WorldWideScience

Sample records for girl scouts healthier

  1. A group-randomized controlled trial for health promotion in Girl Scouts: healthier troops in a SNAP (Scouting Nutrition & Activity Program).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkranz, Richard R; Behrens, Timothy K; Dzewaltowski, David A

    2010-02-19

    Girl Scouting may offer a viable channel for health promotion and obesity prevention programs. This study evaluated the effectiveness of an intervention program delivered through Girl Scout Junior troops that was designed to foster healthful troop meeting environments and increase obesity prevention behaviors at home. Seven Girl Scout troops were randomized to intervention (n = 3, with 34 girls) or standard-care control (n = 4, with 42 girls) conditions. Girls ranged in age from 9 to 13 years (mean 10.5 years). Intervention troop leaders were trained to implement policies promoting physical activity (PA) and healthful eating opportunities at troop meetings, and to implement a curriculum promoting obesity-prevention behaviors at home. The primary outcome variable was child body mass index (BMI) z-score. Secondary outcomes included accelerometer-assessed PA levels in troop meetings, direct observations of snack offerings, time spent in physically active meeting content, and leader encouragement of PA and healthful eating. The intervention was delivered with good fidelity, and intervention troops provided greater opportunities for healthful eating and PA (x2 = 210.8, p environments in Girl Scout troop meetings appears feasible on a broader scale. Additional work is needed to bridge health promotion from such settings to other environments if lasting individual-level behavior change and obesity prevention remain targeted outcomes. NCT00949637.

  2. A group-randomized controlled trial for health promotion in Girl Scouts: Healthier Troops in a SNAP (Scouting Nutrition & Activity Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrens Timothy K

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Girl Scouting may offer a viable channel for health promotion and obesity prevention programs. This study evaluated the effectiveness of an intervention program delivered through Girl Scout Junior troops that was designed to foster healthful troop meeting environments and increase obesity prevention behaviors at home. Methods Seven Girl Scout troops were randomized to intervention (n = 3, with 34 girls or standard-care control (n = 4, with 42 girls conditions. Girls ranged in age from 9 to 13 years (mean 10.5 years. Intervention troop leaders were trained to implement policies promoting physical activity (PA and healthful eating opportunities at troop meetings, and to implement a curriculum promoting obesity-prevention behaviors at home. The primary outcome variable was child body mass index (BMI z-score. Secondary outcomes included accelerometer-assessed PA levels in troop meetings, direct observations of snack offerings, time spent in physically active meeting content, and leader encouragement of PA and healthful eating. Results The intervention was delivered with good fidelity, and intervention troops provided greater opportunities for healthful eating and PA (x2 = 210.8, p 2 = 23.46, p 2 = 18.14, p 2 = 9.63, p = .002 compared to control troop leaders. Most effects of the intervention on individual-level variables of girls and parents were not significantly different from the control condition, including the primary outcome of child BMI z-score (F1, 5 = 0.42, p = .544, parent BMI (F1, 5 = 1.58, p = .264, and related behavioral variables. The notable exception was for objectively assessed troop PA, wherein girls in intervention troops accumulated significantly less sedentary (x2 = 6.3, p = .011, significantly more moderate (x2 = 8.2, p = .004, and more moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, (x2 = 18.4, p Conclusions Implementing a health promotion curriculum and supporting policies to provide more healthful environments in

  3. Reaching for the Stars: NASA Science for Girl Scouts (Girl Scout Stars)

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVore, Edna; Harman, Pamela; Girl Scouts of the USA; Girl Scouts of Northern California; University of Arizona; Astronomical Society of the Pacific; Aires Scientific

    2017-01-01

    Girl Scout Stars aims to enhance STEM experiences for Girl Scouts in grades K-12. New space science badges are being created for every Girl Scout level. Using best practices, we engage girls and volunteers with the fundamental STEM concepts that underpin our human quest to explore the universe. Through early and sustained exposure to the people and assets of NASA and the excitement of NASA’s Mission, they explore STEM content, discoveries, and careers. Today’s tech savvy Girl Scout volunteers prefer just-in-time materials and asynchronous learning. The Volunteer Tool Kit taps into the wealth of NASA's online materials for the new space science badges. Training volunteers supports troop activities for the younger girls. For older girls, we enhance Girl Scout summer camp activities, support in-depth experiences at Univ. of Arizona’s Astronomy Camp, and “Destination” events for the 2017 total solar eclipse. We partner with the Night Sky Network to engage amateur astronomers with Girl Scouts. Univ. of Arizona also leads Astronomy Camp for Girl Scout volunteers. Aires Scientific leads eclipse preparation and summer sessions at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center for teams of volunteers, amateur astronomers and older Girl Scouts.There are 1,900,000 Girl Scouts and 800,000 volunteers in the USA. During development, we work with the Girl Scouts of Northern California (50,000 girl members and 31,000 volunteers) and expand across the USA to 121 Girl Scout councils over five years. SETI Institute leads the space science educators and scientists at Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Univ. of Arizona, and Aires Scientific. Girl Scouts of the USA leads dissemination of Girl Scout Stars with support of Girl Scouts of Northern California. Through professional development of Girl Scout volunteers, Girl Scout Stars enhances public science literacy. Girl Scout Stars supports the NASA Science Mission Directorate Science Education Objectives and NASA’s STEM Engagement and

  4. Girl Scout Stars: Engaging Girl Scouts in the 2017 Total Eclipse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harman, P. K.

    2017-12-01

    Reaching for the Stars: NASA Science for Girl Scouts (Girl Scout Stars) engages Girl Scouts in observing the 2017 eclipse. Three councils are host-sponsors of Girl Scout Total Eclipse Destinations,. Total Eclipse of the Heartland, sponsored by Girl Scouts of Southern Illinois, begins with planetarium, and science center visits in St. Louis, and transits to Carbondale for the eclipse. The Great Eclipse Adventure, sponsored by the Girl Scouts of the Missouri Heartland, features hands-on science activities led by Astronomy and Physics faculty and grad students at University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, and observing the eclipse at a camp nearby. Eyes to the Sky: A Once in a Lifetime Destination, by the Girl Scouts of South Carolina - Mountains to Midlands, visits a Challenger Center, a planetarium, and observatory, and culminates at Camp MaBak, Marietta, SC. Girl Scout Destinations are travel adventures, for individual girls ages 11 and older, that are inspiring, life-changing experiences. Destinations are determined via an application and review process by Girls Scouts of the USA. Girl Scout Stars also developed an Eclipse Activity Guide and kit box of materials, distributed the materials to 91 Girl Scout Councils, and delivered webinar training to councils. The eclipse materials enrich the girls' summer camp experiences with activities that promote understanding the Sun-Earth-Moon relationship, the solar system and safe eclipse viewing; and that feature science practices. Examples of the reach of the kit boxes are Girl Scouts of Montana and Wyoming Total Eclipse Event in Casper, WY, and the Girl Scouts of Northern California summer camps featuring the activities. In Girl Scouting, girls discover their skills, talents and what they care about; connect with other Girl Scouts and people in their community; and take action to change the world. This is called the Girl Scout Leadership Experience. With girl-led, hands on activities where girls can team up and work together

  5. An Inaugural Girl Scout Destinations Astronomy Camp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebofsky, Larry A.; McCarthy, Donald W.; Wright, Joe; Wright, Rita; Mace, Mikayla; Floyd, Charmayne

    2017-10-01

    The University of Arizona (UA) conducted its first teenage Girl Scout Destinations Astronomy Camp. This program was preceded by 24 Leadership Workshops for Adult Girl Scout Leaders, initially supported by EPO funding from NIRCam for JWST. For five days in late June, 24 girls (ages 13-17 years) attended from 16 states. The Camp was led by UA astronomers and long-term educators. Representing Girl Scouts of the USA (GSUSA) were a husband/wife amateur astronomer team who are SOFIA Airborne Astronomy and NASA Solar System Ambassadors. Other leaders included a Stanford undergraduate engineering student who is a lifelong Girl Scout and Gold Award recipient and a recent UA Master’s degree science journalist. The Camp is a residential, hands-on “immersion” adventure in scientific exploration using telescopes in southern Arizona’s Catalina Mountains near Tucson. Under uniquely dark skies girls become real astronomers, operating telescopes (small and large) and associated technologies, interacting with scientists, obtaining images and quantitative data, investigating their own questions, and most importantly having fun actually doing science and building observing equipment. Girls achieve a basic understanding of celestial objects, how and why they move, and their historical significance, leading to an authentic understanding of science, research, and engineering. Girls can lead these activities back home in their own troops and councils, encouraging others to consider STEM field careers. These programs are supported by a 5-year NASA Collaborative Agreement, Reaching for the Stars: NASA Science for Girl Scouts (www.seti.org/GirlScoutStars), through the SETI Institute in collaboration with the UA, GSUSA, Girl Scouts of Northern California, the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, and Aries Scientific, Inc. The Girl Scout Destinations Astronomy Camp aligns with the GSUSA Journey: It’s Your Planet-Love It! and introduces the girls to some of the activities being

  6. Leadership Workshops for Adult Girl Scout Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebofsky, Larry A.; McCarthy, Donald; DeVore, Edna; Harman, Pamela; Reaching Stars Team

    2016-10-01

    This year, the University of Arizona is conducting its first two Leadership Workshops for Girl Scout adult leaders. These workshops are being supported by a five-year NASA Collaborative Agreement, Reaching for the Stars: NASA Science for Girl Scouts (www.seti.org/GirlScoutStars), through the SETI Institute in collaboration with the University of Arizona, Girl Scouts of the USA (GSUSA), the Girl Scouts of Northern California, the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, and Aries Scientific, Inc. These workshops are an outgrowth of Astronomy Camp for Girl Scout Leaders, a 14-year "Train the Trainer" program funded by NASA through the James Webb Space Telescope's Near Infrared Camera (NIRCam) education and outreach team. We are continuing our long-term relationship with all Girl Scout Councils to engage girls and young women not only in science and math education, but also in the astronomical and technological concepts relating to NASA's scientific mission. Our training aligns with the GSUSA Journey: It's Your Planet-Love It! and introduces participants to some of the activities that are being developed by the Girl Scout Stars team for GSUSA's new space science badges for all Girl Scout levels being developed as a part of Reaching for the Stars: NASA Science for Girl Scouts.The workshops include hands-on activities in basic astronomy (night sky, stars, galaxies, optics, telescopes, etc.) as well as some more advanced concepts such as lookback time and the expansion of the Universe. Since the inception of our original Astronomy Camp in 2003, our team has grown to include nearly 280 adult leaders, staff, and volunteers from over 79 Councils in 43 states and the District of Columbia so they can, in turn, teach young women essential concepts in astronomy, the night sky environment, applied math, and engineering. Our workshops model what astronomers do by engaging participants in the process of science inquiry, while equipping adults to host astronomy-related programs with

  7. Girl Scout Camps and Badges: Engaging Girls in NASA Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harman, P. K.; DeVore, E. K.

    2017-12-01

    Reaching for the Stars: NASA Science for Girl Scouts (Girl Scout Stars) disseminates NASA STEM education-related resources, fosters interaction between Girl Scouts and NASA Subject Matter Experts (SMEs), and engages Girl Scouts in NASA science and programs through space science badges and summer camps. A space science badge is in development for each of the six levels of Girl Scouts: Daisies, Grades K - 1; Brownies, Grades 2 -3; Juniors, Grades 4 -5; Cadettes, Grades 6 -8; Seniors, Grades 9 -10: and Ambassadors, Grades 11 -12. Daisy badge will be accomplished by following three steps with two choices each. Brownie to Ambassador badges will be awarded by completing five steps with three choices for each. The badges are interwoven with science activities, role models (SMEs), and steps that lead girls to explore NASA missions. External evaluators monitor three rounds of field-testing and deliver formative assessment reports. Badges will be released in Fall of 2018 and 2019. Girl Scout Stars supports two unique camp experiences. The University of Arizona holds an Astronomy Destination, a travel and immersion adventure for individual girls ages 13 and older, which offers dark skies and science exploration using telescopes, and interacting with SMEs. Girls lean about motion of celestial objects and become astronomers. Councils send teams of two girls, a council representative and an amateur astronomer to Astronomy Camp at Goddard Space Flight Center. The teams were immersed in science content and activities, and a star party; and began to plan their new Girl Scout Astronomy Clubs. The girls will lead the clubs, aided by the council and amateur astronomer. Camps are evaluated by the Girl Scouts Research Institute. In Girl Scouting, girls discover their skills, talents and what they care about; connect with other Girl Scouts and people in their community; and take action to change the world. This is called the Girl Scout Leadership Experience. With girl-led, hands on

  8. Seeding Social Norms about Energy Conservation among Girl Scouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Debra; Puttick, Gillian

    2014-01-01

    Three studies examined whether a social norm message (SNM) to Girl Scouts who had completed an energy conservation program would impact behavior and attitudes. Studies 1 and 2 were conducted with girls recently completing the program, study 3 was conducted with girls completing the program one year earlier. Results suggest that the SNM may impact…

  9. Collaborating with Planetaria to Improve Girl Scout's Appreciation of Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Mitzi; Phillips, Tony; Whitt, April

    2003-01-01

    We have collaborated with two planetaria, Fernbank Science Center's Jim Cherry planetarium in Atlanta, Georgia and the Von Braun Planetarium in Huntsville, Alabama to enhance the appreciation of various astronomical topics among Girl Scouts. Major events sponsored by our partnership were sleepovers in the planetaria during which we studied the total solar eclipse of June 2001 and observed the Eta Aquarid meteor shower of May 2003. Other events included programs on stellar spectroscopy and space physics. As an added inducement for participation, we have sponsored the production of "pins", which Girl Scouts can earn after satisfying specific requirements. This poster will show samples of the pins, requirements, and online resources for the Girl Scouts.

  10. Girl Scouts and Subject Matter Experts: What’s the Connection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harman, Pamela; Girls Scouts of Northern California, Girl Scouts USA, Astronomical Society of the Pacifica, Univeristy of Arizona, and ARIES Scientific.

    2018-01-01

    Reaching for the Stars: NASA Science for Girl Scouts (Girl Scout Stars) fosters interaction between Girl Scouts and NASA Subject Matter Experts (SMEs), disseminates NASA STEM education-related resources, and engages Girl Scouts in NASA science and programs through space science badges and summer camps.A space science badge is in development for each of the six levels of Girl Scouts: Daisies, Grades K – 1; Brownies, Grades 2 -3; Juniors, Grades 4 -5; Cadettes, Grades 6 -8; Seniors, Grades 9 -10; and Ambassadors, Grades 11 -12. Indirectly, SMEs will reach tens of thousands of girls through the badges. SETI Institute SMEs Institute and SME Co-Is located at ARIES Scientific, Astronomical Society of the Pacific, University of Arizona, and Girl Scouts of Northern California developed and modified astronomy activities for the Girl Scouts USA badge writers to finesse into the Girl Scout formats. Revisions are reviewed by SMEs for accuracy. Each badge includes a step option that encourages girls to connect with SMEs, and recommendations for volunteers.A total of 127 girls from 31 states and the District of Columbia attendedTotal Eclipse Destination Camps at three locations. SMEs led activities and tours, inspiring girls to consider STEM careers. University of Arizona (U of A) SMEs lead Astronomy Camp for Volunteers, enabling volunteers to lead and inspire Girl Scouts in their respective Girl Scout Councils. A Destination Camp for Girl Scouts was also held at U of A. Girls experience authentic astronomy, learning how to collect and analyze data.Eleven teams comprised of two Girl Scouts, a volunteer or Council Staff, and an amateur astronomer attended Astronomy Club Camp, held at NASA GSFC. SMEs delivered science content. The girls will lead the formation of astronomy clubs in their councils, and will train their successors. SMEs will present and coach the clubs during monthly webinars.This presentation will highlight success and discuss lessons learned that are applicable

  11. 78 FR 38452 - Price for the 2013 Girl Scouts of the USA Young Collector Set

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Price for the 2013 Girl Scouts of the USA Young Collector Set AGENCY: United States Mint, Department of the Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Mint is announcing a price of $54.95 for the 2013 Girl Scouts of the USA Young Collector Set. FOR...

  12. Energy behaviours of northern California Girl Scouts and their families

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boudet, Hilary; Ardoin, Nicole M.; Flora, June; Armel, K. Carrie; Desai, Manisha; Robinson, Thomas N.

    2014-01-01

    Climate change is likely the most critical societal challenge to the futures of today's children. Mitigation will require a concerted effort to change household energy behaviour—electricity use, transportation and food consumption patterns. A first step to changing behaviour is to better understand current behaviour and its intrapersonal (knowledge and attitudes), interpersonal (norms, communication and behaviour) and contextual (demographics and geography) correlates. To date, our understanding of the energy behaviours of children is limited. To begin to fill this gap, we report the results of a survey on the electricity, transportation and food-related energy behaviours of 323 fourth- and fifth-grade girls and their parents in 31 Girl Scout troops in Northern California. Our findings show positive attitudes and perceived norms toward energy-saving behaviours among child and adult respondents, but low or moderate levels of knowledge, communication, and behaviour, particularly for behaviours that require adult assistance. Girls’ choices about electricity behaviours appear to be governed by intrapersonal and interpersonal influences, while transportation behaviour is constrained by geographic context. Food-related behaviour, particularly meat consumption, was not readily modelled. Policy and education-related implications for future interventions aimed at enhancing children's energy-saving behaviours are discussed. - Highlights: • We surveyed 323 fourth and fifth grade Girl Scouts and parents about energy behaviours. • We asked about electricity, transportation and food behaviour and its correlates. • Girls’ electricity behaviours are linked to intrapersonal and interpersonal influences. • Girls’ transportation behaviour is constrained by geographic context. • Girls’ food behaviour, particularly meat consumption, was not readily modelled

  13. Energy behaviours of northern California Girl Scouts and their families

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boudet, H; Ardoin, NM; Flora, J; Armel, KC; Desai, M; Robinson, TN

    2014-10-01

    Climate change is likely the most critical societal challenge to the futures of today's children. Mitigation will require a concerted effort to change household energy behaviour electricity use, transportation and food consumption patterns. A first step to changing behaviour is to better understand current behaviour and its intrapersonal (knowledge and attitudes), interpersonal (norms, communication and behaviour) and contextual (demographics and geography) correlates. To date, our understanding of the energy behaviours of children is limited. To begin to fill this gap, we report the results of a survey on the electricity, transportation and food-related energy behaviours of 323 fourth- and fifth-grade girls and their parents in 31 Girl Scout troops in Northern California. Our findings show positive attitudes and perceived norms toward energy-saving behaviours among child and adult respondents, but low or moderate levels of knowledge, communication, and behaviour, particularly for behaviours that require adult assistance. Girls' choices about electricity behaviours appear to be governed by intrapersonal and interpersonal influences, while transportation behaviour is constrained by geographic context. Food-related behaviour, particularly meat consumption, was not readily modelled. Policy and education-related implications for future interventions aimed at enhancing children's energy-saving behaviours are discussed. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Big Explosions, Strong Gravity: Making Girl Scouts ACEs of Space through Chandra Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornschemeier, A. E.; Lochner, J. C.; Ganguly, R.; Feaga, L. M.; Ford, K. E. S.

    2005-12-01

    Thanks to two years of Chandra E/PO funding we have carried out a number of successful activities with the Girl Scouts of Central Maryland, focusing on girls in the 11-17 year age range. Our reasons for targeting this age range include the general decline in interest in math and science that occurs at or after children reach this critical age (meaning that we reach them early enough to have a positive effect). We initially target girls due to their underrepresentation in science, but the actitivities are all gender-neutral and highly adaptable to other groups. The program includes two components, in collaboration with Girl Scouts of Central Maryland. The first component is a well-established one-day Girl Scout patch activity entitled Big Explosions and Strong Gravity (BESG) where the girls earn a patch for their badge sash. The four BESG activities, mostly adapted from existing E/PO material, are available on the World Wide Web for use by others. The activities cover the electromagnetic spectrum as a tool for astronomy, the cosmic abundance of the elements and the supernova origin of many of the elements, black holes and their detection, and supernova explosions/stellar evolution. Thus far approximately 200 girls and their parents have participated in BESG and it has now become part of the council culture. The second activity is new and is part of the relatively new Girl Scout Studio 2B program, which is a girl-led program for the 11-17 year age range. Based on several meetings with small groups of girls and adults, we have formed a Studio 2B "club" called the ACE of Space Club (Astronomical Cosmic Exploration). We'll describe our experiences interacting with the Girl Scouts in this girl-led program.

  15. Bringing Astronomy Activities and Science Content to Girls Locally and Nationally: A Girl Scout and NIRCam Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, M. L.; Lebofsky, L. A.; McCarthy, D. W.; Lebofsky, N.

    2013-04-01

    In 2003, the University of Arizona's (UA) NIRCam EPO team (NASA James Webb Space Telescope's Near-Infrared Camera) and the Girl Scouts of Southern Arizona began a long-term collaboration to bring STEM and astronomy activities and concepts to adult Girl Scout volunteers and staff and, in turn, their councils and girls, i.e., to train the trainers. Nationally, our goal is to reach adult volunteers and staff in all 112 councils. To date, this program has reached nearly 240 adults from 78 councils in 41 states, DC, Guam, and Japan, bringing together adult volunteers and staff, UA graduate students, and NIRCam scientists and educators to experience Arizona's dark skies.

  16. Wellness-Promoting Practices Through Girl Scouts: A Pragmatic Superiority Randomized Controlled Trial With Additional Dissemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cull, Brooke J; Dzewaltowski, David A; Guagliano, Justin M; Rosenkranz, Sara K; Knutson, Cassandra K; Rosenkranz, Richard R

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of in-person versus online Girl Scout leader wellness training for implementation of wellness-promoting practices during troop meetings (phase I) and to assess training adoption and current practices across the council (phase II). Pragmatic superiority trial (phase 1) followed by serial cross-sectional study (phase II). Girl Scout troop meetings in Northeast Kansas. Eighteen troop leaders from 3 counties (phase 1); 113 troop leaders from 7 counties (phase II). Phase I: Troop leaders attended 2 wellness training sessions (first in groups, second individually), wherein leaders set wellness-promoting practice implementation goals, self-monitored progress, and received guidance and resources for implementation. Leaders received the intervention in person or online. Phase I: At baseline and postintervention, leaders completed a wellness-promoting practice implementation questionnaire assessing practices during troop meetings (max score = 11). Phase II: Leaders completed a survey about typical troop practices and interest in further training. Phase I: Generalized linear mixed modeling. Phase I: In-person training increased wellness-promoting practice implementation more than online training (in person = 2.1 ± 1.8; online = 0.2 ± 1.2; P = .022). Phase II: Fifty-six percent of leaders adopted the training. For 8 of 11 wellness categories, greater than 50% of leaders employed wellness-promoting practices. In-person training was superior to online training for improvements in wellness-promoting practices. Wellness training was adopted by the majority of leaders across the council.

  17. Promoting Healthier Living among Adolescent Girls in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Issues of sexual and reproductive health have remained central to the lives of human beings, specifically as they relate to adolescent girls. The increasing incidences of unwanted pregnancies, unsafe abortion and the ravaging effects of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV/AIDS have made it imperative for a ...

  18. Effects of a behaviour change intervention for Girl Scouts on child and parent energy-saving behaviours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudet, Hilary; Ardoin, Nicole M.; Flora, June; Armel, K. Carrie; Desai, Manisha; Robinson, Thomas N.

    2016-08-01

    Energy education programmes for children are hypothesized to have great potential to save energy. Such interventions are often assumed to impact child and family behaviours. Here, using a cluster-randomized controlled trial with 30 Girl Scout troops in Northern California, we assess the efficacy of two social cognitive theory-based interventions focused on residential and food-and-transportation energy-related behaviours of Girl Scouts and their families. We show that Girl Scouts and parents in troops randomly assigned to the residential energy intervention significantly increased their self-reported residential energy-saving behaviours immediately following the intervention and after more than seven months of follow-up, compared with controls. Girl Scouts in troops randomly assigned to the food-and-transportation energy intervention significantly increased their self-reported food-and-transportation energy-saving behaviours immediately following the intervention, compared with controls, but not at follow-up. The results demonstrate that theory-based, child-focused energy interventions have the potential to increase energy-saving behaviours among both children and their parents.

  19. Improving the Pipeline of Women in STEM Fields: Addressing Challenges in Instruction, Engagement, and Evaluation of an Aerospace Workshop Series for Girl Scouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sealfon, C. D.; Plummer, J. D.

    2012-08-01

    The Women in Aerospace and Technology Project (WATP) is a collaborative effort between the Girl Scouts of Eastern Pennsylvania, the American Helicopter Museum, Boeing Rotorcraft, Sikorsky Global Helicopters, Drexel University, West Chester University, and Arcadia University. The program aims to increase the representation of women in STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math) fields; the evaluation team identified a secondary goal to assess growth in participants' understanding of scientific inquiry. Girls, grades 4-12, were invited to join Girl Scout troops formed at the American Helicopter Museum to participate in a series of eight workshops on the physics and engineering of flight. Five college women majoring in physics and engineering were recruited as mentors for the girls. Lessons were written by local aerospace industry partners (including Boeing and Sikorsky); the mentors then taught the lessons and activities during the workshops. To evaluate the impact of this project, we collected data to answer two research questions: 1) In what ways does the program impact participants' attitudes towards science and interest in pursuing science as a career? 2) In what ways does the program impact participants' understanding of the nature of scientific inquiry? In this article we summarize results from two sources of data: before and after survey of attitudes about science and end-of-workshop informal questionnaires. Across the seven months of data collection, two challenges became apparent. First, our assessment goals, focusing on scientific interest and inquiry, seemed misaligned with the workshop curricula, which emphasized engineering and design. Secondly, there was little connection among activities within workshops and across the program.

  20. Engendering Children of the Resistance: Models of Gender and Scouting in China, 1919–1937

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Mih Tillman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the 1920s and 1930s, Chinese adapted scouting, which had originally been developed to masculinize British youth as future colonial troops. While Chinese families and teachers valued scouting as a form of outdoor recreation, Chiang Kai-shek and the Guomindang after 1927 connected scouting to preparation for military training. In addition to fostering masculinity among boys, the Chinese Scouting Association also directed Girl Scouts with new models of patriotic girlhood. The Guomindang promoted the distinct femininity of the Girl Scouts and channeled girls’ patriotism into nursing. As China entered World War II, Girl Scouts became significant symbols of patriotism in an increasingly militarized children’s culture. The Guomindang showcased Yang Huimin, a Girl Scout and heroine in the Battle of Sihang Warehouse, as a spokesperson for the Nationalist cause, but it could not fully control her public image.

  1. Improving the Tank Scout

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Burton, R. L

    2006-01-01

    .... While the tank battalions recognize the importance and value of the scout platoon, they are restricted from employing scouts to their full potential due to the platoon's inflexible structure and limited capabilities...

  2. Near Earth Asteroid Scout

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Near-Earth Asteroid Scout, or NEA Scout, is a 6U CubeSat developed jointly between NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. NASA...

  3. The Stochastic Scouting Problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barros, A.I.; Evers, L.

    2012-01-01

    Efficiently scouting talented sports players is of key importance in the commercially oriented sports world. Besides being able to recognize talent, it is important to plan the scouting activities given the available time, in order to maximize the potential for scouting talented players. This

  4. Public Library YA Program Roundup: Murder, We Wrote...and Played [and] Asleep in the Library: Girl Scouts Earn "From Dreams to Reality" Patch [and] Sign Language Funshop [and] Science Fair Help Day [and] A Skyomish Fairy Tale [and] The POW! Project: Picturing Our World! Teens Create Art and Self-Esteem at the Boston Public Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Francisca; Seblonka, Cathy Sullivan; Wagner, Joyce; Smith, Tammy; Sipos, Caryn; Bodart, Joni Richards

    1998-01-01

    Includes six articles that describe public library programs for teens. Highlights include interactive murder mysteries; a girl scout sleepover program on career awareness; sign language workshop; a Science Fair help day that included guest speakers; a unit on fairy tales and legends; and a project to enhance creativity and self-esteem. (LRW)

  5. Prepubertal ultra-low-dose estrogen therapy is associated with healthier lipid profile than conventional estrogen replacement for pubertal induction in adolescent girls with Turner syndrome: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruszala, Anna; Wojcik, Malgorzata; Zygmunt-Gorska, Agata; Janus, Dominika; Wojtys, Joanna; Starzyk, Jerzy B

    2017-08-01

    The metabolic effects of prepubertal low-dose estrogen replacement (LE) therapy in Turner syndrome (TS) have not been fully investigated to date. The present study aimed to compare glucose and lipids metabolism in adolescents with TS on LE and conventional estrogen replacement (CE). In 14 TS (mean age 13.8), LE (17β-estradiol, 62.5 μg daily) was introduced before age 12 (mean age 10.5), and followed by a pubertal induction regimen after age 12, and in 14 CE was started after age 12 (mean 14, SD 1.96). Before, and 3 years after starting 17β-estradiol growth velocity, bone age, BMI, and selected parameters of glucose and lipids metabolism were assessed. There were no significant differences between LE and CE in the mean levels of any parameter before introduction of 17β-estradiol [total cholesterol (TC): 4.1 vs 4.3 mmol/L, LDL cholesterol (LDLc): 2.2 vs 2.4 mmol/L, HDL cholesterol (HDLc): 1.6 vs 1.4 mmol/L, triglycerides: 0.9 vs 1.0 mmol/L, fasting glucose: 4.2 vs 4.4 mmol/L, post-load glucose: 4.8 vs 5.5 mmol/L; fasting insulin: 6.8 vs 8.0 post-load insulin: 21.3 vs 67.0 μIU/mL, HOMA-IR 1.3 vs 1.6]. After three years of treatment, TC and LDLc levels were significantly lower in LE group (3.8 vs 4.4 mmol/L, p = 0.004; 1.9 vs 2.4 mmol/L, p = 0.03). The other parameters did not differ significantly. There was no negative impact on growth course and bone age advancement nor on BMI in LE group. Prepubertal LE is associated with healthier lipid profile than CE in girls with TS.

  6. National Boy Scout Jamboree

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    This video looks at a NASA sponsored exhibit at the National Boy Scout Jamboree in Fredricksburg, VA. Boy Scouts are shown interacting with NASA researchers and astronauts and touring mockups of Space Station Freedom and Apollo 11. NASA's program to encourage the researchers of tomorrow is detailed.

  7. Data Scouting in CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Dustin James

    2016-01-01

    In 2011, the CMS collaboration introduced Data Scouting as a way to produce physics results with events that cannot be stored on disk, due to resource limits in the data acquisition and offline infrastructure. The viability of this technique was demonstrated in 2012, when 18 fb$^{-1}$ of collision data at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 8 TeV were collected. The technique is now a standard ingredient of CMS and ATLAS data-taking strategy. In this talk, we present the status of data scouting in CMS and the improvements introduced in 2015 and 2016, which promoted data scouting to a full-fledged, flexible discovery tool for the LHC Run II.

  8. Improving the Tank Scout

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Burton, R. L

    2006-01-01

    Within the Marine Corps' tank battalions is a unique asset that is often improperly employed and not well known within the other components of the Marine Air Ground Task Force (MAGTF): the scout platoon...

  9. US Cub Scouts visit CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    A group of young American Cub Scouts from Den 10, Pack 130 (based in Geneva) at the Microcosm last Saturday. On their trip to CERN, which included the first Visits Service tour of the ATLAS construction site, the scouts were able to satisfy most of the requirements for the Cub Scout engineering badge. From left to right: Edouard Vincent, Ariel Litke, Alexander Richter, Antoine Vidal de Saint Phalle, Jason Iredale and Daniel Reghelini.

  10. Solids Accumulation Scouting Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duignan, M. R.; Steeper, T. J.; Steimke, J. L.

    2012-09-26

    The objective of Solids Accumulation activities was to perform scaled testing to understand the behavior of remaining solids in a Double Shell Tank (DST), specifically AW-105, at Hanford during multiple fill, mix, and transfer operations. It is important to know if fissionable materials can concentrate when waste is transferred from staging tanks prior to feeding waste treatment plants. Specifically, there is a concern that large, dense particles containing plutonium could accumulate in poorly mixed regions of a blend tank heel for tanks that employ mixing jet pumps. At the request of the DOE Hanford Tank Operations Contractor, Washington River Protection Solutions, the Engineering Development Laboratory of the Savannah River National Laboratory performed a scouting study in a 1/22-scale model of a waste staging tank to investigate this concern and to develop measurement techniques that could be applied in a more extensive study at a larger scale. Simulated waste tank solids: Gibbsite, Zirconia, Sand, and Stainless Steel, with stainless steel particles representing the heavier particles, e.g., plutonium, and supernatant were charged to the test tank and rotating liquid jets were used to mix most of the solids while the simulant was pumped out. Subsequently, the volume and shape of the mounds of residual solids and the spatial concentration profiles for the surrogate for heavier particles were measured. Several techniques were developed and equipment designed to accomplish the measurements needed and they included: 1. Magnetic particle separator to remove simulant stainless steel solids. A device was designed and built to capture these solids, which represent the heavier solids during a waste transfer from a staging tank. 2. Photographic equipment to determine the volume of the solids mounds. The mounds were photographed as they were exposed at different tank waste levels to develop a composite of topographical areas. 3. Laser rangefinders to determine the volume of

  11. ScoutTM, a portable MCA system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, A.Y.; Ziemba, F.P.; Browning, J.E.; Szluk, N.

    1998-01-01

    Quantrad Sensor's hand-held multichannel analyzer (MCA), the Scout TM , has evolved considerably from the initial licensing from Pacific Northwest Laboratories (operated by Battelle Memorial Institute for the U.S. DOE). The Scout TM has grown into a flexible MCA system with alpha-, gamma-, X-ray and neutron detection capabilities with wide ranging applications. The development philosophy is discussed along with specific examples of design choices in areas such as manufacturability, upgradability, probe interchangability and software user interface. Recently introduced products include: software enhancements, additional probes, customized software and a second generation instrument, the Scout512 TM , that boasts increased capabilities. Future developments are also discussed. (author)

  12. England: a healthier nation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInnes, D; Barnes, R

    2000-01-01

    HINTS AND TIPS: Several difficult challenges have had to be tackled in developing a health policy for England. Although not all the answers have yet been found and the learning process continues, some lessons can be drawn from experience to date. CONSULTATION: Public consultation and the involvement of a wide range of individuals and groups at all levels and stages is crucial to implementing the policy. Without it, The health of the nation would have remained a paper exercise and the local ownership of the policy that has been achieved in some places could not have come about. This principle has been adopted for Our healthier nation, which will benefit from extensive consultation. Communication of the concepts underlying the policy and of ideas about its strategic implementation is also crucial. A wide variety of mechanisms have been used in England, and this has helped to maintain momentum and to keep health policy high on the agenda. Anecdotal evidence suggests that the Health of the Nation calendar and the Target publication have been especially popular. Target in particular has been and continues to be an effective medium for disseminating ideas and examples of successful implementation strategies. In addition, publication of The health of the nation material on the Internet widened its potential audience considerably. The publication of The health of the nation was especially timely, not only in terms of gaining support and commitment from the leadership of the Department of Health and other government departments, but also across the political spectrum. In addition, the then-recent NHS reforms gave new opportunities for health policy to be incorporated into health service practice. Our healthier nation is also being launched in tandem with a white paper on health services, and the links between them are being stated explicitly. COMMITMENT: As indicated above, commitment from the top is essential to the success of the strategy; this applies not only to the

  13. Educating girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellew, R; Raney, L; Subbarao, K

    1992-03-01

    20 years of research has established that the economic and social benefits of women's primary and secondary schooling are far reaching. The more educated a population's women are, the fewer children they have, and the ones they do have are healthier. However, social tradition and other economic considerations often force families to exclude young girls from education in favor of boys. The safety of young girls is one consideration as well as their value as household labor. There is also a false impression that the good of the community is served if boys are educated, but not so the same for girls. Evidence has been complied to show that in populations where women are more educated, the level of poverty is lower. Because society gains by educating its girls, how can governments change the traditions that have educating its girls, how can governments change the traditions that have previously kept girls under educated? The government of Bangladesh and Guatemala have been very successful with scholarship programs at the primary and secondary level. In Bangladesh the enrollment of females in secondary school almost doubled. The program is also credited with increasing attendance of primary schools, increasing labor force participation, postponing the age of marriage and reducing fertility. Between 1972-80 there were 105 Bank assisted primary and secondary school programs. Of these 20% identified the presence of genderissues, but only 10% included significant actions to improve females enrollment. Between 1981-1991 about half of the Bank assisted programs identified the presence of gender issues, and a quarter included significant actions to improve female enrollment.

  14. Educational Work of the Boy Scouts. Bulletin, 1921, No. 41

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, Lorne W.

    1921-01-01

    Scouting continues to enjoy the cordial endorsement of school men everywhere in the US. More and more those interested are coming to see the enormous possibilities of cooperation between the scout movement and the schools. Many schools now give credit for scout work done outside of the schools. Many more are in hearty sympathy with the program as…

  15. Soil and Water Conservation Activities for Scouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil Conservation Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    The purpose of the learning activities outlined in this booklet is to help Scouts understand some conservation principles which hopefully will lead to the development of an attitude of concern for the environment and a commitment to help with the task of using and managing soil, water, and other natural resources for long range needs as well as…

  16. Scouts behave as streakers in honeybee swarms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greggers, Uwe; Schöning, Caspar; Degen, Jacqueline; Menzel, Randolf

    2013-08-01

    Harmonic radar tracking was used to record the flights of scout bees during takeoff and initial flight path of two honeybee swarms. One swarm remained intact and performed a full flight to a destination beyond the range of the harmonic radar, while a second swarm disintegrated within the range of the radar and most of the bees returned to the queen. The initial stretch of the full flight is characterized by accelerating speed, whereas the disintegrating swarm flew steadily at low speed. The two scouts in the swarm displaying full flight performed characteristic flight maneuvers. They flew at high speed when traveling in the direction of their destination and slowed down or returned over short stretches at low speed. Scouts in the disintegrating swarm did not exhibit the same kind of characteristic flight performance. Our data support the streaker bee hypothesis proposing that scout bees guide the swarm by traveling at high speed in the direction of the new nest site for short stretches of flight and slowing down when reversing flight direction.

  17. CT scout films: Don't forget to look

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emamian, Seyed A.; Dubovsky, Elizabeth C.; Vezina, L. Gilbert; Bulas, Dorothy I.; Carter, William

    2003-01-01

    A lateral scout view of the head is always obtained when performing head computed tomography (CT). It is common knowledge that viewing the lateral scout view may provide additional information. For a variety of reasons, however, a careful review may not be performed routinely. To illustrate the value of the lateral scout view, we present a series of representative cases. Six patients with clinically relevant findings on the scout view. Most of the ancillary findings were in the upper cervical spine/neck, which is typically included on the lateral scout view. Careful evaluation of the scout view of the head CT, including the skull and neck, may yield valuable information, which may not be visualized on the axial CT images. (orig.)

  18. CT scout films: Don't forget to look.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emamian, Seyed A.; Dubovsky, Elizabeth C.; Vezina, L. Gilbert; Bulas, Dorothy I. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Radiology, Children' s National Medical Center, George Washington University, 111 Michigan Avenue NW, DC 20010, Washington (United States); Carter, William [Department of Radiology, Bethesda Naval Medical Center, Rockville, MD (United States)

    2003-08-01

    A lateral scout view of the head is always obtained when performing head computed tomography (CT). It is common knowledge that viewing the lateral scout view may provide additional information. For a variety of reasons, however, a careful review may not be performed routinely. To illustrate the value of the lateral scout view, we present a series of representative cases. Six patients with clinically relevant findings on the scout view. Most of the ancillary findings were in the upper cervical spine/neck, which is typically included on the lateral scout view. Careful evaluation of the scout view of the head CT, including the skull and neck, may yield valuable information, which may not be visualized on the axial CT images. (orig.)

  19. Scout or Cavalry? Optimal Discovery Strategies for GRBs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemiroff, Robert J.

    2004-01-01

    Many present and past gamma-ray burst (GRB) detectors try to be not only a 'scout', discovering new GRBs, but also the 'cavalry', simultaneously optimizing on-board science return. Recently, however, most GRB science return has moved out from the gamma-ray energy bands where discovery usually occurs. Therefore a future gamma-ray instrument that is only a scout might best optimize future GRB science. Such a scout would specialize solely in the initial discovery of GRBs, determining only those properties that would allow an unambiguous handoff to waiting cavalry instruments. Preliminary general principles of scout design and cadence are discussed. Scouts could implement observing algorithms optimized for finding GRBs with specific attributes of duration, location, or energy. Scout sky-scanning algorithms utilizing a return cadence near to desired durations of short GRBs are suggested as a method of discovering GRBs in the unexplored short duration part of the GRB duration distribution

  20. User's operating procedures. Volume 2: Scout project financial analysis program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, C. G.; Haris, D. K.

    1985-01-01

    A review is presented of the user's operating procedures for the Scout Project Automatic Data system, called SPADS. SPADS is the result of the past seven years of software development on a Prime mini-computer located at the Scout Project Office, NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia. SPADS was developed as a single entry, multiple cross-reference data management and information retrieval system for the automation of Project office tasks, including engineering, financial, managerial, and clerical support. This volume, two (2) of three (3), provides the instructions to operate the Scout Project Financial Analysis program in data retrieval and file maintenance via the user friendly menu drivers.

  1. User's operating procedures. Volume 1: Scout project information programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, C. G.; Harris, D. K.

    1985-01-01

    A review of the user's operating procedures for the Scout Project Automatic Data System, called SPADS is given. SPADS is the result of the past seven years of software development on a Prime minicomputer located at the Scout Project Office. SPADS was developed as a single entry, multiple cross reference data management and information retrieval system for the automation of Project office tasks, including engineering, financial, managerial, and clerical support. The instructions to operate the Scout Project Information programs in data retrieval and file maintenance via the user friendly menu drivers is presented.

  2. Lessons Learned from Custer’s Last Stand for Developing Acquisition Scouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-31

    Private, Indian Scout Reynolds, Charles Alexander KIA Guide, Quartermaster Round Wooden Cloud Sioux Private, Indian Scout Running Wolf NP...Arikara Private, Indian Scout White Cloud Arikara Private, Indian Scout White Eagle Arikara Private, Indian Scout White Man Runs Him Crow...American West. Little, Brown, and Company. FM 2-22.3, (2006). Human Intelligence Collector Operations. HQ , Department of the Army, Washington, D.C

  3. Developmental Trajectories of Youth Character: A Five-Wave Longitudinal Study of Cub Scouts and Non-Scout Boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Ferris, Kaitlyn A; Hershberg, Rachel M; Lerner, Richard M

    2015-12-01

    Youth development programs, such as the Boy Scouts of America, aim to develop positive attributes in youth (e.g., character virtues, prosocial behaviors, and positive civic actions), which are necessary for individuals and societies to flourish. However, few developmental studies have focused on how specific positive attributes develop through participation in programs such as the Boy Scouts of America. As part of the Character and Merit Project, this article examined the developmental trajectories of character and other positive attributes, which are of focal concern of the Boy Scouts of America and the developmental literature. Data were collected from 1398 Scouts (M = 8.59 years, SD = 1.29 years, Range 6.17-11.92 years) and 325 non-Scout boys (M = 9.06 years, SD = 1.43 years, Range 6.20-11.81 years) over five waves of testing across a two-and-half-year period. Latent growth-curve analyses of self-report survey data examined the developmental trajectories of the attributes. Older youth rated themselves lower than younger participants on helpfulness, reverence, thriftiness, and school performance. However, all youth had moderately high self-ratings on all the attributes. Across waves, Scouts' self-ratings increased significantly for cheerfulness, helpfulness, kindness, obedience, trustworthiness, and hopeful future expectations. Non-Scout boys' self-ratings showed no significant change for any attributes except for a significant decrease in religious reverence among non-Scout boys from religious institutions. We discuss implications for positive youth development and for the role of the Boy Scouts of America programming in character development.

  4. Field applications of the ScoutTM portable MCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, A.Y.; Ziemba, F.P.; Browning, J.E.

    1998-01-01

    The use of Quantrad Sensor's Scout TM in field type applications is described. The portability of the Scout TM enables the user to obtain more accurate information in the field versus a survey meter. Isotopic identification is possible when ancillary information is combined with built-in software libraries. Data from the Scout TM in remediation at Stanford Linear Accelerator (SLAC), NORM (Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material) measurements in California's Central Valley oil fields, medical isotope identification at nuclear pharmaceutical company and emergency response applications are presented. Additionally, custom software enabled the use of the Scout TM in identification, qualification and detection of Special Nuclear Materials (SNM) in illicit trafficking and portal monitoring applications. (author)

  5. Evaluating Boy Scout Geology Education, A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintz, R. S.; Thomson, B.

    2008-12-01

    This study investigated geology knowledge acquisition by Boy Scouts through use of the Boy Scout Geology Merit Handbook. In this study, boys engaged in hands-on interactive learning following the requirements set forth in the Geology Merit Badge Handbook. The purposes of this study were to determine the amount of geology content knowledge engendered in adolescent males through the use of the Geology Merit Badge Handbook published by the Boy Scouts of America; to determine if single sex, activity oriented, free-choice learning programs can be effective in promoting knowledge development in young males; and to determine if boys participating in the Scouting program believed their participation helped them succeed in school. Members of a local Boy Scout Troop between the ages of 11 and 18 were invited to participate in a Geology Merit Badge program. Boys who did not already possess the badge were allowed to self-select participation. The boys' content knowledge of geology, rocks, and minerals was pre- and post-tested. Boys were interviewed about their school and Scouting experiences; whether they believed their Scouting experiences and work in Merit Badges contributed to their success in school. Contributing educational theories included single-sex education, informal education with free-choice learning, learning styles, hands-on activities, and the social cognitive theory concept of self-efficacy. Boys who completed this study seemed to possess a greater knowledge of geology than they obtained in school. If boys who complete the Boy Scout Geology Merit Badge receive additional geological training, their field experiences and knowledge acquired through this learning experience will be beneficial, and a basis for continued scaffolding of geologic knowledge.

  6. NASA Astrophysics EPO Resources For Engaging Girls in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, M.; Mendoza, D.; Smith, D.; Hasan, H.

    2011-09-01

    A new collaboration among the NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) Astrophysics EPO community is to engage girls in science who do not self-select as being interested in science, through the library setting. The collaboration seeks to (i) improve how girls view themselves as someone who knows about, uses, and sometimes contributes to science, and (ii) increase the capacity of EPO practitioners and librarians (both school and public) to engage girls in science. As part of this collaboration, we are collating the research on audience needs and best practices, and SMD EPO resources, activities and projects that focus on or can be recast toward engaging girls in science. This ASP article highlights several available resources and individual projects, such as: (i) Afterschool Universe, an out-of-school hands-on astronomy curriculum targeted at middle school students and an approved Great Science for Girls curriculum; (ii) Big Explosions and Strong Gravity, a Girl Scout patch-earning event for middle school aged girls to learn astronomy through hands-on activities and interaction with actual astronomers; and (iii) the JWST-NIRCAM Train the Trainer workshops and activities for Girl Scouts of USA leaders; etc. The NASA Astrophysics EPO community welcomes the broader EPO community to discuss with us how best to engage non-science-attentive girls in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM), and to explore further collaborations on this theme.

  7. Change It Up! What Girls Say About Redefining Leadership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia A. Dawson

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A national study conducted by Girl Scouts of the USA and Fluent, a New York-based research firm explores the leadership aspirations of girls and boys. Over 4,000 youth were included in the study which examines perceptions, behaviors, experiences and attitudes regarding leadership. The executive summary includes numerous tables and charts highlighting the research findings and comparative responses of boys and girls. Readers will find the results from this study to be of great value when designing youth leadership programs.

  8. System Engineering Analysis For Improved Scout Business Information Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Slyke, D. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-01-30

    The project uses system engineering principles to address the need of Boy Scout leaders for an integrated system to facilitate advancement and awards records, leader training and planning for meetings and activities. Existing products to address needs of Scout leaders and relevant stakeholders function to support record keeping and some communication functions but opportunity exists for a better system to fully integrate these functions with training delivery and recording, activity planning along with feedback and information gathering from stakeholders. Key stakeholders for the sytem include Scouts and their families, leaders, training providers, sellers of supplies and awards, content generators and facilities that serve Scout activities. Key performance parameters for the system are protection of personal information, availability of current information, information accuracy and information content that has depth. Implementation concepts considered for the system include (1) owned and operated by Boy Scouts of America, (2) Contracted out to a vendor (3) distributed system that functions with BSA managed interfaces. The selected concept is to contract out to a vendor to maximize the likelihood of successful integration and take advantage of the best technology. Development of requirements considers three key use cases (1) System facilitates planning a hike with training needed satisfied in advance and advancement recording real time (2) Scheduling and documenting in-person training, (3) Family interested in Scouting receives information and can request follow-up. Non-functional requirements are analyzed with the Quality Function Deployment tool. Requirement addressing frequency of backup, compatibility with legacy and new technology, language support, software update are developed to address system reliability and intuitive interface. System functions analyzed include update of activity database, maintenance of advancement status, archive of documents, and

  9. Healthier meat products as functional foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Eric A; Park, Yeonhwa

    2010-09-01

    A promising approach to improving health care would be to produce a healthier food supply as a preventive health care strategy. The food supply could be improved by producing functional foods that have nutritional profiles that are healthier than conventional products. However, production of functional foods is not always easily accomplished since they must also taste good, be convenient and reasonably priced so that consumers will regularly purchase and use the products. Meats have great potential for delivering important nutrients such as fatty acids, minerals, dietary fiber, antioxidants and bioactive peptides into the diet. However, to produce successful products with these ingredients, technologies must be developed to increase their stability and decrease their flavor impact on muscle foods. In addition, many regulatory hurdles must be overcome for the commercial production of meats with added nutrients. These include redefinition of standard of identities and policies that allow front of the package nutritional claims. Without these regulatory changes, production of healthier meat products won't become a reality since these products would not have a competitive advantage over unfortified meats.

  10. Lunar scout: A Project Artemis proposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    The results of a student project to design a lunar lander in the context of a specifically defined mission are presented. The Lunar Scout will be launched from Cape Canaveral, Florida onboard a Delta II launch vehicle. The Delta II will carry the lander and its payload to a 1367 km orbit. Once it reaches that altitude, a STAR 48A solid rocket motor will kick the spacecraft into a lunar trajectory. After burnout of the lunar insertion motor, it will be jettisoned from the spacecraft. The flight from the earth to the moon will take approximately 106.4 hours. During this time the battery, which was fully charged prior to launch, will provide all power to the spacecraft. Every hour, the spacecraft will use its sun sensors and star trackers to update its position, maintain some stabilization and relay it back to earth using the dipole antennas. At the start of its lunar trajectory, the spacecraft will fire one of its 1.5 N thrusters to spin in at a very small rate. The main reason for this is to prevent one side of the spacecraft from overheating in the sun. When the spacecraft nears the moon, it will orient itself for the main retro burn. At an altitude of 200 km, a 4400 N bipropellant liquid thruster will ignite to slow the spacecraft. During the burn, the radar altimeter will be turned on to guide the spacecraft. The main retro rocket will slow the lander to 10 m/s at an approximate altitude of 40 km above the moon. From there, the space craft will use four 4.5 N hydrazine vertical thrusters and 1.5 N horizontal thrusters to guide the spacecraft to a soft landing. Once on the ground, the lander will shutoff the radar and attitude control systems. After the debris from the impact has settled, the six solar panels will be deployed to begin recharging the batteries and to power up the payload. The feedhorn antenna will then rotate to fix itself on the earth.

  11. Reaching Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Charlotte E.; Kuriloff, Peter J.; Cox, Amanda B.

    2014-01-01

    If educators want to engage girls in learning, they must align teaching practices with girls' specific needs. In a study modeled after Reichert and Hawley's study of boys, the authors learned that lessons with hands-on learning, elements of creativity, multimodal projects, and class discussions all worked to stimulate girls'…

  12. Religiosity and Coping: Racial Stigma and Psychological Well-Being among African American Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler-Barnes, Sheretta T; Martin, Pamela P; Hope, Elan C; Copeland-Linder, Nikeea; Lawrence Scott, Marquisha

    2018-06-02

    This study examined how having a relationship with God served as a protective factor between racial stigma beliefs and psychological well-being. A church sample of African American adolescent girls (N = 117, M age = 15) completed measures on racial stigma, psychological well-being, and reports on having a relationship with God. After controlling for adolescent age, family income, and church attendance, positive racial beliefs and having a relationship with God were associated with a healthier psychological well-being. Findings also revealed that having a relationship with God and internalizing healthier racial beliefs were associated with a healthier psychological well-being, whereas reporting higher levels of having a relationship with God served as a protective factor for African American girls when internalizing moderate levels of racial stigma. Overall, results suggest that having a relationship with God can serve as a coping mechanism and promote a healthier psychological well-being for African American adolescent girls.

  13. Scouting For Approval: Lessons on Medical Device Regulation in an Era of Crowdfunding from Scanadu's "Scout".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Colleen

    2015-01-01

    Internet crowdfunding, a new and increasingly popular method of raising capital to develop products and businesses, has recently come into conflict with the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) regulation of medical devices. This Article examines the issues that arise when companies pre-sell medical devices via crowdfunding campaigns before gaining FDA approval of the devices. Because Internet crowdfunding has only been in use for a few years, little has been written about it academically, particularly about its interaction with FDA regulations. The rising interest in crowdfunding, coupled with the downturn in investment in the American medical device industry, make this a salient issue that is ripe for FDA review. This Article uses the crowdfunding campaign Scanadu, a medical device company, conducted in 2013 to raise money to develop its in-home diagnostic device, the "Scout," as a starting point for this analysis. Because it is extremely costly to develop a device and obtain FDA approval, medical device companies should be able to utilize crowdfunding to raise the necessary capital. However, because of the possible dangers medical devices pose, FDA needs to review the risks created by allowing companies to crowdfund medical devices and should issue guidance to help companies comply with FDA regulations while still allowing them to take advantage of the benefits of crowdfunding. This guidance should ensure the continued commitment to consumer safety that is at the core of FDA regulation.

  14. Resource Review: The State of Girls: Unfinished Business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia A. Dawson

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The State of Girls: Unfinished Business is an extensive report published by the Girl Scout Research Institute. The 156 page publication examines girls’ health and well-being in the United States with a focus on key issues including health, educational achievement, demographic trends and safety. The report includes excellent charts, tables and diagrams and an appendix of state-level sources of data to support research findings. Youth professionals will appreciate this well documented, easy to comprehend resource as they engage in positive youth development programming.

  15. Cognitive Scout Node for Communication in Disaster Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh K. Sharma

    2012-01-01

    highly desired to manage unexpected situations that may happen in a disaster scenario. The scout node proposed in this paper is an extended concept based on a powerful CR node in a heterogeneous nodes environment which takes a leading role for highly flexible, fast, and robust establishment of cooperative wireless links in a disaster situation. This node should have two components: one is a passive sensor unit that collects and stores the technical knowledge about the electromagnetic environment in a data processing unit so-called “radio environment map” in the form of a dynamically updated database, and other is an active transceiver unit which can automatically be configured either as a secondary node for opportunistic communication or as a cooperative base station or access point for primary network in emergency communications. Scout solution can be viable by taking advantage of the technologies used by existing radio surveillance systems in the context of CR.

  16. Scouts in Contact: Tactical Vignettes for Cavalry Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Decision - Making Processes Analytical Decision Making . The classical model of decision making is a rational and systematic process of analysis based on a...senior scout are the real measures of effectiveness. Commanders should allow and reward trial and error. If a leader makes a decision that causes...professional certification from the squadron commander on their ability to make competent and fast decisions , grounded in thorough understanding of the

  17. Gradient Scouting in Reversed-Phase HPLC Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcazar, A.; Jurado, J. M.; Gonzalez, A. G.

    2011-01-01

    Gradient scouting is the best way to decide the most suitable elution mode in reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). A simple rule for this decision involves the evaluation of the ratio [delta]t/t[subscript G] (where [delta]t is the difference in the retention time between the last and the first peak and t[subscript G] is…

  18. The availability and cost of healthier food alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jetter, Karen M; Cassady, Diana L

    2006-01-01

    Many people, especially low-income consumers, do not successfully follow dietary recommendations to eat more whole grains and less fat and added sugar. The food environment may have a significant impact on the choice by low-income consumers to eat healthier foods, as both the availability and price of healthier food items may limit their ability to eat a healthier diet. We investigated the cost and availability of a standard market basket of foods, and a healthier basket that included low-fat meat and dairy and whole grain products. Market-basket surveys were conducted in 25 stores in Los Angeles and Sacramento. Stores were selected from neighborhoods that were varied by income and surveyed three times from September 2003 to June 2004. The average cost of a standard market basket (based on the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Thrifty Food Plan [TFP]) and a healthier market basket was calculated from these prices and compared using a standard t-test to determine if they were significantly different from each other. The analysis was conducted in 2005. In neighborhoods served by smaller grocery stores, access to whole-grain products, low-fat cheeses, and ground meat with cost was $194, and the healthier market-basket cost was $230. The average cost of the healthier market basket was more expensive by $36 due to higher costs of whole grains, lean ground beef, and skinless poultry. The higher cost of the healthier basket is equal to about 35% to 40% of low-income consumers' food budgets of $2410 a year. The lack of availability in small grocery stores located in low-income neighborhoods, and the higher cost of the healthier market basket may be a deterrent to eating healthier among very low-income consumers. Public policies should take the food environment into account in order to develop successful strategies to encourage the consumption of healthier foods.

  19. Missed Lung Cancers on the Scout View: Do We Look Every Time?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarfraz Ahmed Nazir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Scout views are digital radiographs obtained to aid planning of the subsequent computed tomography (CT examination. Review of these scout views may provide additional information not demonstrated on the axial images, but such reviews may not necessarily be performed routinely, especially in the context of abdominopelvic CT studies. We illustrate the value of the scout images by presenting a series of representative cases of missed pulmonary neoplasms in five patients who originally underwent such examinations.

  20. Scout: orbit analysis and hazard assessment for NEOCP objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnocchia, Davide; Chesley, Steven R.; Chamberlin, Alan B.

    2016-10-01

    It typically takes a few days for a newly discovered asteroid to be officially recognized as a real object. During this time, the tentative discovery is published on the Minor Planet Center's Near-Earth Object Confirmation Page (NEOCP) until additional observations confirm that the object is a real asteroid rather than an observational artifact or an artificial object. Also, NEOCP objects could have a limited observability window and yet be scientifically interesting, e.g., radar and lightcurve targets, mini-moons (temporary Earth captures), mission accessible targets, close approachers or even impactors. For instance, the only two asteroids discovered before an impact, 2008 TC3 and 2014 AA, both reached the Earth less than a day after discovery. For these reasons we developed Scout, an automated system that provides an orbital and hazard assessment for NEOCP objects within minutes after the observations are available. Scout's rapid analysis increases the chances of securing the trajectory of interesting NEOCP objects before the ephemeris uncertainty grows too large or the observing geometry becomes unfavorable. The generally short observation arcs, perhaps only a few hours or even less, lead severe degeneracies in the orbit estimation process. To overcome these degeneracies Scout relies on systematic ranging, a technique that derives possible orbits by scanning a grid in the poorly constrained space of topocentric range and range rate, while the plane-of-sky position and motion are directly tied to the recorded observations. This scan allows us to derive a distribution of the possible orbits and in turn identify the NEOCP objects of most interest to prioritize followup efforts. In particular, Scout ranks objects according to the likelihood of an impact, estimates the close approach distance, the Earth-relative minimum orbit intersection distance and v-infinity, and computes scores to identify objects more likely to be an NEO, a km-sized NEO, a Potentially

  1. Old-fashioned charm and newfangled electronics make today's oil scouts formidable figures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenz, A.

    1999-01-01

    A profile of oil scouting, a secretive trade within the petroleum industry, was presented. Scouting began as early as 1949 when, in a fiercely competitive industry, a scout had to gain any information anyway he could regarding a competitor's drilling activity. Scouts were particularly useful when the industry was new because it was profitable to pay a field scout to watch a competitor's well from a hilltop with binoculars. If a scout informed their company that a given lease looked promising, the company would snap up that lease and the scout earned his wages many times over. Today's oil scout is more likely to be an independent consultant than a company employee. Their equipment ranges from devices such as parabolic microphones, wireless transmitters, night vision goggles, de-bugging devices, tools for listening through solid objects, and cell phone monitors. Acquired information can be invaluable and can prevent companies from making expensive mistakes, particularly in take-over situations. Estimates range from 100 to 150 independent scouts in Alberta. 2 figs

  2. Healthy convenience: nudging students toward healthier choices in the lunchroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanks, Andrew S; Just, David R; Smith, Laura E; Wansink, Brian

    2012-08-01

    In the context of food, convenience is generally associated with less healthy foods. Given the reality of present-biased preferences, if convenience was associated with healthier foods and less healthy foods were less convenient, people would likely consume healthier foods. This study examines the application of this principle in a school lunchroom where healthier foods were made more convenient relative to less healthy foods. One of two lunch lines in a cafeteria was arranged so as to display only healthier foods and flavored milk. Trained field researchers collected purchase and consumption data before and after the conversion. Mean comparisons were used to identify differences in selection and consumption of healthier foods, less healthy foods and chocolate milk. Sales of healthier foods increased by 18% and grams of less healthy foods consumed decreased by nearly 28%. Also, healthier foods' share of total consumption increased from 33 to 36%. Lastly, we find that students increased their consumption of flavored milk, but flavored milk's share of total consumption did not increase. In a school lunchroom, a convenience line that offered only healthier food options nudged students to consume fewer unhealthy foods. This result has key implications for encouraging healthy behavior in public schools nation wide, cafeterias and other food establishments.

  3. Electrorheology leads to healthier and tastier chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Rongjia; Tang, Hong; Tawhid-Al-Islam, Kazi; Du, Enpeng; Kim, Jeongyoo

    2016-07-05

    Chocolate is one of the most popular food types and flavors in the world. Unfortunately, at present, chocolate products contain too much fat, leading to obesity. Although this issue was called into attention decades ago, no actual solution was found. To bypass this critical outstanding problem, two manufacturers introduced some low-calorie fats to substitute for cocoa butter. Somehow, their products are not allowed in most countries. Here we show that this issue is deeply related to the basic science of soft matter, especially to the viscosity of liquid suspension and maximally random jammed (MRJ) density. When the concentration of cocoa solid is high, close to the MRJ density, removing a small amount of fat will jam the chocolate flow. Applying unconventional electrorheology to liquid chocolate with applied field in the flow direction, we aggregate the cocoa particles into prolate spheroids in micrometers. This microstructure change breaks the rotational symmetry, reduces liquid chocolate's viscosity along the flow direction, and increases its MRJ density significantly. Hence the fat level in chocolate can be effectively reduced. We are expecting a new class of healthier and tastier chocolate soon.

  4. Impact of a healthier home environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fauteux, A.

    2000-03-01

    The role of good ventilation in reducing asthma, a chronic inflammation of the airways, and the beneficial role that an R-2000 house could play in reducing the suffering from asthma are discussed. Superior insulation, a mould-free basement, hardwood and ceramic floors, very little carpeting, a central vacuum cleaner that is exhausted to the exterior, a heat recovery ventilator that provides continuous fresh air to every room, and a high efficiency particulate filter are some of the characteristics of an R-2000 house. Experience shows that airtightness alone is not enough, however, if an airtight house is fitted with central mechanical ventilation that can filter incoming air and minimize uncontrolled entry of outdoor pollutants that are allergens and irritants, suffering from respiratory ailments can be greatly reduced. For a healthier house, attention must also be paid to the presence of low-VOC or even no-VOC paints and caulks, household cleaners , 'air fresheners' and dry cleaning solvents, all of which can be expected to cause cell alterations, nervous and immune system dysfunctions, especially to those who suffer from respiratory ailments.

  5. Electrorheology leads to healthier and tastier chocolate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Rongjia; Tang, Hong; Tawhid-Al-Islam, Kazi; Du, Enpeng; Kim, Jeongyoo

    2016-01-01

    Chocolate is one of the most popular food types and flavors in the world. Unfortunately, at present, chocolate products contain too much fat, leading to obesity. Although this issue was called into attention decades ago, no actual solution was found. To bypass this critical outstanding problem, two manufacturers introduced some low-calorie fats to substitute for cocoa butter. Somehow, their products are not allowed in most countries. Here we show that this issue is deeply related to the basic science of soft matter, especially to the viscosity of liquid suspension and maximally random jammed (MRJ) density. When the concentration of cocoa solid is high, close to the MRJ density, removing a small amount of fat will jam the chocolate flow. Applying unconventional electrorheology to liquid chocolate with applied field in the flow direction, we aggregate the cocoa particles into prolate spheroids in micrometers. This microstructure change breaks the rotational symmetry, reduces liquid chocolate’s viscosity along the flow direction, and increases its MRJ density significantly. Hence the fat level in chocolate can be effectively reduced. We are expecting a new class of healthier and tastier chocolate soon. PMID:27325758

  6. Girl Scout firewise patch and camps: youth working with communities to adapt to wildfire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martha Monroe; Annie. Oxarart

    2013-01-01

    Around the world, youth are recognized as playing an important role in reducing the risk of disasters and promoting community resilience. Youth are participating in disaster education programs and carrying home what they learn; their families, in turn, are disseminating knowledge into the community. In addition to making a difference today, youth disaster education...

  7. Brachytherapy reconstruction using orthogonal scout views from the CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, J.; Lliso, F.; Carmona, V.; Bea, J.; Tormo, A.; Petschen, I.

    1996-01-01

    Introduction: CT assisted brachytherapy planning is demonstrating to have great advantages as external RT planning does. One of the problems we have found in this approach with the conventional gynecological Fletcher applicators is the high amount of artefacts (ovoids with rectal and vessical protections) in the CT slice. We have introduced a reconstruction method based on scout views in order to avoid this problem, allowing us to perform brachytherapy reconstruction completely CT assisted. We use a virtual simulation chain by General Electric Medical Systems. Method and discussion: Two orthogonal scout views (0 and 90 tube positions) are performed. The reconstruction method takes into account the virtual position of the focus and the fact that there is only divergence in the transverse plane. Algorithms developed for sources as well as for reference points localisation (A, B, lymphatic Fletcher trapezoid, pelvic wall, etc.) are presented. This method has the following practical advantages: the porte-cassette is not necessary, the image quality can be improved (it is very helpful in pelvic lateral views that are critical in conventional radiographs), the total time to get the data is smaller than for conventional radiographs (reduction of patient motion effects) and problems that appear in CT-slice based reconstruction in the case of strongly curved intrauterine applicators are avoided. Even though the resolution is smaller than in conventional radiographs it is good enough for brachytherapy. Regarding the CT planning this method presents the interesting feature that the co-ordinate system is the same for the reconstruction process that for the CT-slices set. As the application can be reconstructed from scout views and the doses can be evaluated on CT slices it is easier to correlate the dose values obtained for the traditional points with those provided by the CT information

  8. CT guided stereotaxy based on scout view imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wester, K; Kjartansson, O; Bakke, S J

    1987-05-01

    A simple and inexpensive method for CT guided sterotaxy is described. The method requires no extra equipment in the interface between the computer tomograph and the stereotaxic frame, and could therefore easily be adopted in most neurosurgical units. With this method, information from the transaxial CT sections is transferred manually via the scout view image to the operation theater skull X-rays, and thereby to the stereotaxic frame. The method has proved to be sufficiently accurate for all current non-functional stereotaxic procedures in our department during 30 months of testing.

  9. CT guided stereotaxy based on scout view imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wester, K.; Kjartansson, O.; Bakke, S.J.; Rikshospitalet, Oslo

    1987-01-01

    A simple and inexpensive method for CT guided sterotaxy is described. The method requires no extra equipment in the interface between the computer tomograph and the stereotaxic frame, and could therefore easily be adopted in most neurosurgical units. With this method, information from the transaxial CT sections is transferred manually via the scout view image to the operation theater skull X-rays, and thereby to the stereotaxic frame. The method has proved to be sufficiently accurate for all current non-functional stereotaxic procedures in our department during 30 months of testing. (orig.)

  10. Being Prepared: The Application of Character Building and the Beginning of the Boy Scouts of America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, Richard

    The beginnings of the Boy Scouts are traced, with particular emphasis on ideological foundation, social reform objectives of the founders (Sir Robert Baden-Powell, Daniel Carter Beard, and Ernest Thompson) and its relationship to other reform movements of the Progressive Era. The philosophical base of scouting is characterized as: 1) a…

  11. The Control of Sexuality in the Early British Boy Scouts Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryke, Sam

    2005-01-01

    This article looks at the way in which the early (1907-1922) British Boy Scouts movement attempted to control sexuality through archival examination of the organization's preoccupation with preventing masturbation or, as it was generally referred to, "self abuse". Having briefly outlined the origination and nature of the Scouts, it considers why…

  12. Art, Boys, and the Boy Scout Movement: Lord Baden-Powell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmers, F. Graeme; Dancer, Andrea A.

    2007-01-01

    Robert Stephenson Smyth Baden-Powell (1857-1941), founder of the Boy Scout Movement in 1907, was a British military hero during the Boer War. Within an ethos and era of empire-building, athleticism, soldier-heroes and the pursuit of "manliness," Baden-Powell valued the arts and adapted his artistic skill to his wartime and Scouting activities. His…

  13. Pre-procedural scout radiographs are unnecessary for routine pediatric fluoroscopic examinations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creeden, Sean G.; Rao, Anil G.; Eklund, Meryle J.; Hill, Jeanne G.; Thacker, Paul G. [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States)

    2017-03-15

    Although practice patterns vary, scout radiographs are often routinely performed with pediatric fluoroscopic studies. However few studies have evaluated their utility in routine pediatric fluoroscopy. To evaluate the value of scout abdomen radiographs in routine barium or water-soluble enema, upper gastrointestinal (GI) series, and voiding cystourethrogram pediatric fluoroscopic procedures. We retrospectively evaluated 723 barium or water-soluble enema, upper GI series, and voiding cystourethrogram fluoroscopic procedures performed at our institution. We assessed patient history and demographics, clinical indication for the examination, prior imaging findings and impressions, scout radiograph findings, additional findings provided by the scout radiograph that were previously unknown, and whether the scout radiograph contributed any findings that significantly changed management. We retrospectively evaluated 723 fluoroscopic studies (368 males and 355 females) in pediatric patients. Of these, 700 (96.8%) had a preliminary scout radiograph. Twenty-three (3.2%) had a same-day radiograph substituted as a scout radiograph. Preliminary scout abdomen radiographs/same-day radiographs showed no new significant findings in 719 (99.4%) studies. New but clinically insignificant findings were seen in 4 (0.6%) studies and included umbilical hernia, inguinal hernia and hip dysplasia. No findings were found on the scout radiographs that would either alter the examination performed or change management with regard to the exam. Pre-procedural scout abdomen radiographs are unnecessary in routine barium and water-soluble enema, upper GI series, and voiding cystourethrogram pediatric fluoroscopic procedures and can be substituted with a spot fluoroscopic last-image hold. (orig.)

  14. Healthier, more nutritious potatoes improve food security in Colombia

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-26

    Apr 26, 2016 ... Healthier, more nutritious potatoes improve food security in Colombia ... farmers, have high commercial potential, and are popular with consumers. ... children and adolescents is an alarming trend throughout the Caribbean.

  15. Growth and Development Symposium: promoting healthier humans through healthier livestock: animal agriculture enters the metagenomics era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, D N

    2011-03-01

    The priorities of public health and agricultural sciences intersect through a shared objective to foster better human health. Enhancements in food quality and reductions in the environmental effects of modern agriculture represent 2 distinct paths through which animal sciences can contribute to the cause of public health. Recent developments in the study of human-associated microbial communities (microbiotas), notably in association with disease, indicate that better understanding of the microbial ecology of livestock can contribute to achieving the goals of better foods and a cleaner environment. Culture-independent microbiological technologies now permit comprehensive study of complex microbial communities in their natural environments. Microbiotas associated with both humans and animals provide myriad beneficial services to their hosts that, if lost or diminished, could compromise host health. Dysfunctional microbial communities have been noted in several human conditions, including inflammatory bowel disease, obesity, and antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Examination of the mechanisms by which the human microbiota influences health and disease susceptibility can inform similar studies of host-microbe function in the animal sciences. Insights gained from human studies indicate strategies to raise not only healthier livestock, through selective manipulation of microbial communities, but also healthier humans.

  16. Scout-view assisted interior micro-CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Kriti Sen; Narayanan, Shree; Agah, Masoud; Holzner, Christian; Vasilescu, Dragoş M; Jin, Xin; Hoffman, Eric A; Yu, Hengyong; Wang, Ge

    2013-01-01

    Micro computed tomography (micro-CT) is a widely-used imaging technique. A challenge of micro-CT is to quantitatively reconstruct a sample larger than the field-of-view (FOV) of the detector. This scenario is characterized by truncated projections and associated image artifacts. However, for such truncated scans, a low resolution scout scan with an increased FOV is frequently acquired so as to position the sample properly. This study shows that the otherwise discarded scout scans can provide sufficient additional information to uniquely and stably reconstruct the interior region of interest. Two interior reconstruction methods are designed to utilize the multi-resolution data without significant computational overhead. While most previous studies used numerically truncated global projections as interior data, this study uses truly hybrid scans where global and interior scans were carried out at different resolutions. Additionally, owing to the lack of standard interior micro-CT phantoms, we designed and fabricated novel interior micro-CT phantoms for this study to provide means of validation for our algorithms. Finally, two characteristic samples from separate studies were scanned to show the effect of our reconstructions. The presented methods show significant improvements over existing reconstruction algorithms. (paper)

  17. Product mix of recreational tourism in the Balkan scout center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kocevski Miloš

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of research is tourist offer of a camp which would satisfy the needs of tourists who want an active recreation, with changeable and attractive facilities in the Balkan Scout Center (BSC of Jovac. The goal is to define a model for recreational tourism product mix of the Balkan Scout Center, based on the analysis and evaluation of the elements of supply and identifying the demand for a certain program content. The research was conducted from April to August 2012, as a part of activities implemented in BSC events: Easter camp, Summer camp and Volunteer camp. The sample consisted of 100 visitors (respondents; the administered instrument was a specifically designed questionnaire and the methods on which the analysis of the modeling was based were: frequency of occurrence, comparative analysis (Benchmarking, SWOT and PEST. The research results confirm the existence of necessary resources for the implementation of the contents in the field of recreational tourism in the BSC, and the possibility of implementation of the product mix that includes day trips and a variety of outdoor recreational activities.

  18. Design and Development of NEA Scout Solar Sail Deployer Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobey, Alexander R.; Lockett, Tiffany Russell

    2016-01-01

    The 6U (approx.10 cm x 20 cm x 30 cm) cubesat Near Earth Asteroid (NEA) Scout1, projected for launch in September 2018 aboard the maiden voyage of the Space Launch System, will utilize a solar sail as its main method of propulsion throughout its approx.3-year mission to a Near Earth Asteroid. Due to the extreme volume constraints levied onto the mission, an acutely compact solar sail deployment mechanism has been designed to meet the volume and mass constraints, as well as provide enough propulsive solar sail area and quality in order to achieve mission success. The design of such a compact system required the development of approximately half a dozen prototypes in order to identify unforeseen problems, advance solutions, and build confidence in the final design product. This paper focuses on the obstacles of developing a solar sail deployment mechanism for such an application and the lessons learned from a thorough development process. The lessons presented will have significant applications beyond the NEA Scout mission, such as the development of other deployable boom mechanisms and uses for gossamer-thin films in space.

  19. Turtle Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Charles; Ponder, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    The day the Turtle Girls received Montel's adoption papers, piercing screams ricocheted across the school grounds instantaneously and simultaneously--in that moment, each student felt the joy of civic stewardship. Read on to find out how a visit to The Turtle Hospital inspired a group of elementary students to create a club devoted to supporting…

  20. Puberty in girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Well child - puberty in girls; Development - puberty in girls; Menstruation - puberty in girls; Breast development - puberty in girls ... a year. When you are done going through puberty, you will be almost as tall as you ...

  1. The Integration of the Fire Scout Tactical Unmanned Aerial System into Littoral Combat Ship Missions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marsh, James J

    2007-01-01

    ...) is an effective mission multiplier for the Littoral Combat Ship (LCS). The U.S. Navy relies heavily on unmanned systems, such as the Fire Scout UAS, to enable LCS to conduct several complex littoral missions...

  2. Temperature-Driven Shape Changes of the Near Earth Asteroid Scout Solar Sail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohlman, Olive R.; Loper, Erik R.; Lockett, Tiffany E.

    2017-01-01

    Near Earth Asteroid Scout (NEA Scout) is a NASA deep space Cubesat, scheduled to launch on the Exploration Mission 1 flight of the Space Launch System. NEA Scout will use a deployable solar sail as its primary propulsion system. The sail is a square membrane supported by rigid metallic tapespring booms, and analysis predicts that these booms will experience substantial thermal warping if they are exposed to direct sunlight in the space environment. NASA has conducted sunspot chamber experiments to confirm the thermal distortion of this class of booms, demonstrating tip displacement of between 20 and 50 centimeters in a 4-meter boom. The distortion behavior of the boom is complex and demonstrates an application for advanced thermal-structural analysis. The needs of the NEA Scout project were supported by changing the solar sail design to keep the booms shaded during use of the solar sail, and an additional experiment in the sunspot chamber is presented in support of this solution.

  3. Momentum Management for the NASA Near Earth Asteroid Scout Solar Sail Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaton, Andrew; Diedrich, Benjamin L.; Orphee, Juan; Stiltner, Brandon; Becker, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    The Momentum Management (MM) system is described for the NASA Near Earth Asteroid Scout (NEA Scout) cubesat solar sail mission. Unlike many solar sail mission proposals that used solar torque as the primary or only attitude control system, NEA Scout uses small reaction wheels (RW) and a reaction control system (RCS) with cold gas thrusters, as described in the abstract "Solar Sail Attitude Control System for Near Earth Asteroid Scout Cubesat Mission." The reaction wheels allow fine pointing and higher rates with low mass actuators to meet the science, communication, and trajectory guidance requirements. The MM system keeps the speed of the wheels within their operating margins using a combination of solar torque and the RCS.

  4. Getting Norway to eat healthier: what are the opportunities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oostindjer, Marije; Amdam, Gro V; Egelandsdal, Bjørg

    2015-02-01

    Increased food consumption and the related problem of obesity have spurred initiatives to motivate consumers to eat healthier. Some strategies have shown positive but only short-term effects, as consumers or other stakeholders do not accept them sufficiently in the long term. The aim of this study was to investigate opportunities for healthier eating in Norway according to both consumers and other stakeholders. Five focus-group sessions were conducted with individuals working in the food industry, retail, public health, research and various non-governmental organisations related to food consumption. Topics that were discussed in the focus groups were transformed into a consumer survey, which was conducted with 1178 respondents. The focus groups often indicated a specific responsibility for the food industry to get people to eat healthier. Survey respondents indicated that all actors in the food chain had responsibility for healthier eating in the population, but agreed that the food industry, as well as the health authority, have major responsibilities. Food education was regarded as a favourable strategy in the focus groups and by survey respondents to help people to eat healthier, as were less advertising of unhealthy food and developing new healthy food products. Such strategies should be focused on parents, families, schools and children according to both focus group and survey participants. Implementation challenges include consumers wanting freedom to choose what they eat and consumers wanting food information that is easier to understand. this study showed that consumers and other stakeholders see opportunities for healthier eating in Norway by providing more food education and clearer food information, targeted towards children, families and parents. © 2014 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  5. Using Fast Food Nutrition Facts to Make Healthier Menu Selections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turley, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: This teaching idea enables students to (1) access and analyze fast food nutrition facts information (Calorie, total fat, saturated fat, trans fat, cholesterol, sugar, and sodium content); (2) decipher unhealthy and healthier food choices from fast food restaurant menus for better meal and diet planning to reduce obesity and minimize…

  6. Design decision support for sustainable, healthier and more productive buildings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeiler, W.; Maaijen, H.N.; Maassen, W.H.; Morawska, L.; Dear, de R.

    2012-01-01

    There is a clear need for more sustainable, healthier and thus more productive solutions within the built environment. However at the moment the initial investment costs for applying new and more sustainable solutions for a good Indoor Air Quality within buildings are higher than the traditional

  7. Girls make sense: girls, celebrities and identities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duits, L.; van Romondt Vis, P.

    2009-01-01

    Combining intertextual, audience and feminist perspectives, this article investigates how young girls make meaning from celebrities. Based on focus group interviews with Dutch girls aged 12—13, it argues that girls' talk about celebrities functions as an identity tool in the reflexive project of the

  8. Comparative brain transcriptomic analyses of scouting across distinct behavioural and ecological contexts in honeybees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhengzheng S.; Mattila, Heather R.; Rodriguez-Zas, Sandra L.; Southey, Bruce R.; Seeley, Thomas D.; Robinson, Gene E.

    2014-01-01

    Individual differences in behaviour are often consistent across time and contexts, but it is not clear whether such consistency is reflected at the molecular level. We explored this issue by studying scouting in honeybees in two different behavioural and ecological contexts: finding new sources of floral food resources and finding a new nest site. Brain gene expression profiles in food-source and nest-site scouts showed a significant overlap, despite large expression differences associated with the two different contexts. Class prediction and ‘leave-one-out’ cross-validation analyses revealed that a bee's role as a scout in either context could be predicted with 92.5% success using 89 genes at minimum. We also found that genes related to four neurotransmitter systems were part of a shared brain molecular signature in both types of scouts, and the two types of scouts were more similar for genes related to glutamate and GABA than catecholamine or acetylcholine signalling. These results indicate that consistent behavioural tendencies across different ecological contexts involve a mixture of similarities and differences in brain gene expression. PMID:25355476

  9. Opportunities for healthier child feeding. Does ethnic position matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Annemette; Krasnik, Allan; Vassard, Ditte

    2014-01-01

    Health inequality between ethnic groups is expressed in differences in the prevalence of diet related diseases. The aim of the study was to investigate and compare barriers toward eating healthier among ethnic majority and minority parents in Denmark. A postal survey was carried out among 2511...... parents with either Danish or non-western ethnic minority descendant background, investigating barriers on cultural, structural, social, individual, and practical levels. The results showed that compared with parents of Danish origin, ethnic minority parents were more likely to evaluate their own diets...... negatively (OR 3.0, CI 1.7–5.3), and to evaluate their children's diets negatively (OR 4.6, CI 2.5–8.4). In addition, ethnic minority parents to a higher degree experienced barriers to eating healthier than Danish parents did. Most salient was ethnic minority parents’ expression of a lack of control over...

  10. Healthier meat and meat products: Their role as functional foods

    OpenAIRE

    Jiménez Colmenero, Francisco; Carballo, José; Cofrades, Susana

    2001-01-01

    This review deals with the implications of meat and meat products for human health. It analyses the effect of the presence or absence of various factors: fat, fatty acid composition, cholesterol, calorific value, salt, nitrite or lipid oxidation products that can cause health problems. Bearing in mind these considerations, it then describes the strategies used in animal production, treatment of meat raw material and reformulation of meat products to obtain healthier meat and meat products. Fu...

  11. Gains Made By Walmart's Healthier Food Initiative Mirror Preexisting Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taillie, Lindsey Smith; Ng, Shu Wen; Popkin, Barry M

    2015-11-01

    Healthier food initiatives conducted by national food retailers may offer opportunities to improve the nutritional profile of food purchases. Using a longitudinal data set of packaged food purchases made by US households, we examined the effect of a healthier food initiative officially launched by Walmart in 2011. From 2000 to 2013, household-level purchases of packaged foods at Walmart showed major declines in energy, sodium, and total sugar density, as well as in quantities of sugary beverages, grain-based desserts, snacks, and candy. These trends in packaged food purchases were more pronounced than similar concurrent trends seen at other major food retailers. However, the declines seen at Walmart after the initiative's official implementation did not exceed what would have been expected had pre-implementation trends continued, and therefore they cannot be attributed to the initiative. These results suggest that food retailer-based initiatives that purportedly create a healthier food environment may not suffice to improve the nutritional profile of food purchases. More systemic shifts in consumers' characteristics and preferences may be needed. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  12. Lactate versus pH levels in fetal scalp blood during labor--using the Lactate Scout System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundin, Ingeborg Christina Rørbye; Perslev, Anette; Nickelsen, Carsten Nahne Amtoft

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess if lactate measured with the Scout Lactate System is a reliable alternative to pH in intrapartum monitoring of the fetus. METHODS: A prospective study analyzing (1) the correlation between scalp lactate measured by the Scout Lactate System and the Automatic Blood Laboratory (...

  13. Near Earth Asteroid Scout: NASA's Solar Sail Mission to a NEA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Les; Lockett, Tiffany

    2017-01-01

    NASA is developing a solar sail propulsion system for use on the Near Earth Asteroid (NEA) Scout reconnaissance mission and laying the groundwork for their use in future deep space science and exploration missions. Solar sails use sunlight to propel vehicles through space by reflecting solar photons from a large, mirror-like sail made of a lightweight, highly reflective material. This continuous photon pressure provides propellantless thrust, allowing for very high Delta V maneuvers on long-duration, deep space exploration. Since reflected light produces thrust, solar sails require no onboard propellant. The Near Earth Asteroid (NEA) Scout mission, funded by NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems Program and managed by NASA MSFC, will use the sail as primary propulsion allowing it to survey and image Asteroid 1991VG and, potentially, other NEA's of interest for possible future human exploration. NEA Scout uses a 6U cubesat (to be provided by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory), an 86 m(exp. 2) solar sail and will weigh less than 12 kilograms. NEA Scout will be launched on the first flight of the Space Launch System in 2018. The solar sail for NEA Scout will be based on the technology developed and flown by the NASA NanoSail-D and The Planetary Society's Lightsail-A. Four approximately 7 m stainless steel booms wrapped on two spools (two overlapping booms per spool) will be motor deployed and pull the sail from its stowed volume. The sail material is an aluminized polyimide approximately 2.5 microns thick. As the technology matures, solar sails will increasingly be used to enable science and exploration missions that are currently impossible or prohibitively expensive using traditional chemical and electric propulsion systems. This paper will summarize the status of the NEA Scout mission and solar sail technology in general.

  14. Social Talent Scouting: A New Opportunity for the Identification of Football Players?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radicchi Elena

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the diffusion of digital technologies within the football talent scouting process. A qualitative exploration based on open discussions and unstructured interviews with professionals involved in the football system (coaches, scouts, players’ agents, etc. provides insights about how new technologies are used for recruiting athletes. The findings, which are mainly in the context of Italian football, indicate a cultural and generational gap in the use of new digital tools that creates a mismatch between young promising athletes (demand side and “senior” team professionals (supply side.

  15. [Sanitary service of girl guides during the 2nd World War].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jezierski, Zdzisław

    2005-01-01

    From the very beginning of the scout organization one of its main trends was the Samaritan service consisting in giving medical help to victims of disasters and acts of God. It became a domain of girls guide mainly. The articles describes a great commitment of the Polish girls guide in the medical assistance offered to their compatriots during the September campaign of 1939 and during the years of occupation from 1939 to 1945. It shows the education and training methods that prepared the girls to work with great dedication. From the first days of the war the girl guides started to work as nurses and orderlies in civil and military hospitals. They organized also their own hospitals and numerous first aid stations in bombed localities and roads frequented by fugitives escaping from the west parts of the country to the eastern territories. Under occupation, the girl guides organized their own underground medical service that collaborated strictly with military organization fighting for independence. Assisted by doctors they organized medical trainings for the members, collected medicines and sanitary materials, preparing themselves for the fights of the last part of the war. The girl guides organized groups of medical assistance of the National Army, which constituted a core of the organization medical service. During the "Storm" action several thousands of girls worked as orderlies that belonged to the combat troops of the National Army. The Warsaw insurrection was the greatest battle of soldiers of the National Army. The girls offered their help to thousands of soldiers and civilian victims.

  16. Citizenship and Children's Identity in "The Wonderful Adventures of Nils" and "Scouting for Boys"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundmark, Bjorn

    2009-01-01

    "The Wonderful Adventures of Nils" (1906-1907) by Selma Lagerlof and "Scouting for Boys" (1908) by Robert Baden-Powell are characteristic of their time and their respective national and cultural contexts--the Swedish nation state of the early twentieth century and the British Empire. Taking its cue from recent theories on…

  17. Implications of Boy Scout group use of public lands for natural resource managers: a regional comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gail A. Vander Stoep

    1992-01-01

    Resource managers can apply group-specific rather than generic communications and management strategies to different public land user groups. This study compares use patterns of one user group, Boy Scout troops, from two regions of the United States. It identifies their public land use patterns, activities, needs, and motivations. Results can be used by resource...

  18. 76 FR 71564 - ScanScout, Inc.; Analysis of Proposed Consent Order To Aid Public Comment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-18

    ... behavioral advertising, the practice of collecting and storing information about consumers' online activities... behavioral advertising. ScanScout's privacy policy stated that by changing their browser settings, consumers... data for online behavioral advertising. First, within thirty (30) days after service of the proposed...

  19. Scout Rover Applications for Forward Acquisition of Soil and Terrain Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonsalla, R.; Ahmed, M.; Fritsche, M.; Akpo, J.; Voegele, T.

    2014-04-01

    As opposed to the present mars exploration missions future mission concepts ask for a fast and safe traverse through vast and varied expanses of terrain. As seen during the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) mission the rovers suffered a lack of detailed soil and terrain information which caused Spirit to get permanently stuck in soft soil. The goal of the FASTER1 EU-FP7 project is to improve the mission safety and the effective traverse speed for planetary rover exploration by determining the traversability of the terrain and lowering the risk to enter hazardous areas. To achieve these goals, a scout rover will be used for soil and terrain sensing ahead of the main rover. This paper describes a highly mobile, and versatile micro scout rover that is used for soil and terrain sensing and is able to co-operate with a primary rover as part of the FASTER approach. The general reference mission idea and concept is addressed within this paper along with top-level requirements derived from the proposed ESA/NASA Mars Sample Return mission (MSR) [4]. Following the mission concept and requirements [3], a concept study for scout rover design and operations has been performed [5]. Based on this study the baseline for the Coyote II rover was designed and built as shown in Figure 1. Coyote II is equipped with a novel locomotion concept, providing high all terrain mobility and allowing to perform side-to-side steering maneuvers which reduce the soil disturbance as compared to common skid steering [6]. The rover serves as test platform for various scout rover application tests ranging from locomotion testing to dual rover operations. From the lessons learned from Coyote II and for an enhanced design, a second generation rover (namely Coyote III) as shown in Figure 2 is being built. This rover serves as scout rover platform for the envisaged FASTER proof of concept field trials. The rover design is based on the test results gained by the Coyote II trials. Coyote III is equipped with two

  20. Delayed puberty in girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sexual development - girls; Pubertal delay - girls; Constitutional delayed puberty ... In most cases of delayed puberty, growth changes just begin later than usual, sometimes called a late bloomer. Once puberty begins, it progresses normally. This pattern runs ...

  1. Healthier vending machines in workplaces: both possible and effective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorton, Delvina; Carter, Julie; Cvjetan, Branko; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona

    2010-03-19

    To develop healthier vending guidelines and assess their effect on the nutrient content and sales of snack products sold through hospital vending machines, and on staff satisfaction. Nutrition guidelines for healthier vending machine products were developed and implemented in 14 snack vending machines at two hospital sites in Auckland, New Zealand. The guidelines comprised threshold criteria for energy, saturated fat, sugar, and sodium content of vended foods. Sales data were collected prior to introduction of the guidelines (March-May 2007), and again post-introduction (March-May 2008). A food composition database was used to assess impact of the intervention on nutrient content of purchases. A staff survey was also conducted pre- and post-intervention to assess acceptability. Pre-intervention, 16% of staff used vending machines once a week or more, with little change post-intervention (15%). The guidelines resulted in a substantial reduction in the amount of energy (-24%), total fat (-32%), saturated fat (-41%), and total sugars (-30%) per 100 g product sold. Sales volumes were not affected, and the proportion of staff satisfied with vending machine products increased. Implementation of nutrition guidelines in hospital vending machines led to substantial improvements in nutrient content of vending products sold. Wider implementation of these guidelines is recommended.

  2. Creating Healthier, More Equitable Communities By Improving Governance And Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubowitz, Tamara; Orleans, Tracy; Nelson, Christopher; May, Linnea Warren; Sloan, Jennifer C; Chandra, Anita

    2016-11-01

    How can healthier, more equitable communities be created? This is a key question for public health. Even though progress has been made in understanding the impact of social, physical, and policy factors on population health, there is much room for improvement. With this in mind, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation made creating healthier, more equitable communities the third of four Action Areas in its Culture of Health Action Framework. This Action Area focuses on the interplay of three drivers-the physical environment, social and economic conditions, and policy and governance-in influencing health equity. In this article we review some of the policy and governance challenges confronting decisionmakers as they seek to create healthy communities on a broad scale. We use these challenges as a framework for understanding where the most critical gaps still exist, where the links could be exploited more effectively, and where there are opportunities for further research and policy development. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  3. Are Customers Satisfied With Healthier Food Options At South African Fast-Food Outlets?

    OpenAIRE

    Michael C. Cant; Ricardo Machado; Melanie Gopaul

    2014-01-01

    Fast-food consumption has been a staple for many people; however, due to rising health concerns, there has been an increasing interest in the consumption of healthier food both in South Africa and elsewhere. Many consumers are demanding better quality foods that offer nutritional benefits. This global trend has led to fast-food outlets adding healthier food options to their menus. Limited literature exists on customer satisfaction with regards to the food quality of these healthier food optio...

  4. The smaller the pieces the healthier their consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pelle Guldborg; Skov, Katrine Lund; Schmidt, Karsten

    the snack breaks. The hypothesis was that consumers could be nudged to healthier food choices by improving accessibility to sliced apples and make a “healthier” cake portion (small) the default. The sample consisted of 391 people attending a congress in Copenhagen, Denmark. People were divided in two groups...... for snacking during breaks, and were informed that this was for logistic reasons. Two snack tables were set up, one with normal sized pieces of cake (usual sizes provided by the caterer) as well as whole apples (control N=189), and a table with halved pieces of cake as well as apples served in quarter pieces....... This pilot study supports the hypothesis that the presentation of snacks plays an important role in the consumption of fruit and cake among Danish adults. Further, it suggests that such approach could become a supportive tool set for achieving PHN objectives....

  5. A Cost Benefit Analysis of Fire Scout Vertical Takeoff and Landing Tactical Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (VTUAV) Operator Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    mile mission radius.24 Like the MH-60R manned helicopter, the Fire Scout mission systems suite includes Infrared Imaging, Electro Optical Imaging...homecoming just as sweet." dcmilitary.com. February 21, 2008. http:// ww2 .dcmilitary.com/stories/022108/southpotomac_28121.shtml (accessed February 29... ww2 .dcmilitary.com/stories/022108/southpotomac_28121.shtml (accessed February 29, 2012). Tilghman, Andrew. "Fire Scout Program could open door for

  6. SU-E-T-431: Feasiblity of Using CT Scout Images for 2D LDR Brachytherpay Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, J; Weaver, R [LAC+USC Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, M. Mariscal (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: i) To show the feasibility of using CT scout images for 2D low-dose rate brachytherapy planning with BrachyVision (version 10.4); ii) to show their advantages and disadvantages over DRRs. Methods: A phantom was constructed to house a Fletcher-Suite applicator. The phantom is made of Styrofoam with metal BBs positioned at well-defined separations. These markers are used to assess the image distortion in the scout images. Unlike DRRs, scout images are distorted only in the direction normal to the couch direction; therefore, they needed to be scaled unidirectionally prior to importing into BrachyVision. In addition to confirming the scaling is performed correctly by measuring distances between well-positioned BB, we also compare a LDR plan using scout images to a 3D CT-based plan. Results: There is no distortion of the image along the couch direction due to the collimation of the CT scanner. The distortion in the transverse plane can be corrected by multiplying by the ratio of distances between source-to-isocenter and source-to-detector. The results show the distance separations between BBs as measured in scout images and by a caliber are within a few millimeters. Dosimetrically, the difference between the dose rates to points A and B based on scout images and on 3D CT are less than a few percents. The accuracy can be improved by correcting for the distortion on the transverse plane. Conclusion: It is possible to use CT scout images for 2D planning in BrachyVision. This is an advantage because scout images have no metal artifacts often present in CT images or DRRs. Another advantage is the lack of distortion in the couch direction. One major disadvantage is that the image distortion due to beam divergence can be large. This is due to the inherent short distance between source-to-isocenter and source-to-detector on a CT scanner.

  7. Lessons for Interstellar Travel from the Guidance and Control Design of the Near Earth Asteroid Scout Solar Sail Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diedrich, Benjamin; Heaton, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    NASA is developing the Near Earth Asteroid (NEA) Scout mission that will use a solar sail to travel to an asteroid where it will perform a slow flyby to acquire science imagery. A guidance and control system was developed to meet the science and trajectory requirements. The NEA Scout design process can be applied to an interstellar or precursor mission that uses a beam propelled sail. The scientific objectives are met by accurately targeting the destination trajectory position and velocity. The destination is targeted by understanding the force on the sail from the beam (or sunlight in the case of NEA Scout) over the duration of the thrust maneuver. The propulsive maneuver is maintained by accurate understanding of the torque on the sail, which is a function of sail shape, optical properties, and mass properties, all of which apply to NEA Scout and beam propelled sails. NEA Scout uses active control of the sail attitude while trimming the solar torque, which could be used on a beamed propulsion sail if necessary. The biggest difference is that NEA Scout can correct for uncertainties in sail thrust modeling, spacecraft orbit, and target orbit throughout the flight to the target, while beamed propulsion needs accurate operation for the short duration of the beamed propulsion maneuver, making accurate understanding of the sail thrust and orbits much more critical.

  8. Lessons for Interstellar Travel from the G&C Design of the NEA Scout Solar Sail Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaton, Andrew; Diedrich, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    NASA is developing the Near Earth Asteroid (NEA) Scout mission that will use a solar sail to travel to an asteroid where it will perform a slow flyby to acquire science imagery. A guidance and control system was developed to meet the science and trajectory requirements. The NEA Scout design process can be applied to an interstellar or precursor mission that uses a beam-propelled sail. The scientific objectives are met by accurately targeting the destination trajectory position and velocity. The destination is targeted by understanding the force on the sail from the beam (or sunlight in the case of NEA Scout) over the duration of the thrust maneuver. The propulsive maneuver is maintained by accurate understanding of the torque on the sail, which is a function of sail shape, optical properties, and mass properties, all of which apply to NEA Scout and beam propelled sails. NEA Scout uses active control of the sail attitude while trimming the solar torque, which could be used on a beamed propulsion sail if necessary. The biggest difference is that NEA Scout can correct for uncertainties in sail thrust modeling, spacecraft orbit, and target orbit throughout the flight to the target, while beamed propulsion needs accurate operation for the short duration of the beamed propulsion maneuver, making accurate understanding of the sail thrust and orbits much more critical.

  9. A modified scout bee for artificial bee colony algorithm and its performance on optimization problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syahid Anuar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The artificial bee colony (ABC is one of the swarm intelligence algorithms used to solve optimization problems which is inspired by the foraging behaviour of the honey bees. In this paper, artificial bee colony with the rate of change technique which models the behaviour of scout bee to improve the performance of the standard ABC in terms of exploration is introduced. The technique is called artificial bee colony rate of change (ABC-ROC because the scout bee process depends on the rate of change on the performance graph, replace the parameter limit. The performance of ABC-ROC is analysed on a set of benchmark problems and also on the effect of the parameter colony size. Furthermore, the performance of ABC-ROC is compared with the state of the art algorithms.

  10. Scout house in Koeniz - Refurbishment of the heating system; Pfadiheim Weiermatt, Sanierung Waermeversorgung - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messerli, A. [Neuenschwander - Neutair AG, Berne (Switzerland); Jenni, H. [Heimverein Falkenstein, Koeniz (Switzerland)

    2004-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a project carried out in Koeniz, Switzerland. The report examines how the energy situation at the local scout house was improved. The work included the refurbishment of the heating system using solar collectors, intelligently controlled heat pumps, a photovoltaics installation and even solar-powered street lighting. The project, which received a substantial echo from the general public, is described. The scouts were directly involved in the project and, in part, in the construction work. This, according to the authors, enhanced the educational aspect of the project. The report presents details on the various installations and is illustrated with schematics and photos. Also, the results of monitoring and measurements made are presented.

  11. NIRCam/NGST Education and Public Outreach: ``Linking Girls with the Sky"

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, D. W., Jr.; Lebofsky, L. A.; Slater, T. F.; Rieke, M. J.; Pompea, S. M.

    2002-09-01

    Astronomical images can inspire a new generation. The clarity of the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST), combined with the near-infrared camera's (NIRCam) ability to see farther back in time and through murky regions of space, may unveil the ``First Light" from a newborn Universe and the origins of planetary systems. The NIRCam science team, led by Dr. Marcia Rieke, unites scientists from across the U.S., Canada, and Lockheed Martin's Advanced Technology Center with prominent science educators. The E/PO program especially targets K-14 girls in a partnership with the Girl Scouts of the USA, to address such specific needs as (1) the review of existing badge programs for younger girls, (2) new, community-based activities and research experiences for older girls, (3) interaction experiences in person and on-line with inspiring mentors and role-models, and (4) leadership and training experiences for adult trainers. New activities will be inquiry-based and appropriate in both formal and informal settings. They will also used for training future teachers of science. Topics such as ``Light pollution" can be related thematically to such NGST concepts as a ``low thermal background". The Astronomy Camp facilities on historic Mt. Lemmon will be used to ``train the trainers" by providing Girl Scouts and their adult leaders hands-on experiences with 8- to 60-inch telescopes, CCD and infrared cameras, and image processing techniques. NIRCam scientists will also be involved in developing authentic research-based projects using NIRCam datasets for in-class use by middle and high school teachers. The NIRCam E/PO program is funded by NASA under prime contract, NAS502105, with Goddard Space Flight Center to The University of Arizona.

  12. Leveraging Non-Cognitive Testing to Predict Success at USMC Scout Sniper Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    whether aptitude requirements translate to job performance. Mayberry (1990) determines the ASVAB a valid predictor of success for infantrymen...Reduction Project (0704-0188) Washington, DC 20503. 1. AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave blank) 2. REPORT DATE March 2017 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED...success at scout sniper school. We use data from 2012 through 2016 containing more than 700 Marines from every infantry military occupational specialty

  13. Solar Sail Attitude Control System for the NASA Near Earth Asteroid Scout Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orphee, Juan; Diedrich, Ben; Stiltner, Brandon; Becker, Chris; Heaton, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    An Attitude Control System (ACS) has been developed for the NASA Near Earth Asteroid (NEA) Scout mission. The NEA Scout spacecraft is a 6U cubesat with an eighty-six square meter solar sail for primary propulsion that will launch as a secondary payload on the Space Launch System (SLS) Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1) and rendezvous with a target asteroid after a two year journey, and will conduct science imagery. The spacecraft ACS consists of three major actuating subsystems: a Reaction Wheel (RW) control system, a Reaction Control System (RCS), and an Active Mass Translator (AMT) system. The reaction wheels allow fine pointing and higher rates with low mass actuators to meet the science, communication, and trajectory guidance requirements. The Momentum Management System (MMS) keeps the speed of the wheels within their operating margins using a combination of solar torque and the RCS. The AMT is used to adjust the sign and magnitude of the solar torque to manage pitch and yaw momentum. The RCS is used for initial de-tumble, performing a Trajectory Correction Maneuver (TCM), and performing momentum management about the roll axis. The NEA Scout ACS is able to meet all mission requirements including attitude hold, slews, pointing for optical navigation and pointing for science with margin and including flexible body effects. Here we discuss the challenges and solutions of meeting NEA Scout mission requirements for the ACS design, and present a novel implementation of managing the spacecraft Center of Mass (CM) to trim the solar sail disturbance torque. The ACS we have developed has an applicability to a range of potential missions and does so in a much smaller volume than is traditional for deep space missions beyond Earth.

  14. Evaluation Models of Some Morphological Characteristcs for Talent Scouting in Sport

    OpenAIRE

    Rogulj, Nenad; Papić, Vladan; Čavala, Marijana

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, for the purpose of expert system evaluation within the scientific project »Talent scouting in sport«, two methodological approaches for recognizing an athlete’s morphological compatibility for various sports has been presented, evaluated and compared. First approach is based on the fuzzy logic and expert opinion about compatibility of proposed hypothetical morphological models for 14 different sports which are part of the expert system. Second approach is based on determining t...

  15. [Vulvovaginitis in young girls].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olejek, Anita; Kellas-Sleczka, Sylwia; Kozak-Darmas, Iwona; Bilska, Anna; Zamłyński, Jacek; Horak, Stanisław; Nowak, Leszek

    2009-12-01

    Vulvovaginitis is the most common cause of gynecological complaints in young girls. Factors which cause vulvovaginitis include, among other things, low level of sexual hormones (hypoestrogenism), the anatomical proximity of the rectum and delicate vulvar skin and vaginal mucosa. Usually vulvovaginitis in young girls is caused by non-specific factors. The aim of the study was to present the most frequent causes of vulvovaginitis in young girls.

  16. Waterborne gastroenteritis outbreak at a scouting camp caused by two norovirus genogroups: GI and GII.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ter Waarbeek, Henriëtte L G; Dukers-Muijrers, Nicole H T M; Vennema, Harry; Hoebe, Christian J P A

    2010-03-01

    A cross-border gastroenteritis outbreak at a scouting camp was associated with drinking water from a farmer's well. A retrospective cohort study was performed to identify size and source of the outbreak, as well as other characteristics. Epidemiological investigation included standardized questionnaires about sex, age, risk exposures, illness and family members. Stool and water (100mL) samples were analyzed for bacteria, viruses and parasites. Questionnaires were returned by 84 scouts (response rate 82%), mean age of 13 years. The primary attack rate was 85% (diarrhoea and/or vomiting). Drinking water was the strongest independent risk factor showing a dose-response effect with 50%, 75%, 75%, 93% and 96% case prevalence for 0, 1, 2-3, 4-5 and >5 glasses consumed, respectively. Norovirus (GI.2 Southampton and GII.7 Leeds) was detected in 51 stool specimens (75%) from ill scouts. Water analysis showed fecal contamination, but no norovirus. The secondary attack rate was 20%. This remarkable outbreak was caused by a point-source infection with two genogroups of noroviruses most likely transmitted by drinking water from a well. Finding a dose-response relationship was striking. Specific measures to reduce the risk of waterborne diseases, outbreak investigation and a good international public health network are important.

  17. Because They Are Girls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming; Zhao

    2015-01-01

    <正>"The emotional,sexual,and psychological stereotyping of females begins when the doctor says,‘It’s a girl,’"says Shirley Chisholm(Nasreen 2012),an American politician.Gender bias exists in the United States,but in China,it is more serious.When a fetus is determined as a girl,she is more likely to be aborted;when an infant is known as a girl,she is more likely to be abandoned;when a child is accepted as a girl,she is more

  18. Gilmore Girls generations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Line Nybro

    2018-01-01

    This article is a study of fans of the television series Gilmore Girls (2000–2007) in the context of the revival series Gilmore Girls: A Year in the Life (2016), when the series returned with a four-episode special on Netflix after being off the air for nine years. The series revolves around...

  19. Protecting Black Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Monique W.

    2016-01-01

    Statistics show that black girls in U.S. K-12 public schools are overrepresented among students who face disciplinary approaches (such as suspensions) that exclude or even criminalize them. Morris explains how black girls face conditions that make them vulnerable to a phenomenon she calls "school to confinement pathways"--conditions like…

  20. Girls Leading Outward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed, Heather; Reyes, Jazmin; Moceri, Dominic C.; Morana, Laura; Elias, Maurice J.

    2011-01-01

    The authors describe a program implemented in Red Bank Middle School in New Jersey to help at-risk, minority middle school girls realize their leadership potential. The GLO (Girls Leading Outward) program was developed by the Developing Safe and Civil Schools Project at Rutgers University and is facilitated by university students. Selected middle…

  1. Girls, girls, girls: Gender composition and female school choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneeweis, Nicole; Zweimüller, Martina

    2012-01-01

    Gender segregation in employment may be explained by women's reluctance to choose technical occupations. However, the foundations for career choices are laid much earlier. Educational experts claim that female students are doing better in math and science and are more likely to choose these subjects if they are in single-sex classes. One possible explanation is that coeducational settings reinforce gender stereotypes. In this paper, we identify the causal impact of the gender composition in coeducational classes on the choice of school type for female students. Using natural variation in the gender composition of adjacent cohorts within schools, we show that girls are less likely to choose a traditionally female dominated school type and more likely to choose a male dominated school type at the age of 14 if they were exposed to a higher share of girls in previous grades. PMID:24850996

  2. Girls, girls, girls: Gender composition and female school choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneeweis, Nicole; Zweimüller, Martina

    2012-08-01

    Gender segregation in employment may be explained by women's reluctance to choose technical occupations. However, the foundations for career choices are laid much earlier. Educational experts claim that female students are doing better in math and science and are more likely to choose these subjects if they are in single-sex classes. One possible explanation is that coeducational settings reinforce gender stereotypes. In this paper, we identify the causal impact of the gender composition in coeducational classes on the choice of school type for female students. Using natural variation in the gender composition of adjacent cohorts within schools, we show that girls are less likely to choose a traditionally female dominated school type and more likely to choose a male dominated school type at the age of 14 if they were exposed to a higher share of girls in previous grades.

  3. Breaking ground creating a greener, healthier city : conference proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This regional conference focused on urban green space issues with recommendations for new directions and strategic actions for A greener, healthier urban community. The conference theme was a green infrastructure for Calgary, which includes benefits such as less automobile emissions and improved public health. Urban land trusts were also examined as protection and acquisition tools. Participants submitted a recommendation to create a task force to examine water management with emphasis on adopting a watershed approach to water systems. Other topics of discussion included the greening of urban village parks as a vital ecological component to urban settings. Innovative techniques to make use of open space as Calgary grows, were also presented. The green infrastructure framework is based on minimizing the consumption of essential natural assets while developing a more efficient use of urban space. The pattern of growth is more significant than the amount of growth in determining the level and efficiency of resource use and traffic congestion. The many opportunities, incentives and obstacles to sustainable development were presented. refs., figs

  4. Concerns Girls Have about Puberty

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stages Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Concerns Girls Have About Puberty Page Content Article Body Girls have pubertal concerns and worries, too, including: Breast Development Some girls ...

  5. Micro-Marketing Healthier Choices: Effects of Personalized Ordering Suggestions on Restaurant Purchases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedard, Kelly; Kuhn, Peter

    2014-01-01

    We study the effects of the Nutricate receipt, which makes personalized recommendations to switch from unhealthy to healthier items at a restaurant chain. We find that the receipts shifted the mix of items purchased towards the healthier alternatives. For example, the share of adult main dishes requesting “no sauce” increased by 6.8 percent, the share of kids’ meals with apples (instead of fries) rose by 7.0 percent and the share of breakfast sandwiches without sausage increased by 3.8 percent. The results illustrate the potential of emerging information technologies, which allow retailers to tailor product marketing to individual consumers, to generate healthier choices. PMID:25544398

  6. Girl prostitution in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, K K

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the nature, magnitude, causes, and consequences of female child prostitution in India and offers measures for control and prevention of girl prostitution. Data are obtained from the 6-city study of prostitution and the author's own research. An estimated 85% of all prostitutes in Calcutta and Delhi entered the work at an early age. The numbers are rising. The promotion of tourism is linked with prostitution. Girl prostitutes are primarily located in low-middle income areas and business districts and are known by officials. Brothel keepers regularly recruit young girls. An estimated 33% of prostitutes are young girls. In Bangalore, Calcutta, Delhi, and Hyderabad, there are an estimated 10,000 girl prostitutes. UNICEF estimates about 300,000 child prostitutes. Girl prostitutes are grouped as common prostitutes, singers and dancers, call girls, religious prostitutes or devdasi, and caged brothel prostitutes. Religious prostitutes are mainly found in the South. Caged ones are found in Bombay. A little over 50% of prostitutes come from other countries, such as Nepal and Bangladesh. The girls tend to come from urban slums and poor rural areas. High prostitute supply regions include Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, and West Bengel states. About 85% are Hindus, and about 66% are from scheduled castes and tribes. Bangalore and Bombay have a higher proportion of girl prostitutes. The causes of prostitution include ill treatment by parents, bad company, family prostitutes, social customs, inability to arrange marriage, lack of sex education, media, prior incest and rape, early marriage and desertion, lack of recreational facilities, ignorance, and acceptance of prostitution. Economic causes include poverty and economic distress. Psychological causes include desire for physical pleasure, greed, and dejection. Most enter involuntarily. A brief profile is given of the life of a prostitute.

  7. Near Earth Asteroid Scout Solar Sail Engineering Development Unit Test Suite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockett, Tiffany Russell; Few, Alexander; Wilson, Richard

    2017-01-01

    The Near Earth Asteroid (NEA) Scout project is a 6U reconnaissance mission to investigate a near Earth asteroid utilizing an 86m(sub 2) solar sail as the primary propulsion system. This will be the largest solar sail NASA has launched to date. NEA Scout is currently manifested on the maiden voyage of the Space Launch System in 2018. In development of the solar sail subsystem, design challenges were identified and investigated for packaging within a 6U form factor and deployment in cis-lunar space. Analysis was able to capture understanding of thermal, stress, and dynamics of the stowed system as well as mature an integrated sail membrane model for deployed flight dynamics. Full scale system testing on the ground is the optimal way to demonstrate system robustness, repeatability, and overall performance on a compressed flight schedule. To physically test the system, the team developed a flight sized engineering development unit with design features as close to flight as possible. The test suite included ascent vent, random vibration, functional deployments, thermal vacuum, and full sail deployments. All of these tests contributed towards development of the final flight unit. This paper will address several of the design challenges and lessons learned from the NEA Scout solar sail subsystem engineering development unit. Testing on the component level all the way to the integrated subsystem level. From optical properties of the sail material to fold and spooling the single sail, the team has developed a robust deployment system for the solar sail. The team completed several deployments of the sail system in preparation for flight at half scale (4m) and full scale (6.8m): boom only, half scale sail deployment, and full scale sail deployment. This paper will also address expected and received test results from ascent vent, random vibration, and deployment tests.

  8. 6 Easy Steps toward healthier eating | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Reducing Childhood Obesity 6 Easy Steps toward healthier eating Past Issues / ... mayonnaise. Offer your child water or low-fat milk more often than fruit juice. Low-fat milk ...

  9. Comparison of computed tomography scout based reference point localization to conventional film and axial computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lan; Templeton, Alistair; Turian, Julius; Kirk, Michael; Zusag, Thomas; Chu, James C H

    2011-01-01

    Identification of source positions after implantation is an important step in brachytherapy planning. Reconstruction is traditionally performed from films taken by conventional simulators, but these are gradually being replaced in the clinic by computed tomography (CT) simulators. The present study explored the use of a scout image-based reconstruction algorithm that replaces the use of traditional film, while exhibiting low sensitivity to metal-induced artifacts that can appear in 3D CT methods. In addition, the accuracy of an in-house graphical software implementation of scout-based reconstruction was compared with seed location reconstructions for 2 phantoms by conventional simulator and CT measurements. One phantom was constructed using a planar fixed grid of 1.5-mm diameter ball bearings (BBs) with 40-mm spacing. The second was a Fletcher-Suit applicator embedded in Styrofoam (Dow Chemical Co., Midland, MI) with one 3.2-mm-diameter BB inserted into each of 6 surrounding holes. Conventional simulator, kilovoltage CT (kVCT), megavoltage CT, and scout-based methods were evaluated by their ability to calculate the distance between seeds (40 mm for the fixed grid, 30-120 mm in Fletcher-Suit). All methods were able to reconstruct the fixed grid distances with an average deviation of <1%. The worst single deviations (approximately 6%) were exhibited in the 2 volumetric CT methods. In the Fletcher-Suit phantom, the intermodality agreement was within approximately 3%, with the conventional sim measuring marginally larger distances, with kVCT the smallest. All of the established reconstruction methods exhibited similar abilities to detect the distances between BBs. The 3D CT-based methods, with lower axial resolution, showed more variation, particularly with the smaller BBs. With a software implementation, scout-based reconstruction is an appealing approach because it simplifies data acquisition over film-based reconstruction without requiring any specialized equipment

  10. Early response to sibutramine in patients not meeting current label criteria: preliminary analysis of SCOUT lead-in period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caterson, Ian; Coutinho, Walmir; Finer, Nick

    2010-01-01

    The Sibutramine Cardiovascular Outcomes (SCOUT) trial protocol defines a patient population predominantly outside current European Union label criteria. This article explores responses to sibutramine during the 6-week, single-blind, lead-in period between patients who conformed to the label...... requirements ("conformers") and those who did not ("nonconformers"). SCOUT is an ongoing, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled outcome trial in overweight/obese patients at high risk of a cardiovascular event. In total, 10,742 patients received sibutramine and weight management during the lead...... with sibutramine confirms its good tolerability and efficacy in patients who meet current label criteria. Preliminary data from high-risk patients for whom sibutramine is currently contraindicated suggest a low discontinuation rate and few serious adverse events but confirmation from the SCOUT outcome data...

  11. A Girl Is No Girl Is a Girl_: Girls-Work after Queer Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busche, Mart

    2013-01-01

    This contribution gives an overview over 40 years of girls-work in Germany. It highlights certain topics and theoretical implications and emphasises especially the realisation of queer theory and deconstructivism in the last 10 years. (Contains 4 notes.)

  12. Girls underestimate maths ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    A study by psychologists in the US has found that high-school girls rate their competence in mathematics lower than boys, even for those with similar abilities (Front. Psychol. 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00386).

  13. Health Promotion and Healthier Products Increase Vending Purchases: A Randomized Factorial Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Sophia V; Kimmel, Lisa; Van Emmenes, Michael; Taherian, Rafi; Remer, Geraldine; Millman, Adam; Ickovics, Jeannette R

    2017-07-01

    The current food environment has a high prevalence of nutrient-sparse foods and beverages, most starkly seen in vending machine offerings. There are currently few studies that explore different interventions that might lead to healthier vending machine purchases. To examine how healthier product availability, price reductions, and/or promotional signs affect sales and revenue of snack and beverage vending machines. A 2×2×2 factorial randomized controlled trial was conducted. Students, staff, and employees on a university campus. All co-located snack and beverage vending machines (n=56, 28 snack and 28 beverage) were randomized into one of eight conditions: availability of healthier products and/or 25% price reduction for healthier items and/or promotional signs on machines. Aggregate sales and revenue data for the 5-month study period (February to June 2015) were compared with data from the same months 1 year prior. Analyses were conducted July 2015. The change in units sold and revenue between February through June 2014 and 2015. Linear regression models (main effects and interaction effects) and t test analyses were performed. The interaction between healthier product guidelines and promotional signs in snack vending machines documented increased revenue (Prevenue change. Price reductions alone had no effect, nor were there any effects for the three-way interaction of the factors. Examining top-selling products for all vending machines combined, pre- to postintervention, we found an overall shift to healthier purchasing. When healthier vending snacks are available, promotional signs are also important to ensure consumers purchase those items in greater amounts. Mitigating potential loss in profits is essential for sustainability of a healthier food environment. Copyright © 2017 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Django fun for Girls!

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays there is a gender gap in the IT world. Django Girls is a non-profit organization and a community that empowers and helps women to organize free, one-day programming workshops by providing tools, resources and support. Through Django Girls, we want to show our motivation in the IT world, how much fun is to code, and the things they are able to create coding. How is CERN getting involved?

  15. Healthier snacks in school vending machines: a pilot project in four Ontario high schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaghan, Christine; Mandich, Gillian; He, Meizi

    2010-01-01

    The Healthy Vending Machine Pilot Project (HVMPP) was a public health initiative intended to create a healthier school nutrition environment by making healthier snacks available in vending machines, while maintaining a profit margin. The HVMPP was evaluated using quantitative and qualitative measures. Vending machines were stocked with healthier choices and conventional vending products at a 50:50 ratio. The HVMPP was implemented from February to May 2007 in four Ontario secondary schools in Middlesex-London, Elgin, and Oxford counties. Product sales were tracked, and focus groups were conducted to obtain students' opinions about healthy eating and vending choices. "Healthier choice" sales ranged from 14% to 17%. In all schools, vending revenues declined from 0.7% to 66%. A majority of participants had substantial knowledge of healthy eating and were in favour of healthier choices in vending machines; however, price, value, and taste were barriers that led them to purchase these products rarely. Students preferred to have "real" healthy snacks, such as yogurt, fruit, and vegetables, available in schools. Replacing 50% of vending stock with healthier snacks resulted in a decline in vending revenues. Future health programs in schools need to provide "real" healthy snacks, such as low-fat dairy products, fruits, and vegetables.

  16. Classification of 'healthier' and 'less healthy' supermarket foods by two Australasian nutrient profiling models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyles, Helen; Gorton, Delvina; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona

    2010-09-10

    To determine whether a modified version of the Heart Foundation Tick (MHFT) nutrient profiling model appropriately classifies supermarket foods to endorse its use for identifying 'healthier' products eligible for promotion in a supermarket intervention trial. Top-selling products (n=550) were selected from an existing supermarket nutrient composition database. Percentage of products classified as 'healthier' by the MHFT and a modified comparator model (Food Standards Australia New Zealand; MFSANZ) were calculated. Percentage agreement, consistency (kappa statistic), and average nutrient values were assessed overall, and across seven food groups. The MHFT model categorised 16% fewer products as 'healthier' than the MFSANZ model. Agreement and consistency between models were 72% and kappa=0.46 (P=0.00), respectively. For both models, 'healthier' products were on average lower in energy, protein, saturated fat, sugar, and sodium than their 'less healthy' counterparts. The MHFT nutrient profiling model categorised regularly purchased supermarket foods similarly to the MFSANZ model, and both appear to distinguish appropriately between 'healthier' and 'less healthy' options. Therefore, both models have the potential to appropriately identify 'healthier' foods for promotion and positively influence food choices.

  17. Changing Girls' Education in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyman, Cory; Brush, Lorie; Provasnik, Stephen; Fanning, Marina; Lent, Drew; De Wilde, Johan

    Access to quality education is a problem for all rural children in Peru, but especially for rural girls, who complete primary school at far lower rates than other Peruvian children. In 1998, USAID launched the Girls' Education Activity (GEA) in Peru, also known as New Horizons for Girls' Education, which aims to increase girls' completion of…

  18. Healthier options for public schoolchildren program improves weight and blood pressure in 6- to 13-year-olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollar, Danielle; Messiah, Sarah E; Lopez-Mitnik, Gabriela; Hollar, T Lucas; Almon, Marie; Agatston, Arthur S

    2010-02-01

    Childhood obesity and related health consequences continue to be major clinical and public health issues in the United States. Schools provide an opportunity to implement obesity prevention strategies to large and diverse pediatric audiences. Healthier Options for Public Schoolchildren was a quasiexperimental elementary school-based obesity prevention intervention targeting ethnically diverse 6- to 13-year-olds (kindergarten through sixth grade). Over 2 school years (August 2004 to June 2006), five elementary schools (four intervention, one control, N=2,494, 48% Hispanic) in Osceola County, FL, participated in the study. Intervention components included integrated and replicable nutrition, physical activity, and lifestyle educational curricula matched to state curricula standards; modified school meals, including nutrient-dense items, created by registered dietitians; and parent and staff educational components. Demographic, anthropometric, and blood pressure data were collected at baseline and at three time points over 2 years. Repeated measures analysis showed significantly decreased diastolic blood pressure in girls in the intervention group compared to controls (Padulthood may be prevented. Copyright 2010 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Scout-view assisted interior digital tomosynthesis (iDTS) based on compressed-sensing theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, S. Y.; Kim, G. A.; Cho, H. S.; Seo, C. W.; Je, U. K.; Park, C. K.; Lim, H. W.; Kim, K. S.; Lee, D. Y.; Lee, H. W.; Kang, S. Y.; Park, J. E.; Woo, T. H.; Lee, M. S.

    2017-12-01

    Conventional digital tomosynthesis (DTS) based on the filtered-backprojection (FBP) reconstruction requires full field-of-view scan and also relatively dense projections, which results in still high dose for medical imaging purposes. In this work, to overcome these difficulties, we propose a new type of DTS examinations, the so-called scout-view assisted interior DTS (iDTS), in which the x-ray beam span covers only a small region-of-interest (ROI) containing target diagnosis with the help of some scout views and they are used in the reconstruction to add additional information to interior ROI otherwise absent with conventional iDTS reconstruction methods. We considered an effective iterative algorithm based on compressed-sensing theory, rather than the FBP-based algorithm, for more accurate iDTS reconstruction. We implemented the proposed algorithm, performed a systematic simulation and experiment, and investigated the image characteristics. We successfully reconstructed iDTS images of substantially high accuracy and no truncation artifacts by using the proposed method, preserving superior image homogeneity, edge sharpening, and in-plane spatial resolution.

  20. Circumferential scouting punch biopsies to delineate surgical margin for dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-Mao Huang

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP is an uncommon soft-tissue tumor involving the dermis and subcutaneous tissue with a high local recurrence rate after standard excision. Mohs micrographic surgery offers a lower recurrence rate. However, the procedure requires multiple stages of excision with intraoperative histopathological mapping, which is time consuming and expensive. We report our experience of using circumferential scouting punch biopsy technique in five patients to determine in advance the resection margins for DFSP prior to wide excision. Multiple 4 mm punches, usually eight in number, were performed 1–2.5 cm around the palpable borders of DFSP to delineate the resection margins in five consecutive patients. Tumors were excised at a later date along the margin defined by these biopsies and the wounds were repaired with skin graft. The operation was completed in 2 hours in all cases excluding one that required frozen sections for deep margin. No recurrence was noted 2–10 years after the operations. The results suggest that circumferential scouting punch biopsies before wide excision may be an alternative method to define the resection margins for DFSP when Mohs surgery is not available.

  1. Food marketing with movie character toys: Effects on young children's preferences for unhealthy and healthier fast food meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Helen; Niven, Philippa; Scully, Maree; Wakefield, Melanie

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to test whether movie tie-in premiums (MTIPs) accompanying unhealthy and healthier fast food meals influenced children's meal preferences and their perceptions of these meals. Nine hundred and four Grade 1 and 2 students (aged 5-9 years) from Melbourne, Australia participated in a between-subjects online experiment comprising the following conditions: (A) unhealthy and healthier meals with no MTIP (control); (B) unhealthy and healthier meals with MTIP (current situation in Australia); (C) unhealthy meals with MTIP and healthier meals without MTIP; (D) unhealthy meals without MTIP and healthier meals with MTIP. The latter condition tested a potential regulatory model restricting premiums to healthier meals. Participants were shown a trailer for a current children's movie followed by an advertisement for an associated McDonald's Happy Meal ® (conditions B-D) or an advertisement for a children's leisure activity (condition A). They were then shown four McDonald's Happy Meal ® options on screen and asked to select their preferred meal before completing detailed meal ratings. Overall, children showed a preference for unhealthy meals over healthier ones. Children were significantly more likely to select a healthier meal over an unhealthy meal when only the healthier meals were accompanied by a MTIP (condition D) compared to the other three conditions. When healthier meals were accompanied by a MTIP, children reported the meal looked better, would taste better, they would be more likely to ask their parents for this meal, and they would feel happier if their parents bought them this meal, compared to when the healthier meal was not accompanied by a MTIP. Results suggest that modifying the food marketing environment to restrict MTIPs to healthier meals should encourage healthier fast food meal choices by children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Attracting girls to physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, Anne; Sui, Manling

    2013-03-01

    Large regional differences remain in the number of girls studying physics and the number of female physicists in academic positions. While many countries struggle with attracting female students to university studies in physics, climbing the academic ladder is the main challenge for these women. Furthermore, for many female physicists the working climate is not very supportive. The workshop Attracting Girls to Physics, organized as part of the 4th IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics, South Africa 2011, addressed attitudes among education-seeking teenagers and approaches for attracting young girls to physics through successful recruitment plans, including highlighting the broad spectrum of career opportunities for those with physics qualifications. The current paper presents findings, examples of best practices, and recommendations resulting from this workshop.

  3. The Lunar Scout Program: An international program to survey the Moon from orbit for geochemistry, mineralogy, imagery, geodesy, and gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Donald A. (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    The Lunar Scout Program was one of a series of attempts by NASA to develop and fly an orbiting mission to the moon to collect geochemical, geological, and gravity data. Predecessors included the Lunar Observer, the Lunar Geochemical Orbiter, and the Lunar Polar Orbiter - missions studied under the auspices of the Office of Space Science. The Lunar Scout Program, however, was an initiative of the Office of Exploration. It was begun in late 1991 and was transferred to the Office of Space Science after the Office of Exploration was disbanded in 1993. Most of the work was done by a small group of civil servants at the Johnson Space Center; other groups also responsible for mission planning included personnel from the Charles Stark Draper Laboratories, the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Boeing, and Martin Marietta. The Lunar Scout Program failed to achieve new start funding in FY 93 and FY 94 as a result of budget downturns, the de-emphasis of the Space Exploration Initiative, and the fact that lunar science did not rate as high a priority as other planned planetary missions, and was cancelled. The work done on the Lunar Scout Program and other lunar orbiter studies, however, represents assets that will be useful in developing new approaches to lunar orbit science.

  4. Early response to sibutramine in patients not meeting current label criteria: preliminary analysis of SCOUT lead-in period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caterson, Ian; Coutinho, Walmir; Finer, Nick

    2010-01-01

    pulse rate increases; median 1.5 bpm (nonconformers) vs. 3.0 bpm (conformers). There was a low incidence of serious adverse events (conformers: 1.0%; nonconformers: 2.8%) and ~93% of patients in both groups completed the 6-week period. The SCOUT lead-in period evaluating weight management...

  5. Exploration and exploitation of food sources by social insect colonies: a revision of the scout-recruit concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biesmeijer, J.C.; Vries, Han de

    2000-01-01

    Social insect colonies need to explore and exploit multiple food sources simultaneously and efficiently. At the individual level, this colony-level behaviour has been thought to be taken care of by two types of individual: scouts that independently search for food, and recruits that are

  6. Global Scouts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wagner, Robert W; Hall, Michael T

    2006-01-01

    One result of the Battle of Mogadishu, 3-4 October 1993, in which 18 American soldiers died and 73 were wounded, was the development and implementation of Tactical Combat Casualty Care (TCCC) Guidelines...

  7. CT dose modulation using automatic exposure control in whole-body PET/CT: effects of scout imaging direction and arm positioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Yusuke; Nagahara, Kazunori; Kudo, Hiroko; Itoh, Hiroyasu

    2018-01-01

    Automatic exposure control (AEC) modulates tube current and consequently X-ray exposure in CT. We investigated the behavior of AEC systems in whole-body PET/CT. CT images of a whole-body phantom were acquired using AEC on two scanners from different manufactures. The effects of scout imaging direction and arm positioning on dose modulation were evaluated. Image noise was assessed in the chest and upper abdomen. On one scanner, AEC using two scout images in the posteroanterior (PA) and lateral (Lat) directions provided relatively constant image noise along the z-axis with the arms at the sides. Raising the arms increased tube current in the head and neck and decreased it in the body trunk. Image noise increased in the upper abdomen, suggesting excessive reduction in radiation exposure. AEC using the PA scout alone strikingly increased tube current and reduced image noise in the shoulder. Raising the arms did not substantially influence dose modulation and decreased noise in the abdomen. On the other scanner, AEC using the PA scout alone or Lat scout alone resulted in similar dose modulation. Raising the arms increased tube current in the head and neck and decreased it in the trunk. Image noise was higher in the upper abdomen than in the middle and lower chest, and was not influenced by arm positioning. CT dose modulation using AEC may vary greatly depending on scout direction. Raising the arms tended to decrease radiation exposure; however, the effect depends on scout direction and the AEC system.

  8. Is Living near Healthier Food Stores Associated with Better Food Intake in Regional Australia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moayyed, Hamid; Kelly, Bridget; Feng, Xiaoqi; Flood, Victoria

    2017-08-07

    High prevalence of obesity and non-communicable diseases is a global public health problem, in which the quality of food environments is thought to play an important role. Current scientific evidence is not consistent regarding the impact of food environments on diet. The relationship between local food environments and diet quality was assessed across 10 Australian suburbs, using Australian-based indices devised to measure the two parameters. Data of dietary habits from the participants was gathered using a short questionnaire. The suburbs' Food Environment Score (higher being healthier) was associated with higher consumption of fruit (χ² (40, 230) = 58.8, p = 0.04), and vegetables (χ² (40, 230) = 81.3, p = 0.03). The Food Environment Score identified a significant positive correlation with four of the diet scores: individual total diet score (r s = 0.30, p food score (r s = 0.15, p Food Environment Index, higher being unhealthier) showed a significant association with higher consumption of salty snacks (χ² (24, 230) = 43.9, p = 0.04). Food environments dominated by food outlets considered as 'healthier' were associated with healthier population food intakes, as indicated by a higher consumption of fruit, vegetables, and water, as well as a lower consumption of junk food, salty snacks, and sugary drinks. This association suggests that healthier diet quality is associated with healthier food environments in regional Australia.

  9. Implementing healthier foodservice guidelines in hospital and federal worksite cafeterias: barriers, facilitators and keys to success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jilcott Pitts, S B; Graham, J; Mojica, A; Stewart, L; Walter, M; Schille, C; McGinty, J; Pearsall, M; Whitt, O; Mihas, P; Bradley, A; Simon, C

    2016-12-01

    Healthy foodservice guidelines are being implemented in worksites and healthcare facilities to increase access to healthy foods by employees and public populations. However, little is known about the barriers to and facilitators of implementation. The present study aimed to examine barriers to and facilitators of implementation of healthy foodservice guidelines in federal worksite and hospital cafeterias. Using a mixed-methods approach, including a quantitative survey followed by a qualitative, in-depth interview, we examined: (i) barriers to and facilitators of implementation; (ii) behavioural design strategies used to promote healthier foods and beverages; and (iii) how implementation of healthy foodservice guidelines influenced costs and profitability. We used a purposive sample of five hospital and four federal worksite foodservice operators who recently implemented one of two foodservice guidelines: the United States Department of Health and Human Services/General Services Administration Health and Sustainability Guidelines ('Guidelines') in federal worksites or the Partnership for a Healthier America Hospital Healthier Food Initiative ('Initiative') in hospitals. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse quantitative survey data. Qualitative data were analysed using a deductive approach. Implementation facilitators included leadership support, adequate vendor selections and having dietitians assist with implementation. Implementation barriers included inadequate selections from vendors, customer complaints and additional expertise required for menu labelling. Behavioural design strategies used most frequently included icons denoting healthier options, marketing using social media and placement of healthier options in prime locations. Lessons learned can guide subsequent steps for future healthy foodservice guideline implementation in similar settings. © 2016 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  10. Computed tomography scout views vs. conventional radiography in body-packers – Delineation of body-packs and radiation dose in a porcine model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziegeler, Edvard, E-mail: edvard.ziegeler@campus.lmu.de [Institute for Clinical Radiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital Munich, Nussbaumstraße 20, 80336 Munich (Germany); Grimm, Jochen M., E-mail: jochen.grimm@med.lmu.de [Institute for Clinical Radiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital Munich, Nussbaumstraße 20, 80336 Munich (Germany); Wirth, Stefan, E-mail: tefan.wirth@med.lmu.de [Institute for Clinical Radiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital Munich, Nussbaumstraße 20, 80336 Munich (Germany); Uhl, Michael, E-mail: michael.uhl@polizei.bayern.de [Bavarian State Criminal Police Office, Maillingerstrasse 15, 80636 Munich (Germany); Reiser, Maximilian F., E-mail: Maximilian.Reiser@med.lmu.de [Institute for Clinical Radiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital Munich, Nussbaumstraße 20, 80336 Munich (Germany); Scherr, Michael K., E-mail: Michael.Scherr@med.lmu.de [Institute for Clinical Radiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital Munich, Nussbaumstraße 20, 80336 Munich (Germany)

    2012-12-15

    Objective: To compare abdominal computed tomography (CT) scout views with conventional radiography regarding radiation dose and delineation of drug packages in a porcine body-packer model. Materials and methods: Nine samples of illicit drugs packed in ovoid plastic containers were consecutively placed in the rectum of a 121.5 kg pig cadaver. Antero-posterior and lateral scout views were obtained at 120 kVp and 80 mA, 150 mA and 200 mA, respectively, using a 64-row MDCT. Scout views were compared with conventional abdominal antero-posterior radiographs (77 kV and 106 ± 13 mAs). Visibility of three body pack characteristics (wrapping, content, shape) was rated independently by two radiologists and summarized to a delineation score ranging from 0 to 9 with a score ≥6 representing sufficient delineation. Mean delineation scores were calculated for each conventional radiography and single plane scout view separately and for a combined rating of antero-posterior and lateral scout views. Results: Even the lowest single plane scout view delineation score (5.3 ± 2.0 for 80 mA lateral; 0.4 mSv; sensitivity = 44%) was significantly higher than for conventional radiographs (3.1 ± 2.5, p < 0.001; 2.4 ± 0.3 mSv; sensitivity = 11%). Combined reading of antero-posterior and lateral scout views 80 mA yielded sufficient delineation (6.2 ± 1.4; 0.8 mSv; sensitivity = 56%). Conclusions: All CT scout views showed significantly better delineation ratings and sensitivity than conventional radiographs. Scout views in two planes at 80 mA provided a sufficient level of delineation and a sensitivity five times higher than conventional radiography at less than one third of the radiation dose. In case of diagnostic insecurity, CT can be performed without additional logistical effort.

  11. Digital Media and "Girling" at an Elite Girls' School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Claire

    2007-01-01

    In this article, I draw on Judith Butler's notion of performativity to investigate the role of digital technologies in processes of gendered subjectification (or "girling") in elite girls' education. Elite girls' schooling is a site where the potential of digital technologies in mediating student-led constructions and explorations of…

  12. Micro-marketing healthier choices: effects of personalized ordering suggestions on restaurant purchases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedard, Kelly; Kuhn, Peter

    2015-01-01

    We study the effects of the Nutricate receipt, which makes personalized recommendations to switch from unhealthy to healthier items at a restaurant chain. We find that the receipts shifted the mix of items purchased toward the healthier alternatives. For example, the share of adult main dishes requesting "no sauce" increased by 6.8 percent, the share of kids' meals with apples (instead of fries) rose by 7.0 percent and the share of breakfast sandwiches without sausage increased by 3.8 percent. The results illustrate the potential of emerging information technologies, which allow retailers to tailor product marketing to individual consumers, to generate healthier choices. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. MASCOT—The Mobile Asteroid Surface Scout Onboard the Hayabusa2 Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Tra-Mi; Baturkin, Volodymyr; Grimm, Christian; Grundmann, Jan Thimo; Hobbie, Catherin; Ksenik, Eugen; Lange, Caroline; Sasaki, Kaname; Schlotterer, Markus; Talapina, Maria; Termtanasombat, Nawarat; Wejmo, Elisabet; Witte, Lars; Wrasmann, Michael; Wübbels, Guido; Rößler, Johannes; Ziach, Christian; Findlay, Ross; Biele, Jens; Krause, Christian; Ulamec, Stephan; Lange, Michael; Mierheim, Olaf; Lichtenheldt, Roy; Maier, Maximilian; Reill, Josef; Sedlmayr, Hans-Jürgen; Bousquet, Pierre; Bellion, Anthony; Bompis, Olivier; Cenac-Morthe, Celine; Deleuze, Muriel; Fredon, Stephane; Jurado, Eric; Canalias, Elisabet; Jaumann, Ralf; Bibring, Jean-Pierre; Glassmeier, Karl Heinz; Hercik, David; Grott, Matthias; Celotti, Luca; Cordero, Federico; Hendrikse, Jeffrey; Okada, Tatsuaki

    2017-07-01

    On December 3rd, 2014, the Japanese Space Agency (JAXA) launched successfully the Hayabusa2 (HY2) spacecraft to its journey to Near Earth asteroid (162173) Ryugu. Aboard this spacecraft is a compact landing package, MASCOT (Mobile Asteroid surface SCOuT), which was developed by the German Aerospace Centre (DLR) in collaboration with the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES). Similar to the famous predecessor mission Hayabusa, Hayabusa2, will also study an asteroid and return samples to Earth. This time, however, the target is a C-type asteroid which is considered to be more primitive than (25143) Itokawa and provide insight into an even earlier stage of our Solar System.

  14. Scout fourth stage attitude and velocity control (AVC) system feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byars, L. B.

    1975-01-01

    The feasibility of incorporating a guidance system in the Scout fourth stage to achieve a significant improvement in expected payload delivery accuracy is studied. The technical investigations included the determination of the AVC equipment performance requirements, establishment of qualification and acceptance test levels, generation of layouts illustrating design approaches for the upper D and payload transition sections to incorporate the hardware, and the preparation of a vendor bid package. Correction concepts, utilizing inertial velocity and attitude, were identified and evaluated. Fourth stage attitude adjustments as determined from inertial velocity variation through the first three stages and a final velocity correction based upon the measured in-plane component errors at injection were employed. Results show radical reductions in apogee-perigee deviations.

  15. The lived experience of girl-to-girl aggression in marginalized girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenz Adamshick, Pamela

    2010-04-01

    Girl-to-girl aggression is increasingly being recognized as a health problem, and the number of teenage girls involved in serious fighting is on the rise. Research on the experiences of girl-to-girl aggression in marginalized girls who are out of the mainstream because of poor relationship skills and physical aggression is notably absent, yet this group is at heightened risk for persistent violence. In this study I used the interpretive phenomenological approach to study the lived experience of girl-to-girl aggression in girls who were marginalized and attending an alternative school because of physically aggressive behavior. Data were collected over a 4-month period by means of in-depth interviews and field notes. For this population, girl-to-girl aggression provided self-protection, expressed girls' identity, and was also a means to finding attachment, connection, and friendship. These findings have multidisciplinary implications for interventions with physically aggressive girls, including mentoring programs, in-school support groups, and exploration of a paradigm shift in the use of alternative schools.

  16. The Greening of Girls' Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle, Kathleen M.

    1973-01-01

    Examines the current nationwide drive to eliminate sexism in school sports. Discusses expenditures for boys' and girls' athletic programs, coaching salaries, facilities, and programs offered. A physician discusses the potentials for girls in competitive sports, and a girl who joined a high school all-male team is interviewed. (DN)

  17. Ramifications of Giftedness for Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovecky, Deirdre V.

    1995-01-01

    Gifted girls (n=30) who participated in psychotherapy tended to focus on either social relationships or achievement. Girls who focused on achievement tended to be the brightest and exhibited the cognitive styles of divergent thinking, integrative thinking, or perceptive thinking. These girls also tended to exhibit problems dealing with peers and…

  18. Be(ing) prepared: Guide and Scout participation, childhood social position and mental health at age 50-a prospective birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibben, Chris; Playford, Chris; Mitchell, Richard

    2017-03-01

    Mental health is a major concern in many countries. We explore whether youth participation in the Scouts and Guides could protect mental health in later life and in particular whether it might reduce inequalities in mental health associated with early life socioeconomic position. Using the 1958 birth cohort National Child Development Study, we tested whether Scouts-Guide attendance was associated with mental health (SF-36, Mental Health Index (MHI-5)) controlling for childhood risk factors and interacted with social class. Of the 9603 cohort members, 28% had participated in the Scouts-Guides. The average MHI-5 score was 74.8 (SD 18.2) at age 50. After adjustment, for potential childhood confounders, participation in Scouts-Guides was associated with a better MHI-5 score of 2.22 (CI 1.32 to 3.08). Among those who had not been a Scout-Guide, there was a gradient in mental health at age 50 by childhood social position, adjusting for other childhood risk factors. This gradient was absent among those who had been a Scout-Guide. Scout-Guides had an 18% lower odds of an MHI-5 score indicative of mood or anxiety disorder. The findings appeared robust to various tests for residual confounding. Participation in Guides or Scouts was associated with better mental health and narrower mental health inequalities, at age 50. This suggests that youth programmes that support resilience and social mobility through developing the potential for continued progressive self-education, 'soft' non-cognitive skills, self-reliance, collaboration and activities in natural environments may be protective of mental health in adulthood. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  19. Availability and accessibility of healthier options and nutrition information at New Zealand fast food restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chand, Ashmita; Eyles, Helen; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the availability of healthier options and nutrition information at major New Zealand fast food chains. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken at 24 fast food stores (two from each of 12 major chains) using on-site visits, telephone calls, and website searches. Of available products, only 234/1126 (21%) were healthier options. Healthier options were generally cheaper and lower in energy, total fat, saturated fat, sugar, and sodium per serve than their regular counterparts. Regular options were commonly high in sugar or sodium per serve (mean sugar content of beverages=56 g (11 teaspoons) and sodium content of burgers and pasta=1095 mg and 1172 mg, respectively). Nutrition information was available at 11/12 (92%) restaurant chains (range=0% at Tank Juice to 99% at Domino's Pizza). However, nutrition in the New Zealand fast food restaurant setting. Implications of these findings for policy and food industry include: consideration of mandatory menu labelling, increasing the percentage of healthier options available, and improving the nutrient content of regular options at New Zealand fast food restaurants. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Perceived and actual cost of healthier foods versus their less healthy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives There is an increasing awareness of the role played by the food retail characteristics in determining individuals' healthy food purchasing and consumption behaviors. The perceived costs of healthier food alternatives have been shown to contribute negatively to individual's food choices in developed societies.

  1. Strategies to promote healthier eating at worksites -analysis of experiences from a social shaping perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Anne Vibeke; Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Lassen, Anne Dahl

    2005-01-01

    There is a strong need for strategies that can help promote healthy eating. The paper explores the shaping of initiatives aimed at promoting and implementing healthy eating in a worksite catering setting by analysing the sustainability of the intervention of healthier eating in a canteen model...

  2. Determination of the permeability of α-, β- and γ-radiation in textile fabrics by Gamma-Scout device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gintibidze, N.; Mardaleishvili, Z.

    2009-01-01

    The goal of the present was the measurement of radiation permeability in textile fabrics by Gamma-Scout device and the comparison of the obtained results with the radiation background of the ambient air. The authors of this article have produced new fiber Fibron-3, which, according to theoretical calculations, reduces permeability of solar radiation. With this in mind, an experiment was performed. Three samples of the knitted cloth from Fibron-3 were taken, and the permeability of solar radiation in them was determined. The measurements were performed on Gamma-Scout device. The comparative analysis of the permeability of solar radiation in fabrics of different fibrous structure was performed. It was inferred that the degree of radiation permeability in fabrics depended on the thread thickness and the fiber structure. (author)

  3. Fourier Imaging X-ray Spectrometer (FIXS) for the Argentinian, Scout-launched satelite de Aplicaciones Cienficas-1 (SAC-1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennis, B.R.; Crannell, C.J.; Desai, U.D.

    1988-01-01

    The Fourier Imaging X-ray Spectrometer (FIXS) is one of four instruments on SAC-1, the Argentinian satellite being proposed for launch by NASA on a Scout rocket in 1992/3. The FIXS is designed to provide solar flare images at X-ray energies between 5 and 35 keV. Observations will be made on arcsecond size scales and subsecond time scales of the processes that modify the electron spectrum and the thermal distribution in flaring magnetic structures

  4. The Philippine Scouts: A Case Study in the Use of Indigenous Soldiers, Northern Luzon, the Philippine Islands, 1899

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-05-31

    26 Robert Baden-Powell..o.. ...... .... ................... 26 Zulu Scoutso .... 0......0...................... 27 Elminas and Adansi Scouts...return, and braggadocio-like, swear vengeance, threatening to exterminate the tribe ; and mounting their caballos, pretend to give chase, buf taking good...outside of Columbus on the Platte River in Nebraska, had come to know the Pawnee tribe and speak the Pawnee language. During the fall of 1860, both Frank

  5. Solar Torque Management for the Near Earth Asteroid Scout CubeSat Using Center of Mass Position Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orphee, Juan; Heaton, Andrew; Diedrich, Ben; Stiltner, Brandon C.

    2018-01-01

    A novel mechanism, the Active Mass Translator (AMT), has been developed for the NASA Near Earth Asteroid (NEA) Scout mission to autonomously manage the spacecraft momentum. The NEA Scout CubeSat will launch as a secondary payload onboard Exploration Mission 1 of the Space Launch System. To accomplish its mission, the CubeSat will be propelled by an 86 square-meter solar sail during its two-year journey to reach asteroid 1991VG. NEA Scout's primary attitude control system uses reaction wheels for holding attitude and performing slew maneuvers, while a cold gas reaction control system performs the initial detumble and early trajectory correction maneuvers. The AMT control system requirements, feedback architecture, and control performance will be presented. The AMT reduces the amount of reaction control propellant needed for momentum management and allows for smaller capacity reaction wheels suitable for the limited 6U spacecraft volume. The reduced spacecraft mass allows higher in-space solar sail acceleration, thus reducing time-of-flight. The reduced time-of-flight opens the range of possible missions, which is limited by the lifetime of typical non-radiation tolerant CubeSat avionics exposed to the deep-space environment.

  6. Safety analysis of holmium-166 microsphere scout dose imaging during radioembolisation work-up. A cohort study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braat, Arthur J.A.T.; Prince, Jip F.; Rooij, Rob van; Bruijnen, Rutger C.G.; Bosch, Maurice A.A.J. van den; Lam, Marnix G.E.H. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2018-03-15

    Radioembolisation is generally preceded by a scout dose of technetium-99m-macroaggregated albumin to estimate extrahepatic shunting of activity. Holmium-166 microspheres can be used as a scout dose (±250 MBq) and as a therapeutic dose. The general toxicity of a holmium-166 scout dose ({sup 166}Ho-SD) and safety concerns of an accidental extrahepatic deposition of {sup 166}Ho-SD were investigated. All patients who received a {sup 166}Ho-SD in our institute were reviewed for general toxicity and extrahepatic depositions. The absorbed dose in extrahepatic tissue was calculated on SPECT/CT and correlated to clinical toxicities. In total, 82 patients were included. No relevant clinical toxicity occurred. Six patients had an extrahepatic deposition of {sup 166}Ho-SD (median administered activity 270 MBq). The extrahepatic depositions (median activity 3.7 MBq) were located in the duodenum (3x), gastric fundus, falciform ligament and the lesser curvature of the stomach, and were deposited in a median volume of 15.3 ml, which resulted in an estimated median absorbed dose of 3.6 Gy (range 0.3-13.8 Gy). No adverse events related to the extrahepatic deposition of the {sup 166}Ho-SD occurred after a median follow-up of 4 months (range 1-12 months). These results support the safety of 250 MBq {sup 166}Ho-SD in a clinical setting. (orig.)

  7. Parenting practices, parents' underestimation of daughters' risks, and alcohol and sexual behaviors of urban girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Lydia; Stueve, Ann; Duran, Richard; Myint-U, Athi; Agronick, Gail; San Doval, Alexi; Wilson-Simmons, Renée

    2008-05-01

    In urban economically distressed communities, high rates of early sexual initiation combined with alcohol use place adolescent girls at risk for myriad negative health consequences. This article reports on the extent to which parents of young teens underestimate both the risks their daughters are exposed to and the considerable influence that they have over their children's decisions and behaviors. Surveys were conducted with more than 700 sixth-grade girls and their parents, recruited from seven New York City schools serving low-income families. Bivariate and multivariate analyses examined relationships among parents' practices and perceptions of daughters' risks, girls' reports of parenting, and outcomes of girls' alcohol use, media and peer conduct, and heterosexual romantic and social behaviors that typically precede sexual intercourse. Although only four parents thought that their daughters had used alcohol, 22% of the daughters reported drinking in the past year. Approximately 5% of parents thought that daughters had hugged and kissed a boy for a long time or had "hung out" with older boys, whereas 38% of girls reported these behaviors. Parents' underestimation of risk was correlated with lower reports of positive parenting practices by daughters. In multivariate analyses, girls' reports of parental oversight, rules, and disapproval of risk are associated with all three behavioral outcomes. Adult reports of parenting practices are associated with girls' conduct and heterosexual behaviors, but not with their alcohol use. Creating greater awareness of the early onset of risk behaviors among urban adolescent girls is important for fostering positive parenting practices, which in turn may help parents to support their daughters' healthier choices.

  8. Self-image and self-esteem in African-American preteen girls: implications for mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doswell, W M; Millor, G K; Thompson, H; Braxter, B

    1998-01-01

    Current research suggests that pubertal development is occurring earlier in African-American preteen girls in response to familial contextual factors, which may make them vulnerable to low self-image and self-esteem dissatisfaction. This lowering in self-image and self-esteem may contribute to the early initiation of sexual behaviors, putting these girls at risk for pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases. These potential risks place these girls in need of prepubertal health promotion, yet preadolescents are not frequently a focus of nursing care delivery except when summer camp and back-to-school physicals are performed. This article presents an in-depth overview of selected literature on self-esteem, discusses findings on self-image and self-esteem from a pilot study on pubertal influences on accelerated sexual behavior, and proposes health promotion strategies for pre- and peripubertal girls to promote positive mental health outcomes. More focused attention is needed on health promotion targeting the developmental transition health needs of prepubertal girls. Targeted health promotion activities may foster healthier pre- and peripubertal girls' perceptions of the meaning of their pubertal physical changes and stronger self-image and self-esteem. The goal of these health promotion activities should be to foster continuity of positive self-image and self-esteem among preteen girls, which is essential to prevent initiation of premature-for-age risk of problem behavior, such as early coitus.

  9. Fertility Preservation in Girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennia Michaeli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Children that undergo treatment for cancer are at risk of suffering from subfertility or hormonal dysfunction due to the detrimental effects of radiotherapy and chemotherapeutic agents on the gonads. Cryopreservation of ovarian tissue prior to treatment offers the possibility of restoring gonadal function after resumption of therapy. Effective counseling and management of pediatric patients is crucial for preserving their future reproductive potential. The purpose of this article is to review recent literature and to revise recommendations we made in a 2007 article. Pediatric hemato-oncology, reproductive endocrinology, surgery, anesthesia and bioethics perspectives are discussed and integrated to propose guidelines for offering ovarian cryopreservation to premenarcheal girls with cancer.

  10. Nutrition interventions at point-of-sale to encourage healthier food purchasing: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberato, Selma C; Bailie, Ross; Brimblecombe, Julie

    2014-09-05

    Point-of-sale is a potentially important opportunity to promote healthy eating through nutrition education and environment modification. The aim of this review was to describe and review the evidence of effectiveness of various types of interventions that have been used at point-of-sale to encourage purchase and/or eating of healthier food and to improve health outcomes, and the extent to which effectiveness was related to intensity, duration and intervention setting. Records from searches in databases were screened and assessed against inclusion criteria. Included studies had risk of bias assessed. Intervention effectiveness was assessed for two outcomes: i) purchase and/or intake of healthier food options and/or nutrient intake; and ii) mediating factors that might effect the primary outcome. The search identified 5635 references. Thirty-two papers met the inclusion criteria. Twelve studies had low risk of bias and were classified as strong, nine were moderate and 11 were weak. Six intervention types and a range of different outcome measures were described in these papers: i) nutrition education and promotion alone through supermarkets/stores; ii) nutrition education plus enhanced availability of healthy food; iii) monetary incentive alone; iv) nutrition education plus monetary incentives; v) nutrition intervention through vending machines; and vi) nutrition intervention through shopping online. The evidence of this review indicates that monetary incentives offered to customers for a short-term look promising in increasing purchase of healthier food options when the intervention is applied by itself in stores or supermarkets. There was a lack of good quality studies addressing all other types of relevant point-of-sale interventions examining change in purchase and/or intake of healthier food options. There were few studies that examined mediating factors that might mediate the effect on the primary outcomes of relevant interventions. A range of intervention types

  11. Girls, get connected!

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2015-01-01

    On 23 April this year, the fifth annual "International Girls in ICT Day” took place: events all over the world gave young women the chance to see ICT from a new perspective, encouraging them to imagine a career in the field. This year, CERN took part!   Joao Antunes Pequenao (CERN Media Lab) explains his interactive simulation of the Higgs field. © ITU/P.Woods. The International Girls in ICT Day, launched and supported by the Geneva-based International Telecommunication Union (ITU), has already involved more than 111,000 young women in 140 countries, including France and Switzerland, of course. On 23 April, 120 young women aged between 13 and 16 from five schools in the Geneva region* were welcomed to the ITU headquarters, where they took part in a series of workshops on subjects ranging from mobile app development to satellite launching. As a key source of knowledge on the use and development of new technologies and as a strong believer in the promotion...

  12. POST TRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER HANDLING THROUGH THE TRAUMA HEALING FOR SCOUT CARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Jufri

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this activity is (1 to improve the knowledge of Scouting Care in Post Traumatic Stress Disordet overcome through Trauma Healing, (2 To improve the technical skills of Trauma Healing. The method used in this activity are: the percentage method, lecture and question and answer, discussion methods, methods of practice. The results of these activities are (1 there is an increased knowledge of participants in following the activities, especially in implementing and applying the theory and practice of PTSD to handling, from the data worksheet that was analyzed contained 94.5% of the questions as an evaluation materials may be answered by the participants. This indicates that the participant understands and is able to apply the techniques of PTSD very well in dealing with post-disaster stress. (2 Participants skillfully PTSD through psychotherapy techniques such as: deepbreating, relaxation techniques, storytelling / story telling, play therapy / role playing and games-games. From a practice several times, through observation through direct observation, illustrating that the participants could perform well in groups or individually

  13. A mathematical model for adaptive vein formation during exploratory migration of Physarum polycephalum: routing while scouting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenz, Daniel; Shima, Yasuaki; Kuroda, Shigeru; Nakagaki, Toshiyuki; Ueda, Kei-Ichi

    2017-11-01

    Exploring free space (scouting) efficiently is a non-trivial task for organisms of limited perception, such as the amoeboid Physarum polycephalum. However, the strategy behind its exploratory behaviour has not yet been characterised. In this organism, as the extension of the frontal part into free space is directly supported by the transport of body mass from behind, the formation of transport channels (routing) plays the main role in that strategy. Here, we study the organism’s exploration by letting it expand through a corridor of constant width. When turning at a corner of the corridor, the organism constructed a main transport vein tracing a centre-in-centre line. We argue that this is efficient for mass transport due to its short length, and check this intuition with a new algorithm that can predict the main vein’s position from the frontal tip’s progression. We then present a numerical model that incorporates reaction-diffusion dynamics for the behaviour of the organism’s growth front and current reinforcement dynamics for the formation of the vein network in its wake, as well as interactions between the two. The accuracy of the model is tested against the behaviour of the real organism and the importance of the interaction between growth tip dynamics and vein network development is analysed by studying variants of the model. We conclude by offering a biological interpretation of the well-known current reinforcement rule in the context of the natural exploratory behaviour of Physarum polycephalum.

  14. STICS, SCOUTs and p53 signatures; a new language for pelvic serous carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehra, Karishma; Mehrad, Mitra; Ning, Geng; Drapkin, Ronny; McKeon, Frank D; Xian, Wa; Crum, Christopher P

    2011-01-01

    The events leading to the most common and most lethal ovarian carcinoma - high grade serous carcinoma - have been poorly understood. However, the detailed pathologic study of asymptomatic women with germ-line BRCA 1 or BRCA2 (BCRA+) mutations has unearthed an early malignancy, serous tubal intraepithelial carcinomas (STIC), which has linked many peritoneal and ovarian serous carcinomas to the fimbria. The distinction between high-grade serous and endometrioid carcinomas continues to narrow, with shared alterations in expression of pTEN, PAX2 and p53. Moreover, the discovery of clonal alterations in p53 in benign tubal epithelium, - p53 signatures - has established a foundation for a serous cancer precursor in the fimbria. We have expanded this concept to include a generic secretory cell outgrowth (SCOUT) in the fallopian tube that is associated with altered PAX2 expression. As the repertoire of gene alterations is expanded and its link to serous carcinogenesis clarified, a cogent pathway to high-grade Mullerian carcinomas will emerge. This will challenge conventional thinking about ovarian carcinogenesis but will provide a new template for studies of ovarian cancer prevention.

  15. Evaluation models of some morphological characteristics for talent scouting in sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogulj, Nenad; Papić, Vladan; Cavala, Marijana

    2009-03-01

    In this paper, for the purpose of expert system evaluation within the scientific project "Talent scouting in sport", two methodological approaches for recognizing an athlete's morphological compatibility for various sports has been presented, evaluated and compared. First approach is based on the fuzzy logic and expert opinion about compatibility of proposed hypothetical morphological models for 14 different sports which are part of the expert system. Second approach is based on determining the differences between morphological characteristics of a tested individual and top athlete's morphological characteristics for particular sport. Logical and mathematical bases of both methodological approaches have been explained in detail. High prognostic efficiency in recognition of individual's sport has been determined. Some improvements in further development of both methods have been proposed. Results of the research so far suggest that this or similar approaches can be successfully used for detection of individual's morphological compatibility for different sports. Also, it is expected to be useful in the selection of young talents for particular sport.

  16. Thoracic pathologies on scout views and bolus tracking slices for computed tomographic cerebral angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groth, M.; Fiehler, J.; Buhk, J.H. [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany). Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology; Henes, F.O. [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany). Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology

    2015-08-15

    To evaluate the incidence of additional thoracic pathologic findings (TPF) detected on scout views and corresponding bolus tracking slices (SVBT) for computed tomographic cerebral angiography (CTCA) and to test the reliability and accuracy of these findings. The study collective included 505 consecutive patients who underwent multidetector CTCA. Appendant SVBT of all patients were reviewed for any pathologic findings and patient medical reports were analyzed, if any medical treatment was initiated for the detected pathologic findings. In 18 patients thoracic CT scans were performed in the same session. These were additionally reviewed by two blinded observers to test for intra- and interobserver reliability as well as for accuracy of detecting thoracic pathologies on SVBT. TPF were detected in 165 (33 %) SVBT. The five most common pathologic findings were: pleural effusion, 12 %; pneumonia, 8 %; atelectasis/dystelecatsis, 6 %; pericardial effusion, 2 % and elevated diaphragm, 1 %. For 48 % of these findings medical treatment was initiated. SVBT showed a sensitivity of 53 %, a specificity of 99 %, a positive predictive value of 89 %, a negative predictive value of 94 % and accuracy of 94 % for the detection of TPF. The intraobserver reliability was very good and the interobserver reliability showed moderate agreement. SVBT for CTCA should be reviewed with care by radiologists, since additional TPF can affect patient management. Nevertheless, despite a high specificity of SVBT for detecting TPF, an only moderate sensitivity has to be taken into account.

  17. Girl child in rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devendra, K

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the status of the girl child in rural India. Rural children lack the advantages of modern amenities and facilities, such as transportation, electricity, media, hygiene, health care, and access to education. A young girl's status is related to her mother's status. Women are valued the most when a son is born. Girl children are considered an economic liability in child care costs, dowry costs, and marriage support. Since the 1970s, dowry demands have increased. Daughters must meet the demands of prospective in-law for education and dowry even after marriage. The attitudes of parents, families, and society encourage sex-selective abortion, infanticide, abuse in childhood, and domestic violence in adulthood. It was reported in 1994 that a woman is molested every 26 minutes and raped every 52 minutes. The government of India developed an action plan in 1992 for developing the girl child. Rural girl children spend their time cooking, cleaning, fetching wood and water, caring for children, and working in the fields sowing, transplanting, and weeding. Girl children contribute over 20% of total work at home. The only advantage a girl child has in rural areas is visibility. The greatest disadvantage is that her mother, who faced neglect herself, discriminates against her. Increasingly girl children contribute income to their household from Beedi making, gem polishing, embroidering, or paper bag making. Sometimes girls and boys work in hazardous occupations. Gender disparity is evident in school enrollment, drop out rates, literacy, and employment. In 1994, India passed a universal female education bill that offers parents incentives for access and punishment for keeping a girl out of school. Communities need to create a demand for rural girl children's education.

  18. Partnership for a Healthier America: Creating Change Through Private Sector Partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Caitlin; Kocot, S Lawrence; Dietz, William H

    2017-06-01

    This review provides background on the formation of the Partnership for a Healthier America (PHA), that was created in conjunction with the Let's Move! initiative, and an overview of its work to date. To encourage industry to offer and promote healthier options, PHA partners with the private sector. Principles that guide PHA partnerships include ensuring that partnerships represent meaningful change, partners sign a legally binding contract and progress is monitored and publicly reported. Since 2010, PHA has established private sector partnerships in an effort to transform the marketplace to ensure that every child has the chance to grow up at a healthy weight. Many agreements between PHA and its industry partners align with the White House Task Force Report on Childhood Obesity. The reach and impact of over 200 partnerships attest to the success of this initiative.

  19. Availability of healthier options in traditional and nontraditional rural fast-food outlets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McIntosh Alex

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Food prepared away from home has become increasingly popular to U.S. families, and may contribute to obesity. Sales have been dominated by fast food outlets, where meals are purchased for dining away from home or in the home. Although national chain affiliated fast-food outlets are considered the main source for fast food, fast foods are increasingly available in convenience stores and supermarkets/grocery stores. In rural areas, these nontraditional fast-food outlets may provide most of the opportunities for procurement of fast foods. Methods Using all traditional and nontraditio nal fast-food outlets identified in six counties in rural Texas, the type and number of regular and healthiermenu options were surveyed using on-site observation in all food venues that were primarily fast food, supermarket/grocery store, and convenience store and compared with 2005 Dietary Guidelines. Results Traditional fast-food outlets represented 84 (41% of the 205 opportunities for procurement of fast food; 109 (53.2% were convenience stores and 12 (5.8% supermarkets/grocery stores. Although a s imilar variety of regular breakfast and lunch/dinner entrées were available in traditional fast-food outlets and convenience stores, the variety of healthier breakfast and lunch/dinner entrées was significantly greater in fast food outlets. Compared with convenience stores, supermarkets/grocery stores provided a greater variety of regular and healthier entrées and lunch/dinner side dishes. Conclusion Convenience stores and supermarkets/grocery stores more than double the potential access to fast foods in this rural area than traditional fast-food outlets alone; however, traditional fast food outlets offer greater opportunity for healthier fast food options than convenience stores. A complete picture of fast food environment and the availability of healthier fast food options are essential to understand environmental influences on diet and health

  20. Communicating healthier food choice : food composition data, front-of-pack nutrition labelling and health claims.

    OpenAIRE

    Hodgkins, Charo E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Food composition data, front-of-pack nutrition labelling and nutrition and health claims have an important role to play in the development of appropriate policy, regulation and public health interventions ultimately aimed at reducing the burden of diet-related chronic disease. The overarching aim of this thesis is to explore whether the communication of healthier food choice through front-of-pack (FOP) nutrition labelling and health claims can be enhanced by the development of con...

  1. Characteristics and consumer acceptance of healthier meat and meat product formulations—a review

    OpenAIRE

    Hathwar, Swapna C.; Rai, Amit Kumar; Modi, Vinod Kumar; Narayan, Bhaskar

    2011-01-01

    Awareness of health and nutrition has led to the development of “functional foods” which is a new approach to achieve healthier status thus reducing the risk of diseases. Meat has been highly exploited as a functional ingredient/food in recent years wherein meat has either been modified or incorporated into non meat products. Changing consumer demand has influenced the market for all types of meat. The development and marketing the functional foods can be, however, very challenging compared t...

  2. Healthy brand extentions targeted at adolescents: Can products encourage healthier eating habits and still be fun?

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Clara Nobre Braga dos

    2013-01-01

    A Work Project, presented as part of the requirements for the Award of a Masters Degree in Management from the NOVA – School of Business and Economics This study aims to understand if launching healthy extensions of brands that have high acceptance among adolescents could contribute to healthier eating habits. We also analyzed the impact of this launch on brand image. We conducted a survey with 121 Brazilian teenagers and used the market leader brand to study the hypothesis. Results ...

  3. Does Journaling Encourage Healthier Choices? Analyzing Healthy Eating Behaviors of Food Journalers

    OpenAIRE

    Achananuparp, Palakorn; Lim, Ee-Peng; Abhishek, Vibhanshu

    2018-01-01

    Past research has shown the benefits of food journaling in promoting mindful eating and healthier food choices. However, the links between journaling and healthy eating have not been thoroughly examined. Beyond caloric restriction, do journalers consistently and sufficiently consume healthful diets? How different are their eating habits compared to those of average consumers who tend to be less conscious about health? In this study, we analyze the healthy eating behaviors of active food journ...

  4. Organic food in Danish schools - a contribution to healthier eating at school?

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, He; Bent Egberg, Mikkelsen

    2010-01-01

    The European school food system is under transition in what has been called the European school food revolution by Morgan & Sonnino (2008). Two pillars play a major role in that transition. The call for healthier eating and the call for more organic food consumption. This research has been exploring how these two agendas interact . The research hypothesizes that there might be a synergistic interaction between the two. In other words if organic strategies and procurement schemes have the pote...

  5. What would Batman eat?: priming children to make healthier fast food choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wansink, B; Shimizu, M; Camps, G

    2012-04-01

    Fast food patronage is a frequent reality for many children and their parents. Although there are increasingly healthier alternatives for popular menu items (apple slices instead of French fries), they are infrequently selected. We investigated whether either of two priming tactics - the priming of a role model's food choices or the priming of healthy foods - could influence children to make healthier fast food choices. In the priming model condition, 22 children (ranging in age from 6 to 12 years) were presented with 12 photos of 6 admirable and 6 less admirable models and asked, 'Would this person order apple fries or French fries?' In the health prime condition, the same children were shown 12 photos of 6 healthy foods and 6 less healthy foods and asked to indicate if each food was healthy or unhealthy. When children were asked what various admirable people - such as Batman or Spiderman - would eat, 45% chose apple slices over French fries, which was higher than the health prime (P < 0.001) or the control condition (P < 0.001). Advising a parent to ask their child 'What would Batman (or another admired character or person) eat?' might be an easy step to take in what could be a healthier fast food world. © 2012 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity © 2012 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  6. Vulvovaginitis in prepubertal girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stricker, T; Navratil, F; Sennhauser, F

    2003-01-01

    This retrospective study evaluated the clinical features and findings in bacterial cultures and in microscopic examination of vaginal secretions in 80 prepubertal girls, aged 2–12 years, with vulvovaginitis. Vaginal secretions were obtained directly from the vagina with a sterile catheter carefully inserted into the vagina. Pathogenic bacteria were isolated in 36% of cases. In 59% of these cases the isolated pathogen was group A ß-haemolytic streptococcus. Candida was not found in any of the patients. The finding of leucocytes in vaginal secretions as an indicator for growth of pathogenic bacteria had a sensitivity of 83% and a specificity of 59%. Antimicrobial treatment should therefore be based on bacteriological findings of vaginal secretions and not on the presence of leucocytes alone. PMID:12651758

  7. The "Right" Sexuality for Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Sharon

    2008-01-01

    Feminist researchers in psychology and education have been theorizing about the kind of sexuality girls ought to have. They are not afraid to investigate morality and what makes a good life. While they explore the meaning and cultural context of girls' sexual development, the good sexual life they describe may be an elusive ideal that, in the end,…

  8. Changing Girls' Education in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provasnik, Stephen; Brush, Lorie; Heyman, Cory; Fanning, Marina; Lent, Drew; De Wilde, Johan

    Guatemala's school completion rates are among the lowest in Latin America and are particularly low in rural indigenous areas ravaged by 36 years of civil conflict. In 1997, USAID launched the Girls' Education Activity, known as Proyecto Global in Guatemala, to increase the percentage of girls who complete fifth grade, especially in rural areas and…

  9. Girls in Distress in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Yosepha

    The typical girl in distress in Israel comes from a Jewish family of oriental origin. Her distress is partially due to the strains of immigrating to Israel from, in most cases, North Africa. Authority models in distressed girls' families feature either the role of the father as the commanding familial authority figure; the mother as the dominant…

  10. Counseling Girls for Equal Opportunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskell, Jane

    1983-01-01

    Suggests that the unequal position of women in the labor force is a critical issue for guidance counselors. Counselors should encourage girls to try different areas and counteract stereotypes that both students and teachers have concerning education and careers for girls. (JAC)

  11. Urinary tract infection in girls - aftercare

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... improve within 1 to 2 days in most girls. The advice below may not be as accurate for girls with more complex problems. ... The following steps can help prevent UTIs in girls: Avoid giving your child bubble baths. Have your ...

  12. Semi-Automated Hydrophobic Interaction Chromatography Column Scouting Used in the Two-Step Purification of Recombinant Green Fluorescent Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Patrick J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC) most commonly requires experimental determination (i.e., scouting) in order to select an optimal chromatographic medium for purifying a given target protein. Neither a two-step purification of untagged green fluorescent protein (GFP) from crude bacterial lysate using sequential HIC and size exclusion chromatography (SEC), nor HIC column scouting elution profiles of GFP, have been previously reported. Methods and Results Bacterial lysate expressing recombinant GFP was sequentially adsorbed to commercially available HIC columns containing butyl, octyl, and phenyl-based HIC ligands coupled to matrices of varying bead size. The lysate was fractionated using a linear ammonium phosphate salt gradient at constant pH. Collected HIC eluate fractions containing retained GFP were then pooled and further purified using high-resolution preparative SEC. Significant differences in presumptive GFP elution profiles were observed using in-line absorption spectrophotometry (A395) and post-run fluorimetry. SDS-PAGE and western blot demonstrated that fluorometric detection was the more accurate indicator of GFP elution in both HIC and SEC purification steps. Comparison of composite HIC column scouting data indicated that a phenyl ligand coupled to a 34 µm matrix produced the highest degree of target protein capture and separation. Conclusions Conducting two-step protein purification using the preferred HIC medium followed by SEC resulted in a final, concentrated product with >98% protein purity. In-line absorbance spectrophotometry was not as precise of an indicator of GFP elution as post-run fluorimetry. These findings demonstrate the importance of utilizing a combination of detection methods when evaluating purification strategies. GFP is a well-characterized model protein, used heavily in educational settings and by researchers with limited protein purification experience, and the data and strategies presented here may aid in

  13. Attracting Girls into Physics (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadalla, Afaf

    2009-04-01

    A recent international study of women in physics showed that enrollment in physics and science is declining for both males and females and that women are severely underrepresented in careers requiring a strong physics background. The gender gap begins early in the pipeline, from the first grade. Girls are treated differently than boys at home and in society in ways that often hinder their chances for success. They have fewer freedoms, are discouraged from accessing resources or being adventurous, have far less exposure to problem solving, and are not encouraged to choose their lives. In order to motivate more girl students to study physics in the Assiut governorate of Egypt, the Assiut Alliance for the Women and Assiut Education District collaborated in renovating the education of physics in middle and secondary school classrooms. A program that helps in increasing the number of girls in science and physics has been designed in which informal groupings are organized at middle and secondary schools to involve girls in the training and experiences needed to attract and encourage girls to learn physics. During implementation of the program at some schools, girls, because they had not been trained in problem-solving as boys, appeared not to be as facile in abstracting the ideas of physics, and that was the primary reason for girls dropping out of science and physics. This could be overcome by holding a topical physics and technology summer school under the supervision of the Assiut Alliance for the Women.

  14. Tactical Reconnaissance and Security for the Armor Battalion Commander: Is the Scout Platoon Combat Capable or Combat Ineffective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-27

    reconnaissance force back to a heavy ele ,._.it capable of security missions and limited 10 reconnaissance. Vletnam continued the platoon’s emphasis on...College, Fort Leavenworth, KS, 30 November 1988 (CARL Ref. AOR215860). JouroaI ~ el Bacevich, LTC A. J. "Training Scouts." Armor, September 1987, pp. 37...Swanson, Major Steven G. " Bronco Nine Speaks His Mind." MIlitaryInteigence, April-June 1990, pp. 8- 10, 12. "The Bustle Rack." Armo,; March-April 1990

  15. The Near Earth Object (NEO) Scout Spacecraft: A Low-cost Approach to In-situ Characterization of the NEO Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woeppel, Eric A.; Balsamo, James M.; Fischer, Karl J.; East, Matthew J.; Styborski, Jeremy A.; Roche, Christopher A.; Ott, Mackenzie D.; Scorza, Matthew J.; Doherty, Christopher D.; Trovato, Andrew J.; hide

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a microsatellite spacecraft with supporting mission profile and architecture, designed to enable preliminary in-situ characterization of a significant number of Near Earth Objects (NEOs) at reasonably low cost. The spacecraft will be referred to as the NEO-Scout. NEO-Scout spacecraft are to be placed in Geosynchronous Equatorial Orbit (GEO), cis-lunar space, or on earth escape trajectories as secondary payloads on launch vehicles headed for GEO or beyond, and will begin their mission after deployment from the launcher. A distinguishing key feature of the NEO-Scout system is to design the spacecraft and mission timeline so as to enable rendezvous with and landing on the target NEO during NEO close approach (the Earth-Moon system using low-thrust/high-impulse propulsion systems. Mission durations are on the order 100 to 400 days. Mission feasibility and preliminary design analysis are presented, along with detailed trajectory calculations.

  16. Weight and blood pressure response to weight management and sibutramine in diabetic and non-diabetic high-risk patients: an analysis from the 6-week lead-in period of the sibutramine cardiovascular outcomes (SCOUT) trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Gaal, L F; Caterson, I D; Coutinho, W

    2010-01-01

    To assess treatment responses to sibutramine and weight management in diabetic patients during the lead-in period of the Sibutramine Cardiovascular OUTcomes (SCOUT) trial.......To assess treatment responses to sibutramine and weight management in diabetic patients during the lead-in period of the Sibutramine Cardiovascular OUTcomes (SCOUT) trial....

  17. Central precocious puberty in girls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argyropoulou, M.; Malandry, F.; Perignon, F.; Brunelle, F.; Brauner, R.; Rappaport, R.

    1990-01-01

    The treatment of central precocious puberty (CPP) in girls depends on its etiology and evolution, the latter based on the degree of accelerated bone maturation. The goal of this paper is to assess the diagnostic value of MR imaging in studying CPP in girls. Thirty-four girls with CPP were studied with MR imaging. Pituitary gland height (PGH) was measured on a sagittal midline image and compared with normal measurements. Correlations among clinical presentation, PGH, estradiol levels, and LH/FSH ratio were evaluated

  18. Bad little girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggini, Carlo

    2008-04-01

    The characters, in little girl style, who more and more often appear in advertisements, glossy magazines, television programs and megastores, and who can be encountered in the streets of many cities, are not the product of an ephimerous fashion dictated by the logic of the market. They come from far away, disquieting and erotic, and have crossed all the cultures of the western world, fascinating and disconcerting the soul with their power of seduction. They are the nymphs of Greek mythology, and not even the gods were able to resist them, knowing very well that their bodies are a place of knowledge that could lead to insanity. The paradox of the nymph is that possessing her means being possessed. After an overview of the myth of possession by nymphs, the author discusses certain illustrious figures of western culture of the 19th and 20th century possessed by a nymph: Aby Warburg, Martin Heidegger, Carl Gustav Jung, Henrik Ibsen and Emil Cioran. In all of them the possession by a nymph unfolded in keeping with the myth: intellectual fervor was common to all, insanity in Warburg, rapacious egotism in Heidegger and Jung, and a metamorphosis of Weltanshaung in Ibsen and Cioran. Nonetheless, they all, in their encounter with a nymph, laid bare their multifaceted identities, the muddy depths and the "heart of darkness" of their souls.

  19. Use of food labels by adolescents to make healthier choices on snacks: a cross-sectional study from Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talagala, Ishanka A; Arambepola, Carukshi

    2016-08-08

    Unhealthy snacking is commonly seen among adolescents. Therefore, use of food labels is promoted for making healthier choices on packaged snacks. This study was conducted to assess the use of food labels in making choices on packaged snack and its associated factors among adolescents. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2012 among 542 Grade 12 students in Sri Lanka. Eight classes were selected as 'clusters' for the study (two classes each from two schools that were selected randomly from each list of 'Girls only' and 'Boys only' schools in Colombo district). A self-administered questionnaire assessed their socio-demography, snacking behaviour, attitudes and nutrition knowledge related to food labels. Adolescents' use of labels was assessed by three practices (label reading frequency, attention paid to label contents and correct interpretation of six hypothetical labels of snacks). Based on total scores obtained for the three practices, 'satisfactory' (score ≥75(th) percentile mark) and 'unsatisfactory' (score pocket money at least once/week on packaged snacks; predominantly on biscuits (85 %) and cola-drinks (77 %) and 88 % selected snacks on their own. The majority (74.5 %) was frequent ('always' or 'most often') label readers with female predominance (p < 0.05). Over 74 % paid attention frequently to the brand name (75 %), price (85 %) and nutrition panel (81 %). Over 64 % were able to select the better food label when given a choice between two snacks, although some did it for reasons such as attractive label (63 %). The majority (84 %) had good knowledge (obtaining more than the 75(th) percentile mark) on interpreting labels. Although not statistically significant, 'unsatisfactory' label use was higher among males (73 %), purchasing power (70.4 %) and unhealthy snacking behaviour (73 %). In contrast, among the marketing strategies, identifying known brands (73.2 %) and imported products (75.8 %) as 'good' products were significantly

  20. Use of food labels by adolescents to make healthier choices on snacks: a cross-sectional study from Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishanka A. Talagala

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unhealthy snacking is commonly seen among adolescents. Therefore, use of food labels is promoted for making healthier choices on packaged snacks. This study was conducted to assess the use of food labels in making choices on packaged snack and its associated factors among adolescents. Methods A cross–sectional study was conducted in 2012 among 542 Grade 12 students in Sri Lanka. Eight classes were selected as ‘clusters’ for the study (two classes each from two schools that were selected randomly from each list of ‘Girls only’ and ‘Boys only’ schools in Colombo district. A self-administered questionnaire assessed their socio-demography, snacking behaviour, attitudes and nutrition knowledge related to food labels. Adolescents’ use of labels was assessed by three practices (label reading frequency, attention paid to label contents and correct interpretation of six hypothetical labels of snacks. Based on total scores obtained for the three practices, ‘satisfactory’ (score ≥75th percentile mark and ‘unsatisfactory’ (score <75th percentile mark label users were identified. Using SPSS, associations were assessed at 0.05 significance level using Chi-square-test. Results Of the participants, 51 % were males; 61 % spent their pocket money at least once/week on packaged snacks; predominantly on biscuits (85 % and cola-drinks (77 % and 88 % selected snacks on their own. The majority (74.5 % was frequent (‘always’ or ‘most often’ label readers with female predominance (p < 0.05. Over 74 % paid attention frequently to the brand name (75 %, price (85 % and nutrition panel (81 %. Over 64 % were able to select the better food label when given a choice between two snacks, although some did it for reasons such as attractive label (63 %. The majority (84 % had good knowledge (obtaining more than the 75th percentile mark on interpreting labels. Although not statistically significant,

  1. Effects of the Boy Scouts of America Personal Fitness Merit Badge on Cardio-Metabolic Risk, Health Related Fitness and Physical Activity in Adolescent Boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Justin; Burns, Ryan D; Brusseau, Timothy A

    2017-01-01

    A growing number of adolescents are more sedentary and have fewer formal opportunities to participate in physical activity. With the mounting evidence that sedentary time has a negative impact on cardiometabolic profiles, health related fitness and physical activity, there is a pressing need to find an affordable adolescent physical activity intervention. One possible intervention that has been overlooked in the past is Boy Scouts of America. There are nearly 900,000 adolescent boys who participate in Boy Scouts in the United States. The purpose of this research study was to evaluate the effect of the Personal Fitness merit badge system on physical activity, health-related fitness, and cardio-metabolic blood profiles in Boy Scouts 11-17 years of age. Participants were fourteen (N = 14) Boy Scouts from the Great Salt Lake Council of the Boy Scouts of America who earned their Personal Fitness merit badge. Classes were held in the Spring of 2016 where boys received the information needed to obtain the merit badge and data were collected. Results from the related-samples Wilcoxon signed rank test showed that the median of differences between VO 2 peak pre-test and post-test scores were statistically significant ( p = 0.004). However, it also showed that the differences between the Pre-MetS (metabolic syndrome) and Post-MetS scores (p = 0.917), average steps taken per day ( p = 0.317), and BMI ( p = 0.419) were not statistically significant. In conclusion, the merit badge program had a positive impact on cardiovascular endurance, suggesting this program has potential to improve cardiovascular fitness and should be considered for boys participating in Boy Scouts.

  2. Community Coalitions' Gender-Aware Policy and Systems Changes to Improve the Health of Women and Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczyk, Shelly; Randolph, Suzanne M; Oravecz, Linda

    2017-10-17

    Addressing environmental barriers and community conditions through policy and systems change provides the foundation for creating sustainable public health change at the population level. In an effort to influence population-level change that is gender aware, the United States Department of Health and Human Services Office on Women's Health funded the Coalition for a Healthier Community initiative supporting 10 grantees in the implementation of gender-based, public health systems approaches to improve women and girls' health. A national evaluation assessed the extent to which these gender-aware public health systems approaches result in programs and policies that are sustainable and cost effective in addressing health disparities in women and girls. For this paper, a review of policies reported on in grantees' quarterly progress reports was conducted, and policies were categorized based on each policy's status, level, sector affected, and whether it was gender aware. The review revealed 77 policies at varying stages of development or implementation intended to facilitate systems-level change at the coalition, school, organizational, local, or state level. Fifty-one percent of these policies were identified as being gender aware, because they were intended to reduce barriers to or increase facilitators of gender equity. Community coalitions, like the Coalition for a Healthier Community coalitions, can be valuable channels for promoting policy change, as demonstrated by the many policies developed and/or supported by the Coalition for a Healthier Community grantees in their attempt to meet the needs of women and girls. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Children's purchase behavior in the snack market: Can branding or lower prices motivate healthier choices?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Monika; Cash, Sean B; Yeh, Ching-Hua; Landwehr, Stefanie C; McAlister, Anna R

    2017-10-01

    Children's dietary-related diseases and their associated costs have expanded dramatically in many countries, making children's food choice a policy issue of increasing relevance. As children spend a considerable amount of money on energy-dense, nutrient-poor (EDNP) products, a better understanding of the main drivers of children's independent food purchase decisions is crucial to move this behavior toward healthier options. The objective of the study is to investigate the role of branding and price in motivating children to choose healthier snack options. The study investigates snack choices of children ages 8 to 11, using a survey and a purchase experiment. The research took place in after-school programs of selected schools in the Boston area. Participants included 116 children. Products in the choice experiment differed on three factors: product type, brand, and price. Data were analyzed using aggregated and mixed logit models. Children's purchase decisions are primarily determined by product type (Importance Value (IV) 56.6%), while brand (IV 22.8%) and price (IV 20.6%) prove to be of less relevance. Only those children who state that they like the familiar brand reveal a preference for the branded product in their purchase decision. Price is a significant predictor of choice when controlling for whether or not children obtain an allowance. It is not simple brand awareness but a child's liking of the brand that determines whether a brand is successful in motivating a child to choose a product. The extent of children's experience with money influences their price responsiveness. To the extent that children who receive an allowance are primarily the ones buying food snacks, higher prices for EDNP snacks could be successful in motivating children to choose a healthier option. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Characteristics and consumer acceptance of healthier meat and meat product formulations-a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathwar, Swapna C; Rai, Amit Kumar; Modi, Vinod Kumar; Narayan, Bhaskar

    2012-12-01

    Awareness of health and nutrition has led to the development of "functional foods" which is a new approach to achieve healthier status thus reducing the risk of diseases. Meat has been highly exploited as a functional ingredient/food in recent years wherein meat has either been modified or incorporated into non meat products. Changing consumer demand has influenced the market for all types of meat. The development and marketing the functional foods can be, however, very challenging compared to the foods that conventionally have a high health image. This review gives the overall perception about importance of using meat/meat products as a functional food.

  5. Discourses on the influence of the social environment in the drive towards a healthier lifestyle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siiger, Charlotte

    Research question: How do Danish middle-aged urban dwellers verbalize the influence of their social environment in the drive towards a healthier lifestyle? Data: 10 semi-structured, qualitative interviews; six men and five women with high blood pressure, overweight, signs of diabetes or high...... cholesterol level. Concepts: Discourse, self-technology , social mirroring, role , social identity . Conclusion: Interviewees draw on a 'discourse of lifestyle changes' containing two sub-discourses: the ‘sub-discourse of encouragement’ vs. the 'sub-discourse of fear’. The near social environment (family...

  6. Monoclonal antibody proteomics: use of antibody mimotope displaying phages and the relevant synthetic peptides for mAb scouting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajdú, István; Flachner, Beáta; Bognár, Melinda; Végh, Barbara M; Dobi, Krisztina; Lőrincz, Zsolt; Lázár, József; Cseh, Sándor; Takács, László; Kurucz, István

    2014-08-01

    Monoclonal antibody proteomics uses nascent libraries or cloned (Plasmascan™, QuantiPlasma™) libraries of mAbs that react with individual epitopes of proteins in the human plasma. At the initial phase of library creation, cognate protein antigen and the epitope interacting with the antibodies are not known. Scouting for monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) with the best binding characteristics is of high importance for mAb based biomarker assay development. However, in the absence of the identity of the cognate antigen the task represents a challenge. We combined phage display, and surface plasmon resonance (Biacore) experiments to test whether specific phages and the respective mimotope peptides obtained from large scale studies are applicable to determine key features of antibodies for scouting. We show here that mAb captured phage-mimotope heterogeneity that is the diversity of the selected peptide sequences, is inversely correlated with an important binding descriptor; the off-rate of the antibodies and that represents clues for driving the selection of useful mAbs for biomarker assay development. Carefully chosen synthetic mimotope peptides are suitable for specificity testing in competitive assays using the target proteome, in our case the human plasma. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Education of girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadik, N

    1993-06-01

    The issues of population and development are discussed as related to women's issues. The desired improvement in the status of women can be accomplished by adapting the traditional role of women within a modern context and eliminating practices that lower the status of women; education of girls is the key to change. Cultural patterns can prevent women from developing a sense of self-worth. Confidence and self-esteem can be increased and community participation enhanced. The world literacy of women, in spite of advances, is still 66% that of men's literacy. Women must also be able to decide freely and in an informed way the spacing and number of children. Maternal death is very high in developing countries, due to unsafe practices and illegal abortions. China, Costa Rica, Mexico, Thailand, Tunisia, Sri Lanka, Indonesia, and the Republic of Korea are examples of countries that have improved the status of women through the promotion of female education, family planning (FP), and maternal-child health measures. The issue of teenage pregnancy needs to be addressed through culturally sensitive counseling, appropriate contraceptive services, and specially designed information and education programs. 150,000 of the estimated 300,000 without access to FP desire to space or limit births. Individuals and communities need FP programs and service delivery appropriate to their needs: client counseling, full information on contraceptives, and choice of safe and effective methods. FP is men's responsibility as well. Improvements in the economy and quality of life have come in countries that have given women higher status. At the UN Family Planning Association, 42% of the professional staff are comprised of women; women are also well represented in senior management positions. During the Expert Meetings on Population and Women held in Botswana in 1992, one of the conclusions was to improve women's reproductive health. The Expert Group Meeting was preliminary to the scheduled 1994

  8. "Sport Guts" in Japanese Girl Anime

    OpenAIRE

    Miho Tsukamoto

    2015-01-01

    "Sport Guts" in Japanese anime developed not only to strengthen mentality but also to challenge for objectives. This paper helps to understand the development of Japanese girl anime, and its philosophical concepts of Japanese amine. This paper focuses on girls' sport anime "Sport Guts,", which is the major philosophy of Japanese girl anime and centers on a girl who is enthusiastic about volleyball and makes an effort to compete in the World Series by focusing on girl anime b...

  9. Girl child and gender bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhry, D P

    1995-01-01

    This article identifies gender bias against female children and youth in India. Gender bias is based on centuries-old religious beliefs and sayings from ancient times. Discrimination is reflected in denial or ignorance of female children's educational, health, nutrition, and recreational needs. Female infanticide and selective abortion of female fetuses are other forms of discrimination. The task of eliminating or reducing gender bias will involve legal, developmental, political, and administrative measures. Public awareness needs to be created. There is a need to reorient the education and health systems and to advocate for gender equality. The government of India set the following goals for the 1990s: to protect the survival of the girl child and practice safe motherhood; to develop the girl child in general; and to protect vulnerable girl children in different circumstances and in special groups. The Health Authorities should monitor the laws carefully to assure marriage after the minimum age, ban sex determination of the fetus, and monitor the health and nutrition of pre-school girls and nursing and pregnant mothers. Mothers need to be encouraged to breast feed, and to breast feed equally between genders. Every village and slum area needs a mini health center. Maternal mortality must decline. Primary health centers and hospitals need more women's wards. Education must be universally accessible. Enrollments should be increased by educating rural tribal and slum parents, reducing distances between home and school, making curriculum more relevant to girls, creating more female teachers, and providing facilities and incentives for meeting the needs of girl students. Supplementary income could be provided to families for sending girls to school. Recreational activities must be free of gender bias. Dowry, sati, and devdasi systems should be banned.

  10. Food-and-beverage environment and procurement policies for healthier work environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Christopher D; Whitsel, Laurie P; Thorndike, Anne N; Marrow, Mary W; Otten, Jennifer J; Foster, Gary D; Carson, Jo Ann S; Johnson, Rachel K

    2014-06-01

    The importance of creating healthier work environments by providing healthy foods and beverages in worksite cafeterias, in on-site vending machines, and at meetings and conferences is drawing increasing attention. Large employers, federal and state governments, and hospital systems are significant purchasers and providers of food and beverages. The American Heart Association, federal government, and other organizations have created procurement standards to guide healthy purchasing by these entities. There is a need to review how procurement standards are currently implemented, to identify important minimum criteria for evaluating health and purchasing outcomes, and to recognize significant barriers and challenges to implementation, along with success stories. The purpose of this policy paper is to describe the role of food-and-beverage environment and procurement policy standards in creating healthier worksite environments; to review recently created national model standards; to identify elements across the standards that are important to consider for incorporation into policies; and to delineate issues to address as standards are implemented across the country. © 2014 International Life Sciences Institute.

  11. Family food involvement is related to healthier dietary intake in preschool-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Jessica Jarick; Fiese, Barbara H

    2018-03-27

    Children in the United States fall far short of meeting federal dietary recommendations. The unhealthy diets common amongst young children are of crucial public health concern, given that they can inhibit healthy development and are predictive of chronic diseases in adulthood. Research investigating behaviors that are related to dietary habits is crucial to allow a better understanding of the causes of unhealthy dietary practices. Involvement in food preparation is known to be associated with healthy dietary behaviors in school-aged children, but little is known about these behaviors and their correlates in younger children. The present study sought to examine the influences and correlates of involvement in family food preparation in children at ages three and four. Parents of preschool aged children (n = 497) completed surveys including information about demographic background, their children's family food involvement, dietary intake, mealtime routines, and problematic eating behaviors. Data were collected when children were three (wave one of the survey) and four years of age (wave two). Findings from this study indicate that family food involvement at age three is predictive of healthier dietary intake at age four (increased consumption of fruits and vegetables, decreased consumption of fast food). These findings indicate that family food involvement is predictive of healthier dietary behaviors in young children, and that outreach efforts focused on family food involvement in early childhood may improve children's dietary habits. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Consumer evaluations of processed meat products reformulated to be healthier - A conjoint analysis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Liran C; De Brún, Aoife; Henchion, Maeve; Li, Chenguang; Murrin, Celine; Wall, Patrick G; Monahan, Frank J

    2017-09-01

    Recent innovations in processed meats focus on healthier reformulations through reducing negative constituents and/or adding health beneficial ingredients. This study explored the influence of base meat product (ham, sausages, beef burger), salt and/or fat content (reduced or not), healthy ingredients (omega 3, vitamin E, none), and price (average or higher than average) on consumers' purchase intention and quality judgement of processed meats. A survey (n=481) using conjoint methodology and cluster analysis was conducted. Price and base meat product were most important for consumers' purchase intention, followed by healthy ingredient and salt and/or fat content. In reformulation, consumers had a preference for ham and sausages over beef burgers, and for reduced salt and/or fat over non reduction. In relation to healthy ingredients, omega 3 was preferred over none, and vitamin E was least preferred. Healthier reformulations improved the perceived healthiness of processed meats. Cluster analyses identified three consumer segments with different product preferences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Enhanced auditory arousal increases intake of less palatable and healthier foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Privitera, Gregory J; Diaz, Melissa; Haas, Meagan C

    2014-01-23

    Two experiments were conducted to test a prediction of the arousal hypothesis that increased arousal will increase intake of less palatable and healthy foods. In both experiments, arousal was manipulated by adjusting the volume of a movie (soft, loud volume) while participants consumed foods. In Experiment 1, participants ate fresh (palatable) or stale (less palatable) popcorn during a 9-minute movie played at a soft or loud volume. Experiment 2 used the same procedures with healthier foods (carrot sticks and apple slices). Partial support for the arousal hypothesis in Experiment 1 showed that participants consumed more stale but not fresh popcorn in the loud (high arousal) versus soft (low arousal) volume group. These findings suggest that low but not high palatable foods are susceptible to manipulations of arousal. Consistent with this interpretation, Experiment 2 showed that high but not low environmental arousal increased intake of the fruits and vegetables, which are typically rated as lower in palatability compared to high fat foods. These results show that high arousal in an eating-typical environment increases intake of less palatable foods, and healthy foods (i.e., fruits and vegetables). Increasing the availability of healthier foods in a loud food environment can have a positive impact on increasing intake of fruits and vegetables in that environment.

  14. Quantitative 89Zr immuno-PET for in vivo scouting of 90Y-labeled monoclonal antibodies in xenograft-bearing nude mice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verel, I.; Visser, G.W.; Boellaard, R.; Boerman, O.C.; Eerd-Vismale, J.E.M. van; Snow, G.B.; Lammertsma, A.A.; Dongen, G.A.M.S. van

    2003-01-01

    Immuno-PET as a scouting procedure before radioimmunotherapy (RIT) aims at the confirmation of tumor targeting and the accurate estimation of radiation dose delivery to both tumor and normal tissues. Immuno-PET with (89)Zr-labeled monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and (90)Y-mAb RIT might form such a

  15. Blood pressure changes associated with sibutramine and weight management - an analysis from the 6-week lead-in period of the sibutramine cardiovascular outcomes trial (SCOUT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, A M; Caterson, I D; Coutinho, W

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore vital sign changes among patient subgroups during the 6-week lead-in period of the sibutramine cardiovascular outcomes (SCOUT) trial. METHODS: SCOUT is an ongoing, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled outcome trial in overweight/obese patients at high risk of a cardi......OBJECTIVE: To explore vital sign changes among patient subgroups during the 6-week lead-in period of the sibutramine cardiovascular outcomes (SCOUT) trial. METHODS: SCOUT is an ongoing, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled outcome trial in overweight/obese patients at high risk...... of a cardiovascular event. During the 6-week lead-in period, 10,742 patients received sibutramine and weight management. Vital sign changes were assessed post hoc by initial blood pressure (mmHg) categorized as normal (or=140/>or=90); weight change...... categories (weight gain/no weight change, >0 to 2.5% weight loss, >2.5 to 5% weight loss and >5% weight loss) and current antihypertensive medication class use (none, one, or two or more). To assess the impact of sibutramine on blood pressure and pulse rate, only patients (N = 10,025) who reported no change...

  16. Redskins in Bluecoats: A Strategic and Cultural Analysis of General George Crooks Use of Apache Scouts in the Second Apache Campaign, 1882-1886

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-31

    Scouts ...................................................................... .44 Figure 7. Captain John Gregory Bourke ...John Gregory Bourke (see Figure 7), served with him "for more than 15 years ... as a member of his military staff.,,3o Following his retirement, Bourke ...Bureau of Indian affairs. John Bourke said of Crook in an obituary, "The story of his administration of Indian Affairs in that, as in every other

  17. Tracer measurements in the tropical tropopause layer during the AMMA/SCOUT-O3 aircraft campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. D. Homan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available We present airborne in situ measurements made during the AMMA (African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis/SCOUT-O3 campaign between 31 July and 17 August 2006 on board the M55 Geophysica aircraft, based in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. CO2 and N2O were measured with the High Altitude Gas Analyzer (HAGAR, CO was measured with the Cryogenically Operated Laser Diode (COLD instrument, and O3 with the Fast Ozone ANalyzer (FOZAN.

    We analyse the data obtained during five local flights to study the dominant transport processes controlling the tropical tropopause layer (TTL, here ~350–375 K and lower stratosphere above West-Africa: deep convection up to the level of main convective outflow, overshooting of deep convection, and horizontal inmixing across the subtropical tropopause. Besides, we examine the morphology of the stratospheric subtropical barrier.

    Except for the flight of 13 August, distinct minima in CO2 mixing ratios indicate convective outflow of boundary layer air in the TTL. The CO2 profiles show that the level of main convective outflow was mostly located at potential temperatures between 350 and 360 K, and for 11 August reached up to 370 K.

    While the CO2 minima indicate quite significant convective influence, the O3 profiles suggest that the observed convective signatures were mostly not fresh, but of older origin (several days or more. When compared with the mean O3 profile measured during a previous campaign over Darwin in November 2005, the O3 minimum at the main convective outflow level was less pronounced over Ouagadougou. Furthermore O3 mixing ratios were much higher throughout the whole TTL and, unlike over Darwin, rarely showed low values observed in the regional boundary layer.

    Signatures of irreversible mixing following overshooting of convective air were scarce in the tracer data. Some

  18. Epidemiology and Outcomes of Lisfranc Injuries Identified at the National Football League Scouting Combine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHale, Kevin J; Vopat, Bryan G; Beaulieu-Jones, Brendin R; Sanchez, George; Whalen, James M; McDonald, Lucas S; DiGiovanni, Christopher W; Theodore, George H; Provencher, Matthew T

    2017-07-01

    Lisfranc injuries are challenging to treat and may have a detrimental effect on athletic performance. (1) Determine the epidemiological characteristics of Lisfranc injuries at the annual National Football League (NFL) Scouting Combine, (2) define player positions at risk for these injuries, and (3) evaluate the impact that these injuries and radiographic findings have on NFL draft position and performance. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. All players who sustained a Lisfranc injury prior to Combine evaluation between 2009 and 2015 were evaluated. The epidemiological characteristics, player positions affected, treatment methods, and number of missed collegiate games were recorded. Radiographic outcomes were analyzed via Combine radiograph findings, while NFL performance outcomes were assessed for all Lisfranc injuries (2009-2013) compared with matched controls in the first 2 years of play. A total of 41 of 2162 (1.8%) Combine participants were identified with Lisfranc injuries, of whom 26 of 41 (63.4%) were managed operatively. Players who underwent surgery were more likely to go undrafted compared with players managed nonoperatively (38.5% vs 13.3%, operative vs nonoperative management, respectively; P = .04) and featured a worse NFL draft pick position (155.6 vs 109; P = .03). Lisfranc-injured players when compared with controls were noted to have worse outcomes in terms of NFL draft position (142 vs 111.3, Lisfranc-injured players vs controls, respectively; P = .04), NFL career length 2 years or longer (62.5% vs 69.6%; P = .23), and number of games played (16.9 vs 23.3; P = .001) and started (6.8 vs 10.5; P = .08) within the first 2 years of their NFL career. Radiographs demonstrated that 17 of 41 (41.5%) athletes had residual Lisfranc joint displacement greater than 2 mm compared with the contralateral foot. Lisfranc-injured athletes with greater than 2 mm residual displacement, when compared with matched controls, had worse draft position (156.9 vs 111.2 for

  19. Promoting healthier children's meals at quick-service and full-service restaurants: Results from a pilot and feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Nanette V; Folta, Sara C; Glenn, Meaghan E; Lynskey, Vanessa M; Patel, Anjali A; Anzman-Frasca, Stephanie

    2017-10-01

    High-calorie restaurant foods contribute to childhood overweight. Increased consumer demand for healthier kids' meals may motivate the restaurant industry to provide additional healthy options. This study pilot-tested a combination of four strategies (toy incentive, placemats, server prompts, signage) designed to increase demand for healthier kids' meals, which were defined as those eligible for the National Restaurant Association's Kids LiveWell program. Relative sales of healthier kids' meals were examined before (n = 3473 total kids' meal orders) and during Month 1 (n = 3546 total kids' meal orders) and Month 2 of implementation (n = 3645 total kids' meal orders) of an 8-week intervention in two locations each of a quick-service (QSR) and full-service (FSR) restaurant chain. Convenience samples of children (n = 27) and their parents (n = 28) were surveyed regarding parent and child perceptions of intervention components. Findings regarding the effectiveness and feasibility of the intervention were mixed. At the FSRs, the relative percentage of monthly sales from healthier kids' meals increased from 5.0% of kids' meal orders at baseline to 8.3% during Month 1, ending at 6.4% during Month 2. At the QSRs, the relative percentage of monthly sales from healthier kids' entrees decreased from 27.5% at baseline to 25.2% during Month 1, ending at 25.9% during Month 2. Implementation quality tracking showed that consistent implementation of intervention components was a challenge; parent- and child-reported awareness of intervention components supported this finding. Future directions are discussed, aiming to build upon these findings and maximize the feasibility, effectiveness, and sustainability of efforts to promote healthier eating in restaurants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Girl child and family in Maharashtra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, D

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the problems of the girl child at the family level in India. Analysis is based on a field study in Maharashtra state and other studies included in a government report on the "Girl Child and the Family." The family context strongly impacts child growth and development. Evidence indicates that a girl child faces discrimination and inequality. Every sixth female death is attributed to gender discrimination. Household tasks prevent girls' school enrollment. Children learn role expectations at home. Daughters are taught their duties and obligations as if they were a piece of property. 25% of the parents in the sample considered a girl's birth with indifference and unhappiness. In 11% of cases, girls were not immunized at all. Breast feeding was short. 31.8% of mothers and 25% of in-laws expected the girl's birth to be a boy. 98.2% of mothers did not rely on sex determination of the fetus. Almost 60% of households did not restrict smiling or crying among boys or girls. 70% restricted laughing loudly. 42.4% restricted only girls' laughing out loud. 17% restricted girls' smiling or crying. 46.5% restricted girls' movement to the house. 42% did not allow daughters to speak to the opposite sex. 17% restricted access to the market for daughters. Girls were encouraged to cook, stitch, and dance. 60% of girls preferred to spend time with girl friends. Boys had better access to movies. 57% of girls spent time on housework. 47% became gender aware from mass media. Most felt frightened at menstruation. 88% of girls thought that all should equally attain the same level of education. Girls received an equal share of food and health care. 87% of girls did not work for wages. Those who worked did not control their income.

  1. Menstrual hygiene among adolescent girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Sharma

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Menstruation and menstrual practices are still clouded by taboos and socio-cultural restrictions resulting in adolescent girls remaining ignorant of the scientific facts and hygienic health practices, which sometimes result into adverse health outcomes. Objective: To assess knowledge and practice regarding menstrual hygiene before and after teaching program among adolescent girls. Materials and Methods: A true experimental study was conducted among 50 adolescent girls of a secondary school situated in the Bhaniyawala of Dehradun district, Uttarakhand, with the help of a pre-designed and pre-tested questionnaire. Participants were randomly assigned into control (n=25 and experimental group (n=25. Adolescent girls from both groups were assessed for knowledge and practice regarding menstrual hygiene on day 1 and on 15th day.  Participants of experimental group were administered educational programme regarding menstrual hygiene on day 1 after assessment for knowledge and practice regarding menstrual hygiene. Data were analysed statistically by simple proportions. Results: The mean age of the adolescent girl was 13.88± 1.5 and age of menarche 12.74±0.98. Out of 50, 32 (64% mothers’ of adolescent girls were educated at graduate level.  The mean pre-test knowledge and practice in experimental group 8.04±1.54, 3.52±1.0 and control group 8.02±2.0, 3.24±1.0 respectively. The level of knowledge and practice regarding menstrual hygiene of subjects who participated in educational program was significantly better than that of the control group. Conclusions: Menstrual hygiene, a very important risk factor for reproductive tract infections, is a vital aspect of health education for adolescent girls. Educational television programmes, trained school nurses/health personnel, motivated school teachers and knowledgeable parents can play a very important role in transmitting the vital message of correct menstrual hygiene to the

  2. Vulnerable girls and dangerous boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Ann-Karina Eske

    2017-01-01

    , and young people’s experiences of confinement. Drawing on Foucauldian power analytics and post-structuralist feminist theory on subjectivity, the study finds that the disciplining practices are gendered to promote working-class masculinity for boys and normative femininity and (hetero)sexuality for girls......, with minorizing effects on some boys and girls. The study provides unique insights from a gender-integrated context for confined young people and supplements scholarship on the gendered logics that underpin interventions operating within the penal–social work nexus....

  3. Healthier side dishes at restaurants: an analysis of children's perspectives, menu content, and energy impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzman-Frasca, Stephanie; Dawes, Franciel; Sliwa, Sarah; Dolan, Peter R; Nelson, Miriam E; Washburn, Kyle; Economos, Christina D

    2014-07-04

    Children consume restaurant-prepared foods at high rates, suggesting that interventions and policies targeting consumption of these foods have the potential to improve diet quality and attenuate excess energy intake. One approach to encouraging healthier dietary intake in restaurants is to offer fruits and vegetables (FV) as side dishes, as opposed to traditional, energy-dense accompaniments like French fries. The aims of the current study were to examine: children's views about healthier side dishes at restaurants; current side dish offerings on children's menus at leading restaurants; and potential energy reductions when substituting FV side dishes in place of French fries. To investigate children's attitudes, a survey was administered to a nationally representative sample of U.S. 8- to 18-year-olds (n = 1178). To examine current side dish offerings, children's menus from leading quick service (QSR; n = 10) and full service restaurant chains (FSR; n = 10) were analyzed. Energy reductions that could result from substituting commonly-offered FV side dishes for French fries were estimated using nutrition information corresponding to the children's menu items. Two-thirds of children reported that they would not feel negatively about receiving FV sides instead of French fries with kids' meals. Liking/taste was the most common reason that children gave to explain their attitudes about FV side dishes. Nearly all restaurants offered at least 1 FV side dish option, but at most restaurants (60% of QSR; 70% of FSR), FV sides were never served by default. Substituting FV side dishes for French fries yielded an average estimated energy reduction of at least 170 calories. Results highlight some healthy trends in the restaurant context, including the majority of children reporting non-negative attitudes about FV side dishes and the consistent availability of FV side dish options at leading QSR and FSR. Yet the minority of restaurants offer these FV sides by default

  4. Girls Just Being Girls? Mediating Relational Aggression and Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radliff, Kisha M.; Joseph, Laurice M.

    2011-01-01

    Although physical aggression has received much attention in the literature, relational aggression has only been explored in the past decade or so. This is problematic given that relational aggression is increasingly prevalent among middle school girls and has become a cause for alarm, as this phenomenon leads to several negative psychological,…

  5. Preparing Girls for Menstruation: Recommendations from Adolescent Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koff, Elissa; Rierdan, Jill

    1995-01-01

    Ninth-grade girls (n=157) rated their own experience of menarche and answered 4 open-ended questions. Responses suggested several ways that early preparation could be revised, and supported a conceptualization of menstrual education as a long-term, continuous process, beginning well before menarche and continuing long after. (JPS)

  6. Search for Resonances Decaying to Dijet Final States at $\\sqrt{s} = 8$ TeV with Scouting Data

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    A search for resonances decaying to dijet final states is performed in pp collisions at a center-of-mass energy $\\sqrt{s}=8$ TeV. Using a loose online data selection and a reduced data format collected with a novel technique called $\\textit{data scouting}$, the search extends to low-mass values, testing previously unprobed low couplings. No evidence for a signal is found. The result is interpreted as upper limits on the production cross section as a function of the resonance mass. These limits are translated into an upper limit on the resonance coupling, allowing a comparison with results obtained in the same mass region at lower collision energies.

  7. The Near Earth Object Scout Spacecraft: A Low Cost Approach to in-situ Characterization of the NEO Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koontz, Steven L.; Condon, Gerald; Graham, Lee; Bevilacqua, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we describe a micro/nano satellite spacecraft and a supporting mission profile and architecture designed to enable preliminary in-situ characterization of a significant number of Near Earth Objects (NEOs) at reasonable cost. The spacecraft will be referred to as the NEO Scout. NEO Scout spacecraft are to be placed in GTO, GEO, or cis-lunar space as secondary payloads on launch vehicles headed for GTO or beyond and will begin their mission after deployment from the launcher. A distinguishing key feature of the NEO scout system is to design the mission timeline and spacecraft to rendezvous with and land on the target NEOs during close approach to the Earth-Moon system using low-thrust/high- impulse propulsion systems. Mission feasibility and preliminary design analysis are presented along with detailed trajectory calculations. The use of micro/nano satellites in low-cost interplanetary exploration is attracting increasing attention and is the subject of several annual workshops and published design studies (1-4). The NEO population consists of those asteroids and short period comets orbiting the Sun with a perihelion of 1.3 astronomical units or less (5-8). As of July 30, 2013 10065 Near-Earth objects have been discovered. The spin rate, mass, density, surface physical (especially mechanical) properties, composition, and mineralogy of the vast majority of these objects are highly uncertain and the limited available telescopic remote sensing data imply a very diverse population (5-8). In-situ measurements by robotic spacecraft are urgently needed to provide the characterization data needed to support hardware and mission design for more ambitious human and robotic NEO operations. Large numbers of NEOs move into close proximity with the Earth-Moon system every year (9). The JPL Near-Earth Object Human Space Flight Accessible Targets Study (NHATS) (10) has produced detailed mission profile and delta V requirements for various NEO missions ranging from 30

  8. Evaluation of dietary Intake and Food Patterns of Adolescent Girls in Sistan and Baluchistan Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Montazerifar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The evidence suggests a relationship between lifestyle and diet-related risk factors.Objective: This study assessed the dietary intake and habits of high school girls in Sistan and Bluchistan province, in southeastern Iran.Methods: In a cross-sectional, descriptive study, 753 high school girls aged 14-18 years old wereenrolled by a clustered random sampling method. Dietary intake and food habits were evaluatedby a two-day, 24-hour dietary recall, and a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ.Results: The analysis of dietary intakes showed that energy, calcium, zinc, vitamin C and folate intake, compared to the Dietary Reference Intake (DRI, were found to be lower. The, infrequent intake of milk and dairy products, fruits and vegetables, and a high consumption of empty calorie foods e.g. salty snacks, sweets, soft drinks and junk foods were seen among adolescents.Conclusions: The adolescent girls had an improper dietary intake and food habits. Thus, the implementation of nutrition education programs in schools and the designing of proper patternstowards healthier food choices could help improve eating behaviors, the health maintenance of adolescents, and also prevent diet- related diseases in adulthood.

  9. The global health law trilogy: towards a safer, healthier, and fairer world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gostin, Lawrence O; DeBartolo, Mary Clare; Katz, Rebecca

    2017-10-21

    Global health advocates often turn to medicine and science for solutions to enduring health risks, but law is also a powerful tool. No state acting alone can ward off health threats that span borders, requiring international solutions. A trilogy of global health law-the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, International Health Regulations (2005), and Pandemic Influenza Preparedness Framework-strives for a safer, healthier, and fairer world. Yet, these international agreements are not well understood, and contain gaps in scope and enforceability. Moreover, major health concerns remain largely unregulated at the international level, such as non-communicable diseases, mental health, and injuries. Here, we offer reforms for this global health law trilogy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Convenience store visits by US adolescents: Rationale for healthier retail environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders-Jackson, Ashley; Parikh, Nina M; Schleicher, Nina C; Fortmann, Stephen P; Henriksen, Lisa

    2015-07-01

    Given interest in the public health impact of convenience stores, it is surprising that so little is known about the popularity of these destinations for youth. We surveyed 2772 adolescents (age 13-16) from a nationally representative web panel of US households. Nearly half (47.5%) of adolescents reported visiting convenience stores at least weekly. Significant risk factors for frequent visits were age, being African-American, living in rural areas and in areas with higher levels of neighborhood deprivation. With approximately 4.1 million US adolescents visiting convenience stores at least weekly, new policies and other interventions are needed to promote a healthier retail environment for youth. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Are fish eaters healthier and do they consume less health-care resources?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hostenkamp, Gisela; Sørensen, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Regular dietary intake of fish is associated with reduced risk of developing cardiovascular and other chronic diseases, and may improve general well-being. If fish eaters are healthier, they may use fewer health-care resources. The present study aimed to describe the reported intake...... of fish and fish products in a Danish general population, and to investigate whether fish consumption is associated with generic measures of self-reported health and consumption of health-care resources. Design: Data on eating patterns and health status for 3422 Danish adults were obtained by telephone...... interview in the Funen County Health Survey. These data were merged with individual-level register data on health-care utilisation. Survey respondents were categorised into those consuming fish at least once weekly (fish eaters) and those consuming fish less frequently (non-fish eaters). Results: People who...

  12. The Effect of Copper on the Color of Shrimps: Redder Is Not Always Healthier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Ana; Romero, Yanet; Castillo, Tania; Mascaró, Maite; López-Rull, Isabel; Simões, Nuno; Arcega-Cabrera, Flor; Gaxiola, Gabriela; Barbosa, Andrés

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this research is to test the effects of copper on the color of pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) in vivo. Forty-eight shrimps (L. vannamei) were exposed to a low concentration of copper (1 mg/L; experimental treatment) and forty-eight shrimps were used as controls (no copper added to the water). As a result of this experiment, it was found that shrimps with more copper are significantly redder than those designated as controls (hue (500–700 nm): P = 0.0015; red chroma (625–700 nm): P<0.0001). These results indicate that redder color may result from exposure to copper and challenge the commonly held view that highly pigmented shrimps are healthier than pale shrimps. PMID:25229639

  13. The impact of tax reforms designed to encourage healthier grain consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordström, Leif Jonas; Thunström, Linda

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we simulate the effects of tax reforms aimed at encouraging healthier grain consumption. We use a rich data set on household grain consumption in 2003 from the market research institute GfK Sweden, combined with information on the nutritional content of the consumption.We estimate...... behavioral parameters, which are used to simulate the impact on the average household of tax reforms entailing either a subsidy on commodities particularly rich in fiber or a subsidy of the fiber density in grain products. Our results suggest that to direct the fiber intake towards nutritional...... recommendations, reforms with a substantial impact on consumer prices are required. Regardless of the type of subsidy implemented, the increase in the intake of fiber is accompanied by unwanted increases in nutrients that are often overconsumed: fat, salt and sugar. Funding the subsidies by taxing these nutrients...

  14. The impact of tax reforms designed to encourage healthier grain consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordström, Leif Jonas; Thunström, Linda

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we simulate the effects of tax reforms aimed at encouraging healthier grain consumption. We use a rich data set on household grain consumption in 2003 from the market research institute GfK Sweden, combined with information on the nutritional content of the consumption. We estimate...... behavioral parameters, which are used to simulate the impact on the average household of tax reforms entailing either a subsidy on commodities particularly rich in fiber or a subsidy of the fiber density in grain products. Our results suggest that to direct the fiber intake towards nutritional...... recommendations, reforms with a substantial impact on consumer prices are required. Regardless of the type of subsidy implemented, the increase in the intake of fiber is accompanied by unwanted increases in nutrients that are often overconsumed: fat, salt and sugar. Funding the subsidies by taxing these nutrients...

  15. Tailoring Grain Storage Reserves for a Healthier Rice Diet and its Comparative Status with Other Cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butardo, Vito M; Sreenivasulu, Nese

    2016-01-01

    A global rise of diet-related noncommunicable diseases calls for a focus on diet-based nutritional intervention across the entire socioeconomic consumer spectrum. We review recent reports in the area of healthier rice aimed at developing rice grains with improved dietary fiber compositions (increased amounts of nonstarch polysaccharides and resistant starch), and less digestible starch (higher amylose and phospholipid complex in the endosperm) resulting in reduced glycemic impact upon grain consumption. We furthermore elaborate on the interconnections of elevated amounts of protein and a balanced composition of essential amino acids. The importance of a nutritious aleurone layer and its role in lipid storage and micronutrient composition is discussed briefly in the context of brown rice benefits. We identify gene targets for precision breeding that will facilitate the production of rice grains and rice-based products to mitigate the impact of nutrition-related preventable diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Radiation Dose Reduction in CT Fluoroscopy-Guided Cervical Transforaminal Epidural Steroid Injection by Modifying Scout and Planning Steps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paik, Nam Chull, E-mail: pncspine@gmail.com [Arumdaun Wooldul Spine Hospital, Department of Radiology (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    Background and PurposeIn CT fluoroscopy (CTF)-guided cervical transforaminal epidural steroid injection (TFESI), the majority of radiation dose is contributed by the planning CT scan rather than the CTF procedure itself. We replaced the planning helical CT with a spot CTF and accordingly changed the patient posture during scout and planning scans. The aim of this study was to test whether radiation dose reduction would be achieved by this protocol modification while still maintaining technical performance.MethodsOverall, 338 consecutive procedures before (control group: n = 163) and after (study group: n = 175) instituting the above-mentioned protocol modification were analyzed retrospectively, comparing patient characteristics (age, sex, neck diameter, and level injected) and technical performance [technical success rate, dose-length product (DLP), inadvertent contrast flow incidence, number of CTF acquisitions, and procedural time] between the two groups.ResultsAll injections were technically successful at every level from C3–C4 to C7–T1 without serious complications in both groups. The median DLP of the study group (7.92 mGy·cm) was significantly reduced compared to that of the control group (39.05 mGy·cm, P < 0.001). There were no significant differences between the two groups regarding the incidence of inadvertent contrast flow (20.6 vs. 17.2 %, P = 0.426), number of CTF acquisitions (median 5 vs. 4, P = 0.123), and the procedural time (median 6.62 vs. 6.90 min, P = 0.100).ConclusionsWhen conducting CTF-guided cervical TFESIs, a significant radiation dose reduction (median 79.7 % in DLP) can be achieved by modifying scout and planning steps, without compromising the technical performance.

  17. Women, Girls, and Binge Drinking

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-08-01

    Bob Brewer, CDC's Alcohol Program Director, goes on the air to discuss the problem of binge drinking among women and girls.  Created: 8/1/2013 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 8/1/2013.

  18. Django Girls 2017 Workshop Saturday

    CERN Multimedia

    Lapka, Marzena

    2017-01-01

    On 7th and 8th April 2017 CERN welcomed its second Django Girls Geneva event at IdeaSquare. The workshop was organised by the CERN IT Department, Diversity and Local Engagement teams. Many volunteered helped to make it happen.

  19. Making Science Appeal to Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrea, Bridget

    2011-01-01

    It is no secret that many girls seem disinterested in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM), but strategies for building their interest are sometimes elusive. Because STEM career paths are not always perceived as "natural" for women, educators do no't always push their female students to explore these educational areas. As a…

  20. Girls' Bodies, Drama and Unruliness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, Alison

    2014-01-01

    This article examines some of the performance outcomes from a practised-based research project that took place with adolescent girls attending an after-school drama club. Participants experimented with slapstick humour in a series of workshops, before presenting their own devised physical comedy performance for a live audience. Comic performances…

  1. Food Sustainability Education as a Route to Healthier Eating: Evaluation of a Multi-Component School Programme in English Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M.; Dailami, N.; Weitkamp, E.; Salmon, D.; Kimberlee, R.; Morley, A.; Orme, J.

    2012-01-01

    Promising approaches to the promotion of healthier eating among children in primary school settings include the opportunity to practise practical cooking and growing, promoting the take up of healthier school meals and nutritional education. However, less is known about the potential for strategies that integrate approaches through a focus on food…

  2. Alliance for a Healthier Generation's Competitive Beverage and Food Guidelines: Do Elementary School Administrators Know about Them and Do They Report Implementing Them?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam; Turner, Lindsey; Chaloupka, Frank J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The availability of competitive foods in schools is a modifiable factor in efforts to prevent childhood obesity. The Alliance for a Healthier Generation launched the Healthy Schools Program in 2006 to encourage schools to create healthier food environments, including the adoption of nutritional guidelines for competitive beverages and…

  3. Healthier fast-food options – Are consumers happy with the price they pay and the value that they receive?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Gopaul

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Changes in consumer lifestyle patterns have had a great impact on the fast-food industry worldwide and the demand for heathier food has forced such a growing industry to offer more alternatives to cater for these consumers. Many fast-food outlets have introduced healthier food options to their menus. However, there seems to be a common perception among consumers that healthier food options are more expensive. The primary research aim that pended from the literature was therefore to determine South African consumers’ level of satisfaction with the price and value of the healthier food options available at fast-food outlets. The results may assist fast-food outlets in adjusting their pricing strategy and offering consumers better value for money. A mixed method approach was used to collect data whereby self-administered questionnaires comprising of closed-ended, open-ended and scaled response questions were distributed to respondents. The findings indicated a low level of satisfaction among South African consumers’ with the price and value of healthier options offered at fast-food outlet

  4. A comprehensive worksite wellness program in Austin, Texas: partnership between Steps to a Healthier Austin and Capital Metropolitan Transportation Authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Lynn; Loyo, Karina; Glowka, Aerie; Schwertfeger, Rick; Danielson, Lisa; Brea, Cecily; Easton, Alyssa; Griffin-Blake, Shannon

    2009-04-01

    In 2003, Steps to a Healthier Austin was funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to implement chronic disease prevention and health promotion activities. We report Steps to a Healthier Austin's partnership with Health & Lifestyles Corporate Wellness, Inc (Health & Lifestyles), to provide a worksite wellness program for Capital Metropolitan Transportation Authority (Capital Metro), Austin's local transit authority. Capital Metro employs 1,282 people. In 2003, Health & Lifestyles was hired to help promote healthier lifestyles, increase employee morale, and combat rising health care costs and absenteeism rates. Health & Lifestyles provided consultations with wellness coaches and personal trainers, a 24-hour company fitness center, personalized health assessments, and preventive screenings. The program expanded to include healthier food options, cash incentives, health newsletters, workshops, dietary counseling, smoking cessation programs, and a second fitness center. Participants in the wellness program reported improvements in physical activity, healthy food consumption, weight loss, and blood pressure. Capital Metro's total health care costs increased by progressively smaller rates from 2003 to 2006 and then decreased from 2006 to 2007. Absenteeism has decreased by approximately 25% since the implementation of the program, and the overall return on the investment was calculated to be 2.43. Since the implementation of the wellness program in 2003, Capital Metro has seen a reduction in costs associated with employee health care and absenteeism.

  5. Do healthier foods and diet patterns cost more than less healthy options? A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Mayuree; Afshin, Ashkan; Singh, Gitanjali; Mozaffarian, Dariush

    2013-01-01

    Objective To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of prices of healthier versus less healthy foods/diet patterns while accounting for key sources of heterogeneity. Data sources MEDLINE (2000–2011), supplemented with expert consultations and hand reviews of reference lists and related citations. Design Studies reviewed independently and in duplicate were included if reporting mean retail price of foods or diet patterns stratified by healthfulness. We extracted, in duplicate, mean prices and their uncertainties of healthier and less healthy foods/diet patterns and rated the intensity of health differences for each comparison (range 1–10). Prices were adjusted for inflation and the World Bank purchasing power parity, and standardised to the international dollar (defined as US$1) in 2011. Using random effects models, we quantified price differences of healthier versus less healthy options for specific food types, diet patterns and units of price (serving, day and calorie). Statistical heterogeneity was quantified using I2 statistics. Results 27 studies from 10 countries met the inclusion criteria. Among food groups, meats/protein had largest price differences: healthier options cost $0.29/serving (95% CI $0.19 to $0.40) and $0.47/200 kcal ($0.42 to $0.53) more than less healthy options. Price differences per serving for healthier versus less healthy foods were smaller among grains ($0.03), dairy (−$0.004), snacks/sweets ($0.12) and fats/oils ($0.02; p<0.05 each) and not significant for soda/juice ($0.11, p=0.64). Comparing extremes (top vs bottom quantile) of food-based diet patterns, healthier diets cost $1.48/day ($1.01 to $1.95) and $1.54/2000 kcal ($1.15 to $1.94) more. Comparing nutrient-based patterns, price per day was not significantly different (top vs bottom quantile: $0.04; p=0.916), whereas price per 2000 kcal was $1.56 ($0.61 to $2.51) more. Adjustment for intensity of differences in healthfulness yielded similar results. Conclusions

  6. Middle School Girls' Envisioned Future in Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Experience is necessary but not sufficient to cause girls to envision a future career in computing. This study investigated the experiences and attitudes of girls who had taken three years of mandatory computer science classes in an all-girls setting in middle school, measured at the end of eighth grade. The one third of participants who were open…

  7. Maternal Characteristics Predicting Young Girls' Disruptive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Molen, Elsa; Hipwell, Alison E.; Vermeiren, Robert; Loeber, Rolf

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the relative predictive utility of maternal characteristics and parenting skills on the development of girls' disruptive behavior. The current study used five waves of parent- and child-report data from the ongoing Pittsburgh Girls Study to examine these relationships in a sample of 1,942 girls from age 7 to 12 years.…

  8. Girls and Computer Technology: Barrier or Key?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gipson, Joella

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the disparity in numbers of girls and boys taking math, science, and computer classes in elementary and secondary schools, and examines steps being taken to better prepare girls, especially minority girls, for an increasingly technical society. A program in Michigan is described that involved a school and business partnership. (LRW)

  9. The Meaning of Home for Runaway Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peled, Einat; Muzicant, Amit

    2008-01-01

    This naturalistic qualitative study examines the concept of "home" for runaway girls. Through the "home story" of girls who run away from home, the authors hoped to understand the many facets of home, as well as broaden the existing knowledge-base about the phenomenon of adolescent runaway girls. Data consisted of in-depth interviews with 15 girls…

  10. His Majesty Carl XVI Gustav, King of Sweden, Honorary President of the World Scout Foundation, and about 80 fellows, on the occasion of the 48th World Baden-Powell Fellowship Event on Saturday, 18th September 2004

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loiez

    2004-01-01

    His Majesty Carl XVI Gustav, King of Sweden, Honorary President of the World Scout Foundation, and about 80 fellows, on the occasion of the 48th World Baden-Powell Fellowship Event on Saturday, 18th September 2004

  11. Listening to Girls and Boys Talk about Girls' Physical Activity Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Maihan B.; Murrie, Dale; Gonzalez, Vivian; Jobe, Jared B.

    2006-01-01

    As part of the formative assessment for the Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls (TAAG), a multicenter study to reduce the decline of physical activity in adolescent girls, girls and boys with diverse ethnicity from six states participated in focus groups and semistructured interviews. Data from 13 girls' focus groups (N = 100), 11 boys' focus…

  12. Girls Talk Math - Engaging Girls Through Math Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Francesca; Morgan, Katrina

    2017-11-01

    ``Girls Talk Math: Engaging Girls through Math Media'' is a free two-week long summer day camp for high-school girls in the Triangle area of NC. This past June the camp had its second run thanks to renewed funding from the Mathematical Association of America Tensor Women and Mathematics Grant. The camp involved 35 local high-school students who identify as female. Campers complete challenging problem sets and research the life of a female scientist who worked on similar problems. They report their work in a blog post and record a podcast about the scientist they researched. The curriculum has been developed by Mathematics graduate students at UNC from an inquiry based learning perspective; problem sets topics include some theoretical mathematics, but also more applied physics-based material. Campers worked on fluid dynamics, special relativity, and quantum mechanics problem sets which included experiments. The camp has received positive feedback from the local community and the second run saw a large increase in the number of participants. The program is evaluated using pre and post surveys, which measure campers' confidence and interest in pursuing higher level courses in STEM. The results from the past two summers have been encouraging. Mathematical Association of America Tensor Women and Mathematics Grant.

  13. Galactocele in a Prepubertal Girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaniz, Veronica I; Jeudy, Myrlene; Pearlman, Mark; Quint, Elisabeth H

    2017-08-01

    Galactoceles have been previously described as an unusual cause of benign breast enlargement in male infants and children. A 3-year-old prepubertal girl presented with a right-sided breast mass and was found to have a 4.4-cm hypoechoic cyst on ultrasound imaging with otherwise normal endocrine studies including prolactin levels. She underwent cyst aspiration which revealed milky fluid. Fat globules were identified with microscopic examination, confirming the diagnosis of a galactocele. Aspiration resolved the mass. The etiology of galactoceles in nonlactating women is poorly understood. Traditionally, treatment of these benign cysts in male children has been surgical excision. In prepubertal girls, conservative management by surveillance or needle aspiration is warranted to prevent damage to developing breast tissue. Copyright © 2017 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Girl child and social change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, P

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the state of social change and the disparity between India's Constitutional aims and actual practice in addressing gender inequality and the special risks of female children in India. The second part of this article summarizes Constitutional articles and laws relating to protection of women and a girl child. Before birth, a female child is at risk of fetal death. A woman is at risk of poorly performed abortions and maternal mortality. After birth, a girl child is at risk of child care of younger siblings, housework, lack of education, wage work for the household, sexual abuse, vulnerability at work or school or on the street, murder by her parents, abuse, malnutrition, and desertion. The SAARC summit declared 1990 the Year of the Girl Child. UN conventions and a world summit focused on the Rights of the Child. A child has a right to freedom from exploitation, neglect and abuse, and access to food, health care, and education. Articles 14, 15, and 16 of India's Constitution guarantee protection from discrimination on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex, or place of birth and equality of opportunity in public employment. Article 23 prohibits trafficking in humans and forced labor. Article 24 prohibits child labor under the age of 14 years. Article 39 assures an adequate means of livelihood, equal pay, and protection from child abuse and economic pressure to work in jobs unsuitable to a child's age and strength. Article 45 provides for free and compulsory education up to 14 years of age. Article 51 prohibits derogatory practices against women. Article 325 and 326 prohibits sex discrimination. Other laws pertain to dowry, marriage age, prostitution, abortion, juvenile justice, kidnapping, obscenity, procurement of a minor, sexual offenses, divorce and child support, child care, maternity benefits, and cruelty by a husband or relatives. The girl child in India continues to live in perpetual threat, both physiological and psychological.

  15. Microbiological aspects of vulvovaginitis in prepubertal girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranđelović, Gordana; Mladenović, Vesna; Ristić, Ljiljana; Otašević, Suzana; Branković, Sofija; Mladenović-Antić, Snežana; Bogdanović, Milena; Bogdanović, Dragan

    2012-08-01

    This study aimed to establish the vaginal introitus microbial flora in girls with and without symptoms of vulvovaginitis, and to present the distribution of isolated microorganisms by age groups in girls with vulvovaginitis. We enrolled 500 girls with vulvovaginitis symptoms, aged 2-12 years, referred by their pediatricians for microbiological examination of the vaginal introitus swabs, and 30 age-matched asymptomatic girls. Similar microbial flora was isolated in both groups, but the symptomatic girls had significantly more common positive microbiological findings compared to controls (p vulvovaginitis symptoms. The microbial ecosystem in girls with clinical signs of vulvovaginitis is complex and variable, and the presence of a microorganism does not necessarily imply that it is the cause of infection. The diagnosis of vulvovaginitis in prepubertal girls requires a complex and comprehensive approach, and microbiological findings should be interpreted in the context of clinical findings.

  16. Microbiological findings of vulvovaginitis in prepubertal girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumbulienė, Žana; Venclavičiūtė, Karolina; Ramašauskaite, Diana; Arlauskiene, Audrone; Bumbul, Elžbieta; Drąsutiene, Gražina

    2014-01-01

    To compare vaginal culture results between prepubertal girls with and without vulvovaginitis, and obtain an overview of the most commonly encountered microbes. Prospective descriptive study. Outpatient clinic of Vilnius University Hospital Santariskiu Klinikos during September 2011-December 2012. 115 prepubertal girls with vulvovaginitis symptoms and additionally 20 age-matched asymptomatic girls. Each girl had a vaginal smear carried out using a sterile swab from the introitus or lower third of the vagina. All samples were referred to the microbiology laboratory where standard microbiological diagnostic procedures were performed. Positive microbiological findings were seen in all 115 (100%) symptomatic girls and in 12 (60%) control group girls (pvulvovaginitis and from 5 (25%) girls without vaginal inflammation (pvulvovaginitis. The main causative premenarchal vulvovaginitis agents are faecal in origin.

  17. The Fourier Imaging X-ray Spectrometer (FIXS) for the Argentinian, Scout-launched satelite de Aplicaciones Cienficas-1 (SAC-1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Brian R.; Crannell, Carol JO; Desai, Upendra D.; Orwig, Larry E.; Kiplinger, Alan L.; Schwartz, Richard A.; Hurford, Gordon J.; Emslie, A. Gordon; Machado, Marcos; Wood, Kent

    1988-01-01

    The Fourier Imaging X-ray Spectrometer (FIXS) is one of four instruments on SAC-1, the Argentinian satellite being proposed for launch by NASA on a Scout rocket in 1992/3. The FIXS is designed to provide solar flare images at X-ray energies between 5 and 35 keV. Observations will be made on arcsecond size scales and subsecond time scales of the processes that modify the electron spectrum and the thermal distribution in flaring magnetic structures.

  18. Which food-related behaviours are associated with healthier intakes of fruits and vegetables among women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, David; Ball, Kylie; Mishra, Gita; Salmon, Jo; Timperio, Anna

    2007-03-01

    To examine associations between shopping, food preparation, meal and eating behaviours and fruit and vegetable intake among women. Cross-sectional survey. Community-based sample from metropolitan Melbourne, Australia. A sample of 1136 women aged 18-65 years, randomly selected from the electoral roll. Food-related behaviours reflecting organisation and forward-planning, as well as enjoyment of and high perceived value of meal shopping, preparation and consumption were associated with healthier intakes of fruits and vegetables. For example, women who more frequently planned meals before they went shopping, wrote a shopping list, enjoyed food shopping, planned in the morning what they will eat for dinner that night, planned what they will eat for lunch, reported they enjoy cooking, liked trying new recipes and who reported they sometimes prepare dishes ahead of time were more likely to consume two or more servings of vegetables daily. Conversely, women who frequently found cooking a chore, spent less than 15 minutes preparing dinner, decided on the night what they will eat for dinner, ate in a fast-food restaurant, ate takeaway meals from a fast-food restaurant, ate dinner and snacks while watching television and who frequently ate on the run were less likely to eat two or more servings of vegetables daily. Practical strategies based on these behavioural characteristics could be trialled in interventions aimed at promoting fruit and vegetable consumption among women.

  19. Toward a healthier city: nutrition standards for New York City government.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederer, Ashley; Curtis, Christine J; Silver, Lynn D; Angell, Sonia Y

    2014-04-01

    Poor diet is a leading cause of disability, death, and rising health care costs. Government agencies can have a large impact on population nutrition by adopting healthy food purchasing policies. In 2007, New York City (NYC) began developing a nutrition policy for all foods purchased, served, or contracted for by City agencies. A Food Procurement Workgroup was created with representatives from all City agencies that engaged in food purchasing or service, and the NYC Health Department served as technical advisor. The NYC Standards for Meals/Snacks Purchased and Served (Standards) became a citywide policy in 2008. The first of its kind, the Standards apply to more than 3,000 programs run by 12 City agencies. This paper describes the development process and initial implementation of the Standards. With more than 260 million meals and snacks per year covered, the Standards increase demand for healthier products, model healthy eating, and may also affect clients' food choices beyond the institutional environment. Our experience suggests that implementation of nutrition standards across a wide range of diverse agencies is feasible, especially when high-level support is established and technical assistance is available. Healthy procurement policies can ensure that food purchased by a jurisdiction supports its public health efforts. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Greater number of group identifications is associated with healthier behaviour: Evidence from a Scottish community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sani, Fabio; Madhok, Vishnu; Norbury, Michael; Dugard, Pat; Wakefield, Juliet R H

    2015-09-01

    This paper investigates the interplay between group identification (i.e., the extent to which one has a sense of belonging to a social group, coupled with a sense of commonality with in-group members) and four types of health behaviour, namely physical exercise, smoking, drinking, and diet. Specifically, we propose a positive relationship between one's number of group identifications and healthy behaviour. This study is based on the Scottish portion of the data obtained for Wave 1 of the two-wave cross-national Health in Groups project. Totally 1,824 patients from five Scottish general practitioner (GP) surgeries completed the Wave 1 questionnaire in their homes. Participants completed measures of group identification, group contact, health behaviours, and demographic variables. Results demonstrate that the greater the number of social groups with which one identifies, the healthier one's behaviour on any of the four health dimensions considered. We believe our results are due to the fact that group identification will generally (1) enhance one's sense of meaning in life, thereby leading one to take more care of oneself, (2) increase one's sense of responsibility towards other in-group members, thereby enhancing one's motivation to be healthy in order to fulfil those responsibilities, and (3) increase compliance with healthy group behavioural norms. Taken together, these processes amply overcompensate for the fact that some groups with which people may identify can actually prescribe unhealthy behaviours. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  1. Healthier lives for European minority groups: school and health care, lessons from the Roma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flecha, Ainhoa

    2013-07-24

    On average, the Roma in Europe can expect to die 10 years earlier than the rest of the population, given the health conditions they experience. EU-funded research has informed on successful actions (SA) that when implemented among the Roma provide them new forms of educational participation which have a direct impact on improving their health status, regardless of their educational level. The findings from this research, unanimously endorsed by the European Parliament, have been included in several European Union recommendations and resolutions as part of the EU strategy on Roma inclusion. To analyze these SA, as well as the conditions that promote them and their impact on reducing health inequalities, communicative fieldwork has been conducted with Roma people from a deprived neighbourhood in the South of Spain, who are participating in the previously identified SA. The analysis reveals that these SA enable Roma people to reinforce and enrich specific strategies like improving family cohesion and strengthening their identity, which allow them to improve their overall health. These findings may inform public policies to improve the health condition of the Roma and other vulnerable groups, one goal of the Europe 2020 strategy for a healthier Europe.

  2. Strategic Environmental Assessment as catalyst of healthier spatial planning: The Danish guidance and practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kornov, Lone

    2009-01-01

    A wide range of factors within spatial planning can affect health. There is therefore an important scope for Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) of spatial plans to protect and improve human health. Due to the EU Directive 2001/42/EC on SEA, health has been made explicit in Danish legislation and guidance. This paper examines the inclusion of health as a formal component in impact assessment of spatial plans. Based upon a documentary study of 100 environmental reports, the paper analyses and discusses how health impact considerations are incorporated in SEA practice. It is found that health impacts are included in SEA practice and are being interpreted in a broader sense than what the national guidance exemplifies. The frequent included health aspects are noise, drinking water, air pollution, recreation/outdoor life and traffic safety. The primary determinant for health is transport-whether it is at the overall or local planning level. The main conclusion is that SEA shows a potential to catalyse healthier spatial planning. Despite the broad inclusion of health in SEA practice the examination shows potential improvements, hereunder qualification of assessments by better explaining the nature and significance of impacts and by including the distributional aspects of human health impacts. Inclusion from the health sector is put forward as an important institutional mean to secure cross disciplinarily and higher quality assessment

  3. Girl child: her rights and law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokhale, S D

    1995-01-01

    This article points out the disparity between India's laws to protect female children and their actual living conditions. It is asserted that the role of women needs to be strengthened and that equal rights are executed to the advantage of children. Equality must come at the very beginning of life. Girl children need access to health, nutrition, education, and other basic services. In India, girls are guaranteed an equal right to education, but fewer girls are enrolled in primary school, and very few girls go on to secondary schools. There is no enforcement of compulsory laws, which particularly disadvantage girls from poor families. Girls marry below the legal minimum age. Early childbearing shortens women's life expectancy and adversely affects their health, nutrition, education, and employment opportunities. Prevention of early child marriage should be strictly enforced. Amniocentesis is performed in order to determine the sex of the child and abort female fetuses. The Juvenile Justice Act of 1986 includes special provisions for the protection, treatment, and rehabilitation of girls under 18 years old and of boys younger than 16. This act protects girls trapped in brothels for child prostitution and protects any person engaged in an immoral, drunken, or depraved life. Juvenile Welfare Boards address the problem of neglected girls and offer special protective homes and supervision by probation officers. The act needs to strengthen noninstitutional services, such as sponsorship, family assistance, foster care, and adoption. Girl children grow to womanhood. Effective social development in childhood reaps rewards in adulthood.

  4. Hydrogen peroxide and central redox theory for aerobic life: A tribute to Helmut Sies: Scout, trailblazer, and redox pioneer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Dean P

    2016-04-01

    When Rafael Radi and I wrote about Helmut Sies for the Redox Pioneer series, I was disappointed that the Editor restricted us to the use of "Pioneer" in the title. My view is that Helmut was always ahead of the pioneers: He was a scout discovering paths for exploration and a trailblazer developing strategies and methods for discovery. I have known him for nearly 40 years and greatly enjoyed his collegiality as well as brilliance in scientific scholarship. He made monumental contributions to 20th century physiological chemistry beginning with his first measurement of H2O2 in rat liver. While continuous H2O2 production is dogma today, the concept of H2O2 production in mammalian tissues was largely buried for half a century. He continued this leadership in research on oxidative stress, GSH, selenium, and singlet oxygen, during the timeframe when physiological chemistry and biochemistry transitioned to contemporary 21st century systems biology. His impact has been extensive in medical and health sciences, especially in nutrition, aging, toxicology and cancer. I briefly summarize my interactions with Helmut, stressing our work together on the redox code, a set of principles to link mitochondrial respiration, bioenergetics, H2O2 metabolism, redox signaling and redox proteomics into central redox theory. Copyright © 2015 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Choosing healthier foods in recreational sports settings: a mixed methods investigation of the impact of nudging and an economic incentive

    OpenAIRE

    Olstad, Dana Lee; Goonewardene, Laksiri A; McCargar, Linda J; Raine, Kim D

    2014-01-01

    Background Nudging is an approach to environmental change that alters social and physical environments to shift behaviors in positive, self-interested directions. Evidence indicates that eating is largely an automatic behavior governed by environmental cues, suggesting that it might be possible to nudge healthier dietary behaviors. This study assessed the comparative and additive efficacy of two nudges and an economic incentive in supporting healthy food purchases by patrons at a recreational...

  6. Sixty Girls, Three Nuns, One Home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeltzer, Carolyn Hope

    2016-04-01

    This article describes the experience of a nurse volunteer working with girls in India who had been trafficked and/or were children of mothers who were (are) prostitutes. The article describes how nuns who care, provide values and a safe home give the girls opportunities. The article illustrates how, with little recourse, three nuns care for 60 girls living in one home. The girls range in age from 4 to 18 years. The girls are motivated to live happily, work hard, study often, and play together. Lessons learned from the nurse volunteer who worked and lived with the girls are described. This article illustrates how nurses in retirement can still fulfill their passion of helping others. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Use of computed tomography scout film and Hounsfield unit of computed tomography scan in predicting the radio-opacity of urinary calculi in plain kidney, ureter and bladder radiographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Michael E; Gomez, Odina R; Sapno, Lorelei D; Lim, Steve L; Morales, Marcelino L

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the diagnostic utility of computed tomography (CT)- scout film with an optimal non-contrast helical CT scan Hounsfield unit (HU) in predicting the appearance of urinary calculus in the plain kidneys, ureter, urinary bladder (KUB)-radiograph. A prospective cross-sectional study was executed and data were collected from June 2007 to June 2012 at a tertiary hospital. The included subjects were diagnosed to have value, CT-scout film and KUB radiograph appearance were recorded independently by two observers. Univariate logistic analysis with receiver operating characteristic curve was generated to determine the best cut-off HU value of urolithiases not identified in CT-scout film, but determined radio-opaque in KUB X-ray. Subsequently, its sensitivity, specificity, predictive values and likelihood ratios were calculated. Statistical significance was set at P value of 0.05 or less. Two hundred and three valid cases were included. 73 out of 75 CT-scout film detected urolithiasis were identified on plain radiograph and determined as radio-opaque. The determined best cut off value of HU utilized for prediction of radiographic characteristics was 630HU at which urinary calculi were not seen at CT-scout film and were KUB X-ray radio-opaque. The set HU cut-off was established of ideal accuracy with an overall sensitivity of 82.2%, specificity of 96.9% and a positive predictive value of 96.5% and negative predictive value of 83.5%. Urolithiases identified on the CT-scout film were also seen as radiopaque on the KUB radiograph while those stones not visible on the CT-scout film, but above the optimal HU cut-off value of 630 are also likely to be radiopaque.

  8. Healthier Children's Meals in Restaurants: An Exploratory Study to Inform Approaches That Are Acceptable Across Stakeholders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzman-Frasca, Stephanie; Folta, Sara C; Glenn, Meaghan E; Jones-Mueller, Anita; Lynskey, Vanessa M; Patel, Anjali A; Tse, Lisa L; Lopez, Nanette V

    2017-04-01

    Assess parents', children's, and restaurant executives' perspectives on children's meals in restaurants. Cross-sectional. Parents and children completed predominantly quantitative surveys at 4 quick- and full-service restaurant locations. Telephone interviews were conducted with executives representing additional restaurants. Parents (n = 59) and their first- through fourth-grade children (n = 58); executives (n = 4). Parent/child perspectives on child meal selection and toy incentives in restaurants; executives' views on kids' meals and barriers to supplying healthier kids' meals. Frequencies, thematic analysis. A total of 63% of children ordered from children's menus, 8% of whom ordered healthier kids' meals. Half of parents reported that children determined their own orders. Taste was the most common reason for children's meal choices. Most (76%) children reported visiting the restaurant previously; 64% of them placed their usual order. Parents' views on toy incentives were mixed. Themes from executive interviews highlighted factors driving children's menu offerings, including children's habits and preferences and the need to use preexisting pantry items. Executives described menu changes as driven by profitability, consumer demand, regulation, and corporate social responsibility. Findings can inform the development of restaurant interventions that are effective in promoting healthier eating and are acceptable to parents, children, and restaurant personnel. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. All rights reserved.

  9. Choosing healthier foods in recreational sports settings: a mixed methods investigation of the impact of nudging and an economic incentive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olstad, Dana Lee; Goonewardene, Laksiri A; McCargar, Linda J; Raine, Kim D

    2014-01-22

    Nudging is an approach to environmental change that alters social and physical environments to shift behaviors in positive, self-interested directions. Evidence indicates that eating is largely an automatic behavior governed by environmental cues, suggesting that it might be possible to nudge healthier dietary behaviors. This study assessed the comparative and additive efficacy of two nudges and an economic incentive in supporting healthy food purchases by patrons at a recreational swimming pool. An initial pre-intervention period was followed by three successive and additive interventions that promoted sales of healthy items through: signage, taste testing, and 30% price reductions; concluding with a return to baseline conditions. Each period was 8 days in length. The primary outcome was the change in the proportion of healthy items sold in the intervention periods relative to pre- and post-intervention in the full sample, and in a subsample of patrons whose purchases were directly observed. Secondary outcomes included change in the caloric value of purchases, change in revenues and gross profits, and qualitative process observations. Data were analyzed using analysis of covariance, chi-square tests and thematic content analysis. Healthy items represented 41% of sales and were significantly lower than sales of unhealthy items (p nudging in cueing healthier dietary behaviors. Moreover, price reductions appeared ineffectual in this setting. Our findings point to complex, context-specific patterns of effectiveness and suggest that nudging should not supplant the use of other strategies that have proven to promote healthier dietary behaviors.

  10. Educating the girl child in rural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, S

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the importance of educating female children in India. There is ample evidence worldwide that improvements in girls' education benefit the status of the family and empower women. The World Declaration of Education for All was adopted in Jomtein, Thailand in 1990. It urged access to and improvement in the quality of education of girls and women to remove obstacles that hamper active participation. 1990 was the Year of Literacy and the Year of the Girl Child. Girls lag in education worldwide. The gender gap is widest in India in levels of literacy, school enrollment, school dropouts, and opportunities for vocational training. There is a need to educate the public, particularly mothers, about the value of girls. In rural and backward areas of India, there is fear of educating girls that is related to prevalent practices of exploitation and violence against women. Education and vocational training should be linked with anti-poverty programs. Adult literacy should be linked with girls' education. The National Policy on Education in 1986 targeted removal of sex stereotyping from school curricula and promoted diversified curricula and access of girls to vocational and professional training programs. The policy recommended integrated child care services and primary education. The national action plan for the 1990s focuses on protection, survival, and development of the girl child in India. Special schools for developing skills in nutrition, cooking, sewing, home economics, and child development should be set up in villages for girls 12-20 years old. The gap in girls' education is attributed to apathy and resistance of parents, unfavorable attitudes toward coeducation, poverty of parents, shortages of schools, and poor quality instruction. Girls' continuing education should be ensured by incentives, such as free books and clothes; time tables conducive to work; support systems; and work schemes.

  11. Girls and war: an extra vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, M

    1998-01-01

    It is no longer possible to consider the raping of girls as an isolated atrocity of war. In Uganda, guerrilla forces have kidnapped 6000-10,000 children and have forced the "most desirable" girls to become "wives" of warlords. Girls who manage to escape are deeply traumatized and suffer ill health as well as possible social ostracism. In refugee camps, recognition that adolescent girls face special risks of rape and of engaging in the informal prostitution that may expose them to HIV/AIDS has led to the introduction of new measures to increase female security. Families in refugee camps in Burundi and Somalia protect female honor by submitting their daughters to very early marriage, which also abuses the girls' rights. Girls conscripted to military groups are forced to transport materials, cook, or help loot villages. In conditions of war, even girls who remain at home protected by their families must assume extra responsibilities, especially if men go off to fight leaving women with the agricultural and livestock burdens. Girls will be the first children withdrawn from school to help keep the household afloat. Girls and women are also expected to tend those wounded by the very war that destroys the health care services that are vital to meet women's reproductive needs. Efforts are being made to identify rape as a specific war crime, and these efforts should be extended to the kidnapping and forced recruitment of children into combat roles. Moral codes must be reestablished, even if they are only nominal at present.

  12. Menarcheal age of girls from dysfunctional families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alma Toromanović

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to determine median age at menarche and the influence of familial instability on maturation. The sample included 7047 girls between the ages of 9 and 17 years from Tuzla Canton. The girls were divided into two groups. Group A (N=5230 comprised girls who lived in families free of strong traumatic events. Group B (N=1817 included girls whose family dysfunction exposed them to prolonged distress. Probit analysis was performed to estimate mean menarcheal age using the Probit procedure of SAS package. The mean menarcheal age calculated by probit analysis for all the girls studied was 13.07 years. In girls from dysfunctional families a very clear shift toward earlier maturation was observed. The mean age at menarche for group B was 13.0 years, which was significantly lower that that for group A, 13.11 years (t=2.92, P<0.01. The results surveyed here lead to the conclusion that girls from dysfunctional families mature not later but even earlier than girls from normal families. This supports the hypothesis that stressful childhood life events accelerate maturation of girls.

  13. Healthier students are better learners: a missing link in school reforms to close the achievement gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basch, Charles E

    2011-10-01

    This article provides an introduction to the October 2011 special issue of the Journal of School Health on "Healthier Students Are Better Learners." Literature was reviewed and synthesized to identify health problems affecting school-aged youth that are highly prevalent, disproportionately affect urban minority youth, directly and indirectly causally affect academic achievement, and can be feasibly and effectively addressed through school health programs and services. Based on these criteria, 7 educationally relevant health disparities were selected as strategic priorities to help close the achievement gap: (1) vision, (2) asthma, (3) teen pregnancy, (4) aggression and violence, (5) physical activity, (6) breakfast, and (7) inattention and hyperactivity. Research clearly shows that these health problems influence students' motivation and ability to learn. Disparities among urban minority youth are outlined, along with the causal pathways through which each adversely affects academic achievement, including sensory perceptions, cognition, school connectedness, absenteeism, and dropping out. Evidence-based approaches that schools can implement to address these problems are presented. These health problems and the causal pathways they influence have interactive and a synergistic effect, which is why they must be addressed collectively using a coordinated approach. No matter how well teachers are prepared to teach, no matter what accountability measures are put in place, no matter what governing structures are established for schools, educational progress will be profoundly limited if students are not motivated and able to learn. Particular health problems play a major role in limiting the motivation and ability to learn of urban minority youth. This is why reducing these disparities through a coordinated approach warrants validation as a cohesive school improvement initiative to close the achievement gap. Local, state, and national policies for implementing this

  14. Trauma and Self-Narrative in Virtual Reality: Toward Recreating a Healthier Mind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iva Georgieva

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study discusses the concept of virtual selves created in the virtual spaces [e.g. social network services or virtual reality (VR]. It analyzes the activities in the different virtual spaces and claims that experience gained there can be transferred to real life. In respect to that, the effects of the VR treatment on the self as well as the concept of creating a life story are analyzed as interconnected. The research question which arises from these considerations is how to look at psychological trauma in order to explain the effectiveness of the usage of VR for treatment of traumatic disorders. The proposal in the study is to see trauma as a shift in the normal storyline of the narrative people create. With this concept in mind, it might be possible to support the claim that reliving traumatic events, regaining control over one’s life narrative, and creating new stories in the VR aids the treatment process in the search for meaning and resolution in life events. Considering the findings of researchers who argue in the field of self-narrative and traumatic treatment, as well as researchers on virtual selves, virtual spaces and VR, this study discusses the virtual as a possible medium to experience narratives and utilize those narratives as better explanatory stories to facilitate the therapeutic process of recovery and self-recreation. This study supports the idea that VR can be used to visualize patients’ narratives and help them perceive themselves as active authors of their life’s story by retelling traumatic episodes with additional explanation. This experience in the VR is utilized to form healthier narratives and coping techniques for robust therapeutic results that are transferred to real life.

  15. A holistic approach to healthy ageing: how can people live longer, healthier lives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calder, P C; Carding, S R; Christopher, G; Kuh, D; Langley-Evans, S C; McNulty, H

    2018-06-03

    Although lifespan is increasing, there is no evidence to suggest that older people are experiencing better health in their later years than previous generations. Nutrition, at all stages of life, plays an important role in determining health and wellbeing. A roundtable meeting of UK experts on nutrition and ageing considered key aspects of the diet-ageing relationship and developed a consensus position on the main priorities for research and public health actions that are required to help people live healthier lives as they age. The group consensus highlighted the requirement for a life course approach, recognising the multifactorial nature of the impact of ageing. Environmental and lifestyle influences at any life stage are modified by genetic factors and early development. The response to the environment at each stage of life can determine the impact of lifestyle later on. There are no key factors that act in isolation to determine patterns of ageing and it is a combination of environmental and social factors that drives healthy or unhealthy ageing. Too little is known about how contemporary dietary patterns and sedentary lifestyles will impact upon healthy ageing in future generations and this is a priority for future research. There is good evidence to support change to lifestyle (i.e. diet, nutrition and physical) activity in relation to maintaining or improving body composition, cognitive health and emotional intelligence, immune function and vascular health. Lifestyle change at any stage of life may extend healthy lifespan, although the impact of early changes appears to be greatest. © 2018 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  16. Safer and healthier reduced nitrites turkey meat sausages using lyophilized Cystoseira barbata seaweed extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellimi, Sabrine; Benslima, Abdelkarim; Ksouda, Ghada; Montero, Veronique Barragan; Hajji, Mohamed; Nasri, Moncef

    2017-10-21

    Background Nitrite salts are still common additives in the meat industry. The present study provides a first approach on the employment of the lyophilized aqueous extract (WE) of the Tunisian seaweed Cystoseira barbata for the quality enhancement of turkey meat sausage. Methods WE was supplemented as a natural antioxidant agent to investigate its effectiveness in delaying lipid oxidation turkey meat sausages containing reduced amounts of sodium nitrites. Results On storage day 5, all concentrations of WE (0.01-0.4 %) reduced the meat lipid oxidation by approximately 36 %, as compared to the negative control containing only 80 mg/kg of meat of sodium nitrites as antioxidant. It was noted that within 15 days of refrigerated storage, a meat system containing 80 mg/kg of meat of sodium nitrites and 0.02 % and 0.04 % of WE had similar Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS) levels (19±1.32 and 17±1.12 µmol/kg of meat, respectively), which were comparable to the positive control containing sodium nitrites (150 mg/kg of meat) and 0.045 % vitamin C (18.46±1.27 µmol/kg of meat). In-depth, the metabolomic profiling using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and liquid chromatography-quadripole-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS) analyses of the Tunisian seaweed C. barbata solvent extracts showed that the main active compounds were phenolic compounds, fatty acids and sterols. Conclusions Overall, the cold medium containing C. barbata lyophilized aqueous extrac, with strong antioxidant activity and antihypertensive properties, may open the way to the development of a natural quality enhancement strategy for new functional and ever healthier reduced nitrites meat sausages based on algae.

  17. Healthier than thou? "Practicing what you preach" backfires by increasing anticipated devaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Lauren C; Monin, Benoît

    2017-05-01

    [Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported in Vol 112(5) of Journal of Personality and Social Psychology (see record 2017-17124-001). In the article, the beginning phrase of the second paragraph of the Internal Meta-Analysis of Studies 3 Through 5 section is incorrect. It should instead begin as follows: Across the three studies. The Monin et al. (2014) reference in both the References list and in text is included in error. The correct citation should read as follows: Monin, B., & Oppenheimer, D. M. (2014). The limits of direct replications and the virtues of stimulus sampling: Commentary on Klein et al., 2014. Social Psychology , 45, 299-300.] Should experts always practice what they preach? When an expert displays exemplary behavior, individuals who fear negative devaluation sometimes anticipate that this expert will look down on them. As a result, displays of excellence can paradoxically turn off the very people they are trying to inspire. Five studies document this in the medical domain, showing that individuals who are overweight or obese and concerned about their weight avoid physicians who advertise their fitness, for fear that these doctors will judge them negatively. People (erroneously) believe that doctors have healthier habits than other individuals (Study 1), doctors advertise healthy habits (Study 2), and overweight individuals anticipate devaluation from, and thus avoid and feel less comfortable with, doctors who portray themselves as fitness-focused (Study 3). Studies 4 and 5 test strategies for physicians to emphasize their own fitness without turning off weight-sensitive patients. This work demonstrates that it is critical to take into account ego-defensive processes when attempting to lead by example. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. The feasibility of multisectoral policy options aimed at reducing trans fats and encouraging its replacement with healthier oils in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Shauna M; Thow, Anne-Marie; Ghosh-Jerath, Suparna; Leeder, Stephen R

    2015-05-01

    The World Health Organization recommends replacement of trans fat with polyunsaturated fat to reduce cardiovascular disease risk. Although several high-income countries have been successful in reducing trans fat in the food supply, low- and middle-income countries such as India may face additional contextual challenges such as the large informal sector, lack of consumer awareness, less enforcement capacity and low availability and affordability of healthier unsaturated fats. The objective of this study was to examine the feasibility and acceptability of multisectoral policy options aimed at supporting trans fat reduction and its replacement with polyunsaturated fats in India. Multisectoral policy options examined in this study were identified using food supply chain analysis. Semi-structured interviews (n = 17) were conducted with key informants from agriculture, trade, finance, retail, industry, food standards, non-governmental organizations and the health professions to gain their views on the feasibility and acceptability of the policy options. Purposive sampling was used to identify key informants. Data were coded and organized based on key themes. There was support for policies aimed at improving the quality of seeds, supporting farmer co-operatives and developing affordable farming equipment suited to smallholders to improve the production of healthier oils. Increasing the role of the private sector to improve links among producers, processors and retailers may help to streamline the fats supply chain in India. Blending healthier oils with oils high in saturated fat, which are currently readily available, could help to improve the quality of fat in the short term. Improving consumer awareness through mass media campaigns and improved labelling may help increase consumer demand for healthier products. Reorienting agricultural policies to support production of healthier oils will help increase their uptake by industry. Policy coherence across sectors will be

  19. Nutritional labelling for healthier food or non-alcoholic drink purchasing and consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crockett, Rachel A; King, Sarah E; Marteau, Theresa M; Prevost, A T; Bignardi, Giacomo; Roberts, Nia W; Stubbs, Brendon; Hollands, Gareth J; Jebb, Susan A

    2018-01-01

    Background Nutritional labelling is advocated as a means to promote healthier food purchasing and consumption, including lower energy intake. Internationally, many different nutritional labelling schemes have been introduced. There is no consensus on whether such labelling is effective in promoting healthier behaviour. Objectives To assess the impact of nutritional labelling for food and non-alcoholic drinks on purchasing and consumption of healthier items. Our secondary objective was to explore possible effect moderators of nutritional labelling on purchasing and consumption. Search methods We searched 13 electronic databases including CENTRAL, MEDLINE and Embase to 26 April 2017. We also handsearched references and citations and sought unpublished studies through websites and trials registries. Selection criteria Eligible studies: were randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials (RCTs/Q-RCTs), controlled before-and-after studies, or interrupted time series (ITS) studies; compared a labelled product (with information on nutrients or energy) with the same product without a nutritional label; assessed objectively measured purchasing or consumption of foods or non-alcoholic drinks in real-world or laboratory settings. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently selected studies for inclusion and extracted study data. We applied the Cochrane 'Risk of bias' tool and GRADE to assess the quality of evidence. We pooled studies that evaluated similar interventions and outcomes using a random-effects meta-analysis, and we synthesised data from other studies in a narrative summary. Main results We included 28 studies, comprising 17 RCTs, 5 Q-RCTs and 6 ITS studies. Most (21/28) took place in the USA, and 19 took place in university settings, 14 of which mainly involved university students or staff. Most (20/28) studies assessed the impact of labelling on menus or menu boards, or nutritional labelling placed on, or adjacent to, a range of foods or drinks from

  20. Britney, Beyonce, and Me--Primary School Girls' Role Models and Constructions of the "Popular" Girl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    This paper looks at the ways in which the gendered social construction of the "popular girl" infuses girls' ideas as to their role models: those representing who they would like to be when they "grow up". It will look at the ways in which the gendered characteristics that are seen to be of most value to girls (often embodied by "celebrities" such…

  1. Teaching the Third World Girl: "Girl Rising" as a Precarious Curriculum of Empathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Karishma

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the recently released "Girl Rising" film and associated campaign to analyze how the guarantee that girls' education is panacea for local, national and global solutions is sedimented through affective logics. I view Girl Rising as a curriculum inclusive of the film, accompanying packaged lesson plans for educators,…

  2. Our Healthier Nation: are general practitioners willing and able to deliver? A survey of attitudes to and involvement in health promotion and lifestyle counselling.

    OpenAIRE

    McAvoy, B R; Kaner, E F; Lock, C A; Heather, N; Gilvarry, E

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The recent Green Paper, Our Healthier Nation, identifies professional advice on healthier living as a key component of its national contract for health. General practitioners (GPs) are ideally placed for this work. However, previous research has reported a discrepancy between patients' expectations of lifestyle advice from GPs and their receipt of such advice. AIMS: To describe GPs' current attitudes to and involvement in health promotion and lifestyle counselling, and to track ch...

  3. The meaning of running away for girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peled, Einat; Cohavi, Ayelet

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this qualitative research was to understand how runaway girls perceive the processes involved in leaving home and the meaning they attribute to it. Findings are based on in-depth interviews with 10 Israeli girls aged 13-17 with a history of running away from home. The meaning of running away as it emerged from the girls' descriptions of their lives prior to leaving home was that of survival - both psychological and physical. The girls' stories centered on their evolving experiences of alienation, loneliness and detachment, and the failure of significant relationships at home and outside of home to provide them with the support they needed. These experiences laid the ground for the "final moments" before leaving, when a feeling of "no alternative," a hope for a better future, and various particular triggers led the girls to the decision to leave home. Participants' insights about the dynamics leading to running-away center on the meaning of family relationships, particularly those with the mother, as constituting the girl's psychological home. The girls seemed to perceive running away as an inevitability, rather than a choice, and even portrayed the running away as "living suicide." Yet, their stories clearly demonstrate their ability to cope and the possession of strengths and skills that enabled them to survive in extremely difficult home situations. The findings of this research highlight the importance of improving services for reaching out and supporting girls who are on the verge of running away from home. Such services should be tailored to the needs of girls who experience extreme but often silenced distress at home, and should facilitate alternative solutions to the girls' plight other than running away. An understanding of the dynamics leading to running away from the girls' perspective has the potential to improve the efficacy of services provided by contributing to the creation of a caring, empowering, understanding and trustful professional

  4. Translating The girls of Balthus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Kohl Bines

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available What is the point in trying to write something that is irreducible to another form of expression? The question appears at the end of a noteworthy short story by the Brazilian writer Sergio Sant’Anna, which painstakingly describes a series of paintings by the Polish-French artist Balthasar Balthus. These paintings depict young girls in ambiguous poses, between innocence and lusciousness. The present paper investigates translation processes between painting and literature, through the topos of childhood, taken as a borderline zone and a passageway between the domains of silence and of language. To that end, the paper traces an intellectual itinerary that stems from the Freudian theory on aphasia.

  5. Menarcheal age of girls from dysfunctional families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toromanović, Alma; Tahirović, Husref

    2004-07-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine median age at menarche and the influence of familial instability on maturation. The sample included 7047 girls between the ages of 9 and 17 years from Tuzla Canton. The girls were divided into two groups. Group A (N=5230) comprised girls who lived in families free of strong traumatic events. Group B (N=1817) included girls whose family dysfunction exposed them to prolonged distress. Probit analysis was performed to estimate mean menarcheal age using the Probit procedure of SAS package. The mean menarcheal age calculated by probit analysis for all the girls studied was 13.07 years. In girls from dysfunctional families a very clear shift toward earlier maturation was observed. The mean age at menarche for group B was 13.0 years, which was significantly lower that that for group A, 13.11 years (t=2.92, Pdysfunctional families mature not later but even earlier than girls from normal families. This supports the hypothesis that stressful childhood life events accelerate maturation of girls.

  6. The Dangers of Educated Girls and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Vaughn M.

    2016-01-01

    Why do educated girls and women constitute a danger in some societies and for this face extreme danger in their educational endeavours? This article argues that historical and contemporary educational discrimination of girls and women is the hallmark of a violently patriarchal society, and this stubborn injustice is exacerbated under conditions of…

  7. Relational Aggression among Middle School Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallape, Aprille

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the correlates that define relational aggression among middle school girls, the relationships among these factors, and the association between the correlates of relational aggression and the type of relational aggression (e.g., verbal, withdrawal) exhibited among middle school girls. The findings of this…

  8. Science for Girls: Successful Classroom Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, Susan Gibbs

    2007-01-01

    "Science for Girls: Successful Classroom Strategies" looks at how girls learn, beginning with the time they are born through both the informal and formal education process. In the author's current role as professor of science education, Dr. Goetz has surveyed hundreds of female elementary education majors in their junior and senior year of…

  9. Smart Girls, Black Girls, Mean Girls, and Bullies: At the Intersection of Identities and the Mediating Role of Young Girls' Social Network in Mathematical Communities of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholson, Maisie; Martin, Danny B.

    2014-01-01

    By taking an intersectional and emic view to studying a group of African American girls in a third-grade class, we attempted to capture the complexity of mathematics learning for these girls. Traditionally, children's social networks in school are framed as external to mathematics content learning. Our preliminary analyses of student interviews…

  10. Girls' Education: The Power of Policy Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monkman, Karen; Hoffman, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Girls' education has been a focus of international development policy for several decades. The discursive framing of international organizations' policy initiatives relating to girls' education, however, limits the potential for discussing complex gender issues that affect the possibilities for gender equity. Because discourse shapes our…

  11. Perceived Experiences with Sexism among Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaper, Campbell; Brown, Christia Spears

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated predictors of adolescent girls' experiences with sexism and feminism. Girls (N = 600; M = 15.1 years, range = 12-18), of varied socioeconomic and ethnic backgrounds, completed surveys of personal experiences with sexual harassment, academic sexism (regarding science, math, and computer technology), and athletics. Most girls…

  12. "Lolita": Genealogy of a Cover Girl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Shari L.

    2015-01-01

    At the publication of Vladimir Nabokov's controversial novel "Lolita" (1958), the author insisted that a girl never appear on the cover. This discourse analysis of 185 "Lolita" book covers, most of which feature a girl, considers the genealogy of "Lolita" in relation to representation, myth, and tacit knowledge…

  13. Pueblo Girls: Growing Up in Two Worlds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keegan, Marcia

    This book portrays San Ildefonso Pueblo on the east bank of the Rio Grande river in New Mexico through the lives of Sonja, age 10, and her sister Desiree, age 8. Growing up in San Ildefonso Pueblo, the girls enjoy the same activities as other American girls, such as basketball, cheerleading, playing video games, and sending e-mail. But they also…

  14. Overview of the Girls' Education Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brush, Lorelei; Heyman, Cory; Provasnik, Stephen; Fanning, Marina; Lent, Drew; De Wilde, Johan; Leal, Angela; Saher, Najat Yamouri; Robles, Ana Maria; Mendoza, Johanna

    In 1996, the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) began the Girls' Education Activity (GEA). GEA's goal has been to assist host country governments and private sector and nongovernmental entities in formulating, institutionalizing, and implementing country initiatives for girls' education. These initiatives have been designed…

  15. Girls Save the World through Computer Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Christine

    2011-01-01

    It's no secret that fewer and fewer women are entering computer science fields. Attracting high school girls to computer science is only part of the solution. Retaining them while they are in higher education or the workforce is also a challenge. To solve this, there is a need to show girls that computer science is a wide-open field that offers…

  16. USAID Adolescent Girl Strategy Implementation Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development, 2016

    2016-01-01

    USAID's commitment to empowering adolescent girls to reach their full potential is reflected in the Agency's larger efforts to achieve gender equality and women's empowerment. The Agency holds decades of experience leading advances for greater gender equality and empowerment that benefit adolescent girls; however, these activities have not been…

  17. The Delta Team: Empowering Adolescent Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Marian White

    1994-01-01

    In response to adolescent girls' concerns about teen violence, rumors, grooming, careers, and equity, four women teachers and a woman administrator at a Maryland middle school developed the Delta Program. The program provides positive learning experiences, teaches social skills and conflict management techniques, empowers girls through mentoring…

  18. Understanding Teenage Girls: Culture, Identity and Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Horace R.; Brown-Thirston, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    "Understanding Teenage Girls: Culture, Identity and Schooling" focuses on a range of social phenomenon that impact the lives of adolescent females of color. The authors highlight the daily challenges that African-American, Chicana, and Puerto Rican teenage girls face with respect to peer and family influences, media stereotyping, body image,…

  19. A message to school girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinwande, A

    1993-06-01

    Information, education, and communication (IEC) programs need to be strengthened to appeal to adolescents, who are increasingly contributing to unwanted pregnancy and are using abortion as a means of birth control. Successful IEC programs have the following characteristics: 1) established communication theories that guide development of materials; 2) a multimedia and a mass media approach to information dissemination, and 3) emphasis on visual displays. The primary emphasis should be on presentation of a concise, clear message with the appropriate visual medium. Many communication specialists in developing countries, however, lack the training to design and use effective IEC software. Designing effective messages involves a process of integrating scientific ideas with artistic appeal. The aim is to stimulate the target audience to change its behavior of life style. The message must be convincing and contain practical and useful information. The IEC Software Design Cycle focuses on analysis and diagnosis, design production, pretesting and modification, and distribution and evaluation. Each of these processes are described. Necessary before any attempt is made is obtaining data on historical, sociocultural, and demographic characteristics, economic activities, health and social services, communication infrastructure, marriage and family life patterns, and decision making systems. Focus group discussions may be used to collect information about the target group. An example is given of the process of development, in a course through the Center or African Family Studies, of a poster about premarital sex directed to 11-16 year olds. On the basis of focus group discussions, it was decided that the message would be to encourage girls to talk with their mothers about family life and premarital sex. The poster was produced with 2 school girls talking in front of the school. The evaluation yielded modifications such as including a school building that resembled actual

  20. Nutritional labelling for healthier food or non-alcoholic drink purchasing and consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crockett, Rachel A; King, Sarah E; Marteau, Theresa M; Prevost, A T; Bignardi, Giacomo; Roberts, Nia W; Stubbs, Brendon; Hollands, Gareth J; Jebb, Susan A

    2018-02-27

    Nutritional labelling is advocated as a means to promote healthier food purchasing and consumption, including lower energy intake. Internationally, many different nutritional labelling schemes have been introduced. There is no consensus on whether such labelling is effective in promoting healthier behaviour. To assess the impact of nutritional labelling for food and non-alcoholic drinks on purchasing and consumption of healthier items. Our secondary objective was to explore possible effect moderators of nutritional labelling on purchasing and consumption. We searched 13 electronic databases including CENTRAL, MEDLINE and Embase to 26 April 2017. We also handsearched references and citations and sought unpublished studies through websites and trials registries. Eligible studies: were randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials (RCTs/Q-RCTs), controlled before-and-after studies, or interrupted time series (ITS) studies; compared a labelled product (with information on nutrients or energy) with the same product without a nutritional label; assessed objectively measured purchasing or consumption of foods or non-alcoholic drinks in real-world or laboratory settings. Two authors independently selected studies for inclusion and extracted study data. We applied the Cochrane 'Risk of bias' tool and GRADE to assess the quality of evidence. We pooled studies that evaluated similar interventions and outcomes using a random-effects meta-analysis, and we synthesised data from other studies in a narrative summary. We included 28 studies, comprising 17 RCTs, 5 Q-RCTs and 6 ITS studies. Most (21/28) took place in the USA, and 19 took place in university settings, 14 of which mainly involved university students or staff. Most (20/28) studies assessed the impact of labelling on menus or menu boards, or nutritional labelling placed on, or adjacent to, a range of foods or drinks from which participants could choose. Eight studies provided participants with only one labelled food

  1. The Norwegian Healthier Goats programme--a financial cost-benefit analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel-Alne, G Elise; Asheim, Leif J; Hardaker, J Brian; Sølverød, Liv; Lindheim, Dag; Valle, Paul S

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the profitability to dairy goat farmers of participating in the Healthier Goats disease control and eradication programme (HG), which was initiated in 2001 and is still running. HG includes the control and eradication of caprine arthritis encephalitis (CAE), caseous lymphadenitis (CLA) and paratuberculosis (Johne's disease) in Norwegian goat herds. The profitability of participation was estimated in a financial cost-benefit analysis (CBA) using partial budgeting to quantify the economic consequences of infectious disease control through HG versus taking no action. Historical data were collected from 24 enrolled dairy goat herds and 21 herds not enrolled in HG, and supplemented with information from a questionnaire distributed to the same farmers. Expert opinions were collected to arrive at the best possible estimates. For some input parameters there were uncertainty due to imperfect knowledge, thus these parameters were modelled as PERT probability distributions and a stochastic simulation model was built. The CBA model was used to generate distributions of net present value (NPV) of farmers' net cash flows for choosing to enroll versus not enrolling. This was done for three selected milk quota levels of 30000L, 50000L and 70000L, and both for before and after the introduction of a reduced milk price for the non-enrolled. The NPVs were calculated over time horizons of 5, 10 and 20 years using an inflation-adjusted discount rate of 2.8% per annum. The results show that participation in HG on average was profitable over a time horizon of 10 years or longer for quota levels of 50000L and 70000L, although not without risk of having a negative NPV. If farmers had to pay all the costs themselves, participation in HG would have been profitable only for a time horizon beyond 20 years. In 2012, a reduced milk price was introduced for farmers not enrolled in HG, changing the decision criteria for farmers, and thus, the CBA. When the

  2. The Norwegian Healthier Goats program--modeling lactation curves using a multilevel cubic spline regression model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel-Alne, G E; Krontveit, R; Bohlin, J; Valle, P S; Skjerve, E; Sølverød, L S

    2014-07-01

    In 2001, the Norwegian Goat Health Service initiated the Healthier Goats program (HG), with the aim of eradicating caprine arthritis encephalitis, caseous lymphadenitis, and Johne's disease (caprine paratuberculosis) in Norwegian goat herds. The aim of the present study was to explore how control and eradication of the above-mentioned diseases by enrolling in HG affected milk yield by comparison with herds not enrolled in HG. Lactation curves were modeled using a multilevel cubic spline regression model where farm, goat, and lactation were included as random effect parameters. The data material contained 135,446 registrations of daily milk yield from 28,829 lactations in 43 herds. The multilevel cubic spline regression model was applied to 4 categories of data: enrolled early, control early, enrolled late, and control late. For enrolled herds, the early and late notations refer to the situation before and after enrolling in HG; for nonenrolled herds (controls), they refer to development over time, independent of HG. Total milk yield increased in the enrolled herds after eradication: the total milk yields in the fourth lactation were 634.2 and 873.3 kg in enrolled early and enrolled late herds, respectively, and 613.2 and 701.4 kg in the control early and control late herds, respectively. Day of peak yield differed between enrolled and control herds. The day of peak yield came on d 6 of lactation for the control early category for parities 2, 3, and 4, indicating an inability of the goats to further increase their milk yield from the initial level. For enrolled herds, on the other hand, peak yield came between d 49 and 56, indicating a gradual increase in milk yield after kidding. Our results indicate that enrollment in the HG disease eradication program improved the milk yield of dairy goats considerably, and that the multilevel cubic spline regression was a suitable model for exploring effects of disease control and eradication on milk yield. Copyright © 2014

  3. Changes in School Food Preparation Methods Result in Healthier Cafeteria Lunches in Elementary Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Timothy K; Liebert, Mina L; Peterson, Hannah J; Howard Smith, Jennifer; Sutliffe, Jay T; Day, Aubrey; Mack, Jodi

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of a districtwide food best practices and preparation changes in elementary schools lunches, implemented as part of the LiveWell@School childhood obesity program, funded by LiveWell Colorado/Kaiser Permanente Community Health Initiative. Longitudinal study examining how school changes in best practices for food preparation impacted the types of side items offered from 2009 to 2015 in elementary school cafeterias in a high-need school district in southern Colorado. Specifically, this study examined changes in side items (fruits, vegetables, potatoes, breads, and desserts). In Phase 1 (2009-2010), baseline data were collected. During Phase 2 (2010-2011), breaded and processed foods (e.g., frozen nuggets, pre-packaged pizza) were removed and school chefs were trained on scratch cooking methods. Phase 3 (2011-2012) saw an increased use of fresh/frozen fruits and vegetables after a new commodity order. During Phase 4 (2013-2015), chef consulting and training took place. The frequency of side offerings was tracked across phases. Analyses were completed in Fall 2016. Because of limited sample sizes, data from Phases 2 to 4 (intervention phases) were combined for potatoes and desserts. Descriptive statistics were calculated. After adjusting for length of time for each phase, Pearson chi-square tests were conducted to examine changes in offerings of side items by phase. Fresh fruit offerings increased and canned fruit decreased in Phases 1-4 (p=0.001). A significant difference was observed for vegetables (p=0.001), with raw and steamed vegetables increasing and canned vegetables decreasing from Phase 1 to 4. Fresh potatoes (low in sodium) increased and fried potatoes (high in sodium) decreased from Phase 1 to Phases 2-4 (p=0.001). Breads were eliminated entirely in Phase 2, and dessert changes were not significant (p=0.927). This approach to promoting healthier lunch sides is a promising paradigm for improving elementary

  4. Developing and testing evidence-based weight management in Australian pharmacies: A Healthier Life Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Um, Irene S; Krass, Ines; Armour, Carol; Gill, Timothy; Chaar, Betty B

    2015-10-01

    Pharmacies represent a valuable opportunity to deliver weight management services, rather than just the routine supply of weight-loss products. In order to provide optimal services and translation of evidence-based weight management in community pharmacy, a best practice model program was designed and pilot tested to facilitate implementation of such services in pharmacies in Australia. To develop and pilot a pharmacist-delivered, evidence-based, non-product-centred weight management service for community pharmacy in Australia. Setting Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. A pharmacy-based weight management service called the A Healthier Life Program (AHLP), for overweight and obese individuals, was developed based on current Australian weight management guidelines and recommendations made by key stakeholders. The pharmacist undertook training to acquire specific competencies to deliver the program. The AHLP involved six individual face-to-face sessions with the pharmacist over 3 months. The intervention targeted three areas: diet, physical activity and behavioural change. Weight, BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure, dietary intake, and physical activity levels at 3 months were compared with values at baseline. Qualitative feedback on participants' satisfaction and willingness to pay were also analysed. Eight pharmacies provided the AHLP between February and December 2013. Thirty-four participants were enrolled in the AHLP; mean age 50.7 years (SD 15.7) and mean BMI 34.3 kg/m(2) (SD 5.3). Of the 22 (65%) participants who completed the program, six had achieved the target weight loss of ≥5%. The mean change in weight was -3.5 kg (95% CI -4.8, -2.2) and waist circumference -2.0 cm (95% CI -2.8, -1.3) for program completers at 3 months. Furthermore, participants reported overall positive experiences of the program, and identified accessibility of the pharmacy and high comfort level with the pharmacist, as the major advantages. The AHLP was well received and

  5. The tribal girl child in Rajasthan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhanti, R

    1995-01-01

    This article describes the status of the girl child among tribes in India. Tribes have son preference but do not discriminate against girls by female infanticide or sex determination tests. Girls do not inherit land, but they are not abused, hated, or subjected to rigid social norms. Girls are not veiled and are free to participate in dancing and other recreational programs. There is no dowry on marriage. The father of the bridegroom pays a brideprice to the father of the girl. Widowed or divorced women are free to marry again. Daughters care for young children, perform housework, and work in the field with their brothers. In the tribal village of Choti Underi girls were not discriminated against in health and nutrition, but there was a gender gap in education. Both girls and boys were equally exposed to infection and undernourishment. Tribals experience high rates of infant and child mortality due to poverty and its related malnutrition. Child labor among tribals is a way of life for meeting the basic needs of the total household. A recent report on tribals in Rajasthan reveals that 15-20% of child labor involved work in mines that were dangerous to children's health. Girl children had no security provisions or minimum wages. Tribal children were exploited by human service agencies. Child laborers were raped. Government programs in tribal areas should focus on improving living conditions for children in general. Special programs for girls are needed for providing security in the workplace and increasing female educational levels. More information is needed on the work burden of tribal girls that may include wage employment as well as housework.

  6. Medical Services at an International Summer Camp Event Under Hot and Humid Conditions: Experiences From the 23rd World Scout Jamboree, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Takemasa; Mizutani, Keiji; Iwai, Toshiyasu; Nakashima, Hiroshi

    2018-06-01

    The 23rd World Scout Jamboree (WSJ) was a 10-day summer camp held in Japan in 2015 under hot and humid conditions. The attendees comprised 33,628 people from 155 countries and territories. The aim of this study was to examine the provision of medical services under such conditions and to identify preventive factors for major diseases among long-term campers. Data were obtained from WSJ medical center records and examined to clarify the effects of age, sex, and period on visit frequencies and rates. Medical records from 3215 patients were examined. Daytime temperatures were 31.5±3.2°C and relative humidity was 61±13% (mean±SD). The initial visit rates among scouts and adults were 72.2 and 77.2 per 1000 persons, respectively. No significant age difference was observed in the initial visit rate; however, it was significantly higher among female patients than male patients. Significant differences were also seen in the adjusted odds ratios by age, sex, and period for disease distributions of initial visit frequencies. In addition, a higher initial visit frequency for heat strain-related diseases was seen among the scouts. Initial visit frequencies for heatstroke and/or dehydration increased just after opening day and persisted until closing day. Our findings suggest the importance of taking effective countermeasures against heat strain, fatigue, and unsanitary conditions at the WSJ. Medical services staff should take attendees' age, sex, and period into consideration to prevent heat strain-related diseases during such camps under hot and humid conditions. Copyright © 2018 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Neuropsychological Function in Adolescent Girls with Conduct Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajer, Kathleen; Chung, Jessica; Leininger, Lisa; Wang, Wei; Gardner, William; Yeates, Keith

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine whether neuropsychological function is poorer in girls with conduct disorder (CD) than in girls without any psychiatric disorder. It is concluded that girls with CD had deficits in several areas of neuropsychological function.

  8. Responses to Three USARIEM Job Analysis Questionnaires (JAQs) Conducted with Cavalry Scouts and Armor Crewmen (MOSs 19D and 19K)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-18

    gun for one fire command 56 24 Boxes of rounds loaded for the .50 Cal Machine Gun on an Abrams Tank 56 25 Mean estimates of time spent by 19Ds...Number of rounds loaded for one fire command 55 22 Total boxes of rounds loaded for .50 cal machine gun on an Abrams tank 56 23 Number of Soldiers...and 19K MOSs, respectively). A total o f 8,580 Army calvary scouts and 6,613 armor crewmen in the USA Army as of May or June of 2014 were invited

  9. Differential changes in serum uric acid concentrations in sibutramine promoted weight loss in diabetes: results from four weeks of the lead-in period of the SCOUT trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Charlotte; Weeke, Peter; Brendorp, Bente

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Elevated levels of serum uric acid are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The response of uric acid to weight loss therapy (lifestyle plus sibutramine) in an overweight and obese cardiovascular high risk population was studied....... METHODS AND RESULTS: Data from a four week single-blind lead-in period of the Sibutramine Cardiovascular OUTcomes (SCOUT) study were analyzed. 2584 patients (24%) had diabetes mellitus (DM) only, 1748 (16%) had cardiovascular disease (CVD) only and 6397 (60%) had both DM + CVD. Uric acid concentrations...... significantly more in patients without DM (p sibutramine induced lower uric acid levels...

  10. Towards a black carbon indicator for a healthier air quality policy; Naar een roetmaat voor een gezonder luchtkwaliteitsbeleid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molenaar, R. [DCMR Milieudienst Rijnmond, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Krijgsheld, K. [Ministerie van Infrastructuur en Milieu I+M, Den Haag (Netherlands)

    2011-12-15

    October 5, 2011, the national conference 'Towards a black carbon indicator for a healthier air quality policy' was held in Schiedam, Netherlands. This article reports on the conference, which was divided into three aspects: the administrative reality, the scientific contribution and practice. [Dutch] Op 5 oktober 2011 vond de nationale conferentie 'Naar een roetmaat voor een gezonder luchtkwaliteitsbeleid' plaats in Schiedam. In dit artikel wordt verslag gedaan van de conferentie, die was opgedeeld in drie deelaspecten: de bestuurlijke werkelijkheid, de wetenschappelijke bijdrage en de praktijk.

  11. The Indian "girl" psychology: A perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, G Prasad; Vidya, K L; Sriramya, V

    2015-07-01

    India has one of the fastest growing youth populations in the world. Girls below 19 years of age comprise one-quarter of India's rapidly growing population. In spite of India's reputation for respecting women, to an extent to treat her as a goddess, the moment a baby is born, the first thing comes to mind is "boy or girl?" as the differences are beyond just being biological. This article examines the significance of various psychological constructs and psychosocial issues that are important in the life of a "girl" baby born in our country.

  12. Patchwork Girl: Corpo e Hipertexto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Longhi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A ficção em hipertexto  Patchwork Girl, de Shelley Jackson, escrita e publicada no  softwareStoryspace, faz uma fábula da relação corpo-máquina utilizando conceitos da literatura juntamente com o embasamento teórico construído pelos estudos do hipertexto. Esta obra  literária aponta para o entrelaçamento de questões fundamentais na criação poética, ao inspirarse no conto Frankenstein, a Modern Prometeus,  de Mary Shelley, combinando o tema corpomáquina com as características escriturais  das poéticas tecnológicas, especialmente, do hipertexto. Este trabalho tem o objetivo de analisar esta obra de Shelley Jackson à luz de alguns estudos relativos à criação poética em hipertexto, ressaltando seu caráter literário dentro das novas poéticas tecnológicas.

  13. Compound Odontoma in young girl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurwahida Nurwahida

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Odontomas are the most common type of odontogenic tumors and generally they are asymptomatic. These tumors are formed from enamel and dentin, and can have variable amounts of cement and pulp tissues. According to radiographic, microscopic, and clinical features, two types of odontomas are recognized: Complex and compound odontomas. Complex odontomas occur mostly in the posterior part of the mandible and compound odontomas in the anterior maxilla. Case Report. A young girl patient, 9 years old came to Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery with a slow growing and asymptomatic swelling in her left posterior mandible for 5 years in his history taking. The panoramic radiograph show  a radioopacity and radiolucent lesion at the lower second molar region, with well-corticated limits. An insisional biopsi   confirmed  as compound odontoma. The surgery  performed with simple enucleation and curettage under general anaesthesia. Discussion. Compound odontomas are usually located in the anterior maxilla, over the crowns of unerupted teeth, or between the roots of erupted teeth. In this case report, Compound odontomas are found in the posterior mandible. Conclusion. Compound odontomas in the posterior mandible is a rare. The treatment of odontomas depends on the size of the lesion. The early diagnosis, the treatment of choice is conservative surgical enucleation and curettage and prognosis is excellent.

  14. Prevalence and Impact of Glenoid Augmentation in American Football Athletes Participating in the National Football League Scouting Combine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapik, Derrick M.; Gillespie, Robert J.; Salata, Michael J.; Voos, James E.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Bony augmentation of the anterior glenoid is used in athletes with recurrent shoulder instability and bone loss; however, the prevalence and impact of repair in elite American football athletes are unknown. Purpose: To evaluate the prevalence and impact of glenoid augmentation in athletes invited to the National Football League (NFL) Scouting Combine from 2012 to 2015. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: A total of 1311 athletes invited to the NFL Combine from 2012 to 2015 were evaluated for history of either Bristow or Latarjet surgery for recurrent anterior shoulder instability. Athlete demographics, surgical history, imaging, and physical examination results were recorded using the NFL Combine database. Prospective participation data with regard to draft status, games played, games started, and status after the athletes’ first season in the NFL were gathered using publicly available databases. Results: Surgical repair was performed on 10 shoulders in 10 athletes (0.76%), with the highest prevalence in defensive backs (30%; n = 3). Deficits in shoulder motion were exhibited in 70% (n = 7) of athletes, while 40% (n = 4) had evidence of mild glenohumeral arthritis and 80% demonstrated imaging findings consistent with a prior instability episode (8 labral tears, 2 Hill-Sachs lesions). Prospectively, 40% (n = 4) of athletes were drafted into the NFL. In the first season after the combine, athletes with a history of glenoid augmentation were not found to be at significant risk for diminished participation with regard to games played or started when compared with athletes with no history of glenoid augmentation or athletes undergoing isolated shoulder soft tissue repair. After the conclusion of the first NFL season, 60% (n = 6 athletes) were on an active NFL roster. Conclusion: Despite being drafted at a lower rate than their peers, there were no significant limitations in NFL participation for athletes with a history of glenoid

  15. Prevalence and Impact of Glenoid Augmentation in American Football Athletes Participating in the National Football League Scouting Combine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapik, Derrick M; Gillespie, Robert J; Salata, Michael J; Voos, James E

    2017-08-01

    Bony augmentation of the anterior glenoid is used in athletes with recurrent shoulder instability and bone loss; however, the prevalence and impact of repair in elite American football athletes are unknown. To evaluate the prevalence and impact of glenoid augmentation in athletes invited to the National Football League (NFL) Scouting Combine from 2012 to 2015. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. A total of 1311 athletes invited to the NFL Combine from 2012 to 2015 were evaluated for history of either Bristow or Latarjet surgery for recurrent anterior shoulder instability. Athlete demographics, surgical history, imaging, and physical examination results were recorded using the NFL Combine database. Prospective participation data with regard to draft status, games played, games started, and status after the athletes' first season in the NFL were gathered using publicly available databases. Surgical repair was performed on 10 shoulders in 10 athletes (0.76%), with the highest prevalence in defensive backs (30%; n = 3). Deficits in shoulder motion were exhibited in 70% (n = 7) of athletes, while 40% (n = 4) had evidence of mild glenohumeral arthritis and 80% demonstrated imaging findings consistent with a prior instability episode (8 labral tears, 2 Hill-Sachs lesions). Prospectively, 40% (n = 4) of athletes were drafted into the NFL. In the first season after the combine, athletes with a history of glenoid augmentation were not found to be at significant risk for diminished participation with regard to games played or started when compared with athletes with no history of glenoid augmentation or athletes undergoing isolated shoulder soft tissue repair. After the conclusion of the first NFL season, 60% (n = 6 athletes) were on an active NFL roster. Despite being drafted at a lower rate than their peers, there were no significant limitations in NFL participation for athletes with a history of glenoid augmentation when compared with athletes without a history of shoulder

  16. Analogue spies in a digital world : changing technology and attitudes on confidentiality make an oilfield scout's job harder than ever

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stastny, P.

    2009-04-15

    Spying amongst oil companies is now declining as a result of cultural shifts in how privacy is viewed as well as by new court decisions on how confidential information is used to gain competitive advantages. In the 1970s, oil company scouts used visual monitoring as a means of gaining information related to oil field technologies. New digital communications processes mean that scouts can no longer eavesdrop on analogue communications equipment using radio equipment. Energy companies are now enjoying an unprecedented level of security. Satellite digital communications minimize the risk of in-field interception by sending signals directly upward from a localized point. Although cellphone scanning equipment is available, it is illegal in Canada. New privacy rules state that listening to a cell phone conversation without the consent of the people talking is now illegal. Devices have also been designed to intercept communications of new digital mobile units. However, the equipment is costly and civilian use of it is illegal. Cellphone technologies are advancing at such a rapid rate that many new spying devices become obsolete very quickly. It was concluded that a recent case in which a small oil and gas operator bid on leases days before a larger company won when the larger company proved that the bid was based on the misuse of confidential data. 3 figs.

  17. Human papillomavirus immunization uptake among girls with a refugee background compared with Danish-born girls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    P. Møller, Sanne; Kristiansen, Maria; Norredam, Marie

    2018-01-01

    Refugee children and their families may experience impaired access to healthcare; therefore, we aimed to uncover human papillomavirus (HPV) immunization patterns among a large group of refugee girls compared with Danish-born girls. We also examined possible predictors of uptake among refugee girls....... We used aregister-based cohort design where refugee girls (n = 3264) who, between 1 January 1994 and 31 December 2010, obtained residency permits in Denmark, were included and matched on age and sex with Danish-born girls (n = 19 584). Personal identification numbers were cross-linked to the National...... Danish Health Service Register, identifying all contacts for HPV-immunization in both the ordinary HPV-immunization program and in a catch-up program. We applied logistic regression to estimate the odds ratios (OR) of uptake. We found that refugee girls had significantly lower HPV-immunization uptake...

  18. Choosing healthier foods in recreational sports settings: a mixed methods investigation of the impact of nudging and an economic incentive

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Nudging is an approach to environmental change that alters social and physical environments to shift behaviors in positive, self-interested directions. Evidence indicates that eating is largely an automatic behavior governed by environmental cues, suggesting that it might be possible to nudge healthier dietary behaviors. This study assessed the comparative and additive efficacy of two nudges and an economic incentive in supporting healthy food purchases by patrons at a recreational swimming pool. Methods An initial pre-intervention period was followed by three successive and additive interventions that promoted sales of healthy items through: signage, taste testing, and 30% price reductions; concluding with a return to baseline conditions. Each period was 8 days in length. The primary outcome was the change in the proportion of healthy items sold in the intervention periods relative to pre- and post-intervention in the full sample, and in a subsample of patrons whose purchases were directly observed. Secondary outcomes included change in the caloric value of purchases, change in revenues and gross profits, and qualitative process observations. Data were analyzed using analysis of covariance, chi-square tests and thematic content analysis. Results Healthy items represented 41% of sales and were significantly lower than sales of unhealthy items (p sales of healthy items did not differ across periods, whereas in the subsample, sales of healthy items increased by 30% when a signage + taste testing intervention was implemented (p promote healthier dietary behaviors. PMID:24450763

  19. A food environments feedback system (FoodBack) for empowering citizens and change agents to create healthier community food places.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Williams, Rachel; Tawfiq, Essa; Swinburn, Boyd

    2017-11-14

    This study developed a systems-based approach (called FoodBack) to empower citizens and change agents to create healthier community food places. Formative evaluations were held with citizens and change agents in six diverse New Zealand communities, supplemented by semi-structured interviews with 85 change agents in Auckland and Hamilton in 2015-2016. The emerging system was additionally reviewed by public health experts from diverse organizations. A food environments feedback system was constructed to crowdsource key indicators of the healthiness of diverse community food places (i.e. schools, hospitals, supermarkets, fast food outlets, sport centers) and outdoor spaces (i.e. around schools), comments/pictures about barriers and facilitators to healthy eating and exemplar stories on improving the healthiness of food environments. All the information collected is centrally processed and translated into 'short' (immediate) and 'long' (after analyses) feedback loops to stimulate actions to create healthier food places. FoodBack, as a comprehensive food environment feedback system (with evidence databases and feedback and recognition processes), has the potential to increase food sovereignty, and generate a sustainable, fine-grained database of food environments for real-time food policy research. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. equality idrc on for girls and women

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cathy Egan

    Whether you are female or male may influence your chances of going to school, .... issues hindering the re-integration of girls into society, particularly protection ... What happens to women who are harassed, sexually assaulted, or detained.

  1. EMPOWERING GIRLS AND CONNECTING PEOPLE THROUGH ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mugumbate

    through a school social work intervention and connecting the people who will support the ... best legacy we can bequeath children has been an old .... Some 14 million women and girls between ages 15 and ... Harmful traditional practices.

  2. Girl Talk: A Smartphone Application to Teach Sexual Health Education to Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brayboy, Lynae M.; Schultz, Lucy; Landgren Mills, Benedict S.; Spencer, Noelle; Sepolen, Alexandra; Mezoian, Taylor; Wheeler, Carol; Clark, Melissa A.

    2017-01-01

    Study Objective Produce Girl Talk, a free smartphone application containing comprehensive sexual health information, and determine the application’s desirability and appeal among teenage girls. Design, Setting and Participants 39 girls ages 12–17 from Rhode Island participated in a two-phase prospective study. In Phase I, 22 girls assessed a sexual health questionnaire in focus groups. In Phase 2, 17 girls with iPhones® used Girl Talk for two weeks and answered the revised sexual health questionnaire and interview questions before and after use. Main Outcome Measures Participants’ responses to the sexual health questionnaire, interviews and time viewing the application were used to determine feasibility and desirability of Girl Talk. Results Girl Talk was used on average for 48 minutes during participants’ free time on weekends for 10–15 minute intervals. Reported usefulness of Girl Talk as a sexual health application increased significantly from baseline to follow-up (35.3% vs. 94.1%; p < .001). Knowledge improved most in topics related to Anatomy and Physiology (4.2%), Sexuality and Relationships (3.5%) and STI Prevention (3.4%). Most participants (76.5%) were exposed to sexual health education prior to using Girl Talk, but 94.1% of participants stated that the application provided new and/or more detailed information than health classes. Conclusion Girl Talk can potentially connect teenage girls to more information about sexual health versus traditional methods, and participants recommended the application as a valuable resource to learn about comprehensive sexual health. PMID:27393638

  3. Girl Talk: A Smartphone Application to Teach Sexual Health Education to Adolescent Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brayboy, Lynae M; Sepolen, Alexandra; Mezoian, Taylor; Schultz, Lucy; Landgren-Mills, Benedict S; Spencer, Noelle; Wheeler, Carol; Clark, Melissa A

    2017-02-01

    Produce Girl Talk, a free smartphone application containing comprehensive sexual health information, and determine the application's desirability and appeal among teenage girls. Thirty-nine girls ages 12 to 17 years from Rhode Island participated in a 2-phase prospective study. In phase I, 22 girls assessed a sexual health questionnaire in focus groups. In phase II, 17 girls with iPhones used Girl Talk for 2 weeks and answered the revised sexual health questionnaire and interview questions before and after use. Participants' responses to the sexual health questionnaire, interviews, and time viewing the application were used to determine feasibility and desirability of Girl Talk. Girl Talk was used on average for 48 minutes during participants' free time on weekends for 10- to 15-minute intervals. Reported usefulness of Girl Talk as a sexual health application from baseline (6 participants) to follow-up (16 participants) increased significantly (35.3% vs 94.1%; P sexuality and relationships (76.5% to 80.0% out of 10 questions), and STI prevention (75.6% to 79.0% out of 7 questions). Most phase II participants (13 out of 17, or 76.5%) were exposed to sexual health education before using Girl Talk, but 16 out of 17 participants (94.1%) stated that the application provided new and/or more detailed information than health classes. Girl Talk can potentially connect teenage girls to more information about sexual health vs traditional methods, and participants recommended the application as a valuable resource to learn about comprehensive sexual health. Copyright © 2016 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The girl child and law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, A

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the flaws in India's legislation dealing with female children and equality, marriage age, rape, adoption, child care, and inheritance. India's national policies treat children as commodities and not human beings with their own rights. The best interests of a child are not generally served in a manner that advances their welfare. Exploitation of children for labor and sexual abuse of children is widespread. Only some children have such basic needs met as education, nutrition, food, health, clothing, shelter. Children are defined by the UN as human beings below the age of 18 years. However, in India the Constitution protects only children younger than 14 in employment. The prostitution act protects children younger than 16. The juvenile justice protects girls under the age of 18 years and boys under the age of 16 years. Hindus recognize inheritance of family property only for sons. This custom contributes to the abortion of female fetuses. The practice of equal protection under the law has enough loopholes to safeguard the interests of masculine patriarchal values, norms, and structure. The Act of Marriage does not deal directly with the issue of validity and only recommends a suitable age of marriage. Women can seek divorce on the grounds she was too young to marry only if the marriage occurred before the age of 15 years. Sexual intercourse with a woman under 16 years old is rape, with or without her consent. However, in practice men receive a lesser punishment for rape if the woman is his own wife and not under 12 years of age. The rape must be reported within a year of its occurrence. India's laws penalize the adults involved in child marriages, but the Hindu Marriage Act punishes only the parties married, including the child. Marriage registration is not compulsory. India's protective laws distinguish between prostitutes and men who use prostitutes, husbands versus wives in fidelity disputes, married versus unmarried or "unchaste" women

  5. Girls' Attitudes Towards Science in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetcuti, Deborah A.; Kioko, Beriter

    2012-07-01

    This study investigated girls' attitudes towards science in Kenya. It was carried out with 120 girls from four secondary schools in the Eastern province of Kenya. These were an urban single-sex (SS) and co-educational (Co-Ed) school and a rural SS and Co-Ed school. Different schools were chosen in order to explore whether there are any differences in attitudes in SS and Co-Ed schools and in schools in rural and urban areas. The methodology included the use of both questionnaires and focus group interviews. The main aim was to gain insight into the extent and depth of students' attitudes towards science. The findings of the study showed that the majority of Kenyan girls who participated in the study have a favourable attitude towards science. Girls in SS schools were found to have a more favourable attitude than those in Co-Ed schools, while girls in rural area schools were found to find science more relevant than those in urban schools. It emerged from this study that the attitudes of Kenyan girls are influenced by their perceptions of the relevance of science, enjoyment of studying science, perceptions of the suitability of science for a career, and their perceptions of subject difficulty.

  6. Emotion recognition in girls with conduct problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwenck, Christina; Gensthaler, Angelika; Romanos, Marcel; Freitag, Christine M; Schneider, Wolfgang; Taurines, Regina

    2014-01-01

    A deficit in emotion recognition has been suggested to underlie conduct problems. Although several studies have been conducted on this topic so far, most concentrated on male participants. The aim of the current study was to compare recognition of morphed emotional faces in girls with conduct problems (CP) with elevated or low callous-unemotional (CU+ vs. CU-) traits and a matched healthy developing control group (CG). Sixteen girls with CP-CU+, 16 girls with CP-CU- and 32 controls (mean age: 13.23 years, SD=2.33 years) were included. Video clips with morphed faces were presented in two runs to assess emotion recognition. Multivariate analysis of variance with the factors group and run was performed. Girls with CP-CU- needed more time than the CG to encode sad, fearful, and happy faces and they correctly identified sadness less often. Girls with CP-CU+ outperformed the other groups in the identification of fear. Learning effects throughout runs were the same for all groups except that girls with CP-CU- correctly identified fear less often in the second run compared to the first run. Results need to be replicated with comparable tasks, which might result in subgroup-specific therapeutic recommendations.

  7. Letting girls speak out about science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Dale; Leary, Rosemary

    The purpose of this study was to try to determine what influences girls to choose science. Forty girls were interviewed in Grades 2, 5, 8, 11 using a semistructured protocol. The interview focused on feelings about science, science careers, peer and parental support, and how science is taught. To determine whether their responses were based on gender, each girl was asked to respond to questions as if she were a boy. The girls were highly self-confident and positive about science. All of the girls took a strong equity position and asserted that women can and should do science. The girls liked learning science in an interactive social context rather than participating in activities that isolated them such as independent reading, writing, or note taking. Those who chose science careers were drawn to them because of strong affective experiences with a loved one and a desire to help. The interviews were analyzed through the framework of women's affective and psychological needs.Received: 15 July 1993; Revised: 23 May 1994;

  8. [Psychosocial disadvantages in incarcerated girls and boys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plattner, Belinda; Bessler, Cornelia; Vogt, Gunnar; Linhart, Susanne; Thun-Hohenstein, Leonhard; Aebi, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    Longitudinal studies found that criminal behavior in juveniles often concurs with neighborhood disadvantage and family dysfunction, especially in girls. In this study we assessed the psychosocial background in incarcerated juveniles and analyzed the data for each gender separately. The Multidimensional Clinical Screening Inventory for delinquent juveniles (MCSI) was used to assess school history, psychiatric history, family background, abuse and neglect and motive for crime. The sample consisted of 294 juveniles (46 females and 248 males). Innerfamilial abuse/neglect was reported by 91% (girls) and 79% (boys). 76% (girls) and 88% (boys) reported school-problems. 57% (girls) and 29% (boys) reported to have recieved psychiatric pretreatment. In girls we found significantly higher prevalence rates for parental divorce, incarceration of mother, abuse/neglect and psychiatric pretreatment. Significantly more girls reported a co-occurrence of school-problems and experiences of separation and loss and abuse (65.2% vs. 46.4%, χ²=5.51, df=1, p<.05). Incarcerated juveniles, especially females, are and have been exposed to multiple psychosocial burdens. Therefore it is necessary to implement prevention programs for psychosocially stressed families. Forensic intervention in and after detention has to include a family centered approach.

  9. Structure and distribution of gynaecological diseases for girls and teenage girls in the Zaporizhzhia area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Avramenko

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. In recent years the question of gynecological diseases in women and teenage girls becomes more and more relevance. Girls of pubertal age should become mothers of new generation, but the health of adolescents continues to deteriorate. Aim. To study the structure of gynecological diseases among children and teens in the Zaporizhzhia region, to develop the main ways of improving the provision of specialized gynecological medical care in the region. Methods. The analysis of major morbidity, prevalence and patterns of gynecological diseases among girls and adolescent girls in the Zaporozhye region over the past 5 years has been done. Results. The analysis showed that the indicator of gynecological morbidity remain high and increases. Main gynecologic pathologies are: menstrual function disorders, sexual development disorders, inflammatory diseases of external and internal genitalia. Detection of pathology among girls who turned to the doctor meets in average 23-24% of cases. In girls, of the youngest age (under 10 years inflammatory diseases of the external genitalia (vulvovaginitis, vulvitis dominate in most cases. In teenage girls the menstrual dysfunction is prevalent. Among menstrual dysfunction the hypomenstrual syndrome is prevalent in 70% (oligomenorrhea, opsomenorrhea, amenorrhea. The Department of Health of Zaporizhzhia Regional State Administration has prepared the order of 15.02.2016r. №158 «On improvement of specialized gynecological care for children of the region", which provides specialized gynecological care to girls and teenage girls, and indications for gynecologist consultation of children and adolescent. Conclusions: In the analysis of morbidity during 5 years a significant increase in the incidence of gynecological morbidity of girls and teenage girls has revealed. Risk factors of menstrual function disorders are: thyreiod gland pathology, diabetis mellitas, bronchial asthma, congenital heart diseases, chronic

  10. Nudging and social marketing techniques encourage employees to make healthier food choices: a randomized controlled trial in 30 worksite cafeterias in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velema, Elizabeth; Vyth, Ellis L; Hoekstra, Trynke; Steenhuis, Ingrid H M

    2018-02-01

    Currently, many studies focus on how the environment can be changed to encourage healthier eating behavior, referred to as choice architecture or "nudging." However, to date, these strategies are not often investigated in real-life settings, such as worksite cafeterias, or are only done so on a short-term basis. The objective of this study is to examine the effects of a healthy worksite cafeteria ["worksite cafeteria 2.0" (WC 2.0)] intervention on Dutch employees' purchase behavior over a 12-wk period. We conducted a randomized controlled trial in 30 worksite cafeterias. Worksite cafeterias were randomized to either the intervention or control group. The intervention aimed to encourage employees to make healthier food choices during their daily worksite cafeteria visits. The intervention consisted of 14 simultaneously executed strategies based on nudging and social marketing theories, involving product, price, placement, and promotion. Adjusted multilevel models showed significant positive effects of the intervention on purchases for 3 of the 7 studied product groups: healthier sandwiches, healthier cheese as a sandwich filling, and the inclusion of fruit. The increased sales of these healthier meal options were constant throughout the 12-wk intervention period. This study shows that the way worksite cafeterias offer products affects purchase behavior. Situated nudging and social marketing-based strategies are effective in promoting healthier choices and aim to remain effective over time. Some product groups only indicated an upward trend in purchases. Such an intervention could ultimately help prevent and reduce obesity in the Dutch working population. This trial was registered at the Dutch Trial Register (http://www.trialregister.nl/trialreg/admin/rctview.asp?TC=5372) as NTR5372.

  11. Batavia Boy Scouts | News

    Science.gov (United States)

    Financial Officer Finance Section Office of the Chief Operating Officer Facilities Engineering Services Accelerator Division Accelerator Physics Center Office of the Chief Safety Officer Environment, Safety, Health and Quality Section Office of the Chief Project Officer Office of Project Support Services Office of

  12. Healthier side dishes at restaurants: an analysis of children’s perspectives, menu content, and energy impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Children consume restaurant-prepared foods at high rates, suggesting that interventions and policies targeting consumption of these foods have the potential to improve diet quality and attenuate excess energy intake. One approach to encouraging healthier dietary intake in restaurants is to offer fruits and vegetables (FV) as side dishes, as opposed to traditional, energy-dense accompaniments like French fries. The aims of the current study were to examine: children's views about healthier side dishes at restaurants; current side dish offerings on children's menus at leading restaurants; and potential energy reductions when substituting FV side dishes in place of French fries. Methods To investigate children’s attitudes, a survey was administered to a nationally representative sample of U.S. 8- to 18-year-olds (n = 1178). To examine current side dish offerings, children's menus from leading quick service (QSR; n = 10) and full service restaurant chains (FSR; n = 10) were analyzed. Energy reductions that could result from substituting commonly-offered FV side dishes for French fries were estimated using nutrition information corresponding to the children's menu items. Results Two-thirds of children reported that they would not feel negatively about receiving FV sides instead of French fries with kids' meals. Liking/taste was the most common reason that children gave to explain their attitudes about FV side dishes. Nearly all restaurants offered at least 1 FV side dish option, but at most restaurants (60% of QSR; 70% of FSR), FV sides were never served by default. Substituting FV side dishes for French fries yielded an average estimated energy reduction of at least 170 calories. Conclusions Results highlight some healthy trends in the restaurant context, including the majority of children reporting non-negative attitudes about FV side dishes and the consistent availability of FV side dish options at leading QSR and FSR. Yet the minority of

  13. "The Girl Is Brought up Knowing She's Nothing": Listening to Voices of Tanzanian Women and Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagues, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    Despite positive changes made in Tanzania to promote gender equality, discrimination toward women and girls still exists, especially in some remote areas. Often such inequality exists within family, schools, and the community, leading to a devaluing of girls that results in normalization of their exploitation. The author discusses findings from…

  14. Girls' Workplace Destinations in a Changed Social Landscape: Girls and Their Mothers Talk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walshaw, Margaret

    2006-01-01

    Changes in participation and achievement patterns mark a turning point for girls in schooling and place female empowerment squarely in the public domain. Using data from a longitudinal study of girls, this paper looks at female empowerment by exploring the relationship between the production of female subjectivity and the processes operating in…

  15. Girls Helping Girls: Assessing the Influence of College Student Mentors in an Afterschool Engineering Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Stephanie; Redmond, Adrienne; Thomas, Julie; High, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Current data suggest fewer females than males continue to be interested in engineering and that this gender gap is first evidenced during middle school years. One might expect that female engineering role models would encourage adolescent girls to pursue future careers in engineering and thereby increase the girls' interests in and attitudes…

  16. "Oh, Those Loud Black Girls!": A Phenomenological Study of Black Girls Talking with an Attitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koonce, Jacqueline B.

    2012-01-01

    Current research suggests that it is imperative for researchers and educators to pay more attention to the needs of African American adolescent girls and how their race and gender affect schooling (Fordham, 1993; Morris, 2007). The purpose of this study was to highlight the lived experiences of two African American adolescent girls when they used…

  17. Girls' Rumination and Anxiety Sensitivity: Are They Related after Controlling for Girl, Maternal, and Parenting Factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Christie; Epkins, Catherine C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Rumination and anxiety sensitivity are posited cognitive vulnerabilities in the development and/or maintenance of depression and anxiety and have only been examined separately in youth. Objective: We examined the relation between rumination and anxiety sensitivity in girls, after controlling for other girl, maternal, and parenting…

  18. Future Girls, Transcendent Femininities and New Pedagogies: Toward Girls' Hybrid Bodies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzarito, Laura

    2010-01-01

    Media provides a material site for girls' identity formation and presents conflicting images of femininity, which challenge young women's self-expression and physicality development. The "problem" with girls' physicality has not been resolved, but rather complicated by discourses of new femininities in sport, fitness and health promoted…

  19. Mean Girls, Homosociality and Football: An Education on Social and Power Dynamics between Girls and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Kellie

    2015-01-01

    Relationships between girls and women have typically been explored through the lexicon of "friendship" or, where there is a presence of sexual desire, "lesbian". This article suggests the complexity and impact of female (same-sex) sociality, and its relationship to heteronormativity and power dynamics between girls and women…

  20. DTI scouting mission to Japan on trapped ions for measurement and enterprise (TIME) 26th-30th November 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, H.; Knight, D.; Plimmer, M.; Silver, J.

    2002-01-01

    This report describes the findings of the DTI sponsored scouting mission to Japan 'Trapped Ions for Measurement and Enterprise' (TIME). It focuses particularly on new optical frequency standards (for which trapped ions are strong candidates) and measurement of optical frequency standards using femtosecond comb laser systems. There has been a 'sea change' in optical frequency metrology using these measurement systems, and ensuing technical developments are moving quickly, with potential implications for telecommunications and photonics, navigation and ultimately for time measurement. The mission examined what the UK and Japan have in common in this field and the scope for future collaborations. It included visits to two national laboratories, the National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ) and the Communications Research Laboratory (CRL), two companies, Anritsu and NTT, and discussions with staff at the University of Electrocommunications and Kyoto University. At the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) in the UK and elsewhere there have recently been developments of femtosecond comb laser systems, which have been used to measure the absolute frequencies of several optical frequency standards including several very stable ion- trap based standards. In Japan these measurement systems at the National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ) have been used to measure the optical frequencies of iodine stabilised lasers, but trapped-ion based optical standards still need development. More detailed observations and conclusions include: a) The measurement opportunities offered by femtosecond laser comb technology were widely appreciated by scientists in Japan. b) Many of the laboratories we visited were very well equipped, in some cases better than those in the UK. For example NMIJ already had 5 femtosecond comb systems. c) A feasibility study on optical frequency standards and clocks was being started at CRL Koganei; future work would be likely to involve collaboration with the

  1. Effects of Choice Architecture and Chef-Enhanced Meals on the Selection and Consumption of Healthier School Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Juliana F.W.; Richardson, Scott A.; Cluggish, Sarah A.; Parker, Ellen; Catalano, Paul J.; Rimm, Eric B.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Little is known about the long-term effect of a chef-enhanced menu on healthier food selection and consumption in school lunchrooms. In addition, it remains unclear if extended exposure to other strategies to promote healthier foods (eg, choice architecture) also improves food selection or consumption. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the short- and long-term effects of chef-enhanced meals and extended exposure to choice architecture on healthier school food selection and consumption. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A school-based randomized clinical trial was conducted during the 2011–2012 school year among 14 elementary and middle schools in 2 urban, low-income school districts (intent-to-treat analysis). Included in the study were 2638 students in grades 3 through 8 attending participating schools (38.4%of eligible participants). INTERVENTIONS Schools were first randomized to receive a professional chef to improve school meal palatability (chef schools) or to a delayed intervention (control group). To assess the effect of choice architecture (smart café), all schools after 3 months were then randomized to the smart café intervention or to the control group. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES School food selection was recorded, and consumption was measured using plate waste methods. RESULTS After 3 months, vegetable selection increased in chef vs control schools (odds ratio [OR], 1.75; 95% CI, 1.36–2.24), but there was no effect on the selection of other components or on meal consumption. After long-term or extended exposure to the chef or smart café intervention, fruit selection increased in the chef (OR, 3.08; 95% CI, 2.23–4.25), smart café (OR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.13–1.87), and chef plus smart café (OR, 3.10; 95% CI, 2.26–4.25) schools compared with the control schools, and consumption increased in the chef schools (OR, 0.17; 95% CI, 0.03–0.30 cups/d). Vegetable selection increased in the chef (OR, 2.54; 95% CI, 1.83–3.54), smart café (OR, 1.91; 95

  2. Gonadal dysfunction in morbidly obese adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Vivian; Censani, Marisa; Lerner, Shulamit; Conroy, Rushika; Oberfield, Sharon; McMahon, Donald; Zitsman, Jeffrey; Fennoy, Ilene

    2014-04-01

    To describe gonadal dysfunction and evaluate polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and its association with metabolic syndrome (MeS) among girls in a morbidly obese adolescent population. In a cross-sectional study of 174 girls, height, weight, waist circumference, Tanner stage, reproductive hormones, carbohydrate and lipid markers, drug use, and menstrual history were obtained at baseline. Exclusion criteria were menarcheal age PCOS or MeS classification. University medical center outpatient clinic. Ninety-eight girls ages 13-19.6 years, Tanner 5, average body mass index of 46.6 kg/m(2), menarche at 11.4 years, and average menarcheal age of 5 years. None. Polycystic ovary syndrome and MeS. Ninety-eight girls were divided into four groups: PCOS by National Institutes of Health criteria (PCOSN, n = 24), irregular menses only (n = 25), elevated T (≥55 ng/dL) only (n = 6), and obese controls (n = 43). Metabolic syndrome by modified Cook criteria affected 32 girls or 33% overall: 6 of 24 PCOSN, 7 of 25 irregular menses only, 4 of 6 elevated T only, and 15 of 43 obese controls. Polycystic ovary syndrome by National Institutes of Health criteria and its individual components were not associated with MeS after adjusting for body mass index. Unlike obese adults, PCOSN and its individual components were not associated with MeS in the untreated morbidly obese adolescent population. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Optimal Adherence to a Mediterranean Diet and High Muscular Fitness Are Associated with a Healthier Cardiometabolic Profile in Collegiate Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robinson Ramírez-Vélez

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the combined association of adherence to a Mediterranean diet (MedDiet and muscular fitness (MF with cardiometabolic health in collegiate students. The present cross-sectional analysis consisted of 1248 (714 females healthy collegiate students (20.1 ± 2.7 years old. Adherence to a MedDiet was assessed by a KIDMED (Mediterranean Diet Quality Index questionnaire. Standing broad jump, standing vertical jump, and isometric handgrip dynamometry were used as indicators of MF. The cardiometabolic profile was assessed using the following components: triglycerides, blood pressure, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL-cholesterol, glucose, and waist circumference. Analysis of covariance shows a significant difference in the cardiometabolic profile of both genders between the high MF/low MedDiet and high MF/optimal MedDiet groups, and the low MF/low MedDiet and low MF/optimal MedDiet groups (p < 0.001. No difference was found on cardiometabolic profile between high MF/optimal MedDiet and high MF/low MedDiet, both in males and females. Additionally, logistic regression shows that both female (odds ratio (OR = 2.01; 95% confidence interval (CI: (1.8–3.7; p = 0.02 and male (OR = 3.38; 95% CI: (1.9–5.8; p < 0.001 participants in the optimal MedDiet/high MF group had the highest odds of expressing a healthier cardiometabolic profile as compared to those in the low MF/low MedDiet group. In conclusion, a combination of high MF levels and optimal adherence to a MedDiet is associated with a healthier cardiometabolic profile; however, high MF levels seem to circumvent the deleterious effects of having a low adherence to a MedDiet.

  4. Paying for convenience: comparing the cost of takeaway meals with their healthier home-cooked counterparts in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, Sally; Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Xie, Pei; Lee, Amanda; Swinburn, Boyd

    2017-09-01

    Convenience and cost impact on people's meal decisions. Takeaway and pre-prepared foods save preparation time but may contribute to poorer-quality diets. Analysing the impact of time on relative cost differences between meals of varying convenience contributes to understanding the barrier of time to selecting healthy meals. Six popular New Zealand takeaway meals were identified from two large national surveys and compared with similar, but healthier, home-made and home-assembled meals that met nutrition targets consistent with New Zealand Eating and Activity Guidelines. The cost of each complete meal, cost per kilogram, and confidence intervals of the cost of each meal type were calculated. The time-inclusive cost was calculated by adding waiting or preparation time cost at the minimum wage. A large urban area in New Zealand. For five of six popular meals, the mean cost of the home-made and home-assembled meals was cheaper than the takeaway meals. When the cost of time was added, all home-assembled meal options were the cheapest and half of the home-made meals were at least as expensive as the takeaway meals. The home-prepared meals were designed to provide less saturated fat and Na and more vegetables than their takeaway counterparts; however, the home-assembled meals provided more Na than the home-made meals. Healthier home-made and home-assembled meals were, except one, cheaper options than takeaways. When the cost of time was added, either the home-made or the takeaway meal was the most expensive. This research questions whether takeaways are better value than home-prepared meals.

  5. Physical micro-environment interventions for healthier eating in the workplace: protocol for a stepped wedge randomised controlled pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiljevic, Milica; Cartwright, Emma; Pechey, Rachel; Hollands, Gareth J; Couturier, Dominique-Laurent; Jebb, Susan A; Marteau, Theresa M

    2017-01-01

    An estimated one third of energy is consumed in the workplace. The workplace is therefore an important context in which to reduce energy consumption to tackle the high rates of overweight and obesity in the general population. Altering environmental cues for food selection and consumption-physical micro-environment or 'choice architecture' interventions-has the potential to reduce energy intake. The first aim of this pilot trial is to estimate the potential impact upon energy purchased of three such environmental cues (size of portions, packages and tableware; availability of healthier vs. less healthy options; and energy labelling) in workplace cafeterias. A second aim of this pilot trial is to examine the feasibility of recruiting eligible worksites, and identify barriers to the feasibility and acceptability of implementing the interventions in preparation for a larger trial. Eighteen worksite cafeterias in England will be assigned to one of three intervention groups to assess the impact on energy purchased of altering (a) portion, package and tableware size ( n  = 6); (b) availability of healthier options ( n  = 6); and (c) energy (calorie) labelling ( n  = 6). Using a stepped wedge design, sites will implement allocated interventions at different time periods, as randomised. This pilot trial will examine the feasibility of recruiting eligible worksites, and the feasibility and acceptability of implementing the interventions in preparation for a larger trial. In addition, a series of linear mixed models will be used to estimate the impact of each intervention on total energy (calories) purchased per time frame of analysis (daily or weekly) controlling for the total sales/transactions adjusted for calendar time and with random effects for worksite. These analyses will allow an estimate of an effect size of each of the three proposed interventions, which will form the basis of the sample size calculations necessary for a larger trial. ISRCTN52923504.

  6. Is wealthier always healthier? The impact of national income level, inequality, and poverty on public health in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, Brian; King, Lawrence; Basu, Sanjay; Stuckler, David

    2010-07-01

    Despite findings indicating that both national income level and income inequality are each determinants of public health, few have studied how national income level, poverty and inequality interact with each other to influence public health outcomes. We analyzed the relationship between gross domestic product (GDP) per capita in purchasing power parity, extreme poverty rates, the gini coefficient for personal income and three common measures of public health: life expectancy, infant mortality rates, and tuberculosis (TB) mortality rates. Introducing poverty and inequality as modifying factors, we then assessed whether the relationship between GDP and health differed during times of increasing, decreasing, and decreasing or constant poverty and inequality. Data were taken from twenty-two Latin American countries from 1960 to 2007 from the December 2008 World Bank World Development Indicators, World Health Organization Global Tuberculosis Database 2008, and the Socio-Economic Database for Latin America and the Caribbean. Consistent with previous studies, we found increases in GDP have a sizable positive impact on population health. However, the strength of the relationship is powerfully influenced by changing levels of poverty and inequality. When poverty was increasing, greater GDP had no significant effect on life expectancy or TB mortality, and only led to a small reduction in infant mortality rates. When inequality was rising, greater GDP had only a modest effect on life expectancy and infant mortality rates, and no effect on TB mortality rates. In sharp contrast, during times of decreasing or constant poverty and inequality, there was a very strong relationship between increasing GDP and higher life expectancy and lower TB and infant mortality rates. Finally, inequality and poverty were found to exert independent, substantial effects on the relationship between national income level and health. Wealthier is indeed healthier, but how much healthier depends on how

  7. Healthier home food preparation methods and youth and caregiver psychosocial factors are associated with lower BMI in African American youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Rebecca F; Coutinho, Anastasia J; Vaeth, Elisabeth; Christiansen, Karina; Suratkar, Sonali; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2012-05-01

    Obesity disproportionately affects African American (AA) children and adolescents and leads to an increased risk of adult chronic diseases. Eating few meals at home has been implicated as a cause of obesity among youth, but to our knowledge, previous studies have not specifically investigated this relationship in AA adolescents or looked at both the healthfulness and frequency of home meals in AA households. The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between home food preparation and adolescent BMI in a sample of 240 AA adolescents aged 10-15 y and their caregivers. Multiple linear regressions were used to model psychosocial characteristics, household factors, and adolescent and caregiver food preparation behaviors as predictors of adolescent BMI, and psychosocial and household factors as predictors of food preparation behavior. Adolescents in the sample had a mean BMI-for-age percentile of 70.4, and >90% of the sample families received at least one form of food assistance. Adolescent children of caregivers who used healthier cooking methods were more likely to use healthy cooking methods themselves (P = 0.02). Having more meals prepared by a caregiver was predictive of higher BMI-for-age percentile in adolescents (P = 0.02), but healthier cooking methods used by the caregiver was associated with reduced risk of adolescent overweight or obesity (P prepared at home in AA households do not necessarily promote healthy BMI in youth. Family meals are a promising adolescent obesity prevention strategy, but it is important to target both frequency and healthfulness of meals prepared at home for effective health promotion in AA families.

  8. Is wealthier always healthier in poor countries? The health implications of income, inequality, poverty, and literacy in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, Keertichandra; Kennedy, Jonathan; King, Lawrence

    2013-07-01

    Standard policy prescriptions for improving public health in less developed countries (LDCs) prioritise raising average income levels over redistributive policies since it is widely accepted that 'wealthier is healthier'. It is argued that income inequality becomes a significant predictor of public health only after the 'epidemiological transition'. This paper tests this theory in India, where rising income levels have not been matched by improvements in public health. We use state-, district-, and individual-level data to investigate the relationship between infant and under-five mortality, and average income, poverty, income inequality, and literacy. Our analysis shows that at both state- and district-level public health is negatively associated with average income and positively associated with poverty. But, at both levels, controlling for poverty and literacy renders average income statistically insignificant. At state-level, only literacy remains a significant and negative predictor. At the less aggregated district-level, both poverty and literacy predict public health but literacy has a stronger effect than poverty. Inequality does not predict public health at state- or district-levels. At the individual-level, however, it is a strong predictor of self-reported ailment, even after we control for district average income, individual income, and individual education. Our analysis suggests that wealthier is indeed healthier in India - but only to the extent that high average incomes reflect low poverty and high literacy. Furthermore, inequality has a strong effect on self-reported health. Standard policy prescriptions, then, need revision: first, alleviating poverty may be more effective than raising average income levels; second, non-income goods like literacy may make an important contribution to public health; and third, policy should be based on a broader understanding of societal well-being and the factors that promote it. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All

  9. "Healthier than thou? 'Practicing what you preach' backfires by increasing anticipated devaluation": Correction to Howe and Monin (2017).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    Reports an error in "Healthier Than Thou? "Practicing What You Preach" Backfires by Increasing Anticipated Devaluation" by Lauren C. Howe and Benoît Monin ( Journal of Personality and Social Psychology , Advanced Online Publication, Feb 27, 2017, np). In the article, the beginning phrase of the second paragraph of the Internal Meta-Analysis of Studies 3 Through 5 section is incorrect. It should instead begin as follows: Across the three studies. The Monin et al. (2014) reference in both the References list and in text is included in error. The correct citation should read as follows: Monin, B., & Oppenheimer, D. M. (2014). The limits of direct replications and the virtues of stimulus sampling: Commentary on Klein et al., 2014. Social Psychology , 45, 299-300. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2017-08697-001.) Should experts always practice what they preach? When an expert displays exemplary behavior, individuals who fear negative devaluation sometimes anticipate that this expert will look down on them. As a result, displays of excellence can paradoxically turn off the very people they are trying to inspire. Five studies document this in the medical domain, showing that individuals who are overweight or obese and concerned about their weight avoid physicians who advertise their fitness, for fear that these doctors will judge them negatively. People (erroneously) believe that doctors have healthier habits than other individuals (Study 1), doctors advertise healthy habits (Study 2), and overweight individuals anticipate devaluation from, and thus avoid and feel less comfortable with, doctors who portray themselves as fitness-focused (Study 3). Studies 4 and 5 test strategies for physicians to emphasize their own fitness without turning off weight-sensitive patients. This work demonstrates that it is critical to take into account ego-defensive processes when attempting to lead by example. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all

  10. Centenarian offspring: start healthier and stay healthier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Emily R; Nolan, Vikki G; Andersen, Stacy L; Perls, Thomas T; Terry, Dellara F

    2008-11-01

    To assess the relative incidence of age-related diseases in a group of centenarian offspring who have thus far been considered to be predisposed to "healthy" aging. Longitudinal study. Nationwide sample. Four hundred forty centenarian offspring and 192 referent cohort subjects who met inclusion criteria of having initial and follow-up health questionnaire data available. Median age of both cohorts was 72 at the initial health questionnaire. Initial health questionnaires were collected from 1997 to 2006. Follow-up questionnaires were collected from 2004 to 2007. The mean period of follow-up was 3.5+/-1.7 years for the centenarian offspring and 3.9+/-2.2 years for the referent cohort. During the follow-up period, centenarian offspring had a 78% lower risk of myocardial infarction (Padvantages over time over similarly aged referent cohort subjects. These findings reinforce the notion that there may be physiological reasons that longevity runs in families and that centenarian offspring are more likely to age in better cardiovascular health and with a lower mortality than their peers.

  11. How Israeli social workers perceive adolescent girls in prostitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peled, Einat; Lugasi, Reut

    2015-04-01

    The phenomenon of girls in prostitution poses great challenges to professionals who work with adolescent girls at risk and in distress. Prostitution is socially stigmatized and seen as something shameful. However, current theory and research show adolescent girls in prostitution to be victims of violence, exploitation and trauma. This naturalistic qualitative study examined the views of 15 social workers at six Adolescent Girls Treatment Units in Israel on prostitution and on adolescent girls in prostitution. Data was collected through in-depth semi-structured interviews. The participants struggled to link the term "prostitution" with the adolescent girls in their care. The findings explore the source this perceived conflict, and its manifestation in the participants' professional intervention with the girls. The discussion examines the participants' professional discourse about adolescent girls in prostitution, and offers explanations for their difficulty in associating the adolescent girls in their care with prostitution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Active learning in optics for girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, R.; Ashraf, I.

    2017-08-01

    Active learning in Optics (ALO) is a self-funded program under the umbrella of the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) and Quaid-i-Azam University (QAU) to bring physical sciences to traditionally underserved Girls high schools and colleges in Pakistan. There is a significant gender disparity in physical Sciences in Pakistan. In Department of Physics at QAU, approximately 10 to 20% of total students were used to be females from past many decades, but now this percentage is increasing. To keep it up at same pace, we started ALO in January 2016 as a way to provide girls an enriching science experiences, in a very friendly atmosphere. We have organized many one-day activities, to support and encourage girls' students of government high schools and colleges to pursue careers in sciences. In this presentation we will describe our experience and lesson learned in these activities.

  13. [Nephrourologic pathology in girls with Turner syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pinto, Diana; Balestracci, Alejandro; Dujovne, Noelia; de Palma, Isabel; Adragna, Marta; Delgado, Norma

    2010-08-01

    Nephrourologic malformations in Turner syndrome are frequent, its diagnosis and follow-up is important in order to diminish the morbidity of this disease. The aim of this retrospective study was to analyze the nephrourologic pathology in 72 girls with Turner syndrome followed between 1989 and 2008 at Garrahan Hospital. The prevalence of nephrourologic involvement was 33% (24 patients). The most frequent findings were urinary system malformations, isolated (10 pacientes, 42%) or associated with renal malformations (9 patients, 37%); 5 patients (21%) had only renal malformations. Fifty percent of patients developed complications (8 urinary tract infection, 2 proteinuria and 2 arterial hypertension); however, none progressed to chronic renal failure. The prevalence of nephrourologic involvement was 33% and a half of these girls developed complications, our findings show the need of routine nephrological follow-up of girls with Turner syndrome and nephrourologic malformations.

  14. Pornography consumption among adolescent girls in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattebo, Magdalena; Tydén, Tanja; Häggström-Nordin, Elisabet; Nilsson, Kent W; Larsson, Margareta

    2016-08-01

    The aims of this study were to describe patterns of pornography consumption, investigate differences between consumers and non-consumers of pornography regarding sexual experiences, health and lifestyle and determine associations between pornography consumption and sexual experiences, health and lifestyle among adolescent girls. The hypotheses were that adolescent girls categorised as pornography consumers would report sexual experiences to a greater extent, and a riskier lifestyle and poorer health, compared with non-consumers. A classroom survey was conducted among 16-year-old girls (N = 393). One-third (30%) consumed pornography. In this group, almost half (43%) had fantasies about trying to copy sexual acts seen in pornography and 39% had tried to copy sexual activities seen in pornography. A higher proportion of pornography-consuming girls reported sexual experiences compared with peers. A third (30%) reported experience of anal sex compared with 15% among non-consuming peers (p = 0.001). Furthermore, peer-relationship problems (17% vs 9%; p = 0.015), use of alcohol (85% vs 69%; p = 0.001) and daily smoking (27% vs 14%; p = 0.002) were reported to a greater extent than in non-consuming peers. Pornography consumption, use of alcohol and daily smoking were associated with experience of casual sex. Pornography-consuming girls reported sexual experiences and a risky lifestyle to a greater extent compared with non-consuming girls. This indicates that pornography consumption may influence sexualisation and lifestyle. This is important to acknowledge when designing and implementing sexual health programmes for adolescents.

  15. Pioneering new approaches. Educating girls in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namuddu, K

    1993-01-01

    In Africa, the education of girls has varied with the history and development of countries. For instance, botswana, Lesotho, and Swaziland have higher enrollment of girls than boys, and in Nigeria the dropout rate for boys is higher than for girls. In Mozambique, girl's education is dependent on matrilineal or patrilineal family structure, urban or rural location, or religious preference. These and many other factors interfere with girl's access, survival, performance, and achievement in school. Strategies generally involve 1) improving access and increasing enrollment, 2) increasing survival in the school system, and 3) improving the quality of the learning environment. Most African countries are involved with the first strategy, but problems remain in selecting the appropriate age to begin school, retaining students and teachers, lowering absenteeism, providing adequate and appropriate teaching materials for students, and other factors that discourage female attendance. Solutions have involved establishing book banks and cardboard box libraries as a supplement to classroom learning. Gender stereotypes in curriculum materials are being introduced which show females in a positive and prominent way. In Zambia, an in-service training program aims to develop positive teacher attitudes toward girls, toward their work, and toward pupil's work. Program efforts in Kenya are attempting to educate parents about the importance of keeping their daughters in school, and about issues related to population, health, education, and a healthy environment. Traditional practices such as female circumcision, childhood marriages, early pregnancy, and nutritional taboos are discouraged. There are 43 district coordinators who conduct seminars and workshops to spread information to communities and households. Other countries are engaged in village meetings and workshops to persuade parents to examine their own interpersonal interaction with their daughters and the impact on their

  16. Empowering the Girl Child, Improving Global Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesario, Sandra K; Moran, Barbara

    The health and productivity of a global society is dependent upon the elimination of gender inequities that prevent girls from achieving their full potential. Although some progress has been made in reducing social, economic, and health disparities between men and women, gender equality continues to be an elusive goal. The Millennium Development Goals (2000-2015) and the Sustainable Development Goals (2015-2030) include intergovernmental aspirations to empower women and stress that change must begin with the girl child. Copyright © 2017 AWHONN, the Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Well, that's what came with it. A qualitative study of U.S. mothers' perceptions of healthier default options for children's meals at fast-food restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Holly K M; Borzekowski, Dina L G

    2015-04-01

    Using a qualitative design, this study investigated mothers' perceptions of food choices and default options, for children, at fast-food restaurants. Mothers of 3- to 8-year-old children (n = 40) participated in phone interviews. Mothers praised fast-food restaurants for offering healthier choices, but voiced concerns about quality of the food. Half worried about meat products and several were distressed by the processing involved with food and beverages. Many said that their children wanted to visit fast-food restaurants because of advertised toys and not food offerings. Half liked bundled meals, as long as they could choose the specific items that were included. Having healthier defaults might eliminate battles, reduce forgetfulness and facilitate ordering. Most mothers favored healthier defaults because it would help "other parents." This small study provides strong support for offering healthier options at fast-food restaurants. Restaurants, schools and other food venues should design children's meals that make the healthy choice the easy choice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Enhanced and updated American Heart Association heart-check front-of-package symbol: efforts to help consumers identify healthier food choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    A variety of nutrition symbols and rating systems are in use on the front of food packages. They are intended to help consumers make healthier food choices. One system, the American Heart Association Heart (AHA) Heart-Check Program, has evolved over time to incorporate current science-based recommen...

  19. Assessment of Changes in School Nutrition Programs and the School Environment as a Result of Following the HealthierUS School Challenge Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jennifer S.; Bednar, Carolyn; DiMarco, Nancy M.; Connors, Priscilla L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine changes in school nutrition programs and the school environment as reported by school nutrition directors who are following the U.S. Department of Agriculture's HealthierUS School Challenge (HUSSC) program. The objective was to determine before and after changes in the average lunch…

  20. Exploring the relative importance of “Reward” and “Reflection” in food orientations : Relevance for healthier and more sustainable diets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Joop; Schösler, Hanna; Aiking, H.

    2018-01-01

    This paper develops a new perspective on the relevance of different food orientations for healthier and more sustainable diets. Consumers’ food orientations vary in the relative importance of sensory- and reward-related factors (hereafter called Reward) or beliefs and values that are causes for

  1. "Spice Girls,""Nice Girls,""Girlies," and "Tomboys": Gender Discourses, Girls' Cultures and Femininities in the Primary Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reay, Diane

    2001-01-01

    Suggests that contemporary gendered power relations are complex, highlighting female British elementary students who assumed varied positions in relation to traditional femininities, though they all occasionally bolstered boys' power at the expense of their own. Students viewed girls as harder working, more mature, and more socially skilled, yet…

  2. Tween Girls' Perception of Gender Roles and Gender Identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tufte, Birgitte; Chan, Kara; Cappello, Gianna

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The present study aims to examine girls' perception of gender roles and gender identities in Hong Kong. Design/methodology/approach – A total of 16 girls aged 10 to 12 were asked to take pictures from the media that could illustrate “what girls or women should or should not be; and what...... girls or women should or should not do”. Qualitative interviews were conducted. Findings – Analysis of interviews and images captured found that tween girls' perceived gender roles for females were based on a mixture of traditional and contemporary role models. Girls in Hong Kong demonstrated...

  3. It's Not Easy Being a Girl in a Man's World: The Daily Experience of Sexual Harassment for Adolescent Girls

    OpenAIRE

    Spears Brown, Christia

    2007-01-01

    Girls experience sexual harassment every day in middle school. This harassment does not just affect a few girls- 90 percent of girls share this experience. More than half of all girls have been called a nasty or demeaning name or teased about their appearance by a male. Slightly fewer girls have been told a mean or embarrassing joke about their gender or sexuality. By high school, the harassment is more frequent and more extreme. By the end of high school, one-quarter of all girls have been t...

  4. Girl's Schooling in War-Torn Somalia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyi, Peter

    2012-01-01

    A civil war has raged in Somalia since 1991. The civil war was the final blow to an already collapsed education system. Somalia has received little research and policy attention yet children, especially girls, are very vulnerable during times of conflict. The different gender roles, activities, and status in society create gender differentiated…

  5. Postural Variables in Girls Practicing Volleyball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabara, Malgorzata; Hadzik, Andrzej

    2009-01-01

    Study aim: To assess body posture of young female volleyball players in relation to their untrained mates. Material and methods: A group of 42 volleyball players and another of 43 untrained girls, all aged 13-16 years were studied with respect to their body posture indices by using computer posturography. Spinal angles and curvatures were…

  6. Violence Against Women and Girls : Introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Gennari, Floriza; McCleary-Sills, Jennifer; Hidalgo, Nidia

    2014-01-01

    Violence against women and girls (VAWG) is one of the most oppressive forms of gender inequality and stands as a fundamental barrier to equal participation of women and men in social, economic, and political spheres. Such violence impedes gender equality and the achievement of a range of development outcomes. VAWG is a complex and multifaceted problem that cannot effectively be addressed f...

  7. Menarche and Its Determinants in Adolescent Girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moushami Ghimire

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Biological, psychosocial, cognitive, emotional and social changes begin during puberty and continue throughout adolescence. The age at which a female reaches sexual maturity is critical in determining her future reproductive health and success. The aim of the study was to assess the average age of sexual feeling and menarche among the adolescent girls and its determinants. Methods: Three hundred fifty five respondents were selected through simple random sampling from three secondary schools (namely Sunrise Boarding School, Swaraswati Secondary School and Gyanjyoti Samudayak Bidhyalaya in Palpa for the cross-sectional study. Structured interview schedule was used to collect information. Data was tabulated in Microsoft Excel spreadsheet and analyzed with SPSS-16. Results: Most of the girls (44.8% attained menarche at 12 years (M = 12.4, SD = 1.11. Age at menarche was more likely before 13 years of age when the age of onset of sexual feeling was earlier than 12 years of age, in students than in domestic workers and if they are living with parents than in those not living with parents. Conclusion: The average age of menarche among the adolescent girls was 12.40 years and it could be influenced by age of sexual feeling, occupation and living status of girls.

  8. Preadolescent Clues to Understanding Depression in Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Kate; Hipwell, Alison E.

    2005-01-01

    Between the ages of 10 and 15, increases in depression among girls result in a rate that is twice as high as the rate of depression in boys. This sex difference remains throughout early and middle adulthood. Prior to early adolescence, there is essentially no sex difference in the rate of depression. The aim of the present review is to examine…

  9. A Saturday of science for girls

    CERN Multimedia

    Pauline Gagnon

    2013-01-01

    On Saturday 16 November, the University of Geneva's Faculty of Science welcomed 388 girls aged between 11 and 14 to take part in “Élargis tes horizons” (“Expand your horizons”). This initiative aims to encourage more girls to pursue a career in science.   The idea is to use fun, interactive workshops to pique their interest while they are at an age where they are starting to think about their future. They see, by example, that women can and already do work in science. All the workshops were led by women representing several different scientific disciplines. CERN participated along with EPFL, UNIGE and seven other organisations, with 23 workshops on offer in total. The girls had the opportunity, for example, to programme a robot, analyse DNA and design and print a 3D object. The 23 CERN women physicists who took part ran an information kiosk and three workshops, where the girls were invited to build a particle accelerator in a salad bo...

  10. Educating Girls and Women: A Moral Imperative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Children's Fund, New York, NY.

    This booklet focuses on educating girls and women. The main issues include gender gap and its persistence in education. The reasons for this persistence include poverty, distance of schools, non-availability of gender segregated schools, absence of female teachers, inflexible school timing, and irrelevant and gender-insensitive curriculum. It is…

  11. Puberty in the Girl Who is Retarded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattullo, Ann

    Designed to help mothers of mentally retarded girls deal with the problems and concerns of puberty, the booklet provides information on physical and emotional changes, menstruation, masturbation, heterosexual behavior, contraception, protection against sexual aggression, the possibilities of marriage, and additional sources of information.…

  12. [A girl with congenital hemifacial hypertrophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeke, S.M. van den; Wolvius, E.B.; Adrichem, L.N. van; Baat, C. de

    2006-01-01

    A girl with congenital hemifacial hypertrophy had been observed and treated by a multidisciplinary team for craniofacial disorders in an academic medical centre since birth. At the age of 8 she was treated on account of considerable facial asymmetry and multiple intraoral problems. The two-step

  13. Preadolescent Girls' and Boys' Virtual MUD Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvert, Sandra L.; Strouse, Gabrielle A.; Strong, Bonnie L.; Huffaker, David A.; Lai, Sean

    2009-01-01

    Same and opposite-sex pairs of preadolescents interacted twice in a MUD, a virtual domain where they created characters known as avatars and socially interacted with one another. Boys interacted primarily through rapid scene shifts and playful exchanges; girls interacted with one another through written dialogue. Opposite-sex pairs lagged behind…

  14. Sex Equity: Increasing Girls' Use of Computers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockheed, Marlaine E.; Frakt, Steven B.

    1984-01-01

    Indicates that although computer science has been free of male domination, the stereotype of computers as male machines is emerging with increasing growth in microcomputer use by children. Factors that account for this development and some strategies teachers can adopt to equalize computer use by boys and girls are presented. (MBR)

  15. Thyroid Autoimmunity in Girls with Turner Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkowska-Sędek, Ewelina; Borowiec, Ada; Kucharska, Anna; Chacewicz, Karolina; Rumińska, Małgorzata; Demkow, Urszula; Pyrżak, Beata

    2017-01-01

    Turner syndrome is associated with increased incidence of autoimmune diseases, especially those of the thyroid gland. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of thyroid autoimmunity among pediatric patients with Turner syndrome. The study was retrospective and included 41 girls with Turner syndrome aged 6-18 years. Free thyroxine (FT4), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), anti-thyroid peroxidase (TPO-Ab) antibodies, anti-thyroglobulin (TG-Ab) antibodies, and karyotype were investigated. The correlation between karyotype and incidence of thyroid autoimmunity was also examined. Eleven patients (26.8%) were positive for TPO-Ab and/or TG-Ab. Three girls from that subgroup were euthyroid, 5 had subclinical hypothyroidism, and 3 were diagnosed with overt hypothyroidism. Out of these 11 patients affected by thyroid autoimmunity, 6 girls had mosaic karyotype with X-isochromosome (n = 4) or with deletions (n = 2), and 5 had the 45,X karyotype. The study findings confirmed a high incidence of thyroid autoimmunity in girls with Turner syndrome, but we failed to observe an association between the incidence of thyroid autoimmunity and karyotype. We conclude that it is important to monitor thyroid function in patients with Turner syndrome because they are prone to develop hypothyroidism.

  16. Psychological Symptoms in Sexually Abused Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Judith A.; Mannarino, Anthony P.

    1988-01-01

    The report examined psychological symptoms exhibited by 24 girls (ages 6-12) evaluated within six months of being sexually abused. Results showed a marked discrepancy between child and parent reports of symptoms with children not reporting as many symptoms of depression, anxiety, or low self-esteem as parents. (Author/DB)

  17. [Multiple mandibular radiolucencies in an asymptomatic girl

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barkhuysen, R.; Merkx, M.A.W.; Berge, S.J.

    2007-01-01

    Routine dental radiographic examination in a 16-year-old girl revealed the presence of 3 well-defined radiolucent cystlike structures in the mandible. After clinical and radiological examination, a multiple traumatic bone cyst was diagnosed. Surgical exploration confirmed the diagnosis. Curettage of

  18. "Dolly" Girls: Tweenies as Artefacts of Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, Fiona; Kelly, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The apparent sexualization and exploitation of young girls by the consumer media is a much debated topic in the advanced liberal democracies. This paper will develop the argument that the "consumer-media culture" has established itself as one of the most powerful influences in processes of self-formation for young people, and that a…

  19. Should infant girls receive micronutrient supplements?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Christine Stabell; Lund, Sofia; Fisker, Ane

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We have proposed the hypothesis that the combination of vitamin A supplementation and diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccination may be associated with increased mortality in girls. Recent zinc/folic acid (FA) and iron supplementation trials did not find any beneficial effects...

  20. Written in Skin: SuicideGirls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steen Christiansen

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Suicidegirls.com is a website which is both an online community, but also a softcore pin-up site, where the models feature extensive body modifications in the form of tattoos and piercings. The website promotes a democratic approach to the photo shoots, as the models remain in control, not the photographer. Marked by their body modifications, the Suicide Girls (as they call themselves, they actively attempt to subvert the typical pin-up conventions, by transgressing mainstream standards of beauty. In what seems remarkably similar to Judith Butler's account of subversive bodily acts, the pin-up shoots of the Suicide Girls mount a critique of a culture's view of the body as a natural entity. Cultural borders are crossed, as the bodies of the Suicide Girls embed ink into their bodies in the form of tattoos, and gender is played as a subversive game against the expectations of pin-up conventions. Acting as different and impure bodies, the Suicide Girls represent a threat to conventional conceptions of the body.

  1. Definitions of night eating in adolescent girls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Striegel-Moore, RH; Thompson, D; Franko, DL; Barton, B; Affenito, S; Schreiber, GB; Daniels, [No Value

    Objective: To describe the prevalence of night eating in a community cohort of black and white girls, using different definitions of night eating as described in the literature. Research Methods and Procedures: Three-day food diaries collected as part of the National Growth and Health Study were

  2. Prerna: Engendering Empowerment through Girl Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Shipra; Singh, Smita

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Quality education can be provided to underprivileged section in developing economies by the collaborative effort of private-paid schools. The purpose of this paper is to explore and highlight the model which can be adopted by a private school in imparting education to girls coming from lower income strata. It also highlights how synergies…

  3. Listening to Girls Talk about Their Bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichter, Mimi

    2000-01-01

    This article, written by an anthropologist who has studied the culture of teenage girls, explores influences on their sense of self, including those of peers, parents, and the media. Educators and parents can play important roles in helping young people navigate successfully through adolescence. (Author/MKA)

  4. With Boys and Girls in Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurian, Michael; Stevens, Kathy

    2004-01-01

    New positron emission tomography (PET) and MRI technologies, which allow looking inside the brains, show that the brains of boys and girls differ both structurally and functionally that profoundly affect the human learning. These gender differences in the brain are corroborated in males and females throughout the world and do not differ…

  5. NASA Science4Girls: Engaging Girls in STEM at Their Local Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinke, B.; Smith, D.; Bleacher, L.; Hauck, K.; Soeffing, C.; NASA SMD EPO Community

    2014-07-01

    The NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) Science Education and Public Outreach Forums coordinate the participation of SMD education and public outreach (EPO) programs in Women's History Month through the NASA Science4Girls and Their Families initiative. The initiative partners NASA science education programs with public libraries to provide NASA-themed hands-on education activities for girls and their families. The initiative has expanded from the successful 2012 Astro4Girls pilot to engage girls in all four NASA science discipline areas, which broadens the impact of the pilot by enabling audiences to experience the full range of NASA science topics and the different career skills each requires. The events focus on engaging underserved and underrepresented audiences in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) via use of research-based best practices, collaborations with libraries, partnerships with local and national organizations, and remote engagement of audiences.

  6. Integrated health of the girl child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, S

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses factors that affect the well-being and health of female children in India: sex ratio, literacy, food intake, morbidity, mortality, early marriage, maternal mortality, nutrition, prenatal care and delivery, family planning responsibilities, and access to health services. India has recognized within its Constitution and other government documents and programs equality for women, but practices lag behind principles. A National Action Plan was formulated for the period 1991-2000 for the girl child. Women themselves must change their attitudes about themselves and their female children. Several pilot programs have demonstrated the potential to empower girls to be outspoken, vocal, and enthusiastic. Girls in India are disadvantaged even before their birth. Patriarchal norms reinforce the view of girls as a bad investment. Women are blamed for not bearing a son, despite the evidence that males carry the deciding gender-specific chromosome. Tamil Nadu districts are known for their female infanticide. The declining sex ratio is attributed to the higher death rate among females younger than 35 years. Females until recently had a lower life expectancy than males. Sex ratios vary between states. The only state with a positive female sex ratio is Kerala. Males outnumber females by almost 10% in most of the northern and eastern states. Illiteracy among women is high in about 100 districts. Female school enrollment is 50% less than male enrollment. Females suffer from higher rates of malnutrition, morbidity, and death. Girls' adolescent growth spurt is delayed until 18 years. Maternal mortality accounts for the largest proportion of deaths among women of reproductive age. The most common reason for abortion is "too many children." Lower socioeconomic status is associated with lower nutrition. Women do not have control over their fertility. Women are limited in their access to reproductive health care.

  7. Girls Thrive Emotionally, Boys Falter After Move to Better Neighborhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... HIV/AIDS (6 items) Institute Announcements (54 items) Girls Thrive Emotionally, Boys Falter After Move to Better ... Policy March 11, 2014 • Science Update JAMA Video Girls in public housing benefited emotionally from a move ...

  8. Exploring Girls' Science Affinities Through an Informal Science Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Brandy; Zvoch, Keith

    2017-10-01

    This study examines science interests, efficacy, attitudes, and identity—referred to as affinities, in the context of an informal science outreach program for girls. A mixed methods design was used to explore girls' science affinities before, during, and after participation in a cohort-based summer science camp. Multivariate analysis of survey data revealed that girls' science affinities varied as a function of the joint relationship between family background and number of years in the program, with girls from more affluent families predicted to increase affinities over time and girls from lower income families to experience initial gains in affinities that diminish over time. Qualitative examination of girls' perspectives on gender and science efficacy, attitudes toward science, and elements of science identities revealed a complex interplay of gendered stereotypes of science and girls' personal desires to prove themselves knowledgeable and competent scientists. Implications for the best practice in fostering science engagement and identities in middle school-aged girls are discussed.

  9. he Effects of Child Domestic Labour on Girls Education Temes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    conclusion, the effects of child domestic labor on the education of girls' attending ... drop-out and make educational, vocational information ..... preferences had also contributed for girls' .... education and normal personality ..... The Relationship.

  10. Girl Child Education: Rising to the Challenge | Nmadu | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Northern Nigeria‟s high gender inequity in education places the majority of ... and to better enable communities to understand the value of girls' education (Afr. J. ... Key words: Girl child education, school enrolment, retention, gender parity, ...

  11. girl child education: what is the future in northern nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. SOLOMON AVIDIME

    Northern Nigeria‟s high gender inequity in education places the majority of young girls at a severe ... to boost female enrolment in junior secondary schools, create girl-friendly school ..... Mortality, Fertility and Gender Bias in India: A District.

  12. Humsathi: Empowering girls to become their own advocates and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    is pushing greater control by male relatives over young women and girls in the form of withdrawing girls from school, early marriage, often without consent, and a ... Control over sexuality passes from birth families to marital families, limiting ...

  13. Promoting physical activity among adolescent girls: the Girls in Sport group randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okely, Anthony D; Lubans, David R; Morgan, Philip J; Cotton, Wayne; Peralta, Louisa; Miller, Judith; Batterham, Marijka; Janssen, Xanne

    2017-06-21

    Slowing the decline in participation in physical activity among adolescent girls is a public health priority. This study reports the outcomes from a multi-component school-based intervention (Girls in Sport), focused on promoting physical activity among adolescent girls. Group randomized controlled trial in 24 secondary schools (12 intervention and 12 control). Assessments were conducted at baseline (2009) and at 18 months post-baseline (2010). The setting was secondary schools in urban, regional and rural areas of New South Wales, Australia. All girls in Grade 8 in 2009 who attended these schools were invited to participate in the study (N = 1769). Using a Health Promoting Schools and Action Learning Frameworks, each school formed a committee and developed an action plan for promoting physical activity among Grade 8 girls. The action plan incorporated strategies in three main areas - i) the formal curriculum, ii) school environment, and iii) home/school/community links - based on the results of formative data from target girls and staff and on individual needs of the school. A member of the research team supported each school throughout the intervention. The main outcome measure was accelerometer-derived total physical activity (TPA) spent in physical activity. Data were analyzed from December 2011 to March 2012. 1518 girls (mean age 13.6y ±0.02) were assessed at baseline. There was a significant decline in TPA from baseline to 18-month follow-up with no differences between girls in the intervention and control schools. Only one-third of schools (4/12) implemented the intervention as per their action plan. Per-protocol analyses on these schools revealed a smaller decline in percentage of time spent in MVPA among girls in the intervention group (adjusted difference 0.5%, 95% CI = -0.01, 0.99, P = 0.05). The Girls in Sport intervention was not effective in reducing the decline in physical activity among adolescent girls. Lack of implementation by most

  14. Working for Jewish girls : Lily Montagu, girls' clubs and industrial reform 1890-1914.

    OpenAIRE

    Spence, J.

    2004-01-01

    Lily Montagu was involved in social work and religious ministry with the London Jewish community for over sixty years. This article considers the significance of her involvement in the girls' club movement and her efforts towards workplace reform. It argues that the specific circumstances of working-class Jewish girls in the early twentieth century enabled her to develop a comprehensive view of both industrial organisation and social work. Her approach was submerged as social work and trade u...

  15. Lessons learned in promoting new technologies and engineering in girls through a girls hackathon and mentoring

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz-Garcia, Aurelio; Subirats, Laia; Freire, Ana

    2016-01-01

    The under-representation of women in engineering is becoming a matter of concern as it has implications both for the women themselves and for the development of the digital economy sector. To address this issue, a girls hackathon and a mentorship program have been held at Universitat Pompeu Fabra (Barcelona, Spain) with the aim of bringing more women into computing. Questionnaires deployed after the event indicate that it was a powerful initiative to encourage girls to study engineering degre...

  16. What's Sexy? Adolescent Girls Discuss Confidence, Danger, and Media Influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Sharon; Farmer, Kaelin M.; Kosterina, Elena; Lambe Sariñana, Susan; Plocha, Aleksandra; Randazzo, Renee

    2016-01-01

    Building on qualitative research about sexualisation by media and culture and the impact on girls' development, in this article we present a discourse analysis of three focus groups of teen girls of colour and of diverse ethnicities asked to talk about sexiness. We focus on the ways the girls both support and resist hegemonic discourses about…

  17. Empowering Girls of Color through Authentic Science Internships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adjapong, Edmund S.; Levy, Ian P.; Emdin, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    The underrepresentation of girls and students of color in STEM fields, particularly in science, is an ongoing issue that is very well documented. There is a limited amount of research that provides insight on experiences of girls, especially girls of color, who have been exposed to authentic science experiences. This article interrogates the…

  18. Girls Negotiating Sexuality and Violence in the Primary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhana, Deevia

    2018-01-01

    Girls' vulnerability to sexual violence and harassment is a recurrent theme in much of the literature on schooling in sub-Saharan Africa. Within this research, girls are often framed as passive victims of violence. By drawing on a case study, this paper focuses on 12 to 13-year-old South African school girls as they mediate and participate in…

  19. Girls Who Code Club | College of Engineering & Applied Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olympiad Girls Who Code Club FIRST Tech Challenge NSF I-Corps Site of Southeastern Wisconsin UW-Milwaukee elizabeth_andrews Join UWM's 2017-18 Girls Who Code Club Click above to let us remind you of registration on August 1, 2016! Our Girls Who Code Club will resume in Spring 2018. The Fall 2017 Level 1A and 2A students

  20. Conference Offers Girls Opportunity to Expand Career Horizons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offers Girls Opportunity to Expand Career Horizons For more information contact: e:mail: Public Affairs Golden, Colo., Feb. 11, 1997 -- Expanding Your Horizons, a conference for girls grades 6 - 9 and Employed Women, Girls Incorporated of Metro Denver, King Soopers, McDonalds, the TCI Adult Program and the

  1. Adolescent Girls' Perceived Barriers to Participation in Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, John J. M.; Allison, Kenneth R.; Goldenberg, Ellie R.; Fein, Allan J.; Yoshida, Karen K.; Boutilier, Marie A.

    2006-01-01

    Research shows a decline in physical activity levels during adolescence, particularly among girls. This study explored perceived barriers to participation in moderate and vigorous physical activity among adolescent girls who live in a large ethnoracially and socioeconomically diverse city. A total of 73 adolescent girls in Toronto participated in…

  2. Motor proficiency and physical fitness in active and inactive girls ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In modern day society physical activity levels diminish rapidly among girls and may be a direct consequence of girls experiencing motor difficulties. Therefore the aim of the study was to compare motor proficiency levels and physical fitness levels among active and inactive girls (N=97), aged 12 to 13 years. The BOTMP ...

  3. Exploring the causes of change in adolescent girls' sexual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is a changing trend in adolescent girls' sexual and reproductive behaviour in Ghana. However, contemporary perspectives on adolescent girls' sexual behaviours are largely missing hence this study. Thematic analysis of data collected through in-depth interviews with adolescent girls and community members as well ...

  4. All-Girls Adventure Programmes: What Are the Benefits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittington, Anja; Mack, Erica Nixon; Budbill, Nadine W.; McKenney, Priscilla

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the benefits of all-girls adventure programmes from the perspective of adolescent girls. Participants included 361 girls aged 10-17 years from diverse ethnic and socio-economic backgrounds who completed a variety of adventure programmes. Adventure activities included rock climbing, sea kayaking, mountaineering, backpacking,…

  5. Towards Enhancing Girl Child Education in Nigeria: Implications for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper examined issues bothering on girl child access to education and determined factors militating against girl child access to education in Nigeria. It also examined the benefits of girl child education and its multiplier effect and intergenerational benefits. It is recommended that parents, guardians and the general ...

  6. Girl-Child Education Outcomes: A Case Study from Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arku, Frank S.; Angmor, Emmanuel N.; Tetteh, Isaac K.

    2014-01-01

    The importance of girl-child education is largely documented and initiatives to promote girl-child education are widespread. However, studies on service delivery methods, processes and the impacts are limited in the literature. This study assessed the Plan Ghana's girl-child educational project. According to the findings, the project has helped to…

  7. EKSPLOITASI PADA PEREMPUAN SALES PROMOTION GIRLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Afta Lestari

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Terjadi perubahan posisi perempuan yang semula hanya berada di sektor domestik, kini beralih ke sektor publik. Kondisi di perkotaan yang relatif lebih heterogen membuka peluang perempuan untuk bekerja di berbagai bidang, salah satunya adalah sales promotion girls (SPG. Dalam penelitian ini, penulis mengeksplorasi bagaimana profil SPG dan eksploitasi yang dialaminya. Penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan kualitatif dengan teknik observasi, wawancara, dan dokumentasi dalam pengambilan datanya. Penampilan cantik dan menarik menjadi modal utama dalam pekerjaan ini. Sales Promotion Girls pada industri rokok dan minuman  berumur sekitar 21-30 tahun dengan jam kerja sekitar 5-7 jam perhari. Alasan bekerja di bidang ini adalah bahwa bidang ini merupakan pekerjaan ringan dan tidak memerlukan pendidikan yang tinggi, walaupun di sisi lain mereka hanya mendapatkan upah yang rendah. Perempuan dalam pekerjaan ini seringkali mengalami eksploitasi fisik berupa pelecehan seksual dan eksploitasi ekonomi berupa waktu kerja yang sampai malam hari dan tidak terpenuhinya hak-hak pekerja perempuan seperti faktor keselamatan dan hak untuk cuti. Dengan kondisi seperti ini, maka perlindungan terhadap perempuan bekerja pada umumnya dan sales promotion girls pada khususnya menjadi hal yang sangat penting untuk diperhatikan.A change in economic condition in Indonesia brings about a change of woman position, from formerly domestic sector to recently public sector. Urban areas that is relatively more heterogeneous than rural ones open opportunities for women to work in various fields, one of which is sales promotion girls (SPG. In this study, the author seeks to explore the SPG profile and the exploitation they experienced. The method used in this study are qualitative approach, with observation, interviews, and documentation. The research uncovered the following facts. Beautiful and attractive appearance becomes a priority in this work. Sales promotion girls on cigarettes

  8. The Advancing a Healthier Wisconsin Endowment: How a Health Care Conversion Foundation Is Transforming a Medical School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurana, Cheryl A; Lucey, Paula A; Ahmed, Syed M; Kerschner, Joseph E; Bolton, G Allen; Raymond, John R

    2016-01-01

    Health care conversion foundations, such as the Advancing a Healthier Wisconsin Endowment (the endowment) at the Medical College of Wisconsin (MCW), result from the conversion of nonprofit health organizations to for-profit corporations. Over the past several decades, nearly 200 of these foundations have been created, and they have had a substantial impact on the field of health philanthropy. The MCW was a recipient of funds resulting from Blue Cross & Blue Shield United of Wisconsin's conversion from a nonprofit to a for-profit status in 1999. Established in 2004, the endowment has invested approximately $185 million in 337 research, education, and public and community health initiatives that benefit Wisconsin residents. However, the transformative potential of the health care conversion foundation has extended well beyond the opportunities provided through the endowment's financial resources. As the endowment celebrates its 10th anniversary, the authors describe the transformative nature of the endowment, as well as significant accomplishments and lessons learned, in the following areas: shared power, community partnerships, translational research, and integration of medicine and public health. It is the authors' hope that these lessons will be valuable to other medical schools and the communities they serve, as they invest in improving the health of their communities, irrespective of the funding source.

  9. Solar Wear Tattoo – Combining Functional Materials Taking Advantage of Different UPF of Textiles, to Create Healthier Tattooing Alternatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendes Vanessa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tattooing process can be a painful experience whether achieving a permanent or temporary body art on skin, and there can be horrible consequences. By taking advantage of UV protection factor variables of fashion clothing materials, it is possible to create this kind of body art in a much healthier way. The material performance is key, besides UPF materials that relies on the material behaviour when combined, layer sequence of these materials used for the desired function is equally as important, if not, even more important so. When properly combined in the correct order, making use of the right technology it may be possible to test different combinations. The advantages are, besides creating a temporary tattoo, that the user can benefit from moderate sun bathing advantages, that can provide the desired body art design on skin and the sunbathing health benefits. All of this can only be possible with a deep understanding of the UV protection factor of fashion materials, and how it can be tested and used in the manufacturing process for the desired function.

  10. A systematic literature review of nutrition interventions in vending machines that encourage consumers to make healthier choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grech, A; Allman-Farinelli, M

    2015-12-01

    Internationally, vending machines are scrutinized for selling energy-dense nutrient-poor foods and beverages, and the contribution to overconsumption and subsequent risk of obesity. The aim of this review is to determine the efficacy of nutrition interventions in vending machine in eliciting behaviour change to improve diet quality or weight status of consumers. Electronic databases Cochrane, EMBASE, CINAHL, Science Direct and PubMed were searched from inception. (i) populations that have access to vending machines; (ii) nutrition interventions; (iii) measured outcomes of behaviour change (e.g. sales data, dietary intake or weight change); and (iv) experimental trials where controls were not exposed to the intervention. Risk of bias was assessed independently by two researchers, and higher quality research formed the basis of this qualitative review. Twelve articles from 136 searched were included for synthesis. Intervention settings included schools, universities and workplaces. Reducing price or increasing the availability increased sales of healthier choices. The results of point-of-purchase nutrition information interventions were heterogeneous and when measured changes to purchases were small. This review offers evidence that pricing and availability strategies are effective at improving the nutritional quality foods and beverages purchased from vending machines. Evidence on how these interventions alter consumer's overall diet or body mass index is needed. © 2015 World Obesity.

  11. How many foods in the UK carry health and nutrition claims, and are they healthier than those that do not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Asha; Scarborough, Peter; Matthews, Anne; Payne, Sarah; Mizdrak, Anja; Rayner, Mike

    2016-04-01

    The present study aimed to measure the prevalence of different types of health and nutrition claims on foods and non-alcoholic beverages in a UK sample and to assess the nutritional quality of such products carrying health or nutrition claims. A survey of health and nutrition claims on food packaging using a newly defined taxonomy of claims and internationally agreed definitions of claim types. A national UK food retailer: Tesco. Three hundred and eighty-two products randomly sampled from those available through the retailer's website. Of the products, 32 % (95 % CI 28, 37 %) carried either a health or nutrition claim; 15 % (95 % CI 11, 18 %) of products carried at least one health claim and 29 % (95 % CI 25, 34 %) carried at least one nutrition claim. When adjusted for product category, products carrying health claims tended to be lower in total fat and saturated fat than those that did not, but there was no significant difference in sugar or sodium levels. Products carrying health claims had slightly higher fibre levels than products without. Results were similar for comparisons between products that carry nutrition claims and those that do not. Health and nutrition claims appear frequently on food and beverage products in the UK. The nutrient profile of products carrying claims is marginally healthier than for similar products without claims, suggesting that claims may have some but limited informational value. The implication of these findings for guiding policy is unclear; future research should investigate the 'clinical relevance' of these differences in nutritional quality.

  12. A Healthy Eating Identity is Associated with Healthier Food Choice Behaviors Among U.S. Army Soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayne, Julianna M; Frongillo, Edward A; Torres-McGehee, Toni M; Emerson, Dawn M; Glover, Saundra H; Blake, Christine E

    2018-04-04

    Promoting healthy eating among Soldiers is a priority to the Army due to the link between nutrition and performance. The Army typically uses nutrition education to encourage Soldiers to make healthier food choices with low emphasis on other psychosocial determinants of food choice behaviors. Drill Sergeant Candidates (n = 575) completed surveys assessing nutrition knowledge, eating identity type, and food choice behaviors including fruit and vegetable intake, skipping meals, and eating out frequency. In multiple linear regression models using full-information maximum likelihood estimation while controlling for race/ethnicity, education, and marital status, we examined relationships between nutrition knowledge, a healthy eating identity, and Soldiers' food choice behaviors. The study was approved by the Department of Defense and University of South Carolina's Institutional Review Boards. A healthy eating identity was positively associated with greater fruit and vegetable consumption (p eating out frequency (p healthy eating identity may be more effective for promoting healthy food choice behaviors than nutrition education alone. Determining if various points in a Soldier's career could be leveraged to influence a healthy eating identity and behaviors could be an important strategy to improve compliance with health promotion programs.

  13. Local adaptation of the National Physical Activity Plan: creation of the Active Living Plan for a Healthier San Antonio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esparza, Laura A; Velasquez, Katherine S; Zaharoff, Annette M

    2014-03-01

    Physical inactivity and related health consequences are serious public health threats. Effective strategies to facilitate and support active-living opportunities must be implemented at national, state, and local levels. San Antonio, Texas, health department officials launched the Active Living Council of San Antonio (ALCSA) to engage the community in developing a 3- to 5-year plan to promote active living. A steering committee set preliminary ALCSA aims and established a multisector membership structure modeled after the US National Physical Activity Plan (NPAP). ALCSA adopted governance standards, increased knowledge of physical activity and health, and engaged in an 18-month collaborative master plan writing process. ALCSA selected overarching strategies and evidence-based strategies for each societal sector and adapted strategies to the local context, including tactics, measures of success, and timelines. Community and expert engagement led to a localized plan reflecting national recommendations, the Active Living Plan for a Healthier San Antonio. Multisector collaborations among governmental agencies and community organizations, which were successfully developed in this case to produce the first-ever local adaptation of the NPAP, require clearly defined expectations. Lessons learned in ALCSA's organizational and plan development can serve as a model for future community-driven efforts to increase active living.

  14. Horse-Girl Assemblages: Towards a Post-Human Cartography of Girls' Desire in an Ex-Mining Valleys Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renold, Emma; Ivinson, Gabrielle

    2014-01-01

    The paper works with queer and feminist post-human materialist scholarship to understand the way young teen valleys' girls experienced ubiquitous feelings of fear, risk, vulnerability and violence. Longitudinal ethnographic research of girls (aged 12-15) living in an ex-mining semi-rural community suggests how girls are negotiating complex…

  15. American Immigrant Girls' Understanding of Female Body Image in Disney: A Critical Analysis of Young Korean Girls' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lena

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses young Korean immigrant girls' understanding of American popular culture in a small-scale qualitative study in order to disclose young American immigrant girls' perspectives on such culture. In particular, this paper explores how these Korean girls (age five to eight) perceive female body images in American popular culture -…

  16. Subkultura mládeže: Skauting v kulturologické reflexi

    OpenAIRE

    Rambousková, Anna

    2013-01-01

    The bachelor thesis deals with the analysis of the phenomenon of scouting. The aim of this thesis is answer the question, whether scouting can be regarded as a subculture and so contribute to understanding of scouting itself. In first charter terms culture, subculture and youth subculture are defined. Following part presents the organization Scout - association of boy scouts and girl scouts of the Czech Republic. It uses the structure of institution proposed by Bronislaw Malinowski. The main ...

  17. First Django Girls workshop in Geneva

    CERN Multimedia

    Julliard, Laure

    2016-01-01

    A Django girls workshop organised by the R0SEH1PSters community from Geneva and supported by the CERN diversity team and the IT department took place at IdeaSquare on 26th and 27th February. Django Girls is a volunteer-run organisation with hundreds of people contributing to bring more women without prior IT backgrounds to the Python and Django community. Python is a widely used general-purpose and dynamic programming language while Django is a high-level Python Web framework that makes it easier to build better Web apps more quickly and with less code. Over 155 free workshops in 125 cities and 57 countries have been organised worldwide regularly since 2014. The aim of the workshop was to introduce participants to the world of computer programming and technology by teaching them how to successfully create a blog application and deploy it to the internet.

  18. UK school visit: Alfriston School for girls

    CERN Multimedia

    Sophie Louise Hetherton

    2014-01-01

    Pupils with learning disabilities from Alfriston School in the UK visited the CMS detector last week. This visit was funded by the UK's Science and Technologies Facilities Council (STFC) as part of a grant awarded to support activities that will help to build the girls’ self-esteem and interest in physics.   Alfriston School students at CMS. On Friday, 10 October, pupils from Alfriston School – a UK secondary school catering for girls with a wide range of special educational needs and disabilities – paid a special visit to CERN. Dave Waterman, a science teacher at the school, recently received a Public Engagement Small Award from the STFC, which enabled the group of girls and accompanying teachers to travel to Switzerland and visit CERN. The awards form part of a project to boost the girls’ confidence and interest in physics. The aim is to create enthusiastic role models with first-hand experience of science who can inspire their peers back hom...

  19. CERN encourages girls to "expand their horizons"

    CERN Document Server

    François Briard

    2015-01-01

    On 14 November, CERN took part for the fourth time in "Élargis tes horizons" (see here), a conference organised every two years at Geneva University for girls from the local region aged 11 to 14 aiming to encourage them to take up studies and careers in the scientific and technical domains.   Claude Sanz (left), a fellow in the EN Department, explaining to three girls how to build a particle accelerator in a salad bowl. This year, young physicists and engineers from ATLAS and CMS ran three workshops: "Seeing the invisible using a cloud chamber", "Great cold fun and treats with liquid nitrogen" and "Build your own accelerator in a salad bowl!" CERN was also represented at the Forum de Découverte, represented by the Diversity Office and the Medialab team, presenting the "Higgnite" interactive experiment, which illustrates the principle of the Higgs field. More...

  20. Cyberspace violence against girls and adolescent females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisholm, June F

    2006-11-01

    Children and adolescents today are the first generation raised in a society in which technological literacy is essential for effective citizenship in the 21st century. With many more youth using digital technologies for educational and recreational purposes, there has been an increase in social problems in cyberspace, exposing them to different forms of cyberviolence. This article gives an overview of the developments in cyberspace, describes different types of cyberviolence, and focuses on cyberbullying among girls and adolescent females as both victims and perpetrators of cyberbullying. At-risk online activities among girls and adolescent females as well as strategies to promote cybersafety are presented. Current research and future directions for research are reviewed.

  1. Physics Girl: Where Education meets Cat Videos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowern, Dianna

    YouTube is usually considered an entertainment medium to watch cats, gaming, and music videos. But educational channels have been gaining momentum on the platform, some garnering millions of subscribers and billions of views. The Physics Girl YouTube channel is an educational series with PBS Digital Studios created by Dianna Cowern. Using Physics Girl as an example, this talk will examine what it takes to start a short-form educational video series, including logistics and resources. One benefit of video is that every failure is documented on camera and can, and will, be used in this talk as a learning tool. We will look at the channels demographical reach, discuss best practices for effective physics outreach, and survey how online media and technology can facilitate good and bad learning. The aim of this talk is to show how videos are a unique way to share science and enrich the learning experience, in and out of a classroom.

  2. Empowering the family for girl child development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, M

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses family interactions that devalue female children in India and the role of government in enriching family life. Child development is dependent upon the family and the social environment. Patriarchy establishes the structure, roles, and responsibilities of the family through hierarchies of age, gender, and generation. Males hold authoritative positions because of their control over resources and the assumption of their superiority. Family unity and stability is based on conformity with the community and kinship norms. The Indian family places a low priority on the development of individual family members and children. Female children are a low priority both as children and as girls. Girls carry a heavy domestic workload in the family, but girls do not receive recognition for their contributions. The family socializes children based on norms of gender and age inequalities. Deviation from patriarchal norms results in ostracism. Families without resources are vulnerable to deprivation and exploitation. Gaps have widened between rich and poor, and men and women. Particularly vulnerable groups are women in single-parent families and female-headed households. The combination of patriarchy, increased consumerism, and structural adjustment programs marginalizes girl children. Every family should be considered equal in dignity and worth and have the right to freedom, choices, life, security of person and privacy, and protection from domestic violence. Vulnerable family members need special attention. Every family member should take responsibility for promoting sensitivity and responsiveness, positive communication, companionable relationships, democratic decision making, respect for individual needs and differences, peaceful and nonviolent approaches for resolving conflicts, and support in crisis situations.

  3. Girls In STEM White Coat Ceremony 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neal, Kelsey Ann Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Coronado, Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-12-19

    Like working with children? Who doesn’t? Girls in STEM has myriad opportunities for you to help local Title 1 students in the classroom. You can choose to volunteer from the Lab, from the Bradbury Science Museum, or to travel to Abiquiu Elementary School (car provided) to do a science demonstration. The best part is that you can use the Community Outreach Partnership Code.

  4. Educating girls in Bangladesh: exploding the myth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, M

    1993-01-01

    Poor landless families in Bangladesh typically see no need to educate their girls. Even where school fees are waived, exercise books, pencils, and school clothes cost money, and girls are especially needed to care for siblings and do other household chores. The Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee (BRAC), however, has found it possible to get girls to school by adapting education to the circumstances of poverty instead of requiring families and students to adjust to the conventional rules of primary school. The BRAC non-formal primary education (NFPE) program in five years has expanded to 12,000 centers serving 360,000 children in two programs of three-year duration each for 8-10 year olds and 11-14 year olds. Reflecting the policy of giving priority to girls, more than 70% of enrolled children are female. Almost all teachers are also female and typically young, married, from the neighborhood, and with 9-10 years of schooling. Each center is a thatch or tin-roofed hut accommodating thirty children managed by a village committee and a parent-teacher committee at a cost of US$18 per child per year. All learning materials are provided at the center for the three hours of courses six days per week set according to students' availability and convenience. The course for the younger children offers the equivalent of three years of primary education, while the course for the older children offers basic literacy and life skills. The success of the BRAC centers demonstrates how parents and children may respond when education is socially and culturally acceptable, affordable, and strives to meet parents' and child's expectations.

  5. Elementary girls' science reading at home and school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Danielle J.; Brickhouse, Nancy W.; Lottero-Perdue, Pamela; Kittleson, Julie

    2006-03-01

    Although reading is a critical part of science and science learning, it is no longer a part of many children's elementary science instruction. This is of concern because girls often develop strong identities as readers, but do not develop scientific identities with ease. In this study, we investigate girls' science reading to know (1) if science books were available to girls in homes and classrooms, (2) if girls were choosing to read them, and (3) what influences their choices. Forty-five third-grade girls, 29 of their families, and three of their teachers were interviewed to ascertain girls' preferences among various book genres, as well as to learn the ways in which families and teachers influence the choices girls make. We found that girls had access to science books at school, and teachers had strategies to encourage reading them. At home, parents encouraged reading, but were generally less directive than teachers as to what the girls read, and underestimated their daughters' science-related interests. The families studied rely largely on major bookstores as their primary source of books. Our findings suggest we need to understand better the way gender influences girls' engagement with science in a variety of contexts, particularly those in which girls exercise choice.

  6. STEM Education for Girls of Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Kam H.

    Science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) fields struggle to increase recruitment and retention of girls of color. The dominant framework in STEM education is the pipeline which assumes girls in general lack motivation and interest to persist in STEM fields. Recent public discourse shifts to address institutionalized discrimination and systemic barriers in STEM culture that filter out underrepresented populations. Informal education or complementary learning STEM programs offer alternative opportunities for students to explore outside of rigid school academic and social systems. Few articles look specifically at STEM complementary learning programs, and even fewer focus on the effects on girls of color. This research is a quantitative study to categorize existing mission statements and training behind organizations that provide STEM programs. The results will provide a better understanding of the relationship between practices of STEM education organizations and the programs they create. Diversity training and inclusive language in mission statements had weak correlations with increased cultural responsiveness in the program offerings. The results suggest organizations must be more intentional and explicit when implementing diversity goals.

  7. Corot's 'gout' and a 'gipsy' girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panush, R B; Caldwell, J R; Panush, R S

    1990-09-05

    Representations of rheumatic disease in art provide insight into artistic expression, help us understand the evolution and perhaps the etiology of rheumatic diseases, and remind us of great contributions by artists in adverse circumstances. We noted hand deformities characteristic of inflammatory arthritis in Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot's Gipsy Girl With Mandolin (1870 to 1875), National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC. Corot suffered with what probably was gout beginning in 1866. We are unaware that arthritis has been observed in Corot's subjects or that Corot's depiction of arthritis has been appreciated from the perspective of his own rheumatic disease. Examination of other Corot portraits identifies some with blurred hand details consistent with the artist's style and the remainder with normal hands. These observations suggest that the artist portrayed specific anatomic abnormalities in the "Gipsy Girl's" hand, indicating familiarity with inflammatory arthritis. It is speculative whether this was Corot's own or the model's arthritis; we favor the interpretation that Corot's gout was reflected in this particular work. We thus add a new perspective to Corot's Gipsy Girl With Mandolin-a subject with arthritis, a painter knowledgeable about arthritis, and a painting that therefore might be understood at least in part from an appreciation of the artist's specific illness.

  8. Adnexal torsion in 6 years old girl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plachkov, I.; Tzvetankov, K.; Dimova, M.; Dobreva, Tz.; Hadjidekov, G.

    2012-01-01

    MRI and US findings in Ovarian torsion in a premenarcheal girl are described. Adnexal torsion is an uncommon cause of severe lower abdominal pain in young women (mean age is 10-11), and in 50% of cases such symptoms are observed in pre-menarchal females. However, adnexal torsion should be considered in all premenarcheal girls admitted with acute abdominal pain and evidence of an ovarian mass. Accurate imaging is crucial after onset of early clinical symptoms to confirm the diagnosis and to preserve the viability of the affected ovary. A pelvic ovoid mass was visualised on ultrasound, suggesting several hypothesis -cystic mass, ovarian torsion, dermoid. Magnetic resonance imaging visualized edematous ovary enlargement and the presence of multiple follicules at the periphery due to congestion from the twisted vascular pedicule. Smooth wail thickening of the partially necrotic. Twisted ovary was seen in the subacute phase, which has been confirmed during laparoscopy. CT was not considered in this 6 years old girl due to ionizing radiation. (authors)

  9. Frequency of foot deformity in preschool girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihajlović Ilona

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. In order to determine the moment of creation of postural disorders, regardless of the causes of this problem, it is necessary to examine the moment of entry of children into a new environment, ie. in kindergarten or school. There is a weak evidence about the age period when foot deformity occurs, and the type of these deformities. The aim of this study was to establish the relationship between the occurrence of foot deformities and age characteristics of girls. Methods. The research was conducted in preschools 'Radosno detinjstvo' in the region of Novi Sad, using the method of random selection, on the sample of 272 girls, 4-7 years of age, classified into four strata according to the year of birth. To determine the foot deformities measurement technique using computerized digitized pedografy (CDP was applied. Results. In preschool population girls pes transversoplanus and calcanei valga deformities occurred in a very high percentage (over 90%. Disturbed longitudinal instep ie flat feet also appeared in a high percentage, but we noted the improvement of this deformity according to increasing age. Namely, there was a statistically significant correlation between the age and this deformity. As a child grows older, the deformity is lower. Conclusion. This study confirmed that the formation of foot arches probably does not end at the age of 3-4 years but lasts until school age.

  10. Are Korean secondary school girls physically active during leisure time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Minhaeng; Kwon, Wook-Dong; Jeon, Yong-Bae

    2010-03-01

    Our aims in this study were to identify the types of physical activity during leisure time and to determine if Korean secondary school girls participate in enough physical activity during leisure time to promote health. Of the 1,088 girls randomly selected by a multistaged cluster sampling technique, 705 girls completed questionnaires. Seventy-five percent of Korean secondary school girls spent time on individualized or noncompetitive activities, and 88.3% of them were classified into underactive and inactive levels with no gained health benefits during leisure time. No significant differences were observed in the physical activity levels between middle school girls and high school girls. The results of this study may be explained by the lack of perceived appropriateness for secondary school girls' participation in physical activity, which traditionally did not favor them participating in dynamic physical activities and sufficient physical activity level to gain health benefits.

  11. Neighborhood Prices of Healthier and Unhealthier Foods and Associations with Diet Quality: Evidence from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, David M; Auchincloss, Amy H; Stehr, Mark F; Roux, Ana V Diez; Moore, Latetia V; Kanter, Genevieve P; Robinson, Lucy F

    2017-11-16

    It is known that the price of food influences the purchasing and consumption decisions of individuals; however, little work has examined if the price of healthier food relative to unhealthier food in an individual's neighborhood is associated with overall dietary quality while using data from multiple regions in the United States. Cross-sectional person-level data came from The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (exam 5, 2010-2012 n = 2765); a food frequency questionnaire assessed diet. Supermarket food/beverage prices came from Information Resources Inc. (n = 794 supermarkets). For each individual, the average price of select indicators of healthier foods (vegetables, fruits, dairy) and unhealthier foods (soda, sweets, salty snacks), as well as their ratio, was computed for supermarkets within three miles of the person's residential address. Logistic regression estimated odds ratios of a high-quality diet (top quintile of Healthy Eating Index 2010) associated with healthy-to-unhealthy price ratio, adjusted for individual and neighborhood characteristics. Sensitivity analyses used an instrumental variable (IV) approach. Healthier foods cost nearly twice as much as unhealthier foods per serving on average (mean healthy-to-unhealthy ratio = 1.97 [SD 0.14]). A larger healthy-to-unhealthy price ratio was associated with lower odds of a high-quality diet (OR = 0.76 per SD increase in the ratio, 95% CI = [0.64-0.9]). IV analyses largely confirmed these findings although-as expected with IV adjustment-confidence intervals were wide (OR = 0.82 [0.57-1.19]). Policies to address the large price differences between healthier and unhealthy foods may help improve diet quality in the United States.

  12. Neighborhood Prices of Healthier and Unhealthier Foods and Associations with Diet Quality: Evidence from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Kern

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available It is known that the price of food influences the purchasing and consumption decisions of individuals; however, little work has examined if the price of healthier food relative to unhealthier food in an individual’s neighborhood is associated with overall dietary quality while using data from multiple regions in the United States. Cross-sectional person-level data came from The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (exam 5, 2010–2012, n = 2765; a food frequency questionnaire assessed diet. Supermarket food/beverage prices came from Information Resources Inc. (n = 794 supermarkets. For each individual, the average price of select indicators of healthier foods (vegetables, fruits, dairy and unhealthier foods (soda, sweets, salty snacks, as well as their ratio, was computed for supermarkets within three miles of the person’s residential address. Logistic regression estimated odds ratios of a high-quality diet (top quintile of Healthy Eating Index 2010 associated with healthy-to-unhealthy price ratio, adjusted for individual and neighborhood characteristics. Sensitivity analyses used an instrumental variable (IV approach. Healthier foods cost nearly twice as much as unhealthier foods per serving on average (mean healthy-to-unhealthy ratio = 1.97 [SD 0.14]. A larger healthy-to-unhealthy price ratio was associated with lower odds of a high-quality diet (OR = 0.76 per SD increase in the ratio, 95% CI = [0.64–0.9]. IV analyses largely confirmed these findings although—as expected with IV adjustment—confidence intervals were wide (OR = 0.82 [0.57–1.19]. Policies to address the large price differences between healthier and unhealthy foods may help improve diet quality in the United States.

  13. Nourishing change. Partnership enlists dozens of hospitals to put healthier food on their menus and kick junk food out of the cafeteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jaimy

    2012-10-08

    More than 150 hospitals have signed on to the Partnership for a Healthier America's push to ditch the deep-fat fryer in their cafeterias and bulk up on fruit and veggies. "Our focus is to ensure that if people want to make a healthy choice, they can," says Larry Soler, left, president and CEO of the partnership, which is working to reduce childhood obesity.

  14. Store-directed price promotions and communications strategies improve healthier food supply and demand: impact results from a randomized controlled, Baltimore City store-intervention trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budd, Nadine; Jeffries, Jayne K; Jones-Smith, Jessica; Kharmats, Anna; McDermott, Ann Yelmokas; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2017-12-01

    Small food store interventions show promise to increase healthy food access in under-resourced areas. However, none have tested the impact of price discounts on healthy food supply and demand. We tested the impact of store-directed price discounts and communications strategies, separately and combined, on the stocking, sales and prices of healthier foods and on storeowner psychosocial factors. Factorial design randomized controlled trial. Twenty-four corner stores in low-income neighbourhoods of Baltimore City, MD, USA. Stores were randomized to pricing intervention, communications intervention, combined pricing and communications intervention, or control. Stores that received the pricing intervention were given a 10-30 % price discount by wholesalers on selected healthier food items during the 6-month trial. Communications stores received visual and interactive materials to promote healthy items, including signage, taste tests and refrigerators. All interventions showed significantly increased stock of promoted foods v. There was a significant treatment effect for daily unit sales of healthy snacks (β=6·4, 95 % CI 0·9, 11·9) and prices of healthy staple foods (β=-0·49, 95 % CI -0·90, -0·03) for the combined group v. control, but not for other intervention groups. There were no significant intervention effects on storeowner psychosocial factors. All interventions led to increased stock of healthier foods. The combined intervention was effective in increasing sales of healthier snacks, even though discounts on snacks were not passed to the consumer. Experimental research in small stores is needed to understand the mechanisms by which store-directed price promotions can increase healthy food supply and demand.

  15. NetGirls: the Internet, Facebook, and body image concern in adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiggemann, Marika; Slater, Amy

    2013-09-01

    The primary aim of the study was to examine the relationship between Internet exposure and body image concern in adolescent girls, with a particular focus on the social networking site of Facebook. A sample of 1,087 girls in the first two years (Years 8 and 9) of high school (aged 13-15 years) completed questionnaire measures of Internet consumption and body image concerns. The overwhelming majority of girls (95.9%) had access to the Internet in their home. Time spent on the Internet was significantly related to internalization of the thin ideal, body surveillance, and drive for thinness. Further, 75% of the girls had a Facebook profile, and spent an average of 1.5 hours there daily. Facebook users scored significantly more highly on all body image concern measures than non-users. It was concluded that the Internet represents a potent socio-cultural medium of relevance to the body image of adolescent girls. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Knowledge and practices related to reproductive health amongst adolescent girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayashree S Gothankar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess knowledge and practices related to menstruation and reproductive health amongst college going adolescent girls. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional study done on 323 adolescent girls admitted in the year 2012 to professional colleges belonging to the health sciences faculty of a private university in Pune, India, using self-administered proforma. Results: Mean age of onset of menarche was 13.35 years. Many girls (86.65% had knowledge of menstruation prior to menarche. For 68% of girls, mother was a source of menstrual information. Half of the girls reported some form of restriction in activities during menstruation due to religious reasons. 11% girls suffered from some form of reproductive tract infections (RTIs. Practices related to menstruation revealed that cloth piece is used for menstrual protection by 3% of girls. Soaked sanitary pads were disposed sanitarily by 96% of girls. Adolescent of medical faculty had significantly more knowledge than nursing faculty adolescents regarding emergency contraceptives (P < 0.05. Only four girls reported a history of sexual contact, of these, three were aware of emergency contraceptives, while one used them to prevent pregnancy. Conclusions: Adolescent girls received knowledge of menstruation prior to menarche from their mothers. Restriction in activity during menstruation due to religious reasons is practiced by many girls. Sanitary pad was used by almost all girls, and all disposed the same in a sanitary manner. More than half of the girls were aware about emergency contraceptives. Prevalence of RTI was found to be low and very few girls reported history of sexual exposure.

  17. 78 FR 10265 - Pricing for the 2013 Commemorative Coin Programs-Silver and Clad Coin Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-13

    .... SUMMARY: The United States Mint is announcing prices for the 2013 Girl Scouts of the USA Centennial Silver.... Introductory Product price Regular price 2013 Girl Scouts of the USA Centennial $54.95 $59.95 Proof Silver Dollar 2013 Girl Scouts of the USA Centennial 50.95 55.95 Uncirculated Silver Dollar 2013 5-Star Generals...

  18. A nudge in a healthier direction: How environmental cues help restrained eaters pursue their weight-control goal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stämpfli, Aline E; Stöckli, Sabrina; Brunner, Thomas A

    2017-03-01

    Losing weight is a goal for many people, but it is hard to pursue. However, dieting cues in the environment hold promise for improving individuals' eating behavior. For example, exposure to thin, human-like sculptures by the artist Alberto Giacometti has been found to promote healthy snack choices at a vending machine. Whether health- or weight-related processes drive such effects has not yet been determined. However, a detailed understanding of the content-related drivers of environmental cues' effects provides the first indications regarding a cue's possible use. Therefore, two laboratory studies were conducted. They examined the Giacometti sculptures' effects on unhealthy and healthy food intake (Study 1) and on the completion of weight- and health-related fragmented words (Study 2). Study 1 indicated that the sculptures are weight-related by showing that they reduced food intake independent of food healthiness. Furthermore, the "Giacometti effect" was moderated by restrained eating. Restrained eaters, who are known for their weight-control goal, ate less after having been exposed to the thin sculptures. The results of Study 2 pointed in the same direction. Restrained eaters completed more weight-related words after being exposed to the sculptures. Overall, these studies suggest that the thin sculptures are primarily weight-related cues and particularly helpful for restrained eaters. Environmental weight-control cues such as the Giacometti sculptures could act as a counterforce to our obesogenic environment and help restrained eaters pursue their weight-control goal. In this way, they could nudge food decisions in a healthier direction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Healthier food choices as a result of the revised healthy diet programme Krachtvoer for students of prevocational schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bessems Kathelijne MHH

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Krachtvoer is a Dutch healthy diet programme for prevocational schools, developed in 2001 and revised for a broader target group in 2007, based on the findings of an evaluation of the first version. The goal of this study was to report on the short- and longer-term total and subgroup effects of the revised programme on students’ fruit, fruit juice, breakfast, and snack consumption. Methods Schools were randomized to the experimental condition, teaching the Krachtvoer programme, or to the control condition teaching the regular nutrition lessons. Self-reported consumption of fruit, fruit juice, breakfast and snacks was measured at baseline directly before programme implementation, one to four weeks after finishing programme implementation, and after six months. Mixed linear and logistic regression analyses were conducted. Results In total 1117 students of 13 experimental schools and 758 students of 11 control schools participated in the study. Short- and longer-term favourable intervention effects were found on fruit consumption (mean difference between experimental and control group 0.15 servings at both posttests. Regarding fruit juice consumption, only short-term favourable effects were revealed (mean difference between experimental and control group 0.05 glasses. Intervention effects on breakfast intakes were limited. No changes in snack frequency were reported, but students made healthier snack choices as a result of the programme. Some favourable as well as unfavourable effects occurred in subgroups of students. Conclusions The effects on fruit consumption and snack choices justify the current nationwide dissemination of the programme. Achieving changes in breakfast consumption may, however, require other strategies.

  20. Eating at the university canteen. Associations with socioeconomic status and healthier self-reported eating habits in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guagliardo, Valérie; Lions, Caroline; Darmon, Nicole; Verger, Pierre

    2011-02-01

    French university canteens offer structured meals at a fixed moderate price. We examined whether eating regularly at university canteens was associated with socioeconomic status (SES) or dietary practices. The study data came from a cross-sectional study of a random sample of 1723 students aged 18-24 years, in their first year of university in 2005-2006, enrolled in the universities of southeastern France (response rate=71%). Self-reported dietary practices were collected with a behavioral questionnaire. Adjusted logistic regressions showed that eating regularly at university canteens was less frequent among students with less than € 300 monthly resources and not living with their families (OR=0.68 [95%CI: 0.49-0.94]). It was also positively associated, regardless of SES, with the consumption of at least five servings of fruit/vegetables daily (OR=1.42 [1.05-1.92]) and one serving of meat/fish daily (OR=1.41 [1.13-1.76]) but not with either restricting fatty food (OR=1.04 [0.81-1.33]) or never/rarely adding salt to food (OR=1.06 [0.85-1.32]). Eating regularly at university canteens was less frequent among less well-off students and was positively associated with some healthier self-reported dietary habits. Further research is needed to confirm these results in the overall student population in France and to understand the determinants of university canteen utilization. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. "Scoutismo mirando al sur": el origen del movimiento scout a escala comparada. Argentina y Brasil en las primeras décadas del siglo XX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Augusta Martiarena de Oliveira

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Desde su origen en la primera década del siglo XX hasta los tiempos actuales, el scoutismo ha sido y es el mayor movimiento de infantes y jóvenes asociado a las actividades de tiempo libre del mundo. Aproximadamente setenta millones de muchachos y hombres y cuarenta millones de niñas y mujeres han sido o son miembros de los dos movimientos fundados por Baden Powell, los scouts y las guías. Actualmente cerca de nueve millones de boy scouts activos y seis millones de niñas y jóvenes se instruyen en la filosofía scout y sus prácticas en alrededor de cien países. El propósito central de esta ponencia es  historiar –desde una perspectiva comparada- el surgimiento del scoutismo en dos países latinoamericanos, Brasil y Argentina, teniendo en cuenta cómo un movimiento internacional es resignificado en los Estados nacionales para construir nacionalidad y formar ciudadanos. La ponencia se dedica, en especial, al análisis de la utilización del scoutismo en las regiones sur de ambos los países. La perspectiva de la historia comparada que se propone intenta, –como ya lo había propuesto Marc Bloch a comienzos de los años 1960[i]-,analizar con procedimientos metodológicos específicos la unidad de un problema en dos sociedades, en este caso en la argentina y la brasilera, sin establecer un orden jerárquico o modélico de una sobre otra. Es pretensión de esta práctica historiográfica liberarse del eurocentrismo, las genarlizaciones y la naturalización del Estado-nación como espacio esencial de la historia, en la intención de aportar explicaciones causales, identificando singularidades y pautas comunes en los procesos históricos. El horizonte temporal seleccionado obedece a que, si bien el inicio del "Estado" argentino es previo, es recién a fines del siglo XIX cuando se profundiza su proceso de consolidación, periodo que coincide con la república brasilera y el surgimiento del scoutismo, concebido como una escuela moral de la

  2. Search for Narrow Resonances in Dijet Final States at sqrt[s]=8  TeV with the Novel CMS Technique of Data Scouting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khachatryan, V; Sirunyan, A M; Tumasyan, A; Adam, W; Asilar, E; Bergauer, T; Brandstetter, J; Brondolin, E; Dragicevic, M; Erö, J; Flechl, M; Friedl, M; Frühwirth, R; Ghete, V M; Hartl, C; Hörmann, N; Hrubec, J; Jeitler, M; König, A; Krätschmer, I; Liko, D; Matsushita, T; Mikulec, I; Rabady, D; Rad, N; Rahbaran, B; Rohringer, H; Schieck, J; Strauss, J; Treberer-Treberspurg, W; Waltenberger, W; Wulz, C-E; Mossolov, V; Shumeiko, N; Suarez Gonzalez, J; Alderweireldt, S; De Wolf, E A; Janssen, X; Knutsson, A; Lauwers, J; Van De Klundert, M; Van Haevermaet, H; Van Mechelen, P; Van Remortel, N; Van Spilbeeck, A; Abu Zeid, S; Blekman, F; D'Hondt, J; Daci, N; De Bruyn, I; Deroover, K; Heracleous, N; Lowette, S; Moortgat, S; Moreels, L; Olbrechts, A; Python, Q; Tavernier, S; Van Doninck, W; Van Mulders, P; Van Parijs, I; Brun, H; Caillol, C; Clerbaux, B; De Lentdecker, G; Delannoy, H; Fasanella, G; Favart, L; Goldouzian, R; Grebenyuk, A; Karapostoli, G; Lenzi, T; Léonard, A; Luetic, J; Maerschalk, T; Marinov, A; Randle-Conde, A; Seva, T; Vander Velde, C; Vanlaer, P; Yonamine, R; Zenoni, F; Zhang, F; Cimmino, A; Cornelis, T; Dobur, D; Fagot, A; Garcia, G; Gul, M; Mccartin, J; Poyraz, D; Salva, S; Schöfbeck, R; Tytgat, M; Van Driessche, W; Yazgan, E; Zaganidis, N; Beluffi, C; Bondu, O; Brochet, S; Bruno, G; Caudron, A; Ceard, L; De Visscher, S; Delaere, C; Delcourt, M; Forthomme, L; Francois, B; Giammanco, A; Jafari, A; Jez, P; Komm, M; Lemaitre, V; Magitteri, A; Mertens, A; Musich, M; Nuttens, C; Piotrzkowski, K; Quertenmont, L; Selvaggi, M; Vidal Marono, M; Wertz, S; Beliy, N; Aldá Júnior, W L; Alves, F L; Alves, G A; Brito, L; Correa Martins Junior, M; Hensel, C; Moraes, A; Pol, M E; Rebello Teles, P; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, E; Carvalho, W; Chinellato, J; Custódio, A; Da Costa, E M; Da Silveira, G G; De Jesus Damiao, D; De Oliveira Martins, C; Fonseca De Souza, S; Huertas Guativa, L M; Malbouisson, H; Matos Figueiredo, D; Mora Herrera, C; Mundim, L; Nogima, H; Prado Da Silva, W L; 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Smith, W H; Taylor, D; Verwilligen, P; Woods, N

    2016-07-15

    A search for narrow resonances decaying into dijet final states is performed on data from proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 8 TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 18.8  fb^{-1}. The data were collected with the CMS detector using a novel technique called data scouting, in which the information associated with these selected events is much reduced, permitting collection of larger data samples. This technique enables CMS to record events containing jets at a rate of 1 kHz, by collecting the data from the high-level-trigger system. In this way, the sensitivity to low-mass resonances is increased significantly, allowing previously inaccessible couplings of new resonances to quarks and gluons to be probed. The resulting dijet mass distribution yields no evidence of narrow resonances. Upper limits are presented on the resonance cross sections as a function of mass, and compared with a variety of models predicting narrow resonances. The limits are translated into upper limits on the coupling of a leptophobic resonance Z_{B}^{'} to quarks, improving on the results obtained by previous experiments for the mass range from 500 to 800 GeV.

  3. Search for narrow resonances in dijet final states at $\\sqrt{s}= $ 8 TeV with the novel CMS technique of data scouting

    CERN Document Server

    Khachatryan, Vardan; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Aşılar, Ece; Bergauer, Thomas; Brandstetter, Johannes; Brondolin, Erica; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Flechl, Martin; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hartl, Christian; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; König, Axel; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Matsushita, Takashi; Mikulec, Ivan; Rabady, Dinyar; Rad, Navid; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Herbert; Schieck, Jochen; Strauss, Josef; Treberer-Treberspurg, Wolfgang; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Alderweireldt, Sara; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Knutsson, Albert; Lauwers, Jasper; Van De Klundert, Merijn; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Abu Zeid, Shimaa; Blekman, Freya; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Daci, Nadir; De Bruyn, Isabelle; Deroover, Kevin; Heracleous, Natalie; Lowette, Steven; Moortgat, Seth; Moreels, Lieselotte; 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Karacheban, Olena; Kasemann, Matthias; Keaveney, James; Kieseler, Jan; Kleinwort, Claus; Korol, Ievgen; Lange, Wolfgang; Lelek, Aleksandra; Leonard, Jessica; Lipka, Katerina; Lobanov, Artur; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Mankel, Rainer; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mittag, Gregor; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Ntomari, Eleni; Pitzl, Daniel; Placakyte, Ringaile; Raspereza, Alexei; Roland, Benoit; Sahin, Mehmet Özgür; Saxena, Pooja; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Seitz, Claudia; Spannagel, Simon; Stefaniuk, Nazar; Trippkewitz, Karim Damun; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Blobel, Volker; Centis Vignali, Matteo; Draeger, Arne-Rasmus; Dreyer, Torben; Erfle, Joachim; Garutti, Erika; Goebel, Kristin; Gonzalez, Daniel; Görner, Martin; Haller, Johannes; Hoffmann, Malte; Höing, Rebekka Sophie; Junkes, Alexandra; Klanner, Robert; Kogler, Roman; Kovalchuk, Nataliia; Lapsien, Tobias; Lenz, Teresa; Marchesini, Ivan; Marconi, Daniele; Meyer, Mareike; 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Ulrich, Ralf; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Wayand, Stefan; Weber, Marc; Weiler, Thomas; Williamson, Shawn; Wöhrmann, Clemens; Wolf, Roger; Anagnostou, Georgios; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Giakoumopoulou, Viktoria Athina; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Topsis-Giotis, Iasonas; Agapitos, Antonis; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Tziaferi, Eirini; Evangelou, Ioannis; Flouris, Giannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Loukas, Nikitas; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Paradas, Evangelos; Filipovic, Nicolas; Bencze, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Csaba; Hidas, Pàl; Horvath, Dezso; Sikler, Ferenc; Veszpremi, Viktor; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Zsigmond, Anna Julia; Beni, Noemi; Czellar, Sandor; Karancsi, János; Molnar, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Bartók, Márton; Makovec, Alajos; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Bahinipati, Seema; Choudhury, Somnath; Mal, Prolay; Mandal, Koushik; Nayak, Aruna; Sahoo, Deepak Kumar; Sahoo, Niladribihari; Swain, Sanjay Kumar; Bansal, Sunil; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Chawla, Ridhi; Gupta, Ruchi; Bhawandeep, Bhawandeep; Kalsi, Amandeep Kaur; Kaur, Anterpreet; Kaur, Manjit; Kumar, Ramandeep; Mehta, Ankita; Mittal, Monika; Singh, Jasbir; Walia, Genius; Kumar, Ashok; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Garg, Rocky Bala; Keshri, Sumit; Kumar, Ajay; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Nishu, Nishu; Ranjan, Kirti; Sharma, Ramkrishna; Sharma, Varun; Bhattacharya, Rajarshi; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Chatterjee, Kalyanmoy; Dey, Sourav; Dutt, Suneel; Dutta, Suchandra; Ghosh, Shamik; Majumdar, Nayana; Modak, Atanu; Mondal, Kuntal; Mukhopadhyay, Supratik; Nandan, Saswati; Purohit, Arnab; Roy, Ashim; Roy, Debarati; Roy Chowdhury, Suvankar; Sarkar, Subir; Sharan, Manoj; Thakur, Shalini; Behera, Prafulla Kumar; Chudasama, Ruchi; Dutta, Dipanwita; Jha, Vishwajeet; Kumar, Vineet; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Netrakanti, Pawan Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Topkar, Anita; Aziz, Tariq; Dugad, Shashikant; Kole, Gouranga; Mahakud, Bibhuprasad; Mitra, Soureek; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Sur, Nairit; Sutar, Bajrang; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Bhowmik, Sandeep; Dewanjee, Ram Krishna; Ganguly, Sanmay; Guchait, Monoranjan; Jain, Sandhya; Kumar, Sanjeev; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Parida, Bibhuti; Sarkar, Tanmay; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Chauhan, Shubhanshu; Dube, Sourabh; Kapoor, Anshul; Kothekar, Kunal; Rane, Aditee; Sharma, Seema; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Behnamian, Hadi; Chenarani, Shirin; Eskandari Tadavani, Esmaeel; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Fahim, Ali; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Naseri, Mohsen; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Rezaei Hosseinabadi, Ferdos; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Felcini, Marta; Grunewald, Martin; Abbrescia, Marcello; Calabria, Cesare; Caputo, Claudio; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; Cristella, Leonardo; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Miniello, Giorgia; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Radogna, Raffaella; Ranieri, Antonio; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Silvestris, Lucia; Venditti, Rosamaria; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Battilana, Carlo; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Brigliadori, Luca; Campanini, Renato; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Chhibra, Simranjit Singh; Codispoti, Giuseppe; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Grandi, Claudio; Guiducci, Luigi; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Perrotta, Andrea; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gian Piero; Tosi, Nicolò; Albergo, Sebastiano; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Costa, Salvatore; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Giordano, Ferdinando; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Gori, Valentina; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Viliani, Lorenzo; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Primavera, Federica; Calvelli, Valerio; Ferro, Fabrizio; Lo Vetere, Maurizio; Monge, Maria Roberta; Robutti, Enrico; Tosi, Silvano; Brianza, Luca; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Ghezzi, Alessio; Govoni, Pietro; Malvezzi, Sandra; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Marzocchi, Badder; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Pigazzini, Simone; Ragazzi, Stefano; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Cavallo, Nicola; De Nardo, Guglielmo; Di Guida, Salvatore; Esposito, Marco; Fabozzi, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lanza, Giuseppe; Lista, Luca; Meola, Sabino; Merola, Mario; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Sciacca, Crisostomo; Thyssen, Filip; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Benato, Lisa; Bisello, Dario; Boletti, Alessio; Carlin, Roberto; Carvalho Antunes De Oliveira, Alexandra; Checchia, Paolo; Dall'Osso, Martino; De Castro Manzano, Pablo; Dorigo, Tommaso; Dosselli, Umberto; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gasparini, Ugo; Gozzelino, Andrea; Lacaprara, Stefano; Margoni, Martino; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Pazzini, Jacopo; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Tosi, Mia; Zanetti, Marco; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zucchetta, Alberto; Zumerle, Gianni; Braghieri, Alessandro; Magnani, Alice; Montagna, Paolo; Ratti, Sergio P; Re, Valerio; Riccardi, Cristina; Salvini, Paola; Vai, Ilaria; Vitulo, Paolo; Alunni Solestizi, Luisa; Bilei, Gian Mario; Ciangottini, Diego; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Leonardi, Roberto; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Menichelli, Mauro; Saha, Anirban; Santocchia, Attilio; Androsov, Konstantin; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bernardini, Jacopo; Boccali, Tommaso; Castaldi, Rino; Ciocci, Maria Agnese; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Donato, Silvio; Fedi, Giacomo; Giassi, Alessandro; Grippo, Maria Teresa; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzi, Andrea; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Spagnolo, Paolo; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; Cipriani, Marco; D'imperio, Giulia; Del Re, Daniele; Diemoz, Marcella; Gelli, Simone; Jorda, Clara; Longo, Egidio; Margaroli, Fabrizio; Meridiani, Paolo; Organtini, Giovanni; Paramatti, Riccardo; Preiato, Federico; Rahatlou, Shahram; Rovelli, Chiara; Santanastasio, Francesco; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Bartosik, Nazar; Bellan, Riccardo; Biino, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Costa, Marco; Covarelli, Roberto; Degano, Alessandro; Demaria, Natale; Finco, Linda; Kiani, Bilal; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Monteil, Ennio; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Pacher, Luca; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Pinna Angioni, Gian Luca; Ravera, Fabio; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Shchelina, Ksenia; Sola, Valentina; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Traczyk, Piotr; Belforte, Stefano; Candelise, Vieri; Casarsa, Massimo; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; La Licata, Chiara; Schizzi, Andrea; Zanetti, Anna; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Min Suk; Lee, Sangeun; Lee, Seh Wook; Oh, Young Do; Sekmen, Sezen; Son, Dong-Chul; Yang, Yu Chul; Kim, Hyunsoo; Lee, Ari; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Kim, Tae Jeong; Cho, Sungwoong; Choi, Suyong; Go, Yeonju; Gyun, Dooyeon; Ha, Seungkyu; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Youngkwon; Kim, Yongsun; Lee, Byounghoon; Lee, Kisoo; Lee, Kyong Sei; Lee, Songkyo; Lim, Jaehoon; Park, Sung Keun; Roh, Youn; Almond, John; Kim, Junho; Oh, Sung Bin; Seo, Seon-hee; Yang, Unki; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Yu, Geum Bong; Choi, Minkyoo; Kim, Hyunchul; Kim, Hyunyong; Kim, Ji Hyun; Lee, Jason Sang Hun; Park, Inkyu; Ryu, Geonmo; Ryu, Min Sang; Choi, Young-Il; Goh, Junghwan; Kim, Donghyun; Kwon, Eunhyang; Lee, Jongseok; Yu, Intae; Dudenas, Vytautas; Juodagalvis, Andrius; Vaitkus, Juozas; Ahmed, Ijaz; Ibrahim, Zainol Abidin; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Md Ali, Mohd Adli Bin; Mohamad Idris, Faridah; Wan Abdullah, Wan Ahmad Tajuddin; Yusli, Mohd Nizam; Zolkapli, Zukhaimira; Casimiro Linares, Edgar; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-De La Cruz, Ivan; Hernandez-Almada, Alberto; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Mejia Guisao, Jhovanny; Sánchez Hernández, Alberto; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Pedraza, Isabel; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Uribe Estrada, Cecilia; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Krofcheck, David; Butler, Philip H; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahmad, Muhammad; Hassan, Qamar; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Khan, Wajid Ali; Qazi, Shamona; Shoaib, Muhammad; Waqas, Muhammad; Bialkowska, Helena; Bluj, Michal; Boimska, Bożena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Zalewski, Piotr; Bunkowski, Karol; Byszuk, Adrian; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Misiura, Maciej; Olszewski, Michal; Walczak, Marek; Bargassa, Pedrame; Beirão Da Cruz E Silva, Cristóvão; Di Francesco, Agostino; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Hollar, Jonathan; Leonardo, Nuno; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Nemallapudi, Mythra Varun; Rodrigues Antunes, Joao; Seixas, Joao; Toldaiev, Oleksii; Vadruccio, Daniele; Varela, Joao; Vischia, Pietro; Bunin, Pavel; Gavrilenko, Mikhail; Golutvin, Igor; Gorbounov, Nikolai; Gorbunov, Ilya; Karjavin, Vladimir; Kozlov, Guennady; Lanev, Alexander; Malakhov, Alexander; Matveev, Viktor; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Savina, Maria; Shmatov, Sergey; Shulha, Siarhei; Skatchkov, Nikolai; Smirnov, Vitaly; Zarubin, Anatoli; Chtchipounov, Leonid; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Sulimov, Valentin; Vorobyev, Alexey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Karneyeu, Anton; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, Alexander; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Pozdnyakov, Ivan; Safronov, Grigory; Spiridonov, Alexander; Toms, Maria; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Chadeeva, Marina; Danilov, Mikhail; Zhemchugov, Evgenii; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Rusakov, Sergey V; Terkulov, Adel; Baskakov, Alexey; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Klyukhin, Vyacheslav; Kodolova, Olga; Lokhtin, Igor; Miagkov, Igor; Obraztsov, Stepan; Petrushanko, Sergey; Savrin, Viktor; Snigirev, Alexander; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Elumakhov, Dmitry; Kachanov, Vassili; Kalinin, Alexey; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Cirkovic, Predrag; Devetak, Damir; Milosevic, Jovan; Rekovic, Vladimir; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Calvo, Enrique; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Escalante Del Valle, Alberto; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Navarro De Martino, Eduardo; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, Antonio María; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Quintario Olmeda, Adrián; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Senghi Soares, Mara; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Missiroli, Marino; Moran, Dermot; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; Palencia Cortezon, Enrique; Sanchez Cruz, Sergio; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Castiñeiras De Saa, Juan Ramon; Curras, Esteban; Fernandez, Marcos; Garcia-Ferrero, Juan; Gomez, Gervasio; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Matorras, Francisco; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Rodrigo, Teresa; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Trevisani, Nicolò; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Auzinger, Georg; Bachtis, Michail; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Bonato, Alessio; Botta, Cristina; Camporesi, Tiziano; Castello, Roberto; Cepeda, Maria; Cerminara, Gianluca; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; D'Enterria, David; Dabrowski, Anne; Daponte, Vincenzo; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; De Gruttola, Michele; De Guio, Federico; De Roeck, Albert; Di Marco, Emanuele; Dobson, Marc; Dordevic, Milos; Dorney, Brian; Du Pree, Tristan; Duggan, Daniel; Dünser, Marc; Dupont, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Fartoukh, Stephane; Franzoni, Giovanni; Fulcher, Jonathan; Funk, Wolfgang; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Girone, Maria; Glege, Frank; Gundacker, Stefan; Guthoff, Moritz; Hammer, Josef; Harris, Philip; Hegeman, Jeroen; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Kirschenmann, Henning; Knünz, Valentin; Kortelainen, Matti J; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Krammer, Manfred; Lecoq, Paul; Lourenco, Carlos; Lucchini, Marco Toliman; Magini, Nicolo; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Martelli, Arabella; Meijers, Frans; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Moortgat, Filip; Morovic, Srecko; Mulders, Martijn; Neugebauer, Hannes; Orfanelli, Styliani; Orsini, Luciano; Pape, Luc; Perez, Emmanuelle; Peruzzi, Marco; Petrilli, Achille; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Pierini, Maurizio; Racz, Attila; Reis, Thomas; Rolandi, Gigi; Rovere, Marco; Ruan, Manqi; Sakulin, Hannes; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Seidel, Markus; Sharma, Archana; Silva, Pedro; Simon, Michal; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Steggemann, Jan; Stoye, Markus; Takahashi, Yuta; Treille, Daniel; Triossi, Andrea; Tsirou, Andromachi; Veckalns, Viesturs; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Wardle, Nicholas; Zagoździńska, Agnieszka; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Rohe, Tilman; Bachmair, Felix; Bäni, Lukas; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Casal, Bruno; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Donegà, Mauro; Eller, Philipp; Grab, Christoph; Heidegger, Constantin; Hits, Dmitry; Hoss, Jan; Kasieczka, Gregor; Lecomte, Pierre; Lustermann, Werner; Mangano, Boris; Marionneau, Matthieu; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Masciovecchio, Mario; Meinhard, Maren Tabea; Meister, Daniel; Micheli, Francesco; Musella, Pasquale; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pandolfi, Francesco; Pata, Joosep; Pauss, Felicitas; Perrin, Gaël; Perrozzi, Luca; Quittnat, Milena; Rossini, Marco; Schönenberger, Myriam; Starodumov, Andrei; Takahashi, Maiko; Tavolaro, Vittorio Raoul; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Wallny, Rainer; Aarrestad, Thea Klaeboe; Amsler, Claude; Caminada, Lea; Canelli, Maria Florencia; Chiochia, Vincenzo; De Cosa, Annapaola; Galloni, Camilla; Hinzmann, Andreas; Hreus, Tomas; Kilminster, Benjamin; Lange, Clemens; Ngadiuba, Jennifer; Pinna, Deborah; Rauco, Giorgia; Robmann, Peter; Salerno, Daniel; Yang, Yong; Doan, Thi Hien; Jain, Shilpi; Khurana, Raman; Konyushikhin, Maxim; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Lin, Willis; Lu, Yun-Ju; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Yu, Shin-Shan; Kumar, Arun; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Chang, Yu-Wei; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Chen, Po-Hsun; Dietz, Charles; Fiori, Francesco; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Hsiung, Yee; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Miñano Moya, Mercedes; Paganis, Efstathios; Psallidas, Andreas; Tsai, Jui-fa; Tzeng, Yeng-Ming; Asavapibhop, Burin; Singh, Gurpreet; Srimanobhas, Norraphat; Suwonjandee, Narumon; Adiguzel, Aytul; Cerci, Salim; Damarseckin, Serdal; Demiroglu, Zuhal Seyma; Dozen, Candan; Dumanoglu, Isa; Girgis, Semiray; Gokbulut, Gul; Guler, Yalcin; Gurpinar, Emine; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Sunar Cerci, Deniz; Tali, Bayram; Topakli, Huseyin; Zorbilmez, Caglar; Bilin, Bugra; Bilmis, Selcuk; Isildak, Bora; Karapinar, Guler; Yalvac, Metin; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Gülmez, Erhan; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Yetkin, Elif Asli; Yetkin, Taylan; Cakir, Altan; Cankocak, Kerem; Sen, Sercan; Vardarlı, Fuat Ilkehan; Grynyov, Boris; Levchuk, Leonid; Sorokin, Pavel; Aggleton, Robin; Ball, Fionn; Beck, Lana; Brooke, James John; Burns, Douglas; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Flacher, Henning; Goldstein, Joel; Grimes, Mark; Heath, Greg P; Heath, Helen F; Jacob, Jeson; Kreczko, Lukasz; Lucas, Chris; Meng, Zhaoxia; Newbold, Dave M; Paramesvaran, Sudarshan; Poll, Anthony; Sakuma, Tai; Seif El Nasr-storey, Sarah; Senkin, Sergey; Smith, Dominic; Smith, Vincent J; Bell, Ken W; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M; Calligaris, Luigi; Cieri, Davide; Cockerill, David JA; Coughlan, John A; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Thea, Alessandro; Tomalin, Ian R; Williams, Thomas; Baber, Mark; Bainbridge, Robert; Buchmuller, Oliver; Bundock, Aaron; Burton, Darren; Casasso, Stefano; Citron, Matthew; Colling, David; Corpe, Louie; Dauncey, Paul; Davies, Gavin; 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Garabedian, Alex; Hakala, John; Heintz, Ulrich; Jesus, Orduna; Laird, Edward; Landsberg, Greg; Mao, Zaixing; Narain, Meenakshi; Piperov, Stefan; Sagir, Sinan; Spencer, Eric; Syarif, Rizki; Breedon, Richard; Breto, Guillermo; Burns, Dustin; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Chauhan, Sushil; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Conway, Rylan; Cox, Peter Timothy; Erbacher, Robin; Flores, Chad; Funk, Garrett; Gardner, Michael; Ko, Winston; Lander, Richard; Mclean, Christine; Mulhearn, Michael; Pellett, Dave; Pilot, Justin; Ricci-Tam, Francesca; Shalhout, Shalhout; Smith, John; Squires, Michael; Stolp, Dustin; Tripathi, Mani; Wilbur, Scott; Yohay, Rachel; Cousins, Robert; Everaerts, Pieter; Florent, Alice; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Saltzberg, David; Takasugi, Eric; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Weber, Matthias; Burt, Kira; Clare, Robert; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Hanson, Gail; Heilman, Jesse; Jandir, Pawandeep; Kennedy, Elizabeth; Lacroix, Florent; Long, Owen Rosser; Malberti, Martina; Olmedo Negrete, Manuel; Paneva, Mirena Ivova; Shrinivas, Amithabh; Wei, Hua; Wimpenny, Stephen; Yates, Brent; Branson, James G; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Cittolin, Sergio; D'Agnolo, Raffaele Tito; Derdzinski, Mark; Gerosa, Raffaele; Holzner, André; Kelley, Ryan; Klein, Daniel; Letts, James; Macneill, Ian; Olivito, Dominick; Padhi, Sanjay; Pieri, Marco; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Tadel, Matevz; Vartak, Adish; Wasserbaech, Steven; Welke, Charles; Wood, John; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Zevi Della Porta, Giovanni; Bhandari, Rohan; Bradmiller-Feld, John; Campagnari, Claudio; Dishaw, Adam; Dutta, Valentina; Flowers, Kristen; Franco Sevilla, Manuel; Geffert, Paul; George, Christopher; Golf, Frank; Gouskos, Loukas; Gran, Jason; Heller, Ryan; Incandela, Joe; Mccoll, Nickolas; Mullin, Sam Daniel; Ovcharova, Ana; Richman, Jeffrey; Stuart, David; Suarez, Indara; West, Christopher; Yoo, Jaehyeok; Anderson, Dustin; Apresyan, Artur; Bendavid, Joshua; Bornheim, Adolf; Bunn, Julian; Chen, Yi; Duarte, Javier; Mott, Alexander; Newman, Harvey B; Pena, Cristian; Spiropulu, Maria; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Xie, Si; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Andrews, Michael Benjamin; Azzolini, Virginia; Calamba, Aristotle; Carlson, Benjamin; Ferguson, Thomas; Paulini, Manfred; Russ, James; Sun, Menglei; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Cumalat, John Perry; Ford, William T; Jensen, Frank; Johnson, Andrew; Krohn, Michael; Mulholland, Troy; Stenson, Kevin; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Alexander, James; Chaves, Jorge; Chu, Jennifer; Dittmer, Susan; Mirman, Nathan; Nicolas Kaufman, Gala; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Rinkevicius, Aurelijus; Ryd, Anders; Skinnari, Louise; Sun, Werner; Tan, Shao Min; Tao, Zhengcheng; Thom, Julia; Tucker, Jordan; Wittich, Peter; Winn, Dave; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Apollinari, Giorgio; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bauerdick, Lothar AT; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Bolla, Gino; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Cihangir, Selcuk; Cremonesi, Matteo; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Fisk, Ian; Freeman, Jim; Gottschalk, Erik; Gray, Lindsey; Green, Dan; Grünendahl, Stefan; Gutsche, Oliver; Hare, Daryl; Harris, Robert M; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hirschauer, James; Hu, Zhen; Jayatilaka, Bodhitha; Jindariani, Sergo; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Klima, Boaz; Kreis, Benjamin; Lammel, Stephan; Linacre, Jacob; Lincoln, Don; Lipton, Ron; Liu, Tiehui; Lopes De Sá, Rafael; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Marraffino, John Michael; Maruyama, Sho; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; Merkel, Petra; Mrenna, Stephen; Nahn, Steve; Newman-Holmes, Catherine; O'Dell, Vivian; Pedro, Kevin; Prokofyev, Oleg; Rakness, Gregory; Ristori, Luciano; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Soha, Aron; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Stoynev, Stoyan; Strobbe, Nadja; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Tran, Nhan Viet; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vernieri, Caterina; Verzocchi, Marco; Vidal, Richard; Wang, Michael; Weber, Hannsjoerg Artur; Whitbeck, Andrew; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Brinkerhoff, Andrew; Carnes, Andrew; Carver, Matthew; Curry, David; Das, Souvik; Field, Richard D; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Ma, Peisen; Matchev, Konstantin; Mei, Hualin; Milenovic, Predrag; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Rank, Douglas; Shchutska, Lesya; Sperka, David; Thomas, Laurent; Wang, Jian; Wang, Sean-Jiun; Yelton, John; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Ackert, Andrew; Adams, Jordon Rowe; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Bein, Samuel; Diamond, Brendan; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Johnson, Kurtis F; Khatiwada, Ajeeta; Prosper, Harrison; Santra, Arka; Weinberg, Marc; Baarmand, Marc M; Bhopatkar, Vallary; Colafranceschi, Stefano; Hohlmann, Marcus; Kalakhety, Himali; Noonan, Daniel; Roy, Titas; Yumiceva, Francisco; Adams, Mark Raymond; Apanasevich, Leonard; Berry, Douglas; Betts, Russell Richard; Bucinskaite, Inga; Cavanaugh, Richard; Evdokimov, Olga; Gauthier, Lucie; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hofman, David Jonathan; Kurt, Pelin; O'Brien, Christine; Sandoval Gonzalez, Irving Daniel; Turner, Paul; Varelas, Nikos; Wu, Zhenbin; Zakaria, Mohammed; Zhang, Jingyu; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren; Dilsiz, Kamuran; Durgut, Süleyman; Gandrajula, Reddy Pratap; Haytmyradov, Maksat; Khristenko, Viktor; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Ogul, Hasan; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Penzo, Aldo; Snyder, Christina; Tiras, Emrah; Wetzel, James; Yi, Kai; Anderson, Ian; Blumenfeld, Barry; Cocoros, Alice; Eminizer, Nicholas; Fehling, David; Feng, Lei; Gritsan, Andrei; Maksimovic, Petar; Osherson, Marc; Roskes, Jeffrey; Sarica, Ulascan; Swartz, Morris; Xiao, Meng; Xin, Yongjie; You, Can; Al-bataineh, Ayman; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Bowen, James; Bruner, Christopher; Castle, James; Kenny III, Raymond Patrick; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Majumder, Devdatta; Mcbrayer, William; Murray, Michael; Sanders, Stephen; Stringer, Robert; Tapia Takaki, Daniel; Wang, Quan; Ivanov, Andrew; Kaadze, Ketino; Khalil, Sadia; Makouski, Mikhail; Maravin, Yurii; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Toda, Sachiko; Lange, David; Rebassoo, Finn; Wright, Douglas; Anelli, Christopher; Baden, Drew; Baron, Owen; Belloni, Alberto; Calvert, Brian; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Ferraioli, Charles; Gomez, Jaime; Hadley, Nicholas John; Jabeen, Shabnam; Kellogg, Richard G; Kolberg, Ted; Kunkle, Joshua; Lu, Ying; Mignerey, Alice; Shin, Young Ho; Skuja, Andris; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C; Apyan, Aram; Barbieri, Richard; Baty, Austin; Bi, Ran; Bierwagen, Katharina; Brandt, Stephanie; Busza, Wit; Cali, Ivan Amos; Demiragli, Zeynep; Di Matteo, Leonardo; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Gulhan, Doga; Hsu, Dylan; Iiyama, Yutaro; Innocenti, Gian Michele; Klute, Markus; Kovalskyi, Dmytro; Krajczar, Krisztian; Lai, Yue Shi; Lee, Yen-Jie; Levin, Andrew; Luckey, Paul David; Marini, Andrea Carlo; Mcginn, Christopher; Mironov, Camelia; Narayanan, Siddharth; Niu, Xinmei; Paus, Christoph; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob; Stephans, George; Sumorok, Konstanty; Tatar, Kaya; Varma, Mukund; Velicanu, Dragos; Veverka, Jan; Wang, Jing; Wang, Ta-Wei; Wyslouch, Bolek; Yang, Mingming; Zhukova, Victoria; Benvenuti, Alberto; Chatterjee, Rajdeep Mohan; Dahmes, Bryan; Evans, Andrew; Finkel, Alexey; Gude, Alexander; Hansen, Peter; Kalafut, Sean; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Klapoetke, Kevin; Kubota, Yuichi; Lesko, Zachary; Mans, Jeremy; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Ruckstuhl, Nicole; Rusack, Roger; Tambe, Norbert; Turkewitz, Jared; Acosta, John Gabriel; Oliveros, Sandra; Avdeeva, Ekaterina; Bartek, Rachel; Bloom, Kenneth; Bose, Suvadeep; Claes, Daniel R; Dominguez, Aaron; Fangmeier, Caleb; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Kamalieddin, Rami; Knowlton, Dan; Kravchenko, Ilya; Meier, Frank; Monroy, Jose; Siado, Joaquin Emilo; Snow, Gregory R; Stieger, Benjamin; Alyari, Maral; Dolen, James; George, Jimin; Godshalk, Andrew; Harrington, Charles; Iashvili, Ia; Kaisen, Josh; Kharchilava, Avto; Kumar, Ashish; Parker, Ashley; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Roozbahani, Bahareh; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Baumgartel, Darin; Chasco, Matthew; Hortiangtham, Apichart; Massironi, Andrea; Morse, David Michael; Nash, David; Orimoto, Toyoko; Teixeira De Lima, Rafael; Trocino, Daniele; Wang, Ren-Jie; Wood, Darien; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Kubik, Andrew; Low, Jia Fu; Mucia, Nicholas; Odell, Nathaniel; Pollack, Brian; Schmitt, Michael Henry; Sung, Kevin; Trovato, Marco; Velasco, Mayda; Dev, Nabarun; Hildreth, Michael; Hurtado Anampa, Kenyi; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kellams, Nathan; Lannon, Kevin; Marinelli, Nancy; Meng, Fanbo; Mueller, Charles; Musienko, Yuri; Planer, Michael; Reinsvold, Allison; Ruchti, Randy; Rupprecht, Nathaniel; Smith, Geoffrey; Taroni, Silvia; Valls, Nil; Wayne, Mitchell; Wolf, Matthias; Woodard, Anna; Alimena, Juliette; Antonelli, Louis; Brinson, Jessica; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Flowers, Sean; Francis, Brian; Hart, Andrew; Hill, Christopher; Hughes, Richard; Ji, Weifeng; Liu, Bingxuan; Luo, Wuming; Puigh, Darren; Rodenburg, Marissa; Winer, Brian L; Wulsin, Howard Wells; Cooperstein, Stephane; Driga, Olga; Elmer, Peter; Hardenbrook, Joshua; Hebda, Philip; Luo, Jingyu; Marlow, Daniel; Medvedeva, Tatiana; Mooney, Michael; Olsen, James; Palmer, Christopher; Piroué, Pierre; Stickland, David; Tully, Christopher; Zuranski, Andrzej; Malik, Sudhir; Barker, Anthony; Barnes, Virgil E; Benedetti, Daniele; Folgueras, Santiago; Gutay, Laszlo; Jha, Manoj; Jones, Matthew; Jung, Andreas Werner; Jung, Kurt; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Shi, Xin; Sun, Jian; Svyatkovskiy, Alexey; Wang, Fuqiang; Xie, Wei; Xu, Lingshan; Parashar, Neeti; Stupak, John; Adair, Antony; Akgun, Bora; Chen, Zhenyu; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank JM; Guilbaud, Maxime; Li, Wei; Michlin, Benjamin; Northup, Michael; Padley, Brian Paul; Redjimi, Radia; Roberts, Jay; Rorie, Jamal; Tu, Zhoudunming; Zabel, James; Betchart, Burton; Bodek, Arie; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Duh, Yi-ting; Ferbel, Thomas; Galanti, Mario; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Han, Jiyeon; Hindrichs, Otto; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Lo, Kin Ho; Tan, Ping; Verzetti, Mauro; Chou, John Paul; Contreras-Campana, Emmanuel; Gershtein, Yuri; Gómez Espinosa, Tirso Alejandro; Halkiadakis, Eva; Heindl, Maximilian; Hidas, Dean; Hughes, Elliot; Kaplan, Steven; Kunnawalkam Elayavalli, Raghav; Kyriacou, Savvas; Lath, Amitabh; Nash, Kevin; Saka, Halil; Salur, Sevil; Schnetzer, Steve; Sheffield, David; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Thomassen, Peter; Walker, Matthew; Foerster, Mark; Heideman, Joseph; Riley, Grant; Rose, Keith; Spanier, Stefan; Thapa, Krishna; Bouhali, Othmane; Castaneda Hernandez, Alfredo; Celik, Ali; Dalchenko, Mykhailo; De Mattia, Marco; Delgado, Andrea; Dildick, Sven; Eusebi, Ricardo; Gilmore, Jason; Huang, Tao; Juska, Evaldas; Kamon, Teruki; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Mueller, Ryan; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Patel, Rishi; Perloff, Alexx; Perniè, Luca; Rathjens, Denis; Rose, Anthony; Safonov, Alexei; Tatarinov, Aysen; Ulmer, Keith; Akchurin, Nural; Cowden, Christopher; Damgov, Jordan; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Faulkner, James; Kunori, Shuichi; Lamichhane, Kamal; Lee, Sung Won; Libeiro, Terence; Undleeb, Sonaina; Volobouev, Igor; Wang, Zhixing; Delannoy, Andrés G; Greene, Senta; Gurrola, Alfredo; Janjam, Ravi; Johns, Willard; Maguire, Charles; Melo, Andrew; Ni, Hong; Sheldon, Paul; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Xu, Qiao; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Barria, Patrizia; Cox, Bradley; Goodell, Joseph; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Li, Hengne; Neu, Christopher; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Sun, Xin; Wang, Yanchu; Wolfe, Evan; Xia, Fan; Clarke, Christopher; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Lamichhane, Pramod; Sturdy, Jared; Belknap, Donald; Dasu, Sridhara; Dodd, Laura; Duric, Senka; Gomber, Bhawna; Grothe, Monika; Herndon, Matthew; Hervé, Alain; Klabbers, Pamela; Lanaro, Armando; Levine, Aaron; Long, Kenneth; Loveless, Richard; Ojalvo, Isabel; Perry, Thomas; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Polese, Giovanni; Ruggles, Tyler; Savin, Alexander; Sharma, Archana; Smith, Nicholas; Smith, Wesley H; Taylor, Devin; Verwilligen, Piet; Woods, Nathaniel

    2016-07-14

    A search for narrow resonances decaying into dijet final states is performed on data from proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 8 TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 18.8 fb$^{-1}$. The data were collected with the CMS detector using a novel technique called data scouting, in which the information associated with these selected events is much reduced, permitting collection of larger data samples. This technique enables CMS to record events containing jets at a rate of 1 kHz, by collecting the data from the high-level-trigger system. In this way, the sensitivity to low-mass resonances is increased significantly, allowing previously inaccessible couplings of new resonances to quarks and gluons to be probed. The resulting dijet mass distribution yields no evidence of narrow resonances. Upper limits are presented on the resonance cross sections as a function of mass, and compared with a variety of models predicting narrow resonances. The limits are translated into upper limits on th...

  4. Differential changes in serum uric acid concentrations in sibutramine promoted weight loss in diabetes: results from four weeks of the lead-in period of the SCOUT trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caterson Ian D

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and aims Elevated levels of serum uric acid are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The response of uric acid to weight loss therapy (lifestyle plus sibutramine in an overweight and obese cardiovascular high risk population was studied. Methods and results Data from a four week single-blind lead-in period of the Sibutramine Cardiovascular OUTcomes (SCOUT study were analyzed. 2584 patients (24% had diabetes mellitus (DM only, 1748 (16% had cardiovascular disease (CVD only and 6397 (60% had both DM + CVD. Uric acid concentrations (mean ± standard deviation at screening were significantly higher among patients with CVD compared to patients without CVD (p Conclusion A four week daily intake of sibutramine and life style changes was associated with significant reductions in mean uric acid levels. Changes in renal glucose load in diabetes seem to counteract a potential uricosuric effect of sibutramine. Trial Registration The trial is registered at ClinicalTrial.gov number: NCT00234832.

  5. Turner Syndrome in Girls Presenting with Coarctation of the Aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckhauser, Aaron; South, Sarah T; Meyers, Lindsay; Bleyl, Steven B; Botto, Lorenzo D

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate the frequency of Turner syndrome in a population-based, statewide cohort of girls with coarctation of the aorta. The Utah Birth Defects Network was used to ascertain a cohort of girls between 1997 and 2011 with coarctation of the aorta. Livebirths with isolated coarctation of the aorta or transverse arch hypoplasia were included and patients with complex congenital heart disease not usually seen in Turner syndrome were excluded. Of 244 girls with coarctation of the aorta, 77 patients were excluded, leaving a cohort of 167 girls; 86 patients (51%) had chromosomal studies and 21 (12.6%) were diagnosed with Turner syndrome. All patients were diagnosed within the first 4 months of life and 5 (24%) were diagnosed prenatally. Fifteen patients (71%) had Turner syndrome-related findings in addition to coarctation of the aorta. Girls with mosaicism were less likely to have Turner syndrome-associated findings (3/6 mosaic girls compared with 12/17 girls with non-mosaic 45,X). Twelve girls (57%) diagnosed with Turner syndrome also had a bicommissural aortic valve. At least 12.6% of girls born with coarctation of the aorta have karyotype-confirmed Turner syndrome. Such a high frequency, combined with the clinical benefits of an early diagnosis, supports genetic screening for Turner syndrome in girls presenting with coarctation of the aorta. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Child and parent perspectives on healthier side dishes and beverages in restaurant kids' meals: results from a national survey in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shonkoff, Eleanor T; Anzman-Frasca, Stephanie; Lynskey, Vanessa M; Chan, Grace; Glenn, Meaghan E; Economos, Christina D

    2017-07-25

    Children frequently consume foods from restaurants; considering the quick-service sector alone, 1/3 of children eat food from these restaurants on a given day, and among these consumers, 1/3 of their daily calories come from fast food. Restaurant foods and beverages are second only to grocery store foods and beverages in their contribution to total energy intake of U.S. 4- to 11-year-olds. Shifting their restaurant consumption in healthier directions could have a positive impact on child health. In 2014 this study examined self-reported child receptivity and parent awareness of child receptivity to ordering a fruit or vegetable side dish instead of French fries; and milk, water, or flavored water instead of soda/pop with a kids' meal when eating out. Child receptivity to side dishes was compared between 2010 and 2014. An online survey was administered by Nielsen via their Harris Poll Online to a national panel of 711 parents and their 8- to 12-year-old child, as part of a larger study. Frequencies, logistic regressions, t-tests, chi-square tests, and percent agreement were used to evaluate child likelihood of ordering certain side dishes; receptivity to healthier side dish and beverage alternatives; changes in receptivity to healthier sides across years; and parent awareness. A majority of children said they were likely to order a meal with a vegetable (60%), fruit (78%), or French fry (93%) side dish. They were receptive to receiving a fruit or vegetable (FV) side dish instead of French fries (68%); or milk, water, or flavored water instead of soda (81%) with their restaurant kids' meal. Liking/taste was the most common reason for children's feelings. Child receptivity to a FV side dish instead of French fries was high in both years and significantly higher in 2014 (t = -2.12, p = 0.034). The majority of parent and child reports of child receptivity were concordant (85%). These national survey results indicate that children are receptive to FV side dishes and

  7. Perceived and actual cost of healthier foods versus their less healthy alternatives: a case study in a predominantly black urban township in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzigaba, M; Puoane, T

    2011-12-01

    There is an increasing awareness of the role played by the food retail characteristics in determining individuals' healthy food purchasing and consumption behaviors. The perceived costs of healthier food alternatives have been shown to contribute negatively to individual's food choices in developed societies. However, there is still a dearth of knowledge regarding this phenomenon in low to middle income countries particularly in Africa. This study explored health club member's experiences in buying healthier food options and compared their perceived cost of selected healthier and less healthy foods with actual market costs in a South African township. A cross-sectional study design using quantitative and qualitative research methods. The study was conducted in Khayelitsha, a township in the Western Cape Province in South Africa. Participants were 50 members of a health club, mostly female and above 50 years of age. The study was conducted in three phases. The first phase involved interviews with all 50 health club members. During the second phase ten purposively selected members participated in in-depth interviews based on their unhealthy food-purchasing and consumption patterns identified in the first phase. The third phase involved food price audits from supermarkets as well as convenient stores located in the study setting. Quantitative data were subjected to descriptive statistical analysis, while content analysis was used to analyze qualitative data. Most of the members were illiterate and unemployed, largely dependent on government grants. Qualitative findings showed that low household incomes, their inability to read and interpret nutritional information and personal food preferences contributed to Health club members' unhealthy food-purchasing behaviour. When objectively measured in local stores, the healthier food options proved to be more expensive than their less healthy equivalents. This was consistent with subjects' perceptions about the relative cost

  8. Child and parent perspectives on healthier side dishes and beverages in restaurant kids’ meals: results from a national survey in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanor T. Shonkoff

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children frequently consume foods from restaurants; considering the quick-service sector alone, 1/3 of children eat food from these restaurants on a given day, and among these consumers, 1/3 of their daily calories come from fast food. Restaurant foods and beverages are second only to grocery store foods and beverages in their contribution to total energy intake of U.S. 4- to 11-year-olds. Shifting their restaurant consumption in healthier directions could have a positive impact on child health. In 2014 this study examined self-reported child receptivity and parent awareness of child receptivity to ordering a fruit or vegetable side dish instead of French fries; and milk, water, or flavored water instead of soda/pop with a kids’ meal when eating out. Child receptivity to side dishes was compared between 2010 and 2014. Methods An online survey was administered by Nielsen via their Harris Poll Online to a national panel of 711 parents and their 8- to 12-year-old child, as part of a larger study. Frequencies, logistic regressions, t-tests, chi-square tests, and percent agreement were used to evaluate child likelihood of ordering certain side dishes; receptivity to healthier side dish and beverage alternatives; changes in receptivity to healthier sides across years; and parent awareness. Results A majority of children said they were likely to order a meal with a vegetable (60%, fruit (78%, or French fry (93% side dish. They were receptive to receiving a fruit or vegetable (FV side dish instead of French fries (68%; or milk, water, or flavored water instead of soda (81% with their restaurant kids’ meal. Liking/taste was the most common reason for children’s feelings. Child receptivity to a FV side dish instead of French fries was high in both years and significantly higher in 2014 (t = −2.12, p = 0.034. The majority of parent and child reports of child receptivity were concordant (85%. Conclusions These national survey

  9. Placement and promotion strategies to increase sales of healthier products in supermarkets in low-income, ethnically diverse neighborhoods: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Gary D; Karpyn, Allison; Wojtanowski, Alexis C; Davis, Erica; Weiss, Stephanie; Brensinger, Colleen; Tierney, Ann; Guo, Wensheng; Brown, Jeffery; Spross, Carly; Leuchten, Donna; Burns, Patrick J; Glanz, Karen

    2014-06-01

    The greater presence of supermarkets in low-income, high-minority neighborhoods has the potential to positively affect diet quality among those at greatest risk of obesity. In-store marketing strategies that draw attention to healthier products may be effective, sustainable, and scalable for improving diet quality and health. Few controlled studies of in-store marketing strategies to promote sales of healthier items in low-income, high-minority neighborhoods have been conducted. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of in-store marketing strategies to promote the purchase of specific healthier items in 5 product categories: milk, ready-to-eat cereal, frozen meals, in-aisle beverages, and checkout cooler beverages. The design was a cluster-randomized controlled trial conducted from 2011 to 2012. Eight urban supermarkets in low-income, high-minority neighborhoods were the unit of randomization, intervention, and analysis. Stores were matched on the percentage of sales from government food-assistance programs and store size and randomly assigned to an intervention or control group. The 4 intervention stores received a 6-mo, in-store marketing intervention that promoted the sales of healthier products through placement, signage, and product availability strategies. The 4 control stores received no intervention and were assessment-only controls. The main outcome measure was weekly sales of the targeted products, which was assessed on the basis of the stores' sales data. Intervention stores showed significantly greater sales of skim and 1% milk, water (in aisle and at checkout), and 2 of 3 types of frozen meals compared with control store sales during the same time period. No differences were found between the stores in sales of cereal, whole or 2% milk, beverages, or diet beverages. These data indicate that straightforward placement strategies can significantly enhance the sales of healthier items in several food and beverage categories. Such

  10. Healthier Traditional Food

    OpenAIRE

    Edward F. Millen

    2017-01-01

    The study of traditional food and healthy eating habits has been one of the fast growing areas. All humans, both men and women, require food for their survival. However, both men and women indulge in food as if it were their sole purpose of existence. Hence, eating disorders are common among men and women. Then media has played an effective role not only in establishing faulty standards for traditional healthy food but also it has highlighted the importance of healthy eating. It has brought t...

  11. SLOWER BUT HEALTHIER GROWTH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAN XINZHEN

    2010-01-01

    @@ China's economic growth has slowed,economic statistics released on July 15 show,confirming market expectations.But officials said the country's economy is still on track. The recovery has gained traction in China,which registered a double-digit growth of 11.1 percent in the first half of this year.

  12. An Exceptional Adenocarcinoma in a Girl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bangaly Traore

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Anal adenocarcinoma is very rare and usually occurs in the elderly. We present a case of a 12-year-old girl with an anal margin painful tumor infiltrating the lower rectum, with perineal and vulvar permeation nodules and bilateral fixed inguinal and iliac lymph nodes. Histology showed anal adenocarcinoma with mucosecreting component and independent cells. She had no extra pelvic metastasis on CT scan. She underwent a colostomy and palliative care. This exceptional case challenges us on the diversity of forms of anal cancers that require a multidisciplinary approach. The precarious social context and the age of onset make it difficult to manage this rare cancer.

  13. Psychodrama groups for girls coping with trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonell, D M; Parteleno-Barehmi, C

    1999-07-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of psychodrama groups with traumatized middle-school girls. Comparisons of treatment and control group members' pre- and postintervention adjustment revealed significant decreases in group participants' self-reported difficulties in withdrawn behavior and anxiety/depression. Interviews with the participants reinforced the value of psychodrama group participation in the resolution of trauma and in increasing a sense of competence and self-efficacy. A brief outline of the group structure and a description of the process offer examples that illustrate the practice methodology and provide guidance for conducting psychodrama groups with vulnerable populations. Concerns with safety and containment are addressed.

  14. Microbiological findings in prepubertal girls with vulvovaginitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikanić-Dugić, Nives; Pustisek, Nives; Hirsl-Hećej, Vlasta; Lukić-Grlić, Amarela

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to define the most common causes, symptoms and clinical features of vulvovaginitis in prepubertal girls, and to evaluate treatment success depending on the causative agent involved. The study included 115 girls aged 2-8 (mean 4.8) years, presenting with vulvovaginitis to the Outpatient Clinic for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology, Zagreb Children's Hospital, between September 2006 and July 2007. Medical history data were obtained from parents. Vaginal samples were collected for microbiological culture by using cotton-tipped swabs moistened with saline. All samples were referred to microbiology laboratory, where standard microbiological diagnostic procedures were performed. Selective and non-selective media were used. Of 115 study patients, 43 (37.4%) had received antibiotic therapy more than one month prior to their visit to the Clinic, mainly for upper respiratory tract infection. The most common presenting symptom was increased vaginal discharge usually noticed on the pants or diaper, found in 26 of 115 (22.6%) patients, followed by vulvar redness in 16 (13.9%), burning in seven (6.1%), itching in the vulvovaginal area in seven (6.1%), soreness in six (5.2%), odor in three (2.6%) patients, and two or more of these symptoms in another 50 (43.5%) patients. Fifty-nine of 115 children had normal clinical finding on gynecologic examination. Among the remaining 56 children, the most common finding was erythema observed in 19, vaginal discharge in ten, and a combination of discharge and erythema in 13 patients. Of 115 study patients, causative agents were isolated from vaginal culture in 38 (33%) cases. Of these, 21 grew group A beta hemolytic streptococcus, five patients Haemophilus influenzae, three Escherichia coli, two Enterococcus spp., and one each Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus mirabilis, and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Antibiotic therapy was administered in 31 of these 38 patients, except for those cases where intestinal bacteria and

  15. [Meningococcal vulvovaginitis in a prepubertal girl].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathanson, M; Tisseron, B; de Pontual, L

    2005-12-01

    Neisseria meningitidis is an uncommon cause of vulvovaginitis in the prepubertal girl. The microorganism must not be mistaken for Neisseria gonorrhoeae, as the consequences of such an error may be serious. Colonization or infection by Neisseria meningitis is not uncommon in adolescents and adults. Vulvitis, even when it is recurrent, is not per se a good indicator of sexual abuse, but some microorganisms found by vaginal swab can make it possible, likely or certain. Sexual transmission of N. meningitidis has not been described in the prepubertal child.

  16. Sensational inventions by girls and boys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yeon Jung

    1999-05-01

    This book introduces the interesting and original inventions invented by girls and boys. These are the titles of the inventions : an antenna ruler, muscular strength machine with spring, items to remove sticky matter for advertisement, chair ladder for the disabled, useful control box for feeding bees, a portable carriage for dogs, a lid of ashtray, hot-air balloon using solar power, toy cannon for reports, hard badminton racket, tv cable and a distributor which are easy to install, device for car automatic parking, a cleanser for vegetables.

  17. Boys and girls who reason well mathematically.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, J C

    1993-01-01

    Since 1971 the Study of Mathematically Precocious Youth (SMPY) at Johns Hopkins University has pioneered in discovery of and provision of educational help for 12-year-old boys and girls who reason better mathematically than 99% of other 12-year-olds. SMPY originated widespread searches for such youths and special academic classes for them outside the regular school system. A regional talent search, verbal as well as mathematical, now covers all 50 states of the USA, and many varied residential summer programmes are offered across the country. These have provided educational facilitation for many thousands, and have encouraged greater curricular flexibility in schools and better articulation of in-school with out-of-school learning experiences. From the first talent search conducted by SMPY in 1972, it became obvious that boys tend to score considerably higher than girls on the College Board Scholastic Aptitude Test-Mathematical (SAT-M), a test intended mainly for college-bound 17- and 18-year-olds. This difference was reported in 1974 but attracted little attention until a controversial report in 1980 stimulated research on sex differences in various aspects of mathematics. Here I describe a study of sex differences over 10 years on 14 College Board high school achievement tests, which are taken (three usually) by bright 17- and 18-year-olds seeking admission to the USA's selective colleges and universities. Among the high scores on the European history test the ratio of males to females was greatest, 6:1. The next most sex-differentiating test was physics, 2.9:1, followed by elementary-level mathematics (mainly algebra and geometry), 2.5:1. Other ratios favouring males were, in 1991, chemistry (2.4:1), American history (2.1:1), biology (1.8:1), precalculus mathematics (1.6:1), Latin (1.6:1), French (1.4:1), modern Hebrew (1.1:1) and German (1.02:1). Tests in which more females were high scorers were literature (1.26:1), English composition (1.05:1) and Spanish (1

  18. Sensational inventions by girls and boys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yeon Jung

    1999-05-15

    This book introduces the interesting and original inventions invented by girls and boys. These are the titles of the inventions : an antenna ruler, muscular strength machine with spring, items to remove sticky matter for advertisement, chair ladder for the disabled, useful control box for feeding bees, a portable carriage for dogs, a lid of ashtray, hot-air balloon using solar power, toy cannon for reports, hard badminton racket, tv cable and a distributor which are easy to install, device for car automatic parking, a cleanser for vegetables.

  19. An investigation of young girls' responses to sexualized images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongenelis, Michelle I; Pettigrew, Simone; Byrne, Susan M; Biagioni, Nicole

    2016-12-01

    Evidence suggests that the sexualization of girls has increased and become more explicit in recent years. However, most of the research conducted to date has focused on sexualization in adults. To address this research gap, this study explored how young Australian girls respond to and describe sexualized and non-sexualized depictions of their peers. Results from 42 girls aged 6-11 years revealed that sexualization was a perceptually salient attribute, with participants readily classifying sexualized girls as a subgroup. Participants also made distinct trait attributions based on the differences between sexualized and non-sexualized girls. The results suggest that young girls respond differently to sexualized and non-sexualized depictions of their peers and are beginning to develop stereotypes based on these depictions. As such, the implementation of media literacy programs in adolescence may be too late and efforts may be required to address this issue among younger children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Rescue for sexually abused girls in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treguear, T; Peters, L

    1995-01-01

    In San Jose, Costa Rica, the nongovernmental organization PROCAL has established two rescue homes for sexually abused girls 10-15 years of age. One of these homes is devoted to the care of pregnant girls. In almost all cases, the perpetrator was a male relative. Since girls are taught they must obey older male relatives, they are powerless to stop the abuse. When girls become pregnant as a result of sexual abuse, they face social ostracism and are blamed for their participation in sexual activity. PROCAL counsels the girls that they are victims of their own lack of power and provides them with skills and education they need to return to society and start a new life. The stories of two young girls who became pregnant as a result of sexual abuse and were helped by PROCAL are presented.

  1. Girl Power! How Parents Can Support Girls' Academic Success in Stem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadzikowski, Ann

    2015-01-01

    Helping daughters recognize science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) in their daily lives, even in tasks like feeding the dog, baking a cake, or packing a suitcase, supports and encourages their STEM interests and abilities. Often young girls, even those who are very bright, aren't accustomed to thinking of themselves as being good at…

  2. Girls Like Us: Looking at History through the American Girl Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philpott, Sarah Lewis

    2014-01-01

    Quality historical fiction enables readers to imagine what life might have been like for a variety of people, particularly those not typically written about in history texts. Social history of an era is often of particular interest to young students. This article looks at using the American Girl Series to interest students in history and provides…

  3. Wonder girls: Undercurrents of resistance in the representation of teenage girls in 1980s American cinema

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilkinson, M.C.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis explores the representation of teenage girls in 1980s American teen films such as Little Darlings (1980), Smooth Talk (1985), Just One of the Guys (1985), Pretty in Pink (1986) and Mermaids (1990). It uses film analysis and feminist film theory to subject a range of case studies to three

  4. Brave New Girls: Creative Ideas To Help Girls Be Confident, Healthy, & Happy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadeberg, Jeanette

    This guide, designed to help girls learn more about themselves and what they want from life, presents self-esteem exercises and coping skills. It opens with questions about self-discovery and what is important to them. Some examples of voicing one's opinion and making good decisions are also offered. Recognizing and dealing with different feelings…

  5. Girls on the Fringe: The Writing Lives of Two Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pytash, Kristine E.

    2016-01-01

    Writing plays an important role in young adults' lives. It is tied to academic achievement and also provides young adults with a voice in social interactions, a way to express their feelings, and an opportunity to reflect on life events. This study explores the writing practices of 2 adolescent girls: Suzanne and Molly. On multiple occasions they…

  6. Girls Behaving Badly? Race, Gender, and Subjective Evaluation in the Discipline of African American Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Edward W.; Perry, Brea L.

    2017-01-01

    School disciplinary processes are an important mechanism of inequality in education. Most prior research in this area focuses on the significantly higher rates of punishment among African American boys, but in this article, we turn our attention to the discipline of African American girls. Using advanced multilevel models and a longitudinal data…

  7. The Effects of "Girls in Science Day" on Middle School Girls' Attitudes and Interests in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Carmen S.

    Because of the underrepresentation of women in STEM fields, many organizations are hosting days to promote middle school girls' interest in science. The purpose of this dissertation examines one of these days, and is three-fold: Number one, to determine if the event "Girls in Science Day [GIS]" affected the interests and attitudes of the middle school girls who attend. Number two, to examine how GIS affected their interests and attitudes in science, and number three, to examine if there is a long time impact on the girls who attend GIS in middle school by interviewing them when they are older and determine if attending GIS made lasting impressions on their lives. It utilizes a mixed-methods approach by using a quantitative Likert-type scale to determine the first purpose mentioned, pre- and post- attendance interviews to examine purpose two, and longitudinal interviews of past participants to determine purpose three. These methods are then combined using meta-inference and results and implications are examined. Future research is then recommended to improve the status of women in science careers.

  8. The Perfect Girl Syndrome: Perfectionism and Self-Esteem in Gifted Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worley, Cassie

    2015-01-01

    Considerable research has been published on society's expectations and attitudes toward females. Men think the most important qualities in the ideal woman are attractiveness, sexiness, and kindness. The media suggests females should value physical beauty and marriageability. Girls should be obedient, caring, pretty, and polite. These unreasonable…

  9. Menstrual hygiene: How hygienic is the adolescent girl?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dasgupta A

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Menstruation and menstrual practices are still clouded by taboos and socio-cultural restrictions resulting in adolescent girls remaining ignorant of the scientific facts and hygienic health practices, which sometimes result into adverse health outcomes. Objectives: (i To elicit the beliefs, conception and source of information regarding menstruation among the study population and (ii to find out the status of menstrual hygiene among adolescent girls. Materials and Methods: A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted among 160 adolescent girls of a secondary school situated in the field practice area of Rural Health Unit and Training Center, Singur, West Bengal, with the help of a pre-designed and pre-tested questionnaire. Data were analyzed statistically by simple proportions. Results: Out of 160 respondents, 108 (67.5% girls were aware about menstruation prior to attainment of menarche. Mother was the first informant regarding menstruation in case of 60 (37.5% girls. One hundred and thirty-eight (86.25% girls believed it as a physiological process. Seventy-eight (48.75% girls knew the use of sanitary pad during menstruation. Regarding practices, only 18 (11.25% girls used sanitary pads during menstruation. For cleaning purpose, 156 (97.5% girls used both soap and water. Regarding restrictions practiced, 136 (85% girls practised different restrictions during menstruation. Conclusions: Menstrual hygiene, a very important risk factor for reproductive tract infections, is a vital aspect of health education for adolescent girls. Educational television programmes, trained school nurses/health personnel, motivated school teachers and knowledgeable parents can play a very important role in transmitting the vital message of correct menstrual hygiene to the adolescent girl of today.

  10. Modifiable lifestyle behavior patterns, sedentary time and physical activity contexts: a cluster analysis among middle school boys and girls in the SALTA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Elisa A; Pizarro, Andreia N; Figueiredo, Pedro; Mota, Jorge; Santos, Maria P

    2013-06-01

    To analyze how modifiable health-related variables are clustered and associated with children's participation in play, active travel and structured exercise and sport among boys and girls. Data were collected from 9 middle-schools in Porto (Portugal) area. A total of 636 children in the 6th grade (340 girls and 296 boys) with a mean age of 11.64 years old participated in the study. Cluster analyses were used to identify patterns of lifestyle and healthy/unhealthy behaviors. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to estimate associations between cluster allocation, sedentary time and participation in three different physical activity (PA) contexts: play, active travel, and structured exercise/sport. Four distinct clusters were identified based on four lifestyle risk factors. The most disadvantaged cluster was characterized by high body mass index, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and cardiorespiratory fitness and a moderate level of moderate to vigorous PA. Everyday outdoor play (OR=1.85, 95%CI 0.318-0.915) and structured exercise/sport (OR=1.85, 95%CI 0.291-0.990) were associated with healthier lifestyle patterns. There were no significant associations between health patterns and sedentary time or travel mode. Outdoor play and sport/exercise participation seem more important than active travel from school in influencing children's healthy cluster profiles. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Condition of mammary glands in adolescent girls in Saratov region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunina A.V.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was undertaken to estimate the condition of mammary glands in adolescent girls. Material and methods. The study included 867 girls (aged 12-18. The questioning, total clinical examination, hormonal analysis and ultrasound examination were conducted. Results. The investigation shows that girls had breast dysmorphies (macromastia, hypoplasia, striae, asymmetry etc.. The dysplasia of mammary glands was diagnosed in 26% patients with menstrual disorders, thyroid diseases, mastalgia and obesity. High estradiol, LH, TSH, insulin, cortisole, testosterone and low progesterone level are the most specific hormonal markers of mastopathy in adolescent girls. Conclusion. Thyroid disorders, breast asymmetric form, mastalgia, obesity are the indicators for observation and examination of mammary glands

  12. Valproic Acid in Women and Girls of Childbearing Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotlib, Dorothy; Ramaswamy, Rachel; Kurlander, Jacob E; DeRiggi, Alana; Riba, Michelle

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate recent literature on valproic acid (VPA) in women and girls of childbearing age and to emphasize new findings. Recent research confirms VPAs teratogenicity and risk of hormone disruption. VPA exposure in utero increases the risk for a variety of major congenital malformations (MCMs), reduced IQ and behavioral problems. In girls and women, VPA increases the risk of hormone abnormalities, obesity, and polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Despite guidelines recommending caution, VPA use continues to be prescribed to reproductive-aged women and girls. Despite significant and well-documented risk, adherence to guidelines in VPA use in reproductive-aged girls and women remains low.

  13. Adolescent girls define menstruation: a multiethnic exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orringer, Kelly; Gahagan, Sheila

    2010-09-01

    Incomplete understanding of menstruation may place girls at risk for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and unintended pregnancy. Prior research suggests that European American and African American girls incompletely understand menstruation, yet little is known about menstrual knowledge in other ethnic groups. Using audiotaped focus group and individual interviews with 73 African American, Mexican American, Arab American, and European American girls, we assessed girls' menstrual understanding. Responses included reproduction, growing up, cleansing, messages about femininity, and not knowing. We found ethnic differences in the prominence of these themes. We learned that social and cultural factors play an important role in transmission of menstrual knowledge.

  14. Being Boys, Being Girls: learning masculinities and femininities

    OpenAIRE

    Paechter, Carrie F.

    2007-01-01

    What is it like being a boy or a girl?\\ud How do boys and girls learn to be men and women?\\ud How do families, schools and children’s peer groups influence the ways in which children think of themselves as male and female?\\ud Being Boys, Being Girls explores how boys and girls learn what it is to be male and female. Drawing on a wide range of studies from around the world, the book examines how masculinities and femininities are developed and understood by children and young people in familie...

  15. Female teachers' math anxiety affects girls' math achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beilock, Sian L; Gunderson, Elizabeth A; Ramirez, Gerardo; Levine, Susan C

    2010-02-02

    People's fear and anxiety about doing math--over and above actual math ability--can be an impediment to their math achievement. We show that when the math-anxious individuals are female elementary school teachers, their math anxiety carries negative consequences for the math achievement of their female students. Early elementary school teachers in the United States are almost exclusively female (>90%), and we provide evidence that these female teachers' anxieties relate to girls' math achievement via girls' beliefs about who is good at math. First- and second-grade female teachers completed measures of math anxiety. The math achievement of the students in these teachers' classrooms was also assessed. There was no relation between a teacher's math anxiety and her students' math achievement at the beginning of the school year. By the school year's end, however, the more anxious teachers were about math, the more likely girls (but not boys) were to endorse the commonly held stereotype that "boys are good at math, and girls are good at reading" and the lower these girls' math achievement. Indeed, by the end of the school year, girls who endorsed this stereotype had significantly worse math achievement than girls who did not and than boys overall. In early elementary school, where the teachers are almost all female, teachers' math anxiety carries consequences for girls' math achievement by influencing girls' beliefs about who is good at math.

  16. Sex selection: the systematic elimination of girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oomman, Nandini; Ganatra, Bela R

    2002-05-01

    In strongly patriarchal societies, where the cultural and economic value of sons is at a premium, son preference manifests itself in many ways, ranging from differential allocation of household resources, medical care and neglect of girl children to female infanticide. With the increasing availability of ultrasound in the mid-1980s sex determination followed by sex-selective abortion began to become widespread as well. The following paper introduces this Roundtable and discusses the following questions: Is sex selection a part of women's right to free choice and control over their reproduction? What is the role of the medical profession? Are all manifestations of sex selection equally unethical? Are there solutions? Do the solutions themselves pose new ethical dilemmas? Following this paper, four respondents put different points of view on sex selection as a gender-based preference for a pregnancy; progress in getting the Supreme Court of India to implement a 1994 law regulating the use of antenatal diagnostic technology; why sex selection should be available as a form of reproductive choice; and why sex selection may be empowering for women and justify their actions in the short run, given the demands on them. All agree that only improved status for women and girls will reduce the demand for sex selection.

  17. Growth Curves for Girls with Turner Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Bertapelli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to review the growth curves for Turner syndrome, evaluate the methodological and statistical quality, and suggest potential growth curves for clinical practice guidelines. The search was carried out in the databases Medline and Embase. Of 1006 references identified, 15 were included. Studies constructed curves for weight, height, weight/height, body mass index, head circumference, height velocity, leg length, and sitting height. The sample ranged between 47 and 1,565 (total = 6,273 girls aged 0 to 24 y, born between 1950 and 2006. The number of measures ranged from 580 to 9,011 (total = 28,915. Most studies showed strengths such as sample size, exclusion of the use of growth hormone and androgen, and analysis of confounding variables. However, the growth curves were restricted to height, lack of information about selection bias, limited distributional properties, and smoothing aspects. In conclusion, we observe the need to construct an international growth reference for girls with Turner syndrome, in order to provide support for clinical practice guidelines.

  18. Asians seek end to girls' trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Each year, approximately 1 million Asian children under 18 years old, many of them female, become prostitutes. With regard to this problem, the Summit Foundation, the United Nations Population Fund, UNICEF, and the Centre for Development and Population Activities are sponsoring a conference entitled "Girls' Rights, Society's Responsibility: Taking Action Against Child Sexual Exploitation," on December 8-10, 1997, at the Nehru Centre, Worli, Bombay. Policy makers from government, the legal and police professions, corporations, the tourism industry, and grassroots organizations will attend. Representatives from Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, India, Maldives, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, and Thailand will develop coordinated strategies to end the abuse. The experiences of community-based nongovernmental organizations will be used to develop approaches to prevent exploitation, provide surveillance, and rehabilitate girls who have been exploited. The Nehru Centre, Jet Airways, and the President Hotel of Bombay will provide support. Participants are to include the Ford Foundation, the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, UNIFEM, the World Health Organization, the World Bank, the US Agency for International Development (USAID), Oxfam, CIDA, SIDA, NORAD, and many corporations (Bata, Apeejay, Pepsi, Tata, Godrej, Mahindra and Mahindra, and hotel and tourist businesses).

  19. Encouraging girl child education in my village

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine Entongwe

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available My critical reflection will be drawn from an experience I had just a year after my graduation from the university where I was appointed as one of the X-students to lead a student cultural week in my village with the theme “raising awareness on education”. At the university, I was a member of my association in which students from my tribe generally come together to promote unity and encourage others in education. My role was to present a discourse on girl child education all the entire villagers who were gathered at the village square that evening. A high dropout rate at school and illiteracy are major problems in my region, in which there is still a great deal of gender disparity when it comes to educating children, especially the girl child. This programme is in line with the government’s policy of promoting education in my country, whose priority is for education to reach the grass-roots communities.

  20. The challenges of interventions to promote healthier food in independent takeaways in England: qualitative study of intervention deliverers' views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffe, Louis; Penn, Linda; Adams, Jean; Araujo-Soares, Vera; Summerbell, Carolyn D; Abraham, Charles; White, Martin; Adamson, Ashley; Lake, Amelia A

    2018-01-27

    Much of the food available from takeaways, pubs and restaurants particularly that sold by independent outlets, is unhealthy and its consumption is increasing. These food outlets are therefore important potential targets for interventions to improve diet and thus prevent diet related chronic diseases. Local authorities in England have been charged with delivering interventions to increase the provision of healthy food choices in independent outlets, but prior research shows that few such interventions have been rigorously developed or evaluated. We aimed to learn from the experiences of professionals delivering interventions in independent food outlets in England to identify the operational challenges and their suggestions for best practice. We used one-to-one semi-structured qualitative interviews to explore the views and experiences of professionals who were either employees of, or contracted by, a local authority to deliver interventions to increase the provision of healthier food choices in independent food outlets. Purposive sampling was used to recruit a sample which included men and women, from a range of professional roles, across different areas of England. Interviews were informed by a topic guide, and proceeded until no new themes emerged. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using the Framework method. We conducted 11 individual interviews. Participants focussed on independent takeaways and their unhealthy food offerings, and highlighted the advantages and disadvantages of intervention delivery methods, their evaluation and impact. The main barriers to implementation of interventions in independent takeaways were identified as limited funding and the difficulties of engaging the food outlet owner/manager. Engagement was thought to be facilitated by delivering intensive, interactive and tailored interventions, clear and specific information, and incentives, whilst accounting for practical, primarily financial, constraints of food

  1. Engaging Girls in STEM: How to Plan or Revamp Your EPO Resources or Activities to be More Effective for Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleacher, Lora V.; Peterson, Karen A.; Sharma, Mangala; Smith, Denise

    2012-01-01

    This two-hour workshop, which was held as a follow-on to the plenary session "Engaging Girls in STEM: A Discussion of Foundational and Current Research on What Works," offered research-based insights, resources, and tips to help participants plan or revamp programs and resources aimed at encouraging girls in science. Led by Karen Peterson, PI for the National Girls Collaborative Project,1 the workshop included: a brief discussion about effective strategies recommended for encouraging girls in STEM; hands-on experience, where participants-availing of the expert's guidance-applied the recommended strategies to alter or tailor an existing or planned program/resource to be more girl-friendly; and a sharing out, where the participants reflected on the results of the hands-on exercise and developed action items to continue carrying out the girl-friendly best practices in science, technology, engineering, and math education and public outreach.

  2. Engaging Girls in STEM: How to Plan or Revamp Your EPO Resources or Activities to be More Effective for Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleacher, L. V.; Peterson, K. A.; Sharma, M.; Smith, D.

    2012-08-01

    This two-hour workshop, which was held as a follow-on to the plenary session "Engaging Girls in STEM: A Discussion of Foundational and Current Research on What Works," offered research-based insights, resources, and tips to help participants plan or revamp programs and resources aimed at encouraging girls in science. Led by Karen Peterson, PI for the National Girls Collaborative Project,1 the workshop included: a brief discussion about effective strategies recommended for encouraging girls in STEM; hands-on experience, where participants - availing of the expert's guidance - applied the recommended strategies to alter or tailor an existing or planned program/resource to be more girl-friendly; and a sharing out, where the participants reflected on the results of the hands-on exercise and developed action items to continue carrying out the girl-friendly best practices in science, technology, engineering, and math education and public outreach.

  3. Healthier choices in an Australian health service: a pre-post audit of an intervention to improve the nutritional value of foods and drinks in vending machines and food outlets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Colin; Pond, Nicole; Davies, Lynda; Francis, Jeryl Lynn; Campbell, Elizabeth; Wiggers, John

    2013-11-25

    Vending machines and shops located within health care facilities are a source of food and drinks for staff, visitors and outpatients and they have the potential to promote healthy food and drink choices. This paper describes perceptions of parents and managers of health-service located food outlets towards the availability and labelling of healthier food options and the food and drinks offered for sale in health care facilities in Australia. It also describes the impact of an intervention to improve availability and labelling of healthier foods and drinks for sale. Parents (n = 168) and food outlet managers (n = 17) were surveyed. Food and drinks for sale in health-service operated food outlets (n = 5) and vending machines (n = 90) in health care facilities in the Hunter New England region of NSW were audited pre (2007) and post (2010/11) the introduction of policy and associated support to increase the availability of healthier choices. A traffic light system was used to classify foods from least (red) to most healthy choices (green). Almost all (95%) parents and most (65%) food outlet managers thought food outlets on health service sites should have signs clearly showing healthy choices. Parents (90%) also thought all food outlets on health service sites should provide mostly healthy items compared to 47% of managers. The proportion of healthier beverage slots in vending machines increased from 29% to 51% at follow-up and the proportion of machines that labelled healthier drinks increased from 0 to 26%. No outlets labelled healthier items at baseline compared to 4 out of 5 after the intervention. No changes were observed in the availability or labelling of healthier food in vending machines or the availability of healthier food or drinks in food outlets. Baseline availability and labelling of healthier food and beverage choices for sale in health care facilities was poor in spite of the support of parents and outlet managers for such initiatives. The intervention

  4. Implementing reduced-risk integrated pest management in fresh-market cabbage: improved net returns via scouting and timing of effective control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkness, Eric C; Hutchison, W D

    2008-04-01

    During 1998-2001, field studies were done to assess the efficacy of an integrated pest management (IPM) program using an action threshold and "reduced-risk" insecticides. The IPM program was compared with a conventional grower-based program. Program performance was evaluated based on management of Trichoplusia ni (Hiibner), Pieris (=Artogeia) rapae (L.), and Plutella xylostella (L.), as well as the economic impact of each program on net returns. The action threshold used in the IPM program consisted of 10% plants infested with T. ni larvae, based on previous small-plot experiment station trials. In all years of the study, the IPM program resulted in significantly lower percentages of plants infested than the conventional program or untreated check. The mean reduction in insecticide applications for the IPM program compared with the conventional program was 23.5%, whereas, on average, the costs of the IPM program were 46.0% higher than the conventional program. Pest reduction in the IPM program resulted in an average of 10.5% higher marketable yields than the conventional program. Percentages of marketable heads in the IPM program ranged from 82 to 99% and from 63 to 96% in the conventional program. Mean net returns for the IPM program exceeded the conventional program by $984.20/ha. These results indicated that the IPM program reduced insecticide use overall, even though costs of the IPM program, with either spinosad or indoxacarb, were sometimes higher. Overall, net returns of the IPM program were higher due to active pest scouting, improved application timing, and increases in marketable yield. Given the potential decrease in insecticide applications and increases in net profit resulting from this IPM program, additional analyses should be conducted to quantify the economic risk, or consistency of the results, to fully evaluate the benefits of the IPM program compared with a conventional program.

  5. Sparking connections: An exploration of adolescent girls' relationships with science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Kathryn A.

    Despite progress in narrowing the gender gap, fewer women than men pursue science careers. Adolescence is a critical age when girls' science interest is sparked or smothered. Prior research provides data on who drops out of the "science pipeline" and when, but few studies examine why and how girls disconnect from science. This thesis is an in-depth exploratory study of adolescent girls' relationships with science based on a series of interviews with four middle-class Caucasian girls---two from public schools, two homeschooled. The girls' stones about their experiences with, feelings about, and perspectives on science, the science process, and their science learning environments are examined with a theoretical and analytic approach grounded in relational psychology. The potential link between girls' voices and their involvement in science is investigated. Results indicate that girls' relationships with science are multitiered. Science is engaging and familiar in the sense that girls are curious about the world, enjoy learning about scientific phenomena, and informally use science in their everyday fives. However, the girls in this study differentiated between the science they do and the field of science, which they view as a mostly male endeavor (often despite real life experiences to the contrary) that uses rather rigid methods to investigate questions of limited scope and interest. In essence, how these girls defined science defined their relationship with science: those with narrow conceptions of science felt distant from it. Adolescent girls' decreased involvement in science activities may be a relational act---a move away from a patriarchical process, pedagogy, and institution that does not resonate with their experiences, questions, and learning styles. Girls often feel like outsiders to science; they resist considering science careers when they have concerns that implicitly or explicitly, doing so would involve sacrificing their knowledge, creativity, or

  6. Girls' and Mothers' Social Anxiety, Social Skills, and Loneliness: Associations after Accounting for Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stednitz, Jayme N.; Epkins, Catherine C.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined, in 102 mother-daughter dyads, whether (a) girls' social skills and loneliness are related to girls' social anxiety, after adjusting for girls' depressive symptoms, and (b) mothers' social functioning (social anxiety, social skills, and loneliness) is related to girls' social anxiety, after accounting for girls' social…

  7. Evaluation Summary. Four Studies Conducted for the Partnership for a Healthier America's Fruits & Veggies (FNV) Campaign in California and Virginia, 2015-2017.

    OpenAIRE

    Kraak, VI; Englund, TR; Zhou M; Duffey, KJ

    2018-01-01

    This evaluation summary provides brief descriptions of four studies funded by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation to evaluate the Partnership for a Healthier America’s (PHA’s) branded FNV (Fruits & Veggies) Campaign that was launched in two pilot cities or test locations—Fresno in the Central Valley region of California and the Hampton Roads region of southeastern Virginia in 2015. The PHA designed the FNV Campaign as a new brand to increase the sales and consumption of all forms of fruits and...

  8. Estimation of gadolinium-induced T1-shortening with measurement of simple signal intensity ratio between the cochlea and brain parenchyma on 3D-FLAIR. Correlation with T1 measurement by TI scout sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naganawa, Shinji; Ishihara, Shunichi; Iwano, Shingo; Kawai, Hisashi; Sone, Michihiko; Nakashima, Tsutomu

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to T 1 -shortening of labyrinthine fluid on 3-dimensional fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (3D-FLAIR) has been reported in many inner ear disorders. Although semi-quantitative assessment by simple signal intensity ratio between cochlear fluid and brain tissue has been tried, its feasibility using a multi-channel phased-array head coil with an inherently inhomogenous sensitivity distribution has not been fully evaluated. We evaluated the feasibility of measuring simple signal intensity ratio by correlating rapid T 1 measurements using an inversion time (TI) scout sequence. We evaluated 10 patients with Meniere's disease and 4 patients with sudden deafness. Nine of the patients with Meniere's disease received a unilateral intratympanic injection of gadolinium-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA); the tenth patient received bilateral injections. The 4 patients with sudden deafness received a double-dose intravenous injection. Magnetic resonance (MR) images were obtained 24 hours after intratympanic injections and 4 hours after intravenous injections at 3 tesla using a 32-channel head coil. We measured the ratio (CM ratio) between the signal intensity of the perilymph in the cochlea (C) and that of the medulla oblongata (M) and correlated it with the null-point inversion time (TI null ) obtained with the TI scout sequence. The TI scout consisted of 85 images obtained with TI values between 132.5 and 3087.5 ms at increments of 37.5 ms. The correlation coefficient between TI null and the natural logarithm of the CM ratio was -0.88 (P<0.01). There was significant negative linear correlation. Measurement of the simple signal intensity ratio between the cochlea and the medulla can be used for semi-quantitative analysis of 3D-FLAIR. The results of this study may facilitate clinical research of inner-ear disease using 3D-FLAIR. (author)

  9. Idiopathic precocious puberty in girls: Psychosexual development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer-Bahlburg, H F; Ehrhardt, A A; Bell, J J; Cohen, S F; Healey, J M; Feldman, J F; Morishima, A; Baker, S W; New, M I

    1985-08-01

    A promising model syndrome for the examination of the role of physical maturation in the development of female sexuality is idiopathic precocious puberty (IPP). In this first controlled study of psychosexual development in IPP females, 16 females between 13 and 20 years of age with a history of IPP were compared to 16 control subjects with a history of normal puberty pair-matched to the index subjects on the basis of sex, race, age, socioeconomic level, and menarcheal status. The psychosexual history and the current psychosexual status were assessed by a systematic half-structured interview. The IPP females on average passed the psychosexual milestones at an earlier age than their normal maturing peers, with a particularly early onset of masturbation. Those who were sociosexually active tended to report a higher total orgasmic outlet and a higher sex drive. There was no increase in homosexuality among IPP girls. The timing of puberty has a (modest) influence on psychosexual development in females.

  10. Small group experience for socially withdrawn girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houck, Gail M; Stember, Lisa

    2002-08-01

    Social competence is the effectiveness of social interaction behavior. Given its link to mental health outcomes, it is an important consideration in child and adolescent development. Social withdrawal is associated with depression. Socially withdrawn children make few social initiations and tend to be isolated in their play, further limiting their social involvement. To develop effective social behavior, experiences must be provided to learn relationship skills. This practice improvement project provided a small group experience for five socially withdrawn school-age girls. Weekly group meetings provided a social situation in which conversations could occur around a shared snack and craft project. The school nurse facilitated self-assertion and the expression of prosocial behavior in a socially safe (nonrejecting) environment and promoted social problem solving. On completion of the program, the participants not only showed more effective social reasoning and social skills, but developed friendships with each other that lasted beyond the life of the group.

  11. Understanding and Responding to Adolescent Girls' Online Cruelty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokal, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Many school counsellors have identified "cyber-bullying" among adolescent girls as a growing concern. In order to respond to this issue, this article begins with a new model of cyber-communications from the unique perspective of adolescent girls. Next, it explores the limitations of responding to this model, based on current understandings of…

  12. Middle School Girls: Perceptions and Experiences with Robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Tricia

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative case study was to investigate the impact a robotics curriculum might have on the experiences and perceptions of middle school girls in two California classrooms. The research found that middle school girls in two different California classrooms felt that their experiences with robotics were personalized experiences…

  13. Reexamining the Familial Association between Asthma and ADHD in Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerness, Paul; Monuteaux, Michael C.; Faraone, Stephen V.; Gallo, Lauren; Murphy, Heather; Biederman, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study is to further evaluate the association between asthma and ADHD, addressing issues of familiality in female probands. A case control study of referred ADHD proband girls, controls, and relatives are used. Participants include 140 ADHD proband girls and 122 non-ADHD comparisons, with 417 and 369 first-degree biological…

  14. Subject Choice and Occupational Aspirations among Pupils at Girls' Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Becky; Hutchings, Merryn; Archer, Louise; Amelling, Lindsay

    2003-01-01

    Various studies have found that British girls' curriculum subject preferences and future aspirations have changed and diversified in recent years. Other work has suggested that girls educated in single-sex schools might have a different (perhaps less gender-stereotypical) experience of education in comparison with their contemporaries at…

  15. Environmental Influence on the Writing of Gifted High School Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Rae

    1988-01-01

    Compared essays of gifted adolescent girls in the files of the Guidance Institute for the Talented (GIFTS), on "Dominant forces that have directed my life" and "The future as I see it and my place in the future," for girls born in 1944 and 1957. Found essays reflected changes in attitudes occurring in the United States during…

  16. Social Cognition in Adolescent Girls with Fragile X Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkstra, Lyn S.; Abbeduto, Leonard; Meulenbroek, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to characterize social cognition, executive functions (EFs), and everyday social functioning in adolescent girls with fragile X syndrome, and identify relationships among these variables. Participants were 20 girls with FXS and 20 age-matched typically developing peers. Results showed significant between-groups differences in…

  17. Menstruation: Experiences of Adolescent Slum Dwelling Girls of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mubeen

    Bengal and cluster sampling was used to select 798 post menarcheal adolescent girls residing in the slums. Data on .... From separate lists of the adolescent girls in the age ... back of the paper and the numbers of a currency note were used to ...

  18. Girls and Upper School Physics: Some Optimism and Opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrevski, Juliana; Treagust, David

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, the numbers of girls in secondary and tertiary education studying Physics have declined. This research sought to investigate Years 10 and 11 female students' views about Physics and their physics teachers and was conducted in an all-girls independent school. While the findings show that in general these students do not relate well…

  19. Using Games to Promote Girls' Positive Attitudes toward Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Eck, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Studies show that women make up only 35% of the IT workforce, and the schism between boys' and girls' interests in math and science is well documented. Richard Van Eck suggests that providing girls with more positive experiences with technology may impact their overall attitudes toward technology and perhaps even toward math and science. Van Eck…

  20. Obesity among Black Adolescent Girls: Genetic, Psychosocial, and Cultural Influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alleyne, Sylvan I.; LaPoint, Velma

    2004-01-01

    This article focuses on the causes, consequences, and prevention of obesity among a subgroup of the American population, Black adolescent girls. Using an ecological perspective on obesity among Black adolescent girls, including feminist-womanist perspectives and historical and medical sociological perspectives, the authors discuss genetic,…