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Sample records for glancing angle deposited

  1. Texture orientation of glancing angle deposited copper nanowire arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alouach, H.; Mankey, G.J.

    2004-01-01

    Self-assembled copper nanowires were deposited on native oxide Si(100) substrates using glancing angle deposition with and without substrate rotation. Wire morphology, texture and crystallographic orientation are strongly dependent on the deposition parameters. A method for determining the preferred crystal orientation is described. This orientation is found to be different from what is expected from the geometric orientation of the wires. For wires deposited without substrate rotation, the face-centered-cubic (fcc)(111) crystal orientation, which corresponds to the close-packed, low surface energy (111) plane of copper, lies between the long axis of the wire and that normal to the substrate. X-ray diffraction data show that the wires exhibit bundling behavior perpendicular to the plane of incidence. For samples deposited with azimuthal rotation of the substrate, the fcc(111) directions in the wires are evenly distributed in a cone around the long axis of the wires, which point normal to the substrate. When the substrate is rotated during deposition at an angle of 75 deg., the wires exhibit a strong fcc(220) texture. These observations show that wires deposited with substrate rotation are highly textured and have random orientations in the plane of the substrate

  2. Control of ordered mesoporous titanium dioxide nanostructures formed using plasma enhanced glancing angle deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibson, Des [Institute of Thin Films, Sensors & Imaging, Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, University of West of Scotland, Paisley, PA1 2BE (United Kingdom); Child, David, E-mail: david.child@uws.ac.uk [Institute of Thin Films, Sensors & Imaging, Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, University of West of Scotland, Paisley, PA1 2BE (United Kingdom); Song, Shigeng; Zhao, Chao [Institute of Thin Films, Sensors & Imaging, Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, University of West of Scotland, Paisley, PA1 2BE (United Kingdom); Alajiani, Yahya [Institute of Thin Films, Sensors & Imaging, Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, University of West of Scotland, Paisley, PA1 2BE (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Jazan University, Jazan (Saudi Arabia); Waddell, Ewan [Thin Film Solutions Ltd, West of Scotland Science Park, Glasgow, G20 0TH (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-01

    Three dimensional nanostructures of mesoporous (pore diameter between 2-50 nm) nanocrystalline titania (TiO{sub 2}) were produced using glancing angle deposition combined with plasma ion assisted deposition, providing plasma enhanced glancing angle deposition eliminating the need for post-annealing to achieve film crystallinity. Electron beam evaporation was chosen to deposit nanostructures at various azimuthal angles, achieving designed variation in three dimensional nanostructure. A thermionic broad beam hollow cathode plasma source was used to enhance electron beam deposition, with ability to vary in real time ion fluxes and energies providing a means to modify and control TiO{sub 2} nanostructure real time with controlled density and porosity along and lateral to film growth direction. Plasma ion assisted deposition was carried out at room temperature using a hollow cathode plasma source, ensuring low heat loading to the substrate during deposition. Plasma enhanced glancing angle TiO{sub 2} structures were deposited onto borosilicate microscope slides and used to characterise the effects of glancing angle and plasma ion energy distribution function on the optical and nanostructural properties. Variation in TiO{sub 2} refractive index from 1.40 to 2.45 (@ 550 nm) using PEGLAD is demonstrated. Results and analysis of the influence of plasma enhanced glancing angle deposition on evaporant path and resultant glancing angle deviation from standard GLAD are described. Control of mesoporous morphology is described, providing a means of optimising light trapping features and film porosity, relevant to applications such as fabrication of dye sensitised solar cells. - Highlights: • Plasma assistance during glancing angle deposition enables control of morphology. • Ion energy variation during glancing angle deposition varies columnar angle • Column thickness of glancing angle deposition dependant on ion current density • Ion current density variation during

  3. The structure of Ta nanopillars grown by glancing angle deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, C.M.; Gall, D.

    2006-01-01

    Regular arrays of Ta nanopillars, 200 nm wide and 500 nm tall, were grown on SiO 2 nanosphere patterns by glancing angle sputter deposition (GLAD). Plan-view and cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy analyses show dramatic changes in the structure and morphology of individual nanopillars as a function of growth temperature T s ranging from 200 to 700 deg. C. At low temperatures, T s ≤ 300 deg. C, single nanopillars develop on each sphere and branch into subpillars near the pillar top. In contrast, T s ≥ 500 deg. C leads to branching during the nucleation stage at the pillar bottom. The top branching at low T s is associated with surface mounds on a growing pillar that, due to atomic shadowing, develop into separated subpillars. At high T s , the branching occurs during the nucleation stage where multiple nuclei on a single SiO 2 sphere develop into subpillars during a competitive growth mode which, in turn, leads to intercolumnar competition and the extinction of some nanopillars

  4. The Effect of Glancing Angle Deposition Conditions on the Morphology of a Silver Nanohelix Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Jun Jen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Silver nanohelices were grown on smooth substrates using glancing angle deposition and substrate cooling. Various nanohelix arrays were deposited under different deposition conditions—different deposition rates, substrate spin rates, deposition angles, and substrate temperatures. The effect of deposition conditions on the morphology of each nanohelix array in terms of pitch angle, pitch length, wire diameter, and radius of curvature was investigated. The dependence of circular dichroism on the size of the nanohelix arrays was also measured and demonstrated.

  5. Growth characteristics of inclined columns produced by Glancing Angle Deposition (GLAD) and colloidal lithography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Morten; Besenbacher, Flemming; Sutherland, Duncan S

    2011-01-01

    Nanocolumns were produced by performing Glancing Angle Deposition (GLAD) onto self-assembled template arrays consisting of platinum coated polystyrene spheres. By varying the angle of incidence (θ = 35°, 10° and 5°) and the deposited surface mass density it was possible to control the shape of th...

  6. Synthesis of functional nanomaterials via colloidal mask templating and glancing angle deposition (GLAD)”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolatshahi-Pirouz, Alireza; Jensen, Thomas Bo; Vorup-Jensen, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    We present a simple method for the fabrication of separated brush-like networks with both improved optical and biological properties. The brush networks were fabricated by combing the glancing angle deposition (GLAD) technique with colloidal mask templating. By changing the deposition angle durin...... of multifunctional nanomaterials which could have potential impact on devices where both controlled optical properties and cell surface interactions are needed (for instance controlled cell adhesion on optical biosensor materials).......We present a simple method for the fabrication of separated brush-like networks with both improved optical and biological properties. The brush networks were fabricated by combing the glancing angle deposition (GLAD) technique with colloidal mask templating. By changing the deposition angle during...

  7. Structured Ti/hydrocarbon plasma polymer nanocomposites produced by magnetron sputtering with glancing angle deposition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Choukourov, A.; Solar, P.; Polonskyi, O.; Hanus, J.; Drabik, M.; Kylian, O.; Pavlova, Ewa; Slavinska, D.; Biederman, H.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 1 (2010), s. 25-32 ISSN 1612-8850 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : glancing angle deposition * nanocomposites * nanostructures Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.643, year: 2010

  8. Fabrication of black-gold coatings by glancing angle deposition with sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Vitrey

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The fabrication of black-gold coatings using sputtering is reported here. Glancing angle deposition with a rotating substrate is needed to obtain vertical nanostructures. Enhanced light absorption is obtained in the samples prepared in the ballistic regime with high tilt angles. Under these conditions the diameter distribution of the nanostructures is centered at about 60 nm and the standard deviation is large enough to obtain black-metal behavior in the visible range.

  9. Synthesis of functional nanomaterials via colloidal mask templating and glancing angle deposition (GLAD)”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolatshahi-Pirouz, Alireza; Jensen, Thomas Bo; Vorup-Jensen, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    We present a simple method for the fabrication of separated brush-like networks with both improved optical and biological properties. The brush networks were fabricated by combing the glancing angle deposition (GLAD) technique with colloidal mask templating. By changing the deposition angle during...... indicate that localized surface plasmons are present on the GLAD templated surfaces while cell assays with monocyte cells showed an impaired attachment to the brush structures. Consequently, deposition by means of a colloidal mask templating is indeed a very tunable and suited technique for the fabrication...

  10. Glancing angle deposition of thin films engineering the nanoscale

    CERN Document Server

    Hawkeye, Matthew M; Brett, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a highly practical treatment of GLAD technology, gathering existing procedures, methodologies, and experimental designs into a single, cohesive volume which will be useful both as a ready reference for those in the field and as a definitive guide for those entering it. It covers: History and development of GLAD techniquesProperties and Characterization of GLAD fabricated filmsDesign and engineering of optical GLAD films including fabrication and testingPost-deposition processing and integrationDeposition systems for GLAD fabrication Also includes a patent survey of relevant literature and a survey of GLAD's wide range of material properties and diverse applications.

  11. Gold coated metal nanostructures grown by glancing angle deposition and pulsed electroplating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grüner, Christoph; Reeck, Pascal; Jacobs, Paul-Philipp; Liedtke, Susann; Lotnyk, Andriy; Rauschenbach, Bernd

    2018-05-01

    Nickel based nanostructures are grown by glancing angle deposition (GLAD) on flat and pre-patterned substrates. These fabricated porous thin films were subsequently coated by pulsed electroplating with gold. The morphology and conformity of the gold coating were investigated by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Controlled growth of closed gold layers on the nanostructures could be achieved, while the open-pore structure of the nanosculptured thin films was preserved. Such gold coated nanostructures are a candidate for optical sensing and catalysis applications. The demonstrated method can be applied for numerous material combinations, allowing to provide GLAD thin films with new surface properties.

  12. Growth Assisted by Glancing Angle Deposition: A New Technique to Fabricate Highly Porous Anisotropic Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Valencia, Juan Ramon; Longtin, Remi; Rossell, Marta D; Gröning, Pierangelo

    2016-04-06

    We report a new methodology based on glancing angle deposition (GLAD) of an organic molecule in combination with perpendicular growth of a second inorganic material. The resulting thin films retain a very well-defined tilted columnar microstructure characteristic of GLAD with the inorganic material embedded inside the columns. We refer to this new methodology as growth assisted by glancing angle deposition or GAGLAD, since the material of interest (here, the inorganic) grows in the form of tilted columns, though it is deposited under a nonglancing configuration. As a "proof of concept", we have used silver and zinc oxide as the perpendicularly deposited material since they usually form ill-defined columnar microstructures at room temperature by GLAD. By means of our GAGLAD methodology, the typical tilted columnar microstructure can be developed for materials that otherwise do not form ordered structures under conventional GLAD. This simple methodology broadens significantly the range of materials where control of the microstructure can be achieved by tuning the geometrical deposition parameters. The two examples presented here, Ag/Alq3 and ZnO/Alq3, have been deposited by physical vapor deposition (PVD) and plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD), respectively: two different vacuum techniques that illustrate the generality of the proposed technique. The two type of hybrid samples present very interesting properties that demonstrate the potentiality of GAGLAD. On one hand, the Ag/Alq3 samples present highly optical anisotropic properties when they are analyzed with linearly polarized light. To our knowledge, these Ag/Alq3 samples present the highest angular selectivity reported in the visible range. On the other hand, ZnO/Alq3 samples are used to develop highly porous ZnO thin films by using Alq3 as sacrificial material. In this way, antireflective ZnO samples with very low refractive index and extinction coefficient have been obtained.

  13. Glancing angle deposited Al-doped ZnO nanostructures with different structural and optical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yildiz, A., E-mail: yildizab@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Arkansas at Little Rock, Little Rock, AR 72204 (United States); Department of Energy Systems Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences, Yıldırım Beyazıt University, Ankara (Turkey); Cansizoglu, H. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Arkansas at Little Rock, Little Rock, AR 72204 (United States); Turkoz, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Arkansas at Little Rock, Little Rock, AR 72204 (United States); Department of Electrical-Electronic Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Karabuk, Karabuk (Turkey); Abdulrahman, R.; Al-Hilo, Alaa; Cansizoglu, M.F.; Demirkan, T.M.; Karabacak, T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Arkansas at Little Rock, Little Rock, AR 72204 (United States)

    2015-08-31

    Al-doped ZnO (AZO) nanostructure arrays with different shapes (tilted rods, vertical rods, spirals, and zigzags) were fabricated by utilizing glancing angle deposition (GLAD) technique in a DC sputter growth unit at room temperature. During GLAD, all the samples were tilted at an oblique angle of about 90° with respect to incoming flux direction. In order to vary the shapes of nanostructures, each sample was rotated at different speeds around the substrate normal axis. Rotation speed did not only affect the shape but also changed the microstructural and optical properties of GLAD AZO nanostructures. The experimental results reveal that GLAD AZO nanostructures of different shapes each have unique morphological, crystal structure, mechanical, and optical properties determined by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission, and reflectance measurements. Vertical nanorods display the largest grain size, minimum strain, lowest defect density, and highest optical transmittance compared to the other shapes. Growth dynamics of GLAD has been discussed to explain the dependence of structural and optical properties of nanostructures on the substrate rotation speed. - Highlights: • Al-doped ZnO (AZO) nanostructures with different shapes were fabricated. • They have unique morphological, crystal structure, and optical properties. • Vertical AZO nanorods show an enhanced optical transmittance.

  14. Organic Photovoltaic Cells Based on PbPc Nanocolumns Prepared by Glancing Angle Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic small material lead phthalocyanine (PbPc nanocolumns were prepared via glancing angle deposition (GLAD on indium tin oxide (ITO coated glass substrates. Organic electron acceptor materials fullerene (C60 was evaporated onto the nanocolumn PbPc thin films to prepare heterojunction structure ITO/PbPc/C60/Bphen/Al organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs. It is worthwhile to mention that C60 molecules firstly fill the voids between PbPc nanocolumns and then form impact C60 layer. The interpenetrating electron donor/acceptor structure effectively enhances interface between electron donor and electron acceptor, which is beneficial to exciton dissociation. The short circuit current density (Jsc of organic photovoltaic devices (OPVs based on PbPc nanocolumn was increased from 1.19 mA/cm2 to 1.74 mA/cm2, which should be attributed to the increase of interface between donor and acceptor. The effect of illumination intensity on the performance of OPVs was investigated by controlling the distance between light source and sample, and the Jsc of two kind of OPVs was increased along with the increase of illumination intensity.

  15. Structure-related antibacterial activity of a titanium nanostructured surface fabricated by glancing angle sputter deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sengstock, Christina; Borgmann, Anna; Schildhauer, Thomas A; Köller, Manfred; Lopian, Michael; Motemani, Yahya; Khare, Chinmay; Buenconsejo, Pio John S; Ludwig, Alfred

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to reproduce the physico-mechanical antibacterial effect of the nanocolumnar cicada wing surface for metallic biomaterials by fabrication of titanium (Ti) nanocolumnar surfaces using glancing angle sputter deposition (GLAD). Nanocolumnar Ti thin films were fabricated by GLAD on silicon substrates. S. aureus as well as E. coli were incubated with nanostructured or reference dense Ti thin film test samples for one or three hours at 37 °C. Bacterial adherence, morphology, and viability were analyzed by fluorescence staining and scanning electron microscopy and compared to human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). Bacterial adherence was not significantly different after short (1 h) incubation on the dense or the nanostructured Ti surface. In contrast to S. aureus the viability of E. coli was significantly decreased after 3 h on the nanostructured film compared to the dense film and was accompanied by an irregular morphology and a cell wall deformation. Cell adherence, spreading and viability of hMSCs were not altered on the nanostructured surface. The results show that the selective antibacterial effect of the cicada wing could be transferred to a nanostructured metallic biomaterial by mimicking the natural nanocolumnar topography. (papers)

  16. Broadband and wide-angle distributed Bragg reflectors based on amorphous germanium films by glancing angle deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leem, Jung Woo; Yu, Jae Su

    2012-08-27

    We fabricated the distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs) with amorphous germanium (a-Ge) films consisted of the same materials at a center wavelength (λc) of 1.33 μm by the glancing angle deposition. Their optical reflectance properties were investigated in the infrared wavelength region of 1-1.9 μm at incident light angles (θ inc) of 8-70°, together with the theoretical analysis using a rigorous coupled-wave analysis simulation. The two alternating a-Ge films at the incident vapor flux angles of 0 and 75° were formed as the high and low refractive index materials, respectively. The a-Ge DBR with only 5 periods exhibited a normalized stop bandwidth (∆λ/λ c) of ~24.1%, maintaining high reflectance (R) values of > 99%. Even at a high θ inc of 70°, the ∆λ/λ c was ~21.9%, maintaining R values of > 85%. The a-Ge DBR with good uniformity was obtained over the area of a 2 inch Si wafer. The calculated reflectance results showed a similar tendency to the measured data.

  17. Fabrication of a Large-Area Superhydrophobic SiO2 Nanorod Structured Surface Using Glancing Angle Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xun Lu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A glancing angle deposition (GLAD technique was used to generate SiO2 nanorods on a glass substrate to fabricate a low-cost superhydrophobic functional nanostructured surface. GLAD-deposited SiO2 nanorod structures were fabricated using various deposition rates, substrate rotating speeds, oblique angles, and deposition times to analyze the effects of processing conditions on the characteristics of the fabricated functional nanostructures. The wettability of the surface was measured after surface modification with a self-assembled monolayer (SAM. The measured water contact angles were primarily affected by substrate rotation speed and oblique angle because the surface fraction of the GLAD nanostructure was mainly affected by these parameters. A maximum contact angle of 157° was obtained from the GLAD sample fabricated at a rotation speed of 5 rpm and an oblique angle of 87°. Although the deposition thickness (height of the nanorods was not a dominant factor for determining the wettability, we selected a deposition thickness of 260 nm as the optimum processing condition based on the measured optical transmittance of the samples because optically transparent films can serve as superhydrophobic functional nanostructures for optical applications.

  18. Modification of the morphology and optical properties of SnS films using glancing angle deposition technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sazideh, M.R., E-mail: Mohammadrezasazideh@gmail.com [Thin Film Lab., Faculty of Physics, Semnan University, Semnan, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Dizaji, H. Rezagholipour, E-mail: hrgholipour@semnan.ac.ir [Faculty of Physics, Semnan University, P.O. Box: 35195-363, Semnan, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ehsani, M.H., E-mail: mhe_ehsani@yahoo.com [Faculty of Physics, Semnan University, P.O. Box: 35195-363, Semnan, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moghadam, R. Zarei, E-mail: r.zarei1991@gmail.com [Thin Film Lab., Faculty of Physics, Semnan University, Semnan, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-05-31

    Highlights: • SnS thin films produced by thermal evaporation method using glancing angle deposition technique. • At α = 85° the layers show a considerable change in effective refractive index (Δn = 1.7) at near-IR spectral range. • FESEM images showed drastic changes in the structure and morphology of individual nano-plates as a function of incident angle deposition. - Abstract: Tin sulfide (SnS) films were prepared by thermal evaporation method using Glancing Angle Deposition (GLAD) technique at zero and different oblique incident flux angles (α = 45°, 55°, 65°, 75° and 85°). The physical properties of prepared films were systematically investigated. The X-ray diffraction analysis indicated that the film deposited at α = 0° formed as single phase with an orthorhombic structure. However, the layers became amorphous at α = 45°, 55°, 65°, 75° and 85°. Beside the appearance of amorphous feature in the film prepared at α higher than zero, Sn{sub 2}S{sub 3} phase was also observed. The top and cross-sectional field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) images of the samples showed noticeable changes in the structure and morphology of individual nano-plates as a function of incident angle. The band gap and refractive index values of the films were calculated by optical transmission measurements. The optical band-gap values were observed to increase with increasing the incident flux angle. This can be due to presence of Sn{sub 2}S{sub 3} phase observed in the samples produced at α values other than zero. The effective refractive index and porosity exhibit an opposite evolution as the incident angle α rises. At α = 85° the layers show a considerable change in effective refractive index (Δn = 1.7) at near-IR spectral range.

  19. Investigation of growth and characterization of nanostructured CuIn5S8 thin films produced by glancing angle deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinaoui, A.; Chaffar-Akkari, F.; Gallas, B.; Demaille, D.; Kanzari, M.

    2015-01-01

    Ternary chalcogenide of copper and indium (CuIn 5 S 8 ) thin films were grown by thermal evaporation method using GLancing Angle Deposition (GLAD) technique. The samples were prepared under different incident angles (α = 0°, 40°, 60° and 85° measured from the normal to the substrate surface) with a substrate rotation of 2 rpm. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and ultraviolet–visible-infrared spectra are employed to characterize the microstructure and optical properties of the CuIn 5 S 8 thin films deposited by this technique. Under the GLAD conditions, we demonstrate that with substrate rotation, the columns were grown vertically due to the shadowing symmetry. The optical constants of the deposited films were determined from the analysis of transmission and reflection data. The results show that the refractive index and the thickness were decreased as α rises from 0° to 85° while the porosity and the Urbach energy were increased with increasing of the incident angle. The minimum refractive index is found to be 2.03 for the helical CuIn 5 S 8 film deposited at an angle of 85° and the Urbach energy was found to increase from 0.29 to 0.5 eV as α rises from 0° to 85°. Such changes of the optical behaviors are correlated with changes of the microstructure, especially a porous architecture which is favored for high incident angle. These properties exhibit potential for use in applications such as photonic crystals, graded index optical filters, and birefrigent omnidirectional reflectors. - Highlights: • GLancing angle deposition technique was employed to prepare CuIn 5 S 8 thin films. • CuIn 5 S 8 films exhibit a spinel structure with a preferred orientation along 311. • With substrate rotation, the columns were grown vertically due to shadowing symmetry. • The refractive index decreases with increasing glancing angle deposition. • Variations of the optical behaviors were correlated to the highly porous structure

  20. Growth and properties of the CuInS2 thin films produced by glancing angle deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akkari, F. Chaffar; Kanzari, M.; Rezig, B.

    2008-01-01

    We use the glancing angle deposition technique (GLAD) to grow CuInS 2 thin films by a vacuum thermal method onto glass substrates. During deposition, the substrate temperature was maintained at 200 deg. C. Due to shadowing effect the oblique angle deposition technique can produce nanorods tilted toward the incident deposition flux. The evaporated atoms arrive at the growing interface at a fixed angle θ measured from the substrate normal. The substrate is rotated with rotational speed ω fixed at 0.033 rev s -1 . We show that the use of this growth technique leads to an improvement in the optical properties of the films. Indeed high absorption coefficients (10 5 -3.10 5 cm -1 ) in the visible range and near-IR spectral range are reached. In the case of the absence of the substrate rotation, scanning electron microscopy pictures show that the structure of the resulting film consists of nanocolumns that are progressively inclined towards the evaporation source as the incident angle was increased. If a rapid azimuthal rotation accompanies the substrate tilt, the resulting nanostructure is composed of an array of pillars normal to the substrate. The surface morphology show an improvement without presence of secondary phases for higher incident angles (θ > 60 deg.)

  1. A comparative study on omnidirectional anti-reflection SiO2 nanostructure films coating by glancing angle deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prachachet, R.; Samransuksamer, B.; Horprathum, M.; Eiamchai, P.; Limwichean, S.; Chananonnawathorn, C.; Lertvanithphol, T.; Muthitamongkol, P.; Boonruang, S.; Buranasiri, P.

    2018-02-01

    Fabricated omnidirectional anti-reflection nanostructure films as a one of the promising alternative solar cell applications have attracted enormous scientific and industrial research benefits to their broadband, effective over a wide range of incident angles, lithography-free and high-throughput process. Recently, the nanostructure SiO2 film was the most inclusive study on anti-reflection with omnidirectional and broadband characteristics. In this work, the three-dimensional silicon dioxide (SiO2) nanostructured thin film with different morphologies including vertical align, slant, spiral and thin films were fabricated by electron beam evaporation with glancing angle deposition (GLAD) on the glass slide and silicon wafer substrate. The morphological of the prepared samples were characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM). The transmission, omnidirectional and birefringence property of the nanostructure SiO2 films were investigated by UV-Vis-NIR spectrophotometer and variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometer (VASE). The spectrophotometer measurement was performed at normal incident angle and a full spectral range of 200 - 2000 nm. The angle dependent transmission measurements were investigated by rotating the specimen, with incidence angle defined relative to the surface normal of the prepared samples. This study demonstrates that the obtained SiO2 nanostructure film coated on glass slide substrate exhibits a higher transmission was 93% at normal incident angle. In addition, transmission measurement in visible wavelength and wide incident angles -80 to 80 were increased in comparison with the SiO2 thin film and glass slide substrate due to the transition in the refractive index profile from air to the nanostructure layer that improve the antireflection characteristics. The results clearly showed the enhanced omnidirectional and broadband characteristic of the three dimensional Si

  2. Towards engineered branch placement: Unreal™ match between vapour-liquid-solid glancing angle deposition nanowire growth and simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taschuk, M. T.; Tucker, R. T.; LaForge, J. M.; Beaudry, A. L.; Kupsta, M. R.; Brett, M. J.

    2013-01-01

    The vapour-liquid-solid glancing angle deposition (VLS-GLAD) process is capable of producing complex nanotree structures with control over azimuthal branch orientation and height. We have developed a thin film growth simulation including ballistic deposition, simplified surface diffusion, and droplet-mediated cubic crystal growth for the VLS-GLAD process using the Unreal TM Development Kit. The use of a commercial game engine has provided an interactive environment while allowing a custom physics implementation. Our simulation's output is verified against experimental data, including a volumetric film reconstruction produced using focused ion beam and scanning-electron microscopy (SEM), crystallographic texture, and morphological characteristics such as branch orientation. We achieve excellent morphological and texture agreement with experimental data, as well as qualitative agreement with SEM imagery. The simplified physics in our model reproduces the experimental films, indicating that the dominant role flux geometry plays in the VLS-GLAD competitive growth process responsible for azimuthally oriented branches and biaxial crystal texture evolution. The simulation's successful reproduction of experimental data indicates that it should have predictive power in designing novel VLS-GLAD structures

  3. Towards engineered branch placement: Unreal™ match between vapour-liquid-solid glancing angle deposition nanowire growth and simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taschuk, M. T.; Tucker, R. T.; LaForge, J. M.; Beaudry, A. L.; Kupsta, M. R.; Brett, M. J.

    2013-12-01

    The vapour-liquid-solid glancing angle deposition (VLS-GLAD) process is capable of producing complex nanotree structures with control over azimuthal branch orientation and height. We have developed a thin film growth simulation including ballistic deposition, simplified surface diffusion, and droplet-mediated cubic crystal growth for the VLS-GLAD process using the UnrealTM Development Kit. The use of a commercial game engine has provided an interactive environment while allowing a custom physics implementation. Our simulation's output is verified against experimental data, including a volumetric film reconstruction produced using focused ion beam and scanning-electron microscopy (SEM), crystallographic texture, and morphological characteristics such as branch orientation. We achieve excellent morphological and texture agreement with experimental data, as well as qualitative agreement with SEM imagery. The simplified physics in our model reproduces the experimental films, indicating that the dominant role flux geometry plays in the VLS-GLAD competitive growth process responsible for azimuthally oriented branches and biaxial crystal texture evolution. The simulation's successful reproduction of experimental data indicates that it should have predictive power in designing novel VLS-GLAD structures.

  4. All-solid-state thin film battery based on well-aligned slanted LiCoO{sub 2} nanowires fabricated by glancing angle deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Miyoung [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seunghwan [High Temperature Energy Materials Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Energy Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Daehee [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Joosun, E-mail: joosun@kist.re.kr [High Temperature Energy Materials Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Jooho, E-mail: jmoon@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-08-01

    Graphical abstract: We successfully fabricated well-aligned slanted LiCoO{sub 2} nanowires as a one-dimensional nanostructured cathode by glancing angle deposition to enhance the electrochemical performance of all-solid-state thin film batteries. - Highlights: • Well-aligned slanted LiCoO{sub 2} nanowires are fabricated by glancing angle deposition. • One-dimensional nanostructured LiCoO{sub 2} cathode enlarges the contact area. • All-solid-state thin film battery exhibits enhances rate capability and cycling stability. - Abstract: We fabricated all-solid-state thin film batteries based on well-aligned slanted LiCoO{sub 2} nanowires by glancing angle deposition, as a facile template-free method in order to increase the electrochemically active site, i.e., the contact area between the solid electrolyte and the electrode. A highly porous thin film composed of well-separated slanted LiCoO{sub 2} nanowires not only facilitates the penetration of solid electrolyte phase into the cathode, but also alleviates the thermally and mechanically induced stresses during post-annealing and electrochemical cycling. The all-solid-state thin film battery based on the well-aligned slanted LiCoO{sub 2} nanowires, whose contact area between electrolyte and electrode was three times as high as that of a dense thin film, could provide additional migration pathways for lithium ion diffusion due to the enlarged reaction sites. This resulted in enhanced electrochemical kinetics, thereby leading to better rate capability and long-term cyclic stability as compared to the dense LiCoO{sub 2} thin film.

  5. The influence of glancing angle deposited nano-rough platinum surfaces on the adsorption of fibrinogen and the proliferation of primary human fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolatshahi-Pirouz, A; Foss, M; Chevallier, J; Besenbacher, F; Pennisi, C P; Yoshida, K; Skeldal, S; Andreasen, P; Zachar, V

    2009-01-01

    We have used the glancing angle deposition (GLAD) method as a simple and fast method to generate nano-rough surfaces for protein adsorption experiments and cell assays. The surface roughness and the detailed geometrical surface morphology of the thin films were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). As the GLAD deposition angle approaches grazing incidence, sharp and whisker-like columnar protrusions are formed. Smaller and less sharp surface features appear for the thin films synthesized at higher deposition angles. By changing the GLAD deposition angle together with the total amount of mass deposited per area on the respective surfaces, the size of the surface features can be varied on the nanoscale. Using the GLAD topographies as model surfaces, we have investigated the influence of the nano-roughness on fibrinogen adsorption and on the proliferation of primary human fibroblasts. It is found that fibrinogen, an important blood protein, preferentially adheres on the whisker-like nano-rough substrates in comparison to a flat surface. Furthermore, the proliferation of the human fibroblasts is significantly reduced on the nano-rough substrates. These results demonstrate that the GLAD technique can be used to fabricate nano-rough surface morphologies that significantly influence both protein and cellular adhesion to surfaces and are therefore well suited for biological assays.

  6. Glancing angle x-ray studies of oxide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davenport, A.J.; Isaacs, H.S.

    1989-01-01

    High brightness synchrotron radiation incident at glancing angles has been used to study inhibiting species present in low concentrations in oxide films on aluminum. Glancing incident angle fluorescence measurements give surface-sensitive information on the valence state of elements from the shape of the x-ray absorption edge. Angle-resolved measurements show the depth distribution of the species present. 15 refs., 4 figs

  7. Zigzag and Helical AlN Layer Prepared by Glancing Angle Deposition and Its Application as a Buffer Layer in a GaN-Based Light-Emitting Diode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lung-Chien Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates an aluminum nitride (AlN nanorod structure sputtered by glancing angle deposition (GLAD and its application as a buffer layer for GaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs that are fabricated on sapphire substrates. The ray tracing method is adopted with a three-dimensional model in TracePro software. Simulation results indicate that the zigzag AlN nanorod structure is an optimal buffer layer in a GaN-based LED. Furthermore, the light output power of a GaN-based LED with a zigzag AlN nanorod structure improves to as much as 28.6% at a forward current of 20 mA over that of the GaN-based LED with a normal AlN buffer layer.

  8. Structural and optical properties of glancing angle deposited In{sub 2}O{sub 3} columnar arrays and Si/In{sub 2}O{sub 3} photodetector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mondal, A.; Shougaijam, B.; Goswami, T.; Dhar, J.C.; Singh, N.K. [National Institute of Technology, Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Agartala (India); Choudhury, S. [North Eastern Hill University, Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Shillong (India); Chattopadhay, K.K. [Jadavpur University, Department of Physics, Kolkata (India)

    2014-04-15

    Ordered and perpendicular columnar arrays of In{sub 2}O{sub 3} were synthesized on conducting ITO electrode by a simple glancing angle deposition (GLAD) technique. The as-deposited In{sub 2}O{sub 3} columns were investigated by field emission gun-scanning electron microscope (FEG-SEM). The average length and diameter of the columns were estimated ∝400 nm and ∝100 nm, respectively. The morphology of the structure was examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis shows the polycrystalline nature of the sample which was verified by selective area electron diffraction (SAED) analysis. The growth mechanism and optical properties of the columns were also discussed. Optical absorption shows that In{sub 2}O{sub 3} columns have a high band to band transition at ∝3.75 eV. The ultraviolet and green emissions were obtained from the In{sub 2}O{sub 3} columnar arrays. The P-N junction was formed between In{sub 2}O{sub 3} and P-type Si substrate. The GLAD synthesized In{sub 2}O{sub 3} film exhibits low current conduction compared to In{sub 2}O{sub 3} TF. However, the Si/GLAD-In{sub 2}O{sub 3} detector shows ∝1.5 times enhanced photoresponsivity than that of Si/In{sub 2}O{sub 3} TF. (orig.)

  9. Glancing-angle scattering of fast ions at crystal surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mannami, Michihiko; Narumi, Kazumasa; Katoh, Humiya; Kimura, Kenji [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-03-01

    Glancing angle scattering of fast ions from a single crystal surface is a novel technique to study ion-surface interaction. Results of recent studies of ion-surface interaction are reviewed for ions with velocities faster than the Fermi velocity of solid. For the ions with velocities less than the Fermi velocity of target valence electrons the ion-surface interaction shows a new aspect where only the valence electrons of target solid participate in the stopping processes. It will show that the position-dependent stopping power of a surface for these ions governed by the elastic collisions of valence electrons and the ions. A method is proposed from this position-dependent stopping power to derived the electron density distribution averaged over the plane parallel to the surface. (author)

  10. X-ray fluorescence analysis of thin films at glancing-incident and -takeoff angles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, K.; Sato, S.; Hirokawa, K.

    1995-01-01

    We have developed a new analytical method, Glancing-Incidence and -Takeoff X-Ray Fluorescence (GIT-XRF) method for the first time. Here, we present an idea for a thin-film analysis and a surface analysis by the GIT-XRF method. In this method, the dependence of the fluorescent x-ray intensity on takeoff angle is measured at various incident angles of the primary x-ray. Compared with a total reflection x-ray fluorescence method, the GIT-XRF method allows a detailed thin-film analysis, because the thin film is cross-checked by many experimental curves. Moreover, a surface-sensitive analysis is also possible by the GIT-XRF method. (author)

  11. Corrections of residual fluorescence distortions for a glancing-emergence-angle x-ray-absorption technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brewe, D.L.; Pease, D.M.; Budnick, J.I.

    1994-01-01

    Distortions appear in x-ray-absorption spectra obtained by monitoring the fluorescence from thick samples with concentrated absorbing species. The glancing-emergence-angle technique for obtaining spectra from this type of sample eliminates distortions from the measured spectra by monitoring the fluorescence leaving the sample at a small angle relative to the sample surface. This technique is limited by the small signal available from the inherently limited detector solid angle. In addition, no precise estimate of the required restriction on maximum emergent angle θ max has been available. We have calculated residual extended x-ray-absorption fine structure distortions as a function of θ max , and performed experimental tests of the calculations. These calculations provide a means to estimate the required detector geometry for negligible distortions, or alternatively, allow the use of a larger θ max , increasing the available signal, with the remaining residual distortions removed by application of the calculations. The calculations are also applicable to other detector geometries, and account for detectors subtending a large solid angle by an integration over the subtended angle. This represents an improvement over previous calculations. The application to more general detector configurations is also discussed

  12. Morphology control of tungsten nanorods grown by glancing angle RF magnetron sputtering under variable argon pressure and flow rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khedir, Khedir R.; Kannarpady, Ganesh K.; Ishihara, Hidetaka; Woo, Justin; Ryerson, Charles; Biris, Alexandru S.

    2010-01-01

    Morphologically novel tungsten nanorods (WNRs) with the co-existence of two crystalline phases, α-W (thermodynamically stable) and β-W, were fabricated by glancing angle RF magnetron sputtering technique under various Ar pressures and flow rates. For these nanorods, a significant variation in their morphology and surface roughness was observed. These structures could be useful in a wide range of applications such as field emission, robust superhydrophobic coatings, energy, and medicine.

  13. Effect of surface roughness on takeoff-angle-dependent X-ray fluorescence of ultrathin films at glancing incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, Kouichi; Hirokawa, Kichinosuke; Sasaki, Atsushi.

    1994-01-01

    We had previously shown that takeoff-angle-dependent X-ray fluorescence (TAD-XRF) at glancing incidence is a useful method for the characterization of thin films. Here we report the effect of surface roughness of the substrate on TAD-XRF of an ultrathin film at a glancing incidence. An optically flat glass, scratched glasses and plano-convex lenses were used as substrates. A large-range contour such as warp and a roughness of microscopic scale affect the TAD-XRF profile. Therefore, to characterize the ultrathin film by the TAD-XRF method, the material whose roughness is being investigated should be used as the substrate in TAD-XRF measurement. (author)

  14. Study on initial stage of hetero-epitaxial growth by glancing angle scattering of fast ions from surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Yoshikazu; Toba, Kazuaki; Narumi, Kazumasa; Kimura, Kenji; Mannami, Michihiko

    1993-01-01

    Initial stages of epitaxial growth of lead chalcogenides on the (100) surface of SnTe under UHV conditions are studied from the angular distribution of scattered ions at glancing angle incidence of 0.7 MeV He ions on the growing surfaces. Real time measurement of the angular distribution is performed during the growth. Anomalous broadening of the angular distribution is observed at the initial stage of the growth. The broadening is attributed to the surface wrinkles induced by a square network of misfit edge dislocations. (author)

  15. Effect of angle of deposition on micro-roughness parameters and optical properties of HfO{sub 2} thin films deposited by reactive electron beam evaporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokas, R.B., E-mail: tokasstar@gmail.com; Jena, S.; Thakur, S.; Sahoo, N.K.

    2016-06-30

    Oblique angle deposited oxide thin films, in which refractive index profiles can be tailored across depth by tuning their microstructure using varying angle of deposition, have opened up new dimensions in fabrication of optical interference devices. Since surface morphology plays an important role for the qualification of these thin film devices for optical or other applications, it is important to investigate morphological properties of obliquely deposited thin films. In the present work, a set of HfO{sub 2} thin films have been deposited at several oblique angles. Morphological parameters of such thin films viz., correlation length, intrinsic roughness, fractal spectral strength, etc., have been determined through suitable modelling of extended power spectral density measured by atomic force microscopy. It has been found that intrinsic roughness and fractal spectral strength show an interesting behaviour with deposition angle and the same has been discussed in the light of atomic shadowing and re-emission and diffusion of ad-atoms. Further refractive index and thickness of such thin films have been estimated from optical transmission spectra through suitable modelling. Refractive index of such thin film varies from 1.93 to 1.37 as the deposition angle varies from normal to glancing angle (80°). Further, refractive index and grain size depict an opposite trend with deposition angle. This variation has been explained in terms of varying film porosity and column slanting with angle of deposition. - Highlights: • HfO{sub 2} thin films deposited at several oblique angles • Film deposited at 80° exhibits the highest grain size and intrinsic roughness (σ). • Fractal strength and σ depict an interesting trend with angle of deposition. • Refractive index and grain size depict an opposite trend with angle of deposition.

  16. Analysis of thin films prepared by vacuum-evaporation and dropping solution by Takeoff Angle-Dependent X-Ray Fluorescence spectroscopy at glancing incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, Kouichi; Hirokawa, Kichinosuke; Mitose, Kengo.

    1995-01-01

    We have introduced Takeoff Angle-Dependent X-Ray Fluorescence (TAD-XRF) method for thin film and surface analysis. In this method, the sample on the optically flat substrate is irradiated with the glancing incidence of the primary X-ray, and the fluorescent X-rays emitted from the sample are detected at the glancing takeoff angle. We had previously calculated the relationship between the fluorescent X-ray intensity and the takeoff angle at the glancing incidence. The characterization of the thin film is achieved by investigating the dependence of the fluorescent X-ray intensity on the takeoff angle with the calculated curve. Using this analytical method, we have reported the results of the TAD-XRF measured for the evaporated thin films and the dried films from dropping solution in this paper. The effect of the thickness of the thin film, the density of the substrate and the incident angle on the TAD-XRF curve has been reported. In the case of the dried film from the dropping solution, a broad peak was observed at the takeoff angle which was close to the critical angle for the total reflection of the fluorescent X-ray in the TAD-XRF curve. This broad peak was explained by the double-excitation of the incident beam and the refracted beam of the fluorescent X-ray with the assumption that the X-ray which has a same wavelength to the observed fluorescent X-ray impinges upon the sample surface, because the reciprocity theorem is expected in the X-ray region. (author)

  17. In vitro tests for aerosol deposition. III: effect of inhaler insertion angle on aerosol deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delvadia, Renish R; Longest, P Worth; Hindle, Michael; Byron, Peter R

    2013-06-01

    Inhaler orientation with respect to a patient's mouth may be an important variable determining the efficiency of aerosol lung delivery. The effect of insertion angle on regional deposition was evaluated for a series of inhalers using concurrent in vitro and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis. Geometrically realistic physical mouth-throat (MT) and upper tracheobronchial (TB) models were constructed to connect different inhalers at a series of insertion angles relative to the horizontal plane of the model. These models were used to assess albuterol sulfate deposition from the Novolizer(®) dry powder inhaler (DPI), Proventil(®) HFA pressurized metered dose inhaler (MDI), and Respimat(®) Soft Mist™ Inhaler (SMI) following the actuation of a single dose. Drug deposition from Novolizer DPI was studied for Salbulin(®) and an experimental "drug only" formulation. Albuterol sulfate was recovered and quantified from the device and the MT and TB regions. Significant differences in MT and total lung dose (TLD) of albuterol sulfate deposition were not observed for Salbulin Novolizer DPI and Respimat SMI inserted at different angles. In contrast, drug-only Novolizer DPI and Proventil HFA MDI showed a significant difference in MT and TLD deposition using different insertion angles. For drug-only Novolizer DPI and Proventil HFA MDI, the lowest and the highest MT depositions were observed at +10° and -20°, respectively; for Respimat SMI and Salbulin Novolizer DPI, these angles were -10° and +10°, and +20° and -20°, respectively. CFD simulations were in agreement with the experimental results and illustrated shifts in local particle deposition associated with changes in insertion angle. The effect of inhaler orientation at the inhaler-mouth interface on MT aerosol deposition appeared to be dependent on velocity, aerosol size, and formulation. These findings not only demonstrate the need for patient education on correct inhaler orientation, but provide important

  18. Development of glancing-incidence and glancing-take-off X-ray fluorescence apparatus for surface and thin-film analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, Kouichi; Wagatsuma, Kazuaki; Yamada, Takashi; Utaka, Tadashi

    1997-01-01

    We have studied X-ray fluorescence analysis under glancing incidence and glancing take-off conditions. Recently, we have developed a third apparatus for detecting glancing-incidence and take-off X-ray fluorescence, which makes it possible to measure the incident-angle dependence, the take-off-angle dependence. X-ray reflectivity, and X-ray diffraction. Primarily, we have measured the take-off angular dependence of X-ray fluorescence using this apparatus. Glancing take-off X-ray fluorescence has some advantages in comparison with glancing-incidence X-ray fluorescence. The surface density and the absolute angles were determined by analysing the take-off angle dependence of the fluorescent X-rays emitted from identical atoms with the aid of the reciprocity theorem. (Author)

  19. An investigation of the effects of droplet impact angle in thermal spray deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.F.; Neiser, R.A.; Dykhuizen, R.C.

    1994-01-01

    It is widely held that spraying at off-normal angles can influence deposition efficiency and the properties of the deposited material. However, little quantitative information on such effects has been published. This paper reports on a series of experiments to investigate the angular dependence of deposition efficiency, surface roughness, and porosity for several thermal spray materials and processes at incidence angles ranging from 90 degree to 30 degree relative to the substrate surface. At incidence angles from 90 degree out to 60 degree, the observed changes were small and often statistically insignificant. Some significant changes began to appear at 45 degree, and at 30 degree significant changes were observed for nearly all materials and processes: deposition efficiency decreased while surface roughness and porosity increased. It is proposed that droplet splashing may cause some of the observed effects

  20. Simulation calculation for the energy deposition profile and the transmission fraction of intense pulsed electron beam at various incident angles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Hailiang; Qiu Aici; Zhang Jiasheng; Huang Jianjun; Sun Jianfeng

    2002-01-01

    The incident angles have a heavy effect on the intense pulsed electron beam energy deposition profile, energy deposition fraction and beam current transmission fraction in material. The author presents electron beam energy deposition profile and energy deposition fraction versus electron energy (0.5-2.0 MeV), at various incident angles for three aluminum targets of various thickness via theoretical calculation. The intense pulsed electron beam current transmission fractions versus electron energy (0.4-1.4 MeV) at various incident angles for three thickness of carbon targets were also theoretically calculated. The calculation results indicate that the deposition energy in unit mass of material surface layer increase with the rise of electron beam incident angle, and electron beam with low incident angle (closer to normal incident angle) penetrates deeper into the target material. The electron beams deposit more energy in unit mass of material surface layer at 60 degree-70 degree incident angle

  1. NRPB at a glance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    A NRPB leaflet in the 'At-a-Glance' series describes the sources of radiation exposure to man followed by a summary of the work of the NRPB. This includes the environmental transfer of radioactive materials, dosimetric techniques, health effects from radiation exposure and radiation safety standards. (UK)

  2. Scaling behavior of the surface roughness of platinum films grown by oblique angle deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolatshahi-Pirouz, A.; Hovgaard, M. B.; Rechendorff, K.; Chevallier, J.; Foss, M.; Besenbacher, F.

    2008-03-01

    Thin platinum films with well-controlled rough surface morphologies are grown by e-gun evaporation at an oblique angle of incidence between the deposition flux and the substrate normal. Atomic force microscopy is used to determine the root-mean-square value w of the surface roughness on the respective surfaces. From the scaling behavior of w , we find that while the roughness exponent α remains nearly unchanged at about 0.90, the growth exponent β changes from 0.49±0.04 to 0.26±0.01 as the deposition angle approaches grazing incidence. The values of the growth exponent β indicate that the film growth is influenced by both surface diffusion and shadowing effects, while the observed change from 0.49 to 0.26 can be attributed to differences in the relative importance of diffusion and shadowing with the deposition angle.

  3. The dependence of the texture of tellurium thin films on vacuum deposition angle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cocks, F.H.; Peterson, M.J.; Jones, P.L.

    1980-01-01

    Vacuum-deposited tellurium thin films can show substantially different surface morphologies depending on the angle with which the vapor stream impinges on the substrate surface. These tellurium thin films have a tendency to grow as acicular crystallites but as the deposition angle is increased so that the vapor stream becomes tangential to the substrate surface the spacing between crystallites increases and approaches, at stream angles of approximately 80 0 from the normal, dimensions roughly once or twice the average wavelength of visible light. Such films may have application in solar energy collector systems because of the high absorptivity of sunlight shown by such films. Mechanisms which describe the tendency for crystallite spacing to increase with increasing angle are discussed. (Auth.)

  4. Investigating the correspondence between driver head position and glance location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joonbum Lee

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between a driver’s glance orientation and corresponding head rotation is highly complex due to its nonlinear dependence on the individual, task, and driving context. This paper presents expanded analytic detail and findings from an effort that explored the ability of head pose to serve as an estimator for driver gaze by connecting head rotation data with manually coded gaze region data using both a statistical analysis approach and a predictive (i.e., machine learning approach. For the latter, classification accuracy increased as visual angles between two glance locations increased. In other words, the greater the shift in gaze, the higher the accuracy of classification. This is an intuitive but important concept that we make explicit through our analysis. The highest accuracy achieved was 83% using the method of Hidden Markov Models (HMM for the binary gaze classification problem of (a glances to the forward roadway versus (b glances to the center stack. Results suggest that although there are individual differences in head-glance correspondence while driving, classifier models based on head-rotation data may be robust to these differences and therefore can serve as reasonable estimators for glance location. The results suggest that driver head pose can be used as a surrogate for eye gaze in several key conditions including the identification of high-eccentricity glances. Inexpensive driver head pose tracking may be a key element in detection systems developed to mitigate driver distraction and inattention.

  5. Glancing angle synchrotron X-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cernik, R J [Daresbury Lab., Warrington, WA (United States)

    1996-09-01

    This paper describes in basic detail some of the techniques that can be used to study thin films and surfaces. These are all in the X-ray region and cover reflectivity, diffraction form polycrystalline films, textured films and single crystal films. Other effects such as fluorescence and diffuse scattering are mentioned but not discussed in detail. Two examples of the reflectivity from multilayers and the diffraction from iron oxide films are discussed. The advantages of the synchrotron for these studies is stressed and the experimental geometries that can be employed are described i detail. A brief bibliography is provided at the end to accompany this part of the 1996 Frascati school.

  6. Glancing angle synchrotron X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cernik, R.J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes in basic detail some of the techniques that can be used to study thin films and surfaces. These are all in the X-ray region and cover reflectivity, diffraction form polycrystalline films, textured films and single crystal films. Other effects such as fluorescence and diffuse scattering are mentioned but not discussed in detail. Two examples of the reflectivity from multilayers and the diffraction from iron oxide films are discussed. The advantages of the synchrotron for these studies is stressed and the experimental geometries that can be employed are described i detail. A brief bibliography is provided at the end to accompany this part of the 1996 Frascati school

  7. Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering Substrates Made by Oblique Angle Deposition: Methods and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hin On Chu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy presents a rapid, non-destructive method to identify chemical and biological samples with up to single molecule sensitivity. Since its discovery in 1974, the technique has become an intense field of interdisciplinary research, typically generating >2000 publications per year since 2011. The technique relies on the localised surface plasmon resonance phenomenon, where incident light can couple with plasmons at the interface that result in the generation of an intense electric field. This field can propagate from the surface from the metal-dielectric interface, so molecules within proximity will experience more intense Raman scattering. Localised surface plasmon resonance wavelength is determined by a number of factors, such as size, geometry and material. Due to the requirements of the surface optical response, Ag and Au are typical metals used for surface enhanced Raman applications. These metals then need to have nano features that improve the localised surface plasmon resonance, several variants of these substrates exist; surfaces can range from nanoparticles in a suspension, electrochemically roughened electrodes to metal nanostructures on a substrate. The latter will be the focus of this review, particularly reviewing substrates made by oblique angle deposition. Oblique angle deposition is the technique of growing thin films so that the material flux is not normal to the surface. Films grown in this fashion will possess nanostructures, due to the atomic self-shadowing effect, that are dependent mainly on the deposition angle. Recent developments, applications and highlights of surface enhanced Raman scattering substrates made by oblique angle deposition will be reviewed.

  8. Fabrication of Ultra-thin Color Films with Highly Absorbing Media Using Oblique Angle Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Young Jin; Lee, Gil Ju; Jang, Kyung-In; Song, Young Min

    2017-08-29

    Ultra-thin film structures have been studied extensively for use as optical coatings, but performance and fabrication challenges remain.  We present an advanced method for fabricating ultra-thin color films with improved characteristics. The proposed process addresses several fabrication issues, including large area processing. Specifically, the protocol describes a process for fabricating ultra-thin color films using an electron beam evaporator for oblique angle deposition of germanium (Ge) and gold (Au) on silicon (Si) substrates.  Film porosity produced by the oblique angle deposition induces color changes in the ultra-thin film. The degree of color change depends on factors such as deposition angle and film thickness. Fabricated samples of the ultra-thin color films showed improved color tunability and color purity. In addition, the measured reflectance of the fabricated samples was converted into chromatic values and analyzed in terms of color. Our ultra-thin film fabricating method is expected to be used for various ultra-thin film applications such as flexible color electrodes, thin film solar cells, and optical filters. Also, the process developed here for analyzing the color of the fabricated samples is broadly useful for studying various color structures.

  9. Effects of nozzle type and spray angle on spray deposition in ivy pot plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foqué, Dieter; Nuyttens, David

    2011-02-01

    Fewer plant protection products are now authorised for use in ornamental growings. Frequent spraying with the same product or a suboptimal technique can lead to resistance in pests and diseases. Better application techniques could improve the sustainable use of the plant protection products still available. Spray boom systems--instead of the still predominantly used spray guns--might improve crop protection management in greenhouses considerably. The effect of nozzle type, spray pressure and spray angle on spray deposition and coverage in ivy pot plants was studied, with a focus on crop penetration and spraying the bottom side of the leaves in this dense crop. The experiments showed a significant and important effect of collector position on deposition and coverage in the plant. Although spray deposition and coverage on the bottom side of the leaves are generally low, they could be improved 3.0-4.9-fold using the appropriate application technique. When using a spray boom in a dense crop, the nozzle choice, spray pressure and spray angle should be well considered. The hollow-cone, the air-inclusion flat-fan and the standard flat-fan nozzle with an inclined spray angle performed best because of the effect of swirling droplets, droplets with a high momentum and droplet direction respectively. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Alzheimer's Disease at a Glance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... R S T U V W X Y Z Alzheimer’s Disease at a Glance Researchers have explored many ... health approaches for preventing or slowing dementia, including Alzheimer’s disease. Currently, there is no strong evidence that ...

  11. A small-angle neutron scattering investigation of coke deposits on catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acharya, D.R.; Hughes, R.; Allen, A.J.

    1990-01-01

    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) has been used to characterize a silica-alumina catalyst before and after coke deposition. The reaction used to deactivate the catalyst was the isomerization of xylenes. The results showed that, while most of the surface area in this type of catalyst resides in the ultrafine pores of diameters less than 1 nm occupying about 7% of the sample volume, there appears to be no coke deposition in these pores. The coke seems to coat the solid structures of 3.3-nm diameter which are of capillary shape. Such structures occupy about 6% of the sample volume. The coke was found to correspond to amonolayer of composition CH 0.3 with a density of 1660 kg/m 3

  12. A flexible angle sensor made from MWNT/CuO/Cu{sub 2}O nanocomposite films deposited by an electrophoretic co-deposition process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toboonsung, Buppachat, E-mail: buppachattt@yahoo.co.th [Physics and General Science Program, Faculty of Science and Technology, Nakhon Ratchasima Rajabhat University, Nakhon Ratchasima 30000 (Thailand); Singjai, Pisith, E-mail: singjai@hotmail.com [Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Materials Science Research Center, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, 50200 (Thailand)

    2012-08-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MWNT/CuO/Cu{sub 2}Onanocomposite films were coated on a PET sheet. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The film resistance and application as angle sensor were investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thesensor showed a linear relation between the film resistance and the bending angle. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A minimum loop area and a high stability in sensitivity over a thousand bending cycles were obtained. - Abstract: A flexible angle sensor was prepared using an electrophoretic co-deposition process to form nanocomposite networks of multi-wall carbon nanotube/cupric oxide/cuprous oxide (MWNT/CuO/Cu{sub 2}O) on a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) sheet. The deposition method used copper and stainless steel electrodes, and the effects of varying of electrode separation, MWNT concentration in deionized water, voltage and deposition time were studied. The film resistance of the as-deposited samples decreased with increasing the MWNT concentration up to 0.3 mg/ml. The angle sensor showed a linear relation between the film resistance and the bending angle, a relationship that was illustrated with loop area and sensitivity data. The best angle sensor was successfully made with an electrode separation of 8 mm, a concentration of 0.3 mg/ml, a voltage of 10 V and a deposition time of 3 h, parameters that resulted in a minimum loop area and the most stability in sensitivity over a thousand bending cycles.

  13. TFEB at a glance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napolitano, Gennaro; Ballabio, Andrea

    2016-07-01

    The transcription factor EB (TFEB) plays a pivotal role in the regulation of basic cellular processes, such as lysosomal biogenesis and autophagy. The subcellular localization and activity of TFEB are regulated by mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR)-mediated phosphorylation, which occurs at the lysosomal surface. Phosphorylated TFEB is retained in the cytoplasm, whereas dephosphorylated TFEB translocates to the nucleus to induce the transcription of target genes. Thus, a lysosome-to-nucleus signaling pathway regulates cellular energy metabolism through TFEB. Recently, in vivo studies have revealed that TFEB is also involved in physiological processes, such as lipid catabolism. TFEB has attracted a lot of attention owing to its ability to induce the intracellular clearance of pathogenic factors in a variety of murine models of disease, such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's, suggesting that novel therapeutic strategies could be based on the modulation of TFEB activity. In this Cell Science at a Glance article and accompanying poster, we present an overview of the latest research on TFEB function and its implication in human diseases. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  14. Electrochemical characterization of silver nanorod electrodes prepared by oblique angle deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, X-J [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Nanoscale Science and Engineering Center, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602 (United States); Zhang, G [Department of Biological and Agriculture Engineering, Nanoscale Science and Engineering Center, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602 (United States); Zhao, Y-P [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Nanoscale Science and Engineering Center, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602 (United States)

    2006-09-14

    Ag nanorod electrodes with different nanorod lengths are fabricated by a simple vacuum deposition technique, oblique angle deposition (OAD). The as-grown Ag nanorods are aligned on the substrate and have a diameter of {approx}60-70 nm, a density of {approx}200-300 x 10{sup 7} cm{sup -2}, and a tilting angle of {approx}70 deg. -80 deg. with respect to the surface normal. The electrochemical behaviours of the Ag nanorod electrode are characterized by cyclic voltammetry at various scan rates with comparison to an Ag thin-film electrode. The capacitive current is found to be proportional to the actual surface area, and the faradic redox current also increases monotonically with the surface area of the nanorod electrodes, but the increase is not as significant as that of the capacitive current due to the diffusion layer overlapping for the highly compacted nanorods. This indicates that the Ag nanorod electrode could improve the electrolytic sensor for amperometric response measurements, especially for the bimolecular measurements due to the biocompatibility of Ag. The high capacitance also suggests a promising usage of the developed nanostructures for battery and energy storage applications.

  15. Linear polarization-discriminatory state inverter fabricated by oblique angle deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yong Jun; Sobahan, K M A; Kim, Jin Joo; Hwangbo, Chang Kwon

    2009-06-22

    In this paper, we report a linear polarization-discriminatory state inverter made of three-layer sculpture thin film fabricated by oblique angle deposition technique. The first and third layers are quarter-wave plates of zigzag structure and the middle of them is a circular Bragg reflector of left-handed helical structure. It is found that the normal incidence of P-polarized light on this polarization-discriminatory state inverter becomes the S-polarized light at output, while the incident S-polarized light of wavelength lying in the Bragg regime is reflected. The microstructure of the linear polarization-discriminatory state inverter is also investigated by using a scanning electron microscope.

  16. Spectroscopic ellipsometry investigations of optical anisotropy in obliquely deposited hafnia thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokas, R. B., E-mail: tokasstar@gmail.com; Jena, Shuvendu; Thakur, S.; Sahoo, N. K. [Atomic & Molecular Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai-85 (India); Haque, S. Maidul; Rao, K. Divakar [Photonics & Nanotechnology Section, Atomic & Molecular Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre facility, Visakhapatnam-530012 (India)

    2016-05-23

    In present work, HfO{sub 2} thin films have been deposited at various oblique incidences on Si substrates by electron beam evaporation. These refractory oxide films exhibited anisotropy in refractive index predictably due to special columnar microstructure. Spectroscopic ellipsometry being a powerful tool for optical characterization has been employed to investigate optical anisotropy. It was observed that the film deposited at glancing angle (80°) exhibits the highest optical anisotropy. Further, anisotropy was noticed to decrease with lower values of deposition angles while effective refractive index depicts opposite trend. Variation in refractive index and anisotropy has been explained in light of atomic shadowing during growth of thin films at oblique angles.

  17. Magnetoresistance of oblique angle deposited multilayered Co/Cu nanocolumns measured by a scanning tunnelling microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrow, P; Tang, X-T; Parker, T C; Shima, M; Wang, G-C

    2008-01-01

    In this work we present the first magnetoresistance measurements on multilayered vertical Co(∼6 nm)/Cu(∼6 nm) and slanted Co(x nm)/Cu(x nm) (with x∼6, 11, and 16 nm) nanocolumns grown by oblique angle vapour deposition. The measurements are performed at room temperature on the as-deposited nanocolumn samples using a scanning tunnelling microscope to establish electronic contact with a small number of nanocolumns while an electromagnet generates a time varying (0.1 Hz) magnetic field in the plane of the substrate. The samples show a giant magnetoresistance (GMR) response ranging from 0.2 to 2%, with the higher GMR values observed for the thinner layers. For the slanted nanocolumns, we observed anisotropy in the GMR with respect to the relative orientation (parallel or perpendicular) between the incident vapour flux and the magnetic field applied in the substrate plane. We explain the anisotropy by noting that the column axis is the magnetic easy axis, so the magnetization reversal occurs more easily when the magnetic field is applied along the incident flux direction (i.e., nearly along the column axis) than when the field is applied perpendicular to the incident flux direction

  18. Simulation of Silver Thin Films' Growth and Influence of Deposition Rate on Final Grain Size under Angle Flux and Standard Situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Jamshidnejad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a 2D stimulation model, FACET, is used for investigation of the relation between micro structure and deposition conditions such as substrate temperature, deposition rate and deposition angle of Ag thin films. It is observed that by increasing the deposition rate in standard conditions providing that the temperature of substrate is low, the average of final grain size is decreased. While, in deposition with angle flux the average of final grain size is increased.

  19. Measurements of diamond-turned copper mirrors at glancing incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, W.D.; Saito, T.T.

    1987-01-01

    The results of glancing incidence absorptance measurements performed on diamond-turned copper mirrors are presented. A photoacoustic calorimetry technique is used in which the output from a low power, chopped cw Nd:YAG laser (1.06 μm) is incident upon the mirror at angles of incidence from 0 to 87 0 , for both s and p-polarizations. Measurements are obtained as a function of the diamond turning groove orientation with respect to the plane of incidence. Minimum absorptance, at high angles of incidence, is achieved with s-polarized light and with the grooves aligned parallel to the plane of incidence. The affects on the absorptance of a large scratch at glancing incidence are also described

  20. Measurements of diamond turned copper mirrors at glancing incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, W.D.; Saito, T.T.

    1987-01-01

    The results of glancing incidence absorptance measurements performed on diamond turned copper mirrors are presented. A photoacoustic calorimetry technique is used in which the output from a low power, chopped cw Nd:YAG laser (1.06 μm) is incident upon the mirror at angles of incidence from 0 to 87 0 , for both s and p-polarizations. Measurements are obtained as a function of the diamond turning groove orientation with respect to the plane of incidence. Minimum absorptance at high angles of incidence is achieved with s-polarized light and with the grooves aligned parallel to the plane of incidence. The effects on the absorptance of a large scratch at glancing incidence are also described

  1. Incidence Angle Effect of Energetic Carbon Ions on Deposition Rate, Topography, and Structure of Ultrathin Amorphous Carbon Films Deposited by Filtered Cathodic Vacuum Arc

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, N.

    2012-07-01

    The effect of the incidence angle of energetic carbon ions on the thickness, topography, and structure of ultrathin amorphous carbon (a-C) films synthesized by filtered cathodic vacuum arc (FCVA) was examined in the context of numerical and experimental results. The thickness of a-C films deposited at different incidence angles was investigated in the light of Monte Carlo simulations, and the calculated depth profiles were compared with those obtained from high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The topography and structure of the a-C films were studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. The film thickness decreased with the increase of the incidence angle, while the surface roughness increased and the content of tetrahedral carbon hybridization (sp 3) decreased significantly with the increase of the incidence angle above 45° , measured from the surface normal. TEM, AFM, and XPS results indicate that the smoothest and thinnest a-C films with the highest content of sp 3 carbon bonding were produced for an incidence angle of 45°. The findings of this study have direct implications in ultrahigh-density magnetic recording, where ultrathin and smooth a-C films with high sp 3 contents are of critical importance. © 2012 IEEE.

  2. Drop deposition on surfaces with contact-angle hysteresis: Liquid-bridge stability and breakup

    OpenAIRE

    Akbari, Amir; Hill, Reghan J.

    2015-01-01

    We study the stability and breakup of liquid bridges with a free contact line on a surface with contact-angle hysteresis under zero-gravity conditions. Theoretical predictions of the stability limits are validated by experimental measurements. Experiments are conducted in a water-methanol-silicon oil system where the gravity force is offset by buoyancy. We highlight cases where stability is lost during the transition from a pinned-pinned to pinned-free interface when the receding contact angl...

  3. Structural characterization of the nickel thin film deposited by glad technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potočnik J.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a columnar structure of nickel thin film has been obtained using an advanced deposition technique known as Glancing Angle Deposition. Nickel thin film was deposited on glass sample at the constant emission current of 100 mA. Glass sample was positioned 15 degrees with respect to the nickel vapor flux. The obtained nickel thin film was characterized by Force Modulation Atomic Force Microscopy and by Scanning Electron Microscopy. Analysis indicated that the formation of the columnar structure occurred at the film thickness of 1 μm, which was achieved for the deposition time of 3 hours. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III45005

  4. Comparative study of the characteristics of Ni films deposited on SiO2/Si(100) by oblique-angle sputtering and conventional sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Mingpeng; Qiu Hong; Chen Xiaobai; Wu Ping; Tian Yue

    2008-01-01

    Ni films were deposited on SiO 2 /Si(100) substrates at 300 K and 573 K by oblique-angle sputtering and conventional sputtering. The films deposited at 300 K mainly have a [110] crystalline orientation in the growing direction whereas those deposited at 573 K grow with a [111] crystalline orientation in the growing direction. The film prepared only at 300 K by oblique-angle sputtering grows with a weakly preferential orientation along the incidence direction of the sputtered Ni atoms. All the films grow with thin columnar grains perpendicular to the substrate surface. The grain size of the films sputter-deposited obliquely is larger than that of the films sputter-deposited conventionally. The grain size of the Ni film does not change markedly with the deposition temperature. The film deposited at 573 K by oblique-angle sputtering has the highest saturation magnetization. For the conventional sputtering, the coercivity of the Ni film deposited at 573 K is larger than that of the film deposited at 300 K. However, for the oblique-angle sputtering, the coercivity of the Ni film is independent of the deposition temperature. All the Ni films exhibit an isotropic magnetization characteristic in the film plane

  5. Detecting anharmonicity at a glance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giliberti, M; Stellato, M; Barbieri, S; Cavinato, M; Rigon, E; Tamborini, M

    2014-01-01

    Harmonic motion is generally presented in such a way that most of the students believe that the small oscillations of a body are all harmonic. Since the situation is not actually so simple, and since the comprehension of harmonic motion is essential in many physical contexts, we present here some suggestions, addressed to undergraduate students and pre-service teachers, that allow one to find out at a glance the anharmonicity of a motion. Starting from a didactically motivated definition of harmonic motion, and stressing the importance of the interplay between mathematics and experiments, we give a four-point criterion for anharmonicity together with some emblematic examples. The role of linear damping is also analysed in relation to the gradual changing of harmonicity into anharmonicity when the ratio between the damping coefficient and the zero-friction angular frequency increases. (paper)

  6. Effect of Impact Angle on Ceramic Deposition Behavior in Composite Cold Spray: A Finite-Element Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarty, Rohan; Song, Jun

    2017-10-01

    During the cold spraying of particle-reinforced metal matrix composite coatings (ceramic and metal particles mixture) on metal substrates, ceramic particles may either get embedded in the substrate/deposited coating or may rebound from the substrate surface. In this study, the dependence of the ceramic rebounding phenomenon on the spray angle and its effect on substrate erosion have been analyzed using finite-element analysis. From the numerical simulations, it was found that the ceramic particle density and substrate material strength played the major roles in determining the embedding and ceramic retention behavior. Substrate material erosion also influenced the ceramic retention, and the material loss increased as the impact angles decreased from normal. In general, the results concluded that decreasing the impact angle promoted the retention possibility of ceramics in the substrate. This study provides new theoretical insights into the effect of spray angles on the ceramic retention and suggests a new route toward optimizing the spraying process to increase the ceramic retention in composite coatings cold spray.

  7. Fundamental changes of granular flows dynamics, deposition and erosion processes at high slope angles: insights from laboratory experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farin, Maxime; Mangeney, Anne; Roche, Olivier

    2014-05-01

    Geophysical granular flows commonly interact with their substrate in various ways depending on the mechanical properties of the underlying material. Granular substrates, resulting from deposition of earlier flows or various geological events, are often eroded by avalanches [see Hungr and Evans, 2004 for review]. The entrainment of underlying debris by the flow is suspected to affect flow dynamics because qualitative and quantitative field observations suggest that it can increase the flow velocity and deposit extent, depending on the geological setting and flow type [Sovilla et al., 2006; Iverson et al., 2011]. Direct measurement of material entrainment in nature, however, is very difficult. We conducted laboratory experiments on granular column collapse over an inclined channel with and without an erodible bed of granular material. The controlling parameters were the channel slope angle, the granular column volume and its aspect ratio (i.e. height over length), the inclination of the column with respect to the channel base, the channel width, and the thickness and compaction of the erodible bed. For slope angles below a critical value θc, between 10° and 16°, the runout distance rf is proportional to the initial column height h0 and is unaffected by the presence of an erodible bed. On steeper slopes, the flow dynamics change fundamentally since a last phase of slow propagation develops at the end of the flow front deceleration, and prolongates significantly the flow duration. This phase has similar characteristics that steady, uniform flows. The slow propagation phase lasts longer for increasing slope angle, column volume, column inclination with respect to the slope, and channel width, and for decreasing column aspect ratio. It is however independent of the maximum front velocity and, on an erodible bed, of the maximum depth of excavation within the bed. Both on rigid and erodible beds, the increase of the slow propagation phase duration has a crucial effect

  8. Slanted n-ZnO/p-GaN nanorod arrays light-emitting diodes grown by oblique-angle deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Ju Lee

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available High-efficient ZnO-based nanorod array light-emitting diodes (LEDs were grown by an oblique-angle deposition scheme. Due to the shadowing effect, the inclined ZnO vapor-flow was selectively deposited on the tip surfaces of pre-fabricated p-GaN nanorod arrays, resulting in the formation of nanosized heterojunctions. The LED architecture composed of the slanted n-ZnO film on p-GaN nanorod arrays exhibits a well-behaving current rectification of junction diode with low turn-on voltage of 4.7 V, and stably emits bluish-white luminescence with dominant peak of 390 nm under the operation of forward injection currents. In general, as the device fabrication does not involve passivation of using a polymer or sophisticated material growth techniques, the revealed scheme might be readily applied on other kinds of nanoscale optoelectronic devices.

  9. In situ grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering investigation of polystyrene nanoparticle spray deposition onto silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Gerd; Benecke, Gunthard; Buffet, Adeline; Heidmann, Berit; Perlich, Jan; Risch, Johannes F H; Santoro, Gonzalo; Schwartzkopf, Matthias; Yu, Shun; Wurth, Wilfried; Roth, Stephan V

    2013-09-10

    We investigated the spray deposition and subsequent self-assembly during drying of a polystyrene nanoparticle dispersion with in situ grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering at high time resolution. During the fast deposition of the dispersion and the subsequent evaporation of the solvent, different transient stages of nanoparticle assembly can be identified. In the first stage, the solvent starts to evaporate without ordering of the nanoparticles. During the second stage, large-scale structures imposed by the breakup of the liquid film are observable. In this stage, the solvent evaporates further and nanoparticle ordering starts. In the late third drying stage, the nanoparticles self-assemble into the final layer structure.

  10. Youth Violence: Facts at a Glance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youth Violence Facts at a Glance 2016 Yout h Vi olence • In 2014, 4,300 young people ages 10 ... in combined medical and work loss costs. 1 Violence-related Behaviors In a 2015 nationally-representative sample ...

  11. X-ray diffractometric study on the near-surface layer structure in parallel glancing rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shtypulyak, N.I.; Yakimov, I.I.; Litvintsev, V.V.

    1988-01-01

    X-ray diffraction method is suggested to use to investigate thin films and near-surface layers under the conditions of total external reflection (TER) and in the geometry of parallel glancing rays. Experimental realization of the method using the DRON-30 diffractometer is described. Calculation for the required width of the aperture of Soller slot system is presented. The described diffraction scheme is used to investigate thin film crystal structure at glancing angles in the range from TER up to 8-10 deg. The thickness of the investigated layer in this case changes from 2.5-8 nm up to 10 3 nm. The suggested diffraction method in parallel glancing rays is especially important when investigating the films with thickness lower than 1000-2000A

  12. AFM, SEM and in situ RHEED study of Cu texture evolution on amorphous carbon by oblique angle vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, F.; Gaire, C.; Ye, D.-X.; Karabacak, T.; Lu, T.-M.; Wang, G.-C.

    2005-01-01

    The evolution of the crystal orientation of a Cu film grown on an amorphous carbon substrate without intentional heating under 75±6 deg. oblique angle vapor deposition was investigated ex-situ by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and in-situ by reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED). At the initial stage of growth ( ∼100 nm thick) the diffraction pattern started to break symmetrically from the middle of the (111) and (200) rings representing the absence of (111) and (200) planes parallel to the substrate. However, after this transition stage, at the thickness of ∼410 nm, the intensity distribution of diffraction patterns appeared asymmetric about the middle of the rings, which is interpreted as the appearance of a tilted (111) texture. Finally the diffraction patterns developed into separated short arcs and showed only a II-O (two-orientation) texture. By comparing RHEED patterns with the SEM and AFM images of the final film, we argue that the tilted columns having tilted (111) top faces dominate in the later stage of growth. Furthermore, considering the geometry of crystals and shadowing effects, we argue that the vertices of columns having the highest growth velocity normal to the substrate and therefore receiving the maximum flux will dominate the film growth and determine the tilt angle of the texture and the preference of the azimuthal angle orientation

  13. Low-damage high-throughput grazing-angle sputter deposition on graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, C.-T.; Gajek, M.; Raoux, S. [IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, New York 10598 (United States); Casu, E. A. [IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, New York 10598 (United States); Politecnico di Torino, Turin 10129 (Italy)

    2013-07-15

    Despite the prevalence of sputter deposition in the microelectronics industry, it has seen very limited applications for graphene electronics. In this letter, we report systematic investigation of the sputtering induced damages in graphene and identify the energetic sputtering gas neutrals as the primary cause of graphene disorder. We further demonstrate a grazing-incidence sputtering configuration that strongly suppresses fast neutral bombardment and retains graphene structure integrity, creating considerably lower damage than electron-beam evaporation. Such sputtering technique yields fully covered, smooth thin dielectric films, highlighting its potential for contact metals, gate oxides, and tunnel barriers fabrication in graphene device applications.

  14. Low-damage high-throughput grazing-angle sputter deposition on graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.-T.; Gajek, M.; Raoux, S.; Casu, E. A.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the prevalence of sputter deposition in the microelectronics industry, it has seen very limited applications for graphene electronics. In this letter, we report systematic investigation of the sputtering induced damages in graphene and identify the energetic sputtering gas neutrals as the primary cause of graphene disorder. We further demonstrate a grazing-incidence sputtering configuration that strongly suppresses fast neutral bombardment and retains graphene structure integrity, creating considerably lower damage than electron-beam evaporation. Such sputtering technique yields fully covered, smooth thin dielectric films, highlighting its potential for contact metals, gate oxides, and tunnel barriers fabrication in graphene device applications

  15. Low-damage high-throughput grazing-angle sputter deposition on graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C.-T.; Casu, E. A.; Gajek, M.; Raoux, S.

    2013-07-01

    Despite the prevalence of sputter deposition in the microelectronics industry, it has seen very limited applications for graphene electronics. In this letter, we report systematic investigation of the sputtering induced damages in graphene and identify the energetic sputtering gas neutrals as the primary cause of graphene disorder. We further demonstrate a grazing-incidence sputtering configuration that strongly suppresses fast neutral bombardment and retains graphene structure integrity, creating considerably lower damage than electron-beam evaporation. Such sputtering technique yields fully covered, smooth thin dielectric films, highlighting its potential for contact metals, gate oxides, and tunnel barriers fabrication in graphene device applications.

  16. Fundamental change of granular flows dynamics, deposition and erosion processes at sufficiently high slope angles: insights from laboratory experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farin, M.; Mangeney, A.; Roche, O.

    2013-12-01

    Geophysical granular flows commonly interact with their substrate in various ways depending on the mechanical properties of the underlying material. Granular substrates, resulting from deposition of earlier flows or various geological events, are often eroded by avalanches [see Hungr and Evans, 2004 for review]. The entrainment of underlying debris by the flow is suspected to affect flow dynamics because qualitative and quantitative field observations suggest that it can increase the flow velocity and deposit extent, depending on the geological setting and flow type [Sovilla et al., 2006; Iverson et al., 2011]. Direct measurement of material entrainment in nature, however, is very difficult. We conducted laboratory experiments on granular column collapse over an inclined channel with and without an erodible bed of granular material. The controlling parameters were the channel slope angle, the granular column volume and its aspect ratio (i.e. height over length), the inclination of the column with respect to the channel base, the channel width, and the thickness and compaction of the erodible bed. For slope angles below a critical value θc, between 10° and 16°, the runout distance rf is proportional to the initial column height h0 and is unaffected by the presence of an erodible bed. On slopes greater than θc, the flow dynamics change fundamentally since a last phase of slow propagation develops at the end of the flow front deceleration, and prolongates significantly the flow duration. This phase has similar characteristics that steady, uniform flows. The slow propagation phase lasts longer for increasing column volume, column inclination with respect to the slope, and channel width, and for decreasing column aspect ratio. It is however independent of the maximum front velocity and, on an erodible bed, of the maximum depth of excavation within the bed. Both on rigid and erodible beds, the increase of the slow propagation phase duration has a crucial effect on

  17. Applied magnetic field angle dependence of the static and dynamic magnetic properties in FeCo films during the deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Derang; Zhu, Zengtai; Feng, Hongmei; Pan, Lining; Cheng, Xiaohong; Wang, Zhenkun [Key Laboratory for Magnetism and Magnetic Materials of the Ministry of Education, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Wang, Jianbo [Key Laboratory for Magnetism and Magnetic Materials of the Ministry of Education, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Key Laboratory of Special Function Materials and Structure Design, Ministry of Education, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Liu, Qingfang, E-mail: liuqf@lzu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Magnetism and Magnetic Materials of the Ministry of Education, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2016-10-15

    FeCo films were prepared by a simple and convenient electrodeposition method. An external magnetic field was applied to the film to induce magnetic anisotropy during deposition. Comparing with the previous work, the angle between the direction of applied magnetic field and film plane is changed from in-plane to out-plane. The influence of the applied magnetic field on magnetic properties was investigated. As a result, it can be found that the in-plane anisotropy is driven by the in-plane component of the magnetic field applied during growth. In addition, the result can also be confirmed by the dynamic magnetic anisotropy of the film obtained by vector network analyzer ferromagnetic resonance technique. - Highlights: • FeCo films were prepared by electrodeposition method. • An external magnetic field was applied to induce anisotropy during deposition. • The direction of applied magnetic field is changed from in-plane to out-plane. • The magnetic properties of films were investigated by vector network analyzer. • The in-plane anisotropy is driven by the in-plane component of the field.

  18. Effect of deposition angle on the structure and properties of pulsed-DC magnetron sputtered TiAlN thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shetty, A.R.; Karimi, A.; Cantoni, M.

    2011-01-01

    This article reports the comparison of structure and properties of titanium aluminum nitride (TiAlN) films deposited onto Si(100) substrates under normal and oblique angle depositions using pulsed-DC magnetron sputtering. The substrate temperature was set at room temperature, 400 o C and 650 o C, and the bias was kept at 0, - 25, - 50, and - 80 V for both deposition angles. The surface and cross-section of the films were observed by scanning electron microscopy. It was found that as the deposition temperature increases, films deposited under normal incidence exhibit distinct faceted crystallites, whereas oblique angle deposited (OAD) films develop a kind of 'tiles of a roof' or 'stepwise structure', with no facetted crystallites. The OAD films showed an inclined columnar structure, with columns tilting in the direction of the incident flux. As the substrate temperature was increased, the tilting of columns nearly approached the substrate normal. Both hardness and Young's modulus decreases when the flux angle was changed from α = 0 o to 45 o as measured by nanoindentation. This was attributed to the voids formed due to the shadowing effect. The crystallographic properties of these coatings were studied by θ-2θ scan and pole figure X-ray diffraction. Films deposited at α = 0 o showed a mixed (111) and (200) out-of-plane orientation with random in-plane alignment. On the other hand, films deposited at α = 45 o revealed an inclined texture with (111) orientation moving towards the incident flux direction and the (200) orientation approaching the substrate normal, showing substantial in-plane alignment.

  19. Examining drivers' eye glance patterns during distracted driving: Insights from scanning randomness and glance transition matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan; Bao, Shan; Du, Wenjun; Ye, Zhirui; Sayer, James R

    2017-12-01

    Visual attention to the driving environment is of great importance for road safety. Eye glance behavior has been used as an indicator of distracted driving. This study examined and quantified drivers' glance patterns and features during distracted driving. Data from an existing naturalistic driving study were used. Entropy rate was calculated and used to assess the randomness associated with drivers' scanning patterns. A glance-transition proportion matrix was defined to quantity visual search patterns transitioning among four main eye glance locations while driving (i.e., forward on-road, phone, mirrors and others). All measurements were calculated within a 5s time window under both cell phone and non-cell phone use conditions. Results of the glance data analyses showed different patterns between distracted and non-distracted driving, featured by a higher entropy rate value and highly biased attention transferring between forward and phone locations during distracted driving. Drivers in general had higher number of glance transitions, and their on-road glance duration was significantly shorter during distracted driving when compared to non-distracted driving. Results suggest that drivers have a higher scanning randomness/disorder level and shift their main attention from surrounding areas towards phone area when engaging in visual-manual tasks. Drivers' visual search patterns during visual-manual distraction with a high scanning randomness and a high proportion of eye glance transitions towards the location of the phone provide insight into driver distraction detection. This will help to inform the design of in-vehicle human-machine interface/systems. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Pediatric Palliative Care at a Glance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ® ™ ® Pediatric Palliative Care at a Glance A child’s serious illness affects the entire family. Pediatric palliative (pal-lee-uh-tiv) care can support ... extra support, palliative care can help. What is pediatric palliative care? Pediatric palliative care is supportive care ...

  1. Regional Partnerships. At a Glance. Revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Tabatha; Curtin, Penelope

    2007-01-01

    Vocational education and training (VET) has a key role in facilitating regional economic development. One way that VET can do this is by forming partnerships with other organisations, such as other training providers, business/industry, schools and local government. This "At a Glance" publication gives an overview of recent research…

  2. Wisconsin Public Schools at a Glance, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction, 2016

    2016-01-01

    "Wisconsin Public Schools at a Glance" provides in a single page document statistical information on the following topics: (1) Total number of public schools (2015-16); (2) Student (2015-16); (3) Attendance & Graduation (2014-15);(4) Staff (2013-14); (5) School Funding; and (6) Student Performance (2014-15). [For the previous report…

  3. Wisconsin Public Schools at a Glance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction, 2014

    2014-01-01

    "Wisconsin Public Schools at a Glance" provides in a single page document statistical information on the following topics: (1) Total number of public schools (2014-15); (2) Staff (2013-14); (3) Students (2013-14);(4) Report Cards (2013-14); (5) Attendance and Graduation (2012-13); (6) Student Performance (2013-14); and (7) School Funding.

  4. Education at a Glance 2010: OECD Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    Across OECD countries, governments are seeking policies to make education more effective while searching for additional resources to meet the increasing demand for education. The 2010 edition of "Education at a Glance: OECD Indicators" enables countries to see themselves in the light of other countries' performance. It provides a rich, comparable…

  5. Glance Information System for ATLAS Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grael, F F; Maidantchik, C; Évora, L H R A; Karam, K; Moraes, L O F; Cirilli, M; Nessi, M; Pommès, K

    2011-01-01

    ATLAS Experiment is an international collaboration where more than 37 countries, 172 institutes and laboratories, 2900 physicists, engineers, and computer scientists plus 700 students participate. The management of this teamwork involves several aspects such as institute contribution, employment records, members' appointment, authors' list, preparation and publication of papers and speakers nomination. Previously, most of the information was accessible by a limited group and developers had to face problems such as different terminology, diverse data modeling, heterogeneous databases and unlike users needs. Moreover, the systems were not designed to handle new requirements. The maintenance has to be an easy task due to the long lifetime experiment and professionals turnover. The Glance system, a generic mechanism for accessing any database, acts as an intermediate layer isolating the user from the particularities of each database. It retrieves, inserts and updates the database independently of its technology and modeling. Relying on Glance, a group of systems were built to support the ATLAS management and operation aspects: ATLAS Membership, ATLAS Appointments, ATLAS Speakers, ATLAS Analysis Follow-Up, ATLAS Conference Notes, ATLAS Thesis, ATLAS Traceability and DSS Alarms Viewer. This paper presents the overview of the Glance information framework and describes the privilege mechanism developed to grant different level of access for each member and system.

  6. Glance Information System for ATLAS Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grael, F. F.; Maidantchik, C.; Évora, L. H. R. A.; Karam, K.; Moraes, L. O. F.; Cirilli, M.; Nessi, M.; Pommès, K.; ATLAS Collaboration

    2011-12-01

    ATLAS Experiment is an international collaboration where more than 37 countries, 172 institutes and laboratories, 2900 physicists, engineers, and computer scientists plus 700 students participate. The management of this teamwork involves several aspects such as institute contribution, employment records, members' appointment, authors' list, preparation and publication of papers and speakers nomination. Previously, most of the information was accessible by a limited group and developers had to face problems such as different terminology, diverse data modeling, heterogeneous databases and unlike users needs. Moreover, the systems were not designed to handle new requirements. The maintenance has to be an easy task due to the long lifetime experiment and professionals turnover. The Glance system, a generic mechanism for accessing any database, acts as an intermediate layer isolating the user from the particularities of each database. It retrieves, inserts and updates the database independently of its technology and modeling. Relying on Glance, a group of systems were built to support the ATLAS management and operation aspects: ATLAS Membership, ATLAS Appointments, ATLAS Speakers, ATLAS Analysis Follow-Up, ATLAS Conference Notes, ATLAS Thesis, ATLAS Traceability and DSS Alarms Viewer. This paper presents the overview of the Glance information framework and describes the privilege mechanism developed to grant different level of access for each member and system.

  7. Effect of spray angle and spray volume on deposition of a medium droplet spray with air support in ivy pot plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foqué, Dieter; Pieters, Jan G; Nuyttens, David

    2014-03-01

    Spray boom systems, an alternative to the predominantly-used spray guns, have the potential to considerably improve crop protection management in glasshouses. Based on earlier experiments, the further optimization of the deposits of a medium spray quality extended range flat fan nozzle type using easy adjustable spray boom settings was examined. Using mineral chelate tracers and water sensitive papers, the spray results were monitored at three plant levels, on the upper side and the underside of the leaves, and on some off-target collectors. In addition, the deposition datasets of all tree experiments were compared. The data showed that the most efficient spray distribution with the medium spray quality flat fan nozzles was found with a 30° forward angled spray combined with air support and an application rate of 1000 L ha(-1) . This technique resulted in a more uniform deposition in the dense canopy and increased spray deposition on the lower side of the leaves compared with the a standard spray boom application. Applying 1000 L ha(-1) in two subsequent runs instead of one did not seem to show any added value. Spray deposition can be improved hugely simply by changing some spray boom settings like nozzle type, angling the spray, using air support and adjusting the spray volume to the crop. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Incidence Angle Effect of Energetic Carbon Ions on Deposition Rate, Topography, and Structure of Ultrathin Amorphous Carbon Films Deposited by Filtered Cathodic Vacuum Arc

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, N.; Komvopoulos, K.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of the incidence angle of energetic carbon ions on the thickness, topography, and structure of ultrathin amorphous carbon (a-C) films synthesized by filtered cathodic vacuum arc (FCVA) was examined in the context of numerical

  9. Photocatalytic activity of self-assembled porous TiO2 nano-columns array fabricated by oblique angle sputter deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Pengjun; Li, Xibo; Zhang, Qiuju; Yi, Zao; Luo, Jiangshan

    2018-04-01

    A well-separated and oriented TiO2 nano-columns arrays with porous structure were fabricated by the oblique angle sputter deposition technique and subsequently annealing at 450 °C in Ar/O2 mixed atmosphere. The deposited substrate was firstly modified by a template of self-assembled close-packed arrays of 500 nm-diameter silica (SiO2) spheres. Scanning electronic microscopic (SEM) images show that the porous columnar nanostructure is formed as a result of the geometric shadowing effect and surface diffusion of the adatoms in oblique angle deposition (OAD). X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements reveal that the physically OAD film with annealing treatment are generally mixed phase of rutile and anatase TiO2 polymorphic forms. The morphology induced absorbance and band gap tuning by different substrates was demonstrated by the UV–vis spectroscopy. The well-separated one-dimensional (1D) nano-columns array with specific large porous surface area is beneficial for charge separation in photocatalytic degradation. Compared with compact thin film, such self-assembled porous TiO2 nano-columns array fabricated by oblique angle sputter deposition performed an enhanced visible light induced photocatalytic activity by decomposing methyl orange (MO) solution. The well-designed periodic array-structured porous TiO2 films by using modified patterned substrates has been demonstrated significantly increased absorption edge in the UV-visible light region with a narrower optical band gap, which are expected to be favorable for application in photovoltaic, lithium-ion insertion and photocatalytic, etc.

  10. On the effect of subphase pH and counterions on transfer ratios and dynamic contact angles during deposition of multiple Langmuir-Blodgett monolayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, M. Elena; Cerro, Ramon L.

    2005-01-01

    The effects of pH and counterions on the type of deposition of Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) arachidic acid films onto hydrophobic glass slides is revisited. Unusually large differences in contact angles and transfer ratios (TR) were observed for subphase containing 10 -4 M of zinc sulfate and 2.10 -4 M of cadmium chloride, respectively, for a wide range of pH. Variations in TR occur at the same pH for different subphase cations and at different pH for the same divalent cations. These large variations in dynamic contact angles and TR as a function of pH point to the crucial role of electrical double layer forces in LB deposition phenomena. Transitions from Y- to X-type deposition are reported for pH larger or smaller than the pK A of the fatty acid-subphase salt system. Experimental results are compared with data reported in literature showing Z- to Y-transitions at pH close to the pK A of docosanoic acid monolayers

  11. SERS analysis of Ag nanostructures produced by ion-beam deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanasov, P. A.; Nedyalkov, N. N.; Nikov, Ru G.; Grüner, Ch; Rauschenbach, B.; Fukata, N.

    2018-03-01

    This study deals with the development of a novel technique for formation of advanced Ag nanostructures (NSs) to be applied to high-resolution analyses based on surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). It has direct bearing on human health and food quality, e.g., monitoring small amount or traces of pollutants or undesirable additives. Three types of nanostructured Ag samples were produced using ion-beam deposition at glancing angle (GLAD) on quartz. All fabricated structures were covered with BI-58 pesticide (dimethoate) or Rhodamine 6G (R6G) for testing their potential for use as substrates for (SERS).

  12. Investigating the use of the dual-polarized and large incident angle of SAR data for mapping the fluvial and aeolian deposits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Gaber

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Mapping the spatial distributions of the fluvial deposits in terms of particles size as well as imaging the near-surface features along the non-vegetated aeolian sand-sheets, provides valuable geological information. Thus this work aims at investigating the contribution of the dual-polarization SAR data in classifying and mapping the surface sediments as well as investigating the effect of the radar incident-angle on improving the images of the hidden features under the desert sand cover. For mapping the fluvial deposits, the covariance matrix ([C2] using four dual-polarized ALOS/PALSAR-1 scenes cover the Wadi El Matulla, East Qena, Egypt were generated. This [C2] matrix was used to generate a supervised classification map with three main classes (gravel, gravel/sand and sand. The polarimetric scattering response, spectral reflectance and temperatures brightness of these 3 classes were extracted. However for the aeolian deposits investigation, two Radarsat-1 and three full-polarimetric ALOS/PALSAR-1 images, which cover the northwestern sandy part of Sinai, Egypt were calibrated, filtered, geocoded and ingested in a GIS database to image the near-surface features. The fluvial mapping results show that the values of the radar backscattered coefficient (σ° and the degree of randomness of the obtained three classes are increasing respectively by increasing their grain size. Moreover, the large incident angle (θi = 39.7 of the Radarsat-1 image has revealed a meandering buried stream under the sand sheet of the northwestern part of Sinai. Such buried stream does not appear in the other optical, SRTM and SAR dataset. The main reason is the enhanced contrast between the low backscattered return from the revealed meandering stream and the surroundings as a result of the increased backscattering intensity, which is related to the relatively large incident angle along the undulated surface of the study area. All archaeological

  13. Monte Carlo simulation of electron depth distribution and backscattering for carbon films deposited on aluminium as a function of incidence angle and primary energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dapor, Maurizio

    2005-01-01

    Carbon films are deposited on various substrates (polymers, polyester fabrics, polyester yarns, metal alloys) both for experimental and technological motivations (medical devices, biocompatible coatings, food package and so on). Computational studies of the penetration of electron beams in supported thin film of carbon are very useful in order to compare the simulated results with analytical techniques data (obtained by scanning electron microscopy and/or Auger electron spectroscopy) and investigate the film characteristics. In the present paper, the few keV electron depth distribution and backscattering coefficient for the special case of film of carbon deposited on aluminium are investigated, by a Monte Carlo simulation, as a function of the incidence angle and primary electron energy. The simulated results can be used as a way to evaluate the carbon film thickness by a set of measurements of the backscattering coefficient.

  14. Solid-State Dewetting of Gold Aggregates/Islands on TiO2 Nanorod Structures Grown by Oblique Angle Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shizhao; Plawsky, Joel L

    2017-12-12

    A composite film made of a stable gold nanoparticle (NP) array with well-controlled separation and size atop a TiO 2 nanorod film was fabricated via the oblique angle deposition (OAD) technique. The fabrication of the NP array is based on controlled, Rayleigh-instability-induced, solid-state dewetting of as-deposited gold aggregates on the TiO 2 nanorods. It was found that the initial spacing between as-deposited gold aggregates along the vapor flux direction should be greater than the TiO 2 interrod spacing created by 80° OAD to control dewetting and produce NP arrays. A numerical investigation of the process was conducted using a phase-field modeling approach. Simulation results showed that coalescence between neighboring gold aggregates is likely to have caused the uncontrolled dewetting in the 80° deposition, and this could be circumvented if the initial spacing between gold aggregates is larger than a critical value s min . We also found that TiO 2 nanorod tips affect dewetting dynamics differently than planar TiO 2 . The topology of the tips can induce contact line pinning and an increase in the contact angle along the vapor flux direction to the supported gold aggregates. These two effects are beneficial for the fabrication of monodisperse NPs based on Rayleigh-instability-governed self-assembly of materials, as they help to circumvent the undesired coalescence and facilitate the instability growth on the supported material. The findings uncover the application potential of OAD as a new method to fabricate structured films as template substrates to mediate dewetting. The reported composite films would have uses in optical coatings and photocatalytic systems, taking advantage of their ability to combine plasmonic nanostructures within a nanostructured dielectric film.

  15. Glance Information System for ATLAS Management

    CERN Document Server

    De Oliveira Fernandes Moraes, L; The ATLAS collaboration; Ramos De Azevedo Evora, LH; Karam, K; Fink Grael, F; Pommes, K; Nessi, M; Cirilli, M

    2011-01-01

    ATLAS Experiment is an international collaboration where more than 37 countries, 172 institutes and laboratories, 2900 physicists, engineers, and computer scientists plus 700 students participate. The management of this teamwork involves several aspects such as institute contribution, employment records, members' appointment, authors' list, preparation and publication of papers and speakers nomination. Previously, most of the information was accessible by a limited group of people and the system used was not designed to handle new requirements easily. Moreover, developers had to face problems such as different terminology, diverse data modeling, heterogeneous databases and unlike users needs. Besides that, the maintenance has to be an easy task considering the long lifetime experiment and professionals turnover. The Glance system, a generic mechanism for accessing any database, acts as an intermediate layer isolating the user from the particularities of each database. It retrieves, inserts and updates the dat...

  16. Non-enzymatic hydrogen peroxide detection at NiO nanoporous thin film- electrodes prepared by physical vapor deposition at oblique angles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salazar, Pedro; Rico, Victor; González-Elipe, Agustín R.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A non-enzymatic sensor for H 2 O 2 detection based on nickel thin film is reported. • Nanostructured nickel thin films are prepared by physical vapor deposition at oblique angles. • Main analytical parameters were obtained under optimal operation conditions. • Sensors depict an outstanding selectivity and a high stability. • Sensors are successfully used to determine H 2 O 2 in antiseptic solutions. - Abstract: In this work we report a non-enzymatic sensor for hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) detection based on nanostructured nickel thin films prepared by physical vapor deposition at oblique angles. Porous thin films deposited on ITO substrates were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis, scanning electron microcopy (SEMs), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and electrochemical techniques such as Cyclic Voltammetry (CV) and Constant Potential Amperometry (CPA). The microstructure of the thin films consisted of inclined and separated Ni nanocolumns forming a porous thin layer of about 500 nm thickness. Prior to their use, the films surface was electrochemically modified and the chemical state studied by CV and XPS analysis. These techniques also showed that Ni 2+ /Ni 3+ species were involved in the electrochemical oxidation and detection of H 2 O 2 in alkaline medium. Main analytical parameters such as sensitivity (807 mA M −1 cm −2 ), limit of detection (3.22 μM) and linear range (0.011–2.4 mM) were obtained under optimal operation conditions. Sensors depicted an outstanding selectivity and a high stability and they were successfully used to determine H 2 O 2 concentration in commercial antiseptic solutions.

  17. Weibel-Palade bodies at a glance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, Jessica J; Lopes da Silva, Mafalda; Ferraro, Francesco; Patella, Francesca; Cutler, Daniel F

    2017-11-01

    The vascular environment can rapidly alter, and the speed with which responses to both physiological and pathological changes are required necessitates the existence of a highly responsive system. The endothelium can quickly deliver bioactive molecules by regulated exocytosis of its secretory granules, the Weibel-Palade bodies (WPBs). WPBs include proteins that initiate both haemostasis and inflammation, as well those that modulate blood pressure and angiogenesis. WPB formation is driven by von Willebrand factor, their most abundant protein, which controls both shape and size of WPBs. WPB are generated in a range of sizes, with the largest granules over ten times the size of the smallest. In this Cell Science at a Glance and the accompanying poster, we discuss the emerging mechanisms by which WPB size is controlled and how this affects the ability of this organelle to modulate haemostasis. We will also outline the different modes of exocytosis and their polarity that are currently being explored, and illustrate that these large secretory organelles provide a model for how elements of secretory granule biogenesis and exocytosis cooperate to support a complex and diverse set of functions. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  18. Fabrication and Characteristics of ZnO/OAD-InN/PbPc Hybrid Solar Cells Prepared by Oblique-Angle Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lung-Chien Chen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, lead phthalocyanine (PbPc and ZnO/InN inorganic semiconductor films prepared by oblique-angle deposition (OAD were layered to form heterojunction organic/inorganic hybrid photovoltaic solar cells. Among the available organic materials, phthalocyanines, particularly the non-planar ones such as PbPc, are notable for their absorption in the visible and near infrared regions. The organic/inorganic hybrid solar cells fabricated on ZnO/OAD-InN/PbPc showed short-circuit current density (JSC, open-circuit voltage (VOC, and power conversion efficiencies (η of 1.2 mA/cm2, 0.6 V and 0.144%, respectively.

  19. Does order matter? Investigating the effect of sequence on glance duration during on-road driving.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joonbum Lee

    Full Text Available Previous literature has shown that vehicle crash risks increases as drivers' off-road glance duration increases. Many factors influence drivers' glance duration such as individual differences, driving environment, or task characteristics. Theories and past studies suggest that glance duration increases as the task progresses, but the exact relationship between glance sequence and glance durations is not fully understood. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of glance sequence on glance duration among drivers completing a visual-manual radio tuning task and an auditory-vocal based multi-modal navigation entry task. Eighty participants drove a vehicle on urban highways while completing radio tuning and navigation entry tasks. Forty participants drove under an experimental protocol that required three button presses followed by rotation of a tuning knob to complete the radio tuning task while the other forty participants completed the task with one less button press. Multiple statistical analyses were conducted to measure the effect of glance sequence on glance duration. Results showed that across both tasks and a variety of statistical tests, glance sequence had inconsistent effects on glance duration-the effects varied according to the number of glances, task type, and data set that was being evaluated. Results suggest that other aspects of the task as well as interface design effect glance duration and should be considered in the context of examining driver attention or lack thereof. All in all, interface design and task characteristics have a more influential impact on glance duration than glance sequence, suggesting that classical design considerations impacting driver attention, such as the size and location of buttons, remain fundamental in designing in-vehicle interfaces.

  20. Seasonal Allergies at a Glance: What the Science Says

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... T U V W X Y Z Seasonal Allergies at a Glance If you have an allergy, your immune system reacts to something that doesn’t bother most other people. People with seasonal allergies (also called hay fever or allergic rhinitis) react ...

  1. Anxiety in Adolescents with ASD. Autism at-a-Glance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedges, S.; White, T.; Smith, L.

    2015-01-01

    "Autism at-a-Glance" is a series of practitioner and family-friendly documents created by the Center on Secondary Education for Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) designed for high school staff members supporting students on the autism spectrum, as well as family members of adolescents with ASD. The purpose of the "Autism…

  2. MCPS School Safety & Security at a Glance 2013-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County Public Schools, 2014

    2014-01-01

    "MCPS School Safety and Security at a Glance" provides, in a single document, information about the reporting of incidents related to school safety and security, school climate, local school safety program descriptions, and serious incidents. Information is presented for each Montgomery County (Maryland) public school. While much of this…

  3. MCPS School Safety & Security at a Glance 2012-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County Public Schools, 2013

    2013-01-01

    "MCPS School Safety and Security at a Glance" provides, in a single document, information about the reporting of incidents related to school safety and security, school climate, local school safety program descriptions, and serious incidents. Information is presented for each Montgomery County (Maryland) public school. While much of this…

  4. MCPS School Safety & Security at a Glance 2011-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County Public Schools, 2012

    2012-01-01

    "MCPS School Safety and Security at a Glance" provides, in a single document, information about the reporting of incidents related to school safety and security, school climate, local school safety program descriptions, and serious incidents. Information is presented for each Montgomery County (Maryland) public school. While much of this…

  5. Power deposition on misaligned edges in COMPASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Dejarnac

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available If the decision is made not to apply a toroidal chamfer to tungsten monoblocks at ITER divertor vertical targets, exposed leading edges will arise as a result of assembly tolerances between adjacent plasma-facing components. Then, the advantage of glancing magnetic field angles for spreading plasma heat flux on top surfaces is lost at the misaligned edges with an interaction occurring at near normal incidence, which can drive melting for the expected inter-ELM heat fluxes. A dedicated experiment has been performed on the COMPASS tokamak to thoroughly study power deposition on misaligned edges using inner-wall limited discharges on a special graphite tile presenting gaps and leading edges directly viewed by a high resolution infra-red camera. The parallel power flux deducted from the unperturbed measurement far from the gap is fully consistent with the observed temperature increase at the leading edge, respecting the power balance. All the power flowing into the gap is deposited at the leading edge and no mitigation factor is required to explain the thermal response. Particle-in-cell simulations show that the ion Larmor smoothing effect is weak and that the power deposition on misaligned edges is well described by the optical approximation because of an electron dominated regime associated with non-ambipolar parallel current flow.

  6. Dense zig-zag microstructures in YSZ thin films by pulsed laser deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stender, Dieter; Schäuble, Nina; Weidenkaff, Anke; Montagne, Alex; Ghisleni, Rudy; Michler, Johann; Schneider, Christof W.; Wokaun, Alexander; Lippert, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The very brittle oxygen ion conductor yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) is a typical solid electrolyte for miniaturized thin film fuel cells. In order to decrease the fuel cell operating temperature, the thickness of yttria stabilized zirconia thin films is reduced. Often, these thin membranes suffer from mechanical failure and gas permeability. To improve these mechanical issues, a glancing angle deposition approach is used to grow yttria stabilized zirconia thin films with tilted columnar structures. Changes of the material flux direction during the deposition result in a dense, zigzag-like structure with columnar crystallites. This structure reduces the elastic modulus of these membranes as compared to columnar yttria stabilized zirconia thin films as monitored by nano-indentation which makes them more adaptable to applied stress.

  7. Dense zig-zag microstructures in YSZ thin films by pulsed laser deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieter Stender

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The very brittle oxygen ion conductor yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ is a typical solid electrolyte for miniaturized thin film fuel cells. In order to decrease the fuel cell operating temperature, the thickness of yttria stabilized zirconia thin films is reduced. Often, these thin membranes suffer from mechanical failure and gas permeability. To improve these mechanical issues, a glancing angle deposition approach is used to grow yttria stabilized zirconia thin films with tilted columnar structures. Changes of the material flux direction during the deposition result in a dense, zigzag-like structure with columnar crystallites. This structure reduces the elastic modulus of these membranes as compared to columnar yttria stabilized zirconia thin films as monitored by nano-indentation which makes them more adaptable to applied stress.

  8. Characterization and application of a new pH sensor based on magnetron sputtered porous WO3 thin films deposited at oblique angles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salazar, Pedro; Garcia-Garcia, Francisco J.; Yubero, Francisco; Gil-Rostra, Jorge; González-Elipe, Agustín R.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A solid-state pH sensor based on WO 3 amorphous thin film electrode is reported. • Cyclic voltammetry and XRD confirmed the amorphous nature of tungsten. • Potentiometric response of the WO 3 electrode revealed a quasi-Nernstian behavior. • The interference of the most common ions (Li + , Na + , K + and NH 4 + ) was negligible. • A full solid state pH sensor is developed. - Abstract: In this communication we report about an outstanding solid-state pH sensor based on amorphous nanocolumnar porous thin film electrodes. Transparent WO 3 thin films were deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering in an oblique angle configuration to enhance their porosity onto indium tin oxide (ITO) and screen printed electrodes (SPE). The potentiometric pH response of the nanoporous WO 3 -modified ITO electrode revealed a quasi-Nernstian behaviour, i.e. a linear working range from pH 1 to 12 with a slope of about −57.7 mV/pH. pH detection with this electrode was quite reproducible, displayed excellent anti-interference properties and a high stable response that remained unaltered over at least 3 months. Finally, a pH sensor was developed using nanoporous WO 3 -modified screen printed electrode (SPE) using a polypyrrole-modified Ag/AgCl electrode as internal reference electrode. This full solid state pH sensor presented a Nernstian behaviour with a slope of about −59 mV/pH and offered important analytical and operation advantages for decentralized pH measurements in different applications.

  9. Charge-collection efficiency of GaAs field effect transistors fabricated with a low temperature grown buffer layer: dependence on charge deposition profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMorrow, D.; Knudson, A.R.; Melinger, J.S.; Buchner, S.

    1999-01-01

    The results presented here reveal a surprising dependence of the charge-collection efficiency of LT GaAs FETs (field effect transistors) on the depth profile of the deposited charge. Investigation of the temporal dependence of the signal amplitude, carrier density contours, and potential contours reveals different mechanisms for charge collection arising from carriers deposited above and below the LT GaAs buffer layer, respectively. In particular, carriers deposited below the LT GaAs buffer layer dissipate slowly and give rise to a persistent charge collection that is associated with a bipolar-like gain process. These results may be of significance in understanding the occurrence of single-event upsets from protons, neutrons, and large-angle, glancing heavy-ion strikes. (authors)

  10. Itil version 3 at a glance information quick reference

    CERN Document Server

    Long, John

    2008-01-01

    ITILA(R) Version 3 At a Glance takes a graphical approach to consolidating the information of ITILA(R) version 3. ITILA(R) is an internationally-recognized set of best practices for providing IT service management. IT organizations worldwide are implementing ITILA(R) as a vehicle for improving IT service quality and improve return on investment for IT services. The desk referencea (TM)s unique graphical approach will take otherwise complex textual descriptions and make the information accessible in a series of consistent, simple diagrams. ITILA(R) Version 3 At a Glance will be of interest to organizations looking to train their staffs in a consistent and cost-effective way. Further, this book is ideal for anyone involved in planning consulting, implementing, or testing an ITILA(R) Version 3 implementation. Each chapter in ITILA(R) Version 3 at a Glance summarizes one of the ITILA(R) v3 books in the following consistent structure: - Brief Description of the Stage - Overview Diagram of the Stage - Key Concepts ...

  11. Pensions at a glance 2015 OECD and G20 indicators

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    The 10-year anniversary edition of Pensions at a Glance highlights the pension reforms undertaken by OECD and G20 countries over the last two years. Two special chapters provide deeper analysis of first-tier pension schemes and of the impact of short or interrupted careers, due to late entry into employment, childcare or unemployment, on pension entitlements. Another chapter analyses the sensitivity of long-term pension replacement rates on various parameters. A range of indicators for comparing pension policies and their outcomes between OECD and G20 countries is also provided.

  12. The cytotoxic T lymphocyte immune synapse at a glance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieckmann, Nele M G; Frazer, Gordon L; Asano, Yukako; Stinchcombe, Jane C; Griffiths, Gillian M

    2016-08-01

    The immune synapse provides an important structure for communication with immune cells. Studies on immune synapses formed by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) highlight the dynamic changes and specialised mechanisms required to facilitate focal signalling and polarised secretion in immune cells. In this Cell Science at a Glance article and the accompanying poster, we illustrate the different steps that reveal the specialised mechanisms used to focus secretion at the CTL immune synapse and allow CTLs to be such efficient and precise serial killers. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  13. Improvement of oxidation resistance of copper by atomic layer deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, M.L.; Cheng, T.C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Lin, M.C. [Research Center for Biomedical Devices and Prototyping Production, Taipei Medical University, No. 250, Wu-Hsing Street, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Lin, H.C., E-mail: hclinntu@ntu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Chen, M.J., E-mail: mjchen@ntu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)

    2012-10-01

    Graphical abstract: Results of glancing incident angle diffraction (GIXD) show the bare-Cu specimen was attacked by oxidation, whereas the coated-Cu specimens prevented from this problem. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Deposition of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films on pure copper by an atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Analysis of properties of the films coated at various substrate temperatures using the ALD technique. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Identification of the improvement of oxidation resistance of pure copper by the ALD-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Assessment of the durability of the ALD-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films by adhesion strength. - Abstract: Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films were deposited by the atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique onto pure copper at temperatures in the range 100-200 Degree-Sign C. The chemical composition, microstructure, and mechanic properties of the ALD-deposited Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films were systematically analyzed. The variations in the film characteristics with substrate temperature were observed. Oxidation trials revealed that 20-nm-thick Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films deposited at a substrate temperature as low as 100 Degree-Sign C suppress oxidative attack on pure copper. The Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films also showed excellent durability of adhesion strength, according to predictions using the Coffin-Manson model based on the results of accelerated temperature cycling tests. These features indicate that ALD-deposited Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} film is a very promising candidate to be a protective coating for pure copper.

  14. Glance project: a database retrieval mechanism for the ATLAS detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maidantchik, C [COPPE, UFRJ (Brazil); Grael, F F; Galvao, K K [Escola Politecnica, UFRJ (Brazil); Pommes, K [CERN (Switzerland)

    2008-07-15

    During the construction and commissioning phases of the ATLAS detector, data related to the installation, placement, testing and performance of the equipment are stored in relational databases. Each group acquires and saves information in different servers, using diverse technologies, data modeling and terminologies. Installation and maintenance during the experiment construction and operation depends on the access to this information, as well as imply in its update. The development of retrieval and update systems for each data set requires too much effort and high maintenance cost. The Glance system retrieves and inserts/updates data independently of the modeling and technology used for the storage, recognizes the repositories internal structure and guides the user through the creation of search and insertion interfaces. Distinct and spread data sets can be transparently integrated in one interface. Data can be exported/imported to/from various formats. The system handles many independent interfaces, which can be accessed by users or other applications at any time. This paper describes the Glance conception, its development and features. The system usage is illustrated with examples. Current status and future work are also discussed.

  15. Brewster-angle 50%-50% beam splitter for p-polarized infrared light using a high-index quarter-wave layer deposited on a low-index prism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzam, R M A

    2017-08-10

    A quarter-wave layer (QWL) of high refractive index, which is deposited on a transparent prism of low refractive index, can be designed to split an incident p-polarized light beam at the Brewster angle (BA) of the air-substrate interface into p-polarized reflected and transmitted beams of equal intensity (50% each) that travel in orthogonal directions. For reflection of p-polarized light at the BA, the supported QWL functions as a free-standing (unsupported) pellicle. An exemplary design is presented that uses Si x Ge 1-x QWL deposited on an IRTRAN1 prism for applications (such as Michelson and Mach-Zehnder interferometry) with a variable compositional fraction x in the 2-6 μm mid-IR spectral range.

  16. Scoliosis angle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marklund, T.

    1978-01-01

    The most commonly used methods of assessing the scoliotic deviation measure angles that are not clearly defined in relation to the anatomy of the patient. In order to give an anatomic basis for such measurements it is proposed to define the scoliotic deviation as the deviation the vertebral column makes with the sagittal plane. Both the Cobb and the Ferguson angles may be based on this definition. The present methods of measurement are then attempts to measure these angles. If the plane of these angles is parallel to the film, the measurement will be correct. Errors in the measurements may be incurred by the projection. A hypothetical projection, called a 'rectified orthogonal projection', is presented, which correctly represents all scoliotic angles in accordance with these principles. It can be constructed in practice with the aid of a computer and by performing measurements on two projections of the vertebral column; a scoliotic curve can be represented independent of the kyphosis and lordosis. (Auth.)

  17. Glancing-incidence X-ray diffraction of Ag nanoparticles in gold lustre decoration of Italian Renaissance pottery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bontempi, E.; Colombi, P.; Depero, L. E.; Cartechini, L.; Presciutti, F.; Brunetti, B. G.; Sgamellotti, A.

    2006-06-01

    Lustre is known as one of the most significant decorative techniques of Medieval and Renaissance pottery in the Mediterranean basin, characterized by brilliant gold and red metallic reflections and iridescence effects. Previous studies by various techniques (SEM-EDS and TEM, UV-VIS, XRF, RBS and EXAFS) demonstrated that lustre consists of a heterogeneous metal-glass composite film, formed by Cu and Ag nanoparticles dispersed within the outer layer of a tin-opacified lead glaze. In the present work the investigation of an original gold lustre sample from Deruta has been carried out by means of glancing-incidence X-ray diffraction techniques (GIXRD). The study was aimed at providing information on structure and depth distribution of Ag nanoparticles. Exploiting the capability of controlling X-ray penetration in the glaze by changing the incidence angle, we used GIXRD measurements to estimate non-destructively thickness and depth of silver particles present in the first layers of the glaze.

  18. The Earth at a glance 2010: cities, changing trajectory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacquet, P.; Pachauri, R.K.; Tubiana, L.

    2010-01-01

    The 2010 issue of 'the Earth at a glance' yearly publication is devoted to cities, areas and actors at the forefront of sustainable development. Beyond the status of stakes and obstacles to overcome, the ambition is to identify the dynamics carrying an indispensable trajectory change. More than half of the worldwide population lives in urban areas. Cities generate the most part of the prosperity and knowledge but are also the places where the most fragile populations concentrate and very often in precarious conditions. They are also at the origin of a large part of environment degradations. And yet, it is in the cities that the political, social and environmental questions of the 21. century are debated. In this framework, the cities of emerging countries may open the ways towards a new urbanism by developing new standards. Contents: status of 2009 events; calendar of main 2010 meetings; dossier: 'cities: changing the trajectory'; landmarks: maps, diagrams, world synthesis of sustainable development. (J.S.)

  19. Emerging functions of the Fanconi anemia pathway at a glance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumpter, Rhea; Levine, Beth

    2017-08-15

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is a rare disease, in which homozygous or compound heterozygous inactivating mutations in any of 21 genes lead to genomic instability, early-onset bone marrow failure and increased cancer risk. The FA pathway is essential for DNA damage response (DDR) to DNA interstrand crosslinks. However, proteins of the FA pathway have additional cytoprotective functions that may be independent of DDR. We have shown that many FA proteins participate in the selective autophagy pathway that is required for the destruction of unwanted intracellular constituents. In this Cell Science at a Glance and the accompanying poster, we briefly review the role of the FA pathway in DDR and recent findings that link proteins of the FA pathway to selective autophagy of viruses and mitochondria. Finally, we discuss how perturbations in FA protein-mediated selective autophagy may contribute to inflammatory as well as genotoxic stress. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  20. The Earth at a glance 2009: the sustainable development governance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacquet, P.; Pachauri, R.; Tubiana, L.

    2009-01-01

    How to implement the sustainable development? More than 15 years after the Rio conference, the question is still pending, renewed by the intense mobilization of non-governmental actors, organizations, companies, or local communities. Observing the inadequacy of the present day governance system is not sufficient and it is advisable to identify among the numerous dynamics in progress, the beginnings of a new governance. The sustainable development governance is the theme of the 2009 issue of 'the Earth at a glance' book with the ambition to contribute to the reflexion about the present day governance system and its desirable evolutions. Content: the 2008 events status and the schedule of the main 2009 meetings; the 2009 world sustainable development governance: a system to the sustainable development test, dynamics of a changing world, sustainably managing complexity; the sustainable development benchmarks: maps, tables, chronologies, economic, social and environmental syntheses for an original mapping of sustainable development in the world. (J.S.)

  1. Evidence at a glance: error matrix approach for overviewing available evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keus, Frederik; Wetterslev, Jørn; Gluud, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Clinical evidence continues to expand and is increasingly difficult to overview. We aimed at conceptualizing a visual assessment tool, i.e., a matrix for overviewing studies and their data in order to assess the clinical evidence at a glance....

  2. Memory Conditions at a Glance | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Memory & Forgetfulness Memory Conditions at a Glance Past Issues / Summer 2013 ... called MCI. It causes people to have more memory problems than other people their age. The signs ...

  3. Glass half-full: On-road glance metrics differentiate crashes from near-crashes in the 100-Car data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seppelt, Bobbie D; Seaman, Sean; Lee, Joonbum; Angell, Linda S; Mehler, Bruce; Reimer, Bryan

    2017-10-01

    Much of the driver distraction and inattention work to date has focused on concerns over drivers removing their eyes from the forward roadway to perform non-driving-related tasks, and its demonstrable link to safety consequences when these glances are timed at inopportune moments. This extensive literature has established, through the analyses of glance from naturalistic datasets, a clear relationship between eyes-off-road, lead vehicle closing kinematics, and near-crash/crash involvement. This paper looks at the role of driver expectation in influencing drivers' decisions about when and for how long to remove their eyes from the forward roadway in an analysis that consider the combined role of on- and off-road glances. Using glance data collected in the 100-Car Naturalistic Driving Study (NDS), near-crashes were examined separately from crashes to examine how momentary differences in glance allocation over the 25-s prior to a precipitating event can differentiate between these two distinct outcomes. Individual glance metrics of mean single glance duration (MSGD), total glance time (TGT), and glance count for off-road and on-road glance locations were analyzed. Output from the AttenD algorithm (Kircher and Ahlström, 2009) was also analyzed as a hybrid measure; in threading together on- and off-road glances over time, its output produces a pattern of glance behavior meaningful for examining attentional effects. Individual glance metrics calculated at the epoch-level and binned by 10-s units of time across the available epoch lengths revealed that drivers in near-crashes have significantly longer on-road glances, and look less frequently between on- and off- road locations in the moments preceding a precipitating event as compared to crashes. During on-road glances, drivers in near-crashes were found to more frequently sample peripheral regions of the roadway than drivers in crashes. Output from the AttenD algorithm affirmed the cumulative net benefit of longer on

  4. Morphological and Structural Analysis of Polyaniline and Poly(o-anisidine Layers Generated in a DC Glow Discharge Plasma by Using an Oblique Angle Electrode Deposition Configuration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Butoi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This work is focused on the structural and morphological investigations of polyaniline and poly(o-anisidine polymers generated in a direct current glow discharge plasma, in the vapors of the monomers, without a buffer gas, using an oblique angle-positioned substrate configuration. By atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy we identified the formation of worm-like interlinked structures on the surface of the polyaniline layers, the layers being compact in the bulk. The poly(o-anisidine layers are flat with no kind of structures on their surfaces. By Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy we identified the main IR bands characteristic of polyaniline and poly(o-anisidine, confirming that the polyaniline chemical structure is in the emeraldine form. The IR band from 1070 cm−1 was attributed to the emeraldine salt form of polyaniline as an indication of its doping with H+. The appearance of the IR band at 1155 cm−1 also indicates the conducting protonated of polyaniline. The X-ray diffraction revealed the formation of crystalline domains embedded in an amorphous matrix within the polyaniline layers. The interchain separation length of 3.59 Å is also an indicator of the conductive character of the polymers. The X-ray diffraction pattern of poly(o-anisidine highlights the semi-crystalline nature of the layers. The electrical conductivities of polyaniline and poly(o-anisidine layers and their dependence with temperature are also investigated.

  5. The accuracy of three-dimensional fused deposition modeling (FDM) compared with three-dimensional CT-Scans on the measurement of the mandibular ramus vertical length, gonion-menton length, and gonial angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savitri, I. T.; Badri, C.; Sulistyani, L. D.

    2017-08-01

    Presurgical treatment planning plays an important role in the reconstruction and correction of defects in the craniomaxillofacial region. The advance of solid freeform fabrication techniques has significantly improved the process of preparing a biomodel using computer-aided design and data from medical imaging. Many factors are implicated in the accuracy of the 3D model. To determine the accuracy of three-dimensional fused deposition modeling (FDM) models compared with three-dimensional CT scans in the measurement of the mandibular ramus vertical length, gonion-menton length, and gonial angle. Eight 3D models were produced from the CT scan data (DICOM file) of eight patients at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Indonesia, Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital. Three measurements were done three times by two examiners. The measurements of the 3D CT scans were made using OsiriX software, while the measurements of the 3D models were made using a digital caliper and goniometry. The measurement results were then compared. There is no significant difference between the measurements of the mandibular ramus vertical length, gonion-menton length, and gonial angle using 3D CT scans and FDM 3D models. FDM 3D models are considered accurate and are acceptable for clinical applications in dental and craniomaxillofacial surgery.

  6. Biotechnology in Switzerland and a glance at Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiechter, A

    2000-01-01

    The roots of biotechnology go back to classic fermentation processes, which starting from spontaneous reactions were developed by simple means. The discovery of antibiotics made contamination-free bioprocess engineering indispensable, which led to a further step in technology development. On-line analytics and the use of computers were the basis of automation and the increase in quality. On both sides of the Atlantic, molecular biology emerged at the same time, which gave genetic engineering in medicine, agriculture, industry and environment new opportunities. The story of this new advanced technology in Switzerland, with a quick glance at Germany, is followed back to the post-war years. The growth of research and teaching and the foundation of the European Federation of Biotechnology (EFB) are dealt with. The promising phase of the 1960s and 1970s soon had to give way to a restrictive policy of insecurity and anxiousness, which, today, manifests itself in the rather insignificant contributions of many European countries to the new sciences of genomics, proteomics and bioinformatics, as well as in the resistance to the use of transgenic agricultural crops and their products in foods.

  7. Embryo-epithelium interactions during implantation at a glance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aplin, John D; Ruane, Peter T

    2017-01-01

    At implantation, with the acquisition of a receptive phenotype in the uterine epithelium, an initial tenuous attachment of embryonic trophectoderm initiates reorganisation of epithelial polarity to enable stable embryo attachment and the differentiation of invasive trophoblasts. In this Cell Science at a Glance article, we describe cellular and molecular events during the epithelial phase of implantation in rodent, drawing on morphological studies both in vivo and in vitro, and genetic models. Evidence is emerging for a repertoire of transcription factors downstream of the master steroidal regulators estrogen and progesterone that coordinate alterations in epithelial polarity, delivery of signals to the stroma and epithelial cell death or displacement. We discuss what is known of the cell interactions that occur during implantation, before considering specific adhesion molecules. We compare the rodent data with our much more limited knowledge of the human system, where direct mechanistic evidence is hard to obtain. In the accompanying poster, we represent the embryo-epithelium interactions in humans and laboratory rodents, highlighting similarities and differences, as well as depict some of the key cell biological events that enable interstitial implantation to occur. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  8. Phase stabilities at a glance: Stability diagrams of nickel dipnictides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachhuber, F.; Rothballer, J.; Weihrich, R.; Söhnel, T.

    2013-01-01

    In the course of the recent advances in chemical structure prediction, a straightforward type of diagram to evaluate phase stabilities is presented based on an expedient example. Crystal structures and energetic stabilities of dipnictides NiPn 2 (Pn = N, P, As, Sb, Bi) are systematically investigated by first principles calculations within the framework of density functional theory using the generalized gradient approximation to treat exchange and correlation. These dipnictides show remarkable polymorphism that is not yet understood systematically and offers room for the discovery of new phases. Relationships between the concerned structures including the marcasite, the pyrite, the arsenopyrite/CoSb 2 , and the NiAs 2 types are highlighted by means of common structural fragments. Electronic stabilities of experimentally known and related AB 2 structure types are presented graphically in so-called stability diagrams. Additionally, competing binary phases are taken into consideration in the diagrams to evaluate the stabilities of the title compounds with respect to decomposition. The main purpose of the stability diagrams is the introduction of an image that enables the estimation of phase stabilities at a single glance. Beyond that, some of the energetically favored structure types can be identified as potential new phases

  9. The ALICE Glance Shift Accounting Management System (SAMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins Silva, H.; Abreu Da Silva, I.; Ronchetti, F.; Telesca, A.; Maidantchik, C.

    2015-12-01

    ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) is an experiment at the CERN LHC (Large Hadron Collider) studying the physics of strongly interacting matter and the quark-gluon plasma. The experiment operation requires a 24 hours a day and 7 days a week shift crew at the experimental site, composed by the ALICE collaboration members. Shift duties are calculated for each institute according to their correlated members. In order to ensure the full coverage of the experiment operation as well as its good quality, the ALICE Shift Accounting Management System (SAMS) is used to manage the shift bookings as well as the needed training. ALICE SAMS is the result of a joint effort between the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ) and the ALICE Collaboration. The Glance technology, developed by the UFRJ and the ATLAS experiment, sits at the basis of the system as an intermediate layer isolating the particularities of the databases. In this paper, we describe the ALICE SAMS development process and functionalities. The database has been modelled according to the collaboration needs and is fully integrated with the ALICE Collaboration repository to access members information and respectively roles and activities. Run, period and training coordinators can manage their subsystem operation and ensure an efficient personnel management. Members of the ALICE collaboration can book shifts and on-call according to pre-defined rights. ALICE SAMS features a user profile containing all the statistics and user contact information as well as the Institutes profile. Both the user and institute profiles are public (within the scope of the collaboration) and show the credit balance in real time. A shift calendar allows the Run Coordinator to plan data taking periods in terms of which subsystems shifts are enabled or disabled and on-call responsible people and slots. An overview display presents the shift crew present in the control room and allows the Run Coordination team to confirm the presence

  10. A field study on the effects of digital billboards on glance behavior during highway driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyusar, Daniel; Reimer, Bryan; Mehler, Bruce; Coughlin, Joseph F

    2016-03-01

    Developments in lighting technologies have allowed more dynamic digital billboards in locations visible from the roadway. Decades of laboratory research have shown that rapidly changing or moving stimuli presented in peripheral vision tends to 'capture' covert attention. We report naturalistic glance and driving behavior of a large sample of drivers who were exposed to two digital billboards on a segment of highway largely free from extraneous signage. Results show a significant shift in the number and length of glances toward the billboards and an increased percentage of time glancing off road in their presence. Findings were particularly evident at the time the billboards transitioned between advertisements. Since rapidly changing stimuli are difficult to ignore, the planned increase in episodically changing digital displays near the roadway may be argued to be a potential safety concern. The impact of digital billboards on driver safety and the need for continued research are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Changes in glance behaviour when using a visual eco-driving system - A field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlstrom, Christer; Kircher, Katja

    2017-01-01

    While in-vehicle eco-driving support systems have the potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and save fuel, they may also distract drivers, especially if the system makes use of a visual interface. The objective of this study is to investigate the visual behaviour of drivers interacting with such a system, implemented on a five-inch screen mounted above the middle console. Ten drivers participated in a real-world, on-road driving study where they drove a route nine times (2 pre-baseline drives, 5 treatment drives, 2 post-baseline drives). The route was 96 km long and consisted of rural roads, urban roads and a dual-lane motorway. The results show that drivers look at the system for 5-8% of the time, depending on road type, with a glance duration of about 0.6 s, and with 0.05% long glances (>2s) per kilometre. These figures are comparable to what was found for glances to the speedometer in this study. Glance behaviour away from the windscreen is slightly increased in treatment as compared to pre- and post-baseline, mirror glances decreased in treatment and post-baseline compared to pre-baseline, and speedometer glances increased compared to pre-baseline. The eco-driving support system provided continuous information interspersed with additional advice pop-ups (announced by a beep) and feedback pop-ups (no auditory cue). About 20% of sound initiated advice pop-ups were disregarded, and the remaining cases were usually looked at within the first two seconds. About 40% of the feedback pop-ups were disregarded. The amount of glances to the system immediately before the onset of a pop-up was clearly higher for feedback than for advice. All in all, the eco-driving support system under investigation is not likely to have a strong negative impact on glance behaviour. However, there is room for improvements. We recommend that eco-driving information is integrated with the speedometer, that optional activation of sound alerts for intermittent information is made

  12. Physics at a glance full physics content of the new GCSE

    CERN Document Server

    Mills, Tim

    2008-01-01

    This book aims to cover all the GCSE Physics material needed to meet the specifications of the examining boards Edexcel, AQA, WJEC and OCR (both 21st Century Science and Gateway) both for single and double awards. The content also covers the additional topics necessary for the Physics GCSE single award. It is the third book in the series following 'Biology at a Glance' and 'Chemistry at a Glance' and it encourages learners to use a mind mapping approach to revision. Just like the other books in the series, each page contains clear annotated illustrations that will help the reader to assimilate

  13. Calculation of electronic stopping power along glancing swift heavy ion tracks in perovskites using ab initio electron density data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osmani, O; Duvenbeck, A; Akcoeltekin, E; Meyer, R; Schleberger, M [Department of Physics, University of Duisburg-Essen, D-47048 Duisburg (Germany); Lebius, H [CIMAP, blvd Henri Becquerel, 14070 Caen (France)], E-mail: marika.schleberger@uni-due.de

    2008-08-06

    In recent experiments the irradiation of insulators of perovskite type with swift (E{approx}100 MeV) heavy ions under glancing incidence has been shown to provide a unique means to generate periodically arranged nanodots at the surface. The physical origin of these patterns has been suggested as stemming from a highly anisotropic electron density distribution within the bulk. In order to show the relevance of the electron density distribution of the target we present a model calculation for the system Xe{sup 23+} {yields} SrTiO{sub 3} that is known to produce the aforementioned surface modifications. On the basis of the Lindhard model of electronic stopping, we employ highly-resolved ab initio electron density data to describe the conversion of kinetic energy into excitation energy along the ion track. The primary particle dynamics are obtained via integration of the Newtonian equations of motion that are governed by a space- and time-dependent frictional force originating from Lindhard stopping. The analysis of the local electronic stopping power along the ion track reveals a pronounced periodic structure. The periodicity length varies strongly with the particular choice of the polar angle of incidence and is directly correlated to the experimentally observed formation of periodic nanodots at insulator surfaces.

  14. Glancing-incidence X-ray diffraction of Ag nanoparticles in gold lustre decoration of Italian Renaissance pottery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bontempi, E.; Colombi, P.; Depero, L.E. [Universita di Brescia, Laboratorio di Chimica per le Tecnologie and INSTM, Brescia (Italy); Cartechini, L. [Universita di Perugia, Istituto di Scienze e Tecnologie Molecolari-CNR, Sezione di Perugia, Perugia (Italy); Presciutti, F.; Brunetti, B.G. [Universita di Perugia, INSTM and Centro di Eccellenza SMAArt, Dipartimento di Chimica, Perugia (Italy); Sgamellotti, A. [Universita di Perugia, Istituto di Scienze e Tecnologie Molecolari-CNR, Sezione di Perugia, Perugia (Italy); Universita di Perugia, INSTM and Centro di Eccellenza SMAArt, Dipartimento di Chimica, Perugia (Italy)

    2006-06-15

    Lustre is known as one of the most significant decorative techniques of Medieval and Renaissance pottery in the Mediterranean basin, characterized by brilliant gold and red metallic reflections and iridescence effects. Previous studies by various techniques (SEM-EDS and TEM, UV-VIS, XRF, RBS and EXAFS) demonstrated that lustre consists of a heterogeneous metal-glass composite film, formed by Cu and Ag nanoparticles dispersed within the outer layer of a tin-opacified lead glaze. In the present work the investigation of an original gold lustre sample from Deruta has been carried out by means of glancing-incidence X-ray diffraction techniques (GIXRD). The study was aimed at providing information on structure and depth distribution of Ag nanoparticles. Exploiting the capability of controlling X-ray penetration in the glaze by changing the incidence angle, we used GIXRD measurements to estimate non-destructively thickness and depth of silver particles present in the first layers of the glaze. (orig.)

  15. Glancing-incidence X-ray diffraction of Ag nanoparticles in gold lustre decoration of Italian Renaissance pottery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bontempi, E.; Colombi, P.; Depero, L.E.; Cartechini, L.; Presciutti, F.; Brunetti, B.G.; Sgamellotti, A.

    2006-01-01

    Lustre is known as one of the most significant decorative techniques of Medieval and Renaissance pottery in the Mediterranean basin, characterized by brilliant gold and red metallic reflections and iridescence effects. Previous studies by various techniques (SEM-EDS and TEM, UV-VIS, XRF, RBS and EXAFS) demonstrated that lustre consists of a heterogeneous metal-glass composite film, formed by Cu and Ag nanoparticles dispersed within the outer layer of a tin-opacified lead glaze. In the present work the investigation of an original gold lustre sample from Deruta has been carried out by means of glancing-incidence X-ray diffraction techniques (GIXRD). The study was aimed at providing information on structure and depth distribution of Ag nanoparticles. Exploiting the capability of controlling X-ray penetration in the glaze by changing the incidence angle, we used GIXRD measurements to estimate non-destructively thickness and depth of silver particles present in the first layers of the glaze. (orig.)

  16. Internet Safety for Teens with ASD. Autism at-a-Glance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinard, A.

    2016-01-01

    "Autism at-a-Glance" is a series of practitioner and family-friendly documents created by the Center on Secondary Education for Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder (CSESA) designed for high school staff members supporting students on the autism spectrum, as well as family members of adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). The…

  17. MCPS School Safety and Security at a Glance 2009-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County Public Schools, 2010

    2010-01-01

    "MCPS School Safety and Security at a Glance" provides, in a single document, information about the reporting of incidents related to school safety and security, school climate, local school safety program descriptions, and serious incidents in all Montgomery County (Maryland) public schools. The information is presented for each school.…

  18. MCPS School Safety and Security at a Glance 2008-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County Public Schools, 2009

    2009-01-01

    "MCPS School Safety and Security at a Glance" provides, in a single document, information about the reporting of incidents related to school safety and security, school climate, local school safety program descriptions, and serious incidents in all Montgomery County (Maryland) Public Schools. The information is presented for each school.…

  19. MCPS School Safety and Security at a Glance 2010-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County Public Schools, 2011

    2011-01-01

    "MCPS School Safety and Security at a Glance" provides, in a single document, information about the reporting of incidents related to school safety and security, school climate, local school safety program descriptions, and serious incidents in all Montgomery County (Maryland) Public Schools. The information is presented for each school.…

  20. Structure of MoCN films deposited by cathodic arc evaporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilewicz, A., E-mail: adam.gilewicz@tu.koszalin.pl [Koszalin University of Technology, Faculty of Technology and Education, Sniadeckich 2, 75-453 Koszalin (Poland); Jedrzejewski, R.; Kochmanska, A.E. [West Pomeranian University of Technology Szczecin, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Mechatronics, 19 Piastów Ave., 70-313 Szczecin (Poland); Warcholinski, B. [Koszalin University of Technology, Faculty of Technology and Education, Sniadeckich 2, 75-453 Koszalin (Poland)

    2015-02-27

    Molybdenum carbonitride (MoCN) coatings were deposited onto HS6-5-2 steel substrate using pure Mo targets in mixed acetylene and nitrogen atmosphere by cathodic arc evaporation. The structural properties of MoCN coatings with different carbon contents (as an effect of the C{sub 2}H{sub 2} flow rate) were investigated systematically. Phase and chemical composition evolution of the coatings were characterized both by the glancing angle of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and wavelength dispersive spectrometry, respectively. These analyses have been supplemented by estimates of grain sizes and stress in the coatings. The XRD results show that the increase in acetylene flow rate causes the formation of molybdenum carbide (MoC) hexagonal phase in the coatings, a reduction of grain size and an increase in internal stress. - Highlights: • MoN and MoCN coatings were deposited by cathodic arc evaporation in nitrogen atmosphere. • MoCN coatings were formed using different acetylene flow rates. • Phase composition evolution was observed. • Crystallite size and stress were calculated.

  1. Small grain size zirconium-based coatings deposited by magnetron sputtering at low temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, O., E-mail: omar.jimenez.udg@gmail.com [Departamento de Ingeniería de Proyectos, CUCEI, Universidad de Guadalajara, AP 307, CP 45101 Zapopan, Jal (Mexico); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Audronis, M.; Leyland, A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Flores, M.; Rodriguez, E. [Departamento de Ingeniería de Proyectos, CUCEI, Universidad de Guadalajara, AP 307, CP 45101 Zapopan, Jal (Mexico); Kanakis, K.; Matthews, A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom)

    2015-09-30

    Hard, partly amorphous, ZrTiB(N) coatings were deposited by Physical Vapour Deposition (PVD) onto (111) silicon wafers at low substrate temperatures of 85 and 110 °C using Closed Field Unbalanced Magnetron Sputtering. A segmented rectangular sputter target composed of three pieces (Zr/TiB{sub 2}/Zr) was used as the source of evaporation of coating components. Two different substrate biases (i.e. floating potential and − 50 V) and N{sub 2} reactive-gas flow rates of 2, 4 and 6 sccm were employed as the main deposition parameter variables. The chemical composition, structure, morphology and mechanical properties were investigated using a variety of analytical techniques such as Glow-Discharge Optical Emission Spectroscopy, cross-sectional Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Glancing Angle X-ray Diffraction (GAXRD) and nanoindentation. With other parameters fixed, coating properties were found to be dependent on the substrate negative bias and nitrogen flow rate. Linear scan profiles and SEM imaging revealed that all coatings were smooth, dense and featureless (in fracture cross section) with no apparent columnar morphology or macro-defects. GAXRD structural analysis revealed that mostly metallic phases were formed for coatings containing no nitrogen, whereas a solid solution (Zr,Ti)N single phase nitride was found in most of the reactively deposited coatings — exhibiting a very small grain size due to nitrogen and boron grain refinement effects. Hardness values from as low as 8.6 GPa up to a maximum of 25.9 GPa are related mainly to solid solution strengthening effects. The measured elastic moduli correlated with the trends in hardness behaviour; values in the range of 120–200 GPa were observed depending on the selected deposition parameters. Also, high H/E values (> 0.1) were achieved with several of the coatings.

  2. Small angle slot divertor concept for long pulse advanced tokamaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, H. Y.; Sang, C. F.; Stangeby, P. C.; Lao, L. L.; Taylor, T. S.; Thomas, D. M.

    2017-04-01

    SOLPS-EIRENE edge code analysis shows that a gas-tight slot divertor geometry with a small-angle (glancing-incidence) target, named the small angle slot (SAS) divertor, can achieve cold, dissipative/detached divertor conditions at relatively low values of plasma density at the outside midplane separatrix. SAS exhibits the following key features: (1) strong enhancement of the buildup of neutral density in a localized region near the plasma strike point on the divertor target; (2) spreading of the cooling front across the divertor target with the slot gradually flaring out from the strike point, thus effectively reducing both heat flux and erosion on the entire divertor target surface. Such a divertor may potentially provide a power and particle handling solution for long pulse advanced tokamaks.

  3. Driver's glance behaviour and secondary tasks; Einfluss von Nebenaufgaben auf das Fahrerblickverhalten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schweigert, M. [BMW Group Forschung und Technik, Muenchen (Germany); Bubb, H. [TU Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Ergonomie

    2003-07-01

    This paper contains a proposal for the evaluation of drivers' glance behavior, focussing on the influence of secondary tasks during driving. In general, an evaluation can only be achieved by regarding the quality of a task completion, which can be calculated by a comparison of a measured, actual value or behavior and a defined target value or behavior. Due to this definition, a target glance behavior is defined by so called continous and situational visual tasks. As opposed to continuous visual tasks, situational visual tasks contain a concrete description for a target glance behavior. A field trial (N=30) showed, that the subjects' glance behavior fulfilled most of the defined visual tasks when driving without a secondary task. Driving with secondary tasks leads to an increasing subjects' reliance on the correct driving of the other road users, shown by decreasing visual monitoring. (orig.) [German] Die vorliegende Untersuchung behandelt die Bewertung des Blickverhaltens von Fahrzeugfuehrern, wobei das Hauptaugenmerk auf dem Einfluss von Zusatzaufgaben liegt, die waehrend der Fahrt zu bearbeiten sind. Eine Bewertung ist immer eng mit dem Begriff der Qualitaet verknuepft, wobei ein Ist-Wert mit einem vorgegebenen Soll-Wert zu vergleichen ist. Nur wenn die Abweichung zwischen Soll und Ist gering ist, ist die Qualitaet hoch und die Bewertung somit positiv. Bei der Definition eines Soll-Blickverhaltens wird hier zwischen kontinuierlichen und situativen visuellen Aufgaben unterschieden. Letztere beinhalten konkrete Forderungen an das Fahrerblickverhalten in bestimmten Situationen, waehrend sich die Vorgabe eines Soll-Werts fuer kontinuierliche Aufgaben einer genauen Quantifizierung weitestgehend entzieht. Im Feldversuch (N=30) konnte gezeigt werden, dass bei den Fahrten ohne Zusatzaufgabenbearbeitung (Referenzbedingung) die definierten visuellen Aufgaben zum Grossteil erfuellt werden. Ist der Fahrer jedoch durch Zusatzaufgaben beansprucht, verlaesst er

  4. Glaucoma, Open-Angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home » Statistics and Data » Glaucoma, Open-angle Listen Glaucoma, Open-angle Open-angle Glaucoma Defined In open-angle glaucoma, the fluid passes ... 2010 2010 U.S. Age-Specific Prevalence Rates for Glaucoma by Age and Race/Ethnicity The prevalence of ...

  5. Polymers pipeline study (PP and PEAD) for paraffin deposits inhibition: static (contact angle) and with flow (depolarization of the petroleum fluorescence); Estudo de dutos polimericos (PP e PEAD) para inibicao de depositos parafinicos: estatico (angulo de contato) e com fluxo (despolarizacao da fluorescencia do petroleo)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quintella, Cristina M.; Castro, Martha T.P.O.; Musse, Ana Paula S. [Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    This work evaluated the formation of paraffin deposits as a function of the chemical constitution of the pipeline walls. Two low cost polymers, available in the Brazilian market either as solids or as extruded films, were studied: polypropylene (PP) and high density polyethylene (PEAD). The static interfacial interactions were evaluated by contact angle and showed that the interaction between crude oil and PEAD was 16% stronger than with PP. For the dynamic studies a flow cell was developed in order to observe mainly the boundary layers. The paraffin deposits were identified through the decrease of the intermolecular alignment within the flowing oil. PEAD proved to be 43% more efficient that PP in interacting with the crude oil. Under flowing conditions, the chemical interfacial effects became more pronounced due to the molecular effects overcoming the hydrodynamic effects. Photos of the cell walls showed globular paraffin deposits on PEAD and their absence on PP. As both polymers are linear, the higher tendency of PEAD to yield paraffin deposits was attributed to the absence of lateral branches of methyl groups. There by PP was found to be better than PEAD to avoid paraffin deposition. (author)

  6. Extended Visual Glances Away from the Roadway are Associated with ADHD- and Texting-Related Driving Performance Deficits in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingery, Kathleen M; Narad, Megan; Garner, Annie A; Antonini, Tanya N; Tamm, Leanne; Epstein, Jeffery N

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of the research study was to determine whether ADHD- and texting-related driving impairments are mediated by extended visual glances away from the roadway. Sixty-one adolescents (ADHD =28, non-ADHD =33; 62% male; 11% minority) aged 16-17 with a valid driver's license were videotaped while engaging in a driving simulation that included a No Distraction, Hands-Free Phone Conversation, and Texting condition. Two indicators of visual inattention were coded: 1) percentage of time with eyes diverted from the roadway; and 2) number of extended (greater than 2 s) visual glances away from the roadway. Adolescents with ADHD displayed significantly more visual inattention to the roadway on both visual inattention measures. Increased lane position variability among adolescents with ADHD compared to those without ADHD during the Hands-Free Phone Conversation and Texting conditions was mediated by an increased number of extended glances away from the roadway. Similarly, texting resulted in decreased visual attention to the roadway. Finally, increased lane position variability during texting was also mediated by the number of extended glances away from the roadway. Both ADHD and texting impair visual attention to the roadway and the consequence of this visual inattention is increased lane position variability. Visual inattention is implicated as a possible mechanism for ADHD- and texting-related deficits and suggests that driving interventions designed to address ADHD- or texting-related deficits in adolescents need to focus on decreasing extended glances away from the roadway.

  7. Small angle spectrometers: Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courant, E.; Foley, K.J.; Schlein, P.E.

    1986-01-01

    Aspects of experiments at small angles at the Superconducting Super Collider are considered. Topics summarized include a small angle spectrometer, a high contingency spectrometer, dipole and toroid spectrometers, and magnet choices

  8. Contact Angle Goniometer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description:The FTA32 goniometer provides video-based contact angle and surface tension measurement. Contact angles are measured by fitting a mathematical expression...

  9. Oxygen plasma treatment and deposition of CNx on a fluorinated polymer matrix composite for improved erosion resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muratore, C.; Korenyi-Both, A.; Bultman, J. E.; Waite, A. R.; Jones, J. G.; Storage, T. M.; Voevodin, A. A.

    2007-01-01

    The use of polymer matrix composites in aerospace propulsion applications is currently limited by insufficient resistance to erosion by abrasive media. Erosion resistant coatings may provide necessary protection; however, adhesion to many high temperature polymer matrix composite (PMC) materials is poor. A low pressure oxygen plasma treatment process was developed to improve adhesion of CN x coatings to a carbon reinforced, fluorinated polymer matrix composite. Fullerene-like CN x was selected as an erosion resistant coating for its high hardness-to-elastic modulus ratio and elastic resilience which were expected to reduce erosion from media incident at different angles (normal or glancing) relative to the surface. In situ x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to evaluate the effect of the plasma treatment on surface chemistry, and electron microscopy was used to identify changes in the surface morphology of the PMC substrate after plasma exposure. The fluorine concentration at the surface was significantly reduced and the carbon fibers were exposed after plasma treatment. CN x coatings were then deposited on oxygen treated PMC substrates. Qualitative tests demonstrated that plasma treatment improved coating adhesion resulting in an erosion resistance improvement of a factor of 2 compared to untreated coated composite substrates. The combination of PMC pretreatment and coating with CN x reduced the erosion rate by an order of magnitude for normally incident particles

  10. A simulator evaluation of the effects of attention maintenance training on glance distributions of younger novice drivers inside and outside the vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divekar, Gautam; Pradhan, Anuj K.; Masserang, Kathleen M.; Reagan, Ian; Pollatsek, Alexander; Fisher, Donald L.

    2013-01-01

    Driver distraction inside and outside the vehicle is increasingly a problem, especially for younger drivers. In many cases the distraction is associated with long glances away from the forward roadway. Such glances have been shown to be highly predictive of crashes. Ideally, one would like to develop and evaluate a training program which reduced these long glances. Thus, an experiment was conducted in a driving simulator to test the efficacy of a training program, FOCAL, that was developed to teach novice drivers to limit the duration of glances that are inside the vehicle while performing an in-vehicle task, such as looking for a CD or finding the 4-way flashers. The test in the simulator showed that the FOCAL trained group performed significantly better than the placebo trained group on several measures, notably on the percentage of within-vehicle glances that were greater than 2, 2.5, and 3 s. However, the training did not generalize to glances away from the roadway (e.g., when drivers were asked to attend to a sign adjacent to the roadway, both trained and untrained novice drivers were equally likely to make especially long glances at the sign). PMID:24415905

  11. Optimal reconstruction angles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, G.O. Jr.; Knight, L.

    1979-07-01

    The question of optimal projection angles has recently become of interest in the field of reconstruction from projections. Here, studies are concentrated on the n x n pixel space, where literative algorithms such as ART and direct matrix techniques due to Katz are considered. The best angles are determined in a Gauss--Markov statistical sense as well as with respect to a function-theoretical error bound. The possibility of making photon intensity a function of angle is also examined. Finally, the best angles to use in an ART-like algorithm are studied. A certain set of unequally spaced angles was found to be preferred in several contexts. 15 figures, 6 tables

  12. Pensions at a glance 2011 retirement-income systems in OECD and G20 countries

    CERN Document Server

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development. Paris

    2011-01-01

    The theme of this fourth edition of Pensions at a Glance is pensions, retirement and life expectancy. Many countries have increased pension ages in the face of population ageing and longer lives. Some have introduced an automatic link between pensions and life expectancy. Improvements to the incentives to work rather than retire are also a common part of recent pension-reform packages. However, ensuring that there are enough jobs for older workers remains a challenge. An in-depth look at these important policy issues is provided by five special chapters on: pension ages, retirement behaviour, pension incentives to retire, the demand for older workers and linking pensions to life expectancy. This edition updates information on the key features of pension provision in OECD countries and provides projections of retirement income for today’s workers. It offers an expanded range of 34 indicators, covering the design of national retirement-income provision, pension entitlements, incomes of older people, the finan...

  13. Pensions at a glance 2009 retirement-income systems in OECD countries

    CERN Document Server

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development. Paris

    2009-01-01

    Pension and retirement policies have changed dramatically in recent years, as governments have tried to balance the goals of adequate retirement incomes and the long-term financial sustainability of pension systems in the face of population ageing. Pensions at a Glance 2009 provides a consistent framework for comparing pension policies between countries along with reliable data. This third edition updates information on key features of pension provision in OECD countries and provides projections of retirement income for todays workers. It offers an expanded range of indicators, including measures of assets, investment performance, coverage of private pensions, public pension spending, and the demographic context and outlook. Four special chapters provide an in-depth look at important issues in pension policy today. The first examines the implications of the present financial and economic crisis on pension systems. Which countries and which individuals are most affected? What can governments do to help and whi...

  14. Glance traceability – Web system for equipment traceability and radiation monitoring for the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Ramos de Azevedo Evora, L H; Pommes, K; Galvão, K K; Maidantchik, C

    2010-01-01

    During the operation, maintenance, and dismantling periods of the ATLAS Experiment, the traceability of all detector equipment must be guaranteed for logistic and safety matters. The running of the Large Hadron Collider will expose the ATLAS detector to radiation. Therefore, CERN must follow specific regulations from both the French and Swiss authorities for equipment removal, transport, repair, and disposal. GLANCE Traceability, implemented in C++ and Java/Java3D, has been developed to fulfill the requirements. The system registers and associates each equipment part to either a functional position in the detector or a zone outside the underground area through a 3D graphical user interface. Radiation control of the equipment is performed using a radiation monitor connected to the system: the local background gets stored and the threshold is automatically calculated. The system classifies the equipment as non radioactive if its radiation dose does not exceed that limit value. History for both location traceabi...

  15. The effects of visual crowding, text size, and positional uncertainty on text legibility at a glance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobres, Jonathan; Wolfe, Benjamin; Chahine, Nadine; Reimer, Bryan

    2018-07-01

    Reading at a glance, once a relatively infrequent mode of reading, is becoming common. Mobile interaction paradigms increasingly dominate the way in which users obtain information about the world, which often requires reading at a glance, whether from a smartphone, wearable device, or in-vehicle interface. Recent research in these areas has shown that a number of factors can affect text legibility when words are briefly presented in isolation. Here we expand upon this work by examining how legibility is affected by more crowded presentations. Word arrays were combined with a lexical decision task, in which the size of the text elements and the inter-line spacing (leading) between individual items were manipulated to gauge their relative impacts on text legibility. In addition, a single-word presentation condition that randomized the location of presentation was compared with previous work that held position constant. Results show that larger text was more legible than smaller text. Wider leading significantly enhanced legibility as well, but contrary to expectations, wider leading did not fully counteract decrements in legibility at smaller text sizes. Single-word stimuli presented with random positioning were more difficult to read than stationary counterparts from earlier studies. Finally, crowded displays required much greater processing time compared to single-word displays. These results have implications for modern interface design, which often present interactions in the form of scrollable and/or selectable lists. The present findings are of practical interest to the wide community of graphic designers and interface engineers responsible for developing our interfaces of daily use. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Angles in hyperbolic lattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risager, Morten S.; Södergren, Carl Anders

    2017-01-01

    It is well known that the angles in a lattice acting on hyperbolic n -space become equidistributed. In this paper we determine a formula for the pair correlation density for angles in such hyperbolic lattices. Using this formula we determine, among other things, the asymptotic behavior of the den......It is well known that the angles in a lattice acting on hyperbolic n -space become equidistributed. In this paper we determine a formula for the pair correlation density for angles in such hyperbolic lattices. Using this formula we determine, among other things, the asymptotic behavior...... of the density function in both the small and large variable limits. This extends earlier results by Boca, Pasol, Popa and Zaharescu and Kelmer and Kontorovich in dimension 2 to general dimension n . Our proofs use the decay of matrix coefficients together with a number of careful estimates, and lead...

  17. The influence of spray properties on intranasal deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, Mow Yee; Cheng, Yung-Sung; Su, Wei-Chung; Donovan, Maureen D

    2007-01-01

    While numerous devices, formulations, and spray characteristics have been shown to influence nasal deposition efficiency, few studies have attempted to identify which of these interacting factors plays the greatest role in nasal spray deposition. The deposition patterns of solutions with a wide range of surface tensions and viscosities were measured using an MRI-derived nasal cavity replica. The resulting spray plumes had angles between 29 degrees and 80 degrees and contained droplet sizes (D(v50)) from 37-157 microm. Each formulation contained rhodamine 590 as a fluorescent marker for detection. Administration angles of 30 degrees , 40 degrees , or 50 degrees above horizontal were tested to investigate the role of user technique on nasal deposition. The amount of spray deposited within specific regions of the nasal cavity was determined by disassembling the replica and measuring the amount of rhodamine retained in each section. Most of the spray droplets were deposited onto the anterior region of the model, but sprays with small plume angles were capable of reaching the turbinate region with deposition efficiencies approaching 90%. Minimal dependence on droplet size, viscosity, or device was observed. Changes in inspiratory flow rate (0-60 L/min) had no significant effect on turbinate deposition efficiency. Both plume angle and administration angle were found to be important factors in determining deposition efficiency. For administration angles of 40 degrees or 50 degrees , maximal turbinate deposition efficiency (30-50%) occurred with plume angles of 55-65 degrees , whereas a 30 degrees administration angle gave an approximately 75% deposition efficiency for similar plume angles. Deposition efficiencies of approximately 90% could be achieved with plume angles deposition efficiency, while many other spray parameters, including particle size, have relatively minor influences on deposition within the nasal cavity.

  18. Metal-boride phase formation on tungsten carbide (WC-Co) during microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, Jamin M.; Catledge, Shane A., E-mail: catledge@uab.edu

    2016-02-28

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A detailed phase analysis after PECVD boriding shows WCoB, CoB and/or W{sub 2}CoB{sub 2}. • EDS of PECVD borides shows boron diffusion into the carbide grain structure. • Nanoindentation hardness and modulus of borides is 23–27 GPa and 600–780 GPa. • Scratch testing shows hard coating with cracking at 40N and spallation at 70N. - Abstract: Strengthening of cemented tungsten carbide by boriding is used to improve the wear resistance and lifetime of carbide tools; however, many conventional boriding techniques render the bulk carbide too brittle for extreme conditions, such as hard rock drilling. This research explored the variation in metal-boride phase formation during the microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition process at surface temperatures from 700 to 1100 °C. We showed several well-adhered metal-boride surface layers consisting of WCoB, CoB and/or W{sub 2}CoB{sub 2} with average hardness from 23 to 27 GPa and average elastic modulus of 600–730 GPa. The metal-boride interlayer was shown to be an effective diffusion barrier against elemental cobalt; migration of elemental cobalt to the surface of the interlayer was significantly reduced. A combination of glancing angle X-ray diffraction, electron dispersive spectroscopy, nanoindentation and scratch testing was used to evaluate the surface composition and material properties. An evaluation of the material properties shows that plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposited borides formed at substrate temperatures of 800 °C, 850 °C, 900 °C and 1000 °C strengthen the material by increasing the hardness and elastic modulus of cemented tungsten carbide. Additionally, these boride surface layers may offer potential for adhesion of ultra-hard carbon coatings.

  19. Metal-boride phase formation on tungsten carbide (WC-Co) during microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, Jamin M.; Catledge, Shane A.

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A detailed phase analysis after PECVD boriding shows WCoB, CoB and/or W_2CoB_2. • EDS of PECVD borides shows boron diffusion into the carbide grain structure. • Nanoindentation hardness and modulus of borides is 23–27 GPa and 600–780 GPa. • Scratch testing shows hard coating with cracking at 40N and spallation at 70N. - Abstract: Strengthening of cemented tungsten carbide by boriding is used to improve the wear resistance and lifetime of carbide tools; however, many conventional boriding techniques render the bulk carbide too brittle for extreme conditions, such as hard rock drilling. This research explored the variation in metal-boride phase formation during the microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition process at surface temperatures from 700 to 1100 °C. We showed several well-adhered metal-boride surface layers consisting of WCoB, CoB and/or W_2CoB_2 with average hardness from 23 to 27 GPa and average elastic modulus of 600–730 GPa. The metal-boride interlayer was shown to be an effective diffusion barrier against elemental cobalt; migration of elemental cobalt to the surface of the interlayer was significantly reduced. A combination of glancing angle X-ray diffraction, electron dispersive spectroscopy, nanoindentation and scratch testing was used to evaluate the surface composition and material properties. An evaluation of the material properties shows that plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposited borides formed at substrate temperatures of 800 °C, 850 °C, 900 °C and 1000 °C strengthen the material by increasing the hardness and elastic modulus of cemented tungsten carbide. Additionally, these boride surface layers may offer potential for adhesion of ultra-hard carbon coatings.

  20. Mutations in plant breeding: a glance back and a look forward

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustafsson, A.

    1975-01-01

    This brief retrospect of previous shortcomings and procedures really indicates the need for a better co-ordination and co-operation in plant breeding. We now know which mutagens are essential in practical mutation work, and we include radiations as well as chemicals. We now know that there is no principal difference between natural and induced variation. We can easily induce mutational events covering the gap between gross chromosomal rearrangements and DNA-base substitutions. We also know that induced variation may in the future fill and replace the loss of natural variability, or may even extend the limits of variation. We know that mutation and recombination--as evidenced, for instance, by the successful work in barley--will be united into routine procedures, also leading to new breakthroughs in plant improvement. Moreover, ingenious techniques of mass testing are under way, combining traditional and prospective ideas. The mutation method has come to stay, not alone but with gene recombination, with heterosis and with polyploidy. We say that the present is the past's future. To glance back is then to look forward; failures give rise to progress. A synthesis of breeding methods is around the corner

  1. The quadriceps angle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miles, James Edward; Frederiksen, Jane V.; Jensen, Bente Rona

    2012-01-01

    : Pelvic limbs from red foxes (Vulpes vulpes). METHODS: Q angles were measured on hip dysplasia (HD) and whole limb (WL) view radiographs of each limb between the acetabular rim, mid-point (Q1: patellar center, Q2: femoral trochlea), and tibial tuberosity. Errors of 0.5-2.0 mm at measurement landmarks...

  2. open angle glaucoma (poag)?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    there is a build up of pressure due to poor outflow of aqueous humor. The outflow obstruction could occur at the trabecular meshwork of the anterior chamber angle or subsequently in the episcleral vein due to raised venous pressure. Such build up of pressure results in glaucoma . Elevated intraocular pressure remains the ...

  3. The lateral angle revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgan, Jeannie; Lynnerup, Niels; Hoppa, R.D.

    2013-01-01

    measurements taken from computed tomography (CT) scans. Previous reports have observed that the lateral angle size in females is significantly larger than in males. The method was applied to an independent series of 77 postmortem CT scans (42 males, 35 females) to validate its accuracy and reliability...... method appears to be of minimal practical use in forensic anthropology and archeology....

  4. At Right Angles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 17; Issue 9. At Right Angles. Shailesh A Shirali. Information and Announcements Volume 17 Issue 9 September 2012 pp 920-920. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/017/09/0920-0920 ...

  5. Wide angle isotope separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kantrowitz, A.

    1976-01-01

    A method and apparatus is described for particle separation. The method uses a wide angle radially expanding vapor of a particle mixture. In particular, selective ionization of one isotope type in the particle mixture is produced in a multichamber separator and the ionized isotope type is accelerated out of the path of the vapor expansion for separate collection

  6. Filling high aspect ratio trenches by superconformal chemical vapor deposition: Predictive modeling and experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenjiao B.; Abelson, John R.

    2014-11-01

    Complete filling of a deep recessed structure with a second material is a challenge in many areas of nanotechnology fabrication. A newly discovered superconformal coating method, applicable in chemical vapor deposition systems that utilize a precursor in combination with a co-reactant, can solve this problem. However, filling is a dynamic process in which the trench progressively narrows and the aspect ratio (AR) increases. This reduces species diffusion within the trench and may drive the component partial pressures out of the regime for superconformal coating. We therefore derive two theoretical models that can predict the possibility for filling. First, we recast the diffusion-reaction equation for the case of a sidewall with variable taper angle. This affords a definition of effective AR, which is larger than the nominal AR due to the reduced species transport. We then derive the coating profile, both for superconformal and for conformal coating. The critical (most difficult) step in the filling process occurs when the sidewalls merge at the bottom of the trench to form the V shape. Experimentally, for the Mg(DMADB)2/H2O system and a starting AR = 9, this model predicts that complete filling will not be possible, whereas experimentally we do obtain complete filling. We then hypothesize that glancing-angle, long-range transport of species may be responsible for the better than predicted filling. To account for the variable range of species transport, we construct a ballistic transport model. This incorporates the incident flux from outside the structure, cosine law re-emission from surfaces, and line-of-sight transport between internal surfaces. We cast the transport probability between all positions within the trench into a matrix that represents the redistribution of flux after one cycle of collisions. Matrix manipulation then affords a computationally efficient means to determine the steady-state flux distribution and growth rate for a given taper angle. The

  7. Small angle neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardini, G.; Cherubini, G.; Fioravanti, A.; Olivi, A.

    1976-09-01

    A method for the analysis of the data derived from neutron small angle scattering measurements has been accomplished in the case of homogeneous particles, starting from the basic theory without making any assumption on the form of particle size distribution function. The experimental scattering curves are interpreted with the aid the computer by means of a proper routine. The parameters obtained are compared with the corresponding ones derived from observations at the transmission electron microscope

  8. Determination of solid angle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, S.; Amano, H.; Kasai, A.

    1988-01-01

    The solid angle in extended alpha source measurement for a series of counting geometries has been obtained by two methods: (1) calculated by means of the Nelson Blachmen series; (2) interpolated from the data table given by Gardner. A particular consequence of the application of the Nelson Blachmen series was deduced which was different from that given by the original author. The applicability of these two methods, as well as an experimentally measured method, is also evaluated. (author)

  9. Tsunami deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    The NSC (the Nuclear Safety Commission of Japan) demand to survey on tsunami deposits by use of various technical methods (Dec. 2011), because tsunami deposits have useful information on tsunami activity, tsunami source etc. However, there are no guidelines on tsunami deposit survey in JAPAN. In order to prepare the guideline of tsunami deposits survey and evaluation and to develop the method of tsunami source estimation on the basis of tsunami deposits, JNES carried out the following issues; (1) organizing information of paleoseismological record and tsunami deposit by literature research, (2) field survey on tsunami deposit, and (3) designing the analysis code of sediment transport due to tsunami. As to (1), we organize the information gained about tsunami deposits in the database. As to (2), we consolidate methods for surveying and identifying tsunami deposits in the lake based on results of the field survey in Fukui Pref., carried out by JNES. In addition, as to (3), we design the experimental instrument for hydraulic experiment on sediment transport and sedimentation due to tsunamis. These results are reflected in the guideline on the tsunami deposits survey and evaluation. (author)

  10. Tsunami deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The NSC (the Nuclear Safety Commission of Japan) demand to survey on tsunami deposits by use of various technical methods (Dec. 2011), because tsunami deposits have useful information on tsunami activity, tsunami source etc. However, there are no guidelines on tsunami deposit survey in JAPAN. In order to prepare the guideline of tsunami deposits survey and evaluation and to develop the method of tsunami source estimation on the basis of tsunami deposits, JNES carried out the following issues; (1) organizing information of paleoseismological record and tsunami deposit by literature research, (2) field survey on tsunami deposit, and (3) designing the analysis code of sediment transport due to tsunami. As to (1), we organize the information gained about tsunami deposits in the database. As to (2), we consolidate methods for surveying and identifying tsunami deposits in the lake based on results of the field survey in Fukui Pref., carried out by JNES. In addition, as to (3), we design the experimental instrument for hydraulic experiment on sediment transport and sedimentation due to tsunamis. These results are reflected in the guideline on the tsunami deposits survey and evaluation. (author)

  11. Effect of using GPS autosteer guidance systems on the eye-glance behavior and posture of tractor operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, D; Henry, J; Mann, D D

    2012-10-01

    Tractor operators are prone to neck and back discomfort and disorders. It is well known that awkward posture is a major contributor to this problem. Previous studies have investigated the prevalence of awkward posture and the resulting discomfort and disorders among tractor operators. They have also suggested various ways to mitigate this problem. With the introduction of new autosteer guidance systems, the tractor operator is relieved from the task of steering the tractor for most of the time during field work. Therefore, it is expected that the operator's posture will change. The goal of this study was to investigate the changes in the eye-glance behavior and posture of tractor operators as a result of using autosteer guidance systems. An eye-tracking system and a camcorder were used to record the eye-glance behavior and posture of 13 tractor operators as they performed seeding operations. The experiment with each operator consisted of two sessions. In one session, the operator used an autosteer system, while in the other session the operator steered the tractor manually. Analysis of the data showed that the eye-glance behavior and posture of the operators were significantly different between the autosteer and manual steering sessions. With the autosteer system, the operators spent less time in an awkward posture, and they changed their posture less frequently. However, even with the autosteer system, the operators spent 1/3 of their time in an awkward posture. Subjective feedback from the operators indicated that more than half of them experienced back or neck/shoulder discomfort during or after seeding. It is essential that the recommendations of the previous studies, such as using large rear-view mirrors or a rotating tractor seat, be evaluated when the operator is using an autosteer system. Other tools, such as video cameras that show the attached equipment, should also be tested to evaluate their effectiveness in reducing the operator's exposure to awkward

  12. Evanescent-wave coupled right angled buried waveguide: Applications in carbon nanotube mode-locking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mary, R.; Thomson, R. R.; Kar, A. K.; Brown, G.; Beecher, S. J.; Popa, D.; Sun, Z.; Torrisi, F.; Hasan, T.; Milana, S.; Bonaccorso, F.; Ferrari, A. C.

    2013-01-01

    We present an evanescent-field device based on a right-angled waveguide. This consists of orthogonal waveguides, with their points of intersection lying along an angled facet of the chip. Light guided along one waveguide is incident at the angled dielectric-air facet at an angle exceeding the critical angle, so that the totally internally reflected light is coupled into the second waveguide. By depositing a nanotube film on the angled surface, the chip is then used to mode-lock an Erbium doped fiber ring laser with a repetition rate of 26 MHz, and pulse duration of 800 fs

  13. The influence of flip angle on the magic angle effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zurlo, J.V.; Blacksin, M.F.; Karimi, S.

    2000-01-01

    Objective. To assess the impact of flip angle with gradient sequences on the ''magic angle effect''. We characterized the magic angle effect in various gradient echo sequences and compared the signal- to-noise ratios present on these sequences with the signal-to-noise ratios of spin echo sequences.Design. Ten normal healthy volunteers were positioned such that the flexor hallucis longus tendon remained at approximately at 55 to the main magnetic field (the magic angle). The tendon was imaged by a conventional spin echo T1- and T2-weighted techniques and by a series of gradient techniques. Gradient sequences were altered by both TE and flip angle. Signal-to-noise measurements were obtained at segments of the flexor hallucis longus tendon demonstrating the magic angle effect to quantify the artifact. Signal-to-noise measurements were compared and statistical analysis performed. Similar measurements were taken of the anterior tibialis tendon as an internal control.Results and conclusions. We demonstrated the magic angle effect on all the gradient sequences. The intensity of the artifact was affected by both the TE and flip angle. Low TE values and a high flip angle demonstrated the greatest magic angle effect. At TE values less than 30 ms, a high flip angle will markedly increase the magic angle effect. (orig.)

  14. Dancing droplets: Contact angle, drag, and confinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benusiglio, Adrien; Cira, Nate; Prakash, Manu

    2015-11-01

    When deposited on a clean glass slide, a mixture of water and propylene glycol forms a droplet of given contact angle, when both pure liquids spread. (Cira, Benusiglio, Prakash: Nature, 2015). The droplet is stabilized by a gradient of surface tension due to evaporation that induces a Marangoni flow from the border to the apex of the droplets. The apparent contact angle of the droplets depends on both their composition and the external humidity as captured by simple models. These droplets present remarkable properties such as lack of a large pinning force. We discuss the drag on these droplets as a function of various parameters. We show theoretical and experimental results of how various confinement geometries change the vapor gradient and the dynamics of droplet attraction.

  15. Influence of Stockpile Angle in Natural Drying of Laterite Ore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoalbys Retirado-Mediaceja

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Natural drying is performed at Cuban nickel plants by depositing bulk ore in the open. The ore is currently being stockpiled without much consideration for the impact of the drying surface angle on the process power behavior. Simulations were carried out in this investigation, which prove that an increased triangular stockpile angle considerably reduces natural drying efficiency. A 45 sexagesimal degree angle to the horizontal plane results in exposure of a large volume of ore to natural drying and guarantees adequate energy performance.

  16. Exogenous deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khasanov, A.Kh.

    1988-01-01

    Exogenous deposits forming as a result of complex exogenous processes, passed under the influence of outside forces on the Earth surface. To them relate physical and chemical weathering, decomposition and decay of mineral masses, redistribution and transportation of material, forming and deposit of new minerals and ores steady on the earth surface conditions

  17. Variable angle correlation spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y.K.; Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA

    1994-05-01

    In this dissertation, a novel nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique, variable angle correlation spectroscopy (VACSY) is described and demonstrated with 13 C nuclei in rapidly rotating samples. These experiments focus on one of the basic problems in solid state NMR: how to extract the wealth of information contained in the anisotropic component of the NMR signal while still maintaining spectral resolution. Analysis of the anisotropic spectral patterns from poly-crystalline systems reveal information concerning molecular structure and dynamics, yet in all but the simplest of systems, the overlap of spectral patterns from chemically distinct sites renders the spectral analysis difficult if not impossible. One solution to this problem is to perform multi-dimensional experiments where the high-resolution, isotropic spectrum in one dimension is correlated with the anisotropic spectral patterns in the other dimensions. The VACSY technique incorporates the angle between the spinner axis and the static magnetic field as an experimental parameter that may be incremented during the course of the experiment to help correlate the isotropic and anisotropic components of the spectrum. The two-dimensional version of the VACSY experiments is used to extract the chemical shift anisotropy tensor values from multi-site organic molecules, study molecular dynamics in the intermediate time regime, and to examine the ordering properties of partially oriented samples. The VACSY technique is then extended to three-dimensional experiments to study slow molecular reorientations in a multi-site polymer system

  18. Surface Finish after Laser Metal Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rombouts, M.; Maes, G.; Hendrix, W.; Delarbre, E.; Motmans, F.

    Laser metal deposition (LMD) is an additive manufacturing technology for the fabrication of metal parts through layerwise deposition and laser induced melting of metal powder. The poor surface finish presents a major limitation in LMD. This study focuses on the effects of surface inclination angle and strategies to improve the surface finish of LMD components. A substantial improvement in surface quality of both the side and top surfaces has been obtained by laser remelting after powder deposition.

  19. Figure/Ground Segmentation via a Haptic Glance: Attributing Initial Finger Contacts to Objects or Their Supporting Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawluk, D; Kitada, R; Abramowicz, A; Hamilton, C; Lederman, S J

    2011-01-01

    The current study addresses the well-known "figure/ground" problem in human perception, a fundamental topic that has received surprisingly little attention from touch scientists to date. Our approach is grounded in, and directly guided by, current knowledge concerning the nature of haptic processing. Given inherent figure/ground ambiguity in natural scenes and limited sensory inputs from first contact (a "haptic glance"), we consider first whether people are even capable of differentiating figure from ground (Experiments 1 and 2). Participants were required to estimate the strength of their subjective impression that they were feeling an object (i.e., figure) as opposed to just the supporting structure (i.e., ground). Second, we propose a tripartite factor classification scheme to further assess the influence of kinetic, geometric (Experiments 1 and 2), and material (Experiment 2) factors on haptic figure/ground segmentation, complemented by more open-ended subjective responses obtained at the end of the experiment. Collectively, the results indicate that under certain conditions it is possible to segment figure from ground via a single haptic glance with a reasonable degree of certainty, and that all three factor classes influence the estimated likelihood that brief, spatially distributed fingertip contacts represent contact with an object and/or its background supporting structure.

  20. Equilibrium contact angle or the most-stable contact angle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes Ruiz-Cabello, F J; Rodríguez-Valverde, M A; Cabrerizo-Vílchez, M A

    2014-04-01

    It is well-established that the equilibrium contact angle in a thermodynamic framework is an "unattainable" contact angle. Instead, the most-stable contact angle obtained from mechanical stimuli of the system is indeed experimentally accessible. Monitoring the susceptibility of a sessile drop to a mechanical stimulus enables to identify the most stable drop configuration within the practical range of contact angle hysteresis. Two different stimuli may be used with sessile drops: mechanical vibration and tilting. The most stable drop against vibration should reveal the changeless contact angle but against the gravity force, it should reveal the highest resistance to slide down. After the corresponding mechanical stimulus, once the excited drop configuration is examined, the focus will be on the contact angle of the initial drop configuration. This methodology needs to map significantly the static drop configurations with different stable contact angles. The most-stable contact angle, together with the advancing and receding contact angles, completes the description of physically realizable configurations of a solid-liquid system. Since the most-stable contact angle is energetically significant, it may be used in the Wenzel, Cassie or Cassie-Baxter equations accordingly or for the surface energy evaluation. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Evidence of room temperature ferromagnetism in argon/oxygen annealed TiO2 thin films deposited by electron beam evaporation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohanty, P.; Kabiraj, D.; Mandal, R.K.; Kulriya, P.K.; Sinha, A.S.K.; Rath, Chandana

    2014-01-01

    TiO 2 thin films deposited by electron beam evaporation technique annealed in either O 2 or Ar atmosphere showed ferromagnetism at room temperature. The pristine amorphous film demonstrates anatase phase after annealing under Ar/O 2 atmosphere. While the pristine film shows a super-paramagnetic behavior, both O 2 and Ar annealed films display hysteresis at 300 K. X-ray photo emission spectroscopy (XPS), Raman spectroscopy, Rutherford’s backscattering spectroscopy (RBS), cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) were used to refute the possible role of impurities/contaminants in magnetic properties of the films. The saturation magnetization of the O 2 annealed film is found to be higher than the Ar annealed one. It is revealed from shifting of O 1s and Ti 2p core level spectra as well as from the enhancement of high binding energy component of O 1s spectra that the higher magnetic moment is associated with higher oxygen vacancies. In addition, O 2 annealed film demonstrates better crystallinity, uniform deposition and smoother surface than that of the Ar annealed one from glancing angle X-ray diffraction (GAXRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). We conclude that although ferromagnetism is due to oxygen vacancies, the higher magnetization in O 2 annealed film could be due to crystallinity, which has been observed earlier in Co doped TiO 2 film deposited by pulsed laser deposition (Mohanty et al., 2012 [10]). - Highlights: • TiO 2 films were deposited by e-beam evaporation technique and post annealed under O 2 /Ar at 500 °C. • The pristine film shows SPM behavior where as O 2 and Ar annealed films demonstrate RTFM. • The presence of magnetic impurities has been discarded by various characterization techniques. • The magnetic moment is found to be higher in O 2 annealed film than the Ar annealed one. • The higher M s in O 2 annealed film is attributed to oxygen vacancies as well as crystallinity

  2. Development of an angle-scanning spectropolarimeter: Preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouri, Sahar A.; Gregory, Don A.; Fuller, Kirk

    2018-02-01

    A fixed-angle spectropolarimeter capable of measuring the Mueller matrix of particle deposits and conventional optical elements over the 300-1100 nm spectral range has been built, calibrated and extensively tested. A second generation of this instrument is being built which can scan from 0° to near 180° in both scattering angle and sample orientation, enabling studies of the bidirectional Mueller matrices of nanoparticle arrays, atmospheric aerosol deposits, and nano- and microstructured surfaces. This system will also provide a much needed metrology capability for fully characterizing the performance of optical devices and device components from the near-infrared through the medium wave ultraviolet. Experimental results taken using the first generation fixed-angle arrangement will be presented along with the rationale for building the second.

  3. Contact angles of liquid metals on quasicrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, Claire; Girardeaux, Christophe; Perrin-Pellegrino, Carine; Gas, Patrick; Dubois, Jean-Marie; Rivier, Nicolas

    2008-01-01

    Wetting with μm-sized Pb droplets on thin polycrystalline films of decagonal Al 13 Co 4 is reported. The films were prepared under high vacuum conditions in order to have Pb droplets lying on a clean surface. The method used is sequential deposition and annealing of specific stackings of Al and Co layers of nanometric thicknesses. A 300 nm thick Pb slab was then deposited on top of the films and dewetting experiments were followed in situ in a scanning Auger microprobe. The contact angle between the Pb droplet and the surface of the film is measured to be 49 deg. ± 7 deg. Further investigation performed by cross section transmission electron microscopy allows us to better characterize the interface. Taking into account the rugosity of the film, it is concluded that there is partial wetting of the film, which corresponds to a smaller contact angle. The comparison with other results obtained either with pure metals or with a cubic AlCo compound leads to the conclusion that the wetting behaviour of Pb on the surface of a decagonal compound is close to that of a metal with a high melting point and not significantly different from that of a crystalline compound with a small unit cell

  4. Variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometric characterization of HfO2 thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, M.; Kumari, N.; Karar, V.; Sharma, A. L.

    2018-02-01

    Hafnium Oxide film was deposited on BK7 glass substrate using reactive oxygenated E-Beam deposition technique. The film was deposited using in-situ quartz crystal thickness monitoring to control the film thickness and rate of evaporation. The thin film was grown with a rate of deposition of 0.3 nm/s. The coated substrate was optically characterized using spectrophotometer to determine its transmission spectra. The optical constants as well as film thickness of the hafnia film were extracted by variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry with Cauchy fitting at incidence angles of 65˚, 70˚ and 75˚.

  5. The double Brewster angle effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirion-Lefevre, Laetitia; Guinvarc'h, Régis

    2018-01-01

    The Double Brewster angle effect (DBE) is an extension of the Brewster angle to double reflection on two orthogonal dielectric surfaces. It results from the combination of two pseudo-Brewster angles occurring in complementary incidence angles domains. It can be observed for a large range of incidence angles provided that double bounces mechanism is present. As a consequence of this effect, we show that the reflection coefficient at VV polarization can be at least 10 dB lower than the reflection coefficient at HH polarization over a wide range of incidence angle - typically from 20 to 70∘. It is experimentally demonstrated using a Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) image that this effect can be seen on buildings and forests. For large buildings, the difference can reach more than 20 dB. xml:lang="fr"

  6. Topological investigation of electronic silicon nanoparticulate aggregates using ultra-small-angle X-ray scattering

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jonah, EO

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The network topology of two types of silicon nanoparticles, produced by high energy milling and pyrolysis of silane, in layers deposited from inks on permeable and impermeable substrates has been quantitatively characterized using ultra-small-angle...

  7. Angle Performance on Optima XE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, Jonathan; Satoh, Shu

    2011-01-01

    Angle control on high energy implanters is important due to shrinking device dimensions, and sensitivity to channeling at high beam energies. On Optima XE, beam-to-wafer angles are controlled in both the horizontal and vertical directions. In the horizontal direction, the beam angle is measured through a series of narrow slits, and any angle adjustment is made by steering the beam with the corrector magnet. In the vertical direction, the beam angle is measured through a high aspect ratio mask, and any angle adjustment is made by slightly tilting the wafer platen during implant.Using a sensitive channeling condition, we were able to quantify the angle repeatability of Optima XE. By quantifying the sheet resistance sensitivity to both horizontal and vertical angle variation, the total angle variation was calculated as 0.04 deg. (1σ). Implants were run over a five week period, with all of the wafers selected from a single boule, in order to control for any crystal cut variation.

  8. Small angle neutron scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cousin Fabrice

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS is a technique that enables to probe the 3-D structure of materials on a typical size range lying from ∼ 1 nm up to ∼ a few 100 nm, the obtained information being statistically averaged on a sample whose volume is ∼ 1 cm3. This very rich technique enables to make a full structural characterization of a given object of nanometric dimensions (radius of gyration, shape, volume or mass, fractal dimension, specific area… through the determination of the form factor as well as the determination of the way objects are organized within in a continuous media, and therefore to describe interactions between them, through the determination of the structure factor. The specific properties of neutrons (possibility of tuning the scattering intensity by using the isotopic substitution, sensitivity to magnetism, negligible absorption, low energy of the incident neutrons make it particularly interesting in the fields of soft matter, biophysics, magnetic materials and metallurgy. In particular, the contrast variation methods allow to extract some informations that cannot be obtained by any other experimental techniques. This course is divided in two parts. The first one is devoted to the description of the principle of SANS: basics (formalism, coherent scattering/incoherent scattering, notion of elementary scatterer, form factor analysis (I(q→0, Guinier regime, intermediate regime, Porod regime, polydisperse system, structure factor analysis (2nd Virial coefficient, integral equations, characterization of aggregates, and contrast variation methods (how to create contrast in an homogeneous system, matching in ternary systems, extrapolation to zero concentration, Zero Averaged Contrast. It is illustrated by some representative examples. The second one describes the experimental aspects of SANS to guide user in its future experiments: description of SANS spectrometer, resolution of the spectrometer, optimization of

  9. Automated analysis of angle closure from anterior chamber angle images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskaran, Mani; Cheng, Jun; Perera, Shamira A; Tun, Tin A; Liu, Jiang; Aung, Tin

    2014-10-21

    To evaluate a novel software capable of automatically grading angle closure on EyeCam angle images in comparison with manual grading of images, with gonioscopy as the reference standard. In this hospital-based, prospective study, subjects underwent gonioscopy by a single observer, and EyeCam imaging by a different operator. The anterior chamber angle in a quadrant was classified as closed if the posterior trabecular meshwork could not be seen. An eye was classified as having angle closure if there were two or more quadrants of closure. Automated grading of the angle images was performed using customized software. Agreement between the methods was ascertained by κ statistic and comparison of area under receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC). One hundred forty subjects (140 eyes) were included, most of whom were Chinese (102/140, 72.9%) and women (72/140, 51.5%). Angle closure was detected in 61 eyes (43.6%) with gonioscopy in comparison with 59 eyes (42.1%, P = 0.73) using manual grading, and 67 eyes (47.9%, P = 0.24) with automated grading of EyeCam images. The agreement for angle closure diagnosis between gonioscopy and both manual (κ = 0.88; 95% confidence interval [CI), 0.81-0.96) and automated grading of EyeCam images was good (κ = 0.74; 95% CI, 0.63-0.85). The AUC for detecting eyes with gonioscopic angle closure was comparable for manual and automated grading (AUC 0.974 vs. 0.954, P = 0.31) of EyeCam images. Customized software for automated grading of EyeCam angle images was found to have good agreement with gonioscopy. Human observation of the EyeCam images may still be needed to avoid gross misclassification, especially in eyes with extensive angle closure. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  10. Measurement of the angle gamma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksan, R.; Sphicas, P.; Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA

    1993-12-01

    The angle γ as defined in the Wolfenstein approximation is not completely out of reach of current or proposed dedicated B experiments. This work represents but a first step in the direction of extracting the third angle of the unitarity triangle by study the feasibility of using new decay modes in a hadronic machine. (A.B.). 11 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs

  11. Nucleation of small angle boundaries

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nabarro, FRN

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available The internal stresses induced by the strain gradients in an array of lattice cells delineated by low-angle dislocation boundaries are partially relieved by the creation of new low-angle boundaries. This is shown to be a first-order transition...

  12. Relationship between the Angle of Repose and Angle of Internal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ). The angle of internal friction ... compression chambers. Lorenzen, 1957 (quoted by Mohsenin,. 1986), reported that the design of deep ... tiongiven for lateral pressure in deep bins as presented by Mohsenin. (1986). The presence of moisture ...

  13. Persisting roughness when deposition stops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Moshe; Edwards, S F

    2004-12-01

    Useful theories for growth of surfaces under random deposition of material have been developed by several authors. The simplest theory is that introduced by Edwards and Wilkinson (EW), which is linear and soluble. Its nonlinear generalization by Kardar, Parisi, and Zhang (KPZ) resulted in many subsequent studies. Yet both EW and KPZ theories contain an unphysical feature. When deposition of material is stopped, both theories predict that as time tends to infinity, the surface becomes flat. In fact, of course, the final surface is not flat, but simply has no gradients larger than the gradient related to the angle of repose. We modify the EW and KPZ theories to accommodate this feature and study the consequences for the simpler system which is a modification of the EW equation. In spite of the fact that the equation describing the evolution of the surface is not linear, we find that the steady state in the presence of noise is not very different in the long-wavelength limit from that of the linear EW equation. The situation is quite different from that of EW when deposition stops. Initially there is still some rearrangement of the surface, but that stops as everywhere on the surface the gradient is less than that related to the angle of repose. The most interesting feature observed after deposition stops is the emergence of history-dependent steady-state distributions.

  14. Ring magnet firing angle control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knott, M.J.; Lewis, L.G.; Rabe, H.H.

    1975-01-01

    A device is provided for controlling the firing angles of thyratrons (rectifiers) in a ring magnet power supply. A phase lock loop develops a smooth ac signal of frequency equal to and in phase with the frequency of the voltage wave developed by the main generator of the power supply. A counter that counts from zero to a particular number each cycle of the main generator voltage wave is synchronized with the smooth AC signal of the phase lock loop. Gates compare the number in the counter with predetermined desired firing angles for each thyratron and with coincidence the proper thyratron is fired at the predetermined firing angle

  15. Phosphorus-doped thin silica films characterized by magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, H.J.; Skibsted, J.; Kristensen, Martin

    2001-01-01

    Magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of 31P and 29Si have been achieved for a thin silica film doped with only 1.8% 31P and deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition on a pure silicon wafer. The observation of a symmetric 31P chemical shift tensor is consistent...

  16. Two Comments on Bond Angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaister, P.

    1997-09-01

    Tetrahedral Bond Angle from Elementary Trigonometry The alternative approach of using the scalar (or dot) product of vectors enables the determination of the bond angle in a tetrahedral molecule in a simple way. There is, of course, an even more straightforward derivation suitable for students who are unfamiliar with vectors, or products thereof, but who do know some elementary trigonometry. The starting point is the figure showing triangle OAB. The point O is the center of a cube, and A and B are at opposite corners of a face of that cube in which fits a regular tetrahedron. The required bond angle alpha = AÔB; and using Pythagoras' theorem, AB = 2(square root 2) is the diagonal of a face of the cube. Hence from right-angled triangle OEB, tan(alpha/2) = (square root 2) and therefore alpha = 2tan-1(square root 2) is approx. 109° 28' (see Fig. 1).

  17. A LEGO Mindstorms Brewster angle microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernsler, Jonathan; Nguyen, Vincent; Wallum, Alison; Benz, Nicholas; Hamlin, Matthew; Pilgram, Jessica; Vanderpoel, Hunter; Lau, Ryan

    2017-09-01

    A Brewster Angle Microscope (BAM) built from a LEGO Mindstorms kit, additional LEGO bricks, and several standard optics components, is described. The BAM was built as part of an undergraduate senior project and was designed, calibrated, and used to image phospholipid, cholesterol, soap, and oil films on the surface of water. A BAM uses p-polarized laser light reflected off a surface at the Brewster angle, which ideally yields zero reflectivity. When a film of different refractive index is added to the surface a small amount of light is reflected, which can be imaged in a microscope camera. Films of only one molecule (approximately 1 nm) thick, a monolayer, can be observed easily in the BAM. The BAM was used in a junior-level Physical Chemistry class to observe phase transitions of a monolayer and the collapse of a monolayer deposited on the water surface in a Langmuir trough. Using a photometric calculation, students observed a change in thickness of a monolayer during a phase transition of 7 Å, which was accurate to within 1 Å of the value determined by more advanced methods. As supplementary material, we provide a detailed manual on how to build the BAM, software to control the BAM and camera, and image processing software.

  18. Glances on uranium. From uranium in the earth to electric power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valsardieu, C.

    1995-01-01

    This book is a technical, scientific and historical analysis of the nuclear fuel cycle from the origin of uranium in the earth and the exploitation of uranium ores to the ultimate storage of radioactive wastes. It comprises 6 chapters dealing with: 1) the different steps of uranium history (discovery, history of uranium chemistry, the radium era, the physicists and the structure of matter, the military uses, the nuclear power, the uranium industry and economics), 2) the uranium in nature (nuclear structure, physical-chemical properties, radioactivity, ores, resources, cycle, deposits), 3) the sidelights on uranium history (mining, prospecting, experience, ore processing, resources, reserves, costs), 4) the uranium in the fuel cycle, energy source and industrial product (fuel cycle, fission, refining, enrichment, fuel processing and reprocessing, nuclear reactors, wastes management), 5) the other energies in competition and the uranium market (other uranium uses, fossil fuels and renewable energies, uranium market), and 6) the future of uranium (forecasting, ecology, economics). (J.S.)

  19. Technique to measure contact angle of micro/nanodroplets using atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Yong Chae; Bhushan, Bharat

    2008-01-01

    Contact angle is the primary parameter that characterizes wetting; however, the measurement techniques have been limited to droplets with a diameter as low as about 50 μm. The authors developed an atomic force microscopy-based technique to measure the contact angle of micro- and nanodroplets deposited using a modified nanoscale dispensing tip. The obtained contact angle results were compared with those of a macrodroplet (2.1 mm diameter). It was found that the contact angle on various surfaces decreases with decreasing the droplet size

  20. Antireflection coatings on plastics deposited by plasma ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    Antireflection coatings (ARCs) are deposited on the surfaces of optical elements like spectacle lenses to increase light transmission and improve their performance. In the ophthalmic .... silica layer (Zajickova et al 1998, 2001; Benitez et al. 2000; Kuhr et al 2003 .... by the contact angle of a water drop on the surface. Due to its ...

  1. Infraordinary Deposits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The exhibition Infraordinary Deposits presents three works in progress by PhD Fellow Espen Lunde Nielsen from the on-going PhD project Architectural Probes of the Infraordinary: Social Coexistence through Everyday Spaces. The infraordinary is understood as the opposite of the extraordinary...... and as that which is ‘worn half-invisible’ by use. Nevertheless, these unregarded spaces play a vital role to the social dimension of the city. The selected projects (‘urban biopsies’) on display explore how people coexist through these spaces and within the city itself, either through events in real......, daily 8.45 – 15.00 Where: Aarhus School of Architecture, The Canteen, Nørreport 18, 8000 Aarhus C...

  2. Frequency scaling for angle gathers

    KAUST Repository

    Zuberi, M. A H; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2014-01-01

    Angle gathers provide an extra dimension to analyze the velocity after migration. Space-shift and time shift-imaging conditions are two methods used to obtain angle gathers, but both are reasonably expensive. By scaling the time-lag axis of the time-shifted images, the computational cost of the time shift imaging condition can be considerably reduced. In imaging and more so Full waveform inversion, frequencydomain Helmholtz solvers are used more often to solve for the wavefields than conventional time domain extrapolators. In such cases, we do not need to extend the image, instead we scale the frequency axis of the frequency domain image to obtain the angle gathers more efficiently. Application on synthetic data demonstrate such features.

  3. Angle imaging: Advances and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quek, Desmond T L; Nongpiur, Monisha E; Perera, Shamira A; Aung, Tin

    2011-01-01

    Primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG) is a major form of glaucoma in large populous countries in East and South Asia. The high visual morbidity from PACG is related to the destructive nature of the asymptomatic form of the disease. Early detection of anatomically narrow angles is important and the subsequent prevention of visual loss from PACG depends on an accurate assessment of the anterior chamber angle (ACA). This review paper discusses the advantages and limitations of newer ACA imaging technologies, namely ultrasound biomicroscopy, Scheimpflug photography, anterior segment optical coherence tomography and EyeCam, highlighting the current clinical evidence comparing these devices with each other and with clinical dynamic indentation gonioscopy, the current reference standard. PMID:21150037

  4. Variable angle asymmetric cut monochromator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smither, R.K.; Fernandez, P.B.

    1993-09-01

    A variable incident angle, asymmetric cut, double crystal monochromator was tested for use on beamlines at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). For both undulator and wiggler beams the monochromator can expand area of footprint of beam on surface of the crystals to 50 times the area of incident beam; this will reduce the slope errors by a factor of 2500. The asymmetric cut allows one to increase the acceptance angle for incident radiation and obtain a better match to the opening angle of the incident beam. This can increase intensity of the diffracted beam by a factor of 2 to 5 and can make the beam more monochromatic, as well. The monochromator consists of two matched, asymmetric cut (18 degrees), silicon crystals mounted so that they can be rotated about three independent axes. Rotation around the first axis controls the Bragg angle. The second rotation axis is perpendicular to the diffraction planes and controls the increase of the area of the footprint of the beam on the crystal surface. Rotation around the third axis controls the angle between the surface of the crystal and the wider, horizontal axis for the beam and can make the footprint a rectangle with a minimum. length for this area. The asymmetric cut is 18 degrees for the matched pair of crystals, which allows one to expand the footprint area by a factor of 50 for Bragg angles up to 19.15 degrees (6 keV for Si[111] planes). This monochromator, with proper cooling, will be useful for analyzing the high intensity x-ray beams produced by both undulators and wigglers at the APS

  5. The Earth at a glance 2010: cities, changing trajectory;Regards sur la Terre 2010: Villes, changer de trajectoire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacquet, P.; Pachauri, R.K.; Tubiana, L.

    2010-07-01

    The 2010 issue of 'the Earth at a glance' yearly publication is devoted to cities, areas and actors at the forefront of sustainable development. Beyond the status of stakes and obstacles to overcome, the ambition is to identify the dynamics carrying an indispensable trajectory change. More than half of the worldwide population lives in urban areas. Cities generate the most part of the prosperity and knowledge but are also the places where the most fragile populations concentrate and very often in precarious conditions. They are also at the origin of a large part of environment degradations. And yet, it is in the cities that the political, social and environmental questions of the 21. century are debated. In this framework, the cities of emerging countries may open the ways towards a new urbanism by developing new standards. Contents: status of 2009 events; calendar of main 2010 meetings; dossier: 'cities: changing the trajectory'; landmarks: maps, diagrams, world synthesis of sustainable development. (J.S.)

  6. Angle independent velocity spectrum determination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    An ultrasound imaging system (100) includes a transducer array (102) that emits an ultrasound beam and produces at least one transverse pulse-echo field that oscillates in a direction transverse to the emitted ultrasound beam and that receive echoes produced in response thereto and a spectral vel...... velocity estimator (110) that determines a velocity spectrum for flowing structure, which flows at an angle of 90 degrees and flows at angles less than 90 degrees with respect to the emitted ultrasound beam, based on the received echoes....

  7. Temperature dependence of Brewster's angle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wei

    2018-01-01

    In this work, a dielectric at a finite temperature is modeled as an ensemble of identical atoms moving randomly around where they are trapped. Light reflection from the dielectric is then discussed in terms of atomic radiation. Specific calculation demonstrates that because of the atoms' thermal motion, Brewster's angle is, in principle, temperature-dependent, and the dependence is weak in the low-temperature limit. What is also found is that the Brewster's angle is nothing but a result of destructive superposition of electromagnetic radiation from the atoms.

  8. A lithium deposition system for tokamak devices*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziul, Christopher; Majeski, Richard; Kaita, Robert; Hoffman, Daniel; Timberlake, John; Card, David

    2002-11-01

    The production of a lithium deposition system using commercially available components is discussed. This system is intended to provide a fresh lithium wall coating between discharges in a tokamak. For this purpose, a film 100-200 Å thick is sufficient to ensure that the plasma interacts solely with the lithium. A test system consisting of a lithium evaporator and a deposition monitor has been designed and constructed to investigate deposition rates and coverage. A Thermionics 3kW e-gun is used to rapidly evaporate small amounts of solid lithium. An Inficon XTM/2 quartz deposition monitor then measures deposition rate at varying distances, positions and angles relative to the e-gun crucible. Initial results from the test system will be presented. *Supported by US DOE contract #DE-AC02-76CH-03073

  9. Freeform Deposition Method for Coolant Channel Closeout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradl, Paul R. (Inventor); Reynolds, David Christopher (Inventor); Walker, Bryant H. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A method is provided for fabricating a coolant channel closeout jacket on a structure having coolant channels formed in an outer surface thereof. A line of tangency relative to the outer surface is defined for each point on the outer surface. Linear rows of a metal feedstock are directed towards and deposited on the outer surface of the structure as a beam of weld energy is directed to the metal feedstock so-deposited. A first angle between the metal feedstock so-directed and the line of tangency is maintained in a range of 20-90.degree.. The beam is directed towards a portion of the linear rows such that less than 30% of the cross-sectional area of the beam impinges on a currently-deposited one of the linear rows. A second angle between the beam and the line of tangency is maintained in a range of 5-65 degrees.

  10. Multi-angle compound imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Søren Kragh; Wilhjelm, Jens Erik; Sillesen, Henrik

    1998-01-01

    This paper reports on a scanning technique, denoted multi-angle compound imaging (MACI), using spatial compounding. The MACI method also contains elements of frequency compounding, as the transmit frequency is lowered for the highest beam angles in order to reduce grating lobes. Compared to conve......This paper reports on a scanning technique, denoted multi-angle compound imaging (MACI), using spatial compounding. The MACI method also contains elements of frequency compounding, as the transmit frequency is lowered for the highest beam angles in order to reduce grating lobes. Compared...... to conventional B-mode imaging MACI offers better defined tissue boundaries and lower variance of the speckle pattern, resulting in an image with reduced random variations. Design and implementation of a compound imaging system is described, images of rubber tubes and porcine aorta are shown and effects...... on visualization are discussed. The speckle reduction is analyzed numerically and the results are found to be in excellent agreement with existing theory. An investigation of detectability of low-contrast lesions shows significant improvements compared to conventional imaging. Finally, possibilities for improving...

  11. Femoral varus: what's the angle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miles, James Edward; Svalastoga, Eiliv Lars; Eriksen, Thomas

    angles were calculated using Microsoft Excel for the three previously reported techniques and a novel method, which we believed would be more reliable. Reliability between readings was assessed using the within-subject standard deviation and repeatability coefficient, and the effect of angulation...

  12. Contact angle measurements at the colemanite and realgar surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koca, Sabiha; Savas, Mehmet

    2004-03-01

    Colemanite is one of the most important boron minerals and covers an important part of Turkey's boron mineral deposits. The friable nature of the colemanite tends to produce a large amount of fines. Flotation appears to be a promising technique to recover colemanite from such fines. During flotation process, selectivity problem arises between colemanite and associated gangue minerals such as realgar. There is a close relationship between floatability of minerals and contact angle. Therefore, surface hydrophobicity of colemanite and realgar minerals were investigated by receding contact angle measurements in the absence and presence of flotation reagents. The water contact angle values at the colemanite surface remained almost unchanged at 32-35° in the solutions of potassium amyl xanthate (KAX), potassium ethyl xanthate (KEX) and petroleum sulphanate (R825) while another petroleum sulphanate (R840), sodium oleate and tallow amine (Armac-T) affected hydrophobicity of colemanite, and the contact angle values increased up to 47°. The contact angle values of 62, 63, 45, 46, 39, and 43° at the realgar surface were obtained in the solutions of KAX, KEX, sodium oleate, R825, R840 and Armac-T, respectively.

  13. Fabrication of surfaces with extremely high contact angle hysteresis from polyelectrolyte multilayer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liming; Wei, Jingjing; Su, Zhaohui

    2011-12-20

    High contact angle hysteresis on polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEMs) ion-paired with hydrophobic perfluorooctanoate anions is reported. Both the bilayer number of PEMs and the ionic strength of deposition solutions have significant influence on contact angle hysteresis: higher ionic strength and greater bilayer number cause increased contact angle hysteresis values. The hysteresis values of ~100° were observed on smooth PEMs and pinning of the receding contact line on hydrophilic defects is implicated as the cause of hysteresis. Surface roughness can be used to further tune the contact angle hysteresis on the PEMs. A surface with extremely high contact angle hysteresis of 156° was fabricated when a PEM was deposited on a rough substrate coated with submicrometer scale silica spheres. It was demonstrated that this extremely high value of contact angle hysteresis resulted from the penetration of water into the rough asperities on the substrate. The same substrate hydrophobized by chemical vapor deposition of 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctyltriethoxysilane exhibits high advancing contact angle and low hysteresis. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  14. Contact angles on stretched solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensink, Liz; Snoeijer, Jacco

    2017-11-01

    The surface energy of solid interfaces plays a central role in wetting, as they dictate the liquid contact angle. Yet, it has been challenging to measure the solid surface energies independently, without making use of Young's law. Here we present Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations by which we measure the surface properties for all interfaces, including the solids. We observe change in contact angles upon stretching the solid substrates, showing that the surface energy is actually strain dependent. This is clear evidence of the so-called Shuttleworth effect, making it necessary to distinguish surface energy from surface tension. We discuss how this effect gives rise to a new class of elasto-capillary phenomena. ERC Consolidator Grant No. 616918.

  15. Disorders of the cerebellopontine angle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Block, F.

    2006-01-01

    Disorders of the cerebellopontine angle may present by symptoms like vertigo, hearing problems, affection of the trigeminal or facial nerve. Ipsilateral ataxia and contralateral hemiparesis develop in case of a rather large tumor in this region and display an involvement of the cerebellum and/or brainstem. However, some of these typical symptoms are not recognized by the patient. Thus, in case of a suspicion of a disorder of the cerebellopontine angle the relevant functions have to be tested clinically. In addition, electrophysiology can confirm dysfunction of these cranial nerves. Mainstay of the therapy should be the treatment of the underlying cause. Nevertheless, not seldom it is necessary to treat symptoms like vertigo or facial pain. (orig.) [de

  16. Measurement of the angle gamma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksan, R.; Kayser, B.; Sphicas, P.

    1993-01-01

    The angle γ at least as defined in the Wolfenstein approximation is not completely out of reach of current or proposed dedicated B experiments. This conclusion certainly depends crucially on the assumed trigger and tagging efficiencies and also on the expected backgrounds. The work summarized here represents but a first step in the direction of extracting the third angle of the unitarity triangle. The theoretical developments during the workshop have resulted in a clearer understanding of the quantities studied. On the experimental side, new decay modes (i.e. in addition to the traditional ρK s decay) have resulted in expections for observing CP violation in B s decays which are not unreasonable. It is conceivable that a dedicated B experiment can probe a fundamental aspect of the Standard Model, the CKM matrix, in multiple ways. In the process, new physics can appear anywhere along the line

  17. LHC Report: playing with angles

    CERN Multimedia

    Mike Lamont for the LHC team

    2016-01-01

    Ready (after a machine development period), steady (running), go (for a special run)!   The crossing angles are an essential feature of the machine set-up. They have to be big enough to reduce the long-range beam-beam effect. The LHC has recently enjoyed a period of steady running and managed to set a new record for “Maximum Stable Luminosity Delivered in 7 days” of 3.29 fb-1 between 29 August and 4 September. The number of bunches per beam remains pegged at 2220 because of the limitations imposed by the SPS beam dump. The bunch population is also somewhat reduced due to outgassing near one of the injection kickers at point 8. Both limitations will be addressed during the year-end technical stop, opening the way for increased performance in 2017. On 10 and 11 September, a two day machine development (MD) period took place. The MD programme included a look at the possibility of reducing the crossing angle at the high-luminosity interaction points. The crossing angles are an ess...

  18. Light Scattering at Various Angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latimer, Paul; Pyle, B. E.

    1972-01-01

    The Mie theory of scattering is used to provide new information on how changes in particle volume, with no change in dry weight, should influence light scattering for various scattering angles and particle sizes. Many biological cells (e.g., algal cells, erythrocytes) and large subcellular structures (e.g., chloroplasts, mitochondria) in suspension undergo this type of reversible volume change, a change which is related to changes in the rates of cellular processes. A previous study examined the effects of such volume changes on total scattering. In this paper scattering at 10° is found to follow total scattering closely, but scattering at 45°, 90°, 135°, and 170° behaves differently. Small volume changes can cause very large observable changes in large angle scattering if the sample particles are uniform in size; however, the natural particle size heterogeneity of most samples would mask this effect. For heterogeneous samples of most particle size ranges, particle shrink-age is found to increase large angle scattering. PMID:4556610

  19. Angle comparison using an autocollimator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geckeler, Ralf D.; Just, Andreas; Vasilev, Valentin; Prieto, Emilio; Dvorácek, František; Zelenika, Slobodan; Przybylska, Joanna; Duta, Alexandru; Victorov, Ilya; Pisani, Marco; Saraiva, Fernanda; Salgado, Jose-Antonio; Gao, Sitian; Anusorn, Tonmueanwai; Leng Tan, Siew; Cox, Peter; Watanabe, Tsukasa; Lewis, Andrew; Chaudhary, K. P.; Thalmann, Ruedi; Banreti, Edit; Nurul, Alfiyati; Fira, Roman; Yandayan, Tanfer; Chekirda, Konstantin; Bergmans, Rob; Lassila, Antti

    2018-01-01

    Autocollimators are versatile optical devices for the contactless measurement of the tilt angles of reflecting surfaces. An international key comparison (KC) on autocollimator calibration, EURAMET.L-K3.2009, was initiated by the European Association of National Metrology Institutes (EURAMET) to provide information on the capabilities in this field. The Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) acted as the pilot laboratory, with a total of 25 international participants from EURAMET and from the Asia Pacific Metrology Programme (APMP) providing measurements. This KC was the first one to utilise a high-resolution electronic autocollimator as a standard. In contrast to KCs in angle metrology which usually involve the full plane angle, it focused on relatively small angular ranges (+/-10 arcsec and +/-1000 arcsec) and step sizes (10 arcsec and 0.1 arcsec, respectively). This document represents the approved final report on the results of the KC. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCL, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  20. Optical and mechanical properties of nanocrystalline ZrC thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craciun, D., E-mail: doina.craciun@inflpr.ro [Laser Department, National Institute for Laser, Plasma, and Radiation Physics, Magurele (Romania); Socol, G. [Laser Department, National Institute for Laser, Plasma, and Radiation Physics, Magurele (Romania); Lambers, E. [Major Analytical Instrumentation Center, College of Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); McCumiskey, E.J.; Taylor, C.R. [Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Martin, C. [Ramapo College of New Jersey (United States); Argibay, N. [Materials Science and Engineering Center, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87123 (United States); Tanner, D.B. [Physics Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Craciun, V. [Laser Department, National Institute for Laser, Plasma, and Radiation Physics, Magurele (Romania)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Nanocrystalline ZrC thin film were grown on Si by pulsed laser deposition technique. • Structural properties weakly depend on the CH{sub 4} pressure used during deposition. • The optimum deposition pressure for low resistivity is around 2 × 10{sup −5} mbar CH{sub 4}. • ZrC films exhibited friction coefficients around 0.4 and low wear rates. - Abstract: Thin ZrC films (<500 nm) were grown on (100) Si substrates at a substrate temperature of 500 °C by the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique using a KrF excimer laser under different CH{sub 4} pressures. Glancing incidence X-ray diffraction showed that films were nanocrystalline, while X-ray reflectivity studies found out films were very dense and exhibited a smooth surface morphology. Optical spectroscopy data shows that the films have high reflectivity (>90%) in the infrared region, characteristic of metallic behavior. Nanoindentation results indicated that films deposited under lower CH{sub 4} pressures exhibited slightly higher nanohardness and Young modulus values than films deposited under higher pressures. Tribological characterization revealed that these films exhibited relatively high wear resistance and steady-state friction coefficients on the order of μ = 0.4.

  1. Chromium-doped diamond-like carbon films deposited by dual-pulsed laser deposition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Písařík, Petr; Jelínek, Miroslav; Kocourek, Tomáš; Zezulová, M.; Remsa, Jan; Jurek, Karel

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 117, č. 1 (2014), s. 83-88 ISSN 0947-8396 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LD12069 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : diamond like carbon * chromium * contact angle * surface free energy * dual laser deposition * zeta potential Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.704, year: 2014

  2. Superhydrophobic polytetrafluoroethylene thin films with hierarchical roughness deposited using a single step vapor phase technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Sushant; Arjunan, Arul Chakkaravarthi; Deshpande, Sameer; Seal, Sudipta; Singh, Deepika; Singh, Rajiv K.

    2009-01-01

    Superhydrophobic polytetrafluoroethylene films with hierarchical surface roughness were deposited using pulse electron deposition technique. We were able to modulate roughness of the deposited films by controlling the beam energy and hence the electron penetration depth. The films deposited at higher beam energy showed contact angle as high as 166 o . The scanning electron and atomic force microscope studies revealed clustered growth and two level sub-micron asperities on films deposited at higher energies. Such dual-scale hierarchical roughness and heterogeneities at the water-surface interface was attributed to the observed contact angle and thus its superhydrophobic nature.

  3. Superhydrophobic polytetrafluoroethylene thin films with hierarchical roughness deposited using a single step vapor phase technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Sushant, E-mail: sushant3@ufl.ed [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Arjunan, Arul Chakkaravarthi [Sinmat Incorporated, 2153 SE Hawthorne Road, 129, Gainesville, Florida 32641 (United States); Deshpande, Sameer; Seal, Sudipta [Advanced Material Processing and Analysis Center, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida 32816 (United States); Singh, Deepika [Sinmat Incorporated, 2153 SE Hawthorne Road, 129, Gainesville, Florida 32641 (United States); Singh, Rajiv K. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2009-06-30

    Superhydrophobic polytetrafluoroethylene films with hierarchical surface roughness were deposited using pulse electron deposition technique. We were able to modulate roughness of the deposited films by controlling the beam energy and hence the electron penetration depth. The films deposited at higher beam energy showed contact angle as high as 166{sup o}. The scanning electron and atomic force microscope studies revealed clustered growth and two level sub-micron asperities on films deposited at higher energies. Such dual-scale hierarchical roughness and heterogeneities at the water-surface interface was attributed to the observed contact angle and thus its superhydrophobic nature.

  4. U.S. Department of Energy Office of Health, Safety and Security Illness and Injury Surveillance Program Worker Health at a Glance, 2000-2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strader, Cliff [US Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Richter, Bonnie [US Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    2013-01-23

    The Worker Health at a Glance, 2000 – 2009 provides an overview of selected illness and injury patterns among the current DOE contractor workforce that have emerged over the 10-years covered by this report. This report is a roll-up of data from 16 individual DOE sites, assigned to one of three program offices (Office of Environmental Management, Office of Science and the National Nuclear Security Administration). In this report, an absences is defined as 40 or more consecutive work hours (5+ calendar days) off the job. Shorter absences were not included.

  5. Small angle scattering and polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotton, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    The determination of polymer structure is a problem of interest for both statistical physics and industrial applications. The average polymer structure is defined. Then, it is shown why small angle scattering, associated with isotopic substitution, is very well suited to the measurement of the chain conformation. The corresponding example is the old, but pedagogic, measurement of the chain form factor in the polymer melt. The powerful contrast variation method is illustrated by a recent determination of the concentration profile of a polymer interface. (author) 12 figs., 48 refs

  6. An Angle Criterion for Riesz Bases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindner, Alexander M; Bittner, B.

    1999-01-01

    We present a characterization of Riesz bases in terms ofthe angles between certain finite dimensional subspaces. Correlationsbetween the bounds of the Riesz basis and the size of the angles arederived....

  7. GALAXI: Gallium anode low-angle x-ray instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Kentzinger

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The high brilliance laboratory small angle X-ray scattering instrument GALAXI, which is operated by JCNS, Forschungszentrum Jülich, permits the investigation of chemical correlations in bulk materials or of structures deposited on a surface at nanometre and mesoscopic length scales. The instrument is capable to perform GISAXS experiments in reflection at grazing incidence as well as SAXS experiments in transmission geometry. The X-ray flux on sample is comparable or higher than the one obtained at a comparable beamline at a second generation synchrotron radiation source.

  8. Effects of terraces, surface steps and 'over-specular' reflection due to inelastic energy losses on angular scattering spectra for glancing incidence scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Danailov, D; O'Connor, D J

    2002-01-01

    Recent experiments and our molecular-dynamics simulations indicate that the main signal of the angular scattering spectra of glancing incidence scattering are not affected by the thermal motion of surface atoms and can be explained by our row-model with averaged cylindrical potentials. At the ICACS-18 Conference [Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 164-165 (2000) 583] we reported good agreement between experimental and calculated multimodal azimuthal angular scattering spectra for the glancing scattering of 10 and 15 keV [Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 180 (2001) 265, Appl. Surf. Sci. 171 (2001) 113] He sup 0 beam along the [1 0 0] direction on the Fe(1 0 0) face. Our simulations also predicted that in contrast to the 2D angular scattering distribution, the 1D azimuthal angular distribution of scattered particles is very sensitive to the interaction potential used. Here, we report more detailed calculations incorporating the influence of terraces and surface steps on surface channeling, which show a reduction of the angular s...

  9. Economical Atomic Layer Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyman, Richard; Davis, Robert; Linford, Matthew

    2010-10-01

    Atomic Layer Deposition is a self limiting deposition process that can produce films at a user specified height. At BYU we have designed a low cost and automated atomic layer deposition system. We have used the system to deposit silicon dioxide at room temperature using silicon tetrachloride and tetramethyl orthosilicate. Basics of atomic layer deposition, the system set up, automation techniques and our system's characterization are discussed.

  10. The Q-angle and sport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hahn, Thomas; Foldspang, Anders

    1997-01-01

    Quadriceps muscle contraction tends to straighten the Q angle. We expected that sports comprising a high amount of quadriceps training could be associated with low Q angles. The aim of the present study was to estimate the Q angle in athletes and to investigate its potential associations with par......Quadriceps muscle contraction tends to straighten the Q angle. We expected that sports comprising a high amount of quadriceps training could be associated with low Q angles. The aim of the present study was to estimate the Q angle in athletes and to investigate its potential associations...... with participation in sport. Three hundred and thirty-nine athletes had their Q angle measured. The mean of right-side Q angles was higher than left side, and the mean Q angle was higher in women than in men. The Q angle was positively associated with years of jogging, and negatively with years of soccer, swimming...... and sports participation at all. It is concluded that the use of Q angle measurements is questionable....

  11. A glance at Appalachia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell-Withrow, C

    1997-01-01

    Appalachia is usually written about in romantic terms; rarely are the citizens of Appalachia portrayed as contributors to society. Appalachia is made up of many cultures--African American, European American, Melungeon, Native American and others. Appalachian cultures are not locked in a fixed state; one needs only to review the history of Appalachia to understand this concept (Tice & Billings, 1991). Appalachian cultures are fluid and ever-changing. The cultures are expressed in literature, oral histories, music and regional history.

  12. IAEA at a glance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinley, D. III

    1997-12-01

    The publication briefly describes the 'peaceful universe' and the work carries out by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), UN organisation responsible for accelerating and enlarging the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health and prosperity throughout the world. The following subjects are presented: Ensuring safe nuclear energy; Protecting against radiation risks; Safeguarding nuclear materials; Assisting developing countries; Nuclear Technologies solving problems; Providing information and technical services

  13. Facts at a Glance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Kristin Anderson, Comp.; Manlove, Jennifer, Comp.; Terry-Humen, Elizabeth, Comp.; Williams, Stephanie, Comp.; Papillo, Angela Romano, Comp.; Scarpa, Juliet, Comp.

    This publication reports trends in teen childbearing in the Nation, in each state, and in large cities using data from the 2000 National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS). Rates of teenage childbearing steadily declined during the 1990s, reaching a record low in 2000. Rates declined for both younger and older teens and for blacks, whites, and…

  14. Herbs at a Glance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cautions, and resources for more information. Acai Aloe Vera Asian Ginseng Astragalus Bilberry Bitter Orange Black Cohosh ... app today. Subscribe Get dietary supplement updates by e-mail Email Address This page last modified June ...

  15. Statistics at a glance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ector, Hugo

    2010-12-01

    I still remember my first book on statistics: "Elementary statistics with applications in medicine and the biological sciences" by Frederick E. Croxton. For me, it has been the start of pursuing understanding statistics in daily life and in medical practice. It was the first volume in a long row of books. In his introduction, Croxton pretends that"nearly everyone involved in any aspect of medicine needs to have some knowledge of statistics". The reality is that for many clinicians, statistics are limited to a "P statistical methods. They have never had the opportunity to learn concise and clear descriptions of the key features. I have experienced how some authors can describe difficult methods in a well understandable language. Others fail completely. As a teacher, I tell my students that life is impossible without a basic knowledge of statistics. This feeling has resulted in an annual seminar of 90 minutes. This tutorial is the summary of this seminar. It is a summary and a transcription of the best pages I have detected.

  16. Passionflower: At a Glance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pregnancy as it may induce contractions. Keep in Mind Tell all your health care providers about any ... Privacy and Policies Accessibility en Español FOIA Site Map Contact Us U.S. Department of Health & Human Services , ...

  17. IAEA at a glance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinley, D III

    1997-12-01

    The publication briefly describes the `peaceful universe` and the work carries out by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), UN organisation responsible for accelerating and enlarging the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health and prosperity throughout the world. The following subjects are presented: Ensuring safe nuclear energy; Protecting against radiation risks; Safeguarding nuclear materials; Assisting developing countries; Nuclear Technologies solving problems; Providing information and technical services

  18. Wafer scale oblique angle plasma etching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burckel, David Bruce; Jarecki, Jr., Robert L.; Finnegan, Patrick Sean

    2017-05-23

    Wafer scale oblique angle etching of a semiconductor substrate is performed in a conventional plasma etch chamber by using a fixture that supports a multiple number of separate Faraday cages. Each cage is formed to include an angled grid surface and is positioned such that it will be positioned over a separate one of the die locations on the wafer surface when the fixture is placed over the wafer. The presence of the Faraday cages influences the local electric field surrounding each wafer die, re-shaping the local field to be disposed in alignment with the angled grid surface. The re-shaped plasma causes the reactive ions to follow a linear trajectory through the plasma sheath and angled grid surface, ultimately impinging the wafer surface at an angle. The selected geometry of the Faraday cage angled grid surface thus determines the angle at with the reactive ions will impinge the wafer.

  19. Evaluation of blotchy pigments in the anterior chamber angle as a sign of angle closure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harsha L Rao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Blotchy pigments in the anterior chamber (AC angle are considered diagnostic of primary angle closure (PAC. But there are no reports either on the prevalence of blotchy pigments in AC angles or the validity of this sign. Aims: To determine the prevalence of blotchy pigments in AC angles and to evaluate their relationship with glaucomatous optic neuropathy (GON in eyes with occludable angles. Setting and Design: Cross-sectional, comparative study. Materials and Methods: Gonioscopy was performed in 1001 eyes of 526 subjects (245 eyes of 148 consecutive, occludable angle subjects and 756 eyes of 378 non-consecutive, open angle subjects, above 35 years of age. Quadrant-wise location of blotchy pigments was documented. Statistical Analysis: Odds of blotchy pigments in occludable angles against that in open angles were evaluated. Relationship of GON with blotchy pigments in occludable angle eyes was evaluated using a multivariate model. Results: Prevalence of blotchy pigments in occludable angles was 28.6% (95% CI, 22.9-34.3 and in open angles was 4.7% (95% CI, 3.2-6.3. Blotchy pigments were more frequently seen in inferior (16% and superior quadrants (15% of occludable angles, and inferior quadrant of open angles (4%. Odds of superior quadrant blotchy pigments in occludable angles were 33 times that in open angles. GON was seen in 107 occludable angle eyes. Blotchy pigments were not significantly associated with GON (odds ratio = 0.5; P = 0.1. Conclusions: Blotchy pigments were seen in 28.6% of occludable angle eyes and 4.7% of open angles eyes. Presence of blotchy pigments in the superior quadrant is more common in occludable angles. Presence of GON in occludable angle eyes was not associated with blotchy pigments.

  20. Evaluation of blotchy pigments in the anterior chamber angle as a sign of angle closure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Harsha L; Mungale, Sachin C; Kumbar, Tukaram; Parikh, Rajul S; Garudadri, Chandra S

    2012-01-01

    Background: Blotchy pigments in the anterior chamber (AC) angle are considered diagnostic of primary angle closure (PAC). But there are no reports either on the prevalence of blotchy pigments in AC angles or the validity of this sign. Aims: To determine the prevalence of blotchy pigments in AC angles and to evaluate their relationship with glaucomatous optic neuropathy (GON) in eyes with occludable angles. Setting and Design: Cross-sectional, comparative study. Materials and Methods: Gonioscopy was performed in 1001 eyes of 526 subjects (245 eyes of 148 consecutive, occludable angle subjects and 756 eyes of 378 non-consecutive, open angle subjects), above 35 years of age. Quadrant-wise location of blotchy pigments was documented. Statistical Analysis: Odds of blotchy pigments in occludable angles against that in open angles were evaluated. Relationship of GON with blotchy pigments in occludable angle eyes was evaluated using a multivariate model. Results: Prevalence of blotchy pigments in occludable angles was 28.6% (95% CI, 22.9-34.3) and in open angles was 4.7% (95% CI, 3.2-6.3). Blotchy pigments were more frequently seen in inferior (16%) and superior quadrants (15%) of occludable angles, and inferior quadrant of open angles (4%). Odds of superior quadrant blotchy pigments in occludable angles were 33 times that in open angles. GON was seen in 107 occludable angle eyes. Blotchy pigments were not significantly associated with GON (odds ratio = 0.5; P = 0.1). Conclusions: Blotchy pigments were seen in 28.6% of occludable angle eyes and 4.7% of open angles eyes. Presence of blotchy pigments in the superior quadrant is more common in occludable angles. Presence of GON in occludable angle eyes was not associated with blotchy pigments. PMID:23202393

  1. A predictive model for dimensional errors in fused deposition modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolfi, A.

    2015-01-01

    This work concerns the effect of deposition angle (a) and layer thickness (L) on the dimensional performance of FDM parts using a predictive model based on the geometrical description of the FDM filament profile. An experimental validation over the whole a range from 0° to 177° at 3° steps and two...... values of L (0.254 mm, 0.330 mm) was produced by comparing predicted values with external face-to-face measurements. After removing outliers, the results show that the developed two-parameter model can serve as tool for modeling the FDM dimensional behavior in a wide range of deposition angles....

  2. The paediatric Bohler's angle and crucial angle of Gissane: a case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crawford Haemish A

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bohler's angle and the crucial angle of Gissane can be used to assess calcaneal fractures. While the normal adult values of these angles are widely known, the normal paediatric values have not yet been established. Our aim is to investigate Bohler's angle and the crucial angle of Gissane in a paediatric population and establish normal paediatric reference values. Method We measured Bohler's angle and the crucial angle of Gissane using normal plain ankle radiographs of 763 patients from birth to 14 years of age completed over a five year period from July 2003 to June 2008. Results In our paediatric study group, the mean Bohler's angle was 35.2 degrees and the mean crucial angle of Gissane was 111.3 degrees. In an adult comparison group, the mean Bohler's angle was 39.2 degrees and the mean crucial angle of Gissane was 113.8 degrees. The differences in Bohler's angle and the crucial angle of Gissane between these two groups were statistically significant. Conclusion We have presented the normal values of Bohler's angle and the crucial angle of Gissane in a paediatric population. These values may provide a useful comparison to assist with the management of the paediatric calcaneal fracture.

  3. Electro-Deposition Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The electro-deposition laboratory can electro-deposit various coatings onto small test samples and bench level prototypes. This facility provides the foundation for...

  4. Atmospheric Deposition Modeling Results

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset provides data on model results for dry and total deposition of sulfur, nitrogen and base cation species. Components include deposition velocities, dry...

  5. Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition (CPPD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patient / Caregiver Diseases & Conditions Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition (CPPD) Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition (CPPD) Fast Facts The risk of ... young people, too. Proper diagnosis depends on detecting calcium pyrophosphate crystals in the fluid of an affected ...

  6. Enhanced sensitivity of surface plasmon resonance phase-interrogation biosensor by using oblique deposited silver nanorods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hung-Yi; Chen, Chih-Chia; Wu, Pin Chieh; Tseng, Ming Lun; Lin, Wen-Chi; Chen, Chih-Wei; Chiang, Hai-Pang

    2014-01-01

    Sensitivity of surface plasmon resonance phase-interrogation biosensor is demonstrated to be enhanced by oblique deposited silver nanorods. Silver nanorods are thermally deposited on silver nanothin film by oblique angle deposition (OAD). The length of the nanorods can be tuned by controlling the deposition parameters of thermal deposition. By measuring the phase difference between the p and s waves of surface plasmon resonance heterodyne interferometer with different wavelength of incident light, we have demonstrated that maximum sensitivity of glucose detection down to 7.1 × 10(-8) refractive index units could be achieved with optimal deposition parameters of silver nanorods.

  7. A thermodynamic model of contact angle hysteresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makkonen, Lasse

    2017-08-14

    When a three-phase contact line moves along a solid surface, the contact angle no longer corresponds to the static equilibrium angle but is larger when the liquid is advancing and smaller when the liquid is receding. The difference between the advancing and receding contact angles, i.e., the contact angle hysteresis, is of paramount importance in wetting and capillarity. For example, it determines the magnitude of the external force that is required to make a drop slide on a solid surface. Until now, fundamental origin of the contact angle hysteresis has been controversial. Here, this origin is revealed and a quantitative theory is derived. The theory is corroborated by the available experimental data for a large number of solid-liquid combinations. The theory is applied in modelling the contact angle hysteresis on a textured surface, and these results are also in quantitative agreement with the experimental data.

  8. Probing and Occupying the Hot Dog-Kiosk: Another Glance. Bypassing the Usual Hierarchies of Perception through Making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde Nielsen, Espen

    2015-01-01

    . The hot dog-kiosk forms a vital place for everyday informal interaction and social coexistence between people. It has functions besides its practical use: through events in real-time and depositions over time it articulates relationships between familiar strangers and creates a sense of collective being...

  9. Longitudinal changes of angle configuration in primary angle-closure suspects: the Zhongshan Angle-Closure Prevention Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yuzhen; Chang, Dolly S; Zhu, Haogang; Khawaja, Anthony P; Aung, Tin; Huang, Shengsong; Chen, Qianyun; Munoz, Beatriz; Grossi, Carlota M; He, Mingguang; Friedman, David S; Foster, Paul J

    2014-09-01

    To determine longitudinal changes in angle configuration in the eyes of primary angle-closure suspects (PACS) treated by laser peripheral iridotomy (LPI) and in untreated fellow eyes. Longitudinal cohort study. Primary angle-closure suspects aged 50 to 70 years were enrolled in a randomized, controlled clinical trial. Each participant was treated by LPI in 1 randomly selected eye, with the fellow eye serving as a control. Angle width was assessed in a masked fashion using gonioscopy and anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) before and at 2 weeks, 6 months, and 18 months after LPI. Angle width in degrees was calculated from Shaffer grades assessed under static gonioscopy. Angle configuration was also evaluated using angle opening distance (AOD250, AOD500, AOD750), trabecular-iris space area (TISA500, TISA750), and angle recess area (ARA) measured in AS-OCT images. No significant difference was found in baseline measures of angle configuration between treated and untreated eyes. At 2 weeks after LPI, the drainage angle on gonioscopy widened from a mean of 13.5° at baseline to a mean of 25.7° in treated eyes, which was also confirmed by significant increases in all AS-OCT angle width measures (Pgonioscopy (P = 0.18), AOD250 (P = 0.167) and ARA (P = 0.83). In untreated eyes, angle width consistently decreased across all follow-up visits after LPI, with a more rapid longitudinal decrease compared with treated eyes (P values for all variables ≤0.003). The annual rate of change in angle width was equivalent to 1.2°/year (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.8-1.6) in treated eyes and 1.6°/year (95% CI, 1.3-2.0) in untreated eyes (P<0.001). Angle width of treated eyes increased markedly after LPI, remained stable for 6 months, and then decreased significantly by 18 months after LPI. Untreated eyes experienced a more consistent and rapid decrease in angle width over the same time period. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by

  10. Behavior of Tilted Angle Shear Connectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorramian, Koosha; Maleki, Shervin; Shariati, Mahdi; Ramli Sulong, N. H.

    2015-01-01

    According to recent researches, angle shear connectors are appropriate to transfer longitudinal shear forces across the steel-concrete interface. Angle steel profile has been used in different positions as L-shaped or C-shaped shear connectors. The application of angle shear connectors in tilted positions is of interest in this study. This study investigates the behaviour of tilted-shaped angle shear connectors under monotonic loading using experimental push out tests. Eight push-out specimens are tested to investigate the effects of different angle parameters on the ultimate load capacity of connectors. Two different tilted angles of 112.5 and 135 degrees between the angle leg and steel beam are considered. In addition, angle sizes and lengths are varied. Two different failure modes were observed consisting of concrete crushing-splitting and connector fracture. By increasing the size of connector, the maximum load increased for most cases. In general, the 135 degrees tilted angle shear connectors have a higher strength and stiffness than the 112.5 degrees type. PMID:26642193

  11. Behavior of Tilted Angle Shear Connectors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koosha Khorramian

    Full Text Available According to recent researches, angle shear connectors are appropriate to transfer longitudinal shear forces across the steel-concrete interface. Angle steel profile has been used in different positions as L-shaped or C-shaped shear connectors. The application of angle shear connectors in tilted positions is of interest in this study. This study investigates the behaviour of tilted-shaped angle shear connectors under monotonic loading using experimental push out tests. Eight push-out specimens are tested to investigate the effects of different angle parameters on the ultimate load capacity of connectors. Two different tilted angles of 112.5 and 135 degrees between the angle leg and steel beam are considered. In addition, angle sizes and lengths are varied. Two different failure modes were observed consisting of concrete crushing-splitting and connector fracture. By increasing the size of connector, the maximum load increased for most cases. In general, the 135 degrees tilted angle shear connectors have a higher strength and stiffness than the 112.5 degrees type.

  12. The qualitative criterion of transient angle stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyu, R.; Xue, Y.; Xue, F.

    2015-01-01

    In almost all the literatures, the qualitative assessment of transient angle stability extracts the angle information of generators based on the swing curve. As the angle (or angle difference) of concern and the threshold value rely strongly on the engineering experience, the validity and robust...... of these criterions are weak. Based on the stability mechanism from the extended equal area criterion (EEAC) theory and combining with abundant simulations of real system, this paper analyzes the criterions in most literatures and finds that the results could be too conservative or too optimistic. It is concluded...

  13. Portable mini-chamber for temperature dependent studies using small angle and wide angle x-ray scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dev, Arun Singh; Kumar, Dileep; Potdar, Satish; Pandit, Pallavi; Roth, Stephan V.; Gupta, Ajay

    2018-04-01

    The present work describes the design and performance of a vacuum compatible portable mini chamber for temperature dependent GISAXS and GIWAXS studies of thin films and multilayer structures. The water cooled body of the chamber allows sample annealing up to 900 K using ultra high vacuum compatible (UHV) pyrolytic boron nitride heater, thus making it possible to study the temperature dependent evolution of structure and morphology of two-dimensional nanostructured materials. Due to its light weight and small size, the chamber is portable and can be accommodated at synchrotron facilities worldwide. A systematic illustration of the versatility of the chamber has been demonstrated at beamline P03, PETRA-III, DESY, Hamburg, Germany. Temperature dependent grazing incidence small angle x-ray scattering (GISAXS) and grazing incidence wide angle x-ray scattering (GIWAXS) measurements were performed on oblique angle deposited Co/Ag multilayer structure, which jointly revealed that the surface diffusion in Co columns in Co/Ag multilayer enhances by increasing temperature from RT to ˜573 K. This results in a morphology change from columnar tilted structure to densely packed morphological isotropic multilayer.

  14. Thermodynamics Calculation and Experimental Study on Separation of Bismuth from a Bismuth Glance Concentrate Through a Low-Temperature Molten Salt Smelting Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jian-Guang; He, De-Wen; Tang, Chao-Bo; Chen, Yong-Ming; Sun, Ya-Hui; Tang, Mo-Tang

    2011-08-01

    The main purpose of this study is to characterize and separate bismuth from a bismuth glance concentrate through a low-temperature, sulfur-fixing smelting process. This article reports on a study conducted on the optimization of process parameters, such as Na2CO3 and zinc oxide wt pct in charging, smelting temperature, smelting duration on the bismuth yield, resultant crude bismuth grade, and sulfur-fixing rate. A maximum bismuth recovery of 97.31 pct, crude bismuth grade of 96.93 pct, and 98.23 pct sulfur-fixing rate are obtained when a charge (containing 63.50 wt pct of Na2CO3 and 22.50 wt pct of bismuth glance, as well as 5 pct in excess of the stoichiometric requirement of zinc oxide dosage) is smelted at 1000 K (727 °C) for 150 minutes. This smelting operation is free from atmospheric pollution because zinc oxide is used as the sulfur-fixing agent, which can capture sulfur from bismuth sulfide and form the more thermodynamic-stable compound, zinc sulfide. The solid residue is subjected to a mineral dressing operation to obtain suspension, which is filtered to produce a cake, representing the solid particles of zinc sulfide. Based on the results of the chemical content analysis of the as-resultant zinc sulfide, more than 93 pct zinc sulfide can be recovered, and the recovered zinc sulfide grade can reach 60.20 pct. This material can be sold as zinc sulfide concentrate or roasted to be regenerated as zinc oxide.

  15. Acid Deposition Phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, A.E.K.

    2004-01-01

    Acid deposition, commonly known as acid rain, occurs when emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels and other industrial processes undergo complex chemical reactions in the atmosphere and fall to the earth as wet deposition (rain, snow, cloud, fog) or dry deposition (dry particles, gas). Rain and snow are already naturally acidic, but are only considered problematic when less than a ph of 5.0 The main chemical precursors leading to acidic conditions are atmospheric concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) and nitrogen oxides (NO x ). When these two compounds react with water, oxygen, and sunlight in the atmosphere, the result is sulfuric (H 2 SO 4 ) and nitric acids (HNO 3 ), the primary agents of acid deposition which mainly produced from the combustion of fossil fuel and from petroleum refinery. Airborne chemicals can travel long distances from their sources and can therefore affect ecosystems over broad regional scales and in locations far from the sources of emissions. According to the concern of petroleum ministry with the environment and occupational health, in this paper we will discussed the acid deposition phenomena through the following: Types of acidic deposition and its components in the atmosphere Natural and man-made sources of compounds causing the acidic deposition. Chemical reactions causing the acidic deposition phenomenon in the atmosphere. Factors affecting level of acidic deposition in the atmosphere. Impact of acid deposition. Procedures for acidic deposition control in petroleum industry

  16. Optimum Tilt Angle at Tropical Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Soulayman

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available : One of the important parameters that affect the performance of a solar collector is its tilt angle with the horizon. This is because of the variation of tilt angle changes the amount of solar radiation reaching the collector surface. Meanwhile, is the rule of thumb, which says that solar collector Equator facing position is the best, is valid for tropical region? Thus, it is required to determine the optimum tilt as for Equator facing and for Pole oriented collectors. In addition, the question that may arise: how many times is reasonable for adjusting collector tilt angle for a definite value of surface azimuth angle? A mathematical model was used for estimating the solar radiation on a tilted surface, and to determine the optimum tilt angle and orientation (surface azimuth angle for the solar collector at any latitude. This model was applied for determining optimum tilt angle and orientation in the tropical zones, on a daily basis, as well as for a specific period. The optimum angle was computed by searching for the values for which the radiation on the collector surface is a maximum for a particular day or a specific period. The results reveal that changing the tilt angle 12 times in a year (i.e. using the monthly optimum tilt angle maintains approximately the total amount of solar radiation near the maximum value that is found by changing the tilt angle daily to its optimum value. This achieves a yearly gain in solar radiation of 11% to 18% more than the case of a solar collector fixed on a horizontal surface.

  17. Sharper angle, higher risk? The effect of cutting angle on knee mechanics in invasion sport athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreurs, Mervin J; Benjaminse, Anne; Lemmink, Koen A P M

    2017-10-03

    Cutting is an important skill in team-sports, but unfortunately is also related to non-contact ACL injuries. The purpose was to examine knee kinetics and kinematics at different cutting angles. 13 males and 16 females performed cuts at different angles (45°, 90°, 135° and 180°) at maximum speed. 3D kinematics and kinetics were collected. To determine differences across cutting angles (45°, 90°, 135° and 180°) and sex (female, male), a 4×2 repeated measures ANOVA was conducted followed by post hoc comparisons (Bonferroni) with alpha level set at α≤0.05a priori. At all cutting angles, males showed greater knee flexion angles than females (pcutting angles with no differences in the amount of knee flexion -42.53°±8.95°, females decreased their knee flexion angle from -40.6°±7.2° when cutting at 45° to -36.81°±9.10° when cutting at 90°, 135° and 180° (pcutting towards sharper angles (pcutting angles and then stabilized compared to the 45° cutting angle (pcutting to sharper angles (pcutting angles demand different knee kinematics and kinetics. Sharper cutting angles place the knee more at risk. However, females and males handle this differently, which has implications for injury prevention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Pellet ablation and cloud flow characteristics in the JIPP T-IIU plasma with the injection-angle controllable system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakakita, H.; Sato, K.N.; Liang, R.; Hamada, Y.; Ando, A.; Kano, Y.; Sakamoto, M.

    1994-01-01

    Pellet ablation and flow characteristics of ablation cloud have been studied in the JIPP T-IIU plasma by using an injection-angle controllable system. A new technique for an ice pellet injection system with controllability of injection angle has been developed and installed to the JIPP T-IIU tokamak in order to vary deposition profile of ice pellets within a plasma. Injection angle can be varied easily and successfully during an interval of two plasma shots in the course of an experiment, so that one can carry out various basic experiments by varying the pellet deposition profile. The injection angle has been varied poloidally from -6 to 6 degree by changing the angle of the last stage drift tube. This situation makes possible for pellets to aim at from about r = -2a/3 to r = 2a/3 of the plasma. From two dimensional observations by CCD cameras, details of the pellet ablation structures with various injection angles have been studied, and a couple of interesting phenomena have been found. In the case of an injection angle (θ) larger than a certain value (θ ≥ 4 o ), a pellet penetrates straightly through the plasma with a trace of straight ablation cloud, which has been expected from usual theoretical consideration. On the other hand, a long helical tail of ablation light has been observed in the case of the angle smaller than the certain value (θ ≤ 4 o ). (author) 4 refs., 4 figs

  19. Photoelectrochemical study of nanostructured ZnO thin films for hydrogen generation from water splitting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolcott, Abraham; Zhang, Jin Z. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, Santa Cruz 1156 High St. Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Smith, Wilson A.; Zhao, Yiping [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602 (United States); Kuykendall, Tevye R. [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2009-06-23

    Photoelectrochemical cells based on traditional and nanostructured ZnO thin films are investigated for hydrogen generation from water splitting. The ZnO thin films are fabricated using three different deposition geometries: normal pulsed laser deposition, pulsed laser oblique-angle deposition, and electron-beam glancing-angle deposition. The nanostructured films are characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, UV-vis spectroscopy and photoelectrochemical techniques. Normal pulsed laser deposition produces dense thin films with ca. 200 nm grain sizes, while oblique-angle deposition produces nanoplatelets with a fishscale morphology and individual features measuring ca. 900 by 450 nm on average. In contrast, glancing-angle deposition generates a highly porous, interconnected network of spherical nanoparticles of 15-40 nm diameter. Mott-Schottky plots show the flat band potential of pulsed laser deposition, oblique-angle deposition, and glancing-angle deposition samples to be -0.29, -0.28 and +0.20 V, respectively. Generation of photocurrent is observed at anodic potentials and no limiting photocurrents were observed with applied potentials up to 1.3 V for all photoelectrochemical cells. The effective photon-to-hydrogen efficiency is found to be 0.1%, 0.2% and 0.6% for pulsed laser deposition, oblique-angle deposition and glancing-angle deposition samples, respectively. The photoelectrochemical properties of the three types of films are understood to be a function of porosity, crystal defect concentration, charge transport properties and space charge layer characteristics. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  20. Page 1 '---------------------------- Presenting features ofprimary angle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    coma were assessed. The diagnosis of primary angle-closure glaucoma was made on presentation if the intra-ocular pressure was > 21 mmHg, or if a glaucomatous visual field was found, in the presence of a partially or totally closed angle or peripheral anterior synechiae. Provocation tests were not performed. Patients ...

  1. Gaugings at angles from orientifold reductions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roest, Diederik

    2009-01-01

    We consider orientifold reductions to N= 4 gauged supergravity in four dimensions. A special feature of this theory is that different factors of the gauge group can have relative angles with respect to the electro-magnetic SL(2) symmetry. These are crucial for moduli stabilization and de Sitter vacua. We show how such gaugings at angles generically arise in orientifold reductions.

  2. Automatic Cobb Angle Determination From Radiographic Images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sardjono, Tri Arief; Wilkinson, Michael H. F.; Veldhuizen, Albert G.; van Ooijen, Peter M. A.; Purnama, Ketut E.; Verkerke, Gijsbertus J.

    2013-01-01

    Study Design. Automatic measurement of Cobb angle in patients with scoliosis. Objective. To test the accuracy of an automatic Cobb angle determination method from frontal radiographical images. Summary of Background Data. Thirty-six frontal radiographical images of patients with scoliosis. Methods.

  3. Practical evaluation of action-angle variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boozer, A.H.

    1984-02-01

    A practical method is described for establishing action-angle variables for a Hamiltonian system. That is, a given nearly integrable Hamiltonian is divided into an exactly integrable system plus a perturbation in action-angle form. The transformation of variables, which is carried out using a few short trajectory integrations, permits a rapid determination of trajectory properties throughout a phase space volume

  4. Apparent contact angle and contact angle hysteresis on liquid infused surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semprebon, Ciro; McHale, Glen; Kusumaatmaja, Halim

    2016-12-21

    We theoretically investigate the apparent contact angle and contact angle hysteresis of a droplet placed on a liquid infused surface. We show that the apparent contact angle is not uniquely defined by material parameters, but also has a dependence on the relative size between the droplet and its surrounding wetting ridge formed by the infusing liquid. We derive a closed form expression for the contact angle in the limit of vanishing wetting ridge, and compute the correction for small but finite ridge, which corresponds to an effective line tension term. We also predict contact angle hysteresis on liquid infused surfaces generated by the pinning of the contact lines by the surface corrugations. Our analytical expressions for both the apparent contact angle and contact angle hysteresis can be interpreted as 'weighted sums' between the contact angles of the infusing liquid relative to the droplet and surrounding gas phases, where the weighting coefficients are given by ratios of the fluid surface tensions.

  5. A lattice determination of gA and left angle x right angle from overlap fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guertler, M.; Schiller, A.; Streuer, T.; Freie Univ. Berlin

    2004-10-01

    We present results for the nucleon's axial charge g A and the first moment left angle x right angle of the unpolarized parton distribution function from a simulation of quenched overlap fermions. (orig.)

  6. Laser peripheral iridoplasty for angle-closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Wai Siene; Ang, Ghee Soon; Azuara-Blanco, Augusto

    2012-02-15

    Angle-closure glaucoma is a leading cause of irreversible blindness in the world. Treatment is aimed at opening the anterior chamber angle and lowering the IOP with medical and/or surgical treatment (e.g. trabeculectomy, lens extraction). Laser iridotomy works by eliminating pupillary block and widens the anterior chamber angle in the majority of patients. When laser iridotomy fails to open the anterior chamber angle, laser iridoplasty may be recommended as one of the options in current standard treatment for angle-closure. Laser peripheral iridoplasty works by shrinking and pulling the peripheral iris tissue away from the trabecular meshwork. Laser peripheral iridoplasty can be used for crisis of acute angle-closure and also in non-acute situations.   To assess the effectiveness of laser peripheral iridoplasty in the treatment of narrow angles (i.e. primary angle-closure suspect), primary angle-closure (PAC) or primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG) in non-acute situations when compared with any other intervention. In this review, angle-closure will refer to patients with narrow angles (PACs), PAC and PACG. We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (The Cochrane Library 2011, Issue 12), MEDLINE (January 1950 to January 2012), EMBASE (January 1980 to January 2012), Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences (LILACS) (January 1982 to January 2012), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). There were no date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. The electronic databases were last searched on 5 January 2012. We included only randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in this review. Patients with narrow angles, PAC or PACG were eligible. We excluded studies that included only patients with acute presentations

  7. Scoliosis angle. Conceptual basis and proposed definition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marklund, T [Linkoepings Hoegskola (Sweden)

    1978-01-01

    The most commonly used methods of assessing the scoliotic deviation measure angles that are not clearly defined in relation to the anatomy of the patient. In order to give an anatomic basis for such measurements it is proposed to define the scoliotic deviation as the deviation the vertebral column makes with the sagittal plane. Both the Cobb and the Ferguson angles may be based on this definition. The present methods of measurement are then attempts to measure these angles. If the plane of these angles is parallel to the film, the measurement will be correct. Errors in the measurements may be incurred by the projection. A hypothetical projection, called a 'rectified orthogonal projection', is presented, which correctly represents all scoliotic angles in accordance with these principles. It can be constructed in practice with the aid of a computer and by performing measurements on two projections of the vertebral column; a scoliotic curve can be represented independent of the kyphosis and lordosis.

  8. The resection angle in apical surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Arx, Thomas; Janner, Simone F M; Jensen, Simon S

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of the present radiographic study was to analyse the resection angle in apical surgery and its correlation with treatment outcome, type of treated tooth, surgical depth and level of root-end filling. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the context of a prospective clinical...... study, cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans were taken before and 1 year after apical surgery to measure the angle of the resection plane relative to the longitudinal axis of the root. Further, the surgical depth (distance from the buccal cortex to the most lingual/palatal point of the resection...... or with the retrofilling length. CONCLUSIONS: Statistically significant differences were observed comparing resection angles of different tooth groups. However, the angle had no significant effect on treatment outcome. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Contrary to common belief, the resection angle in maxillary anterior teeth...

  9. Experimental study of crossing angle collision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, T.; Rice, D.; Rubin, D.; Sagan, D.; Tigner, M.

    1993-01-01

    The non-linear coupling due to the beam-beam interaction with crossing angle has been studied. The major effect of a small (∼12mrad) crossing angle is to excite 5Q x ±Q s =integer coupling resonance family on large amplitude particles, which results in bad lifetime. On the CESR, a small crossing angle (∼2.4mr) was created at the IP and a reasonable beam-beam tune-shift was achieved. The decay rate of the beam is measured as a function of horizontal tune with and without crossing angle. The theoretical analysis, simulation and experimental measurements have a good agreement. The resonance strength as a function of crossing angle is also measured

  10. Characterization of previously unidentified lunar pyroclastic deposits using Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, J. Olaf; Bell, James F.; Gaddis, Lisa R.R.; Hawke, B. Ray Ray; Giguere, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    We used a Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) global monochrome Wide-angle Camera (WAC) mosaic to conduct a survey of the Moon to search for previously unidentified pyroclastic deposits. Promising locations were examined in detail using LROC multispectral WAC mosaics, high-resolution LROC Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) images, and Clementine multispectral (ultraviolet-visible or UVVIS) data. Out of 47 potential deposits chosen for closer examination, 12 were selected as probable newly identified pyroclastic deposits. Potential pyroclastic deposits were generally found in settings similar to previously identified deposits, including areas within or near mare deposits adjacent to highlands, within floor-fractured craters, and along fissures in mare deposits. However, a significant new finding is the discovery of localized pyroclastic deposits within floor-fractured craters Anderson E and F on the lunar farside, isolated from other known similar deposits. Our search confirms that most major regional and localized low-albedo pyroclastic deposits have been identified on the Moon down to ~100 m/pix resolution, and that additional newly identified deposits are likely to be either isolated small deposits or additional portions of discontinuous, patchy deposits.

  11. Apparent Contact Angle and Contact Angle Hysteresis on Liquid Infused Surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Semprebon, Ciro; McHale, Glen; Kusumaatmaja, Halim

    2016-01-01

    We theoretically investigate the apparent contact angle and contact angle hysteresis of a droplet placed on a liquid infused surface. We show that the apparent contact angle is not uniquely defined by material parameters, but also has a strong dependence on the relative size between the droplet and its surrounding wetting ridge formed by the infusing liquid. We derive a closed form expression for the contact angle in the limit of vanishing wetting ridge, and compute the correction for small b...

  12. Microscopic characterisation of suspended graphene grown by chemical vapour deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bignardi, L.; Dorp, W.F. van; Gottardi, S.; Ivashenko, O.; Dudin, P.; Barinov, A.; de Hosson, J.T.M.; Stöhr, M.; Rudolf, P.

    2013-01-01

    We present a multi-technique characterisation of graphene grown by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) and thereafter transferred to and suspended on a grid for transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The properties of the electronic band structure are investigated by angle-resolved photoelectron

  13. Analysis of the criticality safety of a nuclear fuel deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landeyro, P.A.; Mincarini, M.

    1987-01-01

    In the present work a safety analysis from criticality accidents of nuclear fuel deposits is performed. The analysis is performed utilizing two methods derived from different physical principes: 1) superficial density method, obtained from experimental research; 2) solid angle method, derived from transport theory

  14. Survival and Growth of Cottonwood Clones After Angle Planting and Base Angle Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    W.K. Randall; Harvey E. Kennedy

    1976-01-01

    Presently, commercial cottonwood plantations in the lower Mississippi Valley are established using vertically planted, unrooted cuttings with a flat (90°) base. Neither survival nor first-year growth of a group of six Stoneville clones was improved by angle planting or cutting base angles diagonally. For one clone, survival was significantly better when base angle was...

  15. Deposition Measurements in NSTX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, C. H.; Kugel, H. W.; Hogan, J. T.; Wampler, W. R.

    2004-11-01

    Two quartz microbalances have been used to record deposition on the National Spherical Torus Experiment. The experimental configuration mimics a typical diagnostic window or mirror. An RS232 link was used to acquire the quartz crystal frequency and the deposited thickness was recorded continuously with 0.01 nm resolution. Nuclear Reaction Analysis of the deposit was consistent with the measurement of the total deposited mass from the change in crystal frequency. We will present measurements of the variation of deposition with plasma conditions. The transport of carbon impurities in NSTX has been modelled with the BBQ code. Preliminary calculations indicated a negligible fraction of carbon generated at the divertor plates in quiescent discharges directly reaches the outer wall, and that transient events are responsible for the deposition.

  16. Shedding of ash deposits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zbogar, Ana; Frandsen, Flemming; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    2009-01-01

    Ash deposits formed during fuel thermal conversion and located on furnace walls and on convective pass tubes, may seriously inhibit the transfer of heat to the working fluid and hence reduce the overall process efficiency. Combustion of biomass causes formation of large quantities of troublesome...... ash deposits which contain significant concentrations of alkali, and earth-alkali metals. The specific composition of biomass deposits give different characteristics as compared to coal ash deposits, i.e. different physical significance of the deposition mechanisms, lower melting temperatures, etc....... Low melting temperatures make straw ashes especially troublesome, since their stickiness is higher at lower temperatures, compared to coal ashes. Increased stickiness will eventually lead to a higher collection efficiency of incoming ash particles, meaning that the deposit may grow even faster...

  17. Creation of the {pi} angle standard for the flat angle measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giniotis, V; Rybokas, M, E-mail: gi@ap.vtu.l, E-mail: MRybokas@gama.l [Department of Information Technologies, Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, Sauletekio al. 11, 10223 Vilnius-40 (Lithuania)

    2010-07-01

    Angle measurements are based mainly on multiangle prisms - polygons with autocollimators, rotary encoders for high accuracy and circular scales as the standards of the flat angle. Traceability of angle measurements is based on the standard of the plane angle - prism (polygon) calibrated at an appropriate accuracy. Some metrological institutions have established their special test benches (comparators) equipped with circular scales or rotary encoders of high accuracy and polygons with autocollimators for angle calibration purposes. Nevertheless, the standard (etalon) of plane angle - polygon has many restrictions for the transfer of angle unit - radian (rad) and other units of angle. It depends on the number of angles formed by the flat sides of the polygon that is restricted by technological and metrological difficulties related to the production and accuracy determination of the polygon. A possibility to create the standard of the angle equal to {pi} rad or half the circle or the full angle is proposed. It can be created by the circular scale with the rotation axis of very high accuracy and two precision reading instruments, usually, photoelectric microscopes (PM), placed on the opposite sides of the circular scale using the special alignment steps. A great variety of angle units and values can be measured and its traceability ensured by applying the third PM on the scale. Calibration of the circular scale itself and other scale or rotary encoder as well is possible using the proposed method with an implementation of {pi} rad as the primary standard angle. The method proposed enables to assure a traceability of angle measurements at every laboratory having appropriate environment and reading instruments of appropriate accuracy together with a rotary table with the rotation axis of high accuracy - rotation trajectory (runout) being in the range of 0.05 {mu}m. Short information about the multipurpose angle measurement test bench developed is presented.

  18. Angle closure glaucoma in congenital ectropion uvea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace M. Wang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Congenital ectropion uvea is a rare anomaly, which is associated with open, but dysplastic iridocorneal angles that cause childhood glaucoma. Herein, we present 3 cases of angle-closure glaucoma in children with congenital ectropion uvea. Observations: Three children were initially diagnosed with unilateral glaucoma secondary to congenital ectropion uvea at 7, 8 and 13 years of age. The three cases showed 360° of ectropion uvea and iris stromal atrophy in the affected eye. In one case, we have photographic documentation of progression to complete angle closure, which necessitated placement of a glaucoma drainage device 3 years after combined trabeculotomy and trabeculectomy. The 2 other cases, which presented as complete angle closure, also underwent glaucoma drainage device implantation. All three cases had early glaucoma drainage device encapsulation (within 4 months and required additional surgery (cycloablation or trabeculectomy. Conclusions and importance: Congenital ectropion uvea can be associated with angle-closure glaucoma, and placement of glaucoma drainage devices in all 3 of our cases showed early failure due to plate encapsulation. Glaucoma in congenital ectropion uvea requires attention to angle configuration and often requires multiple surgeries to obtain intraocular pressure control. Keywords: Congenital ectropion uvea, Juvenile glaucoma, Angle-closure glaucoma, Glaucoma drainage device

  19. Modified Angle's Classification for Primary Dentition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandranee, Kaushik Narendra; Chandranee, Narendra Jayantilal; Nagpal, Devendra; Lamba, Gagandeep; Choudhari, Purva; Hotwani, Kavita

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to propose a modification of Angle's classification for primary dentition and to assess its applicability in children from Central India, Nagpur. Modification in Angle's classification has been proposed for application in primary dentition. Small roman numbers i/ii/iii are used for primary dentition notation to represent Angle's Class I/II/III molar relationships as in permanent dentition, respectively. To assess applicability of modified Angle's classification a cross-sectional preschool 2000 children population from central India; 3-6 years of age residing in Nagpur metropolitan city of Maharashtra state were selected randomly as per the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Majority 93.35% children were found to have bilateral Class i followed by 2.5% bilateral Class ii and 0.2% bilateral half cusp Class iii molar relationships as per the modified Angle's classification for primary dentition. About 3.75% children had various combinations of Class ii relationships and 0.2% children were having Class iii subdivision relationship. Modification of Angle's classification for application in primary dentition has been proposed. A cross-sectional investigation using new classification revealed various 6.25% Class ii and 0.4% Class iii molar relationships cases in preschool children population in a metropolitan city of Nagpur. Application of the modified Angle's classification to other population groups is warranted to validate its routine application in clinical pediatric dentistry.

  20. Modified angle's classification for primary dentition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushik Narendra Chandranee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study aims to propose a modification of Angle's classification for primary dentition and to assess its applicability in children from Central India, Nagpur. Methods: Modification in Angle's classification has been proposed for application in primary dentition. Small roman numbers i/ii/iii are used for primary dentition notation to represent Angle's Class I/II/III molar relationships as in permanent dentition, respectively. To assess applicability of modified Angle's classification a cross-sectional preschool 2000 children population from central India; 3–6 years of age residing in Nagpur metropolitan city of Maharashtra state were selected randomly as per the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results: Majority 93.35% children were found to have bilateral Class i followed by 2.5% bilateral Class ii and 0.2% bilateral half cusp Class iii molar relationships as per the modified Angle's classification for primary dentition. About 3.75% children had various combinations of Class ii relationships and 0.2% children were having Class iii subdivision relationship. Conclusions: Modification of Angle's classification for application in primary dentition has been proposed. A cross-sectional investigation using new classification revealed various 6.25% Class ii and 0.4% Class iii molar relationships cases in preschool children population in a metropolitan city of Nagpur. Application of the modified Angle's classification to other population groups is warranted to validate its routine application in clinical pediatric dentistry.

  1. Preferred nasolabial angle in Middle Eastern population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alharethy, Sami

    2017-05-01

    To define the preferred nasolabial angle measurement in Middle Eastern population. An observational study was conducted from January 2012 to January 2016 at the Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, King Abdulaziz University Hospital, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A total of 1027 raters, 506 males, and 521 females were asked to choose the most ideal nasolabial angle for 5 males and 5 females lateral photographs whose nasolabial angle were modified with Photoshop into the following angles (85°, 90°, 95°, 100°, 105°, and 110°). Male raters preferred the angle of 89.5° ± 3.5° (mean ± SD) for males and 90.8° ± 5.6° for females. While female raters preferred the angle of 89.3° ± 3.8° for males and 90.5° ± 4.8° for females. ANOVA test compare means among groups: p: 0.342, and there is no statistically significant difference between groups. The results of our study showed an even more acute angles than degrees found in the literature. It shows that what young generation in our region prefers and clearly reflects that what could be explained as under rotation of the nasal tip in other cultures is just the ideal for some Middle Eastern population.

  2. Uraniferous surficial deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toens, P.D.; Hambleton-Jones, B.B.

    1980-10-01

    As a result of the discovery of uranium in surficial deposits of Tertiary to Recent age, in Australia and Southern Africa, increasing attention is being paid to the location and understanding of the genesis of these deposits. The paper discusses the definitions and terminology currently in use and a classification of these deposits is presented. It is concluded that in order to obtain a measure of clarity, the terms calcrete, gypcrete and dolocrete should not be used to describe the uraniferous valley-fill deposits of Southern Africa and Australia [af

  3. A theoretical model for prediction of deposition efficiency in cold spraying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Changjiu; Li Wenya; Wang Yuyue; Yang Guanjun; Fukanuma, H.

    2005-01-01

    The deposition behavior of a spray particle stream with a particle size distribution was theoretically examined for cold spraying in terms of deposition efficiency as a function of particle parameters and spray angle. The theoretical relation was established between the deposition efficiency and spray angle. The experiments were conducted by measuring deposition efficiency at different driving gas conditions and different spray angles using gas-atomized copper powder. It was found that the theoretically estimated results agreed reasonably well with the experimental ones. Based on the theoretical model and experimental results, it was revealed that the distribution of particle velocity resulting from particle size distribution influences significantly the deposition efficiency in cold spraying. It was necessary for the majority of particles to achieve a velocity higher than the critical velocity in order to improve the deposition efficiency. The normal component of particle velocity contributed to the deposition of the particle under the off-nomal spray condition. The deposition efficiency of sprayed particles decreased owing to the decrease of the normal velocity component as spray was performed at off-normal angle

  4. Computing angle of arrival of radio signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchardt, John J.; Steele, David K.

    2017-11-07

    Various technologies pertaining to computing angle of arrival of radio signals are described. A system that is configured for computing the angle of arrival of a radio signal includes a cylindrical sheath wrapped around a cylindrical object, where the cylindrical sheath acts as a ground plane. The system further includes a plurality of antennas that are positioned about an exterior surface of the cylindrical sheath, and receivers respectively coupled to the antennas. The receivers output measurements pertaining to the radio signal. A processing circuit receives the measurements and computes the angle of arrival of the radio signal based upon the measurements.

  5. Corrosion properties of aluminum based alloys deposited by ion beam assisted deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enders, B.; Krauss, S.; Wolf, G.K.

    1994-01-01

    The replacement of cadmium coatings by other protective measures is an important task because of the environmentally detrimental properties of cadmium. Therefore, aluminum and aluminum alloy coatings containing elements such as silicon or magnesium with more positive or negative positions in the galvanic series in relation to pure aluminum were deposited by ion beam assisted deposition onto glass and low carbon steel. Pure aluminum films were deposited onto low carbon steel in order to study the influence of the ion-to-atom arrival ratio and the angle of ion incidence on the corrosion properties. For examination of the pitting behavior as a function of the concentration of alloying element, quasipotentiostatic current-potential and potentiostatic current-time plots were measured in chlorine-containing acetate buffer. It is shown that these alloys can protect steel substrates under uniform and pitting corrosion conditions considerably better than pure aluminum coatings. ((orig.))

  6. Optical fibre angle sensor used in MEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golebiowski, J; Milcarz, Sz; Rybak, M

    2014-01-01

    There is a need for displacement and angle measurements in many movable MEMS structures. The use of fibre optical sensors helps to measure micrometre displacements and small rotation angles. Advantages of this type of transducers are their simple design, high precision of processing, low costs and ability of a non-contact measurement. The study shows an analysis of a fibre-optic intensity sensor used for MEMS movable structure rotation angle measurement. An intensity of the light in the photodetector is basically dependent on a distance between a reflecting surface and a head surface of the fibre transmitting arm, and the deflection angle. Experimental tests were made for PMMA 980/1000 plastic fibres, Θ NA =33°. The study shows both analytical and practical results. It proves that calculated and experimental characteristics for the analysed transducers are similar.

  7. Gonioscopy in primary angle closure glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Christina A; Alward, Wallace L M

    2002-06-01

    Primary angle closure is a condition characterized by obstruction to aqueous humor outflow by the peripheral iris, and results in changes in the iridocorneal angle that are visible through gonioscopic examination. Gonioscopy in these eyes, however, can be difficult. This chapter discusses techniques that might help in the examination. These include beginning the examination with the inferior angle, methods to help in looking over the iris, cycloplegia, locating the corneal wedge, indentation, van Herick estimation, examining the other eye, and topical glycerin. Finally, there is a discussion about the pathology associated with the closed angle, with emphasis on the appearance of iris bombé, plateau iris, and the distinction between iris processes and peripheral anterior synechiae.

  8. Low angle X-ray scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torrianni, I.L.

    1983-01-01

    The theoretical and experimental problems appearing in diffraction experiments at very low angles by several kinds of materials are discussed. The importance of synchrotron radiation in such problems is shown. (L.C.) [pt

  9. Directional Wide-Angle Range Finder (DWARF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation, the Directional Wide-Angle Range Finder (DWARF) is the creation of a laser range-finder with a wide field-of-view (FOV) and a directional...

  10. Angle measurement with laser feedback instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenxue; Zhang, Shulian; Long, Xingwu

    2013-04-08

    An instrument for angle measurement based on laser feedback has been designed. The measurement technique is based on the principle that when a wave plate placed into a feedback cavity rotates, its phase retardation varies. Phase retardation is a function of the rotating angle of the wave plate. Hence, the angle can be converted to phase retardation. The phase retardation is measured at certain characteristic points identified in the laser outputting curve that are then modulated by laser feedback. The angle of a rotating object can be measured if it is connected to the wave plate. The main advantages of this instrument are: high resolution, compact, flexible, low cost, effective power, and fast response.

  11. Precision Guidance with Impact Angle Requirements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ford, Jason

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines a weapon system precision guidance problem in which the objective is to guide a weapon onto a non-manoeuvring target so that a particular desired angle of impact is achieved using...

  12. MAPLE deposition of nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caricato, A.P.; Arima, V.; Catalano, M.; Cesaria, M.; Cozzoli, P.D.; Martino, M.; Taurino, A.; Rella, R.; Scarfiello, R.; Tunno, T.; Zacheo, A.

    2014-01-01

    The matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) has been recently exploited for depositing films of nanomaterials by combining the advantages of colloidal inorganic nanoparticles and laser-based techniques. MAPLE-deposition of nanomaterials meeting applicative purposes demands their peculiar properties to be taken into account while planning depositions to guarantee a congruent transfer (in terms of crystal structure and geometric features) and explain the deposition outcome. In particular, since nanofluids can enhance thermal conductivity with respect to conventional fluids, laser-induced heating can induce different ablation thermal regimes as compared to the MAPLE-treatment of soft materials. Moreover, nanoparticles exhibit lower melting temperatures and can experience pre-melting phenomena as compared to their bulk counterparts, which could easily induce shape and or crystal phase modification of the material to be deposited even at very low fluences. In this complex scenario, this review paper focuses on examples of MAPLE-depositions of size and shape controlled nanoparticles for different applications highlights advantages and challenges of the MAPLE-technique. The influence of the deposition parameters on the physical mechanisms which govern the deposition process is discussed.

  13. MAPLE deposition of nanomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caricato, A.P., E-mail: annapaola.caricato@le.infn.it [Department of Mathematics and Physics “E. De Giorgi”, University of Salento, Via Arnesano, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Arima, V.; Catalano, M. [National Nanotechnology Laboratory (NNL), CNR Istituto Nanoscienze, c/o Distretto Tecnologico, Via Arnesano n. 16, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Cesaria, M. [Department of Mathematics and Physics “E. De Giorgi”, University of Salento, Via Arnesano, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Cozzoli, P.D. [Department of Mathematics and Physics “E. De Giorgi”, University of Salento, Via Arnesano, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); National Nanotechnology Laboratory (NNL), CNR Istituto Nanoscienze, c/o Distretto Tecnologico, Via Arnesano n. 16, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Martino, M. [Department of Mathematics and Physics “E. De Giorgi”, University of Salento, Via Arnesano, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Taurino, A.; Rella, R. [Institute for Microelectronics and Microsystems, IMM-CNR, Via Monteroni, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Scarfiello, R. [National Nanotechnology Laboratory (NNL), CNR Istituto Nanoscienze, c/o Distretto Tecnologico, Via Arnesano n. 16, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Tunno, T. [Department of Mathematics and Physics “E. De Giorgi”, University of Salento, Via Arnesano, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Zacheo, A. [Department of Mathematics and Physics “E. De Giorgi”, University of Salento, Via Arnesano, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); National Nanotechnology Laboratory (NNL), CNR Istituto Nanoscienze, c/o Distretto Tecnologico, Via Arnesano n. 16, I-73100 Lecce (Italy)

    2014-05-01

    The matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) has been recently exploited for depositing films of nanomaterials by combining the advantages of colloidal inorganic nanoparticles and laser-based techniques. MAPLE-deposition of nanomaterials meeting applicative purposes demands their peculiar properties to be taken into account while planning depositions to guarantee a congruent transfer (in terms of crystal structure and geometric features) and explain the deposition outcome. In particular, since nanofluids can enhance thermal conductivity with respect to conventional fluids, laser-induced heating can induce different ablation thermal regimes as compared to the MAPLE-treatment of soft materials. Moreover, nanoparticles exhibit lower melting temperatures and can experience pre-melting phenomena as compared to their bulk counterparts, which could easily induce shape and or crystal phase modification of the material to be deposited even at very low fluences. In this complex scenario, this review paper focuses on examples of MAPLE-depositions of size and shape controlled nanoparticles for different applications highlights advantages and challenges of the MAPLE-technique. The influence of the deposition parameters on the physical mechanisms which govern the deposition process is discussed.

  14. Axial vector mass spectrum and mixing angles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caffarelli, R.V.; Kang, K.

    1976-01-01

    Spectral sum rules of the axial-vector current and axial-vector current-pseudoscalar field are used to study the axial-vector mass spectrum and mixing angles, as well as the decay constants and mixing angles of the pseudoscalar mesons. In general, the result is quite persuasive for the existence of the Jsup(PC) = 1 ++ multiplet in which one has a canonical D-E mixing. (Auth.)

  15. Contact angle hysteresis on superhydrophobic stripes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubov, Alexander L; Mourran, Ahmed; Möller, Martin; Vinogradova, Olga I

    2014-08-21

    We study experimentally and discuss quantitatively the contact angle hysteresis on striped superhydrophobic surfaces as a function of a solid fraction, ϕS. It is shown that the receding regime is determined by a longitudinal sliding motion of the deformed contact line. Despite an anisotropy of the texture the receding contact angle remains isotropic, i.e., is practically the same in the longitudinal and transverse directions. The cosine of the receding angle grows nonlinearly with ϕS. To interpret this we develop a theoretical model, which shows that the value of the receding angle depends both on weak defects at smooth solid areas and on the strong defects due to the elastic energy of the deformed contact line, which scales as ϕS(2)lnϕS. The advancing contact angle was found to be anisotropic, except in a dilute regime, and its value is shown to be determined by the rolling motion of the drop. The cosine of the longitudinal advancing angle depends linearly on ϕS, but a satisfactory fit to the data can only be provided if we generalize the Cassie equation to account for weak defects. The cosine of the transverse advancing angle is much smaller and is maximized at ϕS ≃ 0.5. An explanation of its value can be obtained if we invoke an additional energy due to strong defects in this direction, which is shown to be caused by the adhesion of the drop on solid sectors and is proportional to ϕS(2). Finally, the contact angle hysteresis is found to be quite large and generally anisotropic, but it becomes isotropic when ϕS ≤ 0.2.

  16. Small-angle neutron-scattering experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, A.D.; Thomas, M.W.; Rouse, K.D.

    1981-04-01

    A brief introduction to the technique of small-angle neutron scattering is given. The layout and operation of the small-angle scattering spectrometer, mounted on the AERE PLUTO reactor, is also described. Results obtained using the spectrometer are presented for three materials (doped uranium dioxide, Magnox cladding and nitrided steel) of interest to Springfields Nuclear Power Development Laboratories. The results obtained are discussed in relation to other known data for these materials. (author)

  17. Radiodiagnosis of Cerebellopontine-angle tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weyer, K.H. van de

    1979-01-01

    The most important radiodiagnostic signs of cerebellopontine-angle tumors are demonstrated. The value of plain films and special projections is discussed. The use of recent diagnostic procedures like scintography, CT and cisternography with oily contrast medium is critically analyzed. The advantage and disadvantages of these procedures are discussed according to their usefullness in evaluating size, route of spread and localisation of cerebellopontine-angle tumors. (orig.) [de

  18. Estimating Elevation Angles From SAR Crosstalk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Anthony

    1994-01-01

    Scheme for processing polarimetric synthetic-aperture-radar (SAR) image data yields estimates of elevation angles along radar beam to target resolution cells. By use of estimated elevation angles, measured distances along radar beam to targets (slant ranges), and measured altitude of aircraft carrying SAR equipment, one can estimate height of target terrain in each resolution cell. Monopulselike scheme yields low-resolution topographical data.

  19. Expressions for the Total Yaw Angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    1. Introduction 1 2. Mathematical Notation 1 3. Total Yaw Expression Derivations 2 3.1 First Derivation 2 3.2 Second Derivation 4 3.3 Other...4 iv Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 1. Introduction The total yaw angle, γt , of a ballistic projectile is... elevation angles from spherical coordinates.∗ We again place point A at the end point of V. Now imagine a plane parallel to the y-z plane that includes

  20. Lateral displacement in small angle multiple scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bichsel, H.; Hanson, K.M.; Schillaci, K.M. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA))

    1982-07-01

    Values have been calculated for the average lateral displacement in small angle multiple scattering of protons with energies of several hundred MeV. The calculations incorporate the Moliere distribution which does not make the gaussian approximations of the distribution in projected angle and lateral deflections. Compared to other published data, such approximations can lead to errors in the lateral displacement of up to 10% in water.

  1. Angle closure glaucoma in congenital ectropion uvea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Grace M; Thuente, Daniel; Bohnsack, Brenda L

    2018-06-01

    Congenital ectropion uvea is a rare anomaly, which is associated with open, but dysplastic iridocorneal angles that cause childhood glaucoma. Herein, we present 3 cases of angle-closure glaucoma in children with congenital ectropion uvea. Three children were initially diagnosed with unilateral glaucoma secondary to congenital ectropion uvea at 7, 8 and 13 years of age. The three cases showed 360° of ectropion uvea and iris stromal atrophy in the affected eye. In one case, we have photographic documentation of progression to complete angle closure, which necessitated placement of a glaucoma drainage device 3 years after combined trabeculotomy and trabeculectomy. The 2 other cases, which presented as complete angle closure, also underwent glaucoma drainage device implantation. All three cases had early glaucoma drainage device encapsulation (within 4 months) and required additional surgery (cycloablation or trabeculectomy). Congenital ectropion uvea can be associated with angle-closure glaucoma, and placement of glaucoma drainage devices in all 3 of our cases showed early failure due to plate encapsulation. Glaucoma in congenital ectropion uvea requires attention to angle configuration and often requires multiple surgeries to obtain intraocular pressure control.

  2. Neutron spin echo scattering angle measurement (SESAME)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pynn, R.; Fitzsimmons, M.R.; Fritzsche, H.; Gierlings, M.; Major, J.; Jason, A.

    2005-01-01

    We describe experiments in which the neutron spin echo technique is used to measure neutron scattering angles. We have implemented the technique, dubbed spin echo scattering angle measurement (SESAME), using thin films of Permalloy electrodeposited on silicon wafers as sources of the magnetic fields within which neutron spins precess. With 30-μm-thick films we resolve neutron scattering angles to about 0.02 deg. with neutrons of 4.66 A wavelength. This allows us to probe correlation lengths up to 200 nm in an application to small angle neutron scattering. We also demonstrate that SESAME can be used to separate specular and diffuse neutron reflection from surfaces at grazing incidence. In both of these cases, SESAME can make measurements at higher neutron intensity than is available with conventional methods because the angular resolution achieved is independent of the divergence of the neutron beam. Finally, we discuss the conditions under which SESAME might be used to probe in-plane structure in thin films and show that the method has advantages for incident neutron angles close to the critical angle because multiple scattering is automatically accounted for

  3. Undetected angle closure in patients with a diagnosis of open-angle glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma, Devesh K; Simpson, Sarah M; Rai, Amandeep S; Ahmed, Iqbal Ike K

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the proportion of patients referred to a tertiary glaucoma centre with a diagnosis of open-angle glaucoma (OAG) who were found to have angle closure glaucoma. Retrospective chart review. Consecutive new patients referred for glaucoma management to a tertiary centre between July 2010 and December 2011 were reviewed. Patients whose referrals for glaucoma assessment specified angle status as "open" were included. The data collected included glaucoma specialist's angle assessment, diagnosis, and glaucoma severity. The status of those with 180 degrees or more Shaffer angle grading of 0 was classified as "closed." From 1234 glaucoma referrals, 179 cases were specified to have a diagnosis of OAG or when angles were known to be open. Of these, 16 (8.9%) were found on examination by the glaucoma specialist to have angle closure. Pseudoexfoliation was present in 4 of 16 patients (25%) in the missed angle-closure glaucoma (ACG) group and 22 of 108 patients (13.5%) in the remaining OAG group. There was no difference found in demographic or ocular biometric parameters between those with confirmed OAG versus those with missed ACG. Almost 1 in 11 patients referred by ophthalmologists to a tertiary glaucoma centre with a diagnosis of OAG were in fact found to have angle closure. Given the different treatment approaches for ACG versus OAG, this study suggests a need to strengthen angle evaluations. Copyright © 2017 Canadian Ophthalmological Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Residual stress in ion implanted titanium nitride studied by parallel beam glancing incidence x-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geist, D.E.; Perry, A.J.; Treglio, J.R.; Valvoda, V.; Rafaja, D.

    1995-01-01

    Ion implantation is known to increase the lifetime of cutting tools. Current theories are the increase in lifetime is caused by an increase in the residual stress, or by work hardening of the surface associated with the implantation. In this work the effect of ion implantation on the residual stress in titanium nitride coatings made by the standard industrial methods of chemical and physical vapor deposition (CVD and PVD) is studied. It is found in the as-received condition (unimplanted), the residual stress levels are near zero for CVD materials and highly compressive, of the order of 6 GPa, for PVD materials. Ion implantation has no effect on the residual stress in the coatings made by CVD. Nitrogen does increase the compressive residual stress by some 10% in the near surface regions of PVD coatings, while nickel-titanium dual metal ion implantation does not have any effect. It appears that the lifetime increase is not associated with residual stress effects

  5. Solar cell angle of incidence corrections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Dale R.; Mueller, Robert L.

    1995-01-01

    Literature on solar array angle of incidence corrections was found to be sparse and contained no tabular data for support. This lack along with recent data on 27 GaAs/Ge 4 cm by 4 cm cells initiated the analysis presented in this paper. The literature cites seven possible contributors to angle of incidence effects: cosine, optical front surface, edge, shadowing, UV degradation, particulate soiling, and background color. Only the first three are covered in this paper due to lack of sufficient data. The cosine correction is commonly used but is not sufficient when the incident angle is large. Fresnel reflection calculations require knowledge of the index of refraction of the coverglass front surface. The absolute index of refraction for the coverglass front surface was not known nor was it measured due to lack of funds. However, a value for the index of refraction was obtained by examining how the prediction errors varied with different assumed indices and selecting the best fit to the set of measured values. Corrections using front surface Fresnel reflection along with the cosine correction give very good predictive results when compared to measured data, except there is a definite trend away from predicted values at the larger incident angles. This trend could be related to edge effects and is illustrated by a use of a box plot of the errors and by plotting the deviation of the mean against incidence angle. The trend is for larger deviations at larger incidence angles and there may be a fourth order effect involved in the trend. A chi-squared test was used to determine if the measurement errors were normally distributed. At 10 degrees the chi-squared test failed, probably due to the very small numbers involved or a bias from the measurement procedure. All other angles showed a good fit to the normal distribution with increasing goodness-of-fit as the angles increased which reinforces the very small numbers hypothesis. The contributed data only went to 65 degrees

  6. Respiratory trace deposition models. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, H.C.

    1980-03-01

    Respiratory tract characteristics of four mammalian species (human, dog, rat and Syrian hamster) were studied, using replica lung casts. An in situ casting techniques was developed for making the casts. Based on an idealized branch model, over 38,000 records of airway segment diameters, lengths, branching angles and gravity angles were obtained from measurements of two humans, two Beagle dogs, two rats and one Syrian hamster. From examination of the trimmed casts and morphometric data, it appeared that the structure of the human airway is closer to a dichotomous structure, whereas for dog, rat and hamster, it is monopodial. Flow velocity in the trachea and major bronchi in living Beagle dogs was measured using an implanted, subminiaturized, heated film anemometer. A physical model was developed to simulate the regional deposition characteristics proposed by the Task Group on Lung Dynamics of the ICRP. Various simulation modules for the nasopharyngeal (NP), tracheobronchial (TB) and pulmonary (P) compartments were designed and tested. Three types of monodisperse aerosols were developed for animal inhalation studies. Fifty Syrian hamsters and 50 rats were exposed to five different sizes of monodisperse fused aluminosilicate particles labeled with 169 Yb. Anatomical lung models were developed for four species (human, Beagle dog, rat and Syrian hamster) that were based on detailed morphometric measurements of replica lung casts. Emphasis was placed on developing a lobar typical-path lung model and on developing a modeling technique which could be applied to various mammalian species. A set of particle deposition equations for deposition caused by inertial impaction, sedimentation, and diffusion were developed. Theoretical models of particle deposition were developed based on these equations and on the anatomical lung models

  7. Nanostructured Diamond-Like Carbon Films Grown by Off-Axis Pulsed Laser Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong Shan Yap

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanostructured diamond-like carbon (DLC films instead of the ultrasmooth film were obtained by pulsed laser ablation of pyrolytic graphite. Deposition was performed at room temperature in vacuum with substrates placed at off-axis position. The configuration utilized high density plasma plume arriving at low effective angle for the formation of nanostructured DLC. Nanostructures with maximum size of 50 nm were deposited as compared to the ultrasmooth DLC films obtained in a conventional deposition. The Raman spectra of the films confirmed that the films were diamond-like/amorphous in nature. Although grown at an angle, ion energy of >35 eV was obtained at the off-axis position. This was proposed to be responsible for subplantation growth of sp3 hybridized carbon. The condensation of energetic clusters and oblique angle deposition correspondingly gave rise to the formation of nanostructured DLC in this study.

  8. Superhydrophobic hybrid inorganic-organic thiol-ene surfaces fabricated via spray-deposition and photopolymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Bradley J; Hoff, Ethan F T; Xiong, Li; Goetz, James T; Patton, Derek L

    2013-03-13

    We report a simple and versatile method for the fabrication of superhydrophobic inorganic-organic thiol-ene coatings via sequential spray-deposition and photopolymerization under ambient conditions. The coatings are obtained by spray-deposition of UV-curable hybrid inorganic-organic thiol-ene resins consisting of pentaerythritol tetra(3-mercaptopropionate) (PETMP), triallyl isocyanurate (TTT), 2,4,6,8-tetramethyl-2,4,6,8-tetravinylcyclotetrasiloxane (TMTVSi), and hydrophobic fumed silica nanoparticles. The spray-deposition process and nanoparticle agglomeration/dispersion provide surfaces with hierarchical morphologies exhibiting both micro- and nanoscale roughness. The wetting behavior, dependent on the concentration of TMTVSi and hydrophobic silica nanoparticles, can be varied over a broad range to ultimately provide coatings with high static water contact angles (>150°), low contact angle hysteresis, and low roll off angles (spray-deposition and UV-cure process on a variety of substrate surfaces including glass, paper, stone, and cotton fabric.

  9. Thermal expansion coefficients of obliquely deposited MgF2 thin films and their intrinsic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaing, Cheng-Chung

    2011-03-20

    This study elucidates the effects of columnar angles and deposition angles on the thermal expansion coefficients and intrinsic stress behaviors of MgF2 films with columnar microstructures. The behaviors associated with temperature-dependent stresses in the MgF2 films are measured using a phase-shifting Twyman-Green interferometer with a heating stage and the application of a phase reduction algorithm. The thermal expansion coefficients of MgF2 films at various columnar angles were larger than those of glass substrates. The intrinsic stress in the MgF2 films with columnar microstructures was compressive, while the thermal stress was tensile. The thermal expansion coefficients of MgF2 films with columnar microstructures and their intrinsic stress evidently depended on the deposition angle and the columnar angle.

  10. Flexible, angle-independent, structural color reflectors inspired by morpho butterfly wings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Kyungjae; Yu, Sunkyu; Heo, Chul-Joon; Shim, Jae Won; Yang, Seung-Man; Han, Moon Gyu; Lee, Hong-Seok; Jin, Yongwan; Lee, Sang Yoon; Park, Namkyoo; Shin, Jung H

    2012-05-08

    Thin-film color reflectors inspired by Morpho butterflies are fabricated. Using a combination of directional deposition, silica microspheres with a wide size distribution, and a PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) encasing, a large, flexible reflector is created that actually provides better angle-independent color characteristics than Morpho butterflies and which can even be bent and folded freely without losing its Morpho-mimetic photonic properties. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Contact angle of unset elastomeric impression materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menees, Timothy S; Radhakrishnan, Rashmi; Ramp, Lance C; Burgess, John O; Lawson, Nathaniel C

    2015-10-01

    Some elastomeric impression materials are hydrophobic, and it is often necessary to take definitive impressions of teeth coated with some saliva. New hydrophilic materials have been developed. The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare contact angles of water and saliva on 7 unset elastomeric impression materials at 5 time points from the start of mixing. Two traditional polyvinyl siloxane (PVS) (Aquasil, Take 1), 2 modified PVS (Imprint 4, Panasil), a polyether (Impregum), and 2 hybrid (Identium, EXA'lence) materials were compared. Each material was flattened to 2 mm and a 5 μL drop of distilled water or saliva was dropped on the surface at 25 seconds (t0) after the start of mix. Contact angle measurements were made with a digital microscope at initial contact (t0), t1=2 seconds, t2=5 seconds, t3=50% working time, and t4=95% working time. Data were analyzed with a generalized linear mixed model analysis, and individual 1-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD post hoc tests (α=.05). For water, materials grouped into 3 categories at all time-points: the modified PVS and one hybrid material (Identium) produced the lowest contact angles, the polyether material was intermediate, and the traditional PVS materials and the other hybrid (EXA'lence) produced the highest contact angles. For saliva, Identium, Impregum, and Imprint 4 were in the group with the lowest contact angle at most time points. Modified PVS materials and one of the hybrid materials are more hydrophilic than traditional PVS materials when measured with water. Saliva behaves differently than water in contact angle measurement on unset impression material and produces a lower contact angle on polyether based materials. Copyright © 2015 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Urban acid deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conlan, D.E.; Longhurst, J.W.S.; Gee, D.R.; Hare, S.E.

    1991-07-01

    In this document results from the Greater Manchester Acid Deposition Survey (GMADS), an urban precipitation chemistry network, for 1990 are presented. Full analytical methods are described along with the precision and accuracy of the methods used. The spatial variability of precipitation chemistry and deposition over this urban region was investigated using a network of twenty collectors. Concentrations of non marine sulphate, ammonium, calcium and hydrogen, and nitrogen dioxide gas concentrations all show significant spatial variability. The spatial variability of the deposition rates of non marine sulphate, nitrate, ammonium, hydrogen and calcium were significant. (Author).

  13. Electroless atomic layer deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, David Bruce; Cappillino, Patrick J.; Sheridan, Leah B.; Stickney, John L.; Benson, David M.

    2017-10-31

    A method of electroless atomic layer deposition is described. The method electrolessly generates a layer of sacrificial material on a surface of a first material. The method adds doses of a solution of a second material to the substrate. The method performs a galvanic exchange reaction to oxidize away the layer of the sacrificial material and deposit a layer of the second material on the surface of the first material. The method can be repeated for a plurality of iterations in order to deposit a desired thickness of the second material on the surface of the first material.

  14. Uncertainty in T1 mapping using the variable flip angle method with two flip angles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schabel, Matthias C; Morrell, Glen R

    2009-01-01

    Propagation of errors, in conjunction with the theoretical signal equation for spoiled gradient echo pulse sequences, is used to derive a theoretical expression for uncertainty in quantitative variable flip angle T 1 mapping using two flip angles. This expression is then minimized to derive a rigorous expression for optimal flip angles that elucidates a commonly used empirical result. The theoretical expressions for uncertainty and optimal flip angles are combined to derive a lower bound on the achievable uncertainty for a given set of pulse sequence parameters and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). These results provide a means of quantitatively determining the effect of changing acquisition parameters on T 1 uncertainty. (note)

  15. Complications and Reoperations in Mandibular Angle Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Collin L; Zenga, Joseph; Patel, Ruchin; Branham, Gregory

    2018-05-01

    Mandible angle fractures can be repaired in a variety of ways, with no consensus on the outcomes of complications and reoperation rates. To analyze patient, injury, and surgical factors, including approach to the angle and plating technique, associated with postoperative complications, as well as the rate of reoperation with regard to mandible angle fractures. Retrospective cohort study analyzing the surgical outcomes of patients with mandible angle fractures between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2015, who underwent open reduction and internal fixation. Patients were eligible if they were aged 18 years or older, had 3 or less mandible fractures with 1 involving the mandibular angle, and had adequate follow-up data. Patients with comminuted angle fractures, bilateral angle fractures, and multiple surgical approaches were excluded. A total of 135 patients were included in the study. All procedures were conducted at a single, large academic hospital located in an urban setting. Major complications and reoperation rates. Major complications included in this study were nonunion, malunion, severe malocclusion, severe infection, and exposed hardware. Of 135 patients 113 (83.7%) were men; median age was 29 years (range, 18-82 years). Eighty-seven patients (64.4%) underwent the transcervical approach and 48 patients (35.6%) received the transoral approach. Fifteen (17.2%) patients in the transcervical group and 9 (18.8%) patients in the transoral group experienced major complications (difference, 1%; 95% CI, -8% to 10%). Thirteen (14.9%) patients in the transcervical group and 8 (16.7%) patients in the transoral group underwent reoperations (difference, 2%; 95% CI, -13% to 17%). Active smoking had a significant effect on the rate of major complications (odds ratio, 4.04; 95% CI, 1.07 to 15.34; P = .04). During repair of noncomminuted mandibular angle fractures, both of the commonly used approaches-transcervical and transoral-can be used during treatment with equal

  16. A glance on recent progresses in diagnosis and treatment of primary immunodeficiencies/ Progrese recente în diagnosticul şi tratamentul imunodeficienţelor primare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Späth Peter J.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs* belong to the group of rare diseases which need more awareness by the relevant medical disciplines. Below a review on recent progresses in diagnosis and treatment of PIDs is given. Reducing the regrettable delay in diagnosis of PIDs (worldwide is possible only when awareness is increased by doctors who may encounter patients with PID. This review shall serve this purpose. Progresses in understanding what the link might be between one genetic defect presenting in various phenotypes or how various gene defects may manifest by very similar PID phenotypes helps building awareness. Knowledge of PID favours early diagnosis, a cornerstone of optimal, sometimes life-long care at justifiable costs. The complexity of PIDs calls for clinical laboratory and clinical diagnostic performed by experts only. Exciting laboratory diagnostic progresses in early diagnosis of the most severe forms of PID are reviewed below. Progresses in curative therapies for PIDs, such as hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and gene therapies, are mentioned in short. About 80% of PID patients suffer from an antibody deficiency syndrome and can profit from non-curative replacement therapies with human immunoglobulin G concentrates. Modes of application, safety and hints for dosing of replacement therapies to reduce frequencies of severe infections are mentioned below. Thanks to the increasing quality of care, patients survive adolescence. A glance is given on the problems of transition to the adult medicine setting.

  17. Characterization of actinide targets by low solid-angle alpha particle counting

    CERN Document Server

    Denecke, B; Pauwels, J; Robouch, P; Gilliam, D M; Hodge, P; Hutchinson, J M R; Nico, J S

    1999-01-01

    Actinide samples were characterized in an interlaboratory comparison between IRMM and NIST, including alpha-particle counting at defined low solid angle and counting in a 2 pi proportional gas counter. For this comparison, nine sup 2 sup 3 sup 3 UF sub 4 samples with high uniformity in the layer thickness were prepared at IRMM by deposition under vacuum. Polished silicon wafers were used as source substrates, and these were rotated during the deposition using a planetary rotation system. The estimated uncertainties for the defined low solid-angle methods were about 0.1% at both NIST and IRMM. The agreement of reported alpha-particle emission rates in the energy range 2.5-5.09 MeV was better than or equal to 0.02% for the defined solid-angle methods. When comparing total alpha-particle emission rates over the larger energy range 0-9 MeV (which includes all emissions from the daughter nuclides and the impurities), the agreement of the defined solid-angle methods was better than or equal to 0.05%. The 2 pi propo...

  18. Graphene spin valve: An angle sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iqbal, Muhammad Zahir, E-mail: zahir.upc@gmail.com [Faculty of Engineering Sciences, GIK Institute of Engineering Sciences and Technology, Topi 23640, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (Pakistan); Hussain, Ghulam [Faculty of Engineering Sciences, GIK Institute of Engineering Sciences and Technology, Topi 23640, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (Pakistan); Siddique, Salma [Department of Bioscience & Biotechnology, Sejong University, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Iqbal, Muhammad Waqas [Department of Physics, Riphah Institute of Computing and Applied Sciences (RICAS), Riphah International University, Lahore (Pakistan)

    2017-06-15

    Graphene spin valves can be optimized for various spintronic applications by tuning the associated experimental parameters. In this work, we report the angle dependent magnetoresistance (MR) in graphene spin valve for different orientations of applied magnetic field (B). The switching points of spin valve signals show a clear shift towards higher B for each increasing angle of the applied field, thus sensing the response for respective orientation of the magnetic field. The angular variation of B shifts the switching points from ±95 G to ±925 G as the angle is varied from 0° to 90° at 300 K. The observed shifts in switching points become more pronounced (±165 G to ±1450 G) at 4.2 K for similar orientation. A monotonic increase in MR ratio is observed as the angle of magnetic field is varied in the vertical direction at 300 K and 4.2 K temperatures. This variation of B (from 0° to 90°) increases the magnitude of MR ratio from ∼0.08% to ∼0.14% at 300 K, while at 4.2 K it progresses to ∼0.39% from ∼0.14%. The sensitivity related to angular variation of such spin valve structure can be employed for angle sensing applications.

  19. A Viewpoint on the Quantity "Plane Angle"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eder, W. E.

    1982-01-01

    Properties of the quantity "plane angle" are explored under the hypothesis that it is a dimensional quantity. The exploration proceeds especially with respect to the physical concept, its mathematical treatment, vector concepts, measurement theory, units of related quantities, engineering pragmatism, and SI. An attempt is made to bring these different relations into a rational, logical and consistent framework, and thus to justify the hypothesis. Various types of vectorial quantities are recognized, and their properties described with an outline of the necessary algebraic manipulations. The concept of plane angle is amplified, and its interdependence with the circular arc is explored. The resulting units of plane angle form a class of similar scales of measurement. Consequences of the confirmed hypothesis are developed for mathematical expressions involving trigonometric functions, rotational volumes and areas, mathematical limits, differentiation and series expansion. Consequences for mechanical rotational quantities are developed, with proposals for revisions to a number of expressions for derived units within SI. A revised definition for the quantity "plane angle" is stated to take account of the developed insights. There is a clear need to reconsider the status of plane angle and some other quantities within the international framework of SI.

  20. Effect of deposition rate on the microstructure of electron beam evaporated nanocrystalline palladium thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amin-Ahmadi, B., E-mail: behnam.amin-ahmadi@ua.ac.be [Electron Microscopy for Materials Science (EMAT), Department of Physics, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Idrissi, H. [Electron Microscopy for Materials Science (EMAT), Department of Physics, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Galceran, M. [Université Libre de Bruxelles, Matters and Materials Department, 50 Av. FD Roosevelt CP194/03, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Colla, M.S. [Institute of Mechanics, Materials and Civil Engineering, Université catholique de Louvain, Place Sainte Barbe 2, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Raskin, J.P. [Information and Communications Technologies, Electronics and Applied Mathematics (ICTEAM), Microwave Laboratory, Université catholique de Louvain, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Pardoen, T. [Institute of Mechanics, Materials and Civil Engineering, Université catholique de Louvain, Place Sainte Barbe 2, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Godet, S. [Université Libre de Bruxelles, Matters and Materials Department, 50 Av. FD Roosevelt CP194/03, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Schryvers, D. [Electron Microscopy for Materials Science (EMAT), Department of Physics, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)

    2013-07-31

    The influence of the deposition rate on the formation of growth twins in nanocrystalline Pd films deposited by electron beam evaporation is investigated using transmission electron microscopy. Statistical measurements prove that twin boundary (TB) density and volume fraction of grains containing twins increase with increasing deposition rate. A clear increase of the dislocation density was observed for the highest deposition rate of 5 Å/s, caused by the increase of the internal stress building up during deposition. Based on crystallographic orientation indexation using transmission electron microscopy, it can be concluded that a {111} crystallographic texture increases with increasing deposition rate even though the {101} crystallographic texture remains dominant. Most of the TBs are fully coherent without any residual dislocations. However, for the highest deposition rate (5 Å/s), the coherency of the TBs decreases significantly as a result of the interaction of lattice dislocations emitted during deposition with the growth TBs. The analysis of the grain boundary character of different Pd films shows that an increasing fraction of high angle grain boundaries with misorientation angles around 55–65° leads to a higher potential for twin formation. - Highlights: • Fraction of twinned grains and twin boundary density increase with deposition rate. • Clear increase of dislocation density was observed for the highest deposition rate. • A moderate increase of the mean grain size with increase of deposition rate is found. • For the highest deposition rate, the twin boundaries lose their coherency. • Fraction of high angle grain boundary (55–65) increases with deposition rate.

  1. Alluvial Deposits in Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This coverage maps alluvial deposits throughout Iowa. This generally would include areas of alluvial soils associated with modern streams that are identified on...

  2. 75 FR 20041 - Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-16

    ... transmission to (202) 906- 6518; or send an e-mail to [email protected] . OTS will post... DD implements the Truth in Savings Act, part of the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation Improvement...

  3. Modeled Wet Nitrate Deposition

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Modeled data on nitrate wet deposition was obtained from Dr. Jeff Grimm at Penn State Univ. Nitrate wet depostion causes acidification and eutrophication of surface...

  4. Uranium deposit research, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruzicka, V.; LeCheminant, G.M.

    1984-01-01

    Research on uranium deposits in Canada, conducted as a prerequisite for assessment of the Estimated Additional Resources of uranium, revealed that (a) the uranium-gold association in rudites of the Huronian Supergroup preferably occurs in the carbon layers; (b) chloritized ore at the Panel mine, Elliot Lake, Ontario, occurs locally in tectonically disturbed areas in the vicinity of diabase dykes; (c) mineralization in the Black Sturgeon Lake area, Ontario, formed from solutions in structural and lithological traps; (d) the Cigar Lake deposit, Saskatchewan, has two phases of mineralization: monomineralic and polymetallic; (e) mineralization of the JEB (Canoxy Ltd.) deposit is similar to that at McClean Lake; (f) the uranium-carbon assemblage was identified in the Claude deposit, Carswell Structure; and (g) the Otish Mountains area, Quebec, should be considered as a significant uranium-polymetallic metallogenic province

  5. Automatic Payroll Deposit System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, D. B.

    1979-01-01

    The Automatic Payroll Deposit System in Yakima, Washington's Public School District No. 7, directly transmits each employee's salary amount for each pay period to a bank or other financial institution. (Author/MLF)

  6. Deposition of acidifying compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, D.; Cape, J.N.; Sutton, M.A.; Mourne, R.; Hargreaves, K.J.; Duyzer, J.H.; Gallagher, M.W.

    1992-01-01

    Inputs of acidifying compounds to terrestrial ecosystems include deposition of the gases NO 2 , NO, HNO 2 , HNO 3 , NH 3 and SO 2 and the ions NO 3- , NH 4+ , SO 4 2- and H + in precipitation, cloud droplets and particles. Recent research has identified particular ecosystems and regions in which terrestrial effects are closely linked with specific deposition processes. This review paper identifies areas in which important developments have occurred during the last five years and attempts to show which aspects of the subject are most important for policy makers. Amongst the conclusions drawn, the authors advise that current uncertainties in estimates of S and N inputs by dry deposition should be incorporated in critical load calculations, and that, in regions dominated by wet deposition, spatial resolution of total inputs should be improved to match the current scales of information on landscape sensitivity to acidic inputs. 44 refs., 9 figs

  7. Speleothem (Cave Deposit) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records of past temperature, precipitation, and other aspects of climate derived from mineral deposits found in caves. Parameter keywords describe what was measured...

  8. Longitudinal Changes of Angle Configuration in Primary Angle-Closure Suspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yuzhen; Chang, Dolly S.; Zhu, Haogang; Khawaja, Anthony P.; Aung, Tin; Huang, Shengsong; Chen, Qianyun; Munoz, Beatriz; Grossi, Carlota M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine longitudinal changes in angle configuration in the eyes of primary angle-closure suspects (PACS) treated by laser peripheral iridotomy (LPI) and in untreated fellow eyes. Design Longitudinal cohort study. Participants Primary angle-closure suspects aged 50 to 70 years were enrolled in a randomized, controlled clinical trial. Methods Each participant was treated by LPI in 1 randomly selected eye, with the fellow eye serving as a control. Angle width was assessed in a masked fashion using gonioscopy and anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) before and at 2 weeks, 6 months, and 18 months after LPI. Main Outcome Measures Angle width in degrees was calculated from Shaffer grades assessed under static gonioscopy. Angle configuration was also evaluated using angle opening distance (AOD250, AOD500, AOD750), trabecular-iris space area (TISA500, TISA750), and angle recess area (ARA) measured in AS-OCT images. Results No significant difference was found in baseline measures of angle configuration between treated and untreated eyes. At 2 weeks after LPI, the drainage angle on gonioscopy widened from a mean of 13.5° at baseline to a mean of 25.7° in treated eyes, which was also confirmed by significant increases in all AS-OCT angle width measures (Pgonioscopy (P = 0.18), AOD250 (P = 0.167) and ARA (P = 0.83). In untreated eyes, angle width consistently decreased across all follow-up visits after LPI, with a more rapid longitudinal decrease compared with treated eyes (P values for all variables ≤0.003). The annual rate of change in angle width was equivalent to 1.2°/year (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.8–1.6) in treated eyes and 1.6°/year (95% CI, 1.3–2.0) in untreated eyes (P<0.001). Conclusions Angle width of treated eyes increased markedly after LPI, remained stable for 6 months, and then decreased significantly by 18 months after LPI. Untreated eyes experienced a more consistent and rapid decrease in angle width over the

  9. Angle-averaged Compton cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickel, G.H.

    1983-01-01

    The scattering of a photon by an individual free electron is characterized by six quantities: α = initial photon energy in units of m 0 c 2 ; α/sub s/ = scattered photon energy in units of m 0 c 2 ; β = initial electron velocity in units of c; phi = angle between photon direction and electron direction in the laboratory frame (LF); theta = polar angle change due to Compton scattering, measured in the electron rest frame (ERF); and tau = azimuthal angle change in the ERF. We present an analytic expression for the average of the Compton cross section over phi, theta, and tau. The lowest order approximation to this equation is reasonably accurate for photons and electrons with energies of many keV

  10. Precision measurements of the CKM angle gamma

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    The level of CP-violation permitted within the Standard Model cannot account for the matter dominated universe in which we live. Within the Standard Model the CKM matrix, which describes the quark couplings, is expected to be unitary. By making precise measurements of the CKM matrix parameters new physics models can be constrained, or with sufficient precision the effects of physics beyond the standard model might become apparent. The CKM angle gamma is the least well known angle of the unitarity triangle. It is the only angle easily accessible at tree-level, and furthermore has almost no theoretical uncertainties. Therefore it provides an invaluable Standard Model benchmark against which other new physics sensitive tests of the CP-violation can be made. I will discuss recent measurements of gamma using the the Run 1 LHCb dataset, which improve our knowledge of this key parameter.

  11. Flocking and invariance of velocity angles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Le; Huang, Lihong; Wu, Jianhong

    2016-04-01

    Motsch and Tadmor considered an extended Cucker-Smale model to investigate the flocking behavior of self-organized systems of interacting species. In this extended model, a cone of the vision was introduced so that outside the cone the influence of one agent on the other is lost and hence the corresponding influence function takes the value zero. This creates a problem to apply the Motsch-Tadmor and Cucker-Smale method to prove the flocking property of the system. Here, we examine the variation of the velocity angles between two arbitrary agents, and obtain a monotonicity property for the maximum cone of velocity angles. This monotonicity permits us to utilize existing arguments to show the flocking property of the system under consideration, when the initial velocity angles satisfy some minor technical constraints.

  12. Angle-averaged Compton cross sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickel, G.H.

    1983-01-01

    The scattering of a photon by an individual free electron is characterized by six quantities: ..cap alpha.. = initial photon energy in units of m/sub 0/c/sup 2/; ..cap alpha../sub s/ = scattered photon energy in units of m/sub 0/c/sup 2/; ..beta.. = initial electron velocity in units of c; phi = angle between photon direction and electron direction in the laboratory frame (LF); theta = polar angle change due to Compton scattering, measured in the electron rest frame (ERF); and tau = azimuthal angle change in the ERF. We present an analytic expression for the average of the Compton cross section over phi, theta, and tau. The lowest order approximation to this equation is reasonably accurate for photons and electrons with energies of many keV.

  13. Gemstone deposits of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miladinović Zoran

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Gemstone minerals in Serbia have never been regarded as an interesting and significant resource. Nevertheless, more than 150 deposits and occurrences have been recorded and some of them preliminarily explored in the last 50 years. The majority of deposits and occurrences are located within the Serbo-Macedonian metallogenic province and the most significant metallogenic units at the existing level of knowledge are the Fruska Gora ore district, Cer ore district, Sumadija metallogenic zone, Kopaonik metallogenic zone and Lece-Halkidiki metallogenic zone. The most important genetic type of deposits is hydrothermal, particularly in case of serpentinite/peridotite as host/parent rock. Placer deposits are also economically important. The dominant gemstones are silica minerals: chalcedony (Chrysoprase, carnelian, bluish chalcedony etc., jasper (picture, landscape, red etc., common opal (dendritic, green, milky white etc., silica masses (undivided, and quartz (rock crystal, amethyst etc.. Beside silica minerals significant gemstones in Serbia include also beryl (aquamarine, garnet (almandine and pyrope, tourmaline, fluorite, rhodochrosite, carbonate-silica breccia, carbonate-silica onyx, silicified wood, howlite, serpentinite, marble onyx, and kyanite. This paper aims to present an overview of Serbian gemstone deposits and occurrences and their position based on a simplified gemstone metallogenic map of Serbia, as well as genetic-industrial classification of gemstone deposits and gemstone varieties.

  14. Uranium deposits in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilpolt, R.H.; Simov, S.D.

    1979-01-01

    Africa is not only known for its spectacular diamond, gold, copper, chromium, platinum and phosphorus deposits but also for its uranium deposits. At least two uranium provinces can be distinguished - the southern, with the equatorial sub-province; and the south Saharan province. Uranium deposits are distributed either in cratons or in mobile belts, the first of sandstone and quartz-pebble conglomerate type, while those located in mobile belts are predominantly of vein and similar (disseminated) type. Uranium deposits occur within Precambrian rocks or in younger platform sediments, but close to the exposed Precambrian basement. The Proterozoic host rocks consist of sediments, metamorphics or granitoids. In contrast to Phanerozoic continental uranium-bearing sediments, those in the Precambrian are in marginal marine facies but they do contain organic material. The geology of Africa is briefly reviewed with the emphasis on those features which might control the distribution of uranium. The evolution of the African Platform is considered as a progressive reduction of its craton area which has been affected by three major Precambrian tectonic events. A short survey on the geology of known uranium deposits is made. However, some deposits and occurrences for which little published material is available are treated in more detail. (author)

  15. Gemstone deposits of Serbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miladinović, Zoran; Simić, Vladimir; Jelenković, Rade; Ilić, Miloje

    2016-06-01

    Gemstone minerals in Serbia have never been regarded as an interesting and significant resource. Nevertheless, more than 150 deposits and occurrences have been recorded and some of them preliminarily explored in the last 50 years. The majority of deposits and occurrences are located within the Serbo-Macedonian metallogenic province and the most significant metallogenic units at the existing level of knowledge are the Fruska Gora ore district, Cer ore district, Sumadija metallogenic zone, Kopaonik metallogenic zone and Lece-Halkidiki metallogenic zone. The most important genetic type of deposits is hydrothermal, particularly in case of serpentinite/peridotite as host/parent rock. Placer deposits are also economically important. The dominant gemstones are silica minerals: chalcedony (Chrysoprase, carnelian, bluish chalcedony etc.), jasper (picture, landscape, red etc.), common opal (dendritic, green, milky white etc.), silica masses (undivided), and quartz (rock crystal, amethyst etc.). Beside silica minerals significant gemstones in Serbia include also beryl (aquamarine), garnet (almandine and pyrope), tourmaline, fluorite, rhodochrosite, carbonate-silica breccia, carbonate-silica onyx, silicified wood, howlite, serpentinite, marble onyx, and kyanite. This paper aims to present an overview of Serbian gemstone deposits and occurrences and their position based on a simplified gemstone metallogenic map of Serbia, as well as genetic-industrial classification of gemstone deposits and gemstone varieties.

  16. Does the Angle of the Nail Matter for Pertrochanteric Fracture Reduction? Matching Nail Angle and Native Neck-Shaft Angle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, Joshua A; Barrett, Ian; Schoch, Bradley; Yuan, Brandon; Cass, Joseph; Cross, William

    2018-04-01

    To determine whether fixation of pertrochanteric hip fractures with cephalomedullary nails (CMNs) with a neck-shaft angle (NSA) less than the native NSA affects reduction and lag screw cutout. Retrospective comparative study. Level I trauma center. Patients treated with a CMN for unstable pertrochanteric femur fractures (OTA/AO 31-A2.2 and 31-A2.3) between 2005 and 2014. CMN fixation. NSA reduction and lag screw cutout. Patients fixed with a nail angle less than their native NSA were less likely to have good reductions [17% vs. 60%, 95% confidence interval (CI), -63% to -18%; P = 0.0005], secondary to more varus reductions (41% vs. 10%, 95% CI, 9%-46%; P = 0.01) and more fractures with ≥4 mm of displacement (63% vs. 35%, 95% CI, 3%-49%; P = 0.03). The cutout was not associated with the use of a nail angle less than the native NSA (60% vs. 76%, 95% CI, -56% to 18%; P = 0.5), varus reductions (60% vs. 32%, 95% CI, -13% to 62%; P = 0.3), or poor reductions (20% vs. 17%, 95% CI, -24% to 44%; P = 1.0). The fixation of unstable pertrochanteric hip fractures with a nail angle less than the native NSA was associated with more varus reductions and fracture displacement but did not affect the lag screw cutout. Therapeutic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  17. Contact angle studies on anodic porous alumina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redón, Rocío; Vázquez-Olmos, A; Mata-Zamora, M E; Ordóñez-Medrano, A; Rivera-Torres, F; Saniger, J M

    2005-07-15

    The preparation of nanostructures using porous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) as templates involves the introduction of dissolved materials into the pores of the membranes; one way to determine which materials are preferred to fill the pores involves the measurement of the contact angles (theta) of different solvents or test liquids on the AAOs. Thus, we present measurements of contact angles of nine solvents on four different AAO sheets by tensiometric and goniometric methods. From the solvents tested, we found dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and N,N(')-dimethylformamide (DMF) to interact with the AAOs, the polarity of the solvents and the surfaces being the driving force.

  18. Angle-resolved investigation of ion dynamics in high power impulse magnetron sputtering deposition system

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čada, Martin; Adámek, Petr; Straňák, V.; Kment, Štěpán; Olejníček, Jiří; Hubička, Zdeněk; Hippler, R.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 549, DEC (2013), s. 177-183 ISSN 0040-6090 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LD12002 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : HiPIMS * titania * Katsumata probe * ion sensitive probe * IVDF * angular resolution Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.867, year: 2013 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0040609013011127

  19. Understanding Angle and Angle Measure: A Design-Based Research Study Using Context Aware Ubiquitous Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crompton, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Mobile technologies are quickly becoming tools found in the educational environment. The researchers in this study use a form of mobile learning to support students in learning about angle concepts. Design-based research is used in this study to develop an empirically-substantiated local instruction theory about students' develop of angle and…

  20. Small angle neutron scattering and small angle X-ray scattering ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The morphology of carbon nanofoam samples comprising platinum nanopar- ticles dispersed in the matrix was characterized by small angle neutron scattering (SANS) and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) techniques. Results show that the structure of pores of carbon matrix exhibits a mass (pore) fractal nature ...

  1. Using Digital Technology to See Angles from Different Angles. Part 2: Openings and Turns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Host, Erin; Baynham, Emily; McMaster, Heather

    2015-01-01

    Ever wondered how to use technology to teach angles? This article follows on from an earlier article published last year, providing a range of ideas for integrating technology and concrete materials with the teaching of angle concepts. The authors also provide a comprehensive list of free online games and learning objects that can be used to teach…

  2. Sharper angle, higher risk? The effect of cutting angle on knee mechanics in invasion sport athletes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreurs, Mervin J.; Benjaminse, Anne; Lemmink, Koen A. P. M.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Cutting is an important skill in team-sports, but unfortunately is also related to non-contact ACL injuries. The purpose was to examine knee kinetics and kinematics at different cutting angles. Material and methods: 13 males and 16 females performed cuts at different angles (45°, 90°,

  3. Microstructure of vapor deposited coatings on curved substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgers, Theron M.; Zhao, Hengbei; Wadley, Haydn N. G., E-mail: haydn@virginia.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Virginia, 395 McCormick Rd., P.O. Box 400745, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Thermal barrier coating systems consisting of a metallic bond coat and ceramic over layer are widely used to extend the life of gas turbine engine components. They are applied using either high-vacuum physical vapor deposition techniques in which vapor atoms rarely experience scattering collisions during propagation to a substrate, or by gas jet assisted (low-vacuum) vapor deposition techniques that utilize scattering from streamlines to enable non-line-of-sight deposition. Both approaches require substrate motion to coat a substrate of complex shape. Here, direct simulation Monte Carlo and kinetic Monte Carlo simulation methods are combined to simulate the deposition of a nickel coating over the concave and convex surfaces of a model airfoil, and the simulation results are compared with those from experimental depositions. The simulation method successfully predicted variations in coating thickness, columnar growth angle, and porosity during both stationary and substrate rotated deposition. It was then used to investigate a wide range of vapor deposition conditions spanning high-vacuum physical vapor deposition to low-vacuum gas jet assisted vapor deposition. The average coating thickness was found to increase initially with gas pressure reaching a maximum at a chamber pressure of 8–10 Pa, but the best coating thickness uniformity was achieved under high vacuum deposition conditions. However, high vacuum conditions increased the variation in the coatings pore volume fraction over the surface of the airfoil. The simulation approach was combined with an optimization algorithm and used to investigate novel deposition concepts to tailor the local coating thickness.

  4. Microstructure of vapor deposited coatings on curved substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodgers, Theron M.; Zhao, Hengbei; Wadley, Haydn N. G.

    2015-01-01

    Thermal barrier coating systems consisting of a metallic bond coat and ceramic over layer are widely used to extend the life of gas turbine engine components. They are applied using either high-vacuum physical vapor deposition techniques in which vapor atoms rarely experience scattering collisions during propagation to a substrate, or by gas jet assisted (low-vacuum) vapor deposition techniques that utilize scattering from streamlines to enable non-line-of-sight deposition. Both approaches require substrate motion to coat a substrate of complex shape. Here, direct simulation Monte Carlo and kinetic Monte Carlo simulation methods are combined to simulate the deposition of a nickel coating over the concave and convex surfaces of a model airfoil, and the simulation results are compared with those from experimental depositions. The simulation method successfully predicted variations in coating thickness, columnar growth angle, and porosity during both stationary and substrate rotated deposition. It was then used to investigate a wide range of vapor deposition conditions spanning high-vacuum physical vapor deposition to low-vacuum gas jet assisted vapor deposition. The average coating thickness was found to increase initially with gas pressure reaching a maximum at a chamber pressure of 8–10 Pa, but the best coating thickness uniformity was achieved under high vacuum deposition conditions. However, high vacuum conditions increased the variation in the coatings pore volume fraction over the surface of the airfoil. The simulation approach was combined with an optimization algorithm and used to investigate novel deposition concepts to tailor the local coating thickness

  5. Contact angle measurement with a smartphone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H; Muros-Cobos, Jesus L; Amirfazli, A

    2018-03-01

    In this study, a smartphone-based contact angle measurement instrument was developed. Compared with the traditional measurement instruments, this instrument has the advantage of simplicity, compact size, and portability. An automatic contact point detection algorithm was developed to allow the instrument to correctly detect the drop contact points. Two different contact angle calculation methods, Young-Laplace and polynomial fitting methods, were implemented in this instrument. The performance of this instrument was tested first with ideal synthetic drop profiles. It was shown that the accuracy of the new system with ideal synthetic drop profiles can reach 0.01% with both Young-Laplace and polynomial fitting methods. Conducting experiments to measure both static and dynamic (advancing and receding) contact angles with the developed instrument, we found that the smartphone-based instrument can provide accurate and practical measurement results as the traditional commercial instruments. The successful demonstration of use of a smartphone (mobile phone) to conduct contact angle measurement is a significant advancement in the field as it breaks the dominate mold of use of a computer and a bench bound setup for such systems since their appearance in 1980s.

  6. Camber Angle Inspection for Vehicle Wheel Alignments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jieh-Shian; Hsu, Hong-Yi; Chuang, Chih-Yuan

    2017-02-03

    This paper introduces an alternative approach to the camber angle measurement for vehicle wheel alignment. Instead of current commercial approaches that apply computation vision techniques, this study aims at realizing a micro-control-unit (MCU)-based camber inspection system with a 3-axis accelerometer. We analyze the precision of the inspection system for the axis misalignments of the accelerometer. The results show that the axes of the accelerometer can be aligned to the axes of the camber inspection system imperfectly. The calibrations that can amend these axis misalignments between the camber inspection system and the accelerometer are also originally proposed since misalignments will usually happen in fabrications of the inspection systems. During camber angle measurements, the x -axis or z -axis of the camber inspection system and the wheel need not be perfectly aligned in the proposed approach. We accomplished two typical authentic camber angle measurements. The results show that the proposed approach is applicable with a precision of ± 0.015 ∘ and therefore facilitates the camber measurement process without downgrading the precision by employing an appropriate 3-axis accelerometer. In addition, the measured results of camber angles can be transmitted via the medium such as RS232, Bluetooth, and Wi-Fi.

  7. Wind Turbine Blade with Angled Girders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention relates to a reinforced blade for a wind turbine, particularly to a blade having a new arrangement of two or more girders in the blade, wherein each of the girders is connected to the upper part and the lower part of the shell and forms an angle with another girder thereby...

  8. Solid angle subtended by two circular discs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilly, Louis.

    1978-09-01

    Methods of calculation of solid angles, subtended by two circular discs are analysed. Calculus are methodically classified as follow: series development Legendre polynomes, defined integral, elliptic integrals, Bessel integrals, multiple integrals, Monte Carlo method, electrostatic analogy. Applications in Nuclear Physics are added as examples. List of numeric tables completes bibliography [fr

  9. Improved Beam Angle Control with SPV Metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steeples, K.; Tsidilkovski, E.; Bertuch, A.; Ishida, E.; Agarwal, A.

    2008-01-01

    A method of real-time monitoring of implant angle for state-of-the-art ion implant doping in integrated circuit manufacturing has been developed using Surface Photo Voltage measurements on conventional monitor wafers. Measurement results are analyzed and compared to other techniques.

  10. Direct angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Since 1997 we systematically perform direct angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) on in-situ grown thin (< 30 nm) cuprate films. Specifically, we probe low-energy electronic structure and properties of high-c superconductors (HTSC) under different degrees of epitaxial (compressive vs. tensile) strain.

  11. Contact angle measurement with a smartphone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H.; Muros-Cobos, Jesus L.; Amirfazli, A.

    2018-03-01

    In this study, a smartphone-based contact angle measurement instrument was developed. Compared with the traditional measurement instruments, this instrument has the advantage of simplicity, compact size, and portability. An automatic contact point detection algorithm was developed to allow the instrument to correctly detect the drop contact points. Two different contact angle calculation methods, Young-Laplace and polynomial fitting methods, were implemented in this instrument. The performance of this instrument was tested first with ideal synthetic drop profiles. It was shown that the accuracy of the new system with ideal synthetic drop profiles can reach 0.01% with both Young-Laplace and polynomial fitting methods. Conducting experiments to measure both static and dynamic (advancing and receding) contact angles with the developed instrument, we found that the smartphone-based instrument can provide accurate and practical measurement results as the traditional commercial instruments. The successful demonstration of use of a smartphone (mobile phone) to conduct contact angle measurement is a significant advancement in the field as it breaks the dominate mold of use of a computer and a bench bound setup for such systems since their appearance in 1980s.

  12. Partitioning Pythagorean Triangles Using Pythagorean Angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, Carl E.; Yandl, Andre L.

    2012-01-01

    Inside any Pythagorean right triangle, it is possible to find a point M so that drawing segments from M to each vertex of the triangle yields angles whose sines and cosines are all rational. This article describes an algorithm that generates an infinite number of such points.

  13. Gaugings at angles from orientifold reductions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roest, D.

    2009-01-01

    We consider orientifold reductions to N = 4 gauged supergravity in four dimensions. A special feature of this theory is that different factors of the gauge group can have relative angles with respect to the electro-magnetic SL(2) symmetry. These are crucial for moduli stabilization and de Sitter

  14. Incidence angle normalization of radar backscatter data

    Science.gov (United States)

    NASA’s Soil Moisture Passive Active (SMAP) satellite (~2014) will include a radar system that will provide L-band multi-polarization backscatter at a constant incidence angle of 40º. During the pre-launch phase of the project there is a need for observations that will support the radar-based soil mo...

  15. Labelling Angles: Care, Indifference and Mathematical Symbols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Julie

    2011-01-01

    In this article, I explore tensions of care in the context of school mathematics by examining two accounts of a classroom moment involving labelling an angle. In particular, I draw attention to how caring for students and caring for mathematical ideas interplay in complex ways by inquiring into the two accounts through ideas of care and…

  16. Large solid angle detectors (low energy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    L'Hote, D.

    1988-01-01

    This lecture deals with large solid angle detectors used in low energy experiments (mainly in Nuclear Physics). The reasons for using such detectors are discussed, and several basic principles of their design are presented. Finally, two examples of data analysis from such detectors are given [fr

  17. Experimental technique of small angle neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Qingzhong; Chen Bo

    2006-03-01

    The main parts of Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS) spectrometer, and their function and different parameters are introduced from experimental aspect. Detailed information is also introduced for SANS spectrometer 'Membrana-2'. Based on practical experiments, the fundamental requirements and working condition for SANS experiments, including sample preparation, detector calibration, standard sample selection and data preliminary process are described. (authors)

  18. Camber Angle Inspection for Vehicle Wheel Alignments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieh-Shian Young

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces an alternative approach to the camber angle measurement for vehicle wheel alignment. Instead of current commercial approaches that apply computation vision techniques, this study aims at realizing a micro-control-unit (MCU-based camber inspection system with a 3-axis accelerometer. We analyze the precision of the inspection system for the axis misalignments of the accelerometer. The results show that the axes of the accelerometer can be aligned to the axes of the camber inspection system imperfectly. The calibrations that can amend these axis misalignments between the camber inspection system and the accelerometer are also originally proposed since misalignments will usually happen in fabrications of the inspection systems. During camber angle measurements, the x-axis or z-axis of the camber inspection system and the wheel need not be perfectly aligned in the proposed approach. We accomplished two typical authentic camber angle measurements. The results show that the proposed approach is applicable with a precision of ± 0.015 ∘ and therefore facilitates the camber measurement process without downgrading the precision by employing an appropriate 3-axis accelerometer. In addition, the measured results of camber angles can be transmitted via the medium such as RS232, Bluetooth, and Wi-Fi.

  19. Measurement of the angle alpha at BABAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, A.

    2009-01-01

    The authors present recent measurements of the CKM angle α using data collected by the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy e + e - collider at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, operating at the Υ(4S) resonance. They present constraints on α from B → ππ, B → ρρ and B → ρπ decays.

  20. Wetting of biopolymer coatings: contact angle kinetics and image analysis investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Stefano; Introzzi, Laura; Biagioni, Paolo; Holz, Torsten; Schiraldi, Alberto; Piergiovanni, Luciano

    2011-06-21

    The surface wetting of five biopolymers, used as coating materials for a plastic film, was monitored over a span of 8 min by means of the optical contact angle technique. Because most of the total variation was observed to occur during the first 60 s, we decided to focus on this curtailed temporal window. Initial contact angle values (θ(0)) ranged from ∼91° for chitosan to ∼30° for pullulan. However, the water drop profile began to change immediately following drop deposition for all biocoatings, confirming that the concept of water contact angle equilibrium is not applicable to most biopolymers. First, a three-parameter decay equation [θ(t) = θ(0) exp(kt(n))] was fit to the experimental contact angle data to describe the kinetics of the contact angle change for each biocoating. Interestingly, the k constant correlated well with the contact angle evolution rate and the n exponent seemed to be somehow linked to the physicochemical phenomena underlying the overall kinetics process. Second, to achieve a reliable description of droplet evolution, the contact angle (CA) analysis was coupled with image analysis (IA) through a combined geometric/trigonometric approach. Absorption and spreading were the key factors governing the overall mechanism of surface wetting during the 60 s analysis, although the individual quantification of both phenomena demonstrated that spreading provided the largest contribution for all biopolymers, with the only exception of gelatin, which showed two quasi-equivalent and counterbalancing effects. The possible correlation between these two phenomena and the topography of the biopolymer surfaces are then discussed on the basis of atomic force microscopy analyses. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  1. Vein type uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    Veins are tabular- or sheet-like masses of minerals occupying or following a fracture or a set of fractures in the enclosing rock. They have been formed later than the country rock and fractures, either by filling of the open spaces or by partial or complete replacement of the adjoining rock or most commonly by both of these processes combined. This volume begins with the occurrences and deposits known from old shield areas and the sedimentary belts surrounding them. They are followed by papers describing the European deposits mostly of Variscan age, and by similar deposits known from China being of Jurassic age. The volume is completed by two papers which do not fit exactly in the given scheme. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 25 papers in this report

  2. Experimental Validation of the Invariance of Electrowetting Contact Angle Saturation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chevalliot, S.; Dhindsa, M.; Kuiper, S.; Heikenfeld, J.

    2011-01-01

    Basic electrowetting theory predicts that a continued increase in applied voltage will allow contact angle modulation to zero degrees. In practice, the effect of contact angle saturation has always been observed to limit the contact angle modulation, often only down to a contact angle of 60 to 70°.

  3. Cosmic ray zenith angle distribution at low geomagnetic latitude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aragon, G [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio, Buenos Aires, Argentina; Gagliardini, A; Ghielmetti, H S

    1977-12-01

    The intensity of secondary charged cosmic rays at different zenith angles was measured by narrow angle Geiger-Mueller telescopes up to an atmospheric depth of 2 g cm/sup -2/. The angular distribution observed at high altitudes is nearly flat at small angles around the vertical and suggests that the particle intensity peaks at large zenith angles, close to the horizon.

  4. Optical thin film deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macleod, H.A.

    1979-01-01

    The potential usefulness in the production of optical thin-film coatings of some of the processes for thin film deposition which can be classified under the heading of ion-assisted techniques is examined. Thermal evaporation is the process which is virtually universally used for this purpose and which has been developed to a stage where performance is in almost all respects high. Areas where further improvements would be of value, and the possibility that ion-assisted deposition might lead to such improvements, are discussed. (author)

  5. Radionuclide deposition control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    A method is described for controlling the deposition, on to the surfaces of reactor components, of the radionuclides manganese-54, cobalt-58 and cobalt-60 from a liquid stream containing the radionuclides. The method consists of disposing a getter material (nickel) in the liquid stream, and a non-getter material (tantalum, tungsten or molybdenum) as a coating on the surfaces where deposition is not desired. The process is described with special reference to its use in the coolant circuit in sodium cooled fast breeder reactors. (U.K.)

  6. Deposition potential of polonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heal, H. G.

    1948-11-23

    The cathodic deposition potential for polonium in concentrations of 10{sup -13} normal and 8 x 10{sup -13} normal, the former being 100-fold smaller than the smallest concentrations previously studied, has been determined. The value is 0.64 volt on the hydrogen scale. Considering the various ways in which the graphs can reasonably be drawn, we consider the maximum possible error to be of the order of +- 0.03 volt. There is apparently no shift of deposition potential between concentrations of 10{sup -8} and 10{sup -13} normal, indicating that the Nernst equation is not applicable in these circumstances.

  7. Reactive polymer fused deposition manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunc, Vlastimil; Rios, Orlando; Love, Lonnie J.; Duty, Chad E.; Johs, Alexander

    2017-05-16

    Methods and compositions for additive manufacturing that include reactive or thermosetting polymers, such as urethanes and epoxies. The polymers are melted, partially cross-linked prior to the depositing, deposited to form a component object, solidified, and fully cross-linked. These polymers form networks of chemical bonds that span the deposited layers. Application of a directional electromagnetic field can be applied to aromatic polymers after deposition to align the polymers for improved bonding between the deposited layers.

  8. Plasma-assisted atomic layer epitaxial growth of aluminum nitride studied with real time grazing angle small angle x-ray scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Virginia R.; Nepal, Neeraj; Johnson, Scooter D.; Robinson, Zachary R.; Nath, Anindya; Kozen, Alexander C.; Qadri, Syed B.; DeMasi, Alexander; Hite, Jennifer K.; Ludwig, Karl F.; Eddy, Charles R.

    2017-05-01

    Wide bandgap semiconducting nitrides have found wide-spread application as light emitting and laser diodes and are under investigation for further application in optoelectronics, photovoltaics, and efficient power switching technologies. Alloys of the binary semiconductors allow adjustments of the band gap, an important semiconductor material characteristic, which is 6.2 eV for aluminum nitride (AlN), 3.4 eV for gallium nitride, and 0.7 eV for (InN). Currently, the highest quality III-nitride films are deposited by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition and molecular beam epitaxy. Temperatures of 900 °C and higher are required to deposit high quality AlN. Research into depositing III-nitrides with atomic layer epitaxy (ALEp) is ongoing because it is a fabrication friendly technique allowing lower growth temperatures. Because it is a relatively new technique, there is insufficient understanding of the ALEp growth mechanism which will be essential to development of the process. Here, grazing incidence small angle x-ray scattering is employed to observe the evolving behavior of the surface morphology during growth of AlN by ALEp at temperatures from 360 to 480 °C. Increased temperatures of AlN resulted in lower impurities and relatively fewer features with short range correlations.

  9. Exclusive Backward-Angle Omega Meson Electroproduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenliang, Li [Univ. of Regina, Regina, SK (Canada)

    2017-10-01

    Exclusive meson electroproduction at different squared four-momenta of the exchanged virtual photon, Q2 , and at different four-momentum transfers, t and u, can be used to probe QCD's transition from hadronic degrees of freedom at the long distance scale to quark-gluon degrees of freedom at the short distance scale. Backward-angle meson electroproduction was previously ignored, but is anticipated to offer complimentary information to conventional forward-angle meson electroproduction studies on nucleon structure. This work is a pioneering study of backward-angle ω cross sections through the exclusive 1H(e, e'p)ω reaction using the missing mass reconstruction technique. The extracted cross sections are separated into the transverse (T), longitudinal (L), and LT, TT interference terms. The analyzed data were part of experiment E01-004 (Fπ-2), which used 2.6-5.2 GeV electron beams and HMS+SOS spectrometers in Jefferson Lab Hall C. The primary objective was to detect coincidence π in the forward-angle, where the backward-angle omega events were fortuitously detected. The experiment has central Q2 values of 1.60 and 2.45 GeV2 , at W = 2.21 GeV. There was significant coverage in phi and epsilon, which allowed separation of σT,L,LT,TT . The data set has a unique u coverage of -u ~ 0, which corresponds to -t > 4 GeV2 . The separated σT result suggest a flat ~ 1/Q1.33±1.21 dependence, whereas sigma_L seems to hold a stronger 1/Q9.43±6.28 dependence. The σL/σT ratio indicate σT dominance at Q2 = 2.45 GeV2 at the ~90% confidence level. After translating the results into the -t space of the published CLAS data, our data show evidence of a backward-angle omega electroproduction peak at both Q2 settings. Previously, this phenomenon showing both forward and backward-angle peaks was only observed in the meson

  10. The small angle diffractometer SANS at PSI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, W [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1996-11-01

    With the start-up of SINQ an instrument for small angle neutron scattering will be operational which compares well with the world`s largest and most powerful facilities of this kind. Following the classical principle of the D11-instrument of ILL, it is equipped with state-of-the-art components as are nowadays available, including options for further upgrading. Great emphasis was laid upon providing a flexible, universal multi-user facility which guarantees a comfortable and reliable operation. In the present paper, the principle layout of the instrument is presented, and the individual components are described in detail. The paper concludes with model application of small angle scattering to a system of dilute CuCo alloys which undergo a phase separation under thermal treatment, forming spherical Co-precipitates dispersed in a Cu-rich matrix. (author) 3 figs., 1 tab., 14 refs.

  11. Modeling small angle scattering data using FISH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, T.; Buckely, C.E.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) and small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) are important techniques for the characterisation of samples on the nanometer scale. From the scattered intensity pattern information about the sample such as particle size distribution, concentration and particle interaction can be determined. Since the experimental data is in reciprocal space and information is needed about real space, modeling of the scattering data to obtain parameters is extremely important and several paradigms are available. The use of computer programs to analyze the data is imperative for a robust description of the sample to be obtained. This presentation gives an overview of the SAS process and describes the data-modeling program FISH, written by R. Heenan 1983-2000. The results of using FISH to obtain the particle size distribution of bubbles in the aluminum hydrogen system and other systems of interest are described. Copyright (2002) Australian X-ray Analytical Association Inc

  12. Weak mixing angle measurements at hadron colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Di Simone, Andrea; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The Talk will cover weak mixing angle measurements at hadron colliders ATLAS and CMS in particular. ATLAS has measured the forward-backward asymmetry for the neutral current Drell Yan process in a wide mass range around the Z resonance region using dielectron and dimuon final states with $\\sqrt{s}$ =7 TeV data. For the dielectron channel, the measurement includes electrons detected in the forward calorimeter which extends the covered phase space. The result is then used to extract a measurement of the effective weak mixing angle. Uncertainties from the limited knowledge on the parton distribution functions in the proton constitute a significant part of the uncertainty and a dedicated study is performed to obtain a PDF set describing W and Z data measured previously by ATLAS. Similar studies from CMS will be reported.

  13. Didactical Design Enrichment of Angle in Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiadi, D. R.; Suryadi, D.; Mulyana, E.

    2017-09-01

    The underlying problem of this research is the lack of student’s competencies in understanding the concept of angle in geometry as the results of the teaching and learning pattern that only to receive the topic rather than to construct the topic and has not paid attention to the learning trajectory. The purpose of this research is to develop the didactical design of angle in space learning activity. The used research method is a method of qualitative research in the form of a didactical design research through three phases of analysis i.e. didactical situation analysis, metapedadidactical analysis, and retrospective analysis, which conducted in students from 10th grade at one of private schools in Bandung. Based on the results of research and discussion, the didactical design that has been made, is capable to change student’s learning habit and quite capable to develop student’s competencies although not optimal.

  14. Fan Stagger Angle for Dirt Rejection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Edward J. (Inventor); Rose, Becky E. (Inventor); Brilliant, Lisa I. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A gas turbine engine includes a spool, a turbine coupled to drive the spool, a propulsor coupled to be rotated about an axis by the turbine through the spool, and a gear assembly coupled between the propulsor and the spool such that rotation of the turbine drives the propulsor at a different speed than the spool. The propulsor includes a hub and a row of propulsor blades that extend from the hub. Each of the propulsor blades has a span between a root at the hub and a tip, and a chord between a leading edge and a trailing edge. The chord forms a stagger angle alpha with the axis, and the stagger angle alpha is less than 15 deg. at a position along the propulsor blade that is within an inboard 20% of the span.

  15. Implant Angle Monitor System of MC3-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Fumiaki; Sano, Makoto; Nakaoka, Hiroaki; Fujii, Yoshito; Kudo, Tetuya; Nakanishi, Makoto; Koike, Masazumi; Fujino, Yasushi

    2008-01-01

    Precise implant angle control is required for the latest generation of ion implanters to meet further shrink semiconductor device requirements. Especially, the highest angle accuracy is required for Halo implant process of Logic devices. The Halo implant angle affects the device performance, because slight differences of beam divergence change the overlap profile towards the extension. Additionally, twist angle accuracy is demanded in case of channeling angle implant. Therefore monitoring beam angles and wafer twist angles is important. A new monitoring system for the MC3-II, SEN Corp.'s single wafer type medium current implanter has been developed. This paper describes the angle control performance and monitoring system of the MC3-II. For the twist angle control, we developed a wafer notch angle monitor. The system monitors the wafer notch image on the platen. And the notch angle variation is calculated by using image processing method. It is also able to adjust the notch angle according to the angle error. For the tilt angle control, we developed a vertical beam profile monitor. The monitor system can detect beam profile of vertical directions with horizontally scanning beam. It also measures beam angles of a tilt direction to a wafer. The system configuration and sample beam data are presented.

  16. Ion Deposited Carbon Coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-07-01

    PAGE ("’hen Dita t,,I,, efl TABLE OF CONTENTS Section No. Title Page No. 1.0 OBJECTIVE 1 2.0 SCOPE 2 3.0 BACKGROUND 3 4.0 COATINGS DEPOSITION 4 4.1...scientific, ards of measure. The Committee, and Confer- technical, practical, and teaching purposes.ence voting members, are leading professional On the

  17. Plasma deposition of refractories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudinov, V.V.; Ivanov, V.M.

    1981-01-01

    The problems of deposition, testing and application of plasma coating of refractory metals and oxides are considered. The process fundamentals, various manufacturing procedures and equipment for their realization are described in detail. Coating materials are given (Al, Mg, Al 2 O 3 , ZrO 2 , MgAlO 4 ) which are used in reactor engineering and their designated purposes are shown [ru

  18. 75 FR 34533 - Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ... collection request (ICR) described below has been submitted to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for..., Attention: Desk Officer for OTS, U.S. Office of Management and Budget, 725 17th Street, NW., Room 10235... statement the institution sends to the consumer. Regulation DD contains rules for advertisements of deposit...

  19. Tool Indicates Contact Angles In Bearing Raceways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akian, Richard A.; Butner, Myles F.

    1995-01-01

    Tool devised for use in measuring contact angles between balls and races in previously operated ball bearings. Used on both inner and outer raceways of bearings having cross-sectional widths between approximately 0.5 and 2.0 in. Consists of integral protractor mounted in vertical plane on bracket equipped with leveling screws and circular level indicator. Protractor includes rotatable indicator needle and set of disks of various sizes to fit various raceway curvatures.

  20. On accurate determination of contact angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concus, P.; Finn, R.

    1992-01-01

    Methods are proposed that exploit a microgravity environment to obtain highly accurate measurement of contact angle. These methods, which are based on our earlier mathematical results, do not require detailed measurement of a liquid free-surface, as they incorporate discontinuous or nearly-discontinuous behavior of the liquid bulk in certain container geometries. Physical testing is planned in the forthcoming IML-2 space flight and in related preparatory ground-based experiments.

  1. Wireless Orbiter Hang-Angle Inclinometer System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucena, Angel; Perotti, Jose; Green, Eric; Byon, Jonathan; Burns, Bradley; Mata, Carlos; Randazzo, John; Blalock, Norman

    2011-01-01

    A document describes a system to reliably gather the hang-angle inclination of the orbiter. The system comprises a wireless handheld master station (which contains the main station software) and a wireless remote station (which contains the inclinometer sensors, the RF transceivers, and the remote station software). The remote station is designed to provide redundancy to the system. It includes two RF transceivers, two power-management boards, and four inclinometer sensors.

  2. Small angle neutron scattering by polymer solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farnoux, B.; Jannink, G.

    1980-08-01

    Small angle neutron scattering is an experimental technique introduced since about 10 years for the observation of the polymer conformation in all the concentration range from dilute solution to the melt. After a brief recall of the elementary relations between scattering amplitude, index of refraction and scattered intensity, two concepts related to this last quantity (the contrast and the pair correlation function) are discussed in details

  3. Morphological Characteristics of Au Films Deposited on Ti: A Combined SEM-AFM Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Ruffino

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Deposited Au films and coatings are, nowadays, routinely used as active or passive elements in several innovative electronic, optoelectronic, sensing, and energy devices. In these devices, the physical properties of the Au films are strongly determined by the films nanoscale structure. In addition, in these devices, often, a layer of Ti is employed to promote adhesion and, so, influencing the nanoscale structure of the deposited Au film. In this work, we present experimental analysis on the nanoscale cross-section and surface morphology of Au films deposited on Ti. In particular, we sputter-deposited thick (>100 nm thickness Au films on Ti foils and we used Scanning Electron Microscopy to analyze the films cross-sectional and surface morphology as a function of the Au film thickness and deposition angle. In addition, we analyzed the Au films surface morphology by Atomic Force Microscopy which allowed quantifying the films surface roughness versus the film thickness and deposition angle. The results establish a relation between the Au films cross-sectional and surface morphologies and surface roughness to the film thickness and deposition angle. These results allow setting a general working framework to obtain Au films on Ti with specific morphological and topographic properties for desired applications in which the Ti adhesion layer is needed for Au.

  4. Cylindrical articles surfacing with a strip electrode at an angle to the generatrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Віталій Петрович Іванов

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of the strip electrode when surfacing is made along a variable path leads to a change in the melting process and the formation of a weld bead, due to the absence, in contrast to the wire electrode, of the axial symmetry of the strip cross section. In the layered surfacing of mill rolls with the rollers being at an angle to the generatrix, there may be such defects as undercuts and slagging along the edges of the seam, that worsen the quality and performance of the wear resistant layer. According to the results of the metallographic analysis of the sections, it has been established that these defects in the seam at the cross-over of the rolls during the layer-by-layer surfacing are not remelted by the arc and it leads to slag inclusions in the zone. There is an asymmetry in the formation of the weld pool, which is associated with the peculiarities of the liquid metal flow during its melting. Thus, a decrease in the minimum deviation angle of the strip electrode location with respect to the deposition rate vector leads to a decrease in the crack resistance of the working surface. Investigations of the weld bead formation during deposition by a strip electrode as a function of the angle of the strip rotation with respect to the deposition rate vector have been performed. The influence of the change in the angle of rotation of the strip electrode on the uniformity of the fusion line with the parent metal formation was studied. The allowable range of strip angle values has been determined, which ensures the quality and operability of the wear-resistant layer, as well as the absence of formation defects. Analysis of the wear characteristics and fracture toughness of the deposited layer showed that a change in the location of the strip electrode makes it possible to increase the fracture toughness of the welded layer with high quality of its formation and practically unchanged wear resistance

  5. Dynamic contact angle cycling homogenizes heterogeneous surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belibel, R; Barbaud, C; Mora, L

    2016-12-01

    In order to reduce restenosis, the necessity to develop the appropriate coating material of metallic stent is a challenge for biomedicine and scientific research over the past decade. Therefore, biodegradable copolymers of poly((R,S)-3,3 dimethylmalic acid) (PDMMLA) were prepared in order to develop a new coating exhibiting different custom groups in its side chain and being able to carry a drug. This material will be in direct contact with cells and blood. It consists of carboxylic acid and hexylic groups used for hydrophilic and hydrophobic character, respectively. The study of this material wettability and dynamic surface properties is of importance due to the influence of the chemistry and the potential motility of these chemical groups on cell adhesion and polymer kinetic hydrolysis. Cassie theory was used for the theoretical correction of contact angles of these chemical heterogeneous surfaces coatings. Dynamic Surface Analysis was used as practical homogenizer of chemical heterogeneous surfaces by cycling during many cycles in water. In this work, we confirmed that, unlike receding contact angle, advancing contact angle is influenced by the difference of only 10% of acidic groups (%A) in side-chain of polymers. It linearly decreases with increasing acidity percentage. Hysteresis (H) is also a sensitive parameter which is discussed in this paper. Finally, we conclude that cycling provides real information, thus avoiding theoretical Cassie correction. H(10)is the most sensible parameter to %A. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of impact angle on vaporization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Peter H.

    1996-09-01

    Impacts into easily vaporized targets such as dry ice and carbonates generate a rapidly expanding vapor cloud. Laboratory experiments performed in a tenuous atmosphere allow deriving the internal energy of this cloud through well-established and tested theoretical descriptions. A second set of experiments under near-vacuum conditions provides a second measure of energy as the internal energy converts to kinetic energy of expansion. The resulting data allow deriving the vaporized mass as a function of impact angle and velocity. Although peak shock pressures decrease with decreasing impact angle (referenced to horizontal), the amount of impact-generated vapor is found to increase and is derived from the upper surface. Moreover, the temperature of the vapor cloud appears to decrease with decreasing angle. These unexpected results are proposed to reflect the increasing roles of shear heating and downrange hypervelocity ricochet impacts created during oblique impacts. The shallow provenance, low temperature, and trajectory of such vapor have implications for larger-scale events, including enhancement of atmospheric and biospheric stress by oblique terrestrial impacts and impact recycling of the early atmosphere of Mars.

  7. Off-Angle Iris Correction Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos-Villalobos, Hector J [ORNL; Thompson, Joseph T [ORNL; Karakaya, Mahmut [ORNL; Boehnen, Chris Bensing [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    In many real world iris recognition systems obtaining consistent frontal images is problematic do to inexperienced or uncooperative users, untrained operators, or distracting environments. As a result many collected images are unusable by modern iris matchers. In this chapter we present four methods for correcting off-angle iris images to appear frontal which makes them compatible with existing iris matchers. The methods include an affine correction, a retraced model of the human eye, measured displacements, and a genetic algorithm optimized correction. The affine correction represents a simple way to create an iris image that appears frontal but it does not account for refractive distortions of the cornea. The other method account for refraction. The retraced model simulates the optical properties of the cornea. The other two methods are data driven. The first uses optical flow to measure the displacements of the iris texture when compared to frontal images of the same subject. The second uses a genetic algorithm to learn a mapping that optimizes the Hamming Distance scores between off-angle and frontal images. In this paper we hypothesize that the biological model presented in our earlier work does not adequately account for all variations in eye anatomy and therefore the two data-driven approaches should yield better performance. Results are presented using the commercial VeriEye matcher that show that the genetic algorithm method clearly improves over prior work and makes iris recognition possible up to 50 degrees off-angle.

  8. Small Angle X-Ray Scattering Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hessler, Jan P.

    2004-06-15

    A detector for time-resolved small-angle x-ray scattering includes a nearly constant diameter, evacuated linear tube having an end plate detector with a first fluorescent screen and concentric rings of first fiber optic bundles for low angle scattering detection and an annular detector having a second fluorescent screen and second fiber optic bundles concentrically disposed about the tube for higher angle scattering detection. With the scattering source, i.e., the specimen under investigation, located outside of the evacuated tube on the tube's longitudinal axis, scattered x-rays are detected by the fiber optic bundles, to each of which is coupled a respective photodetector, to provide a measurement resolution, i.e., dq/q, where q is the momentum transferred from an incident x-ray to an x-ray scattering specimen, of 2% over two (2) orders of magnitude in reciprocal space, i.e., qmax/qmin approx=lO0.

  9. Internal Friction Angle of Metal Powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Zegzulka

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Metal powders are components with multidisciplinary usage as their application is very broad. Their consistent characterization across all disciplines is important for ensuring repeatable and trouble-free processes. Ten metal powders were tested in the study. In all cases, the particle size distribution and morphology (scanning electron microscope—SEM photos were determined. The aim of this work was to inspect the flow behavior of metal powders through another measured characteristic, namely the angle of internal friction. The measured values of the effective internal friction angle in the range 28.6–32.9°, together with the spherical particle shape and the particle size distribution, revealed the likely dominant mode of the metal particle transfer mechanism for stainless steel 316L, zinc and aluminum powder. This third piston flow mechanism is described and illustrated in detail. The angle of internal friction is mentioned as another suitable parameter for the characterization of metal powders, not only for the relative simplicity of the determination but also for gaining insight into the method of the movement of individual particles during the flow.

  10. Renal artery origins: best angiographic projection angles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verschuyl, E J; Kaatee, R; Beek, F J; Patel, N H; Fontaine, A B; Daly, C P; Coldwell, D M; Bush, W H; Mali, W P

    1997-10-01

    To determine the best projection angles for imaging the renal artery origins in profile. A mathematical model of the anatomy at the renal artery origins in the transverse plane was used to analyze the amount of aortic lumen that projects over the renal artery origins at various projection angles. Computed tomographic (CT) angiographic data about the location of 400 renal artery origins in 200 patients were statistically analyzed. In patients with an abdominal aortic diameter no larger than 3.0 cm, approximately 0.5 mm of the proximal part of the renal artery and origin may be hidden from view if there is a projection error of +/-10 degrees from the ideal image. A combination of anteroposterior and 20 degrees and 40 degrees left anterior oblique projections resulted in a 92% yield of images that adequately profiled the renal artery origins. Right anterior oblique projections resulted in the least useful images. An error in projection angle of +/-10 degrees is acceptable for angiographic imaging of the renal artery origins. Patients sex, site of interest (left or right artery), and local diameter of the abdominal aorta are important factors to consider.

  11. Anomalous polymer collapse winding angle distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narros, A.; Owczarek, A. L.; Prellberg, T.

    2018-03-01

    In two dimensions polymer collapse has been shown to be complex with multiple low temperature states and multi-critical points. Recently, strong numerical evidence has been provided for a long-standing prediction of universal scaling of winding angle distributions, where simulations of interacting self-avoiding walks show that the winding angle distribution for N-step walks is compatible with the theoretical prediction of a Gaussian with a variance growing asymptotically as Clog N . Here we extend this work by considering interacting self-avoiding trails which are believed to be a model representative of some of the more complex behaviour. We provide robust evidence that, while the high temperature swollen state of this model has a winding angle distribution that is also Gaussian, this breaks down at the polymer collapse point and at low temperatures. Moreover, we provide some evidence that the distributions are well modelled by stretched/compressed exponentials, in contradistinction to the behaviour found in interacting self-avoiding walks. Dedicated to Professor Stu Whittington on the occasion of his 75th birthday.

  12. Broken symmetries and the Cabibbo angle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanik, J.

    1975-04-01

    Under the assumption that the SU(3) symmetry is broken down by the strong and electromagnetic interactions, a phenomenological theory of the Cabibbo angle theta is proposed. In this theory the angle theta is fixed, linking together the Cabibbo rotation in the SU(3) space and complete SU(3) breaking consisting of both the SU(3) Hamiltonian and vacuum non-invariances. Assuming that the value of theta is zero in the soft-pion limit and that, in this limit, the only forces responsible for the isotopic symmetry breaking are the usual photonic forces it is shown that the usual electromagnetic interactions can contribute for the value of theta only through the non-vanishing vacuum expectation value of a certain scalar field. Within the framework of the (3,average3)+(3,average3) chiral symmetry-breaking model and through the use of the experimental value of the ratio GAMMA (K→μν)/GAMMA(π→μν), the presented Cabibbo angle theory predicts the value sintheta=0.25 which is in good agreement with experiment. (Lanik, J.)

  13. Pair creation at large inherent angles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, P.; Tauchi, T.; Schroeder, D.V.

    1992-01-01

    In the next-generation linear colliders, the low-energy e + e - pairs created during the collision of high-energy e + e - beams would cause potential deleterious background problems to the detectors. At low collider energies, the pairs are made essentially by the incoherent process, where the pair is created by the interaction of beamstrahlung photons on the individual particles in the oncoming beam. This problem was first identified by Zolotarev, et al. At energies where the beamstrahlung parameter Υ lies approximately in the range 0.6 approx-lt Υ approx-lt 100, pair creation from the beamstrahlung photons is dominated by a coherent process, first noted by Chen. The seriousness of this pair creation problem lies in the transverse momenta that the pair particles carry when leaving the interaction point (IP) with large angles. Since the central issue is the transverse momentum for particles with large angles, the authors notice that there is another source for it. Namely, when the pair particles are created at low energies, the intrinsic angles of these pairs when produced may already be large. In this paper they reinvestigate the problem, following essentially the same equivalent photon approach, but with changes in specific details including the virtual photon spectrum. In addition, various assumptions are made more explicit. The formulas derived are then applied to the collider parameters designed by Palmer

  14. Head flexion angle while using a smartphone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sojeong; Kang, Hwayeong; Shin, Gwanseob

    2015-01-01

    Repetitive or prolonged head flexion posture while using a smartphone is known as one of risk factors for pain symptoms in the neck. To quantitatively assess the amount and range of head flexion of smartphone users, head forward flexion angle was measured from 18 participants when they were conducing three common smartphone tasks (text messaging, web browsing, video watching) while sitting and standing in a laboratory setting. It was found that participants maintained head flexion of 33-45° (50th percentile angle) from vertical when using the smartphone. The head flexion angle was significantly larger (p smartphone, could be a main contributing factor to the occurrence of neck pain of heavy smartphone users. Practitioner Summary: In this laboratory study, the severity of head flexion of smartphone users was quantitatively evaluated when conducting text messaging, web browsing and video watching while sitting and standing. Study results indicate that text messaging while sitting caused the largest head flexion than that of other task conditions.

  15. Angle sensitive single photon avalanche diode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Changhyuk, E-mail: cl678@cornell.edu; Johnson, Ben, E-mail: bcj25@cornell.edu; Molnar, Alyosha, E-mail: am699@cornell.edu [Electrical and Computer Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14850 (United States)

    2015-06-08

    An ideal light sensor would provide exact information on intensity, timing, location, and angle of incoming photons. Single photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) provide such desired high (single photon) sensitivity with precise time information and can be implemented at a pixel-scale to form an array to extract spatial information. Furthermore, recent work has demonstrated photodiode-based structures (combined with micro-lenses or diffraction gratings) that are capable of encoding both spatial and angular information of incident light. In this letter, we describe the implementation of such a grating structure on SPADs to realize a pixel-scale angle-sensitive single photon avalanche diode (A-SPAD) built in a standard CMOS process. While the underlying SPAD structure provides high sensitivity, the time information of the two layers of diffraction gratings above offers angle-sensitivity. Such a unique combination of SPAD and diffraction gratings expands the sensing dimensions to pave a path towards lens-less 3-D imaging and light-field time-of-flight imaging.

  16. Multi-Angle Snowflake Camera Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuefer, Martin [Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States); Bailey, J. [Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States)

    2016-07-01

    The Multi-Angle Snowflake Camera (MASC) takes 9- to 37-micron resolution stereographic photographs of free-falling hydrometers from three angles, while simultaneously measuring their fall speed. Information about hydrometeor size, shape orientation, and aspect ratio is derived from MASC photographs. The instrument consists of three commercial cameras separated by angles of 36º. Each camera field of view is aligned to have a common single focus point about 10 cm distant from the cameras. Two near-infrared emitter pairs are aligned with the camera’s field of view within a 10-angular ring and detect hydrometeor passage, with the lower emitters configured to trigger the MASC cameras. The sensitive IR motion sensors are designed to filter out slow variations in ambient light. Fall speed is derived from successive triggers along the fall path. The camera exposure times are extremely short, in the range of 1/25,000th of a second, enabling the MASC to capture snowflake sizes ranging from 30 micrometers to 3 cm.

  17. Studies in small angle scattering techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moellenbach, K.

    1980-03-01

    Small angle scattering of neutrons, X-rays and γ-rays are found among the spectroscopic methods developed in the recent years. Although these techniques differ from each other in many respects, e.g. radiation sources and technical equipment needed, their power to resolve physical phenomena and areas of application can be discussed in a general scheme. Selected examples are given illustrating the use of specific technical methods. Jahn-Teller driven structural phase transitions in Rare Earth zircons were studied with neutron scattering as well as small angle γ-ray diffraction. The study of neutron scattering from formations of magnetic domains in the Ising ferromagnet LiTbF 4 is a second example. Both these examples represent more than experimental test cases since the theoretical interpretations of the data obtained are discussed as well. As a last example the use of small angle scattering methods for the study of molecular biological samples is discussed. In particular the experimental procedures used in connection with scattering from aqueous solutions of proteins and protein complexes are given. (Auth.)

  18. Effect of laser peripheral iridotomy on anterior chamber angle anatomy in primary angle closure spectrum eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansara, Seema; Blieden, Lauren S.; Chuang, Alice Z.; Baker, Laura A.; Bell, Nicholas P.; Mankiewicz, Kimberly A.; Feldman, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the change in trabecular-iris circumference volume (TICV) after laser peripheral iridotomy (LPI) in primary angle closure (PAC) spectrum eyes Patients and Methods Forty-two chronic PAC spectrum eyes from 24 patients were enrolled. Eyes with anterior chamber abnormalities affecting angle measurement were excluded. Intraocular pressure, slit lamp exam, and gonioscopy were recorded at each visit. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography (ASOCT) with 3D mode angle analysis scans were taken with the CASIA SS-1000 (Tomey Corp., Nagoya, Japan) before and after LPI. Forty-two pre-LPI ASOCT scans and 34 post-LPI ASOCT scans were analyzed using the Anterior Chamber Analysis and Interpretation (ACAI, Houston, TX) software. A mixed-effect model analysis was used to compare the trabecular-iris space area (TISA) changes among 4 quadrants, as well as to identify potential factors affecting TICV. Results There was a significant increase in all average angle parameters after LPI (TISA500, TISA750, TICV500, and TICV750). The magnitude of change in TISA500 in the superior angle was significantly less than the other angles. The changes in TICV500 and TICV750 were not associated with any demographic or ocular characteristics. Conclusion TICV is a useful parameter to quantitatively measure the effectiveness of LPI in the treatment of eyes with PAC spectrum disease. PMID:26066504

  19. Numerical Simulation of Radial and Angular Distribution of γ-Ray's Energy Deposition in Scintillation Optical Fibre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Shibiao; Yin Zejie; Tang Yu; Huang Huan

    2006-01-01

    Angular and radial distributions of the energy deposition of γ-ray radiation in scintillation optical fibres are simulated and analysed using the Geant4 system. The results show a linear relation between the energy deposition and the radius of the fibres. The deposition is roughly inversely proportional to sinθ with θ the incident angle relative to the fibre axis. The results could provide corrections to the measurements of the scintillation fibres used in monitoring the γ-ray radiation

  20. Research on recognition of ramp angle based on transducer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenhao GU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Focusing on the recognition of ramp angle, the relationship between the signal of vehicle transducer and real ramp angle is studied. The force change of vehicle on the ramp, and the relationship between the body tilt angle and front and rear suspension scale is discussed. According to the suspension and tire deformation, error angle of the ramp angle is deduced. A mathematical model is established with Matlab/Simulink and used for simulation to generate error curve of ramp angle. The results show that the error angle increases with the increasing of the ramp angle, and the limit value can reach 6.5%, while the identification method can effectively eliminate this error, and enhance the accuracy of ramp angle recognition.

  1. Deposition of fluorocarbon films by Pulsed Plasma Thruster on the anode side

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Daixian; Zhang, Fan; He, Zhen; Wu, Jianjun

    2013-01-01

    Fluorocarbon thin films were deposited by Pulsed Plasma Thruster at different angles on the anode side of the thruster. Density and velocity of the plasma in the plume of the Pulsed Plasma Thruster were determined using double and triple Langmuir probe apparatus respectively. The deposited films were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning probe microscope (SPM) and UV–vis spectrometer. Low F/C ratio (0.64–0.86) fluorocarbon films are deposited. The F/C ratio decreases with angle increasing from 0 degree to 30 degree; however it turns to increase with angle increasing from 45 degree to 90 degree. The films deposited at center angles appear rougher compared with that prepared at angles beyond 45 degree. These films basically show having strong absorption properties for wavelength below 600 nm and having enhanced reflective characteristics. Due to the influence of the chemical composition and the surface morphology of the films, the optical properties of these films also show significant angular dependence.

  2. Distal Ejecta from Lunar Impacts: Extensive Regions of Rocky Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandfield, Joshua L.; Cahill, Joshua T. S.; Carter, Lynn M.; Neish, Catherine D.; Patterson, G. Wesley; Williams, Jean-Pierre; Paige, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Diviner Radiometer, Mini-RF, and LRO Camera data were used to identify and characterize rocky lunar deposits that appear well separated from any potential source crater. Two regions are described: 1) A approximate 18,000 sq km area with elevated rock abundance and extensive melt ponds and veneers near the antipode of Tycho crater (167.5 deg E, 42.5 deg N). This region has been identified previously, using radar and aging data. 2) A much larger and more diffuse region, covering approximately 730,000 sq km, centered near 310 deg E, 35 deg S, containing elevated rock abundance and numerous granular flow deposits on crater walls. The rock distributions in both regions favor certain slope azimuths over others, indicating a directional component to the formation of these deposits. The spatial distribution of rocks is consistent with the arrival of ejecta from the west and northwest at low angles (approximately 10-30 deg) above the horizon in both regions. The derived age and slope orientations of the deposits indicate that the deposits likely originated as ejecta from the Tycho impact event. Despite their similar origin, the deposits in the two regions show significant differences in the datasets. The Tycho crater antipode deposit covers a smaller area, but the deposits are pervasive and appear to be dominated by impact melts. By contrast, the nearside deposits cover a much larger area and numerous granular flows were triggered. However, the features in this region are less prominent with no evidence for the presence of impact melts. The two regions appear to be surface expressions of a distant impact event that can modify surfaces across wide regions, resulting in a variety of surface morphologies. The Tycho impact event may only be the most recent manifestation of these processes, which likely have played a role in the development of the regolith throughout lunar history

  3. One-step microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (MW-PECVD) for transparent superhydrophobic surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongrom, Sukrit; Tirawanichakul, Yutthana; Munsit, Nantakan; Deangngam, Chalongrat

    2018-02-01

    We demonstrate a rapid and environmental friendly fabrication technique to produce optically clear superhydrophobic surfaces using poly (dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) as a sole coating material. The inert PDMS chain is transformed into a 3-D irregular solid network through microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (MW-PECVD) process. Thanks to high electron density in the microwave-activated plasma, coating can be done in just a single step with rapid deposition rate, typically much shorter than 10 s. Deposited layers show excellent superhydrophobic properties with water contact angles of ∼170° and roll-off angles as small as ∼3°. The plasma-deposited films can be ultrathin with thicknesses under 400 nm, greatly diminishing the optical loss. Moreover, with appropriate coating conditions, the coating layer can even enhance the transmission over the entire visible spectrum due to a partial anti-reflection effect.

  4. Estimates of md-mu and left-angle bar dd right-angle -left-angle bar uu right-angle from QCD sum rules for D and D* isospin mass differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eletsky, V.L.; Ioffe, B.L.

    1993-01-01

    The recent experimental data on D +- D0 and D *+- D*0 mass differences are used as inputs in the QCD sum rules to obtain new estimates on the mass difference of light quarks and on the difference of their condensates: m d -m u =3±1 MeV, left-angle bar dd right-angle -left-angle bar uu right-angle=-(2.5±1)x10 -3 left-angle bar uu right-angle (at a standard normalization point, μ=0.5 GeV)

  5. 78 FR 56583 - Deposit Insurance Regulations; Definition of Insured Deposit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-13

    ... as a potential global deposit insurer, preserve confidence in the FDIC deposit insurance system, and... the United States.\\2\\ The FDIC generally pays out deposit insurance on the next business day after a... since 2001 and total approximately $1 trillion today. In many cases, these branches do not engage in...

  6. Uranium deposits of Zaire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitmut, D.; Malu wa Kalenga

    1979-01-01

    Since April 1960, following the closing of the Shinkolobwe mine, the Republic of Zaire has ceased to be a producer of uranium. Nevertheless, Gecamines (Generale des carrieres et mines du Zaire), a wholly state-owned company, is continuing its research on uranium occurrences which have been discovered in its concession in the course of aerial radiometric prospecting. The most recent campaign was the one carried out in 1969 and 1972 by Hunting Company. On-the-ground verification of these shows has not yet resulted in the discovery of a workable deposit. There are other sectors cutting across Zaire which might well contain uranium deposits: this is true of the sedimentary phosphates of the region of Lower Zaire as well as of the frontier region between Zaire and the Central African Empire. However, no detailed exploration work has yet been carried out. (author)

  7. 20 CFR 703.306 - Kinds of negotiable securities that may be deposited; conditions of deposit; acceptance of deposits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the Act in the amount fixed by the Office under the regulations in this part shall deposit any... deposited; conditions of deposit; acceptance of deposits. 703.306 Section 703.306 Employees' Benefits... negotiable securities that may be deposited; conditions of deposit; acceptance of deposits. A self-insurer or...

  8. Investigation of the HA film deposited on the porous Ti6Al4V alloy prepared via additive manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surmeneva, M; Chudinova, E; Syrtanov, M; Surmenev, R; Koptioug, A

    2015-01-01

    This study is focused on the use of radio frequency magnetron sputtering to modify the surface of porous Ti6Al4V alloy fabricated via additive manufacturing technology. The hydroxyapatite (HA) coated porous Ti6Al4V alloy was studied in respect with its chemical and phase composition, surface morphology, water contact angle and hysteresis, and surface free energy. Thin nanocrystalline HA film was deposited while its structure with diamond-shaped cells remained unchanged. Hysteresis and water contact angle measurements revealed an effect of the deposited HA films, namely an increased water contact angle and contact angle hysteresis. The increase of the contact angle of the coating-substrate system compared to the uncoated substrate was attributed to the multiscale structure of the resulted surfaces. (paper)

  9. Thorium ore deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelelli, Victorio.

    1984-01-01

    The main occurences of the thorium minerals of the Argentine Republic which have not been exploited, due to their reduced volume, are described. The thoriferous deposits have three genetic types: pegmatitic, hydrothermal and detritic, being the most common minerals: monazite, thorite and thorogummite. The most important thorium accumulations are located in Salta, being of less importance those of Cordoba, Jujuy and San Juan. (M.E.L.) [es

  10. Plasma deposition of polymer composite films incorporating nanocellulose whiskers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samyn, P.; Airoudj, A.; Laborie, M.-P.; Mathew, A. P.; Roucoules, V.

    2011-11-01

    In a trend for sustainable engineering and functionalization of surfaces, we explore the possibilities of gas phase processes to deposit nanocomposite films. From an analysis of pulsed plasma polymerization of maleic anhydride in the presence of nanocellulose whiskers, it seems that thin nanocomposite films can be deposited with various patterns. By specifically modifying plasma parameters such as total power, duty cycle, and monomer gas pressure, the nanocellulose whiskers are either incorporated into a buckled polymer film or single nanocellulose whiskers are deposited on top of a polymeric film. The density of the latter can be controlled by modifying the exact positioning of the substrate in the reactor. The resulting morphologies are evaluated by optical microscopy, AFM, contact angle measurements and ellipsometry.

  11. Electrophoretic deposition of biomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccaccini, A. R.; Keim, S.; Ma, R.; Li, Y.; Zhitomirsky, I.

    2010-01-01

    Electrophoretic deposition (EPD) is attracting increasing attention as an effective technique for the processing of biomaterials, specifically bioactive coatings and biomedical nanostructures. The well-known advantages of EPD for the production of a wide range of microstructures and nanostructures as well as unique and complex material combinations are being exploited, starting from well-dispersed suspensions of biomaterials in particulate form (microsized and nanoscale particles, nanotubes, nanoplatelets). EPD of biological entities such as enzymes, bacteria and cells is also being investigated. The review presents a comprehensive summary and discussion of relevant recent work on EPD describing the specific application of the technique in the processing of several biomaterials, focusing on (i) conventional bioactive (inorganic) coatings, e.g. hydroxyapatite or bioactive glass coatings on orthopaedic implants, and (ii) biomedical nanostructures, including biopolymer–ceramic nanocomposites, carbon nanotube coatings, tissue engineering scaffolds, deposition of proteins and other biological entities for sensors and advanced functional coatings. It is the intention to inform the reader on how EPD has become an important tool in advanced biomaterials processing, as a convenient alternative to conventional methods, and to present the potential of the technique to manipulate and control the deposition of a range of nanomaterials of interest in the biomedical and biotechnology fields. PMID:20504802

  12. Radionuclides deposition over Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pourchet, M.; Magand, O.; Frezzotti, M.; Ekaykin, A.; Winther, J.-G.

    2003-01-01

    A detailed and comprehensive map of the distribution patterns for both natural and artificial radionuclides over Antarctica has been established. This work integrates the results of several decades of international programs focusing on the analysis of natural and artificial radionuclides in snow and ice cores from this polar region. The mean value (37±20 Bq m -2 ) of 241 Pu total deposition over 28 stations is determined from the gamma emissions of its daughter 241 Am, presenting a long half-life (432.7 yrs). Detailed profiles and distributions of 241 Pu in ice cores make it possible to clearly distinguish between the atmospheric thermonuclear tests of the fifties and sixties. Strong relationships are also found between radionuclide data ( 137 Cs with respect to 241 Pu and 210 Pb with respect to 137 Cs), make it possible to estimate the total deposition or natural fluxes of these radionuclides. Total deposition of 137 Cs over Antarctica is estimated at 760 TBq, based on results from the 90-180 deg. East sector. Given the irregular distribution of sampling sites, more ice cores and snow samples must be analyzed in other sectors of Antarctica to check the validity of this figure

  13. Impact of substrate off-angle on the m-plane GaN Schottky diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Hisashi; Chonan, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Tokio; Shimizu, Mitsuaki

    2018-04-01

    We investigated the effects of the substrate off-angle on the m-plane GaN Schottky diodes. GaN epitaxial layers were grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition on m-plane GaN substrates having an off-angle of 0.1, 1.1, 1.7, or 5.1° toward [000\\bar{1}]. The surface of the GaN epitaxial layers on the 0.1°-off substrate consisted of pyramidal hillocks and contained oxygen (>1017 cm-3) and carbon (>1016 cm-3) impurities. The residual carbon and oxygen impurities decreased to current of the 0.1°-off m-plane GaN Schottky diodes originated from the +c facet of the pyramidal hillocks. The leakage current was efficiently suppressed through the use of an off-angle that was observed to be greater than 1.1°. The off-angle of the m-plane GaN substrate is critical in obtaining high-performance Schottky diodes.

  14. Formation mechanisms for the dominant kinks with different angles in InP nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Minghuan; Wang, Fengyun; Wang, Chao; Wang, Yiqian; Yip, SenPo; Ho, Johnny C

    2014-01-01

    The morphologies and microstructures of kinked InP nanowires (NWs) prepared by solid-source chemical vapor deposition method were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Statistical analysis and structural characterization reveal that four different kinds of kinks are dominant in the grown InP NWs with a bending angle of approximately 70°, 90°, 110°, and 170°, respectively. The formation mechanisms of these kinks are discussed. Specifically, the existence of kinks with bending angles of approximately 70° and 110° are mainly attributed to the occurrence of stacking faults and nanotwins in the NWs, which could easily form by the glide of {111} planes, while approximately 90° kinks result from the local amorphorization of InP NWs. Also, approximately 170° kinks are mainly caused by small-angle boundaries, where the insertion of extra atomic planes could make the NWs slightly bent. In addition, multiple kinks with various angles are also observed. Importantly, all these results are beneficial to understand the formation mechanisms of kinks in compound semiconductor NWs, which could guide the design of nanostructured materials, morphologies, microstructures, and/or enhanced mechanical properties.

  15. A variable angle slant-hole collimator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, R.H.; Alpert, N.M.; Strauss, H.W.

    1983-01-01

    A variable-angle slant-hole (VASH) collimator was constructed to show the feasibility of using multiple sliding plates to achieve a range of collimator channel inclinations. One hundred and sixty tungsten plates, 0.125 mm thick and 14 cm square, were photoetched to produce 3025 1.5-mm2 holes in each plate, separated by 0.8-mm septa. Along with the collimator holes, registration holes and positioning grooves were also etched. The plates were placed in a holder and stacked to form a collimator 2.0 cm high. The holder permitted the plates to be sheared to achieve viewing angles from 0 to 40 degrees from the vertical. Resolution and sensitivity were determined both across and along the shear directions. Resolution of a thin /sup 99m/Tc source, 1.24 mm diam and 7 cm long, located 5 cm from the collimator face in air, was 1.1 cm FWHM at 0 degree shear and remained unchanged with increasing slant. The resolution was similar both across and along the shear plane. Sensitivity was determined with a point source placed 7 cm from the collimator face. At 0 degree slant the sensitivity was 169 cps/MBq (6.24 csp/mu Ci). A general all purpose (GAP) collimator had a FWHM of 1 cm for the line source in air at 5 cm, and a sensitivity of 205 cps/MBq (7.58 cps/mu Ci) for the point source at 7 cm. The data suggest that a variable-angle slant-hole collimator can be constructed of laminated plates

  16. Angle parameter changes of phacoemulsification and combined phacotrabeculectomy for acute primary angle closure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Wei Li

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the difference in angle parameters and clinical outcome following phacoemulsification and combined phacotrabeculectomy in patients with acute primary angle closure (APAC using ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM.METHODS: Patients (n=23, 31 eyes were randomized to receive phacoemulsification or combined phacotrabeculectomy (n=24, 31 eyes. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA, intraocular pressure (IOP, the main complications following surgery, and indentation gonioscopy and angle parameters measured using UBM were documented preoperatively and postoperatively.RESULTS:The improvement in BCVA in the phacoemulsification group was significantly greater than in the combined group (P<0.05. IOP in the phacoemulsification group was slightly higher than in the combined group following 1wk of follow-up (P<0.05, whereas there was no significant difference between the two groups at the latter follow-up (P>0.05. Phacoemulsification alone resulted in a slight increase in the trabecular ciliary processes distance compared with the combined surgery (P<0.05, whereas the other angle parameters showed no significant difference between the groups. Complications in combined group were greater than phacoemulsification only group.CONCLUSION:Both surgeries effectively opened the drainage angle and deepened the anterior chamber, and IOP was well controlled postoperatively. However, phacoemulsification showed better efficacy in improving visual function and showed reduced complications following surgery.

  17. Weak mixing angles and heavy flavours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarlskog, C.

    1984-05-01

    The present status of the weak mixing angles, in the standard six quark model, is reviewed. The implications of the recent measurements of the beauty lifetime and branching ratios are discussed, in the framework of the Kobayashi-Maskawa and the Wolfenstein parametrizations. Expectations for B(sup)o - B(sup)-o mixing and consequences for the collider data are given. Other topics briefly reviewed are CP-violation, top quark mass and possible implications of the existence of a fourth family. (author)

  18. Simple map in action-angle coordinates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerwin, Olivia; Punjabi, Alkesh; Ali, Halima

    2008-07-01

    A simple map [A. Punjabi, A. Verma, and A. Boozer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 3322 (1992)] is the simplest map that has the topology of divertor tokamaks [A. Punjabi, H. Ali, T. Evans, and A. Boozer, Phys. Lett. A 364, 140 (2007)]. Here, action-angle coordinates, the safety factor, and the equilibrium generating function for the simple map are calculated analytically. The simple map in action-angle coordinates is derived from canonical transformations. This map cannot be integrated across the separatrix surface because of the singularity in the safety factor there. The stochastic broadening of the ideal separatrix surface in action-angle representation is calculated by adding a perturbation to the simple map equilibrium generating function. This perturbation represents the spatial noise and field errors typical of the DIII-D [J. L. Luxon and L. E. Davis, Fusion Technol. 8, 441 (1985)] tokamak. The stationary Fourier modes of the perturbation have poloidal and toroidal mode numbers (m,n,)={(3,1),(4,1),(6,2),(7,2),(8,2),(9,3),(10,3),(11,3)} with amplitude δ =0.8×10-5. Near the X-point, about 0.12% of toroidal magnetic flux inside the separatrix, and about 0.06% of the poloidal flux inside the separatrix is lost. When the distance from the O-point to the X-point is 1m, the width of stochastic layer near the X-point is about 1.4cm. The average value of the action on the last good surface is 0.19072 compared to the action value of 3/5π on the separatrix. The average width of stochastic layer in action coordinate is 2.7×10-4, while the average area of the stochastic layer in action-angle phase space is 1.69017×10-3. On average, about 0.14% of action or toroidal flux inside the ideal separatrix is lost due to broadening. Roughly five times more toroidal flux is lost in the simple map than in DIII-D for the same perturbation [A. Punjabi, H. Ali, A. Boozer, and T. Evans, Bull. Amer. Phys. Soc. 52, 124 (2007)].

  19. Pair production in small angle Bhabha scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbuzov, A.B.; Kuraev, Eh.A.; Merenkov, N.P.; Trentadue, L.

    1995-01-01

    The radiative corrections due to a pair production in the small angle high energy e + e - Bhabha scattering are considered. The corrections due to the production of virtual pairs as well as real soft and hard ones are calculated analytically. The collinear and semi-collinear kinematical regions of the hard pair production are taken into account. The results in the leading and next-to-leading logarithmic approximations provide the accuracy of Ο (0.1%). The results of numerical calculations show that the effects of pairs production are to be taken into account in the precise luminosity determination at LEP. 9 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  20. Constraining CKM $\\gamma$ angle at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Vallier, Alexis Roger Louis

    2015-01-01

    The current combination of all available tree-level measurements of the CKM angle gamma at LHCb is reported. It includes results obtained from time independent analyses of B+ -> DK+ and of B0 -> DK∗0 decays; and from a time-dependent analysis of Bs0 -> DsK decays. The results represent the world's best single-experiment determination of gamma. The first observation of the Bs->Ds*K decay and the first observation and amplitude analysis of B- -> D+K-pi- are also reported. In addition to these tree measurements, the estimation of gamma from charmless B meson decay, sensitive to loops contribution, is presented.

  1. GPS synchronized power system phase angle measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robert E.; Sterlina, Patrick S.

    1994-09-01

    This paper discusses the use of Global Positioning System (GPS) synchronized equipment for the measurement and analysis of key power system quantities. Two GPS synchronized phasor measurement units (PMU) were installed before testing. It was indicated that PMUs recorded the dynamic response of the power system phase angles when the northern California power grid was excited by the artificial short circuits. Power system planning engineers perform detailed computer generated simulations of the dynamic response of the power system to naturally occurring short circuits. The computer simulations use models of transmission lines, transformers, circuit breakers, and other high voltage components. This work will compare computer simulations of the same event with field measurement.

  2. The Sphaleron at finite mixing angle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinkhamer, F.R.; Laterveer, R.

    1990-01-01

    The exact Sphaleron solution in the bosonic sector of the electro-weak standard model is only known for weak mixing angle θ W =0. To investigate the behaviour closer to the experimental value θ W exp approx 30 deg a non-contractible loop in configuration space which is sensitive to θ W is constructed. The numerical results for the energy and the magnetic dipole moment indicate that the dependence on θ W is rather weak. (author). 8 refs.; 4 figs.; 1 tab

  3. Angle of arrival estimation using spectral interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barber, Z.W.; Harrington, C.; Thiel, C.W.; Babbitt, W.R.; Krishna Mohan, R.

    2010-01-01

    We have developed a correlative signal processing concept based on a Mach-Zehnder interferometer and spatial-spectral (S2) materials that enables direct mapping of RF spectral phase as well as power spectral recording. This configuration can be used for precise frequency resolved time delay estimation between signals received by a phased antenna array system that in turn could be utilized to estimate the angle of arrival. We present an analytical theoretical model and a proof-of-principle demonstration of the concept of time difference of arrival estimation with a cryogenically cooled Tm:YAG crystal that operates on microwave signals modulated onto a stabilized optical carrier at 793 nm.

  4. Angle of arrival estimation using spectral interferometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barber, Z.W.; Harrington, C.; Thiel, C.W.; Babbitt, W.R. [Spectrum Lab, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Krishna Mohan, R., E-mail: krishna@spectrum.montana.ed [Spectrum Lab, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States)

    2010-09-15

    We have developed a correlative signal processing concept based on a Mach-Zehnder interferometer and spatial-spectral (S2) materials that enables direct mapping of RF spectral phase as well as power spectral recording. This configuration can be used for precise frequency resolved time delay estimation between signals received by a phased antenna array system that in turn could be utilized to estimate the angle of arrival. We present an analytical theoretical model and a proof-of-principle demonstration of the concept of time difference of arrival estimation with a cryogenically cooled Tm:YAG crystal that operates on microwave signals modulated onto a stabilized optical carrier at 793 nm.

  5. Two consistent calculations of the Weinberg angle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fairlie, D.B.

    1979-01-01

    The Weinberg-Salam theory is reformulated as a pure Yang-Mills theory in a six-dimensional space, the Higgs field being interpreted as gauge potentials in the additional dimensions. Viewed in this way, the condition that the Higgs field transforms as a U(1) representation of charge one is equivalent to requiring a value of 30 0 C for the Weinberg angle. A second consistent determination comes from the idea borrowed from monopole theory that the electromagnetic field is in the direction of the Higgs field. (Author)

  6. Lateral angle and cranial base sexual dimorphism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duquesnel Mana, Mathilde; Adalian, Pascal; Lynnerup, Niels

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY: Previous studies have yielded very different results in sex estimation based on measurements of the lateral angle (LA) of the temporal bone. The purpose of this study was to, first, investigate if the bad results obtained by the LA method could be due to the methodology and then, second......, and by use of a new method, using a "virtual cast". The cranial base was quantified by placing 12 landmarks in the posterior fossa. Procrustes analysis, principal component analysis, discriminant analysis and cross-validation test were performed. The "cast method" was found to be less accurate than...

  7. Simple map in action-angle coordinates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerwin, Olivia; Punjabi, Alkesh; Ali, Halima

    2008-01-01

    A simple map [A. Punjabi, A. Verma, and A. Boozer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 3322 (1992)] is the simplest map that has the topology of divertor tokamaks [A. Punjabi, H. Ali, T. Evans, and A. Boozer, Phys. Lett. A 364, 140 (2007)]. Here, action-angle coordinates, the safety factor, and the equilibrium generating function for the simple map are calculated analytically. The simple map in action-angle coordinates is derived from canonical transformations. This map cannot be integrated across the separatrix surface because of the singularity in the safety factor there. The stochastic broadening of the ideal separatrix surface in action-angle representation is calculated by adding a perturbation to the simple map equilibrium generating function. This perturbation represents the spatial noise and field errors typical of the DIII-D [J. L. Luxon and L. E. Davis, Fusion Technol. 8, 441 (1985)] tokamak. The stationary Fourier modes of the perturbation have poloidal and toroidal mode numbers (m,n,)=((3,1),(4,1),(6,2),(7,2),(8,2),(9,3),(10,3),(11,3)) with amplitude δ=0.8x10 -5 . Near the X-point, about 0.12% of toroidal magnetic flux inside the separatrix, and about 0.06% of the poloidal flux inside the separatrix is lost. When the distance from the O-point to the X-point is 1 m, the width of stochastic layer near the X-point is about 1.4 cm. The average value of the action on the last good surface is 0.19072 compared to the action value of 3/5π on the separatrix. The average width of stochastic layer in action coordinate is 2.7x10 -4 , while the average area of the stochastic layer in action-angle phase space is 1.69017x10 -3 . On average, about 0.14% of action or toroidal flux inside the ideal separatrix is lost due to broadening. Roughly five times more toroidal flux is lost in the simple map than in DIII-D for the same perturbation [A. Punjabi, H. Ali, A. Boozer, and T. Evans, Bull. Amer. Phys. Soc. 52, 124 (2007)].

  8. Spin Valve Systems for Angle Sensor Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    A contact-less sensor with the ability to measure over a 360° range has been long sought after in the automotive industry. Such a sensor could be realized by utilizing the angle dependence of the Giant Magneto Resistance (GMR) Effect in a special type of magnetic multilayer called a spin valve arranged in a wheatstone bridge circuit [Spo96]. A spin valve consists of two ferromagnetic layers separated by nonmagnetic spacer layer where the magnetization of one of the ferromagnetic layers is pin...

  9. Joining by plating: optimization of occluded angle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dini, J.W.; Johnson, H.R.; Kan, Y.R.

    1978-11-01

    An empirical method has been developed for predicting the minimum angle required for maximum joint strength for materials joined by plating. This is done through a proposed power law failure function, whose coefficients are taken from ring shear and conical head tensile data for plating/substrate combinations and whose exponent is determined from one set of plated-joint data. Experimental results are presented for Al-Ni-Al (7075-T6) and AM363-Ni-AM363 joints, and the failure function is used to predict joint strengths for Al-Ni-Al (2024-T6), UTi-Ni-UTi, and Be-Ti-Be

  10. left-angle 100 right-angle Burgers vector in single phase γ' material verified by image simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Link, T.; Knobloch, C.; Glatzel, U.

    1998-01-01

    The deformation mechanisms of Ni 3 Al, an ordered L1 2 or γ' phase, is under intense research since Westbrook showed the increase of its hardness with temperature in 1957. The super dislocations of this ordered phase normally have Burgers vectors rvec b = a left-angle 110 right-angle, disassociated in either two a/2 left-angle 110 right-angle or two rvec b = a/3 left-angle 112 right-angle, depending on deformation temperature and rate. Recent observations in [111] oriented γ' specimens suggest that additional dislocations with the shorter Burgers vector rvec b = a left-angle 100 right-angle might be active. Dislocations with rvec b = a left-angle 110 right-angle on cube glide planes have a Schmidt factor of 0.47 and on octahedral planes of 0.27. Dislocations with rvec b = a left-angle 100 right-angle have a Schmidt factor of 0.47 for {110} glide planes and 0.33 for cube glide planes. The a left-angle 100 right-angle Burgers vector is the shortest of all complete dislocations of the L1 2 structure and creates no planar fault like antiphase boundaries or stacking faults. Due to the [111] oriented stress axis, which is used in this contribution, plastic deformation by a left-angle 100 right-angle dislocations as well as cube glide planes for left-angle 110 right-angle dislocations is encouraged. These dislocations could be reaction products, but will soon after contribute to deformation

  11. Anterior chamber angle assessment using gonioscopy and ultrasound biomicroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanaswamy, Arun; Vijaya, Lingam; Shantha, B; Baskaran, Mani; Sathidevi, A V; Baluswamy, Sukumar

    2004-01-01

    Comparison of anterior chamber angle measurements using ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) and gonioscopy. Five hundred subjects were evaluated for grading of angle width by the Shaffer method. UBM was done in the same group to document angle width, angle opening distance (AOD 500), and anterior chamber depth. Biometric parameters were documented in all subjects. UBM and gonioscopic findings were compared. A study was conducted in 282 men and 218 women with a mean age of 57.32 +/- 12.48 years. Gonioscopic grading was used to segregate occludable (slit-like, grades 1 and 2) from nonoccludable (grades 3 and 4) angles. Subjective assessment by gonioscopy resulted in an overestimation of angle width within the occludable group when compared with values obtained by UBM. This did not affect the segregation of occludable versus nonoccludable angles by gonioscopy. Biometric parameters in eyes with occludable angles were significantly lower in comparison with eyes with nonoccludable angles, except for lens thickness. AOD 500 correlated well with angle width. We concluded that clinical segregation into occludable and nonoccludable angles by an experienced observer using gonioscopy is fairly accurate. However, UBM is required for objective quantification of angles, and AOD 500 can be a reliable and standard parameter to grade angle width.

  12. Dependence of ion-electron emission from clean metals on the incidence angle of the projectile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferron, J.; Alonso, E.V.; Baragiola, R.A.; Oliva-Florio, A.

    1981-01-01

    We have studied the dependence of electron yields γ from clean Cu and Au surfaces on the incidence angle theta of 5--50-keV He + , Ar + , and Xe + projectiles, in the angular range 0--80 0 , and under ultrahigh-vacuum conditions. We have found that, at small angles, γproportionalsec/sup f/theta, with f generally different from unity. For Xe + on Cu, γ(theta) presents an energy-dependence maximum, similar to that obtained for sputtering. The results are explained in terms of the anisotropy of the electron cascade in the solid, the depth distribution of the inelastic energy deposited by the projectile and by rapidly recoiling target atoms in the near-surface region of the solid

  13. Dependence of ion-electron emission from clean metals on the incidence angle of the projectile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferron, J.; Alonso, E.V.; Baragiola, R.A.; Oliva-Florio, A.

    1981-10-15

    We have studied the dependence of electron yields ..gamma.. from clean Cu and Au surfaces on the incidence angle theta of 5--50-keV He/sup +/, Ar/sup +/, and Xe/sup +/ projectiles, in the angular range 0--80 /sup 0/, and under ultrahigh-vacuum conditions. We have found that, at small angles, ..gamma..proportionalsec/sup f/theta, with f generally different from unity. For Xe/sup +/ on Cu, ..gamma..(theta) presents an energy-dependence maximum, similar to that obtained for sputtering. The results are explained in terms of the anisotropy of the electron cascade in the solid, the depth distribution of the inelastic energy deposited by the projectile and by rapidly recoiling target atoms in the near-surface region of the solid.

  14. Characterization of an innovative method for RuO2 deposition using Electron Microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavalca, Filippo

    Many photocatalysts work better or exclusively when a suitable cocatalyst, such as RuO2, is deposited on their surface. An innovative method of RuO2 deposition has been found to improve the performance of photocatalysts such as (Ga1-xZnx)(N1-xOx), WO3, SrTiO3 and TiO2. Here we use high angle annu...

  15. Polarization, propagation, and deposition measurements during ECCD experiments on the DIII-D tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petty, C.C.; Luce, T.C.; Lin-Liu, Y.R.; Lohr, J.; Prater, R.; Austin, M.E.

    1999-03-01

    The power deposition profiles for different poloidal and toroidal launch angles have been determined by modulating the ECH power and measuring the electron temperature response. The peak of the measured power density follows the poloidal steering of the ECH launcher, and perpendicular launch gives a narrower deposition profile than does oblique (current drive) launch. The difference in wave refraction between X-mode and O-mode allows positive identification of an unwanted O-mode component of the launched beam

  16. On the role of energy deposition in triggering SEGR in power MOSFETs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selva, L.E.; Swift, G.M.; Taylor, W.A.; Edmonds, L.D.

    1999-01-01

    Single event gate rupture (SEGR) was studied using three types of power MOSFET devices with ions having incident linear energy transfers (LETs) in silicon from 26 to 82 MeV·cm 2 /mg. Results are: (1) consistent with Wrobel's oxide breakdown for V DS = 0 volts (for both normal incidence and angle); and (2) when V GS = 0 volts, energy deposited near the Si/SiO 2 interface is more important than the energy deposited deeper in the epi

  17. Physical properties of chemical vapour deposited nanostructured carbon thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahadik, D.B.; Shinde, S.S.; Bhosale, C.H.; Rajpure, K.Y.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: In the present paper, nanostructured carbon films are grown using a natural precursor 'turpentine oil (C 10 H 16 )' as a carbon source in the simple thermal chemical vapour deposition method. The influence of substrate surface topography (viz. stainless steel, fluorine doped tin oxide coated quartz) and temperature on the evolution of carbon allotropes surfaces topography/microstructural and structural properties are investigated and discussed. - Abstract: A simple thermal chemical vapour deposition technique is employed for the deposition of carbon films by pyrolysing the natural precursor 'turpentine oil' on to the stainless steel (SS) and FTO coated quartz substrates at higher temperatures (700-1100 deg. C). In this work, we have studied the influence of substrate and deposition temperature on the evolution of structural and morphological properties of nanostructured carbon films. The films were characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), contact angle measurements, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy techniques. XRD study reveals that the films are polycrystalline exhibiting hexagonal and face-centered cubic structures on SS and FTO coated glass substrates respectively. SEM images show the porous and agglomerated surface of the films. Deposited carbon films show the hydrophobic nature. FTIR study displays C-H and O-H stretching vibration modes in the films. Raman analysis shows that, high ID/IG for FTO substrate confirms the dominance of sp 3 bonds with diamond phase and less for SS shows graphitization effect with dominant sp 2 bonds. It reveals the difference in local microstructure of carbon deposits leading to variation in contact angle and hardness, which is ascribed to difference in the packing density of carbon films, as observed also by Raman.

  18. Deposition and Resuspension of Particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lengweiler, P.; Nielsen, Peter V.; Moser, A.

    A new experimental set-up to investigate the physical process of dust deposition and resuspension on and from surfaces is introduced. Dust deposition can reduce the airBorne dust concentration considerably. As a basis for developing methods to eliminate dust related problems in rooms......, there is a need for better understanding of the mechanism of dust deposition and resuspension....

  19. A Micrometeorological Perspective on Deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Otto

    1981-01-01

    An expression for the dry deposition velocity is given in terms of constant flux layer scaling. Numerical values of upper bounds on the deposition velocity is given for a typical situation. Some remarks are then offered on the relative merits of various ways in which the combined diffusion-deposition...

  20. Market Discipline and Deposit Insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Peresetsky, Anatoly

    2008-01-01

    The paper examines Russian banks’ household deposit interest rates for the transition period of setting up the deposit insurance system. Monthly observations of Russian banks’ interest rates and balance sheets are used in a fixed effects panel data model. It is shown market discipline has been significantly diminished after switching to the deposit insurance.

  1. Magnetic alloy nanowire arrays with different lengths: Insights into the crossover angle of magnetization reversal process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samanifar, S.; Alikhani, M. [Department of Physics, University of Kashan, Kashan 87317-51167 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Almasi Kashi, M., E-mail: almac@kashanu.ac.ir [Department of Physics, University of Kashan, Kashan 87317-51167 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, University of Kashan, Kashan 87317-51167 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ramazani, A. [Department of Physics, University of Kashan, Kashan 87317-51167 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, University of Kashan, Kashan 87317-51167 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Montazer, A.H. [Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, University of Kashan, Kashan 87317-51167 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-05-15

    Nanoscale magnetic alloy wires are being actively investigated, providing fundamental insights into tuning properties in magnetic data storage and processing technologies. However, previous studies give trivial information about the crossover angle of magnetization reversal process in alloy nanowires (NWs). Here, magnetic alloy NW arrays with different compositions, composed of Fe, Co and Ni have been electrochemically deposited into hard-anodic aluminum oxide templates with a pore diameter of approximately 150 nm. Under optimized conditions of alumina barrier layer and deposition bath concentrations, the resulting alloy NWs with aspect ratio and saturation magnetization (M{sub s}) up to 550 and 1900 emu cm{sup −3}, respectively, are systematically investigated in terms of composition, crystalline structure and magnetic properties. Using angular dependence of coercivity extracted from hysteresis loops, the reversal processes are evaluated, indicating non-monotonic behavior. The crossover angle (θ{sub c}) is found to depend on NW length and M{sub s}. At a constant M{sub s}, increasing NW length decreases θ{sub c}, thereby decreasing the involvement of vortex mode during the magnetization reversal process. On the other hand, decreasing M{sub s} decreases θ{sub c} in large aspect ratio (>300) alloy NWs. Phenomenologically, it is newly found that increasing Ni content in the composition decreases θ{sub c}. The angular first-order reversal curve (AFORC) measurements including the irreversibility of magnetization are also investigated to gain a more detailed insight into θ{sub c}. - Highlights: • Magnetic alloy NWs with aspect ratios up to 550 were fabricated into hard-AAO templates. • Morphology, composition, crystal structure and magnetic properties were investigated. • Angular dependence of coercivity was used to describe the magnetization reversal process. • The crossover angle of magnetization reversal was found to depend on NW length and M{sub s}.

  2. Electrophoretic Deposition of Gallium with High Deposition Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanfei Zhang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, electrophoretic deposition (EPD is reported to form gallium thin film with high deposition rate and low cost while avoiding the highly toxic chemicals typically used in electroplating. A maximum deposition rate of ~0.6 μm/min, almost one order of magnitude higher than the typical value reported for electroplating, is obtained when employing a set of proper deposition parameters. The thickness of the film is shown to increase with deposition time when sequential deposition is employed. The concentration of Mg(NO32, the charging salt, is also found to be a critical factor to control the deposition rate. Various gallium micropatterns are obtained by masking the substrate during the process, demonstrating process compatibility with microfabrication. The reported novel approach can potentially be employed in a broad range of applications with Ga as a raw material, including microelectronics, photovoltaic cells, and flexible liquid metal microelectrodes.

  3. NORMAL AXIAL ANGLES OF THE KNEE JOINT IN ADULT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2003-08-01

    Aug 1, 2003 ... Conclusion: Our study has demonstrated comparative variations in means and ranges of normal axial angles .... population was significantly different from the mean ... case, however, the angle also exhibits racial variations.

  4. Apparatus and method for variable angle slant hole collimator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Joon; Kross, Brian J.; McKisson, John E.

    2017-07-18

    A variable angle slant hole (VASH) collimator for providing collimation of high energy photons such as gamma rays during radiological imaging of humans. The VASH collimator includes a stack of multiple collimator leaves and a means of quickly aligning each leaf to provide various projection angles. Rather than rotate the detector around the subject, the VASH collimator enables the detector to remain stationary while the projection angle of the collimator is varied for tomographic acquisition. High collimator efficiency is achieved by maintaining the leaves in accurate alignment through the various projection angles. Individual leaves include unique angled cuts to maintain a precise target collimation angle. Matching wedge blocks driven by two actuators with twin-lead screws accurately position each leaf in the stack resulting in the precise target collimation angle. A computer interface with the actuators enables precise control of the projection angle of the collimator.

  5. Measurement of Angle Kappa Using Ultrasound Biomicroscopy and Corneal Topography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Joon Hyung; Moon, Nam Ju; Lee, Jeong Kyu

    2017-06-01

    To introduce a new convenient and accurate method to measure the angle kappa using ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) and corneal topography. Data from 42 eyes (13 males and 29 females) were analyzed in this study. The angle kappa was measured using Orbscan II and calculated with UBM and corneal topography. The angle kappa of the dominant eye was compared with measurements by Orbscan II. The mean patient age was 36.4 ± 13.8 years. The average angle kappa measured by Orbscan II was 3.98° ± 1.12°, while the average angle kappa calculated with UBM and corneal topography was 3.19° ± 1.15°. The difference in angle kappa measured by the two methods was statistically significant (p topography to calculate the angle kappa. This method is convenient to use and allows for measurement of the angle kappa without an expensive device. © 2017 The Korean Ophthalmological Society

  6. Controlling T2 blurring in 3D RARE arterial spin labeling acquisition through optimal combination of variable flip angles and k-space filtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Li; Chang, Ching-Di; Alsop, David C

    2018-02-09

    To improve the SNR efficiency and reduce the T 2 blurring of 3D rapid acquisition with relaxation enhancement stack-of-spiral arterial spin labeling imaging by using variable refocusing flip angles and k-space filtering. An algorithm for determining the optimal combination of variable flip angles and filtering correction is proposed. The flip angles are designed using extended phase graph physical simulations in an analytical and global optimization framework, with an optional constraint on deposited power. Optimal designs for correcting to Hann and Fermi window functions were compared with conventional constant amplitude or variable flip angle only designs on 6 volunteers. With the Fermi window correction, the proposed optimal designs provided 39.8 and 27.3% higher SNR (P variable flip angle designs. Even when power deposition was limited to 50% of the constant amplitude design, the proposed method outperformed the SNR (P variable flip angles can be derived as the output of an optimization problem. The combined design of variable flip angle and k-space filtering provided superior SNR to designs primarily emphasizing either approach singly. © 2018 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  7. Anomalous and resonance small-angle scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epperson, J.E.; Thiyagarajan, P.

    1988-01-01

    Significant changes in the small-angle scattered intensity can be induced by making measurements with radiation close to an absorption edge of an appropriate atomic species contained in the sample. These changes can be related quantitatively to the real and imaginary anomalous-dispersion terms for the scattering factor (X-rays) or scattering length (neutrons). The physics inherent in these anomalous-dispersion terms is first discussed before consideration of how they enter the relevant scattering theory. Two major areas of anomalous-scattering research have emerged; macromolecules in solution and unmixing of metallic alloys. Research in each area is reviewed, illustrating both the feasibility and potential of these techniques. All the experimental results reported to date have been obtained with X-rays. However, it is pointed out that the formalism is the same for the analog experiment with neutrons, and a number of suitable isotopes exist which exhibit resonance in an accessible range of energy. Potential applications of resonance small-angle neutron scattering are discussed. (orig.)

  8. RF sheaths for arbitrary B field angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ippolito, Daniel; Myra, James

    2014-10-01

    RF sheaths occur in tokamaks when ICRF waves encounter conducting boundaries and accelerate electrons out of the plasma. Sheath effects reduce the efficiency of ICRF heating, cause RF-specific impurity influxes from the edge plasma, and increase the plasma-facing component damage. The rf sheath potential is sensitive to the angle between the B field and the wall, the ion mobility and the ion magnetization. Here, we obtain a numerical solution of the non-neutral rf sheath and magnetic pre-sheath equations (for arbitrary values of these parameters) and attempt to infer the parametric dependences of the Child-Langmuir law. This extends previous work on the magnetized, immobile ion regime. An important question is how the rf sheath voltage distributes itself between sheath and pre-sheath for various B field angles. This will show how generally previous estimates of the rf sheath voltage and capacitance were reasonable, and to improve the RF sheath BC. Work supported by US DOE grants DE-FC02-05ER54823 and DE-FG02-97ER54392.

  9. Lasers in primary open angle glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sihota Ramanjit

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Lasers have been used in the treatment of primary open angle glaucoma (POAG over the years, with the hope that they would eventually replace medical and surgical therapy. Laser trabeculoplasty (LT is an application of argon, diode, or selective laser energy to the surface of the trabecular meshwork to increase the aqueous outflow. The mechanisms by which intraocular pressure (IOP is lowered could be mechanical, biologic, or by division of adjacent cells. It is commonly used as an adjunct to medical therapy, but is contraindicated if the angle is obstructed, e.g., peripheral anterior synechia (PAS or developmental glaucomas. About 75% of individuals will show a significant fall in IOP after argon laser trabeculoplasty (ALT, and the response is similar with selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT. The effects of LT are not always long lasting, with about 10% of individuals showing a rise in IOP with every passing year. Laser thermal sclerostomy, ab interno or externo, is an alternative to other full-thickness filtration procedures. Longer wavelengths in the infrared range have water-absorptive characteristics that facilitate perforation of the sclera. These lasers can be used to avoid intraocular instrumentation and minimize conjunctival trauma.

  10. Metasurface Enabled Wide-Angle Fourier Lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenwei; Li, Zhancheng; Cheng, Hua; Tang, Chengchun; Li, Junjie; Zhang, Shuang; Chen, Shuqi; Tian, Jianguo

    2018-06-01

    Fourier optics, the principle of using Fourier transformation to understand the functionalities of optical elements, lies at the heart of modern optics, and it has been widely applied to optical information processing, imaging, holography, etc. While a simple thin lens is capable of resolving Fourier components of an arbitrary optical wavefront, its operation is limited to near normal light incidence, i.e., the paraxial approximation, which puts a severe constraint on the resolvable Fourier domain. As a result, high-order Fourier components are lost, resulting in extinction of high-resolution information of an image. Other high numerical aperture Fourier lenses usually suffer from the bulky size and costly designs. Here, a dielectric metasurface consisting of high-aspect-ratio silicon waveguide array is demonstrated experimentally, which is capable of performing 1D Fourier transform for a large incident angle range and a broad operating bandwidth. Thus, the device significantly expands the operational Fourier space, benefitting from the large numerical aperture and negligible angular dispersion at large incident angles. The Fourier metasurface will not only facilitate efficient manipulation of spatial spectrum of free-space optical wavefront, but also be readily integrated into micro-optical platforms due to its compact size. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. The impact of inlet angle and outlet angle of guide vane on pump in reversal based hydraulic turbine performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, F X; Yang, J H; Wang, X H; Zhang, R H; Li, C E

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, in order to research the impact of inlet angle and outlet angle of guide vane on hydraulic turbine performance, a centrifugal pump in reversal is adopted as turbine. A numerical simulation method is adopted for researching outer performance and flow field of turbine. The results show: inlet angle has a crucial role to turbine, to the same flow, there is a noticeable decline for the efficiency and head of turbine with the inlet angle increases. At the best efficiency point(EFP),to a same inlet angle, when the inlet angle greater than inlet angle, velocity circulation in guide vane outlet decreases, which lead the efficiency of turbine to reduce, Contrarily, the efficiency rises. With the increase of inlet angle and outlet angle, the EFP moves to the big flow area and the uniformity of pressure distribution becomes worse. The paper indicates that the inlet angle and outlet angle have great impact on the turbine performance, and the best combination exists for the inlet angle and outlet angle of the guide vane.

  12. Measurement of SEU thresholds and cross sections at fixed incidence angles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Criswell, T.L.; Oberg, D.L.; Wert, J.L.; Measel, P.R.; Wilson, W.E.

    1987-01-01

    Current SEU testing and analysis techniques have as basic assumptions that the charge deposited at a junction depends linearly on the linear energy transfer (LET) of the ion and the pathlength of the ion through an imagined parallelepiped that represents the depletion region. This study tests these assumptions for two bipolar parts, AMD 27LS00 and Fairchild 93L422, by irradiating at fixed angles while varying the LET of two ion species. It was found that the 27LS00 shows a pronounced ion species dependence, and may show a deviation of deposited charge from the usual inverse-cosine times a fixed depletion depth, while the 93L422 exhibited the expected inverse-cosine dependence and no ion species dependence

  13. Identification and angle reconstruction of the scattered electron with the ZEUS calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doeker, T.

    1992-10-01

    For the analysis of deep-inelastic electron-proton events with the ZEUS detector, a key ingredient is the reliable and efficient identification of a scattered electron. To this end an essential mean is the information from the uranium-scintillator calorimeter. In this work an algorithm is presented which uses the segmentation properties of the ZEUS calorimeter to identify the scattered electron in neutral current events. For energy deposits in adjacent calorimeter cells the algorithm determines the probability that these deposits result from an electromagnetic shower. Furthermore several methods of measuring the scattering angle of the final state electron are compared. An angular resolution of about 3 mrad is obtained. (orig.) [de

  14. Dry deposition on urban surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roed, J.

    1985-01-01

    In order to facilitate developing a model for deposition in urban areas, beryllium-7, created by cosmic radiation and fall-out cesium-137, have been used as tracers in measurements designed to find the dry deposition velocity on building surfaces. A literature review has revealed that very little work has been done on deposition in urban areas; therefore, a major effort on meausring the deposition parameter is needed to construct reliable models in this field. Deposition velocities in the range from 0.001-0.04 cm/s have been found. (author)

  15. Thermal plasma chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heberlein, J.; Pfender, E.

    1993-01-01

    Thermal plasmas, with temperatures up to and even exceeding 10 4 K, are capable of producing high density vapor phase precursors for the deposition of relatively thick films. Although this technology is still in its infancy, it will fill the void between the relatively slow deposition processes such as physical vapor deposition and the high rate thermal spray deposition processes. In this chapter, the present state-of-the-art of this field is reviewed with emphasis on the various types of reactors proposed for this emerging technology. Only applications which attracted particular attention, namely diamond and high T c superconducting film deposition, are discussed in greater detail. (orig.)

  16. Hong's grading for evaluating anterior chamber angle width.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seok Hwan; Kang, Ja Heon; Park, Ki Ho; Hong, Chul

    2012-11-01

    To compare Hong's grading method with anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT), gonioscopy, and the dark-room prone-position test (DRPT) for evaluating anterior chamber width. The anterior chamber angle was graded using Hong's grading method, and Hong's angle width was calculated from the arctangent of Hong's grades. The correlation between Hong's angle width and AS-OCT parameters was analyzed. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) for Hong's grading method when discriminating between narrow and open angles as determined by gonioscopy was calculated. Correlation analysis was performed between Hong's angle width and intraocular pressure (IOP) changes determined by DRPT. A total of 60 subjects were enrolled. Of these subjects, 53.5 % had a narrow angle. Hong's angle width correlated significantly with the AS-OCT parameters (r = 0.562-0.719, P < 0.01). A Bland-Altman plot showed relatively good agreement between Hong's angle width and the angle width obtained by AS-OCT. The ability of Hong's grading method to discriminate between open and narrow angles was good (AUC = 0.868, 95 % CI 0.756-0.942). A significant linear correlation was found between Hong's angle width and IOP change determined by DRPT (r = -0.761, P < 0.01). Hong's grading method is useful for detecting narrow angles. Hong's grading correlated well with AS-OCT parameters and DRPT.

  17. Objectifying the Adjacent and Opposite Angles: A Cultural Historical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daher, Wajeeh; Musallam, Nadera

    2018-01-01

    The angle topic is central to the development of geometric knowledge. Two of the basic concepts associated with this topic are the adjacent and opposite angles. It is the goal of the present study to analyze, based on the cultural historical semiotics framework, how high-achieving seventh grade students objectify the adjacent and opposite angles'…

  18. Goniodysgenesis in familial primary open-angle glaucoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbraak, F. D.; vd Berg, W.; Delleman, J. W.; Greve, E. L.

    1994-01-01

    Results of a pilot study to evaluate goniodysgenesis as a cause of familial open-angle glaucoma are reported. Patients with a familial high tension open-angle glaucoma and a goniodysgenetic chamber angle (n = 11), a number of their relatives with glaucoma (n = 12), and their relatives without

  19. Optimal angle reduction - a behavioral approach to linear system appromixation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roorda, B.; Weiland, S.

    2001-01-01

    We investigate the problem of optimal state reduction under minimization of the angle between system behaviors. The angle is defined in a worst-case sense, as the largest angle that can occur between a system trajectory and its optimal approximation in the reduced-order model. This problem is

  20. Fe-Ti-O based catalyst for large-chiral-angle single-walled carbon nanotube growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Maoshuai; Zhang, Lili; Jiang, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Catalyst selection is very crucial for controlled growth of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). Here we introduce a well-designed Fe-Ti-O solid solution for SWNT growth with a high preference to large chiral angles. The Fe-Ti-O catalyst was prepared by combining Ti layer deposition onto premade...... Fe nanoparticles with subsequent high-temperature air calcination, which favours the formation of a homogeneous Fe-Ti-O solid solution. Using CO as the carbon feedstock, chemical vapour deposition growth of SWNTs at 800 °C was demonstrated on the Fe-Ti-O catalyst. Nanobeam electron diffraction...... characterization on a number of individual SWNTs revealed that more than 94% of SWNTs have chiral angles larger than 15°. In situ environmental transmission electron microscopy study was carried out to reveal the catalyst dynamics upon reduction. Our results identify that the phase segregation through reducing Fe...

  1. Uranium ore deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelelli, Victorio.

    1984-01-01

    The main uranium deposits and occurrences in the Argentine Republic are described, considering, in principle, their geologic setting, the kind of 'model' of the mineralization and its possible origin, and describing the ore species present in each case. The main uraniferous accumulations of the country include the models of 'sandstong type', veintype and impregnation type. There are also other kinds of accumulations, as in calcrete, etc. The main uranium production has been registered in the provinces of Mendoza, Salta, La Rioja, Chubut, Cordoba and San Luis. In each case, the minerals present are mentioned, having been recognized 37 different species all over the country (M.E.L.) [es

  2. Deposition of carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    In Norway, there is currently a debate about whether or not to build gas power stations. To meet the possibility of reduced emission quotas for carbon dioxide in the future, current interest focuses on the incorporation of large-scale separation and deposition of carbon dioxide when such plants are planned. A group of experts concludes that this technology will become self-financing by means of environmental taxes. From the environmental point of view, taxes upon production are to be preferred over taxes on consumption

  3. Stratigraphic implications of uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langford, F.F.

    1980-01-01

    One of the most consistent characteristics of economic uranium deposits is their restricted stratigraphic distribution. Uraninite deposited with direct igneous affiliation contains thorium, whereas chemical precipitates in sedimentary rocks are characterized by thorium-free primary uranium minerals with vanadium and selenium. In marine sediments, these minerals form low-grade disseminations; but in terrestrial sediments, chiefly fluvial sandstones, the concentration of uranium varies widely, with the high-grade portions constituting ore. Pitchblende vein deposits not only exhibit the same chemical characteristics as the Colorado-type sandstone deposits, but they have a stratigraphically consistent position at unconformities covered by fluvial sandstones. If deposits in such diverse situations have critical features in common, they are likely to have had many features of their origin in common. Thus, vein deposits in Saskatchewan and Australia may have analogues in areas that contain Colorado-type sandstone deposits. In New Mexico, the presence of continental sandstones with peneconformable uranium deposits should also indicate good prospecting ground for unconformity-type vein deposits. All unconformities within the periods of continental deposition ranging from Permian to Cretaceous should have uranium potential. Some situations, such as the onlap of the Abo Formation onto Precambrian basement in the Zuni Mountains, may be directly comparable to Saskatchewan deposition. However, uranium occurrences in the upper part of the Entrada Sandstone suggest that unconformities underlain by sedimentary rocks may also be exploration targets

  4. Sandstone-type uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austin, S.R.; D'Andrea, R.F. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Three overall factors are necessary for formation of uranium deposits in sandstone: a source of uranium, host rocks capable of transmitting uranium-bearing solutions, and a precipitant. Possible sources of uranium in sandstone-type deposits include groundwaters emanating from granitic highlands, arkosic sediments, tuffaceous material within or overlying the host rocks, connate fluids, and overlying black shales. The first three sources are considered the most likely. Host rocks are generally immature sandstones deposited in alluvial-fan, intermontane-basin or marginal-marine environments, but uranium deposits do occur in well-winnowed barrier-bar or eolian sands. Host rocks for uranium deposits generally show coefficients of permeability on the order of 1 to 100 gal/day/ft 2 . Precipitants are normally agents capable of reducing uranium from the uranyl to the uranous state. The association of uranium with organic matter is unequivocal; H 2 S, a powerful reductant, may have been present at the time of formation of some deposits but may go unnoticed today. Vanadium can serve to preserve the tabular characteristics of some deposits in the near-surface environment, but is considered an unlikely primary precipitant for uranium. Uranium deposits in sandstone are divided into two overall types: peneconcordant deposits, which occur in locally reducing environments in otherwise oxidized sandstones; and roll-type deposits, which occur at the margin of an area where an oxidized groundwater has permeated an otherwise reduced sandstone. Uranium deposits are further broken down into four subclasses; these are described

  5. Employability Skills. At a Glance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibrow, Bridget

    2011-01-01

    In a competitive workforce it is not just having the right qualification or technical skills that will land an individual a job; it could very well be their interpersonal skills. How someone communicates is often the first impression an employer has of a possible worker. Yet, it is precisely communication skills that employers feel applicants are…

  6. EDF at a glance 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This document presents the organization and key data of Electricite de France (EdF) group for 2003: business, priorities, values, different branches of the group (continental Europe, western Europe, Mediterranean branch, Africa, Asia-Pacific, Americas, Dalkia energy services, development branch), management, board of directors, market opening in France, human resource strategy, R and D, customers (residential, commercial, business and industrial, local authorities), industrial tool (fossil-fired generation, network management, renewable energy sources), reliability, financial flexibility, sustainable development (role of renewables in generation, CO 2 emissions, radiation protection, nuclear waste, environment, handling fuel poverty, landscape conservation), contacts and affiliates outside France. (J.S.)

  7. INTERNET ADVERTISING AT A GLANCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Shanghai-based Internet analysis and consulting company iResearch released its China Advertising Online Research Report 2005 in March. The report indicates that the market value of online advertising in China reached 3.13 billion yuan in 2005, up 77.1 percent over the previous year. The market observer predicts a 48 percent growth to 4.6 billion yuan for 2006.

  8. This Issue at A Glance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hormoz Chams

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the retrospective investigation titled “Risk factors evaluation of threshold retinopathy of prematurity” at a tertiary ophthalmic center in Tehran, Iran, the authors have studied 859 premature neonates during one year (2008-2009. 791 eyes have had retinopathy of prematurity (ROP and 7.4% of them presented threshold retinopathy (TROP. The investigators aim has been to present and compare the risk factors of ROP and TROP and also to emphasize that the proposed criteria1 for investigation of ROP and TROP are not very precise and valuable for the developing countries. For example they remark that 33% of their TROP had birth weight of more than 1,500 grams. In this investigation the most important risk factors for TROP have been delay in initial examination, low weight, low gestation age, and duration of oxygen therapy. In another presentation, the authors have investigated “The prevalence of viral conjunctivitis in patients who referred to eye specialist hospitals in Tehran, Iran”. They received 150 swap samples and after DNA extraction, and multiplex real-time PCR they found 14.6% of samples were positive for adenovirus and 3.3% positive for herpes simplex 1 (HSV-1. The results for herpes simplex 2 (HSV-2 and varicella-Zoster (VZV were negative. In other investigations2,3 of viral conjunctivitis adenoviruses, HSV-1, HSV-2 and VZV have been reported to be the most important causes of viral conjunctivitis. The authors propose a more extensive investigation on number of patients and the emerging viruses particularly in this part of the world. Rahimi et al in their presentation “Clinical outcomes in acanthamoeba keratitis treated with polyhexamethylene biguanide as monotherapy” have studied 27 eyes of 25 patients presenting Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK. They emphasize the importance of confocal biomicroscopy to find the cysts or trophozoites of the amoeba, indicating 96.3% of positive results compared to 81.5% of positivity in the culture. They indicated that 85.2% of their cases were cosmetic and 11.1% were optical contact lens wearers. They pointed-out, in agreement with other investigations4 that treating AK at its initial stages has a more favorable outcome and can save the eye. Panahi Bazaz and coworkers from Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences have presented “Glaucoma after congenital cataract surgery” studying 161 eyes of 96 patients who underwent congenital cataract surgery. 17.4% developed glaucoma over a follow-up of six years. Younger age at the time of surgery was a high risk of glaucoma but the intraocular lens had a protective result to prevent glaucoma. 85.7% of the glaucomatous patients had less than one year at the time of operation. In another very interesting and practical presentation “Surgical outcomes after vitrectomy in severely traumatized eyes with no light perception and flat ERG”, Tabatabaei and coworkers have performed vitrectomy on 22 severely traumatized eyes after primary repairs. The eyes had no-light-perception and had flat ERG. Six eyes (27.3% obtained light perception, one eye counting fingers at 70 cms. They proposed that in specific situations (one eye patients vitreoretinal surgery can be beneficial in some cases and can give some vision to the patient even if it is light perception. Soltan Sanjari and colleagues have presented “The outcome of bilateral medial rectus muscle recession in esotropia”. In their retrospective study 82 of 130 recruited cases who had two years of follow-up are highlighted. 78.2% of cases were aligned after surgery, 13.3% undercorrected and 8.5% overcorrected. They indicate that the reported success rate for such intervention is variable between 60 to 91%. In their discussion they indicate the factors influencing the success rate of the surgery and including the review of the literature. Kushner and colleagues5 have shown that in higher deviations the degree of ocular alignements per millimeters of rectus recession increases. Umazume et al6 have found that the dose response increased in age group under 20, and Abbasoglu and colleagues7 reported that the age of onset of strabismus is another factor influencing the results. Hashemi and coworkers in a retrospective analysis “Comparison of keratometric values using Javal keratometer, oculus pentacam, and orbscan II” have reviewed the data of 765 eyes which had Javal keratometry, 577 eye were investigated by orbscan II and 200 eyes by pentacam. They concluded that “The results obtained with orbscan showed better agreement and strange correlation with Javal as compared with orbscan”. They proposed that pentacam could be a substitute for Javal in normal eyes. Mirakhorli and colleagues have presented “Association between p-glycoprotein and multi-drug resistance associated protein 1 expression and clinical outcomes in Iranian retinoblastoma”. ATP binding cassette (ABC transporters are present in many human organs and their function is to eliminate the exogenous toxins from the cells.8 they act the same way when anti-cancerous drugs are concerned.9 The multi drug resistance 1/p-glycoprotein (MDR 1/p-gp and multi drug resistance associated protein 1 (MRP1 are two common members of these transporters. In this present investigation the authors have studied 26 advanced retinoblastomas (RB. Six (23% were p-gp and 12 (46% MRP1 positive. They have concluded in concordance with some other investigators that “There is no significant association between p-gp and/or MRP1 expression and unresponsiveness to chemotherpy”. However, the coexistence of both proteins might be important in stimulating the recurrence of neoplasm.

  9. A Map Worth Glancing At

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagh, Jesper; Freudendal-Pedersen, Malene

    2014-01-01

    it seemed like she had been right, and more and more in urban planning and design today, the market forces seem at least as important as the human condition. But why is it meant to be unrealistic to propose decent housing for all or an urbanism that puts the needs of people above those of profit? And what...... is inconceivable about an urbanism that is no longer based around private property, or that emphasises the pleasures and joys of living? In this e-mail conversation the British geographer David Pinder makes a defence for utopian thinking as a means to imagine alternatives that seem impossible today but may...

  10. Geological factors of deposit formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grushevoj, G.V.

    1980-01-01

    Geologic factors of hydrogenic uranium deposit formation are considered. Structural, formation and lithological-facies factors of deposit formation, connected with zones of stratal oxidation, are characterized. Peculiarities of deposit localization, connected with orogenic structures of Mesozoic and lenozoic age, are described. It is noted that deposits of anagenous group are widely spread in Paleozoic formations, infiltration uranium deposits are localized mainly in Cenozoic sediments, while uranium mineralization both anagenous and infiltration groups are widely developed in Mesozoic sediments. Anagenous deposits were formed in non-oxygen situation, their age varies from 200 to 55 mln years. Infiltration deposit formation is determined by asymmetric oxidation zonation, their age varies from 10 - 40 mln years to dozens of thousand years [ru

  11. Aerosol deposition in bends with turbulent flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McFarland, A.R.; Gong, H.; Wente, W.B. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    The losses of aerosol particles in bends were determined numerically for a broad range of design and operational conditions. Experimental data were used to check the validity of the numerical model, where the latter employs a commercially available computational fluid dynamics code for characterizing the fluid flow field and Lagrangian particle tracking technique for characterizing aerosol losses. Physical experiments have been conducted to examine the effect of curvature ratio and distortion of the cross section of bends. If it curvature ratio ({delta} = R/a) is greater than about 4, it has little effect on deposition, which is in contrast with the recommendation given in ANSI N13.1-1969 for a minimum curvature ratio of 10. Also, experimental results show that if the tube cross section is flattened by 25% or less, the flattening also has little effect on deposition. Results of numerical tests have been used to develop a correlation of aerosol penetration through a bend as a function of Stokes number (Stk), curvature ratio ({delta}) and the bend angle ({theta}). 17 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. The Effect of Suture Anchor Insertion Angle on Calcaneus Pullout Strength: Challenging the Deadman's Angle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, William M; Saucedo, Ramon P; Robinson, John D; Lo, Chung-Chieh Jason; Morris, Randal P; Panchbhavi, Vinod K

    2017-10-01

    Refractory cases of Achilles tendinopathy amenable to surgery may include reattachment of the tendon using suture anchors. However, there is paucity of information describing the optimal insertion angle to maximize the tendon footprint and anchor stability in the calcaneus. The purpose of this investigation is to compare the fixation strength of suture anchors inserted at 90° and 45° (the Deadman's angle) relative to the primary compressive trabeculae of the calcaneus. A total of 12 matched pairs of adult cadaveric calcanei were excised and potted to approximate their alignment in vivo. Each pair was implanted with 5.5-mm bioabsorbable suture anchors placed either perpendicular (90°) or oblique (45°) to the primary compressive trabeculae. A tensile load was applied until failure of anchor fixation. Differences in failure load and stiffness between anchor fixation angles were determined by paired t-tests. No significant differences were detected between perpendicular and oblique suture anchor insertion relative to primary compressive trabeculae in terms of load to failure or stiffness. This investigation suggests that the fixation strength of suture anchors inserted perpendicular to the primary compression trabeculae and at the Deadman's angle are possibly comparable. Biomechanical comparison study.

  13. Using Digital Technology to See Angles from Different Angles. Part 1: Corners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Host, Erin; Baynham, Emily; McMaster, Heather

    2014-01-01

    In Part 1 of their article, Erin Host, Emily Baynham and Heather McMaster use a combination of digital technology and concrete materials to explore the concept of "corners". They provide a practical, easy to follow sequence of activities that builds on students' understandings. [For "Using Digital Technology to See Angles from…

  14. Transmission-type angle deviation microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, M.-H.; Lai, C.-W.; Tan, C.-T.; Lai, C.-F.

    2008-01-01

    We present a new microscopy technique that we call transmission angle deviation microscopy (TADM). It is based on common-path heterodyne interferometry and geometrical optics. An ultrahigh sensitivity surface plasmon resonance (SPR) angular sensor is used to expand dynamic measurement ranges and to improve the axial resolution in three-dimensional optical microscopy. When transmitted light is incident upon a specimen, the beam converges or diverges because of refractive and/or surface height variations. Advantages include high axial resolution (∼32 nm), nondestructive and noncontact measurement, and larger measurement ranges (± 80 μm) for a numerical aperture of 0.21in a transparent measurement medium. The technique can be used without conductivity and pretreatment

  15. ESPRIT with multiple-angle subarray beamforming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wen; Jiang, Ying; Zhang, Huiquan

    2012-12-01

    This article presents a new approach of implementing signal direction-of-arrival estimation, in which subarray beamforming is applied prior to estimation of signal parameters via rotational invariance techniques (ESPRIT). Different from the previous approaches, the beam-domain data from multiple adjacent pointing angles are combined in a way that the displacement invariance structure required by ESPRIT is maintained. It is intended to further obtain a sub-beamwidth resolution for a conventional multi-beam system already having small beamwidths. Computer simulations show that for typical multi-beam system applications the new approach provides improved estimation mean-square errors over the original ESPRIT, on top of reduced requirements for signal-to-noise ratio, number of snapshots, and computational time.

  16. Small-angle scattering in materials science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paris, O.; Fratzl, P.

    1999-01-01

    Small-angle scattering (SAS) of X-rays (SAXS) or neutrons (SANS) are a powerful tools to investigate inhomogeneities in the size range from ∼ 1 nm to ∼ 100 nm. Typical examples in materials science are pores, precipitates in metal alloys or nano-particles in composites. Frequently, these inhomogeneities are not spherical and their alignment is not random, quite in contrast to many other applications of SAS. This requires the use of pinhole geometry and area detectors for the experimental set-up. The present paper focuses on evaluation techniques of two-dimensional (2D) SAS-patterns from some materials investigated by the authors, i.e. metal alloys, carbon composites, wood and bone. Although the examples shown are derived exclusively from SAXS measurements, most of them could stem from SANS measurements as well. (author)

  17. Double field theory at SL(2) angles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciceri, Franz [Nikhef Theory Group,Science Park 105, 1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Dibitetto, Giuseppe [Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, University of Uppsala, Box 803, SE-751 08 Uppsala (Sweden); Fernandez-Melgarejo, J.J. [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University,Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Jefferson Physical Laboratory, Harvard University,Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Guarino, Adolfo [Physique Théorique et Mathématique, Université Libre de Bruxellesand International Solvay Institutes,ULB-Campus Plaine CP231, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Inverso, Gianluca [Center for Mathematical Analysis, Geometry and Dynamical Systems,Department of Mathematics, Instituto Superior Tecnico,Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2017-05-05

    An extended field theory is presented that captures the full SL(2)×O(6,6+n) duality group of four-dimensional half-maximal supergravities. The theory has section constraints whose two inequivalent solutions correspond to minimal D=10 supergravity and chiral half-maximal D=6 supergravity, respectively coupled to vector and tensor multiplets. The relation with O(6,6+n) (heterotic) double field theory is thoroughly discussed. Non-Abelian interactions as well as background fluxes are captured by a deformation of the generalised diffeomorphisms. Finally, making use of the SL(2) duality structure, it is shown how to generate gaugings with non-trivial de Roo-Wagemans angles via generalised Scherk-Schwarz ansätze. Such gaugings allow for moduli stabilisation including the SL(2) dilaton.

  18. Foreign Body Embedded in Anterior Chamber Angle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shmuel Graffi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. We present a case of a metallic foreign body embedded in the anterior chamber angle. After standing in close proximity to a construction worker breaking a tile, a 26-year-old woman using soft contact lens for the correction of mild myopia presented to emergency department for evaluation of a foreign body sensation of her right eye. Methods and Results. Diagnosis was confirmed by gonioscopic examination and a noncontrast CT scan of head and orbits. The foreign body was removed by an external approach without utilizing a magnet. The patient's final outcome was favorable. Discussion. The above is a rare clinical situation, which is impossible to detect on slit-lamp examination without a gonioscopic view. Proper imaging and a specific management are mandatory in order to achieve favorable outcome.

  19. Sinusoidal Order Estimation Using Angles between Subspaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Holdt Jensen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the problem of determining the order of a parametric model from a noisy signal based on the geometry of the space. More specifically, we do this using the nontrivial angles between the candidate signal subspace model and the noise subspace. The proposed principle is closely related to the subspace orthogonality property known from the MUSIC algorithm, and we study its properties and compare it to other related measures. For the problem of estimating the number of complex sinusoids in white noise, a computationally efficient implementation exists, and this problem is therefore considered in detail. In computer simulations, we compare the proposed method to various well-known methods for order estimation. These show that the proposed method outperforms the other previously published subspace methods and that it is more robust to the noise being colored than the previously published methods.

  20. Angle-independent structural colors of silicon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højlund-Nielsen, Emil; Weirich, Johannes; Nørregaard, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    Structural colors are optical phenomena of physical origin, where microscale and nanoscale structures determine the reflected spectrum of light. Artificial structural colors have been realized within recent years. However, multilayer structures require substantial fabrication. Instead we considered...... one-layer surface textures of silicon.We explored four patterns of square structures in a square lattice with periods of 500, 400, 300, and 200 nm. The reflectivity and daylight-colors were measured and compared with simulations based on rigorously coupledwave analysis with excellent agreement. Based...... on the 200-nm periodic pattern, it was found that angle-independent specular colors up to 60 deg of incidence may be provided. The underlying mechanisms include (1) the suppression of diffraction and (2) a strong coupling of light to localized surface states. The strong coupling yields absorption anomalies...

  1. Angle-resolved photoemission extended fine structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, J.J.

    1985-03-01

    Measurements of the Angle-Resolved Photoemission Extended Fine Structure (ARPEFS) from the S(1s) core level of a c(2 x 2)S/Ni(001) are analyzed to determine the spacing between the S overlayer and the first and second Ni layers. ARPEFS is a type of photoelectron diffraction measurement in which the photoelectron kinetic energy is swept typically from 100 to 600 eV. By using this wide range of intermediate energies we add high precision and theoretical simplification to the advantages of the photoelectron diffraction technique for determining surface structures. We report developments in the theory of photoelectron scattering in the intermediate energy range, measurement of the experimental photoemission spectra, their reduction to ARPEFS, and the surface structure determination from the ARPEFS by combined Fourier and multiple-scattering analyses. 202 refs., 67 figs., 2 tabs

  2. Wide Angle Michelson Doppler Imaging Interferometer (WAMDII)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, B.

    1986-01-01

    The wide angle Michelson Doppler imaging interferometer (WAMDII) is a specialized type of optical Michelson interferometer working at sufficiently long path difference to measure Doppler shifts and to infer Doppler line widths of naturally occurring upper atmospheric Gaussian line emissions. The instrument is intended to measure vertical profiles of atmospheric winds and temperatures within the altitude range of 85 km to 300 km. The WAMDII consists of a Michelson interferometer followed by a camera lens and an 85 x 106 charge coupled device photodiode array. Narrow band filters in a filter wheel are used to isolate individual line emissions and the lens forms an image of the emitting region on the charge coupled device array.

  3. Chuck for machining armature casings and angles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tashlitskii, A.I.; Matskevich, A.I.

    1984-01-01

    When machining T-joints and angles, the test specimen must be fixed before being placed in the desired position. This is quite a complex operation and is achieved in a few stages. At the Scientific Production Combine ''Kislorodmash,'' a new chuck was designed which in one pressing of the jaws seats and fixes the specimen. In the clamped condition, the chuck helps rotate and fix the specimen in one of the four positions. Rotating and fixing are manual. The chuck developed ensured a distinct interdependence of the axes of the branches being machined as the specimen remains fixed throughout the period of machining, and provides reliable fixing of the specimen, and there are no clearances when the specimen is fixed with a special wedge. When using the chuck, the ancillary movements of the operator are reduced to a minimum thus increasing the labor productivity

  4. Vascular anomalies of the cerebellopontine angle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papanagiotou, P.; Grunwald, I.Q.; Politi, M.; Struffert, T.; Ahlhelm, F.; Reith, W.

    2006-01-01

    Vascular anomalies of the cerebellopontine angle are rare compared to tumors in this area. Irritation of the trigeminal, facial, or vestibulocochlear nerve may cause trigeminal neuralgia, hemifacial spasm and vertigo, or tinnitus accordingly. Vessel loops in the cerebellopontine cisterns may cause compression at the root entry or exit zone of the cranial nerves V, VII, and VIII, a phenomenon which is called ''vascular loop syndrome.'' Megadolichobasilar artery and aneurysms of the vertebrobasilar system can also lead to dislocation and compression of the cranial nerves and brain stem. Three-dimensional CISS MR imaging and MR angiography are useful in the detection of neurovascular compression. Microvascular decompression is an effective surgical procedure in the management of compression syndromes of the cranial nerves V, VII, and VIII. (orig.) [de

  5. Scattering angle-based filtering via extension in velocity

    KAUST Repository

    Kazei, Vladimir; Tessmer, Ekkehart; Alkhalifah, Tariq

    2016-01-01

    The scattering angle between the source and receiver wavefields can be utilized in full-waveform inversion (FWI) and in reverse-time migration (RTM) for regularization and quality control or to remove low frequency artifacts. The access to the scattering angle information is costly as the relation between local image features and scattering angles has non-stationary nature. For the purpose of a more efficient scattering angle information extraction, we develop techniques that utilize the simplicity of the scattering angle based filters for constantvelocity background models. We split the background velocity model into several domains with different velocity ranges, generating an

  6. Spondylolysis and the sacro-horizontal angle in athletes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swaerd, L.; Hellstroem, M.; Jacobsson, B.; Peterson, L.; Sahlgrenska Sjukhuset, Goeteborg; King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh

    1989-01-01

    The frequency of spondylolysis and the relationship between spondylolysis and the sacro-horizontal angle in 143 athletes and 30 non-athletes is reported. Athletes had a larger sacro-horizontal angle than non-athletes. The sacro-horizontal angle was larger in athletes with spondylolysis as compared with those without. An increased incidence of spondylolysis with an increased angle was demonstrated. It is suggested that an increased sacro-horizontal angle may predispose to spondylolysis, especially in combination with the high mechanical loads sustained in certain sports. (orig.)

  7. Spondylolysis and the sacro-horizontal angle in athletes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaerd, L.; Hellstroem, M.; Jacobsson, B.; Peterson, L. (Oestra Sjukhuset, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Orthopaedics; Sahlgrenska Sjukhuset, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology; King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia). Dept. of Radiology)

    The frequency of spondylolysis and the relationship between spondylolysis and the sacro-horizontal angle in 143 athletes and 30 non-athletes is reported. Athletes had a larger sacro-horizontal angle than non-athletes. The sacro-horizontal angle was larger in athletes with spondylolysis as compared with those without. An increased incidence of spondylolysis with an increased angle was demonstrated. It is suggested that an increased sacro-horizontal angle may predispose to spondylolysis, especially in combination with the high mechanical loads sustained in certain sports. (orig.).

  8. Scattering angle-based filtering via extension in velocity

    KAUST Repository

    Kazei, Vladimir

    2016-09-06

    The scattering angle between the source and receiver wavefields can be utilized in full-waveform inversion (FWI) and in reverse-time migration (RTM) for regularization and quality control or to remove low frequency artifacts. The access to the scattering angle information is costly as the relation between local image features and scattering angles has non-stationary nature. For the purpose of a more efficient scattering angle information extraction, we develop techniques that utilize the simplicity of the scattering angle based filters for constantvelocity background models. We split the background velocity model into several domains with different velocity ranges, generating an

  9. Dilemma of gonial angle measurement: Panoramic radiograph or lateral cephalogram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radhakrishnan, Pillai Devu; Varma, Nilambur Kovilakam Sapna; Ajith, Vallikat Velath [Dept. of Orthodontics, Amrita School of Dentistry, Kochi (India)

    2017-06-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of panoramic imaging in measuring the right and left gonial angles by comparing the measured angles with the angles determined using a lateral cephalogram of adult patients with class I malocclusion. The gonial angles of 50 class I malocclusion patients (25 males and 25 females; mean age: 23 years) were measured using both a lateral cephalogram and a panoramic radiograph. In the lateral cephalograms, the gonial angle was measured at the point of intersection of the ramus plane and the mandibular plane. In the panoramic radiographs, the gonial angle was measured by drawing a line tangent to the lower border of the mandible and another line tangent to the distal border of the ascending ramus and the condyle on both sides. The data obtained from both radiographs were statistically compared. No statistically significant difference was observed between the gonial angle measured using the lateral cephalograms and that determined using the panoramic radiographs. Further, there was no statistically significant difference in the measured gonial angle with respect to gender. The results also showed a statistically insignificant difference in the mean of the right and the left gonial angles measured using the panoramic radiographs. As the gonial angle measurements using panoramic radiographs and lateral cephalograms showed no statistically significant difference, panoramic radiography can be considered in orthodontics for measuring the gonial angle without any interference due to superimposed images.

  10. FDIC Summary of Deposits (SOD) Download File

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation — The FDIC's Summary of Deposits (SOD) download file contains deposit data for branches and offices of all FDIC-insured institutions. The Federal Deposit Insurance...

  11. Microstructure, optical characterization and light induced degradation in a-Si:H deposited at different temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minani, E.; Sigcau, Z.; Adgebite, O.; Ramukosi, F.L.; Ntsoane, T.P.; Harindintwari, S.; Knoesen, D.; Comrie, C.M.; Britton, D.T.; Haerting, M.

    2006-01-01

    The microstructure and optical properties of a series of hydrogenated amorphous silicon layers deposited on glass substrates at different temperature have been characterized by means of X-ray diffraction techniques and optical spectroscopy. The radial distribution function of the as-deposited samples showed an increase in the bond angle and a decrease in the radial distance indicating a relaxation of the amorphous network with increasing the deposition temperature. Light induced degradation was studied using a simulated daylight spectrum. The changes in hydrogen bonding configuration, associated with the light soaking at different stages of illumination, was monitored via the transmission bands of the vibrational wag and stretch modes of the IR spectrum

  12. Angle Kappa and its importance in refractive surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Moshirfar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Angle kappa is the difference between the pupillary and visual axis. This measurement is of paramount consideration in refractive surgery, as proper centration is required for optimal results. Angle kappa may contribute to MFIOL decentration and its resultant photic phenomena. Adjusting placement of MFIOLs for angle kappa is not supported by the literature but is likely to help reduce glare and haloes. Centering LASIK in angle kappa patients over the corneal light reflex is safe, efficacious, and recommended. Centering in-between the corneal reflex and the entrance pupil is also safe and efficacious. The literature regarding PRK in patients with an angle kappa is sparse but centering on the corneal reflex is assumed to be similar to centering LASIK on the corneal reflex. Thus, centration of MFIOLs, LASIK, and PRK should be focused on the corneal reflex for patients with a large angle kappa. More research is needed to guide surgeons′ approach to angle kappa.

  13. Ten helical twist angles of B-DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabsch, W; Sander, C; Trifonov, E N

    1982-01-01

    On the assumption that the twist angles between adjacent base-pairs in the DNA molecule are additive a linear system of 40 equations was derived from experimental measurements of the total twist angles for different pieces of DNA of known sequences. This system of equations is found to be statistically consistent providing a solution for all ten possible twist angles of B-DNA by a least squares fitting procedure. Four of the calculated twist angles were not known before. The other six twist angles calculated are very close to the experimentally measured ones. The data used were obtained by the electrophoretic band-shift method, crystallography and nuclease digestion of DNA adsorbed to mica or Ca-phosphate surface. The validity of the principle of additivity of the twist angles implies that the angle between any particular two base-pairs is a function of only these base-pairs, independent of nearest neighbors.

  14. The influence of the electrical asymmetry effect on deposition uniformity of thin silicon film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hrunski, D., E-mail: Dzmitry.Hrunski@leyboldoptics.com; Janssen, A.; Fritz, T.; Hegemann, T.; Clark, C.; Schreiber, U.; Grabosch, G.

    2013-04-01

    The deposition of amorphous and microcrystalline silicon is an important step in the production of thin silicon film solar panels. Deposition rate, layer uniformity and material quality are key attributes for achieving high efficiency in such panels. Due to the multilayer structure of tandem solar cells (more than 6 thin silicon layers), it is becoming increasingly important to improve the uniformity of deposition without sacrificing deposition rate and material quality. This paper reports the results of an investigation into the influence of the electrical asymmetry effect (EAE) on the uniformity of deposited layers. 13.56 MHz + 27.12 MHz excitation frequencies were used for thin silicon film deposition in a Gen5 reactor (1100 × 1400 mm). To change the plasma properties, the DC self bias voltage on the RF electrode was varied by adjustment of the phase angle between the two frequencies applied. It was found that the layers deposited by EAE method have better uniformity than layers deposited in single frequency 27.12 MHz discharge. The EAE provides additional opportunities for improvement of uniformity, deposition rate and material quality. - Highlights: ► The electrical asymmetry effect technique tested for thin silicon film deposition ► Bias voltage has an influence on film uniformity. ► Minimized the deterioration of layer uniformity while increasing discharge frequency.

  15. Wettability of modified silica layers deposited on glass support activated by plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terpiłowski, Konrad, E-mail: terpil@umcs.pl [Department of Physical Chemistry – Interfacial Phenomena, Faculty of Chemistry, Maria Curie-Sklodowska University, Lublin (Poland); Rymuszka, Diana [Department of Physical Chemistry – Interfacial Phenomena, Faculty of Chemistry, Maria Curie-Sklodowska University, Lublin (Poland); Goncharuk, Olena V.; Sulym, Iryna Ya.; Gun’ko, Vladimir M. [Chuiko Institute of Surface Chemistry, National Academy of Science of Ukraine, Kiev (Ukraine)

    2015-10-30

    Highlights: • New modified silica materials synthesis. • Support surface plasma activation. • Apparent surface free energy determination. • Equilibrium contact angle calculation. - Abstract: Fumed silica modified by hexamethyldisilazane [HDMS] and polydimethylsiloxane [PDMS] was dispersed in a polystyrene/chloroform solution. To increase adhesion between deposited silica layers and a glass surface, the latter was pretreated with air plasma for 30 s. The silica/polystyrene dispersion was deposited on the glass support using a spin coater. After deposition, the plates were dried in a desiccator for 24 h. Water advancing and receding contact angles were measured using the tilted plate method. The apparent surface free energy (γ{sub S}) was evaluated using the contact angle hysteresis approach. The surface topography was determined using the optical profilometry method. Contact angles changed from 59.7° ± 4.4 (at surface coverage with trimethylsilyl groups Θ = 0.14) to 155° ± 3.1 at Θ = 1. The value of γ{sub S} decreased from 51.3 ± 2.8 mJ/m{sup 2} (for the sample at the lowest value of Θ) to 1.0 ± 0.4 mJ/m{sup 2} for the most hydrophobic sample. Thus, some systems with a high degree of modification by HDMS showed superhydrophobicity, and the sliding angle amounted to about 16° ± 2.1.

  16. Contact Angle Hysteresis on Graphene Surfaces and Hysteresis-free Behavior on Oil-infused Graphite Surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Cyuan-Jhang; Li, Yueh-Feng [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National Central University, Jhongli 320, Taiwan (China); Woon, Wei-Yen [Department of Physics, National Central University, Jhongli 320, Taiwan (China); Sheng, Yu-Jane, E-mail: yjsheng@ntu.edu.tw [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Tsao, Heng-Kwong, E-mail: hktsao@cc.ncu.edu.tw [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National Central University, Jhongli 320, Taiwan (China); Department of Physics, National Central University, Jhongli 320, Taiwan (China)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Contact angle hysteresis(CAH) on four graphitic surfacesisinvestigated. • The hysteresis loopof water drops on the polished graphite sheetshowsparticularly small receding contact angle. • The significant CAH observed on CVD graphene and highly oriented pyrolytic graphite is attributed mainly to adhesion hysteresis. • An oil-infused surface of a graphite sheet is produced by imbibition of hexadecane into its porous structure. • The hysteresis-free property for water drops on such a surface is examined and quantitatively explained. - Abstract: Contact angle hysteresis (CAH) on graphitic surfaces, including chemical vapor deposition (CVD) graphene, reduced electrophoretic deposition (EPD) graphene, highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG), and polished graphite sheet, has been investigated. The hysteresis loops of water drops on the first three samples are similar but the receding contact angle is particularly small for the polished graphite sheet.The significant CAH observed on CVD graphene and HOPG associated with atom-scale roughness has to be attributed mainly to adhesion hysteresis (surface relaxation), instead of roughness or defects.The difference of the wetting behavior among those four graphitic samples has been further demonstrated by hexadecane drops. On the surface of HOPG or CVD graphene,the contact line expands continuously with time, indicating total wetting for which the contact angle does not exist and contact line pinning disappears. In contrast, on the surface of reduced EPD graphene, spontaneous spreading is halted by spikes on it and partial wetting with small contact angle (θ≈4°) is obtained. On the surface of polished graphite sheet, the superlipophilicity and porous structure are demonstrated by imbibition and capillary rise of hexadecane. Consequently, an oil-infused graphite surface can be fabricated and the ultralow CAH of water (∆θ≈2°) is achieved.

  17. Spatial control of direct chemical vapor deposition of graphene on silicon dioxide by directional copper dewetting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Beld, Wesley Theodorus Eduardus; van den Berg, Albert; Eijkel, Jan C.T.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present a method for the spatial control of direct graphene synthesis onto silicon dioxide by controlled dewetting. The dewetting process is controlled through a combination of using a grooved substrate and conducting copper deposition at an angle. The substrate is then treated

  18. Corrosion-resistant titanium nitride coatings formed on stainless steel by ion-beam-assisted deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baba, K.; Hatada, R.

    1994-01-01

    Titanium films 70nm thick were deposited on austenitic type 316L stainless steel substrates, and these specimens were irradiated with titanium ions of energy 70kV at a fluence of 1x10 17 ioncm -2 , using a metal vapor vacuum arc (MEVVA) IV metallic ion source at room temperature. After irradiation, titanium nitride (TiN) films were deposited by titanium evaporation and simultaneous irradiation by a nitrogen ion beam, with transport ratios of Ti to N atoms from 0.5 to 10.0 and an ion acceleration voltage of 2kV. The preferred orientation of the TiN films varied from left angle 200 right angle to left angle 111 right angle normal to the surface when the transport ratio was increased. With the help of Auger electron spectroscopy, interfacial mixing was verified. Nitrogen atoms were present in the state of titanium nitride for all transport ratios from 0.5 up to 10.0. However, the chemical bonding state of titanium changed from titanium nitride to the metallic state with increasing transport ratio Ti/N. The corrosion behavior was evaluated in an aqueous solution of sulfuric acid saturated with oxygen, using multisweep cyclic voltammetry measurements. Thin film deposition of pure titanium and titanium implantation prior to TiN deposition have beneficial effects on the suppression of transpassive chromium dissolution. ((orig.))

  19. Detection of tobacco smoke deposition by hyperpolarized krypton-83 MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleveland, Zackary I; Pavlovskaya, Galina E; Stupic, Karl F; Wooten, Jan B; Repine, John E; Meersmann, Thomas

    2008-02-01

    Despite the importance of the tobacco smoke particulate matter in the lungs to the etiology of pulmonary disease in cigarette smokers, little is currently known about the spatial distribution of particle deposition or the persistence of the resulting deposits in humans, and no satisfactory technique currently exists to directly observe tobacco smoke condensate in airways. In this proof-of-principle work, hyperpolarized (hp) 83Kr MRI and NMR spectroscopy are introduced as probes for tobacco smoke deposition in porous media. A reduction in the hp-83Kr longitudinal (T1) relaxation of up to 95% under near-ambient humidity, pressure and temperature conditions was observed when the krypton gas was brought into contact with surfaces that had been exposed to cigarette smoke. This smoke-induced acceleration of the 83Kr self-relaxation was observed for model glass surfaces that, in some experiments, were coated with bovine lung surfactant extract. However, a similar effect was not observed with hp-(129)Xe indicating that the 83Kr sensitivity to smoke deposition was not caused by paramagnetic species but rather by quadrupolar relaxation due to high adsorption affinity for the smoke deposits. The 83Kr T1 differences between smoke-treated and untreated surfaces were sufficient to produce a strong contrast in variable flip angle FLASH hp-83Kr MRI, suggesting that hp-83Kr may be a promising contrast agent for in vivo pulmonary MRI.

  20. Morphologies and wetting properties of copper film with 3D porous micro-nano hierarchical structure prepared by electrochemical deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Hongbin; Wang, Ning; Hang, Tao; Li, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A 3D porous micro-nano hierarchical structure Cu films were prepared. • The evolution of morphology and wettability with deposition time was reported. • The effects of EDA on the microscopic morphology were revealed. • A high contact angle of 162.1° was measured when deposition time is 5 s. • The mechanism of super-hydrophobicity was illustrated by two classical models. - Abstract: Three-dimensional porous micro-nano hierarchical structure Cu films were prepared by electrochemical deposition with the Hydrogen bubble dynamic template. The morphologies of the deposited films characterized by Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM) exhibit a porous micro-nano hierarchical structure, which consists of three levels in different size scales, namely the honeycomb-like microstructure, the dendritic substructure and the nano particles. Besides, the factors which influenced the microscopic morphology were studied, including the deposition time and the additive Ethylene diamine. By measuring the water contact angle, the porous copper films were found to be super-hydrophobic. The maximum of the contact angles could reach as high as 162.1°. An empirical correlation between morphologies and wetting properties was revealed for the first time. The pore diameter increased simultaneously with the deposition time while the contact angle decreased. The mechanism was illustrated by two classical models. Such super-hydrophobic three-dimensional hierarchical micro-nano structure is expected to have practical application in industry.