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Sample records for gis-based drastic model

  1. Assessment of aquifer intrinsic vulnerability using GIS based Drastic model in Sialkot area, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Saqib Khan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The intrinsic vulnerability of a shallow aquifer of Sialkot is assessed using DRASTIC index method. The information required as input for all seven parameters, i.e. depth to water table, net recharge, aquifer media, soil media, topography, the impact of vadose zone and hydraulic conductivity data were collected from literature surveys and on field surveys. A cumulative vulnerability map was developed using the indices obtained as a result of DRASTIC methodology. The values obtained from DRASTIC model for the study area were between 112 and 151. The area was dominated by medium and moderate vulnerable zones covering an area of 446 km2 and 442 km2 respectively. An area of 79 km2 was covered by the low vulnerable zone while the high vulnerable zone encompassed a total area of 38 km2. Least covered area i-e., 09 km2 was found in the vicinity of the very high vulnerable zone. The validation of the DRASTIC model using the nitrate distribution revealed that very high and high indices have the lower percentage of reliability than of the low to moderate zones as compared with the nitrate distribution in the groundwater.

  2. Evaluating the Potential of Groundwater Pollution in Kherran and Zoweircherry Plains through GIS-based DRASTIC Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manouchehr Chitsazan

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Zoweircherry and Kherran plains are located in the northeast ofAhwazin Khuzestan province. The water supply of these plains is a crucial issue and the quality of groundwater is also under the threat as a result of an increase in the use of agrochemicals. For this reason, assessing the vulnerability is an important factor in any policy-making decision for these plains. Focusing on this issue, this paper attempts to produce a groundwater vulnerability map for Zoweircherry and Kherran plains. The map is designed to show areas of highest potential for groundwater pollution on the basis of hydro-geological conditions and human impacts. Seven major hydro-geological factors (depth to water table, net recharge, aquifer media, soil media, topography, impact of vadose zone and hydraulic conductivity were incorporated into DRASTIC model and Geographical Information System (GIS was used to create a groundwater vulnerability map by overlaying the available hydro-geological data. The results of model exhibit that the west and southwest of the aquifer are dominated by medium vulnerability while small areas on northwest and east of the study area have no risk of pollution. Other parts of aquifer have low vulnerability. The nitrate analysis of groundwater samples shows that the existing nitrate on the west and southwest parts of aquifer is more than the existing nitrate on its other parts which, therefore, confirms the results of the vulnerability assessment.

  3. Mapping of coastal aquifer vulnerable zone in the south west coast of Kanyakumari, South India, using GIS-based DRASTIC model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliraj, S; Chandrasekar, N; Peter, T Simon; Selvakumar, S; Magesh, N S

    2015-01-01

    The south west coast of Kanyakumari district in Tamil Nadu, India, is significantly affected by seawater intrusion and diffusion of pollutants into the aquifers due to unregulated beach placer mining and other anthropogenic activities. The present study investigates the vulnerability of the coastal aquifers using Geographic Information System (GIS)-based DRASTIC model. The seven DRASTIC parameters have been analyzed using the statistical equation of this model to demarcate the vulnerable zones for aquifer contamination. The vulnerability index map is prepared from the weighted spatial parameters, and an accounting of total index value ranged from 85 to 213. Based on the categorization of vulnerability classes, the high vulnerable zones are found near the beach placer mining areas between Manavalakurichi and Kodimanal coastal stretches. The aquifers associated with settlements and agricultural lands in the middle-eastern part have experienced high vulnerability due to contaminated water bodies. Similarly, the coastal areas of Thengapattinam and Manakudi estuary and around the South Tamaraikulam have also been falling under high vulnerability condition due to backwater and saltpan. In general, the nearshore region except the placer mining zone and the backwater has a moderately vulnerable condition, and the vulnerability index values range from 149 to180. Significantly, the northern and northeastern uplands and some parts of deposition zones in the middle-south coast have been identified as low to no vulnerable conditions. They are structurally controlled by various geological features such as charnockite, garnet biotite gneiss and granites, and sand dunes, respectively. The aquifer vulnerability assessment has been cross-verified by geochemical indicators such as total dissolved solids (TDS), Cl(-), HCO₃(-), and Cl(-)/HCO₃(-) ratio. The high ranges of TDS (1,842--3,736 mg/l) and Cl(-) (1,412--2,112 mg/l) values are well correlated with the observed high

  4. Determining shallow aquifer vulnerability by the DRASTIC model ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shallow aquifer vulnerability has been assessed using GIS-based DRASTIC model by incorporating the major geological and hydrogeological factors that affect and control the groundwater contamination in a granitic terrain. It provides a relative indication of aquifer vulnerability to the contamination. Further, it has been ...

  5. WATGIS: A GIS-Based Lumped Parameter Water Quality Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn P. Fernandez; George M. Chescheir; R. Wayne Skaggs; Devendra M. Amatya

    2002-01-01

    A Geographic Information System (GIS)­based, lumped parameter water quality model was developed to estimate the spatial and temporal nitrogen­loading patterns for lower coastal plain watersheds in eastern North Carolina. The model uses a spatially distributed delivery ratio (DR) parameter to account for nitrogen retention or loss along a drainage network. Delivery...

  6. GIS-Based Population Model Applied to Nevada Transportation Routes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, G.S.; Neuhauser, K.S.

    1999-01-01

    Recently, a model based on geographic information system (GIS) processing of US Census Block data has made high-resolution population analysis for transportation risk analysis technically and economically feasible. Population density bordering each kilometer of a route may be tabulated with specific route sections falling into each of three categories (Rural, Suburban or Urban) identified for separate risk analysis. In addition to the improvement in resolution of Urban areas along a route, the model provides a statistically-based correction to population densities in Rural and Suburban areas where Census Block dimensions may greatly exceed the 800-meter scale of interest. A semi-automated application of the GIS model to a subset of routes in Nevada (related to the Yucca Mountain project) are presented, and the results compared to previous models including a model based on published Census and other data. These comparisons demonstrate that meaningful improvement in accuracy and specificity of transportation risk analyses is dependent on correspondingly accurate and geographically-specific population density data

  7. Gis-Based Smart Cartography Using 3d Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinverni, E. S.; Tassetti, A. N.

    2013-08-01

    3D City Models have evolved to be important tools for urban decision processes and information systems, especially in planning, simulation, analysis, documentation and heritage management. On the other hand existing and in use numerical cartography is often not suitable to be used in GIS because not geometrically and topologically correctly structured. The research aim is to 3D structure and organize a numeric cartography for GIS and turn it into CityGML standardized features. The work is framed around a first phase of methodological analysis aimed to underline which existing standard (like ISO and OGC rules) can be used to improve the quality requirement of a cartographic structure. Subsequently, from this technical specifics, it has been investigated the translation in formal contents, using an owner interchange software (SketchUp), to support some guide lines implementations to generate a GIS3D structured in GML3. It has been therefore predisposed a test three-dimensional numerical cartography (scale 1:500, generated from range data captured by 3D laser scanner), tested on its quality according to the previous standard and edited when and where necessary. Cad files and shapefiles are converted into a final 3D model (Google SketchUp model) and then exported into a 3D city model (CityGML LoD1/LoD2). The GIS3D structure has been managed in a GIS environment to run further spatial analysis and energy performance estimate, not achievable in a 2D environment. In particular geometrical building parameters (footprint, volume etc.) are computed and building envelop thermal characteristics are derived from. Lastly, a simulation is carried out to deal with asbestos and home renovating charges and show how the built 3D city model can support municipal managers with risk diagnosis of the present situation and development of strategies for a sustainable redevelop.

  8. A GIS-based hedonic price model for agricultural land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demetriou, Demetris

    2015-06-01

    Land consolidation is a very effective land management planning approach that aims towards rural/agricultural sustainable development. Land reallocation which involves land tenure restructuring is the most important, complex and time consuming component of land consolidation. Land reallocation relies on land valuation since its fundamental principle provides that after consolidation, each landowner shall be granted a property of an aggregate value that is approximately the same as the value of the property owned prior to consolidation. Therefore, land value is the crucial factor for the land reallocation process and hence for the success and acceptance of the final land consolidation plan. Land valuation is a process of assigning values to all parcels (and its contents) and it is usually carried out by an ad-hoc committee. However, the process faces some problems such as it is time consuming hence costly, outcomes may present inconsistency since it is carried out manually and empirically without employing systematic analytical tools and in particular spatial analysis tools and techniques such as statistical/mathematical. A solution to these problems can be the employment of mass appraisal land valuation methods using automated valuation models (AVM) based on international standards. In this context, this paper presents a spatial based linear hedonic price model which has been developed and tested in a case study land consolidation area in Cyprus. Results showed that the AVM is capable to produce acceptable in terms of accuracy and reliability land values and to reduce time hence cost required by around 80%.

  9. GIS-based hydrogeological databases and groundwater modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogu, Radu Constantin; Carabin, Guy; Hallet, Vincent; Peters, Valerie; Dassargues, Alain

    2001-12-01

    Reliability and validity of groundwater analysis strongly depend on the availability of large volumes of high-quality data. Putting all data into a coherent and logical structure supported by a computing environment helps ensure validity and availability and provides a powerful tool for hydrogeological studies. A hydrogeological geographic information system (GIS) database that offers facilities for groundwater-vulnerability analysis and hydrogeological modelling has been designed in Belgium for the Walloon region. Data from five river basins, chosen for their contrasting hydrogeological characteristics, have been included in the database, and a set of applications that have been developed now allow further advances. Interest is growing in the potential for integrating GIS technology and groundwater simulation models. A "loose-coupling" tool was created between the spatial-database scheme and the groundwater numerical model interface GMS (Groundwater Modelling System). Following time and spatial queries, the hydrogeological data stored in the database can be easily used within different groundwater numerical models. Résumé. La validité et la reproductibilité de l'analyse d'un aquifère dépend étroitement de la disponibilité de grandes quantités de données de très bonne qualité. Le fait de mettre toutes les données dans une structure cohérente et logique soutenue par les logiciels nécessaires aide à assurer la validité et la disponibilité et fournit un outil puissant pour les études hydrogéologiques. Une base de données pour un système d'information géographique (SIG) hydrogéologique qui offre toutes les facilités pour l'analyse de la vulnérabilité des eaux souterraines et la modélisation hydrogéologique a été établi en Belgique pour la région Wallonne. Les données de cinq bassins de rivières, choisis pour leurs caractéristiques hydrogéologiques différentes, ont été introduites dans la base de données, et un ensemble d

  10. Evaluation of AirGIS: a GIS-based air pollution and human exposure modelling system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ketzel, Matthias; Berkowicz, Ruwim; Hvidberg, Martin

    2011-01-01

    This study describes in brief the latest extensions of the Danish Geographic Information System (GIS)-based air pollution and human exposure modelling system (AirGIS), which has been developed in Denmark since 2001 and gives results of an evaluation with measured air pollution data. The system...... shows, in general, a good performance for both long-term averages (annual and monthly averages), short-term averages (hourly and daily) as well as when reproducing spatial variation in air pollution concentrations. Some shortcomings and future perspectives of the system are discussed too....

  11. Modeling groundwater vulnerability to pollution using Optimized DRASTIC model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mogaji, Kehinde Anthony; Lim, Hwee San; Abdullar, Khiruddin

    2014-01-01

    The prediction accuracy of the conventional DRASTIC model (CDM) algorithm for groundwater vulnerability assessment is severely limited by the inherent subjectivity and uncertainty in the integration of data obtained from various sources. This study attempts to overcome these problems by exploring the potential of the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) technique as a decision support model to optimize the CDM algorithm. The AHP technique was utilized to compute the normalized weights for the seven parameters of the CDM to generate an optimized DRASTIC model (ODM) algorithm. The DRASTIC parameters integrated with the ODM algorithm predicted which among the study areas is more likely to become contaminated as a result of activities at or near the land surface potential. Five vulnerability zones, namely: no vulnerable(NV), very low vulnerable (VLV), low vulnerable (LV), moderate vulnerable (MV) and high vulnerable (HV) were identified based on the vulnerability index values estimated with the ODM algorithm. Results show that more than 50% of the area belongs to both moderate and high vulnerable zones on the account of the spatial analysis of the produced ODM-based groundwater vulnerability prediction map (GVPM).The prediction accuracy of the ODM-based – GVPM with the groundwater pH and manganese (Mn) concentrations established correlation factors (CRs) result of 90 % and 86 % compared to the CRs result of 62 % and 50 % obtained for the validation accuracy of the CDM – based GVPM. The comparative results, indicated that the ODM-based produced GVPM is more reliable than the CDM – based produced GVPM in the study area. The study established the efficacy of AHP as a spatial decision support technique in enhancing environmental decision making with particular reference to future groundwater vulnerability assessment

  12. Landslide susceptibility mapping using GIS-based statistical models and Remote sensing data in tropical environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahabi, Himan; Hashim, Mazlan

    2015-04-22

    This research presents the results of the GIS-based statistical models for generation of landslide susceptibility mapping using geographic information system (GIS) and remote-sensing data for Cameron Highlands area in Malaysia. Ten factors including slope, aspect, soil, lithology, NDVI, land cover, distance to drainage, precipitation, distance to fault, and distance to road were extracted from SAR data, SPOT 5 and WorldView-1 images. The relationships between the detected landslide locations and these ten related factors were identified by using GIS-based statistical models including analytical hierarchy process (AHP), weighted linear combination (WLC) and spatial multi-criteria evaluation (SMCE) models. The landslide inventory map which has a total of 92 landslide locations was created based on numerous resources such as digital aerial photographs, AIRSAR data, WorldView-1 images, and field surveys. Then, 80% of the landslide inventory was used for training the statistical models and the remaining 20% was used for validation purpose. The validation results using the Relative landslide density index (R-index) and Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) demonstrated that the SMCE model (accuracy is 96%) is better in prediction than AHP (accuracy is 91%) and WLC (accuracy is 89%) models. These landslide susceptibility maps would be useful for hazard mitigation purpose and regional planning.

  13. Determining shallow aquifer vulnerability by the DRASTIC model and hydrochemistry in granitic terrain, southern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, N. C.; Adike, S.; Singh, V. S.; Ahmed, S.; Jayakumar, K. V.

    2017-08-01

    Shallow aquifer vulnerability has been assessed using GIS-based DRASTIC model by incorporating the major geological and hydrogeological factors that affect and control the groundwater contamination in a granitic terrain. It provides a relative indication of aquifer vulnerability to the contamination. Further, it has been cross-verified with hydrochemical signatures such as total dissolved solids (TDS), Cl-, HCO3-, SO4^{2-} and Cl-/HCO3- molar ratios. The results show four zones of aquifer vulnerability (i.e., negligible, low, moderate and high) based on the variation of DRASTIC Vulnerability Index (DVI) between 39 and 132. About 57% area in the central part is found moderately and highly contaminated due to the 80 functional tannery disposals and is more prone to groundwater aquifer vulnerability. The high range values of TDS (2304-39,100 mg/l); Na+(239- 6,046 mg/l) and Cl- (532-13,652 mg/l) are well correlated with the observed high vulnerable zones. The values of Cl-/HCO3- (molar ratios: 1.4-106.8) in the high vulnerable zone obviously indicate deterioration of the aquifer due to contamination. Further cumulative probability distributions of these parameters indicate several threshold values which are able to demarcate the diverse vulnerability zones in granitic terrain.

  14. GIS-Based Planning and Modeling for Renewable Energy: Challenges and Future Research Avenues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Resch

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the face of the broad political call for an “energy turnaround”, we are currently witnessing three essential trends with regard to energy infrastructure planning, energy generation and storage: from planned production towards fluctuating production on the basis of renewable energy sources, from centralized generation towards decentralized generation and from expensive energy carriers towards cost-free energy carriers. These changes necessitate considerable modifications of the energy infrastructure. Even though most of these modifications are inherently motivated by geospatial questions and challenges, the integration of energy system models and Geographic Information Systems (GIS is still in its infancy. This paper analyzes the shortcomings of previous approaches in using GIS in renewable energy-related projects, extracts distinct challenges from these previous efforts and, finally, defines a set of core future research avenues for GIS-based energy infrastructure planning with a focus on the use of renewable energy. These future research avenues comprise the availability base data and their “geospatial awareness”, the development of a generic and unified data model, the usage of volunteered geographic information (VGI and crowdsourced data in analysis processes, the integration of 3D building models and 3D data analysis, the incorporation of network topologies into GIS, the harmonization of the heterogeneous views on aggregation issues in the fields of energy and GIS, fine-grained energy demand estimation from freely-available data sources, decentralized storage facility planning, the investigation of GIS-based public participation mechanisms, the transition from purely structural to operational planning, data privacy aspects and, finally, the development of a new dynamic power market design.

  15. GIS based generation of dynamic hydrological and land patch simulation models for rural watershed areas

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    M. Varga

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a GIS based methodology to generate dynamic process model for the simulation based analysis of a sensitive rural watershed. The Direct Computer Mapping (DCM based solution starts from GIS layers and, via the graph interpretation and graphical edition of the process network, the expert interface is able to integrate the field experts’ knowledge in the computer aided generation of the simulation model. The methodology was applied and tested for the Southern catchment basin of Lake Balaton, Hungary. In the simplified hydrological model the GIS description of nine watercourses, 121 water sections, 57 small lakes and 20 Lake Balaton compartments were mapped through the expert interface to the dynamic databases of the DCM model. The hydrological model involved precipitation, evaporation, transpiration, runoff, infiltration. The COoRdination of INformation on the Environment (CORINE land cover based simplified “land patch” model considered the effect of meteorological and hydrological scenarios on freshwater resources in the land patches, rivers and lakes. The first results show that the applied model generation methodology helps to build complex models, which, after validation can support the analysis of various land use, with the consideration of environmental aspects.

  16. Comparing the Performance of Commonly Available Digital Elevation Models in GIS-based Flood Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ybanez, R. L.; Lagmay, A. M. A.; David, C. P.

    2016-12-01

    With climatological hazards increasing globally, the Philippines is listed as one of the most vulnerable countries in the world due to its location in the Western Pacific. Flood hazards mapping and modelling is one of the responses by local government and research institutions to help prepare for and mitigate the effects of flood hazards that constantly threaten towns and cities in floodplains during the 6-month rainy season. Available digital elevation maps, which serve as the most important dataset used in 2D flood modelling, are limited in the Philippines and testing is needed to determine which of the few would work best for flood hazards mapping and modelling. Two-dimensional GIS-based flood modelling with the flood-routing software FLO-2D was conducted using three different available DEMs from the ASTER GDEM, the SRTM GDEM, and the locally available IfSAR DTM. All other parameters kept uniform, such as resolution, soil parameters, rainfall amount, and surface roughness, the three models were run over a 129-sq. kilometer watershed with only the basemap varying. The output flood hazard maps were compared on the basis of their flood distribution, extent, and depth. The ASTER and SRTM GDEMs contained too much error and noise which manifested as dissipated and dissolved hazard areas in the lower watershed where clearly delineated flood hazards should be present. Noise on the two datasets are clearly visible as erratic mounds in the floodplain. The dataset which produced the only feasible flood hazard map is the IfSAR DTM which delineates flood hazard areas clearly and properly. Despite the use of ASTER and SRTM with their published resolution and accuracy, their use in GIS-based flood modelling would be unreliable. Although not as accessible, only IfSAR or better datasets should be used for creating secondary products from these base DEM datasets. For developing countries which are most prone to hazards, but with limited choices for basemaps used in hazards

  17. Comparing GIS-based habitat models for applications in EIA and SEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gontier, Mikael; Moertberg, Ulla; Balfors, Berit

    2010-01-01

    Land use changes, urbanisation and infrastructure developments in particular, cause fragmentation of natural habitats and threaten biodiversity. Tools and measures must be adapted to assess and remedy the potential effects on biodiversity caused by human activities and developments. Within physical planning, environmental impact assessment (EIA) and strategic environmental assessment (SEA) play important roles in the prediction and assessment of biodiversity-related impacts from planned developments. However, adapted prediction tools to forecast and quantify potential impacts on biodiversity components are lacking. This study tested and compared four different GIS-based habitat models and assessed their relevance for applications in environmental assessment. The models were implemented in the Stockholm region in central Sweden and applied to data on the crested tit (Parus cristatus), a sedentary bird species of coniferous forest. All four models performed well and allowed the distribution of suitable habitats for the crested tit in the Stockholm region to be predicted. The models were also used to predict and quantify habitat loss for two regional development scenarios. The study highlighted the importance of model selection in impact prediction. Criteria that are relevant for the choice of model for predicting impacts on biodiversity were identified and discussed. Finally, the importance of environmental assessment for the preservation of biodiversity within the general frame of biodiversity conservation is emphasised.

  18. A GIS-based atmospheric dispersion model for pollutants emitted by complex source areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teggi, Sergio; Costanzini, Sofia; Ghermandi, Grazia; Malagoli, Carlotta; Vinceti, Marco

    2018-01-01

    Gaussian dispersion models are widely used to simulate the concentrations and deposition fluxes of pollutants emitted by source areas. Very often, the calculation time limits the number of sources and receptors and the geometry of the sources must be simple and without holes. This paper presents CAREA, a new GIS-based Gaussian model for complex source areas. CAREA was coded in the Python language, and is largely based on a simplified formulation of the very popular and recognized AERMOD model. The model allows users to define in a GIS environment thousands of gridded or scattered receptors and thousands of complex sources with hundreds of vertices and holes. CAREA computes ground level, or near ground level, concentrations and dry deposition fluxes of pollutants. The input/output and the runs of the model can be completely managed in GIS environment (e.g. inside a GIS project). The paper presents the CAREA formulation and its applications to very complex test cases. The tests shows that the processing time are satisfactory and that the definition of sources and receptors and the output retrieval are quite easy in a GIS environment. CAREA and AERMOD are compared using simple and reproducible test cases. The comparison shows that CAREA satisfactorily reproduces AERMOD simulations and is considerably faster than AERMOD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. GIS-based modelling of odour emitted from the waste processing plant: case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sόwka Izabela

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The emission of odours into the atmospheric air from the municipal economy and industrial plants, especially in urbanized areas, causes a serious problem, which the mankind has been struggling with for years. The excessive exposure of people to odours may result in many negative health effects, including, for example, headaches and vomiting. There are many different methods that are used in order to evaluate the odour nuisance. The results obtained through those methods can then be used to carry out a visualization and an analysis of a distribution of the odour concentrations in a given area by using the GIS (Geographic Information System. By their application to the spatial analysis of the impact of odours, we can enable the assessment of the magnitude and likelihood of the occurrence of odour nuisance. Modelling using GIS tools and spatial interpolation like IDW method and kriging can provide an alternative to the standard modelling tools, which generally use the emission values from sources that are identified as major emitters of odours. The work presents the result, based on the odour measurements data from waste processing plant, of the attempt to connect two different tools – the reference model OPERAT FB and GIS-based dispersion modelling performed using IDW method and ordinary kriging to analyse their behaviour in terms of limited observation values.

  20. GIS-based models for ambient PM exposure and health impact assessment for the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stedman, John R; Grice, Susannah; Kent, Andrew; Cooke, Sally

    2009-01-01

    GIS-based models have been developed to map ambient PM 10 and PM 25 mass concentrations across the UK. The resulting maps are used for the assessments of air quality required by the EU ambient air quality directives, health impact assessment and the development of UK air quality policy. Maps are presented for 2006 along with projections to 2020. The largest single contribution to the UK population-weighted mean annual mean background concentrations of PM 10 in 2006 is estimated to be from secondary PM (43%), followed by the contribution from primary PM (24%). Concentrations are predicted to decline by 15% for PM 10 and 13% for PM 25 over the period from 2006 to 2020. The extent of exceedence of the 24-hour limit value is predicted to decline from 1.9% to 0.1% of urban major roads over the same period. The potential health benefits of reductions in ambient PM are large. A reduction in concentration of 0.93 μg m -3 as a result of a possible package of measures has been estimated within the UK Air Quality Strategy to result in a reduction in life years lost of approximately 2 - 4 million over a period of 100 years.

  1. A simplified GIS-based model for large wood recruitment and connectivity in mountain basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucía, Ana; Antonello, Andrea; Campana, Daniela; Cavalli, Marco; Crema, Stefano; Franceschi, Silvia; Marchese, Enrico; Niedrist, Martin; Schneiderbauer, Stefan; Comiti, Francesco

    2014-05-01

    The mobilization of large wood (LW) elements in mountain rivers channels during floods may increase their hazard potential, especially by clogging narrow sections such as bridges. However, the prediction of LW transport magnitude during flood events is a challenging topic. Although some models on LW transport have been recently developed, the objective of this work was to generate a simplified GIS-based model to identify along the channel network the most likely LW-related critical sections during high-magnitude flood events in forested mountain basins. Potential LW contribution generated by landsliding occurring on hillslopes is assessed using SHALSTAB stability model coupled to a GIS-based connectivity index, developed as a modification of the index proposed by Cavalli et al (2013). Connected slope-derived LW volumes are then summed at each raster cell to LW volumes generated by bank erosion along the erodibile part of river corridors, where bank erosion processes are estimated based on user-defined channel widening ratios stemming from observations following recent extreme events in mountain basins. LW volume in the channel is then routed through the stream network applying simple Boolean rules meant to capture the most important limiting transport condition in these high-energy systems at flood stage, i.e. flow width relative to log length. In addition, the role of bridges and retention check-dams in blocking floating logs is accounted for in the model, in particular bridge length and height are used to characterize their clogging susceptibility for different levels of expected LW volumes and size. The model has been tested in the Rienz and Ahr basins (about 630 km2 each), located in the Eastern Italian Alps. Sixty percent of the basin area is forested, and elevations range from 811 m a.s.l. to 3488 m a.s.l.. We used a 2.5 m resolution DTM and DSM, and their difference was used to calculate the canopy height. Data from 35 plots of the National Forest Inventory

  2. An Overview of GIS-Based Modeling and Assessment of Mining-Induced Hazards: Soil, Water, and Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Jangwon; Kim, Sung-Min; Yi, Huiuk; Choi, Yosoon

    2017-11-27

    In this study, current geographic information system (GIS)-based methods and their application for the modeling and assessment of mining-induced hazards were reviewed. Various types of mining-induced hazard, including soil contamination, soil erosion, water pollution, and deforestation were considered in the discussion of the strength and role of GIS as a viable problem-solving tool in relation to mining-induced hazards. The various types of mining-induced hazard were classified into two or three subtopics according to the steps involved in the reclamation procedure, or elements of the hazard of interest. Because GIS is appropriated for the handling of geospatial data in relation to mining-induced hazards, the application and feasibility of exploiting GIS-based modeling and assessment of mining-induced hazards within the mining industry could be expanded further.

  3. An Overview of GIS-Based Modeling and Assessment of Mining-Induced Hazards: Soil, Water, and Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Min; Yi, Huiuk; Choi, Yosoon

    2017-01-01

    In this study, current geographic information system (GIS)-based methods and their application for the modeling and assessment of mining-induced hazards were reviewed. Various types of mining-induced hazard, including soil contamination, soil erosion, water pollution, and deforestation were considered in the discussion of the strength and role of GIS as a viable problem-solving tool in relation to mining-induced hazards. The various types of mining-induced hazard were classified into two or three subtopics according to the steps involved in the reclamation procedure, or elements of the hazard of interest. Because GIS is appropriated for the handling of geospatial data in relation to mining-induced hazards, the application and feasibility of exploiting GIS-based modeling and assessment of mining-induced hazards within the mining industry could be expanded further. PMID:29186922

  4. An Overview of GIS-Based Modeling and Assessment of Mining-Induced Hazards: Soil, Water, and Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jangwon Suh

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, current geographic information system (GIS-based methods and their application for the modeling and assessment of mining-induced hazards were reviewed. Various types of mining-induced hazard, including soil contamination, soil erosion, water pollution, and deforestation were considered in the discussion of the strength and role of GIS as a viable problem-solving tool in relation to mining-induced hazards. The various types of mining-induced hazard were classified into two or three subtopics according to the steps involved in the reclamation procedure, or elements of the hazard of interest. Because GIS is appropriated for the handling of geospatial data in relation to mining-induced hazards, the application and feasibility of exploiting GIS-based modeling and assessment of mining-induced hazards within the mining industry could be expanded further.

  5. An Overview of GIS-Based Modeling and Assessment of Mining-Induced Hazards: Soil, Water, and Forest

    OpenAIRE

    Suh, Jangwon; Kim, Sung-Min; Yi, Huiuk; Choi, Yosoon

    2017-01-01

    In this study, current geographic information system (GIS)-based methods and their application for the modeling and assessment of mining-induced hazards were reviewed. Various types of mining-induced hazard, including soil contamination, soil erosion, water pollution, and deforestation were considered in the discussion of the strength and role of GIS as a viable problem-solving tool in relation to mining-induced hazards. The various types of mining-induced hazard were classified into two or t...

  6. Rainfall-runoff modeling of the Chapel Branch Creek Watershed using GIS-based rational and SCS-CN methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizabeth N. Mihalik; Norm S. Levine; Devendra M. Amatya

    2008-01-01

    Chapel Branch Creek (CBC), located within the Town of Santee adjacent to Lake Marion in Orangeburg County, SC, is listed on the SC 2004 303(d) list of impaired waterbodies due to elevated levels of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), chlorophyll-a, and pH. In this study, using a GIS-based approach, two runoff modeling methods, the Rational and SCS-CN methods, have been...

  7. Renewable energy: GIS-based mapping and modelling of potentials and demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaschke, Thomas; Biberacher, Markus; Schardinger, Ingrid.; Gadocha, Sabine; Zocher, Daniela

    2010-05-01

    Worldwide demand of energy is growing and will continue to do so for the next decades to come. IEA has estimated that global primary energy demand will increase by 40 - 50% from 2003 to 2030 (IEA, 2005) depending on the fact whether currently contemplated energy policies directed towards energy-saving and fuel-diversification will be effectuated. The demand for Renewable Energy (RE) is undenied but clear figures and spatially disaggregated potentials for the various energy carriers are very rare. Renewable Energies are expected to reduce pressures on the environment and CO2 production. In several studies in Germany (North-Rhine Westphalia and Lower Saxony) and Austria we studied the current and future pattern of energy production and consumption. In this paper we summarize and benchmark different RE carriers, namely wind, biomass (forest and non-forest, geothermal, solar and hydro power. We demonstrate that GIS-based scalable and flexible information delivery sheds new light on the prevailing metaphor of GIS as a processing engine serving needs of users more on demand rather than through ‘maps on stock'. We compare our finding with those of several energy related EU-FP7 projects in Europe where we have been involved - namely GEOBENE, REACCESS, ENERGEO - and demonstrate that more and more spatial data will become available together with tools that allow experts to do their own analyses and to communicate their results in ways which policy makers and the public can readily understand and use as a basis for their own actions. Geoportals in combination with standardised geoprocessing today supports the older vision of an automated presentation of data on maps, and - if user privileges are given - facilities to interactively manipulate these maps. We conclude that the most critical factor in modelling energy supply and demand remain the economic valuation of goods and services, especially the forecast of future end consumer energy costs.

  8. GIS-Based KW-GIUH hydrological model of semiarid catchments: The case of Faria Catchment, Palestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shadeed, S.; Shaheen, H.; Jayyousi, A.

    2007-01-01

    Among the most basic challenges of hydrology are the quantitative understanding of the processes of runoff generation and prediction of flow hydrographs. Traditional techniques have been widely applied for the estimation of runoff hydrographs of gauged catchments using historical rainfall-runoff data and unit hydrographs. Such procedures are questioned as to their reliability and their application to ungauged, arid and semiarid catchments. To overcome such difficulties, the use of physically based rainfall-runoff process of Faria Catchment using the lately developed KW-GIUH. Faria catchment, located in the northeastern part of the West Bank, Palestine, is characterized as a semiarid region with annual rainfall depths ranging on average from 150 to 640 mm at both ends of the catchment. The Geographical Information System (GIS) techniques were used to shape the geomorphological features of the catchment. A GIS based KW-GIUH hydrological model was used to stimulate the rainfall-runoff process in the three sub-catchments of Faria, namely: Al-Badan, Al-Faria and Al-Malaqi. The simulated runoff hydrographs proved that the GIS-based KW-GIUH model is applicable to semiarid regions and can be used to estimate the unit hydrographs in the West Bank catchments. (author)

  9. One-dimensional GIS-based model compared with a two-dimensional model in urban floods simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lhomme, J; Bouvier, C; Mignot, E; Paquier, A

    2006-01-01

    A GIS-based one-dimensional flood simulation model is presented and applied to the centre of the city of Nîmes (Gard, France), for mapping flow depths or velocities in the streets network. The geometry of the one-dimensional elements is derived from the Digital Elevation Model (DEM). The flow is routed from one element to the next using the kinematic wave approximation. At the crossroads, the flows in the downstream branches are computed using a conceptual scheme. This scheme was previously designed to fit Y-shaped pipes junctions, and has been modified here to fit X-shaped crossroads. The results were compared with the results of a two-dimensional hydrodynamic model based on the full shallow water equations. The comparison shows that good agreements can be found in the steepest streets of the study zone, but differences may be important in the other streets. Some reasons that can explain the differences between the two models are given and some research possibilities are proposed.

  10. Quantifying the performance of automated GIS-based geomorphological approaches for riparian zone delineation using digital elevation models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Fernández

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Riparian zone delineation is a central issue for managing rivers and adjacent areas; however, criteria used to delineate them are still under debate. The area inundated by a 50-yr flood has been indicated as an optimal hydrological descriptor for riparian areas. This detailed hydrological information is usually only available for populated areas at risk of flooding. In this work we created several floodplain surfaces by means of two different GIS-based geomorphological approaches using digital elevation models (DEMs, in an attempt to find hydrologically meaningful potential riparian zones for river networks at the river basin scale. Objective quantification of the performance of the two geomorphologic models is provided by analysing coinciding and exceeding areas with respect to the 50-yr flood surface in different river geomorphological types.

  11. Determining shallow aquifer vulnerability by the DRASTIC model ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N C Mondal

    2017-09-02

    Sep 2, 2017 ... Numerous schemes have been developed ... Telangana (Brindha and Elango 2015), Mysore city ... districts and Mettur region of Tamil Nadu (Srini- ... In such a case, the uncontrolled discharge of ... the model by sensitive analysis, and (3) cross-verify ... through a network of joints, faults and lineaments,.

  12. Integration of SRTM and TRMM date into the GIS-based hydrological model for the purpose of flood modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, A.; Abu Samah, A.; Othman, F.

    2012-04-01

    Due to land use and climate changes, more severe and frequent floods occur worldwide. Flood simulation as the first step in flood risk management can be robustly conducted with integration of GIS, RS and flood modeling tools. The primary goal of this research is to examine the practical use of public domain satellite data and GIS-based hydrologic model. Firstly, database development process is described. GIS tools and techniques were used in the light of relevant literature to achieve the appropriate database. Watershed delineation and parameterizations were carried out using cartographic DEM derived from digital topography at a scale of 1:25 000 with 30 m cell size and SRTM elevation data at 30 m cell size. The SRTM elevation dataset is evaluated and compared with cartographic DEM. With the assistance of statistical measures such as Correlation coefficient (r), Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE), Percent Bias (PBias) or Percent of Error (PE). According to NSE index, SRTM-DEM can be used for watershed delineation and parameterization with 87% similarity with Topo-DEM in a complex and underdeveloped terrains. Primary TRMM (V6) data was used as satellite based hytograph for rainfall-runoff simulation. The SCS-CN approach was used for losses and kinematic routing method employed for hydrograph transformation through the reaches. It is concluded that TRMM estimates do not give adequate information about the storms as it can be drawn from the rain gauges. Event-based flood modeling using HEC-HMS proved that SRTM elevation dataset has the ability to obviate the lack of terrain data for hydrologic modeling where appropriate data for terrain modeling and simulation of hydrological processes is unavailable. However, TRMM precipitation estimates failed to explain the behavior of rainfall events and its resultant peak discharge and time of peak.

  13. Modelling domestic stock energy use and heat-related health risk : a GIS-based bottom-up modelling approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mavrogianni, A.; Davies, M. [Univ. College London, London (United Kingdom). Bartlett School of Graduate Studies; Chalabi, Z.; Wilkinson, P. [London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medecine, London (United Kingdom); Kolokotroni, M. [Brunel Univ., London (United Kingdom). School of Engineering Design

    2009-07-01

    Approximately 8 per cent of the carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions produced in the United Kingdom are produced in London, one of the fastest growing cities worldwide. Based on the projected rates of population and economic growth, a 15 per cent increase of emissions is predicted. In addition to the national target to cut emissions by 80 per cent by 2050, the Mayor of London Climate Change Action Plan set a target to reduce London's CO{sub 2} emissions by 60 per cent by 2025. Significant carbon savings can be achieved in the building sector, particularly since 38 per cent of the total delivered energy in London is associated with domestic energy use. This paper demonstrated a systematic approach towards exploring the impact of urban built form and the combined effect of climate change and the urban heat island (UHI) phenomenon on the levels of domestic energy consumption and heat-related health risk in London. It presented work in progress on the development of a GIS-based energy consumption model and heat vulnerability index of the Greater London Area domestic stock. Comparison of the model output for 10 case study areas with topdown energy statistics revealed that the model successfully ranks areas based on their domestic space heating demand. The health module can be used to determine environments prone to higher risk of heat stress by investigating urban texture factors. A newly developed epidemiological model will be feed into the health module to examine the influence on risk of heat-related mortality of local urban built form characteristics. The epidemiological model is based on multi-variable analysis of deaths during heat wave and non-heat wave days. 29 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs.

  14. Integration of Spatially Hydrological Modelling on Bentong Catchment, Pahang, Peninsular Malaysia Using Distributed GIS-based Rainfall Runoff Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosli, M.H.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available With the advance of GIS technology, hydrology model can simulated at catchment wide scale. The objective is to integrate National Resource Conservation Service (NRCS Curve Number (CN with kinematic wave and manning’s equation using GIS to develop a simple GIS-based distributed model to simulate rainfall runoff in Bentong catchment. Model was built using Spatial Distributed Direct Hydrograph (SDDH concept and applying the time area (TA approach in presenting the predicted discharge hydrograph. The effective precipitation estimation was first calculated using the NRCS CN method. Then, the core maps that consists of digital elevation model (DEM, soil and land use map in grid. DEM was used to derive slope, flow direction and flow accumulation while soil and land use map used to derive roughness coefficient and CN. The overland velocity and channel velocity estimation derived from combination of kinematic wave theory with Manning’s equation. To capture the time frame, the travel time map was divided into isochrones in order to generate the TA histogram and finally. The creation of SDDH using the TA histogram which will lead to the estimation of travel time for the catchment. Simulated hydrograph was plotted together with the observed discharge for comparison. Six storm events used for model performance evaluation using statistical measure such as Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE, percent bias (PBIAS and coefficient of determination (R2;. SDDH model performed quite well as NSE gave result ranging from 0.55 to 0.68 with mean of 0.6. PBIAS indicate that the model slightly over predicted compared to observed hydrograph with result ranges from -46.71 (the most over predicted to +4.83 (the most under predicted with average of -20.73%. R2; ranges between 0.55 to 0.82 with mean of 0.67. When comparing the time to peak, (tp, min, and peak discharge, (pd, m3/s, results gave NSEtp 0.82, PBIAStp 0.65, R2tp 0.32, NSEpd 0.95, PBIASpd 14.49 and R2pd 0

  15. GIS-based landslide susceptibility mapping models applied to natural and urban planning in Trikala, Central Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bathrellos, G. D.; Kalivas, D. P.; Skilodimou, H. D.

    2009-07-01

    Landslide susceptibility mapping is a practical tool in natural and urban planning; it can be applied for determining land use zones, in construction design and planning of a variety of projects. In this study, two different GIS based landslide susceptibility maps were generated in the mountainous part of the Trikala Prefecture in Thessaly, Central Greece. This was accomplished by using different methods for correlating factors, which have an effect on landslide occurrences. The instability factors taken into account were: lithology, tectonic features, slope gradients, road network, drainage network, land use and rainfall. A frequency distribution of the half number of the landslide events of the study area in each class of the instability factors was performed in order to rate the classes. Two models have been used to combine the instability factors and assess the overall landslide susceptibility, namely: the Weight Factor Model (WeF), which is a statistical method, and the Multiple Factor Model (MuF) that is a logical method. The produced maps were classified into four zones: Low, Moderate, High and Very High susceptible zones and validated using the other half number of the landslide events of the area. Evaluation of the results is optimized through a Landslide Models Indicator (La.M.I.). (Author) 36 refs.

  16. Estimation of exposure to fine particulate air pollution using GIS-based modeling approach in an urban area in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Memarianfard

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In many industrialized areas, the highest concentration of particulate matter, as a major concern on public health, is being felt worldwide problem. Since the air pollution assessment and its evaluation with considering spatial dispersion analysis because of various factors are complex, in this paper, GIS-based modeling approach was utilized to zoning PM2.5 dispersion over Tehran, during one year, from 21 March 2014 to 20 March 2015. The RBF method was applied to obtain the zoning maps and determining the highest concentration of PM2.5 in the 22 Tehran’s regions for each season. The RMSEmin values according to the number of neighbors and types of functions in the radial basis function method, including completely regularized spline, Spline with tension, Multiquadric function, Inverse multiquadric function, and Thin-plate spline  for each month have been assessed. By performing analysis on the errors, the numbers of neighbors were estimated. The numbers of neighbors in the model for each function were varied from 2 to 30. The results indicate that the models with 3 and 4 neighbors have the best performance with the lowest RMSE values with using RBF method. The highest PM2.5 concentrations have been occurred in the summer and winter especially at the center, south, and in some cases at northeast of the city.

  17. Exploring Spatiotemporal Trends in Commercial Fishing Effort of an Abalone Fishing Zone: A GIS-Based Hotspot Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalali, M. Ali; Ierodiaconou, Daniel; Gorfine, Harry; Monk, Jacquomo; Rattray, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Assessing patterns of fisheries activity at a scale related to resource exploitation has received particular attention in recent times. However, acquiring data about the distribution and spatiotemporal allocation of catch and fishing effort in small scale benthic fisheries remains challenging. Here, we used GIS-based spatio-statistical models to investigate the footprint of commercial diving events on blacklip abalone (Haliotis rubra) stocks along the south-west coast of Victoria, Australia from 2008 to 2011. Using abalone catch data matched with GPS location we found catch per unit of fishing effort (CPUE) was not uniformly spatially and temporally distributed across the study area. Spatial autocorrelation and hotspot analysis revealed significant spatiotemporal clusters of CPUE (with distance thresholds of 100’s of meters) among years, indicating the presence of CPUE hotspots focused on specific reefs. Cumulative hotspot maps indicated that certain reef complexes were consistently targeted across years but with varying intensity, however often a relatively small proportion of the full reef extent was targeted. Integrating CPUE with remotely-sensed light detection and ranging (LiDAR) derived bathymetry data using generalized additive mixed model corroborated that fishing pressure primarily coincided with shallow, rugose and complex components of reef structures. This study demonstrates that a geospatial approach is efficient in detecting patterns and trends in commercial fishing effort and its association with seafloor characteristics. PMID:25992800

  18. Exploring Spatiotemporal Trends in Commercial Fishing Effort of an Abalone Fishing Zone: A GIS-Based Hotspot Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ali Jalali

    Full Text Available Assessing patterns of fisheries activity at a scale related to resource exploitation has received particular attention in recent times. However, acquiring data about the distribution and spatiotemporal allocation of catch and fishing effort in small scale benthic fisheries remains challenging. Here, we used GIS-based spatio-statistical models to investigate the footprint of commercial diving events on blacklip abalone (Haliotis rubra stocks along the south-west coast of Victoria, Australia from 2008 to 2011. Using abalone catch data matched with GPS location we found catch per unit of fishing effort (CPUE was not uniformly spatially and temporally distributed across the study area. Spatial autocorrelation and hotspot analysis revealed significant spatiotemporal clusters of CPUE (with distance thresholds of 100's of meters among years, indicating the presence of CPUE hotspots focused on specific reefs. Cumulative hotspot maps indicated that certain reef complexes were consistently targeted across years but with varying intensity, however often a relatively small proportion of the full reef extent was targeted. Integrating CPUE with remotely-sensed light detection and ranging (LiDAR derived bathymetry data using generalized additive mixed model corroborated that fishing pressure primarily coincided with shallow, rugose and complex components of reef structures. This study demonstrates that a geospatial approach is efficient in detecting patterns and trends in commercial fishing effort and its association with seafloor characteristics.

  19. A Modular GIS-Based Software Architecture for Model Parameter Estimation using the Method of Anchored Distributions (MAD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, D. P.; Osorio-Murillo, C.; Over, M. W.; Rubin, Y.

    2012-12-01

    The Method of Anchored Distributions (MAD) is an inverse modeling technique that is well-suited for estimation of spatially varying parameter fields using limited observations and Bayesian methods. This presentation will discuss the design, development, and testing of a free software implementation of the MAD technique using the open source DotSpatial geographic information system (GIS) framework, R statistical software, and the MODFLOW groundwater model. This new tool, dubbed MAD-GIS, is built using a modular architecture that supports the integration of external analytical tools and models for key computational processes including a forward model (e.g. MODFLOW, HYDRUS) and geostatistical analysis (e.g. R, GSLIB). The GIS-based graphical user interface provides a relatively simple way for new users of the technique to prepare the spatial domain, to identify observation and anchor points, to perform the MAD analysis using a selected forward model, and to view results. MAD-GIS uses the Managed Extensibility Framework (MEF) provided by the Microsoft .NET programming platform to support integration of different modeling and analytical tools at run-time through a custom "driver." Each driver establishes a connection with external programs through a programming interface, which provides the elements for communicating with core MAD software. This presentation gives an example of adapting the MODFLOW to serve as the external forward model in MAD-GIS for inferring the distribution functions of key MODFLOW parameters. Additional drivers for other models are being developed and it is expected that the open source nature of the project will engender the development of additional model drivers by 3rd party scientists.

  20. SPRAYTRAN USER'S GUIDE: A GIS-BASED ATMOSPHERIC SPRAY DROPLET DISPERSION MODELING SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The offsite drift of pesticide from spray operations is an ongoing source of concern. The SPRAY TRANsport (SPRAYTRAN) system, documented in this report, incorporates the near-field spray application model, AGDISP, into a meso-scale atmospheric transport model. The AGDISP model ...

  1. A web GIS based integrated flood assessment modeling tool for coastal urban watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, A. T.; Mohanty, J.; Eldho, T. I.; Rao, E. P.; Mohan, B. K.

    2014-03-01

    Urban flooding has become an increasingly important issue in many parts of the world. In this study, an integrated flood assessment model (IFAM) is presented for the coastal urban flood simulation. A web based GIS framework has been adopted to organize the spatial datasets for the study area considered and to run the model within this framework. The integrated flood model consists of a mass balance based 1-D overland flow model, 1-D finite element based channel flow model based on diffusion wave approximation and a quasi 2-D raster flood inundation model based on the continuity equation. The model code is written in MATLAB and the application is integrated within a web GIS server product viz: Web Gram Server™ (WGS), developed at IIT Bombay, using Java, JSP and JQuery technologies. Its user interface is developed using open layers and the attribute data are stored in MySQL open source DBMS. The model is integrated within WGS and is called via Java script. The application has been demonstrated for two coastal urban watersheds of Navi Mumbai, India. Simulated flood extents for extreme rainfall event of 26 July, 2005 in the two urban watersheds of Navi Mumbai city are presented and discussed. The study demonstrates the effectiveness of the flood simulation tool in a web GIS environment to facilitate data access and visualization of GIS datasets and simulation results.

  2. Integrated freight network model : a GIS-based platform for transportation analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The models currently used to examine the behavior transportation systems are usually mode-specific. That is, they focus on a single mode (i.e. railways, highways, or waterways). The lack of : integration limits the usefulness of models to analyze the...

  3. AUTOMATED GEOSPATIAL WATERSHED ASSESSMENT: A GIS-BASED HYDROLOGIC MODELING TOOL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planning and assessment in land and water resource management are evolving toward complex, spatially explicit regional assessments. These problems have to be addressed with distributed models that can compute runoff and erosion at different spatial and temporal scales. The extens...

  4. ABM and GIS-based multi-scenarios volcanic evacuation modelling of Merapi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumadi, Carver, Steve; Quincey, Duncan

    2016-05-01

    Conducting effective evacuation is one of the successful keys to deal with such crisis. Therefore, a plan that considers the probability of the spatial extent of the hazard occurrences is needed. Likewise, the evacuation plan in Merapi is already prepared before the eruption on 2010. However, the plan could not be performed because the eruption magnitude was bigger than it was predicted. In this condition, the extent of the hazardous area was increased larger than the prepared hazard model. Managing such unpredicted situation need adequate information that flexible and adaptable to the current situation. Therefore, we applied an Agent-based Model (ABM) and Geographic Information System (GIS) using multi-scenarios hazard model to support the evacuation management. The methodology and the case study in Merapi is provided.

  5. GIS-based methods for establishing the datafoundation for traffic models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Otto Anker

    1997-01-01

    Traffic models demand large amounts of data - some of which are: Traffic network topology, traffic network data, zone-data and trip matrices. GIS is a natural tool for handling most of these data as it can ease the work process and improve the quality control. However, traffic models demand a com......-plex topology not very well covered by the traditional GIS-topology. The paper describes a number of applications where ARC/INFO and ArcView have been used to automate the process of building a traffic network topology. The methodology has been used on a number of full-scale models, from medium sized urban...... areas to metropolitan areas (Copenhagen, Denmark and Bandung, Indonesia). The paper covers key subjects in the work process which has been eased considerably by using AML and Avenue scripts or by using the information from ARC/INFO in external applications:· Semi-automatic procedures for attaching zones...

  6. ESTIMAP: A GIS-BASED MODEL TO MAP ECOSYSTEM SERVICES IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Zulian

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Policies of the European Union which affect the use or protection of natural resources increasingly need spatial data on the supply, the flow and the demand of ecosystem services. The model ESTIMAP was developed to this purpose. ESTIMAP departs from land cover and land use maps to which it adds other spatial information with the objective to map various ecosystem services. This study introduces the ESTIMAP map as tool to support the mapping and modelling of ecosystem services at European scale. Examples are provided for three regulating ecosystem services, air quality regulation, coastal protection, and pollination and one cultural ecosystem services, recreation. 

  7. HYDROGEIOS: a semi-distributed GIS-based hydrological model for modified river basins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Efstratiadis

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The HYDROGEIOS modelling framework represents the main processes of the hydrological cycle in heavily modified catchments, with decision-depended abstractions and interactions between surface and groundwater flows. A semi-distributed approach and a monthly simulation time step are adopted, which are sufficient for water resources management studies. The modelling philosophy aims to ensure consistency with the physical characteristics of the system, while keeping the number of parameters as low as possible. Therefore, multiple levels of schematization and parameterization are adopted, by combining multiple levels of geographical data. To optimally allocate human abstractions from the hydrosystem during a planning horizon or even to mimic the allocation occurred in a past period (e.g. the calibration period, in the absence of measured data, a linear programming problem is formulated and solved within each time step. With this technique the fluxes across the hydrosystem are estimated, and the satisfaction of physical and operational constraints is ensured. The model framework includes a parameter estimation module that involves various goodness-of-fit measures and state-of-the-art evolutionary algorithms for global and multiobjective optimization. By means of a challenging case study, the paper discusses appropriate modelling strategies which take advantage of the above framework, with the purpose to ensure a robust calibration and reproduce natural and human induced processes in the catchment as faithfully as possible.

  8. Application of GIS based data driven evidential belief function model to predict groundwater potential zonation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nampak, Haleh; Pradhan, Biswajeet; Manap, Mohammad Abd

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this paper is to exploit potential application of an evidential belief function (EBF) model for spatial prediction of groundwater productivity at Langat basin area, Malaysia using geographic information system (GIS) technique. About 125 groundwater yield data were collected from well locations. Subsequently, the groundwater yield was divided into high (⩾11 m3/h) and low yields (divided into a testing dataset 70% (42 wells) for training the model and the remaining 30% (18 wells) was used for validation purpose. To perform cross validation, the frequency ratio (FR) approach was applied into remaining groundwater wells with low yield to show the spatial correlation between the low potential zones of groundwater productivity. A total of twelve groundwater conditioning factors that affect the storage of groundwater occurrences were derived from various data sources such as satellite based imagery, topographic maps and associated database. Those twelve groundwater conditioning factors are elevation, slope, curvature, stream power index (SPI), topographic wetness index (TWI), drainage density, lithology, lineament density, land use, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), soil and rainfall. Subsequently, the Dempster-Shafer theory of evidence model was applied to prepare the groundwater potential map. Finally, the result of groundwater potential map derived from belief map was validated using testing data. Furthermore, to compare the performance of the EBF result, logistic regression model was applied. The success-rate and prediction-rate curves were computed to estimate the efficiency of the employed EBF model compared to LR method. The validation results demonstrated that the success-rate for EBF and LR methods were 83% and 82% respectively. The area under the curve for prediction-rate of EBF and LR methods were calculated 78% and 72% respectively. The outputs achieved from the current research proved the efficiency of EBF in groundwater

  9. CHANNEL MORPHOLOGY TOOL (CMT): A GIS-BASED AUTOMATED EXTRACTION MODEL FOR CHANNEL GEOMETRY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JUDI, DAVID [Los Alamos National Laboratory; KALYANAPU, ALFRED [Los Alamos National Laboratory; MCPHERSON, TIMOTHY [Los Alamos National Laboratory; BERSCHEID, ALAN [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2007-01-17

    This paper describes an automated Channel Morphology Tool (CMT) developed in ArcGIS 9.1 environment. The CMT creates cross-sections along a stream centerline and uses a digital elevation model (DEM) to create station points with elevations along each of the cross-sections. The generated cross-sections may then be exported into a hydraulic model. Along with the rapid cross-section generation the CMT also eliminates any cross-section overlaps that might occur due to the sinuosity of the channels using the Cross-section Overlap Correction Algorithm (COCoA). The CMT was tested by extracting cross-sections from a 5-m DEM for a 50-km channel length in Houston, Texas. The extracted cross-sections were compared directly with surveyed cross-sections in terms of the cross-section area. Results indicated that the CMT-generated cross-sections satisfactorily matched the surveyed data.

  10. Land Use Management by Assessing Aquifer Vulnerability in Khovayes Plain Using the DRASTIC and SINTACS Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Mousavi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Land use change is a gradual process that entails dire consequences for groundwater quality and quantity. Quantitative changes in groundwater can be usually monitored by controlling the annual groundwater balance. Monitoring qualitative changes in groundwater, however, is both time-consuming and expensive. DRASTIC and SINTACS models exploit aquifer properties to predict its vulnerability. In this study, aquifer vulnerability assessment was performed by the DRASTIC & SINTACS models for future land use management in Khovayes, southwest Iran. The DRASTIC Model is based on hydrological and hydrogeological parameters involved in contaminant transport. SINTACS parameters are the same as those of the DRASTIC model, except that weighting and ranking the parameters are more flexible. Once vulnerability maps of the study region had been prepared, they were verified against the nitrate map. A correlation coefficient of 0.4 was obtained between the DRASTIC map and the nitrate one while the correlation between the SINTACS and the nitrate maps was found to be 0.8. Map removal and single-parameter sensitivity analyses were carried out, which showed the southwestern stretches of the study area as the region with the highest risk of vulnerability.

  11. A GIS based transportation model for solid waste disposal - A case study on Asansol municipality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghose, M.K.; Dikshit, A.K.; Sharma, S.K.

    2006-01-01

    Uncontrolled growth of the urban population in developing countries in recent years has made solid waste management an important issue. Very often, a substantial amount of total expenditures is spent on the collection of solid waste by city authorities. Optimization of the routing system for collection and transport of solid waste thus constitutes an important component of an effective solid waste management system. This paper describes an attempt to design and develop an appropriate storage, collection and disposal plan for the Asansol Municipality Corporation (AMC) of West Bengal State (India). A GIS optimal routing model is proposed to determine the minimum cost/distance efficient collection paths for transporting the solid wastes to the landfill. The model uses information on population density, waste generation capacity, road network and the types of road, storage bins and collection vehicles, etc. The proposed model can be used as a decision support tool by municipal authorities for efficient management of the daily operations for transporting solid wastes, load balancing within vehicles, managing fuel consumption and generating work schedules for the workers and vehicles. The total cost of the proposed collection systems is estimated to be around 80 million rupees for the fixed cost of storage bins, collection vehicles and a sanitary landfill and around 8.4 million rupees for the annual operating cost of crews, vehicles and landfill maintenance. A substantial amount (25 million rupees/yr) is currently being spent by AMC on waste collection alone without any proper storage/collection system and sanitary landfill. Over a projected period of 15 yr, the overall savings is thus very significant

  12. Evaluation of earthquake-triggered landslides in el Salvador using a Gis based newmark model

    OpenAIRE

    García Rodríguez, María José; Havenith, Hans; Benito Oterino, Belen

    2008-01-01

    In this work, a model for evaluating earthquake-triggered landslides hazard following the Newmark methodology is developed in a Geographical Information System (GIS). It is applied to El Salvador, one of the most seismically active regions in Central America, where the last severe destructive earthquakes occurred in January 13th and February 13th, 2001. The first of these earthquakes triggered more the 500 landslides and killed at least 844 people. This study is centred on the area (10x6km) w...

  13. A GIS-based time-dependent seismic source modeling of Northern Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Mahdi; Alesheikh, Ali Asghar; Zolfaghari, Mohammad Reza

    2017-01-01

    The first step in any seismic hazard study is the definition of seismogenic sources and the estimation of magnitude-frequency relationships for each source. There is as yet no standard methodology for source modeling and many researchers have worked on this topic. This study is an effort to define linear and area seismic sources for Northern Iran. The linear or fault sources are developed based on tectonic features and characteristic earthquakes while the area sources are developed based on spatial distribution of small to moderate earthquakes. Time-dependent recurrence relationships are developed for fault sources using renewal approach while time-independent frequency-magnitude relationships are proposed for area sources based on Poisson process. GIS functionalities are used in this study to introduce and incorporate spatial-temporal and geostatistical indices in delineating area seismic sources. The proposed methodology is used to model seismic sources for an area of about 500 by 400 square kilometers around Tehran. Previous researches and reports are studied to compile an earthquake/fault catalog that is as complete as possible. All events are transformed to uniform magnitude scale; duplicate events and dependent shocks are removed. Completeness and time distribution of the compiled catalog is taken into account. The proposed area and linear seismic sources in conjunction with defined recurrence relationships can be used to develop time-dependent probabilistic seismic hazard analysis of Northern Iran.

  14. A simplified gis-based model for large wood recruitment and connectivity in mountain basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franceschi, Silvia; Antonello, Andrea; Vela, Ana Lucia; Cavalli, Marco; Crema, Stefano; Comiti, Francesco; Tonon, Giustino

    2015-04-01

    During the last 50 years in the Alps the decline of the rural and forest economy and at the depopulation of the mountain areas caused the progressive abandon of the land in general and in particular of the riparian zones and the consequent increment of the vegetation extension. On one hand the wood increases the availability of organic matter and has positive effects on mountain river systems. However, during flooding events large woods that reach the stream cause the clogging of bridges with an increase of flood hazard. The approach to the evaluation of the availability of large wood during flooding events is still a challenge. There are models that simulate the propagation of the logs downstream, but the evaluation of the trees that can reach the stream is still done using simplified GIS procedures. These procedures are the base for our research which will include LiDAR derived information on vegetation to evaluate large wood recruitment extreme events. Within the last Google Summer of Code (2014) we developed a set of tools to evaluate large wood recruitment and propagation along the channel network based on a simplified methodology for monitoring and modeling large wood recruitment and transport in mountain basins implemented by Lucía et 2014. These tools are integrated in the JGrassTools project as a dedicated section in the Hydro-Geomorphology library. The section LWRecruitment contains 10 simple modules that allow the user to start from very simple information related to geomorphology, flooding areas and vegetation cover and obtain a map of the most probable critical sections on the streams. The tools cover the two main aspects related to the iteration of large wood with the rivers: the recruitment mechanisms and the propagation downstream. While the propagation tool is very simple and does not consider the hydrodynamic of the problem, the recruitment algorithms are more specific and consider the influence of hillslopes stability and the flooding extension

  15. GIS-based flood risk model evaluated by Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (FAHP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukcharoen, Tharapong; Weng, Jingnong; Teetat, Charoenkalunyuta

    2016-10-01

    Over the last 2-3 decades, the economy of many countries around the world has been developed rapidly but it was unbalanced development because of expecting on economic growth only. Meanwhile it lacked of effective planning in the use of natural resources. This can significantly induce climate change which is major cause of natural disaster. Hereby, Thailand has also suffered from natural disaster for ages. Especially, the flood which is most hazardous disaster in Thailand can annually result in the great loss of life and property, environment and economy. Since the flood management of country is inadequate efficiency. It is unable to support the flood analysis comprehensively. This paper applied Geographic Information System and Multi-Criteria Decision Making to create flood risk model at regional scale. Angthong province in Thailand was used as the study area. In practical process, Fuzzy logic technique has been used to improve specialist's assessment by implementing with Fuzzy membership because human decision is flawed under uncertainty then AHP technique was processed orderly. The hierarchy structure in this paper was categorized the spatial flood factors into two levels as following: 6 criteria (Meteorology, Geology, Topography, Hydrology, Human and Flood history) and 8 factors (Average Rainfall, Distance from Stream, Soil drainage capability, Slope, Elevation, Land use, Distance from road and Flooded area in the past). The validity of the pair-wise comparison in AHP was shown as C.R. value which indicated that the specialist judgment was reasonably consistent. FAHP computation result has shown that the first priority of criteria was Meteorology. In addition, the Rainfall was the most influencing factor for flooding. Finally, the output was displayed in thematic map of Angthong province with flood risk level processed by GIS tools. The map was classified into: High Risk, Moderate Risk and Low Risk (13.20%, 75.58%, and 11.22% of total area).

  16. WebGIS based on semantic grid model and web services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, WangFei; Yue, CaiRong; Gao, JianGuo

    2009-10-01

    As the combination point of the network technology and GIS technology, WebGIS has got the fast development in recent years. With the restriction of Web and the characteristics of GIS, traditional WebGIS has some prominent problems existing in development. For example, it can't accomplish the interoperability of heterogeneous spatial databases; it can't accomplish the data access of cross-platform. With the appearance of Web Service and Grid technology, there appeared great change in field of WebGIS. Web Service provided an interface which can give information of different site the ability of data sharing and inter communication. The goal of Grid technology was to make the internet to a large and super computer, with this computer we can efficiently implement the overall sharing of computing resources, storage resource, data resource, information resource, knowledge resources and experts resources. But to WebGIS, we only implement the physically connection of data and information and these is far from the enough. Because of the different understanding of the world, following different professional regulations, different policies and different habits, the experts in different field will get different end when they observed the same geographic phenomenon and the semantic heterogeneity produced. Since these there are large differences to the same concept in different field. If we use the WebGIS without considering of the semantic heterogeneity, we will answer the questions users proposed wrongly or we can't answer the questions users proposed. To solve this problem, this paper put forward and experienced an effective method of combing semantic grid and Web Services technology to develop WebGIS. In this paper, we studied the method to construct ontology and the method to combine Grid technology and Web Services and with the detailed analysis of computing characteristics and application model in the distribution of data, we designed the WebGIS query system driven by

  17. Quantifying the performance of automated GIS-based geomorphological approaches for riparian zone delineation using digital elevation models

    OpenAIRE

    D. Fernández; J. Barquín; M. Álvarez-Cabria; F. J. Peñas

    2012-01-01

    Riparian zone delineation is a central issue for managing rivers and adjacent areas; however, criteria used to delineate them are still under debate. The area inundated by a 50-yr flood has been indicated as an optimal hydrological descriptor for riparian areas. This detailed hydrological information is usually only available for populated areas at risk of flooding. In this work we created several floodplain surfaces by means of two different GIS-based geomorphological appro...

  18. GIS-based landslide susceptibility mapping models applied to natural and urban planning in Trikala, Central Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skilodimou, H. D.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Landslide susceptibility mapping is a practical tool in natural and urban planning; it can be applied for determining land use zones, in construction design and planning of a variety of projects. In this study, two different GIS based landslide susceptibility maps were generated in the mountainous part of the Trikala Prefecture in Thessaly, Central Greece. This was accomplished by using different methods for correlating factors, which have an effect on landslide occurrences. The instability factors taken into account were: lithology, tectonic features, slope gradients, road network, drainage network, land use and rainfall. A frequency distribution of the half number of the landslide events of the study area in each class of the instability factors was performed in order to rate the classes. Two models have been used to combine the instability factors and assess the overall landslide susceptibility, namely: the Weight Factor Model (WeF, which is a statistical method, and the Multiple Factor Model (MuF that is a logical method. The produced maps were classified into four zones: Low, Moderate, High and Very High susceptible zones and validated using the other half number of the landslide events of the area. Evaluation of the results is optimized through a Landslide Models Indicator (La.M.I..Los mapas de susceptibilidad de deslizamientos representan una práctica herramienta en la planificación urbana y de espacios naturales. Así, puede aplicarse a la determinación de los usos de terrenos, en el diseño de construcción civil y para la planificación de gran variedad de actividades. En este estudio se generaron dos tipos diferentes de mapas de susceptibilidad basados en GIS para la parte montañosa de la prefectura de Trikala en Tesalia (Grecia Central. Estos se llevaron a cabo usando dos métodos de correlación de los factores que pueden tener un efecto en la generación de deslizamientos. Los factores de desestabilización tenidos en cuenta

  19. Optimization of DRASTIC method by artificial neural network, nitrate vulnerability index, and composite DRASTIC models to assess groundwater vulnerability for unconfined aquifer of Shiraz Plain, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghapour, Mohammad Ali; Fadaei Nobandegani, Amir; Talebbeydokhti, Nasser; Bagherzadeh, Somayeh; Nadiri, Ata Allah; Gharekhani, Maryam; Chitsazan, Nima

    2016-01-01

    Extensive human activities and unplanned land uses have put groundwater resources of Shiraz plain at a high risk of nitrate pollution, causing several environmental and human health issues. To address these issues, water resources managers utilize groundwater vulnerability assessment and determination of protection. This study aimed to prepare the vulnerability maps of Shiraz aquifer by using Composite DRASTIC index, Nitrate Vulnerability index, and artificial neural network and also to compare their efficiency. The parameters of the indexes that were employed in this study are: depth to water table, net recharge, aquifer media, soil media, topography, impact of the vadose zone, hydraulic conductivity, and land use. These parameters were rated, weighted, and integrated using GIS, and then, used to develop the risk maps of Shiraz aquifer. The results indicated that the southeastern part of the aquifer was at the highest potential risk. Given the distribution of groundwater nitrate concentrations from the wells in the underlying aquifer, the artificial neural network model offered greater accuracy compared to the other two indexes. The study concluded that the artificial neural network model is an effective model to improve the DRASTIC index and provides a confident estimate of the pollution risk. As intensive agricultural activities are the dominant land use and water table is shallow in the vulnerable zones, optimized irrigation techniques and a lower rate of fertilizers are suggested. The findings of our study could be used as a scientific basis in future for sustainable groundwater management in Shiraz plain.

  20. Cloud GIS Based Watershed Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bediroğlu, G.; Colak, H. E.

    2017-11-01

    In this study, we generated a Cloud GIS based watershed management system with using Cloud Computing architecture. Cloud GIS is used as SAAS (Software as a Service) and DAAS (Data as a Service). We applied GIS analysis on cloud in terms of testing SAAS and deployed GIS datasets on cloud in terms of DAAS. We used Hybrid cloud computing model in manner of using ready web based mapping services hosted on cloud (World Topology, Satellite Imageries). We uploaded to system after creating geodatabases including Hydrology (Rivers, Lakes), Soil Maps, Climate Maps, Rain Maps, Geology and Land Use. Watershed of study area has been determined on cloud using ready-hosted topology maps. After uploading all the datasets to systems, we have applied various GIS analysis and queries. Results shown that Cloud GIS technology brings velocity and efficiency for watershed management studies. Besides this, system can be easily implemented for similar land analysis and management studies.

  1. Inflammatory models drastically alter tumor growth and the immune microenvironment in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowitz, Geoffrey J; Michelotti, Gregory A; Diehl, Anna Mae; Wang, Xiao-Fan

    2015-04-01

    Initiation and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is intimately associated with a chronically diseased liver tissue. This diseased liver tissue background is a drastically different microenvironment from the healthy liver, especially with regard to immune cell prevalence and presence of mediators of immune function. To better understand the consequences of liver disease on tumor growth and the interplay with its microenvironment, we utilized two standard methods of fibrosis induction and orthotopic implantation of tumors into the inflamed and fibrotic liver to mimic the liver condition in human HCC patients. Compared to non-diseased controls, tumor growth was significantly enhanced under fibrotic conditions. The immune cells that infiltrated the tumors were also drastically different, with decreased numbers of natural killer cells but greatly increased numbers of immune-suppressive CD11b + Gr1 hi myeloid cells in both models of fibrosis. In addition, there were model-specific differences: Increased numbers of CD11b + myeloid cells and CD4 + CD25 + T cells were found in tumors in the bile duct ligation model but not in the carbon tetrachloride model. Induction of fibrosis altered the cytokine production of implanted tumor cells, which could have farreaching consequences on the immune infiltrate and its functionality. Taken together, this work demonstrates that the combination of fibrosis induction with orthotopic tumor implantation results in a markedly different tumor microenvironment and tumor growth kinetics, emphasizing the necessity for more accurate modeling of HCC progression in mice, which takes into account the drastic changes in the tissue caused by chronic liver disease.

  2. Assessment of groundwater vulnerability by applying the modified DRASTIC model in Beihai City, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaoyu; Li, Bin; Ma, Chuanming

    2018-05-01

    This study assesses vulnerability of groundwater to pollution in Beihai City, China, as a support of groundwater resource protection. The assessment result not only objectively reflects potential possibility of groundwater to contamination but also provides scientific basis for the planning and utilization of groundwater resources. This study optimizes the parameters consisting of natural factors and human factors upon the DRASTIC model and modifies the ratings of these parameters, based on the local environmental conditions for the study area. And a weight of each parameter is assigned by the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) to reduce the subjectivity of humans to vulnerability assessment. The resulting scientific ratings and weights of modified DRASTIC model (AHP-DRASTLE model) contribute to obtain the more realistic assessment of vulnerability of groundwater to contaminant. The comparison analysis validates the accuracy and rationality of the AHP-DRASTLE model and shows it suits the particularity of the study area. The new assessment method (AHP-DRASTLE model) can provide a guide for other scholars to assess the vulnerability of groundwater to contamination. The final vulnerability map for the AHP-DRASTLE model shows four classes: highest (2%), high (29%), low (55%), and lowest (14%). The vulnerability map serves as a guide for decision makers on groundwater resource protection and land use planning at the regional scale and that it is adapted to a specific area.

  3. Sensitivity Analysis of DRASTIC Model in Vulnerability Assessment of Shahrood Alluvial Aquifer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadi Abolhasan Almasi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater vulnerability assessment is typically accomplished as a management tool to protect groundwater resources. In this research, the DRASTIC model which is an empirical one used for evaluating the potential of an aquifer for pollution was employed to evaluate the vulnerability of Shahrood alluvial aquifer. Moreover, the sensitivity of the model paramneters was assessed to identify the ones with greatest effect on vulnerability. The model layers including depth to groundwater table level, recharge, aquifer media, topography, impact of unsaturated zone, and hydraulic conductivity were prepared and classified in the ArcGIS software based on analyses of both the available data and the layer of surface soil texture using Aster satellite images. Once the vulnerability index was calculated, the sensitivity map of Shahroud aquifer vulnerability was analyzed using the two parameter removal and single parameter sensitivity methods. These were further verified by textural analysis of soil samples from different parts of the region. The layers with appropriate weights were overlaid and the DRASTIC index of the aquifer was estimated at 28 to 148. The highest vulnerability was detected in the northern margins and southwestern parts of the aquifer while other parts were characterized by medium to low vulnerability. The low nitrogen concentration observed in the farm areas and its rise to 45 mg/l in the northern stretches of the aquifer bear witness to the accuracy of the zoning rendered by the DRASTIC model. Based on the vulnerability map of Sharoud aquifer, it was found that 1.6% of the aquifer’s area has a very high vulnerability or potential for pollution followed by 10%, 28.8%, and 18.9% of the area were identified as having high, medium and low potentials for pollution, respecytively. The remaining (i.e., 40.5% was found to have no risk of pollution.

  4. Modeling of geoelectric parameters for assessing groundwater potentiality in a multifaceted geologic terrain, Ipinsa Southwest, Nigeria - A GIS-based GODT approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogaji, Kehinde Anthony; Omobude, Osayande Bright

    2017-12-01

    Modeling of groundwater potentiality zones is a vital scheme for effective management of groundwater resources. This study developed a new multi-criteria decision making algorithm for groundwater potentiality modeling through modifying the standard GOD model. The developed model christened as GODT model was applied to assess groundwater potential in a multi-faceted crystalline geologic terrain, southwestern, Nigeria using the derived four unify groundwater potential conditioning factors namely: Groundwater hydraulic confinement (G), aquifer Overlying strata resistivity (O), Depth to water table (D) and Thickness of aquifer (T) from the interpreted geophysical data acquired in the area. With the developed model algorithm, the GIS-based produced G, O, D and T maps were synthesized to estimate groundwater potential index (GWPI) values for the area. The estimated GWPI values were processed in GIS environment to produce groundwater potential prediction index (GPPI) map which demarcate the area into four potential zones. The produced GODT model-based GPPI map was validated through application of both correlation technique and spatial attribute comparative scheme (SACS). The performance of the GODT model was compared with that of the standard analytic hierarchy process (AHP) model. The correlation technique results established 89% regression coefficients for the GODT modeling algorithm compared with 84% for the AHP model. On the other hand, the SACS validation results for the GODT and AHP models are 72.5% and 65%, respectively. The overall results indicate that both models have good capability for predicting groundwater potential zones with the GIS-based GODT model as a good alternative. The GPPI maps produced in this study can form part of decision making model for environmental planning and groundwater management in the area.

  5. Development and implementation of a GIS-based tool for spatial modeling of seismic vulnerability of Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hashemi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Achieving sustainable development in countries prone to earthquakes is possible with taking effective measures to reduce vulnerability to earthquakes. In this context, damage assessment of hypothetical earthquakes and planning for disaster management are important issues. Having a computer tool capable of estimating structural and human losses from earthquakes in a specific region may facilitate the decision-making process before and during disasters. Interoperability of this tool with wide-spread spatial analysis frameworks will expedite the data transferring process. In this study, the earthquake damage assessment (EDA software tool is developed as an embedded extension within a GIS (geographic information system environment for the city of Tehran, Iran. This GIS-based extension provides users with a familiar environment to estimate and observe the probable damages and fatalities of a deterministic earthquake scenario. The productivity of this tool is later demonstrated for southern Karoon parish, Region 10, Tehran. Three case studies for three active faults in the area and a comparison of the results with other research substantiated the reliability of this tool for additional earthquake scenarios.

  6. A comparative assessment of GIS-based data mining models and a novel ensemble model in groundwater well potential mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naghibi, Seyed Amir; Moghaddam, Davood Davoodi; Kalantar, Bahareh; Pradhan, Biswajeet; Kisi, Ozgur

    2017-05-01

    In recent years, application of ensemble models has been increased tremendously in various types of natural hazard assessment such as landslides and floods. However, application of this kind of robust models in groundwater potential mapping is relatively new. This study applied four data mining algorithms including AdaBoost, Bagging, generalized additive model (GAM), and Naive Bayes (NB) models to map groundwater potential. Then, a novel frequency ratio data mining ensemble model (FREM) was introduced and evaluated. For this purpose, eleven groundwater conditioning factors (GCFs), including altitude, slope aspect, slope angle, plan curvature, stream power index (SPI), river density, distance from rivers, topographic wetness index (TWI), land use, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), and lithology were mapped. About 281 well locations with high potential were selected. Wells were randomly partitioned into two classes for training the models (70% or 197) and validating them (30% or 84). AdaBoost, Bagging, GAM, and NB algorithms were employed to get groundwater potential maps (GPMs). The GPMs were categorized into potential classes using natural break method of classification scheme. In the next stage, frequency ratio (FR) value was calculated for the output of the four aforementioned models and were summed, and finally a GPM was produced using FREM. For validating the models, area under receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve was calculated. The ROC curve for prediction dataset was 94.8, 93.5, 92.6, 92.0, and 84.4% for FREM, Bagging, AdaBoost, GAM, and NB models, respectively. The results indicated that FREM had the best performance among all the models. The better performance of the FREM model could be related to reduction of over fitting and possible errors. Other models such as AdaBoost, Bagging, GAM, and NB also produced acceptable performance in groundwater modelling. The GPMs produced in the current study may facilitate groundwater exploitation

  7. A GIS-based multi-source and multi-box modeling approach (GMSMB) for air pollution assessment--a North American case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bao-Zhen; Chen, Zhi

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a GIS-based multi-source and multi-box modeling approach (GMSMB) to predict the spatial concentration distributions of airborne pollutant on local and regional scales. In this method, an extended multi-box model combined with a multi-source and multi-grid Gaussian model are developed within the GIS framework to examine the contributions from both point- and area-source emissions. By using GIS, a large amount of data including emission sources, air quality monitoring, meteorological data, and spatial location information required for air quality modeling are brought into an integrated modeling environment. It helps more details of spatial variation in source distribution and meteorological condition to be quantitatively analyzed. The developed modeling approach has been examined to predict the spatial concentration distribution of four air pollutants (CO, NO(2), SO(2) and PM(2.5)) for the State of California. The modeling results are compared with the monitoring data. Good agreement is acquired which demonstrated that the developed modeling approach could deliver an effective air pollution assessment on both regional and local scales to support air pollution control and management planning.

  8. Impact of urbanization on the sediment yield in tropical watershed using temporal land-use changes and a GIS-based model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bello Al-Amin D.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abundant rainfall areas promote sediment yield at both sub-watershed and watershed scale due to soil erosion and increase siltation of river channel, but it can be curtailed through planned urbanization. The urbanization of Skudai watershed is analysed from historical and future perspective. A GIS-based model (Hydrological Simulation Programme-FORTRAN-HSPF is used to modelled sediment flow using basin-wide simulation, and the output result is utilized in evaluating sediment yield reduction due to increased urbanization by swapping multiple temporal land-use of decadent time-steps. The analysis indicates that sediment yield reduces with increase urban built-up and decrease forest and agricultural land. An estimated 12 400 tons of sediment will be reduced for every 27% increase in built-up areas under high rainfall condition and 1 490 tons at low rainfall. The sensitivity analysis of land-use classes shows that built-up, forest and barren are more sensitive to sediment yield reduction compared to wetland and agricultural land at both high and low rainfall. The result of the study suggests that increased urbanization reduced sediment yield in proportion to the rainfall condition and can be used as an alternative approach for soil conservation at watershed scale independent of climate condition.

  9. Scale issues in the assessment of ecological impacts using a GIS-based habitat model - A case study for the Stockholm region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gontier, Mikael

    2007-01-01

    Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) provide two interlinked platforms for the assessment of impacts on biodiversity caused by human developments. Although it might be too early to draw conclusions on the efficiency of SEA to assess such impacts, a number of persistent problems have been identified in the case of EIA. Some of these shortcomings concern the lack of proper prediction and impact quantification, and the inadequate/insufficient assessment of cumulative effects. A number of problems are related to the scale(s) at which the assessment is performed. SEA may provide a more adequate framework than EIA to discuss scale-related issues (i.e. cumulative impacts) but it also requires the use of adapted tools. This paper presents a case study where a GIS-based habitat model for the lesser spotted woodpecker is tested, validated and applied to a planning scenario in the Stockholm region in Sweden. The results show that the method adopted offers great prospects to contribute to a better assessment of biodiversity-related impacts. Even though some limitations remain in the form of data requirement and interpretation of the results, the model produced continuous, quantified predictions over the study area and provided a relevant basis for the assessment of cumulative effects. Furthermore, this paper discusses potential conflicts between different scales involved in the assessment - related to administrative boundaries, ecological processes, data availability, the method adopted to perform the assessment and temporal aspects

  10. Dispersal and habitat connectivity in complex heterogeneous landscapes: an analysis with a GIS based random walk model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schippers, P.; Verboom, J.; Knaapen, J.P.; Apeldoorn, van R.

    1996-01-01

    A grid-based random walk model has been developed to simulate animal dispersal, taking landscape heterogeneity and linear barriers such as roads and rivers into account. The model can be used to estimate connectivity and has been parameterized for thebadger in the central part of the Netherlands.

  11. Engineering sustainable ecosystems: using GIS-based habitat modeling for oil sands mine reclamation and closure planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seel, K.

    1997-01-01

    A GIS model was built to predict the climax vegetation habitat types on reclaimed mine surfaces in the Fort McMurray region of the Mid-Boreal Mixedwood Ecoregion of northwestern Alberta. Regional vegetation habitat types were classified by digital remote sensing using Landsat Thematic Mapper satellite data. Terrain data was derived from a high-resolution digital elevation model. The validated model was applied to the GIS database of Syncrude Canada's Mildred Lake Mine to predict future vegetation patterns based on the final closure mine surface. The results were compared to revegetation and closure plans created by experts to analyze performance and sustainability of reclamation efforts

  12. GIS-based groundwater potential analysis using novel ensemble weights-of-evidence with logistic regression and functional tree models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Li, Hui; Hou, Enke; Wang, Shengquan; Wang, Guirong; Panahi, Mahdi; Li, Tao; Peng, Tao; Guo, Chen; Niu, Chao; Xiao, Lele; Wang, Jiale; Xie, Xiaoshen; Ahmad, Baharin Bin

    2018-09-01

    The aim of the current study was to produce groundwater spring potential maps using novel ensemble weights-of-evidence (WoE) with logistic regression (LR) and functional tree (FT) models. First, a total of 66 springs were identified by field surveys, out of which 70% of the spring locations were used for training the models and 30% of the spring locations were employed for the validation process. Second, a total of 14 affecting factors including aspect, altitude, slope, plan curvature, profile curvature, stream power index (SPI), topographic wetness index (TWI), sediment transport index (STI), lithology, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), land use, soil, distance to roads, and distance to streams was used to analyze the spatial relationship between these affecting factors and spring occurrences. Multicollinearity analysis and feature selection of the correlation attribute evaluation (CAE) method were employed to optimize the affecting factors. Subsequently, the novel ensembles of the WoE, LR, and FT models were constructed using the training dataset. Finally, the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, standard error, confidence interval (CI) at 95%, and significance level P were employed to validate and compare the performance of three models. Overall, all three models performed well for groundwater spring potential evaluation. The prediction capability of the FT model, with the highest AUC values, the smallest standard errors, the narrowest CIs, and the smallest P values for the training and validation datasets, is better compared to those of other models. The groundwater spring potential maps can be adopted for the management of water resources and land use by planners and engineers. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. GIS-based analysis and modelling with empirical and remotely-sensed data on coastline advance and retreat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Sajid Rashid

    With the understanding that far more research remains to be done on the development and use of innovative and functional geospatial techniques and procedures to investigate coastline changes this thesis focussed on the integration of remote sensing, geographical information systems (GIS) and modelling techniques to provide meaningful insights on the spatial and temporal dynamics of coastline changes. One of the unique strengths of this research was the parameterization of the GIS with long-term empirical and remote sensing data. Annual empirical data from 1941--2007 were analyzed by the GIS, and then modelled with statistical techniques. Data were also extracted from Landsat TM and ETM+ images. The band ratio method was used to extract the coastlines. Topographic maps were also used to extract digital map data. All data incorporated into ArcGIS 9.2 were analyzed with various modules, including Spatial Analyst, 3D Analyst, and Triangulated Irregular Networks. The Digital Shoreline Analysis System was used to analyze and predict rates of coastline change. GIS results showed the spatial locations along the coast that will either advance or retreat over time. The linear regression results highlighted temporal changes which are likely to occur along the coastline. Box-Jenkins modelling procedures were utilized to determine statistical models which best described the time series (1941--2007) of coastline change data. After several iterations and goodness-of-fit tests, second-order spatial cyclic autoregressive models, first-order autoregressive models and autoregressive moving average models were identified as being appropriate for describing the deterministic and random processes operating in Guyana's coastal system. The models highlighted not only cyclical patterns in advance and retreat of the coastline, but also the existence of short and long-term memory processes. Long-term memory processes could be associated with mudshoal propagation and stabilization while short

  14. A new GIS-based model for automated extraction of Sand Dune encroachment case study: Dakhla Oases, western desert of Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghadiry

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The movements of the sand dunes are considered as a threat for roads, irrigation networks, water resources, urban areas, agriculture and infrastructures. The main objectives of this study are to develop a new GIS-based model for automated extraction of sand dune encroachment using remote sensing data and to assess the rate of sand dune movement. To monitor and assess the movements of sand dunes in Dakhla oases area, multi-temporal satellite images and a GIS-developed model, using Python script in Arc GIS, were used. The satellite images (SPOT images, 1995 and 2007 were geo-rectified using Erdas Imagine. Image subtraction was performed using spatial analyst in Arc GIS, the result of image subtraction obtains the sand dune movement between the two dates. The raster and vector shape of sand dune migration was automatically extracted using spatial analyst tools. The frontiers of individual dunes were measured at different dates and movement rates were analyzed in GIS. The ModelBuilder in Arc GIS was used in order to create a user friendly tool. The custom built model window is easy to handle by any user who wishes to adapt the model in his work. It was found that the rate of sand dune movement ranged between 3 and 9 m per year. The majority of sand dunes have a rate movement between 0 and 6 m and very few dunes had a movement rate between 6 and 9 m. Integrating remote sensing and GIS provided the necessary information for determining the minimum, maximum, mean, rate and area of sand dune migration.

  15. SPRAYTRAN 1.0 User’s Guide: A GIS-Based Atmospheric Spray Droplet Dispersion Modeling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allwine, K Jerry; Rutz, Frederick C.; Droppo, James G.; Rishel, Jeremy P.; Chapman, Elaine G.; Bird, S. L.; Thistle, Harold W.

    2006-09-20

    SPRAY TRANsport (SPRAYTRAN) is a comprehensive dispersion modeling system that is used to simulate the offsite drift of pesticides from spray applications. SPRAYTRAN functions as a console application within Environmental System Research Institute’s ArcMap Geographic Information System (Version 9.x) and integrates the widely-used, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-approved CALifornia PUFF (CALPUFF) dispersion model and model components to simulate longer-range transport and diffusion in variable terrain and spatially/temporally varying meteorological (e.g., wind) fields. Area sources, which are used to define spray blocks in SPRAYTRAN, are initialized using output files generated from a separate aerial-spray-application model called AGDISP (AGricultural DISPersal). The AGDISP model is used for estimating the amount of pesticide deposited to the spray block based on spraying characteristics (e.g., pesticide type, spray nozzles, and aircraft type) and then simulating the near-field (less than 300-m) drift from a single pesticide application. The fraction of pesticide remaining airborne from the AGDISP near-field simulation is then used by SPRAYTRAN for simulating longer-range (greater than 300 m) drift and deposition of the pesticide.

  16. GIS-Based Suitability Model for Assessment of Forest Biomass Energy Potential in a Region of Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinta-Nova, Luis; Fernandez, Paulo; Pedro, Nuno

    2017-12-01

    This work focuses on developed a decision support system based on multicriteria spatial analysis to assess the potential for generation of biomass residues from forestry sources in a region of Portugal (Beira Baixa). A set of environmental, economic and social criteria was defined, evaluated and weighted in the context of Saaty’s analytic hierarchies. The best alternatives were obtained after applying Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). The model was applied to the central region of Portugal where forest and agriculture are the most representative land uses. Finally, sensitivity analysis of the set of factors and their associated weights was performed to test the robustness of the model. The proposed evaluation model provides a valuable reference for decision makers in establishing a standardized means of selecting the optimal location for new biomass plants.

  17. Use of a Simple GIS-Based Model in Mapping the Atmospheric Concentration of γ-HCH in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Vizcaino

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The state-of-the-art of atmospheric contaminant transport modeling provides accurate estimation of chemical concentrations. However, existing complex models, sophisticated in terms of process description and potentially highly accurate, may entail expensive setups and require very detailed input data. In contexts where detailed predictions are not needed (e.g., for regulatory risk assessment or life cycle impact assessment of chemicals, simple models allowing quick evaluation of contaminants may be preferable. The goal of this paper is to illustrate and critically discuss the use of a simple equation proposed by Pistocchi and Galmarini (2010, which can be implemented through basic GIS functions, to predict atmospheric concentrations of lindane (γ-HCH in Europe from both local and remote sources. Concentrations were computed for 1995 and 2005 assuming different modes of use of lindane and consequently different spatial patterns of emissions. Results were compared with those from the well-established MSCE-POP model (2005 developed within EMEP (European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme, and with available monitoring data, showing acceptable correspondence in terms of the orders of magnitude and spatial distribution of concentrations, especially when the background effect of emissions from extracontinental sources, estimated using the same equation, is added to European emissions.

  18. Damage estimation of subterranean building constructions due to groundwater inundation – the GIS-based model approach GRUWAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Schinke

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The analysis and management of flood risk commonly focuses on surface water floods, because these types are often associated with high economic losses due to damage to buildings and settlements. The rising groundwater as a secondary effect of these floods induces additional damage, particularly in the basements of buildings. Mostly, these losses remain underestimated, because they are difficult to assess, especially for the entire building stock of flood-prone urban areas. For this purpose an appropriate methodology has been developed and lead to a groundwater damage simulation model named GRUWAD. The overall methodology combines various engineering and geoinformatic methods to calculate major damage processes by high groundwater levels. It considers a classification of buildings by building types, synthetic depth-damage functions for groundwater inundation as well as the results of a groundwater-flow model. The modular structure of this procedure can be adapted in the level of detail. Hence, the model allows damage calculations from the local to the regional scale. Among others it can be used to prepare risk maps, for ex-ante analysis of future risks, and to simulate the effects of mitigation measures. Therefore, the model is a multifarious tool for determining urban resilience with respect to high groundwater levels.

  19. Modeling Typhoon Event-Induced Landslides Using GIS-Based Logistic Regression: A Case Study of Alishan Forestry Railway, Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Chuan Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study develops a model for evaluating the hazard level of landslides at Alishan Forestry Railway, Taiwan, by using logistic regression with the assistance of a geographical information system (GIS. A typhoon event-induced landslide inventory, independent variables, and a triggering factor were used to build the model. The environmental factors such as bedrock lithology from the geology database; topographic aspect, terrain roughness, profile curvature, and distance to river, from the topographic database; and the vegetation index value from SPOT 4 satellite images were used as variables that influence landslide occurrence. The area under curve (AUC of a receiver operator characteristic (ROC curve was used to validate the model. Effects of parameters on landslide occurrence were assessed from the corresponding coefficient that appears in the logistic regression function. Thereafter, the model was applied to predict the probability of landslides for rainfall data of different return periods. Using a predicted map of probability, the study area was classified into four ranks of landslide susceptibility: low, medium, high, and very high. As a result, most high susceptibility areas are located on the western portion of the study area. Several train stations and railways are located on sites with a high susceptibility ranking.

  20. Spatial soil zinc content distribution from terrain parameters: A GIS-based decision-tree model in Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bou Kheir, Rania; Greve, Mogens H.; Abdallah, Chadi; Dalgaard, Tommy

    2010-01-01

    Heavy metal contamination has been and continues to be a worldwide phenomenon that has attracted a great deal of attention from governments and regulatory bodies. In this context, our study proposes a regression-tree model to predict the concentration level of zinc in the soils of northern Lebanon (as a case study of Mediterranean landscapes) under a GIS environment. The developed tree-model explained 88% of variance in zinc concentration using pH (100% in relative importance), surroundings of waste areas (90%), proximity to roads (80%), nearness to cities (50%), distance to drainage line (25%), lithology (24%), land cover/use (14%), slope gradient (10%), conductivity (7%), soil type (7%), organic matter (5%), and soil depth (5%). The overall accuracy of the quantitative zinc map produced (at 1:50.000 scale) was estimated to be 78%. The proposed tree model is relatively simple and may also be applied to other areas. - GIS regression-tree analysis explained 88% of the variability in field/laboratory Zinc concentrations.

  1. Simulation of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Load Runoff by a GIS-based Distributed Model for Chikugo River Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iseri, Haruka; Hiramatsu, Kazuaki; Harada, Masayoshi

    A distributed model was developed in order to simulate the process of nitrogen and phosphorus load runoff in the semi-urban watershed of the Chikugo River, Japan. A grid of cells 1km in size was laid over the study area, and several input variables for each cell area including DEM, land use and statistical data were extracted by GIS. In the process of water runoff, hydrograph calculated at Chikugo Barrage was in close agreement with the observed one, which achieved Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient of 0.90. In addition, the model simulated reasonably well the movement of TN and TP at each station. The model was also used to analyze three scenarios based on the watershed management: (1) reduction of nutrient loads from livestock farm, (2) improvement of septic tanks' wastewater treatment system and (3) application of purification function of paddy fields. As a result, effectiveness of management strategy in each scenario depended on land use patterns. The reduction rates of nutrient load effluent in scenarios (1) and (3) were higher than that in scenario (2). The present result suggests that an appropriate management of livestock farm together with the effective use of paddy environment would have significant effects on the reduction of nutrient loads. A suitable management strategy should be planned based on the land use pattern in the watershed.

  2. Spatial soil zinc content distribution from terrain parameters: A GIS-based decision-tree model in Lebanon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bou Kheir, Rania, E-mail: rania.boukheir@agrsci.d [Lebanese University, Faculty of Letters and Human Sciences, Department of Geography, GIS Research Laboratory, P.O. Box 90-1065, Fanar (Lebanon); Department of Agroecology and Environment, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences (DJF), Aarhus University, Blichers Alle 20, P.O. Box 50, DK-8830 Tjele (Denmark); Greve, Mogens H. [Department of Agroecology and Environment, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences (DJF), Aarhus University, Blichers Alle 20, P.O. Box 50, DK-8830 Tjele (Denmark); Abdallah, Chadi [National Council for Scientific Research, Remote Sensing Center, P.O. Box 11-8281, Beirut (Lebanon); Dalgaard, Tommy [Department of Agroecology and Environment, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences (DJF), Aarhus University, Blichers Alle 20, P.O. Box 50, DK-8830 Tjele (Denmark)

    2010-02-15

    Heavy metal contamination has been and continues to be a worldwide phenomenon that has attracted a great deal of attention from governments and regulatory bodies. In this context, our study proposes a regression-tree model to predict the concentration level of zinc in the soils of northern Lebanon (as a case study of Mediterranean landscapes) under a GIS environment. The developed tree-model explained 88% of variance in zinc concentration using pH (100% in relative importance), surroundings of waste areas (90%), proximity to roads (80%), nearness to cities (50%), distance to drainage line (25%), lithology (24%), land cover/use (14%), slope gradient (10%), conductivity (7%), soil type (7%), organic matter (5%), and soil depth (5%). The overall accuracy of the quantitative zinc map produced (at 1:50.000 scale) was estimated to be 78%. The proposed tree model is relatively simple and may also be applied to other areas. - GIS regression-tree analysis explained 88% of the variability in field/laboratory Zinc concentrations.

  3. A GIS-based model of potential groundwater yield zonation for a sandstone aquifer in the Juye Coalfield, Shangdong, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Huiyong; Shi, Yongli; Niu, Huigong; Xie, Daolei; Wei, Jiuchuan; Lefticariu, Liliana; Xu, Shuanxiang

    2018-02-01

    Resolving the potential groundwater yield zonation of sandstone aquifers occurring at depths of several hundred meters has been an important and challenging objective of the hydrogeological research focused on preventing flood hazards in coal mines. Using accessible geological exploration data we put forward a method of predicting the spatial distribution of groundwater storage potential in sandstone aquifers from Permian-age coal deposits in Juye Coalfield, Shangdong, China. A Geological, Tectonic and Lithological Composition Index (GTLCI) model was created using the following parameters: sandstone depth and thickness, faults length density (FaLD), faults density (FaD), fault frequency density (FaFD), fault scale density (FaSD), variation coefficient of the slope (VCS) of the coal seam, intensity index of folds in horizontal direction (IIFoH), and lithological composition index (LCI). Each of these factors was subsequently divided into 5 classes. The analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and trapezoidal fuzzy number (TFN) method was applied to calculate the weight of the conditioning factor and their respective sub-classes. Groundwater yield potential contour map, which was initially constructed using the GTLCI values revealed four groundwater abundance zones. The map was further refined by taking into account hydrogeologic data collected during mining activities. The GTLCI model predictive success rate of 80% was explained by the limited number of boreholes available for validation. It is considered that the GTLCI model is effective at predicting zonation of groundwater yield in the sandstone aquifers from Permian- age coal deposits in Juye Coalfield, China.

  4. A highly spatially resolved GIS-based model to assess the isoprenoid emissions from key Italian ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Claudia Kemper; Fares, Silvano; Ciccioli, Paolo

    2014-10-01

    The amount of Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds (BVOC) emitted from terrestrial vegetation is of great importance in atmospheric reactivity, particularly for ozone-forming reactions and as condensation nuclei in aerosol formation and growth. This work presents a detailed inventory of isoprenoid emissions from vegetation in Italy using an original approach which combines state of the art models to estimate the species-specific isoprenoid emissions and a Geographic Information System (GIS) where emissions are spatially represented. Isoprenoid species and basal emission factors were obtained by combining results from laboratory experiments with those published in literature. For the first time, our investigation was not only restricted to isoprene and total monoterpenes, but our goal was to provide maps of isoprene and individual monoterpenes at a high-spatial (∼1 km2) and temporal resolution (daily runs, monthly trends in emissions are discussed in the text). Another novelty in our research was the inclusion of the effects of phenology on plant emissions. Our results show that: a) isoprene, a-pinene, sabinene and b-pinene are the most important compounds emitted from vegetation in Italy; b) annual biogenic isoprene and monoterpene fluxes for the year 2006 were ∼31.30 Gg and ∼37.70 Gg, respectively; and c) Quercus pubescens + Quercus petrea + Quercus robur, Quercus ilex, Quercus suber and Fagus sylvatica are the principal isoprenoid emitting species in the country. The high spatial and temporal resolution, combined with the species-specific emission output, makes the model particularly suitable for assessing local budgets, and for modeling photochemical pollution in Italy.

  5. A GIS-based groundwater travel time model to evaluate stream nitrate concentration reductions from land use change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, K.E.; Wolter, C.F.

    2007-01-01

    Excessive nitrate-nitrogen (nitrate) loss from agricultural watersheds is an environmental concern. A common conservation practice to improve stream water quality is to retire vulnerable row croplands to grass. In this paper, a groundwater travel time model based on a geographic information system (GIS) analysis of readily available soil and topographic variables was used to evaluate the time needed to observe stream nitrate concentration reductions from conversion of row crop land to native prairie in Walnut Creek watershed, Iowa. Average linear groundwater velocity in 5-m cells was estimated by overlaying GIS layers of soil permeability, land slope (surrogates for hydraulic conductivity and gradient, respectively) and porosity. Cells were summed backwards from the stream network to watershed divide to develop a travel time distribution map. Results suggested that groundwater from half of the land planted in prairie has reached the stream network during the 10 years of ongoing water quality monitoring. The mean travel time for the watershed was estimated to be 10.1 years, consistent with results from a simple analytical model. The proportion of land in the watershed and subbasins with prairie groundwater reaching the stream (10-22%) was similar to the measured reduction of stream nitrate (11-36%). Results provide encouragement that additional nitrate reductions in Walnut Creek are probable in the future as reduced nitrate groundwater from distal locations discharges to the stream network in the coming years. The high spatial resolution of the model (5-m cells) and its simplicity may make it potentially applicable for land managers interested in communicating lag time issues to the public, particularly related to nitrate concentration reductions over time. ?? 2007 Springer-Verlag.

  6. A GIS-Based Proposal for Modeling the “Lenteja” Zone of the CIEMAT Head Courted (Madrid)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marina, J; Andrés, N de; Carroza, J.A; Quiñones, J.

    2015-01-01

    CIEMAT is devoted to different activities relate to Decommissioning and Dismantling of all Radioactive irradiation facilities. Focusing on that this paper has the main objective of: to design a methodology for evaluating the geological structure of the site. This methodology allows description, modelling of the radionuclide migration in the soil. Although the idea is following the same methodology input the rest of the CIEMAT head courter site. In this paper is written a detailed description of the block diagram and geological profiles obtained, in which the sedimentary architecture of the subsoil of the study area and the location and volume of confined aquifers present in ''lenteja'' are localised.

  7. Integration of Long-Term Research into a GIS Based Landscape Habitat Model for the Red-Cockaded Woodpecker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franzreb, K.; Lloyd, F.T.

    2000-10-01

    The red cockaded woodpecker has been intensively studied since 1985 when the population was on the verge of extinction. The population decline is primarily the result of timber harvesting prior to 1950 and restricted burning. Construction of artificial cavities, translocations, competitor control, and removal of hardwood mid-story has provided suitable habitat. Since 1985, the population has increased from 4 to 99 birds. A GIS model is being developed to simulate the development of habitat at SRS in relation to management and existing vegetation.

  8. Developing a Composite Aquifer Vulnerability Assessment Model Combining DRASTIC with Agricultural Land Use in Choushui River Alluvial Fan, Central Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shih-Kai; Hsieh, Chih-Heng; Tsai, Cheng-Bin

    2017-04-01

    Aquifer vulnerability assessment is considered to be an effective tool in controlling potential pollution which is critical for groundwater management. The Choushui River alluvial fan, located in central Taiwan, is an agricultural area with complex crop patterns and various irrigation schemes, which increased the difficulties in groundwater resource management. The aim of this study is to propose an integrated methodology to assess shallow groundwater vulnerability by including land-use impact on groundwater potential pollution. The original groundwater vulnerability methodology, DRASTIC, was modified by adding a land-use parameter in order to assess groundwater vulnerability under intense agricultural activities. To examine the prediction capacity of pollution for the modified DRASTIC model, various risk categories of contamination potentials were compared with observed nitrate-N obtained from groundwater monitoring network. It was found that for the original DRASTIC vulnerability map, some areas with low nitrate-N concentrations are covered within the high vulnerability areas, especially in the northern part of mid-fan areas, where rice paddy is the main crop and planted for two crop seasons per year. The low nitrate-N contamination potential of rice paddies may be resulted from the denitrification in the reduced root zone. By reducing the rating for rice paddies, the modified model was proved to be capable of increasing the precise of prediction in study area. The results can provide a basis for groundwater monitoring network design and effective preserve measures formulation in the mixed agricultural area. Keyword:Aquifer Vulnerability, Groundwater, DRASTIC, Nitrate-N

  9. Modeling the location of the forest line in northeast European Russia with remotely sensed vegetation and GIS-based climate and terrain data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virtanen, Tarmo; Mikkola, Kari; Nikula, Ari

    2004-01-01

    GIS-based data sets were used to analyze the structure of the forest line at the landscape level in the lowlands of the Usa River Basin, in northeast European Russia. Vegetation zones in the area range from taiga in the south to forest-tundra and tundra in the north. We constructed logistic...

  10. A GIS-based statistical model for rapid landslide susceptibility mapping in the Beichuan-Pingwu area, Sichuan, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Y; Wang, Q J

    2014-01-01

    The 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, with a magnitude of Mw 8.0, induced numerous landslides. Remote sensing planes were sent out to take high resolution aerial photographs, from which the geologic hazards could be instantly interpreted. However, aerial images covering all of the study area could not be obtained in a short time because of the limitations of the planes and the influence of weather conditions. This studyestablishes a statistical model based on the landslide interpretation results of one photographic strip inside the Beichuan-Pingwu area. It has strong applicability and can be applied to other places without such data. Finally, we produced a landslide susceptibility map, which providesscientific support for the instant evaluation of disaster information and post-disaster reconstruction

  11. GIS-based groundwater vulnerability modelling: A case study of the Witbank, Ermelo and Highveld Coalfields in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakala, E.; Fourie, F.; Gomo, M.; Coetzee, H.

    2018-01-01

    In the last 20 years, the popular mineral systems approach has been used successfully for the exploration of various mineral commodities at various scales owing to its scientific soundness, cost effectiveness and simplicity in mapping the critical processes required for the formation of deposits. In the present study this approach was modified for the assessment of groundwater vulnerability. In terms of the modified approach, water drives the pollution migration processes, with various analogies having been derived from the mineral systems approach. The modified approach is illustrated here by the discussion of a case study of acid mine drainage (AMD) pollution in the Witbank, Ermelo and Highveld coalfields of the Mpumalanga and KwaZulu-Natal Provinces in South Africa. Many AMD cases have been reported in these provinces in recent years and are a cause of concern for local municipalities, mining and environmental agencies. In the Witbank, Ermelo and Highveld coalfields, several areas have been mined out while mining has not yet started in others, hence the need to identify groundwater regions prone to AMD pollution in order to avoid further impacts on the groundwater resources. A knowledge-based fuzzy expert system was built using vulnerability factors (energy sources, ligands sources, pollutant sources, transportation pathways and traps) to generate a groundwater vulnerability model of the coalfields. Highly vulnerable areas were identified in Witbank coalfield and the eastern part of the Ermelo coalfield which are characterised by the presence of AMD sources, good subsurface transport coupled with poor AMD pollution trapping properties. The results from the analysis indicate significant correlations between model values and both groundwater sulphate concentrations as well as pH. This shows that the proposed approach can indeed be used as an alternative to traditional methods of groundwater vulnerability assessment. The methodology only considers the AMD pollution

  12. Using the PCRaster-POLFLOW approach to GIS-based modelling of coupled groundwater-surface water hydrology in the Forsmark Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarsjoe, Jerker; Shibuo, Yoshihiro; Destouni, Georgia

    2004-09-01

    The catchment-scale hydrologic modelling approach PCRaster-POLFLOW permits the integration of environmental process modelling functions with classical GIS functions such as database maintenance and screen display. It has previously successfully been applied at relatively large river basins and catchments, such as Rhine, Elbe and Norrstroem, for modelling stream water flow and nutrient transport. In this study, we review the PCRaster-POLFLOW modelling approach and apply it using a relatively fine spatial resolution to the smaller catchment of Forsmark. As input we use data from SKB's database, which includes detailed data from Forsmark (and Simpevarp), since these locations are being investigated as part of the process to find a suitable location for a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel. We show, by comparison with independently measured, area-averaged runoff data, that the PCRaster-POLFLOW model produces results that, without using site-specific calibration, agree well with these independent measurements. In addition, we deliver results for four planned hydrological stations within the Forsmark catchment thus allowing for future direct comparisons with streamflow monitoring. We also show that, and how, the PCRaster-POLFLOW model in its present state can be used for predicting average seasonal streamflow. The present modelling exercise provided insights into possible ways of extending and using the PCRaster-POLFLOW model for applications beyond its current main focus of surface water hydrology. In particular, regarding analysis of possible surface water-groundwater interactions, we identify the Analytic Element Method for groundwater modelling together with its GIS-based pre- and post processor ArcFlow as suitable and promising for use in combination with the PCRaster-POLFLOW modelling approach. Furthermore, for transport modelling, such as that of radionuclides entering the coupled shallow groundwater-surface water hydrological system from possible deep

  13. Using the PCRaster-POLFLOW approach to GIS-based modelling of coupled groundwater-surface water hydrology in the Forsmark Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarsjoe, Jerker; Shibuo, Yoshihiro; Destouni, Georgia [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology

    2004-09-01

    The catchment-scale hydrologic modelling approach PCRaster-POLFLOW permits the integration of environmental process modelling functions with classical GIS functions such as database maintenance and screen display. It has previously successfully been applied at relatively large river basins and catchments, such as Rhine, Elbe and Norrstroem, for modelling stream water flow and nutrient transport. In this study, we review the PCRaster-POLFLOW modelling approach and apply it using a relatively fine spatial resolution to the smaller catchment of Forsmark. As input we use data from SKB's database, which includes detailed data from Forsmark (and Simpevarp), since these locations are being investigated as part of the process to find a suitable location for a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel. We show, by comparison with independently measured, area-averaged runoff data, that the PCRaster-POLFLOW model produces results that, without using site-specific calibration, agree well with these independent measurements. In addition, we deliver results for four planned hydrological stations within the Forsmark catchment thus allowing for future direct comparisons with streamflow monitoring. We also show that, and how, the PCRaster-POLFLOW model in its present state can be used for predicting average seasonal streamflow. The present modelling exercise provided insights into possible ways of extending and using the PCRaster-POLFLOW model for applications beyond its current main focus of surface water hydrology. In particular, regarding analysis of possible surface water-groundwater interactions, we identify the Analytic Element Method for groundwater modelling together with its GIS-based pre- and post processor ArcFlow as suitable and promising for use in combination with the PCRaster-POLFLOW modelling approach. Furthermore, for transport modelling, such as that of radionuclides entering the coupled shallow groundwater-surface water hydrological system from possible deep

  14. A GIS-based Model for Urban Change and Implications for Water Quality in the Pontchartrain Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carstens, D.; Amer, R. M.

    2017-12-01

    The combination of remote sensing techniques and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to measure water quality allows researchers to monitor changes in various water quality parameters over temporal and spatial scales that are not always readily apparent from in situ measurements. Water has a distinct spectral behavior in comparison to soil, vegetation and urban, and therefore can be distinguished from surrounding environments. This study involves using remote sensing and GIS methods to map urban sprawl and its resulting influences on water quality in the Pontchartrain Basin over the last three decades. Two images of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) were taken in October 1985 and two images of Landsat Operational Land Imager (OLI) were taken in 2015 were atmospherically corrected and processed to map urban sprawl and influences on water quality of Pontchartrain Basin in the last three decades. To accomplish this, a normalized difference building index (NDBI) was developed for Landsat images. The NDBI was calculated from (NIR - SWIR) / (NIR + SWIR), where SWIR is the longest wavelength. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), the normalized difference soil index (NDSI), and the normalized difference water index (NDWI) were also calculated for Landsat images. A GIS model was developed by integrating the NDBI, NDVI, NDSI, and NDWI, and yielded urban/non-urban/water boundary maps with 30-m resolution. Results indicate that urban areas have increased approximately from 25,643 km2 to 26,677 km2, which represents about 4.0% change from non-urban to urban in the last 3 decades. The results are in a good agreement with the U.S. Census data, which indicated that there is a 12.25% increase in population over the last 25 years in the 16 parishes of the Pontchartrain Basin. Urban changes were compared with changes of water quality parameters in PONTCHARTRAIN BASIN, which include pH, specific conductance, nitrogen, phosphorous, and dissolved oxygen. The results show that

  15. GIS-based model of groundwater occurrence using geological and hydrogeological data in Precambrian Oban Massif southeastern Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikakwe, Gregory Udie

    2018-06-01

    This research modeled geological and hydrogeological controls on groundwater occurrence in Oban Massif and environs southeastern Nigeria. Topographical, hydrogeological, and structural maps, including lithology samples from drilled bores, well completion, and pumping test data in the study area were procured. Collection of coordinates of rock sample locations and structural data on strike and dip of rock exposures was collected. Geological and structural information collected was overlaid on the topographical, hydrogeological and structural map and digitized to produce the geological map of the study area. Thematic map on geological groundwater prospect map of the study was prepared using multicriteria evaluation. Relative weights were assigned to various rock types based on their relative contribution to groundwater occurrence and the map was reclassified using geographic information system (ArcGIS10.1) analysis. Depth ranges of the various lithologic units from drilled boreholes were used to construct lithologic correlation section of the boreholes across the study area using RockWorks16 Program software. Hydrogeological parameters such as storativity, specific capacity, transmissivity, drawdown, pumping rate, static water level, total depth, and well yield were computed from well completion reports and aquifer test. Results shows that the geologic groundwater prospect map was categorized into very good (28.73 m2), good (9.66 m2), moderate (35.08 m2), fair (49.38 m2), and poor (77.63 m2) zones. Aquifer parameters showed ranges such as (specific capacity (1.81-31.16 m2/day/m), transmissivity (0.0033-12 m2/day), storativity (9.4 × 10-3-2.3), drawdown (2.2-17.65 m), pumping rate (0.75-3.57 l/s), static water level (0-20.5 m), and total depth (3.3-61 m). Borehole depths obtained in the basement are shallower than those in the sedimentary area. Aquifer test parameters obtained from boreholes across the study indicate better correspondence with zones identified as

  16. A GIS-Based Model for the analysis of an urban flash flood and its hydro-geomorphic response. The Valencia event of 1957

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portugués-Mollá, I.; Bonache-Felici, X.; Mateu-Bellés, J. F.; Marco-Segura, J. B.

    2016-10-01

    Flash floods are recurrent events around the Mediterranean region. Extreme episodes activate hydro-geomorphic high-intensity processes with low frequency. In urban environments, the complexity becomes higher due to the existence of very quick-response runoff. However, immediate recovery works remove the urban marks. After a short time both the significance and magnitude of the hydro-geomorphic event become completely unrecognizable. Nevertheless, these episodes generate extensive documentation which is testimony of the processes in almost real time. It is necessary to exploit this source typology in order to draw flood sketches when events far in time may lack a sufficiently rich database. This is particularly the case for the Valencia flash flood (October 1957), located in the lower Turia River basin (Eastern Spain). It left numerous pieces of hydro-geomorphic evidence, but its tracks were covered a short while after the flood. In any case, it remains part of a non-systematic legacy that has not yet been exploited, consisting of immediate aerial and oblique high resolution photography, pictures at street level, water marks and administrative records. Paradoxically, despite being considered a milestone in metropolitan territorial planning (the river was definitely diverted), an accurate reconstruction of the hydraulic behaviour was required from an integrated point of view. To this aim, the development of a GIS-Based Model enabled the utilisation of the above-mentioned materials. This non-conventional information was treated jointly from a new perspective. It provided database support through a vast amount of organised, structured and georeferenced information about the 1957 event. In a second stage, the GBM made it possible to characterise the Turia urban reach and interpret both the hydro-geomorphic (trenches along barrier beaches, erosion, deposition, etc.) and hydraulic (urban streams along the streets, flow directions, flood extent, levees breaks, overflows

  17. Assessment of vulnerability zones for ground water pollution using GIS-DRASTIC-EC model: A field-based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anantha Rao, D.; Naik, Pradeep K.; Jain, Sunil K.; Vinod Kumar, K.; Dhanamjaya Rao, E. N.

    2018-06-01

    Assessment of groundwater vulnerability to pollution is an essential pre-requisite for better planning of an area. We present the groundwater vulnerability assessment in parts of the Yamuna Nagar District, Haryana State, India in an area of about 800 km2, considered to be a freshwater zone in the foothills of the Siwalik Hill Ranges. Such areas in the Lower Himalayas form good groundwater recharge zones, and should always be free from contamination. But, the administration has been trying to promote industrialization along these foothill zones without actually assessing the environmental consequences such activities may invite in the future. GIS-DRASTIC model has been used with field based data inputs for studying the vulnerability assessment. But, we find that inclusion electrical conductivity (EC) as a model parameter makes it more robust. Therefore, we rename it as GIS-DRASTIC-EC model. The model identifies three vulnerability zones such as low, moderate and high with an areal extent of 5%, 80% and 15%, respectively. On the basis of major chemical parameters alone, the groundwater in the foothill zones apparently looks safe, but analysis with the help of GIS-DRASTIC-EC model gives a better perspective of the groundwater quality in terms of identifying the vulnerable areas.

  18. GIS-based modeling of manure management and its effect in terms of water pollution; Modellazione GIS-based dello spandimento di reflui zootecnici e dell'incidenza dell'inquinamento conseguente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pistocchi, A. [GECOsistema Srl, Cesena, Forli' (Italy)

    2001-03-01

    The paper describes a modeling approach to diffuse pollution patterns at the landscape scale. On purpose, the location of potential pollution sources is used together with a spatial representation of the two pollution vehicles here considered, namely sediment transport and water discharges both as run off and subsurface flows. A deterministic model such as CREAMS is turned to a pattern model describing the spatial distribution of relative intensity of the sites as sources of pollution, leading to a basis for the ranking of management priorities. Also, a criterion is introduced to evaluate the actual rate of exploitation of the available manure spreading fields as a function of distance from the feedlots to which they belong, so to account for the economic feasibility of spreading. Eventually, the model limits and fields of application are drawn by underlying its role at the level of planning but its inadequacy for detailed quantitative evaluations. [Italian] Il lavoro descrive una proposta di modellazione dei pattern di inquinamento diffuso che considerino, oltre alla distribuzione delle fonti (segnatamente, gli spandimenti di reflui zootecnici), le caratteristiche spaziali dei vettori di inquinamento diffuso, ovvero i deflussi superficiali e sotterranei e l'erosione di sedimento. Attraverso opportuni ragionamenti geografici, si riduce lo schema modellistico di un calcolo deterministico (quello del modello CREAMS) a un calcolo cartografico da cui emerge l'intensita' relativa del flusso di azoto sia in forma adesa al sedimento, sia in soluzione nei deflussi. Questo consente di classificare le aree-sorgente in relazione alla priorita' di intervento per i contenimenti dell'inquinamento. Nel lavoro vengono anche presentate alcune considerazioni sulla possibilita' di inglobare la valutazione del reale utilizzo dei terreni teoricamente disponibili allo spandimento, in funzione dell'economicita' dello spandimento stesso. Infine sono

  19. GIS-based suitability modeling and multi-criteria decision analysis for utility scale solar plants in four states in the Southeast U.S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisza, Kata

    Photovoltaic (PV) development shows significantly smaller growth in the Southeast U.S., than in the Southwest; which is mainly due to the low cost of fossil-fuel based energy production in the region and the lack of solar incentives. However, the Southeast has appropriate insolation conditions (4.0-6.0 KWh/m2/day) for photovoltaic deployment and in the past decade the region has experienced the highest population growth for the entire country. These factors, combined with new renewable energy portfolio policies, could create an opportunity for PV to provide some of the energy that will be required to sustain this growth. The goal of the study was to investigate the potential for PV generation in the Southeast region by identifying suitable areas for a utility-scale solar power plant deployment. Four states with currently low solar penetration were studied: Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina and Tennessee. Feasible areas were assessed with Geographic Information Systems (GIS) software using solar, land use and population growth criteria combined with proximity to transmission lines and roads. After the GIS-based assessment of the areas, technological potential was calculated for each state. Multi-decision analysis model (MCDA) was used to simulate the decision making method for a strategic PV installation. The model accounted for all criteria necessary to consider in case of a PV development and also included economic and policy criteria, which is thought to be a strong influence on the PV market. Three different scenarios were established, representing decision makers' theoretical preferences. Map layers created in the first part were used as basis for the MCDA and additional technical, economic and political/market criteria were added. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to test the model's robustness. Finally, weighted criteria were assigned to the GIS map layers, so that the different preference systems could be visualized. As a result, lands suitable for

  20. Vulnerability and risk evaluation of agricultural nitrogen pollution for Hungary's main aquifer using DRASTIC and GLEAMS models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, A; Ripa, M N; Uricchio, V; Deák, J; Vargay, Z

    2009-07-01

    In recent years, the significant improvement in point source depuration technologies has highlighted problems regarding, in particular, phosphorus and nitrogen pollution of surface and groundwater caused by agricultural non-point (diffuse) sources (NPS). Therefore, there is an urgent need to determine the relationship between agriculture and chemical and ecological water quality. This is a worldwide problem, but it is particularly relevant in countries, such as Hungary, that have recently become members of the European Community. The Italian Foreign Ministry has financed the PECO (Eastern Europe Countries Project) projects, amongst which is the project that led to the present paper, aimed at agricultural sustainability in Hungary, from the point of view of NPS. Specifically, the aim of the present work has been to study nitrates in Hungary's main aquifer. This study compares a model showing aquifer intrinsic vulnerability to pollution (using the DRASTIC parameter method; Aller et al. [Aller, L., Truman, B., Leher, J.H., Petty, R.J., 1986. DRASTIC: A Standardized System for Evaluating Ground Water Pollution Potential Using Hydrogeologic Settings. US NTIS, Springfield, VA.]) with a field-scale model (GLEAMS; Knisel [Knisel, W.G. (Ed.), 1993. GLEAMS--Groudwater Leaching Effects of Agricultural Management Systems, Version 3.10. University of Georgia, Coastal Plain Experimental Station, Tifton, GA.]) developed to evaluate the effects of agricultural management systems within and through the plant root zone. Specifically, GLEAMS calculates nitrate nitrogen lost by runoff, sediment and leachate. Groundwater monitoring probes were constructed for the project to measure: (i) nitrate content in monitored wells; (ii) tritium (3H) hydrogen radioisotope, as a tool to estimate the recharge conditions of the shallow groundwater; (iii) nitrogen isotope ratio delta15N, since nitrogen of organic and inorganic origin can easily be distinguished. The results obtained are satisfactory

  1. A GIS-based model for the hydrological and hydraulic reconstruction of historical flash-floods in urban areas. The case of the river Turia in Valencia (1957)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portugués Mollá, Iván; Felici, Xavier Bonache i.; Mateu Bellés, Joan F.; Segura, Juan B. Marco

    2015-04-01

    a more effective and accurate risk management within the Valencian metropolitan area. The development of a GIS-based model enables the utilization of these materials, most of them unpublished. This non-systematic information can be treated jointly from a new perspective. In short, this model facilitates the provision of a database through a vast amount of organized, structured and georeferenced information about the event. In a second stage, it makes possible to interpret the hydro-geomorphic processes from the 1957 event (trenches along barrier beaches, erosion, deposition processes…) and hydraulic processes (main flow encroachment versus quasi-hydrostatic-flood, or 1D versus 2D flood behavior), which can be identified in order to obtain georeferenced information about spatial variability, directional information of flows and point distribution of water levels and flooded points. It is also necessary to carry out photo-interpretation works to clarify some unresolved issues with the objective of establishing the real order of magnitude of the flash-flood concerning the discharge rank. In the same way, some other elements can be identified such as urban streams along the streets, levees overtopping and breaks, flooded area, etc. Lastly, in the future the GIS database will enable to obtain a more accurate both hydraulic mathematical modelling and calibration/validation.

  2. Modelling the changing cumulative vulnerability to climate-related hazards for river basin management using a GIS-based multicriteria decision approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Hung-Chih; Wu, Ju-Yu; Hung, Chih-Hsuan

    2017-04-01

    1. Background Asia-Pacific region is one of the most vulnerable areas of the world to climate-related hazards and extremes due to rapid urbanization and over-development in hazard-prone areas. It is thus increasingly recognized that the management of land use and reduction of hazard risk are inextricably linked. This is especially critical from the perspective of integrated river basin management. A range of studies has targeted existing vulnerability assessments. However, limited attention has been paid to the cumulative effects of multiple vulnerable factors and their dynamics faced by local communities. This study proposes a novel methodology to access the changing cumulative vulnerability to climate-related hazards, and to examine the relationship between the attraction factors relevant to the general process of urbanization and vulnerability variability with a focus on a river basin management unit. 2. Methods and data The methods applied in this study include three steps. First, using Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's (IPCC) approach, a Cumulative Vulnerability Assessment Framework (CVAF) is built with a goal to characterize and compare the vulnerability to climate-related hazards within river basin regions based on a composition of multiple indicators. We organize these indicator metrics into three categories: (1) hazard exposure; (2) socioeconomic sensitivity, and (3) adaptive capacity. Second, the CVAF is applied by combining a geographical information system (GIS)-based spatial statistics technique with a multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) to assess and map the changing cumulative vulnerability, comparing conditions in 1996 and 2006 in Danshui River Basin, Taiwan. Third, to examine the affecting factors of vulnerability changing, we develop a Vulnerability Changing Model (VCM) using four attraction factors to reflect how the process of urban developments leads to vulnerability changing. The factors are transport networks, land uses

  3. A multi-objective assessment of an air quality monitoring network using environmental, economic, and social indicators and GIS-based models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Ronald; Wu, Jianguo

    2014-06-01

    In the United States, air pollution is primarily measured by Air Quality Monitoring Networks (AQMN). These AQMNs have multiple objectives, including characterizing pollution patterns, protecting the public health, and determining compliance with air quality standards. In 2006, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency issued a directive that air pollution agencies assess the performance of their AQMNs. Although various methods to design and assess AQMNs exist, here we demonstrate a geographic information system (GIS)-based approach that combines environmental, economic, and social indicators through the assessment of the ozone (O3) and particulate matter (PM10) networks in Maricopa County, Arizona. The assessment was conducted in three phases: (1) to evaluate the performance of the existing networks, (2) to identify areas that would benefit from the addition of new monitoring stations, and (3) to recommend changes to the AQMN. A comprehensive set of indicators was created for evaluating differing aspects of the AQMNs' objectives, and weights were applied to emphasize important indicators. Indicators were also classified according to their sustainable development goal. Our results showed that O3 was well represented in the county with some redundancy in terms of the urban monitors. The addition of weights to the indicators only had a minimal effect on the results. For O3, urban monitors had greater social scores, while rural monitors had greater environmental scores. The results did not suggest a need for adding more O3 monitoring sites. For PM10, clustered urban monitors were redundant, and weights also had a minimal effect on the results. The clustered urban monitors had overall low scores; sites near point sources had high environmental scores. Several areas were identified as needing additional PM10 monitors. This study demonstrates the usefulness of a multi-indicator approach to assess AQMNs. Network managers and planners may use this method to assess the

  4. A drastic cutback

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2012-11-01

    In mid-July, the moment had come: Italy's energy agency Gestore dei Servizi Energetici (GSE) officially announced that the promotion of solar PV plants had crossed the mark of Euro 6 billion. With this, Italy's fifth Conto Energia was set to automatically come into effect at the end of August, along with drastic tariff cuts for solar power.

  5. Assessment of groundwater contamination risk using hazard quantification, a modified DRASTIC model and groundwater value, Beijing Plain, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junjie; He, Jiangtao; Chen, Honghan

    2012-08-15

    Groundwater contamination risk assessment is an effective tool for groundwater management. Most existing risk assessment methods only consider the basic contamination process based upon evaluations of hazards and aquifer vulnerability. In view of groundwater exploitation potentiality, including the value of contamination-threatened groundwater could provide relatively objective and targeted results to aid in decision making. This study describes a groundwater contamination risk assessment method that integrates hazards, intrinsic vulnerability and groundwater value. The hazard harmfulness was evaluated by quantifying contaminant properties and infiltrating contaminant load, the intrinsic aquifer vulnerability was evaluated using a modified DRASTIC model and the groundwater value was evaluated based on groundwater quality and aquifer storage. Two groundwater contamination risk maps were produced by combining the above factors: a basic risk map and a value-weighted risk map. The basic risk map was produced by overlaying the hazard map and the intrinsic vulnerability map. The value-weighted risk map was produced by overlaying the basic risk map and the groundwater value map. Relevant validation was completed by contaminant distributions and site investigation. Using Beijing Plain, China, as an example, thematic maps of the three factors and the two risks were generated. The thematic maps suggested that landfills, gas stations and oil depots, and industrial areas were the most harmful potential contamination sources. The western and northern parts of the plain were the most vulnerable areas and had the highest groundwater value. Additionally, both the basic and value-weighted risk classes in the western and northern parts of the plain were the highest, indicating that these regions should deserve the priority of concern. Thematic maps should be updated regularly because of the dynamic characteristics of hazards. Subjectivity and validation means in assessing the

  6. Open Source GIS based integrated watershed management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, J. M.; Lindsay, J.; Berg, A. A.

    2013-12-01

    challenging resource management issues in industry, government and nongovernmental agencies. Current research and analysis tools were developed to manage meteorological, climatological, and land and water resource data efficiently at high resolution in space and time. The deliverable for this work is a Whitebox-GENESYS open-source resource management capacity with routines for GIS based watershed management including water in agriculture and food production. We are adding urban water management routines through GENESYS in 2013-15 with an engineering PhD candidate. Both Whitebox-GAT and GENESYS are already well-established tools. The proposed research will combine these products to create an open-source geomatics based water resource management tool that is revolutionary in both capacity and availability to a wide array of Canadian and global users

  7. GIS-BASED PREDICTION OF HURRICANE FLOOD INUNDATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JUDI, DAVID [Los Alamos National Laboratory; KALYANAPU, ALFRED [Los Alamos National Laboratory; MCPHERSON, TIMOTHY [Los Alamos National Laboratory; BERSCHEID, ALAN [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2007-01-17

    A simulation environment is being developed for the prediction and analysis of the inundation consequences for infrastructure systems from extreme flood events. This decision support architecture includes a GIS-based environment for model input development, simulation integration tools for meteorological, hydrologic, and infrastructure system models and damage assessment tools for infrastructure systems. The GIS-based environment processes digital elevation models (30-m from the USGS), land use/cover (30-m NLCD), stream networks from the National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) and soils data from the NRCS (STATSGO) to create stream network, subbasins, and cross-section shapefiles for drainage basins selected for analysis. Rainfall predictions are made by a numerical weather model and ingested in gridded format into the simulation environment. Runoff hydrographs are estimated using Green-Ampt infiltration excess runoff prediction and a 1D diffusive wave overland flow routing approach. The hydrographs are fed into the stream network and integrated in a dynamic wave routing module using the EPA's Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) to predict flood depth. The flood depths are then transformed into inundation maps and exported for damage assessment. Hydrologic/hydraulic results are presented for Tropical Storm Allison.

  8. Groundwater potentiality mapping using geoelectrical-based aquifer hydraulic parameters: A GIS-based multi-criteria decision analysis modeling approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kehinde Anthony Mogaji Hwee San Lim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study conducted a robust analysis on acquired 2D resistivity imaging data and borehole pumping test records to optimize groundwater potentiality mapping in Perak province, Malaysia using derived aquifer hydraulic properties. The transverse resistance (TR parameter was determined from the interpreted 2D resistivity imaging data by applying the Dar-Zarrouk parameter equation. Linear regression and GIS techniques were used to regress the estimated values for TR parameters with the aquifer transmissivity values extracted from the geospatially produced BPT records-based aquifer transmissivity map to develop the aquifer transmissivity parameter predictive (ATPP model. The reliability evaluated ATPP model using the Theil inequality coefficient measurement approach was used to establish geoelectrical-based hydraulic parameters (GHP modeling equations for the modeling of transmissivity (Tr, hydraulic conductivity (K, storativity (St, and hydraulic diffusivity (D properties. The applied GHP modeling equation results to the delineated aquifer media was used to produce aquifer potential conditioning factor maps for Tr, K, St, and D. The maps were modeled to develop an aquifer potential mapping index (APMI model via applying the multi-criteria decision analysis-analytic hierarchy process principle. The area groundwater reservoir productivity potential model map produced based on the processed APMI model estimates in the GIS environment was found to be 71% accurate. This study establishes a good alternative approach to determine aquifer hydraulic parameters even in areas where pumping test information is unavailable using a cost effective geophysical data. The produced map can be explored for hydrological decision making.

  9. Using a GIS-based spot growth model and visual simulator to evaluate the effects of silvicultural treatments on southern pine beetle-infested stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiao-Ying Chou; Roy L. Hedden; Bo Song; Thomas M. Williams

    2013-01-01

    Many models are available for simulating the probability of southern pine beetle (Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann) (SPB) infestation and outbreak dynamics. However, only a few models focused on the potential spatial SPB growth. Although the integrated pest management systems are currently adopted, SPB management is still challenging because of...

  10. Globally-Applicable Predictive Wildfire Model   a Temporal-Spatial GIS Based Risk Analysis Using Data Driven Fuzzy Logic Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Dool, G.

    2017-11-01

    This study (van den Dool, 2017) is a proof of concept for a global predictive wildfire model, in which the temporal-spatial characteristics of wildfires are placed in a Geographical Information System (GIS), and the risk analysis is based on data-driven fuzzy logic functions. The data sources used in this model are available as global datasets, but subdivided into three pilot areas: North America (California/Nevada), Europe (Spain), and Asia (Mongolia), and are downscaled to the highest resolution (3-arc second). The GIS is constructed around three themes: topography, fuel availability and climate. From the topographical data, six derived sub-themes are created and converted to a fuzzy membership based on the catchment area statistics. The fuel availability score is a composite of four data layers: land cover, wood loads, biomass, biovolumes. As input for the climatological sub-model reanalysed daily averaged, weather-related data is used, which is accumulated to a global weekly time-window (to account for the uncertainty within the climatological model) and forms the temporal component of the model. The final product is a wildfire risk score (from 0 to 1) by week, representing the average wildfire risk in an area. To compute the potential wildfire risk the sub-models are combined usinga Multi-Criteria Approach, and the model results are validated against the area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve.

  11. Analysis of the flood extent extraction model and the natural flood influencing factors: A GIS-based and remote sensing analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawal, D U; Matori, A N; Yusuf, K W; Hashim, A M; Balogun, A L

    2014-01-01

    Serious floods have hit the State of Perlis in 2005, 2010, as well as 2011. Perlis is situated in the northern part of Peninsula Malaysia. The floods caused great damage to properties and human lives. There are various methods used in an attempt to provide the most reliable ways to reduce the flood risk and damage to the optimum level by identifying the flood vulnerable zones. The purpose of this paper is to develop a flood extent extraction model based on Minimum Distance Algorithm and to overlay with the natural flood influencing factors considered herein in order to examine the effect of each factor in flood generation. GIS spatial database was created from a geological map, SPOT satellite image, and the topographical map. An attribute database was equally created from field investigations and historical flood areas reports of the study area. The results show a great correlation between the flood extent extraction model and the flood factors

  12. Remote sensing and GIS-based landslide hazard analysis and cross-validation using multivariate logistic regression model on three test areas in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Biswajeet

    2010-05-01

    This paper presents the results of the cross-validation of a multivariate logistic regression model using remote sensing data and GIS for landslide hazard analysis on the Penang, Cameron, and Selangor areas in Malaysia. Landslide locations in the study areas were identified by interpreting aerial photographs and satellite images, supported by field surveys. SPOT 5 and Landsat TM satellite imagery were used to map landcover and vegetation index, respectively. Maps of topography, soil type, lineaments and land cover were constructed from the spatial datasets. Ten factors which influence landslide occurrence, i.e., slope, aspect, curvature, distance from drainage, lithology, distance from lineaments, soil type, landcover, rainfall precipitation, and normalized difference vegetation index (ndvi), were extracted from the spatial database and the logistic regression coefficient of each factor was computed. Then the landslide hazard was analysed using the multivariate logistic regression coefficients derived not only from the data for the respective area but also using the logistic regression coefficients calculated from each of the other two areas (nine hazard maps in all) as a cross-validation of the model. For verification of the model, the results of the analyses were then compared with the field-verified landslide locations. Among the three cases of the application of logistic regression coefficient in the same study area, the case of Selangor based on the Selangor logistic regression coefficients showed the highest accuracy (94%), where as Penang based on the Penang coefficients showed the lowest accuracy (86%). Similarly, among the six cases from the cross application of logistic regression coefficient in other two areas, the case of Selangor based on logistic coefficient of Cameron showed highest (90%) prediction accuracy where as the case of Penang based on the Selangor logistic regression coefficients showed the lowest accuracy (79%). Qualitatively, the cross

  13. An integrated GIS-based interval-probabilistic programming model for land-use planning management under uncertainty--a case study at Suzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shasha; Zhou, Min; Guan, Xingliang; Tao, Lizao

    2015-03-01

    A large number of mathematical models have been developed for supporting optimization of land-use allocation; however, few of them simultaneously consider land suitability (e.g., physical features and spatial information) and various uncertainties existing in many factors (e.g., land availabilities, land demands, land-use patterns, and ecological requirements). This paper incorporates geographic information system (GIS) technology into interval-probabilistic programming (IPP) for land-use planning management (IPP-LUPM). GIS is utilized to assemble data for the aggregated land-use alternatives, and IPP is developed for tackling uncertainties presented as discrete intervals and probability distribution. Based on GIS, the suitability maps of different land users are provided by the outcomes of land suitability assessment and spatial analysis. The maximum area of every type of land use obtained from the suitability maps, as well as various objectives/constraints (i.e., land supply, land demand of socioeconomic development, future development strategies, and environmental capacity), is used as input data for the optimization of land-use areas with IPP-LUPM model. The proposed model not only considers the outcomes of land suitability evaluation (i.e., topography, ground conditions, hydrology, and spatial location) but also involves economic factors, food security, and eco-environmental constraints, which can effectively reflect various interrelations among different aspects in a land-use planning management system. The case study results at Suzhou, China, demonstrate that the model can help to examine the reliability of satisfying (or risk of violating) system constraints under uncertainty. Moreover, it may identify the quantitative relationship between land suitability and system benefits. Willingness to arrange the land areas based on the condition of highly suitable land will not only reduce the potential conflicts on the environmental system but also lead to a lower

  14. The application of GIS based decision-tree models for generating the spatial distribution of hydromorphic organic landscapes in relation to digital terrain data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kheir, Rania Bou; Bøcher, Peder Klith; Greve, Mette Balslev

    2010-01-01

    Accurate information about organic/mineral soil occurrence is a prerequisite for many land resources management applications (including climate change mitigation). This paper aims at investigating the potential of using geomorphometrical analysis and decision tree modeling to predict the geographic......, realistic and practical, and it can be applied to other areas, thereby providing a tool to facilitate the implementation of pedological/hydrological plans for conservation and sustainable management. It is particularly useful when information about soil properties from conventional field surveys is limited....

  15. FULLY AUTOMATED GIS-BASED INDIVIDUAL TREE CROWN DELINEATION BASED ON CURVATURE VALUES FROM A LIDAR DERIVED CANOPY HEIGHT MODEL IN A CONIFEROUS PLANTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. L. Argamosa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The generation of high resolution canopy height model (CHM from LiDAR makes it possible to delineate individual tree crown by means of a fully-automated method using the CHM’s curvature through its slope. The local maxima are obtained by taking the maximum raster value in a 3 m x 3 m cell. These values are assumed as tree tops and therefore considered as individual trees. Based on the assumptions, thiessen polygons were generated to serve as buffers for the canopy extent. The negative profile curvature is then measured from the slope of the CHM. The results show that the aggregated points from a negative profile curvature raster provide the most realistic crown shape. The absence of field data regarding tree crown dimensions require accurate visual assessment after the appended delineated tree crown polygon was superimposed to the hill shaded CHM.

  16. Estimating rooftop solar technical potential across the US using a combination of GIS-based methods, lidar data, and statistical modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Pieter; Margolis, Robert; Melius, Jennifer; Phillips, Caleb; Elmore, Ryan

    2018-02-01

    We provide a detailed estimate of the technical potential of rooftop solar photovoltaic (PV) electricity generation throughout the contiguous United States. This national estimate is based on an analysis of select US cities that combines light detection and ranging (lidar) data with a validated analytical method for determining rooftop PV suitability employing geographic information systems. We use statistical models to extend this analysis to estimate the quantity and characteristics of roofs in areas not covered by lidar data. Finally, we model PV generation for all rooftops to yield technical potential estimates. At the national level, 8.13 billion m2 of suitable roof area could host 1118 GW of PV capacity, generating 1432 TWh of electricity per year. This would equate to 38.6% of the electricity that was sold in the contiguous United States in 2013. This estimate is substantially higher than a previous estimate made by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The difference can be attributed to increases in PV module power density, improved estimation of building suitability, higher estimates of total number of buildings, and improvements in PV performance simulation tools that previously tended to underestimate productivity. Also notable, the nationwide percentage of buildings suitable for at least some PV deployment is high—82% for buildings smaller than 5000 ft2 and over 99% for buildings larger than that. In most states, rooftop PV could enable small, mostly residential buildings to offset the majority of average household electricity consumption. Even in some states with a relatively poor solar resource, such as those in the Northeast, the residential sector has the potential to offset around 100% of its total electricity consumption with rooftop PV.

  17. Assessment of groundwater vulnerability using DRASTIC Model and GIS : A case study of two sub-districts in Banda Aceh city, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machdar, I.; Zulfikar, T.; Rinaldi, W.; Alfiansyah, Y.

    2018-03-01

    This present study assessed the groundwater vulnerability to protect aquifer in part of Banda Aceh City (the sub-district of Banda Raya and Lueng Bata), Indonesia. The study provides an additional tool for local planner and manager as for managing and protecting groundwater resources. The study area covers 1,164 ha and total population was estimated around 50,000 inhabitants. DRASTIC model in a GIS (Geographic Information System) environment was used in this study to generate vulnerability maps. The maps were created by applied seven criteria as standard in DRASTIC approach, i.e. depth to groundwater, recharge, aquifer type, soil properties, topography, impact of the vadose zone, and hydraulic conductivity. The vulnerability maps provides five categories of vulnerability, i.e. less, low, medium, high, and very high. It was found that the village areas, labelled with the high groundwater pollution potential, are mainly in the area of Lamlagang and the part of Geuce Kaye Jatoe and Geuce Komplek (Banda Raya sub-district) and the part of Batoh and Suka Damai (Lueng Bata sub-distric) This study prompts that the DRASTIC approach is helpful and efficient instrument for assessing groundwater vulnerability. The generated map can be an effective tool for local administrators in groundwater management as well.

  18. Simulation of the spatial stresses due to territorial land development on Yellow River Delta Nature Reserve using a GIS-based assessment model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Baolei; Zhang, Qiaoyun; Feng, Qingyu; Cui, Bohao; Zhang, Shumin

    2017-07-01

    This study aimed at assessing the stresses from land development in or around Yellow River Delta Nature Reserve (YRDNR) and identifying the impacted areas. Major land development types (reservoirs, pond, aquafarm, salt pan, road, residential land, industry land, farming land, and fishing land) in or around the YRDNR from 1995 to 2014 were identified using spatial data sets derived from remote sensing imageries. The spatial stresses were simulated by considering disturbance due to land development activities and accessibility of disturbance using a geographic information system based model. The stresses were then used to identify the impacted area by land development (IALD). The results indicated that main increasing land development types in the study area from 1995 to 2014 were salt pan and construction land. The 98.2% of expanded land development area and 93.7% of increased pump number showed a good control of reserve function zone on land development spread. The spatial stress values and percentages of IALD increased from 1995 to 2014, and IALD percentage exceeded 50% for both parts of YRDNR in 2014. The results of this study also provided the information that detailed planning of the YRDNR (2014-2020) could decrease the spatial stress and IALD percentage of the whole YRDNR on the condition that the area of land development activities increased by 24.4 km 2 from 2014 to 2020. Effective measures should be taken to protect such areas from being further disturbed in order to achieve the goal of a more effective conservation of the YRDNR, and attention should be paid to the disordered land development activities in or around the natural reserves.

  19. GIS based Grid overlay method versus modeling approach – A comparative study for landslide hazard zonation (LHZ in Meta Robi District of West Showa Zone in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarun Kumar Raghuvanshi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study area is located in Meta Robi District of West Showa Zone in Oromiya Regional State in Ethiopia. The main objective of the present study was to evaluate landslide hazard zonation (LHZ by utilizing ‘Grid overlay’ and ‘GIS modeling’ approaches. Also, it was attempted to know the effectiveness of the two methods. The methodology followed was based on the analysis of past landslides in the area. For the present study six causative factors namely; slope material, slope, aspect, elevation, land use and land cover and groundwater surface traces were considered. Later, Landslide Susceptibility Index (LSI was computed based on the relative influence of causative factors on past landslides. For the ‘Grid overlay’ method a grid with cells 10 m by 10 m was overlaid over the study area and later it was geo-processed to delineate various sub-classes of each causative factor. LSI values were assigned to each sub-causative factor within each grid cell and a ‘Total Landslide Susceptibility Index’ was calculated to produce the LHZ map. For ‘GIS modeling’ the same causative factors and similar LSI values were utilized. In the case of LHZ map prepared by the ‘Grid overlay’ method about 82% of past landslides fall within ‘very high hazard’ or ‘high hazard’ zones whereas in the case of ‘GIS modeling’ about 95% of past landslides fall within ‘very high hazard’ or ‘high hazard’ zones. Finally, the validation showed that ‘GIS modeling’ produced better LHZ map. Also, ‘Grid overlay’ method is more tedious and time consuming as compared to GIS modeling.

  20. Mineral potential modelling of gold and silver mineralization in the Nevada Great Basin - a GIS-based analysis using weights of evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalasky, Mark J.

    2001-01-01

    The distribution of 2,690 gold-silver-bearing occurrences in the Nevada Great Basin was examined in terms of spatial association with various geological phenomena. Analysis of these relationships, using GIS and weights of evidence modelling techniques, has predicted areas of high mineral potential where little or no mining activity exists. Mineral potential maps for sedimentary (?disseminated?) and volcanic (?epithermal?) rock-hosted gold-silver mineralization revealed two distinct patterns that highlight two sets of crustal-scale geologic features that likely control the regional distribution of these deposit types. The weights of evidence method is a probability-based technique for mapping mineral potential using the spatial distribution of known mineral occurrences. Mineral potential maps predicting the distribution of gold-silver-bearing occurrences were generated from structural, geochemical, geomagnetic, gravimetric, lithologic, and lithotectonic-related deposit-indicator factors. The maps successfully predicted nearly 70% of the total number of known occurrences, including ~83% of sedimentary and ~60% of volcanic rock-hosted types. Sedimentary and volcanic rockhosted mineral potential maps showed high spatial correlation (an area cross-tabulation agreement of 85% and 73%, respectively) with expert-delineated mineral permissive tracts. In blind tests, the sedimentary and volcanic rock-hosted mineral potential maps predicted 10 out of 12 and 5 out of 5 occurrences, respectively. The key mineral predictor factors, in order of importance, were determined to be: geology (including lithology, structure, and lithotectonic terrane), geochemistry (indication of alteration), and geophysics. Areas of elevated sedimentary rock-hosted mineral potential are generally confined to central, north-central, and north-eastern Nevada. These areas form a conspicuous ?V?-shape pattern that is coincident with the Battle Mountain-Eureka (Cortez) and Carlin mineral trends and a

  1. Investigating impacts of natural and human-induced environmental changes on hydrological processes and flood hazards using a GIS-based hydrological/hydraulic model and remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei

    Natural and human-induced environmental changes have been altering the earth's surface and hydrological processes, and thus directly contribute to the severity of flood hazards. To understand these changes and their impacts, this research developed a GIS-based hydrological and hydraulic modeling system, which incorporates state-of-the-art remote sensing data to simulate flood under various scenarios. The conceptual framework and technical issues of incorporating multi-scale remote sensing data have been addressed. This research develops an object-oriented hydrological modeling framework. Compared with traditional lumped or cell-based distributed hydrological modeling frameworks, the object-oriented framework allows basic spatial hydrologic units to have various size and irregular shape. This framework is capable of assimilating various GIS and remotely-sensed data with different spatial resolutions. It ensures the computational efficiency, while preserving sufficient spatial details of input data and model outputs. Sensitivity analysis and comparison of high resolution LIDAR DEM with traditional USGS 30m resolution DEM suggests that the use of LIDAR DEMs can greatly reduce uncertainty in calibration of flow parameters in the hydrologic model and hence increase the reliability of modeling results. In addition, subtle topographic features and hydrologic objects like surface depressions and detention basins can be extracted from the high resolution LiDAR DEMs. An innovative algorithm has been developed to efficiently delineate surface depressions and detention basins from LiDAR DEMs. Using a time series of Landsat images, a retrospective analysis of surface imperviousness has been conducted to assess the hydrologic impact of urbanization. The analysis reveals that with rapid urbanization the impervious surface has been increased from 10.1% to 38.4% for the case study area during 1974--2002. As a result, the peak flow for a 100-year flood event has increased by 20% and

  2. A GIS-based framework for evaluating investments in fire management: Spatial allocation of recreation values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth A. Baerenklau; Armando González-Cabán; Catrina I. Páez; Edgard Chávez

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Forest Service is responsible for developing tools to facilitate effective and efficient fire management on wildlands and urban-wildland interfaces. Existing GIS-based fire modeling software only permits estimation of the costs of fire prevention and mitigation efforts as well as the effects of those efforts on fire behavior. This research demonstrates how the...

  3. CAD-DRASTIC: chloride application density combined with DRASTIC for assessing groundwater vulnerability to road salt application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salek, Mansour; Levison, Jana; Parker, Beth; Gharabaghi, Bahram

    2018-06-01

    Road salt is pervasively used throughout Canada and in other cold regions during winter. For cities relying exclusively on groundwater, it is important to plan and minimize the application of salt accordingly to mitigate the adverse effects of high chloride concentrations in water supply aquifers. The use of geospatial data (road network, land use, Quaternary and bedrock geology, average annual recharge, water-table depth, soil distribution, topography) in the DRASTIC methodology provides an efficient way of distinguishing salt-vulnerable areas associated with groundwater supply wells, to aid in the implementation of appropriate management practices for road salt application in urban areas. This research presents a GIS-based methodology to accomplish a vulnerability analysis for 12 municipal water supply wells within the City of Guelph, Ontario, Canada. The chloride application density (CAD) value at each supply well is calculated and related to the measured groundwater chloride concentrations and further combined with soil media and aquifer vadose- and saturated-zone properties used in DRASTIC. This combined approach, CAD-DRASTIC, is more accurate than existing groundwater vulnerability mapping methods and can be used by municipalities and other water managers to further improve groundwater protection related to road salt application.

  4. A GIS-based disaggregate spatial watershed analysis using RADAR data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Hamdan, M.

    2002-01-01

    Hydrology is the study of water in all its forms, origins, and destinations on the earth.This paper develops a novel modeling technique using a geographic information system (GIS) to facilitate watershed hydrological routing using RADAR data. The RADAR rainfall data, segmented to 4 km by 4 km blocks, divides the watershed into several sub basins which are modeled independently. A case study for the GIS-based disaggregate spatial watershed analysis using RADAR data is provided for South Fork Cowikee Creek near Batesville, Alabama. All the data necessary to complete the analysis is maintained in the ArcView GIS software. This paper concludes that the GIS-Based disaggregate spatial watershed analysis using RADAR data is a viable method to calculate hydrological routing for large watersheds. (author)

  5. GIS-based bivariate statistical techniques for groundwater potential ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ali Haghizadeh

    2017-11-23

    Nov 23, 2017 ... regions. This study shows the potency of two GIS-based data driven ... growth of these tools has also prepared another ..... Urban. 30467. 3. 0.06. 0.20. 0.74. 0.80. −0.64. Distance from road ..... and artificial neural networks for potential groundwater .... ping: A case study at Mehran region, Iran; Catena 137.

  6. GIS-Based bivariate statistical techniques for groundwater potential ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    24

    This study shows the potency of two GIS-based data driven bivariate techniques namely ... In the view of these weaknesses , there is a strong requirement for reassessment of .... Font color: Text 1, Not Expanded by / Condensed by , ...... West Bengal (India) using remote sensing, geographical information system and multi-.

  7. A GIS based hydrogeomorphic approach for identification of site ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    a Geographical Information System (GIS) based hydrogeomorphic approach in the Bhatsa and. Kalu river basins of Thane district, in western DVP. The criteria adopted for the GIS analysis were based .... segments of the rivers. The majority of the lineaments correspond to either dyke ridges or stream channels which are of ...

  8. Landslides along Highways: GIS-based Inventory and Planning Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Ann-Kathrin; Klose, Martin; Damm, Bodo

    2015-04-01

    assess landslide impacts and the effectiveness of measures for their mitigation. The landslide inventory is part of an ongoing study concerned with the problems of damage financing at low-volume roads in mountain areas with shrinking populations and fiscal deficits. Using the example of the Harz Mountains, a key research question refers to a comparison of the costs necessary to spend for safe road operations with the benefits from providing traffic connections to landslide-prone rural communities. This study combines the damage and loss data stored in the inventory with different data sets on traffic density, local population, and road financing. The research results contribute to the development of planning strategies for cost-efficient maintenance of highway infrastructures exposed to landslide hazards. References Bhandary, N.P., Yatabe, R., Dahal, R.K., Hasegawa, S., Inagaki, H., 2013. Areal distribution of large-scale landslides along highway corridors in central Nepal. Georisk 7, 1-20. Hungr, O., Evans, S.G., Hazzard, J., 1999. Magnitude and frequency of rock falls and rockslides along the main transportation corridors of southwestern British Columbia. Canadian Geotechnical Journal 36, 224-238 Klose, M., Damm, B., Terhorst, B., 2014b. Landslide cost modeling for transportation infrastructures: a methodological approach. Landslides, DOI 10.1007/s10346-014-0481-1. Saha, A.K., Arora, M.K., Gupta, R.P., Virdi, M.L., Csaplovics, E., 2005. GIS-based route planning in landslide-prone areas. International Journal of Geographical Information Science 19, 1149-1175.

  9. TVA GIS-based biomass resource assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noon, C.E. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The focus of this paper is a computer-based system for estimating the costs of supplying wood fuel. The system is being developed for the Tennessee Valley Authority and is referred to as the Biomass Resource Assessment Version One (BRAVO) system. The main objective in developing the BRAVO system is to assist TVA in estimating the costs for supplying wood fuel to any one of its twelve coal-fired plants. The BRAVO system is developed within a Geographic Information System (GIS) platform and is designed to allow a user to perform {open_quotes}what if{close_quotes} analyses related to the costs of wood fuel supply. Three types of wood fuel are considered in the BRAVO system: mill residues, logging residues and short-rotation woody crops (SRWC). Each type of wood fuel has unique economic and supply characteristics. The input data for the system includes the specific locations, amount, and prices of the various types of wood fuel throughout the TVA region. The system input is completed by data on political boundaries, power plant locations, road networks and a model for estimating transportation costs as a function of distance. The result is a comprehensive system which includes information on all possible wood fuel supply joints, demand points and product movement costs. In addition, the BRAVO system has been designed to allow a user to perform sensitivity analysis on a variety of supply system parameters. This will enable TVA to thoroughly investigate the financial impacts of issues such as increased competition for wood fuel, environmental policies, fuel taxes, and regional economic cycles.

  10. TVA GIS-based biomass resource assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noon, C.E.

    1993-01-01

    The focus of this paper is a computer-based system for estimating the costs of supplying wood fuel. The system is being developed for the Tennessee Valley Authority and is referred to as the Biomass Resource Assessment Version One (BRAVO) system. The main objective in developing the BRAVO system is to assist TVA in estimating the cost for supplying wood fuel to any one of its twelve coal-fired power plants. The BRAVO system is developed within a Geographic Information System (GIS) platform and is designed to allow a user to perform open-quotes what ifclose quotes analyses related to the costs of wood fuel supply. Three types of wood fuel are considered in the Bravo system: mill residues, logging residues and short-rotation woody crops (SRWC). Each type of wood fuel has unique economic and supply characteristics. The input data for the system includes the specific locations, amounts, and prices of the various types of wood fuel throughout the TVA region. The system input is completed by data on political boundaries, power plant locations, road networks and a model for estimating transportation costs as a function of distance. The result is a comprehensive system which includes information on all possible wood fuel supply points, demand points and product movement costs. In additions, the BRAVO system has been designed to allow a user to perform sensitivity analysis on a variety of supply system parameters. This will enable TVA to thoroughly investigate the financial impacts of issues such as increased competition for wood fuel, environmental policies, fuel taxes, and regional economic cycles

  11. Development of Web GIS-Based VFSMOD System with Three Modules for Effective Vegetative Filter Strip Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Soo Kong

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, Non-Point Source Pollution has been rising as a significant environmental issue. The sediment-laden water problem is causing serious impacts on river ecosystems not only in South Korea but also in most countries. The vegetative filter strip (VFS has been thought to be one of the most effective methods to reduce the transport of sediment to down-gradient area. However, the effective width of the VFS first needs to be determined before VFS installation in the field. To provide an easy-to-use interface with a scientific VFS modeling engine, the Web GIS-based VFSMOD system was developed in this study. The Web GIS-based VFSMOD uses the UH and VFSM executable programs from the VFSMOD-w model as core engines to simulate rainfall-runoff and sediment trapping. To provide soil information for a point of interest, the Google Map interface to the MapServer soil database system was developed using the Google Map API, Javascript, Perl/CGI, and Oracle DB programming. Three modules of the Web GIS-based VFSMOD system were developed for various VFS designs under single storm, multiple storm, and long-term period scenarios. These modules in the Web GIS-based VFSMOD system were applied to the study watershed in South Korea and these were proven as efficient tools for the VFS design for various purposes.

  12. gis-based hydrological model based hydrological model upstream

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    (GIS) environment to simulate various parame attributed to a ... water, sediment and agricultural chem large complex .... The 90m resolution topography data (see Figure 2) used for this .... results of the calibration and validation exercise are as.

  13. A GIS-BASED ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH INFORMATION SOURCE FOR MALAYSIAN CONTEXT

    OpenAIRE

    Lau Tiu Chung; Lau Bee Theng; Henry Lee Seldon

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a GIS-based system for collection and targeted distribution of latest alerts and real-time environmental factors to the Malaysian population. We call it the Environmental Health Management System (EHMS). This GIS-based system is designed to facilitate and encourage research into environmental health quality issues by providing a comprehensive tracking and monitoring tool. This GIS-based system is embedded with Google Maps API and Geocoding API services to visualize t...

  14. GIS-based biomass resource utilization for rice straw cofiring in the Taiwanese power market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Ming-Che; Huang, An-Lei; Wen, Tzai-Hung

    2013-01-01

    Rice straw, a rich agricultural byproduct in Taiwan, can be used as biomass feedstock for cofiring systems. In this study, we analyzed the penetration of rice straw cofiring systems in the Taiwanese power market. In the power generation system, rice straw is cofired with fossil fuel in existing electricity plants. The benefits of cofiring systems include increasing the use of renewable energy, decreasing the fuel cost, and lowering greenhouse gas emissions. We established a linear complementarity model to simulate the power market equilibrium with cofiring systems in Taiwan. GIS-based analysis was then used to analyze the geospatial relationships between paddy rice farms and power plants to assess potential biomass for straw-power generation. Additionally, a sensitivity analysis of the biomass feedstock supply system was conducted for various cofiring scenarios. The spatial maps and equilibrium results of rice straw cofiring in Taiwanese power market are presented in the paper. - Highlights: ► The penetration of straw cofiring systems in the power market is analyzed. ► GIS-based analysis assesses potential straw-power generation. ► The spatial maps and equilibrium results of rice straw cofiring are presented

  15. GIS-based poverty and population distribution analysis in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jing; Wang, Yingjie; Yan, Hong

    2009-07-01

    Geographically, poverty status is not only related with social-economic factors but also strongly affected by geographical environment. In the paper, GIS-based poverty and population distribution analysis method is introduced for revealing their regional differences. More than 100000 poor villages and 592 national key poor counties are chosen for the analysis. The results show that poverty distribution tends to concentrate in most of west China and mountainous rural areas of mid China. Furthermore, the fifth census data are overlaid to those poor areas in order to gain its internal diversity of social-economic characteristics. By overlaying poverty related social-economic parameters, such as sex ratio, illiteracy, education level, percentage of ethnic minorities, family composition, finding shows that poverty distribution is strongly correlated with high illiteracy rate, high percentage minorities, and larger family member.

  16. GIS-based Spatial Multi-criteria Analysis: A vulnerability Assessment Model for the Protected Areas of Vietnam. GI_Forum|GI_Forum 2015 – Geospatial Minds for Society|

    OpenAIRE

    Nghiem, Quynh Huong

    2016-01-01

    The establishment and management of protected areas has become a universally accepted way to conserve biodiversity, and the wide range of goods and services they offer. Using the environmental vulnerability index (EVI), devised by the South Pacific Applied Geoscience Commission (SOPAC) and the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) as the theoretical framework, a vulnerability assessment model was developed and used to assess the vulnerability of Bach Ma National Park. The model utilizes s...

  17. Gis-based procedures for hydropower potential spotting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larentis, Dante G.; Collischonn, Walter; Tucci, Carlos E.M. [Instituto de Pesquisas Hidraulicas da UFRGS, Av. Bento Goncalves, 9500, CEP 91501-970, Caixa Postal 15029, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Olivera, Francisco (Texas A and M University, Zachry Department of Civil Engineering 3136 TAMU, College Station, TX 77843-3136, US)

    2010-10-15

    The increasing demand for energy, especially from renewable and sustainable sources, spurs the development of small hydropower plants and encourages investment in new survey studies. Preliminary hydropower survey studies usually carry huge uncertainties about the technical, economic and environmental feasibility of the undeveloped potential. This paper presents a methodology for large-scale survey of hydropower potential sites to be applied in the inception phase of hydroelectric development planning. The sequence of procedures to identify hydropower sites is based on remote sensing and regional streamflow data and was automated within a GIS-based computational program: Hydrospot. The program allows spotting more potential sites along the drainage network than it would be possible in a traditional survey study, providing different types of dam-powerhouse layouts and two types (operating modes) of projects: run-of-the-river and storage projects. Preliminary results from its applications in a hydropower-developed basin in Brazil have shown Hydrospot's limitations and potentialities in giving support to the mid-to-long-term planning of the electricity sector. (author)

  18. Application of GIS-Based Spatially Distributed Hydrologic Model in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Civil Engineering Research and Practice. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 7, No 1 (2010) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  19. An uncertainty and sensitivity analysis approach for GIS-based multicriteria landslide susceptibility mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feizizadeh, Bakhtiar; Blaschke, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    GIS-based multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) methods are increasingly being used in landslide susceptibility mapping. However, the uncertainties that are associated with MCDA techniques may significantly impact the results. This may sometimes lead to inaccurate outcomes and undesirable consequences. This article introduces a new GIS-based MCDA approach. We illustrate the consequences of applying different MCDA methods within a decision-making process through uncertainty analysis. Three GIS-MCDA methods in conjunction with Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) and Dempster–Shafer theory are analyzed for landslide susceptibility mapping (LSM) in the Urmia lake basin in Iran, which is highly susceptible to landslide hazards. The methodology comprises three stages. First, the LSM criteria are ranked and a sensitivity analysis is implemented to simulate error propagation based on the MCS. The resulting weights are expressed through probability density functions. Accordingly, within the second stage, three MCDA methods, namely analytical hierarchy process (AHP), weighted linear combination (WLC) and ordered weighted average (OWA), are used to produce the landslide susceptibility maps. In the third stage, accuracy assessments are carried out and the uncertainties of the different results are measured. We compare the accuracies of the three MCDA methods based on (1) the Dempster–Shafer theory and (2) a validation of the results using an inventory of known landslides and their respective coverage based on object-based image analysis of IRS-ID satellite images. The results of this study reveal that through the integration of GIS and MCDA models, it is possible to identify strategies for choosing an appropriate method for LSM. Furthermore, our findings indicate that the integration of MCDA and MCS can significantly improve the accuracy of the results. In LSM, the AHP method performed best, while the OWA reveals better performance in the reliability assessment. The WLC

  20. Determining shallow aquifer vulnerability by the DRASTIC method ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    66

    ... water flow directions are affecting shallow groundwater quality. The low risk to negligible risk zones are present on lower half part of the region. 3.2 Sensitivity analysis of the DRASTIC model. It is believed to limit the impacts of errors or uncertainties of the individual parameters on the final output (Evans and Myers, 1990; ...

  1. GIS Based Measurement and Regulatory Zoning of Urban Ecological Vulnerability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaorui Zhang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Urban ecological vulnerability is measured on the basis of ecological sensitivity and resilience based on the concept analysis of vulnerability. GIS-based multicriteria decision analysis (GIS-MCDA methods are used, supported by the spatial analysis tools of GIS, to define different levels of vulnerability for areas of the urban ecology. These areas are further classified into different types of regulatory zones. Taking the city of Hefei in China as the empirical research site, this study uses GIS-MCDA, including the index system, index weights and overlay rules, to measure the degree of its ecological vulnerability on the GIS platform. There are eight indices in the system. Raking and analytical hierarchy process (AHP methods are used to calculate index weights according to the characteristics of the index system. The integrated overlay rule, including selection of the maximum value, and weighted linear combination (WLC are applied as the overlay rules. In this way, five types of vulnerability areas have been classified as follows: very low vulnerability, low vulnerability, medium vulnerability, high vulnerability and very high vulnerability. They can be further grouped into three types of regulatory zone of ecological green line, ecological grey line and ecological red line. The study demonstrates that ecological green line areas are the largest (53.61% of the total study area and can be intensively developed; ecological grey line areas (19.59% of the total area can serve as the ecological buffer zone, and ecological red line areas (26.80% cannot be developed and must be protected. The results indicate that ecological green line areas may provide sufficient room for future urban development in Hefei city. Finally, the respective regulatory countermeasures are put forward. This research provides a scientific basis for decision-making around urban ecological protection, construction and sustainable development. It also provides theoretical method

  2. Assessment of ecological passages along road networks within the Mediterranean forest using GIS-based multi criteria evaluation approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gülci, Sercan; Akay, Abdullah Emin

    2015-12-01

    Major roads cause barrier effect and fragmentation on wildlife habitats that are suitable places for feeding, mating, socializing, and hiding. Due to wildlife collisions (Wc), human-wildlife conflicts result in lost lives and loss of biodiversity. Geographical information system (GIS)-based multi criteria evaluation (MCE) methods have been successfully used in short-term planning of road networks considering wild animals. Recently, wildlife passages have been effectively utilized as road engineering structures provide quick and certain solutions for traffic safety and wildlife conservation problems. GIS-based MCE methods provide decision makers with optimum location for ecological passages based on habitat suitability models (HSMs) that classify the areas based on ecological requirements of target species. In this study, ecological passages along Motorway 52 within forested areas in Mediterranean city of Osmaniye in Turkey were evaluated. Firstly, HSM coupled with nine eco-geographic decision variables were developed based on ecological requirements of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) that were chosen as target species. Then specified decision variables were evaluated using GIS-based weighted linear combination (WLC) method to estimate movement corridors and mitigation points along the motorway. In the solution process, two linkage nodes were evaluated for eco-passages which were determined based on the least-cost movement corridor intersecting with the motorway. One of the passages was identified as a natural wildlife overpass while the other was suggested as underpass construction. The results indicated that computer-based models provide accurate and quick solutions for positioning ecological passages to reduce environmental effects of road networks on wild animals.

  3. A GIS-based numerical simulation of the March 2014 Oso landslide fluidized motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuoka, H.; Ogbonnaya, I.; Wang, C.

    2014-12-01

    Sliding and flowing are the major movement type after slope failures. Landslides occur when slope-froming material moves downhill after failing along a sliding surface. Most debris flows originally occur in the form of rainfall-induced landslides before they move into valley channel. Landslides that mobilize into debris flows usually are characterized by high-speed movement and long run-out distance and may present the greatest risk to human life. The 22 March 2014 Oso landslide is a typical case of landside transformint to debris flow. The landslide was triggered on the edge of a plateau about 200 m high composed of glacial sediments after excessive prolonged rainfall of 348 in March 2014. After its initiation, portions of the landslide materials transitioned into a rapidly moving debris flow which traveled long distances across the downslope floodplain. U.S. Geological Survey estimated the volume of the slide to be about 7 million m3, and it traveled about 1 km from the toe of the slope. The apparent friction angle measured by the energy line drawn from the crown of the head scarp to the toe of the deposits which reached largest distance, was only 5~6 degrees. we performed two numerical modeling to predicting the runout distance and to get insight into the behaviour of the landslide movement. One is GIS-based revised Hovland's 3D limit equilibrium model which is used to simulate the movement and stoppage of a landslide. In this research, sliding is defined by a slip surface which cuts through the slope, causing the mass of earth to move above it. The factor of safety will be calculated step by step during the sliding process simulation. Stoppage is defined by the factor of safety much greater than one and the velocity equal zero. The other is GIS-based depth-averaged 2D numerical model using a coupled viscous and Coulomb type law to simulate a debris flow from initiation to deposition. We compared our simulaiton results with the results of preliminary computer

  4. Automated riverine landscape characterization: GIS-based tools for watershed-scale research, assessment, and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Bradley S; D'Amico, Ellen; Kastens, Jude H; Thorp, James H; Flotemersch, Joseph E; Thoms, Martin C

    2013-09-01

    River systems consist of hydrogeomorphic patches (HPs) that emerge at multiple spatiotemporal scales. Functional process zones (FPZs) are HPs that exist at the river valley scale and are important strata for framing whole-watershed research questions and management plans. Hierarchical classification procedures aid in HP identification by grouping sections of river based on their hydrogeomorphic character; however, collecting data required for such procedures with field-based methods is often impractical. We developed a set of GIS-based tools that facilitate rapid, low cost riverine landscape characterization and FPZ classification. Our tools, termed RESonate, consist of a custom toolbox designed for ESRI ArcGIS®. RESonate automatically extracts 13 hydrogeomorphic variables from readily available geospatial datasets and datasets derived from modeling procedures. An advanced 2D flood model, FLDPLN, designed for MATLAB® is used to determine valley morphology by systematically flooding river networks. When used in conjunction with other modeling procedures, RESonate and FLDPLN can assess the character of large river networks quickly and at very low costs. Here we describe tool and model functions in addition to their benefits, limitations, and applications.

  5. GIS-Based Evaluation of Spatial Interactions by Geographic Disproportionality of Industrial Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jemyung Lee

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Diversity of regional industry is regarded as a key factor for regional development, as it has a positive relationship with economic stability, which attracts population. This paper focuses on how the spatial imbalance of industrial diversity contributes to the population change caused by inter-regional migration. This paper introduces a spatial interaction model for the Geographic Information System (GIS-based simulation of the spatial interactions to evaluate the demographic attraction force. The proposed model adopts the notions of gravity, entropy, and virtual work. An industrial classification by profit level is introduced and its diversity is quantified with the entropy of information theory. The introduced model is applied to the cases of 207 regions in South Korea. Spatial interactions are simulated with an optimized model and their resultant forces, the demographic attraction forces, are compared with observed net migration for verification. The results show that the evaluated attraction forces from industrial diversity have a very significant, positive, and moderate relationship with net migration, while other conventional factors of industry, population, economy, and the job market do not. This paper concludes that the geographical quality of industrial diversity has positive and significant effects on population change by migration.

  6. A GIS-Based 3D Simulation for Occupant Evacuation in a Building

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Fangqin; ZHANG Xin

    2008-01-01

    The evacuation efficiency of building plans is of obvious importance to the public safety.The cem- plexity of building plans,however,makes it difficult for the efficiency evaluation.This paper presents a com- putational model AutoEscape,which can simulate the evacuation process for any given occupant distribu. Uon in buildings.Designed as an extensible multi-level structure, the model constructs the geometry level and occupant level and establishes the interactions between levels.The GIS-based environmental analysis is realized to automatically generate the geometric representation and formulate the cognition of agents. The multi-agent based technology is employed to simulate the crowd behaviom with autonomously acting individuals.A visualization component,which provides 3D free observations for the simulation process,is developed on the platform of OGRE and integrated into the system interface in form of ActiveX control.Fi- nally,a case study has been conducted and the results have been compared with the results of an existing model to show the reliability and capacity of AutoEscape simulation.

  7. GIS-based Approach to Estimate Surface Runoff in Small Catchments: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojtek Matej

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The issue of surface runoff assessment is one of the important and relevant topics of hydrological as well as geographical research. The aim of the paper is therefore to estimate and assess surface runoff on the example of Vyčoma catchment which is located in the Western Slovakia. For this purpose, SCS runoff curve number method, modeling in GIS and remote sensing were used. An important task was the creation of a digital elevation model (DEM, which enters the surface runoff modeling and affects its accuracy. Great attention was paid to the spatial interpretation of land use categories applying aerial imagery from 2013 and hydrological soil groups as well as calculation of maximum daily rainfall with N-year return periods as partial tasks in estimating surface runoff. From the methodological point of view, the importance of the paper can be seen in the use of a simple GIS-based approach to assess the surface runoff conditions in a small catchment.

  8. GIS Based Distributed Runoff Predictions in Variable Source Area Watersheds Employing the SCS-Curve Number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenhuis, T. S.; Mendoza, G.; Lyon, S. W.; Gerard Marchant, P.; Walter, M. T.; Schneiderman, E.

    2003-04-01

    Because the traditional Soil Conservation Service Curve Number (SCS-CN) approach continues to be ubiquitously used in GIS-BASED water quality models, new application methods are needed that are consistent with variable source area (VSA) hydrological processes in the landscape. We developed within an integrated GIS modeling environment a distributed approach for applying the traditional SCS-CN equation to watersheds where VSA hydrology is a dominant process. Spatial representation of hydrologic processes is important for watershed planning because restricting potentially polluting activities from runoff source areas is fundamental to controlling non-point source pollution. The methodology presented here uses the traditional SCS-CN method to predict runoff volume and spatial extent of saturated areas and uses a topographic index to distribute runoff source areas through watersheds. The resulting distributed CN-VSA method was incorporated in an existing GWLF water quality model and applied to sub-watersheds of the Delaware basin in the Catskill Mountains region of New York State. We found that the distributed CN-VSA approach provided a physically-based method that gives realistic results for watersheds with VSA hydrology.

  9. Application of GIS-based SCS-CN method in West Bank catchments, Palestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer Shadeed

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Among the most basic challenges of hydrology are the prediction and quantification of catchment surface runoff. The runoff curve number (CN is a key factor in determining runoff in the SCS (Soil Conservation Service based hydrologic modeling method. The traditional SCS-CN method for calculating the composite curve number is very tedious and consumes a major portion of the hydrologic modeling time. Therefore, geographic information systems (GIS are now being used in combination with the SCS-CN method. This paper assesses the modeling of flow in West Bank catchments using the GIS-based SCS-CN method. The West Bank, Palestine, is characterized as an arid to semi-arid region with annual rainfall depths ranging between 100 mm in the vicinity of the Jordan River to 700 mm in the mountains extending across the central parts of the region. The estimated composite curve number for the entire West Bank is about 50 assuming dry conditions. This paper clearly demonstrates that the integration of GIS with the SCS-CN method provides a powerful tool for estimating runoff volumes in West Bank catchments, representing arid to semi-arid catchments of Palestine.

  10. GIS-based multicriteria municipal solid waste landfill suitability analysis: a review of the methodologies performed and criteria implemented.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demesouka, O E; Vavatsikos, A P; Anagnostopoulos, K P

    2014-04-01

    Multicriteria spatial decision support systems (MC-SDSS) have emerged as an integration of the geographical information systems (GIS) and multiple criteria decision analysis (MCDA) methods. GIS-based MCDA allows the incorporation of conflicting objectives and decision maker (DM) preferences into spatial decision models. During recent decades, a variety of research articles have been published regarding the implementation of methods and/or tools in a variety of real-world case studies. The article discusses, in detail, the criteria and methods that are implemented in GIS-based landfill siting suitability analysis and especially the exclusionary and non-exclusionary criteria that can be considered when selecting sites for municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills. This paper reviews 36 seminal articles in which the evaluation of candidate landfill sites is conducted using MCDA methods. After a brief description of the main components of a MC-SDSS and the applied decision rules, the review focuses on the criteria incorporated into the decision models. The review provides a comprehensive guide to the landfill siting analysis criteria, providing details regarding the utilization methods, their decision or exclusionary nature and their monotonicity.

  11. Mapping Urban Heat Demand with the Use of GIS-Based Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Wyrwa

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a bottom-up approach for calculation of the useful heat demand for space heating and hot water preparation using geo-referenced datasets for buildings at the city level. This geographic information system (GIS based approach was applied in the case study for the city of Krakow, where on the one hand the district heat network is well developed, while on the other hand there are still substantial number of buildings burning solid fuels in individual boilers and stoves, causing air pollution. The calculated heat demand was aggregated in the grid with 100 m × 100 m spatial resolution to deliver the heat map depicting the current situation for 21 buildings types. The results show that the residential buildings, in particular one- and multi-family buildings, have the highest share in overall demand for heat. By combining the results with location of the district heat (DH network, the potential areas in its close vicinity that have sufficient heat demand density for developing the net were pointed out. Future evolution in heat demand for space heating in one-family houses was evaluated with the use of deterministic method employing building stock model. The study lays a foundation for planning the development of the heating system at the city level.

  12. Fuzzy Shannon Entropy: A Hybrid GIS-Based Landslide Susceptibility Mapping Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Shadman Roodposhti

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Assessing Landslide Susceptibility Mapping (LSM contributes to reducing the risk of living with landslides. Handling the vagueness associated with LSM is a challenging task. Here we show the application of hybrid GIS-based LSM. The hybrid approach embraces fuzzy membership functions (FMFs in combination with Shannon entropy, a well-known information theory-based method. Nine landslide-related criteria, along with an inventory of landslides containing 108 recent and historic landslide points, are used to prepare a susceptibility map. A random split into training (≈70% and testing (≈30% samples are used for training and validation of the LSM model. The study area—Izeh—is located in the Khuzestan province of Iran, a highly susceptible landslide zone. The performance of the hybrid method is evaluated using receiver operating characteristics (ROC curves in combination with area under the curve (AUC. The performance of the proposed hybrid method with AUC of 0.934 is superior to multi-criteria evaluation approaches using a subjective scheme in this research in comparison with a previous study using the same dataset through extended fuzzy multi-criteria evaluation with AUC value of 0.894, and was built on the basis of decision makers’ evaluation in the same study area.

  13. WISDOM: A GIS-based supply demand mapping tool for woodfuel management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masera, Omar; Ghilardi, Adrian; Drigo, Rudi; Angel Trossero, Miguel

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, it is argued that adequately assessing the implications of the current patterns of woodfuel production and use, and the sustainable potentials of woodfuel resources, requires a holistic view and a better knowledge of the spatial patterns of woodfuel supply and demand. There is a need to conduct multi-scale spatially explicit analyses of woodfuel supply and demand that are able to articulate local heterogeneity at the regional and national levels. Studies that provide full-country coverage and are based on consistent integration of data at lower geographical scales are woefully lacking. This paper describes the Woodfuel Integrated Supply/Demand Overview Mapping model (WISDOM). This is a GIS-based tool, aimed at analyzing woodfuel demand and supply spatial patterns from a new perspective that includes: (a) the assembling of existing but dispersed information into single data sets, (b) a modular integration of these data sets, based on the analysis of key variables associated with woodfuel demand and supply patterns, and (c) a multiple-scale and spatially explicit representation of the results, in order to rank or highlight areas in which several criteria of interest coincide. The final objective of WISDOM is to assess the sustainability of woodfuel as a renewable and widespread energy source, while supporting strategic planning and policy formulation. Three case studies for Mexico, Slovenia, and Senegal illustrate the practical implementation and innovative results of using WISDOM. (author)

  14. A GIS-BASED ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH INFORMATION SOURCE FOR MALAYSIAN CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lau Tiu Chung

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a GIS-based system for collection and targeted distribution of latest alerts and real-time environmental factors to the Malaysian population. We call it the Environmental Health Management System (EHMS. This GIS-based system is designed to facilitate and encourage research into environmental health quality issues by providing a comprehensive tracking and monitoring tool. This GIS-based system is embedded with Google Maps API and Geocoding API services to visualize the location and environmental health reports from the aggregated online newspaper and social media news feeds. We introduce the design and implementation of EHMS, including the web frontend, backend, ontology, database, data acquisition, classification engine, and the standard news feeds.

  15. The use of GIS-based support of recreational trail planning by local governments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olafsson, Anton Stahl; Skov-Petersen, Hans

    2014-01-01

    In the last decade, multiple GIS-based planning support systems have been developed in order to improve the basis for spatial planning. Recent research has focused on problems regarding a lack of utilisation or barriers to the use of advanced GIS and GIS-based planning support systems in planning...... applications. This paper discusses these research findings in the context of outdoor recreational planning by local governments in Denmark. According to a national survey of municipal planners, GIS-based planning support is widely used in Denmark, but more GIS is needed and is being requested for local outdoor...... recreation planning. However, considerable differences exist between the ways municipalities assess their need for and use of GIS planning support. These differences are explored in more detail using a factor analysis of planning variables and uses of GIS. Three situations are described: 1) extensive network...

  16. IDENTIFYING HIGH-RISK POPULATIONS OF TUBERCULOSIS USING ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AND GIS BASED MULTI-CRITERIA DECISION MAKING METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Abdul Rasam

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Development of an innovative method to enhance the detection of tuberculosis (TB in Malaysia is the latest agenda of the Ministry of Health. Therefore, a geographical information system (GIS based index model is proposed as an alternative method for defining potential high-risk areas of local TB cases at Section U19, Shah Alam. It is adopted a spatial multi-criteria decision making (MCDM method for ranking environmental risk factors of the disease in a standardised five-score scale. Scale 1 and 5 illustrate the lowest and the highest risk of the TB spread respectively, while scale from 3 to 5 is included as a potential risk level. These standardised scale values are then combined with expert normalised weights (0 to 1 to calculate the overall index values and produce a TB ranked map using a GIS overlay analysis and weighted linear combination. It is discovered that 71.43% of the Section is potential as TB high risk areas particularly at urban and densely populated settings. This predictive result is also reliable with the current real cases in 2015 by 76.00% accuracy. A GIS based MCDM method has demonstrated analytical capabilities in targeting high-risk spots and TB surveillance monitoring system of the country, but the result could be strengthened by applying other uncertainty assessment method.

  17. GIS-based landscape design research: Stourhead landscape garden as a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Nijhuis

    2017-11-01

    analysed, such as the visible form and the shape of the walk, and serves as the basis for the landscape architectonic analysis in which GIS is used as the primary analytical tool.  GIS-based design research has the possibility to cultivate spatial intelligence in landscape architecture through three fields of operation: • GIS-based modelling: description of existing and future landscape architectonic compositions in digital form; • GIS-based analysis: exploration, analysis and synthesis of landscape architectonic compositions in order to reveal latent architectonic relationships and principles, while utilizing the processing capacities and possibilities of computers for ex-ante and ex-post simulation and evaluation; • GIS-based visual representation: representation of (virtual landscape architectonic compositions in space and time, in order to retrieve and communicate information and knowledge of the landscape design.  Though there are limitations, this study exemplifies that GIS is a powerful instrument to acquire knowledge from landscape architectonic compositions. The study points out that the application of GIS in landscape design research can be seen as an extension of the fundamental cycle of observation, visual representation, analysis and interpretation in the process of knowledge acquisition, with alternative visualisations and digital landscape models as important means for this process. Using the calculating power of computers, combined with inventive modelling, analysis and visualisation concepts in an interactive process, opened up possibilities to reveal new information and knowledge about the basic, spatial, symbolic and programmatic form of Stourhead. GIS extended the design researchers’ perception via measurement, simulation and experimentation, and at the same time offered alternative ways of understanding the landscape architectonic composition. This gave rise to the possibility of exploring new elements in the framework of landscape design

  18. GIS based Hydrogeological Vulnerability Mapping of Groundwater Resources in Jerash Area-Jordan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammouri, N [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Natural Resources and Environment, Hashemite University, Zarqa (Jordan); El-Naqa, A [Department of Water Management and Environment, Faculty of Natural Resources and Environment, Hashemite University, Zarqa (Jordan)

    2008-04-15

    This paper presents groundwater vulnerability mapping for Jerash area, north Jordan generated using EPIK and DRASTIC models. These models have been implemented using GIS to delineate groundwater protection zones and to suggest a protection plan to improve groundwater quality of the major springs and wells. Most of the groundwater resources in the study area are polluted and bacteria and nitrate levels are high. Different sources of groundwater pollution have been identified. Domestic wastewater is considered as a major source of pollution. Urban runoff, fertilizers from agricultural return flows and solid waste disposal appear to be secondary sources. The most relevant vulnerability class of EPIK map is very high which accounts for about 41 % of the total area. While in the DRASTIC vulnerability map, areas with high vulnerability were only about 23 % of the total area. There is a good correlation between vulnerability maps obtained from both models with microbiological and chemical pollution evidences. There is also a good agreement between the areas classified as highly vulnerable and those that have high levels of pollution. [Spanish] El estudio de vulnerabilidad de aguas subterraneas en la region de Yerash, Jordania fue obtenido mediante las metodologias de EPIK y DRASTIC. Se uso GIS para mapear las zonas protegidas y para sugerir un plan de proteccion para mejorar la calidad del agua subterranea en los principales manantiales y pozos. Los niveles de contaminacion bacteriana y de nitratos son elevados. El efluente domestico es la fuente mas importante de contaminacion; vienen en segundo lugar la precipitacion en zonas urbanas, los fertilizantes agricolas y los desechos solidos. En el mapa de EPIK, la vulnerabilidad extrema abarca hasta 41% del area total; en cambio, en el mapa de DRASTIC las areas de alta vulnerabilidad ocupan solo un 23% del area. La correlacion de los datos de contaminacion microbiana y quimica con ambos mapas der vulnerabilidad es buena

  19. An open source GIS-based tool to integrate the fragmentation mechanism in rockfall propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matas, Gerard; Lantada, Nieves; Gili, Josep A.; Corominas, Jordi

    2015-04-01

    Rockfalls are frequent instability processes in road cuts, open pit mines and quarries, steep slopes and cliffs. Even though the stability of rock slopes can be determined using analytical approaches, the assessment of large rock cliffs require simplifying assumptions due to the difficulty of working with a large amount of joints, the scattering of both the orientations and strength parameters. The attitude and persistency of joints within the rock mass define the size of kinematically unstable rock volumes. Furthermore the rock block will eventually split in several fragments during its propagation downhill due its impact with the ground surface. Knowledge of the size, energy, trajectory… of each block resulting from fragmentation is critical in determining the vulnerability of buildings and protection structures. The objective of this contribution is to present a simple and open source tool to simulate the fragmentation mechanism in rockfall propagation models and in the calculation of impact energies. This tool includes common modes of motion for falling boulders based on the previous literature. The final tool is being implemented in a GIS (Geographic Information Systems) using open source Python programming. The tool under development will be simple, modular, compatible with any GIS environment, open source, able to model rockfalls phenomena correctly. It could be used in any area susceptible to rockfalls with a previous adjustment of the parameters. After the adjustment of the model parameters to a given area, a simulation could be performed to obtain maps of kinetic energy, frequency, stopping density and passing heights. This GIS-based tool and the analysis of the fragmentation laws using data collected from recent rockfall have being developed within the RockRisk Project (2014-2016). This project is funded by the Spanish Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad and entitled "Rockfalls in cliffs: risk quantification and its prevention"(BIA2013-42582-P).

  20. Defining Primary Care Shortage Areas: Do GIS-based Measures Yield Different Results?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Michael R; Mellor, Jennifer M; Millones, Marco

    2018-02-12

    To examine whether geographic information systems (GIS)-based physician-to-population ratios (PPRs) yield determinations of geographic primary care shortage areas that differ from those based on bounded-area PPRs like those used in the Health Professional Shortage Area (HPSA) designation process. We used geocoded data on primary care physician (PCP) locations and census block population counts from 1 US state to construct 2 shortage area indicators. The first is a bounded-area shortage indicator defined without GIS methods; the second is a GIS-based measure that measures the populations' spatial proximity to PCP locations. We examined agreement and disagreement between bounded shortage areas and GIS-based shortage areas. Bounded shortage area indicators and GIS-based shortage area indicators agree for the census blocks where the vast majority of our study populations reside. Specifically, 95% and 98% of the populations in our full and urban samples, respectively, reside in census blocks where the 2 indicators agree. Although agreement is generally high in rural areas (ie, 87% of the rural population reside in census blocks where the 2 indicators agree), agreement is significantly lower compared to urban areas. One source of disagreement suggests that bounded-area measures may "overlook" some shortages in rural areas; however, other aspects of the HPSA designation process likely mitigate this concern. Another source of disagreement arises from the border-crossing problem, and it is more prevalent. The GIS-based PPRs we employed would yield shortage area determinations that are similar to those based on bounded-area PPRs defined for Primary Care Service Areas. Disagreement rates were lower than previous studies have found. © 2018 National Rural Health Association.

  1. A GIS-based approach for the screening assessment of noise and vibration impacts from transit projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed, Maged; Effat, Waleed

    2007-08-01

    Urban transportation projects are essential in increasing the efficiency of moving people and goods within a city, and between cities. Environmental impacts from such projects must be evaluated and mitigated, as applicable. Spatial modeling is a valuable tool for quantifying the potential level of environmental consequences within the context of an environmental impact assessment (EIA) study. This paper presents a GIS-based tool for the assessment of airborne-noise and ground-borne vibration from public transit systems, and its application to an actual project. The tool is based on the US Federal Transit Administration's (FTA) approach, and incorporates spatial information, satellite imaging, geostatistical modeling, and software programming. The tool is applied on a case study of initial environmental evaluation of a light rail transit project in an urban city in the Middle East, to evaluate alternative layouts. The tool readily allowed the alternative evaluation and the results were used as input to a multi-criteria analytic framework.

  2. GIS-based assessment of landslide susceptibility using certainty ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tion systems (GIS) using different models. Many of these ... as spatial multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) approach ... 2013), support vec- ... Landslide susceptibility assessment using mathematical methods in GIS, Qianyang China 1401.

  3. Potential Coastal Pumped Hydroelectric Energy Storage Locations Identified using GIS-based Topographic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, R.; Barnhart, C. J.; Benson, S. M.

    2013-12-01

    Large-scale electrical energy storage could accommodate variable, weather dependent energy resources such as wind and solar. Pumped hydroelectric energy storage (PHS) and compressed energy storage area (CAES) have life cycle energy and financial costs that are an order of magnitude lower than conventional electrochemical storage technologies. However PHS and CAES storage technologies require specific geologic conditions. Conventional PHS requires an upper and lower reservoir separated by at least 100 m of head, but no more than 10 km in horizontal distance. Conventional PHS also impacts fresh water supplies, riparian ecosystems, and hydrologic environments. A PHS facility that uses the ocean as the lower reservoir benefits from a smaller footprint, minimal freshwater impact, and the potential to be located near off shore wind resources and population centers. Although technologically nascent, today one coastal PHS facility exists. The storage potential for coastal PHS is unknown. Can coastal PHS play a significant role in augmenting future power grids with a high faction of renewable energy supply? In this study we employ GIS-based topographic analysis to quantify the coastal PHS potential of several geographic locations, including California, Chile and Peru. We developed automated techniques that seek local topographic minima in 90 m spatial resolution shuttle radar topography mission (SRTM) digital elevation models (DEM) that satisfy the following criteria conducive to PHS: within 10 km from the sea; minimum elevation 150 m; maximum elevation 1000 m. Preliminary results suggest the global potential for coastal PHS could be very significant. For example, in northern Chile we have identified over 60 locations that satisfy the above criteria. Two of these locations could store over 10 million cubic meters of water or several GWh of energy. We plan to report a global database of candidate coastal PHS locations and to estimate their energy storage capacity.

  4. Comparison of Artificial Neural Networks and GIS Based Solar Analysis for Solar Potential Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konakoǧlu, Berkant; Usta, Ziya; Cömert, Çetin; Gökalp, Ertan

    2016-04-01

    Nowadays, estimation of solar potential plays an important role in planning process for sustainable cities. The use of solar panels, which produces electricity directly from the sun, has become popular in accordance with developing technologies. Since the use of solar panels enables the users to decrease costs and increase yields, the use of solar panels will be more popular in the future. Production of electricity is not convenient for all circumstances. Shading effects, massive clouds and rainy weather are some factors that directly affect the production of electricity from solar energy. Hence, before the installation of solar panels, it is crucial to conduct spatial analysis and estimate the solar potential of the place that the solar panel will be installed. There are several approaches to determine the solar potential. Examination of the applications in the literature reveals that the applications conducted for determining the solar potential are divided into two main categories. Solar potential is estimated either by using artificial neural network approach in which statistical parameters such as the duration of sun shine, number of clear days, solar radiation etc. are used, or by spatial analysis conducted in GIS approaches in which spatial parameters such as, latitude, longitude, slope, aspect etc. are used. In the literature, there are several studies that use both approaches but the literature lacks of a study related to the comparison of these approaches. In this study, Karadeniz Technical University campus has been selected as study area. Monthly average values of the number of clear sky days, air temperature, atmospheric pressure, relative humidity, sunshine duration and solar radiation parameters obtained for the years between 2005 and 2015 will be used to perform artificial neural network analysis to estimate the solar potential of the study area. The solar potential will also be estimated by using GIS-based solar analysis modules. The results of

  5. SAGA GIS based processing of spatial high resolution temperature data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerlitz, Lars; Bechtel, Benjamin; Kawohl, Tobias; Boehner, Juergen; Zaksek, Klemen

    2013-01-01

    Many climate change impact studies require surface and near surface temperature data with high spatial and temporal resolution. The resolution of state of the art climate models and remote sensing data is often by far to coarse to represent the meso- and microscale distinctions of temperatures. This is particularly the case for regions with a huge variability of topoclimates, such as mountainous or urban areas. Statistical downscaling techniques are promising methods to refine gridded temperature data with limited spatial resolution, particularly due to their low demand for computer capacity. This paper presents two downscaling approaches - one for climate model output and one for remote sensing data. Both are methodically based on the FOSS-GIS platform SAGA. (orig.)

  6. Improved GIS-based Methods for Traffic Noise Impact Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Otto Anker; Bloch, Karsten Sand

    1996-01-01

    When vector-based GIS-packages are used for traffic noise impact assessments, the buffer-technique is usually employed for the study: 1. For each road segment buffer-zones representing different noise-intervals are generated, 2. The buffers from all road segments are smoothed together, and 3....... The number of buildings within the buffers are enumerated. This technique provides an inaccurate assessment of the noise diffusion since it does not correct for buildings barrier and reflection to noise. The paper presents the results from a research project where the traditional noise buffer technique...... was compared with a new method which includes these corrections. Both methods follow the Common Nordic Noise Calculation Model, although the traditional buffer technique ignores parts of the model. The basis for the work was a digital map of roads and building polygons, combined with a traffic- and road...

  7. Depth data research of GIS based on clustering analysis algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Yan; Xu, Wenli

    2018-03-01

    The data of GIS have spatial distribution. Geographic data has both spatial characteristics and attribute characteristics, and also changes with time. Therefore, the amount of data is very large. Nowadays, many industries and departments in the society are using GIS. However, without proper data analysis and mining scheme, GIS will not exert its maximum effectiveness and will waste a lot of data. In this paper, we use the geographic information demand of a national security department as the experimental object, combining the characteristics of GIS data, taking into account the characteristics of time, space, attributes and so on, and using cluster analysis algorithm. We further study the mining scheme for depth data, and get the algorithm model. This algorithm can automatically classify sample data, and then carry out exploratory analysis. The research shows that the algorithm model and the information mining scheme can quickly find hidden depth information from the surface data of GIS, thus improving the efficiency of the security department. This algorithm can also be extended to other fields.

  8. GIS based procedure of cumulative environmental impact assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishna Reddy, M; Blah, Baiantimon

    2009-07-01

    Scale and spatial limits of impact assessment study in a GIS platform are two very important factors that could have a bearing on the genuineness and quality of impact assessment. While effect of scale has been documented and well understood, no significant study has been carried out on spatial considerations in an impact assessment study employing GIS technique. A novel technique of impact assessment demonstrable through GIS approach termed hereby as 'spatial data integrated GIS impact assessment method (SGIAM)' is narrated in this paper. The technique makes a fundamental presumption that the importance of environmental impacts is dependent, among other things, on spatial distribution of the effects of the proposed action and of the affected receptors in a study area. For each environmental component considered (e.g., air quality), impact indices are calculated through aggregation of impact indicators which are measures of the severity of the impact. The presence and spread of environmental descriptors are suitably quantified through modeling techniques and depicted. The environmental impact index is calculated from data exported from ArcINFO, thus giving significant importance to spatial data in the impact assessment exercise.

  9. Characteristics and Impact of Imperviousness From a GIS-based Hydrological Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moglen, G. E.; Kim, S.

    2005-12-01

    With the concern that imperviousness can be differently quantified depending on data sources and methods, this study assessed imperviousness estimates using two different data sources: land use and land cover. Year 2000 land use developed by the Maryland Department of Planning was utilized to estimate imperviousness by assigning imperviousness coefficients to unique land use categories. These estimates were compared with imperviousness estimates based on satellite-derived land cover from the 2001 National Land Cover Dataset. Our study developed the relationships between these two estimates in the form of regression equations to convert imperviousness derived from one data source to the other. The regression equations are considered reliable, based on goodness-of-fit measures. Furthermore, this study examined how quantitatively different imperviousness estimates affect the prediction of hydrological response both in the flow regime and in the thermal regime. We assessed the relationships between indicators of hydrological response and imperviousness-descriptors. As indicators of flow variability, coefficient of variance, lag-one autocorrelation, and mean daily flow change were calculated based on measured mean daily stream flow from the water year 1997 to 2003. For thermal variability, indicators such as percent-days of surge, degree-day, and mean daily temperature difference were calculated base on measured stream temperature over several basins in Maryland. To describe imperviousness through the hydrological process, GIS-based spatially distributed hydrological models were developed based on a water-balance method and the SCS-CN method. Imperviousness estimates from land use and land cover were used as predictors in these models to examine the effect of imperviousness using different data sources on the prediction of hydrological response. Indicators of hydrological response were also regressed on aggregate imperviousness. This allowed for identifying if

  10. GIS-based Approaches to Catchment Area Analyses of Mass Transit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jonas Lohmann Elkjær; Landex, Alex

    2009-01-01

    Catchment area analyses of stops or stations are used to investigate potential number of travelers to public transportation. These analyses are considered a strong decision tool in the planning process of mass transit especially railroads. Catchment area analyses are GIS-based buffer and overlay...... analyses with different approaches depending on the desired level of detail. A simple but straightforward approach to implement is the Circular Buffer Approach where catchment areas are circular. A more detailed approach is the Service Area Approach where catchment areas are determined by a street network...... search to simulate the actual walking distances. A refinement of the Service Area Approach is to implement additional time resistance in the network search to simulate obstacles in the walking environment. This paper reviews and compares the different GIS-based catchment area approaches, their level...

  11. Technical Potential Assessment for the Renewable Energy Zone (REZ) Process: A GIS-Based Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Nathan [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Roberts, Billy J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-04-05

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS)-based energy resource and technical potential assessments identify areas capable of supporting high levels of renewable energy (RE) development as part of a Renewable Energy Zone (REZ) Transmission Planning process. This document expands on the REZ Process to aid practitioners in conducting GIS-based RE resource and technical potential assessments. The REZ process is an approach to plan, approve, and build transmission infrastructure that connects REZs - geographic areas that have high-quality RE resources, suitable topography and land-use designations, and demonstrated developer interest - to the power system. The REZ process helps to increase the share of solar photovoltaic (PV), wind, and other resources while also maintaining reliability and economics.

  12. Evaluating the Implementation and Effectiveness of GIS-Based Application in Secondary School Geography Lessons

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Ali

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the barriers preventing the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in secondary school geography lessons and to determine its effectiveness on students success. A workshop focusing on ways to implement GIS-based application in the classroom for 14 teachers from nine high schools was conducted in 2006. The teachers were given GIS software, digital data for an application, and the necessary written documents describing the application. Due to var...

  13. IMPLEMENTATION OF GIS-BASED MULTICRITERIA DECISION ANALYSIS WITH VB IN ArcGIS

    OpenAIRE

    DERYA OZTURK; FATMAGUL BATUK

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on the integration of multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) and geographical information systems (GIS) and introduces a tool, GIS–MCDA, written in visual basic in ArcGIS for GIS-based MCDA. The GIS–MCDA deals with raster-based data sets and includes standardization, weighting and decision analysis methods, and sensitivity analysis. Simple additive weighting, weighted product method, technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution, compromise programming, a...

  14. Documentation of Cultural Heritages Using a GIS Based Information and Management System; Case Study of Safranbolu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seker, D. Z.; Alkan, M.; Kutoglu, S. S.; Akcin, H.

    2010-12-01

    Documentation of the cultural heritage sites is extremely important for monitoring and preserves them from natural disasters and human made activities. Due to its very rich historical background from the first human settlements in Catalhoyuk and Alacahoyuk and civilizations such as Byzantine, Seljuk and Ottoman, there are lots of cultural heritage sites in Turkey. 3D modeling and recording of historical buildings using modern tools and techniques in several locations of Turkey have been conducted and still continuing. The nine cultural sites in Turkey are included in the protection list of UNESCO as cultural heritage and one of them is the township of Safranbolu, which is the one of the most outstanding example of the traditional Turkish Architecture and also unique itself in terms of conservation of the human settlement in their authentic environmental motif up till now. In this study outcomes and further studies of a research project related to study area which is supported by the Turkish National Research Center (TUBITAK) with the project number 106Y157, will be presented in details. The basic aim of the study is development a GIS based information and management system for the city of Safranbolu. All historical buildings which are registered are assigned with the database. 3D modeling some of the selected building among the buildings which are registered as historical monuments using different data comes from different sources similar to their original constructions were realized and then it will be distributed via internet by a web-based information system designed during the project. Also some of the buildings were evaluated using close range photogrammetric technique to obtain their façade reliefs, were also assigned with the database. Designed database consists of 3D models, locations, historical information, cadastral and land register data of the selected buildings together with the other data collected during the project related to buildings. Using this

  15. Methodology for a GIS-based damage assessment for researchers following large scale disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Patrick Shane

    The 1990s were designated the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction by the United Nations General Assembly. This push for decrease of loss of life, property destruction, and social and economic disruption brought advancements in disaster management, including damage assessment. Damage assessment in the wake of natural and manmade disasters is a useful tool for government agencies, insurance companies, and researchers. As technologies evolve damage assessment processes constantly evolve as well. Alongside the advances in Geographic Information Systems (GIS), remote sensing, and Global Positioning System (GPS) technology, as well as the growing awareness of the needs of a standard operating procedure for GIS-based damage assessment and a need to make the damage assessment process as quick and accurate as possible, damage assessment procedures are becoming easier to execute and the results are becoming more accurate and robust. With these technological breakthroughs, multi-disciplinary damage assessment reconnaissance teams have become more efficient in their assessment methods through better organization and more robust through addition of new datasets. Damage assessment personnel are aided by software tools that offer high-level analysis and increasingly rapid damage assessment methods. GIS software has advanced the damage assessment methods of these teams by combining remotely sensed aerial imagery, GPS, and other technologies to expand the uses of the data. GIS allows researchers to use aerial imagery to show field collected data in the geographic location that it was collected so that information can be revisited, measurements can be taken, and data can be disseminated to other researchers and the public. The GIS-based data available to the reconnaissance team includes photographs of damage, worksheets, calculations, voice messages collected while studying the affected area, and many other datasets which are based on the type of disaster and the

  16. Burden of disease attributed to ambient air pollution in Thailand: A GIS-based approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chayut Pinichka

    Full Text Available Growing urbanisation and population requiring enhanced electricity generation as well as the increasing numbers of fossil fuel in Thailand pose important challenges to air quality management which impacts on the health of the population. Mortality attributed to ambient air pollution is one of the sustainable development goals (SDGs. We estimated the spatial pattern of mortality burden attributable to selected ambient air pollution in 2009 based on the empirical evidence in Thailand.We estimated the burden of disease attributable to ambient air pollution based on the comparative risk assessment (CRA framework developed by the World Health Organization (WHO and the Global Burden of Disease study (GBD. We integrated geographical information systems (GIS-based exposure assessments into spatial interpolation models to estimate ambient air pollutant concentrations, the population distribution of exposure and the concentration-response (CR relationship to quantify ambient air pollution exposure and associated mortality. We obtained air quality data from the Pollution Control Department (PCD of Thailand surface air pollution monitoring network sources and estimated the CR relationship between relative risk (RR and concentration of air pollutants from the epidemiological literature.We estimated 650-38,410 ambient air pollution-related fatalities and 160-5,982 fatalities that could have been avoided with a 20 reduction in ambient air pollutant concentrations. The summation of population-attributable fraction (PAF of the disease burden for all-causes mortality in adults due to NO2 and PM2.5 were the highest among all air pollutants at 10% and 7.5%, respectively. The PAF summation of PM2.5 for lung cancer and cardiovascular disease were 16.8% and 14.6% respectively and the PAF summations of mortality attributable to PM10 was 3.4% for all-causes mortality, 1.7% for respiratory and 3.8% for cardiovascular mortality, while the PAF summation of mortality

  17. Burden of disease attributed to ambient air pollution in Thailand: A GIS-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinichka, Chayut; Makka, Nuttapat; Sukkumnoed, Decharut; Chariyalertsak, Suwat; Inchai, Puchong; Bundhamcharoen, Kanitta

    2017-01-01

    Growing urbanisation and population requiring enhanced electricity generation as well as the increasing numbers of fossil fuel in Thailand pose important challenges to air quality management which impacts on the health of the population. Mortality attributed to ambient air pollution is one of the sustainable development goals (SDGs). We estimated the spatial pattern of mortality burden attributable to selected ambient air pollution in 2009 based on the empirical evidence in Thailand. We estimated the burden of disease attributable to ambient air pollution based on the comparative risk assessment (CRA) framework developed by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Global Burden of Disease study (GBD). We integrated geographical information systems (GIS)-based exposure assessments into spatial interpolation models to estimate ambient air pollutant concentrations, the population distribution of exposure and the concentration-response (CR) relationship to quantify ambient air pollution exposure and associated mortality. We obtained air quality data from the Pollution Control Department (PCD) of Thailand surface air pollution monitoring network sources and estimated the CR relationship between relative risk (RR) and concentration of air pollutants from the epidemiological literature. We estimated 650-38,410 ambient air pollution-related fatalities and 160-5,982 fatalities that could have been avoided with a 20 reduction in ambient air pollutant concentrations. The summation of population-attributable fraction (PAF) of the disease burden for all-causes mortality in adults due to NO2 and PM2.5 were the highest among all air pollutants at 10% and 7.5%, respectively. The PAF summation of PM2.5 for lung cancer and cardiovascular disease were 16.8% and 14.6% respectively and the PAF summations of mortality attributable to PM10 was 3.4% for all-causes mortality, 1.7% for respiratory and 3.8% for cardiovascular mortality, while the PAF summation of mortality attributable to

  18. A GIS-based susceptibility map for landslides at the Franconian Alb, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Daniel; Wilde, Martina; Lorenz, Michael; Terhorst, Birgit; Neuhäuser, Bettina; Damm, Bodo; Bemm, Stefan

    2014-05-01

    In general, slopes of cuesta scarps like the Franconian Alb are highly prone to slide activity due to susceptible geological and geomorphological conditions. The geological setting with alternating permeable and non-permeable bedrock results in the characteristic cuesta landforms of almost flat backslopes and steeper front slopes. Furthermore, this bipartite structure leads to a strong disposition for mass movements. The slopes of the study area near the town of Ebermannstadt are affected by different types of mass movements, such as topples, slides, lateral spreads and flows, either in single or in combined occurrence. In the years 1625, 1957, 1961 and 1979, four large landslides took place in the area of Ebermannstadt, reaching close to the town limits and causing major destructions to traffic facilities. In the study area, slopes are covered by debris and slide masses, thus they are prone to remobilization and further mass movements. In order to assess hazardous areas, a GIS-based susceptibility modelling was generated for the study area. The susceptibtibility modeling was processed with the slope stability model SINMAP (Stability Index Mapping), developed by TARBOTON (1997) and PACK et al. (1999). As SINMAP was particularly designed to model shallow translational slides, it should be well designed for describing the conditions of the study area in a sufficient way. SINMAP is based on the "infinite slope stability model" by HAMMONT et al. (1992) and MONTGOMERY & DIETRICH (1994), which focuses on the relation of stabilizing (cohesiveness, friction angle) and destabilizing (gravitation) factors on a plain surface. By adding a slope gradient, as well as soil mechanical and climatical data, indices of slope stabilities are calculated. For a more detailed modeling of the slope conditions, SINMAP computes different "calibration regions", which merge similar parameters of soil, land-use, vegetation, and geology. Due to the fact that vegetation, land-use, and soils only

  19. A GIS based district information system for water resources management and planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzabiras, John; Spiliotopoulos, Marios; Kokkinos, Kostantinos; Fafoutis, Chrysostomos; Sidiropoulos, Pantelis; Vasiliades, Lampros; Loukas, Athanasios; Mylopoulos, Nikitas

    2014-05-01

    In many watersheds of the Mediterranean Countries, water resources are presently fully or overcommitted. Irrigators are the largest consumers of fresh water in Mediterranean Countries using up to 80% of all allocated water in some regions. Administrative efforts should be directed towards an integrated policy of water allocation which accounts for the characteristics and specificity of each farm, requiring the availability of data bases and management tools (decision support systems) specifically designed to fulfil the objectives of maximizing water use efficiency. The overall objective of this program was the development of a District Information System (DIS) which could be used by stakeholders at purposes of irrigation district day-to-day management as well as for planning and strategic decision-making. The DIS was developed from a GIS-based modelling approach which integrates a generic crop model, a hydraulic module for the water transfer/distribution system and uses remote sensing information. The main sub-objectives were: (i) the development of an operational algorithm to retrieve crop evapotranspiration from remote sensing data, (ii) the development of an information system with friendly user interface for the data base, the crop module and the hydraulic module and (iii) the analysis and validation of management scenarios from model simulations predicting the respective behaviour. Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (SEBAL) was used to derive monthly actual evapotranspiration (ET) values from Landsat TM imagery. Meteorological data from the archive of the Institute for Research and Technology, Thessaly (I.RE.TE.TH) have also been used. The methodology was developed using high quality Landsat TM images during 2007 growing season. Monthly ET values are then used as an input to CROPWAT model. Outputs of CROPWAT model are then used as input for the hydraylic module consisted of TECHNOLOGISMIKI, WATERCAD and WEAP model. Hence, a reference scenario was

  20. Use of GIS-Based Sampling to Inform Food Security Assessments and Decision Making in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahome, A.; Ndubi, A. O.; Ndungu, L. W.; Mugo, R. M.; Flores Cordova, A. I.

    2017-12-01

    Kenya relies on agricultural production for supporting local consumption and other processing value chains. With changing climate in a rain-fed dependent agricultural production system, cropping zones are shifting and proper decision making will require updated data. Where up-to-date data is not available it is important that it is generated and passed over to relevant stakeholders to inform their decision making. The process of generating this data should be cost effective and less time consuming. The Kenyan State Department of Agriculture (SDA) runs an insurance programme for maize farmers in a number of counties in Kenya. Previously, SDA was using a list of farmers to identify the crop fields for this insurance programme. However, the process of listing of all farmers in each Unit Area of Insurance (UAI) proved to be tedious and very costly, hence need for an alternative approach, but acceptable sampling methodology. Building on the existing cropland maps, SERVIR, a joint NASA-USAID initiative that brings Earth observations (EO) for improved environmental decision making in developing countries, specifically its hub in Eastern and Soutehrn Africa developed a High Resolution Map based on 10m Sentinel satellite images from which a GIS based sampling frame for identifying maize fields was developed. Sampling points were randomly generated in each UAI and navigated to using hand-held GPS units for identification of maize farmers. In the GIS-based identification of farmers SDA uses 1 day to cover an area covered in 1 week by list identification of farmers. Similarly, SDA spends approximately 3,000 USD per sub-county to locate maize fields using GIS-based sampling as compared 10,000 USD they used to spend before. This has resulted in 70% cost reduction.

  1. A GIS-based method for household recruitment in a prospective pesticide exposure study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillips Michael J

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent advances in GIS technology and remote sensing have provided new opportunities to collect ecologic data on agricultural pesticide exposure. Many pesticide studies have used historical or records-based data on crops and their associated pesticide applications to estimate exposure by measuring residential proximity to agricultural fields. Very few of these studies collected environmental and biological samples from study participants. One of the reasons for this is the cost of identifying participants who reside near study fields and analyzing samples obtained from them. In this paper, we present a cost-effective, GIS-based method for crop field selection and household recruitment in a prospective pesticide exposure study in a remote location. For the most part, our multi-phased approach was carried out in a research facility, but involved two brief episodes of fieldwork for ground truthing purposes. This method was developed for a larger study designed to examine the validity of indirect pesticide exposure estimates by comparing measured exposures in household dust, water and urine with records-based estimates that use crop location, residential proximity and pesticide application data. The study focused on the pesticide atrazine, a broadleaf herbicide used in corn production and one of the most widely-used pesticides in the U.S. Results We successfully used a combination of remotely-sensed data, GIS-based methods and fieldwork to select study fields and recruit participants in Illinois, a state with high corn production and heavy atrazine use. Our several-step process consisted of the identification of potential study fields and residential areas using aerial photography; verification of crop patterns and land use via site visits; development of a GIS-based algorithm to define recruitment areas around crop fields; acquisition of geocoded household-level data within each recruitment area from a commercial vendor; and

  2. A GIS based spatially-explicit sensitivity and uncertainty analysis approach for multi-criteria decision analysis☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feizizadeh, Bakhtiar; Jankowski, Piotr; Blaschke, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    GIS multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) techniques are increasingly used in landslide susceptibility mapping for the prediction of future hazards, land use planning, as well as for hazard preparedness. However, the uncertainties associated with MCDA techniques are inevitable and model outcomes are open to multiple types of uncertainty. In this paper, we present a systematic approach to uncertainty and sensitivity analysis. We access the uncertainty of landslide susceptibility maps produced with GIS-MCDA techniques. A new spatially-explicit approach and Dempster–Shafer Theory (DST) are employed to assess the uncertainties associated with two MCDA techniques, namely Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP) and Ordered Weighted Averaging (OWA) implemented in GIS. The methodology is composed of three different phases. First, weights are computed to express the relative importance of factors (criteria) for landslide susceptibility. Next, the uncertainty and sensitivity of landslide susceptibility is analyzed as a function of weights using Monte Carlo Simulation and Global Sensitivity Analysis. Finally, the results are validated using a landslide inventory database and by applying DST. The comparisons of the obtained landslide susceptibility maps of both MCDA techniques with known landslides show that the AHP outperforms OWA. However, the OWA-generated landslide susceptibility map shows lower uncertainty than the AHP-generated map. The results demonstrate that further improvement in the accuracy of GIS-based MCDA can be achieved by employing an integrated uncertainty–sensitivity analysis approach, in which the uncertainty of landslide susceptibility model is decomposed and attributed to model's criteria weights. PMID:25843987

  3. A GIS based spatially-explicit sensitivity and uncertainty analysis approach for multi-criteria decision analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feizizadeh, Bakhtiar; Jankowski, Piotr; Blaschke, Thomas

    2014-03-01

    GIS multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) techniques are increasingly used in landslide susceptibility mapping for the prediction of future hazards, land use planning, as well as for hazard preparedness. However, the uncertainties associated with MCDA techniques are inevitable and model outcomes are open to multiple types of uncertainty. In this paper, we present a systematic approach to uncertainty and sensitivity analysis. We access the uncertainty of landslide susceptibility maps produced with GIS-MCDA techniques. A new spatially-explicit approach and Dempster-Shafer Theory (DST) are employed to assess the uncertainties associated with two MCDA techniques, namely Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP) and Ordered Weighted Averaging (OWA) implemented in GIS. The methodology is composed of three different phases. First, weights are computed to express the relative importance of factors (criteria) for landslide susceptibility. Next, the uncertainty and sensitivity of landslide susceptibility is analyzed as a function of weights using Monte Carlo Simulation and Global Sensitivity Analysis. Finally, the results are validated using a landslide inventory database and by applying DST. The comparisons of the obtained landslide susceptibility maps of both MCDA techniques with known landslides show that the AHP outperforms OWA. However, the OWA-generated landslide susceptibility map shows lower uncertainty than the AHP-generated map. The results demonstrate that further improvement in the accuracy of GIS-based MCDA can be achieved by employing an integrated uncertainty-sensitivity analysis approach, in which the uncertainty of landslide susceptibility model is decomposed and attributed to model's criteria weights.

  4. Macroalgae Analysis A National GIS-based Analysis of Macroalgae Production Potential Summary Report and Project Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roesijadi, Guritno; Coleman, Andre M.; Judd, Chaeli; Van Cleve, Frances B.; Thom, Ronald M.; Buenau, Kate E.; Tagestad, Jerry D.; Wigmosta, Mark S.; Ward, Jeffrey A.

    2011-12-01

    The overall project objective is to conduct a strategic analysis to assess the state of macroalgae as a feedstock for biofuels production. The objective in FY11 is to develop a multi-year systematic national assessment to evaluate the U.S. potential for macroalgae production using a GIS-based assessment tool and biophysical growth model developed as part of these activities. The initial model development for both resource assessment and constraints was completed and applied to the demonstration areas. The model for macroalgal growth was extended to the EEZ off the East and West Coasts of the United States, and a plan to merge the findings for an initial composite assessment was developed. In parallel, an assessment of land-based, port, and offshore infrastructure needs based on published and grey literature was conducted. Major information gaps and challenges encountered during this analysis were identified. Also conducted was an analysis of the type of local, state, and federal requirements that pertain to permitting land-based facilities and nearshore/offshore culture operations

  5. Development of a GIS-Based Decision Support System for Diagnosis of River System Health and Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihong Xia

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The development of a decision support system (DSS to inform policy making has been progressing rapidly. This paper presents a generic framework and the development steps of a decision tool prototype of geographic information systems (GIS-based decision support system of river health diagnosis (RHD-DSS. This system integrates data, calculation models, and human knowledge of river health status assessment, causal factors diagnosis, and restoration decision making to assist decision makers during river restoration and management in Zhejiang Province, China. Our RHD-DSS is composed of four main elements: the graphical user interface (GUI, the database, the model base, and the knowledge base. It has five functional components: the input module, the database management, the diagnostic indicators management, the assessment and diagnosis, and the visual result module. The system design is illustrated with particular emphasis on the development of the database, model schemas, diagnosis and analytical processing techniques, and map management design. Finally, the application of the prototype RHD-DSS is presented and implemented for Xinjiangtang River of Haining County in Zhejiang Province, China. This case study is used to demonstrate the advantages gained by the application of this system. We conclude that there is great potential for using the RHD-DSS to systematically manage river basins in order to effectively mitigate environmental issues. The proposed approach will provide river managers and designers with improved insight into river degradation conditions, thereby strengthening the assessment process and the administration of human activities in river management.

  6. GIS-based rare events logistic regression for mineral prospectivity mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Yihui; Zuo, Renguang

    2018-02-01

    Mineralization is a special type of singularity event, and can be considered as a rare event, because within a specific study area the number of prospective locations (1s) are considerably fewer than the number of non-prospective locations (0s). In this study, GIS-based rare events logistic regression (RELR) was used to map the mineral prospectivity in the southwestern Fujian Province, China. An odds ratio was used to measure the relative importance of the evidence variables with respect to mineralization. The results suggest that formations, granites, and skarn alterations, followed by faults and aeromagnetic anomaly are the most important indicators for the formation of Fe-related mineralization in the study area. The prediction rate and the area under the curve (AUC) values show that areas with higher probability have a strong spatial relationship with the known mineral deposits. Comparing the results with original logistic regression (OLR) demonstrates that the GIS-based RELR performs better than OLR. The prospectivity map obtained in this study benefits the search for skarn Fe-related mineralization in the study area.

  7. ArcNLET: A GIS-based software to simulate groundwater nitrate load from septic systems to surface water bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, J. Fernando; Ye, Ming; Wang, Liying; Lee, Paul Z.; Davis, Hal; Hicks, Rick

    2013-03-01

    Onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWTS), or septic systems, can be a significant source of nitrates in groundwater and surface water. The adverse effects that nitrates have on human and environmental health have given rise to the need to estimate the actual or potential level of nitrate contamination. With the goal of reducing data collection and preparation costs, and decreasing the time required to produce an estimate compared to complex nitrate modeling tools, we developed the ArcGIS-based Nitrate Load Estimation Toolkit (ArcNLET) software. Leveraging the power of geographic information systems (GIS), ArcNLET is an easy-to-use software capable of simulating nitrate transport in groundwater and estimating long-term nitrate loads from groundwater to surface water bodies. Data requirements are reduced by using simplified models of groundwater flow and nitrate transport which consider nitrate attenuation mechanisms (subsurface dispersion and denitrification) as well as spatial variability in the hydraulic parameters and septic tank distribution. ArcNLET provides a spatial distribution of nitrate plumes from multiple septic systems and a load estimate to water bodies. ArcNLET's conceptual model is divided into three sub-models: a groundwater flow model, a nitrate transport and fate model, and a load estimation model which are implemented as an extension to ArcGIS. The groundwater flow model uses a map of topography in order to generate a steady-state approximation of the water table. In a validation study, this approximation was found to correlate well with a water table produced by a calibrated numerical model although it was found that the degree to which the water table resembles the topography can vary greatly across the modeling domain. The transport model uses a semi-analytical solution to estimate the distribution of nitrate within groundwater, which is then used to estimate a nitrate load using a mass balance argument. The estimates given by ArcNLET are

  8. A GIS-based decision support system for regional eco-security assessment and its application on the Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaodan, Wang; Xianghao, Zhong; Pan, Gao

    2010-10-01

    Regional eco-security assessment is an intricate, challenging task. In previous studies, the integration of eco-environmental models and geographical information systems (GIS) usually takes two approaches: loose coupling and tight coupling. However, the present study used a full coupling approach to develop a GIS-based regional eco-security assessment decision support system (ESDSS). This was achieved by merging the pressure-state-response (PSR) model and the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) into ArcGIS 9 as a dynamic link library (DLL) using ArcObjects in ArcGIS and Visual Basic for Applications. Such an approach makes it easy to capitalize on the GIS visualization and spatial analysis functions, thereby significantly supporting the dynamic estimation of regional eco-security. A case study is presented for the Tibetan Plateau, known as the world's "third pole" after the Arctic and Antarctic. Results verified the usefulness and feasibility of the developed method. As a useful tool, the ESDSS can also help local managers to make scientifically-based and effective decisions about Tibetan eco-environmental protection and land use. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. GIS-Based Detection of Gullies in Terrestrial LiDAR Data of the Cerro Llamoca Peatland (Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Forbriger

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Cushion peatlands are typical features of the high altitude Andes in South America. Due to the adaptation to difficult environmental conditions, they are very fragile ecosystems and therefore vulnerable to environmental and climate changes. Peatland erosion has severe effects on their ecological functions, such as water storage capacity. Thus, erosion monitoring is highly advisable. Erosion quantification and monitoring can be supported by high-resolution terrestrial Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR. In this study, a novel Geographic Information System (GIS-based method for the automatic delineation and geomorphometric description of gullies in cushion peatlands is presented. The approach is a multi-step workflow based on a gully edge extraction and a sink filling algorithm applied to a conditioned digital terrain model. Our method enables the creation of GIS-ready polygons of the gullies and the derivation of geomorphometric parameters along the entire channel course. Automatically derived boundaries and gully area values correspond to a high degree (93% with manually digitized reference polygons. The set of methods developed in this study offers a suitable tool for the monitoring and scientific analysis of fluvial morphology in cushion peatlands.

  10. MEASURING LAND USES ACCESSIBILITY BY USING FUZZY MAJORITY GIS-BASED MULTICRITERIA DECISION ANALYSIS CASE STUDY: MALAYER CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Taravat

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Public spaces accessibility has become one of the important factors in urban planning. Therefore, considerable attention has been given to measure accessibility to public spaces on the UK, US and Canada, but there are few studies outside the anglophone world especially in developing countries such as Iran. In this study an attempt has been made to measure objective accessibility to public spaces (parks, school, library and administrative using fuzzy majority GIS-based multicriteria decision analysis. This method is for defining the priority for distribution of urban facilities and utilities as the first step towards elimination of social justice. In order to test and demonstrate the presented model, the comprehensive plan of Malayer city has been considered for ranking in three objectives and properties in view of index per capital (Green space, sport facilities and major cultural centers like library and access index. The results can be used to inform the local planning process and the GIS approach can be expanded into other local authority domains. The results shows that the distribution of facilities in Malayer city has followed on the base of cost benefit law and the human aspect of resource allocation programming of facilities (from centre to suburbs of the city.

  11. Measuring Land Uses Accessibility by Using Fuzzy Majority Gis-Based Multicriteria Decision Analysis Case Study: Malayer City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taravat, A.; Yari, A.; Rajaei, M.; Mousavian, R.

    2014-10-01

    Public spaces accessibility has become one of the important factors in urban planning. Therefore, considerable attention has been given to measure accessibility to public spaces on the UK, US and Canada, but there are few studies outside the anglophone world especially in developing countries such as Iran. In this study an attempt has been made to measure objective accessibility to public spaces (parks, school, library and administrative) using fuzzy majority GIS-based multicriteria decision analysis. This method is for defining the priority for distribution of urban facilities and utilities as the first step towards elimination of social justice. In order to test and demonstrate the presented model, the comprehensive plan of Malayer city has been considered for ranking in three objectives and properties in view of index per capital (Green space, sport facilities and major cultural centers like library and access index). The results can be used to inform the local planning process and the GIS approach can be expanded into other local authority domains. The results shows that the distribution of facilities in Malayer city has followed on the base of cost benefit law and the human aspect of resource allocation programming of facilities (from centre to suburbs of the city).

  12. Gis Based Analysis For Suitability Location Finding In The Residential Development Areas Of Greater Matara Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.K.G.M Madurika

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Urban Planning and Land utilization for the Residential is one of crucial factors in high density Cities. Many theories in Planning explain the Residential areas are moving to periphery areas in cities by its commercial development. Martara is one of developing city in Southern Sri Lanka and Residential land value are comparative high in city sub urban areas. In this study it is examined that where is the best locations for residential development in Grater Matara Region by using five criteria. GIS based Multi Criteria Method MCE method have been applied to find the suitable locations. The results of analysis have been shown that there are 5378.99 hectares area suitable within study area and however extremely importance areas only 1.40 hectares accordingly given criteria but very strongly importance and importance category have 1560.51 and 2468.22 respectively.

  13. GIS-Based Noise Simulation Open Source Software: N-GNOIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijay, Ritesh; Sharma, A.; Kumar, M.; Shende, V.; Chakrabarti, T.; Gupta, Rajesh

    2015-12-01

    Geographical information system (GIS)-based noise simulation software (N-GNOIS) has been developed to simulate the noise scenario due to point and mobile sources considering the impact of geographical features and meteorological parameters. These have been addressed in the software through attenuation modules of atmosphere, vegetation and barrier. N-GNOIS is a user friendly, platform-independent and open geospatial consortia (OGC) compliant software. It has been developed using open source technology (QGIS) and open source language (Python). N-GNOIS has unique features like cumulative impact of point and mobile sources, building structure and honking due to traffic. Honking is the most common phenomenon in developing countries and is frequently observed on any type of roads. N-GNOIS also helps in designing physical barrier and vegetation cover to check the propagation of noise and acts as a decision making tool for planning and management of noise component in environmental impact assessment (EIA) studies.

  14. A European perspective on GIS-based walkability and active modes of transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasser, Gerlinde; van Dyck, Delfien; Titze, Sylvia; Stronegger, Willibald J

    2017-02-01

    The association between GIS-based walkability and walking for transport is considered to be well established in USA and in Australia. Research on the association between walkability and cycling for transport in European cities is lacking. The aim of this study was to test the predictive validity of established walkability measures and to explore alternative walkability measures associated with walking and cycling for transport in a European context. Outcome data were derived from the representative cross-sectional survey ( n  = 843) ‘Radfreundliche Stadt’ of adults in the city of Graz (Austria). GIS-based walkability was measured using both established measures (e.g. gross population density, household unit density, entropy index, three-way intersection density, IPEN walkability index) and alternative measures (e.g. proportion of mixed land use, four-way intersection density, Graz walkability index). ANCOVAs were conducted to examine the adjusted association between walkability measures and outcomes. Household unit density, proportion of mixed land use, three-way intersection density and IPEN walkability index were positively associated with walking for transport, but the other measures were not. All walkability measures were positively associated with cycling for transport. The established walkability measures were applicable to a European city such as Graz. The alternative walkability measures performed well in a European context. Due to measurement issues the association between these walkability measures and walking for transport needs to be investigated further. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  15. GIS-based interactive tool to map the advent of world conquerors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakkaraju, Mahesh

    The objective of this thesis is to show the scale and extent of some of the greatest empires the world has ever seen. This is a hybrid project between the GIS based interactive tool and the web-based JavaScript tool. This approach lets the students learn effectively about the emperors themselves while understanding how long and far their empires spread. In the GIS based tool, a map is displayed with various points on it, and when a user clicks on one point, the relevant information of what happened at that particular place is displayed. Apart from this information, users can also select the interactive animation button and can walk through a set of battles in chronological order. As mentioned, this uses Java as the main programming language, and MOJO (Map Objects Java Objects) provided by ESRI. MOJO is very effective as its GIS related features can be included in the application itself. This app. is a simple tool and has been developed for university or high school level students. D3.js is an interactive animation and visualization platform built on the Javascript framework. Though HTML5, CSS3, Javascript and SVG animations can be used to derive custom animations, this tool can help bring out results with less effort and more ease of use. Hence, it has become the most sought after visualization tool for multiple applications. D3.js has provided a map-based visualization feature so that we can easily display text-based data in a map-based interface. To draw the map and the points on it, D3.js uses data rendered in TOPO JSON format. The latitudes and longitudes can be provided, which are interpolated into the Map svg. One of the main advantages of doing it this way is that more information is retained when we use a visual medium.

  16. A GIS-based tool for bioaccumulation risk analysis and its application to study polychlorinated biphenyls in the Great Lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda P. Maciel

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a GIS-based tool named Arc-BEST (Bioaccumulation Evaluation Screening Tool to perform spatially distributed bioaccumulation risk analyses. Estimating bioaccumulation risk is important to help predict potentially adverse effects from contaminants on ecosystems and human health, which are key factors in the development of sound public policy. Arc-BEST is based on the BEST model in the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers BRAMS (Bioaccumulation Risk Assessment Modeling System software, released in 2012. It predicts concentration of concern contaminants in predators’ tissues from concentrations in organisms at the bottom of the food chain, and corresponding bioaccumulation factors. Additionally, it estimates carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks for humans that consume those species. The greatest contribution of Arc-BEST is that it enables the automated use of digital spatial data sets, which improves model creation speed, analysis and visualization of results, and comparison and cross-referencing with other geographic datasets. Furthermore, the model was improved to consider up to four trophic levels. The code is written in Python and is open-source. In this work Arc-BEST is used as part of a screening-level risk assessment process in order to identify hot spots where further studies and monitoring should be performed to ensure humans and ecosystems health. The tool is successfully applied to a case study in the Laurentian Great Lakes, where long-term effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs is performed, based on measured concentrations in zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha, and local bioaccumulation factors from previous studies. Zebra mussels have a great filtration capacity and high bioconcentration rates, increasing the bioavailability of contaminants for predator species. PCBs concentrations in different-level predators are predicted. Furthermore, health risks for humans that consume sport fish are estimated for various

  17. A GIS based emissions inventory at 1 km × 1 km spatial resolution for air pollution analysis in Delhi, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttikunda, Sarath K.; Calori, Giuseppe

    2013-03-01

    In Delhi, between 2008 and 2011, at seven monitoring stations, the daily average of particulates with diameter generation, and construction activities. In this paper, we present a multi-pollutant emissions inventory for the National Capital Territory of Delhi, covering the main district and its satellite cities - Gurgaon, Noida, Faridabad, and Ghaziabad. For the base year 2010, we estimate emissions (to the nearest 000's) of 63,000 tons of PM2.5, 114,000 tons of PM10, 37,000 tons of sulfur dioxide, 376,000 tons of nitrogen oxides, 1.42 million tons of carbon monoxide, and 261,000 tons of volatile organic compounds. The inventory is further spatially disaggregated into 80 × 80 grids at 0.01° resolution for each of the contributing sectors, which include vehicle exhaust, road dust re-suspension, domestic cooking and heating, power plants, industries (including brick kilns), diesel generator sets and waste burning. The GIS based spatial inventory coupled with temporal resolution of 1 h, was utilized for chemical transport modeling using the ATMoS dispersion model. The modeled annual average PM2.5 concentrations were 122 ± 10 μg m-3 for South Delhi; 90 ± 20 μg m-3 for Gurgaon and Dwarka; 93 ± 26 μg m-3 for North-West Delhi; 93 ± 23 μg m-3 for North-East Delhi; 42 ± 10 μg m-3 for Greater Noida; 77 ± 11 μg m-3 for Faridabad industrial area. The results have been compared to measured ambient PM pollution to validate the emissions inventory.

  18. GIS-based maps and area estimates of Northern Hemisphere permafrost extent during the Last Glacial Maximum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindgren, A.; Hugelius, G.; Kuhry, P.; Christensen, T.R.; Vandenberghe, J.F.

    2016-01-01

    This study presents GIS-based estimates of permafrost extent in the northern circumpolar region during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), based on a review of previously published maps and compilations of field evidence in the form of ice-wedge pseudomorphs and relict sand wedges. We focus on field

  19. Geospatial Data Availability for Haiti: An Aid in the Development of GIS-Based Natural Resource Assessments for Conservation Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maya Quinones; William Gould; Carlos D. Rodriguez-Pedraza

    2007-01-01

    This report documents the type and source of geospatial data available for Haiti. It was compiled to serve as a resource for geographic information system (GIS)-based land management and planning. It will be useful for conservation planning, reforestation efforts, and agricultural extension projects. Our study indicates that there is a great deal of geospatial...

  20. A GIS-based approach to prevent contamination of groundwater at regional scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balderacchi, M.; Vischetti, C.; di Guardo, A.; Trevisan, M.

    2009-04-01

    Sustainable development is a fundamental objective of the European Union. Since 1991, the use of numerical models has been used to assess the environmental fate of pesticides (directive 91/414 EC). Since then, new approaches to assess pesticide contamination have been developed. This is an ongoing process, with approaches getting increasingly close to reality. Actually, there is a new challenge to integrate the most advanced and cost-effective monitoring strategies with simulation models so that reliable indicators of unsaturated flow and transport can be suitably mapped and coupled with other indicators related to productivity and sustainability. The most relevant role of GIS in the analysis of pesticide fate in soil is its application to process together input data and the results of distribution model based simulations of pesticide transport. FitoMarche is a GIS-based software tool that estimates pesticide movement in the unsaturated zone using MACRO 5 and it is able to simulate complex and real crop rotations at the regional scale. Crop rotation involves the sequential production of different plant species on the same land, every crop is characterized by different agricultural practices that involve the use of different pesticides at different doses. FitoMarche extracts MACRO input data from a series of geographic data sets (shapefiles) and an internal database, writes input files for MACRO, executes the simulation and extracts solute and water fluxes from MACRO output files. The study has been performed in the Marche region, located in central Italy along the Adriatic coast. Soil, climate, land use shapefiles were provided from public authorities, crop rotation schemes were estimated from ISTAT (the national statistics institute) 5th agricultural census database using a municipality detail and agricultural practices following the local customs. Two herbicides have been tested: "A" is employed on maize crop, and "B" on maize, sunflower and sugarbeet. In the

  1. GIS based analysis of Intercity Fatal Road Traffic Accidents in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, A; Zare, M; Darparesh, M; Mohseni, S; Soleimani-Ahmadi, M

    2015-01-01

    Road traffic accidents including intercity car traffic accidents (ICTAs) are among the most important causes of morbidity and mortality due to the growing number of vehicles, risky behaviors, and changes in lifestyle of the general population. A sound knowledge of the geographical distribution of car traffic accidents can be considered as an approach towards the accident causation and it can be used as an administrative tool in allocating the sources for traffic accidents prevention. This study was conducted to investigate the geographical distribution and the time trend of fatal intercity car traffic accidents in Iran. To conduct this descriptive study, all Iranian intercity road traffic mortality data were obtained from the Police reports in the Statistical Yearbook of the Governor's Budget and Planning. The obtained data were for 17 complete Iranian calendar years from March 1997 to March 2012. The incidence rate (IR) of fatal ICTAs for each year was calculated as the total number of fatal ICTAs in every 100000 population in specified time intervals. Figures and maps indicating the trends and geographical distribution of fatal ICTAs were prepared while using Microsoft Excel and ArcGis9.2 software. The number of fatal car accidents showed a general increasing trend from 3000 in 1996 to 13500 in 2012. The incidence of fatal intercity car accidents has changed from six in 100000 population in 1996 to 18 in 100000 population in 2012. GIS based data showed that the incidence rate of ICTAs in different provinces of Iran was very divergent. The highest incidence of fatal ICTAs was in Semnan province (IR= 35.2), followed by North Khorasan (IR=22.7), and South Khorasan (IR=22). The least incidence of fatal ICTAs was in Tehran province (IR=2.4) followed by Khozestan (IR=6.5), and Eastern Azarbayejan (IR=6.6). The compensation cost of fatal ICTAs also showed an increasing trend during the studied period. Since an increasing amount of money was being paid yearly for the car

  2. GIS based analysis of Intercity Fatal Road Traffic Accidents in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, A; Zare, M; Darparesh, M; Mohseni, S; Soleimani-Ahmadi, M

    2015-01-01

    Road traffic accidents including intercity car traffic accidents (ICTAs) are among the most important causes of morbidity and mortality due to the growing number of vehicles, risky behaviors, and changes in lifestyle of the general population. A sound knowledge of the geographical distribution of car traffic accidents can be considered as an approach towards the accident causation and it can be used as an administrative tool in allocating the sources for traffic accidents prevention. This study was conducted to investigate the geographical distribution and the time trend of fatal intercity car traffic accidents in Iran. To conduct this descriptive study, all Iranian intercity road traffic mortality data were obtained from the Police reports in the Statistical Yearbook of the Governor’s Budget and Planning. The obtained data were for 17 complete Iranian calendar years from March 1997 to March 2012. The incidence rate (IR) of fatal ICTAs for each year was calculated as the total number of fatal ICTAs in every 100000 population in specified time intervals. Figures and maps indicating the trends and geographical distribution of fatal ICTAs were prepared while using Microsoft Excel and ArcGis9.2 software. The number of fatal car accidents showed a general increasing trend from 3000 in 1996 to 13500 in 2012. The incidence of fatal intercity car accidents has changed from six in 100000 population in 1996 to 18 in 100000 population in 2012. GIS based data showed that the incidence rate of ICTAs in different provinces of Iran was very divergent. The highest incidence of fatal ICTAs was in Semnan province (IR= 35.2), followed by North Khorasan (IR=22.7), and South Khorasan (IR=22). The least incidence of fatal ICTAs was in Tehran province (IR=2.4) followed by Khozestan (IR=6.5), and Eastern Azarbayejan (IR=6.6). The compensation cost of fatal ICTAs also showed an increasing trend during the studied period. Since an increasing amount of money was being paid yearly for the

  3. A cursory application of DRASTIC to the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crider, S.S.

    1989-01-01

    Geohydrologists at the National Water Well Association (NWWA) created DRASTIC as a formalized decision-making procedure to assess the potential for groundwater pollution at existing and proposed industrial sites. It is a method to examine groundwater pollution potential anywhere in the country. DRASTIC is generalized because it is meant to be universal; therefore, NWWA stresses its qualitative nature. Its objective are: (1) to help direct resources and land use activities to appropriate areas; and, (2) to help prioritize groundwater protection, monitoring and cleanup efforts. Even though it is a general siting tool, usually applied where only scanty geohydrological information is available, it can be helpful -- perhaps in a modified form -- for locations like the Savannah River Site (SRS) that have relatively abundant data resources

  4. ZONA KERENTANAN AIRTANAH TERHADAP KONTAMINAN DENGAN METODE DRASTIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putranto T.T Putranto T.T

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Almost all groundwater resources are vulnerable to various degrees. Vulnerability of groundwater is arelative, dimensionless property that is not directly measurable. It is assesed by using the DRASTICtechnique. The accuracy of its assessment depends, above all, on the amoun and quality of representativeand reliable data available. The required data is often not available and thus scale of mapping os oftenlimited to broad scale catchment maps. The DRASTIC vulnerability mapping technique can generally bereferred to as a composite description of all the major geologic and hydrogeologic factors that affect andcontrol groundwater movement, into, through and out of an area. DRASTIC is an acronym for the mostimportant mappable features within the hydrogeologic setting which control groundwater pollution.These features are: D (Depth to watertable, R (Net Recharge, A (Aquifer media, S (Soil media, T(Topograhy/slope, I (Impact of vadoze zone and C (hydraulic Conductivity of aquifer.

  5. Recent development of drastically innovative BSCCO wire (DI-BISCCO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, M.; Kato, T.; Ohkura, K.; Ayai, N.; Fujikami, J.; Fujino, K.; Kobayashi, S.; Ueno, E.; Yamazaki, K.; Yamade, S.; Hayashi, K.; Sato, K.; Nagai, T.; Matsui, Y.

    2006-01-01

    Up to this day, Ag-sheathed Bi2223 superconducting wires have been widely investigated and the long wires about 1000 m have been produced by using powder-in-tube (PIT) method on a commercial basis in the various facilities or companies. Although the wires are used for some applications such as HTS cables, magnets, motor and so on, the Bi2223 wires not only require much more improvements of the superconducting properties such as critical current, mechanical properties, but also longer and more uniform wires. Recently, the performances of Bi2223 wires have been drastically improved by using Controlled Over Pressure (CT-OP) sintering process. CT-OP process increased critical current (I c ) by more than 60% at 77 K and self field and improved the mechanical strength by more than 70%. The maximum I c was increased up to 166 A. These drastic improvements were caused by the higher density of Bi2223 filament up to almost 100% and better connectivity of the Bi2223 grains. The dense structure of the Bi2223 filaments prevents the ballooning phenomenon which is caused by the gasification of the trapped liquid nitrogen during temperature rise. Additionally, higher uniformity and higher production yield of long length wire were also achieved by exterminating defects during sintering. These high performance levels in CT-OP wires have contributed commercial level applications. We call as Drastically Innovative BSCCO (DI-BSCCO)

  6. GIS-based approach for defining bioenergy facilities location: A case study in Northern Spain based on marginal delivery costs and resources competition between facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panichelli, Luis; Gnansounou, Edgard [Laboratory of Energy Systems, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, LASEN-ICARE-ENAC, Station 18, EPFL, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2008-04-15

    This paper presents a GIS-based decision support system for selecting least-cost bioenergy locations when there is a significant variability in biomass farmgate price and when more than one bioenergy plant with a fixed capacity has to be placed in the region. The methodology tackles the resources competition problem between energy facilities through a location-allocation model based on least-cost biomass quantities. Whole system least delivery cost including intermediate bioenergy products is estimated. The methodology is based on a case study where forest wood residues (FWR) from final cuttings (FCs) are used to produce torrefied wood (TW) in two torrefaction plants (TUs) that supply a gasification unit (GU) in order to produce electricity. The provinces of Navarra, Bizkaia, Gipuzkoa, Alava, La Rioja, Cantabria and Burgos are assessed in order to find the best locations for settling down the TUs and the GU according to biomass availability, FWR and TW marginal delivery costs. (author)

  7. A GIS-based extended fuzzy multi-criteria evaluation for landslide susceptibility mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feizizadeh, Bakhtiar; Shadman Roodposhti, Majid; Jankowski, Piotr; Blaschke, Thomas

    2014-12-01

    Landslide susceptibility mapping (LSM) is making increasing use of GIS-based spatial analysis in combination with multi-criteria evaluation (MCE) methods. We have developed a new multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) method for LSM and applied it to the Izeh River basin in south-western Iran. Our method is based on fuzzy membership functions (FMFs) derived from GIS analysis. It makes use of nine causal landslide factors identified by local landslide experts. Fuzzy set theory was first integrated with an analytical hierarchy process (AHP) in order to use pairwise comparisons to compare LSM criteria for ranking purposes. FMFs were then applied in order to determine the criteria weights to be used in the development of a landslide susceptibility map. Finally, a landslide inventory database was used to validate the LSM map by comparing it with known landslides within the study area. Results indicated that the integration of fuzzy set theory with AHP produced significantly improved accuracies and a high level of reliability in the resulting landslide susceptibility map. Approximately 53% of known landslides within our study area fell within zones classified as having "very high susceptibility", with the further 31% falling into zones classified as having "high susceptibility".

  8. A GIS-based Quantitative Approach for the Search of Clandestine Graves, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somma, Roberta; Cascio, Maria; Silvestro, Massimiliano; Torre, Eliana

    2018-05-01

    Previous research on the RAG color-coded prioritization systems for the discovery of clandestine graves has not considered all the factors influencing the burial site choice within a GIS project. The goal of this technical note was to discuss a GIS-based quantitative approach for the search of clandestine graves. The method is based on cross-referenced RAG maps with cumulative suitability factors to host a burial, leading to the editing of different search scenarios for ground searches showing high-(Red), medium-(Amber), and low-(Green) priority areas. The application of this procedure allowed several outcomes to be determined: If the concealment occurs at night, then the "search scenario without the visibility" will be the most effective one; if the concealment occurs in daylight, then the "search scenario with the DSM-based visibility" will be most appropriate; the different search scenarios may be cross-referenced with offender's confessions and eyewitnesses' testimonies to verify the veracity of their statements. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  9. Cost optimization of a real-time GIS-based management system for hazardous waste transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yun; Lin, Che-Jen; Zhong, Yilong; Zhou, Qing; Lin, Che-Jen; Chen, Chunyi

    2010-08-01

    In this paper, the design and cost analysis of a real-time, geographical information system (GIS) based management system for hazardous waste transportation are described. The implementation of such a system can effectively prevent illegal dumping and perform emergency responses during the transportation of hazardous wastes. A case study was conducted in Guangzhou, China to build a small-scale, real-time management system for waste transportation. Two alternatives were evaluated in terms of system capability and cost structure. Alternative I was the building of a complete real-time monitoring and management system in a governing agency; whereas alternative II was the combination of the existing management framework with a commercial Telematics service to achieve the desired level of monitoring and management. The technological framework under consideration included locating transportation vehicles using a global positioning system (GPS), exchanging vehicle location data via the Internet and Intranet, managing hazardous waste transportation using a government management system and responding to emergencies during transportation. Analysis of the cost structure showed that alternative II lowered the capital and operation cost by 38 and 56% in comparison with alternative I. It is demonstrated that efficient management can be achieved through integration of the existing technological components with additional cost benefits being achieved by streamlined software interfacing.

  10. GIS-based examination of peats and soils in Surfers Paradise, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Ani Haider

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The subsoil conditions of Surfers Paradise in Southeast Queensland of Australia have been examined in terms of soil stiffness by using geographic information system (GIS. Peat is a highly organic and compressible material. Surfers Paradise (as a study area has problematic peat layer due to its high water content, high compressibility, and low shear strength. This layer has various thicknesses at different locations ranging between R.L. . 10 to R.L. -19.6 m. Buildings in Surfers Paradise are using piled foundations to avoid the high compressibility and low shear strength peat layer. Spatial Analyst extension in the GIS ArcMap10 has been utilised to develop zonation maps for different depths in the study area. Each depth has been interpolated as a surface to create Standard Penetration Test SPT-N value GIS-based zonation maps for each depth. In addition, 8 interpolation techniques have been examined to evaluate which technique gives better representation for the Standard Penetration Test (SPT data. Inverse Distance weighing (IDW method in Spatial Analyst extension gives better representation for the utilised data with certain parameters. Two different cross sections have been performed in the core of the study area to determine the extent and the depth of the peat layer underneath already erected buildings. Physical and engineering properties of the Surfers Paradise peat have been obtained and showed that this peat falls within the category of tropical peat.

  11. GIS Based System for Post-Earthquake Crisis Managment Using Cellular Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeesi, M.; Sadeghi-Niaraki, A.

    2013-09-01

    Earthquakes are among the most destructive natural disasters. Earthquakes happen mainly near the edges of tectonic plates, but they may happen just about anywhere. Earthquakes cannot be predicted. Quick response after disasters, like earthquake, decreases loss of life and costs. Massive earthquakes often cause structures to collapse, trapping victims under dense rubble for long periods of time. After the earthquake and destroyed some areas, several teams are sent to find the location of the destroyed areas. The search and rescue phase usually is maintained for many days. Time reduction for surviving people is very important. A Geographical Information System (GIS) can be used for decreasing response time and management in critical situations. Position estimation in short period of time time is important. This paper proposes a GIS based system for post-earthquake disaster management solution. This system relies on several mobile positioning methods such as cell-ID and TA method, signal strength method, angel of arrival method, time of arrival method and time difference of arrival method. For quick positioning, the system can be helped by any person who has a mobile device. After positioning and specifying the critical points, the points are sent to a central site for managing the procedure of quick response for helping. This solution establishes a quick way to manage the post-earthquake crisis.

  12. A GIS-based extended fuzzy multi-criteria evaluation for landslide susceptibility mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feizizadeh, Bakhtiar; Shadman Roodposhti, Majid; Jankowski, Piotr; Blaschke, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Landslide susceptibility mapping (LSM) is making increasing use of GIS-based spatial analysis in combination with multi-criteria evaluation (MCE) methods. We have developed a new multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) method for LSM and applied it to the Izeh River basin in south-western Iran. Our method is based on fuzzy membership functions (FMFs) derived from GIS analysis. It makes use of nine causal landslide factors identified by local landslide experts. Fuzzy set theory was first integrated with an analytical hierarchy process (AHP) in order to use pairwise comparisons to compare LSM criteria for ranking purposes. FMFs were then applied in order to determine the criteria weights to be used in the development of a landslide susceptibility map. Finally, a landslide inventory database was used to validate the LSM map by comparing it with known landslides within the study area. Results indicated that the integration of fuzzy set theory with AHP produced significantly improved accuracies and a high level of reliability in the resulting landslide susceptibility map. Approximately 53% of known landslides within our study area fell within zones classified as having “very high susceptibility”, with the further 31% falling into zones classified as having “high susceptibility”. PMID:26089577

  13. GIS-based bivariate statistical techniques for groundwater potential analysis (an example of Iran)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghizadeh, Ali; Moghaddam, Davoud Davoudi; Pourghasemi, Hamid Reza

    2017-12-01

    Groundwater potential analysis prepares better comprehension of hydrological settings of different regions. This study shows the potency of two GIS-based data driven bivariate techniques namely statistical index (SI) and Dempster-Shafer theory (DST) to analyze groundwater potential in Broujerd region of Iran. The research was done using 11 groundwater conditioning factors and 496 spring positions. Based on the ground water potential maps (GPMs) of SI and DST methods, 24.22% and 23.74% of the study area is covered by poor zone of groundwater potential, and 43.93% and 36.3% of Broujerd region is covered by good and very good potential zones, respectively. The validation of outcomes displayed that area under the curve (AUC) of SI and DST techniques are 81.23% and 79.41%, respectively, which shows SI method has slightly a better performance than the DST technique. Therefore, SI and DST methods are advantageous to analyze groundwater capacity and scrutinize the complicated relation between groundwater occurrence and groundwater conditioning factors, which permits investigation of both systemic and stochastic uncertainty. Finally, it can be realized that these techniques are very beneficial for groundwater potential analyzing and can be practical for water-resource management experts.

  14. A novel GIS-based approach to assess beekeeping suitability of Mediterranean lands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoccali, Paolo; Malacrinò, Antonino; Campolo, Orlando; Laudani, Francesca; Algeri, Giuseppe M; Giunti, Giulia; Strano, Cinzia P; Benelli, Giovanni; Palmeri, Vincenzo

    2017-07-01

    Honeybees are critically important for the environment and to the economy. However, there are in substantial decline worldwide, leading to serious threat to the stability and yield of food crops. Beekeeping is of pivotal importance, combining the wide economical aspect of honey production and the important ecological services provided by honeybees. In this scenario, the prompt identification of beekeeping areas is strategic, since it maximised productivity and lowered the risks of colony losses. Fuzzy logic is an ideal approach for problem-solving tasks, as it is specifically designed to manage problems with a high degree of uncertainty. This research tested a novel GIS-based approach to assess beekeeping suitability of lands located in Calabria (Southern Italy), without relying to Analytic Hierarchy Process - Multiple Criteria Decision Making (AHP-MCDM), thus avoiding the constraints due to the technique and decision makers' influences. Furthermore, the data used here were completely retrieved from open access sources, highlighting that our approach is characterized by low costs and can be easily reproduced for a wide arrays of geographical contexts. Notably, the results obtained by our experiments were validated by the actual beekeeping reality. Besides beekeeping, the use of this system could not only be applied in beekeeping land suitability evaluations, but may be successfully extended to other types of land suitability evaluations.

  15. GIS - Based data presentation and interactive communication system for public involvement in EIA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oprea, I.; Oprea, M.; Guta, V.; Pirvu, V.

    2001-01-01

    The data presentation and interactive communication system has as main task to integrate technical and administrative information, as well as to ensure an efficient public participation. The system can achieve desired inter-operability between specialists, government and public in decision-making and environmental impact assessment (EIA). It incorporates different modules relative to specific types of parameters and authorities involved. The GIS-based system provides mapping, database, automatic information collection and advanced presentation techniques. It includes a graphically oriented executive support, which has the ability to present information by geographical representation of the zones on the map. The public opinion is taking into account by consideration of alternatives and providing access to the monitoring of environmental effects. The system offers an effective way to avoid negative reactions by interactive communication based on real-time information exchange. The system can be integrated into national or international management systems, being a useful tool for an efficient communication, handling and exchanging a vast amount of information. (authors)

  16. THE UNCERTAINTIES ON THE GIS BASED LAND SUITABILITY ASSESSMENT FOR URBAN AND RURAL PLANNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Liu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The majority of the research on the uncertainties of spatial data and spatial analysis focuses on some specific data feature or analysis tool. Few have accomplished the uncertainties of the whole process of an application like planning, making the research of uncertainties detached from practical applications. The paper discusses the uncertainties of the geographical information systems (GIS based land suitability assessment in planning on the basis of literature review. The uncertainties considered range from index system establishment to the classification of the final result. Methods to reduce the uncertainties arise from the discretization of continuous raster data and the index weight determination are summarized. The paper analyzes the merits and demerits of the “Nature Breaks” method which is broadly used by planners. It also explores the other factors which impact the accuracy of the final classification like the selection of class numbers, intervals and the autocorrelation of the spatial data. In the conclusion part, the paper indicates that the adoption of machine learning methods should be modified to integrate the complexity of land suitability assessment. The work contributes to the application of spatial data and spatial analysis uncertainty research on land suitability assessment, and promotes the scientific level of the later planning and decision-making.

  17. GIS BASED SYSTEM FOR POST-EARTHQUAKE CRISIS MANAGMENT USING CELLULAR NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Raeesi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Earthquakes are among the most destructive natural disasters. Earthquakes happen mainly near the edges of tectonic plates, but they may happen just about anywhere. Earthquakes cannot be predicted. Quick response after disasters, like earthquake, decreases loss of life and costs. Massive earthquakes often cause structures to collapse, trapping victims under dense rubble for long periods of time. After the earthquake and destroyed some areas, several teams are sent to find the location of the destroyed areas. The search and rescue phase usually is maintained for many days. Time reduction for surviving people is very important. A Geographical Information System (GIS can be used for decreasing response time and management in critical situations. Position estimation in short period of time time is important. This paper proposes a GIS based system for post–earthquake disaster management solution. This system relies on several mobile positioning methods such as cell-ID and TA method, signal strength method, angel of arrival method, time of arrival method and time difference of arrival method. For quick positioning, the system can be helped by any person who has a mobile device. After positioning and specifying the critical points, the points are sent to a central site for managing the procedure of quick response for helping. This solution establishes a quick way to manage the post–earthquake crisis.

  18. Predicting long-term average concentrations of traffic-related air pollutants using GIS-based information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochadel, Matthias; Heinrich, Joachim; Gehring, Ulrike; Morgenstern, Verena; Kuhlbusch, Thomas; Link, Elke; Wichmann, H.-Erich; Krämer, Ursula

    Global regression models were developed to estimate individual levels of long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollutants. The models are based on data of a one-year measurement programme including geographic data on traffic and population densities. This investigation is part of a cohort study on the impact of traffic-related air pollution on respiratory health, conducted at the westerly end of the Ruhr-area in North-Rhine Westphalia, Germany. Concentrations of NO 2, fine particle mass (PM 2.5) and filter absorbance of PM 2.5 as a marker for soot were measured at 40 sites spread throughout the study region. Fourteen-day samples were taken between March 2002 and March 2003 for each season and site. Annual average concentrations for the sites were determined after adjustment for temporal variation. Information on traffic counts in major roads, building densities and community population figures were collected in a geographical information system (GIS). This information was used to calculate different potential traffic-based predictors: (a) daily traffic flow and maximum traffic intensity of buffers with radii from 50 to 10 000 m and (b) distances to main roads and highways. NO 2 concentration and PM 2.5 absorbance were strongly correlated with the traffic-based variables. Linear regression prediction models, which involved predictors with radii of 50 to 1000 m, were developed for the Wesel region where most of the cohort members lived. They reached a model fit ( R2) of 0.81 and 0.65 for NO 2 and PM 2.5 absorbance, respectively. Regression models for the whole area required larger spatial scales and reached R2=0.90 and 0.82. Comparison of predicted values with NO 2 measurements at independent public monitoring stations showed a satisfactory association ( r=0.66). PM 2.5 concentration, however, was only slightly correlated and thus poorly predictable by traffic-based variables ( rGIS-based regression models offer a promising approach to assess individual levels of

  19. Verification of a GIS-based system for identification of potential hydro power plant sites in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Gimbo, Florence

    2015-01-01

    Hydropower makes and is expected to continue to make a significant contribution to meeting the electricity demand in many countries. The information on hydropower potential is many places is often incomplete. A GIS based tool is under development is expected to help in quickly identifying possible hydropower plant locations over a large area in a short time. This study is aimed at evaluating how well this GIS tool is able to estimate the hydropower potential from the runoff maps and terrain/e...

  20. A GIS-Based Proposal for Modeling the “Lenteja” Zone of the CIEMAT Head Courted (Madrid); Propuesta Metodológica mediante SIG del Área de la ''Lenteja'' en la Sede Central del CIEMAT (Madrid)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marina, J; Andrés, N de; Carroza, J.A; Quiñones, J.

    2015-07-01

    CIEMAT is devoted to different activities relate to Decommissioning and Dismantling of all Radioactive irradiation facilities. Focusing on that this paper has the main objective of: to design a methodology for evaluating the geological structure of the site. This methodology allows description, modelling of the radionuclide migration in the soil. Although the idea is following the same methodology input the rest of the CIEMAT head courter site. In this paper is written a detailed description of the block diagram and geological profiles obtained, in which the sedimentary architecture of the subsoil of the study area and the location and volume of confined aquifers present in ''lenteja'' are localised.

  1. A GIS-based methodology for the estimation of potential volcanic damage and its application to Tenerife Island, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaini, C.; Felpeto, A.; Martí, J.; Carniel, R.

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents a GIS-based methodology to estimate damages produced by volcanic eruptions. The methodology is constituted by four parts: definition and simulation of eruptive scenarios, exposure analysis, vulnerability assessment and estimation of expected damages. Multi-hazard eruptive scenarios are defined for the Teide-Pico Viejo active volcanic complex, and simulated through the VORIS tool. The exposure analysis identifies the elements exposed to the hazard at stake and focuses on the relevant assets for the study area. The vulnerability analysis is based on previous studies on the built environment and complemented with the analysis of transportation and urban infrastructures. Damage assessment is performed associating a qualitative damage rating to each combination of hazard and vulnerability. This operation consists in a GIS-based overlap, performed for each hazardous phenomenon considered and for each element. The methodology is then automated into a GIS-based tool using an ArcGIS® program. Given the eruptive scenarios and the characteristics of the exposed elements, the tool produces expected damage maps. The tool is applied to the Icod Valley (North of Tenerife Island) which is likely to be affected by volcanic phenomena in case of eruption from both the Teide-Pico Viejo volcanic complex and North-West basaltic rift. Results are thematic maps of vulnerability and damage that can be displayed at different levels of detail, depending on the user preferences. The aim of the tool is to facilitate territorial planning and risk management in active volcanic areas.

  2. A GIS-based 3D online information system for underground energy storage in northern Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolde, Michael; Malte, Schwanebeck; Ehsan, Biniyaz; Rainer, Duttmann

    2015-04-01

    We would like to present the concept and current state of development of a GIS-based 3D online information system for underground energy storage. Its aim is to support the local authorities through pre-selection of possible sites for thermal, electrical and substantial underground energy storages. Since the extension of renewable energies has become legal requirement in Germany, the underground storing of superfluously produced green energy (such as during a heavy wind event) in the form of compressed air, gas or heated water has become increasingly important. However, the selection of suitable sites is a complex task. The presented information system uses data of geological features such as rock layers, salt domes and faults enriched with attribute data such as rock porosity and permeability. This information is combined with surface data of the existing energy infrastructure, such as locations of wind and biogas stations, powerline arrangement and cable capacity, and energy distribution stations. Furthermore, legal obligations such as protected areas on the surface and current underground mining permissions are used for the process of pre-selecting sites suitable for energy storage. Not only the current situation but also prospective scenarios, such as expected growth in produced amount of energy are incorporated in the system. While the process of pre-selection itself is completely automated, the user has full control of the weighting of the different factors via the web interface. The system is implemented as an online 3D server GIS environment, so that it can easily be utilized in any web browser. The results are visualized online as interactive 3d graphics. The information system is implemented in the Python programming language in combination with current Web standards, and is build using only free and open source software. It is being developed at Kiel University as part of the ANGUS+ project (lead by Prof. Sebastian Bauer) for the federal state of

  3. Gis-Based Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis for Forest Fire Risk Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akay, A. E.; Erdoğan, A.

    2017-11-01

    The forested areas along the coastal zone of the Mediterranean region in Turkey are classified as first-degree fire sensitive areas. Forest fires are major environmental disaster that affects the sustainability of forest ecosystems. Besides, forest fires result in important economic losses and even threaten human lives. Thus, it is critical to determine the forested areas with fire risks and thereby minimize the damages on forest resources by taking necessary precaution measures in these areas. The risk of forest fire can be assessed based on various factors such as forest vegetation structures (tree species, crown closure, tree stage), topographic features (slope and aspect), and climatic parameters (temperature, wind). In this study, GIS-based Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) method was used to generate forest fire risk map. The study was implemented in the forested areas within Yayla Forest Enterprise Chiefs at Dursunbey Forest Enterprise Directorate which is classified as first degree fire sensitive area. In the solution process, "extAhp 2.0" plug-in running Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) method in ArcGIS 10.4.1 was used to categorize study area under five fire risk classes: extreme risk, high risk, moderate risk, and low risk. The results indicated that 23.81 % of the area was of extreme risk, while 25.81 % was of high risk. The result indicated that the most effective criterion was tree species, followed by tree stages. The aspect had the least effective criterion on forest fire risk. It was revealed that GIS techniques integrated with MCDA methods are effective tools to quickly estimate forest fire risk at low cost. The integration of these factors into GIS can be very useful to determine forested areas with high fire risk and also to plan forestry management after fire.

  4. Using catenas for GIS-based mapping of NW Mediterranean littoral habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, Simone; Cefalì, Maria Elena; Terradas, Marc; Chappuis, Eglantine; Ballesteros, Enric

    2014-06-01

    Studies aimed at describing habitats and mapping their distributions are pivotal to implementing management plans and to effectively guide conservation measures. We developed a novel approach of data collection and entry (CAT-LIT) to establish a detailed cartography of the littoral habitats found along the Catalan coast (Spain). Field data were recorded using coded, two-digit hierarchical lists (e.g. Aa, Ab, etc.) of horizons found at each point along the coast, called catenas. The horizons were either dominated by species (on the rocky bottoms) or sediment types (on the beaches) and corresponded to LPRE, EUNIS and CORINE habitats. Catenas were transferred into a database and calculations about the extent of bottom types, habitats, and catenas themselves along the coast were carried out with GIS tools. In addition, habitat link richness was calculated and represented using network analysis programs. The application of CAT-LIT to the Catalan coast showed that the habitats dominated by the lichen Verrucaria amphibia and the flattened barnacle Euraphia depressa and those dominated by the barnacle Chthamalus spp. were almost ubiquitous. Those dominated by the red alga Corallina elongata, the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis and the red alga Rissoella verruculosa were also common. Because of the frequency of their connections, those habitats formed a huge hub of links in the networks. By using catenas, the habitats can be viewed using GIS based programs keeping the catena as the main informational and ecological unit. The catenas allow maximum compactness when vertically distributed habitats are to be shown on a 2D map. The complete cartography and dataset on the spatial distribution of the littoral habitats from Catalonia is valuable for coastal management and conservation to study changes in the habitat distribution and relate such changes to anthropogenic pressures. Furthermore, the CAT-LIT can be easily adapted to shores of other seas and oceans to obtain accurate

  5. Drastic environmental change and its effects on a planetary biosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze-Makuch, Dirk; Irwin, Louis N.; Fairén, Alberto G.

    2013-07-01

    Environmental conditions can change drastically and rapidly during the natural history of a planetary body. These changes affect the biosphere and can spur evolution via the mechanism of directional selection leading to the innovation of new processes and forms of life, or alternatively leading to the extinction of certain life forms. Based on the natural history of Earth, the effect on a planet's biosphere depends on three factors: (1) the nature and time scale of change, (2) the composition of the biosphere prior to change, and (3) the nature of the environment following the change. Though Earth has undergone various periods of drastic environmental change, life has shown an enormous resiliency and became more diverse and complex as a consequence of these events. Mars and Venus have undergone even larger environmental changes, both from habitable conditions under which the origin of life (or transfer of life from Earth) seem plausible, to a dry and cold planet punctuated by wetter conditions, and a hyperthermic greenhouse, respectively. Given its planetary history, life on Mars could have retreated to a psychrophilic lifestyle in the deep subsurface or to environmental near-surface niches, such as hydrothermal regions and caves. Further, strong directional selection could have pushed putative martian life to evolve alternating cycles between active and dormant forms, as well as the innovation of new traits adapted to challenging near-surface conditions. Life in the subsurface or on the surface of Venus seems impossible today, but microorganisms may have adapted to thrive in the lower cloud layer, possibly using a biochemical strategy analogous to Photosystem I and chemoautotrophic sulfur metabolism, and employing cycloocta sulfur for UV protection.

  6. GIS-based Watershed Management Modeling for Surface Runoff Calculation in Tatara River Basin, Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Ix, Hour; Mori, Makito; Hiramatsu, Kazuaki; Harada, Masayoshi

    2007-01-01

    In the past few decades when Geographical Information System (GIS) technology was not fully developed in practical use, watershed delineation work used to be conducted manually by hydrologists based on topographic maps. The work was a tedious operation, since it had to be done repeatedly in similar manner for each basin or sub-basin of interest, and its process always left some unpredicted errors. Nowadays, GIS software is being upgraded regularly with powerful tools responding to the needs o...

  7. Landscape-scale Ips typographus attack dynamics: from monitoring plots to GIS-based disturbance models

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jakuš, R.; Zajíčková, L.; Cudlín, Pavel; Blaženec, M.; Turčani, M.; Ježík, M.; Střelcová, K.; Lieutier, F.; Schlyter, F.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 4, - (2011), s. 256-261 ISSN 1971-7458 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC10022 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Spruce * Ips typographus * Attack * Drought * Host Subject RIV: GK - Forestry Impact factor: 0.507, year: 2011 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/pdf/?id=ifor0589-004

  8. A GIS-based model of Serengeti grassland bird species | Gottschalk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted on the Serengeti Plains, Tanzania, combining (1) records from a bird survey, (2) local measurements of vegetation structure and precipitation, and (3) a habitat map derived from a Landsat satellite image classification. The question of whether ground-based or satellite data explained more of the ...

  9. Characterization of yield reduction in Ethiopia using a GIS-based crop water balance model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senay, G.B.; Verdin, J.

    2003-01-01

    In many parts of sub-Saharan Africa, subsistence agriculture is characterized by significant fluctuations in yield and production due to variations in moisture availability to staple crops. Widespread drought can lead to crop failures, with associated deterioration in food security. Ground data collection networks are sparse, so methods using geospatial rainfall estimates derived from satellite and gauge observations, where available, have been developed to calculate seasonal crop water balances. Using conventional crop production data for 4 years in Ethiopia (1996-1999), it was found that water-limited and water-unlimited growing regions can be distinguished. Furthermore, maize growing conditions are also indicative of conditions for sorghum. However, another major staple, teff, was found to behave sufficiently differently from maize to warrant studies of its own.

  10. Defining and predicting urban-wildland interface zones using a GIS-based model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence R. Gering; Angel V. Chun; Steve Anderson

    2000-01-01

    Resource managers are beginning to experience a deluge of management conflicts as urban population centers expand into formerly wildland settings. Fire suppression, recreational, watershed management, and traditional forest management practices are activities that have become contentious in many locales. A better understanding of the interface zone between these two...

  11. A GIS Based 3D Online Decision Assistance System for Underground Energy Storage in Northern Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolde, M.; Schwanebeck, M.; Biniyaz, E.; Duttmann, R.

    2014-12-01

    We would like to present a GIS-based 3D online decision assistance system for underground energy storage. Its aim is to support the local land use planning authorities through pre-selection of possible sites for thermal, electrical and substantial underground energy storages. Since the extension of renewable energies has become legal requirement in Germany, the underground storing of superfluously produced green energy (such as during a heavy wind event) in the form of compressed air, gas or heated water has become increasingly important. However, the selection of suitable sites is a complex task. The assistance system uses data of geological features such as rock layers, salt caverns and faults enriched with attribute data such as rock porosity and permeability. This information is combined with surface data of the existing energy infrastructure, such as locations of wind and biogas stations, power line arrangement and cable capacity, and energy distribution stations. Furthermore, legal obligations such as protected areas on the surface and current underground mining permissions are used for the decision finding process. Not only the current situation but also prospective scenarios, such as expected growth in produced amount of energy are incorporated in the system. The decision process is carried out via the 'Analytic Hierarchy Process' (AHP) methodology of the 'Multi Object Decision Making' (MODM) approach. While the process itself is completely automated, the user has full control of the weighting of the different factors via the web interface. The system is implemented as an online 3D server GIS environment, with no software needed to be installed on the user side. The results are visualized as interactive 3d graphics. The implementation of the assistance system is based exclusively on free and open source software, and utilizes the 'Python' programming language in combination with current web technologies, such as 'HTML5', 'CSS3' and 'JavaScript'. It is

  12. Using GIS-based methods of multicriteria analysis to construct socio-economic deprivation indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayes Michael V

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the past several decades researchers have produced substantial evidence of a social gradient in a variety of health outcomes, rising from systematic differences in income, education, employment conditions, and family dynamics within the population. Social gradients in health are measured using deprivation indices, which are typically constructed from aggregated socio-economic data taken from the national census – a technique which dates back at least until the early 1970's. The primary method of index construction over the last decade has been a Principal Component Analysis. Seldom are the indices constructed from survey-based data sources due to the inherent difficulty in validating the subjectivity of the response scores. We argue that this very subjectivity can uncover spatial distributions of local health outcomes. Moreover, indication of neighbourhood socio-economic status may go underrepresented when weighted without expert opinion. In this paper we propose the use of geographic information science (GIS for constructing the index. We employ a GIS-based Order Weighted Average (OWA Multicriteria Analysis (MCA as a technique to validate deprivation indices that are constructed using more qualitative data sources. Both OWA and traditional MCA are well known and used methodologies in spatial analysis but have had little application in social epidemiology. Results A survey of British Columbia's Medical Health Officers (MHOs was used to populate the MCA-based index. Seven variables were selected and weighted based on the survey results. OWA variable weights assign both local and global weights to the index variables using a sliding scale, producing a range of variable scenarios. The local weights also provide leverage for controlling the level of uncertainty in the MHO response scores. This is distinct from traditional deprivation indices in that the weighting is simultaneously dictated by the original respondent scores

  13. Hydrogeology, Pesticide DRASTIC for the Intermediate Aquifer. Pesticide DRASTIC coverage for the Intermediate Aquifer System. Drastic maps are most useful as a generalized tool to assess regional potential aquifer vulnerability., Published in 1998, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP).

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — Hydrogeology dataset current as of 1998. Pesticide DRASTIC for the Intermediate Aquifer. Pesticide DRASTIC coverage for the Intermediate Aquifer System. Drastic maps...

  14. Development of GIS-based Wind Potential Map of Makkah Province, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayyar, Z. A.; Zaigham, N. A.; Aburizaiza, O. S.; Mahar, G. A.; Eusufi, S. N.

    2011-12-01

    Global energy scenario is changing drastically toward decline, as new major discoveries of fossil fuel are not coming up significantly on regional basis. In case of Saudi Arabia, one of the largest fossil fuel producers, the major oil fields have started exhausting significantly as revealed from the literature research study. Considering the future energy crisis, different other renewable options presently have became imperative to be consider anticipating for the national development. Wind energy in one of them. The development of wind energy technology requires the baseline data relevant to the wind trends and their potentials. Under the present study, an attempt has been made to develop wind power density map of the Makkah Province of Saudi Arabia based on the meteorological data collected at different sparsely located weather stations. GIS application has provided a good option to interpolate the gap areas between the sparsely located weather recording stations. This paper describe the methodology and results of the present study.

  15. Energy savings in drastic climate change policy scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isoard, Stephane; Wiesenthal, Tobias

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports a climate change policy scenario compatible with long-term sustainable objectives set at EU level (6th Environment Action Plan). By setting ambitious targets for GHG emissions reduction by 2030, this normative scenario relies on market-based instruments and flexible mechanisms. The integrated policy that is simulated (i.e. addressing energy, transport, agriculture and environmental impacts) constitutes a key outlook for the next 5-year report of the European Environment Agency (EEA). This scenario highlights what it would take to drastically curb EU GHG emissions and how much it might cost. The findings show that such a 'deep reduction' climate policy could work as a powerful catalyst for (1) substantial energy savings, and (2) promoting sustainable energy systems in the long term. The implications of this policy lever on the energy system are many-fold indeed, e.g. a substantial limitation of total energy demand or significant shifts towards energy and environment-friendly technologies on the supply side. Clear and transparent price signals, which are associated with market-based instruments, appear to be a key factor ensuring sufficient visibility for capital investment in energy efficient and environment-friendly options. Finally it is suggested that market-based policy options, which are prone to lead to win-win situations and are of particular interest from an integrated policy-making perspective, would also significantly benefit from an enhanced energy policy framework

  16. Why does serotonergic activity drastically decrease during REM sleep?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Kohji

    2013-10-01

    Here, I postulate two hypotheses that can explain the missing link between sleep and the serotonergic system in terms of spine homeostasis and memory consolidation. As dendritic spines contain many kinds of serotonin receptors, and the activation of serotonin receptors generally increases the number of spines in the cortex and hippocampus, I postulate that serotonin neurons are down-regulated during sleep to decrease spine number, which consequently maintains the total spine number at a constant level. Furthermore, since synaptic consolidation during REM sleep needs long-term potentiation (LTP), and serotonin is reported to inhibit LTP in the cortex, I postulate that serotonergic activity must drastically decrease during REM sleep to induce LTP and do memory consolidation. Until now, why serotonergic neurons show these dramatic changes in the sleep-wake cycle remains unexplained; however, making these hypotheses, I can confer physiological meanings on these dramatic changes of serotonergic neurons in terms of spine homeostasis and memory consolidation. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Open source GIS based tools to improve hydrochemical water resources management in EU H2020 FREEWAT platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criollo, Rotman; Velasco, Violeta; Vázquez-Suñé, Enric; Nardi, Albert; Marazuela, Miguel A.; Rossetto, Rudy; Borsi, Iacopo; Foglia, Laura; Cannata, Massimiliano; De Filippis, Giovanna

    2017-04-01

    being used in the realization of groundwater modelling. They include, ionic balance calculations, chemical time-series analysis, correlation of chemical parameters, and calculation of various common hydrochemical diagrams (Salinity, Schöeller-Berkaloff, Piper, and Stiff), among others. Furthermore, it allows the generation of maps of the spatial distributions of parameters and diagrams and thematic maps for the parameters measured and classified in the queried area. References: Rossetto R., Borsi I., Schifani C., Bonari E., Mogorovich P., Primicerio M. (2013). SID&GRID: Integrating hydrological modeling in GIS environment. Rendiconti Online Societa Geologica Italiana, Vol. 24, 282-283 Steduto, P., Faurès, J.M., Hoogeveen, J., Winpenny, J.T., Burke, J.J. (2012). Coping with water scarcity: an action framework for agriculture and food security. ISSN 1020-1203 ; 38 Velasco, V., Tubau, I., Vázquez-Suñé, E., Gogu, R., Gaitanaru, D., Alcaraz, M., Sanchez-Vila, X. (2014). GIS-based hydrogeochemical analysis tools (QUIMET). Computers & Geosciences, 70, 164-180.

  18. GIS-based multi-criteria site selection for zebra mussel cultivation: Addressing end-of-pipe remediation of a eutrophic coastal lagoon ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagdanavičiūtė, Ingrida; Umgiesser, Georg; Vaičiūtė, Diana; Bresciani, Mariano; Kozlov, Igor; Zaiko, Anastasija

    2018-04-11

    Farming of shellfish and seaweeds is a tested tool for mitigating eutrophication consequences in coastal environments, however as many other marine economic activities it should be a subject of marine spatial planning for designating suitable sites. The present study proposes site selection framework for provisional zebra mussel farming in a eutrophic lagoon ecosystem, aimed primarily at remediation purposes. GIS-based multi-criteria approach was applied, combining data from empirical maps, numerical models and remote sensing to estimate suitability parameters. Site selection and prioritisation of suitable areas considered 15 environmental and socio-economic criteria, which contributed to 4 optimisation models (settlement, growth and survival of mussels, environmental and socio-economic) and 3 predefined scenarios representing provisional goals of mussel cultivation: spat production, biomass production and bioremediation. The relative importance of each criterion was assessed utilizing the Analytical Hierarchy Process. Site suitability index was calculated and the final result of the site selection analysis was summarized for 3 scenarios and overall suitability map. Four suitability classes (unsuitable, least, moderately and most suitable) were applied, and 3 most suitable zones for provisional zebra mussel cultivation with 12 candidate sites were selected accordingly. The integrated approach presented in this study can be adjusted for designating zebra mussel farming sites in other estuarine lagoon ecosystems, or cultivation of other mussel species for bioremediation purposes. The analytical framework and the workflow designed in this study are also adoptable for addressing other aquaculture-related spatial planning issues. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Assessment of Intrinsic Vulnerability to Contamination for the Alluvial Aquifer in El-Fayoum Depression Using the Drastic Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    Intrinsic vulnerability assessment to delineate areas that are more susceptible to contamination from anthropogenic sources has become an important element for sensible resource management and land use planning. The vulnerability for the alluvial aquifer in El-Fayoum depression was assessed by applying the Drastic model as well as utilizing sensitivity analyses to evaluate the reliability of this model. This method uses seven parameters including climatic, geological, and hydrogeological conditions controlling the seepage of pollutant substances to groundwater. Vulnerability maps were produced by applying the Generic and Agricultural models according to the Drastic charter. The resulting agricultural Drastic vulnerability map indicates that 23.3%, 22.7% and 12.4% of El-Fayoum depression is under low, low-moderate and moderately high vulnerability of groundwater contamination, respectively, while 41.6% of the area of study can be designated as an area of moderate vulnerability of groundwater contamination. Resulting maps revealed that the potential for polluting groundwater with agricultural chemicals is greater than with Generic Drastic index pollutants. Depth to water table parameter inflicted the largest impact on the intrinsic vulnerability of the alluvial aquifer in El-Fayoum depression. Both the map removal and single-parameter sensitivity analyses indicated that the vulnerability index is the least sensitive to the removal of the recharge and hydraulic conductivity parameters but is highly sensitive to the removal of depth to water parameter.

  20. Campgrounds Suitability Evaluation Using GIS-based Multiple Criteria Decision Analysis: A Case Study of Kuerdening, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuirong, Wang; Zhaoping, Yang; Huaxian, Liu; Fang, Han; Wenjin, Xia

    2016-04-01

    The main objective of this study was to evaluate the suitability and select the most appropriate areas for building campgrounds in Kuerdening, China. To achieve this aim, AHP and GIS-based weighted overlay methods were adopted. AHP was used to determine the weights of the indexes, and ArcGIS 10 was used to calculate and map the campground suitability. In pursuit of minimum environmental effects and sustainable development, this paper identifies four factors to evaluate the suitability of areas for building campgrounds: natural environment condition, landscape condition, safety condition and infrastructure condition. The final outcome of this studywas the suitability map for building campgrounds. This research not only provides a theoretical guide for the construction of campgrounds in this area but also provides a scientific and efficientworkflow to evaluate the appropriateness of other areas. The result is reasonable and operable for camping facilities development and also useful for managers and planners working in local governments as well as investors.

  1. A GIS-based tool for estimating tree canopy cover on fixed-radius plots using high-resolution aerial imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sara A. Goeking; Greg C. Liknes; Erik Lindblom; John Chase; Dennis M. Jacobs; Robert. Benton

    2012-01-01

    Recent changes to the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program's definition of forest land precipitated the development of a geographic information system (GIS)-based tool for efficiently estimating tree canopy cover for all FIA plots. The FIA definition of forest land has shifted from a density-related criterion based on stocking to a 10 percent tree canopy...

  2. Analyzing the Correlation between Deer Habitat and the Component of the Risk for Lyme Disease in Eastern Ontario, Canada: A GIS-Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongmei Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lyme borreliosis, caused by the bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi, is an emerging vector-borne infectious disease in Canada. According to the Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC, by the year 2020, 80% of Canadians will live in Lyme endemic areas. An understanding of the association of Ixodes scapularis, the main vector of Lyme disease, with it hosts is a fundamental component in assessing changes in the spatial distribution of human risk for Lyme disease. Through the application of Geographic Information System (GIS mapping methods and spatial analysis techniques, this study examines the population dynamics of the black-legged Lyme tick and its primary host, the white-tailed deer, in eastern Ontario, Canada. By developing a habitat suitability model through a GIS-based multi-criteria decision making (MCDM analysis, the relationship of the deer habitat suitability map was generated and the results were compared with deer harvest data. Tick submission data collected from two public health units between 2006 and 2012 were used to explore the relationship between endemic ticks and deer habitat suitability in eastern Ontario. The positive correlation demonstrated between the deer habitat suitability model and deer harvest data allows us to further analyze the association between deer habitat and black-legged ticks in our study area. Our results revealed that the high tick submission number corresponds with the high suitability. These results are useful for developing management strategies that aim to prevent Lyme from becoming a threat to public health in Canada. Further studies are required to investigate how tick survival, behaviour and seasonal activity may change with projected climate change.

  3. Development of a Prototype Web GIS-Based Disaster Management System for Safe Operation of the Next Generation Bimodal Tram, South Korea—Focused Flooding and Snowfall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won Seok Jang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The Korea Railroad Research Institute (KRRI has developed a bimodal tram and advanced bus rapid transit (BRT system which is an optimized public transit system created by mixing the railway’s punctual operation and the bus’ easy and convenient access. The bimodal tram system provides mass-transportation service with an eco-friendly and human-centered approach. Natural disasters have been increasing worldwide in recent years, including floods, snow, and typhoons disasters. Flooding is the most frequent natural disaster in many countries and is increasingly a concern with climate change; it seriously affects people’s lives and productivity, causing considerable economic loss and significant damage. Enhanced conventional disaster management systems are needed to support comprehensive actions to secure safety and convenience. The objective of this study is to develop a prototype version of a Web GIS-based bimodal tram disaster management system (BTDMS using the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM 5.0 to enhance on-time operation and safety of the bimodal tram system. The BTDMS was tested at the bimodal tram test railroad by simulating probable maximum flood (PMF and snow melting for forecasting flooding and snow covered roads. This result could provide the basis for plans to protect against flooding disasters and snow covered roads in operating the bimodal tram system. The BTDMS will be used to assess and predict weather impacts on roadway conditions and operations and thus has the potential to influence economic growth. The methodology presented in this paper makes it possible to manage impacts of flooding and snowfall on urban transportation and enhance operation of the bimodal tram system. Such a methodology based on modeling could be created for most metropolitan areas in Korea and in many other countries.

  4. Streamflow, a GIS-based Environmental Assessment Tool for Lowland Streams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieterse, N.M.; Olde Venterink, H.; Schot, P.P.; Verkroost, A.W.M.

    1998-01-01

    Human activities, such as stream management, drainage, urbanization and agriculture, heavily influence the aquatic ecosystems in small lowland streams. For the assessment of the impact of human activities of aquatic ecosystems, a modeling tool is created. This modeling tool is part of the EU-life

  5. The Cascade Drift Module: a GIS-based study on regional pesticide deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holterman, H.J.; Zande, van de J.C.

    2008-01-01

    The Cascade Project describes the modelling of spray drift and pesticide fate for a network of interconnected water bodies in a rural area. The present study concerns the first part of the proj ect, the Cascade Drift Module, which models the spatial and temporal distribution of deposits of spray

  6. Application of GIS-based SCS-CN method in West Bank catchments, Palestine

    OpenAIRE

    Sameer Shadeed; Mohammad Almasri

    2010-01-01

    Among the most basic challenges of hydrology are the prediction and quantification of catchment surface runoff. The runoff curve number (CN) is a key factor in determining runoff in the SCS (Soil Conservation Service) based hydrologic modeling method. The traditional SCS-CN method for calculating the composite curve number is very tedious and consumes a major portion of the hydrologic modeling time. Therefore, geographic information systems (GIS) are now being used in combination with the SCS...

  7. A GIS-based vulnerability assessment of brine contamination to aquatic resources from oil and gas development in eastern Sheridan County, Montana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Todd M; Chesley-Preston, Tara L; Thamke, Joanna N

    2014-02-15

    Water (brine) co-produced with oil in the Williston Basin is some of the most saline in the nation. The Prairie Pothole Region (PPR), characterized by glacial sediments and numerous wetlands, covers the northern and eastern portion of the Williston Basin. Sheridan County, Montana, lies within the PPR and has a documented history of brine contamination. Surface water and shallow groundwater in the PPR are saline and sulfate dominated while the deeper brines are much more saline and chloride dominated. A Contamination Index (CI), defined as the ratio of chloride concentration to specific conductance in a water sample, was developed by the Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology to delineate the magnitude of brine contamination in Sheridan County. Values >0.035 indicate contamination. Recently, the U.S. Geological Survey completed a county level geographic information system (GIS)-based vulnerability assessment of brine contamination to aquatic resources in the PPR of the Williston Basin based on the age and density of oil wells, number of wetlands, and stream length per county. To validate and better define this assessment, a similar approach was applied in eastern Sheridan County at a greater level of detail (the 2.59 km(2) Public Land Survey System section grid) and included surficial geology. Vulnerability assessment scores were calculated for the 780 modeled sections and these scores were divided into ten equal interval bins representing similar probabilities of contamination. Two surface water and two groundwater samples were collected from the section with the greatest acreage of Federal land in each bin. Nineteen of the forty water samples, and at least one water sample from seven of the ten selected sections, had CI values indicating contamination. Additionally, CI values generally increased with increasing vulnerability assessment score, with a stronger correlation for groundwater samples (R(2)=0.78) than surface water samples (R(2)=0.53). Copyright © 2013

  8. GIS-based spatial decision support system for grain logistics management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Tong; Ge, Hongyi; Jiang, Yuying; Che, Yi

    2010-07-01

    Grain logistics is the important component of the social logistics, which can be attributed to frequent circulation and the great quantity. At present time, there is no modern grain logistics distribution management system, and the logistics cost is the high. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) have been widely used for spatial data manipulation and model operations and provide effective decision support through its spatial database management capabilities and cartographic visualization. In the present paper, a spatial decision support system (SDSS) is proposed to support policy makers and to reduce the cost of grain logistics. The system is composed of two major components: grain logistics goods tracking model and vehicle routing problem optimization model and also allows incorporation of data coming from external sources. The proposed system is an effective tool to manage grain logistics in order to increase the speed of grain logistics and reduce the grain circulation cost.

  9. GIS-BASED ROUTE FINDING USING ANT COLONY OPTIMIZATION AND URBAN TRAFFIC DATA FROM DIFFERENT SOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Davoodi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays traffic data is obtained from multiple sources including GPS, Video Vehicle Detectors (VVD, Automatic Number Plate Recognition (ANPR, Floating Car Data (FCD, VANETs, etc. All such data can be used for route finding. This paper proposes a model for finding the optimum route based on the integration of traffic data from different sources. Ant Colony Optimization is applied in this paper because the concept of this method (movement of ants in a network is similar to urban road network and movements of cars. The results indicate that this model is capable of incorporating data from different sources, which may even be inconsistent.

  10. Gis-Based Route Finding Using ANT Colony Optimization and Urban Traffic Data from Different Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoodi, M.; Mesgari, M. S.

    2015-12-01

    Nowadays traffic data is obtained from multiple sources including GPS, Video Vehicle Detectors (VVD), Automatic Number Plate Recognition (ANPR), Floating Car Data (FCD), VANETs, etc. All such data can be used for route finding. This paper proposes a model for finding the optimum route based on the integration of traffic data from different sources. Ant Colony Optimization is applied in this paper because the concept of this method (movement of ants in a network) is similar to urban road network and movements of cars. The results indicate that this model is capable of incorporating data from different sources, which may even be inconsistent.

  11. GIS-based rapid-assessment of bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis (Richardson, 1845) suitability in reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, James M.; Liang, Yu; Shoup, Daniel E.; Dzialowski, Andrew R.; Bidwell, Joseph R.

    2014-01-01

    Broad-scale niche models are good for examining the potential for invasive species occurrences, but can fall short in providing managers with site-specific locations for monitoring. Using Oklahoma as an example, where invasive bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) are established in certain reservoirs, but predicted to be widely distributed based on broad-scale niche models, we cast bighead carp reproductive ecology in a site-specific geospatial framework to determine their potential establishment in additional reservoirs. Because bighead carp require large, long free-flowing rivers with suitable hydrology for reproduction but can persist in reservoirs, we considered reservoir tributaries with mean annual daily discharge ≥8.5 cubic meters per second (m3 /s) and quantified the length of their unimpeded portions. In contrast to published broad-scale niche models that identified nearly the entire state as susceptible to invasion, our site-specific models showed that few reservoirs in Oklahoma (N = 9) were suitable for bighead carp establishment. Moreover, this method was rapid and identified sites that could be prioritized for increased study or scrutiny. Our results highlight the importance of considering the environmental characteristics of individual sites, which is often the level at which management efforts are implemented when assessing susceptibility to invasion.

  12. GIS-based two-dimensional numerical simulation of rainfall-induced debris flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Wang

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to present a useful numerical method to simulate the propagation and deposition of debris flow across the three dimensional complex terrain. A depth-averaged two-dimensional numerical model is developed, in which the debris and water mixture is assumed to be continuous, incompressible, unsteady flow. The model is based on the continuity equations and Navier-Stokes equations. Raster grid networks of digital elevation model in GIS provide a uniform grid system to describe complex topography. As the raster grid can be used as the finite difference mesh, the continuity and momentum equations are solved numerically using the finite difference method. The numerical model is applied to simulate the rainfall-induced debris flow occurred in 20 July 2003, in Minamata City of southern Kyushu, Japan. The simulation reproduces the propagation and deposition and the results are in good agreement with the field investigation. The synthesis of numerical method and GIS makes possible the solution of debris flow over a realistic terrain, and can be used to estimate the flow range, and to define potentially hazardous areas for homes and road section.

  13. Health risks zonation in megacities vis-à-vis PM using GIS-based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since the air quality, considering PM2.5 varies over space and time, in this paper, RBF method in a based GIS model was utilized to zone air quality and its health risks upon PM2.5 concentrations dispersion over Tehran, during one year, from 21 March 2013 to 20 March 2014. The RBF method was applied to obtain the ...

  14. Campgrounds Suitability Evaluation Using GIS-based Multiple Criteria Decision Analysis: A Case Study of Kuerdening, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuirong Wang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to evaluate the suitability and select the most appropriate areas for building campgrounds in Kuerdening, China. To achieve this aim, AHP and GIS-based weighted overlay methods were adopted. AHP was used to determine the weights of the indexes, and ArcGIS 10 was used to calculate and map the campground suitability. In pursuit of minimum environmental effects and sustainable development, this paper identifies four factors to evaluate the suitability of areas for building campgrounds: natural environment condition, landscape condition, safety condition and infrastructure condition. The final outcome of this studywas the suitability map for building campgrounds. This research not only provides a theoretical guide for the construction of campgrounds in this area but also provides a scientific and efficientworkflow to evaluate the appropriateness of other areas. The result is reasonable and operable for camping facilities development and also useful for managers and planners working in local governments as well as investors.

  15. A GIS-based assessment of groundwater suitability for irrigation purposes in flat areas of the wet Pampa plain, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanelli, Asunción; Lima, María Lourdes; Quiroz Londoño, Orlando Mauricio; Martínez, Daniel Emilio; Massone, Héctor Enrique

    2012-09-01

    The Pampa in Argentina is a large plain with a quite obvious dependence on agriculture, water availability and its quality. It is a sensitive environment due to weather changes and slope variations. Supplementary irrigation is a useful practice for compensating the production in the zone. However, potential negative impacts of this type of irrigation in salinization and sodification of soils are evident. Most conventional methodologies for assessing water irrigation quality have difficulties in their application in the region because they do not adjust to the defined assumptions for them. Consequently, a new GIS-based methodology integrating multiparametric data was proposed for evaluating and delineating groundwater suitability zones for irrigation purposes in flat areas. Hydrogeological surveys including water level measurements, groundwater samples for chemical analysis and electrical conductivity (EC) measurements were performed. The combination of EC, sodium adsorption ratio, residual sodium carbonate, slopes and hydraulic gradient parameters generated an irrigation water index (IWI). With the integration of the IWI 1 to 3 classes (categories of suitable waters for irrigation) and the aquifer thickness the restricted irrigation water index (RIWI) was obtained. The IWI's index application showed that 61.3 % of the area has "Very high" to "Moderate" potential for irrigation, while the 31.4 % of it has unsuitable waters. Approximately, 46 % of the tested area has high suitability for irrigation and moderate groundwater availability. This proposed methodology has advantages over traditional methods because it allows for better discrimination in homogeneous areas.

  16. GIS-based pollution hazard mapping and assessment framework of shallow lakes: southeastern Pampean lakes (Argentina) as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanelli, A; Esquius, K S; Massone, H E; Escalante, A H

    2013-08-01

    The assessment of water vulnerability and pollution hazard traditionally places particular emphasis on the study on groundwaters more than on surface waters. Consequently, a GIS-based Lake Pollution Hazard Index (LPHI) was proposed for assessing and mapping the potential pollution hazard for shallow lakes due to the interaction between the Potential Pollutant Load and the Lake Vulnerability. It includes easily measurable and commonly used parameters: land cover, terrain slope and direction, and soil media. Three shallow lake ecosystems of the southeastern Pampa Plain (Argentina) were chosen to test the usefulness and applicability of this suggested index. Moreover, anthropogenic and natural medium influence on biophysical parameters in these three ecosystems was examined. The evaluation of the LPHI map shows for La Brava and Los Padres lakes the highest pollution hazard (≈30 % with high to very high category) while Nahuel Rucá Lake seems to be the less hazardous water body (just 9.33 % with high LPHI). The increase in LPHI value is attributed to a different loading of pollutants governed by land cover category and/or the exposure to high slopes and influence of slope direction. Dissolved oxygen and biochemical oxygen demand values indicate a moderately polluted and eutrophized condition of shallow lake waters, mainly related to moderate agricultural activities and/or cattle production. Obtained information by means of LPHI calculation result useful to perform a local diagnosis of the potential pollution hazard to a freshwater ecosystem in order to implement basic guidelines to improve lake sustainability.

  17. The study of metal contamination in urban soils of Hong Kong using a GIS-based approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiangdong; Lee Siulan; Wong Szechung; Shi Wenzhong; Thornton, Iain

    2004-01-01

    The study of regional variations and the anthropogenic contamination by metals of soils is very important for environmental planning and monitoring in urban areas. An extensive survey was conducted in the highly urbanized Kowloon area (46.9 km 2 ) of Hong Kong, using a systematic sampling strategy with a sampling density of 3-5 composite soil samples (0-15 cm) per km 2 . Geochemical maps of 'total' metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) from strong acid extraction in the surface soils were produced based on geographical information system (GIS) technology. A significant spatial relationship was found for Ni, Cu, Pb and Zn in the soils using a GIS-based analysis, suggesting that these metal contaminants in the soils of the Kowloon area had common sources. Several hot-spot areas of metal contamination were identified from the composite metal geochemical map, mainly in the old industrial and residential areas. A further GIS analysis revealed that road junctions, major roads and industrial buildings were possible sources of heavy metals in the urban soils. The Pb isotope composition of the contaminated soils showed clear anthropogenic origins. - GIS can be used to identify soil contamination hot-spot areas and to assess potential pollutant sources in an urban community

  18. GIS based 3D visualization of subsurface and surface lineaments / faults and their geological significance, northern tamil nadu, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanavel, J.; Ramasamy, S. M.

    2014-11-01

    The study area falls in the southern part of the Indian Peninsular comprising hard crystalline rocks of Archaeozoic and Proterozoic Era. In the present study, the GIS based 3D visualizations of gravity, magnetic, resistivity and topographic datasets were made and therefrom the basement lineaments, shallow subsurface lineaments and surface lineaments/faults were interpreted. These lineaments were classified as category-1 i.e. exclusively surface lineaments, category-2 i.e. surface lineaments having connectivity with shallow subsurface lineaments and category-3 i.e. surface lineaments having connectivity with shallow subsurface lineaments and basement lineaments. These three classified lineaments were analyzed in conjunction with known mineral occurrences and historical seismicity of the study area in GIS environment. The study revealed that the category-3 NNE-SSW to NE-SW lineaments have greater control over the mineral occurrences and the N-S, NNE-SSW and NE-SW, faults/lineaments control the seismicities in the study area.

  19. An Open Source Software and Web-GIS Based Platform for Airborne SAR Remote Sensing Data Management, Distribution and Sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changyong, Dou; Huadong, Guo; Chunming, Han; Ming, Liu

    2014-03-01

    With more and more Earth observation data available to the community, how to manage and sharing these valuable remote sensing datasets is becoming an urgent issue to be solved. The web based Geographical Information Systems (GIS) technology provides a convenient way for the users in different locations to share and make use of the same dataset. In order to efficiently use the airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) remote sensing data acquired in the Airborne Remote Sensing Center of the Institute of Remote Sensing and Digital Earth (RADI), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), a Web-GIS based platform for airborne SAR data management, distribution and sharing was designed and developed. The major features of the system include map based navigation search interface, full resolution imagery shown overlaid the map, and all the software adopted in the platform are Open Source Software (OSS). The functions of the platform include browsing the imagery on the map navigation based interface, ordering and downloading data online, image dataset and user management, etc. At present, the system is under testing in RADI and will come to regular operation soon.

  20. Quantitative X-ray Map Analyser (Q-XRMA): A new GIS-based statistical approach to Mineral Image Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortolano, Gaetano; Visalli, Roberto; Godard, Gaston; Cirrincione, Rosolino

    2018-06-01

    We present a new ArcGIS®-based tool developed in the Python programming language for calibrating EDS/WDS X-ray element maps, with the aim of acquiring quantitative information of petrological interest. The calibration procedure is based on a multiple linear regression technique that takes into account interdependence among elements and is constrained by the stoichiometry of minerals. The procedure requires an appropriate number of spot analyses for use as internal standards and provides several test indexes for a rapid check of calibration accuracy. The code is based on an earlier image-processing tool designed primarily for classifying minerals in X-ray element maps; the original Python code has now been enhanced to yield calibrated maps of mineral end-members or the chemical parameters of each classified mineral. The semi-automated procedure can be used to extract a dataset that is automatically stored within queryable tables. As a case study, the software was applied to an amphibolite-facies garnet-bearing micaschist. The calibrated images obtained for both anhydrous (i.e., garnet and plagioclase) and hydrous (i.e., biotite) phases show a good fit with corresponding electron microprobe analyses. This new GIS-based tool package can thus find useful application in petrology and materials science research. Moreover, the huge quantity of data extracted opens new opportunities for the development of a thin-section microchemical database that, using a GIS platform, can be linked with other major global geoscience databases.

  1. Study of Noise Map and its Features in an Indoor Work Environment through GIS-Based Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faramarz Majidi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Noise mapping in industry can be useful to assess the risks of harmful noise, or to monitor noise in machine rooms. Using GIS -based software for plotting noise maps in an indoor noisy work environment can be helpful for occupational hygienists to monitor noise pollution. Methods: This study was carried out in a noisy packaging unit of a food industry in Ghazvin industrial zone, to evaluate noise levels by GIS technique. For this reason the floor of packaging unit was divided into squares of 2×2 meters and the center of each square was marked as a measurement station based on NIOSH method. The sound pressure level in each station was measured and then the measurement values were imported into Arc GIS software to plot noise map. Results: Unlike the current method, the noise maps generated by GIS technique are consistent with the nature of sound propagation. Conclusion: This study showed that for an indoor work environment, the application of GIS technology rendering the assessment of noise levels in the form of noise maps, is more realistic and more accurate than the routine method which is now being used by the occupational hygienists.

  2. Pelagic Habitat Analysis Module (PHAM) for GIS Based Fisheries Decision Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer, D. A.; Armstrong, Edward M.; Harrison, D. P.; Hinton, M. G.; Kohin, S.; Snyder, S.; O'Brien, F. J.

    2011-01-01

    We have assembled a system that integrates satellite and model output with fisheries data We have developed tools that allow analysis of the interaction between species and key environmental variables Demonstrated the capacity to accurately map habitat of Thresher Sharks Alopias vulpinus & pelagicus. Their seasonal migration along the California Current is at least partly driven by the seasonal migration of sardine, key prey of the sharks.We have assembled a system that integrates satellite and model output with fisheries data We have developed tools that allow analysis of the interaction between species and key environmental variables Demonstrated the capacity to accurately map habitat of Thresher Sharks Alopias vulpinus nd pelagicus. Their seasonal migration along the California Current is at least partly driven by the seasonal migration of sardine, key prey of the sharks.

  3. GIS-based identification of active lineaments within the Krasnokamensk Area, Transbaikalia, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, V. A.; Lespinasse, M.; Ustinov, S. A.; Cialec, C.

    2017-07-01

    Lineament analysis was carried out using detailed digital elevation models (DEM) of the Krasnokamensk Area, southeastern Transbaikalia (Russia). The results of this research confirm the presence of already known faults, but also identify unknown fault zones. The primary focus was identifying small discontinuities and their relationship with extended fault zones. The developed technique allowed construction and identification of the active lineaments with their orientation of the compression and expansion axes in the horizontal plane, their direction of shear movement (right or left), and their geodynamic setting of formation (compression or stretching). The results of active faults identification and definition of their kinematics on digital elevation models were confirmed by measuring the velocities and directions of modern horizontal surface motions using a geodesic GPS, as well as identifying the principal stress axes directions of the modern stress field using modern-day earthquake data. The obtained results are deemed necessary for proper rational environmental management decisions.

  4. GIS-based terrain analysis of linear infrastructure corridors in the Mackenzie River Valley, NWT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ednie, M.; Wright, J.F.; Duchesne, C.

    2007-01-01

    The impact of global warming on permafrost terrain was discussed with particular reference to the structural stability and performance reliability of the proposed pipelines and roads in the Mackenzie River Valley in the Northwest Territories. Engineers, regulators and decision makers responsible for the development of these networks must have access to information about current and future terrain conditions, both local and regional. The Geological Survey of Canada is developing an ArcGIS resident, multi-component terrain analysis methodology for evaluating permafrost terrain in terms of the probable geothermal and geomorphological responses to climate warming. A GIS-integrated finite-element transient ground thermal model (T-ONE) can predict local-regional permafrost conditions and future responses of permafrost to climate warming. The influences of surface and channel hydrology on local erosion potentials can be determined by analyzing the topographic and topologic characteristics of the terrain. A weights of evidence-based landscape-process model, currently under development, will consider multiple terrain factors for mapping terrain that is susceptible to slope failure, subsidence or erosion. This terrain analysis methodology is currently being applied to a 2 km buffer spanning the proposed Mackenzie Gas Pipeline right-of-way, and along winter and all-weather road networks in the Mackenzie River Valley. Initial ground thermal modeling has identified thermally sensitive terrain for which permafrost will either completely disappear or warm significantly to near isothermal conditions within the next 25 to 55 years

  5. Developing GIS based decision-support tools for agricultural counter-measurements after radiation accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kepka, Pavel; Prochazka, Jan; Brom, Jakub; Pecharova, Emilie

    2009-01-01

    There is a whole variety of possibilities proposed by EURANOS data sheets for agriculture, for mid-term and long-term counter-measures after contamination of crops by radiation. We have developed a set of supportive tools for decision-makers within the project 'Methods of evaluation of contaminated territory after radiation accident - the importance of structure and functioning of a land cover'. Our TM tools are based on ArcGIS platform and Python programming language. We have developed a simple model for estimating the current biomass of the polluted crops. Inputs for this model are: a shape file of land cover data, database table with customisable plant growth characteristics and shape file of polluted areas. The model provides a shape file data set of estimated amounts of biomass of selected crops per hectare for a given day. The results are helpful for better performing of the countermeasure 'Early removal of crops'. The total amount of polluted waste, logistic costs (transport of people and material; required time; other costs) could be estimated only with basic GIS tools. The number of days expected for the harvest can be also calculated and compared with the dose and half-lives of the contaminating radionuclides. This analysis could also lead to a 'Do nothing' decision, especially in case of radionuclides with short times of half-life. (author)

  6. 3D GIS BASED EVALUATION OF THE AVAILABLE SIGHT DISTANCE TO ASSESS SAFETY OF URBAN ROADS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bassani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The available sight distance (ASD in front of the driver to detect possible conflicts with unexpected obstacles is fundamental for traffic safety. In the last 20 years, road design software (RDS has been continuously updated with dedicated modules to estimate ASD, thus assessing the quality of project from a safety point of view. Unfortunately, the evaluation of ASD still represents an issue in the case of existing road, and the object of discussion in the research community. To avoid problems related to the limitation associated with the use of digital terrain models typically employed in RDS, the Geographic Information Systems (GIS software can use digital surface models (DSM which are more flexible in the modelling of sight obstruction due to vegetation, street furniture, and vertical surfaces largely diffused in urbanized areas. The paper deals with the evaluation of GIS in the estimation of ASD in a typical urban road where the density of sight obstruction along the roadside is relatively high. The work explores the case study of a collector road in the city of Turin (Italy. Results confirm the potentiality of GIS software in capturing the complex morphology of the urban environment, thus confirming that GIS could become an important analysis tool for road engineers in the field of road safety. The investigation here described is part of the Pro-VISION Project (funded in 2014 by the Regione Piemonte, Italy.

  7. GIS-Based Terrain Analysis of Balakot Region after Occurred Landslide Disaster in October 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Salam Soomro

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The landslide susceptibility models require the appropriate and reliable terrain analytical based study of the landslides prone areas using SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission data, based on certain GIS (Geographical Information Systems and remote sensing techniques. This research paper focuses on the analysis of the terrain conditions of Balakot region. The analytical operations have been used in the different phases: (i Extracting the study area from the large data; (ii preparing it into grid format; (iii developing contour lines with certain contour intervals (iv Re-classification of it into required classes and (v preparation of digital terrain model with its different required various supplementary models for analyzing the terrain conditions of the study area located in Mansehra district, north part of Pakistan where the great earthquake induced landslide disaster occurred in October 2005. This analytical study has notified the different sensitive issues concerning to the critical slope angles, variation in the elevation and the surface of study area. The various distinctions in the terrain phenomenon validate the occurred and probable landslides because the topography of such study area can predict the various probable landslide hazards, vulnerability and risk threats in the region again. This analytical study can be useful for the decisive authorities by becoming pro-active to rebuild the region to mitigate the expected losses from the natural disaster.

  8. GIS BASED AQUIFER VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT IN HANGZHOU-JIAXINGHUZHOU PLAIN, CHINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean de Dieu Bazimenyera

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hangzhou-Jiaxing-Huzhou plain is among the regions which faces the shortage of water due to its increasing population, industrialization, agriculture and domestic use; hence the high dependence on groundwater. In China, the exploitation of aquifers has been historically undertaken without proper concern for environmental impacts or even the concept of sustainable yield. In order to maintain basin aquifer as a source of water for the area, it is necessary to find out whether certain locations in this groundwater basin are susceptible to receive and transmit pollution, this is why the main objective of this research is to find out the groundwater vulnerable zones using Geographical Information System (GIS model in Hangzhou-Jiaxing-Huzhou plain. GIS was used to create groundwater vulnerability map by overlaying hydro-geological data. The input of the model was provided by the following seven data layers: Depth to water, net Recharge, Aquifer media, Soil media, Topography, Impact of vadose zone and hydraulic Conductivity. This study showed that Hangzhou-Jiaxing-Huzhou area is grouped into three categories: High vulnerable zone with 27.4% of the total area, moderate vulnerable zone which occupy the great part of that area 60.5% and low vulnerable zone with 12.1%. This research suggests first the prioritization of high vulnerable areas in order to prevent the further pollution to already polluted areas; next the frequent monitoring of vulnerable zones to monitor the changing level of pollutants; and finally suggests that this model can be an effective tool for local authorities who are responsible for managing groundwater resources in that area.

  9. Developing GIS based decision-making tools in case of radiological contamination of agricultural soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kepka, Pavel; Brom, Jakub; Prochazka, Jan; Vincikova, Hana; Pecharova, Emilie

    2010-01-01

    A set of supporting tools to help take remedial decisions in case of radiological contamination of agricultural produce is being developed within the EURANOS project. The tools are created in the ArcGIS environment in the Python programming language. So far, a simple model to estimate biomass in the contaminated area has been set up. This module will make it possible to estimate additional parameters, such as activity per kg or amount of waste created, which are useful when taking decision regarding premature crops harvesting. Areas where no remedial action is required can be also identified, of course

  10. Incorporating variations in pesticide catabolic activity into a GIS-based groundwater risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posen, Paulette; Lovett, Andrew; Hiscock, Kevin; Evers, Sarah; Ward, Rob; Reid, Brian

    2006-01-01

    The catabolic activity of incumbent microorganisms in soil samples of eleven dissimilar soil series was investigated, with respect to the herbicide isoproturon. Soils were collected from a 30 x 37 km area of river catchment to the north-west of London, England. Catabolic activity in each soil type during a 500 h assay was determined by 14 C-radiorespirometry. Results showed four soils that exhibited high levels of catabolic activity (33-44% mineralisation) while the remaining seven soils showed lower levels of catabolic activity (12-16% mineralisation). There was evidence to suggest that soils exhibiting high catabolic activity had low ( 14 C-radiorespirometric results were used to produce a GIS layer representing levels of catabolic activity for the dissimilar soils across the study area. This layer was combined with other GIS layers relating to pesticide attenuation, including soil organic carbon content, depth to groundwater and hydrogeology, to produce a map showing risk of groundwater contamination by isoproturon. The output from this approach was compared with output from an attenuation-only approach and differences appraised. Inclusion of the catabolism layer resulted in a lowering of risk in the model in 15% of the study area. Although there appears to be limited benefit in including pesticide catabolic activity in this regional-scale groundwater risk model, this type of addition could be useful in a site-specific risk assessment

  11. Remote sensing and GIS-based prediction and assessment of copper-gold resources in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Shasha; Wang, Gongwen; Du, Wenhui; Huang, Luxiong

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative integration of geological information is a frontier and hotspot of prospecting decision research in the world. The forming process of large scale Cu-Au deposits is influenced by complicated geological events and restricted by various geological factors (stratum, structure and alteration). In this paper, using Thailand's copper-gold deposit district as a case study, geological anomaly theory is used along with the typical copper and gold metallogenic model, ETM+ remote sensing images, geological maps and mineral geology database in study area are combined with GIS technique. These techniques create ore-forming information such as geological information (strata, line-ring faults, intrusion), remote sensing information (hydroxyl alteration, iron alteration, linear-ring structure) and the Cu-Au prospect targets. These targets were identified using weights of evidence model. The research results show that the remote sensing and geological data can be combined to quickly predict and assess for exploration of mineral resources in a regional metallogenic belt

  12. Integrated GIS-Based Site Selection of Hillside Development for Future Growth of Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imtiaz Ahmed Chandio

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization is a challenging issue for developing countries, like Malaysia. Penang Island is one of the states of Malaysia selected as a study area where limited flat land exists. As a result, this would create urban environmental problems, such as unstable slopes and landslides due to uneven topography. The purpose of this study was to develop land suitability model for hillside development. Hence, this research aims land suitability analysis modelling for hillside development by using integrated GIS (Geographic Information System based MCDM (Multi-Criteria Decision Making approach. The hill land portion of Penang Island was selected for hillside site development using GIS and AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process as a MCDM method for sustainable hillside development. This study found that 15% of land was highly suitable, 27% moderately suitable, 41% less suitable, and 17% not suitable. Therefore, this research can be consistently used by the concerned authorities for sustainable hillside urban planning and development. This approach can be used as a policy tool in decision making of urban planning and development.

  13. PostGIS-Based Heterogeneous Sensor Database Framework for the Sensor Observation Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikechukwu Maduako

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Environmental monitoring and management systems in most cases deal with models and spatial analytics that involve the integration of in-situ and remote sensor observations. In-situ sensor observations and those gathered by remote sensors are usually provided by different databases and services in real-time dynamic services such as the Geo-Web Services. Thus, data have to be pulled from different databases and transferred over the network before they are fused and processed on the service middleware. This process is very massive and unnecessary communication and work load on the service. Massive work load in large raster downloads from flat-file raster data sources each time a request is made and huge integration and geo-processing work load on the service middleware which could actually be better leveraged at the database level. In this paper, we propose and present a heterogeneous sensor database framework or model for integration, geo-processing and spatial analysis of remote and in-situ sensor observations at the database level.  And how this can be integrated in the Sensor Observation Service, SOS to reduce communication and massive workload on the Geospatial Web Services and as well make query request from the user end a lot more flexible.

  14. Development and application of GIS-based PRISM integration through a plugin approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Woo-Seop; Chun, Jong Ahn; Kang, Kwangmin

    2014-05-01

    A PRISM (Parameter-elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model) QGIS-plugin was developed on Quantum GIS platform in this study. This Quantum GIS plugin system provides user-friendly graphic user interfaces (GUIs) so that users can obtain gridded meteorological data of high resolutions (1 km × 1 km). Also, this software is designed to run on a personal computer so that it does not require an internet access or a sophisticated computer system. This module is a user-friendly system that a user can generate PRISM data with ease. The proposed PRISM QGIS-plugin is a hybrid statistical-geographic model system that uses coarse resolution datasets (APHRODITE datasets in this study) with digital elevation data to generate the fine-resolution gridded precipitation. To validate the performance of the software, Prek Thnot River Basin in Kandal, Cambodia is selected for application. Overall statistical analysis shows promising outputs generated by the proposed plugin. Error measures such as RMSE (Root Mean Square Error) and MAPE (Mean Absolute Percentage Error) were used to evaluate the performance of the developed PRISM QGIS-plugin. Evaluation results using RMSE and MAPE were 2.76 mm and 4.2%, respectively. This study suggested that the plugin can be used to generate high resolution precipitation datasets for hydrological and climatological studies at a watershed where observed weather datasets are limited.

  15. Land Suitability and Insurance Premiums: A GIS-based Multicriteria Analysis Approach for Sustainable Rice Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Monjurul Islam

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to develop a land suitability model for rice production based on suitability levels and to propose insurance premiums to obtain maximum returns based on the harvest index and subsidy dependence factor for the marginal and moderately suitable lands in the northern part of Bangladesh. A multicriteria analysis was undertaken and a rice land suitability map was developed using geographical information system and analytical hierarchy process. The analysis identified that 22.74% of the area was highly suitable, while 14.86% was marginally suitable, and 28.54% was moderately suitable for rice production. However, 32.67% of the area, which was occupied by water bodies, rivers, forests, and settlements, is permanently not suitable; 1.19% is presently not suitable. To motivate low-quality land owners to produce rice, there is no alternative but to provide protection through crop insurance. We suggest producing rice up to marginally suitable lands to obtain support from insurance. The minimum coverage is marginal coverage (70% to cover the production costs, while the maximum coverage is high coverage (90% to enable a maximum return. This new crop insurance model, based on land suitability can be a rational support for owners of different quality land to increase production.

  16. A GIS-based Computational Tool for Multidimensional Flow Velocity by Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, D; Winkler, M; Muste, M

    2015-01-01

    Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCPs) provide efficient and reliable flow measurements compared to other tools for characteristics of the riverine environments. In addition to originally targeted discharge measurements, ADCPs are increasingly utilized to assess river flow characteristics. The newly developed VMS (Velocity Mapping Software) aims at providing an efficient process for quality assurance, mapping velocity vectors for visualization and facilitating comparison with physical and numerical model results. VMS was designed to provide efficient and smooth work flows for processing groups of transects. The software allows the user to select group of files and subsequently to conduct statistical and graphical quality assurance on the files as a group or individually as appropriate. VMS also enables spatial averaging in horizontal and vertical plane for ADCP data in a single or multiple transects over the same or consecutive cross sections. The analysis results are displayed in numerical and graphical formats. (paper)

  17. Gis-Based Site Selection for Underground Natural Resources Using Fuzzy Ahp-Owa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabzevari, A. R.; Delavar, M. R.

    2017-09-01

    Fuel consumption has significantly increased due to the growth of the population. A solution to address this problem is the underground storage of natural gas. The first step to reach this goal is to select suitable places for the storage. In this study, site selection for the underground natural gas reservoirs has been performed using a multi-criteria decision-making in a GIS environment. The "Ordered Weighted Average" (OWA) operator is one of the multi-criteria decision-making methods for ranking the criteria and consideration of uncertainty in the interaction among the criteria. In this paper, Fuzzy AHP_OWA (FAHP_OWA) is used to determine optimal sites for the underground natural gas reservoirs. Fuzzy AHP_OWA considers the decision maker's risk taking and risk aversion during the decision-making process. Gas consumption rate, temperature, distance from main transportation network, distance from gas production centers, population density and distance from gas distribution networks are the criteria used in this research. Results show that the northeast and west of Iran and the areas around Tehran (Tehran and Alborz Provinces) have a higher attraction for constructing a natural gas reservoir. The performance of the used method was also evaluated. This evaluation was performed using the location of the existing natural gas reservoirs in the country and the site selection maps for each of the quantifiers. It is verified that the method used in this study is capable of modeling different decision-making strategies used by the decision maker with about 88 percent of agreement between the modeling and test data.

  18. Incorporating variations in pesticide catabolic activity into a GIS-based groundwater risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Posen, Paulette [School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Earlham Road, Norwich NR4 7TJ (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: p.posen@uea.ac.uk; Lovett, Andrew [School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Earlham Road, Norwich NR4 7TJ (United Kingdom); Hiscock, Kevin [School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Earlham Road, Norwich NR4 7TJ (United Kingdom); Evers, Sarah [Environment Agency, Olton Court, 10 Warwick Road, Olton, Solihull, B92 7HX (United Kingdom); Ward, Rob [Environment Agency, Olton Court, 10 Warwick Road, Olton, Solihull, B92 7HX (United Kingdom); Reid, Brian [School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Earlham Road, Norwich NR4 7TJ (United Kingdom)

    2006-08-31

    The catabolic activity of incumbent microorganisms in soil samples of eleven dissimilar soil series was investigated, with respect to the herbicide isoproturon. Soils were collected from a 30 x 37 km area of river catchment to the north-west of London, England. Catabolic activity in each soil type during a 500 h assay was determined by {sup 14}C-radiorespirometry. Results showed four soils that exhibited high levels of catabolic activity (33-44% mineralisation) while the remaining seven soils showed lower levels of catabolic activity (12-16% mineralisation). There was evidence to suggest that soils exhibiting high catabolic activity had low (< 22%) clay content and tended towards lower organic carbon content (< 2.7%), but that these higher levels of catabolic activity were also related to pre-exposure to isoproturon. The {sup 14}C-radiorespirometric results were used to produce a GIS layer representing levels of catabolic activity for the dissimilar soils across the study area. This layer was combined with other GIS layers relating to pesticide attenuation, including soil organic carbon content, depth to groundwater and hydrogeology, to produce a map showing risk of groundwater contamination by isoproturon. The output from this approach was compared with output from an attenuation-only approach and differences appraised. Inclusion of the catabolism layer resulted in a lowering of risk in the model in 15% of the study area. Although there appears to be limited benefit in including pesticide catabolic activity in this regional-scale groundwater risk model, this type of addition could be useful in a site-specific risk assessment.

  19. GIS-based seismic shaking slope vulnerability map of Sicily (Central Mediterranean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigro, Fabrizio; Arisco, Giuseppe; Perricone, Marcella; Renda, Pietro; Favara, Rocco

    2010-05-01

    permanent displacement potentially induced by an seismic scenario. Such methodologies found on the consideration that the conditions of seismic stability and the post-seismic functionality of engineering structures are tightly related to the entity of the permanent deformations that an earthquake can induce. Regarding the existing simplified procedures among slope stability models, Newmark's model is often used to derive indications about slope instabilities due to earthquakes. In this way, we have evaluated the seismically-induced landslides hazard in Sicily (Central Mediterranean) using the Newmark-like model. In order to determine the map distribution of the seismic ground-acceleration from an earthquake scenario, the attenuation-law of Sabetta & Pugliese has been used, analyzing some seismic recordings occurred in Italy. Also, by evaluating permanent displacements, the correlation of Ambraseys & Menu has been assumed. The seismic shaking slope vulnerability map of Sicily has been carried out using GIS application, also considering max seismic ground-acceleration peak distribution (in terms of exceedance probability for fixed time), slope acclivity, cohesion/angle of internal friction of outcropping rocks, allowing the zoning of the unstable slopes under seismic forces.

  20. Integrating Stakeholder Preferences and GIS-Based Multicriteria Analysis to Identify Forest Landscape Restoration Priorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Uribe

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A pressing question that arises during the planning of an ecological restoration process is: where to restore first? Answering this question is a complex task; it requires a multidimensional approach to consider economic constrains and the preferences of stakeholders. Being the problem of spatial nature, it may be explored effectively through Multicriteria Decision Analysis (MCDA performed in a Geographical Information System (GIS environment. The proposed approach is based on the definition and weighting of multiple criteria for evaluating land suitability. An MCDA-based methodology was used to identify priority areas for Forest Landscape Restoration in the Upper Mixtec region, Oaxaca (Mexico, one of the most degraded areas of Latin America. Socioeconomic and environmental criteria were selected and evaluated. The opinions of four different stakeholder groups were considered: general public, academic, Non-governmental organizations (NGOs and governmental officers. The preferences of these groups were spatially modeled to identify their priorities. The final result was a map that identifies the most preferable sites for restoration, where resources and efforts should be concentrated. MCDA proved to be a very useful tool in collective planning, when alternative sites have to be identified and prioritized to guide the restoration work.

  1. Spatial analysis of electricity demand patterns in Greece: Application of a GIS-based methodological framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyralis, Hristos; Mamassis, Nikos; Photis, Yorgos N.

    2016-04-01

    We investigate various uses of electricity demand in Greece (agricultural, commercial, domestic, industrial use as well as use for public and municipal authorities and street lightning) and we examine their relation with variables such as population, total area, population density and the Gross Domestic Product. The analysis is performed on data which span from 2008 to 2012 and have annual temporal resolution and spatial resolution down to the level of prefecture. We both visualize the results of the analysis and we perform cluster and outlier analysis using the Anselin local Moran's I statistic as well as hot spot analysis using the Getis-Ord Gi* statistic. The definition of the spatial patterns and relationships of the aforementioned variables in a GIS environment provides meaningful insight and better understanding of the regional development model in Greece and justifies the basis for an energy demand forecasting methodology. Acknowledgement: This research has been partly financed by the European Union (European Social Fund - ESF) and Greek national funds through the Operational Program "Education and Lifelong Learning" of the National Strategic Reference Framework (NSRF) - Research Funding Program: ARISTEIA II: Reinforcement of the interdisciplinary and/ or inter-institutional research and innovation (CRESSENDO project; grant number 5145).

  2. A GIS BASED EVALUATION OF LAND USE CHANGES AND ECOLOGICAL CONNECTIVITY INDEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poppy Indrayani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the Makassar region is a significant land use planning and management issue, and has many impacts on the ecological function and structure landscape. With the development and infrastructure initiatives mostly around the urban centers, the urbanization and sprawl would impact the environment and the natural resources. Therefore, environmental management and careful strategic spatial planning in landscape ecological network is crucial when aiming for sustainable development. In this paper, the impacts of land use changes from 1997 to 2012 on the landscape ecological connectivity in the Makassar region were evaluated using Geographic Information System (GIS. The resulted GIS analysis clearly showed that land use changes occurring in the Makassar region have caused profound changes in landscape pattern. The spatial model had a predictive capability allowing the quantitative assessment and comparison of the impacts resulting from different land use on the ecological connectivity index. The results had an effective performance in identifying the vital ecological areas and connectivity prior to development plan in areas.

  3. A GIS based assessment of hydropower potential in Hornád basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    �ofia Kuzevičová

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The issue of efficient use of hydropower, ones of the available renewable resources is currently in the process of sustainable development of each country, often addressing the issue. Incite multiple aspects. It is now seen just growing interest in exploiting the potential of hydropower. On the basis of active efforts are developed to map the total quantity of usability hydropower at basin level in Slovakia. GIS as a powerful and sophisticated tool for processing spatially localized information and offers support for renewable energy sources (not excluding the field of hydropower. Through the integration of spatial data allows assessing the real problems and thus contributing effectively to make rational decisions. Especially in the field of hydropower projects have GIS well founded importance. Of course is important to mention that the potential for hydroelectric power is useless without the operation of hydropower that converts water into electrical energy. For the needs of administrators of watercourses and operators of water systems, the proposed model can be an important tool for decision-making in relation to its implementation activities. Contribution to the design solutions for potential hydropower will address river basin Hornád.

  4. Assessment of bioenergy potential in Sicily: A GIS-based support methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beccali, Marco; D'Alberti, Vincenzo; Franzitta, Vincenzo; Columba, Pietro

    2009-01-01

    A Geographical Information System (GIS) supported methodology has been developed in order to assess the technical and economic potential of biomass exploitation for energy production in Sicily. The methodology was based on the use of agricultural, economic, climatic, and infrastructural data in a GIS. Data about land use, transportation facilities, urban cartography, regional territorial planning, terrain digital model, lithology, climatic types, and civil and industrial users have been stored in the GIS to define potential areas for gathering the residues coming from the pruning of olive groves, vineyards, and other agricultural crops, and to assess biomass available for energy cultivation. Further, it was possible to assess the potential of biodiesel production, supposing the cultivation of rapeseed in arable crop areas. For the biomass used for direct combustion purposes, the economic availability has been assessed assuming a price of the biomass and comparing it with other fuels. This assessment has shown the strong competitiveness of firewood in comparison with traditional fossil fuels when the collection system is implemented in an efficient way. Moreover, the economic potential of biodiesel was assessed considering the on-going financial regime for fuel. At the same time, the study has shown a significant competitiveness of the finished biomass (pellets), and good potential for a long-term development of this market. An important result was the determination of biofuel production potential in Sicily. An outcome of the study was to show the opportunities stemming from the harmonisation of Energy Policy with the Waste Management System and Rural Development Plan. (author)

  5. GIS-based Analysis of LS Factor under Coal Mining Subsidence Impacts in Sandy Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Xiao

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Coal deposits in the adjacent regions of Shanxi, Shaanxi, and Inner Mongolia province (SSI account for approximately two-thirds of coal in China; therefore, the SSI region has become the frontier of coal mining and its westward movement. Numerous adverse impacts to land and environment have arisen in these sandy, arid, and ecologically fragile areas. Underground coal mining activities cause land to subside and subsequent soil erosion, with slope length and slope steepness (LS as the key influential factor. In this investigation, an SSI mining site was chosen as a case study area, and 1 the pre-mining LS factor was obtained using a digital elevation model (DEM dataset; 2 a mining subsidence prediction was implemented with revised subsidence prediction factors; and 3 the post-mining LS factor was calculated by integrating the pre-mining DEM dataset and coal mining subsidence prediction data. The results revealed that the LS factor leads to some changes in the bottom of subsidence basin and considerable alterations at the basin’s edges of basin. Moreover, the LS factor became larger in the steeper terrain under subsidence impacts. This integrated method could quantitatively analyse LS changes and spatial distribution under mining impacts, which will benefit and provide references for soil erosion evaluations in this region

  6. A GIS-based multivariate clustering for characterization and ecoregion mapping from a viticultural perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Moral

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In wine-growing regions, zoning studies define areas according to their potential to produce specific wines and also identify the key drivers behind their variability and optimize vineyard management for sustainable viticulture. However, delineation of homogeneous zones is difficult because of the complex combination of factors which could affect zone classifications. One possibility to capture potential variability is the use of natural environmental properties as they are related to success in grape growing. With the aim of characterizing the spatial variability of the main vine-related environmental variables and determining different zones, climate and topographical data were obtained for Extremadura (southwestern Spain, an important wine region. Firstly, accurate maps of all climate indices were generated by using regression-kriging as the most suitable algorithm in which exhaustive secondary information on elevation was incorporated, and maps of topography-derived variables were obtained using GIS (Geographical Information System tools. Secondly, principal component analysis and multivariate geographic classification were used to define homogeneous classes, resulting in three zones. Each zone was further characterized by overlaying the zonation map with a geology map and all enviromental layers. It was obtained that although a wide part of the Extremaduran territory has warm climate characteristics, the zones have different viticultural potential and a high proportion of the region lays on suitable substrate. This zonation in Extremadura is the basis for further zoning studies at more detailed field scale and the modeling of vineyard response to climate change.

  7. A GIS-based multivariate clustering for characterization and ecoregion mapping from a viticultural perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moral, F.J.; Rebollo, F.J.; Paniagua, L.L.; García-Martín, A.

    2016-01-01

    In wine-growing regions, zoning studies define areas according to their potential to produce specific wines and also identify the key drivers behind their variability and optimize vineyard management for sustainable viticulture. However, delineation of homogeneous zones is difficult because of the complex combination of factors which could affect zone classifications. One possibility to capture potential variability is the use of natural environmental properties as they are related to success in grape growing. With the aim of characterizing the spatial variability of the main vine-related environmental variables and determining different zones, climate and topographical data were obtained for Extremadura (southwestern Spain), an important wine region. Firstly, accurate maps of all climate indices were generated by using regression-kriging as the most suitable algorithm in which exhaustive secondary information on elevation was incorporated, and maps of topography-derived variables were obtained using GIS (Geographical Information System) tools. Secondly, principal component analysis and multivariate geographic classification were used to define homogeneous classes, resulting in three zones. Each zone was further characterized by overlaying the zonation map with a geology map and all enviromental layers. It was obtained that although a wide part of the Extremaduran territory has warm climate characteristics, the zones have different viticultural potential and a high proportion of the region lays on suitable substrate. This zonation in Extremadura is the basis for further zoning studies at more detailed field scale and the modeling of vineyard response to climate change. (Author)

  8. A GIS-based multivariate clustering for characterization and ecoregion mapping from a viticultural perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moral, F.J.; Rebollo, F.J.; Paniagua, L.L.; García-Martín, A.

    2016-11-01

    In wine-growing regions, zoning studies define areas according to their potential to produce specific wines and also identify the key drivers behind their variability and optimize vineyard management for sustainable viticulture. However, delineation of homogeneous zones is difficult because of the complex combination of factors which could affect zone classifications. One possibility to capture potential variability is the use of natural environmental properties as they are related to success in grape growing. With the aim of characterizing the spatial variability of the main vine-related environmental variables and determining different zones, climate and topographical data were obtained for Extremadura (southwestern Spain), an important wine region. Firstly, accurate maps of all climate indices were generated by using regression-kriging as the most suitable algorithm in which exhaustive secondary information on elevation was incorporated, and maps of topography-derived variables were obtained using GIS (Geographical Information System) tools. Secondly, principal component analysis and multivariate geographic classification were used to define homogeneous classes, resulting in three zones. Each zone was further characterized by overlaying the zonation map with a geology map and all enviromental layers. It was obtained that although a wide part of the Extremaduran territory has warm climate characteristics, the zones have different viticultural potential and a high proportion of the region lays on suitable substrate. This zonation in Extremadura is the basis for further zoning studies at more detailed field scale and the modeling of vineyard response to climate change. (Author)

  9. LESTO: an Open Source GIS-based toolbox for LiDAR analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franceschi, Silvia; Antonello, Andrea; Tonon, Giustino

    2015-04-01

    considering an Optimizer Algorithm based on Particle Swarm (PS) and a matching procedure which takes the position and the height of the extracted trees respect to the measured ones and iteratively tries to improve the candidate solution changing the models' parameters. Example of application of the LESTO tools will be presented on test sites. Test area consists in a series of circular sampling plots randomly selected from a 50x50 m regular grid within a buffer zone of 150 m from the forest road. Other studies on the same sites take as reference measurements of position, diameter, species and height and proposed allometric relationships. These allometric relationship were obtained for each species deriving the stem volume of single trees based on height and diameter at breast height. LESTO is integrated in the JGrassTools project and available for download at www.jgrasstools.org. A simple and easy to use graphical interface to run the models is available at https://github.com/moovida/STAGE/releases.

  10. PROMAB-GIS: A GIS based Tool for Estimating Runoff and Sediment Yield in running Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenewein, S.; Rinderer, M.; Ploner, A.; Sönser, T.

    2003-04-01

    In recent times settlements have expanded, traffic and tourist activities have increased in most alpine regions. As a consequence, on the one hand humans and goods are affected by natural hazard processes more often, while on the other hand the demand for protection by both technical constructions and planning measures carried out by public authorities is growing. This situation results in an ever stronger need of reproducibility, comparability, transparency of all methods applied in modern natural hazard management. As a contribution to a new way of coping this situation Promab-GIS Version 1.0 has been developed. Promab-Gis has been designed as a model for time- and space-dependent determination of both runoff and bedload transport in rivers of small alpine catchment areas. The estimation of the unit hydrograph relies upon the "rational formula" and the time-area curves of the watershed. The time area diagram is a graph of cumulative drainage area contributing to discharge at the watershed outlet within a specified time of travel. The sediment yield is estimated for each cell of the channel network by determining the actual process type (erosion, transport or accumulation). Two types of transport processes are considered, sediment transport and debris flows. All functions of Promab-GIS are integrated in the graphical user interface of ArcView as pull-up menus and tool buttons. Hence the application of Promab-GIS does not rely on a sophisticated knowledge of GIS in general, respectively the ArcView software. However, despite the use of computer assistance, Promab-GIS still is an expert support system. In order to obtain plausible results, the users must be familiar with all the relevant processes controlling runoff and sediment yield in torrent catchments.

  11. A GIS-based integrative approach for land use optimization in a semi-arid watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Tajbakhsh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The proper use of natural resources can preserve these valuable assets. In line with the management of natural resources, land use optimization can be highly useful. The aim of the present study is to propose an appropriate integrative model for optimized allocation of lands for surface runoff and sediment load minimization and net income maximization in Bayg watershed, Iran. In this study, five categories of land uses, i.e. irrigated orchard, rangeland, irrigated farming, rainfed farming and almond orchard were spatially optimized to minimize surface runoff and sediment yield and to increase net income by integrating three approaches: weighted goal programming, analytic hierarchy process and multi-objective land allocation algorithm. To achieve the target levels in this work, the acreages of almond orchard and rainfed farming should be reduced by 100% and 37.32% respectively, and irrigated farming acreage should be increased by 138.53%. Through these alterations in the land use acreage, the sediment load will be reduced by 16.78% and net income will be improved by 72.52%. However, runoff volume will be increased by 0.22%. Results indicated that weighted goal programming satisfied 96% and 46% of the target levels of sediment load and net income respectively, but failed to reduce runoff volume. Therefore, it is necessary for managers to control runoff using the strategies related to runoff harvesting, especially on steep slopes. Generally, it can be concluded that a combination of the techniques weighted goal programming, analytic hierarchy process and multi-objective land allocation is highly capable to optimize land use and land covers based on the conflicting objectives.

  12. A GIS-based comparison of the Mexican national and IUCN methods for determining extinction risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo, Teresa P Feria; Olson, Mark E; García-Mendoza, Abisaí; Solano, Eloy

    2009-10-01

    The national systems used in the evaluation of extinction risk are often touted as more readily applied and somehow more regionally appropriate than the system of the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). We compared risk assessments of the Mexican national system (method for evaluation of risk of extinction of wild species [MER]) with the IUCN system for the 16 Polianthes taxa (Agavaceae), a genus of plants with marked variation in distribution sizes. We used a novel combination of herbarium data, geographic information systems (GIS), and species distribution models to provide rapid, repeatable estimates of extinction risk. Our GIS method showed that the MER and the IUCN system use similar data. Our comparison illustrates how the IUCN method can be applied even when all desirable data are not available, and that the MER offers no special regional advantage with respect to the IUCN regional system. Instead, our results coincided, with both systems identifying 14 taxa of conservation concern and the remaining two taxa of low risk, largely because both systems use similar information. An obstacle for the application of the MER is that there are no standards for quantifying the criteria of habitat condition and intrinsic biological vulnerability. If these impossible-to-quantify criteria are left out, what are left are geographical distribution and the impact of human activity, essentially the considerations we were able to assess for the IUCN method. Our method has the advantage of making the IUCN criteria easy to apply, and because each step can be standardized between studies, it ensures greater comparability of extinction risk estimates among taxa.

  13. The Maryland Coastal Plain Aquifer Information System: A GIS-based tool for assessing groundwater resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreasen, David C.; Nardi, Mark R.; Staley, Andrew W.; Achmad, Grufron; Grace, John W.

    2016-01-01

    information system can serve as a pre- and postprocessing environment for groundwater-flow models for use in water-supply planning, development, and management. The system also can be expanded to include features that evaluate constraints to groundwater development, such as insufficient available drawdown, degraded groundwater quality, insufficient aquifer yields, and well-field interference. Ultimately, the aquifer information system is intended to function as an interactive Web-based utility that provides a broad array of information related to groundwater resources in Maryland’s coastal plain to a wide-ranging audience, including well drillers, consultants, academia, and the general public.

  14. Validating the accuracy of GIS-based accessibility analysis in determining public primary health care demand in metropolitan areas: conference presentation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mokgalaka, H

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available selected for the analysis are mainly those that offered public primary health care services and acted as first point of contact with the health service delivery system. Attached to the facility data are attribute data indicating the capacity...-Based Accessibility Analysis in Determining Public Primary Health Care Demand in Metropolitan Areas Hunadi Mokgalaka July 2014 Contents • Service access planning • GIS-based accessibility analysis • Key challenges to application • Methodology...

  15. A rainfall risk analysis thanks to an GIS based estimation of urban vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renard, Florent; Pierre-Marie, Chapon

    2010-05-01

    heavy rains, to locate areas of risk in the urban area. The targets that share the same rank of this vulnerability index do not possess the same importance, or the same sensitivity to the flood hazard. Therefore, the second part of this work is to define the priorities and sensitivities of different targets based on the judgments of experts. Multicriteria decision methods are used to prioritize elements and are therefore adapted to the modelling of the sensitivity of the issues of greater Lyon (Griot, 2008). The purpose of these methods is the assessment of priorities between the different components of the situation. Thomas Saaty's analytic hierarchy process (1980) is the most frequently used because of its many advantages. On this basis, the formal calculations of priorities and sensitivities of the elements have been conducted. These calculations are based on the judgments of experts. Indeed, during semi-structured interview, the 38 experts in our sample delivered a verdict on issues that seem relatively more important than others by binary comparison. They carry the same manner to determine sensitivity's stakes to hazard flooding. Finally, the consistency of answers given by experts is validated by calculating a ratio of coherence, and their results are aggregated to provide functions of priority (based on the relative importance of each stakes), and functions of sensitivity (based on the relative sensitivity of each stakes). From these functions of priority and sensitivity is obtained the general function of vulnerability. The vulnerability functions allow defining the importance of the stakes of Greater Lyon and their sensitivity to hydrological hazards. The global vulnerability function is obtained from sensitivity and priority functions and shows the great importance of human issues (75 %). The vulnerability factor of environmental targets represents 12 % of the global vulnerability function, as much as the materials issues. However, it can be seen that the

  16. GIS-BASED EXPERIENCE OF INVESTIGATING THE STATUS OF SPAWNING AREAS WITHIN THE UPPER SECTION OF THE TSIMLYANSK RESERVOIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Kalioujnaia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a GIS-based research approach to investigating the status and dynamics of spawning areas of the Tsimlyansk Reservoir (within Volgograd Region, one of the largest inland fishery water bodies in the South of Russia.The spawning areas were considered in terms of the concept of ecotone origin, of the highly dynamic aquatic-terrestrial transitional environment in which temporary flooding is the main factor determining the diversity of spawning habitats, recruitment conditions, as well as ecosystem productivity.The processing and interpretation of Landsat images for the spring and low-water seasons for years between 2005 and 2016, in combination with other data (large-scale topographic maps, fishery research, and scientific papers allowed revealing the location of main spawning areas within the reservoir’s Upper section and to calculate their areas.For three case study sites located on the left bank of the reservoir, the main natural and anthropogenic factors determining the spawning conditions were identified. Retrospective analysis and synthesis of data on young fish composition and abundance between 1980 and today confirmed the importance of these sites for fish recruitment as well as the opportunities for their improvement by means of restoration measures.The output maps present the spatial distribution of the spawning areas and the environmental factors directly or indirectly affecting fish recruitment conditions. The most impacted areas have been determined, including the areas affected by abrasion, siltation and eutrophication processes, as well as pollution of the aquatic zone and water protection zone of the reservoir.The results of the research are useful both for understanding the general environmental conditions of the Tsimlyansk Reservoir and for supporting management decisions towards its improvement. 

  17. A GIS based screening tool for locating and ranking of suitable stormwater harvesting sites in urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inamdar, P M; Cook, S; Sharma, A K; Corby, N; O'Connor, J; Perera, B J C

    2013-10-15

    There is the need to re-configure current urban water systems to achieve the objective of sustainable water sensitive cities. Stormwater represents a valuable alternative urban water source to reduce pressure on fresh water resources, and to mitigate the environmental impact of urban stormwater runoff. The selection of suitable urban stormwater harvesting sites is generally based on the judgement of water planners, who are faced with the challenge of considering multiple technical and socio-economic factors that influence the site suitability. To address this challenge, the present study developed a robust GIS based screening methodology for identifying potentially suitable stormwater harvesting sites in urban areas as a first pass for then more detailed investigation. The study initially evaluated suitability based on the match between harvestable runoff and demand through a concept of accumulated catchments. Drainage outlets of these accumulated catchments were considered as potential stormwater harvesting sites. These sites were screened and ranked under screening parameters namely demand, ratio of runoff to demand and weighted demand distance. The methodology described in this paper was successfully applied to a case study in Melbourne, Australia in collaboration with the local water utility. The methodology was found to be effective in supporting the selection of priority sites for stormwater harvesting schemes, as it provided the basis to identify, short-list and rank sites for further detailed investigation. The rapid identification of suitable sites for stormwater harvesting can assist planners in prioritising schemes in areas that will have the most impact on reducing potable water demand. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Multi-hazard risk assessment of coastal vulnerability from tropical cyclones - A GIS based approach for the Odisha coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Bishnupriya; Bhaskaran, Prasad K

    2018-01-15

    The coastal region bordering the East coast of India is a thickly populated belt exposed to high risk and vulnerability from natural hazards such as tropical cyclones. Tropical cyclone frequencies that develop over the Bay of Bengal (average of 5-6 per year) region are much higher as compared to the Arabian Sea thereby posing a high risk factor associated with storm surge, inland inundation, wind gust, intense rainfall, etc. The Odisha State in the East coast of India experiences the highest number of cyclone strikes as compared to West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, and Tamil Nadu. To express the destructive potential resulting from tropical cyclones the Power Dissipation Index (PDI) is a widely used metric globally. A recent study indicates that PDI for cyclones in the present decade have increased about six times as compared to the past. Hence there is a need to precisely ascertain the coastal vulnerability and risk factors associated with high intense cyclones expected in a changing climate. As such there are no comprehensive studies attempted so far on the determination of Coastal Vulnerability Index (CVI) for Odisha coast that is highly prone to cyclone strikes. With this motivation, the present study makes an attempt to investigate the physical, environmental, social, and economic impacts on coastal vulnerability associated with tropical cyclones for the Odisha coast. The study also investigates the futuristic projection of coastal vulnerability over this region expected in a changing climate scenario. Eight fair weather parameters along with storm surge height and onshore inundation were used to estimate the Physical Vulnerability Index (PVI). Thereafter, the PVI along with social, economic, and environmental vulnerability was used to determine the overall CVI using the GIS based approach. The authors believe that the comprehensive nature of this study is expected to benefit coastal zone management authorities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A GIS-based tool for an integrated assessment of spatial planning trade-offs with aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimpel, Antje; Stelzenmüller, Vanessa; Töpsch, Sandra; Galparsoro, Ibon; Gubbins, Matthew; Miller, David; Murillas, Arantza; Murray, Alexander G; Pınarbaşı, Kemal; Roca, Guillem; Watret, Robert

    2018-06-15

    The increasing demand for protein from aquaculture will trigger a global expansion of the sector in coastal and offshore waters. While contributing to food security, potential conflicts with other traditional activities such as fisheries or tourism are inevitable, thus calling for decision-support tools to assess aquaculture planning scenarios in a multi-use context. Here we introduce the AquaSpace tool, one of the first Geographic Information System (GIS)-based planning tools empowering an integrated assessment and mapping of 30 indicators reflecting economic, environmental, inter-sectorial and socio-cultural risks and opportunities for proposed aquaculture systems in a marine environment. A bottom-up process consulting more than 350 stakeholders from 10 countries across southern and northern Europe enabled the direct consideration of stakeholder needs when developing the GIS AddIn. The AquaSpace tool is an open source product and builds in the prospective use of open source datasets at a European scale, hence aiming to improve reproducibility and collaboration in aquaculture science and research. Tool outputs comprise detailed reports and graphics allowing key stakeholders such as planners or licensing authorities to evaluate and communicate alternative planning scenarios and to take more informed decisions. With the help of the German North Sea case study we demonstrate here the tool application at multiple spatial scales with different aquaculture systems and under a range of space-related development constraints. The computation of these aquaculture planning scenarios and the assessment of their trade-offs showed that it is entirely possible to identify aquaculture sites, that correspondent to multifarious potential challenges, for instance by a low conflict potential, a low risk of disease spread, a comparable high economic profit and a low impact on touristic attractions. We believe that a transparent visualisation of risks and opportunities of aquaculture

  20. Optimization of DRASTIC method by supervised committee machine artificial intelligence to assess groundwater vulnerability for Maragheh-Bonab plain aquifer, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fijani, Elham; Nadiri, Ata Allah; Asghari Moghaddam, Asghar; Tsai, Frank T.-C.; Dixon, Barnali

    2013-10-01

    Contamination of wells with nitrate-N (NO3-N) poses various threats to human health. Contamination of groundwater is a complex process and full of uncertainty in regional scale. Development of an integrative vulnerability assessment methodology can be useful to effectively manage (including prioritization of limited resource allocation to monitor high risk areas) and protect this valuable freshwater source. This study introduces a supervised committee machine with artificial intelligence (SCMAI) model to improve the DRASTIC method for groundwater vulnerability assessment for the Maragheh-Bonab plain aquifer in Iran. Four different AI models are considered in the SCMAI model, whose input is the DRASTIC parameters. The SCMAI model improves the committee machine artificial intelligence (CMAI) model by replacing the linear combination in the CMAI with a nonlinear supervised ANN framework. To calibrate the AI models, NO3-N concentration data are divided in two datasets for the training and validation purposes. The target value of the AI models in the training step is the corrected vulnerability indices that relate to the first NO3-N concentration dataset. After model training, the AI models are verified by the second NO3-N concentration dataset. The results show that the four AI models are able to improve the DRASTIC method. Since the best AI model performance is not dominant, the SCMAI model is considered to combine the advantages of individual AI models to achieve the optimal performance. The SCMAI method re-predicts the groundwater vulnerability based on the different AI model prediction values. The results show that the SCMAI outperforms individual AI models and committee machine with artificial intelligence (CMAI) model. The SCMAI model ensures that no water well with high NO3-N levels would be classified as low risk and vice versa. The study concludes that the SCMAI model is an effective model to improve the DRASTIC model and provides a confident estimate of the

  1. Development and implementation of a GIS-based tool for spatial modeling of seismic vulnerability of Tehran

    OpenAIRE

    Hashemi, M.; Alesheikh, A. A.

    2012-01-01

    Achieving sustainable development in countries prone to earthquakes is possible with taking effective measures to reduce vulnerability to earthquakes. In this context, damage assessment of hypothetical earthquakes and planning for disaster management are important issues. Having a computer tool capable of estimating structural and human losses from earthquakes in a specific region may facilitate the decision-making process before and during disasters. Interoperability of this tool with wide-s...

  2. A GIS-based, confined aquifer, hypothetical model of ground-water seepage into a former mining open pit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salama, A; Negeed, E.R.

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater seepage into a former mining site in Egypt is proposed for simulation. This site was used for basalt extraction. After the mining activities had stopped a large open pit was left over and groundwater seeped into the pit forming a lake. The pit has a dimension of approximately 1200 x 600 x 30 m. Because of the lack of field data, several scenarios may be hypothesized to explain the filling of these open pits with water. In this paper, one of these scenarios is studied. It is suggested that this water comes from an underneath confined aquifer. Through fractures in the host rock, water seeped upwards into the open pit. To estimate the rate at which water seeps into the lake, numerical study based on the finite element method is performed. Firstly, geo-referencing of the site was performed using GIS. The boundary of the lake was then digitized and elevation contours was defined. These data was then imported into grid-builder software to generate a two-dimensional triangular mesh which was then used by hydro-geosphere software to build the three-dimensional mesh and solve the problem. It was found that the set of discrete fractures was insufficient to fill the lake in the time span that was actually elapsed to fill up the lake which is on the order of two to three years.

  3. AUTOMATED GEOSPATIAL WATERSHED ASSESSMENT (AGWA): A GIS-BASED HYDROLOGIC MODELING TOOL FOR LANDSCAPE ASSESSMENT AND WATERSHED MANAGEMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The assessment of land use and land cover is an extremely important activity for contemporary land management. A large body of current literature suggests that human land-use practice is the most important factor influencing natural resource management and environmental condition...

  4. Designing a cost-effective CO2 storage infrastructure using a GIS based linear optimization energy model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, M. van den; Brederode, E.; Ramírez, A.; Kramers, L.; Kuip, M. van der; Wildenborg, T.; Turkenburg, W.; Faaij, A.

    2010-01-01

    Large-scale deployment of carbon capture and storage needs a dedicated infrastructure. Planning and designing of this infrastructure require incorporation of both temporal and spatial aspects. In this study, a toolbox has been developed that integrates ArcGIS, a geographical information system with

  5. The Drastic Outcomes from Voting Alliances in Three-Party Democratic Voting (1990 → 2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galam, Serge

    2013-04-01

    The drastic effect of local alliances in three-party competition is investigated in democratic hierarchical bottom-up voting. The results are obtained analytically using a model which extends a sociophysics frame introduced in 1986 (Galam in J. Math. Phys. 30:426, 1986) and 1990 (Galam in J. Stat. Phys. 61:943, 1990) to study two-party systems and the spontaneous formation of democratic dictatorship. It is worth stressing that the 1990 paper was published in the Journal of Statistical Physics, the first paper of its kind in this journal. It was shown how a minority in power can preserve its leadership using bottom-up democratic elections. However such a bias holds only down to some critical value of minimum support. The results were used latter to explain the sudden collapse of European communist parties in the nineties. The extension to three-party competition reveals the mechanisms by which a very small minority party can get a substantial representation at higher levels of the hierarchy when the other two competing parties are big. Additional surprising results are obtained, which enlighten the complexity of three-party democratic bottom-up voting. In particular, the unexpected outcomes of local voting alliances are singled out. Unbalanced democratic situations are exhibited with strong asymmetries between the actual bottom support of a party and its associated share of power at the top leadership. Subtle strategies are identified for a party to maximize its hold on the top leadership. The results are also valid to describe opinion dynamics with three competing opinions.

  6. Drastic population fluctuations explain the rapid extinction of the passenger pigeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Chih-Ming; Shaner, Pei-Jen L; Zink, Robert M; Liu, Wei-Chung; Chu, Te-Chin; Huang, Wen-San; Li, Shou-Hsien

    2014-07-22

    To assess the role of human disturbances in species' extinction requires an understanding of the species population history before human impact. The passenger pigeon was once the most abundant bird in the world, with a population size estimated at 3-5 billion in the 1800s; its abrupt extinction in 1914 raises the question of how such an abundant bird could have been driven to extinction in mere decades. Although human exploitation is often blamed, the role of natural population dynamics in the passenger pigeon's extinction remains unexplored. Applying high-throughput sequencing technologies to obtain sequences from most of the genome, we calculated that the passenger pigeon's effective population size throughout the last million years was persistently about 1/10,000 of the 1800's estimated number of individuals, a ratio 1,000-times lower than typically found. This result suggests that the passenger pigeon was not always super abundant but experienced dramatic population fluctuations, resembling those of an "outbreak" species. Ecological niche models supported inference of drastic changes in the extent of its breeding range over the last glacial-interglacial cycle. An estimate of acorn-based carrying capacity during the past 21,000 y showed great year-to-year variations. Based on our results, we hypothesize that ecological conditions that dramatically reduced population size under natural conditions could have interacted with human exploitation in causing the passenger pigeon's rapid demise. Our study illustrates that even species as abundant as the passenger pigeon can be vulnerable to human threats if they are subject to dramatic population fluctuations, and provides a new perspective on the greatest human-caused extinction in recorded history.

  7. Assessment of the potential for groundwater contamination using the DRASTIC/EGIS technique, Cheongju area, South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youn Jong; Hamm, Se-Yeong

    Groundwater contamination is becoming a major environmental problem in South Korea with the marked expansion of the industrial base and the explosive growth of the population. Even in rural areas, the increased use of fertilizers and pesticides, the presence of acid-mine drainage, and increase of volumes of domestic wastewaters are adding to groundwater pollution. The DRASTIC/EGIS model was used to evaluate the potential for groundwater contamination in the Cheongju city area, the first of several pilot studies. The model allows the designation of hydrogeologic settings within the study area, based on a composite description of all the major geologic and hydrogeologic factors for each setting. Then, a scheme for relative ranking of the hydrogeologic factors is applied to evaluate the relative vulnerability to groundwater contamination of each hydrogeologic setting. DRASTIC/EGIS can serve as a tool to evaluate pollution potential and so facilitate programs to protect groundwater resources. Résumé La contamination de l'eau souterraine devient un problème environnemental majeur en Corée du Sud, en relation avec le développement industriel bien marqué et l'explosion démographique. Meme dans les zones rurales, l'utilisation accrue d'engrais et de pesticides, le drainage acide de mines et les rejets croissants d'eaux usées contribuent à la pollution des nappes. Le modèle DRASTIC/EGIS a été utilisé pour évaluer le potentiel de contamination des eaux souterraines dans la région de la ville de Cheongju, la première de plusieurs régions pilotes. Le modèle permet de définir des ensembles hydrogéologiques dans la région étudiée, à partir de la description composite de tous les facteurs géologiques et hydrogéologiques essentiels pour chaque ensemble. Ensuite, un schéma pour le classement des facteurs hydrogéologiques est mis en oeuvre pour évaluer la vulnérabilité relative à la contamination des eaux souterraines pour chaque ensemble. DRASTIC

  8. Drastic lake level changes of Lake Van (eastern Turkey) during the past ca. 600 ka: climatic, volcanic and tectonic control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cukur, D.; Krastel, S.; Schmincke, H.; Sumita, M.; Tomonaga, Y.; Damci, E.

    2013-12-01

    , some several meters thick, has drastically increased in the upper ca 100 m (the past ca. 230 ka). The highest density of excellent reflectors occurs in this interval. Tectonic activity evidenced by extensional and/or compressional faults across the basin margins may have also affected the lake level fluctuations in Lake Van. This series of reconstructions using seismic stratigraphy from this study enlighten the understanding of tectonically-active lacustrine basins and provide a model for similar basins elsewhere.

  9. Development of a greenhouse gas accounting GIS-based tool to support local policy making—application to an Italian municipality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asdrubali, F.; Presciutti, A.; Scrucca, F.

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is the issue of the century and, according to Agenda 21, local actions are essential to impact global mitigation of greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions (“think globally, act locally”). However, in order to plan and implement effective, sustainable actions, local authorities need detailed information on their GHG emissions and their sources. This paper presents the work that led to the development of a GIS-based tool for local GHG accounting, which provides data for local decision-makers in an innovative manner different from traditional GHG inventories. The original aspects of the study are the geo-referencing of all results and the possibility of calculating all emissions (carbon sources) and removals (carbon sinks) with input data of different accuracy. - Highlights: • We developed a GIS-based tool for local (municipal) GHG accounting. • All emissions (carbon sources) and removals (carbon sinks) are geo-referenced. • The tool can be used with different levels of input data (less or more accurate). • The town of Spoleto (Italy) was chosen to apply and validate both methodologies. • The tool is effective to monitor the energy and environmental policies of the municipality

  10. Two drastically different climate states on an Earth-like land planet with overland water recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalidindi, S.; Reick, C. H.; Raddatz, T.; Claussen, M.

    2017-12-01

    Prior studies have demonstrated that habitable areas on low-obliquity land planets are confined to the edges of frozen ice caps. Whether such dry planets can maintain long-lived liquid water is unclear. Leconte et al. 2013 argue that on such planets mechanisms like gravity driven ice flows and geothermal flux can maintain liquid water at the edges of thick ice caps and this water may flow back to the lower latitudes through rivers. However, there exists no modelling study which investigates the climate of an Earth-like land planet with an overland recycling mechanism bringing fresh water back from higher to lower latitudes. In our study, by using a comprehensive climate model ICON, we find that an Earth-like land planet with an overland recycling mechanism can exist in two drastically different climate states for the same set of boundary conditions and parameter values: A Cold and Wet (CW) state with dominant low-latitude precipitation and, a Hot and Dry (HD) state with only high-latitude precipitation. For perpetual equinox conditions, both climate states are stable below a certain threshold value of background soil albedo (α) while above that only the CW state is stable. Starting from the HD state and increasing α above the threshold causes an abrupt shift from the HD state to the CW state resulting in a sudden cooling of about 35°C globally which is of the order of the temperature difference between the present-day and the Snowball Earth state. In contrast to the Snowball Earth instability, we find that the sudden cooling in our study is driven by the cloud albedo feedback rather than the snow-albedo feedback. Also, when α in the CW state is reduced back to zero the land planet does not display a closed hysteresis. Our study also has implications for the habitability of Earth-like land planets. At the inner edge of the habitable zone, the higher cloud cover in the CW state cools the planet and may prevent the onset of a runaway greenhouse state. At the outer

  11. Two drastically different climate states on an Earth-like terra-planet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kalidindi

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available We study an Earth-like terra-planet (water-limited terrestrial planet with an overland recycling mechanism bringing fresh water back from the high latitudes to the low latitudes. By performing model simulations for such a planet we find two drastically different climate states for the same set of boundary conditions and parameter values: a cold and wet (CW state with dominant low-latitude precipitation and a hot and dry (HD state with only high-latitude precipitation. We notice that for perpetual equinox conditions, both climate states are stable below a certain threshold value of background soil albedo while above the threshold only the CW state is stable. Starting from the HD state and increasing background soil albedo above the threshold causes an abrupt shift from the HD state to the CW state resulting in a sudden cooling of about 35 °C globally, which is of the order of the temperature difference between present day and the Snowball Earth state. When albedo starting from the CW state is reduced down to zero the terra-planet does not shift back to the HD state (no closed hysteresis. This is due to the high cloud cover in the CW state hiding the surface from solar irradiation so that surface albedo has only a minor effect on the top of the atmosphere radiation balance. Additional simulations with present-day Earth's obliquity all lead to the CW state, suggesting a similar abrupt transition from the HD state to the CW state when increasing obliquity from zero. Our study also has implications for the habitability of Earth-like terra-planets. At the inner edge of the habitable zone, the higher cloud cover in the CW state cools the planet and may prevent the onset of a runaway greenhouse state. At the outer edge, the resupply of water at low latitudes stabilizes the greenhouse effect and keeps the planet in the HD state and may prevent water from getting trapped at high latitudes in frozen form. Overall, the existence of bistability in the

  12. Monitoring of dams according to German standard DIN 19 700 on the basis of a GIS based expert system; Stauanlagenueberwachung nach DIN 19 700 in Verbindung mit Expertensystemen auf GIS-Basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kast, Karl; Saucke, Ulrich; Elsaesser, Ralph [Dr.-Ing. Karl Kast + Partner (GbR) Ingenieurgemeinschaft fuer Umwelt- und Geotechnik, Ettlingen (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The German standard DIN 19 700 stipulates regular safety reports assessing dams and their operation as part of the continuous dam monitoring scheme. Experience has shown that a GIS based dam monitoring system exhibits evident advantages regarding a continuous assessment. Besides and easy access to all relevant information grouped by themes, it offers a graphic analysis of measuring data and their display in the GIS system. In addition, concerning relevant failure mechanism, individual modules of a GIS based expert system are designed for the purpose of assessing the safety of the dam in the event of uncommon incidents. (orig.)

  13. A GIS-based multicriteria evaluation for aiding risk management Pinus pinaster Ait. forests: a case study in Corsican Island, western Mediterranean Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqualini, Vanina; Oberti, Pascal; Vigetta, Stéphanie; Riffard, Olivier; Panaïotis, Christophe; Cannac, Magali; Ferrat, Lila

    2011-07-01

    Forest management can benefit from decision support tools, including GIS-based multicriteria decision-aiding approach. In the Mediterranean region, Pinus pinaster forests play a very important role in biodiversity conservation and offer many socioeconomic benefits. However, the conservation of this species is affected by the increase in forest fires and the expansion of Matsucoccus feytaudi. This paper proposes a methodology based on commonly available data for assessing the values and risks of P. pinaster forests and to generating maps to aid in decisions pertaining to fire and phytosanitary risk management. The criteria for assessing the values (land cover type, legislative tools for biodiversity conservation, environmental tourist sites and access routes, and timber yield) and the risks (fire and phytosanitation) of P. pinaster forests were obtained directly or by considering specific indicators, and they were subsequently aggregated by means of GIS-based multicriteria analysis. This approach was tested on the island of Corsica (France), and maps to aid in decisions pertaining to fire risk and phytosanitary risk (M. feytaudi) were obtained for P. pinaster forest management. Study results are used by the technical offices of the local administration-Corsican Agricultural and Rural Development Agency (ODARC)-for planning the conservation of P. pinaster forests with regard to fire prevention and safety and phytosanitary risks. The decision maker took part in the evaluation criteria study (weight, normalization, and classification of the values). Most suitable locations are given to target the public intervention. The methodology presented in this paper could be applied to other species and in other Mediterranean regions.

  14. GIS-Based Sub-Basin Scale Identification of Dominant Runoff Processes for Soil and Water Management in Anambra Area of Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagbohun, Babatunde Joseph; Olabode, Oluwaseun Franklin; Adebola, Abiodun Olufemi; Akinluyi, Francis Omowonuola

    2017-12-01

    Identifying landscapes having comparable hydrological characteristics is valuable for the determination of dominant runoff process (DRP) and prediction of flood. Several approaches used for DRP-mapping vary in relation to data and time requirement. Manual approaches which are based on field investigation and expert knowledge are time demanding and difficult to implement at regional scale. Automatic GIS-based approach on the other hand require simplification of data but is easier to implement and it is applicable on a regional scale. In this study, GIS-based automated approach was used to identify the DRPs in Anambra area. The result showed that Hortonian overland flow (HOF) has the highest coverage of 1508.3 km2 (33.5%) followed by deep percolation (DP) with coverage of 1455.3 km2 (32.3%). Subsurface flow (SSF) is the third dominant runoff process covering 920.6 km2 (20.4%) while saturated overland flow (SOF) covers the least area of 618.4 km2 (13.7%) of the study area. The result reveal that considerable amount of precipitated water would be infiltrated into the subsurface through deep percolation process contributing to groundwater recharge in the study area. However, it is envisaged that HOF and SOF will continue to increase due to the continuous expansion of built-up area. With the expected increase in HOF and SOF, and the change in rainfall pattern associated with perpetual problem of climate change, it is paramount that groundwater conservation practices should be considered to ensure continued sustainable utilization of groundwater in the study area.

  15. A GIS-Based Multicriteria Evaluation for Aiding Risk Management Pinus pinaster Ait. Forests: A Case Study in Corsican Island, Western Mediterranean Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqualini, Vanina; Oberti, Pascal; Vigetta, Stéphanie; Riffard, Olivier; Panaïotis, Christophe; Cannac, Magali; Ferrat, Lila

    2011-07-01

    Forest management can benefit from decision support tools, including GIS-based multicriteria decision-aiding approach. In the Mediterranean region, Pinus pinaster forests play a very important role in biodiversity conservation and offer many socioeconomic benefits. However, the conservation of this species is affected by the increase in forest fires and the expansion of Matsucoccus feytaudi. This paper proposes a methodology based on commonly available data for assessing the values and risks of P. pinaster forests and to generating maps to aid in decisions pertaining to fire and phytosanitary risk management. The criteria for assessing the values (land cover type, legislative tools for biodiversity conservation, environmental tourist sites and access routes, and timber yield) and the risks (fire and phytosanitation) of P. pinaster forests were obtained directly or by considering specific indicators, and they were subsequently aggregated by means of GIS-based multicriteria analysis. This approach was tested on the island of Corsica (France), and maps to aid in decisions pertaining to fire risk and phytosanitary risk ( M. feytaudi) were obtained for P. pinaster forest management. Study results are used by the technical offices of the local administration— Corsican Agricultural and Rural Development Agency (ODARC)—for planning the conservation of P. pinaster forests with regard to fire prevention and safety and phytosanitary risks. The decision maker took part in the evaluation criteria study (weight, normalization, and classification of the values). Most suitable locations are given to target the public intervention. The methodology presented in this paper could be applied to other species and in other Mediterranean regions.

  16. Gis-based assessment of marine oil spill hazard and environmental vulnerability for the coasts of Crete in South Aegean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanoudaki, Katerina; Nikiforakis, Ioannis K.; Kampanis, Nikolaos A.

    2017-04-01

    Developing effective early warning and coordination systems can save thousands of lives and protect people, property and the environment in the event of natural and man-made disasters. In its document "Towards Better Protection of Citizens against Disaster Risks: Strengthening Early Warning Systems in Europe", the Commission points out that it seeks to follow a multi-hazard approach, to develop near real time alert systems, to ensure a near real time dissemination of alerts to Participating States, and to improve its rapid analytical capacity. In this context, the EU project DECATASTROPHIZE (http://decatastrophize.eu/project/) co-financed by the EU Humanitarian Aid and Civil Protection aims to develop a Geospatial Early warning Decision Support System (GE-DSS) to assess, prepare for and respond to multiple and/or simultaneous natural and man-made hazards, disasters, and environmental incidents by using existing models/systems in each partner country (Cyprus, France, Greece, Italy and Spain) in a synergistic way on ONE multi-platform, called DECAT. Specifically, project partners will establish appropriate geo-databases for test areas and use existing hazard models to produce hazard and vulnerability geo-spatial information for earthquakes, landslides, tsunamis, floods, forest fires and marine oil spills. The GE-DSS in will consist of one source code with six geodatabases, i.e., one for each partner and risk data in the respective test area. Each partner organization will be able to manage and monitor its own data/database and their results using Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA). The GE-DSS will be demonstrated at the local, regional and national levels through a set of Command Post and Table Top Disaster Exercises. As part of the DECAT GE-DSS, the gis-based geo-database and assessment of marine oil spill hazard and environmental vulnerability for the coasts of Crete in South Aegean Sea are presented here. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are

  17. Casein phosphopeptides drastically increase the secretion of extracellular proteins in Aspergillus awamori. Proteomics studies reveal changes in the secretory pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Kosalková Katarina; García-Estrada Carlos; Barreiro Carlos; Flórez Martha G; Jami Mohammad S; Paniagua Miguel A; Martín Juan F

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The secretion of heterologous animal proteins in filamentous fungi is usually limited by bottlenecks in the vesicle-mediated secretory pathway. Results Using the secretion of bovine chymosin in Aspergillus awamori as a model, we found a drastic increase (40 to 80-fold) in cells grown with casein or casein phosphopeptides (CPPs). CPPs are rich in phosphoserine, but phosphoserine itself did not increase the secretion of chymosin. The stimulatory effect is reduced about 50% u...

  18. Drastic nickel ion removal from aqueous solution by curcumin-capped Ag nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettini, S.; Pagano, R.; Valli, L.; Giancane, G.

    2014-08-01

    A completely green synthesis protocol has been adopted to obtain silver nanoaggregates capped by the natural compound (1E, 6E)-1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1,6-heptadiene-3,5-diene), also known as curcumin. The synthesis has been monitored by infrared, Raman, visible and fluorescence spectroscopies. Characterization confirms that curcumin reduces and caps the nanoparticles, and such a procedure allows its solubility in water and drastically increases curcumin stability. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs)/curcumin complex has been dispersed in a water solution containing a known nickel ion concentration. After three days, a grey precipitate is observed and nickel concentration in the solution is reduced by about 70%.A completely green synthesis protocol has been adopted to obtain silver nanoaggregates capped by the natural compound (1E, 6E)-1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1,6-heptadiene-3,5-diene), also known as curcumin. The synthesis has been monitored by infrared, Raman, visible and fluorescence spectroscopies. Characterization confirms that curcumin reduces and caps the nanoparticles, and such a procedure allows its solubility in water and drastically increases curcumin stability. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs)/curcumin complex has been dispersed in a water solution containing a known nickel ion concentration. After three days, a grey precipitate is observed and nickel concentration in the solution is reduced by about 70%. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr02583k

  19. Drastic Environmental Change on Mars: Applying the Lessons Learned on Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairen, A.; Schulze-Makuch, D.; Irwin, L. N.

    2014-12-01

    Rapid and drastic environmental change has occurred frequently on Earth, posing a critical challenge to life. However, directional selection has overcome those challenges and driven life on our planet to ever increasing diversity and complexity. Based on our knowledge of the natural history of Earth, the effect of drastic environmental changes on a planet's biosphere can be attributed to three main factors: (1) the nature and time scale of change, (2) the composition of the biosphere prior to change, and (3) the nature of the environment following the change. Mars has undergone even larger environmental changes than Earth, from habitable conditions under which the origin of life (or transfer of life from Earth) seem plausible, to a dry and cold planet punctuated by wetter conditions. Given its planetary history, life on Mars could have retreated to a psychrophilic lifestyle in the deep subsurface or to environmental near-surface niches, such as hydrothermal regions and caves. Further, strong directional selection could have pushed putative martian life to evolve alternating cycles between active and dormant forms, as well as the innovation of new traits adapted to challenging near-surface conditions (e.g., use of H2O2 or perchlorates as antifreeze compounds).

  20. Drastic effect of the Mn-substitution in the strongly correlated semiconductor FeSb2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Mohamed A.; Tabata, Yoshikazu; Waki, Takeshi; Nakamura, Hiroyuki

    2017-06-01

    We report the effects of Mn substitution, corresponding to hole doping, on the electronic properties of the narrow gap semiconductor, FeSb2, using single crystals of Fe1- x Mn x Sb2 grown by the Sb flux method. The orthorhombic Pnnm structure was confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) for the pure and Mn-substituted samples. Their crystal structure parameters were refined using the Rietveld method. The chemical composition was investigated by wavelength-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (WDX). The solubility limit of Mn in FeSb2 is x max ˜ 0.05 and the lattice constants change monotonically with increasing the actual Mn concentration. A drastic change from semiconducting to metallic electronic transports was found at very low Mn concentration at x ˜ 0.01. Our experimental results and analysis indicate that the substitution of a small amount of Mn changes drastically the electronic state in FeSb2 as well as the Co-substitution does: closing of the narrow gap and emergence of the density of states (DOS) at the Fermi level.

  1. Reporting of the air pollution situation in Norway according to EU's new air quality directives. Proposal of a GIS-based tool for reporting on visualisation of the air pollution situation in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larssen, Steinar; Thanh, The Nguyen; Hagen, Leif Otto; Endregard, Geir

    1999-12-01

    Norway shall, after 2001, annually report to the EU on the air quality situation in all zones. This report presents a proposal on a data (GIS)-based tool that will make this reporting more efficient. the concept is to visualise the AQ situation in the zones by means of values and isolines on maps, with zooming possibilities. (author)

  2. Landsat sattelite multi-spectral image classification of land cover and land use changes for GIS-based urbanization analysis in irrigation districts of lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Lower Rio Grande Valley in the south of Texas is experiencing rapid increase of population to bring up urban growth that continues influencing on the irrigation districts in the region. This study evaluated the Landsat satellite multi-spectral imagery to provide information for GIS-based urbaniz...

  3. Assessment of groundwater vulnerability in the coastal region of Oman using DRASTIC index method in GIS environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamrah, Ahmad; Al-Futaisi, Ahmed; Rajmohan, Natarajan; Al-Yaroubi, Saif

    2008-12-01

    A study was carried out to develop a vulnerability map for Barka region in the North Batina of Oman using DRASTIC vulnerability index method in GIS environment. DRASTIC layers were created using data from published reports and the seven DRASTIC layers were processed by the ArcGIS geographic information system. Finally, DRASTIC maps were created for 1995 and 2004 to understand the long-term changes in the vulnerability index. DRASTIC vulnerability maps were evaluated using groundwater quality data such as chemical and biological parameters. DRASTIC vulnerability maps of 1995 and 2004 indicate that the northern part of Barka is more vulnerable to pollution than southern part and the central part of Barka also shows high relative vulnerability which is mostly related to the high conductivity values. Moreover, the changes in water level due to high abstraction rate of groundwater reflect in the vulnerability maps and low vulnerability area is increased in the southern part during 2004 compared to 1995. Moreover, regional distribution maps of nitrate, chloride and total and fecal coliforms are well correlated with DRASTIC vulnerability maps. In contrast to this, even though DRASTIC method predicted the central part of the study region is highly vulnerable, both chemical and biological parameters show lower concentrations in this region compared to coastal belt, which is mainly due to agricultural and urban development. In Barka, urban development and agricultural activities are very high in coastal region compared to southern and central part of the study area. Hence, this study concluded that DRASTIC method is also applicable in coastal region having ubiquitous contamination sources.

  4. Pressure-induced drastic structural change in liquid CdTe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, T.; Hattori, T.; Narushima, T.; Tsuji, K.

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the structure of liquid CdTe at pressures up to 6 GPa by synchrotron x-ray diffraction. The structure factor, S(Q), and the pair distribution function, g(r), change drastically within a small pressure interval of about 1 GPa (between 1.8 and 3 GPa). The S(Q),g(r), and other structural parameters, such as the average coordination number, CN, and the ratios of peak positions in S(Q) or g(r), reveal that the change originates from the pressure-induced modification in the local structure from the zinc-blende-like form into the rocksaltlike one. The liquid CdTe shows a high-pressure behavior similar to that in the crystalline counterpart in terms of the sharpness of the structural change and the high-pressure sequence in the local structure

  5. Drastic Pressure Effect on the Extremely Large Magnetoresistance in WTe2: Quantum Oscillation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, P L; Hu, J; He, L P; Pan, J; Hong, X C; Zhang, Z; Zhang, J; Wei, J; Mao, Z Q; Li, S Y

    2015-07-31

    The quantum oscillations of the magnetoresistance under ambient and high pressure have been studied for WTe2 single crystals, in which extremely large magnetoresistance was discovered recently. By analyzing the Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations, four Fermi surfaces are identified, and two of them are found to persist to high pressure. The sizes of these two pockets are comparable, but show increasing difference with pressure. At 0.3 K and in 14.5 T, the magnetoresistance decreases drastically from 1.25×10(5)% under ambient pressure to 7.47×10(3)% under 23.6 kbar, which is likely caused by the relative change of Fermi surfaces. These results support the scenario that the perfect balance between the electron and hole populations is the origin of the extremely large magnetoresistance in WTe2.

  6. Flood Hazard Assessment along the Western Regions of Saudi Arabia using GIS-based Morphometry and Remote Sensing Techniques

    KAUST Repository

    Shi, Qianwen

    2014-12-01

    Flash flooding, as a result of excessive rainfall in a short period, is considered as one of the worst environmental hazards in arid regions. Areas located in the western provinces of Saudi Arabia have experienced catastrophic floods. Geomorphologic evaluation of hydrographic basins provides necessary information to define basins with flood hazard potential in arid regions, especially where long-term field observations are scarce and limited. Six large basins (from North to South: Yanbu, Rabigh, Khulais, El-Qunfza, Baish and Jizan) were selected for this study because they have large surface areas and they encompass high capacity dams at their downstream areas. Geographic Information System (GIS) and remote sensing techniques were applied to conduct detailed morphometric analysis of these basins. The six basins were further divided into 203 sub-basins based on their drainage density. The morphometric parameters of the six basins and their associated 203 sub-basins were calculated to estimate the degree of flood hazard by combining normalized values of these parameters. Thus, potential flood hazard maps were produced from the estimated hazard degree. Furthermore, peak runoff discharge of the six basins and sub-basins were estimated using the Snyder Unit Hydrograph and three empirical models (Nouh’s model, Farquharson’s model and Al-Subai’s model) developed for Saudi Arabia. Additionally, recommendations for flood mitigation plans and water management schemes along these basins were further discussed.

  7. Utilizing coal remaining resources and post-mining land use planning based on GIS-based optimization method : study case at PT Adaro coal mine in South Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Anis

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Coal mining activities may cause a series of environmental and socio-economic issues in communities around the mining area. Mining can become an obstacle to environmental sustainability and a major hidden danger to the security of the local ecology. Therefore, the coal mining industry should follow some specific principles and factors in achieving sustainable development. These factors include geological conditions, land use, mining technology, environmental sustainability policies and government regulations, socio-economic factors, as well as sustainability optimization for post-mining land use. Resources of the remains of the coal which is defined as the last remaining condition of the resources and reserves of coal when the coal companies have already completed the life of the mine or the expiration of the licensing contract (in accordance with government permission. This research uses approch of knowledge-driven GIS based methods mainly Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP and Fuzzy logic for utilizing coal remaining resources and post-mining land use planning. The mining area selected for this study belongs to a PKP2B (Work Agreement for Coal Mining company named Adaro Indonesia (PT Adaro. The result shows that geologically the existing formation is dominated by Coal Bearing Formation (Warukin Formation which allows the presence of remains coal resource potential after the lifetime of mine, and the suitability of rubber plantation for the optimization of land use in all mining sites and also in some disposal places in conservation areas and protected forests.

  8. Probable existence of a Gondwana transcontinental rift system in western India: Implications in hydrocarbon exploration in Kutch and Saurashtra offshore: A GIS-based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazumder, S.; Tep, Blecy; Pangtey, K. K. S.; Das, K. K.; Mitra, D. S.

    2017-08-01

    The Gondwanaland assembly rifted dominantly during Late Carboniferous-Early Permian forming several intracratonic rift basins. These rifts were subsequently filled with a thick sequence of continental clastic sediments with minor marine intercalations in early phase. In western part of India, these sediments are recorded in enclaves of Bikaner-Nagaur and Jaisalmer basins in Rajasthan. Facies correlatives of these sediments are observed in a number of basins that were earlier thought to be associated with the western part of India. The present work is a GIS based approach to reconnect those basins to their position during rifting and reconstruct the tectono-sedimentary environment at that time range. The study indicates a rift system spanning from Arabian plate in the north and extending to southern part of Africa that passes through Indus basin, western part of India and Madagascar, and existed from Late Carboniferous to Early Jurassic. Extensions related to the opening of Neo-Tethys led to the formation of a number of cross trends in the rift systems that acted as barriers to marine transgressions from the north as well as disrupted the earlier continuous longitudinal drainage systems. The axis of this rift system is envisaged to pass through present day offshore Kutch and Saurashtra and implies a thick deposit of Late Carboniferous to Early Jurassic sediments in these areas. Based on analogy with other basins associated with this rift system, these sediments may be targeted for hydrocarbon exploration.

  9. Assessment of the Agronomic Feasibility of Bioenergy Crop Cultivation on Marginal and Polluted Land: A GIS-Based Suitability Study from the Sulcis Area, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Pulighe

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In the context of environmental sustainability there has been an increasing interest in bioenergy production from renewable resources, and is expected that European biofuel production from energy crops will increase as a consequence of the achievement of policy targets. The aim of this paper is to assess the agronomic feasibility of biomass crop cultivation to provide profitable renewable feedstocks in a marginal and heavy-metal polluted area located in the Sulcis district, Sardinia (Italy. Results from literature review and unpublished data from field trials carried out in Sardinia were analysed to establish the main agronomic traits of crops (e.g., yield potential and input requirements. A Geographical Information System (GIS-based procedure with remotely sensed data is also used to evaluate the land suitability and the actual land use/cover, considering a future scenario of expansion of energy crops on these marginal areas avoiding potential conflicts with food production. The results of the review suggests that giant reed, native perennial grasses and milk thistle are the most suitable energy crops for this area. The land suitability analysis shows that about 5700 ha and 1000 ha could be available for feedstock cultivation in the study area and in the most polluted area, respectively. The results obtained from land suitability process and agronomic evaluation will serve as a base to support technical and economical feasibility studies, as well as for the evaluation of environmental sustainability of the cultivation in the study area.

  10. Delineation of Suitable Cropland Areas Using a GIS Based Multi-Criteria Evaluation Approach in the Tam Dao National Park Region, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duong Dang Khoi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Land degradation is recognized as one of the major threats to the buffer zones of protected areas (PAs in Vietnam. In particular, the expansion of land degradation into the PAs is exerting pressure on biodiversity conservation efforts. This degradation is partially the result of mismanagement: the utilization of the land is often unmatched with the inherent suitability of the land. Identification of the spatial distribution of suitable areas for cropland is essential for sustainable land-use recommendation. This paper aims to delineate the areas suitable for cropland in the Tam Dao National Park (TDNP region using a GIS-based multi-criteria evaluation of biophysical factors and Landsat ETM+ imagery. GIS is used to generate the factors, while MCE is used to aggregate them into a land suitability index. The results indicate the location and extent of crop farming areas at different suitability levels, i.e., most suitable (28.10%, moderately suitable (23.96%, marginally suitable (28.77%, and least suitable (19.17%. The current cropland covers 46.5% of the study area, while most and moderately suitable areas are estimated to be 52.06% of the territory. The results can be used to identify priority areas for crop farming and sustainable land-use management. The GIS-MCE approach provides an effective assessment tool for land-use managers working in protected areas of Vietnam.

  11. Estimating the GIS-based soil loss and sediment delivery ratio to the sea for four major basins in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S E; Kang, S H

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a sediment delivery ratio (SDR) using the Geographic Information System (GIS)-based Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE), to calculate the soil loss and sediment rating curve (SRC) basis of measured data in the six basins of Four Rivers, South Korea. The data set for calculating SDR was prepared during 3 years from 2008 to 2010. Mean soil loss in the six basins of Four Rivers was 515-869 t km(-2) yr(-1) and mean specific sediment yield (SSY) was 20-208 t km(-2) yr(-1) with basin size. The SDR ranged from 0.03 to 0.33 in the six rivers. Most sediment flows in the monsoon period from June to September (mean Max.: >97%; mean Min.: >84%), but SDR is lower than those of similar continental river basins. This is due to environmental factors, for example rainfall characteristics and associated run-off, soil characteristics and cultivated patterns with increasing basin size. This research provides the first application of SDR based on the observed field data in South Korea.

  12. Susceptibility assessment of landslides: A comparison of two GIS-based methods in the region of Al Hoceima (Eastern Rif, Morocco.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Fahchouch A. N.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of the degree of susceptibility to landslides has become a major concern in mountainous areas, it is a key component of manager policies efforts in disaster prevention, mitigate risk and manage the consequences. The region of Al Hoceima is one of most mountain regions in Morocco, and is highly exposed landslides events. For this reason, the area was selected in order to determine its susceptibility to landslides using two methods. The purpose of this study is to evaluate and to compare the results of multivariate (logical regression and bivariate (landslide susceptibility methods in Geographical Information System (GIS based landslide susceptibility assessment procedures. In order to achieve this goal, the selected methods were compared by the Seed Cell Area Indexes (SCAI and by the spatial locations of the resultant susceptibility pixels. We found that both of the methods converge in 80% of the area; however, the weighting algorithm in the bivariate technique (landslide susceptibility method had some severe deficiencies, as the resultant hazard classes in overweighed areas did not converge with the factual landslide inventory map. The result of the multivariate technique (logical regression was more sensitive to the different local features of the test zone and it resulted in more accurate and homogeneous susceptibility maps. This information may have direct applications in landslides susceptibility research programs and can assist decision-makers in the implementation of preventive management strategies in the most sensitive areas.

  13. A GIS based watershed information system for water resources management and planning in semi-arid areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzabiras, John; Spiliotopoulos, Marios; Kokkinos, Kostantinos; Fafoutis, Chrysostomos; Sidiropoulos, Pantelis; Vasiliades, Lampros; Papaioannou, George; Loukas, Athanasios; Mylopoulos, Nikitas

    2015-04-01

    The overall objective of this work is the development of an Information System which could be used by stakeholders for the purposes of water management as well as for planning and strategic decision-making in semi-arid areas. An integrated modeling system has been developed and applied to evaluate the sustainability of water resources management strategies in Lake Karla watershed, Greece. The modeling system, developed in the framework of "HYDROMENTOR" research project, is based on a GIS modelling approach which uses remote sensing data and includes coupled models for the simulation of surface water and groundwater resources, the operation of hydrotechnical projects (reservoir operation and irrigation works) and the estimation of water demands at several spatial scales. Lake Karla basin was the region where the system was tested but the methodology may be the basis for future analysis elsewhere. Τwo (2) base and three (3) management scenarios were investigated. In total, eight (8) water management scenarios were evaluated: i) Base scenario without operation of the reservoir and the designed Lake Karla district irrigation network (actual situation) • Reduction of channel losses • Alteration of irrigation methods • Introduction of greenhouse cultivation ii) Base scenario including the operation of the reservoir and the Lake Karla district irrigation network • Reduction of channel losses • Alteration of irrigation methods • Introduction of greenhouse cultivation The results show that, under the existing water resources management, the water deficit of Lake Karla watershed is very large. However, the operation of the reservoir and the cooperative Lake Karla district irrigation network coupled with water demand management measures, like reduction of water distribution system losses and alteration of irrigation methods, could alleviate the problem and lead to sustainable and ecological use of water resources in the study area. Acknowledgements: This study

  14. Future integrated aquifer vulnerability assessment considering land use / land cover and climate change using DRASTIC and SWAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, W.; Engel, B.; Chaubey, I.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change causes significant changes to temperature regimes and precipitation patterns across the world. Such alterations in climate pose serious risks for not only inland freshwater ecosystems but also groundwater systems, and may adversely affect numerous critical services they provide to humans. All groundwater results from precipitation, and precipitation is affected by climate change. Climate change is also influenced by land use / land cover (LULC) change and vice versa. According to Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reports, climate change is caused by global warming which is generated by the increase of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the atmosphere. LULC change is a major driving factor causing an increase in GHG emissions. LULC change data (years 2006-2100) will be produced by the Land Transformation Model (LTM) which simulates spatial patterns of LULC change over time. MIROC5 (years 2006-2100) will be obtained considering GCMs and ensemble characteristics such as resolution and trend of temperature and precipitation which is a consistency check with observed data from local weather stations and historical data from GCMs output data. Thus, MIROC5 will be used to account for future climate change scenarios and relationship between future climate change and alteration of groundwater quality in this study. For efficient groundwater resources management, integrated aquifer vulnerability assessments (= intrinsic vulnerability + hazard potential assessment) are required. DRASTIC will be used to evaluate intrinsic vulnerability, and aquifer hazard potential will be evaluated by Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) which can simulate pollution potential from surface and transport properties of contaminants. Thus, for effective integrated aquifer vulnerability assessment for LULC and climate change in the Midwestern United States, future projected LULC and climate data from the LTM and GCMs will be incorporated with DRASTIC and SWAT. It is

  15. A GIS-based spatial correlation analysis for ambient air pollution and AECOPD hospitalizations in Jinan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenqiao; Ying, Yangyang; Wu, Quanyuan; Zhang, Haiping; Ma, Dedong; Xiao, Wei

    2015-03-01

    Acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD) are important events during disease procedure. AECOPD have negative effect on patients' quality of life, symptoms and lung function, and result in high socioeconomic costs. Though previous studies have demonstrated the significant association between outdoor air pollution and AECOPD hospitalizations, little is known about the spatial relationship utilized a spatial analyzing technique- Geographical Information System (GIS). Using GIS to investigate the spatial association between ambient air pollution and AECOPD hospitalizations in Jinan City, 2009. 414 AECOPD hospitalization cases in Jinan, 2009 were enrolled in our analysis. Monthly concentrations of five monitored air pollutants (NO2, SO2, PM10, O3, CO) during January 2009-December 2009 were provided by Environmental Protection Agency of Shandong Province. Each individual was geocoded in ArcGIS10.0 software. The spatial distribution of five pollutants and the temporal-spatial specific air pollutants exposure level for each individual was estimated by ordinary Kriging model. Spatial autocorrelation (Global Moran's I) was employed to explore the spatial association between ambient air pollutants and AECOPD hospitalizations. A generalized linear model (GLM) using a Poisson distribution with log-link function was used to construct a core model. At residence, concentrations of SO2, PM10, NO2, CO, O3 and AECOPD hospitalization cases showed statistical significant spatially clustered. The Z-score of SO2, PM10, CO, O3, NO2 at residence is 15.88, 13.93, 12.60, 4.02, 2.44 respectively, while at workplace, concentrations of PM10, SO2, O3, CO and AECOPD hospitalization cases showed statistical significant spatially clustered. The Z-score of PM10, SO2, O3, CO at workplace is 11.39, 8.07, 6.10, and 5.08 respectively. After adjusting for potential confounders in the model, only the PM10 concentrations at workplace showed statistical significance, with a 10 μg/m(3) increase of PM10 at

  16. Comparison of regression coefficient and GIS-based methodologies for regional estimates of forest soil carbon stocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott Campbell, J.; Moen, Jeremie C.; Ney, Richard A.; Schnoor, Jerald L.

    2008-01-01

    Estimates of forest soil organic carbon (SOC) have applications in carbon science, soil quality studies, carbon sequestration technologies, and carbon trading. Forest SOC has been modeled using a regression coefficient methodology that applies mean SOC densities (mass/area) to broad forest regions. A higher resolution model is based on an approach that employs a geographic information system (GIS) with soil databases and satellite-derived landcover images. Despite this advancement, the regression approach remains the basis of current state and federal level greenhouse gas inventories. Both approaches are analyzed in detail for Wisconsin forest soils from 1983 to 2001, applying rigorous error-fixing algorithms to soil databases. Resulting SOC stock estimates are 20% larger when determined using the GIS method rather than the regression approach. Average annual rates of increase in SOC stocks are 3.6 and 1.0 million metric tons of carbon per year for the GIS and regression approaches respectively. - Large differences in estimates of soil organic carbon stocks and annual changes in stocks for Wisconsin forestlands indicate a need for validation from forthcoming forest surveys

  17. A GIS-based assessment of coal-based hydrogen infrastructure deployment in the state of Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Nils; Yang, Christopher; Ogden, Joan

    2008-01-01

    Hydrogen infrastructure costs will vary by region as geographic characteristics and feedstocks differ. This paper proposes a method for optimizing regional hydrogen infrastructure deployment by combining detailed spatial data in a geographic information system (GIS) with a technoeconomic model of hydrogen infrastructure components. The method is applied to a case study in Ohio in which coal-based hydrogen infrastructure with carbon capture and storage (CCS) is modeled for two distribution modes at several steady-state hydrogen vehicle market penetration levels. The paper identifies the optimal infrastructure design at each market penetration as well as the costs, CO 2 emissions, and energy use associated with each infrastructure pathway. The results indicate that aggregating infrastructure at the regional-scale yields lower levelized costs of hydrogen than at the city-level at a given market penetration level, and centralized production with pipeline distribution is the favored pathway even at low market penetration. Based upon the hydrogen infrastructure designs evaluated in this paper, coal-based hydrogen production with CCS can significantly reduce transportation-related CO 2 emissions at a relatively low infrastructure cost and levelized fuel cost. (author)

  18. A GIS-based approach for identifying potential runoff harvesting sites in the Thukela River basin, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Winnaar, G.; Jewitt, G. P. W.; Horan, M.

    Water scarce countries such as South Africa are subject to various hydrological constraints which can often be attributed to poor rainfall partitioning, particularly within resource poor farming communities that are reliant on rainfed agriculture. Recent initiatives to address this have shifted focus to explore more efficient alternatives to water supply and the recognition of numerous opportunities to implement runoff harvesting as a means to supplement water availability. However, increasing the implementation of runoff harvesting, without encountering unintended impacts on downstream hydrological and ecological systems, requires better understanding of the hydrologic and environmental impacts at catchment scale. In this paper the representation of spatial variations in landscape characteristics such as soil, land use, rainfall and slope information is shown to be an important step in identifying potential runoff harvesting sites, after which modelling the hydrological response in catchments where extensive runoff harvesting is being considered can be performed and likely impacts assessed. Geographic information systems (GIS) was utilised as an integrating tool to store, analyse and manage spatial information and when linked to hydrological response models, provided a rational means to facilitate decision making by providing catchment level identification, planning and assessment of runoff harvesting sites as illustrated by a case study at the Potshini catchment, a small sub-catchment in the Thukela River basin, South Africa. Through the linked GIS, potential runoff harvesting sites are identified relative to areas that concentrate runoff and where the stored water will be appropriately distributed. Based on GIS analysis it was found that 17% percent of the Potshini catchment area has a high potential for generating surface runoff, whereas an analysis of all factors which influence the location of such systems, shows that 18% is highly suitable for runoff

  19. Casein phosphopeptides drastically increase the secretion of extracellular proteins in Aspergillus awamori. Proteomics studies reveal changes in the secretory pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosalková, Katarina; García-Estrada, Carlos; Barreiro, Carlos; Flórez, Martha G; Jami, Mohammad S; Paniagua, Miguel A; Martín, Juan F

    2012-01-10

    The secretion of heterologous animal proteins in filamentous fungi is usually limited by bottlenecks in the vesicle-mediated secretory pathway. Using the secretion of bovine chymosin in Aspergillus awamori as a model, we found a drastic increase (40 to 80-fold) in cells grown with casein or casein phosphopeptides (CPPs). CPPs are rich in phosphoserine, but phosphoserine itself did not increase the secretion of chymosin. The stimulatory effect is reduced about 50% using partially dephosphorylated casein and is not exerted by casamino acids. The phosphopeptides effect was not exerted at transcriptional level, but instead, it was clearly observed on the secretion of chymosin by immunodetection analysis. Proteomics studies revealed very interesting metabolic changes in response to phosphopeptides supplementation. The oxidative metabolism was reduced, since enzymes involved in fermentative processes were overrepresented. An oxygen-binding hemoglobin-like protein was overrepresented in the proteome following phosphopeptides addition. Most interestingly, the intracellular pre-protein enzymes, including pre-prochymosin, were depleted (most of them are underrepresented in the intracellular proteome after the addition of CPPs), whereas the extracellular mature form of several of these secretable proteins and cell-wall biosynthetic enzymes was greatly overrepresented in the secretome of phosphopeptides-supplemented cells. Another important 'moonlighting' protein (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase), which has been described to have vesicle fusogenic and cytoskeleton formation modulating activities, was clearly overrepresented in phosphopeptides-supplemented cells. In summary, CPPs cause the reprogramming of cellular metabolism, which leads to massive secretion of extracellular proteins.

  20. Drastic underestimation of amphipod biodiversity in the endangered Irano-Anatolian and Caucasus biodiversity hotspots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katouzian, Ahmad-Reza; Sari, Alireza; Macher, Jan N; Weiss, Martina; Saboori, Alireza; Leese, Florian; Weigand, Alexander M

    2016-03-01

    Biodiversity hotspots are centers of biological diversity and particularly threatened by anthropogenic activities. Their true magnitude of species diversity and endemism, however, is still largely unknown as species diversity is traditionally assessed using morphological descriptions only, thereby ignoring cryptic species. This directly limits evidence-based monitoring and management strategies. Here we used molecular species delimitation methods to quantify cryptic diversity of the montane amphipods in the Irano-Anatolian and Caucasus biodiversity hotspots. Amphipods are ecosystem engineers in rivers and lakes. Species diversity was assessed by analysing two genetic markers (mitochondrial COI and nuclear 28S rDNA), compared with morphological assignments. Our results unambiguously demonstrate that species diversity and endemism is dramatically underestimated, with 42 genetically identified freshwater species in only five reported morphospecies. Over 90% of the newly recovered species cluster inside Gammarus komareki and G. lacustris; 69% of the recovered species comprise narrow range endemics. Amphipod biodiversity is drastically underestimated for the studied regions. Thus, the risk of biodiversity loss is significantly greater than currently inferred as most endangered species remain unrecognized and/or are only found locally. Integrative application of genetic assessments in monitoring programs will help to understand the true magnitude of biodiversity and accurately evaluate its threat status.

  1. Nanostructure design for drastic reduction of thermal conductivity while preserving high electrical conductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yoshiaki

    2018-01-01

    The design and fabrication of nanostructured materials to control both thermal and electrical properties are demonstrated for high-performance thermoelectric conversion. We have focused on silicon (Si) because it is an environmentally friendly and ubiquitous element. High bulk thermal conductivity of Si limits its potential as a thermoelectric material. The thermal conductivity of Si has been reduced by introducing grains, or wires, yet a further reduction is required while retaining a high electrical conductivity. We have designed two different nanostructures for this purpose. One structure is connected Si nanodots (NDs) with the same crystal orientation. The phonons scattering at the interfaces of these NDs occurred and it depended on the ND size. As a result of phonon scattering, the thermal conductivity of this nanostructured material was below/close to the amorphous limit. The other structure is Si films containing epitaxially grown Ge NDs. The Si layer imparted high electrical conductivity, while the Ge NDs served as phonon scattering bodies reducing thermal conductivity drastically. This work gives a methodology for the independent control of electron and phonon transport using nanostructured materials. This can bring the realization of thermoelectric Si-based materials that are compatible with large scale integrated circuit processing technologies.

  2. Investigation of the drastic change in the sputter rate of polymers at low ion fluence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zekonyte, J.; Zaporojtchenko, V.; Faupel, F.

    2005-01-01

    The polymer sputter rate dependence on ion fluence and ion chemistry (Ar, N 2 , O 2 ) at 1 keV energy was investigated using a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) which allowed to do real time etch rate measurements and to study kinetics of sputtering. The obtained sputter rates differed drastically from polymer to polymer showing, that the chemical structure of polymer is an important factor in the polymer etch yield. A decrease in the sputter rate was observed up to ion fluence of 5 x 10 14 -5 x 10 15 cm -2 (depending on the polymer type and ion chemistry) followed by the saturation in the rate at prolonged ion bombardment. Polymer removal was accompanied by the formation of degradation products, cross-linking or branching, modification of the surface chemical structure, which was studied in situ using XPS. The dependence of the surface glass transition temperature, T gs on the ion fluence was studied using the method based on the embedding of metallic nanoparticles. The correlation between chemical yield data and ablation rate is discussed

  3. Abrupt stop of deep water turnover with lake warming: Drastic consequences for algal primary producers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yankova, Yana; Neuenschwander, Stefan; Köster, Oliver; Posch, Thomas

    2017-10-23

    After strong fertilization in the 20 th century, many deep lakes in Central Europe are again nutrient poor due to long-lasting restoration (re-oligotrophication). In line with reduced phosphorus and nitrogen loadings, total organismic productivity decreased and lakes have now historically low nutrient and biomass concentrations. This caused speculations that restoration was overdone and intended fertilizations are needed to ensure ecological functionality. Here we show that recent re-oligotrophication processes indeed accelerated, however caused by lake warming. Rising air temperatures strengthen thermal stabilization of water columns which prevents thorough turnover (holomixis). Reduced mixis impedes down-welling of oxygen rich epilimnetic (surface) and up-welling of phosphorus and nitrogen rich hypolimnetic (deep) water. However, nutrient inputs are essential for algal spring blooms acting as boost for annual food web successions. We show that repeated lack (since 1977) and complete stop (since 2013) of holomixis caused drastic epilimnetic phosphorus depletions and an absence of phytoplankton spring blooms in Lake Zurich (Switzerland). By simulating holomixis in experiments, we could induce significant vernal algal blooms, confirming that there would be sufficient hypolimnetic phosphorus which presently accumulates due to reduced export. Thus, intended fertilizations are highly questionable, as hypolimnetic nutrients will become available during future natural or artificial turnovers.

  4. GIS-based technology for marine geohazards in LW3-1 Gas Field of the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Tianyun; Liu, Lejun; Li, Xishuang; Hu, Guanghai; Liu, Haixing; Zhou, Lin

    2013-04-01

    been carried out with ships and AUV to collect multidisciplinary and massive submarine data such as multi-beam bathymetric data, sidescan sonar images, shallow-bottom profiling images, high-resolution multi-channel seismic data and boring test data. In order to make good use of these precious data, GIS technology is used in our research. Data model is designed to depict the structure, organization and relationship between multi disciplinary submarine data. With these data models, database is established to manage and share the attribute and spatial data effectively. The spatial datasets, such as contours, TIN models, DEM models, etc., can be generated. Some submarine characteristics, such as slope, aspects, curvature, landslide volume, etc., can be calculated and extracted with spatial analysis tools. The thematic map can be produced easily based on database and generated spatial dataset. Through thematic map, the multidisciplinary data spatial relationship can be easily established and provide helpful information for regional submarine geohazards identification, assessments and prediction. The produced thematic map of the LW3-1 Gas Field, reveal the strike of the seafloor topography to be NE to SW. Five geomorphological zones have been divided, which include the outer continental shelf margin zone with sand waves and mega-ripples, the continental slope zone with coral reefs and sand waves, the continental slope zone with a monocline shape, the continental slope zone with fault terraces and the continental slope zone with turbidity current deposits.

  5. GIS-based regionalized life cycle assessment: how big is small enough? Methodology and case study of electricity generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutel, Christopher L; Pfister, Stephan; Hellweg, Stefanie

    2012-01-17

    We describe a new methodology for performing regionalized life cycle assessment and systematically choosing the spatial scale of regionalized impact assessment methods. We extend standard matrix-based calculations to include matrices that describe the mapping from inventory to impact assessment spatial supports. Uncertainty in inventory spatial data is modeled using a discrete spatial distribution function, which in a case study is derived from empirical data. The minimization of global spatial autocorrelation is used to choose the optimal spatial scale of impact assessment methods. We demonstrate these techniques on electricity production in the United States, using regionalized impact assessment methods for air emissions and freshwater consumption. Case study results show important differences between site-generic and regionalized calculations, and provide specific guidance for future improvements of inventory data sets and impact assessment methods.

  6. GIS-based spatial statistical analysis of risk areas for liver flukes in Surin Province of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rujirakul, Ratana; Ueng-arporn, Naporn; Kaewpitoon, Soraya; Loyd, Ryan J; Kaewthani, Sarochinee; Kaewpitoon, Natthawut

    2015-01-01

    It is urgently necessary to be aware of the distribution and risk areas of liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini, for proper allocation of prevention and control measures. This study aimed to investigate the human behavior, and environmental factors influencing the distribution in Surin Province of Thailand, and to build a model using stepwise multiple regression analysis with a geographic information system (GIS) on environment and climate data. The relationship between the human behavior, attitudes (R Square=0.878, and, Adjust R Square=0.849. By GIS analysis, we found Si Narong, Sangkha, Phanom Dong Rak, Mueang Surin, Non Narai, Samrong Thap, Chumphon Buri, and Rattanaburi to have the highest distributions in Surin province. In conclusion, the combination of GIS and statistical analysis can help simulate the spatial distribution and risk areas of liver fluke, and thus may be an important tool for future planning of prevention and control measures.

  7. GIS-based debris flow source and runout susceptibility assessment from DEM data – a case study in NW Nicaragua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Vilaplana

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available In October 1998, Hurricane Mitch triggered numerous landslides (mainly debris flows in Honduras and Nicaragua, resulting in a high death toll and in considerable damage to property. The potential application of relatively simple and affordable spatial prediction models for landslide hazard mapping in developing countries was studied. Our attention was focused on a region in NW Nicaragua, one of the most severely hit places during the Mitch event. A landslide map was obtained at 1:10 000 scale in a Geographic Information System (GIS environment from the interpretation of aerial photographs and detailed field work. In this map the terrain failure zones were distinguished from the areas within the reach of the mobilized materials. A Digital Elevation Model (DEM with 20 m×20 m of pixel size was also employed in the study area. A comparative analysis of the terrain failures caused by Hurricane Mitch and a selection of 4 terrain factors extracted from the DEM which, contributed to the terrain instability, was carried out. Land propensity to failure was determined with the aid of a bivariate analysis and GIS tools in a terrain failure susceptibility map. In order to estimate the areas that could be affected by the path or deposition of the mobilized materials, we considered the fact that under intense rainfall events debris flows tend to travel long distances following the maximum slope and merging with the drainage network. Using the TauDEM extension for ArcGIS software we generated automatically flow lines following the maximum slope in the DEM starting from the areas prone to failure in the terrain failure susceptibility map. The areas crossed by the flow lines from each terrain failure susceptibility class correspond to the runout susceptibility classes represented in a runout susceptibility map. The study of terrain failure and runout susceptibility enabled us to obtain a spatial prediction for landslides, which could contribute to landslide risk

  8. Rat-bites of an epidemic proportion in Peshawar vale; a GIS based approach in risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Syeda Hira; Zaidi, Farrah; Adnan, Muhammad; Ali, Asad; Jamal, Qaiser; Khisroon, Muhammad

    2018-03-19

    Contemporary studies demonstrate that rodent bites do not occur frequently. However, a huge number of cases were reported from Peshawar vale, Pakistan during 2016. Two species, the local black rat Rattus rattus (Linnaeus, 1758) and the invasive brown rat Rattus norvegicus (Berkenhout, 1769) might be the suspected cause. Several studies indicated the invasion of brown rats into Pakistan presumably via port city of Karachi. In this study, we modeled geospatial distribution of rodent bites for risk assessment in the region. Bite cases reported to tertiary care lady reading hospital were monitored from January 1 to August 31, 2016. Among 1747 cases, statistically informative data (n = 1295) was used for analyses. MaxEnt algorithm was employed for geospatial modeling, taking into account various environmental variables (temperature, precipitation, humidity, and elevation) and anthropogenic factors (human population density, distance from roads, distance from water channels, and land use/land cover). MaxEnt results revealed that urban slums (84.5%) are at highest risk followed by croplands (10.9%) and shrublands (2.7%). Anthropogenic factors affecting incidence of rodent bites included host density (contribution: 34.7), distance from water channels (3.2), land use/land cover (2.8), and distance from roads (2). Most of the cases occurred within a radius of 0.3 km from roads and 5 km from water channels. Rodent bite incidence is currently at its peak in Peshawar vale. Factors significantly affecting rodents' bite activity and their distribution and dispersal include urbanization, distance from roads, and water channels. Further studies are needed to determine the impact of invasion by brown rat on bite incidence.

  9. HydroDesktop: An Open Source GIS-Based Platform for Hydrologic Data Discovery, Visualization, and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, D. P.; Kadlec, J.; Cao, Y.; Grover, D.; Horsburgh, J. S.; Whiteaker, T.; Goodall, J. L.; Valentine, D. W.

    2010-12-01

    A growing number of hydrologic information servers are being deployed by government agencies, university networks, and individual researchers using the Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Science, Inc. (CUAHSI) Hydrologic Information System (HIS). The CUAHSI HIS Project has developed a standard software stack, called HydroServer, for publishing hydrologic observations data. It includes the Observations Data Model (ODM) database and Water Data Service web services, which together enable publication of data on the Internet in a standard format called Water Markup Language (WaterML). Metadata describing available datasets hosted on these servers is compiled within a central metadata catalog called HIS Central at the San Diego Supercomputer Center and is searchable through a set of predefined web services based queries. Together, these servers and central catalog service comprise a federated HIS of a scale and comprehensiveness never previously available. This presentation will briefly review/introduce the CUAHSI HIS system with special focus on a new HIS software tool called "HydroDesktop" and the open source software development web portal, www.HydroDesktop.org, which supports community development and maintenance of the software. HydroDesktop is a client-side, desktop software application that acts as a search and discovery tool for exploring the distributed network of HydroServers, downloading specific data series, visualizing and summarizing data series and exporting these to formats needed for analysis by external software. HydroDesktop is based on the open source DotSpatial GIS developer toolkit which provides it with map-based data interaction and visualization, and a plug-in interface that can be used by third party developers and researchers to easily extend the software using Microsoft .NET programming languages. HydroDesktop plug-ins that are presently available or currently under development within the project and by third party

  10. Prediction of Floor Water Inrush: The Application of GIS-Based AHP Vulnerable Index Method to Donghuantuo Coal Mine, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiang; Liu, Yuanzhang; Liu, Donghai; Zhou, Wanfang

    2011-09-01

    Floor water inrush represents a geohazard that can pose significant threat to safe operations for instance in coal mines in China and elsewhere. Its occurrence is controlled by many factors, and the processes are often not amenable to mathematical expressions. To evaluate the water inrush risk, the paper proposes the vulnerability index approach by coupling the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and geographic information system (GIS). The detailed procedures of using this innovative approach are shown in a case study in China (Donghuantuo Coal Mine). The powerful spatial data analysis functions of GIS was used to establish the thematic layer of each of the six factors that control the water inrush, and the contribution weights of each factor was determined with the AHP method. The established AHP evaluation model was used to determine the threshold value for each risk level with a histogram of the water inrush vulnerability index. As a result, the mine area was divided into five regions with different vulnerability levels which served as general guidelines for the mine operations. The prediction results were further corroborated with the actual mining data, and the evaluation result is satisfactory.

  11. GIS-based spatial regression and prediction of water quality in river networks: A case study in Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X.; Jin, W.

    2010-01-01

    Nonpoint source pollution is the leading cause of the U.S.'s water quality problems. One important component of nonpoint source pollution control is an understanding of what and how watershed-scale conditions influence ambient water quality. This paper investigated the use of spatial regression to evaluate the impacts of watershed characteristics on stream NO3NO2-N concentration in the Cedar River Watershed, Iowa. An Arc Hydro geodatabase was constructed to organize various datasets on the watershed. Spatial regression models were developed to evaluate the impacts of watershed characteristics on stream NO3NO2-N concentration and predict NO3NO2-N concentration at unmonitored locations. Unlike the traditional ordinary least square (OLS) method, the spatial regression method incorporates the potential spatial correlation among the observations in its coefficient estimation. Study results show that NO3NO2-N observations in the Cedar River Watershed are spatially correlated, and by ignoring the spatial correlation, the OLS method tends to over-estimate the impacts of watershed characteristics on stream NO3NO2-N concentration. In conjunction with kriging, the spatial regression method not only makes better stream NO3NO2-N concentration predictions than the OLS method, but also gives estimates of the uncertainty of the predictions, which provides useful information for optimizing the design of stream monitoring network. It is a promising tool for better managing and controlling nonpoint source pollution. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  12. GIS-based evaluation of multifarious local renewable energy sources: a case study of the Chigu area of southwestern Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue, C.-D.; Wang, S.-S.

    2006-01-01

    The issue of regulating greenhouse gas emissions of developing countries is one of the main reasons for the US's retreat from ratifying the Kyoto Protocal, and this deserves particular attention in order to ensure that a robust international climate policy exists in the future. Enabling developing countries to move toward low-carbon energy systems would enhance the feasibility for their participation in mitigating greenhouse gas emissions. This study evaluates wind, solar, and biomass energy sources in a rural area of Chigu in southwestern Taiwan by means of analyzing technical, economic, environmental, and political implications in order to establish an evaluation model for developing local renewable energy sources. The adopted approach evaluates local potentials of renewable energy sources with the aid of a geographic information system according to actual local conditions, and allows the assessment to consider local potentials and restrictions such as climate conditions, land uses, and ecological environments, thus enabling a more-accurate assessment than is possible with evaluations on an approximate basis. These results may help build a developmental vision for sustainable energy systems based on locally available natural resources, and facilitate a transition of national energy and environmental policies towards sustainability

  13. Using a VGI and GIS-Based Multicriteria Approach for Assessing the Potential of Rural Tourism in Extremadura (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel González-Ramiro

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Extremadura (Spain, being one of the less-developed EU regions, is also eligible for European funds, including those related with the development of tourism activities in rural areas. To assess the spatial distribution of rural tourism potential (RTP, a methodological approach was followed by combining the synergetic use of geographic information systems (GIS and the analytical hierarchical process (AHP. For the evaluation model, six factors were examined and hierarchized by a panel of eighteen experts: tourism accommodation offer, activities in natural areas, gastronomic offer, cultural activities, bath offer in natural environments, and activities in active tourism. These factors were then decomposed into thirty-two evaluation criteria and the relative importance of their weights was estimated using pairwise judgments. Using publicly available data and volunteered geographic information (VGI platforms, the related spatial and non-spatial data were collected, collated, and standardized, employing appropriate tools developed with open-source GIS software. The results, represented by a series of intensity maps, indicate the RTP scores, highlight the strengths and weaknesses in each county, and could serve as a planning tool for public and/or private investments.

  14. GIS-Based Synthetic Measurement of Sustainable Development in Loess Plateau Ecologically Fragile Area—Case of Qingyang, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenyu Lu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic measurement of regional sustainable development has been one of the key issues in the research field of sustainability. In this paper, Qingyang City located in the Loess Plateau ecologically fragile area of Northwest China is used for a case study, and the present study aims to investigate the degree of sustainable development by conducting temporal- and spatial-scale based analysis, with the assessment index system, assessment model and GIS approach well integrated. The results show that the development pattern of Qingyang generally fits the mode of unsustainable development, even in the presence of certain levels of spatial differences. The sustainable development state in ecologically fragile area of China’s Loess Plateau is non-optimistic, which is an uncoordinated status among subsystems of regional sustainable development. Although the level and tendency of regional sustainable development keeps increasing, such enhancement is abnormal. With the rapid deterioration of environmental and natural resources, their inhibitory effect on the economy and society would expand, eventually leading to the slow development rate or the recession of the entire system. The only solution is to change the traditional mode of economic development, to follow the guide of ecological economic conception so that the goal of achieving regional sustainable development strategies could be met ultimately. Meanwhile, the characteristics of different regions should be taken into account in order to achieve optimal spatial structure.

  15. Solar resources and power potential mapping in Vietnam using satellite-derived and GIS-based information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polo, J.; Bernardos, A.; Navarro, A.A.; Fernandez-Peruchena, C.M.; Ramírez, L.; Guisado, María V.; Martínez, S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Satellite-based, reanalysis data and measurements are combined for solar mapping. • Plant output modeling for PV and CSP results in simple expressions of solar potential. • Solar resource, solar potential are used in a GIS for determine technical solar potential. • Solar resource and potential maps of Vietnam are presented. - Abstract: The present paper presents maps of the solar resources in Vietnam and of the solar potential for concentrating solar power (CSP) and for grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) technology. The mapping of solar radiation components has been calculated from satellite-derived data combined with solar radiation derived from sunshine duration and other additional sources of information based on reanalysis for several atmospheric and meteorological parameters involved. Two scenarios have been selected for the study of the solar potential: CSP Parabolic Trough of 50 MWe and grid-connected Flat Plate PV plant of around 1 MWe. For each selected scenario plant performance simulations have been computed for developing simple expressions that allow the estimation of the solar potential from the annual solar irradiation and the latitude of every site in Vietnam. Finally, Geographic Information Systems (GIS) have been used for combining the solar potential with the land availability according each scenario to deliver the technical solar potential maps of Vietnam

  16. A GIS-based Spatial Decision Support System for environmentally valuable areas in the context of sustainable development of Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubacka, Marta

    2013-04-01

    The issue of spatial development, and thus proper environmental management and protection at naturally valuable areas is today considered a major hazard to the stability of the World ecological system. The increasing demand for areas with substantial environmental and landscape assets, incorrect spatial development, improper implementation of law as well as low citizen awareness bring about significant risk of irrevocable loss of naturally valuable areas. The elaboration of a Decision Support System in the form of collection of spatial data will facilitate solving complex problems concerning spatial development. The elaboration of a model utilizing a number of IT tools will boost the effectiveness of taking spatial decisions by decision-makers. Proper spatial data management becomes today a key element in management based on knowledge, namely sustainable development. Decision Support Systems are definied as model-based sets of procedures for processing data and judgments to assist a manager in his decision-making. The main purpose of the project was to elaborate the spatial decision support system for the Sieraków Landscape Park. A landscape park in Poland comprises a protected area due to environmental, historic and cultural values as well as landscape assets for the purpose of maintaining and popularizing these values in the conditions of sustainable development. It also defines the forms of protected area management and introduces bans concerning activity at these areas by means of the obligation to prepare and implement environmental protection plans by a director of the complex of landscape parks. As opposed to national parks and reserves, natural landscape parks are not the areas free from economic activity, thus agricultural lands, forest lands and other real properties located within the boundaries of natural landscape parks are subject to economic utilization Research area was subject to the analysis with respect to the implementation of investment

  17. A GIS-based human health risk assessment for urban green space planning--an example from Grugliasco (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poggio, Laura; Vrscaj, Borut

    2009-11-15

    The need to develop approaches for risk-based management of soil contamination, as well as the integration of the assessment of the human health risk (HHR) due to the soil contamination in the urban planning procedures has been the subject of recent attention of scientific literature and policy makers. The spatial analysis of environmental data offers multiple advantages for studying soil contamination and HHR assessment, facilitating the decision making process. The aim of this study was to explore the possibilities and benefits of spatial implementation of a quantitative HHR assessment methodology for a planning case in a typical urban environment where the soil is contaminated. The study area is located in the city of Grugliasco a part of the Turin (Italy) metropolitan area. The soils data were derived from a site specific soil survey and the land-use data from secondary sources. In the first step the soil contamination data were geo-statistically analysed and a spatial soil contamination data risk modelling procedure designed. In order to spatially assess the HHR computer routines were developed using GIS raster tools. The risk was evaluated for several different land uses for the planned naturalistic park area. The HHR assessment indicated that the contamination of soils with heavy metals in the area is not sufficient to induce considerable health problems due to typical human behaviour within the variety of urban land uses. An exception is the possibility of direct ingestion of contaminated soil which commonly occurs in playgrounds. The HHR evaluation in a planning case in the Grugliasco Municipality confirms the suitability of the selected planning option. The construction of the naturalistic park presents one solution for reducing the impacts of soil contamination on the health of citizens. The spatial HHR evaluation using GIS techniques is a diagnostic procedure for assessing the impacts of urban soil contamination, with which one can verify planning

  18. A Geographic Information Systems (GIS)-based analysis of modern South African rodent distributions, habitat use, and environmental tolerances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Timothy L; Lewis, Patrick J; Thies, Monte L; Williams, Justin K

    2012-11-01

    GOALS OF THIS STUDY WERE TO: (1) develop distributional maps of modern rodent genera throughout the countries of South Africa, Lesotho, and Swaziland by georeferencing museum specimens; (2) assess habitat preferences for genera by cross-referencing locality position with South African vegetation; and (3) identify mean annual precipitation and temperature range where the genera are located. Conterminous South Africa including the countries of Lesotho and Swaziland Digital databases of rodent museum specimens housed in the Ditsong National Museum of Natural History, South Africa (DM), and the Division of Mammals, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, United States (NMNH), were acquired and then sorted into a subset of specimens with associated coordinate data. The coordinate data were then used to develop distributional maps for the rodent genera present within the study area. Percent habitat occupation and descriptive statistics for six climatic variables were then determined for each genus by cross-referencing locality positions with vegetation and climatic maps. This report presents a series of maps illustrating the distribution of 35 rodent genera based on 19,471 geo-referenced specimens obtained from two major collections. Inferred habitat use by taxon is provided for both locality and specimen percent occurrence at three hierarchical habitat levels: biome, bioregion, and vegetation unit. Descriptive statistics for six climatic variables are also provided for each genus based on locality and specimen percent incidence. As rodent faunas are commonly used in paleoenvironmental reconstructions, an accurate assessment of rodent environmental tolerance ranges is necessary before confidence can be placed in an actualistic model. While the data presented here represent only a subset of the modern geographic distributions for many of the taxa examined, a wide range of environmental regimes are observed, suggesting that more research is necessary

  19. Spatial analysis of Schistosomiasis in Hubei Province, China: a GIS-based analysis of Schistosomiasis from 2009 to 2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Yan Chen

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis remains a major public health problem in China. The major endemic areas are located in the lake and marshland regions of southern China, particularly in areas along the middle and low reach of the Yangtze River. Spatial analytical techniques are often used in epidemiology to identify spatial clusters in disease regions. This study assesses the spatial distribution of schistosomiasis and explores high-risk regions in Hubei Province, China to provide guidance on schistosomiasis control in marshland regions.In this study, spatial autocorrelation methodologies, including global Moran's I and local Getis-Ord statistics, were utilized to describe and map spatial clusters and areas where human Schistosoma japonicum infection is prevalent at the county level in Hubei province. In addition, linear logistic regression model was used to determine the characteristics of spatial autocorrelation with time.The infection rates of S. japonicum decreased from 2009 to 2013. The global autocorrelation analysis results on the infection rate of S. japonicum for five years showed statistical significance (Moran's I > 0, P < 0.01, which suggested that spatial clusters were present in the distribution of S. japonicum infection from 2009 to 2013. Local autocorrelation analysis results showed that the number of highly aggregated areas ranged from eight to eleven within the five-year analysis period. The highly aggregated areas were mainly distributed in eight counties.The spatial distribution of human S. japonicum infections did not exhibit a temporal change at the county level in Hubei Province. The risk factors that influence human S. japonicum transmission may not have changed after achieving the national criterion of infection control. The findings indicated that spatial-temporal surveillance of S. japonicum transmission plays a significant role on schistosomiasis control. Timely and integrated prevention should be continued, especially in the Yangtze

  20. A GIS based national assessment of algal bio-oil production potential through flue gas and wastewater co-utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orfield, Nolan D.; Keoleian, Gregory A.; Love, Nancy G.

    2014-01-01

    The high theoretical productivity of microalgae makes it a promising energy crop, but economically viable large-scale production facilities have yet to emerge. Coupling algae cultivation ponds with flue gas emissions from power utilities to provide carbon dioxide and municipal wastewater to provide nutrients has been recommended as a solution. This flue gas and wastewater co-utilization (FWC) strategy not only reduces the upstream impacts and costs associated with providing inputs, but also provides a credit for wastewater treatment, a service currently required to reduce production costs to a viable level. This study provides the first national assessment of the potential for producing algal bio-oil in the United States using FWC. Spatial-temporal algae growth was simulated using solar radiation and temperature data to calculate the average annual algae yield for any location, which significantly impacts feasibility. The results of this model were integrated into a geospatial analysis which establishes the economically viable bio-oil production potential of FWC by accounting for the relative abundance of the input resources and their proximity. At most, 1.7 billion liters of bio-oil could be produced annually in a manner economically competitive with crude oil prices of $80 per barrel. The amount of nutrients in wastewater limits yields to 20.5 L of bio-oil per capita annually, and climatic constraints further reduce this potential by nearly 60%. Carbon dioxide constraints play a negligible role. Although the bio-oil production potential of FWC is relatively small, it does provide an opportunity to increase national biofuel output while providing a needed service. - Highlights: • Spatial-temporal algae growth was simulated using historical climate data. • A geospatial overlay analysis was used to assess national production potential. • Nutrient availability in wastewater is most limiting. • At most, 1.7 billion liters of algal biofuel per year could be

  1. RS- and GIS-based study on landscape pattern change in the Poyang Lake wetland area, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoling; Li, Hui; Bao, Shuming; Wu, Zhongyi; Fu, Weijuan; Cai, Xiaobin; Zhao, Hongmei; Guo, Peng

    2006-10-01

    As wetland has been recognized as an important component of ecosystem, it is received ever-increasing attention worldwide. Poyang Lake wetlands, the international wetlands and the largest bird habitat in Asia, play an important role in biodiversity and ecologic protection. However, with the rapid economic growth and urbanization, landscape patterns in the wetlands have dramatically changed in the past three decades. To better understand the wetland landscape dynamics, remote sensing, geographic information system technologies, and the FRAGSTATS landscape analysis program were used to measure landscape patterns. Statistical approach was employed to illustrate the driving forces. In this study, Landsat images (TM and ETM+) from 1989 and 2000 were acquired for the wetland area. The landscapes in the wetland area were classified as agricultural land, urban, wetland, forest, grassland, unused land, and water body using a combination of supervised and unsupervised classification techniques integrated with Digital Elevation Model (DEM). Landscape indices, which are popular for the quantitative analysis of landscape pattern, were then employed to analyze the landscape pattern changes between the two dates in a GIS. From this analysis an understanding of the spatial-temporal patterns of landscape evolution was generated. The results show that wetland area was reduced while fragmentation was increased over the study period. Further investigation was made to examine the relationship between landscape metrics and some other parameters such as urbanization to address the driving forces for those changes. The urban was chosen as center to conduct buffer analysis in a GIS to study the impact of human-induced activities on landscape pattern dynamics. It was found that the selected parameters were significantly correlated with the landscape metrics, which may well indicate the impact of human-induced activities on the wetland landscape pattern dynamics and account for the driving

  2. Estimating Hantavirus Risk in Southern Argentina: A GIS-Based Approach Combining Human Cases and Host Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreo, Veronica; Neteler, Markus; Rocchini, Duccio; Provensal, Cecilia; Levis, Silvana; Porcasi, Ximena; Rizzoli, Annapaola; Lanfri, Mario; Scavuzzo, Marcelo; Pini, Noemi; Enria, Delia; Polop, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    We use a Species Distribution Modeling (SDM) approach along with Geographic Information Systems (GIS) techniques to examine the potential distribution of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) caused by Andes virus (ANDV) in southern Argentina and, more precisely, define and estimate the area with the highest infection probability for humans, through the combination with the distribution map for the competent rodent host (Oligoryzomys longicaudatus). Sites with confirmed cases of HPS in the period 1995–2009 were mostly concentrated in a narrow strip (~90 km × 900 km) along the Andes range from northern Neuquén to central Chubut province. This area is characterized by high mean annual precipitation (~1,000 mm on average), but dry summers (less than 100 mm), very low percentages of bare soil (~10% on average) and low temperatures in the coldest month (minimum average temperature −1.5 °C), as compared to the HPS-free areas, features that coincide with sub-Antarctic forests and shrublands (especially those dominated by the invasive plant Rosa rubiginosa), where rodent host abundances and ANDV prevalences are known to be the highest. Through the combination of predictive distribution maps of the reservoir host and disease cases, we found that the area with the highest probability for HPS to occur overlaps only 28% with the most suitable habitat for O. longicaudatus. With this approach, we made a step forward in the understanding of the risk factors that need to be considered in the forecasting and mapping of risk at the regional/national scale. We propose the implementation and use of thematic maps, such as the one built here, as a basic tool allowing public health authorities to focus surveillance efforts and normally scarce resources for prevention and control actions in vast areas like southern Argentina. PMID:24424500

  3. GIS-BASED location optimization of a biomass conversion plant on contaminated willow in the Campine region (Belgium)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voets, Thomas; Neven, An; Thewys, Theo; Kuppens, Tom

    2013-01-01

    The Campine region is diffusely contaminated with heavy metals like cadmium. Since traditional excavation techniques are too expensive, phytoremediation is preferred as a remediation technique. In a previous study, the biomass potential from phytoremediation of contaminated agricultural land in the Campine region in Belgium was assessed. Based on recently upgraded figures of willow potential from phytoremediation on agricultural land in the seven most contaminated municipalities of the Belgian Campine region, the current paper uses GIS-knowledge to investigate which of three previously identified locations is most suitable for a biomass plant, taking into account the spatial distribution of the contaminated willow supply and the total cost of willow transport. Biomass transport distance from the centroid of each contaminated agricultural parcel to each of the three potential biomass plant locations was determined following Euclidian distance calculations and distance calculations over the existing road network. A transport cost model consisting of distance fixed and distance dependent biomass transport costs was developed. Of the locations identified, the Overpelt Fabriek site results in the lowest biomass transport distance and costs. When willow allocation for each parcel occurs based on the nearest potential plant location, transport costs are on average 23% lower than when all biomass is transported to the single Overpelt Fabriek site location. Therefore, when only considering transport costs, installing a smaller plant at each of the three potential plant locations would be less expensive than when installing a single biomass plant at the Overpelt Fabriek site. -- Highlights: ► Overpelt Fabriek site most attractive for time frames considered. ► Average tortuosity factor in Campine region between 1.27 and 1.42. ► Share of willow transport costs in willow supply costs 21%. ► Optimal allocation of willow results in lower transport costs

  4. A Geographic Information Systems (GIS)-based analysis of modern South African rodent distributions, habitat use, and environmental tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Timothy L; Lewis, Patrick J; Thies, Monte L; Williams, Justin K

    2012-01-01

    Goals of this study were to: (1) develop distributional maps of modern rodent genera throughout the countries of South Africa, Lesotho, and Swaziland by georeferencing museum specimens; (2) assess habitat preferences for genera by cross-referencing locality position with South African vegetation; and (3) identify mean annual precipitation and temperature range where the genera are located. Conterminous South Africa including the countries of Lesotho and Swaziland Digital databases of rodent museum specimens housed in the Ditsong National Museum of Natural History, South Africa (DM), and the Division of Mammals, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, United States (NMNH), were acquired and then sorted into a subset of specimens with associated coordinate data. The coordinate data were then used to develop distributional maps for the rodent genera present within the study area. Percent habitat occupation and descriptive statistics for six climatic variables were then determined for each genus by cross-referencing locality positions with vegetation and climatic maps. This report presents a series of maps illustrating the distribution of 35 rodent genera based on 19,471 geo-referenced specimens obtained from two major collections. Inferred habitat use by taxon is provided for both locality and specimen percent occurrence at three hierarchical habitat levels: biome, bioregion, and vegetation unit. Descriptive statistics for six climatic variables are also provided for each genus based on locality and specimen percent incidence. As rodent faunas are commonly used in paleoenvironmental reconstructions, an accurate assessment of rodent environmental tolerance ranges is necessary before confidence can be placed in an actualistic model. While the data presented here represent only a subset of the modern geographic distributions for many of the taxa examined, a wide range of environmental regimes are observed, suggesting that more research is necessary

  5. Estimating Hantavirus Risk in Southern Argentina: A GIS-Based Approach Combining Human Cases and Host Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Andreo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We use a Species Distribution Modeling (SDM approach along with Geographic Information Systems (GIS techniques to examine the potential distribution of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS caused by Andes virus (ANDV in southern Argentina and, more precisely, define and estimate the area with the highest infection probability for humans, through the combination with the distribution map for the competent rodent host (Oligoryzomys longicaudatus. Sites with confirmed cases of HPS in the period 1995–2009 were mostly concentrated in a narrow strip (~90 km × 900 km along the Andes range from northern Neuquén to central Chubut province. This area is characterized by high mean annual precipitation (~1,000 mm on average, but dry summers (less than 100 mm, very low percentages of bare soil (~10% on average and low temperatures in the coldest month (minimum average temperature −1.5 °C, as compared to the HPS-free areas, features that coincide with sub-Antarctic forests and shrublands (especially those dominated by the invasive plant Rosa rubiginosa, where rodent host abundances and ANDV prevalences are known to be the highest. Through the combination of predictive distribution maps of the reservoir host and disease cases, we found that the area with the highest probability for HPS to occur overlaps only 28% with the most suitable habitat for O. longicaudatus. With this approach, we made a step forward in the understanding of the risk factors that need to be considered in the forecasting and mapping of risk at the regional/national scale. We propose the implementation and use of thematic maps, such as the one built here, as a basic tool allowing public health authorities to focus surveillance efforts and normally scarce resources for prevention and control actions in vast areas like southern Argentina.

  6. ecological geological maps: GIS-based evaluation of the Geo-Ecological Quality Index (GEQUI) in Sicily (Central Mediterranean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigro, Fabrizio; Arisco, Giuseppe; Perricone, Marcella; Renda, Pietro; Favara, Rocco

    2010-05-01

    synthetic way. The first, characterized or estimated, prognosticated one or several indexes of geological ecological conditions. In the second type of maps, the whole complex is reflected, which defined the modern or prognosticable ecological geological situation. Regarding the ecological geological zoning maps, the contemporary state of ecological geological conditions may be evaluated by a range of parameters into classes of conditions and, on the basis of these informations, the estimation from the position of comfort and safety of human life and function of ecosystem is given. Otherwise, the concept of geoecological land evaluation has become established in the study of landscape/environmental plannings in recent years. It requires different thematic data-sets, deriving from the natural-, social- and amenity-environmental resources analysis, that may be translate in environmental (vulnerability/quality) indexes. There have been some attempts to develop integrated indices related to various aspects of the environment within the framework of sustainable development (e.g.: United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, World Economic Forum, Advisory Board on Indicators of Sustainable Development of the International Institute for Sustainable Development, Living Planet Index established by the World Wide Fund for Nature, etc.). So, the ecological geological maps represent the basic tool for the geoecological land evaluation policies and may be computed in terms of index-maps. On these basis, a GIS application for assessing the ecological geological zoning is presented for Sicily (Central Mediterranean). The Geo-Ecological Quality Index (GEQUI) map was computed by considering a lot of variables. Ten variables (lithology, climate, landslide distribution, erosion rate, soil type, land cover, habitat, groundwater pollution, roads density and buildings density) generated from available data, were used in the model, in which weighting values to each informative layer were

  7. GIS-based analysis of tourist impact in mid-mountain protected natural area, Gorce National Park, Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomczyk, Aleksandra

    2010-05-01

    Many of the middle mountain areas are especially valuable due to high bio- and geo-diversity. Therefore, this areas are often protected by law in form of National or Landscape Park, as well as Natura 2000 Network. Moreover, mountain areas usually attract significant amount of tourist. Hence, environment is subject to combination of different forces including human impact (tourism, forest management, pasture) as well as natural processes. Usually areas with low environmental resiliency are, simultaneously, very valuable from ecological point of view and attractive as tourist regions. Hiking, biking and horse riding on the tourist trails are one of the basic forms of exploration of protected areas. Apart from a tourist function, trails have a significant ecological role - they limit walking to prepared paths and prevent dispersing of visitors. Thus the terrains, which for ecological reasons have to be excluded from direct human impact, are isolated. On the other hand using of tourist trials can have negative effect on the environment. The most important manifestation of this type of impacts is destroying of plant cover by trampling and running over. It leads to expose of a bare soil and, in consequence, to initialize and accelerate of natural erosion process. Improperly using of tourist trails and forest roads may lead to develop of gullies and significant degradation of environment. Hence, reasonable management of tourist activities, forestry and pasture is necessary for sustainable development in the mid-mountain areas. Study of tourist impact together with the assessment of susceptibility of the environment to degradation can be very helpful for planning and conservation activities. Analysis of spatial data within geographic information system (GIS) supply a very useful tool for estimating, modeling and establishing the relationships between tourist impact and environmental resiliency. This study presents implementation of the GIS analysis within one of the Polish

  8. GIS-based approach for optimal siting and sizing of renewables considering techno-environmental constraints and the stochastic nature of meteorological inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daskalou, Olympia; Karanastasi, Maria; Markonis, Yannis; Dimitriadis, Panayiotis; Koukouvinos, Antonis; Efstratiadis, Andreas; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris

    2016-04-01

    Following the legislative EU targets and taking advantage of its high renewable energy potential, Greece can obtain significant benefits from developing its water, solar and wind energy resources. In this context we present a GIS-based methodology for the optimal sizing and siting of solar and wind energy systems at the regional scale, which is tested in the Prefecture of Thessaly. First, we assess the wind and solar potential, taking into account the stochastic nature of the associated meteorological processes (i.e. wind speed and solar radiation, respectively), which is essential component for both planning (i.e., type selection and sizing of photovoltaic panels and wind turbines) and management purposes (i.e., real-time operation of the system). For the optimal siting, we assess the efficiency and economic performance of the energy system, also accounting for a number of constraints, associated with topographic limitations (e.g., terrain slope, proximity to road and electricity grid network, etc.), the environmental legislation and other land use constraints. Based on this analysis, we investigate favorable alternatives using technical, environmental as well as financial criteria. The final outcome is GIS maps that depict the available energy potential and the optimal layout for photovoltaic panels and wind turbines over the study area. We also consider a hypothetical scenario of future development of the study area, in which we assume the combined operation of the above renewables with major hydroelectric dams and pumped-storage facilities, thus providing a unique hybrid renewable system, extended at the regional scale.

  9. A novel method of sensitivity analysis testing by applying the DRASTIC and fuzzy optimization methods to assess groundwater vulnerability to pollution: the case of the Senegal River basin in Mali

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souleymane, Keita; Zhonghua, Tang

    2017-08-01

    Vulnerability to groundwater pollution in the Senegal River basin was studied by two different but complementary methods: the DRASTIC method (which evaluates the intrinsic vulnerability) and the fuzzy method (which assesses the specific vulnerability by taking into account the continuity of the parameters). The validation of this application has been tested by comparing the connection in groundwater and distribution of different established classes of vulnerabilities as well as the nitrate distribution in the study area. Three vulnerability classes (low, medium and high) have been identified by both the DRASTIC method and the fuzzy method (between which the normalized model was used). An integrated analysis reveals that high classes with 14.64 % (for the DRASTIC method), 21.68 % (for the normalized DRASTIC method) and 18.92 % (for the fuzzy method) are not the most dominant. In addition, a new method for sensitivity analysis was used to identify (and confirm) the main parameters which impact the vulnerability to pollution with fuzzy membership. The results showed that the vadose zone is the main parameter which impacts groundwater vulnerability to pollution while net recharge contributes least to pollution in the study area. It was also found that the fuzzy method better assesses the vulnerability to pollution with a coincidence rate of 81.13 % versus that of 77.35 % for the DRASTIC method. These results serve as a guide for policymakers to identify areas sensitive to pollution before such sites are used for socioeconomic infrastructures.

  10. Resuspension of trace metals in Belgrade under conditions of drastically reduced emission levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vukmirovic, Z; Marendic-Miljkovic, J; Rajsic, S; Tasic, M; Novakovic, V [Institute of Physics, Belgrade-Zemun (Yugoslavia)

    1997-01-01

    Deposition rates of trace metals (Pb, Cu, Zn, Cd) were determined at the Meteorological Station in New Belgrade (H{sub s} = 74 m; {psi} = 44{degree}49{prime}N and {lambda} = 20{degree}24{prime}E) in the hydrological year 1992/93 (1 November-31 October). The dominant characteristics of the observation period were strong drought and drastically reduced pollutant emissions. Traffic and local sources operated at 0-10% of their capacities. Samples of dry and wet precipitation were taken by an automatic collector at a height of 2 m at weekly intervals. Two petri polycarbonate dishes of 93.5 mm diameter, facing upward, and one facing downward, were used for dry precipitation sampling. Determination in a `clean room` by differential pulse stripping voltammetry provided the low detection thresholds of 0.1, 1.0, 0.5 and 2.0 ng mL{sup -1}, i.e. the measurement of minimal dry deposition rates of 0.02, 0.2, 0.1 and 0.4 {mu}gm{sup -2}d{sup -1} for Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn, respectively. The mean annual deposition rates, expressed in {mu}g m{sup -2}d{sup -1}, were found to be as follows: 4.5 (down), 26 (up) and 37 (wet) for Pb, 2.1 (down), 13 (up) and 36(wet) for Cu, and 3.1 (down), 26 (up) and 95 (wet) for Zn. No values above 0.2 {mu}g m{sup -2}d{sup -1} were found for the Cd dry deposition rate and no Cd concentration higher than 1 ng mL{sup -1} for precipitation with an amount {gt} 0.5 mm at the weekly interval was detected. Using the XREDS method with a scanning electron microscope, Si, Al, Fe matrix elements and Mg, Ca, S, K, P, Cu, Zn, W, were identified as minor constituents of the single spherical particles and of the agglomerates present. Pb could not be categorized as a minor constituent of the coarse particles suspended in the air of New Belgrade on the basis of the previous analysis. Results of the analysis are given. 44 refs., 14 fig., 4 tabs.

  11. Casein phosphopeptides drastically increase the secretion of extracellular proteins in Aspergillus awamori. Proteomics studies reveal changes in the secretory pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosalková Katarina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The secretion of heterologous animal proteins in filamentous fungi is usually limited by bottlenecks in the vesicle-mediated secretory pathway. Results Using the secretion of bovine chymosin in Aspergillus awamori as a model, we found a drastic increase (40 to 80-fold in cells grown with casein or casein phosphopeptides (CPPs. CPPs are rich in phosphoserine, but phosphoserine itself did not increase the secretion of chymosin. The stimulatory effect is reduced about 50% using partially dephosphorylated casein and is not exerted by casamino acids. The phosphopeptides effect was not exerted at transcriptional level, but instead, it was clearly observed on the secretion of chymosin by immunodetection analysis. Proteomics studies revealed very interesting metabolic changes in response to phosphopeptides supplementation. The oxidative metabolism was reduced, since enzymes involved in fermentative processes were overrepresented. An oxygen-binding hemoglobin-like protein was overrepresented in the proteome following phosphopeptides addition. Most interestingly, the intracellular pre-protein enzymes, including pre-prochymosin, were depleted (most of them are underrepresented in the intracellular proteome after the addition of CPPs, whereas the extracellular mature form of several of these secretable proteins and cell-wall biosynthetic enzymes was greatly overrepresented in the secretome of phosphopeptides-supplemented cells. Another important 'moonlighting' protein (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, which has been described to have vesicle fusogenic and cytoskeleton formation modulating activities, was clearly overrepresented in phosphopeptides-supplemented cells. Conclusions In summary, CPPs cause the reprogramming of cellular metabolism, which leads to massive secretion of extracellular proteins.

  12. Drastic shifts in the Levant hydroclimate during the last interglacial indicate changes in the tropical climate and winter storm tracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiro, Y.; Goldstein, S. L.; Kushnir, Y.; Lazar, B.; Stein, M.

    2017-12-01

    Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5e was a warm interglacial with where with significantly varying insolation and hence varied significantly throughout this time suggesting highly variable climate. The ICDP Dead Sea Deep Drilling Project recovered a 460m record of the past 220ka, reflecting the variable climate along MIS 5e. This time interval is reflected by alternating halite and detritus sequences, including 20m of halite-free detritus during the peak insolation at 125 ka. The Dead Sea salt budget indicates that the Levant climate was extremely arid when halite formed, reaching 20% of the present runoff. The halite-free detritus layer reflects increased precipitation to levels similar to present day, assuming similar spatial and temporal rainfall patterns. However, the 234U/238U activity ratio in the lake, reflected by authigenic minerals (aragonite, gypsum and halite), shifts from values of 1.5 (reflecting the Jordan River, the present main water source) down to 1.3 at 125-122ka during the MIS5e insolation peak and 1.0 at 118-116ka. The low 234U/238U reflects increased flash floods and eastern water sources (234U/238U 1.05-1.2) from the drier part of the watershed in the desert belt. The intermediate 234U/238U of 1.3 suggests that the Jordan River, fed from Mediterranean-sourced storm tracks, continued to flow along with an increase in southern and eastern water sources. NCAR CCSM3 climate model runs for 125ka indicate increases in both Summer and Winter precipitation. The drastic decrease to 234U/238U 1.0 occurs during the driest period, indicating a near shutdown of Jordan River flow, and water input only through flash floods and southern and eastern sources. The 120ka climate model runs shows a decrease in Winter and increase in Fall precipitation as a result of an increased precipitation in the tropics. The extreme aridity, associated with increased flooding is similar to patterns expected due to future warming. The increase in aridity is the result of expansion

  13. Poor markets, lack of incentives cause drastic drop in capital spending. [1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fish, R

    1977-10-01

    Canadian Mining Journal's 1977 Capital Expenditure Survey shows a drop of 52% in announced spending intentions compared with the 1976 survey total. Coal is particularly hard hit with announced spending for 1977 at 1,250,000 dollars as compared to 700,770,000 in 1976. This total 1977 amount is reported by Kaiser Resources for installing a Honeywell Model 66/05 large scale computer system to be used for accounting, inventory control, engineering and material procurement applications at Sparwood.

  14. Archive, Access, and Supply of Scientifically Derived Data: A Data Model for Multi-Parameterized Querying Where Spectral Data Base Meets GIS-Based Mapping Archive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nass, A.; D'Amore, M.; Helbert, J.

    2018-04-01

    An archiving structure and reference level of derived and already published data supports the scientific community significantly by a constant rise of knowledge and understanding based on recent discussions within Information Science and Management.

  15. Effects of drastic climate policy on air pollution in Europe; Effecten van vergaand klimaatbeleid op luchtverontreiniging in Europa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koelemeijer, R. [Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving PBL, Den Haag (Netherlands); ; Sauter, F.; Posch, M. [Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Chuwah, C. [Koninklijk Nederlands Meteorologisch Instituut KNMI, De Bilt (Netherlands)

    2012-08-15

    Greenhouse gas emissions in Europe need to be lowered by 80-95% in 2050 compared to 1990 to curb global warming to 2°C. This article addresses the consequences for air quality of various ways to realize such a drastic emission reduction [Dutch] Emissies van broeikasgassen in Europa moeten in 2050 80-95% lager zijn dan in 1990 om de opwarming van de aarde te beperken tot 2C. Dit artikel gaat in op de consequenties voor de luchtkwaliteit van verschillende manieren om zo'n vergaande emissiereductie te realiseren.

  16. A drastic reorganization of industry in the world.What is the driving force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinji Naruo

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to show the method and model to analyze the driving force to reorganize the industry. Due to the global economy, many large scale M&A and affiliations are happening in the world. The business alliance and integration are happening in the advanced countries, the transition countries, and the developing countries. There are some factors to impact the reorganization of industry. One is government policy. Another is the market economy. The government has the industrial policy. It guides and leads the industrial structure of the country. Advanced countries had experienced the advancement of industrial structure. On the process of industrial structure advancement, the country improved national income (GNP. Through the process, the enterprise in the industry had experienced integration and separation in the industry. The theory of industrial structure supports the framework of this approach.On the other hand, the market economy also had influenced to the reorganization of industry. Business cycle, competition, and innovation had influenced the reorganization of industry. In capitalism, the shareholder of the company pushes the company to maximize the profit. The shareholder’s pressure could influence the decision of M&A.The theory of industrial organization supports the framework of this approach.The enterprise is in the business environment. Top management of the company is responsible to make a decision to merge or acquire the company. However, the decision is affected by other factors out of business environment. The shareholder influenced the individual enterprise decision. The government policy influenced the industrial structure. This could impose the enterprise to accept the amalgamation in the industry.Both of two influence the reorganization of industry.

  17. High pressure treatment under subfreezing temperature results in drastic inactivation of enveloped and non-enveloped viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishida, T; Cui, F-D; Ohgitani, E; Gao, F; Hayakawa, K; Mazda, O

    2013-08-01

    Some viruses are sensitive to high pressure. The freeze-pressure generation method (FPGM) applies pressure as high as 250 MPa on a substance, simply by freezing a pressure-resistant reservoir in which the substance is immersed in water. Here we examined whether the FPGM successfully inactivates herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), an enveloped DNA virus belonging to the human Herpesviridae, and encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV), an envelope-free RNA virus belonging to the Picornaviridae. After the treatment, HSV-1 drastically reduced the ability to form plaque in Vero cells in vitro as well as to kill mice in vivo. EMCV that had been pressurized failed to proliferate in HeLa cells and induce interferon response. The results suggest that the FPGM provides a feasible procedure to inactivate a broad spectrum of viruses.

  18. Modelling the flow of nitrogen and phosphorus in Europe: From loads to coastal seas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klepper O; Beusen AHW; Meinardi CR; CIM; LWD; LBG

    1995-01-01

    A model is described that aims at predicting surface water quality from N- and P-inputs on a European scale. The model combines a GIS-based approach to estimate loads, geohydrological data to define model structure and statistical techniques to estimate parameter values. The model starts with an

  19. Simulations of drastically reduced SBS with laser pulses composed of a Spike Train of Uneven Duration and Delay (STUD pulses)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hueller, S.; Afeyan, B.

    2013-01-01

    By comparing the impact of established laser smoothing techniques like Random Phase Plates (RPP) and Smoothing by Spectral Dispersion (SSD) to the concept of 'Spike Trains of Uneven Duration and Delay' (STUD pulses) on the amplification of parametric instabilities in laser-produced plasmas, we show with the help of numerical simulations, that STUD pulses can drastically reduce instability growth by orders of magnitude. The simulation results, obtained with the code Harmony in a nonuniformly flowing mm-size plasma for the Stimulated Brillouin Scattering (SBS) instability, show that the efficiency of the STUD pulse technique is due to the fact that successive re-amplification in space and time of parametrically excited plasma waves inside laser hot spots is minimized. An overall mean fluctuation level of ion acoustic waves at low amplitude is established because of the frequent change of the speckle pattern in successive spikes. This level stays orders of magnitude below the levels of ion acoustic waves excited in hot spots of RPP and SSD laser beams. (authors)

  20. Water stress drastically reduces root growth and inulin yield in Cichorium intybus (var. sativum) independently of photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandoorne, B.; Mathieu, A.-S.; Van den Ende, W.; Vergauwen, R.; Périlleux, C.; Javaux, M.; Lutts, S.

    2012-01-01

    Root chicory (Cichorium intybus var. sativum) is a cash crop cultivated for inulin production in Western Europe. This plant can be exposed to severe water stress during the last 3 months of its 6-month growing period. The aim of this study was to quantify the effect of a progressive decline in water availability on plant growth, photosynthesis, and sugar metabolism and to determine its impact on inulin production. Water stress drastically decreased fresh and dry root weight, leaf number, total leaf area, and stomatal conductance. Stressed plants, however, increased their water-use efficiency and leaf soluble sugar concentration, decreased the shoot-to-root ratio and lowered their osmotic potential. Despite a decrease in photosynthetic pigments, the photosynthesis light phase remained unaffected under water stress. Water stress increased sucrose phosphate synthase activity in the leaves but not in the roots. Water stress inhibited sucrose:sucrose 1-fructosyltransferase and fructan:fructan 1 fructosyltransferase after 19 weeks of culture and slightly increased fructan 1-exohydrolase activity. The root inulin concentration, expressed on a dry-weight basis, and the mean degree of polymerization of the inulin chain remained unaffected by water stress. Root chicory displayed resistance to water stress, but that resistance was obtained at the expense of growth, which in turn led to a significant decrease in inulin production. PMID:22577185

  1. Public acceptance of fusion energy and scientific feasibility of a fusion reactor. DREAM (DRastically EAsy Maintenance) tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishio, Satoshi

    1998-01-01

    If the major part of the electric power demand will be supplied by tokamak fusion power plants, a suitable tokamak reactor must be an ultimate goal, i.e., the reactor must be excellent both in terms of construction cost and safety aspects including operation availability (maintainability and reliability). In attaining this goal, an approach focusing on both safety and availability (including reliability and maintainability) issues is the most promising strategy. The tokamak reactor concept with a very high aspect ratio configuration and SiC/SiC composite structural materials is compatible with this approach, which is called the DREAM (DRastically EAsy Maintenance) approach. The SiC/SiC composite is a low activation material and an insulation material, and the high aspect ratio configuration leads to good accessibility for the maintenance of machines. As an intermediate steps between an experimental reactor such as ITER and the ultimate goal, the development of prototype reactor which demonstrates electric power generation and an initial-phase commercial reactor which demonstrates for COE (cost of electricity) competitiveness has been investigated. Especially for the prototype reactor, material and technological immaturity must be considered. (J.P.N.)

  2. Tropical Forest Fire Susceptibility Mapping at the Cat Ba National Park Area, Hai Phong City, Vietnam, Using GIS-Based Kernel Logistic Regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieu Tien Bui

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Cat Ba National Park area (Vietnam with its tropical forest is recognized as being part of the world biodiversity conservation by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO and is a well-known destination for tourists, with around 500,000 travelers per year. This area has been the site for many research projects; however, no project has been carried out for forest fire susceptibility assessment. Thus, protection of the forest including fire prevention is one of the main concerns of the local authorities. This work aims to produce a tropical forest fire susceptibility map for the Cat Ba National Park area, which may be helpful for the local authorities in forest fire protection management. To obtain this purpose, first, historical forest fires and related factors were collected from various sources to construct a GIS database. Then, a forest fire susceptibility model was developed using Kernel logistic regression. The quality of the model was assessed using the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curve, area under the ROC curve (AUC, and five statistical evaluation measures. The usability of the resulting model is further compared with a benchmark model, the support vector machine (SVM. The results show that the Kernel logistic regression model has a high level of performance in both the training and validation dataset, with a prediction capability of 92.2%. Since the Kernel logistic regression model outperforms the benchmark model, we conclude that the proposed model is a promising alternative tool that should also be considered for forest fire susceptibility mapping in other areas. The results of this study are useful for the local authorities in forest planning and management.

  3. Pressure-induced drastic collapse of a high oxygen coordination shell in quartz-like α-GeO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Juncai; Zhang, Xiaoli; Wu, Ziyu; Chen, Dongliang; Zhang, Qian; Wu, Ye; Wu, Xiang

    2014-01-01

    With the combination of a single crystal diamond anvil cell and a polycapillary half-lens, the local structural evolution around germanium in tetrahedrally networked quartz-like α-GeO 2 has been investigated using extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy of up to 14 GPa by multiple-scattering analysis method. While the first shell Ge–O bond distances show a slight contraction with increasing pressure, the third shell Ge–O bond distances are found to decrease dramatically. The sluggish lengthening of the first shell Ge–O bond distances, initiated by coordination increase from fourfold to sixfold, occurs in the 7–14 GPa range just when the third shell Ge–O bond distances fall in the region of the second shell Ge–Ge bond distances. Moreover, these features are accompanied by the closing of intertetrahedral Ge–O–Ge angles and the opening of two intratetrahedral O–Ge–O angles, whose topological configuration surprisingly exhibits a helical chirality along the c axis that is opposite to the double helices of the corner-linked GeO 4 tetrahedra. These results suggest that the high-pressure phase transitions in quartz and quartz-like materials could be associated with a structural instability that is driven by the drastic collapse of the next-nearest-neighbour anion shell, which is consistent with the emergence of high-symmetry anion sublattice. Our findings provide crucial insights into the densification mechanisms of quartz-like oxides, which would have broad implications for our understanding of the metastability of various post-quartz crystalline phases and pressure-induced amorphization. (paper)

  4. Primary energy consumption in Germany 2004. Drastic price increases and a revival of the economy are key factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2005-01-01

    Primary energy consumption in Germany in 2004 amounted to approx. 493 million TCE (14,438 petajoule), which is almost unchanged from the year before. Effects increasing consumption as a consequence of the revival of the economy were offset by the attenuating influences of the drastic energy price hikes in the course of the year. The influence of temperature last year was not clear. While the weather was warmer in the heating period than in the same period of time the year before, it was slightly cooler over the whole year because of the comparatively low temperatures in the summer months. While the aggregate output of the economy rose by 1.7%, energy productivity of the economy last year improved by only 0.6% corrected for temperature and inventories. Over the average of the period between 1991 and 2003, the increase had been twice as high, i.e. 1.2%. Gross electricity consumption in 2004 was 0.7% higher than the year before. The aggregate electricity productivity, which had clearly dropped the year before, rose again (+0.9%). Gross electricity generation in 2004 exceeded the level of the previous year by 0.5%. As before, nuclear power is at the top in electricity generation, followed by lignite and hard coal. Electricity generation in wind power plants again grew considerably by nearly one third. The contribution by all renewables to gross electricity production in 2004 is around 9%. Unlike the year before, the electricity market in 2004 was characterized by relatively slight price movement. (orig.)

  5. Aplicación del modelo DRASTIC en la cuenca del arroyo Las Conchas, Entre Ríos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SASAL, M.C.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available La demanda de la sociedad respecto al cuidado de la salud y del ambiente es cada vez mayor, requiriéndose la evaluación de potenciales impactos negativos producidos por las prácticas agropecuarias, entre ellos la contaminación de los recursos naturales por el uso de agroquímicos. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluarla vulnerabilidad general a la contaminación de un acuífero libre localizado en la cuenca agrícola del Arroyo Las Conchas (Entre Ríos, que posee una superficie de 2.156,6 Km2 y alta densidad poblacional. Se utilizó el índice DRASTIC que se basa en la aplicación de siete parámetros hidrogeológicos, desarrollándose mapas para cada uno de ellos a partir del análisis de 82 fuentes de agua existentes en la cuenca y de la selección de 39 ubicadas en el acuífero libre. El acuífero libre se localiza superficialmente entre los 0,39 m y los 12 m y en presencia de suelos con buena capacidad de drenaje. La vulnerabilidad general a la contaminación fue moderada y presenta homogeneidad en la totalidad de la cuenca. La zona más vulnerable está situada en el extremo NE (próximo a María Grande, coincidente con zonas planas en el paisaje y de acumulación de agua, mientras que el área centro–sur presenta menor vulnerabilidad, coincidiendo con una zona de mayor profundidad del acuífero y de baja recarga. La información generada constituye una base para la gestión ambientaly el desarrollo de buenas prácticas agropecuarias.

  6. The Global Potential for Drastic Reduction of Greenhouse Gas Emissions. On the interaction between technological innovation, sustainable growth and lifestyle development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruggink, J.J.C. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands)

    2000-03-01

    Technological innovation is often viewed as the key to drastic reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, and rightly so. In fact there are already a number of technologies on the shelf that could fix global warming problems in no time. The trouble is that few people in the developing world can afford them or that few people in the developed world find them acceptable. Most people are simply too poor or too critical. So what are the decisive fault lines that should distinguish a climate-friendly next century from a climate-hostile past? First, only a more equal world will make drastic reduction of greenhouse gas emissions affordable. Secondly, mankind will have to accept that in addition to technological innovation, drastic reduction of greenhouse gas emissions depends on lifestyle innovation.

  7. The conserved nhaAR operon is drastically divergent between B2 and non-B2 Escherichia coli and is involved in extra-intestinal virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lescat, Mathilde; Reibel, Florence; Pintard, Coralie; Dion, Sara; Glodt, Jérémy; Gateau, Cecile; Launay, Adrien; Ledda, Alice; Cruveiller, Stephane; Cruvellier, Stephane; Tourret, Jérôme; Tenaillon, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    The Escherichia coli species is divided in phylogenetic groups that differ in their virulence and commensal distribution. Strains belonging to the B2 group are involved in extra-intestinal pathologies but also appear to be more prevalent as commensals among human occidental populations. To investigate the genetic specificities of B2 sub-group, we used 128 sequenced genomes and identified genes of the core genome that showed marked difference between B2 and non-B2 genomes. We focused on the gene and its surrounding region with the strongest divergence between B2 and non-B2, the antiporter gene nhaA. This gene is part of the nhaAR operon, which is in the core genome but flanked by mobile regions, and is involved in growth at high pH and high sodium concentrations. Consistently, we found that a panel of non-B2 strains grew faster than B2 at high pH and high sodium concentrations. However, we could not identify differences in expression of the nhaAR operon using fluorescence reporter plasmids. Furthermore, the operon deletion had no differential impact between B2 and non-B2 strains, and did not result in a fitness modification in a murine model of gut colonization. Nevertheless, sequence analysis and experiments in a murine model of septicemia revealed that recombination in nhaA among B2 strains was observed in strains with low virulence. Finally, nhaA and nhaAR operon deletions drastically decreased virulence in one B2 strain. This effect of nhaAR deletion appeared to be stronger than deletion of all pathogenicity islands. Thus, a population genetic approach allowed us to identify an operon in the core genome without strong effect in commensalism but with an important role in extra-intestinal virulence, a landmark of the B2 strains.

  8. evaluation of models for assessing groundwater vulnerability

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    applied models for groundwater vulnerability assessment mapping. The appraoches .... The overall 'pollution potential' or DRASTIC index is established by applying the formula: DRASTIC Index: ... affected by the structure of the soil surface.

  9. GIS-based environmental analysis of fox and canine lungworm distribution: an epidemiological study of Angiostrongylus vasorum and Crenosoma vulpis in red foxes from Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čabanová, Viktória; Miterpáková, Martina; Druga, Michal; Hurníková, Zuzana; Valentová, Daniela

    2018-02-01

    Over a period of intervening years, the distribution of two canine cardiopulmonary metastrongylid nematodes, Angiostrongylus vasorum and Crenosoma vulpis, has been recognised in Central Europe. Here, we report the first epidemiological research conducted in red foxes from Slovakia and the potential influence of selected environmental variables on the parasites' occurrence, quantified by logistic regression. The environmental models revealed that distribution of C. vulpis is not significantly influenced by any environmental variables, and the parasite is present in the whole area under study. Models for A. vasorum revealed some weak influence of environmental variables, as it tends to occur in drier areas with lower proportion of forest. Moreover, A. vasorum shows a typical spatial clustering and occurs in endemic foci identified mainly in the eastern part of Slovakia. A cluster of A. vasorum infection foci was also found in the north-eastern region, where the average winter air temperature regularly falls below - 10 °C.

  10. A GIS based approach for the prediction of the dam break flood hazard – A case study of Zardezas reservoir “Skikda, Algeria”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derdous Oussama

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The construction of dams in rivers can offer many advantages, however the consequences resulting from their failure could result in major damage, including loss of life and property destruction. To mitigate the threats of dam break it is essential to appreciate the characteristics of the potential flood in realistic manner. In this study an approach based on the integration of hydraulic modelling and GIS has been used to assess the risks resulting from a potential failure of Zardezas dam, a concrete dam located in Skikda, in the North East of Algeria. HEC-GeoRAS within GIS was used to extract geometric information from a digital elevation model and then imported into HEC-RAS. Flow simulation of the dam break was performed using HEC-RAS and results were mapped using the GIS. Finally, a flood hazard map based on water depth and flow velocity maps was created in GIS environment. According to this map the potential failure of Zardezas dam will place a large number in people in danger. The present study has shown that Application of Geographical Information System (GIS techniques in integration with hydraulic modelling can significantly reduce the time and the resources required to forecast potential dam break flood hazard which can play a crucial role in improving both flood disaster management and land use planning downstream of dams.

  11. HYDROLOGIC MODEL UNCERTAINTY ASSOCIATED WITH SIMULATING FUTURE LAND-COVER/USE SCENARIOS: A RETROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    GIS-based hydrologic modeling offers a convenient means of assessing the impacts associated with land-cover/use change for environmental planning efforts. Alternative future scenarios can be used as input to hydrologic models and compared with existing conditions to evaluate pot...

  12. Calibration and validation of the SWAT model for a forested watershed in coastal South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devendra M. Amatya; Elizabeth B. Haley; Norman S. Levine; Timothy J. Callahan; Artur Radecki-Pawlik; Manoj K. Jha

    2008-01-01

    Modeling the hydrology of low-gradient coastal watersheds on shallow, poorly drained soils is a challenging task due to the complexities in watershed delineation, runoff generation processes and pathways, flooding, and submergence caused by tropical storms. The objective of the study is to calibrate and validate a GIS-based spatially-distributed hydrologic model, SWAT...

  13. Earthquake Vulnerability Assessment for Hospital Buildings Using a Gis-Based Group Multi Criteria Decision Making Approach: a Case Study of Tehran, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delavar, M. R.; Moradi, M.; Moshiri, B.

    2015-12-01

    Nowadays, urban areas are threatened by a number of natural hazards such as flood, landslide and earthquake. They can cause huge damages to buildings and human beings which necessitates disaster mitigation and preparation. One of the most important steps in disaster management is to understand all impacts and effects of disaster on urban facilities. Given that hospitals take care of vulnerable people reaction of hospital buildings against earthquake is vital. In this research, the vulnerability of hospital buildings against earthquake is analysed. The vulnerability of buildings is related to a number of criteria including age of building, number of floors, the quality of materials and intensity of the earthquake. Therefore, the problem of seismic vulnerability assessment is a multi-criteria assessment problem and multi criteria decision making methods can be used to address the problem. In this paper a group multi criteria decision making model is applied because using only one expert's judgments can cause biased vulnerability maps. Sugeno integral which is able to take into account the interaction among criteria is employed to assess the vulnerability degree of buildings. Fuzzy capacities which are similar to layer weights in weighted linear averaging operator are calculated using particle swarm optimization. Then, calculated fuzzy capacities are included into the model to compute a vulnerability degree for each hospital.

  14. EARTHQUAKE VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT FOR HOSPITAL BUILDINGS USING A GIS-BASED GROUP MULTI CRITERIA DECISION MAKING APPROACH: A CASE STUDY OF TEHRAN, IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Delavar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, urban areas are threatened by a number of natural hazards such as flood, landslide and earthquake. They can cause huge damages to buildings and human beings which necessitates disaster mitigation and preparation. One of the most important steps in disaster management is to understand all impacts and effects of disaster on urban facilities. Given that hospitals take care of vulnerable people reaction of hospital buildings against earthquake is vital. In this research, the vulnerability of hospital buildings against earthquake is analysed. The vulnerability of buildings is related to a number of criteria including age of building, number of floors, the quality of materials and intensity of the earthquake. Therefore, the problem of seismic vulnerability assessment is a multi-criteria assessment problem and multi criteria decision making methods can be used to address the problem. In this paper a group multi criteria decision making model is applied because using only one expert’s judgments can cause biased vulnerability maps. Sugeno integral which is able to take into account the interaction among criteria is employed to assess the vulnerability degree of buildings. Fuzzy capacities which are similar to layer weights in weighted linear averaging operator are calculated using particle swarm optimization. Then, calculated fuzzy capacities are included into the model to compute a vulnerability degree for each hospital.

  15. A GIS-based methodology to quantitatively define an Adjacent Protected Area in a shallow karst cavity: the case of Altamira cave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elez, J; Cuezva, S; Fernandez-Cortes, A; Garcia-Anton, E; Benavente, D; Cañaveras, J C; Sanchez-Moral, S

    2013-03-30

    Different types of land use are usually present in the areas adjacent to many shallow karst cavities. Over time, the increasing amount of potentially harmful matter and energy, of mainly anthropic origin or influence, that reaches the interior of a shallow karst cavity can modify the hypogeal ecosystem and increase the risk of damage to the Palaeolithic rock art often preserved within the cavity. This study proposes a new Protected Area status based on the geological processes that control these matter and energy fluxes into the Altamira cave karst system. Analysis of the geological characteristics of the shallow karst system shows that direct and lateral infiltration, internal water circulation, ventilation, gas exchange and transmission of vibrations are the processes that control these matter and energy fluxes into the cave. This study applies a comprehensive methodological approach based on Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to establish the area of influence of each transfer process. The stratigraphic and structural characteristics of the interior of the cave were determined using 3D Laser Scanning topography combined with classical field work, data gathering, cartography and a porosity-permeability analysis of host rock samples. As a result, it was possible to determine the hydrogeological behavior of the cave. In addition, by mapping and modeling the surface parameters it was possible to identify the main features restricting hydrological behavior and hence direct and lateral infiltration into the cave. These surface parameters included the shape of the drainage network and a geomorphological and structural characterization via digital terrain models. Geological and geomorphological maps and models integrated into the GIS environment defined the areas involved in gas exchange and ventilation processes. Likewise, areas that could potentially transmit vibrations directly into the cave were identified. This study shows that it is possible to define a

  16. A GIS-based generic real-time risk assessment framework and decision tools for chemical spills in the river basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jiping; Wang, Peng; Lung, Wu-seng; Guo, Liang; Li, Mei

    2012-08-15

    This paper presents a generic framework and decision tools of real-time risk assessment on Emergency Environmental Decision Support System for response to chemical spills in river basin. The generic "4-step-3-model" framework is able to delineate the warning area and the impact on vulnerable receptors considering four types of hazards referring to functional area, societal impact, and human health and ecology system. Decision tools including the stand-alone system and software components were implemented on GIS platform. A detailed case study on the Songhua River nitrobenzene spill illustrated the goodness of the framework and tool Spill first responders and decision makers of catchment management will benefit from the rich, visual and dynamic hazard information output from the software. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Species Boundaries and Interrelationships of Solanum Sect. Petota (Wild and Cultivated Potatoes) are Drastically Altered as a Result of PBI-Funded Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 1990, the latest comprehensive taxonomic monograph of Solanum section Petota Dumort recognized 232 species partitioned into 21 series. PBI-sponsored research has drastically altered knowledge of their species boundaries and interrelationships. The series contains diploids (2n = 2x = 24), tetraplo...

  18. 基于GIS的新疆气温数据栅格化方法研究%GIS-based spatial interpolation of air temperature in Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈鹏翔; 毛炜峰

    2012-01-01

    以新疆99个气象台站1971-2010年年平均气温为数据源,采用多元回归结合空间插值的方法对新疆区域气温数据进行栅格化研究.建立了年平均气温与台站经纬度和海拔高度的多元回归模型,对于残差数据的插值采用了反距离权重法(IDW)、普通克立格法(Kriging)和样来函数法(Spline)3种目前应用广泛的空间插值方法,针对于这3种方法进行了基于MAE和RMSIE的交叉验证和对比分析,结果表明在新疆的年平均气温的GIS插值方案中,IDW方法精度总体要高于其他两种插值方法.%With Surfer, Grads as a platform for direct space interpolation was widely used in meteorological rasterization of air temperature data, whatever the spatial interpolation technique ( Spline, 1DW, Lagrangian, Hennite interpolation, etc. ) , do not take into account the effects of topography on the air temperature distribution, In recent years with the expansion of GIS technology applications, the method of regression model by geographic factors (elevation, longitude, latitude, etc. ) combined with spatial interpolation was used in grid-ba3ed regional climate factors and get good results. In this paper, used regression analysis methods combined with GIS spatial interpolation to rasterization of year mean air temperatures from 1971 to2010 in Xinjiang area, the 99 meteorological stations(10 of them in order to verify) that has complete observations involved in the calculation. We use the following method for air tempcrature data rasterization in Xinjiang region, Firstly, establish the average temperature multiple regression model with the air temperature data that measured by weather station (excluding test station) for the output variables, and the longitude grid data, latitude grid data and altitude grid dala of meteorological stations for the input variables, obtain the regression equation and the temperature residuals data for each weather station; Secondly, calculate the air

  19. A comparison between self-reported and GIS-based proxies of residential exposure to environmental pollution in a case-control study on lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordioli, M; Ranzi, A; Freni Sterrantino, A; Erspamer, L; Razzini, G; Ferrari, U; Gatti, M G; Bonora, K; Artioli, F; Goldoni, C A; Lauriola, P

    2014-06-01

    In epidemiological studies both questionnaire results and GIS modeling have been used to assess exposure to environmental risk factors. Nevertheless, few studies have used both these techniques to evaluate the degree of agreement between different exposure assessment methodologies. As part of a case-control study on lung cancer, we present a comparison between self-reported and GIS-derived proxies of residential exposure to environmental pollution. 649 subjects were asked to fill out a questionnaire and give information about residential history and perceived exposure. Using GIS, for each residence we evaluated land use patterns, proximity to major roads and exposure to industrial pollution. We then compared the GIS exposure-index values among groups created on the basis of questionnaire responses. Our results showed a relatively high agreement between the two methods. Although none of these methods is the "exposure gold standard", understanding similarities, weaknesses and strengths of each method is essential to strengthen epidemiological evidence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. GIS-BASED ANALYSIS FOR ASSESSING LANDSLIDE AND DROUGHT HAZARD IN THE CORRIDOR OF MT. MERAPI AND MT. MERBABU NATIONAL PARK, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hero Marhaento

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A corridor is an area located between two or more protected areas that are important to support the sustainability of the protected areas. This study is aimed at assessing landslide and drought hazard in the corridor area between Mt. Merapi National Park (MMNP and Mt. Merbabu National Park (MMbNP as a part of the corridor management strategy. The corridor area of MMNP and MMbNP comprises four sub-districts in Central Java Province, namely, Sawangan, Selo, Ampel, and Cepogo. A spatial analysis of ArcGIS 10.1 software was used to assess landslide hazard map and the Thorntwaite-Matter Water Balance approach was used to assess drought hazard map. The results have shown that three villages in Cepogo Sub-district and all villages in Selo Sub-district are highly prone to landslide hazard. Furthermore, two villages in Cepogo Sub-district and four villages in Selo Sub-district are prone to drought hazard. This study suggests that these villages should initiate a program called conservation village model based on disaster mitigation for mitigating future landslide and drought disasters.

  1. Ocena zmiany warunków hydrologicznych na terenach zurbanizowanych z wykorzystaniem technik GIS = GIS-based assessment of changes related to hydrological conditions in urban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuta Szumińska

    2015-05-01

    email: dszum@ukw.edu.pl1   Streszczenie   W artykule zaprezentowano możliwości wykorzystania technik GIS do przeprowadzenia analizy zmiany warunków hydrologicznych. Badania przeprowadzono na terenie zurbanizowanym, na którym dokonano zmian rzeźby oraz sposobu użytkowania terenu. Spowodowało to pojawieniem się problemów z odwodnieniem terenu, przede wszystkim w czasie wzmożonego zasilania z opadów deszczu i roztopów śniegu. W celu określenia przyczyn występujących problemów porównano rzeźbę terenu oraz wyznaczono kierunki odpływu wód powierzchniowych przed i po zagospodarowaniu działki d (Ryc. 1. Czasochłonne i kosztochłonne badania geologiczne wykonano w minimalnym zakresie (Tab. 1 i zostały one wykorzystane jako informacja uzupełniająca, pozwalająca na ocenę możliwości infiltracji wody w podłoże. Na podstawie przeprowadzonych badań stwierdzono, że główne przyczyny problemów z odwodnieniem terenu związane są ze stworzeniem barier w postaci podmurówek ogrodzeń zlokalizowanych prostopadle do kierunków odpływu wody (Fot. 1, Fot. 2. Zmiany rzeźby były w analizowanym przypadku czynnikiem mniej istotnym.   Słowa kluczowe: warunki hydrologiczne, infiltracja, model rzeźby terenu, kierunki odpływu, użytkowanie terenu, tereny zurbanizowane.   Abstract   The paper discusses the possibilities of employing GIS for conducting analysis of changes in hydrological conditions. The study was carried out in an urban area featuring altered relief and use of land. This caused problems with draining the terrain, particularly at times of increased rainwater and meltwater supply. In order to identify the causes of the occurring problems, we compared land relief prior and after the plot was developed, as well as indicated the directions of surface water runoff (Fig. 1. Time-consuming and expensive geological research activities were restricted to minimum (Tab. 2 and the data thus obtained were used as supplementary information to

  2. A GIS-based methodology for highlighting fuelwood supply/demand imbalances at the local level: A case study for Central Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghilardi, Adrian; Guerrero, Gabriela; Masera, Omar

    2009-01-01

    When fuelwood is harvested at a rate exceeding natural growth and inefficient conversion technologies are used, negative environmental and socio-economic impacts, such as fuelwood shortages, natural forests degradation and net GHG emissions arise. In this study, we argue that analyzing fuelwood supply/demand spatial patterns require multi-scale approaches to effectively bridge the gap between national results with local situations. The proposed methodology is expected to help 1) focusing resources and actions on local critical situations, starting from national wide analyses and 2) estimating, within statistically robust confidence bounds, the proportion of non-renewable harvested fuelwood. Starting from a previous work, we selected a county-based fuelwood hot spot in the Central Highlands of Mexico, identified from a national wide assessment, and developed a grid-based model in order to identify single localities that face concomitant conditions of high fuelwood consumption and insufficient fuelwood resources. By means of a multi-criteria analysis (MCA), twenty localities, out of a total of 90, were identified as critical in terms of six indicators related to fuelwood use and availability of fuelwood resources. Fuelwood supply/demand balances varied among localities from -16.2 ± 2.5 Gg y -1 to 4.4 ± 2.6 Gg y -1 , while fractions of non-renewable fuelwood varied from 0 to 96%. These results support the idea that balances and non-renewable fuelwood fractions (mandatory inputs for Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) cookstoves projects) must be calculated on a locality by locality basis if gross under or over-estimations want to be avoided in the final carbon accounting. (author)

  3. Spatial and temporal disaggregation of the on-road vehicle emission inventory in a medium-sized Andean city. Comparison of GIS-based top-down methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, C. D.; González, C. M.; Osses, M.; Aristizábal, B. H.

    2018-04-01

    based on total traffic counts and road density distribution suggested that the use of total traffic counts in a simplified form could enhance higher uncertainties in the spatial disaggregation of emissions. Results obtained could add new information that help to improve the air pollution management system in the city and contribute to local public policy decisions. Additionally, this work provides appropriate resolution emission fluxes for ongoing research in atmospheric modeling in the city, with the aim to improve the understanding of transport, transformation and impacts of pollutant emissions in urban air quality.

  4. SWAT-based streamflow and embayment modeling of Karst-affected Chapel branch watershed, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devendra Amatya; M. Jha; A.E. Edwards; T.M. Williams; D.R. Hitchcock

    2011-01-01

    SWAT is a GIS-based basin-scale model widely used for the characterization of hydrology and water quality of large, complex watersheds; however, SWAT has not been fully tested in watersheds with karst geomorphology and downstream reservoir-like embayment. In this study, SWAT was applied to test its ability to predict monthly streamflow dynamics for a 1,555 ha karst...

  5. Japan's actual energy supply/demand in 1986 and background - drastically changing economic/energy situations upset plans and forecasts by a wide margin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujime, K

    1987-05-01

    In 1986 the value of the yen soared and there was a lowering of interest rates and a slump in crude oil prices. These drastic changes in economic/energy situations brought about a completely different picture of Japan's energy supply and demand from originally expected. Energy demand from large industrial users was lowered and impacts of price fluctuations on energy supply and demand were uneven. Topics covered in the paper are: economic/industrial trends; energy price trends; actual energy supply and demand including electricity, oil, town gas, coal and LNG (liquefied natural gas); trends of major energy-consuming industries and energy consumption including steel industry, paper/pulp industry, cement industry and petrochemical industry; plans/forecasts completely off the track due to drastically changing economic/energy situations.

  6. Study of groundwater vulnerability to pollution using the DRASTIC method coupled with a geographic information system (GIS): application to groundwater Beni Amir, Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knouz, Najat; Boudhar, Abdelghani; Bachaoui, El Mostafa

    2016-04-01

    Fresh water is the condition of all life on Earth for its vital role in the survival of living beings and in the social, economic and technological development. The Groundwater, as the surface water, is increasingly threatened by agricultural and industrial pollution. In this respect, the groundwater vulnerability assessment to pollution is a very valuable tool for resource protection, management of its quality and uses it in a sustainable way. The main objective of this study is the evaluation of groundwater vulnerability to pollution of the study area, Beni Amir, located in the first irrigated perimeter of Morocco, Tadla, using the DRASTIC method (depth to water, net recharge, aquifer media, soil media, Topography, impact of Vadose zone and hydraulic conductivity), and assessing the impact of each parameter on the DRASTIC vulnerability index by a sensitivity analysis. This study also highlights the role of geographic information systems (GIS) in assessing vulnerability. The Vulnerability index is calculated as the sum of product of ratings and weights assigned to each of the parameter DRASTIC. The results revealed four vulnerability classes, 7% of the study area has a high vulnerability, 31% are moderately vulnerable, 57% have a low vulnerability and 5% are of very low vulnerability.

  7. Vulnerability assessment of groundwater to contamination using drastic method: Study in Ngemplak, Ngaglik and Sleman Districts of Sleman Regency, Yogyakarta Special Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Widyastuti

    2013-07-01

    The result showed that DRASTIC index varies between 73 to 172 intervals. Hence, the indexes were categorized into five level of groundwater vulnerability, namely invulnerable (73-92, low vulnerable (93-112, moderate vulnerable (113-132, high vulnerable (133-152 and very high vulnerable (153-172. It is found that more than 50 % of the study area is covered by high and very high vulnerability of groundwater to contamination. The vulnerability level and its area as follows : vo• high 92974.63 ha or 28.18%, high (7049.86 ha or 66.79 %, moderate (529.90 ha or 5.02 %. low (0.148 ha or 0.0014 % and invulnerable (0.003 ha or 0.0003 %.

  8. Drastic increase of myosin light chain MLC-2 in senescent skeletal muscle indicates fast-to-slow fibre transition in sarcopenia of old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannon, Joan; Doran, Philip; Kirwan, Anne; Ohlendieck, Kay

    2009-11-01

    The age-dependent decline in skeletal muscle mass and function is believed to be due to a multi-factorial pathology and represents a major factor that blocks healthy aging by increasing physical disability, frailty and loss of independence in the elderly. This study has focused on the comparative proteomic analysis of contractile elements and revealed that the most striking age-related changes seem to occur in the protein family representing myosin light chains (MLCs). Comparative screening of total muscle extracts suggests a fast-to-slow transition in the aged MLC population. The mass spectrometric analysis of the myofibril-enriched fraction identified the MLC2 isoform of the slow-type MLC as the contractile protein with the most drastically changed expression during aging. Immunoblotting confirmed an increased abundance of slow MLC2, concomitant with a switch in fast versus slow myosin heavy chains. Staining of two-dimensional gels of crude extracts with the phospho-specific fluorescent dye ProQ-Diamond identified the increased MLC2 spot as a muscle protein with a drastically enhanced phosphorylation level in aged fibres. Comparative immunofluorescence microscopy, using antibodies to fast and slow myosin isoforms, confirmed a fast-to-slow transformation process during muscle aging. Interestingly, the dramatic increase in slow MLC2 expression was restricted to individual senescent fibres. These findings agree with the idea that aged skeletal muscles undergo a shift to more aerobic-oxidative metabolism in a slower-twitching fibre population and suggest the slow MLC2 isoform as a potential biomarker for fibre type shifting in sarcopenia of old age.

  9. Development and evaluation of a watershed-scale hybrid hydrologic model

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Younghyun

    2016-01-01

    A watershed-scale hybrid hydrologic model (Distributed-Clark), which is a lumped conceptual and distributed feature model, was developed to predict spatially distributed short- and long-term rainfall runoff generation and routing using relatively simple methodologies and state-of-the-art spatial data in a GIS environment. In Distributed-Clark, spatially distributed excess rainfall estimated with the SCS curve number method and a GIS-based set of separated unit hydrographs (spatially distribut...

  10. Invasive mussels alter the littoral food web of a large lake: stable isotopes reveal drastic shifts in sources and flow of energy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ted Ozersky

    Full Text Available We investigated how establishment of invasive dreissenid mussels impacted the structure and energy sources of the littoral benthic food web of a large temperate lake. We combined information about pre- and postdreissenid abundance, biomass, and secondary production of the littoral benthos with results of carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analysis of archival (predreissenid and recent (postdreissenid samples of all common benthic taxa. This approach enabled us to determine the importance of benthic and sestonic carbon to the littoral food web before, and more than a decade after dreissenid establishment. Long term dreissenid presence was associated with a 32-fold increase in abundance, 6-fold increase in biomass, and 14-fold increase in secondary production of the littoral benthos. Dreissenids comprised a large portion of the post-invasion benthos, making up 13, 38, and 56% of total abundance, biomass, and secondary production, respectively. The predreissenid food web was supported primarily by benthic primary production, while sestonic material was relatively more important to the postdreissenid food web. The absolute importance of both sestonic material and benthic primary production to the littoral benthos increased considerably following dreissenid establishment. Our results show drastic alterations to food web structure and suggest that dreissenid mussels redirect energy and material from the water column to the littoral benthos both through biodeposition of sestonic material as well as stimulation of benthic primary production.

  11. A drastic reduction in the life span of cystatin C L68Q carriers due to life-style changes during the last two centuries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astridur Palsdottir

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary cystatin C amyloid angiopathy (HCCAA is an autosomal dominant disease with high penetrance, manifest by brain hemorrhages in young normotensive adults. In Iceland, this condition is caused by the L68Q mutation in the cystatin C gene, with contemporary carriers reaching an average age of only 30 years. Here, we report, based both on linkage disequilibrium and genealogical evidence, that all known copies of this mutation derive from a common ancestor born roughly 18 generations ago. Intriguingly, the genealogies reveal that obligate L68Q carriers born 1825 to 1900 experienced a drastic reduction in life span, from 65 years to the present-day average. At the same time, a parent-of-origin effect emerged, whereby maternal inheritance of the mutation was associated with a 9 year reduction in life span relative to paternal inheritance. As these trends can be observed in several different extended families, many generations after the mutational event, it seems likely that some environmental factor is responsible, perhaps linked to radical changes in the life-style of Icelanders during this period. A mutation with such radically different phenotypic effects in reaction to normal variation in human life-style not only opens the possibility of preventive strategies for HCCAA, but it may also provide novel insights into the complex relationship between genotype and environment in human disease.

  12. Microsatellite DNA analysis revealed a drastic genetic change of Plasmodium vivax population in the Republic of Korea during 2002 and 2003.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moritoshi Iwagami

    Full Text Available Vivax malaria was successfully eliminated in the Republic of Korea (South Korea in the late 1970s, but it was found to have re-emerged from 1993. In order to control malaria and evaluate the effectiveness of malaria controls, it is important to develop a spatiotemporal understanding of the genetic structure of the parasite population. Here, we estimated the population structure and temporal dynamics of the transmission of Plasmodium vivax in South Korea by analyzing microsatellite DNA markers of the parasite.We analyzed 14 microsatellite DNA loci of the P. vivax genome from 163 South Korean isolates collected from 1994 to 2008. Allelic data were used to analyze linkage disequilibrium (LD, genetic differentiation and population structure, in order to make a detailed estimate of temporal change in the parasite population. The LD analysis showed a gradual decrease in LD levels, while the levels of genetic differentiation between successive years and analysis of the population structure based on the Bayesian approach suggested that a drastic genetic change occurred in the South Korean population during 2002 and 2003.Although relapse and asymptomatic parasite carriage might influence the population structure to some extent, our results suggested the continual introduction of P. vivax into South Korea through other parasite population sources. One possible source, particularly during 2002 and 2003, is North Korea. Molecular epidemiology using microsatellite DNA of the P. vivax population is effective for assessing the population structure and temporal dynamics of parasite transmission; information that can assist in the elimination of vivax malaria in endemic areas.

  13. Bioleached sludge composting drastically reducing ammonia volatilization as well as decreasing bulking agent dosage and improving compost quality: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Weitong; Zheng, Guanyu; Fang, Di; Cui, Chunhong; Liang, Jianru; Zhou, Lixiang

    2015-10-01

    Sludge bioleaching technology with Acidithiobacillus species has been commercially adopted for improving advanced dewatering of sludge in China since 2010. However, up to now, little information on bioleached dewatered sludge (BS) composting is available. Here, we report the changes of physicochemical and biological properties in BS composting and evaluate compost product quality compared to conventional dewatered sludge (CS) composting in an engineering scale composting facility. The results showed that the amount of bulking agents required in BS composting was only about 10% of CS composting to obtain optimum moisture content, reducing about 700 kg bulking agents per ton fresh sludge. pH of BS composting mixture was slightly lower consistently by about 0.2-0.3 pH units than that in CS mixture in the first 30 days. Organic matter biodegradation in BS system mainly occurred in the first 9 days of composting. In spite of higher content of NH4(+)-N was found in BS mixture in related to CS mixture; unexpectedly the cumulative ammonia volatilization in the former was only 51% of the latter, indicating that BS composting drastically reduced nitrogen loss. Compared to CS composting system, the relative lower pH, the higher intensity of microbial assimilation, and the presence of water soluble Fe in BS system might jointly reduce ammonia volatilization. Consequently, BS compost product exhibited higher fertilizer values (N+P2O5+K2O=8.38%) as well as lower heavy metal levels due to the solubilization of sludge-borne heavy metals during bioleaching process. Therefore, composting of BS possesses more advantages over the CS composting process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A geographic information system-based 3D city estate modeling and simulation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Xiaoli; Li, Sha

    2015-12-01

    This paper introduces a 3D city simulation system which is based on geographic information system (GIS), covering all commercial housings of the city. A regional- scale, GIS-based approach is used to capture, describe, and track the geographical attributes of each house in the city. A sorting algorithm of "Benchmark + Parity Rate" is developed to cluster houses with similar spatial and construction attributes. This system is applicable for digital city modeling, city planning, housing evaluation, housing monitoring, and visualizing housing transaction. Finally, taking Jingtian area of Shenzhen as an example, the each unit of 35,997 houses in the area could be displayed, tagged, and easily tracked by the GIS-based city modeling and simulation system. The match market real conditions well and can be provided to house buyers as reference.

  15. A Baltic Sea estuary as a phosphorus source and sink after drastic load reduction: seasonal and long-term mass balances for the Stockholm inner archipelago for 1968-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walve, Jakob; Sandberg, Maria; Larsson, Ulf; Lännergren, Christer

    2018-05-01

    Internal phosphorus (P) loading from sediments, controlled by hypoxia, is often assumed to hamper the recovery of lakes and coastal areas from eutrophication. In the early 1970s, the external P load to the inner archipelago of Stockholm, Sweden (Baltic Sea), was drastically reduced by improved sewage treatment, but the internal P loading and its controlling factors have been poorly quantified. We use two slightly different four-layer box models to calculate the area's seasonal and annual P balance (input-export) and the internal P exchange with sediments in 1968-2015. For 10-20 years after the main P load reduction, there was a negative P balance, small in comparison to the external load, and probably due to release from legacy sediment P storage. Later, the stabilized, near-neutral P balance indicates no remaining internal loading from legacy P, but P retention is low, despite improved oxygen conditions. Seasonally, sediments are a P sink in spring and a P source in summer and autumn. Most of the deep-water P release from sediments in summer-autumn appears to be derived from the settled spring bloom and is exported to outer areas during winter. Oxygen consumption and P release in the deep water are generally tightly coupled, indicating limited iron control of P release. However, enhanced P release in years of deep-water hypoxia suggests some contribution from redox-sensitive P pools. Increasing deep-water temperatures that stimulate oxygen consumption rates in early summer have counteracted the effect of lowered organic matter sedimentation on oxygen concentrations. Since the P turnover time is short and legacy P small, measures to bind P in Stockholm inner archipelago sediments would primarily accumulate recent P inputs, imported from the Baltic Sea and from Lake Mälaren.

  16. The effects of ex-situ oil shale mining on groundwater resources in Siwaqa area, southern Jordan, using DRASTIC index and hydrochemical water assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alsharifa Hind Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy resources in addition to water resources are the most limited resources in Jordan, being one of the fourth poorest countries in water resources, and limitation of surface water resources put huge pressure on groundwater which is the main resource there. High expenses and the increasing prices of oil over all worlds increase the feasibility to mining the oil shale that exists in southern Jordan area, Siwaqa. This study took place to clarify the possible effects of mining and energy production activities on the water resources in that area. Groundwater vulnerability mapping was done for many areas all over the country, including this part. The initiative of this work is to determine the vulnerability under the conditions of removing the bedrock of the oil shale which is described as a con ning layer. Results that are obtained by this work conclude that the oil shale area becomes highly vulnerable to the human activities because of the existing geological structures while it is small and medium vulnerable in the elds in which there are no geological structures. In addition to the structural features and adding the possibility of the oil shale mining from the outcropped areas which will decrease the depth to water table and hence will affect the vulnerability values.  Efectos en las fuentes de agua subterránea de la minería ex situ de esquistos bituminosos, en el área de Siwaqa, al sur de Jordania, a través del índice DRASTIC y la evaluación hidroquímica del agua  Resumen Las fuentes de energía y agua son las más limitadas en Jordania, uno de los cuatro países más pobres en recursos hídricos; además, las limitadas fuentes super ciales hacen de las aguas subterráneas las más importantes. Las ganancias y el precio del petróleo, por su parte, incrementan la viabilidad de la minería de esquistos bituminosos en el sur de Jordania, en la región de Siwaqa. Este estudio se realiza con el  n de establecer los

  17. Comparison and validation of shallow landslides susceptibility maps generated by bi-variate and multi-variate linear probabilistic GIS-based techniques. A case study from Ribeira Quente Valley (S. Miguel Island, Azores)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, R.; Amaral, P.; Zêzere, J. L.; Queiroz, G.; Goulart, C.

    2009-04-01

    Slope instability research and susceptibility mapping is a fundamental component of hazard assessment and is of extreme importance for risk mitigation, land-use management and emergency planning. Landslide susceptibility zonation has been actively pursued during the last two decades and several methodologies are still being improved. Among all the methods presented in the literature, indirect quantitative probabilistic methods have been extensively used. In this work different linear probabilistic methods, both bi-variate and multi-variate (Informative Value, Fuzzy Logic, Weights of Evidence and Logistic Regression), were used for the computation of the spatial probability of landslide occurrence, using the pixel as mapping unit. The methods used are based on linear relationships between landslides and 9 considered conditioning factors (altimetry, slope angle, exposition, curvature, distance to streams, wetness index, contribution area, lithology and land-use). It was assumed that future landslides will be conditioned by the same factors as past landslides in the study area. The presented work was developed for Ribeira Quente Valley (S. Miguel Island, Azores), a study area of 9,5 km2, mainly composed of volcanic deposits (ash and pumice lapilli) produced by explosive eruptions in Furnas Volcano. This materials associated to the steepness of the slopes (38,9% of the area has slope angles higher than 35°, reaching a maximum of 87,5°), make the area very prone to landslide activity. A total of 1.495 shallow landslides were mapped (at 1:5.000 scale) and included in a GIS database. The total affected area is 401.744 m2 (4,5% of the study area). Most slope movements are translational slides frequently evolving into debris-flows. The landslides are elongated, with maximum length generally equivalent to the slope extent, and their width normally does not exceed 25 m. The failure depth rarely exceeds 1,5 m and the volume is usually smaller than 700 m3. For modelling

  18. Prioritizing stream types according to their potential risk to receive crop plant material--A GIS-based procedure to assist in the risk assessment of genetically modified crops and systemic insecticide residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundschuh, Rebecca; Kuhn, Ulrike; Bundschuh, Mirco; Naegele, Caroline; Elsaesser, David; Schlechtriemen, Ulrich; Oehen, Bernadette; Hilbeck, Angelika; Otto, Mathias; Schulz, Ralf; Hofmann, Frieder

    2016-03-15

    Crop plant residues may enter aquatic ecosystems via wind deposition or surface runoff. In the case of genetically modified crops or crops treated with systemic pesticides, these materials may contain insecticidal Bt toxins or pesticides that potentially affect aquatic life. However, the particular exposure pattern of aquatic ecosystems (i.e., via plant material) is not properly reflected in current risk assessment schemes, which primarily focus on waterborne toxicity and not on plant material as the route of uptake. To assist in risk assessment, the present study proposes a prioritization procedure of stream types based on the freshwater network and crop-specific cultivation data using maize in Germany as a model system. To identify stream types with a high probability of receiving crop materials, we developed a formalized, criteria-based and thus transparent procedure that considers the exposure-related parameters, ecological status--an estimate of the diversity and potential vulnerability of local communities towards anthropogenic stress--and availability of uncontaminated reference sections. By applying the procedure to maize, ten stream types out of 38 are expected to be the most relevant if the ecological effects from plant-incorporated pesticides need to be evaluated. This information is an important first step to identifying habitats within these stream types with a high probability of receiving crop plant material at a more local scale, including accumulation areas. Moreover, the prioritization procedure developed in the present study may support the selection of aquatic species for ecotoxicological testing based on their probability of occurrence in stream types having a higher chance of exposure. Finally, this procedure can be adapted to any geographical region or crop of interest and is, therefore, a valuable tool for a site-specific risk assessment of crop plants carrying systemic pesticides or novel proteins, such as insecticidal Bt toxins, expressed

  19. Understanding forest-derived biomass supply with GIS modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hock, B. K.; Blomqvist, L.; Hall, P.

    2012-01-01

    distribution, and the cost of delivery as forests are frequently remote from energy users. A GIS-based model was developed to predict supply curves of forest biomass material for a site or group of sites, both now and in the future. The GIS biomass supply model was used to assist the New Zealand Energy...... Efficiency and Conservation Authority's development of a national target for biomass use for industrial heat production, to determine potential forest residue volumes for industrial heat and their delivery costs for 19 processing plants of the dairy company Fonterra, and towards investigating options...

  20. Planning for emergency services using GIS-based geographic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and applies a methodology to determine the locations of additional fire stations, using accessibility .... choices are required as to which locations .... oil pipelines, petroleum installations, hospitals ..... building materials used and the size of the ...

  1. A GIS-based Power Transmission Management Information System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>Based on analyzing the shortcomings of electric power enterprise in traditional operation pattern,this paper combines components GIS with the application of management information system,and uses the structure which unifies three layers C/S and B/S.Also,proposed using the GPS intellectualization patrol.This may be useful to guarantees the transmission line’s operation to be safe and stable.

  2. 498 GIS-BASED PRODUCTION OF DIGITAL SOIL MAP FOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    Soil, a valuable natural resource can be said to play a part across the range of human existence and ... and therefore to the ecology and economy as a ... often starts with measurements and analysis by ... documents by a qualitative method.

  3. “GEOHeritage” - GIS Based Application for Movable Heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albina Moscicka

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper will present the results of a research project „A methodology for mapping movable heritage”.  This project, financed by the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education in 2008-2010, was realized by the Institute of Geodesy and Cartography in cooperation with the Research and Academic Computer Network (portal Polska.pl, the Central Archives of Historical Records and Department of Art History of the Wroclaw University. The idea of the project was to simplify access to digital movable cultural heritage by the use of spatial information. The main aspect of the project was to use a Geographic Information System (GIS - as a technology and as a tool - to integrate different digital collections, present their content in one space and provide online access to them from one common level – from an online map. The essence of the research was to present on the online map movable monument as multi-spatial object. The base of this assumption is that most of monuments, especially movable ones, can have several places in the geographical space that are connected with them (several various space relations. As a rule archival documents were created in one place, describe the other, today can be kept in places far away from the place they were prepared, and what more the parts of the same collection can be kept in different archives. Moreover, one single document can be connected or have relations (typological, thematically, temporal, spatial with other relations to the same or the other one. The reason for it is that documents concerning various places are housed in the same archive, various documents can present the same place or the place of creating particular document can be the place of housing another. In the project the basic source material was digital collections of original records. Their metadata defined in the international standards of monuments’ description were used for connecting digital monuments with the geographic space. With the use of these standards, the Internet application for presenting cultural heritage on the map was developed. It can be found at www.GEOHeritage.polska.pl (Polish version and www.GEOHeritage.poland.pl (English version. The application is based on the Geographic Information System (GIS, and its functionality is mainly the elements of selecting the resources, presenting the documents on the map in different ways and finding their images.  The paper will present methodological solutions necessary for building on-line map of movable heritage together with the functionality of the application.

  4. GIS-based integrated groundwater potential assessment of Osun ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Topographic parameters including surface curvatures, slope and elevation were derived from SPOT DEM and used to generate landform and relief maps for the study area. Spatial Analysis Module of ArcGIS 10.3 software was used to generate lineament proximity, hydrolineament density and drainage density maps for the ...

  5. GIS Based Analysis of future district heating potential in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Steffen; Möller, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    and their heat demand has in recent years been assessed in a heat atlas including all buildings in Denmark. The focus in this article is to further develop a method for assessing the costs associated with supplying these buildings with DH. The analysis takes departure in the existing DH areas in Denmark...

  6. GIS based analysis of future district heating potential in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Steffen; Möller, Bernd

    2013-01-01

    in Denmark have been mapped in a heat atlas which includes all buildings and their heat demands. This article focuses on developing a method for assessing the costs associated with supplying these buildings with DH. The analysis is based on the existing DH areas in Denmark. By finding the heat production...

  7. GIS-based Geotechnical Microzonation Mapping using Analytic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bheema

    based ... of parameters that are important for different multivariate decision making ... The methodology used in this study is shown in the flow chart (Fig 4). .... layer was prepared by considering the highest elevations of the static water levels.

  8. Evaluating public ambulance service levels by applying a GIS based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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  9. Planning for emergency services using GIS-based geographic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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  10. GIS-based Geotechnical Microzonation Mapping using Analytic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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  11. A GIS-Based Optimization Technique for Spatial Location of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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  12. GIS Based Study on Seismicity of Makran over 100 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mubarik Ali

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The earthquakes in Makran have a history of 600 years (1483-2015. The new ventures of development, urbanization, mining, and exploration for hydrocarbons in Makran region demand recent studies on seismicity. The major tectonic earthquakes are although infrequent in Makran, but are responsible for generating tsunami in coastal areas of Pakistan and Iran and have a long tail of aftershocks of shallow to deep focal depths. The oceanic part of Arabian plate which is underthrusting Eurasian plate (northwards, contributes a major share in producing seismicity of low magnitude (ML 6 on Richter scale has a relation with the rotation of moon (lunar dates in Makran.

  13. GIS-based Integration of Interdisciplinary Ecological Data to Detect ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key words: mangrove, satellite imagery, environment, aerial photography, GIS, Kenya Historic environmental, faunal, floral and socioeconomic data of Gazi Bay in coastal Kenya were collated and integrated into a GIS environment and data of impacts due to various factors were then related to remotely sensed data.

  14. Evaluating public ambulance service levels by applying a GIS based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ambulance vehicles are required to respond rapidly to medical emergencies. A number of factors may affect response times, most importantly the location of emergency services stations, the number of ambulance vehicles available at each station, road conditions and traffic volumes. To support spatial planning and provide ...

  15. Afghanistan, history and beyond - GIS based application tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swamy, Rahul Chidananda

    The emphasis of this tool is to provide an insight into the history of Afghanistan. Afghanistan has been a warring nation for decades; this tool provides a brief account of the reasons behind the importance of Afghanistan, which led to its invasion by Britain, Russia and USA. The timeline for this thesis was set from 1879 to 1990 which ranges from Barakzai Dynasty to the soviet invasion. Maps are used judiciously to show battles during the British invasion. Maps that show roads, rivers, lakes and provinces are incorporated into the tool to provide an overview of the present situation. The user has options to filter this data by using the timeline and a filtering tool. To quench the users thirst for more information, HTML pages are used judiciously. HTML pages are embedded in key events to provide detailed insight into these events with the help of pictures and videos. An intuitive slider is used to show the people who played a significant role in Afghanistan. The user interface was made intuitive and easy to use, keeping in mind the novice user. A help menu is provided to guide the user on the tool. Spending time researching about Afghanistan has helped me again a new perspective on Afghanistan and its people. With this tool, I hope I can provide a valuable channel for people to understand Afghanistan and gain a fresh perspective into this war ridden nation.

  16. GIS based application tool -- history of East India Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phophaliya, Sudhir

    The emphasis of the thesis is to build an intuitive and robust GIS (Geographic Information systems) Tool which gives an in depth information on history of East India Company. The GIS tool also incorporates various achievements of East India Company which helped to establish their business all over world especially India. The user has the option to select these movements and acts by clicking on any of the marked states on the World map. The World Map also incorporates key features for East India Company like landing of East India Company in India, Darjeeling Tea Establishment, East India Company Stock Redemption Act etc. The user can know more about these features simply by clicking on each of them. The primary focus of the tool is to give the user a unique insight about East India Company; for this the tool has several HTML (Hypertext markup language) pages which the user can select. These HTML pages give information on various topics like the first Voyage, Trade with China, 1857 Revolt etc. The tool has been developed in JAVA. For the Indian map MOJO (Map Objects Java Objects) is used. MOJO is developed by ESRI. The major features shown on the World map was designed using MOJO. MOJO made it easy to incorporate the statistical data with these features. The user interface was intentionally kept simple and easy to use. To keep the user engaged, key aspects are explained using HTML pages. The idea is that pictures will help the user garner interest in the history of East India Company.

  17. GIS Based Application of Advanced Traveler Information System in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P.; Singh, V.

    2012-02-01

    Developed countries like USA, Canada, Japan, UK, Australia and Germany have adopted advanced traveler information technologies expeditiously in comparison to developing countries. But, unlike developed countries, developing countries face considerable financial and framework constraints. Moreover local traffic, roadway, signalization, demographic, topological and social conditions in developing countries are quite different from those in developed countries. In this paper, a comprehensive framework comprising of system architecture, development methodology and salient features of a developed Advanced Traveler Information System (ATIS) for metropolitan cities in developing countries has been discussed. Development of proposed system is based on integration of two well known information technologies viz. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and World Wide Web (WWW). Combination of these technologies can be utilized to develop an integrated ATIS that targets different types of travelers like private vehicle owners, transit users and casual outside visitors.

  18. GIS - based decision and outreach tools for aggregate source management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    This research project combined various datasets, existing and created for this project, into an Interactive : Mapping Service (IMS) for use by Iowa DOT personnel, county planning and zoning departments and the : public in order to make more informed ...

  19. Development of a geographic information system (GIS) based road ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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  20. Evaluating public ambulance service levels by applying a GIS based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hunadi Mokgalaka

    based analysis of ambulance response time was undertaken. The purpose was to .... He tested the travel time of the primary response vehicles and ..... Real CORP Proceedings / Tagungsband, ISBN: 978-3-9502139-7-3, pp, 22-25, viewed 18.

  1. gis-based integrated groundwater potential assessment of osun

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    Figure 1: Map of the Study Area showing a): Nigeria's State Boundaries; b): Osun ... States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Database. ..... the-Art Technique Integrating Water ... Exploration and Engineering Geology by.

  2. A Spatial Model of the Biomass to Energy Cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Bernd

    2003-01-01

    by location. This paper aims to contribute to the development of a biomass to energy evaluation and mapping system, using geographical information systems (GIS). A GIS-based in-forest residue model considers forest growth and choice of harvest method. Data from a sawmill survey is used to assess sawmill resi...... and the costs of accumulated amounts of wood residues can now be calculated almost instantly for each location in the country. It is assumed that this approach will facilitate the assessment of future biomass markets....

  3. Drastic Population Size Change in Two Populations of the Golden-Striped Salamander over a Forty-Year Period—Are Eucalypt Plantations to Blame?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan W. Arntzen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Over the last half century the Iberian peninsula has seen the large scale planting of exotic gum trees (Eucalyptus sp. therewith reducing space for native wildlife. An additional effect of the gum tree plantations may be the lowering of the water table in adjacent streams, to which amphibian species with a larval niche in the running sections of small streams would be especially susceptible. In northwestern Iberia that niche is occupied by the Golden-striped salamander, Chioglossa lusitanica. I here report on the demographic trends of two C. lusitanica populations over a forty-year period, in two areas of one mountain range near Porto in northwestern Portugal. In both areas advantage was taken of the migration pattern of C. lusitanica to sites for aestivation and breeding in summer and fall. The area of the Silveirinhos brook was transformed in a plantation of gum trees shortly after the research started, while the area of Poço do Inferno remained virtually unaffected. At Silveirinhos the adult C. lusitanica population declined by one or two orders of magnitude, from ca. 1500 individuals to less than 50 at present. Demographic models that operate under a uniform larval mortality yielded population sizes that are compatible with field observations, including the late onset of the decline at 14 or more years after the planting of the gum trees and the near-extinction at year 32. An alternative reason for the relatively recent population collapse of C. lusitanica may have been disease, but no sick individuals or corpses have become available for clinical investigation. Conversely, the control population at Poço do Inferno increased in size by a factor of five or more. These data support the hypothesis that gum tree plantations have a strong negative effect on C. lusitanica. The population size increase at Poço do Inferno is probably attributable to the installation of wastewater treatment in the adjacent town of Valongo, with a discharge in the

  4. An integrated model to simulate sown area changes for major crops at a global scale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHIBASAKI; Ryosuke

    2008-01-01

    Dynamics of land use systems have attracted much attention from scientists around the world due to their ecological and socio-economic implications. An integrated model to dynamically simulate future changes in sown areas of four major crops (rice, maize, wheat and soybean) on a global scale is pre- sented. To do so, a crop choice model was developed on the basis of Multinomial Logit (Logit) model to model land users’ decisions on crop choices among a set of available alternatives with using a crop utility function. A GIS-based Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) model was adopted to simulate the crop yields under a given geophysical environment and farming management conditions, while the International Food Policy and Agricultural Simulation (IFPSIM) model was utilized to estimate crop price in the international market. The crop choice model was linked with the GIS-based EPIC model and the IFPSIM model through data exchange. This integrated model was then validated against the FAO statistical data in 2001-2003 and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) global land cover product in 2001. Both validation approaches indicated reliability of the model for ad- dressing the dynamics in agricultural land use and its capability for long-term scenario analysis. Finally, the model application was designed to run over a time period of 30 a, taking the year 2000 as baseline. The model outcomes can help understand and explain the causes, locations and consequences of land use changes, and provide support for land use planning and policy making.

  5. Spatial Epidemic Modelling in Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoes, Joana Margarida

    2005-06-01

    The spread of infectious diseases is highly influenced by the structure of the underlying social network. The target of this study is not the network of acquaintances, but the social mobility network: the daily movement of people between locations, in regions. It was already shown that this kind of network exhibits small world characteristics. The model developed is agent based (ABM) and comprehends a movement model and a infection model. In the movement model, some assumptions are made about its structure and the daily movement is decomposed into four types: neighborhood, intra region, inter region and random. The model is Geographical Information Systems (GIS) based, and uses real data to define its geometry. Because it is a vector model, some optimization techniques were used to increase its efficiency.

  6. The cyclical advancement of drastic technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaal, Albert de; Yetkiner, I. Hakan; Zon, Adriaan van

    2002-01-01

    Recent contributions to growth theory stress the importance of localized innovation for the performance of more backward countries. In earlier papers, analyses by means of DEA techniques confirmed this intuition. In this paper, we extend this type of analysis by relaxing the macroeconomic viewpoint

  7. Modeling Accessibility of Screening and Treatment Facilities for Older Adults using Transportation Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiuyi; Northridge, Mary E; Jin, Zhu; Metcalf, Sara S

    2018-04-01

    Increased lifespans and population growth have resulted in an older U.S. society that must reckon with the complex oral health needs that arise as adults age. Understanding accessibility to screening and treatment facilities for older adults is necessary in order to provide them with preventive and restorative services. This study uses an agent-based model to examine the accessibility of screening and treatment facilities via transportation networks for older adults living in the neighborhoods of northern Manhattan, New York City. Older adults are simulated as socioeconomically distinct agents who move along a GIS-based transportation network using transportation modes that mediate their access to screening and treatment facilities. This simulation model includes four types of mobile agents as a simplifying assumption: walk, by car, by bus, or by van (i.e., a form of transportation assistance for older adults). These mobile agents follow particular routes: older adults who travel by car, bus, and van follow street roads, whereas pedestrians follow walkways. The model enables the user to focus on one neighborhood at a time for analysis. The spatial dimension of an older adult's accessibility to screening and treatment facilities is simulated through the travel costs (indicated by travel time or distance) incurred in the GIS-based model environment, where lower travel costs to screening and treatment facilities imply better access. This model provides a framework for representing health-seeking behavior that is contextualized by a transportation network in a GIS environment.

  8. Survey of geomorphological and hydrogeological data for mapping groundwater vulnerability of the Guarani Aquifer in Portão and Estância Velha/RS using the DRASTIC method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osmar G. Wöhl Coelho

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The vulnerability mapping of groundwater contamination has been widely developed and included in municipal plans to guide environmental management policies and it is recommended in CONAMA 396 Resolution (Brasil, 2008. Portão and Estância Velha, RS regions present potencial risk of contamination due to industrial activities. The Guarani Aquifer System (SAG in the study area is composed by the Pirambóia and Botucatu Formations. Both formations are formed by sandstones and they are partially confined by the basalts of the Serra Geral Aquifer. The method DRASTIC was chosen to build the vulnerability map. The shallow water table and the sedimentary lithology are indicative factors of intermediate to high vulnerability. The soils were divided in domains according to their texture. The first domain of claysoil has an impermeable behavior. The infiltration tests and thick layers of clay confirm a low hydraulic conductivity of this pedological unit, providing a natural protection of the aquifer. However, in the study area, the second claysoil domain is dominant and has more diffuse sand in the profile. The restricted presence of expansive clay minerals increases the vulnerability. Occupancy of areas of high vulnerability is directly related to the contamination of the aquifer. The efficiency of the map is related to the interdependence of parameters involving hydrogeological and geomorphological aspects. Thus, it has been observed a high degree of vulnerability to groundwater contamination in 25% of the area, an intermediate vulnerability in 72.4%, and a low degree in only 2.6% of the area.

  9. Gmz: a Gml Compression Model for Webgis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandelwal, A.; Rajan, K. S.

    2017-09-01

    Geography markup language (GML) is an XML specification for expressing geographical features. Defined by Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC), it is widely used for storage and transmission of maps over the Internet. XML schemas provide the convenience to define custom features profiles in GML for specific needs as seen in widely popular cityGML, simple features profile, coverage, etc. Simple features profile (SFP) is a simpler subset of GML profile with support for point, line and polygon geometries. SFP has been constructed to make sure it covers most commonly used GML geometries. Web Feature Service (WFS) serves query results in SFP by default. But it falls short of being an ideal choice due to its high verbosity and size-heavy nature, which provides immense scope for compression. GMZ is a lossless compression model developed to work for SFP compliant GML files. Our experiments indicate GMZ achieves reasonably good compression ratios and can be useful in WebGIS based applications.

  10. PVeStA: A Parallel Statistical Model Checking and Quantitative Analysis Tool

    KAUST Repository

    AlTurki, Musab; Meseguer, José

    2011-01-01

    Statistical model checking is an attractive formal analysis method for probabilistic systems such as, for example, cyber-physical systems which are often probabilistic in nature. This paper is about drastically increasing the scalability

  11. An integrated model to simulate sown area changes for major crops at a global scale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU WenBin; YANG Peng; MENG ChaoYing; SHIBASAKI Ryosuke; ZHOU QingBo; TANG HuaJun; SHI Yun

    2008-01-01

    Dynamics of land use systems have attracted much attention from scientists around the world due to their ecological and socio-economic implications. An integrated model to dynamically simulate future changes in sown areas of four major crops (rice, maize, wheat and soybean) on a global scale is presented. To do so, a crop choice model was developed on the basis of Multinomial Logit (Logit) model to model land users' decisions on crop choices among a set of available alternatives with using a crop utility function. A GIS-based Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) model was adopted to simulate the crop yields under a given geophysical environment and farming management conditions,while the International Food Policy and Agricultural Simulation (IFPSIM) model was utilized to estimate crop price in the international market. The crop choice model was linked with the GIS-based EPIC model and the IFPSIM model through data exchange. This integrated model was then validated against the FAO statistical data in 2001-2003 and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)global land cover product in 2001. Both validation approaches indicated reliability of the model for addressing the dynamics in agricultural land use and its capability for long-term scenario analysis. Finally,the model application was designed to run over a time period of 30 a, taking the year 2000 as baseline.The model outcomes can help understand and explain the causes, locations and consequences of land use changes, and provide support for land use planning and policy making.

  12. MODEL INTERPOLASI GEOSTATISTIK LOGAM BERAT DAN BIOTA DI PERAIRAN MUARA SUNGAI KUIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdur Rahman

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to model the spatial content of heavy metals in water bodies and biota in the waters of the River Estuary Kuin. Data analysis methods are used to determine water quality status with spatial interpolation models Semivariogram (kriging and Inverse Distance weighting (IDW is integrated with  Geographic Information System (GIS. Based on calculations using the Ordinary Kriging method with Semivariogram/covariance modeling to model the heavy metals in water bodies Average Standard Error values average of 0.01641 (RMS = 0.01430 at the station Kuin River Estuary. Results of calculations using the Inverse Distance weighting method (IDW for models of heavy metals in biota obtained Root Mean Square value (RMS-error average of 0.29787 on Kuin River Estuary, and the mean value of the average station of 0.0138.

  13. Nitrogen dioxide concentrations in neighborhoods adjacent to a commercial airport: a land use regression modeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamkiewicz, Gary; Hsu, Hsiao-Hsien; Vallarino, Jose; Melly, Steven J; Spengler, John D; Levy, Jonathan I

    2010-11-17

    There is growing concern in communities surrounding airports regarding the contribution of various emission sources (such as aircraft and ground support equipment) to nearby ambient concentrations. We used extensive monitoring of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in neighborhoods surrounding T.F. Green Airport in Warwick, RI, and land-use regression (LUR) modeling techniques to determine the impact of proximity to the airport and local traffic on these concentrations. Palmes diffusion tube samplers were deployed along the airport's fence line and within surrounding neighborhoods for one to two weeks. In total, 644 measurements were collected over three sampling campaigns (October 2007, March 2008 and June 2008) and each sampling location was geocoded. GIS-based variables were created as proxies for local traffic and airport activity. A forward stepwise regression methodology was employed to create general linear models (GLMs) of NO2 variability near the airport. The effect of local meteorology on associations with GIS-based variables was also explored. Higher concentrations of NO2 were seen near the airport terminal, entrance roads to the terminal, and near major roads, with qualitatively consistent spatial patterns between seasons. In our final multivariate model (R2 = 0.32), the local influences of highways and arterial/collector roads were statistically significant, as were local traffic density and distance to the airport terminal (all p GIS variables, and the regression model structure was robust to various model-building approaches. Our study has shown that there are clear local variations in NO2 in the neighborhoods that surround an urban airport, which are spatially consistent across seasons. LUR modeling demonstrated a strong influence of local traffic, except the smallest roads that predominate in residential areas, as well as proximity to the airport terminal.

  14. Spatio-temporal modelling of electrical supply systems to optimize the site planning process for the "power to mobility" technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, Florian; Zink, Roland

    2016-04-01

    The transformation of the energy sector towards decentralized renewable energies (RE) requires also storage systems to ensure security of supply. The new "Power to Mobility" (PtM) technology is one potential solution to use electrical overproduction to produce methane for i.e. gas vehicles. Motivated by these fact, the paper presents a methodology for a GIS-based temporal modelling of the power grid, to optimize the site planning process for the new PtM-technology. The modelling approach is based on a combination of the software QuantumGIS for the geographical and topological energy supply structure and OpenDSS for the net modelling. For a case study (work in progress) of the city of Straubing (Lower Bavaria) the parameters of the model are quantified. The presentation will discuss the methodology as well as the first results with a view to the application on a regional scale.

  15. A Strategy Modelling Technique for Financial Services

    OpenAIRE

    Heinrich, Bernd; Winter, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Strategy planning processes often suffer from a lack of conceptual models that can be used to represent business strategies in a structured and standardized form. If natural language is replaced by an at least semi-formal model, the completeness, consistency, and clarity of strategy descriptions can be drastically improved. A strategy modelling technique is proposed that is based on an analysis of modelling requirements, a discussion of related work and a critical analysis of generic approach...

  16. Spatial modelling of arsenic distribution and human health effects in Lake Victoria basin, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijumulana, Julian; Mtalo, Felix; Bhattacharya, Prosun

    2016-04-01

    Increasing incidences of naturally occurring geogenic pollutants in drinking water sources and associated human health risks are the two major challenges requiring detailed knowledge to support decision making process at various levels. The presence, location and extent of environmental contamination is needed towards developing mitigation measures to achieve required standards. In this study we are developing a GIS-based model to detect and predict drinking water pollutants at the identified hotspots and monitor its variation in space. In addition, the mobility of pollutants within the affected region needs to be evaluated using topographic and hydrogeological data. Based on these geospatial data on contaminant distribution, spatial relationship of As and F contamination and reported human health effects such as dental caries, dental fluorosis, skeletal fluorosis and bone crippling, skin and other cancers etc. can be modeled for potential interventions for safe drinking water supplies.

  17. Picomolar traces of americium(III) introduce drastic changes in the structural chemistry of terbium(III). A break in the ''gadolinium break''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welch, Jan M. [TU Wien, Atominstitut, Vienna (Austria); Mueller, Danny; Knoll, Christian; Wilkovitsch, Martin; Weinberger, Peter [TU Wien, Institute of Applied Synthetic Chemistry, Vienna (Austria); Giester, Gerald [University of Vienna, Institute of Mineralogy and Crystallography, Vienna (Austria); Ofner, Johannes; Lendl, Bernhard [TU Wien, Institute of Chemical Technologies and Analytics, Vienna (Austria); Steinhauser, Georg [Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, Institute of Radioecology and Radiation Protection (Germany)

    2017-10-16

    The crystallization of terbium 5,5{sup '}-azobis[1H-tetrazol-1-ide] (ZT) in the presence of trace amounts (ca. 50 Bq, ca. 1.6 pmol) of americium results in 1) the accumulation of the americium tracer in the crystalline solid and 2) a material that adopts a different crystal structure to that formed in the absence of americium. Americium-doped [Tb(Am)(H{sub 2}O){sub 7}ZT]{sub 2} ZT.10 H{sub 2}O is isostructural to light lanthanide (Ce-Gd) 5,5{sup '}-azobis[1H-tetrazol-1-ide] compounds, rather than to the heavy lanthanide (Tb-Lu) 5,5{sup '}-azobis[1H-tetrazol-1-ide] (e.g., [Tb(H{sub 2}O){sub 8}]{sub 2}ZT{sub 3}.6 H{sub 2}O) derivatives. Traces of Am seem to force the Tb compound into a structure normally preferred by the lighter lanthanides, despite a 10{sup 8}-fold Tb excess. The americium-doped material was studied by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, vibrational spectroscopy, radiochemical neutron activation analysis, and scanning electron microscopy. In addition, the inclusion properties of terbium 5,5{sup '}-azobis[1H-tetrazol-1-ide] towards americium were quantified, and a model for the crystallization process is proposed. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  18. Nitrogen dioxide concentrations in neighborhoods adjacent to a commercial airport: a land use regression modeling study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spengler John D

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is growing concern in communities surrounding airports regarding the contribution of various emission sources (such as aircraft and ground support equipment to nearby ambient concentrations. We used extensive monitoring of nitrogen dioxide (NO2 in neighborhoods surrounding T.F. Green Airport in Warwick, RI, and land-use regression (LUR modeling techniques to determine the impact of proximity to the airport and local traffic on these concentrations. Methods Palmes diffusion tube samplers were deployed along the airport's fence line and within surrounding neighborhoods for one to two weeks. In total, 644 measurements were collected over three sampling campaigns (October 2007, March 2008 and June 2008 and each sampling location was geocoded. GIS-based variables were created as proxies for local traffic and airport activity. A forward stepwise regression methodology was employed to create general linear models (GLMs of NO2 variability near the airport. The effect of local meteorology on associations with GIS-based variables was also explored. Results Higher concentrations of NO2 were seen near the airport terminal, entrance roads to the terminal, and near major roads, with qualitatively consistent spatial patterns between seasons. In our final multivariate model (R2 = 0.32, the local influences of highways and arterial/collector roads were statistically significant, as were local traffic density and distance to the airport terminal (all p Conclusion Our study has shown that there are clear local variations in NO2 in the neighborhoods that surround an urban airport, which are spatially consistent across seasons. LUR modeling demonstrated a strong influence of local traffic, except the smallest roads that predominate in residential areas, as well as proximity to the airport terminal.

  19. Integrating GIS-based geologic mapping, LiDAR-based lineament analysis and site specific rock slope data to delineate a zone of existing and potential rock slope instability located along the grandfather mountain window-Linville Falls shear zone contact, Southern Appalachian Mountains, Watauga County, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillon, K.A.; Wooten, R.M.; Latham, R.L.; Witt, A.W.; Douglas, T.J.; Bauer, J.B.; Fuemmeler, S.J.

    2009-01-01

    Landslide hazard maps of Watauga County identify >2200 landslides, model debris flow susceptibility, and evaluate a 14km x 0.5km zone of existing and potential rock slope instability (ZEPRSI) near the Town of Boone. The ZEPRSI encompasses west-northwest trending (WNWT) topographic ridges where 14 active/past-active rock/weathered rock slides occur mainly in rocks of the Grandfather Mountain Window (GMW). The north side of this ridgeline is the GMW / Linville Falls Fault (LFF) contact. Sheared rocks of the Linville Falls Shear Zone (LFSZ) occur along the ridge and locally in the valley north of the contact. The valley is underlain principally by layered granitic gneiss comprising the Linville Falls/Beech Mountain/Stone Mountain Thrust Sheet. The integration of ArcGIS??? - format digital geologic and lineament mapping on a 6m LiDAR (Light Detecting and Ranging) digital elevation model (DEM) base, and kinematic analyses of site specific rock slope data (e.g., presence and degree of ductile and brittle deformation fabrics, rock type, rock weathering state) indicate: WNWT lineaments are expressions of a regionally extensive zone of fractures and faults; and ZEPRSI rock slope failures concentrate along excavated, north-facing LFF/LFSZ slopes where brittle fabrics overprint older metamorphic foliations, and other fractures create side and back release surfaces. Copyright 2009 ARMA, American Rock Mechanics Association.

  20. Using a remote sensing/GIS model to predict southwestern Willow Flycatcher breeding habitat along the Rio Grande, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatten, James R.; Sogge, Mark K.

    2007-01-01

    middle Rio Grande). The SWFL Recovery Plan (USFWS 2002) recognizes the importance of developing new approaches to habitat identification, and recommends the development of drainage-scale, quantitative habitat models. In particular, the plan suggests using models based on remote sensing and Geographic Information System (GIS) technology that can capture the relatively dynamic habitat changes that occur in southwestern riparian systems. In 1999, Arizona Game and Fish Department (AGFD) developed a GIS-based model (Hatten and Paradzick 2003) to identify SWFL breeding habitat from Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery and 30-m resolution digital elevation models (DEMs). The model was developed with presence/absence survey data acquired along the San Pedro and Gila rivers, and from the Salt River and Tonto Creek inlets to Roosevelt Lake in southern Arizona (collectively called the project area). The GIS-based model used a logistic regression equation to divide riparian vegetation into 5 probability classes based upon characteristics of riparian vegetation and floodplain size. This model was tested by predicting SWFL breeding habitat at Alamo Lake, Arizona, located 200 km from the project area (Hatten and Paradzick 2003). The GIS-based model performed as expected by identifying riparian areas with the highest SWFL nest densities, located in the higher probability classes. In 2002, AGFD applied the GIS-based model throughout Arizona, for riparian areas below 1,524 m (5,000 ft) elevation and within 1.6 km of perennial or intermittent waters (Dockens et al. 2004). Overall model accuracy (using probability classes 1-5, with class 5 having the greatest probability of nesting activity) for predicting the location of 2001 nest sites was 96.5 percent; accuracy decreased when fewer probability classes were defined as suitable. Map accuracy, determined from errors of commission, increased in higher probability classes in a fashion similar to errors of omission. Map accuracy, li

  1. Document Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Malykh

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the concept of locally simple models is considered. Locally simple models are arbitrarily complex models built from relatively simple components. A lot of practically important domains of discourse can be described as locally simple models, for example, business models of enterprises and companies. Up to now, research in human reasoning automation has been mainly concentrated around the most intellectually intensive activities, such as automated theorem proving. On the other hand, the retailer business model is formed from ”jobs”, and each ”job” can be modelled and automated more or less easily. At the same time, the whole retailer model as an integrated system is extremely complex. In this paper, we offer a variant of the mathematical definition of a locally simple model. This definition is intended for modelling a wide range of domains. Therefore, we also must take into account the perceptual and psychological issues. Logic is elitist, and if we want to attract to our models as many people as possible, we need to hide this elitism behind some metaphor, to which ’ordinary’ people are accustomed. As such a metaphor, we use the concept of a document, so our locally simple models are called document models. Document models are built in the paradigm of semantic programming. This allows us to achieve another important goal - to make the documentary models executable. Executable models are models that can act as practical information systems in the described domain of discourse. Thus, if our model is executable, then programming becomes redundant. The direct use of a model, instead of its programming coding, brings important advantages, for example, a drastic cost reduction for development and maintenance. Moreover, since the model is well and sound, and not dissolved within programming modules, we can directly apply AI tools, in particular, machine learning. This significantly expands the possibilities for automation and

  2. Modeling freshwater snail habitat suitability and areas of potential snail-borne disease transmission in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stensgaard, Anna-Sofie; Jørgensen, Aslak; Kabatereine, N B

    2006-01-01

    -borne disease transmission areas. Furthermore, knowledge of abiotic factors affecting intra-molluscan parasitic development can be used to make "masks" based on remotely sensed climatic data, and these can in turn be used to refine these predictions. We used data from a recent freshwater snail survey from......Geographic information system (GIS-based modeling of an intermediate host snail species environmental requirements using known occurrence records can provide estimates of its spatial distribution. When other data are lacking, this can be used as a rough spatial prediction of potential snail...... Uganda, environmental data and the genetic algorithm for rule-set prediction (GARP) to map the potential distribution of snail species known to act as intermediate hosts of several human and animal parasites. The results suggest that large areas of Uganda are suitable habitats for many of these snail...

  3. Model for Determining Geographical Distribution of Heat Saving Potentials in Danish Building Stock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrovic, Stefan; Karlsson, Kenneth Bernard

    2014-01-01

    Since the global oil crisis in the 1970s, Denmark has followed a path towards energy independency by continuously improving its energy efficiency and energy conservation. Energy efficiency was mainly tackled by introducing a high number of combined heat and power plants in the system, while energy...... conservation was predominantly approached by implementing heat saving measures. Today, with the goal of 100% renewable energy within the power and heat sector by the year 2035, reductions in energy demand for space heating and the preparation of domestic hot water remain at the top of the agenda in Denmark....... A highly detailed model for determining heat demand, possible heat savings and associated costs in the Danish building stock is presented. Both scheduled and energy-saving renovations until year 2030 have been analyzed. The highly detailed GIS-based heat atlas for Denmark is used as a container for storing...

  4. Differential equation models for sharp threshold dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, Harrison C; Dimitrov, Nedialko B

    2014-01-01

    We develop an extension to differential equation models of dynamical systems to allow us to analyze probabilistic threshold dynamics that fundamentally and globally change system behavior. We apply our novel modeling approach to two cases of interest: a model of infectious disease modified for malware where a detection event drastically changes dynamics by introducing a new class in competition with the original infection; and the Lanchester model of armed conflict, where the loss of a key capability drastically changes the effectiveness of one of the sides. We derive and demonstrate a step-by-step, repeatable method for applying our novel modeling approach to an arbitrary system, and we compare the resulting differential equations to simulations of the system's random progression. Our work leads to a simple and easily implemented method for analyzing probabilistic threshold dynamics using differential equations. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Mindset Changes Lead to Drastic Impairments in Rule Finding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ErEl, Hadas; Meiran, Nachshon

    2011-01-01

    Rule finding is an important aspect of human reasoning and flexibility. Previous studies associated rule finding "failure" with past experience with the test stimuli and stable personality traits. We additionally show that rule finding performance is severely impaired by a mindset associated with applying an instructed rule. The mindset was…

  6. Low concentrations of ethanol during irradiation drastically reduce ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Harinder Singh

    2018-02-13

    Feb 13, 2018 ... Radiation induced DNA damage depends on factors such as the ..... Apte SK and Haselkorn R 1990 Cloning of salinity stress-induced genes from the ... Elstner EF and Osswald W 1994 Mechanisms of oxygen activation.

  7. Union considers drastic action over wages / Talis Saule Archdeacon

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Archdeacon, Talis Saule

    2007-01-01

    Läti ühinenud ametiühingud teatasid piketikavatsusest parlamendihoone ees 11. oktoobril, mil valitsus arutab järgmise aasta eelarvet. Ametiühingud nõuavad kõrgemat palka meditsiinitöötajatele ja õpetajatele

  8. High-efficiency pumps drastically reduce energy consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2002-05-01

    Wilo's Stratos pumps for air conditioning and other domestic heating applications combine the advantages of wet runner technology with an innovative electronic commutator motor. The energy consumption of these high-efficiency pumps is halved compared with similar wet runner designs. With vast numbers of pumps used in buildings across Europe alone, the adoption of this technology potentially offers significant energy sayings. (Author)

  9. Groundwater Vulnerability Assessment using Drastic Index and GIS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael

    2016-06-01

    Jun 1, 2016 ... The "Low" and "Very Low" vulnerability are located at the northern, central and southern parts of KMA ..... the contaminant is soluble in water and flows with it and is ... the aquifer, the higher the permeability and hence higher ...

  10. Model Correction Factor Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Claus; Randrup-Thomsen, Søren; Morsing Johannesen, Johannes

    1997-01-01

    The model correction factor method is proposed as an alternative to traditional polynomial based response surface techniques in structural reliability considering a computationally time consuming limit state procedure as a 'black box'. The class of polynomial functions is replaced by a limit...... of the model correction factor method, is that in simpler form not using gradient information on the original limit state function or only using this information once, a drastic reduction of the number of limit state evaluation is obtained together with good approximations on the reliability. Methods...

  11. Hybrid modeling and empirical analysis of automobile supply chain network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jun-yan; Tang, Jian-ming; Fu, Wei-ping; Wu, Bing-ying

    2017-05-01

    Based on the connection mechanism of nodes which automatically select upstream and downstream agents, a simulation model for dynamic evolutionary process of consumer-driven automobile supply chain is established by integrating ABM and discrete modeling in the GIS-based map. Firstly, the rationality is proved by analyzing the consistency of sales and changes in various agent parameters between the simulation model and a real automobile supply chain. Second, through complex network theory, hierarchical structures of the model and relationships of networks at different levels are analyzed to calculate various characteristic parameters such as mean distance, mean clustering coefficients, and degree distributions. By doing so, it verifies that the model is a typical scale-free network and small-world network. Finally, the motion law of this model is analyzed from the perspective of complex self-adaptive systems. The chaotic state of the simulation system is verified, which suggests that this system has typical nonlinear characteristics. This model not only macroscopically illustrates the dynamic evolution of complex networks of automobile supply chain but also microcosmically reflects the business process of each agent. Moreover, the model construction and simulation of the system by means of combining CAS theory and complex networks supplies a novel method for supply chain analysis, as well as theory bases and experience for supply chain analysis of auto companies.

  12. Gas hydrates stability zone thickness map of Indian deep offshore areas - A GIS based approach

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rastogi, A.; Deka, B.; Bhattacharya, G.C.; Ramprasad, T.; KameshRaju, K.A.; Srinivas, K.; Murty, G.P.S.; Chaubey, A.K.; Ramana, M.V.; Subrahmanyam, V.; Sarma, K.V.L.N.S.; Desa, M.; Paropkari, A.L.; Menezes, A.A.A.; Murty, V.S.N.; Antony, M.K.; SubbaRaju, L.V.; Desa, E.; Veerayya, M.

    hydrate occurrence in offshore regions and around the Indian sub-continent. This was accomplished by estimating the gas hydrate stability zone (GHSZ) thickness from the saptial analysis of the physical parameters that control the formation and stability...

  13. GIS based optimal impervious surface map generation using various spatial data for urban nonpoint source management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cholyoung; Kim, Kyehyun; Lee, Hyuk

    2018-01-15

    Impervious surfaces are mainly artificial structures such as rooftops, roads, and parking lots that are covered by impenetrable materials. These surfaces are becoming the major causes of nonpoint source (NPS) pollution in urban areas. The rapid progress of urban development is increasing the total amount of impervious surfaces and NPS pollution. Therefore, many cities worldwide have adopted a stormwater utility fee (SUF) that generates funds needed to manage NPS pollution. The amount of SUF is estimated based on the impervious ratio, which is calculated by dividing the total impervious surface area by the net area of an individual land parcel. Hence, in order to identify the exact impervious ratio, large-scale impervious surface maps (ISMs) are necessary. This study proposes and assesses various methods for generating large-scale ISMs for urban areas by using existing GIS data. Bupyeong-gu, a district in the city of Incheon, South Korea, was selected as the study area. Spatial data that were freely offered by national/local governments in S. Korea were collected. First, three types of ISMs were generated by using the land-cover map, digital topographic map, and orthophotographs, to validate three methods that had been proposed conceptually by Korea Environment Corporation. Then, to generate an ISM of higher accuracy, an integration method using all data was proposed. Error matrices were made and Kappa statistics were calculated to evaluate the accuracy. Overlay analyses were performed to examine the distribution of misclassified areas. From the results, the integration method delivered the highest accuracy (Kappa statistic of 0.99) compared to the three methods that use a single type of spatial data. However, a longer production time and higher cost were limiting factors. Among the three methods using a single type of data, the land-cover map showed the highest accuracy with a Kappa statistic of 0.91. Thus, it was judged that the mapping method using the land-cover map is more appropriate than the others. In conclusion, it is desirable to apply the integration method when generating the ISM with the highest accuracy. However, if time and cost are constrained, it would be effective to primarily use the land-cover map. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. GIS based spatial pattern analysis: Children with Hepatitis A in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogru, Ahmet Ozgur; David, Ruusa Magano; Ulugtekin, Necla; Goksel, Cigdem; Seker, Dursun Zafer; Sözen, Seval

    2017-07-01

    This study aimed to provide an insight into the geographic distribution of Hepatitis A incidence considering their temporal distribution, spatial patterns, hot spots and clusters identification in three different age-group (0-4, 5-9 and 10-14) in Turkey. Province based tabular data, including monthly numbers of Hepatitis A cases in children, and the populations from 2001 to 2011 were used as the basic input of the study. Time series maps were created using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to introduce the temporal changes in the morbidity rates of Hepatitis A. The spatial variation of Hepatitis A was measured using Moran's I at the global level and the local indicators of spatial associations (LISAs) Moran's I and Getis-Ord G i *(d) in order to identify influential locations through clusters and hot spots detection of Hepatitis A cases. The morbidity rates in children under the age of 5 were found significantly lower than the other age-groups, whereas the age-group 5-9 revealed the highest morbidity rates in the study area. The morbidity of Hepatitis A was detected very high for the years 2001, and 2005-2007. The identification of the highly vulnerable provinces was conducted using local Moran's I and local Getis-Ord G i *(d). The majority of clusters and hot spots were detected to be agglomerated in the Eastern Mediterranean and South-Eastern Anatolian Regions and Ceyhan, Asi and Southeast part of Firat-Dicle river basins in Turkey. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. GIS-BASED ACCESSIBILITY ANALYSIS OF URBAN EMERGENCY SHELTERS: THE CASE OF ADANA CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Unal

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Accessibility analysis of urban emergency shelters can help support urban disaster prevention planning. Pre-disaster emergency evacuation zoning has become a significant topic on disaster prevention and mitigation research. In this study, we assessed the level of serviceability of urban emergency shelters within maximum capacity, usability, sufficiency and a certain walking time limit by employing spatial analysis techniques of GIS-Network Analyst. The methodology included the following aspects: the distribution analysis of emergency evacuation demands, the calculation of shelter space accessibility and the optimization of evacuation destinations. This methodology was applied to Adana, a city in Turkey, which is located within the Alpine-Himalayan orogenic system, the second major earthquake belt after the Pacific-Belt. It was found that the proposed methodology could be useful in aiding to understand the spatial distribution of urban emergency shelters more accurately and establish effective future urban disaster prevention planning. Additionally, this research provided a feasible way for supporting emergency management in terms of shelter construction, pre-disaster evacuation drills and rescue operations.

  16. A WebGIS-Based Teaching Assistant System for Geography Field Practice (TASGFP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiechen; Ni, Haochen; Rui, Yikang; Cui, Can; Cheng, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Field practice is an important part of training geography research talents. However, traditional teaching methods may not adequately manage, share and implement instruction resources and thus may limit the instructor's ability to conduct field instruction. A possible answer is found in the rapid development of computer-assisted instruction (CAI),…

  17. A GIS-based fuzzy classification for mapping the agricultural soils for N-fertilizers use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assimakopoulos, J H; Kalivas, D P; Kollias, V J

    2003-06-20

    Special attention should be paid to the choice of the proper N-fertilizer, in order to avoid a further acidification and degradation of acid soils and at the same time to improve nitrogen use efficiency and to limit the nitrate pollution of the ground waters. Therefore, the risk of leaching of the fertilizer and of the acidification of the soils must be considered prior to any N-fertilizer application. The application of N-fertilizers to the soil requires a good knowledge of the soil-fertilizer relationship, which those who are planning the fertilization policy and/or applying it might not have. In this study, a fuzzy classification methodology is presented for mapping the agricultural soils according to the kind and the rate of application of N-fertilizer that should be used. The values of pH, clay, sand and carbonates soil variables are estimated at each point of an area by applying geostatistical techniques. Using the pH values three fuzzy sets: "no-risk-acidification"; "low-risk-acidification"; and "high-risk-acidification" are produced and the memberships of each point to the three sets are estimated. Additionally, from the clay and sand values the membership grade to the fuzzy set "risk-of-leaching" is calculated. The parameters and their values, which are used for the construction of the fuzzy sets, are based on the literature, the existing knowledge and the experimentation, of the soil-fertilizer relationships and provide a consistent mechanism for mapping the soils according to the type of N-fertilizers that should be applied and the rate of applications. The maps produced can easily be interpreted and used by non-experts in the application of the fertilization policy at national, local and farm level. The methodology is presented through a case study using data from the Amfilochia area, west Greece.

  18. GIS-Based Locational Analysis of Petrol Filling Stations in Kaduna

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dogara Sanda Tah

    significant impact in the petroleum industry which has also trigger the building of petrol .... The numbers of filling station in each road were determined. In addition tables .... operators when submitting their EIA report to include the geographic ...

  19. Real-Time Implementation of a GIS-Based Localization System for Intelligent Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Bonnifait

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a loosely coupled fusion approach that merges GPS data, dead-reckoned sensors, and GIS (geographical information system data. The GPS latency is compensated for by the DR sensors and the use of an xPPS signal. The fusion of the estimate with the map data is spatial-triggered, while the fusion with the GPS is time-triggered. We present a strategy that relies on pose tracking which is reinitialized when GPS data become incoherent. Particular attention is given to the representation of the road map and to the management of a cache memory for efficiency purposes. We report experiments carried out with our equipped car and a GIS whose characteristics are well adapted to embedded constraints.

  20. Environmental condition assessment of US military installations using GIS based spatial multi-criteria decision analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Steve; Wang, Guangxing; Howard, Heidi; Anderson, Alan

    2012-08-01

    Environment functions in various aspects including soil and water conservation, biodiversity and habitats, and landscape aesthetics. Comprehensive assessment of environmental condition is thus a great challenge. The issues include how to assess individual environmental components such as landscape aesthetics and integrate them into an indicator that can comprehensively quantify environmental condition. In this study, a geographic information systems based spatial multi-criteria decision analysis was used to integrate environmental variables and create the indicator. This approach was applied to Fort Riley Military installation in which land condition and its dynamics due to military training activities were assessed. The indicator was derived by integrating soil erosion, water quality, landscape fragmentation, landscape aesthetics, and noise based on the weights from the experts by assessing and ranking the environmental variables in terms of their importance. The results showed that landscape level indicator well quantified the overall environmental condition and its dynamics, while the indicator at level of patch that is defined as a homogeneous area that is different from its surroundings detailed the spatiotemporal variability of environmental condition. The environmental condition was mostly determined by soil erosion, then landscape fragmentation, water quality, landscape aesthetics, and noise. Overall, environmental condition at both landscape and patch levels greatly varied depending on the degree of ground and canopy disturbance and their spatial patterns due to military training activities and being related to slope. It was also determined the environment itself could be recovered quickly once military training was halt or reduced. Thus, this study provided an effective tool for the army land managers to monitor environmental dynamics and plan military training activities. Its limitation lies at that the obtained values of the indicator vary and are subjective to the experts' knowledge and experience. Thus, further advancing this approach is needed by developing a scientific method to derive the weights of environmental variables.

  1. A GIS-based assessment of environmental influences on allergy development in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Agnes; Wong, Gary W K; Poon, Chin Man; Lee, Shui Shan

    2014-11-01

    This study aims to assess potential environmental influences on allergy development in children. Based on a parent-completed questionnaire survey administered in Hong Kong in 2003 in accordance with the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood protocol, the prevalence and incidence of asthma and rhinoconjunctivitis of 508 preschool children aged 4 to 6 years in Yuen Long District were determined and a range of indoor and outdoor environmental factors were assessed. Exposure to moisture and mold in the first year of life increased the risk of asthma (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.56; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.40-4.68) and rhinoconjunctivitis (aOR = 2.09; 95% CI = 1.15-3.80). Current maternal smoking was also associated with a higher prevalence of asthma (aOR = 2.00; 95% CI = 1.04-3.84). No association was observed between outdoor traffic-related air pollutants and the prevalence of the allergic conditions. Indoor home environments had a stronger influence on allergy development, whereas exposure to traffic-related external environment gave a variable effect, the significance of which would be difficult to be substantiated. © 2011 APJPH.

  2. Multi-criteria GIS-based siting of an incineration plant for municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Gilberto; Zsigraiová, Zdena; Semiao, Viriato

    2011-01-01

    Siting a municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration plant requires a comprehensive evaluation to identify the best available location(s) that can simultaneously meet the requirements of regulations and minimise economic, environmental, health, and social costs. A spatial multi-criteria evaluation methodology is presented to assess land suitability for a plant siting and applied to Santiago Island of Cape Verde. It combines the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) to estimate the selected evaluation criteria weights with Geographic Information Systems (GIS) for spatial data analysis that avoids the subjectivity of the judgements of decision makers in establishing the influences between some criteria or clusters of criteria. An innovative feature of the method lies in incorporating the environmental impact assessment of the plant operation as a criterion in the decision-making process itself rather than as an a posteriori assessment. Moreover, a two-scale approach is considered. At a global scale an initial screening identifies inter-municipal zones satisfying the decisive requirements (socio-economic, technical and environmental issues, with weights respectively, of 48%, 41% and 11%). A detailed suitability ranking inside the previously identified zones is then performed at a local scale in two phases and includes environmental assessment of the plant operation. Those zones are ranked by combining the non-environmental feasibility of Phase 1 (with a weight of 75%) with the environmental assessment of the plant operation impact of Phase 2 (with a weight of 25%). The reliability and robustness of the presented methodology as a decision supporting tool is assessed through a sensitivity analysis. The results proved the system effectiveness in the ranking process. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. GIS-based health assessment of the marine ecosystem in Laizhou Bay, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Debin; Gao, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Hua; Xu, Fuxiang; Zheng, Xiangyu; Ai, Jinquan; Hu, Xiaoke; Huang, Guopei; Zhang, Haibo

    2017-12-15

    According to 2014-2016 monitoring data, an assessment index system including water quality, depositional environment and ecosystem was built to evaluate the health statue of marine ecosystem in the Laizhou Bay using analytic hierarchy process (AHP) method. The results, spatialized in ArcGIS software, show: while the comprehensive ecological health index is 0.62, the ecological environmental quality in the Laizhou Bay is in a sub-healthy state; the unhealthy area is mainly concentrated in southwestern inshore region, and impacted by serious environmental problems, such as water eutrophication and heavy metal pollution; the northwestern and southeastern inshore regions are in a sub-healthy state, while the eastern inshore and northern areas are in the healthiest state. The land-based pollutants that discharge into the sea may be the leading factors that are causing ecological environment deterioration in the Laizhou Bay, and the reclamation work ongoing around the port has exacerbated the ecological risk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. GIS-based assessment of cancer risk due to benzene in Tehran ambient air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atabi, Farideh; Mirzahosseini, Seyed Alireza Hajiseyed

    2013-10-01

    The present study aimed to assess the risk of cancer due to benzene in the ambient air of gas stations and traffic zones in the north of Tehran. The cancer risk was estimated using the population distribution data for benzene levels and the unit risk for benzene proposed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). Sixteen sampling locations were monitored, once every week, during 5 April 2010 to 25 March 2011. The results showed that the mean annual benzene concentration was 14.51±3.17 parts per billion (ppb) for traffic zones and 29.01±1.32 ppb for outside gas stations. The risk calculated was 1026×10(-6) for gas station 27 and 955×10(-6) for gas station 139. According to our results, the annual benzene level in Tehran ambient air is 2 to 20 times higher than the respective value specified in International Standard (1.56 ppb). Moreover, the results showed a notable increase of cancer risks, ranging from 10% to 56%, for the vicinity population close to the gas stations in comparison to the vicinity population in the traffic zones.

  5. Optimal siting of solid waste-to-value-added facilities through a GIS-based assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Md Mohib-Ul-Haque; Vaezi, Mahdi; Kumar, Amit

    2018-01-01

    Siting a solid waste conversion facility requires an assessment of solid waste availability as well as ensuring compliance with environmental, social, and economic factors. The main idea behind this study was to develop a methodology to locate suitable locations for waste conversion facilities considering waste availability as well as environmental and social constraints. A geographic information system (GIS) spatial analysis was used to identify the most suitable areas and to screen out unsuitable lands. The analytic hierarchy process (AHP) was used for a multi-criteria evaluation of relative preferences of different environmental and social factors. A case study was conducted for Alberta, a western province in Canada, by performing a province-wide waste availability assessment. The total available waste considered in this study was 4,077,514tonnes/year for 19 census divisions collected from 79 landfills. Finally, a location-allocation analysis was performed to determine suitable locations for 10 waste conversion facilities across the province. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. A WebGIS-based system for analyzing and visualizing air quality data for Shanghai Municipality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Manyi; Liu, Chaoshun; Gao, Wei

    2014-10-01

    An online visual analytical system based on Java Web and WebGIS for air quality data for Shanghai Municipality was designed and implemented to quantitatively analyze and qualitatively visualize air quality data. By analyzing the architecture of WebGIS and Java Web, we firstly designed the overall scheme for system architecture, then put forward the software and hardware environment and also determined the main function modules for the system. The visual system was ultimately established with the DIV + CSS layout method combined with JSP, JavaScript, and some other computer programming languages based on the Java programming environment. Moreover, Struts, Spring, and Hibernate frameworks (SSH) were integrated in the system for the purpose of easy maintenance and expansion. To provide mapping service and spatial analysis functions, we selected ArcGIS for Server as the GIS server. We also used Oracle database and ESRI file geodatabase to store spatial data and non-spatial data in order to ensure the data security. In addition, the response data from the Web server are resampled to implement rapid visualization through the browser. The experimental successes indicate that this system can quickly respond to user's requests, and efficiently return the accurate processing results.

  7. GIS-based landslide susceptibility mapping for the 2005 Kashmir earthquake region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamp, Ulrich; Growley, Benjamin J.; Khattak, Ghazanfar A.; Owen, Lewis A.

    2008-11-01

    The Mw 7.6 October 8, 2005 Kashmir earthquake triggered several thousand landslides throughout the Himalaya of northern Pakistan and India. These were concentrated in six different geomorphic-geologic-anthropogenic settings. A spatial database, which included 2252 landslides, was developed and analyzed using ASTER satellite imagery and geographical information system (GIS) technology. A multi-criterion evaluation was applied to determine the significance of event-controlling parameters in triggering the landslides. The parameters included lithology, faults, slope gradient, slope aspect, elevation, land cover, rivers and roads. The results showed four classes of landslide susceptibility. Furthermore, they indicated that lithol