiaoyuan; Cheng, Shaoan; Liang, Peng; Huang, Xia; Logan, Bruce E.

    2011-01-01

    The combined use of brush anodes and glass fiber (GF1) separators, and plastic mesh supporters were used here for the first time to create a scalable microbial fuel cell architecture. Separators prevented short circuiting of closely

  16. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Saccharomyces cerevisiae Biofilm in Flow Cells

    Weiss Nielsen, Martin; Sternberg, Claus; Molin, Søren

    2011-01-01

    well-defined conditions(2,3). The system consists of a flow cell that serves as growth chamber for the biofilm. The flow cell is supplied with nutrients and oxygen from a medium flask via a peristaltic pump and spent medium is collected in a waste container. This construction of the flow system allows......Many microbial cells have the ability to form sessile microbial communities defined as biofilms that have altered physiological and pathological properties compared to free living microorganisms. Biofilms in nature are often difficult to investigate and reside under poorly defined conditions(1...... a continuous supply of nutrients and administration of e.g. antibiotics with minimal disturbance of the cells grown in the flow chamber. Moreover, the flow conditions within the flow cell allow studies of biofilm exposed to shear stress. A bubble trapping device confines air bubbles from the tubing which...

  17. Cell-patterned glass spray for direct drug assay using mass spectrometry

    Wu, Jing; Wang, Shiqi; Chen, Qiushui; Jiang, Hao; Liang, Shuping; Lin, Jin-Ming

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the establishment of a glass spray mass spectrometry (GS-MS) platform for direct cell-based drug assay was described. Cell co-culture, drug-induced cell apoptosis, proliferation analysis and intracellular drug absorption measurement were performed simultaneously on this specifically designed platform. Two groups of co-cultured cells (NIH-3T3/HepG2 and HepG2/MCF-7) were cultivated and they showed high viability within 3 days. The biocompatibility of the platform facilitated the subsequent bioassays, in which, cyclophosphamide (CPA) and genistein were used as the model drugs. The distinctions of cell apoptosis and proliferation between the mono-cultured and co-cultured cells were clearly observed and well explained by in situ GS-MS measurements. A satisfactory linearity of the calibration curve between the relative MS intensity and CPA concentrations was obtained using stable isotope labeling method (y = 0.16545 + 0.0985x, R"2 = 0.9937). The variations in the quantity of absorbed drug were detected and the results were consistent with the concentration-dependence of cell apoptosis. All the results demonstrated that direct cell-based drug assay could be performed on the stable isotope labeling assisted GS-MS platform in a facile and quantitative manner. - Highlights: • A versatile glass spray mass spectrometry (GS-MS) platform for direct cell-based drug assay was developed in this paper. • It has characteristics of the atmospheric pressure ionization method. • It is multifunctional for cell co-culture, bioassays, qualitative and quantitative intracellular drug absorption measurement. • GS-MS has the potential to increase the use of mass spectrometry in biological analysis.

  18. Single-pass continuous-flow leach test of PNL 76-68 glass: some selected Bead Leach I results

    Coles, D.G.

    1981-01-01

    A single-pass continuous-flow leach test of PNL 76-68 glass beads (7 mm dia) was concluded after 420 days of uninterrupted operation. Variables included in the experimental matrix were flow-rate, leachant composition, and temperature. Analysis was conducted on all leachate samples for 237 Np and 239 Pu as well as a number of nonradioactive elements. Results indicated that flow-rate and leachant systematically affected the leach rate, but only slightly. Temperature effects were significant. Plutonium leach rate was lower at higher temperature suggesting that Pu sorption onto the beads was enhanced at the higher temperature. The range of leach rates for all analyzed elements (except Pu), at both temperature, at all three flow rates, and with all three leachant compositions varied only three orders of magnitude. The range of variables used in this experiment covered those expected in many proposed repository environments. The preliminary interpretation of the results also indicated that matrix dissolution may be the dominant leaching mechanism, at least for Np in bicarbonate leachant. Regardless of the leaching mechanism the importance of this study is that it bounds the effects of repository environments when the ground water is oxidizing and when it doesn't reach the waste form until the waste has cooled to ambient rock temperature

  19. Single-pass continuous-flow leach test of PNL 76-68 glass: some selected Bead Leach I results

    Coles, D.G.

    1981-01-01

    A single-pass continuous-flow leach test of PNL 76-68 glass beads (7 mm dia) was concluded after 420 days of uninterrupted operation. Variables included in the experimental matrix were flow-rate, leachant composition, and temperature. Analysis was conducted on all leachate samples for 237 Np and 239 Pu as well as a number of nonradioactive elements. Results indicated that flow-rate and leachant systematically affected the leach rate, but only slightly. Temperature effects were significant. Plutonium leach rate was lower at higher temperature suggesting that Pu sorption onto the beads was enhanced at the higher temperature. The range of leach rates for all analyzed elements (except Pu), at both temperatures, at all three flow rates, and with all three leachant compositions varied over only three orders of magnitude. The range of variables used in this experiment covered those expected in many proposed repository environments. The preliminary interpretation of the results aPPh 3 also reacted with Mn 2 (CO) 10 and Cp 2 Mo 2 (CO) 6 to give a variety of products at room temperature. A radical mechanism was suggested

  20. Determination of residence times of ions in a resistive glass selected ion flow-drift tube using the Hadamard transformation.

    Spesyvyi, Anatolii; Španěl, Patrik

    2015-09-15

    Selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry, SIFT-MS, used for trace gas analyses has certain fundamental limitations that could be alleviated by adding a facility that allows reaction times and ion interaction energies to be varied. Thus, a selected ion flow-drift tube, SIFDT, has been created to explore the influence of an embedded electric field on these parameters and on reaction processes. The new SIFTD instrument was constructed using a miniature resistive glass drift tube. Arrival times of ions, t, analysed by a downstream quadrupole mass spectrometer over the m/z range 10-100 were studied by modulating the injected ion current using a gate lens. Single pulse modulation was compared with pseudorandom time multiplexing exploiting the Hadamard transformation. A simple model involving analysis of ethanol and water vapour mixture in air was used to explore the advantages of the SIFDT concept to SIFT-MS analysis. It is shown that the resistive glass drift tube is suitable for SIFDT experiments. The Hadamard transformation can be used to routinely determine reagent ion residence time in the flow-drift tube and also to observe differences in arrival times for different product ions. Two-dimensional data combining arrival time and mass spectra can be obtained rapidly. The calculated ion drift velocities vary with the reduced field strength, E/N, and the calculated ion mobilities agree with theoretical and previous literature values. This study has provided evidence that the SIFDT-MS technique can be implemented in a miniature and low-cost instrument and two- or three-dimensional data can be obtained (product ion count rates as functions of m/z, t and E/N) using the Hadamard transformation thus providing exciting possibilities for further analytical additions and extensions of the SIFT-MS technique. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Free flow zone electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing using a microfabricated glass device with ion permeable membranes

    Kohlheyer, D.; Besselink, G.A.J.; Schlautmann, Stefan; Schasfoort, Richardus B.M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a microfabricated free-flow electrophoresis device with integrated ion permeable membranes. In order to obtain continuous lanes of separated components an electrical field is applied perpendicular to the sample flow direction. This sample stream is sandwiched between two sheath

  2. The micro-optic photovoltaic behavior of solar cell along with microlens curved glass substrate

    Xie, Jin; Wu, Keke; Cheng, Jian; Li, Ping; Zheng, Jiahua

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A microlens array may be micro-ground on curved photovoltaic glass substrate. • Its micro-optical structure absorbs and scatters the inclined light to solar cell. • It increases conversion efficiency and fill factor in weak and inclined lights. • It improves electricity generation by about 4 times in scattered cloudy daylight. • It produces stronger electricity generation in cloudy day than in sunny day. - Abstract: A hybrid of microlens structure and curved surface may produce high value-added micro-optic performance. Hence, the microlens array is proposed on macro curved glass substrate of thin film solar cell. The objective is to understand how the micro-optic behavior of microlens curved array influences indoor power conversion efficiency and outdoor electricity generation. First, the absorptivities of visible light and infrared light were analyzed in connection with the curved microlens sizes; then the microlens curved glass substrate was fabricated by a Computer Numerical Control (CNC) micro-grinding with micro diamond wheel V-tip; finally, its photovoltaic properties and electricity generation were measured, respectively. It is shown that the microlens curved surface may strongly absorb and scatter light to solar cell. It increases the absorptivity of visible light against plane surface, but it decreases the one of infrared light against microlens surface. When it is applied to solar cell, it enhances the power conversion efficiency by 3.4–10.6% under oblique illumination. When it is applied to solar device, it increases the electricity generation of daylight by 119–106% against microlens surface and by 260–419% against traditional plane surface, respectively. The surprising finding is that it produces much larger electricity generation during cloudy day than during sunny day, but traditional plane surface does not so

  3. In Vitro Evaluation the Influence of Glass-Ceramic Degradation Products on Osteoblast Cells.

    Israa K. Sabree

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Regenerative medicine focuses on using biomaterials as three-dimensional (3D porous scaffolds, specifically designed to mimic the nature of host tissue and hence to promote cell growth and tissue regeneration. 3D bioactive glass-ceramic scaffolds are one of the most frequently studied types of scaffolds for bone tissue engineering because of their excellent bioactivity and potential for stimulating osteogenesis and angiogenesis. For such purposes, porous 3D 70%SiO2-30%CaO bioactive glass-ceramic scaffolds with three different pore sizes and identical porosity are used in present study to investigate In vitro, the effect of pore size on the degradation rate of scaffold which is achieved through examining changes in the composition of the immersion solution(SBF, simulated body fluid, and to investigate the action of released ions from the bioactive glass-ceramic scaffold during soaking process on osteoblast cells The results confirmed that all three scaffolds behaved in a similar manner and the ions release from the three scaffolds were of comparable concentration, which may be attributable to the identical porosity for all the scaffolds in addition to the using static immersion which delays ions diffusion. The pH of culture media increased from 7.6 to 8.2 after one day soaking. The optical microscopy images demonstrated that high ion concentration (Si, Ca, P in the culture medium could have a negative effect on the cells and induce cell death, while low concentration of ionic dissolution products induces osteoblast proliferation in dilute culture medium.

  4. Amorphous silicon thin-film solar cells on glass fiber textiles

    Plentz, Jonathan, E-mail: jonathan.plentz@leibniz-ipht.de; Andrä, Gudrun; Pliewischkies, Torsten; Brückner, Uwe; Eisenhawer, Björn; Falk, Fritz

    2016-02-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Amorphous silicon solar cells on textile glass fiber fabrics are demonstrated. • Open circuit voltages of 883 mV show shunt-free contacting on non-planar fabrics. • Short-circuit current densities of 3.7 mA/cm{sup 2} are limited by transmission losses. • Fill factors of 43.1% and pseudo fill factors of 70.2% show high series resistance. • Efficiencies of 1.4% and pseudo efficiencies of 2.1% realized on textile fabrics. - Abstract: In this contribution, amorphous silicon thin-film solar cells on textile glass fiber fabrics for smart textiles are prepared and the photovoltaic performance is characterized. These solar cells on fabrics delivered open circuit voltages up to 883 mV. This shows that shunt-free contacting of the solar cells was successful, even in case of non-planar fabrics. The short-circuit current densities up to 3.7 mA/cm{sup 2} are limited by transmission losses in a 10 nm thin titanium layer, which was used as a semi-transparent contact. The low conductivity of this layer limits the fill factor to 43.1%. Pseudo fill factors, neglecting the series resistance, up to 70.2% were measured. Efficiencies up to 1.4% and pseudo efficiencies up to 2.1% were realized on textile fabrics. A transparent conductive oxide could further improve the efficiency to above 5%.

  5. Merging Mixture Components for Cell Population Identification in Flow Cytometry

    Greg Finak

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a framework for the identification of cell subpopulations in flow cytometry data based on merging mixture components using the flowClust methodology. We show that the cluster merging algorithm under our framework improves model fit and provides a better estimate of the number of distinct cell subpopulations than either Gaussian mixture models or flowClust, especially for complicated flow cytometry data distributions. Our framework allows the automated selection of the number of distinct cell subpopulations and we are able to identify cases where the algorithm fails, thus making it suitable for application in a high throughput FCM analysis pipeline. Furthermore, we demonstrate a method for summarizing complex merged cell subpopulations in a simple manner that integrates with the existing flowClust framework and enables downstream data analysis. We demonstrate the performance of our framework on simulated and real FCM data. The software is available in the flowMerge package through the Bioconductor project.

  6. Go with the Flow: Cerebrospinal Fluid Flow Regulates Neural Stem Cell Proliferation.

    Kaneko, Naoko; Sawamoto, Kazunobu

    2018-06-01

    Adult neural stem cells in the wall of brain ventricles make direct contact with cerebrospinal fluid. In this issue of Cell Stem Cell, Petrik et al. (2018) demonstrate that these neural stem cells sense the flow of cerebrospinal fluid through a transmembrane sodium channel, ENaC, which regulates their proliferation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Chalcogenide glass-ceramic with self-organized heterojunctions: application to photovoltaic solar cells

    Zhang, Xianghua; Korolkov, Ilia; Fan, Bo; Cathelinaud, Michel; Ma, Hongli; Adam, Jean-Luc; Merdrignac, Odile; Calvez, Laurent; Lhermite, Hervé; Brizoual, Laurent Le; Pasquinelli, Marcel; Simon, Jean-Jacques

    2018-03-01

    In this work, we present for the first time the concept of chalcogenide glass-ceramic for photovoltaic applications with the GeSe2-Sb2Se3-CuI system. It has been demonstrated that thin films, deposited with the sputtering technique, are amorphous and can be crystallized with appropriate heat treatment. The thin film glass-ceramic behaves as a p-type semiconductor, even if it contains p-type Cu2GeSe3 and n-type Sb2Se3. The conductivity of Sb2Se3 has been greatly improved by appropriate iodine doping. The first photovoltaic solar cells based on the association of iodine-doped Sb2Se3 and the glass-ceramic thin films give a short-circuit current density JSC of 10 mA/cm2 and an open-circuit voltage VOC of 255 mV, with a power conversion efficiency of about 0.9%.

  8. Hydrazone based molecular glasses for solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    Aich, R.; Tran-Van, F.; Goubard, F.; Beouch, L.; Michaleviciute, A.; Grazulevicius, J.V.; Ratier, B.; Chevrot, C.

    2008-01-01

    Biscarbazole and terthiophene based molecular glasses with hydrazone functional goups (named respectively 2CzMPH and 3TDPH) have been synthesized and the thermal, optical and electrochemical properties have been studied. Differential scanning calorimetry characterizations confirm the metastable amorphous properties of these molecules with glass transition temperatures at 80 deg. C for the 3TDPH and 93 deg. C for the 2CzMPH. Their electrochemical properties have been studied and showed the effect of the conjugated hydrazone groups on the electronic delocalization of the structures. The concept of solid state dye-sensitized solar cells using hydrazone based molecular glasses has been verified with the elaboration of a SnO 2 : F/nc-TiO 2 /Ru-dye/2CzMPH /Au devices. Under full sunlight (98 mW/cm 2 , air mass 1.5) the I-V characterization of the device give a short circuit photocurrents I sc = 0.42 mA/cm 2 , open circuit voltage V oc = 500 mV with a fill factor of 0.35

  9. Chalcogenide glass-ceramic with self-organized heterojunctions: application to photovoltaic solar cells

    Zhang Xianghua

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we present for the first time the concept of chalcogenide glass-ceramic for photovoltaic applications with the GeSe2–Sb2Se3–CuI system. It has been demonstrated that thin films, deposited with the sputtering technique, are amorphous and can be crystallized with appropriate heat treatment. The thin film glass-ceramic behaves as a p-type semiconductor, even if it contains p-type Cu2GeSe3 and n-type Sb2Se3. The conductivity of Sb2Se3 has been greatly improved by appropriate iodine doping. The first photovoltaic solar cells based on the association of iodine-doped Sb2Se3 and the glass-ceramic thin films give a short-circuit current density JSC of 10 mA/cm2 and an open-circuit voltage VOC of 255 mV, with a power conversion efficiency of about 0.9%.

  10. Hydrazone based molecular glasses for solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    Aich, R. [Laboratoire de Physicochimie des Polymeres et des Interfaces (EA 2528), Universite de Cergy-Pontoise, 5 mail Gay Lussac, 95031 Cergy Pontoise (France); Ecole Electricite de Production et Methodes Industrielles, Cergy Pontoise (France); Tran-Van, F. [Laboratoire de Physicochimie des Polymeres et des Interfaces (EA 2528), Universite de Cergy-Pontoise, 5 mail Gay Lussac, 95031 Cergy Pontoise (France)], E-mail: francois.tran-van@u-cergy.fr; Goubard, F.; Beouch, L. [Laboratoire de Physicochimie des Polymeres et des Interfaces (EA 2528), Universite de Cergy-Pontoise, 5 mail Gay Lussac, 95031 Cergy Pontoise (France); Michaleviciute, A.; Grazulevicius, J.V. [Department of Organic Technology, Kaunas University of Technology, Radvilenu Plentas 19, Kaunas LT-50254 (Lithuania); Ratier, B. [X-LIM., departement MINACOM, UMR 6172, Faculte des Sciences, 123 av. Albert Thomas 87060 Limoges cedex France (France); Chevrot, C. [Laboratoire de Physicochimie des Polymeres et des Interfaces (EA 2528), Universite de Cergy-Pontoise, 5 mail Gay Lussac, 95031 Cergy Pontoise (France)

    2008-08-30

    Biscarbazole and terthiophene based molecular glasses with hydrazone functional goups (named respectively 2CzMPH and 3TDPH) have been synthesized and the thermal, optical and electrochemical properties have been studied. Differential scanning calorimetry characterizations confirm the metastable amorphous properties of these molecules with glass transition temperatures at 80 deg. C for the 3TDPH and 93 deg. C for the 2CzMPH. Their electrochemical properties have been studied and showed the effect of the conjugated hydrazone groups on the electronic delocalization of the structures. The concept of solid state dye-sensitized solar cells using hydrazone based molecular glasses has been verified with the elaboration of a SnO{sub 2}: F/nc-TiO{sub 2}/Ru-dye/2CzMPH /Au devices. Under full sunlight (98 mW/cm{sup 2}, air mass 1.5) the I-V characterization of the device give a short circuit photocurrents I{sub sc} = 0.42 mA/cm{sup 2}, open circuit voltage V{sub oc} = 500 mV with a fill factor of 0.35.

  11. Microstructural evolution and homogeneous viscous flow behavior of a Cu–Zr based bulk metallic glass composites

    Zhang, X.Y.; Yuan, Z.Z.; Li, D.X.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Stress–strain behaviors of the BMGCs are strain rate and temperature dependent. • Micro-crystals are compressed to concave polygon in shape and align in line. • Nano-crystals nuclear and aggregate during high temperature deformation. • Deformation behavior is governed by homogeneous flow of the amorphous matrix. - Abstract: The high temperature compression behavior of Cu 40 Zr 44 Ag 8 Al 8 rods with 6 mm in diameter was investigated and compared with the literature data. Microstructure of the as-cast rods were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscope in the composites state with microscale Al 3 Zr particles embedded in the amorphous matrix. Deformation results show that the stress–strain behaviors of the bulk metallic glass composites (BMGCs) are strain rate and temperature dependent. In addition, SEM observations reveal that the initially spherical and randomly distributed microscale particles in the amorphous matrix deform to concave polygon in shape and align perpendicular to the load direction during the compression. Meanwhile nano-crystals precipitate continuously from the matrix and aggregate during deformation. Rheological analysis show that the BMGCs exhibit a transition from Newtonian to non-Newtonian in flow behavior dependent on the stain rate. Particles in the amorphous matrix have reinforcement effect on the BMGCs, but the deformation behavior is still dominated by the homogeneous flow of the amorphous matrix phase

  12. Various sizes of sliding event bursts in the plastic flow of metallic glasses based on a spatiotemporal dynamic model

    Ren, Jingli, E-mail: renjl@zzu.edu.cn, E-mail: g.wang@shu.edu.cn; Chen, Cun [School of Mathematics and Statistics, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001 (China); Wang, Gang, E-mail: renjl@zzu.edu.cn, E-mail: g.wang@shu.edu.cn [Laboratory for Microstructures, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Cheung, Wing-Sum [Department of Mathematics, The University of HongKong, HongKong (China); Sun, Baoan; Mattern, Norbert [IFW-dresden, Institute for Complex Materials, P.O. Box 27 01 16, D-01171 Dresden (Germany); Siegmund, Stefan [Department of Mathematics, TU Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Eckert, Jürgen [IFW-dresden, Institute for Complex Materials, P.O. Box 27 01 16, D-01171 Dresden (Germany); Institute of Materials Science, TU Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany)

    2014-07-21

    This paper presents a spatiotemporal dynamic model based on the interaction between multiple shear bands in the plastic flow of metallic glasses during compressive deformation. Various sizes of sliding events burst in the plastic deformation as the generation of different scales of shear branches occurred; microscopic creep events and delocalized sliding events were analyzed based on the established model. This paper discusses the spatially uniform solutions and traveling wave solution. The phase space of the spatially uniform system applied in this study reflected the chaotic state of the system at a lower strain rate. Moreover, numerical simulation showed that the microscopic creep events were manifested at a lower strain rate, whereas the delocalized sliding events were manifested at a higher strain rate.

  13. Bioactive Glass Nanoparticles-Loaded Poly(ɛ-caprolactone Nanofiber as Substrate for ARPE-19 Cells

    Tadeu Henrique Lima

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioactive glass nanoparticles-loaded poly(ɛ-caprolactone nanofibers (BIOG PCL nanofibers were synthesized and evaluated as substrates for ocular cells (ARPE-19. BIOG PCL nanofibers were characterized using SEM, FTIR, and DSC, and the in vitro degradation profile was also investigated. The in vitro ocular biocompatibility of nanofibers was exploited in Müller glial cells (MIO-M1 cells and in chorioallantoic membrane (CAM; and the proliferative capacity, cytotoxicity, and functionality were evaluated. Finally, ARPE-19 cells were seeded onto BIOG PCL nanofibers and they were investigated as supports for in vitro cell adhesion and proliferation. SEM images revealed the incorporation of BIOG nanoparticles into PCL nanofibers. Nanoparticles did not induce modifications in the chemical structure and semicrystalline nature of PCL in the nanofiber, as shown by FTIR and DSC. MIO-M1 cells exposed to BIOG PCL nanofibers showed viability, and they were able to proliferate and to express GFAP, indicating cellular functionality. Moreover, nanofibers were well tolerated by CAM. These findings suggested the in vitro ocular biocompatibility and absence of toxicity of these nanofibers. Finally, the BIOG nanoparticles modulated the protein adsorption, and, subsequently, ARPE-19 cells adhered and proliferated onto the nanostructured supports, establishing cell-substrate interactions. In conclusion, the biodegradable and biocompatible BIOG PCL nanofibers supported the ARPE-19 cells.

  14. Cytoplasmic Flow Enhances Organelle Dispersion in Eukaryotic Cells

    Koslover, Elena; Mogre, Saurabh; Chan, Caleb; Theriot, Julie

    The cytoplasm of a living cell is an active environment through which intracellular components move and mix. We explore, using theoretical modeling coupled with microrheological measurements, the efficiency of particle dispersion via different modes of transport within this active environment. In particular, we focus on the role of cytoplasmic flow over different scales in contributing to organelle transport within two different cell types. In motile neutrophil cells, we show that bulk fluid flow associated with rapid cell deformation enhances particle transport to and from the cell periphery. In narrow fungal hyphae, localized flows due to hydrodynamic entrainment are shown to contribute to optimally efficient organelle dispersion. Our results highlight the importance of non-traditional modes of transport associated with flow of the cytoplasmic fluid in the distribution of organelles throughout eukaryotic cells.

  15. Bioleaching of Primary Nickel Ore Using Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans LR Cells Immobilized in Glass Beads

    Ellen Cristine Giese

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Sulphide minerals are one of the most important sources of value metals. For several years, a large number of hydrometallurgical and biotechnological processes have been developed to leach low-grade sulphide ores and the conditions are well established. However, the management of microorganisms in the bioleaching process is not easy to handle. In this paper, the use of immobilized cells of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans LR in glass beads in bioleaching of primary nickel ore was evaluated. The column experiments inoculated with immobilized cells of A. ferrooxidans LR showed the same efficiency than the conventional method using free cells and is promising for application on a larger scale as it ensuring integrity and activity of biomining microorganisms and reduce process costs. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17807/orbital.v7i2.698 

  16. Tackling bioactive glass excessive in vitro bioreactivity: Preconditioning approaches for cell culture tests.

    Ciraldo, Francesca E; Boccardi, Elena; Melli, Virginia; Westhauser, Fabian; Boccaccini, Aldo R

    2018-05-21

    Bioactive glasses (BGs) are being increasingly considered for biomedical applications in bone and soft tissue replacement approaches thanks to their ability to form strong bonding with tissues. However, due to their high reactivity once in contact with water-based solutions BGs rapidly exchange ions with the surrounding environment leading in most cases to an undesired increase of the pH under static in vitro conditions (due to alkaline ion "burst release"), making difficult or even impossible to perform cell culture studies. Several pre-conditioning treatments have been therefore proposed in laboratories worldwide to limit this problem. This paper presents an overview of the different strategies that have been put forward to pre-treat BG samples to tackle the pH raise issue in order to enable cell biology studies. The paper also discusses the relevant criteria that determine the selection of the optimal pre-treatment depending on the BG composition and morphology (e.g. particles, scaffolds). Bioactive glasses (BGs), since their discovery in 1971 by L.L Hench, have been widely used for bone replacement and repair, and, more recently, they are becoming highly attractive for bone and soft tissue engineering applications. BGs have in fact the ability to form a strong bond with both hard and soft tissues once in contact with biological fluid. The enhanced interaction of BGs with the biological environment is based on their significant surface bioreactivity. This surface effect of BGs is, on the other hand, problematic for cell biology studies by standard (static) cell culture methods: an excessive bioreactivity leads in most cases to a rapid and dramatic increase of the pH of the surrounding medium, which results in cell death and makes cell culture tests on BG samples impossible. The BG research community has been aware of this for many years and numerous pre-treatments have been proposed by different groups worldwide to limit this problem. For the first time, we have

  17. Surface Aggregation of Candida albicans on Glass in the Absence and Presence of Adhering Streptococcus gordonii in a Parallel-Plate Flow Chamber: A Surface Thermodynamical Analysis Based on Acid-Base Interactions.

    Millsap; Bos; Busscher; van der Mei HC

    1999-04-15

    Adhesive interactions between yeasts and bacteria are important in the maintenance of infectious mixed biofilms on natural and biomaterial surfaces in the human body. In this study, the extended DLVO (Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek) approach has been applied to explain adhesive interactions between C. albicans ATCC 10261 and S. gordonii NCTC 7869 adhering on glass. Contact angles with different liquids and the zeta potentials of both the yeasts and bacteria were determined and their adhesive interactions were measured in a parallel-plate flow chamber.Streptococci were first allowed to adhere to the bottom glass plate of the flow chamber to different seeding densities, and subsequently deposition of yeasts was monitored with an image analysis system, yielding the degree of initial surface aggregation of the adhering yeasts and their spatial arrangement in a stationary end point. Irrespective of growth temperature, the yeast cells appeared uncharged in TNMC buffer, but yeasts grown at 37 degrees C were intrinsically more hydrophilic and had an increased electron-donating character than cells grown at 30 degrees C. All yeasts showed surface aggregation due to attractive Lifshitz-van der Waals forces. In addition, acid-base interactions between yeasts, yeasts and the glass substratum, and yeasts and the streptococci were attractive for yeasts grown at 30 degrees C, but yeasts grown at 37 degrees C only had favorable acid-base interactions with the bacteria, explaining the positive relationship between the surface coverage of the glass by streptococci and the surface aggregation of the yeasts. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  18. Analysis of the Budding Yeast Cell Cycle by Flow Cytometry.

    Rosebrock, Adam P

    2017-01-03

    DNA synthesis is one of the landmark events in the cell cycle: G 1 cells have one copy of the genome, S phase cells are actively engaged in DNA synthesis, and G 2 cells have twice as much nuclear DNA as G 1 cells. Cellular DNA content can be measured by staining with a fluorescent dye followed by a flow-cytometric readout. This method provides a quantitative measurement of cell cycle position on a cell-by-cell basis at high speed. Using flow cytometry, tens of thousands of single-cell measurements can be generated in a few seconds. This protocol details staining of cells of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae for flow cytometry using Sytox Green dye in a method that can be scaled widely-from one sample to many thousands and operating on inputs ranging from 1 million to more than 100 million cells. Flow cytometry is preferred over light microscopy or Coulter analyses for the analysis of the cell cycle as DNA content and cell cycle position are being directly measured. © 2017 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  19. Pressure-driven occlusive flow of a confined red blood cell.

    Savin, Thierry; Bandi, M M; Mahadevan, L

    2016-01-14

    When red blood cells (RBCs) move through narrow capillaries in the microcirculation, they deform as they flow. In pathophysiological processes such as sickle cell disease and malaria, RBC motion and flow are severely restricted. To understand this threshold of occlusion, we use a combination of experiment and theory to study the motion of a single swollen RBC through a narrow glass capillary of varying inner diameter. By tracking the movement of the squeezed cell as it is driven by a controlled pressure drop, we measure the RBC velocity as a function of the pressure gradient as well as the local capillary diameter, and find that the effective blood viscosity in this regime increases with both decreasing RBC velocity and tube radius by following a power-law that depends upon the length of the confined cell. Our observations are consistent with a simple elasto-hydrodynamic model and highlight the role of lateral confinement in the occluded pressure-driven slow flow of soft confined objects.

  20. The study of sheath flow dark zone phenomenon in dynamic individual cells scattering measurement

    Zhang, Lu; Zhao, Hong; Wang, Xiaopin; Zhang, Weiguang

    2008-09-01

    Dynamic cells scattering is one of the most efficient approaches exploring in measurements of cells size, morphology and growth states. This technique can be widely applied in real-time detection for pharmaceutical industry, food industry, liquor industry and other biological fields. A novel method named dynamic individual cells scattering measurement is designed in this paper, which can make cells pass through quartz glass measurement zone one by one with sheath flow driving force. During the experiments, an obvious phenomenon has been found which is called sheath flow dark zone phenomenon (SFDZ). Under the influence of SFDZ, sheath flow forming detection becomes very difficult. In this paper, the causes giving rise to SFDZ have been analyzed. And an improved method is put forward, in which the orifice inside the measurement zone is set as an optical system. Then the illuminating system is redesigned. In this way, almost all the illuminating light can enter orifice so that the total reflection energy decreases substantially. A comparison experiments have been done, which proves the efficiency of this redesigned optical system and its sound effects on SFDZ avoiding.

  1. Improving the chemical compatibility of sealing glass for solid oxide fuel cells: Blocking the reactive species by controlled crystallization

    Zhang, Teng; Zou, Qi; Zeng, Fanrong; Wang, Shaorong; Tang, Dian; Yang, Hiswen

    2012-10-01

    The chemical compatibility of sealing glass is of great importance for Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). In this work, the interfacial reaction between sealing glass and Cr-containing interconnect alloy is characterized by reacting Cr2O3 powders with a representative SrO-containing glass crystallized by different heat-treatment schedules. The crystalline structure and crystalline content of sealing glass are determined by X-ray diffraction. The results show that the fraction of Cr6+ decreases from 39.8 ± 1.9% for quenched glass to 8.2 ± 0.4% for glass crystallized at 900 °C for 2 h. In addition, the interfacial reaction can be further reduced with increasing crystallization temperature and time as well as the addition of nucleation agent (TiO2). The formation of some Sr-containing crystalline phases, Sr2SiO4 and Sr(TiO3), contributes to the improvement of chemical compatibility of sealing glass, in agreement with the results of thermodynamic calculations.

  2. Polymer electrolyte fuel cells: flow field for efficient air operation

    Buechi, F N; Tsukada, A; Haas, O; Scherer, G G [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    A new flow field was designed for a polymer electrolyte fuel cell stack with an active area of 200 cm{sup 2} for operation at low air stoichiometry and low air over pressure. Optimum of gas flow and channel dimensions were calculated based on the required pressure drop in the fluid. Single cells and a bi-cell stack with the new flow field show an improved current/voltage characteristic when operated at low air stoichiometries as compared to that of the previous non optimized design. (author) 4 figs., 3 refs.

  3. Influences of oxygen gas flow rate on electrical properties of Ga-doped ZnO thin films deposited on glass and sapphire substrates

    Makino, Hisao; Song, Huaping; Yamamoto, Tetsuya

    2014-01-01

    The Ga-doped ZnO (GZO) films deposited on glass and c-plane sapphire substrates have been comparatively studied in order to explore the role of grain boundaries in electrical properties. The influences of oxygen gas flow rates (OFRs) during the deposition by ion-plating were examined. The dependences of carrier concentration, lattice parameters, and characteristic of thermal desorption of Zn on the OFR showed common features between glass and sapphire substrates, however, the Hall mobility showed different behavior. The Hall mobility of GZO films on glass increased with increasing OFR of up to 15 sccm, and decreased with further increasing OFR. On the other hand, the Hall mobility of GZO films on c-sapphire increased for up to 25 sccm. The role of grain boundary in polycrystalline GZO films has been discussed. - Highlights: • Ga-doped ZnO films were deposited on glass and c-sapphire by ion-plating. • The epitaxial growth on c-sapphire was confirmed by X-ray diffraction. • Dependence of Hall mobility showed different tendency between glass and sapphire. • Grain boundaries influence transport properties at high O 2 gas flow rate

  4. INFLUENCE OF PULSATILE FLOW ON THE BEHAVIOR OF HUMAN FIBROBLASTS ADHERED TO GLASS

    VANKOOTEN, TG; SCHAKENRAAD, JM; VANDERMEI, HC; BUSSCHER, HJ

    1993-01-01

    In the human body, cells contacting biomaterials surfaces are frequently exposed to pulsatile shear stresses, e.g. blood vessel prostheses. Most studies involving shear, however, try to achieve a steady, pulse-free shear stress in studying cell-biomaterial interactions. In this study, human

  5. Sequential flow membraneless microfluidic fuel cell with porous electrodes

    Salloum, Kamil S.; Posner, Jonathan D. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-6106 (United States); Hayes, Joel R.; Friesen, Cody A. [School of Materials, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-8706 (United States)

    2008-05-15

    A novel convective flow membraneless microfluidic fuel cell with porous disk electrodes is described. In this fuel cell design, the fuel flows radially outward through a thin disk shaped anode and across a gap to a ring shaped cathode. An oxidant is introduced into the gap between anode and cathode and advects radially outward to the cathode. This fuel cell differs from previous membraneless designs in that the fuel and the oxidant flow in series, rather than in parallel, enabling independent control over the fuel and oxidant flow rate and the electrode areas. The cell uses formic acid as a fuel and potassium permanganate as the oxidant, both contained in a sulfuric acid electrolyte. The flow velocity field is examined using microscale particle image velocimetry and shown to be nearly axisymmetric and steady. The results show that increasing the electrolyte concentration reduces the cell Ohmic resistance, resulting in larger maximum currents and peak power densities. Increasing the flow rate delays the onset of mass transport and reduces Ohmic losses resulting in larger maximum currents and peak power densities. An average open circuit potential of 1.2 V is obtained with maximum current and power densities of 5.35 mA cm{sup -2} and 2.8 mW cm{sup -2}, respectively (cell electrode area of 4.3 cm{sup 2}). At a flow rate of 100 {mu}L min{sup -1} a fuel utilization of 58% is obtained. (author)

  6. Molecular Characterization of Gastric Epithelial Cells Using Flow Cytometry

    Kevin A. Bockerstett

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The ability to analyze individual epithelial cells in the gastric mucosa would provide important insight into gastric disease, including chronic gastritis and progression to gastric cancer. However, the successful isolation of viable gastric epithelial cells (parietal cells, neck cells, chief cells, and foveolar cells from gastric glands has been limited due to difficulties in tissue processing. Furthermore, analysis and interpretation of gastric epithelial cell flow cytometry data has been difficult due to the varying sizes and light scatter properties of the different epithelial cells, high levels of autofluorescence, and poor cell viability. These studies were designed to develop a reliable method for isolating viable single cells from the corpus of stomachs and to optimize analyses examining epithelial cells from healthy and diseased stomach tissue by flow cytometry. We performed a two stage enzymatic digestion in which collagenase released individual gastric glands from the stromal tissue of the corpus, followed by a Dispase II digestion that dispersed these glands into greater than 1 × 106 viable single cells per gastric corpus. Single cell suspensions were comprised of all major cell lineages found in the normal gastric glands. A method describing light scatter, size exclusion, doublet discrimination, viability staining, and fluorescently-conjugated antibodies and lectins was used to analyze individual epithelial cells and immune cells. This technique was capable of identifying parietal cells and revealed that gastric epithelial cells in the chronically inflamed mucosa significantly upregulated major histocompatibility complexes (MHC I and II but not CD80 or CD86, which are costimulatory molecules involved in T cell activation. These studies describe a method for isolating viable single cells and a detailed description of flow cytometric analysis of cells from healthy and diseased stomachs. These studies begin to identify effects of

  7. Packaging Glass with a Hierarchically Nanostructured Surface: A Universal Method to Achieve Self-Cleaning Omnidirectional Solar Cells

    Lin, Chin An

    2015-12-01

    Fused-silica packaging glass fabricated with a hierarchical structure by integrating small (ultrathin nanorods) and large (honeycomb nanowalls) structures was demonstrated with exceptional light-harvesting solar performance, which is attributed to the subwavelength feature of the nanorods and an efficient scattering ability of the honeycomb nanowalls. Si solar cells covered with the hierarchically structured packaging glass exhibit enhanced conversion efficiency by 5.2% at normal incidence, and the enhancement went up to 46% at the incident angle of 60°. The hierarchical structured packaging glass shows excellent self-cleaning characteristics: 98.8% of the efficiency is maintained after 6 weeks of outdoor exposure, indicating that the nanostructured surface effectively repels polluting dust/particles. The presented self-cleaning omnidirectional light-harvesting design using the hierarchical structured packaging glass is a potential universal scheme for practical solar applications.

  8. 3D cell culture to determine in vitro biocompatibility of bioactive glass in association with chitosan.

    Bédouin, Y; Pellen Mussi, P; Tricot-Doleux, S; Chauvel-Lebret, D; Auroy, P; Ravalec, X; Oudadesse, H; Perez, F

    2015-01-01

    This study reports the in vitro biocompatibility of a composite biomaterial composed of 46S6 bioactive glass in association with chitosan (CH) by using 3D osteoblast culture of SaOS2. The 46S6 and CH composite (46S6-CH) forms small hydroxyapatite crystals on its surface after only three days immersion in the simulated body fluid. For 2D osteoblast culture, a significant increase in cell proliferation was observed after three days of contact with 46S6 or 46S6-CH-immersed media. After six days, 46S6-CH led to a significant increase in cell proliferation (128%) compared with pure 46S6 (113%) and pure CH (122%). For 3D osteoblast culture, after six days of culture, there was an increase in gene expression of markers of the early osteoblastic differentiation (RUNX2, ALP, COL1A1). Geometric structures corresponding to small apatite clusters were observed by SEM on the surface of the spheroids cultivated with 46S6 or 46S6-CH-immersed media. We showed different cellular responses depending on the 2D and 3D cell culture model. The induction of osteoblast differentiation in the 3D cell culture explained the differences of cell proliferation in contact with 46S6, CH or 46S6-CH-immersed media. This study confirmed that the 3D cell culture model is a very promising tool for in vitro biological evaluation of bone substitutes' properties.

  9. Chaotic state to self-organized critical state transition of serrated flow dynamics during brittle-to-ductile transition in metallic glass

    Wang, C.; Wang, W. H.; Bai, H. Y., E-mail: hybai@aphy.iphy.ac.cn [Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Sun, B. A. [Centre for Advanced Structural Materials, Department of Mechanical and Biomedical Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon Tong, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2016-02-07

    We study serrated flow dynamics during brittle-to-ductile transition induced by tuning the sample aspect ratio in a Zr-based metallic glass. The statistical analysis reveals that the serrated flow dynamics transforms from a chaotic state characterized by Gaussian-distribution serrations corresponding to stick-slip motion of randomly generated and uncorrelated single shear band and brittle behavior, into a self-organized critical state featured by intermittent scale-free distribution of shear avalanches corresponding to a collective motion of multiple shear bands and ductile behavior. The correlation found between serrated flow dynamics and plastic deformation might shed light on the plastic deformation dynamic and mechanism in metallic glasses.

  10. Solid KHT tumor dispersal for flow cytometric cell kinetic analysis

    Pallavicini, M.G.; Folstad, L.J.; Dunbar, C.

    1981-01-01

    A bacterial neutral protease was used to disperse KHT solid tumors into single cell suspensions suitable for routine cell kinetic analysis by flow cytometry and for clonogenic cell survival. Neutral protease disaggregation under conditions which would be suitable for routine tumor dispersal was compared with a trypsin/DNase procedure. Cell yield, clonogenic cell survival, DNA distributions of untreated and drug-perturbed tumors, rates of radioactive precursor incorporation during the cell cycle, and preferential cell cycle phase-specific cell loss were investigated. Tumors dispersed with neutral protease yielded approximately four times more cells than those dispersed with trypsin/DNase and approximately a 1.5-fold higher plating efficiency in a semisolid agar system. Quantitative analysis of DNA distributions obtained from untreated and cytosine-arabinoside-perturbed tumors produced similar results with both dispersal procedures. The rates of incorporation of tritiated thymidine during the cell cycle were also similar with neutral protease and trypsin/DNase dispersal. Preferential phase-specific cell loss was not obseved with either technique. We find that neutral protease provides good single cell suspensions of the KHT tumor for cell survival measurements and for cell kinetic analysis of drug-induced perturbations by flow cytometry. In addition, the high cell yields facilitate electronic cell sorting where large numbers of cells are often required

  11. Glial cell adhesion and protein adsorption on SAM coated semiconductor and glass surfaces of a microfluidic structure

    Sasaki, Darryl Y.; Cox, Jimmy D.; Follstaedt, Susan C.; Curry, Mark S.; Skirboll, Steven K.; Gourley, Paul L.

    2001-05-01

    The development of microsystems that merge biological materials with microfabricated structures is highly dependent on the successful interfacial interactions between these innately incompatible materials. Surface passivation of semiconductor and glass surfaces with thin organic films can attenuate the adhesion of proteins and cells that lead to biofilm formation and biofouling of fluidic structures. We have examined the adhesion of glial cells and serum albumin proteins to microfabricated glass and semiconductor surfaces coated with self-assembled monolayers of octadecyltrimethoxysilane and N-(triethoxysilylpropyl)-O- polyethylene oxide urethane, to evaluate the biocompatibility and surface passivation those coatings provide.

  12. Effect of induced cross flow on flow pattern and performance of proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    Jiao, Kui; Bachman, John; Zhou, Yibo; Park, Jae Wan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • 3D numerical works to study the effect of cross flow on the PEMFC performance. • The cross flow ensure more evenly distributed water and oxygen in the CL. • The optimal net power output can be identified by controlling the back pressure. • Results confirm that present design is effective in improving performance. - Abstract: The cross flow in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) plays an important role in changing the transport pattern and performance. In this study, three-dimensional numerical simulations are carried out to investigate the effect of induced cross flow on the flow pattern and performance of a PEMFC with a previously proposed and experimentally studied novel parallel flow channel design. The numerical results indicate that the liquid water and oxygen become more evenly distributed in the catalyst layer (CL) as the pressure difference between the low-pressure and high-pressure flow channels increases. It has been found that, in the low-pressure channels, the cross flow drives a convective flow from the CL to the flow channel resulting in improved liquid water removal. The optimal net power output can be identified by controlling the back pressure on the high-pressure flow channels. The numerical results confirm that this novel parallel flow channel design is effective in improving PEMFC performance

  13. Partitioning of red blood cell aggregates in bifurcating microscale flows

    Kaliviotis, E.; Sherwood, J. M.; Balabani, S.

    2017-03-01

    Microvascular flows are often considered to be free of red blood cell aggregates, however, recent studies have demonstrated that aggregates are present throughout the microvasculature, affecting cell distribution and blood perfusion. This work reports on the spatial distribution of red blood cell aggregates in a T-shaped bifurcation on the scale of a large microvessel. Non-aggregating and aggregating human red blood cell suspensions were studied for a range of flow splits in the daughter branches of the bifurcation. Aggregate sizes were determined using image processing. The mean aggregate size was marginally increased in the daughter branches for a range of flow rates, mainly due to the lower shear conditions and the close cell and aggregate proximity therein. A counterintuitive decrease in the mean aggregate size was apparent in the lower flow rate branches. This was attributed to the existence of regions depleted by aggregates of certain sizes in the parent branch, and to the change in the exact flow split location in the T-junction with flow ratio. The findings of the present investigation may have significant implications for microvascular flows and may help explain why the effects of physiological RBC aggregation are not deleterious in terms of in vivo vascular resistance.

  14. Development of a scintillation flow-cell detection system for environmental restoration and waste management applications

    DeVol, T.A.; Branton, S.D.; Fjeld, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    A flow-cell detection system was developed utilizing a coincidence circuit and tested with BaF 2 , CaF 2 :Eu and scintillating glass. The coincidence detection system reduced the background from ∼200 cps to ∼0.5 cps. The detection efficiencies for these cells ranged from 0.38 to 0.66 for 45 Ca beta particles (E max = 0.257 MeV) and from 0.45 to 0.52 for 233 U alpha particles (E α = 4.8 MeV). The minimum detectable activity was calculated for a 30 s count time and determined to be in the range of 1-2 Bq

  15. Hot gas flow cell for optical measurements on reactive gases

    Grosch, Helge; Fateev, Alexander; Nielsen, Karsten Lindorff

    2013-01-01

    A new design is presented for a gas flow cell for reactive gases at high temperatures. The design features three heated sections that are separated by flow windows. This design avoids the contact of reactive gases with the material of the exchangeable optical windows. A gas cell with this design ......-resolution measurements are presented for the absorption cross-section of sulfur dioxide (SO2) in the UV range up to 773 K (500 degrees C)...

  16. Cytotoxic effects of glass ionomer cements on human dental pulp stem cells correlate with fluoride release.

    Kanjevac, Tatjana; Milovanovic, Marija; Volarevic, Vladislav; Lukic, Miodrag L; Arsenijevic, Nebojsa; Markovic, Dejan; Zdravkovic, Nebojsa; Tesic, Zivoslav; Lukic, Aleksandra

    2012-01-01

    Glass ionomer cements (GICs) are commonly used as restorative materials. Responses to GICs differ among cell types and it is therefore of importance to thoroughly investigate the influence of these restorative materials on pulp stem cells that are potential source for dental tissue regeneration. Eight biomaterials were tested: Fuji I, Fuji II, Fuji VIII, Fuji IX, Fuji Plus, Fuji Triage, Vitrebond and Composit. We compared their cytotoxic activity on human dental pulp stem cells (DPSC) and correlated this activity with the content of Fluoride, Aluminium and Strontium ions in their eluates. Elution samples of biomaterials were prepared in sterile tissue culture medium and the medium was tested for toxicity by an assay of cell survival/proliferation (MTT test) and apoptosis (Annexin V FITC Detection Kit). Concentrations of Fluoride, Aluminium and Strontium ions were tested by appropriate methods in the same eluates. Cell survival ranged between 79.62% (Fuji Triage) to 1.5% (Fuji Plus) and most dead DPSCs were in the stage of late apoptosis. Fluoride release correlated with cytotoxicity of GICs, while Aluminium and Strontium ions, present in significant amount in eluates of tested GICs did not. Fuji Plus, Vitrebond and Fuji VIII, which released fluoride in higher quantities than other GICs, were highly toxic to human DPSCs. Opposite, low levels of released fluoride correlated to low cytotoxic effect of Composit, Fuji I and Fuji Triage.

  17. Modeling two-phase flow in PEM fuel cell channels

    Wang, Yun; Basu, Suman; Wang, Chao-Yang [Electrochemical Engine Center (ECEC), and Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2008-05-01

    This paper is concerned with the simultaneous flow of liquid water and gaseous reactants in mini-channels of a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell. Envisaging the mini-channels as structured and ordered porous media, we develop a continuum model of two-phase channel flow based on two-phase Darcy's law and the M{sup 2} formalism, which allow estimate of the parameters key to fuel cell operation such as overall pressure drop and liquid saturation profiles along the axial flow direction. Analytical solutions of liquid water saturation and species concentrations along the channel are derived to explore the dependences of these physical variables vital to cell performance on operating parameters such as flow stoichiometric ratio and relative humility. The two-phase channel model is further implemented for three-dimensional numerical simulations of two-phase, multi-component transport in a single fuel-cell channel. Three issues critical to optimizing channel design and mitigating channel flooding in PEM fuel cells are fully discussed: liquid water buildup towards the fuel cell outlet, saturation spike in the vicinity of flow cross-sectional heterogeneity, and two-phase pressure drop. Both the two-phase model and analytical solutions presented in this paper may be applicable to more general two-phase flow phenomena through mini- and micro-channels. (author)

  18. Different effects of a novel CaO-MgO-SiO₂-based multiphase glass-ceramic on cell behaviors of normal and cancer cells in vitro.

    Zhang, Mengjiao; Chen, Xianchun; Pu, Ximing; Liao, Xiaoming; Huang, Zhongbing; Yin, Guangfu

    2014-04-01

    The effects in vitro of a novel multiphase glass-ceramic (with nominal composition of 43.19% CaO, 7.68% MgO, and 49.13% SiO2 in weight percent) on cell adhesion, proliferation, differentiation and ultrastructure of human osteosarcoma cell line MG63, mouse fibroblasts L929, and human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial cell line A549 were investigated in this research. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs revealed that the surface morphology of this glass-ceramic was beneficial to cell adhesion. The glass-ceramic extracts at certain concentrations could stimulate the proliferation and differentiation of MG63 and L929 cells, whereas inhibit A549 proliferation, which might be resulted from the released Si ions. In addition, when cultured with 0.1mg/mL glass-ceramic powder suspension, the cell ultrastructure of MG63 showed abundant organelles and L929 displayed the phenomena of cellular stress response. While more interestingly, A549 exhibited chromatin condensation, mitochondria swell and RER expansion, which was presumed to be early signs of apoptosis. These results suggest that this novel CaO-MgO-SiO2-based multiphase glass-ceramic has potential for bone regeneration and tissue engineering applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Flow field measurements in the cell culture unit

    Walker, Stephen; Wilder, Mike; Dimanlig, Arsenio; Jagger, Justin; Searby, Nancy

    2002-01-01

    The cell culture unit (CCU) is being designed to support cell growth for long-duration life science experiments on the International Space Station (ISS). The CCU is a perfused loop system that provides a fluid environment for controlled cell growth experiments within cell specimen chambers (CSCs), and is intended to accommodate diverse cell specimen types. Many of the functional requirements depend on the fluid flow field within the CSC (e.g., feeding and gas management). A design goal of the CCU is to match, within experimental limits, all environmental conditions, other than the effects of gravity on the cells, whether the hardware is in microgravity ( micro g), normal Earth gravity, or up to 2g on the ISS centrifuge. In order to achieve this goal, two steps are being taken. The first step is to characterize the environmental conditions of current 1g cell biology experiments being performed in laboratories using ground-based hardware. The second step is to ensure that the design of the CCU allows the fluid flow conditions found in 1g to be replicated from microgravity up to 2g. The techniques that are being used to take these steps include flow visualization, particle image velocimetry (PIV), and computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Flow visualization using the injection of dye has been used to gain a global perspective of the characteristics of the CSC flow field. To characterize laboratory cell culture conditions, PIV is being used to determine the flow field parameters of cell suspension cultures grown in Erlenmeyer flasks on orbital shakers. These measured parameters will be compared to PIV measurements in the CSCs to ensure that the flow field that cells encounter in CSCs is within the bounds determined for typical laboratory experiments. Using CFD, a detailed simulation is being developed to predict the flow field within the CSC for a wide variety of flow conditions, including microgravity environments. Results from all these measurements and analyses of the

  20. Development of Hermetic Sealing Glasses for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Sealing glasses, either rigid glass-ceramics or viscous, non-crystallizing compositions, will be developed and sealing processes will be optimized based on NASA's...

  1. Upward swimming of a sperm cell in shear flow.

    Omori, Toshihiro; Ishikawa, Takuji

    2016-03-01

    Mammalian sperm cells are required to swim over long distances, typically around 1000-fold their own length. They must orient themselves and maintain a swimming motion to reach the ovum, or egg cell. Although the mechanism of long-distance navigation is still unclear, one possible mechanism, rheotaxis, was reported recently. This work investigates the mechanism of the rheotaxis in detail by simulating the motions of a sperm cell in shear flow adjacent to a flat surface. A phase diagram was developed to show the sperm's swimming motion under different shear rates, and for varying flagellum waveform conditions. The results showed that, under shear flow, the sperm is able to hydrodynamically change its swimming direction, allowing it to swim upwards against the flow, which suggests that the upward swimming of sperm cells can be explained using fluid mechanics, and this can then be used to further understand physiology of sperm cell navigation.

  2. Placenta Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Hosted on RKKP Glass-Ceramic: A Tissue Engineering Strategy for Bone Regenerative Medicine Applications

    Mario Ledda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In tissue engineering protocols, the survival of transplanted stem cells is a limiting factor that could be overcome using a cell delivery matrix able to support cell proliferation and differentiation. With this aim, we studied the cell-friendly and biocompatible behavior of RKKP glass-ceramic coated Titanium (Ti surface seeded with human amniotic mesenchymal stromal cells (hAMSCs from placenta. The sol-gel synthesis procedure was used to prepare the RKKP glass-ceramic material, which was then deposited onto the Ti surface by Pulsed Laser Deposition method. The cell metabolic activity and proliferation rate, the cytoskeletal actin organization, and the cell cycle phase distribution in hAMSCs seeded on the RKKP coated Ti surface revealed no significant differences when compared to the cells grown on the treated plastic Petri dish. The health of of hAMSCs was also analysed studying the mRNA expressions of MSC key genes and the osteogenic commitment capability using qRT-PCR analysis which resulted in being unchanged in both substrates. In this study, the combination of the hAMSCs’ properties together with the bioactive characteristics of RKKP glass-ceramics was investigated and the results obtained indicate its possible use as a new and interesting cell delivery system for bone tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications.

  3. Impact of optical properties of front glass substrates on Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} solar cells using lift-off process

    Tamura, Akihiro, E-mail: ro005080@ed.ritsumei.ac.jp [College of Science and Engineering, Ritsumeikan University, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-0058 (Japan); Abe, Yasuhiro [Ritsumeikan Global Innovation Research Organization, Ritsumeikan University, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-0058 (Japan); Minemoto, Takashi [College of Science and Engineering, Ritsumeikan University, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-0058 (Japan)

    2013-11-01

    Transmittance of a front glass is one of the important factors in the development of high efficiency superstrate-type Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGS) solar cells. In this study, we investigated the impact of optical properties of the front glass on the solar cell performance of the CIGS solar cells fabricated using the lift-off process. First, optical properties of quartz substrates and soda-lime glass (SLG) substrates with various thicknesses were investigated. Although optical properties of the SLG substrates depend on the thickness, those of the quartz substrates hardly depend on the thickness. Secondly, the superstrate-type CIGS solar cells were fabricated using 1-mm-thick SLG or 1-mm-thick quartz substrates. As a result, the short-circuit current density of the superstrate-type CIGS solar cell with 1-mm-thick quartz substrate was approximately 7% higher than that with 1-mm-thick SLG substrate, and its conversion efficiency was 7.1%. The external quantum efficiency of the solar cells was also improved using the quartz substrate as a front glass because transmittance and absorptance of the quartz substrate were superior to those of the SLG substrate. We therefore conclude that optical properties of the front glasses play an important role in the improvement of the superstrate-type solar cells. - Highlights: • Superstrate type Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} solar cells are fabricated by lift-off process. • Various glasses are used as front glass for lift-off. • The impact of optical properties of the glasses on cell performance is investigated. • Quartz front glass gives 7% higher short-circuit current than soda-lime glass. • High transmittance is desired for front glass.

  4. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Saccharomyces cerevisiae Biofilm in Flow Cells

    Weiss Nielsen, Martin; Sternberg, Claus; Molin, Søren

    2011-01-01

    or proteins compatible with CLSM analysis. This enables online visualization and allows investigation of niches in the developing biofilm. Microbial interrelationship, investigation of antimicrobial agents or the expression of specific genes, are of the many experimental setups that can be investigated......). Using a transparent substratum it is possible to device a system where simple biofilms can be examined in a non-destructive way in real-time: here we demonstrate the assembly and operation of a flow cell model system, for in vitro 3D studies of microbial biofilms generating high reproducibility under...... well-defined conditions(2,3). The system consists of a flow cell that serves as growth chamber for the biofilm. The flow cell is supplied with nutrients and oxygen from a medium flask via a peristaltic pump and spent medium is collected in a waste container. This construction of the flow system allows...

  5. New down-converter for UV-stable perovskite solar cells: Phosphor-in-glass

    Roh, Hee-Suk; Han, Gill Sang; Lee, Seongha; Kim, Sanghyun; Choi, Sungwoo; Yoon, Chulsoo; Lee, Jung-Kun

    2018-06-01

    Degradation of hybrid lead halide perovskite by UV light is a crucial issue that limits the commercialization of lead halide perovskite solar cells (PSCs). To address this problem, phosphor-in-glass (PiG) is used to convert UV to visible light. Down-conversion of UV light by PiG dramatically increases UV-stability of PSCs and enables PSCs to harvest UV light that is currently wasted. Performance of PSCs with PiG layer does not change significantly during 100 h-long UV-irradiation, while conventional PSCs degrade quickly by 1 h-long UV-irradiation. After 100 h long UV-irradiation, power conversion efficiency of PSCs with PiG is 440% larger than that of conventional PSCs. This result points a direction toward PSCs which are very stable and highly efficient under UV light.

  6. Continuous depth-sensing nano-mechanical characterization of living, fixed and dehydrated cells attached on a glass substrate

    Yang, Yun-Ta; Liao, Jiunn-Der; Chang, Chia-Wei [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, No. 1, University Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Lin, Chou-Ching K [Department of Neurology, National Cheng Kung University, No. 1, University Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Ju, Ming-Shaung, E-mail: jdliao@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, No. 1, University Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China)

    2010-07-16

    Continuous depth-sensing nano-indentation on living, fixed and dehydrated fibroblast cells was performed using a dynamic contact module and vertically measured from a pre-contact state to the glass substrate. The nano-indentation tip-on-cell approaches took advantage of finding a contact surface, followed by obtaining a continuous nano-mechanical profile along the nano-indentation depths. In the experiment, serial indentations from the leading edge, i.e., the lamellipodium to nucleus regions of living, fixed and dehydrated fibroblast cells were examined. Nano-indentations on a living cell anchored upon glass substrate were competent in finding the tip-on-cell contact surfaces and cell heights. For the result on the fixed and the dehydrated cells, cellular nano-mechanical properties were clearly characterized by continuous harmonic contact stiffness (HCS) measurements. The relations of HCS versus measured displacement, varied from the initial tip-on-cell contact to the glass substrate, were presumably divided into three stages, respectively induced by cellular intrinsic behavior, the substrate-dominant property, and the substrate property. This manifestation is beneficial to elucidate how the underlying substrate influences the interpretation of the nano-mechanical property of thin soft matter on a hard substrate. These findings, based upon continuous depth-sensing nano-indentations, are presumably valuable as a reference to related work, e.g., accomplished by atomic force microscopy.

  7. Continuous depth-sensing nano-mechanical characterization of living, fixed and dehydrated cells attached on a glass substrate

    Yang, Yun-Ta; Liao, Jiunn-Der; Chang, Chia-Wei; Lin, Chou-Ching K; Ju, Ming-Shaung

    2010-01-01

    Continuous depth-sensing nano-indentation on living, fixed and dehydrated fibroblast cells was performed using a dynamic contact module and vertically measured from a pre-contact state to the glass substrate. The nano-indentation tip-on-cell approaches took advantage of finding a contact surface, followed by obtaining a continuous nano-mechanical profile along the nano-indentation depths. In the experiment, serial indentations from the leading edge, i.e., the lamellipodium to nucleus regions of living, fixed and dehydrated fibroblast cells were examined. Nano-indentations on a living cell anchored upon glass substrate were competent in finding the tip-on-cell contact surfaces and cell heights. For the result on the fixed and the dehydrated cells, cellular nano-mechanical properties were clearly characterized by continuous harmonic contact stiffness (HCS) measurements. The relations of HCS versus measured displacement, varied from the initial tip-on-cell contact to the glass substrate, were presumably divided into three stages, respectively induced by cellular intrinsic behavior, the substrate-dominant property, and the substrate property. This manifestation is beneficial to elucidate how the underlying substrate influences the interpretation of the nano-mechanical property of thin soft matter on a hard substrate. These findings, based upon continuous depth-sensing nano-indentations, are presumably valuable as a reference to related work, e.g., accomplished by atomic force microscopy.

  8. Flow sorting in the study of teratocarcinoma cell differentiation

    G.H. Schaap (Gerard Hendrik)

    1984-01-01

    textabstractFlow cytometry is a technique by which particles (cells, subcellular fragments, bacteria) in aqueous suspension are passed one by one through a sensing region where optical (or electrical) signals are generated. These signals for each individual cell are collected and processed, and may

  9. Separation of cancer cells using vortical microfluidic flows.

    Haddadi, Hamed; Naghsh-Nilchi, Hamed; Di Carlo, Dino

    2018-01-01

    Label-free separation of viable cancer cells using vortical microfluidic flows has been introduced as a feasible cell collection method in oncological studies. Besides the clinical importance, the physics of particle interactions with the vortex that forms in a wall-confined geometry of a microchannel is a relatively new area of fluid dynamics. In our previous work [Haddadi and Di Carlo, J. Fluid. Mech. 811 , 436-467 (2017)], we have introduced distinct aspects of inertial flow of dilute suspensions over cavities in a microchannel such as breakdown of the separatrix and formation of stable limit cycle orbits for finite size polystyrene particles. In this work, we extend our experiments to address the engineering-physics of cancer cell entrapment in microfluidic cavities. We begin by studying the effects of the channel width and device height on the morphology of the vortex, which has not been discussed in our previous work. The stable limit cycle orbits of finite size cancer cells are then presented. We demonstrate effects of the separatrix breakdown and the limit cycle formation on the operation of the cancer cell separation platform. By studying the flow of dilute cell suspensions over the cavities, we further develop the notion of the cavity capacity and the relative rate of cell accumulation as optimization criteria which connect the device geometry with the flow. Finally, we discuss the proper placement of multiple cavities inside a microchannel for improved cell entrapment.

  10. Determinants of resting cerebral blood flow in sickle cell disease

    Bush, Adam M.; Borzage, Matthew T.; Choi, Soyoung; Václavů, Lena; Tamrazi, Benita; Nederveen, Aart J.; Coates, Thomas D.; Wood, John C.

    2016-01-01

    Stroke is common in children with sickle cell disease and results from an imbalance in oxygen supply and demand. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) is increased in patients with sickle cell disease to compensate for their anemia, but adequacy of their oxygen delivery has not been systematically demonstrated.

  11. Mechanical stimulation of bone cells using fluid flow

    Huesa, C.; Bakker, A.D.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter describes several methods suitable for mechanically stimulating monolayers of bone cells by fluid shear stress (FSS) in vitro. Fluid flow is generated by pumping culture medium through two parallel plates, one of which contains a monolayer of cells. Methods for measuring nitric oxide

  12. Study on sodium water glass-based anti-reflective film and its application in dye-sensitized solar cells

    Huang, Q.Z. [Key Laboratory of Renewable Energy, Guangdong Key Laboratory of New and Renewable Energy Research and Development, Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Shi, J.F., E-mail: shijf@ms.giec.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Renewable Energy, Guangdong Key Laboratory of New and Renewable Energy Research and Development, Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510000 (China); Wang, L.L.; Li, Y.J.; Zhong, L.W. [Key Laboratory of Renewable Energy, Guangdong Key Laboratory of New and Renewable Energy Research and Development, Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510000 (China); Xu, G., E-mail: xugang@ms.giec.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Renewable Energy, Guangdong Key Laboratory of New and Renewable Energy Research and Development, Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510000 (China)

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, anti-reflective (AR) films are prepared from sodium water glass with a simple dip-coating method. The effects of SiO{sub 2}/Na{sub 2}O molar ratio, concentration of water glass, and withdrawal speed on the anti-reflection performance of the AR films are systematically studied. The optimized AR film is further applied in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). The optical properties and surface morphology of AR films are analyzed by ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer, scanning electron microscope, and atomic force microscope. Transmittance of the glass coated with sodium water glass-based AR film is increased by 3.2% when the SiO{sub 2}/Na{sub 2}O molar ratio, concentration, and withdrawal speed equal to 3.8, 5 wt%, and 80 mm/min, respectively. Under this condition, the thickness of the AR film is 127 nm and the AR film has obvious porous structure. In addition, the power conversion efficiency of DSC coated by AR film is increased from 7.92% to 8.24%, compared with the DSC without AR film. - Highlights: • Anti-reflective films are prepared from sodium water glass. • Transmittance of anti-reflective film is increased by 3.2%. • Efficiency of dye-sensitized cell is improved by anti-reflective film.

  13. Study on sodium water glass-based anti-reflective film and its application in dye-sensitized solar cells

    Huang, Q.Z.; Shi, J.F.; Wang, L.L.; Li, Y.J.; Zhong, L.W.; Xu, G.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, anti-reflective (AR) films are prepared from sodium water glass with a simple dip-coating method. The effects of SiO_2/Na_2O molar ratio, concentration of water glass, and withdrawal speed on the anti-reflection performance of the AR films are systematically studied. The optimized AR film is further applied in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). The optical properties and surface morphology of AR films are analyzed by ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer, scanning electron microscope, and atomic force microscope. Transmittance of the glass coated with sodium water glass-based AR film is increased by 3.2% when the SiO_2/Na_2O molar ratio, concentration, and withdrawal speed equal to 3.8, 5 wt%, and 80 mm/min, respectively. Under this condition, the thickness of the AR film is 127 nm and the AR film has obvious porous structure. In addition, the power conversion efficiency of DSC coated by AR film is increased from 7.92% to 8.24%, compared with the DSC without AR film. - Highlights: • Anti-reflective films are prepared from sodium water glass. • Transmittance of anti-reflective film is increased by 3.2%. • Efficiency of dye-sensitized cell is improved by anti-reflective film.

  14. Novel strontium-doped bioactive glass nanoparticles enhance proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow stromal cells

    Strobel, L. A.; Hild, N.; Mohn, D.; Stark, W. J.; Hoppe, A.; Gbureck, U.; Horch, R. E.; Kneser, U.; Boccaccini, A. R.

    2013-07-01

    The present study investigates a new family of bioactive glass nanoparticles with and without Sr-doping focusing on the influence of the nanoparticles on human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs) in vitro. The bioactive glass nanoparticles were fabricated by flame spray synthesis and a particle diameter of 30-35 nm was achieved. Glass nanoparticles were undoped (BG 13-93-0Sr) or doped with 5 wt% strontium (Sr) (BG 13-93-5Sr) and used at concentrations of 10 and 100 μg/cm² (particles per culture plate area), respectively. Cells were cultured for 14 days after which the samples were analysed regarding metabolic activity and expression of various bone-specific genes. Cell growth and morphology indicated the high cytocompatibility of the nanoparticulate bioactive glass. The presence of the nanoparticles enhanced cell growth compared to the plain polystyrene control group. At a concentration of 100 μg/cm², Sr-doped particles led to significantly enhanced gene expression of osteocalcin, collagen type 1 and vascular endothelial growth factor. Thus, Sr-doped nanoparticles showing a dose-dependent increase of osteogenic differentiation in hBMSCs are a promising biomaterial for bone regeneration purposes.

  15. Novel strontium-doped bioactive glass nanoparticles enhance proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow stromal cells

    Strobel, L. A. [University of Erlangen-Nuremberg Medical Center, Department of Plastic and Hand Surgery (Germany); Hild, N.; Mohn, D.; Stark, W. J. [ETH Zurich, Department of Chemistry and Applied Biosciences, Institute for Chemical and Bioengineering (Switzerland); Hoppe, A. [University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Institute of Biomaterials (Germany); Gbureck, U. [University of Wuerzburg, Department for Functional Materials in Medicine and Dentistry (Germany); Horch, R. E.; Kneser, U. [University of Erlangen-Nuremberg Medical Center, Department of Plastic and Hand Surgery (Germany); Boccaccini, A. R., E-mail: aldo.boccaccini@ww.uni-erlangen.de [University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Institute of Biomaterials (Germany)

    2013-07-15

    The present study investigates a new family of bioactive glass nanoparticles with and without Sr-doping focusing on the influence of the nanoparticles on human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs) in vitro. The bioactive glass nanoparticles were fabricated by flame spray synthesis and a particle diameter of 30-35 nm was achieved. Glass nanoparticles were undoped (BG 13-93-0Sr) or doped with 5 wt% strontium (Sr) (BG 13-93-5Sr) and used at concentrations of 10 and 100 {mu}g/cm Superscript-Two (particles per culture plate area), respectively. Cells were cultured for 14 days after which the samples were analysed regarding metabolic activity and expression of various bone-specific genes. Cell growth and morphology indicated the high cytocompatibility of the nanoparticulate bioactive glass. The presence of the nanoparticles enhanced cell growth compared to the plain polystyrene control group. At a concentration of 100 {mu}g/cm Superscript-Two , Sr-doped particles led to significantly enhanced gene expression of osteocalcin, collagen type 1 and vascular endothelial growth factor. Thus, Sr-doped nanoparticles showing a dose-dependent increase of osteogenic differentiation in hBMSCs are a promising biomaterial for bone regeneration purposes.

  16. Novel strontium-doped bioactive glass nanoparticles enhance proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow stromal cells

    Strobel, L. A.; Hild, N.; Mohn, D.; Stark, W. J.; Hoppe, A.; Gbureck, U.; Horch, R. E.; Kneser, U.; Boccaccini, A. R.

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigates a new family of bioactive glass nanoparticles with and without Sr-doping focusing on the influence of the nanoparticles on human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs) in vitro. The bioactive glass nanoparticles were fabricated by flame spray synthesis and a particle diameter of 30–35 nm was achieved. Glass nanoparticles were undoped (BG 13-93-0Sr) or doped with 5 wt% strontium (Sr) (BG 13-93-5Sr) and used at concentrations of 10 and 100 μg/cm² (particles per culture plate area), respectively. Cells were cultured for 14 days after which the samples were analysed regarding metabolic activity and expression of various bone-specific genes. Cell growth and morphology indicated the high cytocompatibility of the nanoparticulate bioactive glass. The presence of the nanoparticles enhanced cell growth compared to the plain polystyrene control group. At a concentration of 100 μg/cm², Sr-doped particles led to significantly enhanced gene expression of osteocalcin, collagen type 1 and vascular endothelial growth factor. Thus, Sr-doped nanoparticles showing a dose-dependent increase of osteogenic differentiation in hBMSCs are a promising biomaterial for bone regeneration purposes

  17. Analytical solution for haze values of aluminium-induced texture (AIT) glass superstrates for a-Si:H solar cells.

    Sahraei, Nasim; Forberich, Karen; Venkataraj, Selvaraj; Aberle, Armin G; Peters, Marius

    2014-01-13

    Light scattering at randomly textured interfaces is essential to improve the absorption of thin-film silicon solar cells. Aluminium-induced texture (AIT) glass provides suitable scattering for amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) solar cells. The scattering properties of textured surfaces are usually characterised by two properties: the angularly resolved intensity distribution and the haze. However, we find that the commonly used haze equations cannot accurately describe the experimentally observed spectral dependence of the haze of AIT glass. This is particularly the case for surface morphologies with a large rms roughness and small lateral feature sizes. In this paper we present an improved method for haze calculation, based on the power spectral density (PSD) function of the randomly textured surface. To better reproduce the measured haze characteristics, we suggest two improvements: i) inclusion of the average lateral feature size of the textured surface into the haze calculation, and ii) considering the opening angle of the haze measurement. We show that with these two improvements an accurate prediction of the haze of AIT glass is possible. Furthermore, we use the new equation to define optimum morphology parameters for AIT glass to be used for a-Si:H solar cell applications. The autocorrelation length is identified as the critical parameter. For the investigated a-Si:H solar cells, the optimum autocorrelation length is shown to be 320 nm.

  18. Broadband anti-reflective and water-repellent coatings on glass substrates for self-cleaning photovoltaic cells

    Li, Xiaoyu; He, Junhui; Liu, Weiyi

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: High performance broadband antireflective and water-repellent coatings were fabricated on glass substrates, which can improve the short-circuit current of solar cells as much as 6.6% in comparison with glass substrates without the coatings. - Highlights: • Broadband anti-reflective and water-repellent coatings were fabricated. • Transmittance increased to 99.0%, significantly higher than that of commercial solar glasses. • The performance of standard solar cells with the AR coating was enhanced as much as 6.6%. - Abstract: High performance broadband antireflective (AR) and water-repellent coatings were fabricated on glass substrates by assembly of silica nanoparticles and polyelectrolytes via the layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly technique, followed by calcination and hydrophobic modification. A porous poly(diallyladimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA)/20 nm SiO 2 nanoparticles (S-20) multilayer coating with AR property was prepared first. The maximum transmittance is as high as 99.0%, while that of the glass substrate is only 91.3%. After calcination and hydrophobic modification, the coating became water-repellent while maintaining the good AR property. Such water-repellent AR coatings can improve the short-circuit current of solar cells as much as 6.6% in comparison with glass substrates without the coatings. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe the morphology and thickness of coatings. Transmission spectra and reflection spectra were characterized by UV–vis spectrophotometer. The surface wettability was studied by a contact angle/interface system

  19. Through-flow cell of immersion sensor

    Svandelik, J.

    1986-01-01

    The cell consists of a jacket in shape of a triangular pyramid whose two opposite and skew edges are truncated. It is provided with inlet and outlet openings. The measuring immersion sensor is inserted through the outlet opening or through an opening provided in one of the jacket side walls. The immersion sensor cell is mainly used for in-service inspection of radioactivity of the ion exchanger at the output of the elution column in the manufacture of chemical concentrates of uranium from ores. (J.B.). 4 figs

  20. Biology and flow cytometry of proangiogenic hematopoietic progenitors cells.

    Rose, Jonathan A; Erzurum, Serpil; Asosingh, Kewal

    2015-01-01

    During development, hematopoiesis and neovascularization are closely linked to each other via a common bipotent stem cell called the hemangioblast that gives rise to both hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. In postnatal life, this functional connection between the vasculature and hematopoiesis is maintained by a subset of hematopoietic progenitor cells endowed with the capacity to differentiate into potent proangiogenic cells. These proangiogenic hematopoietic progenitors comprise a specific subset of bone marrow (BM)-derived cells that homes to sites of neovascularization and possess potent paracrine angiogenic activity. There is emerging evidence that this subpopulation of hematopoietic progenitors plays a critical role in vascular health and disease. Their angiogenic activity is distinct from putative "endothelial progenitor cells" that become structural cells of the endothelium by differentiation into endothelial cells. Proangiogenic hematopoietic progenitor cell research requires multidisciplinary expertise in flow cytometry, hematology, and vascular biology. This review provides a comprehensive overview of proangiogenic hematopoietic progenitor cell biology and flow cytometric methods to detect these cells in the peripheral blood circulation and BM. © 2014 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  1. ETL 1 kW redox flow cell

    Nozaki, K.; Ozawa, T.

    1984-01-01

    A 1 kW scale redox flow cell system was set up in the laboratory (ETL), while three different types of batteries were also assembled by private companies in early 1983. In this article, this cell system is described. The concept of a modern type redox flow cell is based on a couple of fully soluble redox ions and a highly selective ion-exchange membrane. In the cell, the redox ion stored in a tank is flowed to and reduced on the electrode, while the other ion is also flowed to and oxidized on the other electrode. This electrochemical reaction produces electronic current in the external circuit and ionic current through the membrane sandwiched as a separator between the two electrodes. The reverse reaction proceeds in the charging process. In ETL, the concept was preliminarily tested, and conceptual design and cost estimation of the redox flow cells were carried out to confirm the feasibility; the R and D started on these bases in 1975

  2. Optimization of surface morphology and scattering properties of TCO/AIT textured glass front electrode for thin film solar cells

    Addonizio, M.L., E-mail: marialuisa.addonizio@enea.it; Fusco, L.; Antonaia, A.; Cominale, F.; Usatii, I.

    2015-12-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Aluminium induced texture (AIT) method has been used for obtaining highly textured glass substrates. • The effect of wet etch step on morphological and optical properties has been analyzed. • The morphology features have been optimized in order to obtain the best scattering properties. • Different ZnO surface textures, depending on the underlying glass substrate structures, are obtained. • The effect of different glass texture on optical confinement has been tested in a-Si:H devices. - Abstract: Aluminium induced texture (AIT) method has been used for obtaining highly textured glass substrate suitable for silicon based thin film solar cell technology. Wet etch step parameters of AIT process have been varied and effect of different etchants and different etching times on morphological and optical properties has been analyzed. The resulting morphology features (shape, size distribution, inclination angle) have been optimized in order to obtain the best scattering properties. ZnO:Ga (GZO) films have been deposited by sputtering technique on AIT-processed glass. Two different ZnO surface morphologies have been obtained, strongly depending on the underlying glass substrate morphology induced by different etching times. Very rough and porous texture (σ{sub rms} ∼ 150 nm) was obtained on glass etched 2 min showing cauliflower-like structure, whereas a softer texture (σ{sub rms} ∼ 78 nm) was obtained on glass etched 7 min giving wider and smoother U-shaped craters. The effect of different glass textures on optical confinement has been tested in amorphous silicon based p-i-n devices. Devices fabricated on GZO/high textured glass showed a quantum efficiency enhancement due to both an effective light trapping phenomenon and an effective anti-reflective optical behaviour. Short etching time produce smaller cavities (<1 μm) with deep U-shape characterized by high roughness, high inclination angle and low autocorrelation

  3. Cross-flow electrochemical reactor cells, cross-flow reactors, and use of cross-flow reactors for oxidation reactions

    Balachandran, Uthamalingam; Poeppel, Roger B.; Kleefisch, Mark S.; Kobylinski, Thaddeus P.; Udovich, Carl A.

    1994-01-01

    This invention discloses cross-flow electrochemical reactor cells containing oxygen permeable materials which have both electron conductivity and oxygen ion conductivity, cross-flow reactors, and electrochemical processes using cross-flow reactor cells having oxygen permeable monolithic cores to control and facilitate transport of oxygen from an oxygen-containing gas stream to oxidation reactions of organic compounds in another gas stream. These cross-flow electrochemical reactors comprise a hollow ceramic blade positioned across a gas stream flow or a stack of crossed hollow ceramic blades containing a channel or channels for flow of gas streams. Each channel has at least one channel wall disposed between a channel and a portion of an outer surface of the ceramic blade, or a common wall with adjacent blades in a stack comprising a gas-impervious mixed metal oxide material of a perovskite structure having electron conductivity and oxygen ion conductivity. The invention includes reactors comprising first and second zones seprated by gas-impervious mixed metal oxide material material having electron conductivity and oxygen ion conductivity. Prefered gas-impervious materials comprise at least one mixed metal oxide having a perovskite structure or perovskite-like structure. The invention includes, also, oxidation processes controlled by using these electrochemical reactors, and these reactions do not require an external source of electrical potential or any external electric circuit for oxidation to proceed.

  4. A laser-based technology for fabricating a soda-lime glass based microfluidic device for circulating tumour cell capture.

    Nieto, Daniel; Couceiro, Ramiro; Aymerich, Maria; Lopez-Lopez, Rafael; Abal, Miguel; Flores-Arias, María Teresa

    2015-10-01

    We developed a laser-based technique for fabricating microfluidic microchips on soda-lime glass substrates. The proposed methodology combines a laser direct writing, as a manufacturing tool for the fabrication of the microfluidics structures, followed by a post-thermal treatment with a CO2 laser. This treatment will allow reshaping and improving the morphological (roughness) and optical qualities (transparency) of the generated microfluidics structures. The use of lasers commonly implemented for material processing makes this technique highly competitive when compared with other glass microstructuring approaches. The manufactured chips were tested with tumour cells (Hec 1A) after being functionalized with an epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) antibody coating. Cells were successfully arrested on the pillars after being flown through the device giving our technology a translational application in the field of cancer research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A new combined nanoSIMS and continuous-flow IRMS approach to measure hydrogen isotopes from water in hydrated rhyolitic glass

    Gatti, E.; Kitchen, N.; Newman, S.; Guan, Y.; Westgate, J.; Pearce, N. J. G.; Nikolic, D.; Eiler, J. M.

    2016-12-01

    The hydrogen-isotope value of water of hydration (or secondary water) preserved in rhyolitic glasses may provide significant insights regarding the climate at the time of their deposition and the impact of super-eruptions upon the environment. However, the ability of the glass to retain the environmental D/H isotopic signal after hydration needs to be tested, since modifications to the D/H systematics may result from the continuous exchange of D/H with the atmosphere or condensed water after initial glass hydration. Ideal geological archives to test whether the glass retains its original hydrogen signal are sediments in natural waters and ice cores, which preserve tephra in constrained horizons that can be independently isotopically characterised. However, tephra in marine and fresh water sediments and ice cores are often present in concentrations of the order of 1000 grains/cm3 (IRMS methods require much more material ( 100-500 mg) and therefore cannot be applied. We present here a new integrated nanoSIMS and continuous flow IRMS approach to understand how water is distributed within single glass grains (diffusion profiles), quantify the time of hydration of young (Holocene) and old (Miocene) already well-characterised rhyolitic glasses, and measure the D/H ratio of the hydration water on single grains and bulk material consisting of only approximately 0.1-1 mg. The IRMS method measures the absolute abundance of hydrogen released from the sample by continuous-flow mass spectrometry. Current data indicates that the method can accurately measure a hydrogen signal from a rock sample containing at least 400 nanomoles of H2, corresponding to 70 µg of water, which translates to 1 mg of hydrous glass (>3 wt%) or 15 mg of dry ( 0.5 wt%) obsidian chips. The method can be improved by reducing the blank to IRMS method will be compared to sub-micron mapping of single-grains using a high-resolution ion microprobe, the CAMECA NanoSIMS 50L, in the Microanalysis Center for

  6. Functional glass slides for in vitro evaluation of interactions between osteosarcoma TE85 cells and mineral-binding ligands

    Song, Jie; Chen, Julia; Klapperich, Catherine M.; Eng, Vincent; Bertozzi, Carolyn R.

    2004-07-20

    Primary amine-functionalized glass slides obtained through a multi-step plasma treatment were conjugated with anionic amino acids that are frequently found as mineral binding elements in acidic extracellular matrix components of natural bone. The modified glass surfaces were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and contact angle measurements. Human osteosarcoma TE85 cells were cultured on these functionalized slides and analyses on both protein and gene expression levels were performed to probe the ''biocompatibility'' of the surface ligands. Cell attachment and proliferation on anionic surfaces were either better than or comparable to those of cells cultured on tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS). The modified glass surfaces promoted the expression of osteocalcin, alkaline phosphatase activity and ECM proteins such as fibronectin and vitronectin under differentiation culture conditions. Transcript analysis using gene chip microarrays confirmed that culturing TE85 cells on anionic surfaces did not activate apoptotic pathways. Collectively, these results suggest that the potential mineral-binding anionic ligands examined here do not exert significant adverse effects on the expression of important osteogenic markers of TE85 cells. This work paves the way for the incorporation of these ligands into 3-dimensional artificial bone-like scaffolds.

  7. Low-temperature bonded glass-membrane microfluidic device for in vitro organ-on-a-chip cell culture models

    Pocock, Kyall J.; Gao, Xiaofang; Wang, Chenxi; Priest, Craig; Prestidge, Clive A.; Mawatari, Kazuma; Kitamori, Takehiko; Thierry, Benjamin

    2015-12-01

    The integration of microfluidics with living biological systems has paved the way to the exciting concept of "organson- a-chip", which aims at the development of advanced in vitro models that replicate the key features of human organs. Glass based devices have long been utilised in the field of microfluidics but the integration of alternative functional elements within multi-layered glass microdevices, such as polymeric membranes, remains a challenge. To this end, we have extended a previously reported approach for the low-temperature bonding of glass devices that enables the integration of a functional polycarbonate porous membrane. The process was initially developed and optimised on specialty low-temperature bonding equipment (μTAS2001, Bondtech, Japan) and subsequently adapted to more widely accessible hot embosser units (EVG520HE Hot Embosser, EVG, Austria). The key aspect of this method is the use of low temperatures compatible with polymeric membranes. Compared to borosilicate glass bonding (650 °C) and quartz/fused silica bonding (1050 °C) processes, this method maintains the integrity and functionality of the membrane (Tg 150 °C for polycarbonate). Leak tests performed showed no damage or loss of integrity of the membrane for up to 150 hours, indicating sufficient bond strength for long term cell culture. A feasibility study confirmed the growth of dense and functional monolayers of Caco-2 cells within 5 days.

  8. Interstitial flows promote an amoeboid cell phenotype and motility of breast cancer cells

    Tung, Chih-Kuan; Huang, Yu Ling; Zheng, Angela; Wu, Mingming

    2015-03-01

    Lymph nodes, the drainage systems for interstitial flows, are clinically known to be the first metastatic sites of many cancer types including breast and prostate cancers. Here, we demonstrate that breast cancer cell morphology and motility is modulated by interstitial flows in a cell-ECM adhesion dependent manner. The average aspect ratios of the cells are significantly lower (or are more amoeboid like) in the presence of the flow in comparison to the case when the flow is absent. The addition of exogenous adhesion molecules within the extracellular matrix (type I collagen) enhances the overall aspect ratio (or are more mesenchymal like) of the cell population. Using measured cell trajectories, we find that the persistence of the amoeboid cells (aspect ratio less than 2.0) is shorter than that of mesenchymal cells. However, the maximum speed of the amoeboid cells is larger than that of mesenchymal cells. Together these findings provide the novel insight that interstitial flows promote amoeboid cell morphology and motility and highlight the plasticity of tumor cell motility in response to its biophysical environment. Supported by NIH Grant R21CA138366.

  9. Three-dimensional endothelial cell morphogenesis under controlled ion release from copper-doped phosphate glass.

    Stähli, Christoph; James-Bhasin, Mark; Nazhat, Showan N

    2015-02-28

    Copper ions represent a promising angiogenic agent but are associated with cytotoxicity at elevated concentrations. Phosphate-based glasses (PGs) exhibit adjustable dissolution properties and allow for controlled ion release. This study examined the formation of capillary-like networks by SVEC4-10 endothelial cells (ECs) seeded in a three-dimensional (3D) type I collagen hydrogel matrix mixed with PG particles of the formulation 50P2O5-30CaO-(20-x)Na2O-xCuO (x=0 and 10 mol%). Copper and total phosphorus release decreased over time and was more sustained in the case of 10% CuO PG. Moreover, increasing the concentration of 10% CuO PG in collagen substantially delayed dissolution along with preferential release of copper. A 3D morphometric characterization method based on confocal laser scanning microscopy image stacks was developed in order to quantify EC network length, connectivity and branching. Network length was initially reduced in a concentration-dependent fashion by 10% CuO PG and, to a lesser extent, by 0% CuO PG, but reached values identical to the non-PG control by day 5 in culture. This reduction was attributed to a PG-mediated decrease in cell metabolic activity while cell proliferation as well as network connectivity and branching were independent of PG content. Gene expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-1 and -2 was up-regulated by PGs, indicating that MMPs did not play a critical role in network growth. The relationship between ion release and EC morphogenesis in 3D provided in this study is expected to contribute to an ultimately successful pro-angiogenic application of CuO-doped PGs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Development of textured ZnO-coated low-cost glass substrate with very high haze ratio for silicon-based thin film solar cells

    Hongsingthong, Aswin; Krajangsang, Taweewat; Limmanee, Amornrat; Sriprapha, Kobsak; Sritharathikhun, Jaran; Konagai, Makoto

    2013-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) films with a very high haze ratio and low resistivity were developed on soda–lime glass substrate by using reactive ion etching (RIE) treatment with carbon tetrafluoride (CF 4 ) to modify the substrate surface morphology before the deposition of ZnO films. We found that the surface morphology of the ZnO films deposited by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) technique could be modified by varying the glass treatment conditions and the gas pressure was a key parameter. With increasing glass-etching pressure, the surface morphology of the ZnO films changed from conventional pyramid-like single texture to greater cauliflower-like double texture, leading to significant increases in root mean square roughness and haze ratio of the films. By employing the developed high-haze ZnO films as a front transparent conductive oxide (TCO) layer in microcrystalline silicon solar cells, an enhancement in the quantum efficiency in the long-wavelength region has been achieved. Experimental results have verified that our unique and original glass etching treatment is a simple and effective technique to improve the light-scattering properties of the ZnO films while preserving their good transparency and electrical properties. Thus, the ZnO films deposited on etched soda–lime glass have a high potential for the use as a front TCO layer in thin-film Si solar cells. - Highlights: • High-haze zinc oxide (ZnO) grown on low cost soda–lime glass has been developed. • Surface of the ZnO can be modified by varying glass-substrate etching conditions. • Glass-etching pressure is a key to increase haze ratio of the ZnO films. • Higher cell efficiency has been achieved from cell using etched glass. • High-haze ZnO coated glass is a promising transparent conductive oxide coated glass

  11. Development of textured ZnO-coated low-cost glass substrate with very high haze ratio for silicon-based thin film solar cells

    Hongsingthong, Aswin, E-mail: aswin.hongsingthong@nectec.or.th [Solar Energy Technology Laboratory, National Electronics and Computer Technology Center, 112 Thailand Science Park, Phahonyothin Road, Khlong 1, Khlong Luang, Pathumthani 12120 (Thailand); Krajangsang, Taweewat; Limmanee, Amornrat; Sriprapha, Kobsak; Sritharathikhun, Jaran [Solar Energy Technology Laboratory, National Electronics and Computer Technology Center, 112 Thailand Science Park, Phahonyothin Road, Khlong 1, Khlong Luang, Pathumthani 12120 (Thailand); Konagai, Makoto [Department of Physical Electronics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1, NE-15, O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan)

    2013-06-30

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) films with a very high haze ratio and low resistivity were developed on soda–lime glass substrate by using reactive ion etching (RIE) treatment with carbon tetrafluoride (CF{sub 4}) to modify the substrate surface morphology before the deposition of ZnO films. We found that the surface morphology of the ZnO films deposited by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) technique could be modified by varying the glass treatment conditions and the gas pressure was a key parameter. With increasing glass-etching pressure, the surface morphology of the ZnO films changed from conventional pyramid-like single texture to greater cauliflower-like double texture, leading to significant increases in root mean square roughness and haze ratio of the films. By employing the developed high-haze ZnO films as a front transparent conductive oxide (TCO) layer in microcrystalline silicon solar cells, an enhancement in the quantum efficiency in the long-wavelength region has been achieved. Experimental results have verified that our unique and original glass etching treatment is a simple and effective technique to improve the light-scattering properties of the ZnO films while preserving their good transparency and electrical properties. Thus, the ZnO films deposited on etched soda–lime glass have a high potential for the use as a front TCO layer in thin-film Si solar cells. - Highlights: • High-haze zinc oxide (ZnO) grown on low cost soda–lime glass has been developed. • Surface of the ZnO can be modified by varying glass-substrate etching conditions. • Glass-etching pressure is a key to increase haze ratio of the ZnO films. • Higher cell efficiency has been achieved from cell using etched glass. • High-haze ZnO coated glass is a promising transparent conductive oxide coated glass.

  12. Measurement of blowdown flow rates using load cells

    Dolas, P.K.; Venkat Raj, V.; Ghosh, A.K.; Murty, L.G.K.; Muralidhar Rao, S.

    1980-01-01

    To establish a reliable method for measuring two-phase flow, experiments were planned for measurement of transient single phase flow rates from vessels using load cells. Suitability of lead-zirconate-titanate piezoelectric ceramic discs was examined. Discharge time constant of the disc used was low, leading to large measurement errors. Subsequently, experiments were carried out using strain gauge load cells and these were found satisfactory. The unsteady flow equation has been derived for the system under investigation. The equation has been solved numerically using the fourth order Runge-Kutta method and also by integrating it analytically. The experimental results are compared with the theoretical results and presented in this report. (auth.)

  13. Flow cytometric DNA ploidy analysis of ovarian granulosa cell tumors

    D. Chadha; C.J. Cornelisse; A. Schabert (A.)

    1990-01-01

    textabstractAbstract The nuclear DNA content of 50 ovarian tumors initially diagnosed as granulosa cell tumors was measured by flow cytometry using paraffin-embedded archival material. The follow-up period of the patients ranged from 4 months to 19 years. Thirty-eight tumors were diploid or

  14. Using a Microfluidic-Microelectric Device to Directly Separate Serum/Blood Cells from a Continuous Whole Bloodstream Flow

    Wang, Ming-Wen; Jeng, Kuo-Shyang; Yu, Ming-Che; Su, Jui-Chih

    2012-03-01

    To make the rapid separation of serum/blood cells possible in a whole bloodstream flow without centrifugation and Pasteur pipette suction, the first step is to use a microchannel to transport the whole bloodstream into a microdevice. Subsequently, the resulting serum/blood cell is separated from the whole bloodstream by applying other technologies. Creating the serum makes this subsequent separation possible. To perform the actual separation, a microchannel with multiple symmetric curvilinear microelectrodes has been designed on a glass substrate and fabricated with micro-electromechanical system technology. The blood cells can be observed clearly by black-field microscopy imaging. A local dielectrophoretic (DEP) force, obtained from nonuniform electric fields, was used for manipulating and separating the blood cells from a continuous whole bloodstream. The experimental studies show that the blood cells incur a local dielectrophoretic field when they are suspended in a continuous flow (v = 0.02-0.1 cm/s) and exposed to AC fields at a frequency of 200 kHz. Using this device, the symmetric curvilinear microelectrodes provide a local dielectrophoretic field that is sufficiently strong for separating nearby blood cells and purifying the serum in a continuous whole bloodstream flow.

  15. High-Efficiency Glass and Printable Flexible Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells with Water-Based Electrolytes

    Omar Moudam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance of a flexible and glass dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC with water-based electrolyte solutions is described. High concentrations of alkylamidazoliums were used to overcome the deleterious effect of water and, based on this variable, pure water-based electrolyte DSSCs were tested displaying the highest recorded efficiency so far of 3.45% and 6% for flexible and glass cells, respectively, under a simulated air mass 1.5 solar spectrum illumination at 100 mWcm−2. An improvement in the Jsc with high water content and the positive impact of GuSCN on the enhancement of the performance of pure water-based electrolytes were also observed.

  16. Experimental Study and Comparison of Various Designs of Gas Flow Fields to PEM Fuel Cells and Cell Stack Performance

    Liu, Hong; Li, Peiwen; Juarez-Robles, Daniel; Wang, Kai; Hernandez-Guerrero, Abel

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a significant number of experimental tests to proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells were conducted to investigate the effect of gas flow fields on fuel cell performance. Graphite plates with various flow field or flow channel designs, from literature survey and also novel designs by the authors, were used for the PEM fuel cell assembly. The fabricated fuel cells have an effective membrane area of 23.5 cm 2 . The results showed that the serpentine flow channel design is still favorable, giving the best single fuel cell performance amongst all the studied flow channel designs. A novel symmetric serpentine flow field was proposed for a relatively large sized fuel cell application. Four fuel cell stacks each including four cells were assembled using different designs of serpentine flow channels. The output power performances of fuel cell stacks were compared and the novel symmetric serpentine flow field design is recommended for its very good performance.

  17. Thermal Conductivity of Foam Glass

    Petersen, Rasmus Rosenlund; König, Jakob; Yue, Yuanzheng

    Due to the increased focus on energy savings and waste recycling foam glass materials have gained increased attention. The production process of foam glass is a potential low-cost recycle option for challenging waste, e.g. CRT glass and industrial waste (fly ash and slags). Foam glass is used...... as thermal insulating material in building and chemical industry. The large volume of gas (porosity 90 – 95%) is the main reason of the low thermal conductivity of the foam glass. If gases with lower thermal conductivity compared to air are entrapped in the glass melt, the derived foam glass will contain...... only closed pores and its overall thermal conductivity will be much lower than that of the foam glass with open pores. In this work we have prepared foam glass using different types of recycled glasses and different kinds of foaming agents. This enabled the formation of foam glasses having gas cells...

  18. Bioactivity and cell proliferation in radiopaque gel-derived CaO-P2O5-SiO2-ZrO2 glass and glass-ceramic powders.

    Montazerian, Maziar; Yekta, Bijan Eftekhari; Marghussian, Vahak Kaspari; Bellani, Caroline Faria; Siqueira, Renato Luiz; Zanotto, Edgar Dutra

    2015-10-01

    In this study, 10 mol% ZrO2 was added to a 27CaO-5P2O5-68SiO2 (mol%) base composition synthesized via a simple sol-gel method. This composition is similar to that of a frequently investigated bioactive gel-glass. The effects of ZrO2 on the in vitro bioactivity and MG-63 cell proliferation of the glass and its derivative polycrystalline (glass-ceramic) powder were investigated. The samples were characterized using thermo-gravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled to energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Release of Si, Ca, P and Zr into simulated body fluid (SBF) was determined by inductively coupled plasma (ICP). Upon heat treatment at 1000 °C, the glass powder crystallized into an apatite-wollastonite-zirconia glass-ceramic powder. Hydroxycarbonate apatite (HCA) formation on the surface of the glass and glass-ceramic particles containing ZrO2 was confirmed by FTIR and SEM. Addition of ZrO2 to the base glass composition decreased the rate of HCA formation in vitro from one day to three days, and hence, ZrO2 could be employed to control the rate of apatite formation. However, the rate of HCA formation on the glass-ceramic powder containing ZrO2 crystal was equal to that in the base glassy powder. Tests with a cultured human osteoblast-like MG-63 cells revealed that the glass and glass-ceramic materials stimulated cell proliferation, indicating that they are biocompatible and are not cytotoxic in vitro. Moreover, zirconia clearly increased osteoblast proliferation over that of the Zr-free samples. This increase is likely associated with the lower solubility of these samples and, consequently, a smaller variation in the media pH. Despite the low solubility of these materials, bioactivity was maintained, indicating that these glassy and polycrystalline powders are potential candidates for bone graft substitutes and bone cements with

  19. Separation of platelets from other blood cells in continuous-flow by dielectrophoresis field-flow-fractionation

    Piacentini, Niccolò; Mernier, Guillaume; Tornay, Raphaël; Renaud, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    We present a microfluidic device capable of separating platelets from other blood cells in continuous flow using dielectrophoresis field-flow-fractionation. The use of hydrodynamic focusing in combination with the application of a dielectrophoretic force allows the separation of platelets from red blood cells due to their size difference. The theoretical cell trajectory has been calculated by numerical simulations of the electrical field and flow speed, and is in agreement with the experiment...

  20. Experimental investigation two phase flow in direct methanol fuel cells

    Mat, M. D.; Kaplan, Y.; Celik, S.; Oeztural, A.

    2007-01-01

    Direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC) have received many attentions specifically for portable electronic applications since it utilize methanol which is in liquid form in atmospheric condition and high energy density of the methanol. Thus it eliminates the storage problem of hydrogen. It also eliminates humidification requirement of polymeric membrane which is a problem in PEM fuel cells. Some electronic companies introduced DMFC prototypes for portable electronic applications. Presence of carbon dioxide gases due to electrochemical reactions in anode makes the problem a two phase problem. A two phase flow may occur at cathode specifically at high current densities due to the excess water. Presence of gas phase in anode region and liquid phase in cathode region prevents diffusion of fuel and oxygen to the reaction sites thus reduces the performance of the system. Uncontrolled pressure buildup in anode region increases methanol crossover through membrane and adversely effect the performance. Two phase flow in both anode and cathode region is very effective in the performance of DMYC system and a detailed understanding of two phase flow for high performance DMFC systems. Although there are many theoretical and experimental studies available on the DMFC systems in the literature, only few studies consider problem as a two-phase flow problem. In this study, an experimental set up is developed and species distributions on system are measured with a gas chromatograph. System performance characteristics (V-I curves) is measured depending on the process parameters (temperature, fuel ad oxidant flow rates, methanol concentration etc)

  1. JNK2 promotes endothelial cell alignment under flow.

    Cornelia Hahn

    Full Text Available Endothelial cells in straight, unbranched segments of arteries elongate and align in the direction of flow, a feature which is highly correlated with reduced atherosclerosis in these regions. The mitogen-activated protein kinase c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK is activated by flow and is linked to inflammatory gene expression and apoptosis. We previously showed that JNK activation by flow is mediated by integrins and is observed in cells plated on fibronectin but not on collagen or basement membrane proteins. We now show thatJNK2 activation in response to laminar shear stress is biphasic, with an early peak and a later peak. Activated JNK localizes to focal adhesions at the ends of actin stress fibers, correlates with integrin activation and requires integrin binding to the extracellular matrix. Reducing JNK2 activation by siRNA inhibits alignment in response to shear stress. Cells on collagen, where JNK activity is low, align slowly. These data show that an inflammatory pathway facilitates adaptation to laminar flow, thereby revealing an unexpected connection between adaptation and inflammatory pathways.

  2. Coupling Bacterial Activity Measurements with Cell Sorting by Flow Cytometry.

    Servais; Courties; Lebaron; Troussellier

    1999-08-01

    > Abstract A new procedure to investigate the relationship between bacterial cell size and activity at the cellular level has been developed; it is based on the coupling of radioactive labeling of bacterial cells and cell sorting by flow cytometry after SYTO 13 staining. Before sorting, bacterial cells were incubated in the presence of tritiated leucine using a procedure similar to that used for measuring bacterial production by leucine incorporation and then stained with SYTO 13. Subpopulations of bacterial cells were sorted according to their average right-angle light scatter (RALS) and fluorescence. Average RALS was shown to be significantly related to the average biovolume. Experiments were performed on samples collected at different times in a Mediterranean seawater mesocosm enriched with nitrogen and phosphorus. At four sampling times, bacteria were sorted in two subpopulations (cells smaller and larger than 0.25 µm(3)). The results indicate that, at each sampling time, the growth rate of larger cells was higher than that of smaller cells. In order to confirm this tendency, cell sorting was performed on six subpopulations differing in average biovolume during the mesocosm follow-up. A clear increase of the bacterial growth rates was observed with increasing cell size for the conditions met in this enriched mesocosm.http://link.springer-ny.com/link/service/journals/00248/bibs/38n2p180.html

  3. Real rock-microfluidic flow cell: A test bed for real-time in situ analysis of flow, transport, and reaction in a subsurface reactive transport environment.

    Singh, Rajveer; Sivaguru, Mayandi; Fried, Glenn A; Fouke, Bruce W; Sanford, Robert A; Carrera, Martin; Werth, Charles J

    2017-09-01

    Physical, chemical, and biological interactions between groundwater and sedimentary rock directly control the fundamental subsurface properties such as porosity, permeability, and flow. This is true for a variety of subsurface scenarios, ranging from shallow groundwater aquifers to deeply buried hydrocarbon reservoirs. Microfluidic flow cells are now commonly being used to study these processes at the pore scale in simplified pore structures meant to mimic subsurface reservoirs. However, these micromodels are typically fabricated from glass, silicon, or polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), and are therefore incapable of replicating the geochemical reactivity and complex three-dimensional pore networks present in subsurface lithologies. To address these limitations, we developed a new microfluidic experimental test bed, herein called the Real Rock-Microfluidic Flow Cell (RR-MFC). A porous 500μm-thick real rock sample of the Clair Group sandstone from a subsurface hydrocarbon reservoir of the North Sea was prepared and mounted inside a PDMS microfluidic channel, creating a dynamic flow-through experimental platform for real-time tracking of subsurface reactive transport. Transmitted and reflected microscopy, cathodoluminescence microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and confocal laser microscopy techniques were used to (1) determine the mineralogy, geochemistry, and pore networks within the sandstone inserted in the RR-MFC, (2) analyze non-reactive tracer breakthrough in two- and (depth-limited) three-dimensions, and (3) characterize multiphase flow. The RR-MFC is the first microfluidic experimental platform that allows direct visualization of flow and transport in the pore space of a real subsurface reservoir rock sample, and holds potential to advance our understandings of reactive transport and other subsurface processes relevant to pollutant transport and cleanup in groundwater, as well as energy recovery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Pressure data for various flow channels in proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell

    Cho, Son Ah; Lee, Pil Hyong; Han, Sang Seok; Hwang, Sang Soon

    2008-01-01

    Micro flow channels in flow plates of fuel cells have become much narrower and longer to improve reactant flow distribution leading to increase of pumping power. Therefore it is very important to minimize the pressure drops in the flow channel because increased pumping power reduces overall efficiency. We investigated pressure drops in a micro flow channel at the anode and cathode compared to pressure losses for cold flow in straight, bended and serpentine channels. The results show that friction factors for cold flow channels could be used for parallel and bended flow channel designs for fuel cells. Pressure drop in the serpentine flow channel is the lowest among all flow channels due to bypass flow across the gas diffusion layer under reactive flow condition, although its pressure drop is highest for a cold flow condition. So the effect of bypass flow for serpentine flow channels should be considered when designing flow channels

  5. Indoor light and visual comfort with solar cells in glass facades

    Markvart, J.; Iversen, A.; Logadottir, A.; Johnsen, K.

    2012-09-15

    This study was a part of the project 'Application of thin-film technology in Denmark' (Thi-Fi-Tech). The aim was to demonstrate how the integrating transparent thin-film PV in glazed facades in building with large glass areas influences the users' perception of the daylight in the room and the view to the outside. Panels with various patterns were constructed representing facade-integrated thin-film, both for collecting solar energy, to filter the daylight and reduce solar loads in the room. Four different dummy thin-film panels were evaluated at the daylight laboratory facility at the Danish Building Research institute in two different tests and periods, i.e. in each test there were two different panel patterns at the time in two equally arranged test rooms. After working half a day in a test room office having a large glass area where the upper and lower part was covered with an integrating transparent dummy thin-film panel, the test persons evaluated the daylight in the room and the view to the outside by answering questionnaires. Each of the four panel patterns were evaluated by 19 test persons. Besides the illuminance levels in the test rooms were measured at various strategically places and analysed. During test 1 the Pattern 4 and 6 were tested against each other as they resemble a similar structure, with the transparency of the pattern increasing towards the window in the middle. The difference between the two patterns is the geometry of the cells and the transparency. During test 2 the Pattern 3 and MicroShade pattern were tested. Pattern 3 was very similar to pattern 4 with the transparency of the pattern increasing towards the window in the middle and having opaque cells as lines with a cell dimension of 4.96 mm x 39.10 mm and a transparency of 74 %. MicroShade is a special type of solar shading constructed of transparent strips of stainless steel bands with micro-structure perforations being angled so that they shield to direct sunlight

  6. Glass leaching performance

    Chick, L.A.; Turcotte, R.P.

    1983-05-01

    Current understanding of the leaching performance of high-level nuclear waste (HLW) glass is summarized. The empirical model of waste glass leaching behavior developed shows that at high water flow rates the glass leach rate is kinetically limited to a maximum value. At intermediate water flow rates, leaching is limited by the solution concentration of silica and decreases with decreasing water flow rates. Release of soluble elements is controlled by silica dissolution because silica forms the binding network of the glass. At low water flow rates, mass loss rates reach values controlled by formation rates of alteration minerals, or by diffusion of dissolution products through essentially stagnant water. The parameters reviewed with respect to their quantifiable influence on leaching behavior include temperature, pH, leachant composition, glass composition, thermal history, and radiation. Of these, temperature is most important since the rate of mass loss approximately doubles with each 10 0 C increase in dilute solutions. The pH has small effects within the 4 to 10 range. The chemical composition of the leachant is most important with regard to its influence on alteration product formation. Glass composition exhibits the largest effects at high flow rates where improved glasses leach from ten to thirty times slower than glass 76 to 68. The effects of the thermal history (devitrification) of the glass are not likely to be significant. Radiation effects are important primarily in that radiolysis can potentially drive pH values to less than 4. Radiation damage to the glass causes insignificant changes in leaching performance

  7. Separation of cancer cells from white blood cells by pinched flow fractionation

    Jensen, Marie Pødenphant; Ashley, Neil; Koprowska, Kamila

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the microfluidic size-separation technique pinched flow fractionation (PFF) is used to separate cancer cells from white blood cells (WBCs). The cells are separated at efficiencies above 90% for both cell types. Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are found in the blood of cancer patients...... and can form new tumors. CTCs are rare cells in blood, but they are important for the understanding of metastasis. There is therefore a high interest in developing a method for the enrichment of CTCs from blood samples, which also enables further analysis of the separated cells. The separation...

  8. Flow cytometry detection of planktonic cells with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons sorbed to cell surfaces

    Cerezo, Maria I.; Linden, Matthew; Agusti, Susana

    2017-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are very important components of oil pollution. These pollutants tend to sorb to cell surfaces, exerting toxic effects on organisms. Our study developed a flow cytometric method for the detection of PAHs sorbed

  9. A Novel Counter Sheet-flow Sandwich Cell Culture Device for Mammalian Cell Growth in Space

    Sun, Shujin; Gao, Yuxin; Shu, Nanjiang; Tang, Zemei; Tao, Zulai; Long, Mian

    2008-08-01

    Cell culture and growth in space is crucial to understand the cellular responses under microgravity. The effects of microgravity were coupled with such environment restrictions as medium perfusion, in which the underlying mechanism has been poorly understood. In the present work, a customer-made counter sheet-flow sandwich cell culture device was developed upon a biomechanical concept from fish gill breathing. The sandwich culture unit consists of two side chambers where the medium flow is counter-directional, a central chamber where the cells are cultured, and two porous polycarbonate membranes between side and central chambers. Flow dynamics analysis revealed the symmetrical velocity profile and uniform low shear rate distribution of flowing medium inside the central culture chamber, which promotes sufficient mass transport and nutrient supply for mammalian cell growth. An on-orbit experiment performed on a recovery satellite was used to validate the availability of the device.

  10. Rapid assay for cell age response to radiation by electronic volume flow cell sorting

    Freyer, J.P.; Wilder, M.E.; Raju, M.R.

    1987-01-01

    A new technique is described for measuring cell survival as a function of cell cycle position using flow cytometric cell sorting on the basis of electronic volume signals. Sorting of cells into different cell age compartments is demonstrated for three different cell lines commonly used in radiobiological research. Using flow cytometric DNA content analysis and [ 3 H]thymidine autoradiography of the sorted cell populations, it is demonstrated that resolution of the age compartment separation is as good as or better than that reported for other cell synchronizing techniques. Variation in cell survival as a function of position in the cell cycle after a single dose of radiation as measured by volume cell sorting is similar to that determined by other cell synchrony techniques. Advantages of this method include: (1) no treatment of the cells is required, thus, this method is noncytotoxic; (2) no cell cycle progression is needed to obtain different cell age compartments; (3) the cell population can be held in complete growth medium at any desired temperature during sorting; (4) a complete radiation age - response assay can be plated in 2 h. Applications of this method are discussed, along with some technical limitations. (author)

  11. Convective flows of colloidal suspension in an inclined closed cell

    Smorodin, Boris; Ishutov, Sergey [Department of Physics of Phase Transitions, Perm State University, Perm (Russian Federation); Cherepanov, Ivan, E-mail: bsmorodin@yandex.ru [Department of Radio Electronics and Information Security, Perm State University, Perm (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    The nonlinear spatiotemporal evolution of convective flows is numerically investigated in the case of colloidal suspension filling an inclined closed cell heated from below. The bifurcation diagram (the dependency of the Nusselt number on the Rayleigh number) is obtained. The characteristics of the wave and steady patterns are investigated depending on heat intensity. The travelling wave changing travel direction and the non-regular oscillatory flow are found to be stable solutions within a certain interval of the Rayleigh number. Temporal Fourier decomposition is used together with other diagnostic tools to analyse the complex bifurcation and spatiotemporal properties caused by the interplay of the gravity-induced gradient of concentration and convective mixing of the fluid. It is shown that a more complex flow structure exists at a lower heating intensity (Rayleigh number). (paper)

  12. Cerebral blood flow mapping in children with sickle cell disease

    Numaguchi, Y.; Humbert, J.R.; Robinson, A.E.; Lindstrom, W.W.; Gruenauer, L.M.

    1988-01-01

    A cerebral blood flow mapping system was applied to the evaluation of cerebral blood flow (CBF) in 21 patients with sickle cell cerebrovascular disease, by means of a Picker xenon computed tomographic (CT) scanner. Results indicate that (1) xenon CT is a safe and reliable procedure in children with cerebrovascular diseases; (2) CBF in the gray matter of children seems to be higher than in previously reported data obtained with use of isotopes; and (3) regional CBF can be altered significantly by changing the size of the region of interest (ROI). The term regional CBF probably has to be carefully defined in xenon CT flow mapping. Correlation with anatomy by means of CT or magnetic resonance imaging and comparison with the ROI of the contralateral side and/or adjacent sections is important

  13. Design and Characterization of a Sensorized Microfluidic Cell-Culture System with Electro-Thermal Micro-Pumps and Sensors for Cell Adhesion, Oxygen, and pH on a Glass Chip

    Sebastian M. Bonk

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We combined a multi-sensor glass-chip with a microfluidic channel grid for the characterization of cellular behavior. The grid was imprinted in poly-dimethyl-siloxane. Mouse-embryonal/fetal calvaria fibroblasts (MC3T3-E1 were used as a model system. Thin-film platinum (Pt sensors for respiration (amperometric oxygen electrode, acidification (potentiometric pH electrodes and cell adhesion (interdigitated-electrodes structures, IDES allowed us to monitor cell-physiological parameters as well as the cell-spreading behavior. Two on-chip electro-thermal micro-pumps (ETμPs permitted the induction of medium flow in the system, e.g., for medium mixing and drug delivery. The glass-wafer technology ensured the microscopic observability of the on-chip cell culture. Connecting Pt structures were passivated by a 1.2 μm layer of silicon nitride (Si3N4. Thin Si3N4 layers (20 nm or 60 nm were used as the sensitive material of the pH electrodes. These electrodes showed a linear behavior in the pH range from 4 to 9, with a sensitivity of up to 39 mV per pH step. The oxygen sensors were circular Pt electrodes with a sensor area of 78.5 μm2. Their sensitivity was 100 pA per 1% oxygen increase in the range from 0% to 21% oxygen (air saturated. Two different IDES geometries with 30- and 50-μm finger spacings showed comparable sensitivities in detecting the proliferation rate of MC3T3 cells. These cells were cultured for 11 days in vitro to test the biocompatibility, microfluidics and electric sensors of our system under standard laboratory conditions.

  14. Influence of cell culture medium composition on in vitro dissolution behavior of a fluoride-containing bioactive glass.

    Shah, Furqan A; Brauer, Delia S; Wilson, Rory M; Hill, Robert G; Hing, Karin A

    2014-03-01

    Bioactive glasses are used clinically for bone regeneration, and their bioactivity and cell compatibility are often characterized in vitro, using physiologically relevant test solutions. The aim of this study was to show the influence of varying medium characteristics (pH, composition, presence of proteins) on glass dissolution and apatite formation. The dissolution behavior of a fluoride-containing bioactive glass (BG) was investigated over a period of one week in Eagle's Minimal Essential Medium with Earle's Salts (MEM), supplemented with either, (a) acetate buffer, (b) 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazineethanesulfonic acid (HEPES) buffer, (c) HEPES + carbonate, or (d) HEPES + carbonate + fetal bovine serum. Results show pronounced differences in pH, ion release, and apatite formation over 1 week: Despite its acidic pH (pH 5.8 after BG immersion, as compared to pH 7.4-8.3 for HEPES-containing media), apatite formation was fastest in acetate buffered (HEPES-free) MEM. Presence of carbonate resulted in formation of calcite (calcium carbonate). Presence of serum proteins, on the other hand, delayed apatite formation significantly. These results confirm that the composition and properties of a tissue culture medium are important factors during in vitro experiments and need to be taken into consideration when interpreting results from dissolution or cell culture studies. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. High-Efficiency Polycrystalline CdS/CdTe Solar Cells on Buffered Commercial TCO-Coated Glass

    Colegrove, E.; Banai, R.; Blissett, C.; Buurma, C.; Ellsworth, J.; Morley, M.; Barnes, S.; Gilmore, C.; Bergeson, J. D.; Dhere, R.; Scott, M.; Gessert, T.; Sivananthan, Siva

    2012-10-01

    Multiple polycrystalline CdS/CdTe solar cells with efficiencies greater than 15% were produced on buffered, commercially available Pilkington TEC Glass at EPIR Technologies, Inc. (EPIR, Bolingbrook, IL) and verified by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). n-CdS and p-CdTe were grown by chemical bath deposition (CBD) and close space sublimation, respectively. Samples with sputter-deposited CdS were also investigated. Initial results indicate that this is a viable dry-process alternative to CBD for production-scale processing. Published results for polycrystalline CdS/CdTe solar cells with high efficiencies are typically based on cells using research-grade transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) requiring high-temperature processing inconducive to low-cost manufacturing. EPIR's results for cells on commercial glass were obtained by implementing a high-resistivity SnO2 buffer layer and by optimizing the CdS window layer thickness. The high-resistivity buffer layer prevents the formation of CdTe-TCO junctions, thereby maintaining a high open-circuit voltage and fill factor, whereas using a thin CdS layer reduces absorption losses and improves the short-circuit current density. EPIR's best device demonstrated an NREL-verified efficiency of 15.3%. The mean efficiency of hundreds of cells produced with a buffer layer between December 2010 and June 2011 is 14.4%. Quantum efficiency results are presented to demonstrate EPIR's progress toward NREL's best-published results.

  16. Scalable air cathode microbial fuel cells using glass fiber separators, plastic mesh supporters, and graphite fiber brush anodes

    Zhang, Xiaoyuan

    2011-01-01

    The combined use of brush anodes and glass fiber (GF1) separators, and plastic mesh supporters were used here for the first time to create a scalable microbial fuel cell architecture. Separators prevented short circuiting of closely-spaced electrodes, and cathode supporters were used to avoid water gaps between the separator and cathode that can reduce power production. The maximum power density with a separator and supporter and a single cathode was 75±1W/m3. Removing the separator decreased power by 8%. Adding a second cathode increased power to 154±1W/m3. Current was increased by connecting two MFCs connected in parallel. These results show that brush anodes, combined with a glass fiber separator and a plastic mesh supporter, produce a useful MFC architecture that is inherently scalable due to good insulation between the electrodes and a compact architecture. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Energy matrices evaluation and exergoeconomic analysis of series connected N partially covered (glass to glass PV module) concentrated-photovoltaic thermal collector: At constant flow rate mode

    Tripathi, Rohit; Tiwari, G.N.; Dwivedi, V.K.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Fluid, other than water has been chosen for achieving higher outlet temperature. • Mass flow rate and number of collector have been optimized. • Three PVT systems have been compared for evaluating annual energy and exergy. • Life cycle cost analysis has been evaluated to obtain exergetic cost. • Proposed PVT systems have been compared on the basis of energy matrices. - Abstract: In present analysis, a comparative study has been carried out to evaluate the annual performances of three systems or cases at constant flow rate, namely: case (i): partially covered (25% PV module) N concentrated photovoltaic thermal collectors connected in series, case (ii): fully covered (100% PV module) N concentrated photovoltaic thermal collectors in series and case (iii): N (0% PV module) convectional compound parabolic concentrator collector connected in series. Comparison for three cases has also been carried out by considering fluid namely: ethylene glycol for higher outlet temperature and better thermal performance which can be applicable for heating and steaming or small industry purpose. The embodied energy, energy matrices, uniform annual cost, exergetic cost and carbon credits are also evaluated for same systems. The energy payback time is found to be 5.58 years and energy production factor is to be 0.17 on energy basis for case (iii) which is maximum. The exergetic cost has computed as 17.85 Rs/kW h for 30 years of life time of the system. It is observed that N conventional compound parabolic concentrator collector [case (iii)] is most suitable for steam cooking or space heating but not self-sustainable to run the dc power motor due to unavailability of electrical power.

  18. Mimicking the Interfacial Dynamics of Flowing White Blood Cells

    Santore, Maria

    2015-03-01

    The rolling of particles on surfaces, facilitated by hydrodynamic forces combined with localized surface interactions of the appropriate strengths, spatial arrangements, and ranges, is a technologically useful means of transporting and manipulating particles. One's intuition for the rolling of a marble or a car tire cannot be extrapolated down to microparticle length scales because the microparticle interactions are dominated by electrostatic, van der Waals, and hydrogen bonding interactions rather than a friction that depends on an imposed normal force. Indeed, our microparticle rolling systems are inspired by the rolling of white blood cells on the inner walls of venules as part of the innate immune response: Selectin molecules engage with their counterparts on the opposing surfaces to slow cell motion relative to that for freely flowing cells. In the resulting rolling signature, ligand-receptor binding and crack closing on the front of the cell are balanced with molecular dis-bonding and crack opening at the rear. The contact region is relatively static, allowing other interactions (for instance signaling) to occur for a finite duration. Thus, achieving particle rolling in synthetic systems is important because it facilitates particle-surface interactions in a continuous nonfouling fashion where the contact surface is continually renewed. In developing a synthetic model for this system, we employ polymers to modify flowing particles and /or planar collectors, producing heterogeneous interfaces which can support rolling or produce other motion signatures such as skipping, arrest, or free flow. We identify, in the synthetic system, combinations of variables that produce rolling and demonstrate how the distinction between rolling and arrest is not a simple matter of the adhesion strength between the particles and the collector. Rolling is a cooperative process and the coordination of binding in one location with dis-bonding in another requires appropriate length

  19. Improved Flow-Field Structures for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

    Gurau, Bogdan [Nuvant Systems Inc., Crown Point, IN (United States)

    2013-05-31

    The direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) is ideal if high energy-density liquid fuels are required. Liquid fuels have advantages over compressed hydrogen including higher energy density and ease of handling. Although state-of-the-art DMFCs exhibit manageable degradation rates, excessive fuel crossover diminishes system energy and power density. Although use of dilute methanol mitigates crossover, the concomitant lowering of the gross fuel energy density (GFED) demands a complex balance-of-plant (BOP) that includes higher flow rates, external exhaust recirculation, etc. An alternative approach is redesign of the fuel delivery system to accommodate concentrated methanol. NuVant Systems Inc. (NuVant) will maximize the GFED by design and assembly of a DMFC that uses near neat methanol. The approach is to tune the diffusion of highly concentrated methanol (to the anode catalytic layer) to the back-diffusion of water formed at the cathode (i.e. in situ generation of dilute methanol at the anode layer). Crossover will be minimized without compromising the GFED by innovative integration of the anode flow-field and the diffusion layer. The integrated flow-field-diffusion-layers (IFDLs) will widen the current and potential DMFC operating ranges and enable the use of cathodes optimized for hydrogen-air fuel cells.

  20. Hydrodynamic analysis and simulation of a flow cell ammonia electrolyzer

    Diaz, Luis A.; Botte, Gerardine G.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • NH_3 electrooxidation mechanism was validated in a bench scale electrolyzer. • All kinetic parameters for NH_3 electro-oxidation were calculated and verified. • Hydrodynamic behavior of the NH_3 electrolyzer was properly described as a CSTR. • CSTR model was successfully applied to simulate a flow ammonia electrolyzer. - Abstract: The hydrodynamic analysis and simulation of a non-ideal single pass flow cell alkaline ammonia electrolyzer was performed after the scale-up of a well-characterized deposited polycrystalline Pt on Ni anode. The hydrodynamic analysis was performed using the residence time distribution (RTD) test. The results of the hydrodynamic investigation provide additional insights for the kinetic analysis of the ammonia electrooxidation reaction on polycrystalline Pt electrocatalysts -which are typically obtained under controlled flow regime, e.g., rotating disk electrode- by including the flow non-uniformity present in the electrolyzer. Based on the RTD function, the ammonia electrolyzer performance was simulated as a non-steady stirred tank reactor (CSTR) and the unknown kinetic parameters were obtained by fitting the simulation results with an experimental current profile, obtaining an adequate prediction of the ammonia conversion. This simplified approach for the simulation of the ammonia electrolyzer could be implemented in process simulation packages and could be used for the design and scale-up of the process for hydrogen production and wastewater remediation.

  1. Microfluidic Impedance Flow Cytometry Enabling High-Throughput Single-Cell Electrical Property Characterization

    Chen, Jian; Xue, Chengcheng; Zhao, Yang; Chen, Deyong; Wu, Min-Hsien; Wang, Junbo

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews recent developments in microfluidic impedance flow cytometry for high-throughput electrical property characterization of single cells. Four major perspectives of microfluidic impedance flow cytometry for single-cell characterization are included in this review: (1) early developments of microfluidic impedance flow cytometry for single-cell electrical property characterization; (2) microfluidic impedance flow cytometry with enhanced sensitivity; (3) microfluidic impedance and optical flow cytometry for single-cell analysis and (4) integrated point of care system based on microfluidic impedance flow cytometry. We examine the advantages and limitations of each technique and discuss future research opportunities from the perspectives of both technical innovation and clinical applications. PMID:25938973

  2. Fracture toughness of glass sealants for solid oxide fuel cell application

    Abdoli, Hamid; Alizadeh, Parvin; Boccaccini, Dino

    2014-01-01

    -opening displacements in the near regions of a crack tip. Both approaches exhibited good agreement. La-containing glass showed higher stiffness, hardness and fracture toughness, which has been related to the in-situ toughening mechanism caused by devitrification and formation of crystalline phases. © 2013 Elsevier B.V....

  3. Flow-through immunomagnetic separation system for waterborne pathogen isolation and detection: Application to Giardia and Cryptosporidium cell isolation

    Ramadan, Qasem, E-mail: qasem.alramadan@epfl.ch [Bioelectronics Program, Institute of Microelectronics, 11 Science Park Road, Singapore 117685 (Singapore); Christophe, Lay; Teo, William; ShuJun, Li; Hua, Feng Han [Bioelectronics Program, Institute of Microelectronics, 11 Science Park Road, Singapore 117685 (Singapore)

    2010-07-12

    Simultaneous sample washing and concentration of two waterborne pathogen samples were demonstrated using a rotational magnetic system under continuous flow conditions. The rotation of periodically arranged small permanent magnets close to a fluidic channel carrying magnetic particle suspension allows the trapping and release of particles along the fluidic channel in a periodic manner. Each trapping and release event resembles one washing cycle. The performance of the magnetic separation system (MSS) was evaluated in order to test its functionality to isolate magnetic-labelled protozoan cells from filtered, concentrated tap water, secondary effluent water, and purified water. Experimental protocols described in US Environmental Protection Agency method 1623 which rely on the use of a magnetic particle concentrator, were applied to test and compare our continuous flow cell separation system to the standard magnetic bead-based isolation instruments. The recovery efficiencies for Giardia cysts using the magnetic tube holder and our magnetic separation system were 90.5% and 90.1%, respectively, from a tap water matrix and about 31% and 18.5%, respectively, from a spiked secondary effluent matrix. The recovery efficiencies for Cryptosporidium cells using the magnetic tube holder and our magnetic separation system were 90% and 83.3%, respectively, from a tap water matrix and about 38% and 36%, respectively, from a spiked secondary effluent matrix. Recoveries from all matrices with the continuous flow system were typically higher in glass tubing conduits than in molded plastic conduits.

  4. Collision Based Blood Cell Distribution of the Blood Flow

    Cinar, Yildirim

    2003-11-01

    Introduction: The goal of the study is the determination of the energy transferring process between colliding masses and the application of the results to the distribution of the cell, velocity and kinetic energy in arterial blood flow. Methods: Mathematical methods and models were used to explain the collision between two moving systems, and the distribution of linear momentum, rectilinear velocity, and kinetic energy in a collision. Results: According to decrease of mass of the second system, the velocity and momentum of constant mass of the first system are decreased, and linearly decreasing mass of the second system captures a larger amount of the kinetic energy and the rectilinear velocity of the collision system on a logarithmic scale. Discussion: The cause of concentration of blood cells at the center of blood flow an artery is not explained by Bernoulli principle alone but the kinetic energy and velocity distribution due to collision between the big mass of the arterial wall and the small mass of blood cells must be considered as well.

  5. Effects of thermal aging on thermo-mechanical behavior of a glass sealant for solid oxide cell applications

    Abdoli, Hamid; Alizadeh, Parvin; Boccaccini, Dino

    2014-01-01

    Thermo-mechanical properties of a silicate based glass and its potential use for sealing application in intermediate temperature solid oxide cell (SOC) are presented in this paper. Effects of thermal aging are discussed on structural and microstructural evolution, thermal expansion, viscosity......'s modulus in which a transition between a slow softening (elastic) regime and a rapid softening one was observed. Crystallization induced by thermal aging led to higher creep resistance, but lower capability of crack healing when inspected by electron microscopy. However, potential of stress relaxation...

  6. Glucoamylase biosynthesis by cells of Aspergillus niger C sub 58-III immobilized in sintered glass and pumice stones

    Fiedurek, J.; Lobarzewski, J. (Uniwersytet Marii Curie-Sklodowskiej, Lublin (Poland). Inst. Mikrobiologii i Biochemii)

    1990-09-01

    A simple method of A. niger C{sub 58-III} cell immobilization is described. This strain produces extracellular glucoamylase. According to the proposed method A. niger spores were first immobilized by adsorption in sintered glass Rasching rings (RR) or pumice stones (PS). Growing out from spores, A. niger cells produced extracellular glucoamylase. This technique facilitates the culture growth in a filamentous spongy structure of the supports with a continuous accumulation of biomass. After every 24 h it was possible to obtain culture liquid rich in glucoamylase. This procedure can be repeated 30 times using the same sample of immobilized A. niger culture without any loss of glucoamylase activity in the liquid medium. In a 96 h period immobilized A. niger cells produced 300 units . ml{sup -1} whereas a shake culture of this fungus produced only 186 units . ml{sup -1}. (orig.).

  7. Reduction of front-metallization grid shading in concentrator cells through laser micro-grooved cover glass

    García-Linares, Pablo; Voarino, Philippe; Besson, Pierre; Baudrit, Mathieu; Dominguez, César; Dellea, Olivier; Fugier, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Concentrator solar cell front-grid metallizations are designed so that the trade-off between series resistance and shading factor (SF) is optimized for a particular irradiance. High concentrator photovoltaics (CPV) typically requires a metallic electrode pattern that covers up to 10% of the cell surface. The shading effect produced by this front electrode results in a significant reduction in short-circuit current (I SC ) and hence, in a significant efficiency loss. In this work we present a cover glass (originally meant to protect the cell surface) that is laser-grooved with a micrometric pattern that redirects the incident solar light towards interfinger regions and away from the metallic electrodes, where they would be wasted in terms of photovoltaic generation. Quantum efficiency (QE) and current (I)-voltage (V) characterization under concentration validate the proof-of-concept, showing great potential for CPV applications

  8. Reduction of front-metallization grid shading in concentrator cells through laser micro-grooved cover glass

    García-Linares, Pablo, E-mail: pablo.garcia-linares@cea.fr; Voarino, Philippe; Besson, Pierre; Baudrit, Mathieu [CEA-LITEN, Laboratoire de Photovoltaïque à Concentration, INES, Le Bourget du Lac (France); Dominguez, César [CEA-LITEN, Laboratoire de Photovoltaïque à Concentration, INES, Le Bourget du Lac (France); Instituto de Energía Solar - Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Dellea, Olivier; Fugier, Pascal [CEA-LITEN, Laboratoire de Surfaces Nanostructurées, Grenoble (France)

    2015-09-28

    Concentrator solar cell front-grid metallizations are designed so that the trade-off between series resistance and shading factor (SF) is optimized for a particular irradiance. High concentrator photovoltaics (CPV) typically requires a metallic electrode pattern that covers up to 10% of the cell surface. The shading effect produced by this front electrode results in a significant reduction in short-circuit current (I{sub SC}) and hence, in a significant efficiency loss. In this work we present a cover glass (originally meant to protect the cell surface) that is laser-grooved with a micrometric pattern that redirects the incident solar light towards interfinger regions and away from the metallic electrodes, where they would be wasted in terms of photovoltaic generation. Quantum efficiency (QE) and current (I)-voltage (V) characterization under concentration validate the proof-of-concept, showing great potential for CPV applications.

  9. Multidimensional flow, thermal, and chemical behavior in solid-oxide fuel cell button cells

    Goldin, Graham M. [Ansys Incorporated, 10 Cavendish Ct., Centerra Resource Park, Lebanon, NH 03766 (United States); Zhu, Huayang; Kee, Robert J. [Engineering Division, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Bierschenk, David; Barnett, Scott A. [Materials Science, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States)

    2009-02-01

    The quantitative analysis and interpretation of button-cell experiments usually depends upon assuming isothermal conditions together with uniform and known gas composition within the gas compartments. An objective of the present effort is to develop computational tools to study the validity of such assumptions. A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model is developed and applied to a particular SOFC button cell, characterizing the fluid flow, chemistry, and thermal transport. Results show that when inlet flow rates are sufficiently high, button-cell data can be interpreted using the commonly used assumptions. However, when flow rates are not sufficient, the assumptions of uniform composition can be significantly violated. Additionally, depending on operating conditions there can be significant temperature variations within the gas compartments and the membrane-electrode assembly. (author)

  10. Proteomic analysis of barley cell nuclei purified by flow sorting

    Petrovská, Beáta; Jeřábková, Hana; Chamrád, I.; Vrána, Jan; Lenobel, R.; Uřinovská, J.; Šebela, M.; Doležel, Jaroslav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 143, 1-3 (2014), s. 78-86 ISSN 1424-8581 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP501/12/G090; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-28443S; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Cell cycle * Chromatin * Flow cytometry Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.561, year: 2014 http://gateway.isiknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcAuth=Alerting&SrcApp=Alerting&DestApp=MEDLINE&DestLinkType=FullRecord&UT=25059295

  11. All-Fullerene-Based Cells for Nonaqueous Redox Flow Batteries.

    Friedl, Jochen; Lebedeva, Maria A; Porfyrakis, Kyriakos; Stimming, Ulrich; Chamberlain, Thomas W

    2018-01-10

    Redox flow batteries have the potential to revolutionize our use of intermittent sustainable energy sources such as solar and wind power by storing the energy in liquid electrolytes. Our concept study utilizes a novel electrolyte system, exploiting derivatized fullerenes as both anolyte and catholyte species in a series of battery cells, including a symmetric, single species system which alleviates the common problem of membrane crossover. The prototype multielectron system, utilizing molecular based charge carriers, made from inexpensive, abundant, and sustainable materials, principally, C and Fe, demonstrates remarkable current and energy densities and promising long-term cycling stability.

  12. Electrochromic Glasses.

    1980-07-31

    this glass and that dipole-dipole correlations contribute to the "ferroelectric-like" character of this amorphous system. The TeO2 -W03 glasses can only...shows the dielectric constant and Fig. I(b) glass from pure TeO2 ot pure WO. In addition, glass the tan 8 of the WO glass as a function of temperature... glasses containing WO, in various glass forming nitworks of LifO-B1O0, Na:O-BzO,, and TeO2 were prepared from reagent grade oxides at 800 C - 9SO C in

  13. Methods for studying biofilm formation: flow cells and confocal laser scanning microscopy

    Tolker-Nielsen, Tim; Sternberg, Claus

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter methods for growing and analyzing biofilms under hydrodynamic conditions in flow cells are described. Use of flow cells allows for direct microscopic investigation of biofilm formation. The flow in these chambers is essentially laminar, which means that the biofilms can be grown u......, inoculation of the flow cells, running of the system, confocal laser scanning microscopy and image analysis, and disassembly and cleaning of the system....

  14. DWPF GLASS BEADS AND GLASS FRIT TRANSPORT DEMONSTRATION

    Adamson, D; Bradley Pickenheim, B

    2008-11-24

    DWPF is considering replacing irregularly shaped glass frit with spherical glass beads in the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) process to decrease the yield stress of the melter feed (a non-Newtonian Bingham Plastic). Pilot-scale testing was conducted on spherical glass beads and glass frit to determine how well the glass beads would transfer when compared to the glass frit. Process Engineering Development designed and constructed the test apparatus to aid in the understanding and impacts that spherical glass beads may have on the existing DWPF Frit Transfer System. Testing was conducted to determine if the lines would plug with the glass beads and the glass frit slurry and what is required to unplug the lines. The flow loop consisted of vertical and horizontal runs of clear PVC piping, similar in geometry to the existing system. Two different batches of glass slurry were tested: a batch of 50 wt% spherical glass beads and a batch of 50 wt% glass frit in process water. No chemicals such as formic acid was used in slurry, only water and glass formers. The glass beads used for this testing were commercially available borosilicate glass of mesh size -100+200. The glass frit was Frit 418 obtained from DWPF and is nominally -45+200 mesh. The spherical glass beads did not have a negative impact on the frit transfer system. The transferring of the spherical glass beads was much easier than the glass frit. It was difficult to create a plug with glass bead slurry in the pilot transfer system. When a small plug occurred from setting overnight with the spherical glass beads, the plug was easy to displace using only the pump. In the case of creating a man made plug in a vertical line, by filling the line with spherical glass beads and allowing the slurry to settle for days, the plug was easy to remove by using flush water. The glass frit proved to be much more difficult to transfer when compared to the spherical glass beads. The glass frit impacted the transfer system to the point

  15. DWPF GLASS BEADS AND GLASS FRIT TRANSPORT DEMONSTRATION

    Adamson, D.; Pickenheim, Bradley

    2008-01-01

    DWPF is considering replacing irregularly shaped glass frit with spherical glass beads in the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) process to decrease the yield stress of the melter feed (a non-Newtonian Bingham Plastic). Pilot-scale testing was conducted on spherical glass beads and glass frit to determine how well the glass beads would transfer when compared to the glass frit. Process Engineering Development designed and constructed the test apparatus to aid in the understanding and impacts that spherical glass beads may have on the existing DWPF Frit Transfer System. Testing was conducted to determine if the lines would plug with the glass beads and the glass frit slurry and what is required to unplug the lines. The flow loop consisted of vertical and horizontal runs of clear PVC piping, similar in geometry to the existing system. Two different batches of glass slurry were tested: a batch of 50 wt% spherical glass beads and a batch of 50 wt% glass frit in process water. No chemicals such as formic acid was used in slurry, only water and glass formers. The glass beads used for this testing were commercially available borosilicate glass of mesh size -100+200. The glass frit was Frit 418 obtained from DWPF and is nominally -45+200 mesh. The spherical glass beads did not have a negative impact on the frit transfer system. The transferring of the spherical glass beads was much easier than the glass frit. It was difficult to create a plug with glass bead slurry in the pilot transfer system. When a small plug occurred from setting overnight with the spherical glass beads, the plug was easy to displace using only the pump. In the case of creating a man made plug in a vertical line, by filling the line with spherical glass beads and allowing the slurry to settle for days, the plug was easy to remove by using flush water. The glass frit proved to be much more difficult to transfer when compared to the spherical glass beads. The glass frit impacted the transfer system to the point

  16. Modeling two-phase flow in three-dimensional complex flow-fields of proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    Kim, Jinyong; Luo, Gang; Wang, Chao-Yang

    2017-10-01

    3D fine-mesh flow-fields recently developed by Toyota Mirai improved water management and mass transport in proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell stacks, suggesting their potential value for robust and high-power PEM fuel cell stack performance. In such complex flow-fields, Forchheimer's inertial effect is dominant at high current density. In this work, a two-phase flow model of 3D complex flow-fields of PEMFCs is developed by accounting for Forchheimer's inertial effect, for the first time, to elucidate the underlying mechanism of liquid water behavior and mass transport inside 3D complex flow-fields and their adjacent gas diffusion layers (GDL). It is found that Forchheimer's inertial effect enhances liquid water removal from flow-fields and adds additional flow resistance around baffles, which improves interfacial liquid water and mass transport. As a result, substantial improvements in high current density cell performance and operational stability are expected in PEMFCs with 3D complex flow-fields, compared to PEMFCs with conventional flow-fields. Higher current density operation required to further reduce PEMFC stack cost per kW in the future will necessitate optimizing complex flow-field designs using the present model, in order to efficiently remove a large amount of product water and hence minimize the mass transport voltage loss.

  17. Nanostructured Polyaniline Coating on ITO Glass Promotes the Neurite Outgrowth of PC 12 Cells by Electrical Stimulation.

    Wang, Liping; Huang, Qianwei; Wang, Jin-Ye

    2015-11-10

    A conducting polymer polyaniline (PANI) with nanostructure was synthesized on indium tin oxide (ITO) glass. The effect of electrical stimulation on the proliferation and the length of neurites of PC 12 cells was investigated. The dynamic protein adsorption on PANI and ITO surfaces in a cell culture medium was also compared with and without electrical stimulation. The adsorbed proteins were characterized using SDS-PAGE. A PANI coating on ITO surface was shown with 30-50 nm spherical nanostructure. The number of PC 12 cells was significantly greater on the PANI/ITO surface than on ITO and plate surfaces after cell seeding for 24 and 36 h. This result confirmed that the PANI coating is nontoxic to PC 12 cells. The electrical stimulation for 1, 2, and 4 h significantly enhanced the cell numbers for both PANI and ITO conducting surfaces. Moreover, the application of electrical stimulation also improved the neurite outgrowth of PC 12 cells, and the number of PC 12 cells with longer neurite lengths increased obviously under electrical stimulation for the PANI surface. From the mechanism, the adsorption of DMEM proteins was found to be enhanced by electrical stimulation for both PANI/ITO and ITO surfaces. A new band 2 (around 37 kDa) was observed from the collected adsorbed proteins when PC 12 cells were cultured on these surfaces, and culturing PC 12 cells also seemed to increase the amount of band 1 (around 90 kDa). When immersing PANI/ITO and ITO surfaces in a DMEM medium without a cell culture, the number of band 3 (around 70 kDa) and band 4 (around 45 kDa) proteins decreased compared to that of PC 12 cell cultured surfaces. These results are valuable for the design and improvement of the material performance for neural regeneration.

  18. Electrostatic bonding of thin (cycle sine 3 mil) 7070 cover glass to Ta2O5 AR-coated thin (cycle sine 2 mil) silicon wafers and solar cells

    Egelkrout, D. W.

    1981-01-01

    Electrostatic bonding of thin cover glass to thin solar cells was researched. Silicon solar cells, wafers, and Corning 7070 glass of from about 0.002" to about 0.003" in thickness were used in the investigation to establish optimum parameters for producing mechanically acceptable bonds while minimizing thermal stresses and resultant solar cell electrical parameter degradation.

  19. Flow cytometry detection of planktonic cells with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons sorbed to cell surfaces

    Cerezo, Maria I.

    2017-02-17

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are very important components of oil pollution. These pollutants tend to sorb to cell surfaces, exerting toxic effects on organisms. Our study developed a flow cytometric method for the detection of PAHs sorbed to phytoplankton by exploiting their spectral characteristics. We discriminated between cells with PAHs from cells free of PAHs. Clear discrimination was observed with flow cytometer provided with 375 or 405nm lasers in addition to the standard 488nm laser necessary to identify phytoplankton. Using this method, we measured the relationship between the percentages of phytoplankton organisms with PAHs, with the decrease in the growth rate. Moreover, the development of this method could be extended to facilitate the study of PAHs impact on cell cultures from a large variety of organisms.

  20. Interplay between cytoskeletal stresses and cell adaptation under chronic flow.

    Deepika Verma

    Full Text Available Using stress sensitive FRET sensors we have measured cytoskeletal stresses in α-actinin and the associated reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton in cells subjected to chronic shear stress. We show that long-term shear stress reduces the average actinin stress and this effect is reversible with removal of flow. The flow-induced changes in cytoskeletal stresses are found to be dynamic, involving a transient decrease in stress (phase-I, a short-term increase (3-6 min (Phase-II, followed by a longer-term decrease that reaches a minimum in ~20 min (Phase-III, before saturating. These changes are accompanied by reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton from parallel F-actin bundles to peripheral bundles. Blocking mechanosensitive ion channels (MSCs with Gd(3+ and GsMTx4 (a specific inhibitor eliminated the changes in cytoskeletal stress and the corresponding actin reorganization, indicating that Ca(2+ permeable MSCs participate in the signaling cascades. This study shows that shear stress induced cell adaptation is mediated via MSCs.

  1. Cerebral blood flow in sickle cell cerebrovascular disease

    Huttenlocher, P.R.; Moohr, J.W.; Johns, L.; Brown, F.D.

    1984-01-01

    Cerebral blood flow (CBF) has been studied by the xenon-133 ( 133 Xe) inhalation method in 16 children with suspected sickle cell cerebrovascular disease. Abnormalities consisting of decreases in total, hemispheral, or regional CBF were found in 17 of 26 studies. Eleven studies performed immediately after stroke, transient ischemic attack, or depression of state of alertness showed abnormalities. In addition to confirming regional cerebrovascular insufficiency in children with stroke due to major cerebral artery occlusion, the method detected diffuse decrease in CBF in children with stupor, coma, and seizures who had normal angiographic findings. In contrast, six of seven studies obtained after exchange transfusion or during maintenance on hypertransfusion therapy showed normal findings. The difference between results in patients with acute neurologic disturbances and those receiving transfusion therapy was statistically significant (P less than .005). The data indicate that the 133 Xe method reliably demonstrates cerebrovascular impairment in sickle cell disease. They also suggest that CBF changes in patients with sickle cell disease can be reversed by exchange transfusion and by hypertransfusion therapy. The 133 Xe CBF method may be useful for following up children with sickle cell disease who are at high risk for recurrent stroke

  2. 3D-printed and CNC milled flow-cells for chemiluminescence detection.

    Spilstead, Kara B; Learey, Jessica J; Doeven, Egan H; Barbante, Gregory J; Mohr, Stephan; Barnett, Neil W; Terry, Jessica M; Hall, Robynne M; Francis, Paul S

    2014-08-01

    Herein we explore modern fabrication techniques for the development of chemiluminescence detection flow-cells with features not attainable using the traditional coiled tubing approach. This includes the first 3D-printed chemiluminescence flow-cells, and a milled flow-cell designed to split the analyte stream into two separate detection zones within the same polymer chip. The flow-cells are compared to conventional detection systems using flow injection analysis (FIA) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), with the fast chemiluminescence reactions of an acidic potassium permanganate reagent with morphine and a series of adrenergic phenolic amines. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparison of plateletpheresis on three continuous flow cell separators

    Tendulkar Anita

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Platelet concentrate (PC remains one of the most important support measures in thrombocytopenic patients. An efficient cell separator is a prerequisite for an optimally functioning apheresis setup. Donor blood count may undergo a temporary reduction after the procedure. Aim: The aim was to find the extent of reduction in donor blood count (hemoglobin, hematocrit, white blood cell, and platelet after plateletpheresis and to evaluate the cell separator for collection efficiency, processing time, and leukoreduction. Study Design and Methods: Two hundred and thirty seven procedures performed on the Amicus (N = 121, Fenwal CS-3000 Plus (N = 50 and Cobe spectra (N = 66 in a one year period were evaluated. The procedures performed on the continuous flow centrifugation (CFC cell separators and donor blood counts (pre and post donation done were included in the study. Results: The percent reduction in hemoglobin (HB, hematocrit (HCT, white blood cell (WBC and platelet count ((PLT ct was 2.9, 3.1, 9, 30.7 (Mean, N = 237 respectively after the procedure. The post donation PLT ct reduced to < 100x109/L (range 80-100 in five donors (N = 5/237, Amicus. The pre donation PLT ct in them was 150-200x109/L. Collection efficiency (percent of Amicus (79.3 was better as compared to the other two machines (CS: 62.5, Cobe: 57.5. PC collected on Cobe spectra had < 1x106 WBC. The donor pre donation PLT levels had a positive correlation to the product PLT yield (r = 0.30, P = 0.000. Conclusion: Monitoring donor blood counts helps to avoid pheresis induced adverse events. A cautious approach is necessary in donors whose pre donation PLT ct is 150-200x109/L. The main variable in PLT yield is donor PLT ct (pre donation. High collection efficiency is a direct measure of an optimally functioning cell separator.

  4. Use of Multicolor Flow Cytometry for Isolation of Specific Cell Populations Deriving from Differentiated Human Embryonic Stem Cells

    Mengarelli, Isabella; Fryga, Andrew; Barberi, Tiziano

    2016-01-01

    Flow Cytometry-Sorting (FCM-Sorting) is a technique commonly used to identify and isolate specific types of cells from a heterogeneous population of live cells. Here we describe a multicolor flow cytometry technique that uses five distinct cell surface antigens to isolate four live populations with

  5. Distribution of medium-to-coarse glass beads in slurry pipe flow: evaluation of measured concentration profiles

    Matoušek, Václav; Krupička, Jan; Pěník, Vojtěch

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 2 (2014), s. 186-196 ISSN 0272-6351. [7th International Conference for Conveying and Handling of Particulate Solids (CHoPS). Friedrichshafen, 10.09.2013-13.09.2012] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA103/09/0383 Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : concentration distribution * high concentrated slurry * pipeline flow * slurry flow experiment Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 0.523, year: 2014

  6. Dry Phosphorus silicate glass etching and surface conditioning and cleaning for multi-crystalline silicon solar cell processing

    Kagilik, Ahmed S.

    2014-01-01

    As an alternative to the wet chemical etching method, dry chemical etching processes for Phosphorus silicate glass [PSG} layer removal using Trifluormethane/Sulfur Hexafluoride (CHF 3 / SF 6 ) gas mixture in commercial silicon-nitride plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (SiN-PECVD) system is applied. The dependence of the solar cell performance on the etching temperature is investigated and optimized. It is found that the SiN-PECVD system temperature variation has a significant impact on the whole solar cell characteristics. A dry plasma cleaning treatment of the Si wafer surface after the PSG removal step is also investigated and developed. The cleaning step is used to remove the polymer film which is formed during the PSG etching using both oxygen and hydrogen gases. By applying an additional cleaning step, the polymer film deposited on the silicon wafer surface after PSG etching is eliminated. The effect of different plasma cleaning conditions on solar cell performance is investigated. After optimization of the plasma operating conditions, the performance of the solar cell is improved and the overall gain in efficiency of 0.6% absolute is yielded compared to a cell without any further cleaning step. On the other hand, the best solar cell characteristics can reach values close to that achieved by the conventional wet chemical etching processes demonstrating the effectiveness of the additional O 2 /H 2 post cleaning treatment.(author)

  7. Through the Looking Glass: Time-lapse Microscopy and Longitudinal Tracking of Single Cells to Study Anti-cancer Therapeutics.

    Burke, Russell T; Orth, James D

    2016-05-14

    The response of single cells to anti-cancer drugs contributes significantly in determining the population response, and therefore is a major contributing factor in the overall outcome. Immunoblotting, flow cytometry and fixed cell experiments are often used to study how cells respond to anti-cancer drugs. These methods are important, but they have several shortcomings. Variability in drug responses between cancer and normal cells, and between cells of different cancer origin, and transient and rare responses are difficult to understand using population averaging assays and without being able to directly track and analyze them longitudinally. The microscope is particularly well suited to image live cells. Advancements in technology enable us to routinely image cells at a resolution that enables not only cell tracking, but also the observation of a variety of cellular responses. We describe an approach in detail that allows for the continuous time-lapse imaging of cells during the drug response for essentially as long as desired, typically up to 96 hr. Using variations of the approach, cells can be monitored for weeks. With the employment of genetically encoded fluorescent biosensors numerous processes, pathways and responses can be followed. We show examples that include tracking and quantification of cell growth and cell cycle progression, chromosome dynamics, DNA damage, and cell death. We also discuss variations of the technique and its flexibility, and highlight some common pitfalls.

  8. Detection of circulating breast cancer cells using photoacoustic flow cytometry

    Bhattacharyya, Kiran

    According to the American Cancer Society, more than 200,000 new cases of breast cancer are expected to be diagnosed this year. Moreover, about 40,000 women died from breast cancer last year alone. As breast cancer progresses in an individual, it can transform from a localized state to a metastatic one with multiple tumors distributed through the body, not necessarily contained within the breast. Metastasis is the spread of cancer through the body by circulating tumor cells (CTCs) which can be found in the blood and lymph of the diagnosed patient. Diagnosis of a metastatic state by the discovery of a secondary tumor can often come too late and hence, significantly reduce the patient's chance of survival. There is a current need for a CTC detection method which would diagnose metastasis before the secondary tumor occurs or reaches a size resolvable by current imaging systems. Since earlier detection would improve prognosis, this study proposes a method of labeling of breast cancer cells for detection with a photoacoustic flow cytometry system as a model for CTC detection in human blood. Gold nanoparticles and fluorescent polystyrene nanoparticles are proposed as contrast agents for T47D, the breast cancer cell line of choice. The labeling, photoacoustic detection limit, and sensitivity are first characterized and then applied to a study to show detection from human blood.

  9. Adhesion behavior of endothelial progenitor cells to endothelial cells in simple shear flow

    Gong, Xiao-Bo; Li, Yu-Qing; Gao, Quan-Chao; Cheng, Bin-Bin; Shen, Bao-Rong; Yan, Zhi-Qiang; Jiang, Zong-Lai

    2011-12-01

    The adhesion of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) on endothelial cells (ECs) is one of the critical physiological processes for the regenesis of vascular vessels and the prevention of serious cardiovascular diseases. Here, the rolling and adhesion behavior of EPCs on ECs was studied numerically. A two-dimensional numerical model was developed based on the immersed boundary method for simulating the rolling and adhesion of cells in a channel flow. The binding force arising from the catch bond of a receptor and ligand pair was modeled with stochastic Monte Carlo method and Hookean spring model. The effect of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF- α) on the expression of the number of adhesion molecules in ECs was analyzed experimentally. A flow chamber system with CCD camera was set up to observe the top view of the rolling of EPCs on the substrate cultivated with ECs. Numerical results prove that the adhesion of EPC on ECs is closely related to membrane stiffness of the cell and shear rate of the flow. It also suggests that the adhesion force between EPC and EC by P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 only is not strong enough to bond the cell onto vessel walls unless contributions of other catch bond are considered. Experimental results demonstrate that TNF- α enhanced the expressions of VCAM, ICAM, P-selectin and E-selectin in ECs, which supports the numerical results that the rolling velocity of EPC on TNF- α treated EC substrate decreases obviously compared with its velocity on the untreated one. It is found that because the adhesion is affected by both the rolling velocity and the deformability of the cell, an optimal stiffness of EPC may exist at a given shear rate of flow for achieving maximum adhesion rates.

  10. Glass consistency and glass performance

    Plodinec, M.J.; Ramsey, W.G.

    1994-01-01

    Glass produced by the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will have to consistently be more durable than a benchmark glass (evaluated using a short-term leach test), with high confidence. The DWPF has developed a Glass Product Control Program to comply with this specification. However, it is not clear what relevance product consistency has on long-term glass performance. In this report, the authors show that DWPF glass, produced in compliance with this specification, can be expected to effectively limit the release of soluble radionuclides to natural environments. However, the release of insoluble radionuclides to the environment will be limited by their solubility, and not glass durability

  11. Colloidal glasses

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Colloidal glasses. Glassy state is attained when system fails to reach equilibrium due to crowding of constituent particles. In molecular glasses, glassy state is reached by rapidly lowering the temperature. In colloidal glasses, glassy state is reached by increasing the ...

  12. Bioactive glass induced osteogenic differentiation of human adipose stem cells is dependent on cell attachment mechanism and mitogen-activated protein kinases

    M Ojansivu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Bioactive glasses (BaGs are widely utilised in bone tissue engineering (TE but the molecular response of cells to BaGs is poorly understood. To elucidate the mechanisms of cell attachment to BaGs and BaG-induced early osteogenic differentiation, we cultured human adipose stem cells (hASCs on discs of two silica-based BaGs S53P4 (23.0 Na2O - 20.0 CaO - 4.0 P2O5 - 53.0 SiO2 (wt-% and 1-06 (5.9 Na2O - 12.0 K2O - 5.3 MgO - 22.6 CaO - 4.0 P2O5 - 0.2 B2O3 - 50.0 SiO2 in the absence of osteogenic supplements. Both BaGs induced early osteogenic differentiation by increasing alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP and the expression of osteogenic marker genes RUNX2a and OSTERIX. Based on ALP activity, the slower reacting 1-06 glass was a stronger osteoinducer. Regarding the cell attachment, cells cultured on BaGs had enhanced integrinβ1 and vinculin production, and mature focal adhesions were smaller but more dispersed than on cell culture plastic (polystyrene. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK-induced c-Jun phosphorylations were upregulated by glass contact. Moreover, the BaG-stimulated osteoinduction was significantly reduced by FAK and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK inhibitors, indicating an important role for FAK and MAPKs in the BaG-induced early osteogenic commitment of hASCs. Upon indirect insert culture, the ions released from the BaG discs could not reproduce the observed cellular changes, which highlighted the role of direct cell-BaG interactions in the osteopotential of BaGs. These findings gave valuable insight into the mechanism of BaG-induced osteogenic differentiation and therefore provided knowledge to aid the future design of new functional biomaterials to meet the increasing demand for clinical bone TE treatments.

  13. Stable glass-ceramic sealants for solid oxide fuel cells: Influence of Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} doping

    Goel, Ashutosh; Ferreira, Jose M.F. [Department of Ceramics and Glass Engineering, University of Aveiro, CICECO, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Pascual, Maria J. [Instituto de Ceramica y Vidrio (CSIC), Kelsen 5, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-07-15

    Diopside (CaMgSi{sub 2}O{sub 6}) based glass-ceramics in the system SrO-CaO-MgO-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-B{sub 2}O{sub 3}-La{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2} have been synthesized for sealing applications in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). The parent glass composition in the primary crystallization field of diopside has been doped with different amounts of Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} (1, 3, 5 wt.%). The sintering behavior by hot-stage microscopy (HSM) reveals that all the investigated glass compositions exhibit a two-stage shrinkage behavior. The crystallization kinetics of the glasses has been studied by differential thermal analysis (DTA) while X-ray diffraction adjoined with Rietveld-R.I.R. analysis have been employed to quantify the amount of crystalline and amorphous phases in the glass-ceramics. Diopside and augite crystallized as the primary crystalline phases in all the glass-ceramics. The coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of the investigated glass-ceramics varied between (9.06-10.14) x 10{sup -6} K{sup -1} after heat treatment at SOFC operating temperature for a duration varying between 1 h and 200 h. Further, low electrical conductivity, good joining behavior and negligible reactivity with metallic interconnects (Crofer22 APU and Sanergy HT) in air indicate that the investigated glass-ceramics are suitable candidates for further experimentation as sealants in SOFC. (author)

  14. Pressure drop and flow distribution characteristics of single and parallel serpentine flow fields for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    Baek, Seung Man; Kim, Charn Jung; Jeon, Dong Hyup; Nam, Jin Hyun

    2012-01-01

    This study numerically investigates pressure drop and flow distribution characteristics of serpentine flow fields (SFFs) that are designed for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells, which consider the Poiseuille flow with secondary pressure drop in the gas channel (GC) and the Darcy flow in the porous gas diffusion layer (GDL). The numerical results for a conventional SFF agreed well with those obtained via computational fluid dynamics simulations, thus proving the validity of the present flow network model. This model is employed to characterize various single and parallel SFFs, including multi-pass serpentine flow fields (MPSFFs). Findings reveal that under rib convection (convective flow through GDL under an interconnector rib) is an important transport process for conventional SFFs, with its intensity being significantly enhanced as GDL permeability increases. The results also indicate that under rib convection can be significantly improved by employing MPSFFs as the reactant flow field, because of the closely interlaced structure of GC regions that have different path lengths from the inlet. However, reactant flow rate through GCs proportionally decreases as under rib convection intensity increases, suggesting that proper optimization is required between the flow velocity in GCs and the under rib convection intensity in GDLs

  15. Flow field bipolar plates in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell: Analysis & modeling

    Kahraman, Huseyin; Orhan, Mehmet F.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Covers a comprehensive review of available flow field channel configurations. • Examines the main design considerations and limitations for a flow field network. • Explores the common materials and material properties used for flow field plates. • Presents a case study of step-by-step modeling for an optimum flow field design. - Abstract: This study investigates flow fields and flow field plates (bipolar plates) in proton exchange membrane fuel cells. In this regard, the main design considerations and limitations for a flow field network have been examined, along with a comprehensive review of currently available flow field channel configurations. Also, the common materials and material properties used for flow field plates have been explored. Furthermore, a case study of step-by-step modeling for an optimum flow field design has been presented in-details. Finally, a parametric study has been conducted with respect to many design and performance parameters in a flow field plate.

  16. High-temperature laser annealing for thin film polycrystalline silicon solar cell on glass substrate

    Chowdhury, A.; Schneider, J.; Dore, J.; Mermet, F.; Slaoui, A.

    2012-06-01

    Thin film polycrystalline silicon films grown on glass substrate were irradiated with an infrared continuous wave laser for defects annealing and/or dopants activation. The samples were uniformly scanned using an attachment with the laser system. Substrate temperature, scan speed and laser power were varied to find suitable laser annealing conditions. The Raman spectroscopy and Suns- V oc analysis were carried out to qualify the films quality after laser annealing. A maximum enhancement of the open circuit voltage V oc of about 100 mV is obtained after laser annealing of as-grown polysilicon structures. A strong correlation was found between the full width half maximum of the Si crystalline peak and V oc. It is interpreted as due to defects annealing as well as to dopants activation in the absorbing silicon layer. The maximum V oc reached is 485 mV after laser treatment and plasma hydrogenation, thanks to defects passivation.

  17. Enzymatic detachment of therapeutic mesenchymal stromal cells grown on glass carriers in a bioreactor.

    Salzig, Denise; Schmiermund, Alexandra; P Grace, Pablo; Elseberg, Christiane; Weber, Christian; Czermak, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Cell therapies require the in vitro expansion of adherent cells such as mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) in bioreactor systems or other culture environments, followed by cell harvest. As hMSCs are strictly adherent cells, cell harvest requires cell detachment. The use of hMSCs for cell therapy requires GMP production in accordance with the guidelines for advanced therapeutic medical products. Therefore, several GMP-conform available proteolytic enzymes were investigated for their ability to promote hMSC detachment. An allogeneic hMSC cell line (hMSC-TERT) that is used in clinical trials in the form of alginate cell capsules was chosen as a model. This study investigated the influence of several factors on the outcome of proteolytic hMSC-TERT detachment. Therefore, hMSC-TERT detachment was analyzed in different cultivation systems (static, dynamic) and in combination with further cell processing including encapsulation. Only two of the commercially available enzymes (AccutaseTM, TrypZeanTM) that fulfill all process requirements (commercial availability, cost, GMP conditions during manufacturing and non-animal origin) are found to be generally suitable for detaching hMSC-TERT. Combining cell detachment with encapsulation demonstrated a high impact of the experimental set up on cell damage. It was preferable to reduce the temperature during detachment and limit the detachment time to a maximum of 20 minutes. Cell detachment in static systems was not comparable with detachment in dynamic systems. Detachment yields in dynamic systems were lower and cell damage was higher for the same experimental conditions. Finally, only TrypZeanTM seemed to be suitable for the detachment of hMSC-TERT from dynamic reactor systems.

  18. [Studies on a sequential injection renewable surface reflectance spectrophotometric system using a microchip flow cell].

    Wang, Jian-ya; Fang, Zhao-lun

    2002-02-01

    A microchip flow cell was developed for flow injection renewable surface assay by reflectance spectrophotometry. The flow cell was coupled to a sequential injection system and optical fiber photometric detection system. The flow cell featured a three-layer structure. The flow channel was cut into a silicone rubber membrance which formed the middle layer, and a porous filter was inlayed across a widened section of the channel to trap microbeads introduced into the flow cell. The area of the detection window of the flow cell was approximately 3.6 mm2, the volume of the bead trapped in the flow cell was 2.2 microL, the depth of the bead layer was 600 microns. A multistrand bifurcated optical fiber was coupled with incident light, detector and flow cell. The chromogenic reaction of Cr(VI) with 1,5-diphenylcarbohydrazide (DPC) which was adsorbed on trapped Polysorb C-18 beads was used as a model reaction to optimize the flow cell design and the experimental system. The reflectance of the renewable reaction surface was monitored at 540 nm. With 100 microL sample loaded and 1.0 mL.min-1 carrier flow rate, the linear response range was 0-0.6 microgram.mL-1 Cr(VI). A detection limit (3 sigma) of 6 ng.mL-1, precision of 1.5% RSD(n = 11), and a throughput of 64 samples per hour were achieved. Considerations in system and flow cell design, the influence of depth of the bead layer, weight of beads used, and the flow rates of carrier stream on the performance were discussed.

  19. Silicate glasses

    Lutze, W.

    1988-01-01

    Vitrification of liquid high-level radioactive wastes has received the greatest attention, world-wide, compared to any other HLW solidification process. The waste form is a borosilicate-based glass. The production of phosphate-based glass has been abandoned in the western world. Only in the Soviet Union are phosphate-based glasses still being developed. Vitrification techniques, equipment and processes and their remote operation have been developed and studied for almost thirty years and have reached a high degree of technical maturity. Industrial demonstration of the vitrification process has been in progress since 1978. This chapter is a survey of world-wide research and development efforts in nuclear waste glasses and its production technology. The principal glasses considered are silicate glasses which contain boron, i.e., borosilicate glasses

  20. Effect of size of bioactive glass nanoparticles on mesenchymal stem cell proliferation for dental and orthopedic applications

    Ajita, J.; Saravanan, S.; Selvamurugan, N.

    2015-01-01

    Bioactive glass nanoparticles (nanostructured bioglass ceramics or nBGs) have been widely employed as a filler material for bone tissue regeneration. The physical properties of nBG particles govern their biological actions. In this study, the impact of the size of nBG particles on mouse mesenchymal stem cell (mMSC) proliferation was investigated. Three different sizes of nBG particles were prepared via the sol–gel method with varying concentrations of the surfactant and polyethylene glycol (PEG), and the particles were characterized. Increased concentrations of PEG decreased the size of nBG particles (nBG-1: 74.7 ± 0.62 nm, nBG-2: 43.25 ± 1.5 nm, and nBG-3: 37.6 ± 0.81 nm). All three nBGs were non-toxic at a concentration of 20 mg/mL. Increased proliferation was observed in mMSCs treated with smaller nBG particles. Differential mRNA expression of cyclin A2, B2, D1, and E1 genes induced by nBG particles was noticed in the mMSCs. nBG-1 and nBG-3 particles promoted cells in the G0/G1 phase to enter the S and G2/M phases. nBG particles activated ERK, but prolonged activation was achieved with nBG-3 particles. Among the prepared nBG particles, nBG-3 particles showed enhanced mMSC proliferation via the sustained activation of ERKs, upregulation of cyclin gene(s) expression, and promotion of cell transition from the G0/G1 phase to the S and G2/M phases. Thus, this study indicates that small nBG particles have clinical applications in dental and bone treatments as fillers or bone-tissue bond forming materials. - Highlights: • Three different sizes of bioactive glass nanoparticles (nBGs) were prepared via the sol–gel method. • Increased concentrations of polyethylene glycol decreased the size of nBG particles. • All three nBGs were non-toxic at a concentration of 20 mg/mL. • Cell number, cell cycle phase analysis, cyclin gene expression and ERK activation were studied. • Increased proliferation was observed in mMSCs treated with smaller nBG particles

  1. Biomimetic approaches to create anti-reflection glass surfaces for solar cells using self-organizing techniques

    Achtelik, J.; Sievers, W.; Lindner, J.K.N.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Nanostructured glass surfaces with theoretically near-to-zero reflectivity in the UVNIR region. ► Simple fabrication process using self-organization during reactive ion etching proposed. ► Prediction of optical reflectivity from AFM measured surface morphology. -- Abstract: Aiming to diminish the reflection losses of glass covered light harvesting devices, the optical reflectivity of nanostructured glass surfaces is studied theoretically and experimentally. The work is inspired by the nanoscale roughness of insect eyes, which is tried to be replicated on a technical glass surface. To this end, the reflectivity of glass surfaces with topographies represented by linear, parabolic and Fermi-shaped glass/air fill factor profiles is calculated for normal incidence. It is shown that using the latter ones, an almost complete suppression of reflections can be achieved. A simple, self-organization technique to create such Fermi-shaped filling factor profiles in glass experimentally is also presented

  2. Biomimetic approaches to create anti-reflection glass surfaces for solar cells using self-organizing techniques

    Achtelik, J.; Sievers, W. [University of Paderborn, Department of Physics, 33098 Paderborn (Germany); Center of Optoelectronics and Photonics Paderborn CeOPP, 33098 Paderborn (Germany); Lindner, J.K.N., E-mail: lindner@physik.uni-paderborn.de [University of Paderborn, Department of Physics, 33098 Paderborn (Germany); Center of Optoelectronics and Photonics Paderborn CeOPP, 33098 Paderborn (Germany)

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ► Nanostructured glass surfaces with theoretically near-to-zero reflectivity in the UVNIR region. ► Simple fabrication process using self-organization during reactive ion etching proposed. ► Prediction of optical reflectivity from AFM measured surface morphology. -- Abstract: Aiming to diminish the reflection losses of glass covered light harvesting devices, the optical reflectivity of nanostructured glass surfaces is studied theoretically and experimentally. The work is inspired by the nanoscale roughness of insect eyes, which is tried to be replicated on a technical glass surface. To this end, the reflectivity of glass surfaces with topographies represented by linear, parabolic and Fermi-shaped glass/air fill factor profiles is calculated for normal incidence. It is shown that using the latter ones, an almost complete suppression of reflections can be achieved. A simple, self-organization technique to create such Fermi-shaped filling factor profiles in glass experimentally is also presented.

  3. Commercial alkaline earth boroaluminosilicate glasses for sealing solid oxide cell stacks Part II: Characterization of devitrification and glass-ceramic phase assemblages

    Agersted, Karsten; Balic-Zunic, T.

    2018-01-01

    The devitrification process and formation of crystalline phases from commercial alkaline earth boroaluminosilicate glasses containing 48-61 mol% SiO2, 18-28 mol% CaO, 1-7 mol% MgO, 7-10 mol% Al2O3, 1-11 mol% B2O3 plus minor amounts of Na2O, K2O, FeO and TiO2 were quantified through analysis...... of phase assemblages as function of heat treatments above the glass transition temperatures using the electron microprobe and powder X-ray diffraction. Treatments at 800 °C and 850 °C lasted up to 6 weeks. Results indicate that devitrification was strongly activated through presence of heterogeneous...... nucleation, and that the growth mechanism gradually changed from three-dimensional growth at the onset of devitrification towards one-dimensional growth in later stages, when heterogeneous nucleation was absent or less dominating. Most glasses developed entangled and fibrous microstructures with little...

  4. IB-LBM study on cell sorting by pinched flow fractionation.

    Ma, Jingtao; Xu, Yuanqing; Tian, Fangbao; Tang, Xiaoying

    2014-01-01

    Separation of two categories of cells in pinched flow fractionation(PFF) device is simulated by employing IB-LBM. The separation performances at low Reynolds number (about 1) under different pinched segment widths, flow ratios, cell features, and distances between neighboring cells are studied and the results are compared with those predicted by the empirical formula. The simulation indicates that the diluent flow rate should approximate to or more than the flow rate of particle solution in order to get a relatively ideal separation performance. The discrepancy of outflow position between numerical simulation and the empirical prediction enlarges, when the cells become more flexible. Too short distance between two neighboring cells could lead to cell banding which would result in incomplete separation, and the relative position of two neighboring cells influences the banding of cells. The present study will probably provide some new applications of PFF, and make some suggestions on the design of PFF devices.

  5. Low stoichiometry operation of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell employing the interdigitated flow field

    Berning, Torsten; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2012-01-01

    A multiphase fuel cell model based on computational fluid dynamics is used to investigate the possibility of operating a proton exchange membrane fuel cell at low stoichiometric flow ratios (ξ gases. A case study...

  6. An Improved Ghost-cell Immersed Boundary Method for Compressible Inviscid Flow Simulations

    Chi, Cheng

    2015-01-01

    This study presents an improved ghost-cell immersed boundary approach to represent a solid body in compressible flow simulations. In contrast to the commonly used approaches, in the present work ghost cells are mirrored through the boundary

  7. An improved ghost-cell immersed boundary method for compressible flow simulations

    Chi, Cheng; Lee, Bok Jik; Im, Hong G.

    2016-01-01

    This study presents an improved ghost-cell immersed boundary approach to represent a solid body in compressible flow simulations. In contrast to the commonly used approaches, in the present work ghost cells are mirrored through the boundary

  8. In Situ Spatiotemporal Mapping of Flow Fields around Seeded Stem Cells at the Subcellular Length Scale

    Song, Min Jae; Dean, David; Knothe Tate, Melissa L.

    2010-01-01

    A major hurdle to understanding and exploiting interactions between the stem cell and its environment is the lack of a tool for precise delivery of mechanical cues concomitant to observing sub-cellular adaptation of structure. These studies demonstrate the use of microscale particle image velocimetry (μ-PIV) for in situ spatiotemporal mapping of flow fields around mesenchymal stem cells, i.e. murine embryonic multipotent cell line C3H10T1/2, at the subcellular length scale, providing a tool for real time observation and analysis of stem cell adaptation to the prevailing mechanical milieu. In the absence of cells, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) predicts flow regimes within 12% of μ-PIV measures, achieving the technical specifications of the chamber and the flow rates necessary to deliver target shear stresses at a particular height from the base of the flow chamber. However, our μ-PIV studies show that the presence of cells per se as well as the density at which cells are seeded significantly influences local flow fields. Furthermore, for any given cell or cell seeding density, flow regimes vary significantly along the vertical profile of the cell. Hence, the mechanical milieu of the stem cell exposed to shape changing shear stresses, induced by fluid drag, varies with respect to proximity of surrounding cells as well as with respect to apical height. The current study addresses a previously unmet need to predict and observe both flow regimes as well as mechanoadaptation of cells in flow chambers designed to deliver precisely controlled mechanical signals to live cells. An understanding of interactions and adaptation in response to forces at the interface between the surface of the cell and its immediate local environment may be key for de novo engineering of functional tissues from stem cell templates as well as for unraveling the mechanisms underlying multiscale development, growth and adaptation of organisms. PMID:20862249

  9. In situ spatiotemporal mapping of flow fields around seeded stem cells at the subcellular length scale.

    Min Jae Song

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A major hurdle to understanding and exploiting interactions between the stem cell and its environment is the lack of a tool for precise delivery of mechanical cues concomitant to observing sub-cellular adaptation of structure. These studies demonstrate the use of microscale particle image velocimetry (μ-PIV for in situ spatiotemporal mapping of flow fields around mesenchymal stem cells, i.e. murine embryonic multipotent cell line C3H10T1/2, at the subcellular length scale, providing a tool for real time observation and analysis of stem cell adaptation to the prevailing mechanical milieu. In the absence of cells, computational fluid dynamics (CFD predicts flow regimes within 12% of μ-PIV measures, achieving the technical specifications of the chamber and the flow rates necessary to deliver target shear stresses at a particular height from the base of the flow chamber. However, our μ-PIV studies show that the presence of cells per se as well as the density at which cells are seeded significantly influences local flow fields. Furthermore, for any given cell or cell seeding density, flow regimes vary significantly along the vertical profile of the cell. Hence, the mechanical milieu of the stem cell exposed to shape changing shear stresses, induced by fluid drag, varies with respect to proximity of surrounding cells as well as with respect to apical height. The current study addresses a previously unmet need to predict and observe both flow regimes as well as mechanoadaptation of cells in flow chambers designed to deliver precisely controlled mechanical signals to live cells. An understanding of interactions and adaptation in response to forces at the interface between the surface of the cell and its immediate local environment may be key for de novo engineering of functional tissues from stem cell templates as well as for unraveling the mechanisms underlying multiscale development, growth and adaptation of organisms.

  10. Enhanced desalination performance of membrane capacitive deionization cells by packing the flow chamber with granular activated carbon.

    Bian, Yanhong; Yang, Xufei; Liang, Peng; Jiang, Yong; Zhang, Changyong; Huang, Xia

    2015-11-15

    A new design of membrane capacitive deionization (MCDI) cell was constructed by packing the cell's flow chamber with granular activated carbon (GAC). The GAC packed-MCDI (GAC-MCDI) delivered higher (1.2-2.5 times) desalination rates than the regular MCDI at all test NaCl concentrations (∼ 100-1000 mg/L). The greatest performance enhancement by packed GAC was observed when treating saline water with an initial NaCl concentration of 100 mg/L. Several different GAC materials were tested and they all exhibited similar enhancement effects. Comparatively, packing the MCDI's flow chamber with glass beads (GB; non-conductive) and graphite granules (GG; conductive but with lower specific surface area than GAC) resulted in inferior desalination performance. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) analysis showed that the GAC-MCDI had considerably smaller internal resistance than the regular MCDI (∼ 19.2 ± 1.2 Ω versus ∼ 1222 ± 15 Ω at 100 mg/L NaCl). The packed GAC also decreased the ionic resistance across the flow chamber (∼ 1.49 ± 0.05 Ω versus ∼ 1130 ± 12 Ω at 100 mg/L NaCl). The electric double layer (EDL) formed on the GAC surface was considered to store salt ions during electrosorption, and facilitate the ion transport in the flow chamber because of the higher ion conductivity in the EDLs than in the bulk solution, thereby enhancing the MCDI's desalination rate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Application of two-phase flow for cooling of hybrid microchannel PV cells: A comparative study

    Valeh-e-Sheyda, Peyvand; Rahimi, Masoud; Karimi, Ebrahim; Asadi, Masomeh

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Showing cooling potential of gas–liquid two-phase flow in microchannels for PV cell. ► Introducing the concept of using slug flow in microchannels for cooling of PV cells. ► In single-phase flow, increasing the liquid flow rate enhances the PV power. ► Showing that in two-phase flow the output power related the fluid flow regime. ► By coupling PV and microchannel an increase up to 38% in output power was observed. - Abstract: This paper reports the experimental data from performance of two-phase flows in a small hybrid microchannel solar cell. Using air and water as two-phase fluid, the experiments were conducted at indoor condition in an array of rectangular microchannels with a hydraulic diameter of 0.667 mm. The gas superficial velocity ranges were between 0 and 3.27 m s −1 while liquid flow rate was 0.04 m s −1 . The performance analysis of the PV cell at slug and transitional slug/annular flow regimes are the focus of this study. The influence of two-phase working fluid on PV cell cooling was compared with single-phase. In addition, the great potential of slug flow for heat removal enhancement in PV/T panel was investigated. The obtained data showed the proposed hybrid system could substantially increases the output power of PV solar cells

  12. Laser flow microphotometry for rapid analysis and sorting of mammalian cells

    Mullaney, P.F.; Steinkamp, J.A.; Crissman, H.A.; Cram, L.S.; Crowell, J.M.; Salzman, G.C.; Martin, J.C.; Price, B.

    1976-01-01

    Quantitative precision measurements can be made of the optical properties of individual mammalian cells using flow microphotometry. Suspended cells pass through a special flow chamber where they are lined up for exposure to blue light from an argon-ion laser. As each cell crosses the laser beam, it produces one or more optical pulses of a duration equal to cell transit time across the beam. These pulses are detected, amplified, and analyzed using the techniques of gamma ray spectroscopy. Quantitative DNA distributions made it possible to distinguish tumor cells from normal cells as well as to assay for radiation effects on tumor cells subjected to x and gamma radiation

  13. Laser flow microphotometry for rapid analysis and sorting of mammalian cells. [X and gamma radiation

    Mullaney, P.F.; Steinkamp, J.A.; Crissman, H.A.; Cram, L.S.; Crowell, J.M.; Salzman, G.C.; Martin, J.C.; Price, B.

    1976-01-01

    Quantitative precision measurements can be made of the optical properties of individual mammalian cells using flow microphotometry. Suspended cells pass through a special flow chamber where they are lined up for exposure to blue light from an argon-ion laser. As each cell crosses the laser beam, it produces one or more optical pulses of a duration equal to cell transit time across the beam. These pulses are detected, amplified, and analyzed using the techniques of gamma ray spectroscopy. Quantitative DNA distributions made it possible to distinguish tumor cells from normal cells as well as to assay for radiation effects on tumor cells subjected to x and gamma radiation. (HLW)

  14. Analysis of cell flow and cell loss following X-irradiation using sequential investigation of the total number of cells in the various parts of the cell cycle

    Skog, S.; Tribukait, B.

    1985-01-01

    The cell flow and cell loss of an in vivo growing Ehrlich ascites tumour were calculated by sequential estimation of changes in total number of cells in the cell cycle compartments. Normal growth was compared with the grossly disturbed cell flow evident after a 5 Gy X-irradiation. The doubling time of normal, exponentially growing cells was 24 hr. The generation time was 21 hr and the potential doubling time was 21 hr. Thus, the growth fraction was 1.0 and the cell loss rate about 0.5%/hr. Following irradiation, a transiently increased relative outflow rate from all cell cycle compartments was found at about 3 and 40 hr, and from S phase at 24 hr after irradiation. Increase in cell loss as well as non-viable cells was observed at 24 hr after irradiation at the time of release of the irradiation-induced G 2 blockage. The experiments show the applicability and limitations of cell flow and cell loss calculations by sequential analysis of the total number of cells in the various parts of the cell cycle. (author)

  15. Annular dispersed flow analysis model by Lagrangian method and liquid film cell method

    Matsuura, K.; Kuchinishi, M.; Kataoka, I.; Serizawa, A.

    2003-01-01

    A new annular dispersed flow analysis model was developed. In this model, both droplet behavior and liquid film behavior were simultaneously analyzed. Droplet behavior in turbulent flow was analyzed by the Lagrangian method with refined stochastic model. On the other hand, liquid film behavior was simulated by the boundary condition of moving rough wall and liquid film cell model, which was used to estimate liquid film flow rate. The height of moving rough wall was estimated by disturbance wave height correlation. In each liquid film cell, liquid film flow rate was calculated by considering droplet deposition and entrainment flow rate. Droplet deposition flow rate was calculated by Lagrangian method and entrainment flow rate was calculated by entrainment correlation. For the verification of moving rough wall model, turbulent flow analysis results under the annular flow condition were compared with the experimental data. Agreement between analysis results and experimental results were fairly good. Furthermore annular dispersed flow experiments were analyzed, in order to verify droplet behavior model and the liquid film cell model. The experimental results of radial distribution of droplet mass flux were compared with analysis results. The agreement was good under low liquid flow rate condition and poor under high liquid flow rate condition. But by modifying entrainment rate correlation, the agreement become good even under high liquid flow rate. This means that basic analysis method of droplet and liquid film behavior was right. In future work, verification calculation should be carried out under different experimental condition and entrainment ratio correlation also should be corrected

  16. A new modified-serpentine flow field for application in high temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cell

    Singdeo, Debanand; Dey, Tapobrata; Gaikwad, Shrihari

    2017-01-01

    field design is proposed and its usefulness for the fuel cell applications are evaluated in a high-temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cell. The proposed geometry retains some of the features of serpentine flow field such as multiple bends, while modifications are made in its in-plane flow path...

  17. A flow-through cell with integrated coulometric pH actuator

    Bohm, S.; Olthuis, Wouter; Bergveld, Piet

    1998-01-01

    A flow-through cell with integrated coulometric actuator capable of controlling the pH of a flowing liquid is presented. The cell, consisting of a rectangular channel with a noble metal actuator electrode deposited on the bottom, enables the titration of a moving liquid without the need for pumps

  18. An Improved Ghost-cell Immersed Boundary Method for Compressible Inviscid Flow Simulations

    Chi, Cheng

    2015-05-01

    This study presents an improved ghost-cell immersed boundary approach to represent a solid body in compressible flow simulations. In contrast to the commonly used approaches, in the present work ghost cells are mirrored through the boundary described using a level-set method to farther image points, incorporating a higher-order extra/interpolation scheme for the ghost cell values. In addition, a shock sensor is in- troduced to deal with image points near the discontinuities in the flow field. Adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) is used to improve the representation of the geometry efficiently. The improved ghost-cell method is validated against five test cases: (a) double Mach reflections on a ramp, (b) supersonic flows in a wind tunnel with a forward- facing step, (c) supersonic flows over a circular cylinder, (d) smooth Prandtl-Meyer expansion flows, and (e) steady shock-induced combustion over a wedge. It is demonstrated that the improved ghost-cell method can reach the accuracy of second order in L1 norm and higher than first order in L∞ norm. Direct comparisons against the cut-cell method demonstrate that the improved ghost-cell method is almost equally accurate with better efficiency for boundary representation in high-fidelity compressible flow simulations. Implementation of the improved ghost-cell method in reacting Euler flows further validates its general applicability for compressible flow simulations.

  19. Stream biofilm responses to flow intermittency: from cells to ecosystems

    Sergi eSabater

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Temporary streams are characterized by the alternation of dry and wet hydrological phases, creating both a harsh environment for the biota as well as a high diversity of opportunities for adaptation. These systems are eminently microbial-based during several of these hydrological phases, and those growing on all solid substrata (biofilms accordingly change their physical structure and community composition. Biofilms experience large decreases on cell densities and biomass, both of bacteria and algae, during dryness. Algal and bacterial communities show remarkable decreases in their diversity, at least locally (at the habitat scale. Biofilms also respond with significant physiological plasticity to each of the hydrological changes. The decreasing humidity of the substrata through the drying process, and the changing quantity and quality of organic matter and nutrients available in the stream during that process, causes unequal responses on the biofilm bacteria and algae. Biofilm algae are affected faster than bacteria by the hydric stress, and as a result the ecosystem respiration resists longer than gross primary production to the increasing duration of flow intermittency. This response implies enhancing ecosystem heterotrophy, a pattern that can be exacerbated in temporary streams suffering of longer dry periods under global change.

  20. Entropy production in a cell and reversal of entropy flow as an anticancer therapy

    Liao-fu LUO

    2009-01-01

    The entropy production rate of cancer cells is always higher than healthy cells in the case where no external field is applied. Different entropy production between two kinds of cells determines the direction of entropy flow among cells. The entropy flow is the carrier of information flow. The entropy flow from cancerous cells to healthy cells takes along the harmful information of cancerous cells, propagating its toxic action to healthy tissues. We demonstrate that a low-frequency and low- intensity electromagnetic field or ultrasound irradiation may increase the entropy production rate of a cell in normal tissue than that in cancer and consequently re- verse the direction of entropy current between two kinds of cells. The modification of the PH value of cells may also cause the reversal of the direction of entropy flow between healthy and cancerous cells. Therefore, the bio- logical tissue under the irradiation of an electromagnetic field or ultrasound or under the appropriate change of cell acidity can avoid the propagation of harmful infor- marion from cancer cells. We suggest that this entropy mechanism possibly provides a basis for a novel approach to anticancer therapy.

  1. Recycle Glass in Foam Glass Production

    Petersen, Rasmus Rosenlund; König, Jakob; Yue, Yuanzheng

    The foam glass industry turn recycle glass into heat insulating building materials. The foaming process is relative insensitive to impurities in the recycle glass. It is therefore considered to play an important role in future glass recycling. We show and discuss trends of use of recycled glasses...... in foam glass industry and the supply sources and capacity of recycle glass....

  2. Development of a reagentless electrochemiluminescent electrode for flow injection analysis using copolymerised luminol/aniline on nano-TiO2 functionalised indium-tin oxide glass.

    Liu, Chao; Wei, Xiuhua; Tu, Yifeng

    2013-07-15

    In this study, a nano-structured copolymer of luminol/aniline (PLA) was deposited onto nano-TiO2-functionalised indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated glass by electrochemical polymerisation using cyclic voltammetry (CV). The resulting reagentless electrochemiluminescent (ECL) electrode (ECLode) can be used for flow injection analysis (FIA). The properties of the ECLode were characterised by CV, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The ECLode has high background ECL emission as well as excellent stability and reproducibility, and yielding sensitive response towards target analytes. The ECL emissions of the ECLode were 50 times higher than PLA/ITO, and 500 times higher than polyluminol (PL)/ITO. The ECLode showed sensitive responses to reactive oxygen species (ROSs), permitting its application for determination of antioxidants by quenching. Under optimised conditions, an absolute detection limit of 69.9 pg was obtained for resveratrol, comparable to the highest levels of sensitivity achieved by other methods. Thus, the gross antioxidant content of red wine was determined, with satisfactory recoveries between 87.6% and 108.3%. These results suggest a bright future for the use of the ECLode for single-channel FIA due to its high sensitivity, accuracy and reproducibility. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Preparation of CulnS2 Thin Films on the Glass Substrate by DC Sputtering for Solar Cell Component

    Bambang Siswanto; Wirjoadi; Darsono

    2007-01-01

    The CuInS 2 alloys were deposited on glass substrate using plasma DC sputtering technique. A CuInS 2 alloy target was made from Cu, In, Se powder with impurity of 99.998%. The deposition process was done with the following process parameter variations: deposition time and substrate temperature were the range of 15 to 45 min and 150 to 300 ℃, the gas pressure was kept at 1.4x10 -1 Torr. The purpose of the research is to obtain the solar cell component of CuInS 2 thin films. The electrical and optical properties measurement has been done by four-point probe and UV-Vis. Crystal structure was analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD). The result shows that minimum resistance of CuInS 2 thin films is 35.7 kΩ and optical transmittance is 14.7 %. The crystal structure of CuInS 2 is oriented at (112) plane and by Touc-plot method was obtained that the band gap energy of thin films is 1.45 eV. It could be concluded that the CuInS 2 thin film can be used as a solar cell component. (author)

  4. Rapid Thermal Annealing and Hydrogen Passivation of Polycrystalline Silicon Thin-Film Solar Cells on Low-Temperature Glass

    Mason L. Terry

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The changes in open-circuit voltage (Voc, short-circuit current density (Jsc, and internal quantum efficiency (IQE of aLuminum induced crystallization, ion-assisted deposition (ALICIA polycrystalline silicon thin-film solar cells on low-temperature glass substrates due to rapid thermal anneal (RTA treatment and subsequent remote microwave hydrogen plasma passivation (hydrogenation are examined. Voc improvements from 130 mV to 430 mV, Jsc improvements from 1.2 mA/cm2 to 11.3 mA/cm2, and peak IQE improvements from 16% to > 70% are achieved. A 1-second RTA plateau at 1000°C followed by hydrogenation increases the Jsc by a factor of 5.5. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy measurements are used to determine the concentration profiles of dopants, impurities, and hydrogen. Computer modeling based on simulations of the measured IQE data reveals that the minority carrier lifetime in the absorber region increases by 3 orders of magnitude to about 1 nanosecond (corresponding to a diffusion length of at least 1 μm due to RTA and subsequent hydrogenation. The evaluation of the changes in the quantum efficiency and Voc due to RTA and hydrogenation with computer modeling significantly improves the understanding of the limiting factors to cell performance.

  5. Cell Growth Rate Dictates the Onset of Glass to Fluidlike Transition and Long Time Superdiffusion in an Evolving Cell Colony

    Malmi-Kakkada, Abdul N.; Li, Xin; Samanta, Himadri S.; Sinha, Sumit; Thirumalai, D.

    2018-04-01

    Collective migration dominates many phenomena, from cell movement in living systems to abiotic self-propelling particles. Focusing on the early stages of tumor evolution, we enunciate the principles involved in cell dynamics and highlight their implications in understanding similar behavior in seemingly unrelated soft glassy materials and possibly chemokine-induced migration of CD 8+T cells. We performed simulations of tumor invasion using a minimal three-dimensional model, accounting for cell elasticity and adhesive cell-cell interactions, as well as cell birth and death, to establish that cell-growth-rate-dependent tumor expansion results in the emergence of distinct topological niches. Cells at the periphery move with higher velocity perpendicular to the tumor boundary, while the motion of interior cells is slower and isotropic. The mean-square displacement Δ (t ) of cells exhibits glassy behavior at times comparable to the cell cycle time, while exhibiting superdiffusive behavior, Δ (t )≈tα (α >1 ), at longer times. We derive the value of α ≈1.33 using a field theoretic approach based on stochastic quantization. In the process, we establish the universality of superdiffusion in a class of seemingly unrelated nonequilibrium systems. Superdiffusion at long times arises only if there is an imbalance between cell birth and death rates. Our findings for the collective migration, which also suggest that tumor evolution occurs in a polarized manner, are in quantitative agreement with in vitro experiments. Although set in the context of tumor invasion, the findings should also hold in describing the collective motion in growing cells and in active systems, where creation and annihilation of particles play a role.

  6. Enhanced detection of single-cell-secreted proteins using a fluorescent immunoassay on the protein-G-terminated glass substrate

    Jeong Y

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Yoon Jeong,1,2 Kwan Hong Lee,1,2 Hansoo Park,3 Jonghoon Choi1,2 1Department of Bionano Technology, Graduate School, Hanyang University, Seoul, 2Department of Bionano Engineering, Hanyang University ERICA, Ansan, 3School of Integrative Engineering, Chung-Ang University, Seoul, South Korea Abstract: We present an evaluation of protein-G-terminated glass slides that may contain a suitable substrate for aligning the orientation of antibodies to obtain better binding moiety to the target antigen. The results of the protein-G-terminated slides were compared with those obtained with epoxy-based slides to evaluate signal enhancement for human immunoglobulin G (IgG targets, and an increase in the average fluorescence intensity was observed for the lowest measurable amount of IgG target in the assay using protein-G-terminated slides. Applying this strategy for signal amplification to single-cell assays improves the limits of detection for human IgG protein and cytokines (interleukin-2 and interferon-γ captured from hybridomas. Our data indicate that protein-G-terminated slides have a higher binding capacity for antigens and have better spot-to-spot consistency than that of traditional epoxy-based slides. These properties would be beneficial in the detection of fine amounts of single-cell-secreted proteins, which may provide key insights into cell–cell communication and immune responses. Keywords: microwell array, antibody’s orientation, single cell analysis, secreted cytokine, protein-G-terminated surface

  7. Preparation of rat islet B-cell-enriched fractions by light-scatter flow cytometry

    Rabinovitch, A.; Russell, T.; Shienvold, F.; Noel, J.; Files, N.; Patel, Y.; Ingram, M.

    1982-01-01

    Flow cytometry has been examined as a method to separate islet cells into homogeneous subpopulations. Collagenase-isolated rat islets were dissociated into single cells and these were analyzed and sorted according to their low forward angle light scattering properties by using automated flow cytometry. Light scatter histograms showed two peaks of viable cells. Radioimmunoassay of hormone content in cell fractions collected across the the two peaks showed that glucagon-containing cells were concentrated towards the left side of the left peak and somatostatin-containing cells were concentrated towards the right side of the left peak, whereas insulin-containing cells were clearly enriched in the right peak. The B-cell-enriched fraction (90% B cells, 3% A cells, 2% D cells) exhibited significant insulin secretory responses to glucose (16.7 mM), and 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (0.1 mM), during a 24-h culture period, and these responses were slightly greater than those observed in the original mixed islet cell preparation (66% B cells, 14% A cells, and 4% D cells). These results indicate that flow cytometry can be applied to sort pancreatic islet cells into populations enriched in specific endocrine cell types for further study of the functions of individual cell types

  8. Feasibility study of red blood cell debulking by magnetic field-flow fractionation with step-programmed flow.

    Moore, Lee R; Williams, P Stephen; Nehl, Franziska; Abe, Koji; Chalmers, Jeffrey J; Zborowski, Maciej

    2014-02-01

    Emerging applications of rare cell separation and analysis, such as separation of mature red blood cells from hematopoietic cell cultures, require efficient methods of red blood cell (RBC) debulking. We have tested the feasibility of magnetic RBC separation as an alternative to centrifugal separation using an approach based on the mechanism of magnetic field-flow fractionation (MgFFF). A specially designed permanent magnet assembly generated a quadrupole field having a maximum field of 1.68 T at the magnet pole tips, zero field at the aperture axis, and a nearly constant radial field gradient of 1.75 T/mm (with a negligible angular component) inside a cylindrical aperture of 1.9 mm (diameter) and 76 mm (length). The cell samples included high-spin hemoglobin RBCs obtained by chemical conversion of hemoglobin to methemoglobin (met RBC) or by exposure to anoxic conditions (deoxy RBC), low-spin hemoglobin obtained by exposure of RBC suspension to ambient air (oxy RBC), and mixtures of deoxy RBC and cells from a KG-1a white blood cell (WBC) line. The observation that met RBCs did not elute from the channel at the lower flow rate of 0.05 mL/min applied for 15 min but quickly eluted at the subsequent higher flow rate of 2.0 mL/min was in agreement with FFF theory. The well-defined experimental conditions (precise field and flow characteristics) and a well-established FFF theory verified by studies with model cell systems provided us with a strong basis for making predictions about potential practical applications of the magnetic RBC separation.

  9. Malignant human cell transformation of Marcellus Shale gas drilling flow back water

    Yao, Yixin [Department of Epidemiology, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Public Health (China); Department of Environmental Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, Tuxedo, NY 10987 (United States); Chen, Tingting [School of Material Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); Shen, Steven S. [Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmaceutical, New York University School of Medicine (United States); Niu, Yingmei; DesMarais, Thomas L.; Linn, Reka; Saunders, Eric; Fan, Zhihua [Department of Environmental Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, Tuxedo, NY 10987 (United States); Lioy, Paul [Robert Wood Johnson Medical School Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Kluz, Thomas; Chen, Lung-Chi [Department of Environmental Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, Tuxedo, NY 10987 (United States); Wu, Zhuangchun, E-mail: wuzhuangchun@mail.njust.edu.cn [College of Science, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Costa, Max, E-mail: max.costa@nyumc.org [Department of Environmental Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, Tuxedo, NY 10987 (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The rapid development of high-volume horizontal hydraulic fracturing for mining natural gas from shale has posed potential impacts on human health and biodiversity. The produced flow back waters after hydraulic stimulation are known to carry high levels of saline and total dissolved solids. To understand the toxicity and potential carcinogenic effects of these wastewaters, flow back waters from five Marcellus hydraulic fracturing oil and gas wells were analyzed. The physicochemical nature of these samples was analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. A cytotoxicity study using colony formation as the endpoint was carried out to define the LC{sub 50} values of test samples using human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B). The BEAS-2B cell transformation assay was employed to assess the carcinogenic potential of the samples. Barium and strontium were among the most abundant metals in these samples and the same metals were found to be elevated in BEAS-2B cells after long-term treatment. BEAS-2B cells treated for 6 weeks with flow back waters produced colony formation in soft agar that was concentration dependent. In addition, flow back water-transformed BEAS-2B cells show better migration capability when compared to control cells. This study provides information needed to assess the potential health impact of post-hydraulic fracturing flow back waters from Marcellus Shale natural gas mining. - Highlights: • This is the first report of potential cytotoxicity and transforming activity of Marcellus shale gas mining flow back to mammalian cells. • Barium and Strontium were elevated in flow back water exposed cells. • Flow back water malignantly transformed cells and formed tumor in athymic nude mice. • Flow back transformed cells exhibited altered transcriptome with dysregulated cell migration pathway and adherent junction pathway.

  10. Malignant human cell transformation of Marcellus Shale gas drilling flow back water

    Yao, Yixin; Chen, Tingting; Shen, Steven S.; Niu, Yingmei; DesMarais, Thomas L.; Linn, Reka; Saunders, Eric; Fan, Zhihua; Lioy, Paul; Kluz, Thomas; Chen, Lung-Chi; Wu, Zhuangchun; Costa, Max

    2015-01-01

    The rapid development of high-volume horizontal hydraulic fracturing for mining natural gas from shale has posed potential impacts on human health and biodiversity. The produced flow back waters after hydraulic stimulation are known to carry high levels of saline and total dissolved solids. To understand the toxicity and potential carcinogenic effects of these wastewaters, flow back waters from five Marcellus hydraulic fracturing oil and gas wells were analyzed. The physicochemical nature of these samples was analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. A cytotoxicity study using colony formation as the endpoint was carried out to define the LC 50 values of test samples using human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B). The BEAS-2B cell transformation assay was employed to assess the carcinogenic potential of the samples. Barium and strontium were among the most abundant metals in these samples and the same metals were found to be elevated in BEAS-2B cells after long-term treatment. BEAS-2B cells treated for 6 weeks with flow back waters produced colony formation in soft agar that was concentration dependent. In addition, flow back water-transformed BEAS-2B cells show better migration capability when compared to control cells. This study provides information needed to assess the potential health impact of post-hydraulic fracturing flow back waters from Marcellus Shale natural gas mining. - Highlights: • This is the first report of potential cytotoxicity and transforming activity of Marcellus shale gas mining flow back to mammalian cells. • Barium and Strontium were elevated in flow back water exposed cells. • Flow back water malignantly transformed cells and formed tumor in athymic nude mice. • Flow back transformed cells exhibited altered transcriptome with dysregulated cell migration pathway and adherent junction pathway.

  11. Glass matrix armor

    Calkins, N.C.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes an armor system which utilizes glass. A plurality of constraint cells are mounted on a surface of a substrate, which is metal armor plate or a similar tough material, such that the cells almost completely cover the surface of the substrate. Each constraint cell has a projectile receiving wall parallel to the substrate surface and has sides which are perpendicular to and surround the perimeter of the receiving wall. The cells are mounted such that, in one embodiment, the substrate surface serves as a sixth side or closure for each cell. Each cell has inside of it a plate, termed the front plate, which is parallel to and in contact with substantially all of the insides surface of the receiving wall. The balance of each cell is completely filled with a projectile-abrading material consisting of glass and a ceramic material and, in certain embodiments, a polymeric material

  12. Method of detaching adherent cells for flow cytometry

    Kaur, Mandeep; Esau, Luke E.

    2015-01-01

    In one aspect, a method for detaching adherent cells can include adding a cell lifting solution to the media including a sample of adherent cells and incubating the sample of adherent cells with the cell lifting solution. No scraping or pipetting

  13. Super ionic conductive glass

    Susman, S.; Volin, K.J.

    Described is an ionically conducting glass for use as a solid electrolyte in a power or secondary cell containing an alkali metal-containing anode and a cathode separated by an alkali metal ion conducting glass having an ionic transference number of unity and the general formula: A/sub 1 + x/D/sub 2-x/3/Si/sub x/P/sub 3 - x/O/sub 12 - 2x/3/, wherein A is a network modifier for the glass and is an alkali metal of the anode, D is an intermediate for the glass and is selected from the class consisting of Zr, Ti, Ge, Al, Sb, Be, and Zn and X is in the range of from 2.25 to 3.0. Of the alkali metals, Na and Li are preferred and of the intermediate, Zr, Ti and Ge are preferred.

  14. Porous SiO2 nanofiber grafted novel bioactive glass-ceramic coating: A structural scaffold for uniform apatite precipitation and oriented cell proliferation on inert implant.

    Das, Indranee; De, Goutam; Hupa, Leena; Vallittu, Pekka K

    2016-05-01

    A composite bioactive glass-ceramic coating grafted with porous silica nanofibers was fabricated on inert glass to provide a structural scaffold favoring uniform apatite precipitation and oriented cell proliferation. The coating surfaces were investigated thoroughly before and after immersion in simulated body fluid. In addition, the proliferation behavior of fibroblast cells on the surface was observed for several culture times. The nanofibrous exterior of this composite bioactive coating facilitated homogeneous growth of flake-like carbonated hydroxyapatite layer within a short period of immersion. Moreover, the embedded porous silica nanofibers enhanced hydrophilicity which is required for proper cell adhesion on the surface. The cells proliferated well following a particular orientation on the entire coating by the assistance of nanofibrous scaffold-like structural matrix. This newly engineered composite coating was effective in creating a biological structural matrix favorable for homogeneous precipitation of calcium phosphate, and organized cell growth on the inert glass surface. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Computational fluid dynamics simulations of single-phase flow in a filter-press flow reactor having a stack of three cells

    Sandoval, Miguel A.; Fuentes, Rosalba; Walsh, Frank C.; Nava, José L.; Ponce de León, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Computational fluid dynamic simulations in a filter-press stack of three cells. • The fluid velocity was different in each cell due to local turbulence. • The upper cell link pipe of the filter press cell acts as a fluid mixer. • The fluid behaviour tends towards a continuous mixing flow pattern. • Close agreement between simulations and experimental data was achieved. - Abstract: Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations were carried out for single-phase flow in a pre-pilot filter press flow reactor with a stack of three cells. Velocity profiles and streamlines were obtained by solving the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations with a standard k − ε turbulence model. The flow behaviour shows the appearance of jet flow at the entrance to each cell. At lengths from 12 to 15 cm along the cells channels, a plug flow pattern is developed at all mean linear flow rates studied here, 1.2 ≤ u ≤ 2.1 cm s −1 . The magnitude of the velocity profiles in each cell was different, due to the turbulence generated by the change of flow direction in the last fluid manifold. Residence time distribution (RTD) simulations indicated that the fluid behaviour tends towards a continuous mixing flow pattern, owing to flow at the output of each cell across the upper cell link pipe, which acts as a mixer. Close agreement between simulations and experimental RTD was obtained.

  16. Plasma deposition of microcrystalline silicon solar cells. Looking beyond the glass

    Donker, M.N. van den

    2006-07-01

    Microcrystalline silicon emerged in the past decade as highly interesting material for application in efficient and stable thin film silicon solar cells. It consists of nanometer-sized crystallites embedded in a micrometer-sized columnar structure, which gradually evolves during the SiH{sub 4} based deposition process starting from an amorphous incubation layer. Understanding of and control over this transient and multi-scale growth process is essential in the route towards low-cost microcrystalline silicon solar cells. This thesis presents an experimental study on the technologically relevant high rate (5-10 Aa s{sup -1}) parallel plate plasma deposition process of state-of-the-art microcrystalline silicon solar cells. The objective of the work was to explore and understand the physical limits of the plasma deposition process as well as to develop diagnostics suitable for process control in eventual solar cell production. Among the developed non-invasive process diagnostics were a pyrometer, an optical spectrometer, a mass spectrometer and a voltage probe. Complete thin film silicon solar cells and modules were deposited and characterized. (orig.)

  17. Design of a miniature flow cell for in situ x-ray imaging of redox flow batteries

    Jervis, Rhodri; Brown, Leon D.; Neville, Tobias P.; Millichamp, Jason; Finegan, Donal P.; Heenan, Thomas M. M.; Brett, Dan J. L.; Shearing, Paul R.

    2016-11-01

    Flow batteries represent a possible grid-scale energy storage solution, having many advantages such as scalability, separation of power and energy capabilities, and simple operation. However, they can suffer from degradation during operation and the characteristics of the felt electrodes are little understood in terms of wetting, compression and pressure drops. Presented here is the design of a miniature flow cell that allows the use of x-ray computed tomography (CT) to study carbon felt materials in situ and operando, in both lab-based and synchrotron CT. Through application of the bespoke cell it is possible to observe felt fibres, electrolyte and pore phases and therefore enables non-destructive characterisation of an array of microstructural parameters during the operation of flow batteries. Furthermore, we expect this design can be readily adapted to the study of other electrochemical systems.

  18. Design of a miniature flow cell for in situ x-ray imaging of redox flow batteries

    Jervis, Rhodri; Brown, Leon D; Neville, Tobias P; Millichamp, Jason; Finegan, Donal P; Heenan, Thomas M M; Brett, Dan J L; Shearing, Paul R

    2016-01-01

    Flow batteries represent a possible grid-scale energy storage solution, having many advantages such as scalability, separation of power and energy capabilities, and simple operation. However, they can suffer from degradation during operation and the characteristics of the felt electrodes are little understood in terms of wetting, compression and pressure drops. Presented here is the design of a miniature flow cell that allows the use of x-ray computed tomography (CT) to study carbon felt materials in situ and operando , in both lab-based and synchrotron CT. Through application of the bespoke cell it is possible to observe felt fibres, electrolyte and pore phases and therefore enables non-destructive characterisation of an array of microstructural parameters during the operation of flow batteries. Furthermore, we expect this design can be readily adapted to the study of other electrochemical systems. (paper)

  19. Air-processed organic tandem solar cells on glass: toward competitive operating lifetimes

    Adams, Jens; Spyropoulos, George D.; Salvador, Michael

    2015-01-01

    efficiencies of more than 10% the rather limited stability of this type of devices raises concerns towards future commercialization. The tandem concept allows for both absorbing a broader range of the solar spectrum and reducing thermalization losses. We designed an organic tandem solar cell with an inverted...... device geometry comprising environmentally stable active and charge-selecting layers. Under continuous white light irradiation, we demonstrate an extrapolated, operating lifetime in excess of one decade. We elucidate that for the current generation of organic tandem cells one critical requirement...... for long operating lifetimes consists of periodic UV light treatment. These results suggest that new material approaches towards UV-resilient active and interfacial layers may enable efficient organic tandem solar cells with lifetimes competitive with traditional inorganic photovoltaics....

  20. Detection of circulating immune complexes by Raji cell assay: comparison of flow cytometric and radiometric methods

    Kingsmore, S.F.; Crockard, A.D.; Fay, A.C.; McNeill, T.A.; Roberts, S.D.; Thompson, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    Several flow cytometric methods for the measurement of circulating immune complexes (CIC) have recently become available. We report a Raji cell flow cytometric assay (FCMA) that uses aggregated human globulin (AHG) as primary calibrator. Technical advantages of the Raji cell flow cytometric assay are discussed, and its clinical usefulness is evaluated in a method comparison study with the widely used Raji cell immunoradiometric assay. FCMA is more precise and has greater analytic sensitivity for AHG. Diagnostic sensitivity by the flow cytometric method is superior in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), rheumatoid arthritis, and vasculitis patients: however, diagnostic specificity is similar for both assays, but the reference interval of FCMA is narrower. Significant correlations were found between CIC levels obtained with both methods in SLE, rheumatoid arthritis, and vasculitis patients and in longitudinal studies of two patients with cerebral SLE. The Raji cell FCMA is recommended for measurement of CIC levels to clinical laboratories with access to a flow cytometer

  1. Cosmos & Glass

    Beim, Anne

    1996-01-01

    The article unfolds the architectural visions of glass by Bruno Taut. It refers to inspirations by Paul Sheerbart and litterature and the Crystal Chain, also it analyses the tectonic univers that can be found in the glass pavillion for the Werkbund exposition in Cologne....

  2. Glass Glimpsed

    Lock, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Glass in poetry as it reflects the viewer and as its power of reflection are both reduced and enhanced by technology.......Glass in poetry as it reflects the viewer and as its power of reflection are both reduced and enhanced by technology....

  3. Spin glasses

    Bovier, Anton

    2007-01-01

    Spin glass theory is going through a stunning period of progress while finding exciting new applications in areas beyond theoretical physics, in particular in combinatorics and computer science. This collection of state-of-the-art review papers written by leading experts in the field covers the topic from a wide variety of angles. The topics covered are mean field spin glasses, including a pedagogical account of Talagrand's proof of the Parisi solution, short range spin glasses, emphasizing the open problem of the relevance of the mean-field theory for lattice models, and the dynamics of spin glasses, in particular the problem of ageing in mean field models. The book will serve as a concise introduction to the state of the art of spin glass theory, usefull to both graduate students and young researchers, as well as to anyone curious to know what is going on in this exciting area of mathematical physics.

  4. Flow-Cell-Induced Dispersion in Flow-through Absorbance Detection Systems: True Column Effluent Peak Variance.

    Dasgupta, Purnendu K; Shelor, Charles Phillip; Kadjo, Akinde Florence; Kraiczek, Karsten G

    2018-02-06

    Following a brief overview of the emergence of absorbance detection in liquid chromatography, we focus on the dispersion caused by the absorbance measurement cell and its inlet. A simple experiment is proposed wherein chromatographic flow and conditions are held constant but a variable portion of the column effluent is directed into the detector. The temporal peak variance (σ t,obs 2 ), which increases as the flow rate (F) through the detector decreases, is found to be well-described as a quadratic function of 1 / F . This allows the extrapolation of the results to zero residence time in the detector and thence the determination of the true variance of the peak prior to the detector (this includes contribution of all preceding components). This general approach should be equally applicable to detection systems other than absorbance. We also experiment where the inlet/outlet system remains the same but the path length is varied. This allows one to assess the individual contributions of the cell itself and the inlet/outlet system.to the total observed peak. The dispersion in the cell itself has often been modeled as a flow-independent parameter, dependent only on the cell volume. Except for very long path/large volume cells, this paradigm is simply incorrect.

  5. Numerical study on channel size effect for proton exchange membrane fuel cell with serpentine flow field

    Wang Xiaodong; Yan Weimon; Duan Yuanyuan; Weng Fangbor; Jung Guobin; Lee Chiyuan

    2010-01-01

    This work numerically investigates the effect of the channel size on the cell performance of proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells with serpentine flow fields using a three-dimensional, two-phase model. The local current densities in the PEM, oxygen mass flow rates and liquid water concentrations at the interface of the cathode gas diffusion layer and catalyst layer were analyzed to understand the channel size effect. The predictions show that smaller channel sizes enhance liquid water removal and increase oxygen transport to the porous layers, which improve cell performance. Additionally, smaller channel sizes also provide more uniform current density distributions in the cell. However, as the channel size decreases, the total pressure drops across the cell increases, which leads to more pump work. With taking into account the pressure losses, the optimal cell performance occurs for a cell with a flow channel cross-sectional area of 0.535 x 0.535 mm 2 .

  6. Characterization of deep wet etching of fused silica glass for single cell and optical sensor deposition

    Zhu, Haixin; Holl, Mark; Ray, Tathagata; Bhushan, Shivani; Meldrum, Deirdre R

    2009-01-01

    The development of a high-throughput single-cell metabolic rate monitoring system relies on the use of transparent substrate material for a single cell-trapping platform. The high optical transparency, high chemical resistance, improved surface quality and compatibility with the silicon micromachining process of fused silica make it very attractive and desirable for this application. In this paper, we report the results from the development and characterization of a hydrofluoric acid (HF) based deep wet-etch process on fused silica. The pin holes and notching defects of various single-coated masking layers during the etching are characterized and the most suitable masking materials are identified for different etch depths. The dependence of the average etch rate and surface roughness on the etch depth, impurity concentration and HF composition are also examined. The resulting undercut from the deep HF etch using various masking materials is also investigated. The developed and characterized process techniques have been successfully implemented in the fabrication of micro-well arrays for single cell trapping and sensor deposition. Up to 60 µm deep micro-wells have been etched in a fused silica substrate with over 90% process yield and repeatability. To our knowledge, such etch depth has never been achieved in a fused silica substrate by using a non-diluted HF etchant and a single-coated masking layer at room temperature

  7. Initial dissolution rate of a Japanese simulated high-level waste glass P0798 as a function of pH and temperature measured by using micro-channel flow-through test method

    Inagaki, Yaohiro; Makigaki, Hikaru; Idemitsu, Kazuya; Arima, Tatsumi; Mitsui, Sei-ichiro; Noshita, Kenji

    2012-01-01

    Aqueous dissolution tests were performed for a Japanese type of simulated high-level waste (HLW) glass P0798 by using a newly developed test method of micro-channel flow-through (MCFT) method, and the initial dissolution rate of glass matrix, r 0 , was measured as a function of solution pH (3-11) and temperature (25-90degC) precisely and consistently for systematic evaluation of the dissolution kinetics. The MCFT method using a micro-channel reactor with a coupon shaped glass specimen has the following features to provide precise and consistent data on the glass dissolution rate: (1) any controlled constant solution condition can be provided over the test duration; (2) the glass surface area actually reacting with solution can be determined accurately; and (3) direct and totally quantitative analyses of the reacted glass surface can be performed for confirming consistency of the test results. The present test results indicated that the r 0 shows a 'V-shaped' pH dependence with a minimum at around pH 6 at 25degC, but it changes to a 'U-shaped' one with a flat bottom at neutral pH at elevated temperatures of up to 90degC. The present results also indicated that the r 0 increases with temperature according to an Arrhenius law at any pH, and the apparent activation energy evaluated from Arrhenius relation increases with pH from 54 kJ/mol at pH 3 to 76 kJ/mol at pH 10, which suggests that the dissolution mechanism changes depending on pH. (author)

  8. Large-Scale mRNA Transfection of Dendritic Cells by Electroporation in Continuous Flow Systems

    Selmeczi, Dávid; Hansen, Thomas Steen; Met, Özcan

    2016-01-01

    with high cell survival. Continuous flow of suspended dendritic cells through a channel incorporating spatially separated microporous meshes with a synchronized electrical pulsing sequence can yield dendritic cell transfection rates of >75 % with survival rates of >90 %. This chapter describes...

  9. Injection molded pinched flow fractionation device for enrichment of somatic cells in cow milk

    Jensen, Marie Pødenphant; Marie, Rodolphe; Olesen, Tom

    2014-01-01

    In this paper the continuous microfluidic separation technique pinched flow fractionation is applied to the enrichment of somatic cells from cow milk. Somatic cells were separated from the smallest fat particles and proteins thus better imaging and analysis of the cells can be achieved...

  10. Semi-transparent photovoltaic glazing based on electrodeposited CIGS solar cells on patterned molybdenum/glass substrates

    Sidali Tarik

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new way of preparing semi-transparent solar cells using Cu(In1−xGaxSe2 (CIGS chalcopyrite semiconductors as absorbers for BIPV applications is presented. The key to the elaboration process consists in the co-electrodeposition of Cu-In-Ga mixed oxides on submillimetric hole-patterned molybdenum substrate, followed by thermal reduction to metallic alloys and selenisation. This method has the advantage of being a selective deposition technique where the thin film growth is carried out only on Mo covered areas. Thus, after annealing, the transparency of the sample is always preserved, allowing light to pass through the device. A complete device (5 × 5 cm2 with 535 μm diameter holes and total glass aperture of around 35% shows an open circuit voltage (VOC of 400 mV. Locally, the I-V curves reveal a maximum efficiency of 7.7%, VOC of 460 mV, JSC of 24 mA.cm−2 in an area of 0.1 cm2 with 35% aperture. This efficiency on the semi-transparent area is equivalent to a record efficiency of 11.9% by taking into account only the effective area.

  11. Semi-transparent photovoltaic glazing based on electrodeposited CIGS solar cells on patterned molybdenum/glass substrates

    Sidali, Tarik; Bou, Adrien; Coutancier, Damien; Chassaing, Elisabeth; Theys, Bertrand; Barakel, Damien; Garuz, Richard; Thoulon, Pierre-Yves; Lincot, Daniel

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, a new way of preparing semi-transparent solar cells using Cu(In1-xGax)Se2 (CIGS) chalcopyrite semiconductors as absorbers for BIPV applications is presented. The key to the elaboration process consists in the co-electrodeposition of Cu-In-Ga mixed oxides on submillimetric hole-patterned molybdenum substrate, followed by thermal reduction to metallic alloys and selenisation. This method has the advantage of being a selective deposition technique where the thin film growth is carried out only on Mo covered areas. Thus, after annealing, the transparency of the sample is always preserved, allowing light to pass through the device. A complete device (5 × 5 cm2) with 535 μm diameter holes and total glass aperture of around 35% shows an open circuit voltage (VOC) of 400 mV. Locally, the I-V curves reveal a maximum efficiency of 7.7%, VOC of 460 mV, JSC of 24 mA.cm-2 in an area of 0.1 cm2 with 35% aperture. This efficiency on the semi-transparent area is equivalent to a record efficiency of 11.9% by taking into account only the effective area.

  12. Development of a rapid thermal annealing process for polycrystalline silicon thin-film solar cells on glass

    Rau, B. [Helmholtz Centre Berlin for Materials and Energy, Kekulestr. 5, D-12489 Berlin (Germany)], E-mail: bjoern.rau@helmholtz-berlin.de; Weber, T.; Gorka, B.; Dogan, P.; Fenske, F.; Lee, K.Y.; Gall, S.; Rech, B. [Helmholtz Centre Berlin for Materials and Energy, Kekulestr. 5, D-12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2009-03-15

    In this report, we discuss the influence of rapid thermal annealing (RTA) on the performance of polycrystalline Si (poly-Si) thin-film solar cells on glass where the poly-Si layers are differently prepared. The first part presents a comprehensive study of RTA treatments on poly-Si thin-films made by solid phase crystallization (SPC) (standard material of CSG Solar AG, Thalheim). By varying both plateau temperature (up to 1050 deg. C) and duration (up to 1000 s) of the annealing profile, we determined the parameters for a maximum open-circuit voltage (V{sub OC}). In addition, we applied our standard plasma hydrogenation treatment in order to passivate the remaining intra-grain defects and grain boundaries by atomic hydrogen resulting in a further increase of V{sub OC}. We found, that the preceding RTA treatment increases the effect of hydrogenation already at comparable low RTA temperatures. The effect on hydrogenation increases significantly with RTA temperature. In a second step we investigated the effect of the RTA and hydrogenation on large-grained poly-Si films based on the epitaxial thickening of poly-Si seed layers.

  13. The Biomineralization of a Bioactive Glass-Incorporated Light-Curable Pulp Capping Material Using Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells

    Soo-Kyung Jun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the biomineralization of a newly introduced bioactive glass-incorporated light-curable pulp capping material using human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs. The product (Bioactive® [BA] was compared with a conventional calcium hydroxide-incorporated (Dycal [DC] and a light-curable (Theracal® [TC] counterpart. Eluates from set specimens were used for investigating the cytotoxicity and biomineralization ability, determined by alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity and alizarin red staining (ARS. Cations and hydroxide ions in the extracts were measured. An hDPSC viability of less than 70% was observed with 50% diluted extract in all groups and with 25% diluted extract in the DC. Culturing with 12.5% diluted BA extract statistically lowered ALP activity and biomineralization compared to DC (p0.05. Ca (~110 ppm and hydroxide ions (pH 11 were only detected in DC and TC. Ionic supplement-added BA, which contained similar ion concentrations as TC, showed similar ARS mineralization compared to TC. In conclusion, the BA was similar to, yet more cytotoxic to hDPSCs than, its DC and TC. The BA was considered to stimulate biomineralization similar to DC and TC only when it released a similar amount of Ca and hydroxide ions.

  14. Technetium Retention In WTP Law Glass With Recycle Flow-Sheet DM10 Melter Testing VSL-12R2640-1 REV 0

    Abramowitz, Howard; Callow, Richard A.; Joseph, Innocent

    2012-01-01

    Melter tests were conducted to determine the retention of technetium and other volatiles in glass while processing simulated Low Activity Waste (LAW) streams through a DM10 melter equipped with a prototypical off-gas system that concentrates and recycles fluid effiuents back to the melter feed. To support these tests, an existing DM10 system installed at Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) was modified to add the required recycle loop. Based on the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) LAW off-gas system design, suitably scaled versions of the Submerged Bed Scrubber (SBS), Wet Electrostatic Precipitator (WESP), and TLP vacuum evaporator were designed, built, and installed into the DM10 system. Process modeling was used to support this design effort and to ensure that issues associated with the short half life of the 99m Tc radioisotope that was used in this work were properly addressed and that the system would be capable of meeting the test objectives. In particular, this required that the overall time constant for the system was sufficiently short that a reasonable approach to steady state could be achieved before the 99m Tc activity dropped below the analytical limits of detection. The conceptual design, detailed design, flow sheet development, process model development, Piping and Instrumentation Diagram (P and ID) development, control system design, software design and development, system fabrication, installation, procedure development, operator training, and Test Plan development for the new system were all conducted during this project. The new system was commissioned and subjected to a series of shake-down tests before embarking on the planned test program. Various system performance issues that arose during testing were addressed through a series of modifications in order to improve the performance and reliability of the system. The resulting system provided a robust and reliable platform to address the test objectives

  15. TECHNETIUM RETENTION IN WTP LAW GLASS WITH RECYCLE FLOW-SHEET DM10 MELTER TESTING VSL-12R2640-1 REV 0

    Abramowitz, Howard [Catholic Univ. of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab.; Brandys, Marek [Catholic Univ. of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab.; Cecil, Richard [Catholic Univ. of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab.; D& #x27; Angelo, Nicholas [Catholic Univ. of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab.; Matlack, Keith S. [Catholic Univ. of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab.; Muller, Isabelle S. [Catholic Univ. of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab.; Pegg, Ian L. [Energy Solutions, Federal EPC, Inc., Columbia, MD (United States); Callow, Richard A. [Energy Solutions, Federal EPC, Inc., Columbia, MD (United States); Joseph, Innocent

    2012-12-11

    Melter tests were conducted to determine the retention of technetium and other volatiles in glass while processing simulated Low Activity Waste (LAW) streams through a DM10 melter equipped with a prototypical off-gas system that concentrates and recycles fluid effiuents back to the melter feed. To support these tests, an existing DM10 system installed at Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) was modified to add the required recycle loop. Based on the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) LAW off-gas system design, suitably scaled versions of the Submerged Bed Scrubber (SBS), Wet Electrostatic Precipitator (WESP), and TLP vacuum evaporator were designed, built, and installed into the DM10 system. Process modeling was used to support this design effort and to ensure that issues associated with the short half life of the {sup 99m}Tc radioisotope that was used in this work were properly addressed and that the system would be capable of meeting the test objectives. In particular, this required that the overall time constant for the system was sufficiently short that a reasonable approach to steady state could be achieved before the {sup 99m}Tc activity dropped below the analytical limits of detection. The conceptual design, detailed design, flow sheet development, process model development, Piping and Instrumentation Diagram (P&ID) development, control system design, software design and development, system fabrication, installation, procedure development, operator training, and Test Plan development for the new system were all conducted during this project. The new system was commissioned and subjected to a series of shake-down tests before embarking on the planned test program. Various system performance issues that arose during testing were addressed through a series of modifications in order to improve the performance and reliability of the system. The resulting system provided a robust and reliable platform to address the test objectives.

  16. Flow field design for high-pressure PEM electrolysis cells

    Olesen, Anders Christian; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    -water distributes. Water not only serves a reactant, it also aids in cooling due to its high specific heat capacity. The movement of liquid water at the anode is difficult to model, since it is highly coupled to the formation of gas bubbles. To capture the complex two-phase flow behaviour that takes place within...... micro-channels and porous media, our research group has developed an Euler-Euler model in the computational fluid dynamics modelling framework of ANSYS CFX. In addition to two-phase flow, the model accounts for turbulence, species transport in the gas phase, heat transport in all three phases (i.......e. solid, gas and liquid), as well as charge transport of electrons and ions. Our recent improvements have focused on the models ability to account for phase change and electrochemistry as well as the modelling of two-phase flow regimes. For comparison, an interdigitated and parallel channel flow field...

  17. Numerical Optimization of a Bifacial Bi-Glass Thin-Film a-Si:H Solar Cell for Higher Conversion Efficiency

    Berrian, Djaber; Fathi, Mohamed; Kechouane, Mohamed

    2018-02-01

    Bifacial solar cells that maximize the energy output per a square meter have become a new fashion in the field of photovoltaic cells. However, the application of thin-film material on bifacial solar cells, viz., thin-film amorphous hydrogenated silicon ( a- Si:H), is extremely rare. Therefore, this paper presents the optimization and influence of the band gap, thickness and doping on the performance of a glass/glass thin-film a- Si:H ( n- i- p) bifacial solar cell, using a computer-aided simulation tool, Automat for simulation of hetero-structures (AFORS-HET). It is worth mentioning that the thickness and the band gap of the i-layer are the key parameters in achieving higher efficiency and hence it has to be handled carefully during the fabrication process. Furthermore, an efficient thin-film a- Si:H bifacial solar cell requires thinner and heavily doped n and p emitter layers. On the other hand, the band gap of the p-layer showed a dramatic reduction of the efficiency at 2.3 eV. Moreover, a high bifaciality factor of more than 92% is attained, and top efficiency of 10.9% is revealed under p side illumination. These optimizations demonstrate significant enhancements of the recent experimental work on thin-film a- Si:H bifacial solar cells and would also be useful for future experimental investigations on an efficient a- Si:H thin-film bifacial solar cell.

  18. An improved ghost-cell immersed boundary method for compressible flow simulations

    Chi, Cheng

    2016-05-20

    This study presents an improved ghost-cell immersed boundary approach to represent a solid body in compressible flow simulations. In contrast to the commonly used approaches, in the present work ghost cells are mirrored through the boundary described using a level-set method to farther image points, incorporating a higher-order extra/interpolation scheme for the ghost cell values. A sensor is introduced to deal with image points near the discontinuities in the flow field. Adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) is used to improve the representation of the geometry efficiently in the Cartesian grid system. The improved ghost-cell method is validated against four test cases: (a) double Mach reflections on a ramp, (b) smooth Prandtl-Meyer expansion flows, (c) supersonic flows in a wind tunnel with a forward-facing step, and (d) supersonic flows over a circular cylinder. It is demonstrated that the improved ghost-cell method can reach the accuracy of second order in L1 norm and higher than first order in L∞ norm. Direct comparisons against the cut-cell method demonstrate that the improved ghost-cell method is almost equally accurate with better efficiency for boundary representation in high-fidelity compressible flow simulations. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Full-angle tomographic phase microscopy of flowing quasi-spherical cells.

    Villone, Massimiliano M; Memmolo, Pasquale; Merola, Francesco; Mugnano, Martina; Miccio, Lisa; Maffettone, Pier Luca; Ferraro, Pietro

    2017-12-19

    We report a reliable full-angle tomographic phase microscopy (FA-TPM) method for flowing quasi-spherical cells along microfluidic channels. This method lies in a completely passive optical system, i.e. mechanical scanning or multi-direction probing of the sample is avoided. It exploits the engineered rolling of cells while they are flowing along a microfluidic channel. Here we demonstrate significant progress with respect to the state of the art of in-flow TPM by showing a general extension to cells having almost spherical shapes while they are flowing in suspension. In fact, the adopted strategy allows the accurate retrieval of rotation angles through a theoretical model of the cells' rotation in a dynamic microfluidic flow by matching it with phase-contrast images resulting from holographic reconstructions. So far, the proposed method is the first and the only one that permits to get in-flow TPM by probing the cells with full-angle, achieving accurate 3D refractive index mapping and the simplest optical setup, simultaneously. Proof of concept experiments were performed successfully on human breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cells, opening the way for the full characterization of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in the new paradigm of liquid biopsy.

  20. Performance of PEM fuel cells stack as affected by number of cell and gas flow-rate

    Syampurwadi, A.; Onggo, H.; Indriyati; Yudianti, R.

    2017-03-01

    The proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) is a promising technology as an alternative green energy due to its high power density, low operating temperatures, low local emissions, quiet operation and fast start up-shutdown. In order to apply fuel cell as portable power supply, the performance investigation of small number of cells is needed. In this study, PEMFC stacks consisting of 1, 3, 5 and 7-cells with an active area of 25 cm2 per cell have been designed and developed. Their was evaluated in variation of gas flow rate. The membrane electrode assembly (MEA) was prepared by hot-pressing commercial gas diffusion electrodes (Pt loading 0.5 mg/cm2) on pre-treated Nafion 117 membrane. The stacks were constructed using bipolar plates in serpentine pattern and Z-type gas flow configuration. The experimental results were presented as polarization and power output curves which show the effects of varying number of cells and H2/O2 flow-rates on the PEMFC performance. The experimental results showed that not only number of cells and gas flow-rates affected the fuel cells performance, but also the operating temperature as a result of electrochemistry reaction inside the cell.

  1. Effect of aluminizing of Cr-containing ferritic alloys on the seal strength of a novel high-temperature solid oxide fuel cell sealing glass

    Chou, Yeong-Shyung; Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Singh, Prabhakar

    A novel high-temperature alkaline earth silicate sealing glass was developed for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) applications. The glass was used to join two metallic coupons of Cr-containing ferritic stainless steel for seal strength evaluation. In previous work, SrCrO 4 was found to form along the glass/steel interface, which led to severe strength degradation. In the present study, aluminization of the steel surface was investigated as a remedy to minimize or prevent the strontium chromate formation. Three different processes for aluminization were evaluated with Crofer22APU stainless steel: pack cementation, vapor-phase deposition, and aerosol spraying. It was found that pack cementation resulted in a rough surface with occasional cracks in the Al-diffused region. Vapor-phase deposition yielded a smoother surface, but the resulting high Al content increased the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), resulting in the failure of joined coupons. Aerosol spraying of an Al-containing salt resulted in the formation of a thin aluminum oxide layer without any surface damage. The room temperature seal strength was evaluated in the as-fired state and in environmentally aged conditions. In contrast to earlier results with uncoated Crofer22APU, the aluminized samples showed no strength degradation even for samples aged in air. Interfacial and chemical compatibility was also investigated. The results showed aluminization to be a viable candidate approach to minimize undesirable chromate formation between alkaline earth silicate sealing glass and Cr-containing interconnect alloys for SOFC applications.

  2. Effect of Aminated Mesoporous Bioactive Glass Nanoparticles on the Differentiation of Dental Pulp Stem Cells.

    Jung-Hwan Lee

    Full Text Available Mesoporous bioactive nanoparticles (MBNs have been developed as promising additives to various types of bone or dentin regenerative material. However, biofunctionality of MBNs as dentin regenerative additive to dental materials have rarely been studied. We investigated the uptake efficiency of MBNs-NH2 with their endocytosis pathway and the role of MBNs-NH2 in odontogenic differentiation to clarify inherent biofunctionality. MBNs were fabricated by sol-gel synthesis, and 3% APTES was used to aminate these nanoparticles (MBNs-NH2 to reverse their charge from negative to positive. To characterize the MBNs-NH2, TEM, XRD, FTIR, zeta(ξ-potential measurements, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analysis were performed. After primary cultured rat dental pulp stem cells (rDPSCs were incubated with various concentrations of MBNs-NH2, stem cell viability (24 hours with or without differentiated media, internalization of MBNs-NH2 in rDPSCs (~4 hours via specific endocytosis pathway, intra or extracellular ion concentration and odontoblastic differentiation (~28 days were investigated. Incubation with up to 50 μg/mL of MBNs-NH2 had no effect on rDPSCs viability with differentiated media (p>0.05. The internalization of MBNs-NH2 in rDPSCs was determined about 92% after 4 hours of incubation. Uptake was significantly decreased with ATP depletion and after 1 hour of pre-treatment with the inhibitor of macropinocytosis (p<0.05. There was significant increase of intracellular Ca and Si ion concentration in MBNs-NH2 treated cells compared to no-treated counterpart (p<0.05. The expression of odontogenic-related genes (BSP, COL1A, DMP-1, DSPP, and OCN and the capacity for biomineralization (based on alkaline phosphatase activity and alizarin red staining were significantly upregulated with MBNs-NH2. These results indicate that MBNs-NH2 induce odontogenic differentiation of rDPSCs and may serve as a potential dentin regenerative additive to dental material for promoting

  3. The effect of blood cell count on coronary flow in patients with coronary slow flow phenomenon.

    Soylu, Korhan; Gulel, Okan; Yucel, Huriye; Yuksel, Serkan; Aksan, Gokhan; Soylu, Ayşegül İdil; Demircan, Sabri; Yılmaz, Ozcan; Sahin, Mahmut

    2014-09-01

    The coronary slow flow phenomenon (CSFP) is a coronary artery disease with a benign course, but its pathological mechanisms are not yet fully understood.The purpose of this controlled study was to investigate the cellular content of blood in patients diagnosed with CSFP and the relationship of this with coronary flow rates. Selective coronary angiographies of 3368 patients were analyzed to assess Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) frame count (TFC) values. Seventy eight of them had CSFP, and their demographic and laboratory findings were compared with 61 patients with normal coronary flow. Patients' demographic characteristics were similar in both groups. Mean corrected TFC (cTFC) values were significantly elevated in CSFP patients (p<0.001). Furthermore, hematocrit and hemoglobin values, and eosinophil and basophil counts of the CSFP patients were significantly elevated compared to the values obtained in the control group (p=0.005, p=0.047, p=0.001 and p=0.002, respectively). The increase observed in hematocrit and eosinophil levels showed significant correlations with increased TFC values (r=0.288 and r=0.217, respectively). Significant changes have been observed in the cellular composition of blood in patients diagnosed with CSFP as compared to the patients with normal coronary blood flow. The increases in hematocrit levels and in the eosinophil and basophil counts may have direct or indirect effects on the rate of coronary blood flow.

  4. Performance of a vanadium redox flow battery with tubular cell design

    Ressel, Simon; Laube, Armin; Fischer, Simon; Chica, Antonio; Flower, Thomas; Struckmann, Thorsten

    2017-07-01

    We present a vanadium redox flow battery with a tubular cell design which shall lead to a reduction of cell manufacturing costs and the realization of cell stacks with reduced shunt current losses. Charge/discharge cycling and polarization curve measurements are performed to characterize the single test cell performance. A maximum current density of 70 mAcm-2 and power density of 142 Wl-1 (per cell volume) is achieved and Ohmic overpotential is identified as the dominant portion of the total cell overpotential. Cycling displays Coulomb efficiencies of ≈95% and energy efficiencies of ≈55%. During 113 h of operation a stable Ohmic cell resistance is observed.

  5. Combined modeling of cell aggregation and adhesion mediated by receptor–ligand interactions under shear flow

    Yu Du

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Blood cell aggregation and adhesion to endothelial cells under shear flow are crucial to many biological processes such as thrombi formation, inflammatory cascade, and tumor metastasis, in which these cellular interactions are mainly mediated by the underlying receptor–ligand bindings. While theoretical modeling of aggregation dynamics and adhesion kinetics of interacting cells have been well studied separately, how to couple these two processes remains unclear. Here we develop a combined model that couples cellular aggregation dynamics and adhesion kinetics under shear flow. The impacts of shear rate (or shear stress and molecular binding affinity were elucidated. This study provides a unified model where the action of a fluid flow drives cell aggregation and adhesion under the modulations of the mechanical shear flow and receptor–ligand interaction kinetics. It offers an insight into understanding the relevant biological processes and functions.

  6. Flow cytogenetic studies in chromosomes and whole cells for the detection of clastogenic effects

    Otto, F.J.; Oldiges, H.

    1980-01-01

    Flow cytometric measurements of the chromosomal DNA content have been used to develop a screening method for the detection of chemically- or physically-induced cytogenetic damage. The reproducibility of this flow cytogenetic assay was shown in a series of subcultures of a Chinese hamster cell clone. The accuracy and sensitivity was tested in cultures treated with chemical mutagens and x-rays. The clastogenic effectiveness was quantified and the dose-effect relationship was established by the increase of the coefficient of variation of the peak of the largest chromosome type in the flow histograms. Since structural chromosome aberrations cause an unequal division of the DNA at mitosis, it is expected that clastogenic effects can be detected also in whole cells of growing populations as an increased dispersion of the cellular DNA content. In order to test this feature, high resolution flow cytometric measurements were performed in x-irradiated hamster cells in vitro and mouse bone marrow cells in vivo

  7. Comparison of Flow-Through Cell and Paddle Methods for Testing ...

    Purpose: To evaluate the usefulness of the flow-through cell apparatus for testing commercial vaginal tablets containing poorly water-soluble clotrimazole. Methods: The effect of experimental conditions (type of dissolution medium, flow rate and positioning of the tablet) on the dissolution profile of clotrimazole were ...

  8. GLASS BOX

    Curtis, Laura

    2008-01-01

    The goals of this effort were to develop Glass Box capabilities to allow for the capturing of analyst activities and the associated data resources, track and log the results of automated processing...

  9. Non-Flow-Through Fuel Cell System Test Results and Demonstration on the SCARAB Rover

    Scheidegger, Brianne, T.; Burke, Kenneth A.; Jakupca, Ian J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the results of the demonstration of a non-flow-through PEM fuel cell as part of a power system on the SCARAB rover. A 16-cell non-flow-through fuel cell stack from Infinity Fuel Cell and Hydrogen, Inc. was incorporated into a power system designed to act as a range extender by providing power to the rover s hotel loads. This work represents the first attempt at a ground demonstration of this new technology aboard a mobile test platform. Development and demonstration were supported by the Office of the Chief Technologist s Space Power Systems Project and the Advanced Exploration System Modular Power Systems Project.

  10. Detection of bacteriophage-infected cells of Lactococcus lactis using flow cytometry

    Michelsen, Ole; Cuesta-Dominguez, Álvaro; Albrektsen, Bjarne

    2007-01-01

    Bacteriophage infection in dairy fermentation constitutes a serious problem worldwide. We have studied bacteriophage infection in Lactococcus lactis by using the flow cytometer. The first effect of the infection of the bacterium is a change from cells in chains toward single cells. We interpret...... describe a new method for detection of phage infection in Lactococcus lactis dairy cultures. The method is based on flow cytometric detection of cells with low-density cell walls. The method allows fast and early detection of phage-infected bacteria, independently of which phage has infected the culture...

  11. Optimization of a new flow design for solid oxide cells using computational fluid dynamics modelling

    Duhn, Jakob Dragsbæk; Jensen, Anker Degn; Wedel, Stig

    2016-01-01

    Design of a gas distributor to distribute gas flow into parallel channels for Solid Oxide Cells (SOC) is optimized, with respect to flow distribution, using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modelling. The CFD model is based on a 3d geometric model and the optimized structural parameters include...... the width of the channels in the gas distributor and the area in front of the parallel channels. The flow of the optimized design is found to have a flow uniformity index value of 0.978. The effects of deviations from the assumptions used in the modelling (isothermal and non-reacting flow) are evaluated...... and it is found that a temperature gradient along the parallel channels does not affect the flow uniformity, whereas a temperature difference between the channels does. The impact of the flow distribution on the maximum obtainable conversion during operation is also investigated and the obtainable overall...

  12. Flow cytometric quantification of radiation responses of murine peritoneal cells

    Tokita, N.; Raju, M.R.

    1982-01-01

    Methods have been developed to distinguish subpopulations of murine peritoneal cells, and these were applied to the measurement of early changes in peritoneal cells after irradiation. The ratio of the two major subpopulations in the peritoneal fluid, lymphocytes and macrophages, was measured rapidly by means of cell volume distribution analysis as well as by hypotonic propidium iodide (PI) staining. After irradiation, dose and time dependent changes were noted in the cell volume distributions: a rapid loss of peritoneal lymphocytes, and an increase in the mean cell volume of macrophages. The hypotonic PI staining characteristics of the peritoneal cells showed two or three distinctive G 1 peaks. The ratio of the areas of these peaks was also found to be dependent of the radiation dose and the time after irradiation. These results demonstrate that these two parameters may be used to monitor changes induced by irradiation (biological dosimetry), and to sort different peritoneal subpopulations

  13. Finite element analysis of turbulent flow in fast reactor fuel subassembly elementary flow cell

    Muehlbauer, P.

    1987-03-01

    The method is described of calculating fully developed longitudinal steady-state turbulent flow of an incompressible fluid through an infinite bundle of parallel smooth rods, based on the finite element method and one-equation turbulence model. Theoretical calculation results are compared with experimental results. (author). 5 figs., 3 refs

  14. Magnetic Glass Ceramics by Sintering of Borosilicate Glass and Inorganic Waste

    Ponsot, In?s M. M. M.; Pontikes, Yiannis; Baldi, Giovanni; Chinnam, Rama K.; Detsch, Rainer; Boccaccini, Aldo R.; Bernardo, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    Ceramics and glass ceramics based on industrial waste have been widely recognized as competitive products for building applications; however, there is a great potential for such materials with novel functionalities. In this paper, we discuss the development of magnetic sintered glass ceramics based on two iron-rich slags, coming from non-ferrous metallurgy and recycled borosilicate glass. The substantial viscous flow of the glass led to dense products for rapid treatments at relatively low te...

  15. Affinity flow fractionation of cells via transient interactions with asymmetric molecular patterns

    Bose, Suman; Singh, Rishi; Hanewich-Hollatz, Mikhail; Shen, Chong; Lee, Chia-Hua; Dorfman, David M.; Karp, Jeffrey M.; Karnik, Rohit

    2013-07-01

    Flow fractionation of cells using physical fields to achieve lateral displacement finds wide applications, but its extension to surface molecule-specific separation requires labeling. Here we demonstrate affinity flow fractionation (AFF) where weak, short-range interactions with asymmetric molecular patterns laterally displace cells in a continuous, label-free process. We show that AFF can directly draw neutrophils out of a continuously flowing stream of blood with an unprecedented 400,000-fold depletion of red blood cells, with the sorted cells being highly viable, unactivated, and functionally intact. The lack of background erythrocytes enabled the use of AFF for direct enumeration of neutrophils by a downstream detector, which could distinguish the activation state of neutrophils in blood. The compatibility of AFF with capillary microfluidics and its ability to directly separate cells with high purity and minimal sample preparation will facilitate the design of simple and portable devices for point-of-care diagnostics and quick, cost-effective laboratory analysis.

  16. White Blood Cell Differentiation Using a Solid State Flow Cytometer

    Doornbos, R.M.P.; Doornbos, R.M.P.; Hennink, E.J.; Putman, C.A.J.; Putman, C.A.J.; de Grooth, B.G.; Greve, Jan

    1993-01-01

    A flow cytometer using a solid state light source and detector was designed and built. For illumination of the sample stream two types of diode lasers (670 nm and 780 nm) were tested in a set-up designed to differentiate human leukocytes by means of light scattering. The detector is an avalanche

  17. Effect of oxygen to argon flow ratio on the properties of Al-doped ZnO films for amorphous silicon thin film solar cell applications

    Lin, Yang-Shih [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lien, Shui-Yang, E-mail: syl@mdu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, MingDao University, ChangHua 52345, Taiwan, ROC (China); Huang, Yung-Chuan [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, MingDao University, ChangHua 52345, Taiwan, ROC (China); Wang, Chao-Chun [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan, ROC (China); Liu, Chueh-Yang [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, MingDao University, ChangHua 52345, Taiwan, ROC (China); Nautiyal, Asheesh [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Yuan Ze University, 135 Yuan-Tung Road, Chungli, 320 Taoyuan, Taiwan, ROC (China); Wuu, Dong-Sing [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lee, Shuo-Jun [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Yuan Ze University, 135 Yuan-Tung Road, Chungli, 320 Taoyuan, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2013-02-01

    Transparent conductive oxide thin films in solar cell fabrication have attracted much attention due to their high conductivity and transmittance. In this paper, we have investigated the aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) thin films prepared by radiofrequency magnetron sputtering on Asahi U-type SnO{sub 2} glass with different O{sub 2}/Ar flow ratios in vacuum chamber. Furthermore, the micro-structural, electrical, and optical properties of AZO/SnO{sub 2} films were studied. The change in O{sub 2}/Ar flow ratios is found to significantly affect the haze value, and slightly affect electrical resistivity and transmittance of the films. Afterward, the fabricated AZO thin films with different O{sub 2}/Ar flow ratios were used for building the solar cell devices. The current–voltage and external quantum efficiency characteristics were investigated for the solar cell devices. The optimized O{sub 2}/Ar flow ratio of 3 for solar device shows the best efficiency of 10.41%, and a 20% increase in short-circuit current density compared to typical Asahi solar cells. - Highlights: ► A thin Al-doped zinc oxide (AZO) film has been deposited on SnO{sub 2} substrates. ► The AZO film deposited at an O{sub 2}/Ar ratio of 3 shows low resistivity and high haze. ► The AZO film contains tiny grains that enhance light scattering. ► The amorphous silicon solar cell with the AZO layer shows a 20% increase in Jsc.

  18. The dynamic behavior of chemically "stiffened" red blood cells in microchannel flows.

    Forsyth, Alison M; Wan, Jiandi; Ristenpart, William D; Stone, Howard A

    2010-07-01

    The rigidity of red blood cells (RBCs) plays an important role in whole blood viscosity and is correlated with several cardiovascular diseases. Two chemical agents that are commonly used to study cell deformation are diamide and glutaraldehyde. Despite diamide's common usage, there are discrepancies in the literature surrounding diamide's effect on the deformation of RBCs in shear and pressure-driven flows; in particular, shear flow experiments have shown that diamide stiffens cells, while pressure-driven flow in capillaries did not give this result. We performed pressure-driven flow experiments with RBCs in a microfluidic constriction and quantified the cell dynamics using high-speed imaging. Diamide, which affects RBCs by cross-linking spectrin skeletal membrane proteins, did not reduce deformation and showed an unchanged effective strain rate when compared to healthy cells. In contrast, glutaraldehyde, which is a non-specific fixative that acts on all components of the cell, did reduce deformation and showed increased instances of tumbling, both of which are characteristic features of stiffened, or rigidified, cells. Because glutaraldehyde increases the effective viscosity of the cytoplasm and lipid membrane while diamide does not, one possible explanation for our results is that viscous effects in the cytoplasm and/or lipid membrane are a dominant factor in dictating dynamic responses of RBCs in pressure-driven flows. Finally, literature on the use of diamide as a stiffening agent is summarized, and provides supporting evidence for our conclusions. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Interstitial Fluid Flow: The Mechanical Environment of Cells and Foundation of Meridians

    Wei Yao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Using information from the deep dissection, microobservation, and measurement of acupoints in the upper and lower limbs of the human body, we developed a three-dimensional porous medium model to simulate the flow field using FLUENT software and to study the shear stress on the surface of interstitial cells (mast cells caused by interstitial fluid flow. The numerical simulation results show the following: (i the parallel nature of capillaries will lead to directional interstitial fluid flow, which may explain the long interstitial tissue channels or meridians observed in some experiments; (ii when the distribution of capillaries is staggered, increases in the velocity alternate, and the velocity tends to be uniform, which is beneficial for substance exchange; (iii interstitial fluid flow induces a shear stress, with magnitude of several Pa, on interstitial cell membranes, which will activate cells and lead to a biological response; (iv capillary and interstitial parameters, such as capillary density, blood pressure, capillary permeability, interstitial pressure, and interstitial porosity, affect the shear stress on cell surfaces. The numerical simulation results suggest that in vivo interstitial fluid flow constitutes the mechanical environment of cells and plays a key role in guiding cell activities, which may explain the meridian phenomena and the acupuncture effects observed in experiments.

  20. High-speed cell recognition algorithm for ultrafast flow cytometer imaging system

    Zhao, Wanyue; Wang, Chao; Chen, Hongwei; Chen, Minghua; Yang, Sigang

    2018-04-01

    An optical time-stretch flow imaging system enables high-throughput examination of cells/particles with unprecedented high speed and resolution. A significant amount of raw image data is produced. A high-speed cell recognition algorithm is, therefore, highly demanded to analyze large amounts of data efficiently. A high-speed cell recognition algorithm consisting of two-stage cascaded detection and Gaussian mixture model (GMM) classification is proposed. The first stage of detection extracts cell regions. The second stage integrates distance transform and the watershed algorithm to separate clustered cells. Finally, the cells detected are classified by GMM. We compared the performance of our algorithm with support vector machine. Results show that our algorithm increases the running speed by over 150% without sacrificing the recognition accuracy. This algorithm provides a promising solution for high-throughput and automated cell imaging and classification in the ultrafast flow cytometer imaging platform.

  1. VOF modelling of gas–liquid flow in PEM water electrolysis cell micro-channels

    Lafmejani, Saeed Sadeghi; Olesen, Anders Christian; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the gaseliquid flow through an interdigitated anode flow field of a PEM water electrolysis cell (PEMEC) is analysed using a three-dimensional, transient, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. To account for two-phase flow, the volume of fluid (VOF) method in ANSYS Fluent 17...... of the channel. The model is capable of revealing effect of different bubble shapes/lengths in the outgoing channel. Shape and the sequence of the bubbles affect the water flow distribution in the ATL. The model presented in this work is the first step in the development of a comprehensive CFD model...

  2. Surface modifications of dental ceramic implants with different glass solder matrices: in vitro analyses with human primary osteoblasts and epithelial cells.

    Markhoff, Jana; Mick, Enrico; Mitrovic, Aurica; Pasold, Juliane; Wegner, Katharina; Bader, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    Ceramic materials show excellent esthetic behavior, along with an absence of hypersensitivity, making them a possible alternative implant material in dental surgery. However, their surface properties enable only limited osseointegration compared to titanium implants. Within this study, a novel surface coating technique for enhanced osseointegration was investigated biologically and mechanically. Specimens of tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (TZP) and aluminum toughened zirconia (ATZ) were modified with glass solder matrices in two configurations which mainly consisted of SiO2, Al2O3, K2O, and Na2O. The influence on human osteoblastic and epithelial cell viability was examined by means of a WST-1 assay as well as live/dead staining. A C1CP-ELISA was carried out to verify procollagen type I production. Uncoated/sandblasted ceramic specimens and sandblasted titanium surfaces were investigated as a reference. Furthermore, mechanical investigations of bilaterally coated pellets were conducted with respect to surface roughness and adhesive strength of the different coatings. These tests could demonstrate a mechanically stable implant coating with glass solder matrices. The coated ceramic specimens show enhanced osteoblastic and partly epithelial viability and matrix production compared to the titanium control. Hence, the new glass solder matrix coating could improve bone cell growth as a prerequisite for enhanced osseointegration of ceramic implants.

  3. Surface Modifications of Dental Ceramic Implants with Different Glass Solder Matrices: In Vitro Analyses with Human Primary Osteoblasts and Epithelial Cells

    Mick, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    Ceramic materials show excellent esthetic behavior, along with an absence of hypersensitivity, making them a possible alternative implant material in dental surgery. However, their surface properties enable only limited osseointegration compared to titanium implants. Within this study, a novel surface coating technique for enhanced osseointegration was investigated biologically and mechanically. Specimens of tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (TZP) and aluminum toughened zirconia (ATZ) were modified with glass solder matrices in two configurations which mainly consisted of SiO2, Al2O3, K2O, and Na2O. The influence on human osteoblastic and epithelial cell viability was examined by means of a WST-1 assay as well as live/dead staining. A C1CP-ELISA was carried out to verify procollagen type I production. Uncoated/sandblasted ceramic specimens and sandblasted titanium surfaces were investigated as a reference. Furthermore, mechanical investigations of bilaterally coated pellets were conducted with respect to surface roughness and adhesive strength of the different coatings. These tests could demonstrate a mechanically stable implant coating with glass solder matrices. The coated ceramic specimens show enhanced osteoblastic and partly epithelial viability and matrix production compared to the titanium control. Hence, the new glass solder matrix coating could improve bone cell growth as a prerequisite for enhanced osseointegration of ceramic implants. PMID:25295270

  4. Surface Modifications of Dental Ceramic Implants with Different Glass Solder Matrices: In Vitro Analyses with Human Primary Osteoblasts and Epithelial Cells

    Jana Markhoff

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ceramic materials show excellent esthetic behavior, along with an absence of hypersensitivity, making them a possible alternative implant material in dental surgery. However, their surface properties enable only limited osseointegration compared to titanium implants. Within this study, a novel surface coating technique for enhanced osseointegration was investigated biologically and mechanically. Specimens of tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (TZP and aluminum toughened zirconia (ATZ were modified with glass solder matrices in two configurations which mainly consisted of SiO2, Al2O3, K2O, and Na2O. The influence on human osteoblastic and epithelial cell viability was examined by means of a WST-1 assay as well as live/dead staining. A C1CP-ELISA was carried out to verify procollagen type I production. Uncoated/sandblasted ceramic specimens and sandblasted titanium surfaces were investigated as a reference. Furthermore, mechanical investigations of bilaterally coated pellets were conducted with respect to surface roughness and adhesive strength of the different coatings. These tests could demonstrate a mechanically stable implant coating with glass solder matrices. The coated ceramic specimens show enhanced osteoblastic and partly epithelial viability and matrix production compared to the titanium control. Hence, the new glass solder matrix coating could improve bone cell growth as a prerequisite for enhanced osseointegration of ceramic implants.

  5. Lattice Boltzmann modeling of transport phenomena in fuel cells and flow batteries

    Xu, Ao; Shyy, Wei; Zhao, Tianshou

    2017-06-01

    Fuel cells and flow batteries are promising technologies to address climate change and air pollution problems. An understanding of the complex multiscale and multiphysics transport phenomena occurring in these electrochemical systems requires powerful numerical tools. Over the past decades, the lattice Boltzmann (LB) method has attracted broad interest in the computational fluid dynamics and the numerical heat transfer communities, primarily due to its kinetic nature making it appropriate for modeling complex multiphase transport phenomena. More importantly, the LB method fits well with parallel computing due to its locality feature, which is required for large-scale engineering applications. In this article, we review the LB method for gas-liquid two-phase flows, coupled fluid flow and mass transport in porous media, and particulate flows. Examples of applications are provided in fuel cells and flow batteries. Further developments of the LB method are also outlined.

  6. Embedded Disposable Functionalized Electrochemical Biosensor with a 3D-Printed Flow Cell for Detection of Hepatic Oval Cells (HOCs

    Samar Damiati

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic oval cells (HOCs are considered the progeny of the intrahepatic stem cells that are found in a small population in the liver after hepatocyte proliferation is inhibited. Due to their small number, isolation and capture of these cells constitute a challenging task for immunosensor technology. This work describes the development of a 3D-printed continuous flow system and exploits disposable screen-printed electrodes for the rapid detection of HOCs that over-express the OV6 marker on their membrane. Multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT electrodes have a chitosan film that serves as a scaffold for the immobilization of oval cell marker antibodies (anti-OV6-Ab, which enhance the sensitivity of the biomarker and makes the designed sensor specific for oval cells. The developed sensor can be easily embedded into the 3D-printed flow cell to allow cells to be exposed continuously to the functionalized surface. The continuous flow is intended to increase capture of most of the target cells in the specimen. Contact angle measurements were performed to characterize the nature and quality of the modified sensor surface, and electrochemical measurements (cyclic voltammetry (CV and square wave voltammetry (SWV were performed to confirm the efficiency and selectivity of the fabricated sensor to detect HOCs. The proposed method is valuable for capturing rare cells and could provide an effective tool for cancer diagnosis and detection.

  7. Embedded Disposable Functionalized Electrochemical Biosensor with a 3D-Printed Flow Cell for Detection of Hepatic Oval Cells (HOCs)

    Peacock, Martin; Leonhardt, Stefan; Damiati, Laila; Baghdadi, Mohammed A.; Schuster, Bernhard

    2018-01-01

    Hepatic oval cells (HOCs) are considered the progeny of the intrahepatic stem cells that are found in a small population in the liver after hepatocyte proliferation is inhibited. Due to their small number, isolation and capture of these cells constitute a challenging task for immunosensor technology. This work describes the development of a 3D-printed continuous flow system and exploits disposable screen-printed electrodes for the rapid detection of HOCs that over-express the OV6 marker on their membrane. Multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) electrodes have a chitosan film that serves as a scaffold for the immobilization of oval cell marker antibodies (anti-OV6-Ab), which enhance the sensitivity of the biomarker and makes the designed sensor specific for oval cells. The developed sensor can be easily embedded into the 3D-printed flow cell to allow cells to be exposed continuously to the functionalized surface. The continuous flow is intended to increase capture of most of the target cells in the specimen. Contact angle measurements were performed to characterize the nature and quality of the modified sensor surface, and electrochemical measurements (cyclic voltammetry (CV) and square wave voltammetry (SWV)) were performed to confirm the efficiency and selectivity of the fabricated sensor to detect HOCs. The proposed method is valuable for capturing rare cells and could provide an effective tool for cancer diagnosis and detection. PMID:29443890

  8. Embedded Disposable Functionalized Electrochemical Biosensor with a 3D-Printed Flow Cell for Detection of Hepatic Oval Cells (HOCs).

    Damiati, Samar; Peacock, Martin; Leonhardt, Stefan; Damiati, Laila; Baghdadi, Mohammed A; Becker, Holger; Kodzius, Rimantas; Schuster, Bernhard

    2018-02-14

    Hepatic oval cells (HOCs) are considered the progeny of the intrahepatic stem cells that are found in a small population in the liver after hepatocyte proliferation is inhibited. Due to their small number, isolation and capture of these cells constitute a challenging task for immunosensor technology. This work describes the development of a 3D-printed continuous flow system and exploits disposable screen-printed electrodes for the rapid detection of HOCs that over-express the OV6 marker on their membrane. Multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) electrodes have a chitosan film that serves as a scaffold for the immobilization of oval cell marker antibodies (anti-OV6-Ab), which enhance the sensitivity of the biomarker and makes the designed sensor specific for oval cells. The developed sensor can be easily embedded into the 3D-printed flow cell to allow cells to be exposed continuously to the functionalized surface. The continuous flow is intended to increase capture of most of the target cells in the specimen. Contact angle measurements were performed to characterize the nature and quality of the modified sensor surface, and electrochemical measurements (cyclic voltammetry (CV) and square wave voltammetry (SWV)) were performed to confirm the efficiency and selectivity of the fabricated sensor to detect HOCs. The proposed method is valuable for capturing rare cells and could provide an effective tool for cancer diagnosis and detection.

  9. Improved performance of dye-sensitized solar cell based on TiO_2 photoanode with FTO glass and film both treated by TiCl_4

    Li, Jinlun; Zhang, Haiyan; Wang, Wenguang; Qian, Yannan; Li, Zhenghui

    2016-01-01

    The dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) based on TiO_2 photoanode with FTO glass and TiO_2 film co-treated by TiCl_4 were fabricated. The effects of TiCl_4 treatment on the photovoltaic performance of the DSSCs were investigated. TiCl_4 treatment of the FTO glass resulted in the formation of a compact TiO_2 thin layer on its surface, which could increase the electron collection efficiency. Meanwhile, TiCl_4 treatment of the TiO_2 film could fill gaps between nanoparticles in the TiO_2 film, leading to better electron transfer. These advantages make the DSSC exhibit a highest conversion efficiency of 3.34% under a simulated solar irradiation with an intensity of 100 mW/cm"2 (1 sun), increased by 38% compared with that of the untreated DSSC.

  10. A ghost-cell immersed boundary method for flow in complex geometry

    Tseng, Y.-H.; Ferziger, Joel H.

    2003-01-01

    An efficient ghost-cell immersed boundary method (GCIBM) for simulating turbulent flows in complex geometries is presented. A boundary condition is enforced through a ghost cell method. The reconstruction procedure allows systematic development of numerical schemes for treating the immersed boundary while preserving the overall second-order accuracy of the base solver. Both Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions can be treated. The current ghost cell treatment is both suitable for staggered and non-staggered Cartesian grids. The accuracy of the current method is validated using flow past a circular cylinder and large eddy simulation of turbulent flow over a wavy surface. Numerical results are compared with experimental data and boundary-fitted grid results. The method is further extended to an existing ocean model (MITGCM) to simulate geophysical flow over a three-dimensional bump. The method is easily implemented as evidenced by our use of several existing codes

  11. Data on flow cell optimization for membrane-based electrokinetic energy conversion

    David Nicolas Østedgaard-Munck

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article elaborates on the design and optimization of a specialized flow cell for the measurement of direct conversion of pressure into electrical energy (Electrokinetic Energy Conversion, EKEC which has been presented in Østedgaard-Munck et al. (2017 [1]. Two main flow cell parameters have been monitored and optimized: A the hydraulic pressure profile on each side of the membrane introduced by pumps recirculating the electrolyte solution through the flow fields and B the electrical resistance between the current collectors across the combined flow cell. The latter parameter has been measured using four-point Electrochemical Impedance spectroscopy (EIS for different flow rates and concentrations. The total cell resistance consists of contributions from different components: the membrane (Rmem, anode charge transfer (RA, cathode charge transfer (RC, and ion diffusion in the porous electrodes (RD.The intrinsic membrane properties of Nafion 117 has been investigated experimentally in LiI/I2 solutions with concentrations ranging between 0.06 and 0.96 M and used to identify the preferred LiI/I2 solution concentration. This was achieved by measuring the solution uptake, internal solution concentration and ion exchange capacity. The membrane properties were further used to calculate the transport coefficients and electrokinetic Figure of merit in terms of the Uniform potential and Space charge models. Special attention has been put on the streaming potential coefficient which is an intrinsic property. Keywords: Electrokinetic energy conversion, Electrochemical flow cell, Conversion efficiency

  12. DETECTION OF EQUATORWARD MERIDIONAL FLOW AND EVIDENCE OF DOUBLE-CELL MERIDIONAL CIRCULATION INSIDE THE SUN

    Zhao Junwei; Bogart, R. S.; Kosovichev, A. G.; Hartlep, Thomas; Duvall, T. L. Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Meridional flow in the solar interior plays an important role in redistributing angular momentum and transporting magnetic flux inside the Sun. Although it has long been recognized that the meridional flow is predominantly poleward at the Sun's surface and in its shallow interior, the location of the equatorward return flow and the meridional flow profile in the deeper interior remain unclear. Using the first 2 yr of continuous helioseismology observations from the Solar Dynamics Observatory/Helioseismic Magnetic Imager, we analyze travel times of acoustic waves that propagate through different depths of the solar interior carrying information about the solar interior dynamics. After removing a systematic center-to-limb effect in the helioseismic measurements and performing inversions for flow speed, we find that the poleward meridional flow of a speed of 15 m s –1 extends in depth from the photosphere to about 0.91 R ☉ . An equatorward flow of a speed of 10 m s –1 is found between 0.82 and 0.91 R ☉ in the middle of the convection zone. Our analysis also shows evidence of that the meridional flow turns poleward again below 0.82 R ☉ , indicating an existence of a second meridional circulation cell below the shallower one. This double-cell meridional circulation profile with an equatorward flow shallower than previously thought suggests a rethinking of how magnetic field is generated and redistributed inside the Sun

  13. DETECTION OF EQUATORWARD MERIDIONAL FLOW AND EVIDENCE OF DOUBLE-CELL MERIDIONAL CIRCULATION INSIDE THE SUN

    Zhao Junwei; Bogart, R. S.; Kosovichev, A. G.; Hartlep, Thomas [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-4085 (United States); Duvall, T. L. Jr. [Solar Physics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2013-09-10

    Meridional flow in the solar interior plays an important role in redistributing angular momentum and transporting magnetic flux inside the Sun. Although it has long been recognized that the meridional flow is predominantly poleward at the Sun's surface and in its shallow interior, the location of the equatorward return flow and the meridional flow profile in the deeper interior remain unclear. Using the first 2 yr of continuous helioseismology observations from the Solar Dynamics Observatory/Helioseismic Magnetic Imager, we analyze travel times of acoustic waves that propagate through different depths of the solar interior carrying information about the solar interior dynamics. After removing a systematic center-to-limb effect in the helioseismic measurements and performing inversions for flow speed, we find that the poleward meridional flow of a speed of 15 m s{sup -1} extends in depth from the photosphere to about 0.91 R{sub Sun }. An equatorward flow of a speed of 10 m s{sup -1} is found between 0.82 and 0.91 R{sub Sun} in the middle of the convection zone. Our analysis also shows evidence of that the meridional flow turns poleward again below 0.82 R{sub Sun }, indicating an existence of a second meridional circulation cell below the shallower one. This double-cell meridional circulation profile with an equatorward flow shallower than previously thought suggests a rethinking of how magnetic field is generated and redistributed inside the Sun.

  14. Water flow induced transport of Pseudomonas fluorescens cells through soil columns as affected by inoculant treatment

    Hekman, W.E.; Heijnen, C.E.; Trevors, J.T.; Elsas, van J.D.

    1994-01-01

    Water flow induced transport of Pseudomonas fluorescens cells through soil columns was measured as affected by the inoculant treatment. Bacterial cells were introduced into the topsoil of columns, either encapsulated in alginate beads of different types or mixed with bentonite clay in concentrations

  15. Discrimination of bromodeoxyuridine labelled and unlabelled mitotic cells in flow cytometric bromodeoxyuridine/DNA analysis

    Jensen, P O; Larsen, J K; Christensen, I J

    1994-01-01

    Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdUrd) labelled and unlabelled mitotic cells, respectively, can be discriminated from interphase cells using a new method, based on immunocytochemical staining of BrdUrd and flow cytometric four-parameter analysis of DNA content, BrdUrd incorporation, and forward and orthogona...

  16. Development of a micro flow-through cell for high field NMR spectroscopy.

    Alam, Todd Michael; McIntyre, Sarah K.

    2011-05-01

    A highly transportable micro flow-through detection cell for nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has been designed, fabricated and tested. This flow-through cell allows for the direct coupling between liquid chromatography (LC) and gel permeation chromatography (GPC) resulting in the possibility of hyphenated LC-NMR and GPC-NMR. The advantage of the present flow cell design is that it is independent and unconnected to the detection probe electronics, is compatible with existing commercial high resolution NMR probes, and as such can be easily implemented at any NMR facility. Two different volumes were fabricated corresponding to between {approx}3.8 and 10 {micro}L detection volume. Examples of the performance of the cell on different NMR instruments, and using different NMR detection probes were demonstrated.

  17. Continuous flow electrophoretic separation of proteins and cells from mammalian tissues

    Hymer, W. C.; Barlow, Grant H.; Blaisdell, Steven J.; Cleveland, Carolyn; Farrington, Mary Ann; Feldmeier, Mary; Hatfield, J. Michael; Lanham, J. Wayne; Grindeland, Richard; Snyder, Robert S.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes an apparatus for continuous flow electrophoresis (CFE), designed to separate macromolecules and cells at conditions of microgravity. In this CFE, buffer flows upward in a 120-cm long flow chamber, which is 16-cm wide x 3.0-mm thick in the microgravity version (and 6-cm wide x 1.5-mm thick in the unit-gravity laboratory version). Ovalbumin and rat serum albumin were separated in space (flight STS-4) with the same resolution of the two proteins achieved at 25 percent total w/v concentration that was obtained in the laboratory at 0.2 percent w/v concentration. Rat anterior pituitary cells, cultured human embryonic kidney cells, and canine Langerhans cells were separated into subpopulations (flight STS-8) more effectively than in unit gravity, with comparable resolution having been achieved at 100 times the concentration possible on earth.

  18. Optical tweezers for measuring the interaction of the two single red blood cells in flow condition

    Lee, Kisung; Muravyov, Alexei; Semenov, Alexei; Wagner, Christian; Priezzhev, Alexander

    2017-03-01

    Aggregation of red blood cells (RBCs) is an intrinsic property of blood, which has direct effect on the blood viscosity and therefore affects overall the blood circulation throughout the body. It is attracting interest for the research in both fundamental science and clinical application. Despite of the intensive research, the aggregation mechanism is remaining not fully clear. Recent advances in methods allowed measuring the interaction between single RBCs in a well-defined configuration leading the better understanding of the mechanism of the process. However the most of the studies were made on the static cells. Thus, the measurements in flow mimicking conditions are missing. In this work, we aim to study the interaction of two RBCs in the flow conditions. We demonstrate the characterization of the cells interaction strength (or flow tolerance) by measuring the flow velocity to be applied to separate two aggregated cells trapped by double channel optical tweezers in a desired configuration. The age-separated cells were used for this study. The obtained values for the minimum flow velocities needed to separate the two cells were found to be 78.9 +/- 6.1 μm/s and 110 +/- 13 μm/s for old and young cells respectively. The data obtained is in agreement with the observations reported by other authors. The significance of our results is in ability for obtaining a comprehensible and absolute physical value characterizing the cells interaction in flow conditions (not like the Aggregation Index measured in whole blood suspensions by other techniques, which is some abstract parameter)

  19. Glass compositions

    France, P W

    1985-05-30

    A fluoride glass for use in the production of optical fibres has an enhanced D/H ratio, preferably such that OD:OH is at least 9:1. In the example, such a glass is prepared by treating with D/sub 2/O a melt comprising 51.53 mole per cent ZrF/sub 4/, 20.47 mole per cent BaF/sub 2/, 5.27 mole per cent LaF/sub 3/, 3.24 mole per cent AlF/sub 3/, and 19.49 mole per cent LiF.

  20. Getting into the flow: Red cells go on a roll, two-component vesicles swing

    Viallat, Annie; Dupire, Jules; Khelloufi, Kamel; Al Halifa, Al Hair; Adhesion and Inflammation Team

    2013-11-01

    Red blood cells are soft capsules. Under shear flow, their two known motions were ``tumbling'' and ``swinging-tank treading,'' depending on cell mechanics and flow conditions. We reveal new wobbling regimes, among which the ``rolling'' regime, where red cells move as wheels on a road. We show, by coupling two video-microscopy approaches providing multi-directional cell pictures that the orientation of cells flipping into the flow is determined by the shear rate. Rolling permits to avoid energetically costly cellular deformations and is a true signature of the cytoskeleton elasticity. We highlight two transient dynamics: an intermittent regime during the ``tank-treading-to-flipping'' transition and a Frisbee-like ``spinning'' regime during the ``rolling-to-tank-treading'' transition. We find that the biconcave red cell shape is very stable under moderate shear stresses, and we interpret this result in terms of shape memory and elastic buckling. Finally, we generate lipid vesicles with a shape memory by using two lipids with different bending rigidities. These vesicles swing in shear flow similarly to red blood cells but their non-axisymmetric stress-free shape changes the periodicity of the motion and induces specific features.

  1. Study of Paclitaxel-Treated HeLa Cells by Differential Electrical Impedance Flow Cytometry

    Kirkegaard, Julie; Clausen, Casper Hyttel; Rodriguez-Trujíllo, Romén

    2014-01-01

    This work describes the electrical investigation of paclitaxel-treated HeLa cells using a custom-made microfluidic biosensor for whole cell analysis in continuous flow. We apply the method of differential electrical impedance spectroscopy to treated HeLa cells in order to elucidate the changes...... on investigating the changes in the electrical properties of the cell membrane caused by the effect of paclitaxel. We observe good agreement between the model and the obtained results. This establishes the proof-of-concept for the application in cell drug therapy....

  2. Sex-sorting sperm using flow cytometry/cell sorting.

    Garner, Duane L; Evans, K Michael; Seidel, George E

    2013-01-01

    The sex of mammalian offspring can be predetermined by flow sorting relatively pure living populations of X- and Y-chromosome-bearing sperm. This method is based on precise staining of the DNA of sperm with the nucleic acid-specific fluorophore, Hoechst 33342, to differentiate between the subpopulations of X- and Y-sperm. The fluorescently stained sperm are then sex-sorted using a specialized high speed sorter, MoFlo(®) SX XDP, and collected into biologically supportive media prior to reconcentration and cryopreservation in numbers adequate for use with artificial insemination for some species or for in vitro fertilization. Sperm sorting can provide subpopulations of X- or Y-bearing bovine sperm at rates in the 8,000 sperm/s range while maintaining; a purity of 90% such that it has been applied to cattle on a commercial basis. The sex of offspring has been predetermined in a wide variety of mammalian species including cattle, swine, horses, sheep, goats, dogs, cats, deer, elk, dolphins, water buffalo as well as in humans using flow cytometric sorting of X- and Y-sperm.

  3. Particle and Blood Cell Dynamics in Oscillatory Flows Final Report

    Restrepo, Juan M.

    2008-01-01

    Our aim has been to uncover fundamental aspects of the suspension and dislodgement of particles in wall-bounded oscillatory flows, in flows characterized by Reynolds numbers encompassing the situation found in rivers and near shores (and perhaps in some industrial processes). Our research tools are computational and our coverage of parameter space fairly broad. Computational means circumvent many complications that make the measurement of the dynamics of particles in a laboratory setting an impractical task, especially on the broad range of parameter space we plan to report upon. The impact of this work on the geophysical problem of sedimentation is boosted considerably by the fact that the proposed calculations can be considered ab-initio, in the sense that little to no modeling is done in generating dynamics of the particles and of the moving fluid: we use a three-dimensional Navier Stokes solver along with straightforward boundary conditions. Hence, to the extent that Navier Stokes is a model for an ideal incompressible isotropic Newtonian fluid, the calculations yield benchmark values for such things as the drag, buoyancy, and lift of particles, in a highly controlled environment. Our approach will be to make measurements of the lift, drag, and buoyancy of particles, by considering progressively more complex physical configurations and physics.

  4. Automated flow cytometric analysis across large numbers of samples and cell types.

    Chen, Xiaoyi; Hasan, Milena; Libri, Valentina; Urrutia, Alejandra; Beitz, Benoît; Rouilly, Vincent; Duffy, Darragh; Patin, Étienne; Chalmond, Bernard; Rogge, Lars; Quintana-Murci, Lluis; Albert, Matthew L; Schwikowski, Benno

    2015-04-01

    Multi-parametric flow cytometry is a key technology for characterization of immune cell phenotypes. However, robust high-dimensional post-analytic strategies for automated data analysis in large numbers of donors are still lacking. Here, we report a computational pipeline, called FlowGM, which minimizes operator input, is insensitive to compensation settings, and can be adapted to different analytic panels. A Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM)-based approach was utilized for initial clustering, with the number of clusters determined using Bayesian Information Criterion. Meta-clustering in a reference donor permitted automated identification of 24 cell types across four panels. Cluster labels were integrated into FCS files, thus permitting comparisons to manual gating. Cell numbers and coefficient of variation (CV) were similar between FlowGM and conventional gating for lymphocyte populations, but notably FlowGM provided improved discrimination of "hard-to-gate" monocyte and dendritic cell (DC) subsets. FlowGM thus provides rapid high-dimensional analysis of cell phenotypes and is amenable to cohort studies. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Hydrodynamic flow in the cytoplasm of plant cells.

    Esseling-Ozdoba, A.; Houtman, D.; Lammeren, A.A. van; Eiser, E.; Emons, A.M.C.

    2008-01-01

    Plant cells show myosin-driven organelle movement, called cytoplasmic streaming. Soluble molecules, such as metabolites do not move with motor proteins but by diffusion. However, is all of this streaming active motor-driven organelle transport? Our recent simulation study (Houtman et al., 2007)

  6. Hydrodynamic flow in the cytoplasm of plant cells

    Esseling-Ozdoba, A.; Houtman, D.; van Lammeren, A.A.M.; Eiser, E.; Emons, A.M.C.

    2008-01-01

    Plant cells show myosin-driven organelle movement, called cytoplasmic streaming. Soluble molecules, such as metabolites do not move with motor proteins but by diffusion. However, is all of this streaming active motor-driven organelle transport? Our recent simulation study (Houtman et al., 2007)

  7. Hydrodynamic flow in the cytoplasm of plant cells

    Esseling-Ozdoba, A.; Houtman, D.; Lammeren, van A.A.M.; Eiser, E.; Emons, A.M.C.

    2008-01-01

    Plant cells show myosin-driven organelle movement, called cytoplasmic streaming. Soluble molecules, such as metabolites do not move with motor proteins but by diffusion. However, is all of this streaming active motor-driven organelle transport? Our recent simulation study ( Houtman et al., 2007 )

  8. Cyclic flow shop scheduling problem with two-machine cells

    Bożejko Wojciech

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the paper a variant of cyclic production with setups and two-machine cell is considered. One of the stages of the problem solving consists of assigning each operation to the machine on which it will be carried out. The total number of such assignments is exponential. We propose a polynomial time algorithm finding the optimal operations to machines assignment.

  9. Mechanisms of eosinophil adhesion to endothelial cells under flow conditions

    Ulfman, L.H.

    2002-01-01

    Eosinophils play an important role in allergic inflammatory diseases such as allergic asthma. Infiltrates of these cells are present in the interstitium and the lumen of the bronchi of asthmatic patients. Eosinophils must pass the endothelium to enter this site of inflammation. A widely accepted

  10. Light scattering effect of ITO:Zr/AZO films deposited on periodic textured glass surface morphologies for silicon thin film solar cells

    Hussain, Shahzada Qamar [Sungkyunkwan University, Department of Energy Science, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Department of Physics, Lahore (Pakistan); Kwon, Gi Duk; Kim, Sunbo; Balaji, Nagarajan; Shin, Chonghoon; Kim, Sangho; Khan, Shahbaz; Pribat, Didier [Sungkyunkwan University, Department of Energy Science, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Shihyun; Le, Anh Huy Tuan; Park, Hyeongsik; Raja, Jayapal; Lee, Youn-Jung [Sungkyunkwan University, College of Information and Communication Engineering, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Razaq, Aamir [COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Department of Physics, Lahore (Pakistan); Velumani, S. [Sungkyunkwan University, College of Information and Communication Engineering, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Department of Electrical Engineering (SEES), Mexico City (Mexico); Yi, Junsin [Sungkyunkwan University, Department of Energy Science, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Sungkyunkwan University, College of Information and Communication Engineering, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    Various SF{sub 6}/Ar plasma-textured periodic glass surface morphologies for high transmittance, haze ratio and low sheet resistance of ITO:Zr films are reported. The SF{sub 6}/Ar plasma-textured glass surface morphologies were changed from low aspect ratio to high aspect ratio with the increase in RF power from 500 to 600 W. The micro- and nano-size features of textured glass surface morphologies enhanced the haze ratio in visible as well as NIR wavelength region. Micro-size textured features also influenced the sheet resistance and electrical characteristics of ITO:Zr films due to step coverage. The ITO:Zr/AZO bilayer was used as front TCO electrode for p-i-n amorphous silicon thin film solar cells with current density-voltage characteristics as: V{sub oc} = 875 mV, FF = 70.90 %, J{sub sc} = 11.31 mA/cm{sup 2}, η = 7.02 %. (orig.)

  11. Large Area Sputter Coating on Glass

    Katayama, Yoshihito

    Large glass has been used for commercial buildings, housings and vehicles for many years. Glass size for flat displays is getting larger and larger. The glass for the 8th generation is more than 5 m2 in area. Demand of the large glass is increasing not only in these markets but also in a solar cell market growing drastically. Therefore, large area coating is demanded to plus something else on glass more than ever. Sputtering and pyrolysis are the major coating methods on large glass today. Sputtering process is particularly popular because it can deposit a wide variety of materials in good coating uniformity on the glass. This paper describes typical industrial sputtering system and recent progress in sputtering technology. It also shows typical coated glass products in architectural, automotive and display fields and comments on their functions, film stacks and so on.

  12. Flow Cytometric Analysis of T, B, and NK Cells Antigens in Patients with Mycosis Fungoides

    Serkan Yazıcı

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We retrospectively analyzed the clinicopathological correlation and prognostic value of cell surface antigens expressed by peripheral blood mononuclear cells in patients with mycosis fungoides (MF. 121 consecutive MF patients were included in this study. All patients had peripheral blood flow cytometry as part of their first visit. TNMB and histopathological staging of the cases were retrospectively performed in accordance with International Society for Cutaneous Lymphomas/European Organization of Research and Treatment of Cancer (ISCL/EORTC criteria at the time of flow cytometry sampling. To determine prognostic value of cell surface antigens, cases were divided into two groups as stable and progressive disease. 17 flow cytometric analyses of 17 parapsoriasis (PP and 11 analyses of 11 benign erythrodermic patients were included as control groups. Fluorescent labeled monoclonal antibodies were used to detect cell surface antigens: T cells (CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, TCRαβ+, TCRγδ+, CD7+, CD4+CD7+, CD4+CD7−, and CD71+, B cells (HLA-DR+, CD19+, and HLA-DR+CD19+, NKT cells (CD3+CD16+CD56+, and NK cells (CD3−CD16+CD56+. The mean value of all cell surface antigens was not statistically significant between parapsoriasis and MF groups. Along with an increase in cases of MF stage statistically significant difference was found between the mean values of cell surface antigens. Flow cytometric analysis of peripheral blood cell surface antigens in patients with mycosis fungoides may contribute to predicting disease stage and progression.

  13. The reaction environment in a filter-press laboratory reactor: the FM01-LC flow cell

    Rivera, Fernando F.; León, Carlos Ponce de; Walsh, Frank C.; Nava, José L.

    2015-01-01

    A parallel plate cell facilitating controlled flow in a rectangular channel and capable of incorporating a wide range of electrode materials is important in studies of electrode reactions prior to process development and scale-up. The FM01-LC, a versatile laboratory-scale, plane parallel filter-press type electrochemical cell (having a projected electrode area of 64 cm 2 ) which is based on the larger FM21-SP electrolyser (2100 cm 2 area). Many laboratories have used this type of reactor to quantify the importance of reaction environment in fundamental studies and to prepare for industrial applications. A number of papers have concerned the experimental characterization and computational modelling of its reaction environment but the experimental and computational data has become dispersed. The cell has been used in a diverse range of synthesis and processing applications which require controlled flow and known reaction environment. In a previous review, the cell construction and reaction environment was summarised followed by the illustration of its use for a range of applications that include organic and inorganic electrosynthesis, metal ion removal, energy storage, environmental remediation (e.g., metal recycling or anodic destruction of organics) and drinking water treatment. This complementary review considers the characteristics of the FM01-LC electrolyser as an example of a well-engineered flow cell facilitating cell scale-up and provides a rigorous analysis of its reaction environment. Particular aspects include the influence of electrolyte velocity on mass transport rates, flow dispersion and current distribution

  14. On-line determination of glucose and lactate concentrations in animal cell culture based on fibre optic detection of oxygen in flow-injection analysis.

    Dremel, B A; Li, S Y; Schmid, R D

    1992-01-01

    A flow-injection analysis (FIA) system based on fibre optic detection of oxygen consumption using immobilized glucose oxidase (GOD) and lactate oxidase (LOD) is described for the on-line monitoring of glucose and lactate concentrations in animal cell cultures. The consumption of oxygen was determined via dynamic quenching by molecular oxygen of the fluorescence of an indicator. GOD and LOD were immobilized on controlled pore glass (CPG) in enzyme reactors which were directly linked to a specially designed fibre optic flow-through cell covering the oxygen optrode. The system is linear for 0-30 mM glucose, with an r.s.d. of 5% at 30 mM (five measurements) and for 0-30 mM lactate, with an r.s.d. of 5% at 30 mM (five measurements). The enzyme reactors used were stable for more than 4 weeks in continuous operation, and it was possible to analyse up to 20 samples per hour. The system has been successfully applied to the on-line monitoring of glucose and lactate concentrations of an animal cell culture designed for the production of recombinant human antithrombine III (AT-III). Results of the on-line measurement obtained by the FIA system were compared with the off-line results obtained by a glucose and lactate analyser from Yellow Springs Instrument Company (YSI).

  15. Comparative exploration of multidimensional flow cytometry software: a model approach evaluating T cell polyfunctional behavior.

    Spear, Timothy T; Nishimura, Michael I; Simms, Patricia E

    2017-08-01

    Advancement in flow cytometry reagents and instrumentation has allowed for simultaneous analysis of large numbers of lineage/functional immune cell markers. Highly complex datasets generated by polychromatic flow cytometry require proper analytical software to answer investigators' questions. A problem among many investigators and flow cytometry Shared Resource Laboratories (SRLs), including our own, is a lack of access to a flow cytometry-knowledgeable bioinformatics team, making it difficult to learn and choose appropriate analysis tool(s). Here, we comparatively assess various multidimensional flow cytometry software packages for their ability to answer a specific biologic question and provide graphical representation output suitable for publication, as well as their ease of use and cost. We assessed polyfunctional potential of TCR-transduced T cells, serving as a model evaluation, using multidimensional flow cytometry to analyze 6 intracellular cytokines and degranulation on a per-cell basis. Analysis of 7 parameters resulted in 128 possible combinations of positivity/negativity, far too complex for basic flow cytometry software to analyze fully. Various software packages were used, analysis methods used in each described, and representative output displayed. Of the tools investigated, automated classification of cellular expression by nonlinear stochastic embedding (ACCENSE) and coupled analysis in Pestle/simplified presentation of incredibly complex evaluations (SPICE) provided the most user-friendly manipulations and readable output, evaluating effects of altered antigen-specific stimulation on T cell polyfunctionality. This detailed approach may serve as a model for other investigators/SRLs in selecting the most appropriate software to analyze complex flow cytometry datasets. Further development and awareness of available tools will help guide proper data analysis to answer difficult biologic questions arising from incredibly complex datasets. © Society

  16. Quantitative analysis of gold and carbon nanoparticles in mammalian cells by flow cytometry light scattering

    Zhou, Gang [Nanjing University, State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences (China); Liu, Naicheng; Wang, Zhenheng [Nanjing University, Department of Orthopedics, Jinling Hospital, School of Medicine (China); Shi, Tongguo; Gan, Jingjing; Wang, Zhenzhen; Zhang, Junfeng, E-mail: jfzhang@nju.edu.cn [Nanjing University, State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences (China)

    2017-02-15

    Nanoparticle-based applications for diagnostics and therapeutics have been extensively studied. These applications require a profound understanding of the fate of nanoparticles (NPs) in cellular environments. However, until now, few analytical methods are available and most of them rely on fluorescent properties or special elements of NPs; therefore, for NPs without observable optical properties or special elements, the existing methods are hardly applicable. In this study, we introduce a flow cytometry light scattering (FCLS)-based approach that quantifies in situ NPs accurately in mammalian cells. Continuous cells of heterogeneous human epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma (Caco-2 cells), mouse peritoneal macrophages (MPM), and human adenocarcinomic alveolar basal epithelia (A549 cells) were cultured with NPs with certain concentrations and size. The intensity of the flow cytometric side scattered light, which indicates the quantity of NPs in the cells, was analyzed. The result shows an accurate size- and dose-dependent uptake of Au NPs (5, 30, 250 nm) in Caco-2 cells. The size- and dose- dependence of Au NPs (5, 30, 250 nm) and carbon NPs (50, 500 nm) in cells was validated by transmission electron microscope (TEM). This paper demonstrates the great potential of flow cytometry light scattering in the quantitative study of the size and dose effect on in situ metallic or non-metallic NPs in mammalian cells.

  17. Quantitative analysis of gold and carbon nanoparticles in mammalian cells by flow cytometry light scattering

    Zhou, Gang; Liu, Naicheng; Wang, Zhenheng; Shi, Tongguo; Gan, Jingjing; Wang, Zhenzhen; Zhang, Junfeng

    2017-02-01

    Nanoparticle-based applications for diagnostics and therapeutics have been extensively studied. These applications require a profound understanding of the fate of nanoparticles (NPs) in cellular environments. However, until now, few analytical methods are available and most of them rely on fluorescent properties or special elements of NPs; therefore, for NPs without observable optical properties or special elements, the existing methods are hardly applicable. In this study, we introduce a flow cytometry light scattering (FCLS)-based approach that quantifies in situ NPs accurately in mammalian cells. Continuous cells of heterogeneous human epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma (Caco-2 cells), mouse peritoneal macrophages (MPM), and human adenocarcinomic alveolar basal epithelia (A549 cells) were cultured with NPs with certain concentrations and size. The intensity of the flow cytometric side scattered light, which indicates the quantity of NPs in the cells, was analyzed. The result shows an accurate size- and dose-dependent uptake of Au NPs (5, 30, 250 nm) in Caco-2 cells. The size- and dose- dependence of Au NPs (5, 30, 250 nm) and carbon NPs (50, 500 nm) in cells was validated by transmission electron microscope (TEM). This paper demonstrates the great potential of flow cytometry light scattering in the quantitative study of the size and dose effect on in situ metallic or non-metallic NPs in mammalian cells.

  18. Studying circulation times of liver cancer cells by in vivo flow cytometry

    Liu, G; Li, Y; Fan, Z; Guo, J; Tan, X; Wei, X, E-mail: xwei@fudan.edu.cn [Institutes of Biomedical Sciences, Fudan University, 138 Yi Xue Yuan Road, Shanghai, 200032 (China)

    2011-02-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) may metastasize to lung kidney and many other organs. The survival rate is almost zero for metastatic HCC patients. Molecular mechanisms of HCC metastasis need to be understood better and new therapies must be developed. A recently developed 'in vivo flow cytometer' combined with real-time confocal fluorescence imaging are used to assess spreading and the circulation kinetics of liver tumor cells. The in vivo flow cytometer has the capability to detect and quantify continuously the number and flow characteristics of fluorescently labeled cells in vivo in real time without extracting blood sample. We have measured the depletion kinetics of two related human HCC cell lines high-metastatic HCCLM3 cells and low-metastatic HepG2 cells which were from the same origin and obtained by repetitive screenings in mice. >60% HCCLM3 cells are depleted within the first hour. Interestingly the low-metastatic HepG2 cells possess noticeably slower depletion kinetics. In comparison <40% HepG2 cells are depleted within the first hour. The differences in depletion kinetics might provide insights into early metastasis processes.

  19. Stream biofilm responses to flow intermittency: from cells to ecosystems

    Sergi eSabater; Sergi eSabater; Xisca eTimoner; Carles eBorrego; Carles eBorrego; Vicenç eAcuña

    2016-01-01

    Temporary streams are characterized by the alternation of dry and wet hydrological phases, creating both a harsh environment for the biota as well as a high diversity of opportunities for adaptation. These systems are eminently microbial-based during several of these hydrological phases, and those growing on all solid substrata (biofilms) accordingly change their physical structure and community composition. Biofilms experience large decreases on cell densities and biomass, both of bacteria a...

  20. Stream Biofilm Responses to Flow Intermittency: From Cells to Ecosystems

    Sabater, Sergi; Timoner, Xisca; Borrego, Carles; Acuña, Vicenç

    2016-01-01

    Temporary streams are characterized by the alternation of dry and wet hydrological phases, creating both a harsh environment for the biota as well as a high diversity of opportunities for adaptation. These systems are mainly microbial-based during several of these hydrological phases, and those growing on all solid substrata (biofilms) accordingly change their physical structure and community composition. Biofilms experience large decreases in cell densities and biomass, both of bacteria and ...

  1. Counter-flow elutriation of clinical peripheral blood mononuclear cell concentrates for the production of dendritic and T cell therapies

    Stroncek, David F; Fellowes, Vicki; Pham, Chauha; Khuu, Hanh; Fowler, Daniel H; Wood, Lauren V; Sabatino, Marianna

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) concentrates collected by apheresis are frequently used as starting material for cellular therapies, but the cell of interest must often be isolated prior to initiating manufacturing. Study design and methods The results of enriching 59 clinical PBMC concentrates for monocytes or lymphocytes from patients with solid tumors or multiple myeloma using a commercial closed system semi-automated counter-flow elutriation instrument (Elutra, Teru...

  2. Integrating a dual-silicon photoelectrochemical cell into a redox flow battery for unassisted photocharging

    Liao, Shichao; Zong, Xu; Seger, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Solar rechargeable flow cells (SRFCs) provide an attractive approach for in situ capture and storage of intermittent solar energy via photoelectrochemical regeneration of discharged redox species for electricity generation. However, overall SFRC performance is restricted by inefficient photoelect......Solar rechargeable flow cells (SRFCs) provide an attractive approach for in situ capture and storage of intermittent solar energy via photoelectrochemical regeneration of discharged redox species for electricity generation. However, overall SFRC performance is restricted by inefficient...... photoelectrochemical reactions. Here we report an efficient SRFC based on a dual-silicon photoelectrochemical cell and a quinone/bromine redox flow battery for in situ solar energy conversion and storage. Using narrow bandgap silicon for efficient photon collection and fast redox couples for rapid interface charge...

  3. Novel micro-reactor flow cell for investigation of model catalysts using in situ grazing-incidence X-ray scattering

    Kehres, Jan; Pedersen, Thomas; Masini, Federico

    2016-01-01

    at synchrotron facilities are performed utilizing the micro-reactor and a designed transportable gas feed and analysis system. The feasibility of simultaneous in situ GISAXS/GIWAXS experiments in the novel micro-reactor flow cell was confirmed with CO oxidation over mass-selected Ru nanoparticles.......The design, fabrication and performance of a novel and highly sensitive micro-reactor device for performing in situ grazing-incidence X-ray scattering experiments of model catalyst systems is presented. The design of the reaction chamber, etched in silicon on insulator (SIO), permits grazing......-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) in transmission through 10 µm-thick entrance and exit windows by using micro-focused beams. An additional thinning of the Pyrex glass reactor lid allows simultaneous acquisition of the grazing-incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering (GIWAXS). In situ experiments...

  4. Novel micro-reactor flow cell for investigation of model catalysts using in situ grazing-incidence X-ray scattering

    Kehres, Jan; Pedersen, Thomas; Masini, Federico; Andreasen, Jens Wenzel; Nielsen, Martin Meedom; Diaz, Ana; Nielsen, Jane Hvolbæk; Hansen, Ole

    2016-01-01

    The design, fabrication and performance of a novel and highly sensitive micro-reactor device for performing in situ grazing-incidence X-ray scattering experiments of model catalyst systems is presented. The design of the reaction chamber, etched in silicon on insulator (SIO), permits grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) in transmission through 10 µm-thick entrance and exit windows by using micro-focused beams. An additional thinning of the Pyrex glass reactor lid allows simultaneous acquisition of the grazing-incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering (GIWAXS). In situ experiments at synchrotron facilities are performed utilizing the micro-reactor and a designed transportable gas feed and analysis system. The feasibility of simultaneous in situ GISAXS/GIWAXS experiments in the novel micro-reactor flow cell was confirmed with CO oxidation over mass-selected Ru nanoparticles. PMID:26917133

  5. Novel micro-reactor flow cell for investigation of model catalysts using in situ grazing-incidence X-ray scattering.

    Kehres, Jan; Pedersen, Thomas; Masini, Federico; Andreasen, Jens Wenzel; Nielsen, Martin Meedom; Diaz, Ana; Nielsen, Jane Hvolbæk; Hansen, Ole; Chorkendorff, Ib

    2016-03-01

    The design, fabrication and performance of a novel and highly sensitive micro-reactor device for performing in situ grazing-incidence X-ray scattering experiments of model catalyst systems is presented. The design of the reaction chamber, etched in silicon on insulator (SIO), permits grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) in transmission through 10 µm-thick entrance and exit windows by using micro-focused beams. An additional thinning of the Pyrex glass reactor lid allows simultaneous acquisition of the grazing-incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering (GIWAXS). In situ experiments at synchrotron facilities are performed utilizing the micro-reactor and a designed transportable gas feed and analysis system. The feasibility of simultaneous in situ GISAXS/GIWAXS experiments in the novel micro-reactor flow cell was confirmed with CO oxidation over mass-selected Ru nanoparticles.

  6. Use of flow cytometry for high-throughput cell population estimates in fixed brain tissue

    Nicole A Young

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The numbers and types of cells in an area of cortex define its function. Therefore it is essential to characterize the numbers and distributions of total cells in areas of the cortex, as well as to identify numbers of subclasses of neurons and glial cells. To date, the large size of the primate brain and the lack of innovation in cell counting methods have been a roadblock to obtaining high-resolution maps of cell and neuron density across the cortex in humans and non-human primates. Stereological counting methods and the isotropic fractionator are valuable tools for estimating cell numbers, but are better suited to smaller, well-defined brain structures or to cortex as a whole. In the present study, we have extended our flow-cytometry based counting method, the flow fractionator (Collins et al., 2010a, to include high-throughput total cell population estimates in homogenized cortical samples. We demonstrate that our method produces consistent, accurate and repeatable cell estimates quickly. The estimates we report are in excellent agreement with estimates for the same samples obtained using a Neubauer chamber and a fluorescence microscope. We show that our flow cytometry-based method for total cell estimation in homogenized brain tissue is more efficient and more precise than manual counting methods. The addition of automated nuclei counting to our flow fractionator method allows for a fully automated, rapid characterization of total cells and neuronal and non-neuronal populations in human and non-human primate brains, providing valuable data to further our understanding of the functional organization of normal, aging and diseased brains.

  7. Bedrock refractive-flow cells: A passive treatment analog to funnel-and-gate

    Dick, V.; Edwards, D.

    1997-01-01

    Funnel-and-gate technology provides a mechanism to passively treat groundwater contaminant plumes, but depends on placement of a sufficient barrier (open-quotes funnelclose quotes) in the plume flow path to channel the plume to a pass-through treatment zone (open-quotes gateclose quotes). Conventional barrier technologies limit funnel-and-gate deployment to unconsolidated overburden applications. A method has been developed which allows similar passive treatment to be applied to bedrock plumes. Rather than use barriers as the funnel, the method uses engineered bedrock zones, installed via precision blasting or other means, to refract groundwater flow along a preferred path to treatment (gate). The method requires orienting the refractive cell based on the Tangent Law and extending refractive cell limbs down gradient of the gate to disperse head and control flow. A typical Refractive-Flow cell may be open-quotes Yclose quotesshaped, with each limb 3-10 ft [1-3 m] wide and several tens to a few hundred feet [10 - 100 m] in length. Treatment takes place at the center of the X. MODFLOW modeling has been used to successfully simulate desired flow. Engineered blasting has been used at full scale application to create bedrock rubble zones for active collection/flow control for several years. The method provides a previously unavailable method to passively treat contaminated groundwater in bedrock at low cost

  8. Charge recombination reduction in dye-sensitized solar cells by means of an electron beam-deposited TiO2 buffer layer between conductive glass and photoelectrode

    Manca, Michele; Malara, Francesco; Martiradonna, Luigi; De Marco, Luisa; Giannuzzi, Roberto; Cingolani, Roberto; Gigli, Giuseppe

    2010-01-01

    A thin anatase titanium dioxide compact film was deposited by electron beam evaporation as buffer layer between the conductive transparent electrode and the porous TiO 2 -based photoelectrode in dye-sensitized solar cells. The effect of such a buffer layer on the back transfer reaction of electrons to tri-iodide ions in liquid electrolyte-based cells has been studied by means of both electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and open circuit photovoltage decay analysis. The influence of the thickness has been also investigated and an increment in overall quantum conversion efficiency η as high as + 31% with respect to the standard cell - fabricated onto an uncoated conductive glass - has been revealed in the case of a 120 nm thick buffer layer.

  9. Effect of Flow on Cultured Cell at Micro-Pattern of Ridge Lines

    Haruka Hino

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A flow channel with a micro-pattern of ridge lines of a scaffold has been designed to study quantitatively the effect of flow on an oriented cell in vitro. The lines of parallel micro ridges (0.001 mm height, 0.003 mm width, and 0.003 mm interval are made by the lithography technique on the lower surface of the channel as the scaffold to make orientation of each cell. Variation is made about the angle between the longitudinal direction of the ridge line and the direction of the flow: zero, 0.79 and 1.6 rad. The suspension of C2C12 (mouse myoblast cell line was injected to the channel, and incubated for two hours on the micro ridges before the flow test for four hours. The flow rate of 3/hour is controlled by a syringe pump to make variation of the wall shear stress of < 3 Pa. The action of each cell adhered on the micro pattern was analyzed at the time lapse images. The experimental results show that both the migration and the deformation of each myoblast along the micro ridge are restricted by the wall shear stress higher than 3 Pa.

  10. Glass packages in interim storage

    Jacquet-Francillon, N.

    1994-10-01

    This report summarize the current state of knowledge concerning the behavior of type C waste packages consisting of vitrified high-level solutions produced by reprocessing spent fuel. The composition and the physical and chemical properties of the feed solutions are reviewed, and the vitrification process is described. Sodium alumino-borosilicate glass compositions are generally employed - the glass used at la Hague for LWR fuel solutions, for example, contains 45 % SiO 2 . The major physical, chemical, mechanical and thermal properties of the glass are reviewed. In order to allow their thermal power to diminish, the 3630 glass packages produced (as of January 1993) in the vitrification facilities at Marcoule and La Hague are placed in interim storage for several decades. The actual interim storage period has not been defined, as it is closely related to the concept and organization selected for the final destination of the packages: a geological repository. The glass behavior under irradiation is described. Considerable basic and applied research has been conducted to assess the aqueous leaching behavior of nuclear containment glass. The effects of various repository parameters (temperature, flow rate, nature of the environmental materials) have been investigated. The experimental findings have been used to specify a model describing the kinetics of aqueous corrosion of the glass. More generally all the ''source term'' models developed in France by the CEA or by ANDRA are summarized. (author). 152 refs., 33 figs

  11. Glass: Rotary Electric Glass Furnace

    Recca, L.

    1999-01-29

    Compared to conventional gas-fired furnaces, the new rotary electric furnace will increase energy efficiency while significantly reducing air emissions, product turnaround time, and labor costs. As this informative new fact sheet explains, the thousand different types of glass optical blanks produced for the photonics industry are used for lasers, telescopes, cameras, lights, and many other products.

  12. Discrimination of bromodeoxyuridine labelled and unlabelled mitotic cells in flow cytometric bromodeoxyuridine/DNA analysis

    Jensen, P O; Larsen, J K; Christensen, I J

    1994-01-01

    Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdUrd) labelled and unlabelled mitotic cells, respectively, can be discriminated from interphase cells using a new method, based on immunocytochemical staining of BrdUrd and flow cytometric four-parameter analysis of DNA content, BrdUrd incorporation, and forward and orthogonal...... light scatter. The method was optimized using the human leukemia cell lines HL-60 and K-562. Samples of 10(5) ethanol-fixed cells were treated with pepsin/HCl and stained as a nuclear suspension with anti-BrdUrd antibody, FITC-conjugated secondary antibody, and propidium iodide. Labelled mitoses could...

  13. Identification of residual leukemic cells by flow cytometry in childhood B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia: verification of leukemic state by flow-sorting and molecular/cytogenetic methods

    Obro, Nina F; Ryder, Lars P; Madsen, Hans O

    2012-01-01

    Reduction in minimal residual disease, measured by real-time quantitative PCR or flow cytometry, predicts prognosis in childhood B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia. We explored whether cells reported as minimal residual disease by flow cytometry represent the malignant clone harboring...... clone-specific genomic markers (53 follow-up bone marrow samples from 28 children with B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia). Cell populations (presumed leukemic and non-leukemic) were flow-sorted during standard flow cytometry-based minimal residual disease monitoring and explored by PCR and....../or fluorescence in situ hybridization. We found good concordance between flow cytometry and genomic analyses in the individual flow-sorted leukemic (93% true positive) and normal (93% true negative) cell populations. Four cases with discrepant results had plausible explanations (e.g. partly informative...

  14. Flow-through electroporation based on constant voltage for large-volume transfection of cells.

    Geng, Tao; Zhan, Yihong; Wang, Hsiang-Yu; Witting, Scott R; Cornetta, Kenneth G; Lu, Chang

    2010-05-21

    Genetic modification of cells is a critical step involved in many cell therapy and gene therapy protocols. In these applications, cell samples of large volume (10(8)-10(9)cells) are often processed for transfection. This poses new challenges for current transfection methods and practices. Here we present a novel flow-through electroporation method for delivery of genes into cells at high flow rates (up to approximately 20 mL/min) based on disposable microfluidic chips, a syringe pump, and a low-cost direct current (DC) power supply that provides a constant voltage. By eliminating pulse generators used in conventional electroporation, we dramatically lowered the cost of the apparatus and improved the stability and consistency of the electroporation field for long-time operation. We tested the delivery of pEFGP-C1 plasmids encoding enhanced green fluorescent protein into Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells in the devices of various dimensions and geometries. Cells were mixed with plasmids and then flowed through a fluidic channel continuously while a constant voltage was established across the device. Together with the applied voltage, the geometry and dimensions of the fluidic channel determined the electrical parameters of the electroporation. With the optimal design, approximately 75% of the viable CHO cells were transfected after the procedure. We also generalize the guidelines for scaling up these flow-through electroporation devices. We envision that this technique will serve as a generic and low-cost tool for a variety of clinical applications requiring large volume of transfected cells. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Measurement of sound propagation in glass wool

    Tarnow, Viggo

    1995-01-01

    A new acoustic method for directly measuring the flow resistance, and the compressibility of fibrous materials such as glass wool, is given. Measured results for monochromatic sound in glass wool are presented and compared with theoretically calculated results. The agreement between experimental...

  16. Rheological properties of potassium barium borate glasses

    Szwejda, K.A.; Vogel, D.L.; Stevels, J.M.

    1973-01-01

    Several series of potassium barium borate glasses have been investigated as to their rheological properties. It has been found, that all these glasses show deviations from ‘Newtonian’ behaviour below temperatures corresponding to viscosities of 1010 poises. The activation energies of viscous flow

  17. Dynamic measurements of flowing cells labeled by gold nanoparticles using full-field photothermal interferometric imaging

    Turko, Nir A.; Roitshtain, Darina; Blum, Omry; Kemper, Björn; Shaked, Natan T.

    2017-06-01

    We present highly dynamic photothermal interferometric phase microscopy for quantitative, selective contrast imaging of live cells during flow. Gold nanoparticles can be biofunctionalized to bind to specific cells, and stimulated for local temperature increase due to plasmon resonance, causing a rapid change of the optical phase. These phase changes can be recorded by interferometric phase microscopy and analyzed to form an image of the binding sites of the nanoparticles in the cells, gaining molecular specificity. Since the nanoparticle excitation frequency might overlap with the sample dynamics frequencies, photothermal phase imaging was performed on stationary or slowly dynamic samples. Furthermore, the computational analysis of the photothermal signals is time consuming. This makes photothermal imaging unsuitable for applications requiring dynamic imaging or real-time analysis, such as analyzing and sorting cells during fast flow. To overcome these drawbacks, we utilized an external interferometric module and developed new algorithms, based on discrete Fourier transform variants, enabling fast analysis of photothermal signals in highly dynamic live cells. Due to the self-interference module, the cells are imaged with and without excitation in video-rate, effectively increasing signal-to-noise ratio. Our approach holds potential for using photothermal cell imaging and depletion in flow cytometry.

  18. Isolation of circulating tumor cells using photoacoustic flowmetry and two phase flow

    O'Brien, Christine M.; Rood, Kyle D.; Gupta, Sagar K.; Mosley, Jeffrey D.; Goldschmidt, Benjamin S.; Sharma, Nikhilesh; Sengupta, Shramik; Viator, John A.

    2011-03-01

    Melanoma is the deadliest form of skin cancer, yet current diagnostic methods are inadequately sensitive. Patients must wait until secondary tumors form before malignancy can be diagnosed and treatment prescribed. Detection of cells that have broken off the original tumor and flow through the blood or lymph system can provide data for diagnosing and monitoring cancer. Our group utilizes the photoacoustic effect to detect metastatic melanoma cells, which contain the pigmented granule melanin. As a rapid laser pulse irradiates melanoma, the melanin undergoes thermo-elastic expansion and ultimately creates a photoacoustic wave. Thus, melanoma patient's blood samples can be enriched, leaving the melanoma in a white blood cell (WBC) suspension. Irradiated melanoma cells produce photoacoustic waves, which are detected with a piezoelectric transducer, while the optically transparent WBCs create no signals. Here we report an isolation scheme utilizing two-phase flow to separate detected melanoma from the suspension. By introducing two immiscible fluids through a t-junction into one flow path, the analytes are compartmentalized. Therefore, the slug in which the melanoma cell is located can be identified and extracted from the system. Two-phase immiscible flow is a label free technique, and could be used for other types of pathological analytes.

  19. Influence of cathode flow pulsation on performance of proton exchange membrane fuel cell with interdigitated gas distributors

    Ramiar, A.; Mahmoudi, A.H.; Esmaili, Q.; Abdollahzadeh, M.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a numerical study is conducted in order to investigate the effect of pulsation of air flow at the cathode side of Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell with interdigitated flow field. A two dimensional, isothermal, two-phase, unsteady multi-component transport model is used in order to simulate the transport phenomena. The obtained results are discussed in terms of the influence of flow pulsation on water management and cell performance. The results prove the effectiveness of flow pulsation on improving water removal from cell, enhancing reactants transports to the reaction sites, and increasing the cell performance expressed by increment in the cell limiting current density and maximum output power. The effects of pulsation frequency (f), amplitude (Amp), and mean inlet pressure (P_i_n) on the performance and the output power of the cell, are also investigated. The performance of the cell has no dependency on the frequency range considered in this study. However, as the pulsation amplitude increases the increment in the cell performance is more obvious. Moreover, applying flow pulsation at low flow rates leads to higher efficiency in water removal and performance enhancement. - Highlights: • Mechanism of water and oxygen transport under flow pulsation are discussed. • Pulsating cathode flow increases the limiting current density and output power. • The performance of cell has no significant dependency on pulsation frequency. • The performance and output power increase with the pulsation amplitude. • Using pulsating flow at lower average pressures leads to higher water removal rate.

  20. Influence of nanostructural environment and fluid flow on osteoblast-like cell behavior: a model for cell-mechanics studies.

    Prodanov, L; Semeins, C M; van Loon, J J W A; te Riet, J; Jansen, J A; Klein-Nulend, J; Walboomers, X F

    2013-05-01

    Introducing nanoroughness on various biomaterials has been shown to profoundly effect cell-material interactions. Similarly, physical forces act on a diverse array of cells and tissues. Particularly in bone, the tissue experiences compressive or tensile forces resulting in fluid shear stress. The current study aimed to develop an experimental setup for bone cell behavior, combining a nanometrically grooved substrate (200 nm wide, 50 nm deep) mimicking the collagen fibrils of the extracellular matrix, with mechanical stimulation by pulsatile fluid flow (PFF). MC3T3-E1 osteoblast-like cells were assessed for morphology, expression of genes involved in cell attachment and osteoblastogenesis and nitric oxide (NO) release. The results showed that both nanotexture and PFF did affect cellular morphology. Cells aligned on nanotexture substrate in a direction parallel to the groove orientation. PFF at a magnitude of 0.7 Pa was sufficient to induce alignment of cells on a smooth surface in a direction perpendicular to the applied flow. When environmental cues texture and flow were interacting, PFF of 1.4 Pa applied parallel to the nanogrooves initiated significant cellular realignment. PFF increased NO synthesis 15-fold in cells attached to both smooth and nanotextured substrates. Increased collagen and alkaline phosphatase mRNA expression was observed on the nanotextured substrate, but not on the smooth substrate. Furthermore, vinculin and bone sialoprotein were up-regulated after 1 h of PFF stimulation. In conclusion, the data show that interstitial fluid forces and structural cues mimicking extracellular matrix contribute to the final bone cell morphology and behavior, which might have potential application in tissue engineering. Copyright © 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A study of light scattering of mononuclear blood cells with scanning flow cytometry

    Zharinov, Alexey; Tarasov, Peter; Shvalov, Alexander; Semyanov, Konstantin; Bockstaele, Dirk R. van; Maltsev, Valeri

    2006-01-01

    This study describes the measurement of light scattering of human mononuclear blood cells, the development of an appropriate optical model for those cells, and solution of the inverse light-scattering problem. The angular dependency of light-scattering intensity of mononuclear blood cells was experimentally measured by means of scanning flow cytometry. A sphere consisting of several concentric homogeneous layers with different refractive indices was tested as an optical model for mononuclear blood cells. A five-layer model has given the best agreement between experimental and theoretical light-scattering profiles. The inverse light-scattering problem was solved for a five-layer model with an optimization procedure that allows one to retrieve cell parameters: cell size relates to the outer diameter of the fifth layer; size of the nucleus relates to the outer diameter of the third layer. Mean values of cell size, nuclear size, refractive indices of nucleus and cellular cytoplasm were determined for blood monocytes and lymphocytes

  2. Study of Paclitaxel-Treated HeLa Cells by Differential Electrical Impedance Flow Cytometry

    Julie Kirkegaard

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the electrical investigation of paclitaxel-treated HeLa cells using a custom-made microfluidic biosensor for whole cell analysis in continuous flow. We apply the method of differential electrical impedance spectroscopy to treated HeLa cells in order to elucidate the changes in electrical properties compared with non-treated cells. We found that our microfluidic system was able to distinguish between treated and non-treated cells. Furthermore, we utilize a model for electrical impedance spectroscopy in order to perform a theoretical study to clarify our results. This study focuses on investigating the changes in the electrical properties of the cell membrane caused by the effect of paclitaxel. We observe good agreement between the model and the obtained results. This establishes the proof-of-concept for the application in cell drug therapy.

  3. Measurement of separase proteolytic activity in single living cells by a fluorogenic flow cytometry assay.

    Wiltrud Haaß

    Full Text Available ESPL1/Separase, an endopeptidase, is required for centrosome duplication and separation of sister-chromatides in anaphase of mitosis. Overexpression and deregulated proteolytic activity of Separase as frequently observed in human cancers is associated with the occurrence of supernumerary centrosomes, chromosomal missegregation and aneuploidy. Recently, we have hypothesized that increased Separase proteolytic activity in a small subpopulation of tumor cells may serve as driver of tumor heterogeneity and clonal evolution in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML. Currently, there is no quantitative assay to measure Separase activity levels in single cells. Therefore, we have designed a flow cytometry-based assay that utilizes a Cy5- and rhodamine 110 (Rh110-biconjugated Rad21 cleavage site peptide ([Cy5-D-R-E-I-M-R]2-Rh110 as smart probe and intracellular substrate for detection of Separase enzyme activity in living cells. As measured by Cy5 fluorescence the cellular uptake of the fluorogenic peptide was fast and reached saturation after 210 min of incubation in human histiocytic lymphoma U937 cells. Separase activity was recorded as the intensity of Rh110 fluorescence released after intracellular peptide cleavage providing a linear signal gain within a 90-180 min time slot. Compared to conventional cell extract-based methods the flow cytometric assay delivers equivalent results but is more reliable, bypasses the problem of vague loading controls and unspecific proteolysis associated with whole cell extracts. Especially suited for the investigaton of blood- and bone marrow-derived hematopoietic cells the flow cytometric Separase assay allows generation of Separase activity profiles that tell about the number of Separase positive cells within a sample i.e. cells that currently progress through mitosis and about the range of intercellular variation in Separase activity levels within a cell population. The assay was used to quantify Separase proteolytic

  4. Bioactive and biocompatible copper containing glass-ceramics with remarkable antibacterial properties and high cell viability designed for future in vivo trials.

    Popescu, R A; Magyari, K; Vulpoi, A; Trandafir, D L; Licarete, E; Todea, M; Ştefan, R; Voica, C; Vodnar, D C; Simon, S; Papuc, I; Baia, L

    2016-07-19

    In the present study our interest is focused on finding the efficiency of 60SiO2·(32 - x)CaO·8P2O5·xCuO (mol%) glass-ceramics, with 0 ≤ x ≤ 4 mol%, in terms of bioactivity, biocompatibility, antibacterial properties and cell viability in order to determine the most appropriate composition for their further use in in vivo trials. The sol-gel synthesized samples show a preponderantly amorphous structure with a few crystallization centers associated with the formation of an apatite and calcium carbonate crystalline phases. The Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectra revealed slightly modified absorption bands due to the addition of copper oxide, while the information derived from the measurements performed by transmission electron microscopy, UV-vis and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy showed the presence of ions and metallic copper species. X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopic analysis indicated the presence of copper metallic species, in a reduced amount, only on the sample surface with the highest Cu content. Regarding in vitro assessment of bioactivity, the results obtained by X-ray diffraction, FT-IR spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy, demonstrated the formation of a calcium phosphate layer on all investigated sample surfaces. The inhibitory effect of the investigated samples was more significant on the Pseudomonas aeruginosa than the Staphylococcus aureus strain, the sample with the lowest concentration of copper oxide (0.5 mol%) being also the most efficient in both bacterial cultures. This sample also exhibits a very good bactericidal activity, for the other samples it was necessary to use a higher quantity to inhibit and kill the bacterial species. The secondary structure of adsorbed albumin presents few minor changes, indicating the biocompatibility of the glass-ceramics. The cell viability assay shows a good proliferation rate on samples with 0.5 and 1.5 mol% CuO, although all glass-ceramic samples exhibited a good in vivo

  5. Evaluation of the effect of reactant gases mass flow rates on power density in a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell

    Kahveci, E. E.; Taymaz, I.

    2018-03-01

    In this study it was experimentally investigated the effect of mass flow rates of reactant gases which is one of the most important operational parameters of polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell on power density. The channel type is serpentine and single PEM fuel cell has an active area of 25 cm2. Design-Expert 8.0 (trial version) was used with four variables to investigate the effect of variables on the response using. Cell temperature, hydrogen mass flow rate, oxygen mass flow rate and humidification temperature were selected as independent variables. In addition, the power density was used as response to determine the combined effects of these variables. It was kept constant cell and humidification temperatures while changing mass flow rates of reactant gases. From the results an increase occurred in power density with increasing the hydrogen flow rates. But oxygen flow rate does not have a significant effect on power density within determined mass flow rates.

  6. Measuring cell cycle progression kinetics with metabolic labeling and flow cytometry.

    Fleisig, Helen; Wong, Judy

    2012-05-22

    Precise control of the initiation and subsequent progression through the various phases of the cell cycle are of paramount importance in proliferating cells. Cell cycle division is an integral part of growth and reproduction and deregulation of key cell cycle components have been implicated in the precipitating events of carcinogenesis. Molecular agents in anti-cancer therapies frequently target biological pathways responsible for the regulation and coordination of cell cycle division. Although cell cycle kinetics tend to vary according to cell type, the distribution of cells amongst the four stages of the cell cycle is rather consistent within a particular cell line due to the consistent pattern of mitogen and growth factor expression. Genotoxic events and other cellular stressors can result in a temporary block of cell cycle progression, resulting in arrest or a temporary pause in a particular cell cycle phase to allow for instigation of the appropriate response mechanism. The ability to experimentally observe the behavior of a cell population with reference to their cell cycle progression stage is an important advance in cell biology. Common procedures such as mitotic shake off, differential centrifugation or flow cytometry-based sorting are used to isolate cells at specific stages of the cell cycle. These fractionated, cell cycle phase-enriched populations are then subjected to experimental treatments. Yield, purity and viability of the separated fractions can often be compromised using these physical separation methods. As well, the time lapse between separation of the cell populations and the start of experimental treatment, whereby the fractionated cells can progress from the selected cell cycle stage, can pose significant challenges in the successful implementation and interpretation of these experiments. Other approaches to study cell cycle stages include the use of chemicals to synchronize cells. Treatment of cells with chemical inhibitors of key

  7. Structures, Compositions, and Activities of Live Shewanella Biofilms Formed on Graphite Electrodes in Electrochemical Flow Cells.

    Kitayama, Miho; Koga, Ryota; Kasai, Takuya; Kouzuma, Atsushi; Watanabe, Kazuya

    2017-09-01

    An electrochemical flow cell equipped with a graphite working electrode (WE) at the bottom was inoculated with Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 expressing an anaerobic fluorescent protein, and biofilm formation on the WE was observed over time during current generation at WE potentials of +0.4 and 0 V (versus standard hydrogen electrodes), under electrolyte-flow conditions. Electrochemical analyses suggested the presence of unique electron-transfer mechanisms in the +0.4-V biofilm. Microscopic analyses revealed that, in contrast to aerobic biofilms, current-generating biofilm (at +0.4 V) was thin and flat (∼10 μm in thickness), and cells were evenly and densely distributed in the biofilm. In contrast, cells were unevenly distributed in biofilm formed at 0 V. In situ fluorescence staining and biofilm recovery experiments showed that the amounts of extracellular polysaccharides (EPSs) in the +0.4-V biofilm were much smaller than those in the aerobic and 0-V biofilms, suggesting that Shewanella cells suppress the production of EPSs at +0.4 V under flow conditions. We suggest that Shewanella cells perceive electrode potentials and modulate the structure and composition of biofilms to efficiently transfer electrons to electrodes. IMPORTANCE A promising application of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) is to save energy in wastewater treatment. Since current is generated in these MFCs by biofilm microbes under horizontal flows of wastewater, it is important to understand the mechanisms for biofilm formation and current generation under water-flow conditions. Although massive work has been done to analyze the molecular mechanisms for current generation by model exoelectrogenic bacteria, such as Shewanella oneidensis , limited information is available regarding the formation of current-generating biofilms over time under water-flow conditions. The present study developed electrochemical flow cells and used them to examine the electrochemical and structural features of current

  8. Mass transport aspects of polymer electrolyte fuel cells under two-phase flow conditions

    Kramer, D.

    2007-03-15

    This well-illustrated, comprehensive dissertation by Dr. Ing. Denis Kramer takes an in-depth look at polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFC) and the possibilities for their application. First of all, the operating principles of polymer electrolyte fuel cells are described and discussed, whereby thermodynamics aspects and loss mechanisms are examined. The mass transport diagnostics made with respect to the function of the cells are discussed. Field flow geometry, gas diffusion layers and, amongst other things, liquid distribution, the influence of flow direction and the low-frequency behaviour of air-fed PEFCs are discussed. Direct methanol fuel cells are examined, as are the materials chosen. The documentation includes comprehensive mathematical and graphical representations of the mechanisms involved.

  9. An assessment of the energetic flows in a commercial PEM fuel-cell system

    Jovan, Vladimir; Perne, Matija; Petrovcic, Janko

    2010-01-01

    Some primary issues have not yet been fully investigated on the way towards the commercialization of fuel-cell-based systems (FCS), e.g., their actual efficiency, reliability, safety, degradation, maintainability, etc. This article deals with an estimation of the real energetic flows and the corresponding electrical efficiency of a commercial proton-exchange-membrane fuel-cell hydrogen-fed generator set (PEMFCS). The fuel-cell power system considered here is planned to be the source of both electrical and thermal energy in a mobile dwelling container unit with in-built fuel-cell-based cogeneration system, and for the design of a cogeneration unit the actual amount of disposable energy from the PEMFC unit should be estimated. The assessment of the actual energetic flows, the disposable energy and the consequent electrical efficiency of the case-study PEMFCS is carried out using commercial technical data for the PEMFCS.

  10. The wall traction induced by flowing red blood cells in model microvessels and its potential mechanotransduction

    Freund, Jonathan; Vermot, Julien

    2013-11-01

    There is evidence in early embryonic development, even well before advective oxygen transport is important, that the presence of red bloods cells per se trigger essential steps of normal vascular development. For example, showed that sequestration of blood cells early in the development of a mouse, such that the hematocrit is reduced, suppresses normal vascular network development. Vascular development also provides a model for remodeling and angiogenesis. We consider the transient stresses associated with blood cells flowing in model microvessels of comparable diameter to those at early stages of development (6 μm to 12 μm). A detailed simulation tool is used to show that passing blood cells present a significant fluctuating traction signature on the vessel wall, well above the mean stresses. This is particularly pronounced for slow flows (layer is also considered. NSF supported.

  11. Numerical investigation of flow field configuration and contact resistance for PEM fuel cell performance

    Akbari, Mohammad Hadi; Rismanchi, Behzad [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71348-51154 (Iran)

    2008-08-15

    A steady-state three-dimensional non-isothermal computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell is presented. Conservation of mass, momentum, species, energy, and charge, as well as electrochemical kinetics are considered. In this model, the effect of interfacial contact resistance is also included. The numerical solution is based on a finite-volume method. In this study the effects of flow channel dimensions on the cell performance are investigated. Simulation results indicate that increasing the channel width will improve the limiting current density. However, it is observed that an optimum shoulder size of the flow channels exists for which the cell performance is the highest. Polarization curves are obtained for different operating conditions which, in general, compare favorably with the corresponding experimental data. Such a CFD model can be used as a tool in the development and optimization of PEM fuel cells. (author)

  12. Flow cytometric techniques for detection of candidate cancer stem cell subpopulations in canine tumour models.

    Blacking, T M; Waterfall, M; Samuel, K; Argyle, D J

    2012-12-01

    The cancer stem cell (CSC) hypothesis proposes that tumour growth is maintained by a distinct subpopulation of 'CSC'. This study applied flow cytometric methods, reported to detect CSC in both primary and cultured cancer cells of other species, to identify candidate canine subpopulations. Cell lines representing diverse canine malignancies, and cells derived from spontaneous canine tumours, were evaluated for expression of stem cell-associated surface markers (CD34, CD44, CD117 and CD133) and functional properties [Hoecsht 33342 efflux, aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity]. No discrete marker-defined subsets were identified within established cell lines; cells derived directly from spontaneous tumours demonstrated more heterogeneity, although this diminished upon in vitro culture. Functional assays produced variable results, suggesting context-dependency. Flow cytometric methods may be adopted to identify putative canine CSC. Whilst cell lines are valuable in assay development, primary cells may provide a more rewarding model for studying tumour heterogeneity in the context of CSC. However, it will be essential to fully characterize any candidate subpopulations to ensure that they meet CSC criteria. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Numerical Analysis of Hydrodynamic Flow in Microfluidic Biochip for Single-Cell Trapping Application

    Amelia Ahmad Khalili

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Single-cell analysis has become the interest of a wide range of biological and biomedical engineering research. It could provide precise information on individual cells, leading to important knowledge regarding human diseases. To perform single-cell analysis, it is crucial to isolate the individual cells before further manipulation is carried out. Recently, microfluidic biochips have been widely used for cell trapping and single cell analysis, such as mechanical and electrical detection. This work focuses on developing a finite element simulation model of single-cell trapping system for any types of cells or particles based on the hydrodynamic flow resistance (Rh manipulations in the main channel and trap channel to achieve successful trapping. Analysis is carried out using finite element ABAQUS-FEA™ software. A guideline to design and optimize single-cell trapping model is proposed and the example of a thorough optimization analysis is carried out using a yeast cell model. The results show the finite element model is able to trap a single cell inside the fluidic environment. Fluid’s velocity profile and streamline plots for successful and unsuccessful single yeast cell trapping are presented according to the hydrodynamic concept. The single-cell trapping model can be a significant important guideline in designing a new chip for biomedical applications.

  14. Nitrate glass

    Kirilenko, I.A.; Vinogradov, E.E.

    1977-01-01

    Experimental evidence on behaviour of nitrate glasses is reviewed in terms of relationships between the presence of water in vitrescent nitrate systems and the properties of the systems. The glasses considered belong to systems of Mg(NO 3 ) 2 - Nd(NO 3 ) 3 ; Hg(NO 3 ) 2 -Nd(NO 3 ) 3 ; NaNO 3 -Mg(NO 3 ) 2 -Nd(NO 3 ) 3 ; M-Zn(NO 3 ) 3 , where M is a mixture of 20% mass NaNO 3 and 80% mass Mg(NO 3 ) 2 , and Zn is a rare earth ion. Nitrate glass is shown to be a product of dehydration. Vitrification may be regarded as a resusl of formation of molecular complexes in the chain due to hydrogen bonds of two types, i.e. water-water, or water-nicrate group. Chain formation, along with low melting points of the nitrates, hinder crystallization of nitrate melts. Provided there is enough water, this results in vitrification

  15. Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) flow field plate: design, materials and characterisation

    Hamilton, P.J.; Pollet, B.G. [PEM Fuel Cell Research Group, School of Chemical Engineering, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, B15 2TT (United Kingdom)

    2010-08-15

    This review describes some recent developments in the area of flow field plates (FFPs) for proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). The function, parameters and design of FFPs in PEM fuel cells are outlined and considered in light of their performance. FFP materials and manufacturing methods are discussed and current in situ and ex situ characterisation techniques are described. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  16. A segmented cell approach for studying the effects of serpentine flow field parameters on PEMFC current distribution

    Reshetenko, Tatyana V.; Bender, Guido; Bethune, Keith; Rocheleau, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Effects of a flow field design on PEMFC were investigated. ► A segmented cell was used to study 6- and 10-channel serpentine flow fields. ► 10-Channel flow field improved a fuel cell's performance at high current. ► Performance distribution was more uniform for 10-channel than for 6-channel flow field. ► The performance improvement was due to an increased pressure drop. -- Abstract: A serpentine flow field is a commonly used design in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). Consequently, optimization of the flow field parameters is critically needed. A segmented cell system was used to study the impact of the flow field's parameters on the current distribution in a PEMFC, and the data obtained were analyzed in terms of voltage overpotentials. 6-Channel and 10-channel serpentine flow field designs were investigated. At low current the segments performance was found to slightly decrease for a 10-channel serpentine flow field. However, increasing the number of channels increased the fuel cell performance when operating at high current and the cell performance became more uniform downstream. The observed improvement in fuel cell performance was attributed to a decrease in mass transfer voltage losses (permeability and diffusion), due to an increased pressure drop. Spatially distributed electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) data showed differences in the local segment impedance response and confirmed the performance distribution and the impact of the flow field design

  17. Preparation, structural characterization, and in vitro cell studies of three-dimensional SiO2-CaO binary glass scaffolds built ofultra-small nanofibers.

    Luo, Honglin; Li, Wei; Ao, Haiyong; Li, Gen; Tu, Junpin; Xiong, Guangyao; Zhu, Yong; Wan, Yizao

    2017-07-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) nanofibrous scaffolds hold great promises in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. In this work, for the first time, 3D SiO 2 -CaO binary glass nanofibrous scaffolds have been fabricated via a combined method of template-assisted sol-gel and calcination by using bacterial cellulose as the template. SEM with EDS, TEM, and AFM confirm that the molar ratio of Ca to Si and fiber diameter of the resultant SiO 2 -CaO nanofibers can be controlled by immersion time in the solution of tetraethyl orthosilicate and ethanol. The optimal immersion time was 6h which produced the SiO 2 -CaO binary glass containing 60at.% Si and 40at.% Ca (named 60S40C). The fiber diameter of 60S40C scaffold is as small as 29nm. In addition, the scaffold has highly porous 3D nanostructure with dominant mesopores at 10.6nm and macropores at 20μm as well as a large BET surface area (240.9m 2 g -1 ), which endow the 60S40C scaffold excellent biocompatibility and high ALP activity as revealed by cell studies using osteoblast cells. These results suggest that the 60S40C scaffold has great potential in bone tissue regeneration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Ligament flow during drop-on-demand inkjet printing of bioink containing living cells

    Zhang, Mengyun; Krishnamoorthy, Srikumar; Song, Hongtao; Zhang, Zhengyi; Xu, Changxue

    2017-03-01

    Organ printing utilizes tissue spheroids or filaments as building blocks to fabricate three-dimensional (3D) functional tissues and organs based on a layer-by-layer manufacturing mechanism. These fabricated tissues and organs are envisioned as alternatives to replace the damaged human tissues and organs, which is emerging as a promising solution to solve the organ donor shortage problem being faced all over the world. Inkjetting, one of the key technologies in organ printing, has been widely developed because of its moderate fabrication cost, good process controllability, and scale-up potentials. There are several key steps towards inkjet-based organ printing: generation of droplets from bioink, fabrication of 3D cellular structures, and post-printing tissue fusion and maturation. The droplet formation process is the first step, affecting the overall feasibility of the envisioned organ printing technology. This paper focuses on the ligament flow of the droplet formation process during inkjet printing of bioink containing living cells and its corresponding effect on post-printing cell viability and cell distribution. It is found that (1) two types of ligament flow are observed: at 30 V (Type I), the ligament flow has two different directions at the locations near the nozzle orifice and the forming droplet; at 60 V (Type II), the ligament flow directions are the same at both locations; (2) compared to Type II, fewer cells are ejected into the primary droplets in Type I, because some cells move back into the nozzle driven by the ligament flow in the positive z direction; and (3) cell viability in both Type I and Type II is around 90% without a significant difference. The resulting knowledge will benefit precise control of printing dynamics during inkjet printing of viscoelastic bioink for 3D biofabrication applications.

  19. Microgravity and bone cell mechanosensitivity: FLOW experiment during the DELTA mission

    Bacabac, Rommel G.; Van Loon, Jack J. W. A.; de Blieck-Hogervorst, Jolanda M. A.; Semeins, Cor M.; Zandieh-Doulabi, Behrouz; Helder, Marco N.; Smit, Theo H.; Klein-Nulend, Jenneke

    2007-09-01

    The catabolic effects of microgravity on mineral metabolism in bone organ cultures might be explained as resulting from an exceptional form of disuse. It is possible that the mechanosensitivity of bone cells is altered under near weightlessness conditions, which likely contributes to disturbed bone metabolism observed in astronauts. In the experiment "FLOW", we tested whether the production of early signaling molecules that are involved in the mechanical load-induced osteogenic response by bone cells is changed under microgravity conditions. FLOW was one of the Biological experiment entries to the Dutch Soyuz Mission "DELTA" (Dutch Expedition for Life Science, Technology and Atmospheric Research). FLOW was flown by the Soyuz craft, launched on April 19, 2004, on its way to the International Space Station. Primary osteocytes, osteoblasts, and periosteal fibroblasts were incubated in plunger boxes, developed by Centre for Concepts in Mechatronics, using plunger activation events for single pulse fluid shear stress stimulations. Due to unforeseen hardware complications, results from in-flight cultures are considered lost. Ground control experiments showed an accumulative increase of NO in medium for osteocytes (as well as for osteoblasts and periosteal fibroblasts). Data from the online-NO sensor showed that the NO produced in medium by osteocytes increased sharply after pulse shear stress stimulations. COX-2 mRNA expression revealed high levels in osteoblasts compared to the other cell types tested. In conclusion, preparations for the FLOW experiment and preliminary ground results indicate that the FLOW setup is viable for a future flight opportunity.

  20. Quantitative assessment of limb blood flow using Tc-99m labeled red blood cells

    Itoh, Kazuo; Shougase, Takashi; Kawamura, Naoyuki; Tsukamoto, Eriko; Nakada, Kunihiro; Sakuma, Makoto; Furudate, Masayori

    1987-01-01

    A quantitative assessment of limb blood flow using a non-diffusible radioindicator, Tc-99m labeled red blood cells, was reported. This was an application of venous occlusion plethysmography using radionuclide which was originally proposed by M. Fukuoka et al. The peripheral blood flow (mean ± s.e.) of 30 legs in a normal control group was 1.87 ± 0.08 ml/100 ml/min. In heart diseases (46 legs), it was 1.49 ± 0.13 ml/100 ml/min. The limb blood flow between a control group and heart diseases was statistically significant (p < 0.01) in the t-test. The peripheral blood flow at rest between diseased legs and normal legs in occlusive arterial disorders was also statistically significant (p < 0.01) in a paired t-test. RAVOP was done after the completion of objective studies such as radionuclide angiography or ventriculography. Technique and calculation of a blood flow were very easy and simple. RAVOP study which was originally proposed by Fukuoka et al. was reappraised to be hopeful for quantitative measurement of limb blood flow as a non-invasive technique using Tc-99m labeled red blood cells. (author)

  1. Opto-fluidics based microscopy and flow cytometry on a cell phone for blood analysis.

    Zhu, Hongying; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2015-01-01

    Blood analysis is one of the most important clinical tests for medical diagnosis. Flow cytometry and optical microscopy are widely used techniques to perform blood analysis and therefore cost-effective translation of these technologies to resource limited settings is critical for various global health as well as telemedicine applications. In this chapter, we review our recent progress on the integration of imaging flow cytometry and fluorescent microscopy on a cell phone using compact, light-weight and cost-effective opto-fluidic attachments integrated onto the camera module of a smartphone. In our cell-phone based opto-fluidic imaging cytometry design, fluorescently labeled cells are delivered into the imaging area using a disposable micro-fluidic chip that is positioned above the existing camera unit of the cell phone. Battery powered light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are butt-coupled to the sides of this micro-fluidic chip without any lenses, which effectively acts as a multimode slab waveguide, where the excitation light is guided to excite the fluorescent targets within the micro-fluidic chip. Since the excitation light propagates perpendicular to the detection path, an inexpensive plastic absorption filter is able to reject most of the scattered light and create a decent dark-field background for fluorescent imaging. With this excitation geometry, the cell-phone camera can record fluorescent movies of the particles/cells as they are flowing through the microchannel. The digital frames of these fluorescent movies are then rapidly processed to quantify the count and the density of the labeled particles/cells within the solution under test. With a similar opto-fluidic design, we have recently demonstrated imaging and automated counting of stationary blood cells (e.g., labeled white blood cells or unlabeled red blood cells) loaded within a disposable cell counting chamber. We tested the performance of this cell-phone based imaging cytometry and blood analysis platform

  2. Bioactive Glass-Ceramic Foam Scaffolds from ‘Inorganic Gel Casting’ and Sinter-Crystallization

    Molino, Giulia; Vitale Brovarone, Chiara

    2018-01-01

    Highly porous bioactive glass-ceramic scaffolds were effectively fabricated by an inorganic gel casting technique, based on alkali activation and gelification, followed by viscous flow sintering. Glass powders, already known to yield a bioactive sintered glass-ceramic (CEL2) were dispersed in an alkaline solution, with partial dissolution of glass powders. The obtained glass suspensions underwent progressive hardening, by curing at low temperature (40 °C), owing to the formation of a C–S–H (calcium silicate hydrate) gel. As successful direct foaming was achieved by vigorous mechanical stirring of gelified suspensions, comprising also a surfactant. The developed cellular structures were later heat-treated at 900–1000 °C, to form CEL2 glass-ceramic foams, featuring an abundant total porosity (from 60% to 80%) and well-interconnected macro- and micro-sized cells. The developed foams possessed a compressive strength from 2.5 to 5 MPa, which is in the range of human trabecular bone strength. Therefore, CEL2 glass-ceramics can be proposed for bone substitutions. PMID:29495498

  3. Bioactive Glass-Ceramic Foam Scaffolds from ‘Inorganic Gel Casting’ and Sinter-Crystallization

    Hamada Elsayed

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Highly porous bioactive glass-ceramic scaffolds were effectively fabricated by an inorganic gel casting technique, based on alkali activation and gelification, followed by viscous flow sintering. Glass powders, already known to yield a bioactive sintered glass-ceramic (CEL2 were dispersed in an alkaline solution, with partial dissolution of glass powders. The obtained glass suspensions underwent progressive hardening, by curing at low temperature (40 °C, owing to the formation of a C–S–H (calcium silicate hydrate gel. As successful direct foaming was achieved by vigorous mechanical stirring of gelified suspensions, comprising also a surfactant. The developed cellular structures were later heat-treated at 900–1000 °C, to form CEL2 glass-ceramic foams, featuring an abundant total porosity (from 60% to 80% and well-interconnected macro- and micro-sized cells. The developed foams possessed a compressive strength from 2.5 to 5 MPa, which is in the range of human trabecular bone strength. Therefore, CEL2 glass-ceramics can be proposed for bone substitutions.

  4. Applications of flow cytometry to toxicological mycotoxin effects in cultured mammalian cells: a review.

    Juan-García, Ana; Manyes, Lara; Ruiz, María-José; Font, Guillermina

    2013-06-01

    This review gives an overview of flow cytometry applications to toxicological studies of several physiological target sites of mycotoxins on different mammalian cell lines. Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of fungi that may be present in food, feed, air and water. The increasing presence of mycotoxins in crops, their wide distribution in the food chain, and their potential for toxicity demonstrate the need for further knowledge. Flow cytometry has become a valuable tool in mycotoxin studies in recent years for the rapid analysis of single cells in a mixture. In toxicology, the power of these methods lies in the possibility of determining a wide range of cell parameters, providing valuable information to elucidate cell growth and viability, metabolic activity, mitochondrial membrane potential and membrane integrity mechanisms. There are studies using flow cytometry technique on Alternaria, Aspergillus, Fusarium and Penicillium mycotoxins including information about cell type, assay conditions and functional parameters. Most of the studies collected in the literature are on deoxynivalenol and zearalenone mycotoxins. Cell cycle analysis and apoptosis are the processes more widely investigated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Novel quantitative autophagy analysis by organelle flow cytometry after cell sonication.

    Michael Degtyarev

    Full Text Available Autophagy is a dynamic process of bulk degradation of cellular proteins and organelles in lysosomes. Current methods of autophagy measurement include microscopy-based counting of autophagic vacuoles (AVs in cells. We have developed a novel method to quantitatively analyze individual AVs using flow cytometry. This method, OFACS (organelle flow after cell sonication, takes advantage of efficient cell disruption with a brief sonication, generating cell homogenates with fluorescently labeled AVs that retain their integrity as confirmed with light and electron microscopy analysis. These AVs could be detected directly in the sonicated cell homogenates on a flow cytometer as a distinct population of expected organelle size on a cytometry plot. Treatment of cells with inhibitors of autophagic flux, such as chloroquine or lysosomal protease inhibitors, increased the number of particles in this population under autophagy inducing conditions, while inhibition of autophagy induction with 3-methyladenine or knockdown of ATG proteins prevented this accumulation. This assay can be easily performed in a high-throughput format and opens up previously unexplored avenues for autophagy analysis.

  6. Modeling Bubble Flow and Current Density Distribution in an Alkaline Electrolysis Cell

    Ravichandra S. Jupudi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of bubbles on the current density distribution over the electrodes of an alkaline electrolyzer cell is studied using a two-dimensional computational fluid dynamics model. Model includes Eulerian-Eulerian two-phase flow methodology to model the multiphase flow of Hydrogen and Oxygen with water and the behavior of each phase is accounted for using first principle. Hydrogen/Oxygen evolution, flow field and current density distribution are incorporated in the model to account for the complicated physics involved in the process. Fluent 6.2 is used to solve two-phase flow and electrochemistry is incorporated using UDF (User Defined Function feature of Fluent. Model is validated with mesh refinement study and by comparison with experimental measurements. Model is found to replicate the effect of cell voltage and inter-electrode gap (distance between the electrodes on current density accurately. Further, model is found to capture the existence of optimum cell height. The validated model is expected to be a very useful tool in the design and optimization of alkaline electrolyzer cells.

  7. Design of flow-field patterns for proton exchange membrane fuel cell application

    Rosli, M.I.; Wan Ramli Wan Daud; Kamaruzzaman Sopian; Jaafar Sahari

    2006-01-01

    Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that produce electricity at high efficiency without combustion. Fuel cells are emerging as viable candidates as power sources in many applications, including road vehicles, small-scale power stations, and possibly even portable electronics. This paper addresses the design of flow-field patterns for proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). The PEMFC is a low-temperature fuel cell, in which a proton conductive polymer membrane is used as the electrolyte. In PEMFC, flow-field pattern is one important thing that effects the performance of PEMFC. This paper present three types of flow-field pattern that will be consider to be testing using CFD analysis and by experimental. The design look detail on to their shape and dimension to get the best pattern in term of more active electrode area compare to electrode area that will be used. Another advantage and disadvantage for these three type of flow-field patterns from literature also compared in this paper

  8. Low stoichiometry operation of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell employing the interdigitated flow field design

    Berning, Torsten; Odgaard, Madeleine; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2011-01-01

    Fuel cell operation on dry reactant gases under low stoichiometry conditions employing the interdigitated flow field is investigated using a multi-fluid model. It is assumed that the MEA contains a water uptake layer which facilitates water absorption to the membrane and hence prevents the anode...

  9. Flow channel shape optimum design for hydroformed metal bipolar plate in PEM fuel cell

    Peng, Linfa; Lai, Xinmin; Liu, Dong' an; Hu, Peng [State Key Laboratory of Mechanical System and Vibration, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Ni, Jun [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Applied Mechanics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2008-03-15

    Bipolar plate is one of the most important and costliest components of polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells. Micro-hydroforming is a promising process to reduce the manufacturing cost of PEM fuel cell bipolar plates made of metal sheets. As for hydroformed bipolar plates, the main defect is the rupture because of the thinning of metal sheet during the forming process. The flow channel section decides whether high quality hydroformed bipolar plates can be successively achieved or not. Meanwhile, it is also the key factor that is related with the reaction efficiency of the fuel cell stacks. In order to obtain the optimum flow channel section design prior the experimental campaign, some key geometric dimensions (channel depth, channel width, rib width and transition radius) of flow channel section, which are related with both reaction efficiency and formability, are extracted and parameterized as the design variables. By design of experiments (DOE) methods and an adoptive simulated annealing (ASA) optimization method, an optimization model of flow channel section design for hydroformed metal bipolar plate is proposed. Optimization results show that the optimum dimension values for channel depth, channel width, rib width and transition radius are 0.5, 1.0, 1. 6 and 0.5 mm, respectively with the highest reaction efficiency (79%) and the acceptable formability (1.0). Consequently, their use would lead to improved fuel cell efficiency for low cost hydroformed metal bipolar plates. (author)

  10. Evidence for P-Glycoprotein Involvement in Cell Volume Regulation Using Coulter Sizing in Flow Cytometry

    Jennifer Pasquier

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The regulation of cell volume is an essential function that is coupled to a variety of physiological processes such as receptor recycling, excitability and contraction, cell proliferation, migration, and programmed cell death. Under stress, cells undergo emergency swelling and respond to such a phenomenon with a regulatory volume decrease (RVD where they release cellular ions, and other osmolytes as well as a concomitant loss of water. The link between P-glycoprotein, a transmembrane transporter, and cell volume regulation is controversial, and changes in cells volume are measured using microscopy or electrophysiology. For instance, by using the patch-clamp method, our team demonstrated that chloride currents activated in the RVD were more intense and rapid in a breast cancer cell line overexpressing the P-glycoprotein (P-gp. The Cell Lab Quanta SC is a flow cytometry system that simultaneously measures electronic volume, side scatter and three fluorescent colors; altogether this provides unsurpassed population resolution and accurate cell counting. Therefore, here we propose a novel method to follow cellular volume. By using the Coulter-type channel of the cytometer Cell Lab Quanta SC MPL (multi-platform loading, we demonstrated a role for the P-gp during different osmotic treatments, but also a differential activity of the P-gp through the cell cycle. Altogether, our data strongly suggests a role of P-gp in cell volume regulation.

  11. Highly conductive composites for fuel cell flow field plates and bipolar plates

    Jang, Bor Z; Zhamu, Aruna; Song, Lulu

    2014-10-21

    This invention provides a fuel cell flow field plate or bipolar plate having flow channels on faces of the plate, comprising an electrically conductive polymer composite. The composite is composed of (A) at least 50% by weight of a conductive filler, comprising at least 5% by weight reinforcement fibers, expanded graphite platelets, graphitic nano-fibers, and/or carbon nano-tubes; (B) polymer matrix material at 1 to 49.9% by weight; and (C) a polymer binder at 0.1 to 10% by weight; wherein the sum of the conductive filler weight %, polymer matrix weight % and polymer binder weight % equals 100% and the bulk electrical conductivity of the flow field or bipolar plate is at least 100 S/cm. The invention also provides a continuous process for cost-effective mass production of the conductive composite-based flow field or bipolar plate.

  12. Phospho-specific flow cytometry identifies aberrant signaling in indolent B-cell lymphoma

    Blix Egil S

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge about signaling pathways in malignant cells may provide prognostic and diagnostic information in addition to identify potential molecular targets for therapy. B-cell receptor (BCR and co-receptor CD40 signaling is essential for normal B cells, and there is increasing evidence that signaling via BCR and CD40 plays an important role in the pathogenesis of B-cell lymphoma. The aim of this study was to investigate basal and induced signaling in lymphoma B cells and infiltrating T cells in single-cell suspensions of biopsies from small cell lymphocytic lymphoma/chronic lymphocytic leukemia (SLL/CLL and marginal zone lymphoma (MZL patients. Methods Samples from untreated SLL/CLL and MZL patients were examined for basal and activation induced signaling by phospho-specific flow cytometry. A panel of 9 stimulation conditions targeting B and T cells, including crosslinking of the B cell receptor (BCR, CD40 ligand and interleukins in combination with 12 matching phospho-protein readouts was used to study signaling. Results Malignant B cells from SLL/CLL patients had higher basal levels of phosphorylated (p-SFKs, p-PLCγ, p-ERK, p-p38, p-p65 (NF-κB, p-STAT5 and p-STAT6, compared to healthy donor B cells. In contrast, anti-BCR induced signaling was highly impaired in SLL/CLL and MZL B cells as determined by low p-SFK, p-SYK and p-PLCγ levels. Impaired anti-BCR-induced p-PLCγ was associated with reduced surface expression of IgM and CD79b. Similarly, CD40L-induced p-ERK and p-p38 were also significantly reduced in lymphoma B cells, whereas p-p65 (NF-κB was equal to that of normal B cells. In contrast, IL-2, IL-7 and IL-15 induced p-STAT5 in tumor-infiltrating T cells were not different from normal T cells. Conclusions BCR signaling and CD40L-induced p-p38 was suppressed in malignant B cells from SLL/CLL and MZL patients. Single-cell phospho-specific flow cytometry for detection of basal as well as activation

  13. An imaging flow cytometry method to assess ricin trafficking in A549 human lung epithelial cells.

    Jenner, Dominic; Chong, Damien; Walker, Nicola; Green, A Christopher

    2018-02-01

    The endocytosis and trafficking of ricin in mammalian cells is an important area of research for those producing ricin anti-toxins and other ricin therapeutics. Ricin trafficking is usually observed by fluorescence microscopy techniques. This gives good resolution and leads to a detailed understanding of the internal movement of ricin within cells. However, microscopy techniques are often hampered by complex analysis and quantification techniques, and the inability to look at ricin trafficking in large populations of cells. In these studies we have directly labelled ricin and assessed if its trafficking can be observed using Imaging Flow Cytometry (IFC) both to the cytoplasmic region of cells and specifically to the Golgi apparatus. Using IDEAS® data analysis software the specific fluorescence location of the ricin within the cells was analysed. Then, using cytoplasmic masking techniques to quantify the number of cells with endocytosed cytoplasmic ricin or cells with Golgi-associated ricin, kinetic endocytosis curves were generated. Here we present, to the authors' knowledge, the first example of using imaging flow cytometry for evaluating the subcellular transport of protein cargo, using the trafficking of ricin toxin in lung cells as a model. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The use of flow cytometry to examine calcium signalling by TRPV1 in mixed cell populations.

    Assas, Bakri M; Abdulaal, Wesam H; Wakid, Majed H; Zakai, Haytham A; Miyan, J; Pennock, J L

    2017-06-15

    Flow cytometric analysis of calcium mobilisation has been in use for many years in the study of specific receptor engagement or isolated cell:cell communication. However, calcium mobilisation/signaling is key to many cell functions including apoptosis, mobility and immune responses. Here we combine multiplex surface staining of whole spleen with Indo-1 AM to visualise calcium mobilisation and examine calcium signaling in a mixed immune cell culture over time. We demonstrate responses to a TRPV1 agonist in distinct cell subtypes without the need for cell separation. Multi parameter staining alongside Indo-1 AM to demonstrate calcium mobilization allows the study of real time calcium signaling in a complex environment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Flow cytometric determination of radiation-induced chromosome damage and its correlation with cell survival

    Welleweerd, J.; Wilder, M.E.; Carpenter, S.G.; Raju, M.R.

    1984-01-01

    Chinese hamster M3-1 cells were irradiated with several doses of x rays or α particles from 238 Pu. Propidium iodide-stained chromosome suspensions were prepared at different times after irradiation; cells were also assayed for survival. The DNA histograms of these chromosomes showed increased background counts with increased doses of radiation. This increase in background was cell-cycle dependent and was correlated with cell survival. The correlation between radiation-induced chromosome damage and cell survival was the same for X rays and α particles. Data are presented which indicate that flow cytometric analysis of chromosomes of irradiated cell populations can be a useful adjunct to classical cytogenic analysis of irradiation-induced chromosomal damage by virtue of its ability to express and measure chromosomal damage not seen by classical cytogenic methods

  16. Evaluation of cell proliferative activity after irradiation using immunohistochemical approach and flow cytometry

    Tamada, Takashi (Okayama Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1992-06-01

    To evaluate a proliferative activity of post-irradiated malignant cells, we studied the kinetics of HeLa cells using immunohistochemical approach and flow cytometry. HeLa cells were stained with two proliferation-associated monoclonal antibodies, Ki-67 and anti-DNA polymerase {alpha} antibody. Nucleoli of non-irradiated cells were granularly stained with Ki-67. After irradiation, only the center of nuclei was diffusely stained with Ki-67. One hundred forty-four hours after low-dose irradiation, the staining patterns became the same as the control. On the other hand, after high-dose irradiation, the center of nuclei was weakly stained. DNA polymerase {alpha} was diffusely labelled with nuclei of the control. It was located around the border of nuclei of low-dose irradiated cells like a ring. But after high-dose irradiation, it was granularly distributed in the periphery of nuclei. FITC conjugated Ki-67/PI two parameter analysis was done by a single laser flow cytometer. Twenty-four hours after irradiation, DNA-histograms showed the accumulation to G{sub 2}/M phase and the increase of DNA content of G{sub 2}/M cells, as exposure dose was increased. Two parameter analysis showed the increase of FITC uptake of G{sub 2}/M phase as dose increased. These changes of flow cytometry were remarkably observed after 24 hours' incubation. It was shown that the difference of Ki-67 antigen and DNA polymerase {alpha} appearance depended on the irradiation dose. These findings suggest that immunohistochemical staining with Ki-67 or anti-DNA polymerase {alpha} antibody and flow cytometry using Ki-67 are available to evaluate cell damages after irradiation. (author).

  17. Cerebral blood flow mapping using stable xenon-enhanced CT in sickle cell cerebrovascular disease

    Numaguchi, Y.; Robinson, A.E.; Carey, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    The cerebral blood flow (CBF) of 25 patients with sickle cell cerebrovascular disease (SCCVD) was examined using a xenon-CT flow mapping method. Brain CT and MR findings were correlated with those of the xenon-CT flow studies. CBF defects on xenon-CT correlated reasonably well with the areas of cortical infarctions on the MR images, but in 27% of the cases, flow defects were slightly larger than the areas of infarctions on the MR images. In deep watershed or basal ganglia infarctions, abnormal CBF was noted about the cerebral cortex near infarctions in 72% of the patients, regardless of infarction sizes on the MR images. However, decreased CBF was recognized in 4 of the 9 children whose MR images were virtually normal. Thus, the extent of flow depletion cannot be predicted accurately by MR imaging alone. Xenon-CT flow mapping proved a safe and reliable procedure for evaluation of the CBF of patients with SCCVD. Although this study is preliminary, it may have a potential in selecting patients for hypertransfusion therapy, as a noninvasive test and for following children with SCCVD during their therapy. Careful correlation of results of CBF with those of MR imaging or of CT is important for objective interpretations of flow mapping images. (orig.)

  18. Effect of flow on vascular endothelial cells grown in tissue culture on polytetrafluoroethylene grafts

    Sentissi, J.M.; Ramberg, K.; O'Donnell, T.F. Jr.; Connolly, R.J.; Callow, A.D.

    1986-01-01

    Vascular grafts lined with endothelial cells (EC) grown to confluence in culture before implantation may provide a thromboresistant flow surface. Growth of EC on and their adherence to currently available prosthetic materials under conditions of flow are two impediments remaining in the development of such a graft. To address these problems, 22 polytetrafluoroethylene grafts (PTFE) (5 cm by 4 mm inside diameter) were pretreated with collagen and fibronectin, seeded with 2 to 3 X 10(6) bovine aortic EC per graft, and placed in tissue culture (seeded grafts). Twenty-two grafts pretreated with collagen and fibronectin alone served as controls. After 2 weeks morphologic studies revealed that 20/22 seeded grafts were lined with a confluent endothelial layer. Indium 111-oxine was then used to label the EC-seeded grafts. After exposure to either low (25 ml/min) or high (200 ml/min) flow rates for 60 minutes in an in vitro circuit, examination of the luminal surface of the graft by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy revealed minimal loss of EC. These findings were corroborated by radionuclide scans that showed an insignificant loss of the EC-associated indium label during exposure to flow (7% low flow, 11% high flow). Pretreatment of PTFE grafts with collagen and fibronectin thus promotes both attachment and adherence of EC even under flow conditions

  19. Endothelial cell capture of heparin-binding growth factors under flow.

    Bing Zhao

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Circulation is an important delivery method for both natural and synthetic molecules, but microenvironment interactions, regulated by endothelial cells and critical to the molecule's fate, are difficult to interpret using traditional approaches. In this work, we analyzed and predicted growth factor capture under flow using computer modeling and a three-dimensional experimental approach that includes pertinent circulation characteristics such as pulsatile flow, competing binding interactions, and limited bioavailability. An understanding of the controlling features of this process was desired. The experimental module consisted of a bioreactor with synthetic endothelial-lined hollow fibers under flow. The physical design of the system was incorporated into the model parameters. The heparin-binding growth factor fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2 was used for both the experiments and simulations. Our computational model was composed of three parts: (1 media flow equations, (2 mass transport equations and (3 cell surface reaction equations. The model is based on the flow and reactions within a single hollow fiber and was scaled linearly by the total number of fibers for comparison with experimental results. Our model predicted, and experiments confirmed, that removal of heparan sulfate (HS from the system would result in a dramatic loss of binding by heparin-binding proteins, but not by proteins that do not bind heparin. The model further predicted a significant loss of bound protein at flow rates only slightly higher than average capillary flow rates, corroborated experimentally, suggesting that the probability of capture in a single pass at high flow rates is extremely low. Several other key parameters were investigated with the coupling between receptors and proteoglycans shown to have a critical impact on successful capture. The combined system offers opportunities to examine circulation capture in a straightforward quantitative manner that

  20. Motion of cells sedimenting on a solid surface in a laminar shear flow.

    Tissot, O; Pierres, A; Foa, C; Delaage, M; Bongrand, P

    1992-01-01

    Cell adhesion often occurs under dynamic conditions, as in flowing blood. A quantitative understanding of this process requires accurate knowledge of the topographical relationships between the cell membrane and potentially adhesive surfaces. This report describes an experimental study made on both the translational and rotational velocities of leukocytes sedimenting of a flat surface under laminar shear flow. The main conclusions are as follows: (a) Cells move close to the wall with constant velocity for several tens of seconds. (b) The numerical values of translational and rotational velocities are inconsistent with Goldman's model of a neutrally buoyant sphere in a laminar shear flow, unless a drag force corresponding to contact friction between cells and the chamber floor is added. The phenomenological friction coefficient was 7.4 millinewton.s/m. (c) Using a modified Goldman's theory, the width of the gap separating cells (6 microns radius) from the chamber floor was estimated at 1.4 micron. (d) It is shown that a high value of the cell-to-substrate gap may be accounted for by the presence of cell surface protrusions of a few micrometer length, in accordance with electron microscope observations performed on the same cell population. (e) In association with previously reported data (Tissot, O., C. Foa, C. Capo, H. Brailly, M. Delaage, and P. Bongrand. 1991. Biocolloids and Biosurfaces. In press), these results are consistent with the possibility that cell-substrate attachment be initiated by the formation of a single molecular bond, which might be considered as the rate limiting step.

  1. Flow cytometric monitoring of influenza A virus infection in MDCK cells during vaccine production

    Reichl Udo

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In cell culture-based influenza vaccine production the monitoring of virus titres and cell physiology during infection is of great importance for process characterisation and optimisation. While conventional virus quantification methods give only virus titres in the culture broth, data obtained by fluorescence labelling of intracellular virus proteins provide additional information on infection dynamics. Flow cytometry represents a valuable tool to investigate the influences of cultivation conditions and process variations on virus replication and virus yields. Results In this study, fluorescein-labelled monoclonal antibodies against influenza A virus matrix protein 1 and nucleoprotein were used for monitoring the infection status of adherent Madin-Darby canine kidney cells from bioreactor samples. Monoclonal antibody binding was shown for influenza A virus strains of different subtypes (H1N1, H1N2, H3N8 and host specificity (human, equine, swine. At high multiplicity of infection in a bioreactor, the onset of viral protein accumulation in adherent cells on microcarriers was detected at about 2 to 4 h post infection by flow cytometry. In contrast, a significant increase in titre by hemagglutination assay was detected at the earliest 4 to 6 h post infection. Conclusion It is shown that flow cytometry is a sensitive and robust method for the monitoring of viral infection in fixed cells from bioreactor samples. Therefore, it is a valuable addition to other detection methods of influenza virus infection such as immunotitration and RNA hybridisation. Thousands of individual cells are measured per sample. Thus, the presented method is believed to be quite independent of the concentration of infected cells (multiplicity of infection and total cell concentration in bioreactors. This allows to perform detailed studies on factors relevant for optimization of virus yields in cell cultures. The method could also be used for process

  2. Hierarchical modeling for rare event detection and cell subset alignment across flow cytometry samples.

    Andrew Cron

    Full Text Available Flow cytometry is the prototypical assay for multi-parameter single cell analysis, and is essential in vaccine and biomarker research for the enumeration of antigen-specific lymphocytes that are often found in extremely low frequencies (0.1% or less. Standard analysis of flow cytometry data relies on visual identification of cell subsets by experts, a process that is subjective and often difficult to reproduce. An alternative and more objective approach is the use of statistical models to identify cell subsets of interest in an automated fashion. Two specific challenges for automated analysis are to detect extremely low frequency event subsets without biasing the estimate by pre-processing enrichment, and the ability to align cell subsets across multiple data samples for comparative analysis. In this manuscript, we develop hierarchical modeling extensions to the Dirichlet Process Gaussian Mixture Model (DPGMM approach we have previously described for cell subset identification, and show that the hierarchical DPGMM (HDPGMM naturally generates an aligned data model that captures both commonalities and variations across multiple samples. HDPGMM also increases the sensitivity to extremely low frequency events by sharing information across multiple samples analyzed simultaneously. We validate the accuracy and reproducibility of HDPGMM estimates of antigen-specific T cells on clinically relevant reference peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC samples with known frequencies of antigen-specific T cells. These cell samples take advantage of retrovirally TCR-transduced T cells spiked into autologous PBMC samples to give a defined number of antigen-specific T cells detectable by HLA-peptide multimer binding. We provide open source software that can take advantage of both multiple processors and GPU-acceleration to perform the numerically-demanding computations. We show that hierarchical modeling is a useful probabilistic approach that can provide a

  3. Modeling of proton exchange membrane fuel cell with variable distance gas flow in anode and cathode

    Mohd Shahbudin Masdar; Wan Ramli Wan Daud; Kamaruzzaman Sopian; Jaafar Sahari

    2006-01-01

    A number of fundamental studies have been directed towards increasing our understanding of PEM fuel cell and their performance. Mathematical modeling is one of the way and very essential component in the development of this fuel cell. Model validation is presented, the validated model is then used to investigate the behavior of mole fraction of gases, current density, and the performances of stack using polarization curve depending on distance gases flow in channel. The model incorporates a complete cell with both the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) and the serpentine gas distributor channel. Finally, the parametric studies in single stack design are illustrated

  4. Modeling and simulation of PEM fuel cell's flow channels using CFD techniques

    Cunha, Edgar F.; Andrade, Alexandre B.; Robalinho, Eric; Bejarano, Martha L.M.; Linardi, Marcelo; Cekinski, Efraim

    2007-01-01

    Fuel cells are one of the most important devices to obtain electrical energy from hydrogen. The Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) consists of two important parts: the Membrane Electrode Assembly (MEA), where the reactions occur, and the flow field plates. The plates have many functions in a fuel cell: distribute reactant gases (hydrogen and air or oxygen), conduct electrical current, remove heat and water from the electrodes and make the cell robust. The cost of the bipolar plates corresponds up to 45% of the total stack costs. The Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) is a very useful tool to simulate hydrogen and oxygen gases flow channels, to reduce the costs of bipolar plates production and to optimize mass transport. Two types of flow channels were studied. The first type was a commercial plate by ELECTROCELL and the other was entirely projected at Programa de Celula a Combustivel (IPEN/CNEN-SP) and the experimental data were compared with modelling results. Optimum values for each set of variables were obtained and the models verification was carried out in order to show the feasibility of this technique to improve fuel cell efficiency. (author)

  5. Modeling and simulation of PEM fuel cell's flow channels using CFD techniques

    Cunha, Edgar F.; Andrade, Alexandre B.; Robalinho, Eric; Bejarano, Martha L.M.; Linardi, Marcelo [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mails: efcunha@ipen.br; abodart@ipen.br; eric@ipen.br; mmora@ipen.br; mlinardi@ipen.br; Cekinski, Efraim [Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnologicas (IPT-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: cekinski@ipt.br

    2007-07-01

    Fuel cells are one of the most important devices to obtain electrical energy from hydrogen. The Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) consists of two important parts: the Membrane Electrode Assembly (MEA), where the reactions occur, and the flow field plates. The plates have many functions in a fuel cell: distribute reactant gases (hydrogen and air or oxygen), conduct electrical current, remove heat and water from the electrodes and make the cell robust. The cost of the bipolar plates corresponds up to 45% of the total stack costs. The Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) is a very useful tool to simulate hydrogen and oxygen gases flow channels, to reduce the costs of bipolar plates production and to optimize mass transport. Two types of flow channels were studied. The first type was a commercial plate by ELECTROCELL and the other was entirely projected at Programa de Celula a Combustivel (IPEN/CNEN-SP) and the experimental data were compared with modelling results. Optimum values for each set of variables were obtained and the models verification was carried out in order to show the feasibility of this technique to improve fuel cell efficiency. (author)

  6. Internalisation of polymeric nanosensors in mesenchymal stem cells: analysis by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy.

    Coupland, Paul G; Fisher, Karen A; Jones, D Rhodri E; Aylott, Jonathan W

    2008-09-10

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate that flow cytometry and confocal microscopy could be applied in a complementary manner to analyse the internalisation of polymeric nanosensors in mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). The two techniques are able to provide en masse data analysis of nanosensors from large cell populations and detailed images of intracellular nanosensor localisation, respectively. The polyacrylamide nanosensors used in this investigation had been modified to contain free amine groups which were subsequently conjugated to Tat peptide, which acted as a delivery vector for nanosensor internalisation. Flow cytometry was used to confirm the health of MSC culture and assess the impact of nanosensor internalisation. MSC were characterised using fluorescently tagged CD cell surface markers that were also used to show that nanosensor internalisation did not negatively impact on MSC culture. Additionally it was shown that flow cytometry can be used to measure fluorophores located both on the cell surface and internalised within the cell. Complementary data was obtained using confocal microscopy to confirm nanosensor internalisation within MSC.

  7. The use of nylon and glass fiber filter separators with different pore sizes in air-cathode single-chamber microbial fuel cells

    Zhang, Xiaoyuan

    2010-01-01

    Separators are needed in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) to reduce electrode spacing and preventing electrode short circuiting. The use of nylon and glass fiber filter separators in single-chamber, air-cathode MFCs was examined for their effect on performance. Larger pore nylon mesh were used that had regular mesh weaves with pores ranging from 10 to 160 μm, while smaller pore-size nylon filters (0.2-0.45 μm) and glass fiber filters (0.7-2.0 μm) had a more random structure. The pore size of both types of nylon filters had a direct and predictable effect on power production, with power increasing from 443 ± 27 to 650 ± 7 mW m-2 for pore sizes of 0.2 and 0.45 μm, and from 769 ± 65 to 941 ± 47 mW m-2 for 10 to 160 μm. In contrast, changes in pore sizes of the glass fiber filters resulted in a relatively narrow change in power (732 ± 48 to 779 ± 43 mW m-2) for pore sizes of 0.7 to 2 μm. An ideal separator should increase both power density and Coulombic efficiency (CE). However, CEs measured for the different separators were inversely correlated with power production, demonstrating that materials which reduced the oxygen diffusion into the reactor also hindered proton transport to the cathode, reducing power production through increased internal resistance. Our results highlight the need to develop separators that control oxygen transfer and facilitate proton transfer to the cathode. © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  8. A three-dimensional model of PEM fuel cells with serpentine flow channels

    Nguyen, P.T.; Berning, T.; Bang, M.; Djilali, N.

    2003-01-01

    A three-dimensional computational model of PEM fuel cell with serpentine flow field channels is presented in this paper. This model presents a comprehensive account for all important transport phenomena in fuel cell such as heat transfer, mass transfer, electrode kinetics, and potential fields in the membrane and gas diffusion layers. A new approach of solving for the potential losses across the cell was also developed in this model. The dependency of local current density on oxygen concentration and activation overpotential is fully addressed in this model. The computational domain consists of serpentine gas flow channels, porous gas diffusion layers, catalyst layers, and a membrane. Results obtained from this model are in good agreement with experimental results. (author)

  9. BNFL Report Glass Formers Characterization

    Schumacher, R.F.

    2000-07-27

    The objective of this task was to obtain powder property data on candidate glass former materials, sufficient to guide conceptual design and estimate the cost of glass former handling facilities as requested under Part B1 of BNFL Technical and Development Support. Twenty-nine glass forming materials were selected and obtained from vendors for the characterization of their physical properties, durability in caustic solution, and powder flow characteristics. A glass former was selected based on the characterization for each of the ten oxide classes required for Envelope A, B, and C mixtures. Three blends (A, B, and C) were prepared based on formulations provided by Vitreous State Laboratory and evaluated with the same methods employed for the glass formers. The properties obtained are presented in a series of attached Tables. It was determined that five of the ten glass formers, (kyanite, iron oxide, titania, zircon, and zinc oxide) have the potential to cause some level of solids f low problems. The problems might include arching or ratholing in the silo/hopper. In addition, all of the blends may require consideration for their handling.

  10. BNFL Report Glass Formers Characterization

    Schumacher, R.F.

    2000-07-27

    The objective of this task was to obtain powder property data on candidate glass former materials, sufficient to guide conceptual design and estimate the cost of glass former handling facilities as requested under Part B1 of BNFL Technical and Development Support. Twenty-nine glass forming materials were selected and obtained from vendors for the characterization of their physical properties, durability in caustic solution, and powder flow characteristics. A glass former was selected based on the characterization for each of the ten oxide classes required for Envelope A, B, and C mixtures. Three blends (A, B, and C) were prepared based on formulations provided by Vitreous State Laboratory and evaluated with the same methods employed for the glass formers. The properties obtained are presented in a series of attached Tables. It was determined that five of the ten glass formers, (kyanite, iron oxide, titania, zircon, and zinc oxide) have the potential to cause some level of solids f low problems. In addition, all of the blends may require consideration for their handling. A number of engineering considerations and recommendations were prepared based on the experimental findings, experience, and other process considerations. Recommendations for future testing are included. In conjunction with future work, it is recommended that a professional consultant be engaged to guide and assist with testing and design input.

  11. BNFL Report Glass Formers Characterization

    Schumacher, R.F.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this task was to obtain powder property data on candidate glass former materials, sufficient to guide conceptual design and estimate the cost of glass former handling facilities as requested under Part B1 of BNFL Technical and Development Support. Twenty-nine glass forming materials were selected and obtained from vendors for the characterization of their physical properties, durability in caustic solution, and powder flow characteristics. A glass former was selected based on the characterization for each of the ten oxide classes required for Envelope A, B, and C mixtures. Three blends (A, B, and C) were prepared based on formulations provided by Vitreous State Laboratory and evaluated with the same methods employed for the glass formers. The properties obtained are presented in a series of attached Tables. It was determined that five of the ten glass formers, (kyanite, iron oxide, titania, zircon, and zinc oxide) have the potential to cause some level of solids f low problems. In addition, all of the blends may require consideration for their handling. A number of engineering considerations and recommendations were prepared based on the experimental findings, experience, and other process considerations. Recommendations for future testing are included. In conjunction with future work, it is recommended that a professional consultant be engaged to guide and assist with testing and design input

  12. BNFL Report Glass Formers Characterization

    Schumacher, R.F.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this task was to obtain powder property data on candidate glass former materials, sufficient to guide conceptual design and estimate the cost of glass former handling facilities as requested under Part B1 of BNFL Technical and Development Support. Twenty-nine glass forming materials were selected and obtained from vendors for the characterization of their physical properties, durability in caustic solution, and powder flow characteristics. A glass former was selected based on the characterization for each of the ten oxide classes required for Envelope A, B, and C mixtures. Three blends (A, B, and C) were prepared based on formulations provided by Vitreous State Laboratory and evaluated with the same methods employed for the glass formers. The properties obtained are presented in a series of attached Tables. It was determined that five of the ten glass formers, (kyanite, iron oxide, titania, zircon, and zinc oxide) have the potential to cause some level of solids f low problems. The problems might include arching or ratholing in the silo/hopper. In addition, all of the blends may require consideration for their handling

  13. Fluorescent genetic barcoding in mammalian cells for enhanced multiplexing capabilities in flow cytometry.

    Smurthwaite, Cameron A; Hilton, Brett J; O'Hanlon, Ryan; Stolp, Zachary D; Hancock, Bryan M; Abbadessa, Darin; Stotland, Aleksandr; Sklar, Larry A; Wolkowicz, Roland

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of the green fluorescent protein from Aequorea victoria has revolutionized the field of cell and molecular biology. Since its discovery a growing panel of fluorescent proteins, fluorophores and fluorescent-coupled staining methodologies, have expanded the analytical capabilities of flow cytometry. Here, we exploit the power of genetic engineering to barcode individual cells with genes encoding fluorescent proteins. For genetic engineering, we utilize retroviral technology, which allows for the expression of ectopic genetic information in a stable manner in mammalian cells. We have genetically barcoded both adherent and nonadherent cells with different fluorescent proteins. Multiplexing power was increased by combining both the number of distinct fluorescent proteins, and the fluorescence intensity in each channel. Moreover, retroviral expression has proven to be stable for at least a 6-month period, which is critical for applications such as biological screens. We have shown the applicability of fluorescent barcoded multiplexing to cell-based assays that rely themselves on genetic barcoding, or on classical staining protocols. Fluorescent genetic barcoding gives the cell an inherited characteristic that distinguishes it from its counterpart. Once cell lines are developed, no further manipulation or staining is required, decreasing time, nonspecific background associated with staining protocols, and cost. The increasing number of discovered and/or engineered fluorescent proteins with unique absorbance/emission spectra, combined with the growing number of detection devices and lasers, increases multiplexing versatility, making fluorescent genetic barcoding a powerful tool for flow cytometry-based analysis. © 2013 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  14. Asymmetry of blood flow and cancer cell adhesion in a microchannel with symmetric bifurcation and confluence.

    Ishikawa, Takuji; Fujiwara, Hiroki; Matsuki, Noriaki; Yoshimoto, Takefumi; Imai, Yohsuke; Ueno, Hironori; Yamaguchi, Takami

    2011-02-01

    Bifurcations and confluences are very common geometries in biomedical microdevices. Blood flow at microchannel bifurcations has different characteristics from that at confluences because of the multiphase properties of blood. Using a confocal micro-PIV system, we investigated the behaviour of red blood cells (RBCs) and cancer cells in microchannels with geometrically symmetric bifurcations and confluences. The behaviour of RBCs and cancer cells was strongly asymmetric at bifurcations and confluences whilst the trajectories of tracer particles in pure water were almost symmetric. The cell-free layer disappeared on the inner wall of the bifurcation but increased in size on the inner wall of the confluence. Cancer cells frequently adhered to the inner wall of the bifurcation but rarely to other locations. Because the wall surface coating and the wall shear stress were almost symmetric for the bifurcation and the confluence, the result indicates that not only chemical mediation and wall shear stress but also microscale haemodynamics play important roles in the adhesion of cancer cells to the microchannel walls. These results provide the fundamental basis for a better understanding of blood flow and cell adhesion in biomedical microdevices.

  15. Fusibility of medical glass in hospital waste incineration: Effect of glass components

    Jiang, X.G.; An, C.G.; Li, C.Y.; Fei, Z.W.; Jin, Y.Q.; Yan, J.H.

    2009-01-01

    Medical glass, which is the principal incombustible component in hospital wastes, has a bad influence on combustion. In a rotary kiln incinerator, medical glass melts and turns into slag, possibly adhering to the inner wall. Prediction of the melting characteristics of medical glass hence is important for preventing slagging. The effect of various glass components on fusibility has been investigated experimentally; that of Na 2 O is the most marked. The softening temperature and flow temperature decrease 19.8 o C and 34.0 o C, respectively, with a rise of Na 2 O content in the Basic Content (standard composition of medical glass) of 1%. Correlations between fusion temperatures and glass components have been investigated; predictive functions of four characteristic melting temperatures have been obtained by simplifying the multi-variant series and were verified by testing glass samples. Relative errors of fusion temperatures (computed vs. measured) are mostly less than 5%.

  16. Magnetic Glass Ceramics by Sintering of Borosilicate Glass and Inorganic Waste

    Inès M. M. M. Ponsot

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Ceramics and glass ceramics based on industrial waste have been widely recognized as competitive products for building applications; however, there is a great potential for such materials with novel functionalities. In this paper, we discuss the development of magnetic sintered glass ceramics based on two iron-rich slags, coming from non-ferrous metallurgy and recycled borosilicate glass. The substantial viscous flow of the glass led to dense products for rapid treatments at relatively low temperatures (900–1000 °C, whereas glass/slag interactions resulted in the formation of magnetite crystals, providing ferrimagnetism. Such behavior could be exploited for applying the obtained glass ceramics as induction heating plates, according to preliminary tests (showing the rapid heating of selected samples, even above 200 °C. The chemical durability and safety of the obtained glass ceramics were assessed by both leaching tests and cytotoxicity tests.

  17. Improved Diffuse Fluorescence Flow Cytometer Prototype for High Sensitivity Detection of Rare Circulating Cells In Vivo

    Pestana, Noah Benjamin

    Accurate quantification of circulating cell populations is important in many areas of pre-clinical and clinical biomedical research, for example, in the study of cancer metastasis or the immune response following tissue and organ transplants. Normally this is done "ex-vivo" by drawing and purifying a small volume of blood and then analyzing it with flow cytometry, hemocytometry or microfludic devices, but the sensitivity of these techniques are poor and the process of handling samples has been shown to affect cell viability and behavior. More recently "in vivo flow cytometry" (IVFC) techniques have been developed where fluorescently-labeled cells flowing in a small blood vessel in the ear or retina are analyzed, but the sensitivity is generally poor due to the small sampling volume. To address this, our group recently developed a method known as "Diffuse Fluorescence Flow Cytometry" (DFFC) that allows detection and counting of rare circulating cells with diffuse photons, offering extremely high single cell counting sensitivity. In this thesis, an improved DFFC prototype was designed and validated. The chief improvements were three-fold, i) improved optical collection efficiency, ii) improved detection electronics, and iii) development of a method to mitigate motion artifacts during in vivo measurements. In combination, these improvements yielded an overall instrument detection sensitivity better than 1 cell/mL in vivo, which is the most sensitive IVFC system reported to date. Second, development and validation of a low-cost microfluidic device reader for analysis of ocular fluids is described. We demonstrate that this device has equivalent or better sensitivity and accuracy compared a fluorescence microscope, but at an order-of-magnitude reduced cost with simplified operation. Future improvements to both instruments are also discussed.

  18. Cell kinetics of hypoxic cells in a murine tumour in vivo: flow cytometric determination of the radiation-induced blockage of cell cycle progression

    Rutgers, D.H.; Niessen, D.P.P.; Linden, P.M. van der

    1987-01-01

    Cells from the small cell population of viable cells in the large necrotic centre of murine M8013 tumours were investigated with respect to their cell kinetics. Flow cytometry (FCM) of this part of subcutaneously transplanted tumours revealed the presence of tumour cells with G1,S and G2 + M phase DNA-contents. These severely hypoxic cells could have stopped cell cycle progression due to the nutritional deprivation, irrespective of their position within the cell cycle. Labelling methods, used to disclose the cell kinetics of this cell population, are hampered by the absence of a transport system in these large necrotic areas. Therefore FCM was used to monitor radiation induced changes in the cell cycle distribution. From this investigation it was concluded that hypoxic cells in the necrotic centre of the M8013 tumour progress through the cell cycle. As well as a cell population with a cell cycle time (Tsub(c)) of approximately 84 hr, a subpopulation with a Tsub(c) of approximately 21 hr occurred. (author)

  19. Assembly and Stacking of Flow-through Enzymatic Bioelectrodes for High Power Glucose Fuel Cells.

    Abreu, Caroline; Nedellec, Yannig; Gross, Andrew J; Ondel, Olivier; Buret, Francois; Goff, Alan Le; Holzinger, Michael; Cosnier, Serge

    2017-07-19

    Bioelectrocatalytic carbon nanotube based pellets comprising redox enzymes were directly integrated in a newly conceived flow-through fuel cell. Porous electrodes and a separating cellulose membrane were housed in a glucose/oxygen biofuel cell design with inlets and outlets allowing the flow of electrolyte through the entire fuel cell. Different flow setups were tested and the optimized single cell setup, exploiting only 5 mmol L -1 glucose, showed an open circuit voltage (OCV) of 0.663 V and provided 1.03 ± 0.05 mW at 0.34 V. Furthermore, different charge/discharge cycles at 500 Ω and 3 kΩ were applied to optimize long-term stability leading to 3.6 J (1 mW h) of produced electrical energy after 48 h. Under continuous discharge at 6 kΩ, about 0.7 mW h could be produced after a 24 h period. The biofuel cell design further allows a convenient assembly of several glucose biofuel cells in reduced volumes and their connection in parallel or in series. The configuration of two biofuel cells connected in series showed an OCV of 1.35 V and provided 1.82 ± 0.09 mW at 0.675 V, and when connected in parallel, showed an OCV of 0.669 V and provided 1.75 ± 0.09 mW at 0.381 V. The presented design is conceived to stack an unlimited amount of biofuel cells to reach the necessary voltage and power for portable electronic devices without the need for step-up converters or energy managing systems.

  20. Identification and Characterization of Plasma Cells in Normal Human Bone Marrow by High-Resolution Flow Cytometry

    Terstappen, Leonardus Wendelinus Mathias Marie; Johnsen, Steen; Segers-Nolten, Gezina M.J.; Loken, Michael R.

    1990-01-01

    The low frequency of plasma cells and the lack of specific cell surface markers has been a major obstacle for a detailed characterization of plasma cells in normal human bone marrow. Multiparameter flow cytometry enabled the identification of plasma cells in normal bone marrow aspirates. The plasma

  1. Selective particle and cell capture in a continuous flow using micro-vortex acoustic streaming.

    Collins, David J; Khoo, Bee Luan; Ma, Zhichao; Winkler, Andreas; Weser, Robert; Schmidt, Hagen; Han, Jongyoon; Ai, Ye

    2017-05-16

    Acoustic streaming has emerged as a promising technique for refined microscale manipulation, where strong rotational flow can give rise to particle and cell capture. In contrast to hydrodynamically generated vortices, acoustic streaming is rapidly tunable, highly scalable and requires no external pressure source. Though streaming is typically ignored or minimized in most acoustofluidic systems that utilize other acoustofluidic effects, we maximize the effect of acoustic streaming in a continuous flow using a high-frequency (381 MHz), narrow-beam focused surface acoustic wave. This results in rapid fluid streaming, with velocities orders of magnitude greater than that of the lateral flow, to generate fluid vortices that extend the entire width of a 400 μm wide microfluidic channel. We characterize the forces relevant for vortex formation in a combined streaming/lateral flow system, and use these acoustic streaming vortices to selectively capture 2 μm from a mixed suspension with 1 μm particles and human breast adenocarcinoma cells (MDA-231) from red blood cells.

  2. Disodium cromoglycate, a mast-cell stabilizer, alters postradiation regional cerebral blood flow in primates

    Cockerham, L.G.; Doyle, T.F.; Pautler, E.L.; Hampton, J.D.

    1986-01-01

    Early transient incapacitation (ETI) is the complete cessation of performance during the first 30 min after radiation exposure, and performance decrement (PD) is a reduction in performance at the same time. Supralethal doses of radiation have been shown to produce a marked decrease in regional cerebral blood flow in primates concurrent with systemic hypotension and a dramatic release of mast-cell histamine. In an attempt to elucidate mechanisms underlying the radiation-induced ETI/PD phenomena and the postradiation decrease in cerebral blood flow, primates were given the mast-cell stabilizers disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) or BRL 22321 before exposure to 100 Gy whole-body gamma radiation. Hypothalamic and cortical blood flows were measured by hydrogen clearance, before and after radiation exposure. Systemic blood pressures were determined simultaneously. The data indicated that DSCG was successful in diminishing postradiation decrease in cerebral blood flow. Irradiated animals pretreated with DSCG, showed only a 10% decrease in hypothalamic blood flow 60 min postradiation, while untreated, irradiated animals showed a 57% decrease. The cortical blood flow of DSCG treated, irradiated animals showed a triphasic response, with a decrease of 38% at 10 min postradiation, then a rise to 1% below baseline at 20 min, followed by a fall to 42% below baseline by 50 min postradiation. In contrast, the untreated, irradiated animals showed a steady decrease in cortical blood flow to 79% below baseline by 50 min postradiation. There was no significant difference in blood-pressure response between the treated and untreated, irradiated animals. Systemic blood pressure showed a 60% decrease at 10 min postradiation, falling to a 71% decrease by 60 min

  3. Flow rate calibration to determine cell-derived microparticles and homogeneity of blood components.

    Noulsri, Egarit; Lerdwana, Surada; Kittisares, Kulvara; Palasuwan, Attakorn; Palasuwan, Duangdao

    2017-08-01

    Cell-derived microparticles (MPs) are currently of great interest to screening transfusion donors and blood components. However, the current approach to counting MPs is not affordable for routine laboratory use due to its high cost. The current study aimed to investigate the potential use of flow-rate calibration for counting MPs in whole blood, packed red blood cells (PRBCs), and platelet concentrates (PCs). The accuracy of flow-rate calibration was investigated by comparing the platelet counts of an automated counter and a flow-rate calibrator. The concentration of MPs and their origins in whole blood (n=100), PRBCs (n=100), and PCs (n=92) were determined using a FACSCalibur. The MPs' fold-changes were calculated to assess the homogeneity of the blood components. Comparing the platelet counts conducted by automated counting and flow-rate calibration showed an r 2 of 0.6 (y=0.69x+97,620). The CVs of the within-run and between-run variations of flow-rate calibration were 8.2% and 12.1%, respectively. The Bland-Altman plot showed a mean bias of -31,142platelets/μl. MP enumeration revealed both the difference in MP levels and their origins in whole blood, PRBCs, and PCs. Screening the blood components demonstrated high heterogeneity of the MP levels in PCs when compared to whole blood and PRBCs. The results of the present study suggest the accuracy and precision of flow-rate calibration for enumerating MPs. This flow-rate approach is affordable for assessing the homogeneity of MPs in blood components in routine laboratory practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Actin retrograde flow controls natural killer cell response by regulating the conformation state of SHP-1.

    Matalon, Omri; Ben-Shmuel, Aviad; Kivelevitz, Jessica; Sabag, Batel; Fried, Sophia; Joseph, Noah; Noy, Elad; Biber, Guy; Barda-Saad, Mira

    2018-03-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are a powerful weapon against viral infections and tumor growth. Although the actin-myosin (actomyosin) cytoskeleton is crucial for a variety of cellular processes, the role of mechanotransduction, the conversion of actomyosin mechanical forces into signaling cascades, was never explored in NK cells. Here, we demonstrate that actomyosin retrograde flow (ARF) controls the immune response of primary human NK cells through a novel interaction between β-actin and the SH2-domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase-1 (SHP-1), converting its conformation state, and thereby regulating NK cell cytotoxicity. Our results identify ARF as a master regulator of the NK cell immune response. Since actin dynamics occur in multiple cellular processes, this mechanism might also regulate the activity of SHP-1 in additional cellular systems. © 2018 The Authors.

  5. Effect of thermal annealing on the redistribution of alkali metals in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells on glass substrate

    Kamikawa, Yukiko; Nishinaga, Jiro; Ishizuka, Shogo; Tayagaki, Takeshi; Guthrey, Harvey; Shibata, Hajime; Matsubara, Koji; Niki, Shigeru

    2018-03-01

    The precise control of alkali-metal concentrations in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) solar cells via post deposition treatment (PDT) has recently attracted attention. When PDT is performed at an elevated temperature, an accompanying annealing effect is expected. Here, we investigate how thermal annealing affects the redistribution of alkali metals in CIGS solar cells on glass substrates and the properties of the solar cells. In addition, we investigate the origin of non-homogeneous alkali-metal depth profiles that are typical of CIGS grown using a three-stage process. In particular, we use secondary-ion mass spectrometry measurements of the ion concentration as a function of distance from the CIGS surface to investigate the impact of thermal annealing on the distribution of alkali metals (Na, Ka, and Rb) and constituent elements (Ga and In) in the CIGS absorbers. We find that the depth profiles of the alkali metals strongly reflect the density of sites that tend to accommodate alkali metals, i.e., vacancies. Annealing at elevated temperature caused a redistribution of the alkali metals. The thermal-diffusion kinetics of alkali metals depends strongly on the species involved. We introduced low flux potassium fluoride (KF) to study a side effect of KF-PDT, i.e., Na removal from CIGS, separately from its predominant effects such as surface modification. When sufficient amounts of Na are supplied from the soda lime glass via annealing at an elevated temperature, the negative effect was not apparent. Conversely, when the Na supply was not sufficient, it caused a deterioration of the photovoltaic properties.

  6. Effect of Thermal Annealing on the Redistribution of Alkali Metals in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Solar Cells on Glass Substrate

    Guthrey, Harvey L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kamikawa, Yukiko [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST); Nishinaga, Jiro [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST); Ishizuka, Shogo [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST); Tayagaki, Takeshi [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST); Shibata, Hajime [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST); Matsubara, Koji [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST); Niki, Shigeru [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST)

    2018-03-02

    The precise control of alkali-metal concentrations in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) solar cells via post deposition treatment (PDT) has recently attracted attention. When PDT is performed at an elevated temperature, an accompanying annealing effect is expected. Here, we investigate how thermal annealing affects the redistribution of alkali metals in CIGS solar cells on glass substrates and the properties of the solar cells. In addition, we investigate the origin of non-homogeneous alkali-metal depth profiles that are typical of CIGS grown using a three-stage process. In particular, we use secondary-ion mass spectrometry measurements of the ion concentration as a function of distance from the CIGS surface to investigate the impact of thermal annealing on the distribution of alkali metals (Na, Ka, and Rb) and constituent elements (Ga and In) in the CIGS absorbers. We find that the depth profiles of the alkali metals strongly reflect the density of sites that tend to accommodate alkali metals, i.e., vacancies. Annealing at elevated temperature caused a redistribution of the alkali metals. The thermal-diffusion kinetics of alkali metals depends strongly on the species involved. We introduced low flux potassium fluoride (KF) to study a side effect of KF-PDT, i.e., Na removal from CIGS, separately from its predominant effects such as surface modification. When sufficient amounts of Na are supplied from the soda lime glass via annealing at an elevated temperature, the negative effect was not apparent. Conversely, when the Na supply was not sufficient, it caused a deterioration of the photovoltaic properties.

  7. Flow through internal elastic lamina affects shear stress on smooth muscle cells (3D simulations).

    Tada, Shigeru; Tarbell, John M

    2002-02-01

    We describe a three-dimensional numerical simulation of interstitial flow through the medial layer of an artery accounting for the complex entrance condition associated with fenestral pores in the internal elastic lamina (IEL) to investigate the fluid mechanical environment around the smooth muscle cells (SMCs) right beneath the IEL. The IEL was modeled as an impermeable barrier to water flow except for the fenestral pores, which were assumed to be uniformly distributed over the IEL. The medial layer was modeled as a heterogeneous medium composed of a periodic array of cylindrical SMCs embedded in a continuous porous medium representing the interstitial proteoglycan and collagen matrix. Depending on the distance between the IEL bottom surface and the upstream end of the proximal layer of SMCs, the local shear stress on SMCs right beneath the fenestral pore could be more than 10 times higher than that on the cells far removed from the IEL under the conditions that the fenestral pore diameter and area fraction of pores were kept constant at 1.4 microm and 0.05, respectively. Thus these proximal SMCs may experience shear stress levels that are even higher than endothelial cells exposed to normal blood flow (order of 10 dyn/cm(2)). Furthermore, entrance flow through fenestral pores alters considerably the interstitial flow field in the medial layer over a spatial length scale of the order of the fenestral pore diameter. Thus the spatial gradient of shear stress on the most superficial SMC is noticeably higher than computed for endothelial cell surfaces.

  8. The utility of flow cytometry in differentiating NK/T cell lymphoma from indolent and reactive NK cell proliferations.

    de Mel, Sanjay; Li, Jenny Bei; Abid, Muhammad Bilal; Tang, Tiffany; Tay, Hui Ming; Ting, Wen Chang; Poon, Li Mei; Chung, Tae Hoon; Mow, Benjamin; Tso, Allison; Ong, Kiat Hoe; Chng, Wee Joo; Liu, Te Chih

    2018-01-01

    The WHO defines three categories of NK cell malignancies; extra nodal NK/T cell lymphoma (NKTCL), aggressive NK cell leukemia, and the provisional entity chronic lymphoproliferative disorder of NK cells (CLPD-NK). Although the flow cytometric (FC) phenotype of CLPD-NK has been described, studies on FC phenotype of NKTCL are limited. To the best of our knowledge ours is the first study to compare the phenotype of NKTCL, CLPD-NK, reactive NK lymphocytosis (RNKL), and normal NK cells using eight color (8C) FC. Specimens analyzed using the Euroflow8C NK Lymphoproliferative Disorder (NKLPD) panel between 2011 and 2014 were identified from our database. All samples were analyzed on the FACSCantoII cytometer. NK cells were identified as CD45+, smCD3-, CD19-, CD56+ and normal T-cells served as internal controls. The majority of NKTCL were CD56 bright, CD16 dim, CD57-, and CD94+. CLPD-NK and RNKL were predominantly CD56+ or dim with positive expression of CD16 and CD57 and weak CD94 expression. Antigen based statistical analyses showed robust division of samples along the NKTCL/normal CD56 bright NK cell and CLPD-NK/RNKL/normal CD56 positive NK cell groups. It was concluded that FC can reliably distinguish NKTCL from CLPD-NK, normal NK cells of CD56+ phenotype, and RNKL. It was proposed that the typical phenotype for NKTCL is: CD56 bright, CD16 dim with positive CD2, CD7, CD94, HLADR, CD25, CD26, and absent CD57. This resembles the phenotype of the CD56 bright immunoregulatory subset of NK cells which we therefore hypothesize is the cell of origin of NKTCL. © 2017 International Clinical Cytometry Society. © 2017 International Clinical Cytometry Society.

  9. Modelling multiphase flow inside the porous media of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell

    Berning, Torsten; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2011-01-01

    Transport processes inside polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC’s) are highly complex and involve convective and diffusive multiphase, multispecies flow through porous media along with heat and mass transfer and electrochemical reactions in conjunction with water transport through...... an electrolyte membrane. We will present a computational model of a PEMFC with focus on capillary transport of water through the porous layers and phase change and discuss the impact of the liquid phase boundary condition between the porous gas diffusion layer and the flow channels, where water droplets can...

  10. Mathematical modeling of a zinc/bromine flow cell and a lithium/thionyl chloride primary cell

    Evans, T.I.

    1988-01-01

    Three mathematical models are presented, one for the secondary zinc/bromine flow cell and two for the lithium/thionyl chloride primary cell. The objectives in this modeling work are to aid in understanding the physical phenomena affecting cell performance, determine methods of improving cell performance and safety, and reduce the experimental efforts needed to develop these electrochemical systems. The zinc/bromine cell model is the first such model to include a porous layer on the bromine electrode and to predict discharge behavior. The model is used to solve simultaneously the component material balances and the electroneutrality condition for the unknowns, species concentrations and the solution potential. Two models are presented for the lithium/thionyl chloride cell. The first model is a detailed one-dimensional model which is used to solve simultaneously the component material balances, Ohm's law relations, and current balance. The independent design criteria are identified from the model development. The second model presented here is a two-dimensional thermal model for the spirally would configuration of the lithium/thionyl chloride cell. This is the first model to address the effects of the spiral geometry on heat transfer in the cell.

  11. Investigation of gas flow characteristics in proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    Kwac, Lee Ku; Kim, Hong Gun

    2008-01-01

    An investigation of electrochemical behavior of PEMFC (proton exchange membrane fuel cell) is performed by using a single-phase two-dimensional finite element analysis. Equations of current balance, mass balance, and momentum balance are implemented to simulate the behavior of PEMFC. The analysis results for the co-flow and counterflow mode of gas flow direction are examined in detail in order to compare how the gas flow direction affects quantitatively. The characteristics of internal properties, such as gas velocity distribution, mass fraction of the reactants, fraction of water and current density distribution in PEMFC are illustrated in the electrode and GDL (gas diffusion layer). It is found that the dry reactant gases can be well internally humidified and maintain high performance in the case of the counter-flow mode without external humidification while it is not advantageous for highly humidified or saturated reactant gases. It is also found that the co-flow mode improves the current density distribution with humidified normal condition compared to the counter-flow mode

  12. Three-dimensional, bioactive, biodegradable, polymer-bioactive glass composite scaffolds with improved mechanical properties support collagen synthesis and mineralization of human osteoblast-like cells in vitro.

    Lu, Helen H; El-Amin, Saadiq F; Scott, Kimberli D; Laurencin, Cato T

    2003-03-01

    In the past decade, tissue engineering-based bone grafting has emerged as a viable alternative to biological and synthetic grafts. The biomaterial component is a critical determinant of the ultimate success of the tissue-engineered graft. Because no single existing material possesses all the necessary properties required in an ideal bone graft, our approach has been to develop a three dimensional (3-D), porous composite of polylactide-co-glycolide (PLAGA) and 45S5 bioactive glass (BG) that is biodegradable, bioactive, and suitable as a scaffold for bone tissue engineering (PLAGA-BG composite). The objectives of this study were to examine the mechanical properties of a PLAGA-BG matrix, to evaluate the response of human osteoblast-like cells to the PLAGA-BG composite, and to evaluate the ability of the composite to form a surface calcium phosphate layer in vitro. Structural and mechanical properties of PLAGA-BG were measured, and the formation of a surface calcium phosphate layer was evaluated by surface analysis methods. The growth and differentiation of human osteoblast-like cells on PLAGA-BG were also examined. A hypothesis was that the combination of PLAGA with BG would result in a biocompatible and bioactive composite, capable of supporting osteoblast adhesion, growth and differentiation, with mechanical properties superior to PLAGA alone. The addition of bioactive glass granules to the PLAGA matrix resulted in a structure with higher compressive modulus than PLAGA alone. Moreover, the PLAGA-BA composite was found to be a bioactive material, as it formed surface calcium phosphate deposits in a simulated body fluid (SBF), and in the presence of cells and serum proteins. The composite supported osteoblast-like morphology, stained positively for alkaline phosphatase, and supported higher levels of Type I collagen synthesis than tissue culture polystyrene controls. We have successfully developed a degradable, porous, polymer bioactive glass composite possessing

  13. Heating and structural disordering effects of the nonlinear viscous flow in a Zr55Al10Ni5Cu30 bulk metallic glass

    Kato, Hidemi; Inoue, Akihisa; Chen, H.S.

    2003-01-01

    The heat evolution of stress-induced structural disorder, ΔH s (ε), of a Zr 55 Al 10 Ni 5 Cu 30 bulk metallic glass (BMG) during compressive constant ram-velocity deformation at the glass transition region (T g =680 K) was deduced from in situ measurements of temperature change of the deforming sample. At the transition from the linear to nonlinear viscoelasticity, the behavior of viscosity change with strain, η(ε), is qualitatively consistent with the enthalpy evolution of the structural disordering, ΔH s (ε), but not with the temperature change, ΔT(ε). It is concluded that the initial softening deformation is due to the stress-induced structural disordering. The change in the nonlinearity, -log η-tilde ≡-log η /η N , is found to be proportional to the ΔH s and the slope of ΔH s (-log η-tilde) can be estimated to 400 J/mol, where η N is the Newtonian viscosity. On the other hand, the temperature raise, ΔT(ε), is pronouncedly delayed as compared with the η (ε) and ΔH s (ε) at the transition, but is determined by a product of stress and plastic strain-rate, σ·ε p , and is nearly proportional to it at the steady state. The slope of ΔT(σ·ε p ) can be estimated to 5.2x10 -2 K mol/W

  14. Fully automatic flow-based device for monitoring of drug permeation across a cell monolayer.

    Zelená, Lucie; Marques, Sara S; Segundo, Marcela A; Miró, Manuel; Pávek, Petr; Sklenářová, Hana; Solich, Petr

    2016-01-01

    A novel flow-programming setup based on the sequential injection principle is herein proposed for on-line monitoring of temporal events in cell permeation studies. The permeation unit consists of a Franz cell with its basolateral compartment mixed under mechanical agitation and thermostated at 37 °C. The apical compartment is replaced by commercially available Transwell inserts with a precultivated cell monolayer. The transport of drug substances across epithelial cells genetically modified with the P-glycoprotein membrane transporter (MDCKII-MDR1) is monitored on-line using rhodamine 123 as a fluorescent marker. The permeation kinetics of the marker is obtained in a fully automated mode by sampling minute volumes of solution from the basolateral compartment in short intervals (10 min) up to 4 h. The effect of a P-glycoprotein transporter inhibitor, verapamil as a model drug, on the efficiency of the marker transport across the cell monolayer is thoroughly investigated. The analytical features of the proposed flow method for cell permeation studies in real time are critically compared against conventional batch-wise procedures and microfluidic devices.

  15. Glycocalyx Degradation Induces a Proinflammatory Phenotype and Increased Leukocyte Adhesion in Cultured Endothelial Cells under Flow.

    Karli K McDonald

    Full Text Available Leukocyte adhesion to the endothelium is an early step in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Effective adhesion requires the binding of leukocytes to their cognate receptors on the surface of endothelial cells. The glycocalyx covers the surface of endothelial cells and is important in the mechanotransduction of shear stress. This study aimed to identify the molecular mechanisms underlying the role of the glycocalyx in leukocyte adhesion under flow. We performed experiments using 3-D cell culture models, exposing human abdominal aortic endothelial cells to steady laminar shear stress (10 dynes/cm2 for 24 hours. We found that with the enzymatic degradation of the glycocalyx, endothelial cells developed a proinflammatory phenotype when exposed to uniform steady shear stress leading to an increase in leukocyte adhesion. Our results show an up-regulation of ICAM-1 with degradation compared to non-degraded controls (3-fold increase, p<0.05 and we attribute this effect to a de-regulation in NF-κB activity in response to flow. These results suggest that the glycocalyx is not solely a physical barrier to adhesion but rather plays an important role in governing the phenotype of endothelial cells, a key determinant in leukocyte adhesion. We provide evidence for how the destabilization of this structure may be an early and defining feature in the initiation of atherosclerosis.

  16. Poly (d/l) lactide/polycaprolactone/bioactive glasss nanocomposites materials for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction screws: The effect of glass surface functionalization on mechanical properties and cell behaviors.

    Esmaeilzadeh, Javad; Hesaraki, Saeed; Hadavi, Seyed Mohammad-Mehdi; Ebrahimzadeh, Mohammad Hosein; Esfandeh, Masoud

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, different nanocomposites made of a polymer blend (80% of PDLLA and 20% of PCL in w/w) and various amounts of a sol-gel derived bioactive glass nanoparticles (0, 1, 3 and 6wt%) were prepared using a solvent-evaporation technique. The morphology, mechanical properties and osteoblastic cell behaviors of the nanocomposites were evaluated. According to the early results, addition of bioactive glass nanoparticles to the polymer matrix reduced the tensile and flexural strength because of a non-uniform distribution of the nanoparticles. Thus, a homogeneous dispersion was obtained by surface modification of the glass nanoparticles using (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane as a coupling agent. The results showed that the tensile and flexural strength of the nanocomposite were improved by the nanoparticle functionalization, however the glass content was a crucial factor. The maximum tensile and flexural strength values of 38MPa and 94MPa were obtained for the polymer matrix loaded with 3wt% of the modified nanofiller and further increase of filler content led to sever agglomeration and hence a reduction of the mechanical properties. The obtained mechanical properties are favorable for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction screws. Besides, the results of cell culture using human osteoblastic cells illustrated better cell attachment and cell growth of the nanocomposites compared to the neat polymer blend. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of Flowing RBCs on Adhesion of a Circulating Tumor Cell in Microvessels

    Xiao, L.L.; Liu, Y.; Chen, S.; Fu, B.M.

    2016-01-01

    Adhesion of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) to the microvessel wall largely depends on the blood hydrodynamic conditions, one of which is the blood viscosity. Since blood is a non-Newtonian fluid, whose viscosity increases with hematocrit, in the microvessels at low shear rate. In this study, the effects of hematocrit, vessel size, flow rate and red blood cells (RBCs) aggregation on adhesion of a CTC in the microvessels were numerically investigated using dissipative particle dynamics. The membrane of cells was represented by a spring-based network connected by elastic springs to characterize its deformation. RBCs aggregation was modelled by a Morse potential function based on depletion-mediated assumption and the adhesion of the CTC to the vessel wall was achieved by the interactions between receptors and ligands at the CTC and those at the endothelial cells forming the vessel wall. The results demonstrated that in the microvessel of 15μm diameter, the CTC has an increasing probability of adhesion with the hematocrit due to a growing wall-directed force, resulting in a larger number of receptor-ligand bonds formed on the cell surface. However, with the increase in microvessel size, an enhanced lift force at higher hematocrit detaches the initial adherent CTC quickly. If the microvessel is comparable to the CTC in diameter, CTC adhesion is independent of Hct. In addition, the velocity of CTC is larger than the average blood flow velocity in smaller microvessels and the relative velocity of CTC decreases with the increase in microvessel size. An increased blood flow resistance in the presence of CTC was also found. Moreover, it was found that the large deformation induced by high flow rate and the presence of aggregation promote the adhesion of CTC. PMID:27738841

  18. Magnetic manipulation of particles and cells in ferrofluid flow through straight microchannels using two magnets

    Zeng, Jian

    Microfluidic devices have been increasingly used in the past two decades for particle and cell manipulations in many chemical and biomedical applications. A variety of force fields have been demonstrated to control particle and cell transport in these devices including electric, magnetic, acoustic, and optical forces etc. Among these particle handling techniques, the magnetic approach provides clear advantages over others such as low cost, noninvasive, and free of fluid heating issues. However, the current knowledge of magnetic control of particle transport is still very limited, especially lacking is the handling of diamagnetic particle. This thesis is focused on the magnetic manipulation of diamagnetic particles and cells in ferrofluid flow through the use of a pair of permanent magnets. By varying the configuration of the two magnets, diverse operations of particles and cells is implemented in a straight microchannel that can potentially be integrated into lab-on-a-chip devices for various applications. First, an approach for embedding two, symmetrically positioned, repulsive permanent magnets about a straight rectangular microchannel in a PDMS-based microfluidic device is developed for particle focusing. Focusing particles and cells into a tight stream is often required in order for continuous detection, counting, and sorting. The closest distance between the magnets is limited only by the size of the magnets involved in the fabrication process. The device is used to implement and investigate the three-dimensional magnetic focusing of polystyrene particles in ferrofluid microflow with both top-view and side-view visualizations. The effects of flow speed and particle size on the particle focusing effectiveness are studied. This device is also applied to magnetically focus yeast cells in ferrofluid, which proves to be biocompatible as verified by cell viability test. In addition, an analytical model is developed and found to be able to predict the experimentally

  19. Development and characterization of glass-ceramic sealants in the (CaO-Al2O3-SiO2-B2O3) system for Solid Oxide Electrolyzer Cells

    Khedim, Hichem; Nonnet, Helene; Mear, Francois O.

    2012-01-01

    The efficiency of glass-ceramic sealants plays a crucial role in Solid Oxide Electrolyzer Cell performance and durability. In order to develop suitable sealants, operating around 800 degrees C, two parent glass compositions, CAS1B and CAS2B, from the CaO-Al 2 O 3 -SiO 2 -B 2 O 3 system were prepared and explored. The thermal and physicochemical properties of the glass ceramics and their crystallization behavior were investigated by HSM. DTA and XRD analyses. The microstructure and chemical compositions of the crystalline phases were investigated by microprobe analysis. Bonding characteristic as well as chemical interactions of the parent glass with yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte and ferritic steel-based interconnect (Crofere (R)) were also investigated. The preliminary results revealed the superiority of CAS2B glass for sealing application in SOECs. The effect of minor additions of V 2 O 5 , K 2 O and TiO 2 on the thermal properties was also studied and again demonstrated the advantages of the CAS2B glass composition. Examining the influence of heat treatment on the seal behavior showed that the choice of the heating rate is a compromise between delaying the crystallization process and delaying the viscosity drop. The thermal Expansion Coefficients (TEC) obtained for the selected glass ceramic are within the desired range after the heat treatment of crystallization. The crystallization kinetic parameters of the selected glass composition were also determined under non-isothermal conditions by means of differential thermal analysis (DTA) and using the formal theory of transformations for heterogeneous nucleation. (authors)

  20. New Method to Disaggregate and Analyze Single Isolated Helminthes Cells Using Flow Cytometry: Proof of Concept

    Karen Nava-Castro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In parasitology, particularly in helminthes studies, several methods have been used to look for the expression of specific molecules, such as RT-PCR, western blot, 2D-electrophoresis, and microscopy, among others. However, these methods require homogenization of the whole helminth parasite, preventing evaluation of individual cells or specific cell types in a given parasite tissue or organ. Also, the extremely high interaction between helminthes and host cells (particularly immune cells is an important point to be considered. It is really hard to obtain fresh parasites without host cell contamination. Then, it becomes crucial to determine that the analyzed proteins are exclusively from parasitic origin, and not a consequence of host cell contamination. Flow cytometry is a fluorescence-based technique used to evaluate the expression of extra-and intracellular proteins in different type cells, including protozoan parasites. It also allows the isolation and recovery of single-cell populations. Here, we describe a method to isolate and obtain purified helminthes cells.

  1. Localized Modeling of Biochemical and Flow Interactions during Cancer Cell Adhesion.

    Julie Behr

    Full Text Available This work focuses on one component of a larger research effort to develop a simulation tool to model populations of flowing cells. Specifically, in this study a local model of the biochemical interactions between circulating melanoma tumor cells (TC and substrate adherent polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN is developed. This model provides realistic three-dimensional distributions of bond formation and attendant attraction and repulsion forces that are consistent with the time dependent Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD framework of the full system model which accounts local pressure, shear and repulsion forces. The resulting full dynamics model enables exploration of TC adhesion to adherent PMNs, which is a known participating mechanism in melanoma cell metastasis. The model defines the adhesion molecules present on the TC and PMN cell surfaces, and calculates their interactions as the melanoma cell flows past the PMN. Biochemical rates of reactions between individual molecules are determined based on their local properties. The melanoma cell in the model expresses ICAM-1 molecules on its surface, and the PMN expresses the β-2 integrins LFA-1 and Mac-1. In this work the PMN is fixed to the substrate and is assumed fully rigid and of a prescribed shear-rate dependent shape obtained from micro-PIV experiments. The melanoma cell is transported with full six-degrees-of-freedom dynamics. Adhesion models, which represent the ability of molecules to bond and adhere the cells to each other, and repulsion models, which represent the various physical mechanisms of cellular repulsion, are incorporated with the CFD solver. All models are general enough to allow for future extensions, including arbitrary adhesion molecule types, and the ability to redefine the values of parameters to represent various cell types. The model presented in this study will be part of a clinical tool for development of personalized medical treatment programs.

  2. Localized Modeling of Biochemical and Flow Interactions during Cancer Cell Adhesion.

    Behr, Julie; Gaskin, Byron; Fu, Changliang; Dong, Cheng; Kunz, Robert

    2015-01-01

    This work focuses on one component of a larger research effort to develop a simulation tool to model populations of flowing cells. Specifically, in this study a local model of the biochemical interactions between circulating melanoma tumor cells (TC) and substrate adherent polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) is developed. This model provides realistic three-dimensional distributions of bond formation and attendant attraction and repulsion forces that are consistent with the time dependent Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) framework of the full system model which accounts local pressure, shear and repulsion forces. The resulting full dynamics model enables exploration of TC adhesion to adherent PMNs, which is a known participating mechanism in melanoma cell metastasis. The model defines the adhesion molecules present on the TC and PMN cell surfaces, and calculates their interactions as the melanoma cell flows past the PMN. Biochemical rates of reactions between individual molecules are determined based on their local properties. The melanoma cell in the model expresses ICAM-1 molecules on its surface, and the PMN expresses the β-2 integrins LFA-1 and Mac-1. In this work the PMN is fixed to the substrate and is assumed fully rigid and of a prescribed shear-rate dependent shape obtained from micro-PIV experiments. The melanoma cell is transported with full six-degrees-of-freedom dynamics. Adhesion models, which represent the ability of molecules to bond and adhere the cells to each other, and repulsion models, which represent the various physical mechanisms of cellular repulsion, are incorporated with the CFD solver. All models are general enough to allow for future extensions, including arbitrary adhesion molecule types, and the ability to redefine the values of parameters to represent various cell types. The model presented in this study will be part of a clinical tool for development of personalized medical treatment programs.

  3. The absolute counting of red cell-derived microparticles with red cell bead by flow rate based assay.

    Nantakomol, Duangdao; Imwong, Malika; Soontarawirat, Ingfar; Kotjanya, Duangporn; Khakhai, Chulalak; Ohashi, Jun; Nuchnoi, Pornlada

    2009-05-01

    Activation of red blood cell is associated with the formation of red cell-derived microparticles (RMPs). Analysis of circulating RMPs is becoming more refined and clinically useful. A quantitative Trucount tube method is the conventional method uses for quantitating RMPs. In this study, we validated a quantitative method called "flow rate based assay using red cell bead (FCB)" to measure circulating RMPs in the peripheral blood of healthy subjects. Citrated blood samples collected from 30 cases of healthy subjects were determined the RMPs count by using double labeling of annexin V-FITC and anti-glycophorin A-PE. The absolute RMPs numbers were measured by FCB, and the results were compared with the Trucount or with flow rate based calibration (FR). Statistical correlation and agreement were analyzed using linear regression and Bland-Altman analysis. There was no significant difference in the absolute number of RMPs quantitated by FCB when compared with those two reference methods including the Trucount tube and FR method. The absolute RMPs count obtained from FCB method was highly correlated with those obtained from Trucount tube (r(2) = 0.98, mean bias 4 cell/microl, limit of agreement [LOA] -20.3 to 28.3 cell/microl), and FR method (r(2) = 1, mean bias 10.3 cell/microl, and LOA -5.5 to 26.2 cell/microl). This study demonstrates that FCB is suitable and more affordable for RMPs quantitation in the clinical samples. This method is a low cost and interchangeable to latex bead-based method for generating the absolute counts in the resource-limited areas. (c) 2008 Clinical Cytometry Society.

  4. CRYSTALLIZATION IN MULTICOMPONENT GLASSES

    KRUGER AA; HRMA PR

    2009-10-08

    In glass processing situations involving glass crystallization, various crystalline forms nucleate, grow, and dissolve, typically in a nonuniform temperature field of molten glass subjected to convection. Nuclear waste glasses are remarkable examples of multicomponent vitrified mixtures involving partial crystallization. In the glass melter, crystals form and dissolve during batch-to-glass conversion, melter processing, and product cooling. Crystals often agglomerate and sink, and they may settle at the melter bottom. Within the body of cooling glass, multiple phases crystallize in a non-uniform time-dependent temperature field. Self-organizing periodic distribution (the Liesegnang effect) is common. Various crystallization phenomena that occur in glass making are reviewed.

  5. Crystallization In Multicomponent Glasses

    Kruger, A.A.; Hrma, P.R.

    2009-01-01

    In glass processing situations involving glass crystallization, various crystalline forms nucleate, grow, and dissolve, typically in a nonuniform temperature field of molten glass subjected to convection. Nuclear waste glasses are remarkable examples of multicomponent vitrified mixtures involving partial crystallization. In the glass melter, crystals form and dissolve during batch-to-glass conversion, melter processing, and product cooling. Crystals often agglomerate and sink, and they may settle at the melter bottom. Within the body of cooling glass, multiple phases crystallize in a non-uniform time-dependent temperature field. Self-organizing periodic distribution (the Liesegnang effect) is common. Various crystallization phenomena that occur in glass making are reviewed.

  6. Arterio-venous flow between monochorionic twins determined during intra-uterine transfusion. Nonlinear decay of adult red blood cells

    Gemert, Martin J C van; Wijngaard, Jeroen P H M van den [Laser Centre and Department of Obstetrics, Academic Medical Centre, University of Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ Amsterdam (Netherlands); Pasman, Suzanne A; Vandenbussche, Frank P H A [Division of Fetal Medicine, Department of Obstetrics, Leiden University Medical Centre, Leiden (Netherlands); Lopriore, Enrico [Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, Leiden University Medical Centre, Leiden (Netherlands)], E-mail: m.j.vangemert@amc.uva.nl

    2008-07-07

    Recently, we derived equations relating the flow of adult red blood cells through a placental arterio-venous anastomosis with intra-uterine and post-natal measured adult hemoglobin concentrations. In this letter, we re-derived the equations, now including a more realistic nonlinear decay of adult red blood cells, and re-evaluated the measurement accuracy of the arterio-venous flow and the lifetime of the red blood cells. (letter to the editor)

  7. Synthesis of POSS-based ionic conductors with low glass transition temperatures for efficient solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Zhang, Wei; Wang, Zhong-Sheng

    2014-07-09

    Replacing liquid-state electrolytes with solid-state electrolytes has been proven to be an effective way to improve the durability of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). We report herein the synthesis of amorphous ionic conductors based on polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) with low glass transition temperatures for solid-state DSSCs. As the ionic conductor is amorphous and in the elastomeric state at the operating temperature of DSSCs, good pore filling in the TiO2 film and good interfacial contact between the solid-state electrolyte and the TiO2 film can be guaranteed. When the POSS-based ionic conductor containing an allyl group is doped with only iodine as the solid-state electrolyte without any other additives, power conversion efficiency of 6.29% has been achieved with good long-term stability under one-sun soaking for 1000 h.

  8. Hybrid Graphene-Polyoxometalates Nanofluids as Liquid Electrodes for Dual Energy Storage in Novel Flow Cells.

    Dubal, Deepak P; Rueda-Garcia, Daniel; Marchante, Carlos; Benages, Raul; Gomez-Romero, Pedro

    2018-02-22

    Solid Hybrid materials abound. But flowing versions of them are new actors in the materials science landscape and in particular for energy applications. This paper presents a new way to deliver nanostructured hybrid materials for energy storage, namely, in the form of nanofluids. We present here the first example of a hybrid electroactive nanofluid (HENFs) combining capacitive and faradaic energy storage mechanisms in a single fluid material. This liquid electrode is composed of reduced graphene oxide and polyoxometalates (rGO-POMs) forming a stable nanocomposite for electrochemical energy storage in novel Nanofluid Flow Cells. Two graphene based hybrid materials (rGO-phosphomolybdate, rGO-PMo 12 and rGO-phosphotungstate, rGO-PW 12 ) were synthesized and dispersed with the aid of a surfactant in 1 M H 2 SO 4 aqueous electrolyte to yield highly stable hybrid electroactive nanofluids (HENFs) of low viscosity which were tested in a home-made flow cell under static and continuous flowing conditions. Remarkably, even low concentration rGO-POMs HENFs (0.025 wt%) exhibited high specific capacitances of 273 F/g(rGO-PW 12 ) and 305 F/g(rGO-PMo 12 ) with high specific energy and specific power. Moreover, rGO-POM HENFs show excellent cycling stability (∼95 %) as well as Coulombic efficiency (∼77-79 %) after 2000 cycles. Thus, rGO-POM HENFs effectively behave as real liquid electrodes with excellent properties, demonstrating the possible future application of HENFs for dual energy storage in a new generation of Nanofluid Flow Cells. © 2018 The Chemical Society of Japan & Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Accurate live and dead bacterial cell enumeration using flow cytometry (Conference Presentation)

    Ou, Fang; McGoverin, Cushla; Swift, Simon; Vanholsbeeck, Frédérique

    2017-03-01

    Flow cytometry (FCM) is based on the detection of scattered light and fluorescence to identify cells with particular characteristics of interest. However most FCM cannot precisely control the flow through its interrogation point and hence the volume and concentration of the sample cannot be immediately obtained. The easiest, most reliable and inexpensive way of obtaining absolute counts with FCM is by using reference beads. We investigated a method of using FCM with reference beads to measure live and dead bacterial concentration over the range of 106 to 108 cells/mL and ratio varying from 0 to 100%. We believe we are the first to use this method for such a large cell concentration range while also establishing the effect of varying the live/dead bacteria ratios. Escherichia coli solutions with differing ratios of live:dead cells were stained with fluorescent dyes SYTO 9 and propidium iodide (PI), which label live and dead cells, respectively. Samples were measured using a LSR II Flow Cytometer (BD Biosciences); using 488 nm excitation with 20 mW power. Both SYTO 9 and PI fluorescence were collected and threshold was set to side scatter. Traditional culture-based plate count was done in parallel to the FCM analysis. The concentration of live bacteria from FCM was compared to that obtained by plate counts. Preliminary results show that the concentration of live bacteria obtained by FCM and plate counts correlate well with each other and indicates this may be extended to a wider concentration range or for studying other cell characteristics.

  10. Cerebral blood flow and red cell delivery in normal subjects and in multiple sclerosis

    Swank, R.L.; Roth, J.G.; Woody, D.C. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was determined in 77 normal females and 53 normal males of different ages and in 26 men and 45 women with multiple sclerosis by the inhalation of radioactive Xe133 method. In the normal subjects the CBF was relatively high in the teens and fell, at first rapidly and then slowly in both sexes with age. During adult life the flow in females was significantly higher than in males. The delivery of packed red cells (RCD) was determined by multiplying the CBF by the percentage concentration of red cells (HCT). The RCD for both sexes was nearly the same. In the patients with multiple sclerosis there occurred a progressive generalized decrease in CBF and in RCD with age which was significantly greater than observed in normal subjects. The rate of decrease in CBF and RCD correlated directly with the rate of progress of the disease

  11. A microfluidic flow-cell for the study of the ultrafast dynamics of biological systems

    Chauvet, Adrien, E-mail: adrien.chauvet@epfl.ch; Chergui, Majed [Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Laboratoire de Spectroscopie Ultrarapide, ISIC, Faculté des Sciences de Base, Station 6, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Tibiletti, Tania; Caffarri, Stefano [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, CEA, UMR 7265 Biologie Végétale et Microbiologie Environnementales, 13009 Marseille (France)

    2014-10-01

    The study of biochemical dynamics by ultrafast spectroscopic methods is often restricted by the limited amount of liquid sample available, while the high repetition rate of light sources can induce photodamage. In order to overcome these limitations, we designed a high flux, sub-ml, capillary flow-cell. While the 0.1 mm thin window of the 0.5 mm cross-section capillary ensures an optimal temporal resolution and a steady beam deviation, the cell-pump generates flows up to ~0.35 ml/s that are suitable to pump laser repetition rates up to ~14 kHz, assuming a focal spot-diameter of 100 μm. In addition, a decantation chamber efficiently removes bubbles and allows, via septum, for the addition of chemicals while preserving the closed atmosphere. The minimal useable amount of sample is ~250 μl.

  12. Detection of Intracellular Factor VIII Protein in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells by Flow Cytometry

    Gouri Shankar Pandey

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Flow cytometry is widely used in cancer research for diagnosis, detection of minimal residual disease, as well as immune monitoring and profiling following immunotherapy. Detection of specific host proteins for diagnosis predominantly uses quantitative PCR and western blotting assays. In this study, we optimized a flow cytometry-based detection assay for Factor VIII protein in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs. An indirect intracellular staining (ICS method was standardized using monoclonal antibodies to different domains of human Factor VIII protein. The FVIII protein expression level was estimated by calculating the mean and median fluorescence intensities (MFI values for each monoclonal antibody. ICS staining of transiently transfected cell lines supported the method's specificity. Intracellular FVIII protein expression was also detected by the monoclonal antibodies used in the study in PBMCs of five blood donors. In summary, our data suggest that intracellular FVIII detection in PBMCs of hemophilia A patients can be a rapid and reliable method to detect intracellular FVIII levels.

  13. A flow-through hydrothermal cell for in situ neutron diffraction studies of phase transformations

    O'Neill, Brian; Tenailleau, Christophe; Nogthai, Yung; Studer, Andrew; Brugger, Joel; Pring, Allan

    2006-01-01

    A flow-through hydrothermal cell for the in situ neutron diffraction study of crystallisation and phase transitions has been developed. It can be used for kinetic studies on materials that exhibit structural transformations under hydrothermal conditions. It is specifically designed for use on the medium-resolution powder diffractometer (MRPD) at ANSTO, Lucas Heights, Sydney. But it is planned to adapt the design for the Polaris beamline at ISIS and the new high-intensity powder diffractometer (Wombat) at the new Australian reactor Opal. The cell will operate in a flow-through mode over the temperature range from 25-300 deg. C and up to pressures of 100 bar. The first results of a successful transformation of pentlandite (Fe,Ni) 9 S 8 to violarite (Fe,Ni) 3 S 4 under mild conditions (pH∼4) at 120 deg. C and 3 bar using in situ neutron diffraction measurements are presented

  14. Flow maldistribution in the anode of a polymer electrolyte membrane electrolysis cell employing interdigitated channels

    Olesen, Anders Christian; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2014-01-01

    of liquid water towards the catalytic layer of the electrode. As opposed to the more common serpentine and parallel channels, interdigitated channels force liquid water through the porous gas diffusion layer (GDL) of the electrode. This improves the supply of water, however it increases pressure losses......-circular cell design on the distribution of water in the anode. In the electrolysis of water using PEMEC the anode is fed by demineralized water. Throughout the anode, oxygen is produced and a two-phase flow develops. Interdigitated channels assist in avoiding that gaseous oxygen obstructs the transport......: water stoichiometry, temperature, GDL permeability and thickness. In conclusion, it is found that the interdigitated flow field results in an uneven distribution across the cell and that the extent depends strongly on the permeability and weaker on the remaining parameters....

  15. Integrating a dual-silicon photoelectrochemical cell into a redox flow battery for unassisted photocharging.

    Liao, Shichao; Zong, Xu; Seger, Brian; Pedersen, Thomas; Yao, Tingting; Ding, Chunmei; Shi, Jingying; Chen, Jian; Li, Can

    2016-05-04

    Solar rechargeable flow cells (SRFCs) provide an attractive approach for in situ capture and storage of intermittent solar energy via photoelectrochemical regeneration of discharged redox species for electricity generation. However, overall SFRC performance is restricted by inefficient photoelectrochemical reactions. Here we report an efficient SRFC based on a dual-silicon photoelectrochemical cell and a quinone/bromine redox flow battery for in situ solar energy conversion and storage. Using narrow bandgap silicon for efficient photon collection and fast redox couples for rapid interface charge injection, our device shows an optimal solar-to-chemical conversion efficiency of ∼5.9% and an overall photon-chemical-electricity energy conversion efficiency of ∼3.2%, which, to our knowledge, outperforms previously reported SRFCs. The proposed SRFC can be self-photocharged to 0.8 V and delivers a discharge capacity of 730 mAh l(-1). Our work may guide future designs for highly efficient solar rechargeable devices.

  16. A three-dimensional model for negative half cell of the vanadium redox flow battery

    Ma Xiangkun; Zhang Huamin; Xing Feng

    2011-01-01

    A stationary, isothermal, three-dimensional model for negative half cell of the vanadium redox flow battery is developed, which is based on the comprehensive conservation laws, such as charge, mass and momentum, together with a kinetic model for reaction involving vanadium species. The model is validated against the results calculated by the available two-dimensional model. With the given geometry of the negative half cell, the distributions of velocity, concentration, overpotential and transfer current density in the sections that are perpendicular and parallel to the applied current are studied. It is shown that the distribution of the electrolyte velocity in the electrode has significant impact on the distribution of concentration, overpotential and transfer current density. The lower velocity in the electrode will cause the higher overpotential, further result in the side reaction and corrosion of key materials locally. The development of the design of the vanadium redox flow battery is discussed, and the further research is proposed.

  17. Generation of monodisperse cell-sized microdroplets using a centrifuge-based axisymmetric co-flowing microfluidic device.

    Yamashita, Hitoyoshi; Morita, Masamune; Sugiura, Haruka; Fujiwara, Kei; Onoe, Hiroaki; Takinoue, Masahiro

    2015-04-01

    We report an easy-to-use generation method of biologically compatible monodisperse water-in-oil microdroplets using a glass-capillary-based microfluidic device in a tabletop mini-centrifuge. This device does not require complicated microfabrication; furthermore, only a small sample volume is required in experiments. Therefore, we believe that this method will assist biochemical and cell-biological experiments. Copyright © 2014 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A zero-flow microfluidics for long-term cell culture and detection

    Shengbo Sang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A zero-flow microfluidic design is proposed in this paper, which can be used for long-term cell culture and detection, especially for a lab-on-chip integrated with a biosensor. It consists of two parts: a main microchannel; and a circle microchamber. The Finite Element Method (FEM was employed to predict the fluid transport properties for a minimum fluid flow disturbance. Some commonly used microfluidic structures were also analysed systematically to prove the designed structure. Then the designed microfluidics was fabricated. Based on the simulations and experiments, this design provides a continuous flow environment, with a relatively stable and low shear stress atmosphere, similar to a zero-flow environment. Furthermore, the nutrients maintaining cells’ normal growth can be taken into the chamber through the diffusion effect. It also proves that the microfluidics can realize long-term cell culture and detection. The application of the structure in the field of biological microelectromechenical systems (BioMEMS will provide a research foundation for microfluidic technology.

  19. Effect of flow field with converging and diverging channels on proton exchange membrane fuel cell performance

    Zehtabiyan-Rezaie, Nav