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Sample records for gingival crevicular fluid

  1. Gingival crevicular fluid proteomes in health, gingivitis and chronic periodontitis.

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    Huynh, A H S; Veith, P D; McGregor, N R; Adams, G G; Chen, D; Reynolds, E C; Ngo, L H; Darby, I B

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the proteome composition of gingival crevicular fluid obtained from healthy periodontium, gingivitis and chronic periodontitis affected sites. Owing to its site-specific nature, gingival crevicular fluid is ideal for studying biological processes that occur during periodontal health and disease progression. However, few studies have been conducted into the gingival crevicular fluid proteome due to the small volumes obtained. Fifteen males were chosen for each of three different groups, healthy periodontium, gingivitis and chronic periodontitis. They were categorized based on clinical measurements including probing depth, bleeding on probing, plaque index, radiographic bone level, modified gingival index and smoking status. Gingival crevicular fluid was collected from each patient, pooled into healthy, gingivitis and chronic periodontitis groups and their proteome analyzed by gel electrophoresis and liquid chromatography electrospray ionization ion trap tandem mass spectrometry. One hundred and twenty-one proteins in total were identified, and two-thirds of these were identified in all three conditions. Forty-two proteins were considered to have changed in abundance. Of note, cystatin B and cystatin S decreased in abundance from health to gingivitis and further in chronic periodontitis. Complement proteins demonstrated an increase from health to gingivitis followed by a decrease in chronic periodontitis. Immunoglobulins, keratin proteins, fibronectin, lactotransferrin precursor, 14-3-3 protein zeta/delta, neutrophil defensin 3 and alpha-actinin exhibited fluctuations in levels. The gingival crevicular fluid proteome in each clinical condition was different and its analysis may assist us in understanding periodontal pathogenesis. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Effect of Gingivitis on Azithromycin Concentrations in Gingival Crevicular Fluid

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    Jain, Nidhi; Lai, Pin-Chuang; Walters, John D.

    2012-01-01

    Aim Macrolide antibiotics yield high concentrations in inflamed tissue, suggesting that their levels in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) could be increased at gingivitis sites. However, the increased volume of GCF associated with gingivitis could potentially dilute macrolides. To determine whether these assumptions are correct, the bioavailability of systemically-administered azithromycin was compared in GCF from healthy and gingivitis sites. Materials and methods Experimental gingivitis was induced in one maxillary posterior sextant in nine healthy subjects. Contralateral healthy sextants served as controls. Subjects ingested 500 mg of azithromycin followed by a 250 mg dose 24 hours later. Four hours after the second dose, plaque was removed from experimental sites. GCF was collected from 8 surfaces in both the experimental and control sextants and pooled separately. GCF samples were subsequently collected on the 2nd, 3rd, 8th and 15th days and azithromycin content was determined by agar diffusion bioassay. Results On days 2 and 3, the pooled GCF volume at experimental sites was significantly higher than at control sites (P gingivitis sites and healthy sites, suggesting that the processes that regulate GCF azithromycin concentration can compensate for local inflammatory changes. PMID:22220766

  3. IL-34 Expression in Gingival Fibroblasts, Gingival Crevicular Fluid and Gingival Tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Kreidly, Mariam

    2014-01-01

    IL-34 is a protein associated with bone degenerative diseases but the role in periodontal disease is unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the expression of IL-34 in primary human gingival fibroblasts (GF) and investigate if the expression is regulated by the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1 (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor α(TNF-α). We also investigated if IL-34 is detectible in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) in healthy, gingivitis and periodontitis sites. Furthermore, we e...

  4. Alkaline phosphatase activity in gingival crevicular fluid during canine retraction.

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    Batra, P; Kharbanda, Op; Duggal, R; Singh, N; Parkash, H

    2006-02-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate alkaline phosphatase activity in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) during orthodontic tooth movement in humans. Postgraduate orthodontic clinic. Ten female patients requiring all first premolar extractions were selected and treated with standard edgewise mechanotherapy. Canine retraction was done using 100 g sentalloy springs. Maxillary canine on one side acted as experimental site while the contralateral canine acted as control. Gingival crevicular fluid was collected from mesial and distal of canines before initiation of canine retraction (baseline), immediately after initiation of retraction, and on 1st, 7th, 14th and 21st day and the alkaline phosphatase activity was estimated. The results show significant (p < 0.05) changes in alkaline phosphatase activity on the 7th, 14th and 21st day on both mesial and distal aspects of the compared experimental and control sides. The peak in enzyme activity occurred on the 14th day of initiation of retraction followed by a significant fall in activity especially on the mesial aspect. The study showed that alkaline phosphatase activity could be successfully estimated in the GCF using calorimetric estimation assay kits. The enzyme activity showed variation according to the amount of tooth movement.

  5. Progressive periodontal disease has a simultaneous incremental elevation of gingival crevicular fluid and serum CRP levels.

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    Pradeep, A R; Manjunath, R G Shiva; Kathariya, Rahul

    2010-11-01

    Increased C-reactive protein levels have been found in all active inflammations, including periodontitis. This study aims to assess the C-reactive protein levels in periodontal disease progression. Forty-five patients were divided into the following three groups (n=15) based on gingival index, probing pocket depth, and clinical attachment level: healthy (group I), gingivitis (group II), and chronic periodontitis (group III). Gingival crevicular fluid and serum samples were quantified for C-reactive protein using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The mean C-reactive protein concentration in gingival crevicular fluid and serum was found to be highest in group III (1233.33ng/mL for gingival crevicular fluid, 5483.33ng/mL for serum), and least in group I (60 ng/mL and 413 ng/mL for gingival crevicular fluid and serum, respectively) The mean C-reactive protein concentration in group II (453.33ng/mL for gingival crevicular fluid and 3565.33 ng/mL for serum) was found to be intermediate. C-reactive protein levels in gingival crevicular fluid and serum increased proportionately with the severity of periodontal disease. They correlated positively with clinical parameters, including gingival index, probing pocket depth, and clinical attachment level. Thus, it can be considered as a periodontal inflammatory biomarker and deserves further consideration. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  6. Assessment of periostin levels in serum and gingival crevicular fluid of patients with periodontal disease.

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    Balli, U; Keles, Z P; Avci, B; Guler, S; Cetinkaya, B O; Keles, G C

    2015-12-01

    Periostin, a secreted adhesion molecule essential for periodontal tissue integrity, is highly expressed in the periodontal ligament and plays a critical role in tooth and bone development. The purpose of this study was to investigate periostin levels in the gingival crevicular fluid and serum of patients with periodontal disease and compare them with those of healthy individuals. Eighty individuals (41 males and 39 females; age range: 25-48 years) were enrolled in the study. Individuals were divided into three groups following clinical and radiographic examinations: the periodontal-healthy group (n = 20), gingivitis group (n = 30) and chronic periodontitis group (n = 30). Gingival crevicular fluid and serum samples were collected and periostin levels were determined using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The total amount and concentration of periostin decreased in gingival crevicular fluid with the progression and severity of the disease from healthy controls to gingivitis and to chronic periodontitis groups and differed significantly (p 0.05). Periostin in gingival crevicular fluid negatively correlated with the gingival index in the periodontal disease groups, whereas it is inversely correlated with the clinical attachment level only in the periodontitis group (p periodontal disease, and negatively correlated with the clinical parameters. Within the limits of the study, the periostin level in gingival crevicular fluid can be considered a reliable marker in the evaluation of periodontal disease susceptibility and activity. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Physical activity, inflammatory biomarkers in gingival crevicular fluid and periodontitis.

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    Sanders, Anne E; Slade, Gary D; Fitzsimmons, Tracy R; Bartold, Peter Mark

    2009-05-01

    To examine the associations of physical activity with interleukin 1-beta (IL-1beta), C-reactive protein (CRP) and periodontitis and to investigate whether any relationship between physical activity and inflammatory mediators differs between periodontitis cases and non-cases. In this population-based case control study of Australians aged 18+ years, dentists conducted oral epidemiologic examinations identifying cases with moderate or severe periodontitis and periodontally healthy controls. Gingival crevicular fluid samples collected during examinations were analysed for inflammatory biomarkers. Subject-completed questionnaires assessed leisure-time physical activity. Exposure odds ratios (ORs) were estimated in multivariable logistic regression models adjusting for periodontitis risk indicators. Of 751 subjects (359 cases, 392 controls), those meeting a prescribed threshold for leisure-time physical activity had lower adjusted odds of elevated IL-1beta: OR=0.69, (95% CI=0.50-0.94) and detectable CRP: OR=0.70 (0.50-0.98) than less active adults. Physical activity was not associated with periodontitis: OR=1.14 (0.80-1.62). Periodontitis modified the association between levels of physical activity and detectable CRP. Increasing quartiles of physically activity were associated with decreasing probability of detectable CRP, but the effect was limited to periodontitis cases and was not apparent among non-cases. Leisure-time physical activity may protect against an excessive inflammatory response in periodontitis.

  8. Gingival crevicular fluid MMP-8-concentrations in patients after acute myocardial infarction

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    Münzel Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to determine the presence of matrix metalloproteinase-8 in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF of patients after acute myocardial infarction (AMI. Methods A total of 48 GCF samples from 20 AMI patients, hospitalized at the Department of Cardiology and Angiology of the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, were investigated. Besides the myocardial infarction all patients suffered from chronic periodontal disease. Fifty-one GCF samples from 20 healthy age matched individuals with similar periodontal conditions served as controls. The dental examination included the assessment of oral hygiene, gingival inflammation, probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level and X-ray examination. The study was only carried out after the positive consent of the regional ethic commission. A quantitative assessment of aMMP-8 levels in the gingival crevicular fluid was performed with the help of the DentoAnalyzer (Dentognostics GmbH, Jena, Germany, utilising an immunological procedure. Results The aMMP-8 concentrations found in the gingival crevicular fluid of the AMI patients significantly differed (p = 0.001; mean value 30.33 ± 41.99 ng/ml aMMP-8 from the control group (mean value 10.0 ± 10.7 ng/ml aMMP-8. These findings suggest that periodontal inflammation in AMI patients might be associated with higher MMP-8-values compared to the healthy controls. Conclusions The acute myocardial infarction seems to influence the degree of periodontal inflammation, thus the measurement of the gingival crevicular fluid MMP8 levels seems to be a helpful biochemical test to obtain information about the severity of the periodontal disease.

  9. Changes in Gingival Crevicular Fluid Inflammatory Mediator Levels during the Induction and Resolution of Experimental Gingivitis in Humans

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    Offenbacher, Steven; Barros, Silvana; Mendoza, L; Mauriello, S; Preisser, J; Moss, K; de Jager, Marko; Aspiras, Marcelo

    2010-01-01

    Aim The goal of this study is to characterize the changes in 33 biomarkers within the gingival crevicular fluid during the 3-week induction and 4-week resolution of stent-induced, biofilm overgrowth mediated, experimental gingivitis in humans. Methods Experimental gingivitis was induced in 25 subjects for 21 days followed by treatment with a sonic powered toothbrush for 28 days. Clinical indices and gingival crevicular fluids were collected weekly during induction and biweekly during resolution. Samples were analyzed using a bead-based multiplexing analysis for the simultaneous measurements of 33 biomarkers within each sample including cytokines, matrix-metalloproteinases and adipokines. Prostaglandin-E2 was measured by enzyme-linked immunoadsorbant assay. Statistical testing using general linear models with structured covariance matrices were performed to compare stent to contralateral (non-stent) changes in clinical signs and in biomarker levels over time. Results Gingivitis induction was associated with a significant 2.6-fold increase in interleukin 1-beta, a 3.1 fold increase in interleukin 1-alpha, and a significant decrease in multiple chemokines as well as matrixmetalloproteinases −1, −3 and 13. All changes in clinical signs and mediators rebounded to baseline in response to treatmentin the resolution phase. Conclusions Stent-induced gingivitis is associated with marked, but reversible increases in interleukins 1-alpha and 1-beta with suppression of multiple chemokines as well as selected matrixmetalloproteinases. PMID:20447255

  10. An evaluation on elastase enzyme activity in gingival crevicular fluid in periodontitis

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    Qujeq D

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Changes in protein levels, host calls enzymes and inflammatory mediators in gingival"ncrevicular Fluid (GCF are considered as diagnostic indicators of Periodontitis."nPurpose: he aim of the present study was to measure the elastase enzyme activity in gingival crevicular Fluid"namong patients with periodontitis."nMaterial and Methods: In this study, 52 periodontitis patients (experimental group and 51 healthy subjects"nwithout any gingival inflammatio (control group were participated. Subjects of the periodontitis group"nshowed pockets of 4-5 mm depth without gingival enlargement and recession or pockets of 1-2 mm depth"nwith gingival recession. For enzyme activity measurement, lOOu,! of gingival fluid of each sample was mixed"nwith lOOu! of enzyme substrate on the tube. The mixture was incubated at 34°c for lh with a buffer solution"nof 1ml volume and absorbance was read at 410nm with spectrophotometer. The enzyme activity differences"nbetween two groups were analyzed by student t test."nResults: The elastase enzyme activity in gingival crevicular fluid in subjects with periodontium destruction"nand control subjects was 153±11.3 and 52.7±10.4 enzyme unit in ml per minute, respectively. The difference"nbetween groups was statistically significant (PO.05."nConclusion: Based on the findings of this study, the measurement of elastae enzyme activity could be a useful"nindication of tissue changes that may ultimately manifest clinically as periodontitis.

  11. Changes in apolipoprotein B and oxidized low-density lipoprotein levels in gingival crevicular fluids as a result of periodontal tissue conditions.

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    Ishizuka, M; Kato, R; Moriya, Y; Noguchi, E; Koide, Y; Inoue, S; Itabe, H; Yamamoto, M

    2017-06-01

    Periodontal disease is a chronic inflammatory disease caused by bacterial infection that can lead to tooth loss. Gingival crevicular fluid can be collected easily and noninvasively. We previously discovered the presence of apolipoprotein B (apoB), the main constituent of low-density lipoprotein, and oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) in the gingival crevicular fluid of healthy subjects. In this study, we investigated whether periodontal conditions affect the levels of apoB and oxLDL in gingival crevicular fluid. The study population comprised 11 patients with chronic periodontitis. A pair of gingival crevicular fluid samples was collected from each patient at a healthy site and at a site with periodontitis (baseline samples). Thereafter, gingival crevicular fluid samples were collected from the same patients again at 4 and 8 wk after scaling and root planing (SRP). The levels of apoB, oxLDL, protein and cytokines in gingival crevicular fluid, in addition to gingival crevicular fluid volume, were measured. At baseline, the levels of apoB and oxLDL in gingival crevicular fluid were higher at the sites with periodontitis than at the healthy sites. The levels of apoB and oxLDL at periodontal sites decreased after SRP. The level of oxLDL in gingival crevicular fluid correlated well with the probing pocket depth. The oxLDL : apoB ratio in gingival crevicular fluid was significantly higher than that in plasma. The levels of apoB and oxLDL in gingival crevicular fluid change according to the periodontal tissue conditions. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Longitudinal quantification of the gingival crevicular fluid proteome during progression from gingivitis to periodontitis in a canine model.

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    Davis, Ian J; Jones, Andrew W; Creese, Andrew J; Staunton, Ruth; Atwal, Jujhar; Chapple, Iain L C; Harris, Stephen; Grant, Melissa M

    2016-07-01

    Inflammatory periodontal disease is widespread in dogs. This study evaluated site-specific changes in the canine gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) proteome during longitudinal progression from very mild gingivitis to mild periodontitis. Periodontitis diagnosis in dogs requires general anaesthesia with associated risks and costs; our ultimate aim was to develop a periodontitis diagnostic for application in conscious dogs. The objective of this work was to identify potential biomarkers of periodontal disease progression in dogs. Gingival crevicular fluid was sampled from a total of 10 teeth in eight dogs at three different stages of health/disease and samples prepared for quantitative mass spectrometry (data available via ProteomeXchange; identifier PXD003337). A univariate mixed model analysis determined significantly altered proteins between health states and six were evaluated by ELISA. Four hundred and six proteins were identified with 84 present in all samples. The prevalence of 40 proteins was found to be significantly changed in periodontitis relative to gingivitis. ELISA measurements confirmed that haptoglobin was significantly increased. This study demonstrates for the first time that proteins detected by mass spectrometry have potential to identify novel biomarkers for canine periodontal disease. Further work is required to validate additional biomarkers for a periodontitis diagnostic. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Clinical Periodontology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Periodontopathogens and human β-defensin-2 expression in gingival crevicular fluid from patients with periodontal disease in Guangxi, China.

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    Yong, X; Chen, Y; Tao, R; Zeng, Q; Liu, Z; Jiang, L; Ye, L; Lin, X

    2015-06-01

    Periodontal diseases are often induced by periodontopathogens, which are always exposed to certain innate immune factors in gingival crevicular fluid, including human β-defensin-2 (hBD-2). This study aims to investigate the relationship among periodontopathogens, clinical parameters and hBD-2 expression. Thirty-two healthy controls, 42 patients with chronic gingivitis and 95 patients with chronic periodontitis were recruited in Guangxi, China. Bleeding index, probing depth and clinical attachment level were measured for all teeth including mesiobuccal, buccal, disobuccal, mesiolingual, lingual, disolingual six sites of all patient. Gingival crevicular fluid samples were collected from the study sites. The prevalence and copy numbers (CN) of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Treponema denticola, Tannerella forsythia and total bacteria in gingival crevicular fluid were quantified by real-time PCR. The hBD-2 concentration in gingival crevicular fluid was measured by ELISA. Both the prevalence and the CN of A. actinomycetemcomitans, P. gingivalis, T. denticola and T. forsythia were higher in patients with chronic periodontitis than in healthy controls and patients with chronic gingivitis; however, there was no significant difference in the prevalence of P. intermedia among the three study groups, and the highest CN was found in patients with chronic gingivitis, rather than in patients with chronic periodontitis. The loads of P. gingivalis, P. intermedia, T. denticola and total bacteria were positively related to probing depth, bleeding index and clinical attachment level. The concentration of hBD-2 in gingival crevicular fluid was higher in patients with chronic gingivitis and in patients with chronic periodontitis than in healthy controls. In addition, the hBD-2 concentration was positively related to the CN of P. gingivalis, T. forsythia and total bacteria, as well as to bleeding index and probing depth. The

  14. Deoxypyridinoline level in gingival crevicular fluid as alveolar bone loss biomarker in periodontal disease

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    Agustin Wulan Suci Dharmayanti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Periodontal diseases have high prevalence in Indonesia. They are caused by bacteria plaque that induced host response to release pro inflammatory mediator. Pro inflammatory mediators and bacteria product cause degradation of collagen fibers in periodontal tissue. Deoxypyridinoline is one of pyridinoline cross-link of collagen type I that can be used as biomarker in bone metabolic diseases, however, their contribution to detect alveolar bone loss in periodontal diseases remains unclear. Purpose: This study was to evaluate deoxypyridinoline level in gingival crevicular fluid as alveolar bone loss biomarker on periodontal disease. Methods: This study used 24 subjects with periodontal diseases and 6 healthy subjects. Dividing of periodontal disease was based on index periodontal. Gingival crevicular fluid was taken at mesial site of maxillary posterior tooth by paper point and deoxypyridinoline be measured by ELISA technique. Results: We found increasing of deoxypyridinoline level following of the severity of periodontal diseases. There was also significant difference between healthy subjects and periodontal diseases subjects (p<0.05. Conclusion: Deoxypyridinoline level in gingiva crevicular fluid can be used as alveolar bone loss biomarker in periodontal disease subjects.Latar belakang: Prevalensi penyakit periodontal di Indonesia cukup tinggi. Ini disebabkan oleh bakteri plak yang merangsang respon tubuh untuk mengeluarkan mediator keradangan. Mediator keradangan dan produk bakteri menyebabkan degradasi serat kolagen jaringan periodontal. Deoksipiridinolin merupakan salah satu ikatan piridinium dari kolagen tipe I yang dapat digunakan sebagai biomarker penyakit metabolisme tubuh. Akan tetapi, penggunaan deoksipiridinolin untuk mendeteksi kehilangan tulang alveolar pada penyakit periodontal masih belum jelas. Tujuan: Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui bahwa kadar deoksipiridinolin pada cairan krevikular gingival dapat digunakan

  15. Diagnostic accuracy for apical and chronic periodontitis biomarkers in gingival crevicular fluid: an exploratory study.

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    Baeza, Mauricio; Garrido, Mauricio; Hernández-Ríos, Patricia; Dezerega, Andrea; García-Sesnich, Jocelyn; Strauss, Franz; Aitken, Juan Pablo; Lesaffre, Emmanuel; Vanbelle, Sophie; Gamonal, Jorge; Brignardello-Petersen, Romina; Tervahartiala, Taina; Sorsa, Timo; Hernández, Marcela

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the levels and diagnostic accuracy of a set of potential biomarkers of periodontal tissue metabolism in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) from patients with chronic periodontitis (CP) and asymptomatic apical periodontitis ( AAP). Thirty one GCF samples from 11 CP patients, 44 GCF samples from 38 AAP patients and 31 GCF samples from 13 healthy volunteers were obtained (N = 106). Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) -2 and -9 were determined by zymography; levels of MMP-8 by ELISA and IFMA and MPO by ELISA. IL-1, IL-6, TNFα, DKK-1, Osteonectin, Periostin, TRAP-5 and OPG were determined by a multiplex quantitative panel. Statistical analysis was performed using linear mixed-effects models. The MMP-9 and MMP-8 were higher in CP, followed by AAP, versus healthy individuals (p 0.97) in CP, and for the active form of MMP-9 and MMP-8 (AUC > 0.90) in AAP. Gingival crevicular fluid composition is modified by CP and AAP. MMP-9 and MMP-8 show diagnostic potential for CP and AAP, whereas MMP-2 and TRAP-5 are useful only for CP. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Evidence for calcifying nanoparticles in gingival crevicular fluid and dental calculus in periodontitis.

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    Zhang, Song-Mei; Tian, Fei; Jiang, Xin-Quan; Li, Jing; Xu, Chun; Guo, Xiao-Kui; Zhang, Fu-Qiang

    2009-09-01

    Calcifying nanoparticles (CNPs), also known as nanobacteria, can produce carbonate apatite on their cell walls and initiate pathologic calcification. The objective of this study was to determine whether CNPs are present in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) from subjects with periodontal disease and whether they can induce the pathologic calcification of primary cultured human gingival epithelial cells. GCF and dental calculus samples were collected from 10 subjects with gingivitis and 10 subjects with chronic periodontitis. CNPs in GCF and calculus filtrates were detected with nanocapture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. The CNPs in cultures of dental calculus filtrates were also identified using immunofluorescence staining, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and chemical analysis. Pathologic changes in the CNP-treated gingival epithelial cells were observed with TEM, alizarin red staining, and disk-scanning confocal microscopy. CNPs were found in GCF samples from two subjects with chronic periodontitis. Based on chemical analysis, the surface-associated material from CNPs isolated and cultured from calculus has a composition similar to dental calculus. The pathologic calcification of CNP-treated gingival epithelial cells was also observed. Self-replicating calcifying nanoparticles can be cultured and identified from dental calculus. This raises the issue of whether CNPs contribute to the pathogenesis of periodontitis.

  17. Gingival crevicular fluid and plasma oxidative stress markers and TGM-2 levels in chronic periodontitis.

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    Becerik, Sema; Öztürk, Veli Özgen; Celec, Peter; Kamodyova, Natalia; Atilla, Gül; Emingil, Gülnur

    2017-11-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and plasma transglutaminase-2 (TGM-2), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total oxidant status (TOS), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in patients with chronic periodontal disease. Twenty patients with chronic periodontitis (CP), 20 patients with gingivitis and 20 healthy subjects were enrolled in the study. Clinical periodontal parameters including probing depth, clinical attachment level, plaque index and papillary bleeding index were recorded. GCF and plasma levels of TGM-2, TAC, TOS, TBARS and FRAP were analyzed. GCF TGM-2 was significantly lower in CP group than in gingivitis patients (P=0.006). GCF FRAP in CP and gingivitis groups was significantly lower than in healthy subjects (P0.05). GCF TGM-2 level was positively correlated with GCF TAC and negatively correlated with CAL. Decreased FRAP in GCF and plasma indicating lower antioxidant status of CP patients might suggest the role of oxidative stress in periodontitis. GCF TGM-2 data might suggest that TGM2 is associated with stabilization of the extracellular matrix and wound healing in periodontium rather than gingival inflammation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Effects of bodybuilding and protein supplements in saliva, gingival crevicular fluid, and serum.

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    Aral, Kübra; Berdeli, Eynar; Aral, Cüneyt A; Berdeli, Afig; Atan, Merve

    2017-01-01

    The effects of bodybuilding and protein supplements on periodontal tissues have not yet been evaluated. The present study aimed to examine the periodontal status and interleukin (IL)-1β, apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing C-terminal caspase-recruitment domain (ASC), and caspase 1 (CASP1) gene expression levels of body builders compared with those of controls. Twenty-five bodybuilders with gingivitis (BB-G) who used protein powder supplements were compared with 25 nonexercising males with (G) and 25 without (H) gingivitis. Saliva, gingival crevicular fluid (GCF), and serum were collected for gene expression analysis. Plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), probing depth (PD), clinical attachment level (CAL), and bleeding on probing (BOP) were recorded. GI and BOP were higher in group BB-G and G than in group H (P 0.05). In GCF, CASP1, ASC, and IL-1β expression were upregulated in group G compared with groups BB-G and H (P Bodybuilding and supplement usage may decrease gingival inflammation by downregulating CASP1, IL-1β, and ASC.

  19. Protein carbonyl: An oxidative stress marker in gingival crevicular fluid in healthy, gingivitis, and chronic periodontitis subjects

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    Avani R Pradeep

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A defined role for reactive oxygen species (ROS in the tissue destruction that characterizes periodontitis has been described. Protein carbonyl (PC is the most widely used biomarker for oxidative damage to proteins, and reflects cellular damage induced by multiple forms of ROS. The purpose of this study is to determine the presence of PC in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF in healthy, gingivitis, and chronic periodontitis (CP subjects and to find an association, if any. Materials and Methods: A total number of 75 subjects (38 males and 37 females were selected based on their clinical parameters into three groups: Group 1 (25 healthy subjects, Group 2 (25 gingivitis subjects, and Group 3 (25 CP subjects. GCF samples were collected to estimate the levels of PC. Results: The PC concentration in GCF was highest in subjects with CP as compared to gingivitis and healthy subjects and a significant association was observed between GCF PC levels and all periodontal parameters. Conclusion: There was an increase in PC levels in GCF as the disease process progressed from healthy to gingivitis and CP, suggesting a role for increased oxidative stress in CP.

  20. Interleukin-32 levels in gingival crevicular fluid and saliva of patients with chronic periodontitis after periodontal treatment.

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    Öngöz Dede, F; Balli, U; Bozkurt Doğan, Ş; Güven, B

    2017-06-01

    The cytokine, interleukin (IL)-32, is a relatively new discovery. However, it is very powerful for stimulating tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) under inflammatory conditions. The objective of this research was to explore fluctuations in the levels of TNF-α, IL-32 and IL-10, in both saliva and gingival crevicular fluid. The focus was on measurements taken before and after clinical treatment of chronic periodontitis. For the purposes of the study, a total of 27 patients with chronic periodontitis and 27 controls (periodontally healthy) were recruited. Important clinical periodontal criteria were established before and 4 wk after the start of the research. The chronic periodontitis group was given an initial form of periodontal care. Samples of saliva and gingival crevicular fluid were collected exactly 4 wk preceding and 4 wk following the care. The levels of IL-10, IL-32 and TNF-α present in saliva and gingival crevicular fluid were recorded via the use of an ELISA. At baseline, the levels of TNF-α and IL-32 in the gingival crevicular fluid and saliva were significantly higher among patients in the chronic periodontitis group than among patients in the control group (p chronic periodontitis group than the control group (p chronic periodontitis group when compared with the baseline readings. However, the levels of IL-10 were significantly higher (p periodontitis. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Effect of two kinds of porcelain crown on AST, ALP, TNF-α, IL-8, GP-x and MDA levels in gingival crevicular fluid

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    Ya-Ling Wang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the effect of two kinds of porcelain crown on AST, ALP, TNF-α, IL-8, GP-x and MDA levels in gingival crevicular fluid. Methods: A total of 80 patients with dental porcelain crowns at front teeth during February 2013 to February 2016 were randomly divided into cobalt-chromium alloy PFM group (n=40 and gold alloy PFM group (n=40. After 6 months, the amount of gingival crevicular fluid, GI, PD, AST, ALP, TNF-α, IL-8, GP-x and MDA levels in gingival crevicular fluid were recorded and analyzed. Results: There were no differences in amount of gingival crevicular fluid, GI and PD before treatment of the two groups (P>0.05. After treatment, the amount of gingival crevicular fluid, GI and PD of the two groups were significantly higher than before treatment (P0.05. After treatment, the AST, ALP, TNF-α, IL-8 and MDA levels in gingival crevicular fluid of the two groups were significantly higher than before treatment (P<0.05, but that of the gold alloy PFM group were significantly lower than cobalt-chromium alloy PFM group (P<0.05. After treatment, the GP-x level in gingival crevicular fluid of the two groups were significantly lower than before treatment (P<0.05, but that of the gold alloy PFM group were significantly higher than cobalt-chromium alloy PFM group (P<0.05. Conclusions: Gold alloy PFM can significantly reduce the AST, ALP, TNF-α, IL-8 and MDA levels in gingival crevicular fluid, improve the GP-x level in gingival crevicular fluid, shows better biocompatibility and clinical outcomes than cobalt-chromium alloy PFM.

  2. Gingival crevicular fluid in the diagnosis of periodontal and systemic diseases

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    Čakić Saša

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Gingival crevicular fluid (GCF can be found in the physiologic space (gingival sulcus, as well as in the pathological space (gingival pocket or periodontal pocket between the gums and teeth. In the first case it is a transudate, in the second an exudate. The constituents of GCF originate from serum, gingival tissues, and from both bacterial and host response cells present in the aforementioned spaces and the surrounding tissues. The collection and analysis of GCF are the noninvasive methods for the evaluation of host response in periodontal disease. These analyses mainly focus on inflammatory markers, such as prostaglandin E2, neutrophil elastase and β-glucuronidase, and on the marker of cellular necrosis - aspartat aminotransferase. Further, the analysis of inflammatory markers in the GCF may assist in defining how certain systemic diseases (e.g., diabetes mellitus can modify periodontal disease, and how peridontal disease can influence certain systemic disorders (atherosclerosis, preterm delivery, diabetes mellitus and some chronic respiratory diseases. Major factors which influence the results obtained from the analyses of GCF are not only the methods of these analyses, but the method of GCF collection as well. As saliva collection is less technique-sensitive than GCF collection, some constituents of saliva which originate from the GCF can be analyzed as more amenable to chairside utilization.

  3. Measurement of total antioxidant capacity in gingival crevicular fluid and serum in dogs with periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlica, Zlatko; Petelin, Milan; Nemec, Alenka; Erzen, Damjan; Skaleric, Uros

    2004-11-01

    To determine whether gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and serum total antioxidant capacities (TACs) correlate with the degree of severity of periodontal disease in dogs. 41 Toy and Miniature Poodles. After assessment of the degree of severity of naturally occurring periodontitis, GCF samples from both maxillary fourth premolars and a blood sample were collected from each dog. The condition of the periodontium of the entire dentition and at each site of GCF collection was recorded. Clinical parameters assessed included plaque index, gingival index, and probing depth. Radiographic analysis of alveolar bone level was also performed. Total antioxidant capacity was measured in GCF and serum samples by use of a commercial kit. Dogs with gingivitis and minimal periodontitis had significantly higher TAC in GCF than dogs with advanced periodontitis. Bivariate regression analysis revealed significant negative correlations between TAC in GCF and clinical parameters and age. The TAC in serum was significantly negatively correlated with the degree of gingival inflammation but was not significantly correlated with age. TAC in GCF is related to the degree of severity of periodontal disease in dogs. This is likely the result of release of reactive oxygen species by activated phagocytes and fibroblasts in the inflamed periodontal tissues. The results of our study suggest that the local delivery of antioxidants may be a useful adjunctive treatment for periodontitis in dogs.

  4. The changes of interleukin-8 levels in gingival crevicular fluid in patients with periodontitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Jian; Li Hairu

    2011-01-01

    To explore the changes of interleukin-8 (IL-8) levels in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and their clinical significance in periodontitis patients. The IL-8 level in GCF from 67 teeth of 52 patients with adult periodontitis (AP), 37 teeth of 23 patients with rapidly progressive periodontitis (RPP) and 49 teeth of 31 normal controls were determined by RIA, and the clinical periodontoclasia indices of PD and AL were recorded. The results showed that the IL-8 levels in patients with AP and RPP were significantly higher than that of in health controls (P<0.01). The IL-8 was positively correlated to PD and AL. The results indicate that IL-8 may be one of the important cytokines in alveolar resorption of periodontoclasia. (authors)

  5. Gingival Crevicular Fluid and Serum Cystatin C Levels in Periodontal Health and Disease

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    Anuj Sharma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cystatin C (CSTC is an inhibitor of cysteine proteinases and could play a protective and regulatory role under inflammatory conditions. The present study was designed to assess the concentration of CSTC in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF and serum, to find out their association if any, in periodontal health and disease. 30 subjects were selected divided into 3 groups consisting of 10 subjects in each group based on clinical parameters: periodontally healthy group, gingivitis group and chronic periodontitis group, while, chronic periodontitis group after 8 weeks of the treatment (scaling and root planing constituted after periodontal therapy group. GCF and serum samples were collected from all subjects to estimate the levels of CSTC by ELISA. The mean CSTC concentration in GCF and serum was observed to be the highest in periodontitis group and lowest in periodontally healthy group with intermediate concentration in gingivitis group and after periodontal therapy group. CSTC concentration in GCF and serum increased proportionally with the severity of periodontal disease (from health to periodontitis group and decreased after treatment. This suggests that CSTC increases with disease progression to prevent further periodontal degeneration and decreases after treatment due to bone metabolic homeostasis. Further, longitudinal prospective studies involving larger population are needed to confirm the findings of present study and to better understand the role of CSTC in the pathogenesis of periodontal diseases.

  6. Comparative analysis of gingival crevicular fluid β-glucuronidase levels in health, chronic gingivitis and chronic periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanara, P P; Shereef, Mohammed; Hegde, Shashikanth; Rajesh, K S; Arun Kumar, M S; Mohamed, Shabeer

    2015-08-01

    Current methods available for periodontal disease diagnosis are seriously deficient in terms of accuracy, in the ability to predict ongoing or future disease activity and indeed in determining whether previously diseased sites are in an arrested phase or still active. One area that is receiving a great deal of attention is the biochemical investigation of gingival crevicular fluid (GCF). β-glucuronidase (βG) is one of the enzymes found in GCF that is involved in degradation of the ground substance and fibrillar components of host connective tissue. GCF βG activity might be a good indicator or predictor of periodontal disease activity. This study was conducted to estimate and compare the GCF βG levels in patients with healthy periodontium, chronic gingivitis, and chronic periodontitis. Subjects were classified into three groups of 20 patients each; healthy individuals, chronic gingivitis, and chronic periodontitis. After recording the plaque index, gingival index and probing pocket depth, 1 μL GCF was collected by placing a calibrated microcapillary pipette extracrevicularly and transferred to sterile plastic vials containing 350 μL of normal saline with 1% bovine serum albumin. Analysis of βG was done by spectrophotometry. βG levels in GCF were significantly higher in chronic periodontitis group (mean value - 2.04743), followed by chronic gingivitis group (mean - 1.11510) and healthy group (0.53643). Increased βG levels were observed in patients with increased periodontal destruction, hence GCF βG levels can be used as biochemical marker for periodontal disease activity.

  7. Levels of pentraxin-3 in gingival crevicular fluid and plasma in periodontal health and disease.

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    Pradeep, A R; Kathariya, Rahul; Raghavendra, N M; Sharma, Anuj

    2011-05-01

    Pentraxins are classic mediators of inflammation and markers of acute-phase reactions. Pentraxin-3 (PTX3) is the first-identified long pentraxin and is believed to be a true independent indicator of disease activity. Although a classic pentraxin, C-reactive protein, and its association with various systemic diseases is well documented in the periodontal literature, there is no data on PTX3 to our knowledge. Forty participants (20 males and 20 females; age range: 23 to 50 years) were involved in the study. Participants were divided into three groups based on gingival index, probing depth, and clinical attachment level: the healthy group (group 1; n = 10), gingivitis group (group 2; n = 15), and periodontitis group (group 3; n = 15). Gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and plasma samples collected from each subject were quantified for PTX3 levels using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In tandem with the disease progression from healthy to gingivitis to periodontitis, the mean PTX3 concentrations increased in GCF and plasma. However, GCF values were higher than plasma values. It was found that PTX3 concentration was highest in group 3 and lowest in group 1. PTX3 concentrations also correlated positively with periodontal parameters. GCF and plasma PTX3 concentrations correlated positively in all groups. However, within the limits of the present study, the differences in plasma PTX3 levels were not found to be statistically significant. Hence, GCF PTX3 values were considered a marker of inflammatory activity in periodontal disease. However, PTX3 deserves further consideration as a therapeutic target. Additional large-scale studies should be carried out to confirm positive correlations.

  8. Effect of nonsurgical periodontal therapy on serum and gingival crevicular fluid cytokine levels during pregnancy and postpartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorini, T; Susin, C; da Rocha, J M; Weidlich, P; Vianna, P; Moreira, C H C; Bogo Chies, J A; Rösing, C K; Oppermann, R V

    2013-02-01

    A low-grade systemic inflammatory status originating from periodontal infection has been proposed to explain the association between periodontal disease and systemic conditions, including adverse obstetric outcomes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of periodontal therapy during pregnancy on the gingival crevicular fluid and serum levels of six cytokines associated with periodontal disease and preterm birth. A subsample of 60 women (18-35 years of age) up to 20 gestational weeks, previously enrolled in a larger randomized clinical trial, was recruited for the present study. Participants were randomly allocated to receive either comprehensive nonsurgical periodontal therapy before 24 gestational weeks (n = 30, test group) or only one appointment for supragingival calculus removal (n = 30, control group). Clinical data, and samples of blood and gingival crevicular fluid, were collected at baseline, at 26-28 gestational weeks and 30 d after delivery. The levels of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p70 and tumor necrosis factor-α were analyzed by flow cytometry. After treatment, a major reduction in periodontal inflammation was observed in the test group, with bleeding on probing decreasing from 49.62% of sites to 11.66% of sites (p Periodontal therapy significantly reduced the levels of IL-1β and IL-8 in gingival crevicular fluid (p periodontal therapy during pregnancy successfully reduced periodontal inflammation and gingival crevicular fluid cytokine levels, it did not have a significant impact on serum biomarkers. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  9. Gingival crevicular fluid tissue/blood vessel-type plasminogen activator and plasminogen activator inhibitor-2 levels in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: effects of nonsurgical periodontal therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurgan, Ş; Önder, C; Balcı, N; Fentoğlu, Ö; Eser, F; Balseven, M; Serdar, M A; Tatakis, D N; Günhan, M

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of nonsurgical periodontal therapy on clinical parameters and gingival crevicular fluid levels of tissue/blood vessel-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-2 (PAI-2) in patients with periodontitis, with or without rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Fifteen patients with RA and chronic periodontitis (RA-P), 15 systemically healthy patients with chronic periodontitis (H-P) and 15 periodontally and systemically healthy volunteers (C) were included in the study. Plaque index, gingival index, probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level, bleeding on probing, gingival crevicular fluid t-PA and PAI-2 levels, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, serum C-reactive protein and disease activity score were evaluated at baseline and 3 mo after mechanical nonsurgical periodontal therapy. All periodontal clinical parameters were significantly higher in the RA-P and H-P groups compared with the C group (p periodontitis groups (p periodontitis and RA, nonsurgical periodontal therapy reduced the pretreatment gingival crevicular fluid t-PA levels, which were significantly correlated with gingival crevicular fluid PAI-2 levels. The significantly higher t-PA and PAI-2 gingival crevicular fluid levels in periodontal patients, regardless of systemic status, suggest that the plasminogen activating system plays a role in the disease process of periodontitis. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Clinical significance of determination of changes of gingival crevicular fluid IL-10, IL-18 and IFN-γLevels in patients periodontitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao Rei

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clinical significance of changes of gingival crevicular fluid levels of interleukin-10 (IL-10), interleukin-18 (IL-18) and interferon-γ were determined with RIA in 42 patients with periodontitis both before and after trentment as well as in 30 controls. Results: Before treatment, the gingival crevicular fluid level of IL-18 and IFN-γ in the patients were significant higher than those in controls (P 0.05). After one month of treatment, the gingival crevigcular fluid levels of IL-18 and IFN-γ were markedly dropped, but remained significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.05). The gingival crevicular fluid levels of IL-10 were markedly dropped, but remained significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.05). The gingival crevicular fluid levels of IL-10 were significant higher than those in controls (P<0.01). The gingival fluid contents of IL-10 and IL-18 were positively correlated with the depth of periodontal pouch and looseness of attachment (r= 0.2617, r= 0.2802, P<0.05) but the interferon-γ contents were negatively correlated (r= -0.1743, P<0.05). Conclusion: The changes of gingival carvacrol fluid levels of interleukin-10, interleukin-18 and If-γ in patients with periodontics suggested that there were disturbances of immunomodulation. (authors)

  11. Myeloperoxidase activity is increased in gingival crevicular fluid and whole saliva after fixed orthodontic appliance activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcaccini, Andrea M; Amato, Patricia A F; Leão, Fernanda V; Gerlach, Raquel F; Ferreira, Jose T L

    2010-11-01

    Orthodontic tooth movement uses mechanical forces that result in inflammation in the first days. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is an enzyme found in polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) granules, and it is used to estimate the number of PMN granules in tissues. So far, MPO has not been used to study the inflammatory alterations after the application of orthodontic tooth movement forces. The aim of this study was to determine MPO activity in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and saliva (whole stimulated saliva) of orthodontic patients at different time points after fixed appliance activation. MPO was determined in the GCF and collected by means of periopaper from the saliva of 14 patients with orthodontic fixed appliances. GCF and saliva samples were collected at baseline, 2 hours, and 7 and 14 days after application of the orthodontic force. Mean MPO activity was increased in both the GCF and saliva of orthodontic patients at 2 hours after appliance activation (P orthodontic force probably results in the increased MPO level observed at this time point. MPO might be a good marker to assess inflammation in orthodontic movement; it deserves further studies in orthodontic therapy. Copyright © 2010 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand and osteoprotegerin levels in gingival crevicular fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarlati, Fatemeh; Sattari, Mandana; Razzaghi, Shilan; Nasiri, Malihe

    2012-01-01

    Background: Osteoclastogenesis is coordinated by the interaction of three members of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily: Osteoprotegerin (OPG)/receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL)/receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B (RANK). The aim of this study was to investigate RANKL and OPG levels, and their relative ratio in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) of patients with chronic and aggressive periodontitis, as well as healthy controls. Materials and Methods: In this analytical study, GCF was obtained from healthy (n = 10), mild chronic periodontitis (n = 18), moderate chronic periodontitis (n = 18), severe chronic periodontitis (n = 20), and generalized aggressive periodontitis (n = 20) subjects. RANKL and OPG concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Statistical tests used were Kruskal–Wallis test, Mann–Whitney U rank sum test, and Spearman's rank correlation analysis. The level of statistical significance was set at P chronic periodontitis (mild, moderate, severe), and aggressive periodontitis (P = 0.41). There was statistically significant correlation between the concentration of sRANKL and Clinical Attachment Level (CAL) in moderate chronic periodontitis patients (R = 0.48, P = 0.04). There was also negative correlation between OPG concentration and CAL in moderate chronic periodontitis patients, although not significant (R = −0.13). Conclusion: RANKL was prominent in periodontitis sites, especially in moderate periodontitis patients, whereas OPG was not detectable in some diseased sites with bleeding on probing, supporting the role of these two molecules in the bone loss developed in this disease. PMID:23559954

  13. PAR-2 expression in the gingival crevicular fluid reflects chronic periodontitis severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Henrique; Alves, Vanessa Tubero Euzebio; Carvalho, Verônica Franco de; Ambrósio, Lucas Macedo Batitucci; Eichler, Rosangela Aparecida Dos Santos; Carvalho, Maria Helena Catelli de; Saraiva, Luciana; Holzhausen, Marinella

    2017-01-26

    Recent studies investigating protease-activated receptor type 2 (PAR-2) suggest an association between the receptor and periodontal inflammation. It is known that gingipain, a bacterial protease secreted by the important periodontopathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis can activate PAR-2. Previous studies by our group found that PAR-2 is overexpressed in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) of patients with moderate chronic periodontitis (MP). The present study aimed at evaluating whether PAR-2 expression is associated with chronic periodontitis severity. GCF samples and clinical parameters, including plaque and bleeding on probing indices, probing pocket depth and clinical attachment level, were collected from the control group (n = 19) at baseline, and from MP patients (n = 19) and severe chronic periodontitis (SP) (n = 19) patients before and 6 weeks after periodontal non-surgical treatment. PAR-2 and gingipain messenger RNA (mRNA) in the GCF of 4 periodontal sites per patient were evaluated by Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-qPCR). PAR-2 and gingipain expressions were greater in periodontitis patients than in control group patients. In addition, the SP group presented increased PAR-2 and gingipain mRNA levels, compared with the MP group. Furthermore, periodontal treatment significantly reduced (p periodontitis. In conclusion, PAR-2 is associated with chronic periodontitis severity and with gingipain levels in the periodontal pocket, thus suggesting that PAR-2 expression in the GCF reflects the severity of destruction during periodontal infection.

  14. Hepatocyte Growth Factor Levels in the Saliva and Gingival Crevicular Fluid in Smokers with Periodontitis

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    Sukumaran Anil

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF production by oral fibroblasts is enhanced by various molecules that are induced during inflammatory conditions including periodontitis. HGF plays an important role in the progression of periodontitis, by stimulating intense growth of epithelial cells and preventing regeneration of connective tissue attachments. Smokers have a greater risk factor in the pathogenesis and progression of periodontal disease. The objective of the study was to estimate the level of HGF in saliva and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF in smokers with periodontitis and to compare these levels with that of nonsmokers with periodontitis and healthy controls. The HGF levels were found to be significantly high in the saliva and GCF of smokers with periodontitis compared to both never-smokers with periodontitis and the healthy control group. The elevated levels of HGF in the saliva and GCF in the study population could explain the intrinsic mechanism triggering the severity of the periodontitis in smokers. Further studies are necessary to validate the current observations and to establish a sensitive marker to predict periodontal disease activity.

  15. The changes in cytokines levels in gingival crevicular fluid in patients with periodontitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hairu; Zheng Jian

    2001-01-01

    In order to explore the changes in cytokines levels in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and their clinical significance in periodontitis patients, the contents of IL-1β, TNF α , IL-6 and TGF α in GCF from 26 teeth of 16 patients with adult periodontitis (AP), 29 teeth of 19 patients with rapidly progressive periodontitis (RPP) and 31 teeth of 24 normal controls (H group) were determined by RIA, and the clinical periodontoclasia indices of PD, AL were recorded. The results showed that in patients with AP and RPP the IL-1β, TNF α and IL-6 were significantly higher than those in H group, and they were positively correlated to PD and AL; but TGF α was significantly lower than that in H group and it was negatively correlated to PD and AL. the above results indicate that IL-1β, TNF α , IL-6 and TGF α were the most important cytokines which have a hand in alveolar resorption of periodontitis

  16. PAR-2 expression in the gingival crevicular fluid reflects chronic periodontitis severity

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    Henrique FUKUSHIMA

    Full Text Available Abstract Recent studies investigating protease-activated receptor type 2 (PAR-2 suggest an association between the receptor and periodontal inflammation. It is known that gingipain, a bacterial protease secreted by the important periodontopathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis can activate PAR-2. Previous studies by our group found that PAR-2 is overexpressed in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF of patients with moderate chronic periodontitis (MP. The present study aimed at evaluating whether PAR-2 expression is associated with chronic periodontitis severity. GCF samples and clinical parameters, including plaque and bleeding on probing indices, probing pocket depth and clinical attachment level, were collected from the control group (n = 19 at baseline, and from MP patients (n = 19 and severe chronic periodontitis (SP (n = 19 patients before and 6 weeks after periodontal non-surgical treatment. PAR-2 and gingipain messenger RNA (mRNA in the GCF of 4 periodontal sites per patient were evaluated by Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-qPCR. PAR-2 and gingipain expressions were greater in periodontitis patients than in control group patients. In addition, the SP group presented increased PAR-2 and gingipain mRNA levels, compared with the MP group. Furthermore, periodontal treatment significantly reduced (p <0.05 PAR-2 expression in patients with periodontitis. In conclusion, PAR-2 is associated with chronic periodontitis severity and with gingipain levels in the periodontal pocket, thus suggesting that PAR-2 expression in the GCF reflects the severity of destruction during periodontal infection.

  17. Gingival crevicular fluid bone turnover biomarkers: How postmenopausal women respond to orthodontic activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smuthkochorn, Sorapan; Palomo, J Martin; Hans, Mark G; Jones, Corey S; Palomo, Leena

    2017-07-01

    Bone turnover associated with orthodontic tooth movement is evidenced by increased bone turnover markers in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF). Postmenopausal women have an increased concentration of serum bone turnover markers. The filtrate of this serum makes up GCF, but little is known of the bone turnover around teeth in this cohort. The objective of this investigation was to compare the GCF bone turnover markers in premenopausal vs postmenopausal women receiving orthodontic treatment at baseline and at orthodontic activation. Twenty-eight women were enrolled in the study and separated into 2 groups: premenopausal (16) and postmenopausal (12). Bone turnover was evaluated by GCF at baseline and 24 hours after orthodontic appliance activation. GCF concentrations of RANKL and OPN were measured using ELISA. Baseline and change in concentrations were compared between groups. Baseline RANKL and OPN were significantly different between the premenopausal and postmenopausal groups (P orthodontic appliance activation in both groups (P orthodontic activation was not significantly different between groups. Although postmenopausal women have a different bone turnover profile at baseline than do their premenopausal counterparts, there is no difference in their response to orthodontic activation. This confers a level of security associated with orthodontic activation. Future studies are warranted to construct biomarker curves throughout orthodontic therapy. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Identification of azurocidin as a potential periodontitis biomarker by a proteomic analysis of gingival crevicular fluid

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    Lee Jae-Mok

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The inflammatory disease periodontitis results in tooth loss and can even lead to diseases of the whole body if not treated. Gingival crevicular fluid (GCF reflects the condition of the gingiva and contains proteins transuded from serum or cells at inflamed sites. In this study, we aimed to discover potential protein biomarkers for periodontitis in GCF proteome using LC-MS/MS. Results We identified 305 proteins from GCF of healthy individuals and periodontitis patients collected using a sterile gel loading tip by ESI-MS/MS coupled to nano-LC. Among these proteins, about 45 proteins were differentially expressed in the GCF proteome of moderate periodontitis patients when compared to the healthy individuals. We first identified azurocidin in the GCF, but not the saliva, as an upregulated protein in the periodontitis patients and verified its increased expression during periodontitis by ELISA using the GCF of the classified periodontitis patients compared to the healthy individuals. In addition, we found that azurocidin inhibited the differentiation of bone marrow-derived macrophages to osteoclasts. Conclusions Our results show that GCF collection using a gel loading tip and subsequent LC-MS/MS analysis following 1D-PAGE proteomic separation are effective for the analysis of the GCF proteome. Our current results also suggest that azurocidin could be a potential biomarker candidate for the early detection of inflammatory periodontal destruction by gingivitis and some chronic periodontitis. Our data also suggest that azurocidin may have an inhibitory role in osteoclast differentiation and, thus, a protective role in alveolar bone loss during the early stages of periodontitis.

  19. [Effect of periodontal mechanical treatment on periodontal pathogenic bacteria in gingival crevicular fluid of chronic periodontitis patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Fang; Meng, Huan-xin; Li, Qi-qiang; Zhao, Yi-bing; Feng, Xiang-hui; Zhang, Li

    2010-04-18

    To evaluate the subgingival prevalent rates of 6 periodontal pathogenic bacteria in gingival crevicular fluids of CP patients before and after treatment, to analyze the relationship between the prevalent variance and periodontal clinical parameters, and to provide a microbiologic method of evaluating curative effect and estimating the prognosis. Gingival crevicular fluids of 13 CP patients were collected at baseline, 2 weeks, 2 months and 4 months after periodontal mechanical treatment. Also, gingival crevicular fluids were collected from 11 healthy subjects. Six periodontal pathogenic bacteria including Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (Aa), Porphyromonas gingivalis(Pg), Tannerella forsythensis (Tf), Prevotella intermedia (Pi), Fusobacterium nucleatum(Fn), Prevotella nigrescens (Pn) were detected by 16S rRNA based PCR. The PLI, PD, BI of the CP patients 2 months and 4 months after periodontal mechanical treatment were evidently less than those before treatment. These 4 months after treatment were a little more than those 2 months after. The six bacteria were more frequently detected in the CP patients at baseline than in healthy controls. The prevalent rates of Tf (42.1%, 73.7%, 70.2%), Pg (47.4%, 68.4%, 77.2%), Aa (15.8%, 22.8%, 7.0%), Pn (38.6%, 57.9%, 64.9%), Pi(15.8%, 38.6%, 42.1%) 2 weeks, 2 months and 4 months following treatment were significantly lower than those at baseline (Tf 96.5%, Pg 93.0%, Aa 36.8%, Pn 86.0%, Pi 84.2%), but the prevalent rates of all the detected bacteria 2 months after treatment were higher than those at 2 weeks after. Tf, Pg, Aa, Pn and Pi may cooperate in the development of CP. The changes of periodontal pathogenic bacteria could be detected before the changes of clinical parameters and the patients should be re-evaluated and re-treated regularly within 2 months after treatment.

  20. Levels of matrix metalloproteinase-7 and osteopontin in human gingival crevicular fluid during initial tooth movement

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    Dhaval Oswal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: During orthodontic treatment, the early response of periodontal tissues to mechanical stress involves several metabolic changes that allow tooth movement. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate osteopontin (OPN and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-7 in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF of human teeth exposed to orthodontic force. Materials and Methods: GCF samples were obtained from 15 healthy orthodontic patients (age, 12-22 years. In each patient, the left maxillary canine having the fixed orthodontic appliance was used as the test tooth, and its antagonist, with no appliance, was the control. Orthodontic force, 75 g was applied using a 16 × 22 beta titanium closing loop. The GCF sampling on the disto-buccal aspects of experimental and control tooth was performed at specific time interval with sterilized absorbent paper point. Processing was carried out with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect OPN and MMP-7 levels. Results: The peak level of OPN was seen after 1 h application of orthodontic force which was 1280.36 pg/ml ± 185.02. The peak level of MMP-7 was seen at 0 h which was 598.3 pg/ml ± 107.5. The levels of OPN after 1 h increased to 1280.36 pg/ml ± 185.02, and they decreased at 24 h to 1012.86 pg/ml ± 168.47 (P = 0.001. The levels of MMP-7 after 1 h decreased to 478 pg/ml ± 99.7 which increased at 24 h to 526.9 pg/ml ± 99.2. Conclusions: Orthodontic forces affect both OPN and MMP-7 protein levels on the compression side in a time-dependent fashion.

  1. The Profile of Tooth and Gingival Crevicular Fluid Matrix Metalloproteinase-1 in Different Dental Diseases

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    Mutlak Shaimaa S

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pulpitis, apical periodontitis, and chronic periodontitis are the most common dental diseases and being the leading cause of tooth loss in adults. Aims: To unravel the changes and the interrelation of the biochemical and immunohistochemical levels of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1 in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF and teeth specimens of patients with different dental diseases. To test the influence of these changes on disease severity. Materials and methods: The GCF and tooth specimens were collected from 20 patients with chronic irreversible pulpitis (CIP, and similar number of patients with chronic periapical lesion (CPL, and chronic periodontitis (CP in addition to 20 healthy controls. Results: Statistically significant increase were found in the mean concentration of GCF-MMP1 of the patients within the CP and CIP groups over those of CIP and CPL groups (P<0.001. Highly significant elevation (P<0.001 in the means of cell with positive expression of the MMP-1 in all patient groups compared with the mean of the control group. The highest percentages of the MMP-1 expression (P=0.000 above the median values were seen in CPL (13.3% vs 86.7% followed by both CIP and CP groups (9.1% vs 90.9%. Using Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curve analysis, the GCF MMP-1 was found to be an effective test in CP group at reading ≥ 0.83 pg/ml and in CPL at cut off value of ≥ 2.24 ng/ml. Conclusion: The MMP1 plays a crucial role in the demolition of periodontal tissue and the GCF analyses can be used as noninvasive method to unravel these changes.

  2. Gingival Crevicular Fluid Turnover Markers in Premenopausal vs Postmenopausal Women receiving Orthodontic Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitra, Anusha; Rani, B Jhansi; Agarkar, Sanket S; Parihar, Anuj S; Vynath, Gopinath P; Grover, Shekhar

    2017-10-01

    Orthodontic treatment is one of the commonly used dental treatments. Orthodontic forces act on the bone by modulating the biomolecules, chiefly the osteoprotegerin (OPG), osteopontin (OPN), receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B (RANK), and RANK ligand (RANKL) (OPG ligand). Hormonal changes are known to cause marked alteration in the levels of these biomolecules. Hence, we planned this study to evaluate the response of bone biomarkers in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) in postmenopausal women undergoing fixed orthodontic therapy. This study included assessment of 50 subjects who underwent orthodontic treatment from June 2012 to July 2016. All the patients were divided into two study groups with 25 patients in each group: premenopausal group and postmenopausal group. Similar orthodontic wires were used for controlling the forces applied in subjects of both the study groups and their GCF levels of RANKL, and OPN was assessed at baseline and 24 hours after the activation of orthodontic forces. All the results were compiled, assessed, and analyzed by Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software version 16.0. Chi-square test, Student's t-test, and Mann-Whitney U test were used for the assessment of the level of significance. The mean values of RANKL and OPN in the premenopausal and postmenopausal groups were found to be 241.52 and 317.15 pg/μL respectively. The mean values of RANKL at baseline in the premenopausal and postmenopausal groups were found to be 7.15 and 3.84 pg/μL respectively. Nonsignificant results were obtained while comparing mean OPN and RANKL level alteration in between the two study groups. The mean alterations in the GCF levels of bone biomarkers are similar for both premenopausal and postmeno-pausal women. For women with either premenopausal or postmenopausal status, orthodontic treatment appears to be equally safer.

  3. The IGF-I/IGFBP-3 system in gingival crevicular fluid and dependence on application of fixed force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toia, M; Galazzo, R; Maioli, C; Granata, R; Scarlatti, F

    2005-12-01

    During application of orthodontic force on the tooth, various molecular parameters associated with tissue remodeling are changed. IGF-I is a regulatory protein produced during periodontal regeneration. IGF binding proteins-3 (IGFBP-3), a specific IGF-I binding protein, is the major regulatory factor of IGF-I activity. We tested the hypothesis that changes in the IGF-I/ IGFBP-3 system occur during fixed force application to the tooth and that these changes are detectable in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF). IGFBP-3 and IGF-I secretion into gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) was analyzed by Western blotting and immunoradiometric assay (IRMA), respectively, in GCF of 6 healthy subjects just prior to and during orthodontics treatment using fixed appliances. We observed a significant time-dependent decrease of IGFBP-3 content in GCF during orthodontic treatment (4 h and 10 days). Reduction in levels of intact, glycosylated 47 kDa form of IGFBP-3 was associated with its degradation and the appearance of intermediate breakdown products. IGF-I levels were significantly increased 4 h after application of orthodontic force, while they were significantly reduced 10 days after the start of treatment. IGFBP-3 secretion into GCF and its molecular structure are modified by the fixed force of orthodontic treatment. Alterations in IGFBP-3 appear to be unrelated to the binding to IGF-I, suggesting an IGF-independent role of this binding protein in tooth movement.

  4. Monocyte chemotactic protein-1, RANTES and macrophage migration inhibitory factor levels in gingival crevicular fluid of metabolic syndrome patients with gingivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürkan, Ali; Eren, Gülnihal; Çetinkalp, Şevki; Akçay, Yasemin Delen; Emingil, Gülnur; Atilla, Gül

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) levels of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), regulated on activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted protein (RANTES) and macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) in metabolic syndrome patients with gingivitis. Twenty metabolic syndrome patients with gingivitis (MSG), 20 MetS patients with clinically healthy periodontium (MSH), 20 systemically healthy subjects with gingivitis and 20 subjects who were both systemically and periodontally healthy were included. Periodontal and systemical parameters were recorded. GCF MCP-1, RANTES and MIF levels were assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. MSG and MSH groups had elevated blood pressure, triglyceride, waist circumference and fasting glucose values in comparison to gingivitis and healthy groups (Pgingivitis groups when compared to those of the MSH and healthy groups (Pgingivitis group had higher MCP-1, RANTES and MIF levels compared to the healthy group (P=0.011, P=0.0001, P=0.011 respectively). The RANTES level of MSG group was significantly higher than those of the gingivitis group (P=0.01), but MCP-1 and MIF levels were similar in the MSG and gingivitis groups (P>0.05). Elevated levels of GCF RANTES in MetS patients with gingivitis might associate with the presence of increased gingival inflammation by MetS. Low-grade systemic inflammation associated with MetS and adipose tissue-derived RANTES might lead to altered GCF RANTES levels in the presence of gingival inflammation. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Association of Progranulin and High Sensitivity CRP Concentrations in Gingival Crevicular Fluid and Serum in Chronic Periodontitis Subjects with and without Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Pradeep

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity is considered as a strong risk factor of inflammatory periodontal tissue destruction. The purpose of this study is to determine presence of progranulin (PGRN and high sensitivity C reactive protein (hs CRP levels in serum and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF in obese subjects with chronic periodontitis and to find an association, if any.

  6. Relation of soluble RANKL and osteoprotegerin levels in blood and gingival crevicular fluid to the degree of root resorption after orthodontic tooth movement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyrovola, J.B.; Halazonetis, D.J.; Makou, M.; Perrea, D.; Dontas, I.; Vlachos, I.S.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was the determination of the levels of osteoprotegerin and soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor-(KB) ligand (RANKL) in blood serum and in gingival crevicular fluid relative to the degree of orthodontic root resorption in a rat model. Blood samples and gingival crevicular fluid were collected from fourteen 6-month-old male Wistar rats weighing 350-500 g. A 25-g closed orthodontic coil spring was inserted between each upper right first molar and the upper incisors. After 21 days of loading, both upper first molars (treated and control) were extracted and studied under microcomputed tomography scanning. Statistical analysis demonstrated a positive linear correlation between the initial concentration of RANKL in blood serum and the degree of root resorption. The ratio of the initial concentrations of osteoprotegerin to RANKL in blood serum proved to be an independent prognostic factor of the degree of root resorption. The initial concentration of RANKL in gingival crevicular fluid showed a negative correlation to the initial concentration of RANKL in blood serum and for a finite range of initial concentrations of osteoprotegerin in gingival crevicular fluid, the dental root seemed protected against extreme external root resorption. Finally, the concentration of osteoprotegerin in blood serum decreased significantly in cases of severe root resorption. (author)

  7. Microfluidic Chip-based Nucleic Acid Testing using Gingival Crevicular Fluid as a New Technique for Detecting HIV-1 Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Willyandre

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Transmission of HIV-1 infection by individuals in window period who are tested negative in conventional HIV-1 detection would pose the community with serious problems. Several diagnostic tools require specific labora-tory equipment, perfect timing of diagnosis, antibody to HIV-1, and invasive technique to get sample for examination, until high amount of time to process the sample as well as accessibility of remote areas. Many attempts have been made to solve those problems to come to a new detection technique. This review aims to give information about the current development technique for detection of HIV infection. Microfluidic Chip-based Nucleic Acid Testing is currently introduced for detection of HIV-1 infection. This review also cover the possible usage of gingival crevicular fluid as sample specimen that could be taken noninvasively from the individual.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v18i2.63

  8. Oxidized-low density lipoprotein in gingival crevicular fluid of patients with chronic periodontitis: a possible link to atherogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Rucha; Thomas, Raison; Mehta, Dhoom Singh

    2014-02-01

    To investigate a possible link between periodontitis and atherogenesis by examining the levels of anti-oxidized low density lipoprotien (ox LDL) and low density lipoprotien (LDL) in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and serum of healthy subjects and chronic periodontitis patients. Sixty male subjects (35-55 years) were grouped into 30 healthy individuals and 30 subjects with chronic periodontitis. Serum and GCF samples were obtained from each subject and were assessed for anti-ox LDL and LDL levels. A significant difference (p chronic periodontitis groups. Also the ratio of GCF anti-ox LDL to GCF LDL was significantly higher (p chronic periodontitis patients as compared to the healthy group. A significant rise in ox LDL level in otherwise systemically healthy chronic periodontitis patients may put these subjects at an increased risk of developing atherosclerosis.

  9. Influence of dental filling material type on the concentration of interleukin 9 in the samples of gingival crevicular fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanović Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Several cytokines and lymphokines (IL1β, ENA78, IL6, TNFα, IL8 and S100A8 are expressed during dental pulp inflammation. Analysis of gingival crevicu-lar fluid (GCF offers a non-invasive means of studying gen-eral host response in oral cavity. Although GCF levels of various mediators could reflect the state of inflammation both in dental pulp and gingiva adjacent to a tooth, GCF samples of those without significant gingivitis could be inter-preted as reflection of pulpal process. The aim of this study was to investigate IL9 GCF values in patients with dental car-ies and to assess possible influence of various dental fillings materials on local IL9 production. Methods. The study group included 90 patients, aged 18–70, with inclusion and exclusion criteria in the prospective clinical study. Of the 6 types of material used for the restoration of prepared cavities, 3 were intended for temporary and 3 for definitive restora-tion. According to dental fillings weight, all the participants were divided into 3 groups: those with fillings lighter than 0.50 g, those with 0.50–1.00 g, and those with fillings heavier than 1.00 g. Samples were taken from gingival sulcus using the filter paper technique. Clinical parameters were deter-mined by bleeding index, plaque index (Silness-Lou, 0–3, gingival index (0–3, and gingival sulcus depth. Cytokine con-centrations were assessed using commercially available cy-tomix. Results. According to the weight of dental fillings, there was a clear decreament trend of IL9 values meaning that dental defects greater than 1.00 g of dental filling were associated with lower GCF IL9 concentration. The IL9 val-ues correlated with the degree of gingival index and depth of gingival sulcus, being higher with more advanced gingivitis and more pronounced anatomical changes in the tooth edge. Different filling materials exerted various local IL9 responses. Zink polycarbonate cement and amalgam fillings induced

  10. Effect of Non Surgical Periodontal Therapy on Gingival Crevicular Fluid and Serum Visfatin Concentration in Periodontal Health and Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.M. Raghavendra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Visfatin is a pleiotropic mediator which acts as growth factor, cytokine, enzyme involved in energy including nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide metabolism and has been recently demonstrated to exert several pro-inflammatory functions. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the Visfatin concentration in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF and serum in patients with chronic periodontitis, and to evaluate the effect of non-surgical periodontal therapy on the GCF and serum visfatin concentration. 30 subjects (age range: 25 to 52 years were selected and divided into two groups based on the gingival index, probing depth, periodontal attachment level, and radiologic parameters (bone loss: group 1 (15 subjects with healthy periodontium, group 2 (15 subjects with chronic periodontitis, while, Group 2 patients after 8 weeks of the treatment (scaling and root planning, SRP constituted group 3. GCF samples (by microcapillary pipettes and serum samples (by venipuncture were collected to estimate the levels of Visfatin using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay kit. The mean Visfatin concentration in GCF and serum was observed to be the highest in group 2 and lowest in group 1. While concentration in group 3 was similar to group 1. The concentration of Visfatin in GCF and serum decreased after SRP. The Visfatin concentration in GCF and serum found to be highest in chronic periodontitis group and decreases after treatment. Hence Visfatin values can be considered as an “inflammatory marker” can be explored in future as a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of periodontal disease.

  11. Alpha-2-Macroglobulin Levels in Gingival Crevicular Fluid Pre- and Post-scaling and Root Planing with Adjunctive Tetracycline Fibers in Chronic Periodontitis: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhina, Shivjot; Rathore, Ajit Singh; Juneja, Saurabh

    2015-06-01

    This split-mouth clinical study aimed to investigate levels of alpha-2-macroglobulin (a2M) in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) of chronic periodontitis patients pre- and post-scaling and root planing (SRP) with or without adjunctive use of tetracycline fibers. In 30 patients of chronic periodontitis, samples of GCF were collected from the gingival sulcus before SRP. Recording of clinical parameters was conducted. This was followed by local drug delivery (LDD) of tetracycline fibers in test sites. In control sites, no LDD was done. Second samples of GCF were taken 90 days after treatment. Samples of crevicular fluid were analyzed to determine the levels of a2m. A gain of clinical attachment (CAL) of 3.30 mm for SRP and LDD and for SRP alone was 1.62 mm (p chronic periodontitis.

  12. Gingival crevicular fluid volume and periodontal parameters alterations after use of conventional and self-ligating brackets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamo, Ana Zn; Nelson-Filho, Paulo; Romano, Fábio L; da Silva, Raquel Ab; Saraiva, Maria Cp; da Silva, Lea Ab; Matsumoto, Mirian An

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the alterations on plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), gingival bleeding index (GBI), and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) volume after use of three different brackets types for 60 days. Setting Participants: The sample comprised 20 patients of both sexes aged 11-15 years (mean age: 13.3 years), with permanent dentition, adequate oral hygiene, and mild tooth crowding, overjet, and overbite. A conventional metallic bracket Gemini™, and two different brands of self-ligating brackets - In-Ovation ® R and SmartClip™ - were bonded to the maxillary incisors and canines. PI, GI, GBI scores, and GCF volume were measured before and 30 and 60 days after bonding of the brackets. Data were analysed statistically using non-parametric tests coefficient at a 5% significance level. There was no statistically significant correlation (P > 0.05) between tooth crowding, overjet, and overbite and the PI, GI, GBI scores, and GCF volume before bonding, indicating no influence of malocclusion on the clinical parameters. Regardless of the bracket design, no statistically significant difference (P > 0.05) was found for GI, GBI scores. PI and GCF volume showed a significant difference among the brackets in different periods. In pairwise comparisons a significant difference was observed when compared before with 60 days after bonding, for the teeth bonded with SmartClip™ self-ligating bracket, (PI P = 0.009; GCF volume P = 0.001). There was an increase in PI score and GCF volume 60 days after bonding of SmartClip™ self-ligating brackets, indicating the influence of bracket design on these clinical parameters.

  13. Effect of periodontal therapy on C-reactive protein levels in gingival crevicular fluid of patients with gingivitis and chronic periodontitis: A clinical and biochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaprakash, Deepika; Aghanashini, Suchetha; Vijayendra, Ranganatha Rao; Chatterjee, Anirban; Rosh, Radhika Mohan; Bharwani, Ashit

    2014-07-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) is a type I acute phase reactant. A number of studies have reported elevated serum CRP levels in periodontitis subjects, which decrease following periodontal therapy. However, the data of interventional studies on gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) levels of CRP is very scarce. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of periodontal therapy on GCF CRP levels in patients with gingivitis and chronic periodontitis. A total of 60 subjects were included in the study with 20 subjects each in following groups: I-Healthy, II-Gingivitis, III-Mild periodontitis based on community periodontal index scores. Periodontal therapy was performed on Group II and Group III patients. GCF was collected from each subject at baseline and 3 months after periodontal therapy. The collected sample was subjected to biochemical analysis to detect CRP levels by using commercially available chemiluminescence immunoassay kit. The present study demonstrated that the periodontitis group had a higher mean CRP level (2.49 ± 0.47 ng/ml) when compared with the Gingivitis group (1.40 ± 0.32 ng/ml) and Healthy group (0.56 ± 0.20 ng/ml). The mean CRP values after periodontal therapy were found to be reduced to 0.44 ± 0.23 ng/ml in Group II and 1.30 ± 0.36 ng/ml in Group III patients. Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that GCF CRP level progressively increases from periodontal health to disease. It can also be stated that there is a decrease in GCF CRP levels with periodontal treatment.

  14. Assessment of myeloperoxidase activity at different force levels in gingival crevicular fluid during initial phase of orthodontic tooth movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honey Gurbaxani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Orthodontic movements promote remodeling of the alveolar bone, which is mediated by inflammatory reactions such as characterized by vascular changes and infiltration of leukocytes. Changes in the periodontium occur, depending on the magnitude, duration, and direction of applied force. These changes are often seen in the saliva and gingival fluids through the various substances secreted in them. Aim: The present study aimed to assess myeloperoxidase (MPO activity at different force levels in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF during the initial phase of orthodontic tooth movement by varying the effective force levels to 50, 75, 100, and 150 g. Materials and Methods: A total of thirty participants between the age groups of 18–25 years requiring upper first premolar extractions were included in the study. They were divided into three groups (I, II, and III of ten individuals each, again subdivided into two Subgroups A and B depending on the amount of force applied to the canine. Subgroup A of all the three groups used 150 g, whereas Subgroup B used 50, 75, and 100 g of force, respectively. GCF was collected at 2 h, 7 days, and 14 days of force application. Statistical Analysis: Paired t-test and ANOVA test were used to provide the descriptive statistics of mean optical density to detect the presence of MPO in GCF. Results and Conclusion: There was a highly significant increase in the MPO levels in the GCF at 14th day after force application which can be correlated to the onset of inflammatory reactions in the periodontium.

  15. Gingival crevicular fluid alkaline phosphatase activity in relation to pubertal growth spurt and dental maturation: A multiple regression study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perinetti, G.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The identification of the onset of the pubertal growth spurt has major clinical implications when dealing with orthodontic treatment in growing subjects. Aim: Through multivariate methods, this study evaluated possible relationships between the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity and pubertal growth spurt and dentition phase. Materials and methods: One hundred healthy growing subjects (62 females, 38 males; mean age, 11.5±2.4 years were enrolled into this doubleblind, prospective, cross-sectional-design study. Phases of skeletal maturation (pre - pubertal, pubertal, post - pubertal was assessed using the cervical vertebral maturation method. Samples of GCF for the ALP activity determination were collected at the mesial and distal sites of the mandibular central incisors. The phases of the dentition were recorded as intermediate mixed, late mixed, or permanent. A multinomial multiple logistic regression model was used to assess relationships of the enzymatic activity to growth phases and dentition phases. Results: The GCF ALP activity was greater in the pubertal growth phase as compared to the pre - pubertal and post - pubertal growth phases. Significant adjusted odds ratios for the GCF ALP activity for the pre - pubertal and post - pubertal subjects, in relation to the pubertal group, were 0.76 and 0.84, respectively. No significant correlations were seen for the dentition phase. Conclusions: The GCF ALP activity is a valid candidate as a non - invasive biomarker for the identification of the pubertal growth spurt irrespective of the dentition phase.

  16. The Effect of Nonsurgical Periodontal Therapy on HNP1-3 Level in Gingival Crevicular Fluid of Chronic Periodontitis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolińska, Ewa; Skurska, Anna; Pietruska, Małgorzata; Dymicka-Piekarska, Violetta; Milewski, Robert; Pietruski, Jan; Sculean, Anton

    2017-08-01

    The rich bacterial flora of oral cavity is controlled by innate immune response, including antibacterial peptides and among them human neutrophil peptides 1-3 (HNP1-3). The knowledge of the involvement of HNPs in innate and acquired immunity of the periodontium is fragmentary. The aim of the study was to assess alterations in HNP1-3 levels in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) of chronic periodontitis patients before and after nonsurgical periodontal therapy. Nineteen patients with chronic periodontitis were qualified to the study. After periodontal examination, one site with pocket depth (PD) ≥4 mm was selected. All the patients received periodontal treatment involving scaling and root planing with additional systemic antibiotic therapy (Amoxicillin 375 mg three times daily and Metronidazole 250 mg three times daily for 7 days). Prior to therapy, 3 and 6 months after it, clinical periodontal parameters were measured and GCF was collected from previously chosen site. The level of HNP1-3 in GCF was determined by means of a commercially available enzyme-linked immunoassay kit. The periodontal therapy caused a statistically significant (p periodontal therapy with additional systemic administration of Amoxicillin and Metronidazole increases the level of HNP1-3 in GCF.

  17. Vitamin D-Binding Protein Levels in Plasma and Gingival Crevicular Fluid of Patients with Generalized Aggressive Periodontitis

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    Xin Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D-binding protein (DBP is the main transport protein of vitamin D and plays an important role in the immune system and host defenses. The purpose of this study was to measure DBP levels in plasma and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF of patients with generalized aggressive periodontitis (GAgP, in comparison to healthy controls, with the goal of elucidating the relationship between DBP and GAgP. Fifty-nine GAgP patients and 58 healthy controls were recruited for the study; clinical parameters of probing depths (PD, bleeding index, and attachment loss (AL were recorded. DBP levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. From the results, GAgP patients had higher plasma DBP concentrations (P<0.001 but lower GCF DBP concentrations (P<0.001 than healthy controls. In GAgP group, after controlling the potential confounders of age, gender, smoking status, and BMI index, GCF DBP concentrations correlated negatively with PD (P<0.001 and AL (P=0.009. Within the limits of the study, we concluded that decreased GCF DBP level and increased plasma DBP level are associated with periodontitis.

  18. The Gingival Crevicular Fluid as a Source of Biomarkers to Enhance Efficiency of Orthodontic and Functional Treatment of Growing Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Caires Sobral de Aguiar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Gingival crevicular fluid (GCF is a biological exudate and quantification of its constituents is a current method to identify specific biomarkers with reasonable sensitivity for several biological events. Studies are being performed to evaluate whether the GCF biomarkers in growing subjects reflect both the stages of individual skeletal maturation and the local tissue remodeling triggered by orthodontic force. Present evidence is still little regarding whether and which GCF biomarkers are correlated with the growth phase (mainly pubertal growth spurt, while huge investigations have been reported on several GCF biomarkers (for inflammation, tissue damage, bone deposition and resorption, and other biological processes in relation to the orthodontic tooth movement. In spite of these investigations, the clinical applicability of the method is still limited with further data needed to reach a full diagnostic utility of specific GCF biomarkers in orthodontics. Future studies are warranted to elucidate the role of main GCF biomarkers and how they can be used to enhance functional treatment, optimize orthodontic force intensity, or prevent major tissue damage consequent to orthodontic treatment.

  19. Useful Immunochromatographic Assay of Calprotectin in Gingival Crevicular Fluid for Diagnosis of Diseased Sites in Patients with Periodontal Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kido, Jun-Ichi; Murakami, Shinya; Kitamura, Masahiro; Yanagita, Manabu; Tabeta, Koichi; Yamazaki, Kazuhisa; Yoshie, Hiromasa; Watanabe, Hisashi; Izumi, Yuichi; Suda, Reiko; Yamamoto, Matsuo; Shiba, Hideki; Fujita, Tsuyoshi; Kurihara, Hidemi; Mizuno, Mitsuharu; Mishima, Akihiro; Kawahara, Nobumasa; Hashimoto, Kazuhiro; Naruishi, Koji; Nagata, Toshihiko

    2017-09-06

    Calprotectin, an inflammation-related protein, is present in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and the determination of calprotectin is useful for diagnosing periodontal diseases. We have recently developed a novel immunochromatographic (IC) chip system (SI-101402) to determine calprotectin levels in GCF. In the present study, the usefulness of this diagnostic system was investigated in patients with periodontal diseases. Thirty-six patients with periodontal diseases participated in this clinical test at multiple centers. Periodontitis sites (n=118) and non-periodontitis (healthy) sites (n=120) were selected after periodontal examination. GCF collection and periodontal examination were performed at baseline, after supragingival and subgingival scaling and root planing. Calprotectin amount in GCF was determined using a novel IC chip system and evaluated as a visual score and an IC reader value. The correlation between GCF calprotectin levels, clinical indicators and changes in calprotectin levels by periodontal treatments were investigated. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis of IC reader value for GCF calprotectin was performed to predict periodontal diseases. The visual score of GCF calprotectin was highly correlated the IC reader value. IC reader values of GCF calprotectin in periodontitis group were higher than those of healthy group at three dental examination stages and they significantly decreased with periodontal treatments. Visual scores and IC reader values of GCF calprotectin were correlated to the levels of clinical indicators. ROC analysis for GCF calprotectin showed an optimal cutoff value to predict periodontal diseases. Determination of GCF calprotectin using a novel IC chip system is useful for diagnosis of periodontal diseases.

  20. Assessment of Changes in Nickel and Chromium Levels in the Gingival Crevicular Fluid during Fixed Orthodontic Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhasin, Vinny; Pustake, Swati J; Joshi, Viprat; Tiwari, Anil; Bhasin, Meenakshi; Punia, Ramandeep S

    2017-08-01

    Various components of appliances used in fixed orthodontic treatment are fabricated from materials that are highly resistant in nature and have high strength and biocompatibility. Corrosion of materials occurs inside the oral cavity due to numerous environmental or oral factors that act on them. These factors include temperature, pH variation, salivary conditions, mechanical loads, microbiological and enzymatic activity, and various food components. Gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) is the material obtained from the gingival sulcus and might act as a potential source for various biomarkers in the orthodontic setup because inflammatory-induced response is directly related to orthodontic forces in GCF. In the light of above-mentioned data, we planned this study to assess and evaluate the changes occurring in nickel and chromium levels in the GCF during fixed orthodontic treatment. This study included assessment of 30 patients who underwent fixed orthodontic treatment. Three samples were taken from the GCF of the patients giving a total of 90 samples. The samples were collected at the following time intervals: At baseline (pretreatment time), 1 month after the start of orthodontic treatment, and at 6 months after the commencement of orthodontic treatment. Cellulose strips were used for isolation of the tooth region. For GCF collection, a standardized cellulose acetate absorbent strip was used. Placement of the strips was done in the sulcus for 60 seconds for the collection of the samples. Refrigeration of the specimen bottles was done for a minimum of 7 days and was then sent to a laboratory where specimens were transferred for atomic absorption spectrophotometry. All the results were analyzed by Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software. At 1 month, the mean value of nickel and chromium in GCF was found to be 4.5 and 4.9 ug/gm of GCF respectively. While comparing the mean nickel levels between 1 and 6 months and between baseline and 6 months, significant

  1. Levels of interleukin-1β in gingival crevicular fluid in patients with coronary heart disease and its relationship to periodontal status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenggogeny, Putri; Masulili, Sri Lelyati C.; Tadjoedin, Fatimah M.; Radi, Basuni

    2017-02-01

    Periodontitis is a risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD). Both diseases are an inflammatory diseases and have the same potential pathogenic mechanisms. Interleukin-1β as a pro-inflammatory main cytokine, can be found in this both diseases. Gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) derived from the serum of gingival sulcus, affected by inflammatory mechanism and the amount of this fluid will increase in that situation. Objective: To analyze the relationship of interleukin-1β levels in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) of CHD and non-CHD patients with periodontal status. Methods: Oral clinical examination (plaque index, bleeding on probing, pocket depth and clinical attachment loss) for 35 subjects with CHD and 35 non CHD were checked, laboratory test to measure the levels of Interleukin-1β was checked with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: There was no significant differences between interleukin-1β levels in CHD and non-CHD patients (p>0.05); there was no significant difference between the level of Interleukin-1β with periodontal status in CHD and control (non CHD) patients (p>0.05). Conclusions: levels of Interleukin-1β in CHD patients do not have a relationships with plaque index, pocket depth and clinical attachment loss, but has a relationships with bleeding on probing.

  2. Evaluation of gingival crevicular fluid transforming growth factor-β1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-09-11

    Sep 11, 2015 ... Clinical parameters, including plaque index, gingival index, bleeding on probing, probing ... growth factor-β1 level after treatment of intrabony periodontal .... The clinical assessment were done at 6 sites of the tooth, vestibulary ...

  3. Effects of vector ultrasonic system debridement and conventional instrumentation on the levels of TNF-α in gingival crevicular fluid of patients with chronic periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arpağ, Osman Fatih; Dağ, Ahmet; İzol, Bozan Serhat; Cimitay, Gülcan; Uysal, Ersin

    2017-12-01

    Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) is an inflammatory mediator whose levels are increased in the gingival crevicular fluid and blood serum in the case of chronic periodontitis. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of vector ultrasonic system (VUS) on the levels of TNF-α in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and the clinical parameters in patients with chronic periodontitis. The study protocol was conducted using split-mouth design in 30 patients with chronic periodontitis. VUS and scaling and root planing (S/RP) were applied separately to 2 quadrants, including the upper and the lower jaws. At baseline and after 6 months, clinical parameters including plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), probing depth (PD), clinical attachment level (CAL) were recorded, and concentrations of TNF-α in GCF were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Intergroup comparisons were evaluated by the independent Students' t-test, and the Pearson correlation was used to determine the relationship between parameters. The level of significance was set at 5%. Both treatment modalities provided statistically significant improvements in clinical periodontal parameters and TNF-α levels after 6 months (p 0.05). The use of the vector ultrasonic system in the non-surgical treatment of chronic periodontitis presents beneficial improvements for the clinical attachment level and the probing pocket depth as well as TNF-α levels in GCF.

  4. Pro-oxidant status and matrix metalloproteinases in apical lesions and gingival crevicular fluid as potential biomarkers for asymptomatic apical periodontitis and endodontic treatment response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dezerega Andrea

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oxidative stress and matrix metalloproteinases -9 and -2 are involved in periodontal breakdown, whereas gingival crevicular fluid has been reported to reflect apical status. The aim of this study was to characterize oxidant balance and activity levels of MMP -2 and -9 in apical lesions and healthy periodontal ligament; and second, to determine whether potential changes in oxidant balance were reflected in gingival crevicular fluid from asymptomatic apical periodontitis (AAP-affected teeth at baseline and after endodontic treatment. Methods Patients with clinical diagnosis of AAP and healthy volunteers having indication of tooth extraction were recruited. Apical lesions and healthy periodontal ligaments, respectively, were homogenized or processed to obtain histological tissue sections. Matrix metalloproteinase -9 and -2 levels and/or activity were analyzed by Immunowestern blot, zymography and consecutive densitometric analysis, and their tissue localization was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. A second group of patients with AAP and indication of endodontic treatment was recruited. Gingival crevicular fluid was extracted from AAP-affected teeth at baseline, after endodontic treatment and healthy contralateral teeth. Total oxidant and antioxidant status were determined in homogenized tissue and GCF samples. Statistical analysis was performed using STATA v10 software with unpaired t test, Mann-Whitney test and Spearman's correlation. Results Activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9 along with oxidant status were higher in apical lesions (p Conclusions Apical lesions display an oxidant imbalance along with increased activity of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 and might contribute to AAP progression. Oxidant imbalance can also be reflected in GCF from AAP-affected teeth and was restored to normal levels after conservative endodontic treatment. These mediators might be useful as potential biomarkers for chair-side complementary diagnostic

  5. Pro-oxidant status and matrix metalloproteinases in apical lesions and gingival crevicular fluid as potential biomarkers for asymptomatic apical periodontitis and endodontic treatment response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezerega, Andrea; Madrid, Sonia; Mundi, Verónica; Valenzuela, María A; Garrido, Mauricio; Paredes, Rodolfo; García-Sesnich, Jocelyn; Ortega, Ana V; Gamonal, Jorge; Hernández, Marcela

    2012-03-21

    Oxidative stress and matrix metalloproteinases -9 and -2 are involved in periodontal breakdown, whereas gingival crevicular fluid has been reported to reflect apical status. The aim of this study was to characterize oxidant balance and activity levels of MMP -2 and -9 in apical lesions and healthy periodontal ligament; and second, to determine whether potential changes in oxidant balance were reflected in gingival crevicular fluid from asymptomatic apical periodontitis (AAP)-affected teeth at baseline and after endodontic treatment. Patients with clinical diagnosis of AAP and healthy volunteers having indication of tooth extraction were recruited. Apical lesions and healthy periodontal ligaments, respectively, were homogenized or processed to obtain histological tissue sections. Matrix metalloproteinase -9 and -2 levels and/or activity were analyzed by Immunowestern blot, zymography and consecutive densitometric analysis, and their tissue localization was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. A second group of patients with AAP and indication of endodontic treatment was recruited. Gingival crevicular fluid was extracted from AAP-affected teeth at baseline, after endodontic treatment and healthy contralateral teeth. Total oxidant and antioxidant status were determined in homogenized tissue and GCF samples. Statistical analysis was performed using STATA v10 software with unpaired t test, Mann-Whitney test and Spearman's correlation. Activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9 along with oxidant status were higher in apical lesions (p Apical lesions display an oxidant imbalance along with increased activity of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 and might contribute to AAP progression. Oxidant imbalance can also be reflected in GCF from AAP-affected teeth and was restored to normal levels after conservative endodontic treatment. These mediators might be useful as potential biomarkers for chair-side complementary diagnostic of apical status in GCF.

  6. Does smoking affect gingival crevicular fluid LL-37 levels following non-surgical periodontal treatment in chronic periodontitis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türkoğlu, Oya; Eren, Gülnihal; Emingil, Gülnur; Azarsız, Elif; Kutukculer, Necil; Atilla, Gül

    2016-01-01

    LL-37 contributes to maintaining the balance between health and disease. Smoking is a risk factor for periodontitis that impairs neutrophil functions. The aim of the present study was to comparatively evaluate gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) LL-37 levels in smoker and non-smoker chronic periodontitis (CP) patients and controls, as well as the effect of non-surgical periodontal treatment on GCF LL-37 levels. Thirty-one CP patients (16 smokers, 15 non-smokers) and thirty-one controls (16 smokers, 15 non-smokers) were included in the study. CP patients received non-surgical treatment. GCF LL-37 levels and periodontal parameters were assessed at baseline, 1 and 3 months after completion of non-surgical periodontal treatment. GCF LL-37 levels were analyzed by ELISA. No significant difference was observed in GCF LL-37 levels between smoker and non-smoker controls (p>0.05). Smoker CP group had significantly lower GCF LL-37 level than non-smoker CP group at baseline (pnon-smoker CP group at first week, 1 and 3 months after completion of non-surgical periodontal treatment (psmoker CP group (p>0.05). Periodontal parameters were correlated with GCF LL-37 levels in non-smoker CP group (psmoker CP group (p>0.05). GCF LL-37 levels do not seem to be affected from smoking in periodontal health. However, smoking might have a suppressive effect on GCF LL-37 levels in CP. Non-surgical treatment is effective in decreasing GCF LL-37 levels in non-smoker CP patients but not in smokers with CP. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. [Expressions of EMMPRIN and its ligand CyPA in gingival crevicular fluid of chronic periodontitis patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yan-ping; Xie, Ming; Jiao, Ting

    2016-02-01

    To detect the expressions of EMMPRIN and its ligand CyPA in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) of chronic periodontitis (CP) patients and explore their possible relation to the status of periodontal inflammation. GCF of CP patients (group CP) and periodontitis-free patients with intact dentition (the control group) were collected and assayed for EMMPRIN and CyPA expressions by ELISA. The clinical periodontal status of these patients were examined. Statistical analysis was performed by use of SPSS 17.0 software package. Spearman's correlation analysis was utilized to determine the relationships between the expressions of EMMPRIN and CyPA in GCF and the clinical parameters. In addition, analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for comparing the difference between group CP and the control group. In group CP, GCF volume was positively correlated with EMMPRIN total amount, CyPA total amount and some clinical periodontal indexes (GI,SBI,AL). EMMPRIN total amount was positively correlated with GCF volume, CyPA total amount and some of clinical periodontal indexes (GI,SBI,AL), but it was negatively correlated with smoking status (PEMMPRIN total amount and some of clinical periodontal indexes (GI,SBI,AL). In the control group,there were significant positive correlations among GCF volume, EMMPRIN total amount and CyPA total amount. The difference of GCF, EMMPRIN and CyPA between the 2 groups were statistically significant (PEMMPRIN and its ligand CyPA in GCF of periodontitis-free patients with intact dentition and CP patients were all detected. As the progress of periodontal inflammation, GCF secretion increases, as well as the expressions of EMMPRIN and CyPA in GCF.

  8. Changes in inflammatory mediators in gingival crevicular fluid following periodontal disease treatment in pregnancy: relationship to adverse pregnancy outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penova-Veselinovic, Blagica; Keelan, Jeffrey A; Wang, Carol A; Newnham, John P; Pennell, Craig E

    2015-11-01

    Periodontal disease (PD) in pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes including miscarriage and preterm birth. Evidence exists that periodontal disease treatment may reduce inflammatory mediators in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and the risk of inflammation-associated pregnancy complications. The aim was to determine if periodontal disease treatment during mid-pregnancy alters local inflammation in GCF and has beneficial effects on clinical dental parameters. Eighty pregnant women with clinically diagnosed PD were recruited from a randomised controlled trial on the treatment of periodontal disease in pregnancy conducted in Perth, Australia. The treatment group underwent intensive PD treatment (20-28 weeks' GA), while the control group underwent the same treatment postnatally. GCF was collected at 20 and 28 weeks' gestation and concentrations of cytokines determined by multiplex assay: IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-17, TNF-α and MCP-1. Periodontal treatment significantly reduced the GCF levels of IL-1β, IL-10, IL-12p70 and IL-6 at 28 weeks' GA compared with controls, while levels of MCP-1, IL-8 and TNF-α exhibited a significant gestational age-dependent increase, but no treatment response. Post-treatment clinical parameters improved with significant reductions in bleeding on probing, clinical attachment loss, and probing depth. No changes in pregnancy-related outcomes were observed, although the severity of periodontal disease was significantly associated with an increased risk of infants born small for gestational age. PD treatment in pregnancy reduces the levels of some inflammatory mediators in the GCF and improves dental parameters, with no overt effects on pregnancy outcome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Patients with dental calculus have increased saliva and gingival crevicular fluid fetuin-A levels but no association with fetuin-A polymorphisms

    OpenAIRE

    DOĞAN, Gülnihal Emrem; DEMİR, Turgut; LALOĞLU, Esra; SAĞLAM, Ebru; AKSOY, Hülya; YILDIRIM, Abdulkadir; AKÇAY, Fatih

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Fetuin-A is a potent inhibitor of calcium-phosphate precipitation and of the calcification process, therefore it can also be related with dental calculus. Thus, we aimed to investigate a possible relationship between fetuin-A gene polymorphism and the presence of dental calculus. A possible relationship between serum, saliva and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) levels of fetuin-A was also investigated. Fetuin-A c.742C > T and c.766C > G polymorphisms were investigated in 103 patients...

  10. Gingival Crevicular Fluid and Salivary Periostin Levels in Non-Smoker Subjects With Chronic and Aggressive Periodontitis : Periostin Levels in Chronic and Aggressive Periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aral, Cüneyt A; Köseoğlu, Serhat; Sağlam, Mehmet; Pekbağrıyanık, Tuğba; Savran, Levent

    2016-06-01

    Periostin, an extracellular matrix protein functioning as an important structural mediator and adhesion molecule, has been shown to be an important regulator of connective tissue integrity. This study aimed to evaluate the levels of periostin in chronic periodontitis (CP) and aggressive periodontitis (AgP) compared to non-periodontitis (NP). Individuals were submitted to gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and saliva sampling. Periodontal examination consisted of plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), probing depth (PD), bleeding on probing (BOP), and clinical attachment level (CAL) measurements. Assays for periostin were performed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Periodontitis patients presented more severe clinical indices compared to the NP group (p periodontitis. The results suggest that subjects with CP and AgP exhibit a different periostin profile. Periostin in GCF may have a protective role against periodontal disease. Furthermore, salivary periostin concentrations may have a promising diagnostic potential for the aggressive forms of periodontal disease.

  11. Analysis of TNF-α (-308) polymorphism and gingival crevicular fluid TNF-α levels in aggressive and chronic periodontitis: A preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özer Yücel, Özlem; Berker, Ezel; Mesci, Lütfiye; Eratalay, Kenan; Tepe, Eser; Tezcan, İlhan

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the differences in the distribution of TNF-α (-308) gene polymorphism among aggressive periodontitis, chronic periodontitis and periodontally healthy individuals and also to investigate whether this polymorphism is associated with gingival crevicular fluid TNF-α levels and periodontal disease severity. A total of 93 individuals were enrolled in the study including 38 aggressive periodontitis, 29 chronic periodontitis patients, and 26 healthy controls. Single nucleotide polymorphism at TNF-α (-308) is analyzed by PCR-RFLP method. Gingival crevicular fluid samples were analyzed for TNF-α, using ELISA. The distribution of genotypes and allele frequencies for TNF-α (-308) were similar among the groups. After stratification of patients with respect to attachment level, aggressive periodontitis patients with clinical attachment level ⩾4mm was observed to have a higher frequency of TNF-α (-308) allele 2 compared to the chronic periodontitis patients with clinical attachment level ⩾4mm. No significant differences were found between the TNF-α levels of the different genotypes in spite of an insignificant increase in patient groups carrying TNF-α (-308) allele 2. The results of this study revealed an association between TNF-α (-308) allele 2 frequency and aggressive periodontitis patients with clinical attachment level ⩾4mm in the population studied. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Relationships between High-mobility Group Protein B1 and Triggering Receptor Expressed on Myeloid Cells Concentrations in Gingival Crevicular Fluid and Chronic Periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paknejad, Mojgan; Sattari, Mandana; Roozbahani, Zohreh; Ershadi, Morteza; Mehrfard, Ali

    2016-10-01

    One of the inflammatory mediators which is secreted by inflammatory cells is high-mobility group protein B1 (HMGB1). Interaction of HMGB1 and toll-like receptors (TLRs) leads to increased production of inflammatory cytokines. On the other hand, it was shown that triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells (TREM-1) also can be activated by TLRs, and its soluble form (sTREM-1) can be formed by cleaving of membrane-bound form of TREM-1 proteinases. Since there is not enough knowledge about the precise role of HMGB1 and sTREM-1 in periodontal diseases, the aim of this study was to evaluate the concentration of HMGB1 and sTREM-1 in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) samples of patients with chronic periodontitis. Gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) samples were obtained from a total of 24 individuals with clinically healthy gingiva and 24 patients with moderate to severe chronic periodontitis. For collecting GCF samples, periopapers were placed at the entrance of the crevice and left in position for 30 seconds. Then, they were stored at -80°C. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used for measuring the concentration of HMGB1 and sTREM-1 in GCF samples. The concentration of HMGB1 (pchronic periodontitis group. In addition, there was a significant positive correlation between HMGB1 and sTREM-1 concentration in chronic periodontitis group (pperiodontal tissues and they can promote inflammatory process, which leads to tissue destruction.

  13. Short-term effect of chewing gums containing probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri on the levels of inflammatory mediators in gingival crevicular fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, Svante; Derawi, Bilal; Keller, Mette

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of a chewing gum containing probiotic bacteria on gingival inflammation and the levels of selected inflammatory mediators in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty-two healthy adults with moderate levels of gingival inflammation entered...... a double-blind placebo-controlled study design. The subjects were randomly assigned to one of three parallel arms: Group A/P was given one active and one placebo gum daily, Group A/A received two active chewing gums, and Group P/P two placebo gums. The chewing gums contained two strains of Lactobacillus...... reuteri: ATCC 55730 and ATCC PTA 5289 (1 x 10(8) CFU/gum, respectively). The subjects were instructed to chew the gums for 10 min over the course of 2 weeks. Bleeding on probing (BOP) and GCF sampling were conducted at baseline and after 1, 2 and 4 weeks. The levels of IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, IL-6, IL-8...

  14. Association of peripheral arterial disease with periodontal disease: analysis of inflammatory cytokines and an acute phase protein in gingival crevicular fluid and serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çalapkorur, M Unlu; Alkan, B A; Tasdemir, Z; Akcali, Y; Saatçi, E

    2017-06-01

    Inflammation is a common feature of both peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and periodontal disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between PAD and periodontal disease by examining the levels of inflammatory cytokines (pentraxin 3 and interleukin 1β) and high sensitive C-reactive protein from gingival crevicular fluid and serum. A total of 60 patients were included in this cross-sectional study. Patients were divided into two groups based on ankle-brachial index values: with PAD (test group) and non-PAD (control group). Demographic evaluations, clinical periodontal examinations and biochemical analysis for pentraxin 3, interleukin 1β and high sensitive C-reactive protein were performed to compare the two groups. There were no significant differences with respect to gender, age, body mass index, or smoking history (duration, amount) between the two groups (p > 0.05). There were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of clinical periodontal parameters (p > 0.05). Neither gingival crevicular fluid nor serum levels of the cytokines showed differences between the two groups. Logistic regression analysis revealed that, after adjusting for confounding factors (age, gender, diabetes, hypertension and body mass index), periodontitis raised the odds ratio for having PAD to 5.842 (95% confidence interval: 1.558-21.909). Although there were no significant differences with respect to clinical periodontal parameters and biochemical analyses between the study group and control, periodontitis did raise the odds ratio for having PAD. To clarify this possible relationship, future prospective studies are needed. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Association of human interleukin-35 level in gingival crevicular fluid and serum in periodontal health, disease, and after nonsurgical therapy: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subash Chandra Raj

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Innovating newer methods to diagnose a multifactorial disease such as periodontitis is always challenging for a clinician. Gingival crevicular fluid (GCF which is closely associated with the periodontal tissue environment has been used a viable alternative to saliva for the diagnosis of periodontitis. Aim: The aim of the present study was to estimate and compare the interleukin-35 (IL-35 levels in GCF and serum among healthy, gingivitis, and chronic periodontitis (CP individuals as well as to evaluate the effect of nonsurgical periodontal treatment (NSPT on IL-35 level among patients with CP. Settings and Design: The study was conducted at the Department of Periodontics, Srirama Chandra Bhanja Dental College and Hospital, Cuttack, Odisha, India. It is a comparative study. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 participants were divided into healthy (Group I; n = 20, gingivitis (Group II; n = 20, and CP (Group IIIA; n = 20. GCF samples collected from each individual at baseline and 6 weeks after NSPT for Group III individuals (Group IIIB; n = 20 were quantified for IL-35 levels using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Statistical Analysis: All analyses were performed using Shapiro–Wilk test, analysis of variance, Tukey's honestly significant difference post hoc test, and multiple regression analysis. Results: The mean IL-35 concentration in GCF was significantly high (P < 0.05 for Group IIIA (70.26 ± 4.0 pg/ml, as compared to Group I (54.81 ± 22.3 pg/ml and Group IIIB (55.72 ± 10.2 pg/ml. Conclusion: In the present study, GCF and serum IL-35 concentration among CP individuals was highest among all the groups. Individuals receiving NSPT showed a significant reduction in IL-35 levels as compared to CP individuals.

  16. Patients with dental calculus have increased saliva and gingival crevicular fluid fetuin-A levels but no association with fetuin-A polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doğan, Gülnihal Emrem; Demir, Turgut; Laloğlu, Esra; Sağlam, Ebru; Aksoy, Hülya; Yildirim, Abdulkadir; Akçay, Fatih

    2016-12-22

    Fetuin-A is a potent inhibitor of calcium-phosphate precipitation and of the calcification process, therefore it can also be related with dental calculus. Thus, we aimed to investigate a possible relationship between fetuin-A gene polymorphism and the presence of dental calculus. A possible relationship between serum, saliva and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) levels of fetuin-A was also investigated. Fetuin-A c.742C > T and c.766C > G polymorphisms were investigated in 103 patients with or without dental calculus. Additionally, serum, saliva and GCF fetuin-A levels of patients were compared according to dental calculus presence. A significant difference was not observed in the distribution of the fetuin-A c.742C > T and c.766C > G polymorphisms between patients with or without dental calculus. Saliva and GCF fetuin-A concentrations of patients with dental calculus were statistically higher than those without dental calculus (P=0.001, P=0.036 respectively). According to our results, fetuin-A c.742C > T and c.766C > G polymorphisms were not associated with presence of dental calculus. However, higher GCF and saliva fetuin-A levels were detected in patients with dental calculus than in patients without dental calculus, which may result from an adaptive mechanism to inhibit mineral precipitation and eventually calculus formation.

  17. Patients with dental calculus have increased saliva and gingival crevicular fluid fetuin-A levels but no association with fetuin-A polymorphisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülnihal Emrem DOĞAN

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Fetuin-A is a potent inhibitor of calcium-phosphate precipitation and of the calcification process, therefore it can also be related with dental calculus. Thus, we aimed to investigate a possible relationship between fetuin-A gene polymorphism and the presence of dental calculus. A possible relationship between serum, saliva and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF levels of fetuin-A was also investigated. Fetuin-A c.742C > T and c.766C > G polymorphisms were investigated in 103 patients with or without dental calculus. Additionally, serum, saliva and GCF fetuin-A levels of patients were compared according to dental calculus presence. A significant difference was not observed in the distribution of the fetuin-A c.742C > T and c.766C > G polymorphisms between patients with or without dental calculus. Saliva and GCF fetuin-A concentrations of patients with dental calculus were statistically higher than those without dental calculus (P=0.001, P=0.036 respectively. According to our results, fetuin-A c.742C > T and c.766C > G polymorphisms were not associated with presence of dental calculus. However, higher GCF and saliva fetuin-A levels were detected in patients with dental calculus than in patients without dental calculus, which may result from an adaptive mechanism to inhibit mineral precipitation and eventually calculus formation.

  18. A Comparison in Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori in the Gingival Crevicular Fluid from Subjects with Periodontitis and Healthy Individuals using Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Salehi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. The high prevalence of Helicobacter pylori among the microorganisms isolated from the oral environment brings up the question of whether oral cavity acts as a reservoir for this bacterium. The aim of the present study was to determine and compare the prevalence of H. pylori in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF of patients with chronic periodontitis (CP as an infectious disease and healthy subjects using polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Materials and methods. Periodontal examination was performed for all participants. Two sterilized paper points were inserted to the maximum depth of the periodontal pockets of selected teeth. The presence of H. pylori was determined by PCR. In the CP group, the severity of disease was defined as moderate or severe. Further, the frequency of Helicobacter pylori in GCF of each category, and the association between the presence of Helicobacter pylori in GCF and periodontitis were determined. Results. There was no statistically significant association between CP and the presence of H. pylori in the GCF (P = 0.62, there was no significant correlation between the presence of H. pylori in the GCF and gender of the subjects (P = 0.28 in CP group and P = 0.25 in control group, and there was no significant correlation between the presence of H. pylori in the GCF and severity of periodontitis (P = 0.20. Conclusion. Oral cavity acts as a reservoir for H. pylori; however, the results do not show that H. pylori is involved in periodontal disease

  19. Comparison of the Level of Substance P and Neurokinin A in Gingival Crevicular Fluid of Sound and Symptomatic Carious Primary Teeth by ELISA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Heidari

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Pulpal inflammation is often associated with odontogenic pain. Dental pulp is abundantly innervated with sensory fibers encompassing neuropeptides. Neurokinin A (NKA and substance P (SP are important neuropeptides in the dental pulp that can cause neurogenic inflammation. Since no previous study has assessed dental pulp neuropeptides in children, this study aimed to compare the level of NKA and SP in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF of sound and symptomatic carious primary teeth.Materials and Methods: Samples of GCF were obtained of 20 sound and 20 painful carious primary teeth. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was used to quantify neuropeptides in GCF. Data were analyzed using paired t-test, ANOVA, Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and correlation coefficient test.Results: A significant difference was noted in the level of NKA in GCF of painful and sound teeth (2.23 pg/ml in painful, and 1.84 pg/ml in sound teeth, P<0.05. The difference between the two groups regarding SP was not significant (2.23 pg/ml in painful, and 2.02 pg/ml in sound teeth, P>0.05.Conclusions: The results showed that the level of NKA and SP was higher in GCF of painful teeth compared to that of sound teeth. This difference was statistically significant with regard to NKA. Thus, these neuropeptides can serve as indicators for pathological activities in teeth with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis.

  20. The Effects of Orthodontic Forces during Canine Retraction Using Self-ligating Brackets on Gingival Crevicular Fluid Enzyme Activity, Canine Movement and Root Resorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohaya Megat Abdul Wahab; Albira Sintian; Zaidah Zainal Arifin; Zaidah Zainal Ariffin; Shahrul Hisham Zainal Ariffin

    2015-01-01

    Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities were studied as bio markers of canine movement. Root resorption was also evaluated in canines subjected to the orthodontic forces. Nineteen subjects randomly received 100 and 150 g force using self-ligating brackets (SLB) either on the right or left site of maxillary arch. Gingival crevicular fluid samples were collected at distal sites of canines for five consecutive weeks. The activities of ALP, TRAP and AST were assayed and measured spectrophotometrically. Canine movement was measured for five consecutive weeks while root resorption was monitored at baseline, week 0 and week 5 using periapical radiographs. In 100 g group, TRAP activity significantly increased in week 3-5 when compared to TRAP baseline activity. However, ALP and AST activities slightly increased. In 150 g group, ALP and TRAP activities slightly increased when compared with their baseline activities. However, AST significantly increased in week 5. Canine movement and root resorption were not significantly different (p<0.05) in both groups. A force of 100 and 150 g slightly increased the bone modeling process and resulted in similar canine movement and root resorption. Therefore, 100 g force could be an optimum force for canine retraction and is preferable (compared with 150 g force) in canine retraction using SLB. (author)

  1. Effects of fixed orthodontic treatment on nickel and chromium levels in gingival crevicular fluid as a novel systemic biomarker of trace elements: A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, Fariborz; Shariati, Mahsa; Sobouti, Farhad; Rakhshan, Vahid

    2016-05-01

    Nickel and chromium might induce hypersensitivity. Therefore, they are of interest to orthodontists. Gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) is highly relevant to orthodontic treatments and might reflect systemic changes associated with the inflammatory response induced by orthodontic forces. Therefore, it might also be used to show metal ion changes. Nevertheless, baseline metal levels of GCF are unknown, and the effect of orthodontic treatment on GCF metal levels has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to assess the levels of nickel and chromium in GCF. Based on a pilot study, the sample size was predetermined as 24 × 3 measurements to obtain test powers above 90%. Nickel and chromium concentrations were measured before treatment and 1 month and 6 months later in 12 female and 12 male patients who had fixed orthodontic appliances using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The gingival index was also evaluated in each session. The effects of treatment on GCF ions were analyzed using repeated-measures analysis of variance and Friedman tests (α = 0.05, β ≤0.01). The gingival index worsened over time (chi-square test, P <0.001). The mean nickel levels were 3.894 ± 1.442, 5.913 ± 2.735, and 19.810 ± 8.452 μg per gram, respectively, at baseline, month 1, and month 6. Chromium concentrations were 1.978 ± 0.721, 4.135 ± 1.591, and 13.760 ± 3.555 μg per gram, respectively. Compared with the baseline, nickel increased by 150% and 510%, respectively, in the first and sixth months (Friedman, P <0.0001), and chromium increased by 200% and 700%, respectively (analysis of variance, P <0.0001). Six months of fixed orthodontic treatment might intensify the levels of nickel and chromium in the GCF as well as gingival inflammation. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of the use of snuff on the levels of interleukin-1 β and interleukin-8 in the gingival crevicular fluid of periodontitis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayendra Pandey

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Use of smokeless tobacco in the form of moist snuff placed in the oral cavity is popular in rural India. The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to determine the effect of snuff on periodontitis by assessing interleukin (IL-1 β and IL-8 levels in gingival crevicular fluid. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 subjects were selected for this study. 40 subjects presented with periodontitis, which included 20 snuff users (SP and 20 nonsnuff users (NS. 20 periodontally healthy patients formed the controls (healthy control: HC. The clinical parameters recorded were gingival index (GI, plaque index, calculus index, bleeding on probing (BOP, probing depth (PD, recession (RC, and clinical attachment level (CAL. The IL-1 β and IL-8 levels were assessed through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Quantikine ®. Analysis of variance (ANOVA, post-hoc Tukey′s, Kruskal-Walli′s ANOVA and Mann-Whitney test was used for comparison among groups and P > 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: No significant difference was seen in levels of IL-1 β and IL-8 between SP and NS groups (P = 0.16, 0.97. However, both the periodontitis groups (SP and NS had increased IL-β levels when compared to HC group (P = 0.01, 0.001. The snuff users showed significant increase in GI, BOP, RC, and CAL when compared with NS (P = 0.002, 0.001, 0.012, 0.002 whereas NS group had significant increase in PD (P = 0.003. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, use of snuff does not affect the host inflammatory response associated with periodontitis and leads to RC and increased CAL due to local irritant effect.

  3. Etiological periodontal treatment with and without low-level laser therapy on IL-1β level in gingival crevicular fluid: an in vivo multicentric pilot study.

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    Mastrangelo, F; Dedola, A; Cattoni, F; Ferrini, F; Bova, F; Tatullo, M; Gherlone, E; Lo Muzio, L

    2018-01-01

    Cytokine proteins may have important roles during different human physiological and pathological processes. In the oral cavity, the bone loss and periodontal tissue pathology was related to inflammatory process activation. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of etiological periodontal therapy with and without the use of Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) on clinical periodontal parameters and interleukin (IL)-1β level in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) from chronic periodontitis (CP) patients. Thirty non-smoker CP patients were selected from the Foggia University Dental Clinic and other 2 private dental clinics. All patients were divided into two homogeneous randomized groups: 15 patients were treated with only scaling and root planing (group 1) and 15 patients with scaling and root planing etiological treatment and LLLT (group 2). In all sites, at baseline before treatment, the periodontal pocket depth (PPD) and bleeding on probing (BOP) were measured. In the PPD sites, the GCF samples were collected from 30 deep (≥5 mm) and shallow (≤3 mm) sites and IL-1β were evaluated at baseline, after 10 days and 1 month. In all the samples at baseline, the IL-1β concentration in GCF and BOP rate were significantly higher at deep PPD sites than at the shallow ones. After 10 days in all samples no PPD improvement was observed in the BOP rate but the IL-1 β level was statistically significantly improved (pdeep PPD sites, PPD and BOP improvements were observed. At same time, IL-1β levels were lower and statistically significantly (pdeep PPD sites with or with-out associated LLLT promotes periodontal health. Etiological treatment associated with LLLT, improves BOP and inflammation in periodontal disease. Moreover, the IL-1β concentration changes in GCF suggest these cytokines as a predictable marker of gingival inflammation in chronic periodontitis patients.

  4. Resistin in serum and gingival crevicular fluid as a marker of periodontal inflammation and its correlation with single-nucleotide polymorphism in human resistin gene at −420

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    Swati Pradeep Patel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Resistin is an adipocytokine, which have been studied for its role in insulin resistance and recently in inflammation. The aim of the present study is to assess the concentration of resistin in serum and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF and to compare the levels between subjects with and without periodontitis and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and to further correlate the resistin levels with the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP at −420. Setting and Designs: A total of 96 subjects (48 males and 48 females were divided on the basis of gingival index (GI, probing pocket depth (PD, clinical attachment level (CAL and hemoglobin A 1c levels into healthy (group 1, n = 24, uncontrolled-diabetes related periodontitis (group 2, n = 24, controlled-diabetes related periodontitis (group 3, n = 24 and chronic periodontitis without T2DM (group 4, n = 24. Materials and Methods: The GCF and serum levels of resistin were quantified using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and compared among the study groups. Further, the association of the resistin levels with periodontal inflammation and SNP at −420 was studied. Results and Conclusion: The resistin levels in GCF and serum from patients with periodontitis or diabetes mellitus related periodontitis (controlled or uncontrolled were higher than that of healthy subjects and correlated positively with GI. Further, subjects with GG genotype at −420 showed significantly higher GI, PD, CAL as compared with genotype group CC. Resistin was detected in all serum and GCF samples and was significantly higher in periodontitis. Further, GG genotype at −420 was associated significantly with periodontal inflammation and resistin levels.

  5. Effect of the use of snuff on the levels of interleukin-1 β and interleukin-8 in the gingival crevicular fluid of periodontitis patients.

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    Pandey, Vijayendra; Salam, Sharib Abdus; Moda, Aman; Agarwal, Preeti; Nath, Sonia; Pulikkotil, Shaju Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Use of smokeless tobacco in the form of moist snuff placed in the oral cavity is popular in rural India. The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to determine the effect of snuff on periodontitis by assessing interleukin (IL)-1 β and IL-8 levels in gingival crevicular fluid. A total of 60 subjects were selected for this study. 40 subjects presented with periodontitis, which included 20 snuff users (SP) and 20 nonsnuff users (NS). 20 periodontally healthy patients formed the controls (healthy control: HC). The clinical parameters recorded were gingival index (GI), plaque index, calculus index, bleeding on probing (BOP), probing depth (PD), recession (RC), and clinical attachment level (CAL). The IL-1 β and IL-8 levels were assessed through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Quantikine(®)). Analysis of variance (ANOVA), post-hoc Tukey's, Kruskal-Walli's ANOVA and Mann-Whitney test was used for comparison among groups and P > 0.05 was considered statistically significant. No significant difference was seen in levels of IL-1 β and IL-8 between SP and NS groups (P = 0.16, 0.97). However, both the periodontitis groups (SP and NS) had increased IL-β levels when compared to HC group (P = 0.01, 0.001). The snuff users showed significant increase in GI, BOP, RC, and CAL when compared with NS (P = 0.002, 0.001, 0.012, 0.002) whereas NS group had significant increase in PD (P = 0.003). Within the limitations of this study, use of snuff does not affect the host inflammatory response associated with periodontitis and leads to RC and increased CAL due to local irritant effect.

  6. Comparison of of Interleukin 23 Level in Gingival Crevicular Fluid between Peri-implantitis and Healthy Patients

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    Vahid Esfahanian

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Peri-implantitis is characterized by irreversible lesions that are caused by microbial plaque, involving not only the soft tissue around the implant, but also the implant-supporting bone. In the peri-implant diseases, some cytokines are increased, and inflammatory mediators, which are observed in peri-implantitis, induce the activation of osteoclasts and bone resorption. The aim of this study was to compare the level of interleukin 23 (IL-23 in patients with peri-implantitis and those with healthy peri-implant tissue. Materials & methods: This clinical trial was conducted on 19 patients with peri-implantitis and 19 patients with healthy peri-implant tissue. The samples were collected from sulcular fluid/gingival pocket fluid by paper cone and placed in vials. The level of IL-23 was determined using ELISA reader. Furthermore, the relationship of IL-23 levels with bleeding, probing depth, and pus formation was analyzed. Data analysis was performed using independent t-test, Pearson correlation coefficient, and Spearman test. Results: According to the results, the level of IL-23 in the patients with peri-implantitis was significantly higher than that in the group with healthy peri-implant tissue (P

  7. Relationship between interleukin 1α levels in the gingival crevicular fluid in health and in inflammatory periodontal disease and periodontal inflamed surface area: A correlative study

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    Kalaichelvi Govindarajan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Periodontitis has been suggested as a source of inflammation for pathological changes in distant sites. Interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1α has shown to have specific roles in inflammation, immunity, tissue breakdown, and tissue homeostasis. This study assessed the correlation of periodontal inflamed surface area (PISA index with the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF levels of IL-1α, which would be helpful in evaluating the validity of PISA index in terms of reflection of the disease. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 subjects were recruited for this study and 20 subjects with healthy gingiva (Group I served as controls and 20 subjects served as cases with periodontitis (Group II. Samples of GCF were obtained from one site in each patient by placing color-coded, calibrated, volumetric microcapillary pipettes extracrevicularly, and subjected to ELISA test. Results: There was a statistical significance for mean probing depth (PD and periodontal epithelial surface area (PESA (P < 0.01, mean bleeding on probing and PISA, IL-1α (P < 0.01 and PESA (P < 0.05 in Group I. Statistical significance was found between PISA and IL-1α in Group I (P < 0.01. A positive correlation was found in Group II between mean PD and mean attachment loss (P < 0.01, PISA, IL-1α and PESA (P < 0.01, PISA and IL-1α levels (P < 0.01 which was statistically significant. Conclusion: The inflammatory burden index was statistically significant in the periodontitis group correlating with higher IL-1α levels, which clearly indicates the validity of PISA index.

  8. Effect of Non-Surgical Periodontal Therapy on Interleukin-29 Levels in Gingival Crevicular Fluid of Chronic Periodontitis and Aggressive Periodontitis Patients

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    B. M. Shivaprasad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently discovered interleukin 29 (IL-29 has antiviral properties and its production is induced by herpes viruses. This study was aimed at analyzing the effect of non-surgical periodontal treatment on IL-29 levels in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF of chronic and aggressive periodontitis patients. A total of 60 participants were divided into healthy group (group 1; n = 20, chronic periodontitis group (group 2; n = 20, and aggressive periodontitis group (group 3; n = 20. GCF samples collected from each subject at baseline and 6–8 weeks after scaling and root planing were quantified for IL-29 levels using ELISA. The mean IL-29 concentration in GCF was found to be highest in group 3 (92.37 pg/μl. The mean IL-29 level in group 1 and group 2 was 36.88 pg/μl and 69.35 pg/μl respectively. After scaling and root planing, the mean concentration of IL-29 in GCF was increased to 85.99 pg/μl in group 2 and to 114.64 pg/μl in group 3. Results of the present study indicate that antiviral IL-29 level was highest in GCF of aggressive periodontitis patients and least in subjects with healthy periodontium, while that of chronic periodontitis lying in between. After non-surgical periodontal therapy, IL-29 levels increased both in chronic and aggressive periodontitis patients and deserve further investigation as a potential therapeutic agent in treating periodontitis.

  9. Impact of Chronic Periodontitis on Levels of Glucoregulatory Biomarkers in Gingival Crevicular Fluid of Adults with and without Type 2 Diabetes.

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    Hasaan G Mohamed

    Full Text Available The relationship between diabetes and periodontal disease is bidirectional, but information about the effect of chronic periodontitis on the levels of the glucoregulatory biomarkers locally in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF is limited. The aim of this study was to compare the levels of 10 glucoregulatory biomarkers in GCF, firstly in subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2DM presenting with and without chronic periodontitis and secondly, in subjects without diabetes, with and without chronic periodontitis. The material comprised a total of 152 subjects, stratified as: 54 with T2DM and chronic periodontitis (G1, 24 with T2DM (G2, 30 with chronic periodontitis (G3 and 44 without T2DM or periodontitis (G4. The levels of the biomarkers were measured using multiplex biometric immunoassays. Periodontal pocket depths were recorded in mm. Subsets G1 and G2 and subsets G3 and G4 were compared independently. Among T2DM subjects, GIP, GLP-1 and glucagon were significantly up-regulated in G1 compared to G2. Moreover, there were no statistical differences between the two groups regarding C-peptide, insulin, ghrelin, leptin and PAI-1. Comparisons among individuals without T2DM revealed significantly lower amounts of C-peptide and ghrelin in G3 than in G4. The number of sites with pocket depth ≥ 4mm correlated negatively with C-peptide (Spearman's correlation co-efficient: -0.240, P < 0.01 and positively with GIP and visfatin (Spearman's correlation co-efficient: 0.255 and 0.241, respectively, P < 0.01. The results demonstrate that chronic periodontitis adversely influences the GCF levels of glucoregulatory biomarkers, as it is associated with disturbed levels of biomarkers related to the onset of T2DM and its medical complications.

  10. Comparison of Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Concentrations in Gingival Crevicular Fluid between Self-Ligating and Preadjusted Edgewise Appliances in the Early Leveling Stage of Orthodontic Treatment

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    Pramustika, Agita; Soedarsono, Nurtami; Krisnawati; Widayati, Retno

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) is an important proinflammatory cytokine that regulates the early phase of inflammation reaction during orthodontic tooth movement. The aim of the present study was to compare TNF-α concentrations in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) between preadjusted edgewise appliance (PEA) and self-ligating (SL) systems during the early leveling stage of orthodontic treatment. Materials and Methods: Eighteen patients (aged 15–35 years) who participated in this study were divided into two experimental groups (PEA and SL) and control group (without orthodontic treatment). The GCF was taken at five sites in the maxilla anterior teeth from each participant just before bracket bonding and at 1, 24, and 168 h after the initiation of tooth movement. Cytokine levels were determined through ELISA. Results: The concentration of TNF-α was significantly higher in the experimental groups than in the control group at 24 h after force application. TNF-α levels were significantly decreased at 168 h after force application in the PEA group. Meanwhile, in the SL group, the level of TNF-α at 168 h was still increased, although there was no statistically significant difference. Conclusion: TNF-α concentration was increased at 1 h and 24 h after orthodontic force application in both the PEA and SL groups. In the PEA group, TNF-α concentration was significantly decreased at 168 h, meanwhile in the SL group, this value remained increased at this time point. The differences in TNF-α concentration between the PEA and SL groups may be caused by their different types of brackets, wires, and ligation methods. PMID:29599592

  11. Effect of Bisphosphonates on the Levels of Rankl and Opg in Gingival Crevicular Fluid of Patients With Periodontal Disease and Post-menopausal Osteoporosis.

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    Verde, María E; Bermejo, Daniela; Gruppi, Adriana; Grenón, Miriam

    2015-12-01

    The Receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand (RANKL)/RANK/Osteoprotegerine (OPG) system has been proposed as essential for osteoclast biology and identified as key part in regulating the physiology and pathology of the skeletal system. The study of the RANKL/RANK/OPG system has increased the understanding of the mechanisms involved in the bone remodeling process, especially in postmenopausal osteoporosis and periodontal disease. Bisphosphonates have become the mainstay of the treatment and prevention of post-menopausal osteoporosis. They inhibit the formation and dissolution of calcium phosphate crystals in bone and also osteoclasts, thus reducing bone turnover.Current investigations relate osteoporosis with the appearance and progression of periodontal disease. Although the etiology of both is different, the bone loss present in both shares several characteristics. Thus, therapy used for osteoporosis can be considered of value in the treatment of periodontal disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of RANKL, OPG and their relationship in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) in patients with periodontal disease and postmenopausal osteoporosis/ osteopenia in relation to consumption of bisphosphonates. We studied 66 periodontal active sites obtained from 17 post- menopausal women patients aged between 45-70 years old with osteoporosis/osteopenia and periodontal disease. GCF samples were collected using sterile filter paper strips. To determine the concentration of RANKL and OPG, a commercial ELISA assay was used. The values of RANKL, OPG and their ratio (RANKL/ OPG) were compared with Mann-Whitney U Test. The values of RANKL, OPG and their ratio obtained in patients with osteoporosis/osteopenia and periodontal disease with or without bisphosphonates treatment showed no differences. Bisphosphonates do not alter the concentration of RANKL and OPG and their ratio in the GCF of patients with osteoporosis/ osteopenia and periodontal disease

  12. Crevicular fluid biomarkers and periodontal disease progression.

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    Kinney, Janet S; Morelli, Thiago; Oh, Min; Braun, Thomas M; Ramseier, Christoph A; Sugai, Jim V; Giannobile, William V

    2014-02-01

    Assess the ability of a panel of gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) biomarkers as predictors of periodontal disease progression (PDP). In this study, 100 individuals participated in a 12-month longitudinal investigation and were categorized into four groups according to their periodontal status. GCF, clinical parameters and saliva were collected bi-monthly. Subgingival plaque and serum were collected bi-annually. For 6 months, no periodontal treatment was provided. At 6 months, patients received periodontal therapy and continued participation from 6 to 12 months. GCF samples were analysed by ELISA for MMP-8, MMP-9, Osteoprotegerin, C-reactive Protein and IL-1β. Differences in median levels of GCF biomarkers were compared between stable and progressing participants using Wilcoxon Rank Sum test (p = 0.05). Clustering algorithm was used to evaluate the ability of oral biomarkers to classify patients as either stable or progressing. Eighty-three individuals completed the 6-month monitoring phase. With the exception of GCF C-reactive protein, all biomarkers were significantly higher in the PDP group compared to stable patients. Clustering analysis showed highest sensitivity levels when biofilm pathogens and GCF biomarkers were combined with clinical measures, 74% (95% CI = 61, 86). Signature of GCF fluid-derived biomarkers combined with pathogens and clinical measures provides a sensitive measure for discrimination of PDP (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00277745). © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Levels of lipocalin-2 in crevicular fluid and tear fluid in chronic periodontitis and obesity subjects.

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    Pradeep, Avani Raju; Nagpal, Kanika; Karvekar, Shruti; Patnaik, Kaushik

    2016-11-01

    Lipocalin-2, a 25 kDa secretory glycoprotein, was first found in the neutrophilic granules of humans and in mouse kidney cells. It has been shown to have an important role in inflammation. The aim of this study was to determine the levels of lipocalin-2 in gingival crevicular fluid and tear fluid in patients with obesity and chronic periodontitis. A total of 40 subjects in the age group 25-40 years were divided into four groups based on probing depth, gingival index, clinical attachment level, body mass index, and radiographic evidence of bone loss. The groups were: nonobese healthy group; obese healthy group; nonobese chronic periodontitis group; obese chronic periodontitis group Gingival crevicular fluid and tear fluid samples were collected on the subsequent day. There was an increase in lipocalin-2 levels from group 1 to group 4 (with the nonobese healthy group showing the least levels and obese chronic periodontitis group showing the highest levels) in both gingival crevicular fluid and tear fluid. Lipocalin-2 may be an important inflammatory marker that may help link obesity and chronic periodontitis. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  14. Correlation of human S100A12 (EN-RAGE) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein as gingival crevicular fluid and serum markers of inflammation in chronic periodontitis and type 2 diabetes.

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    Pradeep, A R; Martande, Santosh S; Singh, Sonender Pal; Suke, Deepak Kumar; Raju, Arjun P; Naik, Savitha B

    2014-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the levels and correlation of human S100A12 and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and serum in chronic periodontitis (CP) subjects with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). A total of 44 subjects were divided into three groups: group 1 had 10 periodontally healthy subjects, group 2 consisted of 17 CP subjects and group 3 had 17 type 2 DM subjects with CP. GCF and serum levels of human S100A12 and hs-CRP were quantified using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunoturbidimetric analysis, respectively. The clinical outcomes evaluated were gingival index, probing depth and clinical attachment level and the correlations of the two inflammatory mediators with clinical parameters were evaluated. Both human S100A12 and hs-CRP levels increased from group 1 to group 2 to group 3. The GCF and serum values of both these inflammatory mediators correlated positively with each other and with the periodontal parameters evaluated (p < 0.05). Human S100A12 and hs-CRP can be considered as possible GCF and serum markers of inflammatory activity in CP and DM.

  15. Effect of 1.2% of simvastatin gel as a local drug delivery system on Gingival Crevicular Fluid interleukin-6 & interleukin-8 levels in non surgical treatment of chronic periodontitis patients.

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    Gunjiganur Vemanaradhya, Gayathri; Emani, Shilpa; Mehta, Dhoom Singh; Bhandari, Shilpy

    2017-10-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of 1.2% simvastatin gel as local drug delivery (LDD) system on Gingival Crevicular Fluid (GCF) Interleukin -6 (IL-6) and Interleukin-8 (IL-8) levels in chronic periodontitis patients, in addition to scaling and root planing (SRP). A total of 46 chronic periodontitis patients were equally divided into two groups. Group I patients were treated by SRP; Group II patients were treated by SRP followed by LDD of 1.2% simvastatin (SMV) gel. Plaque index (PI), Gingival index(GI), Sulcus Bleeding Index (SBI), Probing pocket depth (PPD) and Relative clinical attachment level (CAL) were recorded & GCF samples were collected at baseline (0day) and at 45th day from both the groups. The collected GCF samples were analysed for IL-6 and IL-8 levels with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Both the groups showed significant reduction in all the clinical parameters scores and IL-6 and IL-8 levels after non-surgical periodontal therapy (SRP for group I/SRP+1.2% SMV gel for group II) in contrast to baseline values. However, a greater reduction was observed in group II. A non-significant positive correlation was observed between clinical parameters and IL-6 and IL-8 levels except at baseline, a significant correlation was observed between PPD &IL 6 levels in group II. In adjunct to SRP, 1.2% Simvastatin gel acts as an effective local drug delivery agent for the management of chronic periodontitis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of scaling and root planing on gingival crevicular fluid level of YKL-40 acute phase protein in chronic periodontitis patients with or without type 2 diabetes mellitus: A clinico-biochemical study

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    Sini Damodar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF levels of YKL-40 acute phase protein in chronic periodontitis (CP with and without type 2 diabetes and also to assess the effect of periodontal therapy (scaling and root planing [SRP] on this GCF biomarker and the clinical parameters. YKL-40 is derived from tyrosine (Y, lysine (K, and leucine (L with a molecular weight of 40 kDa. Materials and Methods: A total of 105 individuals (30–60 years were grouped as 35 individuals each in three groups (Group I – healthy; Group II – CP with diabetes mellitus [DM]; and Group III – CP. Clinical parameters including plaque index, gingival index, probing pocket depth, and clinical attachment level followed by GCF sample collection from test sites were done at baseline and 6 weeks after SRP (among Group II and Group III patients. GCF YKL-40 level was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: The mean GCF YKL-40 level at baseline was significantly lower for Group I (309.81 ± 124.93 pg/ml as compared to Group II (924.88 ± 415.28 pg/ml and Group III (834.08 ± 270.42 pg/ml, respectively (P < 0.001. The level reduced significantly 6 weeks after SRP for Group II (507.6 ± 265.03 pg/ml and Group III (499.54 ± 293.38 pg/ml (P < 0.001. Conclusion: The level of GCF YKL-40 in CP patients with or without DM is higher than healthy individuals and the level reduced 6 weeks post-SRP among Group II and Group III. Hence, YKL-40 can be considered as an important biomarker in the diagnosis of CP.

  17. Increase of crevicular interleukin 1beta under academic stress at experimental gingivitis sites and at sites of perfect oral hygiene.

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    Deinzer, R; Förster, P; Fuck, L; Herforth, A; Stiller-Winkler, R; Idel, H

    1999-01-01

    This study analyses the effects of academic stress on crevicular interleukin-1beta(I1-1beta) both at experimental gingivitis sites and at sites of perfect oral hygiene. I1-1beta is thought to play a predominant role in periodontal tissue destruction. 13 medical students participating in a major medical exam (exam group) and 13 medical students not participating in any exam throughout the study period (control group) volunteered for the study. In a split-mouth-design, they refrained from any oral hygiene procedures in two opposite quadrants for 21 days (experimental gingivitis) while they maintained perfect hygiene levels at the remaining sites. Crevicular fluid was sampled for further I1-1beta analysis at teeth 5 and 6 of the upper jaw at days 1, 5, 8, 11, 14, 18 and 21 of the experimental gingivitis period. Exam students showed significantly higher I1-1beta levels than controls both at experimental gingivitis sites (area under the curve, exam group: 1240.64+/-140.07; control group: 697.61+/-111.30; p=0.004) and at sites of perfect oral hygiene (exam group: 290.42+/-63.19; control group: 143.98+/-42.71; p = 0.04). These results indicate that stress might affect periodontal health by increasing local I1-1beta levels especially when oral hygiene is neglected.

  18. A preliminary investigation of short-term cytokine  expression in gingival crevicular fluid secondary to high-level orthodontic forces and the associated root resorption: case series analytical study.

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    Ahuja, Rajiv; Almuzian, Moahmmed; Khan, Alamgir; Pascovici, Dana; Dalci, Oyku; Darendeliler, M Ali

    2017-12-01

    Orthodontically induced iatrogenic root resorption (OIIRR) is an unavoidable inflammatory process. Several factors claimed to be related to the severity of OIIRR. Orthodontic forces cause micro-trauma to the periodontal ligament and activate a cascade of cellular events associated with local periodontal inflammation. The purpose of this split-mouth study were (1) to investigate the changes in cytokine profile in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) secondary to heavy orthodontic forces and (2) to compare the cytokine expression between participants showing high and low root resorption. Eight participants requiring maxillary first premolar extractions involved in this study. The teeth on the tested side (TS) received 225 g of controlled buccal tipping force for 28 days, while the contralateral teeth act as a control (CS). GCF was collected from both TS and CS teeth at 0 h (prior to application of force) and 3 h, 1 day, 3 days, 7 days and 28 days after the application of force, and analysed with multiplex bead immunoassay to determine the cytokine levels. Statistically significant temporal increase was found in the TS teeth for tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) at 3 h and 28 days (p = 0.01). Interleukin 7 (IL-7) significantly peaked at the 28th day. Comparing cytokine profile for participants with high and low root resorption (>0.35 and root resorption cases (p root resorption which craters on mesial, distal surfaces and middle third region were significant in the TS teeth (p resorptive cytokine) increased significantly secondary to a high-level of orthodontic force application. Significantly high levels of granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (anti-resorptive cytokine) were detected in mild root resorption cases secondary to high-level orthodontic force application. A future long-term randomised clinical trial with larger sample taking in consideration gender, age and growth pattern distribution would be recommended.

  19. A preliminary investigation of short-term cytokine  expression in gingival crevicular fluid secondary to high-level orthodontic forces and the associated root resorption: case series analytical study

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    Rajiv Ahuja

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Orthodontically induced iatrogenic root resorption (OIIRR is an unavoidable inflammatory process. Several factors claimed to be related to the severity of OIIRR. Orthodontic forces cause micro-trauma to the periodontal ligament and activate a cascade of cellular events associated with local periodontal inflammation. The purpose of this split-mouth study were (1 to investigate the changes in cytokine profile in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF secondary to heavy orthodontic forces and (2 to compare the cytokine expression between participants showing high and low root resorption. Methods Eight participants requiring maxillary first premolar extractions involved in this study. The teeth on the tested side (TS received 225 g of controlled buccal tipping force for 28 days, while the contralateral teeth act as a control (CS. GCF was collected from both TS and CS teeth at 0 h (prior to application of force and 3 h, 1 day, 3 days, 7 days and 28 days after the application of force, and analysed with multiplex bead immunoassay to determine the cytokine levels. Results Statistically significant temporal increase was found in the TS teeth for tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α at 3 h and 28 days (p = 0.01. Interleukin 7 (IL-7 significantly peaked at the 28th day. Comparing cytokine profile for participants with high and low root resorption (>0.35 and <0.15 mm3, respectively, the levels of GM-CSF was significantly greater in low root resorption cases (p < 0.05. The amounts of root resorption which craters on mesial, distal surfaces and middle third region were significant in the TS teeth (p < 0.05. Conclusions IL-7 and TNF-α (pro-resorptive cytokine increased significantly secondary to a high-level of orthodontic force application. Significantly high levels of granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (anti-resorptive cytokine were detected in mild root resorption cases secondary to high

  20. Effect of laser-assisted scaling and root planing on the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the gingival crevicular fluid of patients with chronic periodontitis: A systematic review.

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    Kellesarian, Sergio Varela; Malignaggi, Vanessa Ros; Majoka, Hasham Abdullah; Al-Kheraif, Abdulaziz A; Kellesarian, Tammy Varela; Romanos, Georgios E; Javed, Fawad

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the present systematic review was to assess the efficacy of laser-assisted (low level laser therapy [LLLT], high intensity laser therapy [HILT], or antimicrobial photodynamic therapy [aPDT]) scaling and root planing (SRP) compared with SRP alone on the expression of inflammatory cytokines in the gingival crevicular (GCF) of patients with chronic periodontitis (CP). In order to address the focused question: "What is the efficacy of SRP with and without laser and/or aPDT on the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the GCF of patients with CP?" an electronic search without time or language restrictions was conducted up to and including February 2017 in indexed databases using various key words. Twenty-two randomized control trials were included in the present systematic review. Nine studies and six studies assessed the efficacy of LLLT and HILT, as adjunct to SRP, respectively. Seven studies assessed the efficacy of aPDT as adjunct to SRP on down-regulating the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the GCF among patients with CP. The outcomes of the studies included based upon the reduction in the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines were inconsistent. The role of laser-assisted SRP on the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the GCF of patients with CP remains unclear. Further long term and well-designed randomized clinical trials are needed in this regard. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Gingival crevicular blood: As a non-invasive screening tool for diabetes mellitus in dental clinics

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    Neema Shetty

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A high number of patients with periodontitis may have undiagnosed diabetes. Self-monitoring devices provide a simple method for rapid monitoring of the glucose level in the blood by utilizing a blood sample from the finger, but this method requires a needle puncture to obtain blood. It is possible that gingival crevicular blood (GCB from routine periodontal probing may be a source of blood for glucose measurements. Aim: To establish whether GCB can be used as a non-invasive diagnostic aid in screening for diabetes mellitus during routine periodontal examination. Materials and Methods: The study involved 50 diabetics and 50 non-diabetics, with an age range of 26-66 years. Both diabetic and non-diabetic patients had moderate to severe gingivitis with at least one tooth in the maxillary anterior region showing bleeding upon probing. The Gingival Index and Oral Hygiene Index-Simplified were recorded. Blood oozing from the gingival sulcus/pocket following periodontal pocket probing was collected using a capillary tube and transferred to the test stick of a glucose self-monitoring device (Accu-Chek, Roche Diagnostic, Germany in patients with comparable gingival and oral hygiene status. This value was compared with the peripheral fingerstick blood glucose (PFBG value, which was obtained by pricking the finger tip at the same visit. Statistical analysis was performed using Pearson′s correlation coefficient. Result: There was no statistically significant difference between the gingival crevicular blood glucose (GCBG values and the PFBG values in both the diabetic (P = 0.129, NS and the non-diabetic (P = 0.503, NS groups. Karl Pearson′s product-moment correlation coefficient was calculated, which showed a positive correlation between the two measurements in the diabetic (r = 0.943 as well as the non-diabetic (r = 0.926 groups. Conclusion: The results suggest that GCB can be used as a non-invasive diagnostic aid in screening for diabetes

  2. Can gingival crevicular blood be relied upon for assessment of blood glucose level?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Shivani; Verma, Sharmila J; Shah, Monali; Jain, Kapil

    2014-11-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is undiagnosed in approximately half of the patients actually suffering from the disease. In addition, the prevalence of DM is more than twice as high as in patients with periodontitis when compared to periodontally healthy subjects. Thus, a high number of patients with periodontitis may have undiagnosed DM. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate whether blood oozing from a gingival crevice during routine periodontal examination can be used for determining glucose levels. Observational cross-sectional studies were carried out in 75 patients (43 males and 32 females) with chronic periodontitis who were divided into two groups: Group I and Group II, respectively. Blood oozing from the gingival crevices of anterior teeth following periodontal probing was collected with the stick of glucose self-monitoring device, and the blood glucose levels were measured. At the same time, finger-prick blood was taken for glucometric analysis and subsequent readings were recorded. The patient's blood glucose values ranged from 74 to 256 mg/dl. The comparison between gingival crevicular blood and finger-prick blood showed a very strong correlation, with a t value of 3.97 (at P value = 0.001). The data from this study has shown that GCB collected during diagnostic periodontal examination can be an excellent source of blood for glucometric analysis.

  3. Screening of gingival crevicular blood glucose and capillary finger blood glucose in the diagnosis of diabetes

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    Alka S Waghmare

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study aimed at obtaining glucose readings using gingival crevicular blood (GCB to screen for undiagnosed diabetes during routine dental visits. Materials and Methods: The present study included 50 patients who were divided into two groups, i.e. Group A and Group B, based on bleeding on probing at the site of collection of GCB. Group A participants had blood collected from sites having adequate bleeding on probing, whereas Group B participants had blood collected from sites with little bleeding on probing. GCB and capillary finger-stick blood (CFB] glucose readings were obtained using a self-monitoring glucometer. Statistical Analysis: Correlations between both the samples were done using Pearson′s correlation. Results: Group A patients′ correlations between GCB and CFB glucose readings were high, whereas in Group B patients, correlations between glucose readings were low. Conclusion: GCB can be an excellent source for screening diabetes during routine dental visits.

  4. Crevicular Fluid and Serum Concentrations of Progranulin and High Sensitivity CRP in Chronic Periodontitis and Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyanka, N.; Kumari, Minal; Kalra, Nitish; Arjun, P.; Naik, Savitha B.; Pradeep, A. R.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. This study was designed to correlate the serum and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) levels of progranulin (PGRN) and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs CRP) in chronic periodontitis and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Design. PGRN and hs CRP levels were estimated in 3 groups: healthy, chronic periodontitis, and type 2 DM with chronic periodontitis. Results. The mean PGRN and hs CRP concentrations in serum and GCF were the highest for group 3 followed by group 2 and the least in group 1. Conclusion. PGRN and hs CRP may be biomarkers of the inflammatory response in type 2 DM and chronic periodontitis. PMID:24191130

  5. Crevicular Fluid and Serum Concentrations of Progranulin and High Sensitivity CRP in Chronic Periodontitis and Type 2 Diabetes

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    N. Priyanka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This study was designed to correlate the serum and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF levels of progranulin (PGRN and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs CRP in chronic periodontitis and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM. Design. PGRN and hs CRP levels were estimated in 3 groups: healthy, chronic periodontitis, and type 2 DM with chronic periodontitis. Results. The mean PGRN and hs CRP concentrations in serum and GCF were the highest for group 3 followed by group 2 and the least in group 1. Conclusion. PGRN and hs CRP may be biomarkers of the inflammatory response in type 2 DM and chronic periodontitis.

  6. Presence of crevicular fluid Prostaglandin E2 in relation with clinical and radiographic periodontal status

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    Javier Elpidio Monzón

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 is present in gingival crevicular fluid the (GCF and is evidenced in periodontal disease (PD. However, there are no enough reports to correlate the PGE2 concentrations in GCF in periodontal health and disease with clinical and radiographic indicators, age and gender. Hence, the present study is aimed to estimate the levels of PGE2 in GCF of subjects without periodontal disease (SEP and periodontal disease (CEP. Materials and Methods: 99 subjects were selected, 33 without PD (G1 and 66 with PD, 33 with gingivitis (G2 and 33 with periodontitis (G3, which were submitted to a clinical and radiographic diagnosis, registering samples FGC, being stored, centrifuged and refrigerated for preservation. Subsequently the concentration of crevicular PGE2 was measured by using the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, determining the concentration of each subject. Results: PGE2 was detected in all the samples. The G1 presented a concentration of 28.82 ± 2.88 pg / mL, G2 44.91 ± 4.37 pg / mL and G3 148.67 ± 74.74 pg / mL (0.0001. PGE2 levels were significantly correlated with bleeding on probing, probing depth, attachment loss and bone loss (0.05. PGE2 levels were modified by age, but not gender. Conclusion: It is well known that activated inflammatory cells produce inflammatory mediators that stimulate the production of PGE2. The findings of this study demonstrate an increased concentration of PGE2 in FCG according to the presence of greater severity of PD. PGE2 may be considered as a biomarker in PD progression. However, controlled, longitudinal studies are needed to confirm this possibility.

  7. Smoking and gingivitis: focus on inducible nitric oxide synthase, nitric oxide and basic fibroblast growth factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdemir, B; Özmeric, N; Elgün, S; Barış, E

    2016-10-01

    Periodontal disease pathogenesis has been associated with smoking. Gingivitis is a mild and reversible form of periodontal disease and it tends to progress to periodontitis only in susceptible individuals. In the present study, we aimed to examine the impact of smoking on host responses in gingivitis and to evaluate and compare the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activity in gingival tissue and NO and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) levels in the gingival crevicular fluid of patients with gingivitis and healthy individuals. Forty-one participants were assigned to the gingivitis-smoker (n = 13), gingivitis (n = 13), healthy-smoker (n = 7) and healthy groups (n = 8). Clinical indices were recorded; gingival biopsy and gingival crevicular fluid samples were obtained from papillary regions. iNOS expression was evaluated by immunohistochemical staining. The immunoreactive cells were semiquantitatively assessed. For the quantitative determination of nitrite and nitrate in gingival crevicular fluid, the NO assay kit was used. The amount of bFGF in gingival crevicular fluid was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The gingivitis-smoker group demonstrated a stronger iNOS expression than the non-smoker gingivitis group. iNOS expression intensity was lower in the non-smoker healthy group compared to that in healthy-smokers. No significant gingival crevicular fluid NO and bFGF level changes were observed between groups. Among patients with gingivitis, a positive correlation was detected between gingival crevicular fluid NO and bFGF levels (r = 0.806, p = 0.001). Our data suggest that smoking has significant effects on iNOS expression but not on gingival crevicular fluid NO or bFGF levels in healthy and patients with gingivitis. However, our results suggest that bFGF might be involved in the regulation of NO production via iNOS. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Evaluation of Metalloproteinase-8 Levels in Crevicular Fluid of Patients with Healthy Implants or Periodontitis

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    Paweł Aleksandrowicz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of periodontal and peri-implant tissue condition is mainly based on clinical examination and imaging diagnostics. Some data imply that Metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8 level examination in peri-implant sulcular fluid (PISF might be useful for evaluating the condition of peri-implant tissues and monitoring a development of peri-implant inflammation, including both mucositis and peri-implantitis. Hence, in this study, we decided to evaluate the level of MMP-8 in PISF obtained from patients without clinical symptoms of mucositis or peri-implantitis and compare it with MMP-8 level in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF obtained from patients with healthy periodontium and those with varying severity of periodontitis. A total of 189 subjects were included in the study, and GCF/PISF samples were analysed for MMP-8 level by ELISA test. We documented that MMP-8 level in PISF obtained from patients without symptoms of mucositis or peri-implantitis was significantly higher not only than in GCF of periodontally healthy patients but also, which seems to be very interesting, than in GCF of patients with varying degrees of periodontal inflammation, consistent with earlier studies. Our observation might imply that monitoring of MMP-8 level in PISF could help to diagnose mucositis/peri-implantitis in an early stage, prior to clinical manifestations, which may allow for quick start of appropriate therapy.

  9. Effect of Periodontal Therapy on Crevicular Fluid Interleukin-6 and Interleukin-8 Levels in Chronic Periodontitis

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    Paschalina Goutoudi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of this study was to analyse the levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6 and interleukin-8 (IL-8 in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF of patients with chronic periodontitis prior to and following surgical and/or nonsurgical periodontal therapy for a period of 32 weeks. Methods. GCF samples were obtained from 24 nondiseased and 72 diseased sites of 12 periodontal patients prior to as well as at 6, 16, and 32 weeks following non-surgical and surgical periodontal therapy. IL-6 and IL-8 levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Results. Periodontal treatment improved all clinical parameters. Both treatment modalities resulted in similar IL-6 as well as IL-8 levels. Mean IL-6 and IL-8 concentrations were significantly higher in non-diseased compared to diseased sites and increased significantly following treatment in diseased sites. Mean total amounts of IL-6 and IL-8 (TAIL-6, TAIL-8 did not differ significantly between diseased and nondiseased sites, while following therapy TAIL-8 levels decreased significantly. Conclusions. The data suggest that periodontal therapy reduced the levels of IL-8 in GCF. However, a strong relationship between IL-6, IL-8 amounts in GCF and periodontal destruction and inflammation was not found.

  10. A review of biomarkers in peri-miniscrew implant crevicular fluid (PMICF

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    Avinash Kaur

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The temporary anchorage devices (TADs which include miniscrew implants (MSIs have evolved as useful armamentarium in the management of severe malocclusions and assist in complex tooth movements. Although a multitude of factors is responsible for the primary and secondary stability of miniscrew implants, contemporary research highlights the importance of biological interface of MSI with bone and soft tissue in augmenting the success of implants. The inflammation and remodeling associated with MSI insertion or loading are reflected through biomarkers in peri-miniscrew implant crevicular fluid (PMICF which is analogous to the gingival crevicular fluid. Analysis of biomarkers in PMICF provides indicators of inflammation at the implant site, osteoclast differentiation and activation, bone resorption activity and bone turnover. The PMICF for assessment of these biomarkers can be collected non-invasively via paper strips, periopaper or micro capillary pipettes and analysed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA or immunoassays. The markers and mediators of inflammation have been previously studied in relation to orthodontic tooth movement include interleukins (IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6 and IL-8, growth factors and other proteins like tumour necrosis factor (TNF-α, receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL, chondroitin sulphate (CS and osteoprotegerin (OPG. Studies have indicated that successful and failed MSIs have different concentrations of biomarkers in PMICF. However, there is a lack of comprehensive information on this aspect of MSIs. Therefore, a detailed review was conducted on the subject. Results A literature search revealed six relevant studies: two on IL-1β; one on IL-2, IL-6 and IL-8; one on TNF-α; one on CS; and one on RANKL/OPG ratio. One study showed an increase in IL-1β levels upon MSI loading, peak in 24 hours (h, followed by a decrease in 21 days to reach baseline in 300 days. A 6

  11. The Effect of Cigarette Smoking on Gingival Crevicular Fluid Flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    status of". . * overdenture abutments from initial periodontal therapy through denture insertion, by Stoller et al. to evaluate the efficacy of an...104. Renner, R.P.; Foerth, D.; and Pesserillo, E.: Maintenance of root integrity and periodontal health under overdentures . Gen Dent 26:42-46, 1978

  12. Estimation of gingival crevicular blood glucose level for the screening of diabetes mellitus: A simple yet reliable method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parihar, Sarita; Tripathi, Richik; Parihar, Ajit Vikram; Samadi, Fahad M; Chandra, Akhilesh; Bhavsar, Neeta

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the reliability of blood glucose level estimation in gingival crevicular blood(GCB) for screening diabetes mellitus. 70 patients were included in study. A randomized, double-blind clinical trial was performed. Among these, 39 patients were diabetic (including 4 patients who were diagnosed during the study) and rest 31 patients were non-diabetic. GCB obtained during routine periodontal examination was analyzed by glucometer to know blood glucose level. The same patient underwent for finger stick blood (FSB) glucose level estimation with glucometer and venous blood (VB) glucose level with standardized laboratory method as per American Diabetes Association Guidelines. 1 All the three blood glucose levels were compared. Periodontal parameters were also recorded including gingival index (GI) and probing pocket depth (PPD). A strong positive correlation ( r ) was observed between glucose levels of GCB with FSB and VB with the values of 0.986 and 0.972 in diabetic group and 0.820 and 0.721 in non-diabetic group. As well, the mean values of GI and PPD were more in diabetic group than non-diabetic group with the statistically significant difference ( p  blood glucose level as the values were closest to glucose levels estimated by VB. The technique is safe, easy to perform and non-invasive to the patient and can increase the frequency of diagnosing diabetes during routine periodontal therapy.

  13. Gingival crevicular blood for screening of blood glucose level in patients with & without diabetes: a chair-side test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhavsar, M V; Brahmbhatt, N A; Sahayata, V; Bhavsar, N V

    2016-05-01

    Diabetes is a pandemic disease with increasing prevalence and serious complications. Periodontitis being one of its presentation and is its sixth recognized complication. This study compares blood glucose levels in gingival crevicular blood of patients with and without diabetes elicited during routine periodontal probing and venous blood sample. Seventy patients with moderate gingivitis and periodontitis positive for bleeding on probing were chosen. All the subjects were divided in two groups, group I consisted of 35 diabetic and group II of 35 non-diabetic subjects. Blood from the gingiva of the most inflamed site was collected with the test strip of a glucose self-monitoring device, and the blood glucose levels were measured. At the same time, intravenous blood was collected for measurement in a laboratory glucose analyzer. Gingival index and probing pocket depth were evaluated for each subject at same time. The mean GCB levels and VB derived from all samples were 156.07 ± 49.23 mg dl(-1) and 156 ± 49.89 mg dl(-1) , respectively, for diabetic group and 90.80 ± 11.07 and 93.41 ± 9.30 for non-diabetic group. In both the groups, the difference between GCB and VB glucose levels was non-significant (P > 0.005). Highly significant correlation between GCB and VB (r = 0.972 for diabetic and r = 0.721 for non-diabetic) in both the groups was found. The data from this study show that GCB collected during diagnostic periodontal examination can be an excellent source for estimation of blood sugar or glucometric analysis. This technique is also suitable for routine screening of diabetic and early diagnosis of unknown diabetic cases. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Effect of Periodontal Therapy on Crevicular Fluid Interleukin-18 Level in Periodontal Health and Disease in Central Maharashtra (India) Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajani, Monica J; Jadhao, Varsha A; Wankhade, Pooja S; Samson, Emmanuel; Acharya, Vishwas D; Tekale, Pawankumar D

    2017-11-01

    The incidence and progression of the periodontal disease depend on periodontal microflora and the multifaceted response of the host, and these interactions are mediated by cytokines and chemokines. Interleukin-18 (IL-18) is a proinflammatory cytokine of the IL-1 superfamily. The aim of the present study was the assessment of the periodontal therapy in IL-18 level in periodontal disease and health. Based on clinical attachment loss (CAL), probing pocket depth (PPD), gingival index (GI), and plaque index (PI) patients were divided into three groups: Group I with healthy patients, group II with chronic periodontitis, and group III with posttreatment patients having periodontitis. Mean PI, PPD, CAL, and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) volume were significantly higher in groups II and III compared with group I. However, there were no significant differences between GI in groups I, II, and III. The total amount of IL-18 in GCF was significantly higher in group II when compared with groups I and III (p periodontally involved patients, and reduced at baseline, 3 and 6 weeks after nonsurgical periodontal therapy. The IL-18 might be hypothetically beneficial in distinguishing health from disease and monitoring periodontal disease activity.

  15. Estimation of tissue and crevicular fluid oxidative stress marker in premenopausal, perimenopausal and postmenopausal women with chronic periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Rampalli Viswa; Sailaja, Sistla; Reddy, Aileni Amarender

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate tissue and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) levels of the oxidative stress marker 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in premenopausal, perimenopausal and postmenopausal women with chronic periodontitis. Oxidative stress has been implicated in the etiopathogenesis of periodontitis and menopause induces oxidative stress. According to Stages of Reproductive Aging Workshop (STRAW) criteria, women diagnosed with periodontitis were subdivided into three groups of 31 participants each 1. Premenopausal 2. Perimenopausal and 3. Postmenopausal. GCF and gingival tissue samples were collected from sites with maximum probing depth. Tissue DNA was extracted from the gingival sample and 8-OHdG in the extracted DNA, and GCF samples were measured using ELISA. There was a highly significant difference in the overall GCF 8-OHdG levels among the three groups with the pairwise difference being highly significant between the premenopausal-postmenopausal groups and perimenopausal-postmenopausal groups. However, no overall significant differences in tissue 8-OHdG levels were found among the three groups. Pairwise, highly significant differences were found between the premenopausal-postmenopausal groups and perimenopausal-postmenopausal groups for tissue 8-OHdG levels. No significant correlations were found between various measure of periodontal disease and GCF/tissue 8-OHdG levels among all the groups. Premenopausal-postmenopausal and perimenopausal-postmenopausal transition resulted in significant increase in tissue and GCF 8-OHdG levels. However, no association was found between stages of reproductive ageing and tissue levels of 8-OHdG. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S and The Gerodontology Association. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Measurement of HbA1c in Gingival Crevicular Blood Using a High Pressure Liquid Chromatography Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesce, Michael A.; Strauss, Shiela M.; Rosedale, Mary; Netterwald, Jane; Wang, Hangli

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To validate an ion exchange high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for measuring glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in gingival crevicular blood (GCB) spotted on filter paper, for use in screening dental patients for diabetes. Methods We collected the GCB specimens for this study from the oral cavities of patients during dental visits, using rigorous strategies to obtain GCB that was as free of debris as possible. The analytical performance of the HPLC method was determined by measuring the precision, linearity, carryover, stability of HbA1c in GCB, and correlation of HbA1c results in GCB specimens with finger-stick blood (FSB) specimens spotted on filter paper. Results The coefficients of variation (CVs) for the inter- and intrarun precision of the method were less than 2.0%. Linearity ranged between 4.2% and 12.4%; carryover was less than 2.0%, and the stability of the specimen was 6 days at 4°C and as many as 14 days at −70°C. Linear regression analysis comparing the HbA1c results in GCB with FSB yielded a correlation coefficient of 0.993, a slope of 0.981, and an intercept of 0.13. The Bland-Altman plot showed no difference in the HbA1c results from the GCB and FSB specimens at normal, prediabetes, and diabetes HbA1c levels. Conclusion We validated an HPLC method for measuring HbA1c in GCB; this method can be used to screen dental patients for diabetes. PMID:26489673

  17. Effect of Nonsurgical Periodontal Therapy on Crevicular Fluid and Serum Glutathione Peroxidase Levels

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    Swati Pradeep Patel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Plasma glutathione peroxidase (eGPx is an important selenium containing antioxidant in human defense against oxidative stress. While crevicular fluid (GCF eGPx levels and its association with periodontal disease is well documented, there is no data on correlation of GCF and serum eGPx levels in chronic periodontitis. Hence this study was undertaken to further probe into the role of oxidative stress in periodontal diseases and effect of nonsurgical periodontal therapy (NSPT by correlating GCF and serum levels of eGPx.

  18. Comparison between inflammation-related markers in peri-implant crevicular fluid and clinical parameters during osseointegration in edentulous jaws

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bielemann, Amália Machado; Marcello-Machado, Raissa Micaella; Manzolli Leite, Fabio Renato

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study is to improve the understanding of interleukin mechanisms during osseointegration to enhance the monitoring of implant failure and success. Clinical parameters, implant stability, and cytokine levels in peri-implant crevicular fluid (PICF) during early bone healin...

  19. Clinical Relevance of Cytokines Gene Polymorphisms and Protein Levels in Gingival Cervical Fluid from Chronic Periodontitis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavu, Vamsi; Venkatesan, Vettriselvi; Venugopal, Priyanka; Lakkakula, Bhaskar Venkata Kameswara Subrahmanya; Paul, Solomon Franklin Durairaj; Peria, Kumarasamy; Rao, Suresh Ranga

    2017-03-01

    Cytokines are suggested to play a role in periodontitis. To determine and compare the levels of Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) samples amongst healthy individuals and those with chronic periodontitis. Further to compare the GCF cytokine levels in three genotype classes defined by the respective gene polymorphisms. The study was conducted on 41 chronic periodontitis patients and 40 healthy volunteers. IL-1β and TNF-α were quantified in GCF by cytometric bead array. DNA was extracted from peripheral blood samples and genotyping of IL1B +3954C/T (rs1143634) IL1B -511G/A (rs16944), TNFA -1031T/C (rs1799964) and TNFA -863C/A (rs1800630) polymorphisms were performed using Sanger sequencing and Taqman SNP genotyping assays methods. Both IL-1β and TNF-α levels were significantly higher in chronic periodontitis group compared to the controls. IL-1β and TNF-α levels did not significantly differ in genotype classes of the respective polymorphism (IL1B -511G/A, TNFA -1031T/C and TNFA -863C/A). However, individuals with CT genotype of IL1B +3954C/T showed higher levels of IL-1β in the gingival crevicular fluid (ANOVA p<0.05). The results of this study revealed the presence of higher levels of IL-1β and TNF-α in subjects with periodontitis and genetic control of IL-1β levels in our samples of Indians.

  20. Matrix metalloproteinases and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases in gingival crevicular fluid during orthodontic tooth movement.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bildt, M.M.; Bloemen, M.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.; Hoff, J.W. Von den

    2009-01-01

    Orthodontic tooth movement requires extensive re-modelling of the periodontium. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) degrade the extracellular matrix during re-modelling, while their activity is regulated by the tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs). The aim of this study was to investigate

  1. Matrix metalloproteinases and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases in gingival crevicular fluid during orthodontic tooth movement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bildt, Miriam; Bloemen, M; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.; Von Den Hoff, Johannes W

    2009-01-01

    Orthodontic tooth movement requires extensive re-modelling of the periodontium. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) degrade the extracellular matrix during re-modelling, while their activity is regulated by the tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs). The aim of this study was to investigate

  2. Association of stem cell factor and high-sensitivity C reactive protein concentrations in crevicular fluid and serum in patients with chronic periodontitis with and without type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, Nitish; Pradeep, Avani R; Priyanka, Ningappa; Kumari, Minal

    2013-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to clarify whether there is any correlation between the levels of high-sensitivity C reactive protein (hs-CRP) and stem cell factor (SCF) in serum and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) of patients with chronic periodontitis (CP) with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). A total of 40 subjects were divided into 3 groups: 10 periodontally healthy subjects (Group 1), 15 CP patients (Group 2), and 15 type 2 DM patients with CP (Group 3). Levels of hs-CRP and SCF in GCF and serum were quantified using different techniques. The clinical outcomes evaluated were gingival index (GI), probing depth (PD) and clinical attachment level (CAL), and the correlations of the two inflammatory mediators with clinical parameters were evaluated. The levels of these inflammatory mediators increased continuously from group 1 to group 2, and to group 3. The serum levels of both hs-CRP and SCF were correlated with PD in patients with CP (P periodontal disease, and elsewhere.

  3. Gingivitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the teeth. This can include the gums, the periodontal ligaments, and the tooth sockets. Gingivitis is due to the long-term effects of plaque deposits on your teeth. Plaque is a sticky material made of bacteria, mucus, and food debris that builds up on ...

  4. Influencia de la terapia periodontal no quirúrgica en nivel de pH salival y líquido crevicular gingival en pacientes con enfermedad periodontal atendidos en la Clínica Especializada de la FO-USMP

    OpenAIRE

    Villaverde Moscol, Lizeth Rosario

    2016-01-01

    Determina la influencia de la terapia periodontal no quirúrgica en el nivel de pH salival y el pH líquido crevicular gingival en los pacientes con enfermedad periodontal atendidos en la Clínica Especializada de FO-USMP. La muestra fue conformada por 64 pacientes. Se utilizó tiras reactivas para la recolección del pH salival y pH del líquido crevicular gingival antes y después (07 días) de realizado el terapia periodontal no quirúgica en los pacientes diagnosticados con dos de los tipos de enf...

  5. Evaluation of peri-implant crevicular fluid prostaglandin E2 levels in augmented extraction sockets by different biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkan, Eylem Ayhan; Tüter, Gülay; Parlar, Ateş; Yücel, Ayşegül; Kurtiş, Bülent

    2016-10-01

    This study compares peri-implant crevicular fluid (PICF) prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ) levels, clinical parameters and implant stability quotient (ISQ) values around implants placed in augmented extraction sockets. The sockets (24 in total) were randomly augmented using either EMD or Bio-Oss Collagen. Implant placements were performed after three months of healing. ISQ readings were evaluated at three points: at the time of surgery, at the first month and at the third month. PICF was collected for PGE 2 evaluation after the first and the third months of implant surgery. After the first month, a higher level of PICF PGE 2 was observed in the EMD group than in the Bio-Oss Collagen group, and this increase was of statistical significance; however, at the third month there was no statistically significant difference in PICF PGE 2 levels between the two groups. For implants placed in EMD sites, ISQ values were statistically higher at the third month than at the first month, while no significant differences in ISQ value were detected between the first and third months in Bio-Oss Collagen sites. The results of this research suggest that both EMD and Bio-Oss Collagen are effective treatment modalities for stimulating the formation of new bone at extraction sites prior to implant surgery.

  6. Early supra- and subgingival plaque formation in experimental gingivitis in smokers and never-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, Paula; Weidlich, Patricia; Oppermann, Rui Vicente; Rösing, Cassiano Kuchenbecker

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate supragingival and subgingival plaque formation on the dentogingival area in smokers and never smokers using the experimental gingivitis model and a plaque scoring system that considers the presence of an area free of plaque between plaque and the gingival sulcus called the plaque free zone (PFZ). Male volunteers, 9 current smokers and 10 never-smokers, refrained from oral hygiene procedures in the maxillary incisors and canines (test teeth) for 25 days. Under conditions of clinically healthy gingiva (phase 1) and gingival inflammation (phase 2), the supragingival plaque formation pattern was observed for 4 days in the dentogingival area. Gingival crevicular fluid was also measured. Plaque was dyed with fucsine and its presence was recorded by a calibrated examiner based on a 3-criteria scoring system: 0 - absence of stained plaque; 1 - presence of stained plaque and supragingival PFZ; 2 - presence of stained plaque and absence of PFZ, indicating that subgingival plaque formation has taken place. In both phases, smokers presented a significantly lower relative frequency of sites with subgingival plaque compared to never-smokers (P smokers demonstrated a significantly lower frequency of gingival bleeding than did non-smokers (23.6% vs 66.1%; P Smokers presented significantly lower percentages of sites with subgingival plaque in all experimental periods and presented less gingival inflammation as shown by GBI and gingival crevicular fluid quantification.

  7. Impact of smoking on experimental gingivitis. A clinical, microbiological and immunological prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peruzzo, D C; Gimenes, J H; Taiete, T; Casarin, R C V; Feres, M; Sallum, E A; Casati, M Z; Kantovitz, K R; Nociti, F H

    2016-12-01

    The present study assessed the effect of smoking on clinical, microbiological and immunological parameters in an experimental gingivitis model. Twenty-four healthy dental students were divided into two groups: smokers (n = 10); and nonsmokers (n = 14). Stents were used to prevent biofilm removal during brushing. Visible plaque index (VPI) and gingival bleeding index (GBI) were determined 5- on day -7 (running phase), baseline, 21 d (experimental gingivitis) and 28 d (resolution phase). Supragingival biofilm and gingival crevicular fluid were collected and assayed by checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization and a multiplex analysis, respectively. Intragroup comparison was performed by Friedman and Dunn's multiple comparison tests, whereas the Mann-Whitney U-test was applied for intergroup analyses. Cessation of oral hygiene resulted in a significant increase in VPI, GBI and gingival crevicular fluid volume in both groups, which returned to baseline levels 7 d after oral hygiene was resumed. Smokers presented lower GBI than did nonsmokers (p gingival inflammation after supragingival biofilm accumulation, but smokers had less bleeding, higher proportions of periodontal pathogens and distinct host-response patterns during the course of experimental gingivitis. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Interleukin-1β level in peri-implant crevicular fluid and its correlation with the clinical and radiographic parameters

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    Aniruddha M Kajale

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives : Assessing only the clinical and radiographic parameters for evaluation of dental implants may not be enough as they often reflect extensive inflammatory changes in the periodontal tissues. As peri-implant crevicular fluid (PICF can give us a more prompt and objective measure of the disease activity, the purpose of this case series is to assess the peri-implant health status of single tooth dental implants not only clinically and radiographically but also biochemically. Materials and Methods: Thirteen patients were subjected to dental implants at single edentulous sites using a conventional surgical approach. At baseline, 6 months, and 12 months after implant placement, the clinical and radiographic parameters were recorded. Additionally, IL-1β in PICF was estimated using the ELISA kit at 6 th and 12 th month. Results: The clinical and radiographic parameters differed significantly around the implants at different time intervals with IL-1β levels showing highly significant differences between 6 months (31.79 ± 12.26 pg/μl and 12 months (113.09 ± 51.11 pg/μl. However, Spearman′s correlation coefficient showed no correlation with the clinical and radiographic parameters. Interpretation and Conclusion: Assessment of the various parameters confirmed that all the implants had a healthy peri-implant status. Although the levels of IL-1β in PICF were elevated at the 12 th month, they were well within the healthy range as observed by previous studies. This indicates that IL-1β, a biochemical marker, can be used as an adjunct to clinical and radiographic parameters in the assessment of EARLY inflammatory changes around implants.

  9. Microbiological profile and calprotectin expression in naturally occurring and experimentally induced gingivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farina, Roberto; Guarnelli, Maria Elena; Figuero, Elena; Herrera, David; Sanz, Mariano; Trombelli, Leonardo

    2012-10-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the microbiological profile and the calprotectin expression in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) in spontaneous and experimentally induced gingival inflammation. Thirty-seven periodontally healthy subjects were evaluated in real life conditions (N-O gingivitis) as well as after 21 days of experimental gingivitis trial (E-I gingivitis). During the experimental gingivitis trial, in one maxillary quadrant (test quadrant), gingival inflammation was induced by oral hygiene abstention, while in the contralateral (control) quadrant, oral hygiene was routinely continued. The results of the study showed that (1) the microbiological profile of quadrants where gingival inflammation was experimentally induced (i.e., E-I test quadrants) differed significantly from that of either quadrants where gingival inflammation was controlled by proper plaque control (i.e., E-I control quadrants) or quadrants with N-O gingivitis, and (2) GCF calprotectin was significantly higher at E-I test quadrants compared to either E-I control quadrants or quadrants with N-O gingivitis. A positive intrasubject correlation was found between GCF concentration of calprotectin at sites presenting N-O and E-I gingivitis. N-O and E-I gingivitis showed a different microbiological profile of the subgingival environment. GCF calprotectin is a reliable marker of gingival inflammation, and its concentration in N-O gingivitis is correlated with its expression in E-I gingivitis. The modality of plaque accumulation seems to affect the subgingival microbiological profile associated with a gingivitis condition. Calprotectin levels in GCF may be regarded as a promising marker of the individual susceptibility to develop gingival inflammation in response to experimentally induced plaque accumulation.

  10. Effect of gingival fluid on marginal adaptation of Class II resin-based composite restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spahr, A; Schön, F; Haller, B

    2000-10-01

    To evaluate in vitro the marginal quality of Class II composite restorations at the gingival enamel margins as affected by contamination of the cavities with gingival fluid (GF) during different steps of resin bonding procedures. 70 Class II cavities were prepared in extracted human molars and restored with composite using a multi-component bonding system (OptiBond FL/Herculite XRV; OPTI) or a single-bottle adhesive (Syntac Sprint/Tetric Ceram; SYN). The cavities were contaminated with human GF: C1 after acid etching, C2 after application of the primer (OPTI) or light-curing of the primer-adhesive (SYN), and C3 after light-curing of the resin adhesive (OPTI). Uncontaminated cavities were used as the control (C0). The restored teeth were subjected to thermocycling (TC) and replicated for SEM analysis of marginal gap formation. Microleakage at the gingival margins was determined by dye penetration with basic fuchsin. non-parametric tests (Kruskal-Wallis test, Mann-Whitney test with Bonferroni correction). In both bonding systems, contamination with GF after acid etching (C1) did not impair the marginal quality; the mean percentages of continuous margin/mean depths of dye penetration were: OPTI: C0: 88.5%/0.10 mm, C1: 95.6%/0.04 mm; SYN: C0: 90.9%/0.08 mm, C1: 97.0%/0.05 mm. Marginal adaptation was adversely affected when GF contamination was performed after

  11. Effects of triclosan on host response and microbial biomarkers during experimental gingivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancer, Brooke A; Kott, Diana; Sugai, James V; Panagakos, Fotinos S; Braun, Thomas M; Teles, Ricardo P; Giannobile, William V; Kinney, Janet S

    2016-05-01

    This exploratory randomized, controlled clinical trial sought to evaluate anti-inflammatory and -microbial effects of triclosan during experimental gingivitis as assessed by host response biomarkers and biofilm microbial pathogens. Thirty participants were randomized to triclosan or control dentifrice groups who ceased homecare for 21 days in an experimental gingivitis (EG) protocol. Plaque and gingival indices and saliva, plaque, and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) were assessed/collected at days 0, 14, 21 and 35. Levels and proportions of 40 bacterial species from plaque samples were determined using checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization. Ten biomarkers associated with inflammation, matrix degradation, and host protection were measured from GCF and saliva and analysed using a multiplex array. Participants were stratified as "high" or "low" responders based on gingival index and GCF biomarkers and bacterial biofilm were combined to generate receiver operating characteristic curves and predict gingivitis susceptibility. No differences in mean PI and GI values were observed between groups and non-significant trends of reduction of host response biomarkers with triclosan treatment. Triclosan significantly reduced levels of A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis during induction of gingivitis. Triclosan reduced microbial levels during gingivitis development (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01799226). © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Expression of antimicrobial peptides and interleukin-8 during early stages of inflammation: An experimental gingivitis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dommisch, H; Staufenbiel, I; Schulze, K; Stiesch, M; Winkel, A; Fimmers, R; Dommisch, J; Jepsen, S; Miosge, N; Adam, K; Eberhard, J

    2015-12-01

    In the oral cavity, the epithelial surface is constantly exposed to a number of different microorganisms that are organized in a well-structured biofilm. The aim of this study was to monitor gingival expression of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) in an early gingivitis model. Experimental gingivitis was allowed to develop in healthy volunteers (n = 17). Bleeding on probing (BOP%) and gingival crevicular fluid volume (GCF) were assessed at baseline and day 1, 3, 5, 7 and 14. Expression of AMPs (human beta-defensin-2, hBD-2; CC-chemokine ligand 20, CCL20; psoriasin, pso/S100A7) and IL-8 was analyzed by immunohistochemistry in gingival biopsies. In addition, hBD-2 and IL-8 protein expression was monitored in GCF using the ELISA technology. Experimental gingivitis gradually developed with an increase in BOP scores and GCF volume over time. In GCF, elevated concentrations of hBD-2 and IL-8 were monitored at day 1, 5 and 7 (p ≤ 0.0002). Immunohistochemical analysis of gingival sections demonstrated increased staining for hBD-2 at day 3, whereas the CCL20, pso/S100A7, and IL-8 expression was increased at later time points (p gingival inflammation. Differential temporal expression for AMPs may ensure a constant antimicrobial activity against changes in the bacterial composition of the growing dental biofilm. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Cytotoxicity and apoptosis induction by e-cigarette fluids in human gingival fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancilio, Silvia; Gallorini, Marialucia; Cataldi, Amelia; di Giacomo, Viviana

    2016-04-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are generally acknowledged as a safer alternative to the use of combusted tobacco products. Nevertheless, there are increasing conflicting claims concerning the effect of these novel industrial products on the health of e-cigarettes users. The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of the liquids of e-cigarettes on human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) and to compare the effects of nicotine-containing fluid to the fluid itself. HGFs were treated with different concentrations (0-5 mg/mL) of fluids of e-cigarettes for different times (0-72 h) and cytotoxicity was analyzed by MTT assay. Fluids were administered also after being vaped (e.g., warmed into the cartomizer). Apoptosis occurrence and Bax expression were evaluated by flow cytometry; ROS production was analyzed by fluorescence optical microscopy. Both nicotine-containing and nicotine-free fluids induced an increased ROS production after 24 h, along with an increased Bax expression, followed by apoptosis occurrence after 48 h of exposure. The cytotoxicity exerted on HGFs by e-cigarettes fluids is not entirely ascribable to nicotine. Since the e-cigarettes are advertised as a safer alternative to traditional ones, especially for the possibility of "smoking" nicotine-free fluids, further studies are necessary to clarify the mechanism involved in the occurrence of cytotoxicity exerted by such compounds. Our results suggest a role for e-cigarette fluids in the pathogenesis of oral diseases, such as periodontitis.

  14. Expression of HMGB1 and HMGN2 in gingival tissues, GCF and PICF of periodontitis patients and peri-implantitis

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    Ping Xie

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available High mobility group chromosomal protein B1 (HMGB1 and N2 (HMGN2, two members of High mobility group (HMG family, play important role in inflammation. The purposes of this study were to investigate the expression of HMGB1 and HMGN2 in periodontistis. The expression of HMGB1 and HMGN2 mRNA in gingival tissues and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF in chronic periodontitis (CP, generalized aggressive periodontitis (G-AgP patients and healthy subjects was detected by real-time PCR. The protein level of HMGB1 and HMGN2 in peri-implant crevicular fluid (PICF, peri-implant crevicular fluid of peri-implantitis (PI-PICF and normal patients was determined by Western blotting. Furthermore, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α and HMGB1 levels in GCF, PI-PICF and healthy-PICF samples from different groups were determined by ELISA. HMGN2 expression was increased in inflamed gingival tissues and GCF from CP and G-ApG groups compared to control group. HMGB1 expression was the highest in the gingival tissues and GCF from CP patients and was accompanied by increased concentrations of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 proinflammaory cytokines. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting that the expression of HMGB1 and HMGN2 was increased in the gingival tissues and GCF in CP and G-AgP and the PICF in PICF. Our data suggest that HMGB1 may be a potential target for the therapy of periodontitis and PI.

  15. Cleavage of host cytokeratin-6 by lysine-specific gingipain induces gingival inflammation in periodontitis patients.

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    Salunya Tancharoen

    Full Text Available Lysine-specific gingipain (Kgp is a virulence factor secreted from Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis, a major etiological bacterium of periodontal disease. Keratin intermediate filaments maintain the structural integrity of gingival epithelial cells, but are targeted by Kgp to produce a novel cytokeratin 6 fragment (K6F. We investigated the release of K6F and its induction of cytokine secretion.K6F present in the gingival crevicular fluid of periodontal disease patients and in gingipain-treated rat gingival epithelial cell culture supernatants was measured by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer-based rapid quantitative peptide analysis using BLOTCHIP. K6F in gingival tissues was immunostained, and cytokeratin 6 protein was analyzed by immunofluorescence staining and flow cytometry. Activation of MAPK in gingival epithelial cells was evaluated by immunoblotting. ELISA was used to measure K6F and the cytokines release induced by K6F. Human gingival fibroblast migration was assessed using a Matrigel invasion chamber assay.We identified K6F, corresponding to the C-terminus region of human cytokeratin 6 (amino acids 359-378, in the gingival crevicular fluid of periodontal disease patients and in the supernatant from gingival epithelial cells cultured with Kgp. K6F antigen was distributed from the basal to the spinous epithelial layers in gingivae from periodontal disease patients. Cytokeratin 6 on gingival epithelial cells was degraded by Kgp, but not by Arg-gingipain, P. gingivalis lipopolysaccharide or Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans lipopolysaccharide. K6F, but not a scrambled K6F peptide, induced human gingival fibroblast migration and secretion of interleukin (IL-6, IL-8 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1. These effects of K6F were mediated by activation of p38 MAPK and Jun N-terminal kinase, but not p42/44 MAPK or p-Akt.Kgp degrades gingival epithelial cell cytokeratin 6 to K6F that, on

  16. Prevalence of herpesviruses in gingivitis and chronic periodontitis: relationship to clinical parameters and effect of treatment

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    Rucha Shah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Assess the prevalence of herpesviruses in healthy subjects, gingivitis, and chronic periodontitis patients, to assess the relationship between the prevalence of herpesviruses and periodontal clinical parameters, and to evaluate the effect of phase-I therapy on the level of viral detection. Materials and Methods: Hundred patients consisting of 20 healthy subjects, 40 gingivitis, and 40 chronic periodontitis were included in the study. Clinical parameters recorded included plaque index, gingival index, sulcus bleeding index, probing depth, and clinical attachment level. The gingivitis and chronic periodontitis patients received phase-I periodontal therapy including oral hygiene instructions, full mouth scaling for gingivitis patients and scaling and root planing for chronic periodontitis patients. Gingival crevicular fluid (GCF was collected, and the presence of herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1, HSV-2, cytomegalovirus, and Epstein–Barr virus (EBV was analyzed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Recording of periodontal parameters as well as GCF collection was performed at baseline and 6 weeks postphase-I therapy. Results: At baseline, the levels of HSV-1 and EBV detection were lower in healthy controls as compared to gingivitis (P < 0.05 and chronic periodontitis cases (P < 0.001. Phase-I therapy led to reduction in the amount of HSV-1 and EBV in gingivitis patients (P < 0.05 and for HSV-1, human cytomegalovirus and EBV in chronic periodontitis patients (P < 0.05 in comparison to baseline. The prevalence of EBV in chronic periodontitis patients was positively associated with increased gingival index, probing depth and loss of clinical attachment (P < 0.05. Conclusions: Higher prevalence of HSV-1 and EBV viruses in GCF of gingivitis and chronic periodontitis suggests a strong association between these viruses and periodontal diseases and periodontal therapy can lead to a reduction in herpesviruses at infected sites.

  17. Evaluation of biochemical parameters and local and systemic levels of osteoactive and B-cell stimulatory factors in gestational diabetes in the presence or absence of gingivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gümüş, Pınar; Özçaka, Özgün; Ceyhan-Öztürk, Banu; Akcali, Aliye; Lappin, David F; Buduneli, Nurcan

    2015-03-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as varying glucose intolerance, with first onset or recognition in pregnancy. This study evaluates clinical and biochemical parameters in a possible association between GDM and gingivitis. A total of 167 pregnant females was included in the study. There were 101 females with GDM and 66 females without GDM. Subgroups were created according to the presence or absence of gingival inflammation. Plaque index, bleeding on probing, and probing depth were recorded at four sites per tooth. Serum, saliva, and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand (sRANKL), osteoprotegerin (OPG), B-cell activating factor (BAFF), and a proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests and Spearman correlation analysis. Age and anthropometric indices were higher in the GDM than non-GDM group (P gingivitis group than non-GDM with gingivitis group (P = 0.044). Serum and GCF BAFF (P gingivitis group than GDM without gingivitis group. The inflammatory response seems to be more pronounced in females with GDM. The observed increase in both local and systemic levels of inflammatory cytokines may suggest an interaction between gingivitis and GDM.

  18. Effect of smoking on EA and NOS expression as well as NO and ET-1 content in gingival tissue of patients with chronic periodontitis

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    Ying Feng

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of smoking on EA and NOS expression as well as NO and ET-1 content in gingival tissue of patients with chronic periodontitis. Methods: Patients diagnosed with periodontitis in our hospital between May 2013 and March 2016 were selected to screen 72 cases of smokers and 80 cases of non-smokers who were enrolled in smoking group and non-smoking group respectively, periodontal tissue was collected to detect the expression of EA, NOS and NLRP3 inflammasome, and gingival crevicular fluid was collected to detect the content of ET-1, NO, inflammatory factors and MMPs. Results: EA expression and ET-1 content in gingival tissue of smoking group were significantly higher than those of nonsmoking group while NOS expression and NO content in gingival tissue were significantly lower than those of non-smoking group; NLRP3, ASC, Caspase-1, IL-1β and IL-18 expression in gingival tissue of smoking group were significantly higher than those of nonsmoking group, and IL-1β, IL-18, TNF-α, IFN-γ, MMP1, MMP8 and MMP13 content in gingival crevicular fluid were significantly higher than those of non-smoking group; NLRP3, ASC, Caspase-1, IL-1β and IL-18 expression as well as IL-1β, IL-18, TNF-α, IFN-γ, MMP1, MMP8 and MMP13 content were positively correlated with EA and ET-1, and negatively correlated with NOS and NO. Conclusion: Smoking can cause increased EA and ET-1 as well as decreased NOS and NO in gingival tissue of patients with chronic periodontitis, thus adjusting the expression of NLRP3 inflammasome and MMPs to periodontal tissue inflammation and structure damage.

  19. Prevalence of Porphyromonas gingivalis Four rag Locus Genotypes in Patients of Orthodontic Gingivitis and Periodontitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Zhang, Yujie; Wang, Lili; Guo, Yang; Xiao, Shuiqing

    2013-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis is considered as a major etiological agent in periodontal diseases and implied to result in gingival inflammation under orthodontic appliance. rag locus is a pathogenicity island found in Porphyromonas gingivalis. Four rag locus variants are different in pathogenicity of Porphyromonas gingivalis. Moreover, there are different racial and geographic differences in distribution of rag locus genotypes. In this study, we assessed the prevalence of Porphyromonas gingivalis and rag locus genotypes in 102 gingival crevicular fluid samples from 57 cases of gingivitis patients with orthodontic appliances, 25 cases of periodontitis patients and 20 cases of periodontally healthy people through a 16S rRNA-based PCR and a multiplex PCR. The correlations between Porphyromona.gingivalis/rag locus and clinical indices were analyzed. The prevalence of Porphyromonas gingivalis and rag locus genes in periodontitis group was the highest among three groups and higher in orthodontic gingivitis than healthy people (porthodontic gingivitis and mild-to-moderate periodontitis in Shandong. Porphyromonas.gingivalis carrying rag-1 has the strong virulence and could be associated with severe periodontitis. PMID:23593379

  20. Inducible expression of A Disintegrin and Metalloproteinase 8 in chronic periodontitis and gingival epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aung, W P P; Chotjumlong, P; Pata, S; Montreekachon, P; Supanchart, C; Khongkhunthian, S; Sastraruji, T; Krisanaprakornkit, S

    2017-06-01

    The expression of A Disintegrin and Metalloproteinase 8 (ADAM8) is associated with several inflammatory diseases. Elevated ADAM8 levels have been shown in gingival crevicular fluid of patients with chronic periodontitis. The objective of this study was to investigate ADAM8 expression in chronic periodontitis tissues compared with that in normal tissues. ADAM8 expression and its inductive mechanism were examined in human gingival epithelial cells (HGECs) and human gingival fibroblasts. Total RNA and protein were extracted from gingival biopsies of 33 patients with chronic periodontitis and those of 23 healthy volunteers. ADAM8 mRNA and protein expression was analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction, immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry. ADAM8 expression in control and stimulated cells in the presence or absence of specific inhibitors for mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways was assayed by real-time polymerase chain reaction, immunoblotting, flow cytometry and immunofluorescence. ADAM8 mRNA and protein expression in chronic periodontitis tissues was significantly greater than that in normal tissues (p chronic periodontitis tissues (p chronic periodontitis tissues and localized within gingival epithelium, consistent with an upregulation of ADAM8 expression in F. nucleatum-stimulated HGECs, suggesting a possible role of ADAM8 in innate immunity of periodontal tissue. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Modulation of the host response by probiotic Lactobacillus brevis CD2 in experimental gingivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J-K; Kim, S-J; Ko, S-H; Ouwehand, A C; Ma, D S

    2015-09-01

    Probiotic Lactobacillus brevisCD2 (CD2) exerts anti-inflammatory properties by preventing nitric oxide synthesis. It is hypothesized that oral application of CD2 can inhibit naturally occurring gingival inflammation. Thirty-four healthy adults were randomized to receive L. brevisCD2 lozenges or placebo, three times daily for 14 days. The subjects refrained from oral hygiene, the extent of which was determined at various time points. In both groups, bleeding on probing scores increased continuously throughout the study except on day 3. In the placebo group, scores increased significantly from 9.50 at baseline to 14.75 and 14.81 on days 10 and 14, respectively (P gingival indices increased from baseline in both treatment groups, but no intergroup differences were observed. Measurements of immune markers in gingival crevicular fluid revealed increased production of nitric oxide in the placebo group (P gingivitis development in this model by downregulating an inflammatory cascade. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Gene expression of inflammation and bone healing in peri-implant crevicular fluid after placement and loading of dental implants. A kinetic clinical pilot study using quantitative real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slotte, Christer; Lennerås, Maria; Göthberg, Catharina; Suska, Felicia; Zoric, Neven; Thomsen, Peter; Nannmark, Ulf

    2012-10-01

    Early detection of healing complications after placement of dental implants is a pressing but elusive goal. This paper proposes a non-invasive diagnostic tool for monitoring healing- and peri-implant disease specific genes, complementary to clinical evaluations. Eighteen partially edentulous patients were recruited to this pilot study. Three Brånemark TiUnite® implants/patient (Nobel Biocare) were placed in a one-stage procedure. Abutments with smooth or rough (TiUnite®) surface were placed. The test group (n = 9) received fixed bridges (immediate loading), whereas the control group (n = 9) implants were loaded 3 months after surgery. In addition to clinical measurements, crevicular fluid was collected using paper strips at the implant abutments 2, 14, 28, and 90 days postoperative. mRNA was extracted, purified, and converted to cDNA. Quantitative PCR assays for IL-1β, TNF-α, Osteocalcin (OC), Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP), Cathepsin K, Tartrate Resistant Acid Phosphatase, and 18S ribosomal RNA were designed and validated. Relative gene expression levels were calculated. One implant was lost in the control group and three in the test group. In one test patient, one implant showed lowered stability after 2 to 4 weeks and was unloaded. Later implant stability improved which allowed for loading after 3 to 4 months. TNF-α and ALP most commonly showed correlation with clinical parameters followed by IL-1β and OC. The strongest correlation was found for TNF-α with clinical complications at 2 and 14 days (p = .01/r = -048, and p = .0004/r = -0.56, respectively; test and control groups together). In some cases, gene expression predicted clinical complications (TNF-α, ALP, CK). This study is based on samples from few individuals; still, some genes showed correlation with clinical findings. Further studies are needed to refine and optimize the sampling process, to find the appropriate panel, and to validate gene expression for monitoring implant healing. © 2010 Wiley

  3. Clinical, Immune, and Microbiome Traits of Gingivitis and Peri-implant Mucositis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schincaglia, G P; Hong, B Y; Rosania, A; Barasz, J; Thompson, A; Sobue, T; Panagakos, F; Burleson, J A; Dongari-Bagtzoglou, A; Diaz, P I

    2017-01-01

    Tissues surrounding dental implants and teeth develop clinical inflammation in response to microbial stimuli. However, the literature suggests that differences exist in the microbial insult and inflammatory responses leading to gingivitis and peri-implant mucositis. In this pilot study, the authors use for the first time a systems biology approach to comprehensively evaluate clinical parameters, selected inflammatory markers, and the microbiome of subject-matched tooth and implant sites during native inflammation and in response to experimental plaque accumulation. Fifteen subjects with 2 posterior implants and corresponding contralateral teeth were examined at enrollment; at day 0, after reinstitution of gingival/mucosal health; at days 7, 14, and 21, during stent-mediated oral hygiene (OH) abstention; and at day 42, after resumption of OH. The subgingival microbiome was evaluated via 16S rRNA gene sequencing and 8 selected inflammatory markers measured in crevicular fluid. Comparison of teeth and implants via general linear models based on orthogonal polynomials showed similar responses in clinical parameters, inflammatory mediators, and proportions of individual microbial taxa during OH abstention. Implants, however, accumulated less plaque and underwent more heterogeneous shifts in microbiome structure. A multilevel, within-group, sparse partial least squares analysis of covariation of microbial, inflammatory, and clinical parameters throughout all study visits found inflammation around teeth and implants positively correlated with IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta and with the proportions of Selenomonas, Prevotella, and 5 species-level phylotypes. Gingivitis, however, showed a stronger positive correlation with lactoferrin and IL-1ra and a stronger negative correlation with Rothia. Peri-implant mucositis, on the contrary, correlated positively with certain microbial taxa not associated with gingivitis by a previous study or the current one. In summary, differences

  4. Crevicular and serum levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-4 and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in periodontal health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Minal; Pradeep, A R; Priyanka, N; Kalra, Nitish; Naik, Savitha B

    2014-06-01

    Chemokines are chemotactic cytokines that are involved in destruction of the periodontal structures. The aim of this study is to determine the presence of MCP-4 and high sensitivity C reactive protein (hsCRP) levels in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and serum in periodontal health and disease and to find a correlation between MCP-4 and hsCRP in GCF and serum. 40 subjects (20 males and 20 females) were selected and divided into three groups based on clinical parameters and radiologic parameters: Group 1 (10 healthy); Group 2 (15 gingivitis subjects) and Group 3 (15 chronic periodontitis subjects). The levels of serum and GCF MCP-4 were determined by ELISA and hsCRP levels were determined by immunoturbidimetry method. The mean GCF and serum concentration of MCP-4 were the highest for group 3 followed by group 2 and least in group 1. Similarly, the mean hsCRP concentrations were highest for group 3 and least in group 1. Moreover, a significant positive correlation was found between serum and GCF MCP-4 and hsCRP levels and periodontal parameters. The levels of MCP-4 and hsCRP increased from healthy to periodontitis. It can be proposed that MCP-4 and hsCRP are the potential biomarkers of inflammation in periodontal health and disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The effect of adjunctive chlorhexidine mouthrinse on GCF MMP-8 and TIMP-1 levels in gingivitis: a randomized placebo-controlled study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of adjunctive chlorhexidine (CHX) mouthrinse on gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) MMP-8 and TIMP-1 levels in plaque-associated gingivitis. Methods A total of 50 gingivitis patients were included in the present study. In addition to daily plaque control, CHX group rinsed with CHX, while placebo group rinsed with placebo mouthrinse for 4 weeks. GCF samples were collected, and clinical parameters including plaque index, papillary bleeding index, calculus index and pocket depth were recorded at baseline and 4 weeks. GCF MMP-8 and TIMP-1 levels were determined by immunofluorometric assay (IFMA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. Results In both groups, GCF MMP-8 levels of anterior and posterior sites at four weeks were not different from baseline (p > 0.05). There were no significant differences in GCF MMP-8 levels between the study groups at four weeks (p > 0.05). GCF TIMP-1 levels of anterior and posterior sites at four weeks were higher compared to baseline in both groups (p  0.05). Conclusions CHX usage had no significant effects on the GCF MMP-8 and TIMP-1 levels in plaque-associate gingivitis. However, daily plaque control resulted in the increase of GCF TIMP-1 levels regardless of CHX usage. PMID:24886536

  6. Clinical, microbial, and immune responses observed in patients with diabetes after treatment for gingivitis: a three-month randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raslan, Suzane A; Cortelli, Jose R; Costa, Fernando O; Aquino, Davi R; Franco, Gilson C N; Cota, Luis O M; Gargioni-Filho, Antonio; Cortelli, Sheila C

    2015-04-01

    Although patients with diabetes are frequently affected by periodontitis, only a few investigations have focused on gingivitis in this at-risk population. This randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial compared the response to a gingivitis treatment protocol that combined mechanical procedures and daily use of an essential oil (EO) mouthrinse between patients with and without diabetes. The whole-mouth periodontal probing depth (PD), gingival index (GI), and plaque index (PI) were monitored in gingivitis cases among systemically healthy patients (n = 60) or those with diabetes (n = 60) at baseline and 3 months after treatment. Levels of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, and total bacterial load were determined by a real-time polymerase chain reaction in intrasulci plaque samples. The volume of gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) was quantified, and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) levels were determined in GCF samples. After a full-mouth ultrasonic debridement, patients were randomly assigned to an EO or a placebo rinse for 90 days (40 mL/day). The data were analyzed through repeated-measures analysis of variance and multiple comparisons Tukey tests (P diabetes group. Diabetes impaired GI and reduced GCF volume. PD, bacterial levels, and IL-1β improved similarly in both systemic conditions. The adjunctive use of EO provided greater reductions of PI, GI, total bacterial load, T. forsythia, A. actinomycetemcomitans, and GCF volume. Response to gingivitis treatment in patients with diabetes can slightly differ from that in patients without diabetes. Daily use of an EO mouthrinse after ultrasonic debridement benefited patients with and without diabetes.

  7. Gingival Enlargement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cover the crowns of the teeth causing periodontal (gum) disease (due to difficulty in keeping the teeth clean) ... localized and/or generalized gingival enlargement such as pregnancy, hormonal imbalances, and leukemia. To the right is ...

  8. Combined effects of starvation and butyrate on autophagy-dependent gingival epithelial cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, M; Murofushi, T; Tsuda, H; Mikami, Y; Zhao, N; Ochiai, K; Kurita-Ochiai, T; Yamamoto, M; Otsuka, K; Suzuki, N

    2017-06-01

    Bacteria in the dental biofilm surrounding marginal gingival grooves cause periodontal diseases. Numerous bacteria within the biofilm consume nutrients from the gingival crevicular fluid. Furthermore, some gram-negative bacteria in mature dental biofilms produce butyrate. Thus, gingival epithelial cells in close proximity to mature dental biofilms are at risk of both starvation and exposure to butyrate. In the present study, we determined the combined effects of starvation and butyrate exposure on gingival epithelial cell death and the underlying mechanisms. The Ca9-22 cell line was used as an in vitro counterpart of gingival epithelial cells. Cell death was measured as the amount of total DNA in the dead cells using SYTOX Green dye, which penetrates through membranes of dead cells and emits fluorescence when it intercalates into double-stranded DNA. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity, the amount of autophagy, and acetylation of histone H3 were determined using western blot. Gene expression levels of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3b (lc3b) were determined using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Butyrate-induced cell death occurred in a dose-dependent manner whether cells were starved or fed. However, the induction of cell death was two to four times higher when cells were placed under starvation conditions compared to when they were fed. Moreover, both starvation and butyrate exposure induced AMPK activity and autophagy. While AMPK inactivation resulted in decreased autophagy and butyrate-induced cell death under conditions of starvation, AMPK activation resulted in butyrate-induced cell death when cells were fed. Combined with the results of our previous report, which demonstrated butyrate-induced autophagy-dependent cell death, the results of this study suggest that the combination of starvation and butyrate exposure activates AMPK inducing autophagy and subsequent cell death. Notably, this combination markedly

  9. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein-induced periodontal inflammation is associated with the up-regulation of cyclooxygenase-2 and microsomal prostaglandin synthase 1 in human gingival epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagahama, Yu; Obama, Takashi; Usui, Michihiko; Kanazawa, Yukari; Iwamoto, Sanju; Suzuki, Kazushige; Miyazaki, Akira; Yamaguchi, Tomohiro; Yamamoto, Matsuo; Itabe, Hiroyuki

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → OxLDL-induced responses in human gingival epithelial cells were studied. → OxLDL enhanced the production of IL-8, IL-1β and PGE 2 in Ca9-22 cells. → An NF-κB inhibitor suppressed the expression of COX-2 and mPGES1 induced by oxLDL. → Unlike the case in macrophages, oxLDL did not increase the CD36 level. -- Abstract: Periodontitis is characterized by chronic gingival tissue inflammation, and inflammatory mediators such as IL-8 and prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ) are associated with disease progression. Previously we showed that oxidatively modified low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) was present in gingival crevicular fluid. In this study, the role of oxLDL in the gingival epithelial cell inflammatory response was further investigated using Ca9-22 cells and primary human oral keratinocytes (HOK). Treatment of Ca9-22 cells and HOK with oxLDL induced an up-regulation of IL-8 and the PGE 2 -producing enzymes, cyclooxygenase-2 and microsomal PGE 2 synthase-1. These responses induced by oxLDL were significantly suppressed by a nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) inhibitor. However, unlike the result in macrophages, oxLDL did not lead to an increase in CD36 expression in these two cells. These results suggest that oxLDL elicits gingival epithelial cell inflammatory responses through an activation of the NF-κB pathway. These data suggest a mechanistic link between periodontal disease and lipid metabolism-related disorders, including atherosclerosis.

  10. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein-induced periodontal inflammation is associated with the up-regulation of cyclooxygenase-2 and microsomal prostaglandin synthase 1 in human gingival epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagahama, Yu [Department of Periodontology, School of Dentistry, Showa University Dental Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Department of Biological Chemistry, Showa University School of Pharmacy, Tokyo (Japan); Obama, Takashi [Department of Biological Chemistry, Showa University School of Pharmacy, Tokyo (Japan); Usui, Michihiko [Department of Periodontology, School of Dentistry, Showa University Dental Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Kanazawa, Yukari [Department of Biological Chemistry, Showa University School of Pharmacy, Tokyo (Japan); Iwamoto, Sanju [Department of Biochemistry, Showa University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Suzuki, Kazushige [Department of Periodontology, School of Dentistry, Showa University Dental Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Miyazaki, Akira [Department of Biochemistry, Showa University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Yamaguchi, Tomohiro [Department of Biological Chemistry, Showa University School of Pharmacy, Tokyo (Japan); Yamamoto, Matsuo [Department of Periodontology, School of Dentistry, Showa University Dental Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Itabe, Hiroyuki [Department of Biological Chemistry, Showa University School of Pharmacy, Tokyo (Japan)

    2011-10-07

    Highlights: {yields} OxLDL-induced responses in human gingival epithelial cells were studied. {yields} OxLDL enhanced the production of IL-8, IL-1{beta} and PGE{sub 2} in Ca9-22 cells. {yields} An NF-{kappa}B inhibitor suppressed the expression of COX-2 and mPGES1 induced by oxLDL. {yields} Unlike the case in macrophages, oxLDL did not increase the CD36 level. -- Abstract: Periodontitis is characterized by chronic gingival tissue inflammation, and inflammatory mediators such as IL-8 and prostaglandin E{sub 2} (PGE{sub 2}) are associated with disease progression. Previously we showed that oxidatively modified low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) was present in gingival crevicular fluid. In this study, the role of oxLDL in the gingival epithelial cell inflammatory response was further investigated using Ca9-22 cells and primary human oral keratinocytes (HOK). Treatment of Ca9-22 cells and HOK with oxLDL induced an up-regulation of IL-8 and the PGE{sub 2}-producing enzymes, cyclooxygenase-2 and microsomal PGE{sub 2} synthase-1. These responses induced by oxLDL were significantly suppressed by a nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-{kappa}B) inhibitor. However, unlike the result in macrophages, oxLDL did not lead to an increase in CD36 expression in these two cells. These results suggest that oxLDL elicits gingival epithelial cell inflammatory responses through an activation of the NF-{kappa}B pathway. These data suggest a mechanistic link between periodontal disease and lipid metabolism-related disorders, including atherosclerosis.

  11. Immunological parameters of dental alloy corrosion; A study of gingival inflammation after placement of stainless steel crown

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratna Indriyanti

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The dental alloy is widely used in many fields of dentistry as a restoration material, orthodontic, prosthodontic, oral surgery and endodontic treatments. Naturally, most of the metallic materials without exception to stainless steel alloy will experience a process of corrosion in a form of electrochemical reaction to achieve thermodynamic equilibrium. The corrosion process in the oral cavity is due to the reaction of metal with saliva as an oral cavity electrolyte fluid. SSC has preformed restoration material conform with dental anatomy, manufactured from stainless steel alloy which is formable and adaptable to the teeth. Stainless Steel Crown generally made of austenitic stainless steel 18/8 of AISI 304 group contain chrome 18% and Nickel 8%, can be used as a restoration for teeth with excessive caries, crown fracture, email hypoplasia, or restoration after endodontic treatment. The toxic effect of Ni+2 released due to corrosion process may cause an inflammation of the gingiva and periodontal tissue. Laboratorically this condition indicated by the expression of pro-inflammation cytokines as immunological parameters such as IL-6, IL-8, TNF and IL-1β whose main role is to initiate and enhance any inflammation responses. The presence of pro-inflammation cytokines can be detected as soon as 1 hour after placement of SSC by examination of gingival crevicular fluid (GCF by ELISA technique. The magnitude of the toxic effect depends on corrosion rate and ions release which is influenced by metal chemical composition, environment temperature and pH, metal wear due to abrasion and friction, soldering if any, and elongation of the metal. Conclusion: The release of Ni+2 during corrosion process after placement of SSC cause gingival inflammation which is indicated by the change of the immunological parameters.

  12. Gingival tissue transcriptomes in experimental gingivitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jönsson, Daniel; Ramberg, Per; Demmer, Ryan T.; Kebschull, Moritz; Dahlén, Gunnar; Papapanou, Panos N.

    2012-01-01

    Aims We investigated the sequential gene expression in the gingiva during the induction and resolution of experimental gingivitis. Methods Twenty periodontally and systemically healthy non-smoking volunteers participated in a 3-week experimental gingivitis protocol, followed by debridement and 2-week regular plaque control. We recorded clinical indices and harvested gingival tissue samples from 4 interproximal palatal sites in half of the participants at baseline, Day 7, 14 and 21 (‘induction phase’), and at day 21, 25, 30 and 35 in the other half (‘resolution phase’). RNA was extracted, amplified, reversed transcribed, amplified, labeled and hybridized with Affymetrix Human Genome U133Plus2.0 microarrays. Paired t-tests compared gene expression changes between consecutive time points. Gene ontology analyses summarized the expression patterns into biologically relevant categories. Results The median gingival index was 0 at baseline, 2 at Day 21 and 1 at Day 35. Differential gene regulation peaked during the third week of induction and the first four days of resolution. Leukocyte transmigration, cell adhesion and antigen processing/presentation were the top differentially regulated pathways. Conclusions Transcriptomic studies enhance our understanding of the pathobiology of the reversible inflammatory gingival lesion and provide a detailed account of the dynamic tissue responses during induction and resolution of experimental gingivitis. PMID:21501207

  13. Gingival Recessions and Biomechanics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Morten Godtfredsen

    Gingival recessions and biomechanics “Tissue is the issue, but bone sets the tone.“ A tooth outside the cortical plate can result in loss of bone and development of a gingival recession. The presentation aims to show biomechanical considerations in relation to movement of teeth with gingival...... by moving the root back in the alveolus. The tooth movement is accompanied by bone gain and thus increase the success rate for soft tissue augmentation. The choice of biomechanical system influences the treatment outcome. If a standard straight wire appliance is used, a biomechanical dilemma can arise...

  14. Effects of a Cyclic NSAID Regimen on Levels of Gingival Crevicular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-11-01

    Nov 1, 2017 ... processes of many chronic illnesses, including periodontal disease.[4] Elevated .... 6-month effect of a cyclic regimen of DP on clinical parameters of ... At baseline, clinical parameters, PGE2 level, IL-1β level, age, and smoking ..... NSAIDs have rebound effects[16] after cessation of use that may restrict their ...

  15. Gingival Cyst of Newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moda, Aman

    2011-01-01

    Gingival cyst of newborn is an oral mucosal lesion of transient nature. Although it is very common lesion within 3 to 6 weeks of birth, it is very rare to visualize the lesion thereafter. Presented here is a case report of gingival cyst, which was visible just after 15 days of birth. Clinical diagnoses of these conditions are important in order to avoid unnecessary therapeutic procedure and provide suitable information to parents about the nature of the lesion.

  16. Crevicular Alkaline Phosphatase Activity and Rate of Tooth Movement of Female Orthodontic Subjects under Different Continuous Force Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohaya Megat Abdul Wahab

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This study is aimed to compare the effects of two different orthodontic forces on crevicular alkaline phosphatase activity, rate of tooth movement, and root resorption. Materials and Methods. Twelve female subjects of class II division 1 malocclusion participated. Maxillary canines with bonded fixed appliances acted as the tested teeth, while their antagonists with no appliances acted as the controls. Canine retraction was performed using nickel titanium coil spring that delivered forces of 100 gm or 150 gm to either side. Crevicular fluid was analyzed for ALP activity, and study models were casted to measure tooth movements. Root resorption was assessed using periapical radiographs before and after the force application. Results. ALP activity at the mesial sites peaked at week 1 for 150 gm group with significant differences when compared with the 100 gm group. Cumulative canine movements were significantly greater in the 150 gm force (2.10 ± 0.50 mm than in the 100 gm force (1.57 ± 0.44 mm. No root resorption was in the maxillary canines after retraction. Conclusions. A force of 150 gm produced faster tooth movements and higher ALP activity compared with the 100 gm group and had no detrimental effects such as root resorption.

  17. Gingival plasma cell granuloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amitkumar B Pandav

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Plasma cell granuloma, also known as inflammatory pseudotumor is a tumor-like lesion that manifests primarily in the lungs. But it may occur in various other anatomic locations like orbit, head and neck, liver and rarely in the oral cavity. We here report an exceedingly rare case of gingival plasma cell granuloma in a 58 year old woman who presented with upper gingival polypoidal growth. The histopathological examination revealed a mass composed of proliferation of benign spindle mesenchymal cells in a loose myxoid and fibrocollagenous stroma along with dense infiltrate of chronic inflammatory cells predominantly containing plasma cells. Immunohistochemistry for kappa and lambda light chains showed a polyclonal staining pattern confirming a diagnosis of plasma cell granuloma.

  18. Idiopathic gingival fibromatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujata Rath

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a case report of a 14-year-old female patient with idiopathic gingival fibromatosis in the maxillary region with radiographic feature of congenitally missing maxillary permanent left lateral incisor, maxillary left and right permanent canine, mandibular right second premolar, all third molars along with overretained primary maxillary left lateral incisor and primary mandibular second molar. The treatment rendered in this patient comprised of surgical excision of the hyperplasia under general anesthesia.

  19. Multiple gingival pregnancy tumors with rapid growth

    OpenAIRE

    Wei-Lian Sun; Li-Hong Lei; Li-Li Chen; Zhong-Sheng Yu; Jian-Wei Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Pregnancy gingivitis is an acute form of gingivitis that affects pregnant women, with a prevalence of 30%, possibly ranging up to 100%. Sometimes, pregnancy gingivitis shows a tendency toward a localized hyperplasia called gingival pyogenic granuloma. Pregnancy tumor is a benign gingival hyperplasia with the gingiva as the most commonly involved site, but rarely it involves almost the entire gingiva. A 22-year-old woman was referred to our clinic with a chief complaint of gingival swelling th...

  20. Gingivitis ulceronecrosante aguda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo de la Teja-Ángeles

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available La gingivitis ulcerativa necrosante, conocida por sus siglas en inglés como GUN (anteriormente se le conocía como enfermedad de Vincent o “boca de trinchera” por afectar a soldados en guerra, es una enfermedad poco frecuente.1-6 Se caracteriza por ser una infección aguda y dolorosa en la que las encías sangran, hay necrosis de las papilas interdentales y ataque al estado general.

  1. Gingival squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Walvekar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC is the most common epithelial malignancy affecting the oral cavity. The most common sites for the development are lateral surface of tongue and floor of mouth; the least common sites are soft palate, gingiva, and buccal mucosa. Gingival squamous cell carcinoma can mimic a multitude of oral lesions and enlargements, especially those of inflammatory origin. In addition, predisposing and presenting factors are different from those of other OSCCs. Careful examination as well as routine biopsy are crucial for accurate diagnosis.

  2. Level of Salivary Uric Acid in Gingivitis and Periodontitis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ihsan Rizal

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Periodontal disease is common chronic adult condition. Antioxidants are present in the body fluid as protection against free radical. Uric acid is one of antioxidants that can be found in saliva. Moreover, the relationship among the antioxidant enzymes activities and clinical periodontal status were investigated. Objectives: The aim of the study was to observe uric acid level activities in the saliva of gingivitis and periodontitis patients. Methods: Six patients with gingivitis and six patients with periodontitis in Dental Hospital Trisakti University were included in the study. Clinical condition of each subject, the plaque index, and probing depth were determined. The salivary uric acid level was measured using the Folin-Wu method. Result: Salivary uric acid levels in the periodontitis patients with a mean ± SD  7.40 ± 0.31  (p = 0.004 were found to be higher compared to the gingivitis patients (mean ± SD = 6.84 ± 0.19. In addition, there were no significant differences in salivary uric acid levels between gender (p = 0.641. Conclusion: Uric acid levels in periodontitis patients were found to be higher than in gingivitis patients. Moreover, uric acid has more role on periodontitis than in gingivitis as an antioxidant agent.

  3. Significance of oxidized low-density lipoprotein in body fluids as a marker related to diseased conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itabe, Hiroyuki; Kato, Rina; Sasabe, Naoko; Obama, Takashi; Yamamoto, Matsuo

    2018-03-06

    Oxidatively modified low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) is known to be involved in various diseases, including cardiovascular diseases. The presence of oxLDL in the human circulatory system and in atherosclerotic lesions has been demonstrated using monoclonal antibodies. Studies have shown the significance of circulating oxLDL in various systemic diseases, including acute myocardial infarction and diabetic mellitus. Several different enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) procedures to measure oxLDL were utilized. Evidence has been accumulating that reveals changes in oxLDL levels under certain pathological conditions. Since oxLDL concentration tends to correlate with low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, the ratio of oxLDL and LDL rather than oxLDL concentration alone has been focused attention. In addition to circulating plasma, LDL and oxLDL are found in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF), where the ratio of oxLDL to LDL in GCF is much higher than in plasma. LDL and oxLDL levels in GCF show an increase in diabetic patients and periodontal patients, suggesting that GCF might be useful in examining systemic conditions. GCF oxLDL increased when the teeth were affected by periodontitis. It is likely that oxLDL levels in plasma and GCF could reflect oxidative stress and transfer efficacy in circulatory system. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  4. Effect of Titanium-prepared Platelet-rich Fibrin Treatment on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Titanium-prepared Platelet-rich Fibrin Treatment on the Angiogenic Biomarkers in Gingival Crevicular Fluid in Infrabony Defects of Patients with Chronic Periodontitis: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial.

  5. Evaluation of gingival fiber retention technique on the treatment of patients with chronic periodontitis: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Palwankar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The destructive action of the chronic periodontitis on the periodontal tissues has provided a continuous challenge to the dental profession to develop better methods to achieve repair of the recession regions and even regeneration of post periodontal tissues. Aims: To assess the effect of periodontal muco-periostal flap surgery with gingival fiber retention technique on minimizing the post surgical recession. Materials and Methods: The sample for the study comprised of 20 patients. The criteria for selection included patients with moderate periodontitis, with minimum recession in the anterior teeth, with adequate width of the attached gingiva, and with no traumatic occlusion. Periodontal muco-periosteal flap surgery with gingival fiber retention technique was done in the experimental site with internal bevel incision, and in control site, muco periosteal flap surgery with crevicular incision was done. Thereafter, observation period was of one week, four weeks, and eight weeks were done for both the sites. Statistical Analysis Used: The results were subjected to statistical analysis using student′s t`-test. Results: The result of this study suggests that the periodontal flap surgery with gingival fiber retention technique has a beneficial effect on the anterior teeth, as it maintains the esthetics, recontours the gingiva with minimal recession. The area of recession was more on the control site as compared to experimental site at 4 weeks, 8 weeks and 12 weeks. Conclusions: Gingival fiber retention technique showed less post-surgical recession and also there was fall in values of plaque index, gingival index, and periodontal index scores, throughout the study.

  6. A rare clinical presentation of sarcoidosis; gingivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güzel, Aygül; Köksal, Nurhan; Aydın, Davut; Aslan, Kerim; Gören, Fikret; Karagöz, Filiz

    2013-10-01

    Gingivitis due to sarcoidosis is a relatively rare condition. Gingivitis or isolated gingival involvement may be the first sign of systemic sarcoidosis. We report the case of a 37 year-old woman with isolated gingivitis due to sarcoidosis confirmed by biopsy. Following treatment with a systemic corticosteroid (prednisolone 40 mg/day), all clinical and radiologic findings were completely improved. In cases of chronic and intractable gingivitis, systemic sarcoidosis should be suspected. It should be confirmed with a biopsy, and the patient should be referred to a chest disease clinic to exclude other organ involvement. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The vaginal microflora in relation to gingivitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background Gingivitis has been linked to adverse pregnancy outcome (APO). Bacterial vaginosis (BV) has been associated with APO. We assessed if bacterial counts in BV is associated with gingivitis suggesting a systemic infectious susceptibilty. Methods Vaginal samples were collected from 180 women (mean age 29.4 years, SD ± 6.8, range: 18 to 46), and at least six months after delivery, and assessed by semi-quantitative DNA-DNA checkerboard hybridization assay (74 bacterial species). BV was defined by Gram stain (Nugent criteria). Gingivitis was defined as bleeding on probing at ≥ 20% of tooth sites. Results A Nugent score of 0–3 (normal vaginal microflora) was found in 83 women (46.1%), and a score of > 7 (BV) in 49 women (27.2%). Gingivitis was diagnosed in 114 women (63.3%). Women with a diagnosis of BV were more likely to have gingivitis (p = 0.01). Independent of gingival conditions, vaginal bacterial counts were higher (p gingivitis had higher counts of Prevotella bivia (p 1.0 × 104 cells) and a diagnosis of gingivitis was 3.9 for P. bivia (95% CI 1.5–5.7, p gingivitis in comparison to women with BV but not gingivitis. P. bivia and P. disiens may be of specific significance in a relationship between vaginal and gingival infections. PMID:19161595

  8. Nonsurgical Management of Nifedipine Induced Gingival Overgrowth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Sam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug-induced gingival overgrowth is frequently associated with three particular drugs: phenytoin, cyclosporin, and nifedipine. As gingival enlargement develops, it affects the normal oral hygiene practice and may interfere with masticatory functions. The awareness in the medical community about this possible side effect of nifedipine is less when compared to the effects of phenytoin and cyclosporin. The frequency of gingival enlargement associated with chronic nifedipine therapy remains controversial. Within the group of patients that develop this unwanted effect, there appears to be variability in the extent and severity of the gingival changes. Although gingival inflammation is considered a primary requisite in their development, few cases with minimal or no plaque induced gingival inflammation have also been reported. A case report of gingival overgrowth induced by nifedipine in a patient with good oral hygiene and its nonsurgical management with drug substitution is discussed in this case report.

  9. Multiple gingival pregnancy tumors with rapid growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Lian Sun

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy gingivitis is an acute form of gingivitis that affects pregnant women, with a prevalence of 30%, possibly ranging up to 100%. Sometimes, pregnancy gingivitis shows a tendency toward a localized hyperplasia called gingival pyogenic granuloma. Pregnancy tumor is a benign gingival hyperplasia with the gingiva as the most commonly involved site, but rarely it involves almost the entire gingiva. A 22-year-old woman was referred to our clinic with a chief complaint of gingival swelling that had lasted for 2 days. The lesions progressed rapidly and extensively, and almost all the gingiva was involved a week later. Generalized erythema, edema, hyperplasia, a hemorrhagic tendency, and several typical hemangiomatous masses were noted. Pregnancy was denied by the patient at the first and second visits, but was confirmed 2 weeks after the primary visit. The patient was given oral hygiene instructions. She recovered well, and the mass gradually regressed and had disappeared completely at the end of 12 weeks of pregnancy, without recurrence. The gingival lesions were finally diagnosed as multiple gingival pregnancy tumors. The patient delivered a healthy infant. An extensive and rapid growth of gingival pregnancy tumors during the early first month of pregnancy is a rare occurrence that is not familiar to dentists, gynecologists, and obstetricians. Those practitioners engaged in oral medicine and periodontology, primary care obstetrics, and gynecology should be aware of such gingival lesions to avoid misdiagnosis and overtreatment.

  10. Ultrastructural evaluation of gingival connective tissue in hereditary gingival fibromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pêgo, Sabina Pena B; de Faria, Paulo Rogério; Santos, Luis Antônio N; Coletta, Ricardo D; de Aquino, Sibele Nascimento; Martelli-Júnior, Hercílio

    2016-07-01

    To describe the ultrastructural features of hereditary gingival fibromatosis (HGF) in affected family members and compare microscopic findings with normal gingival (NG) tissue. Gingival tissue samples from nine patients with HGF from five unrelated families were evaluated by transmission electron microscopy. Nine NG tissue samples were used for comparison. Areas containing collagen fibrils forming loops and folds were observed in both groups, whereas oxytalan fibers were frequently identified in the HGF group. The diameter of collagen fibrils and the interfibrillar space among them were more uniform in the NG group than in the HGF group. Fibroblasts were the most common cells found in both the HGF and NG groups and exhibited enlarged, rough endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria with well-preserved crests, conspicuous nucleoli, and euchromatic chromatin. Other cells, such as mast cells, plasma cells, and macrophages, were also observed. HGF tissues had ultrastructural characteristics that were very similar to those of NG tissues. Oxytalan fibers were observed more frequently in the HGF samples than in the NG samples. Other studies of HGF in patients from different families should be performed to better understand the pathogenesis of this hereditary condition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Gingival Retraction Methods: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabassum, Sadia; Adnan, Samira; Khan, Farhan Raza

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to assess the gingival retraction methods in terms of the amount of gingival retraction achieved and changes observed in various clinical parameters: gingival index (GI), plaque index (PI), probing depth (PD), and attachment loss (AL). Data sources included three major databases, PubMed, CINAHL plus (Ebsco), and Cochrane, along with hand search. Search was made using the key terms in different permutations of gingival retraction* AND displacement method* OR technique* OR agents OR material* OR medicament*. The initial search results yielded 145 articles which were narrowed down to 10 articles using a strict eligibility criteria of including clinical trials or experimental studies on gingival retraction methods with the amount of tooth structure gained and assessment of clinical parameters as the outcomes conducted on human permanent teeth only. Gingival retraction was measured in 6/10 studies whereas the clinical parameters were assessed in 5/10 studies. The total number of teeth assessed in the 10 included studies was 400. The most common method used for gingival retraction was chemomechanical. The results were heterogeneous with regards to the outcome variables. No method seemed to be significantly superior to the other in terms of gingival retraction achieved. Clinical parameters were not significantly affected by the gingival retraction method. © 2016 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  12. Subgingival Microbiome of Gingivitis in Chinese Undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Ke; Ouyang, Xiang Ying; Chu, Yi; Zhang, Qian

    To analyse the microbiome composition of health and gingivitis in Chinese undergraduates with high-throughput sequencing. Sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons was performed with the MiSeq system to compare subgingival bacterial communities from 54 subjects with gingivitis and 12 periodontally healthy controls. A total of 1,967,372 sequences representing 14 phyla, 104 genera, and 96 species were detected. Analysis of similarities (Anosim) test and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showed significantly different community profiles between the health control and the subjects with gingivitis. Alpha-diversity metrics were significantly higher in the subgingival plaque of the subjects with gingivitis compared with that of the healthy control. Overall, the relative abundance of 35 genera and 46 species were significantly different between the two groups, among them 28 genera and 45 species showed higher relative abundance in the subjects with gingivitis, whereas seven genera and one species showed a higher relative abundance in the healthy control. The genera Porphyromonas, Treponema, and Tannerella showed higher relative abundance in the subjects with gingivitis, while the genera Capnocytophaga showed higher proportions in health controls. Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia and Porphyromonas endodontalis had higher relative abundance in gingivitis. Among them, Porphyromonas gingivalis was most abundant. Our results revealed significantly different microbial community composition and structures of subgingival plaque between subjects with gingivitis and healthy controls. Subjects with gingivitis showed greater taxonomic diversity compared with periodontally healthy subjects. The proportion of Porphyromonas, especially Porphyromonas gingivalis, may be associated with gingivitis subjects aged between 18 and 21 years old in China. Adults with gingivitis in this age group may have a higher risk of developing periodontitis.

  13. Proteus syndrome: association with gingival hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendorf, T M; Hanslo, B

    1995-09-01

    A 9-year old Black boy with gigantism of the hands and feet, and recurrent gingival hyperplasia, diagnosed as Proteus syndrome is presented. The oral manifestations of this syndrome are described. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of gingival hyperplasia associated with Proteus syndrome.

  14. Esthetic evaluation of dental and gingival asymmetries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Liliana; Pinho, Teresa

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine which smile asymmetries were less esthetic, dental or gingival. Laypeople (297), generalists (223), prosthodontists (50) and orthodontists (49), evaluated the esthetics of digitally-modified images taken from the same frontal intra-oral photograph, using the same lips, simulating upper maxillary midline shift, occlusal plane inclination, asymmetric incisal edge and asymmetric gingival migration. The images were later paired into 3 groups. The only ones considered esthetic were the asymmetric incisal edge of the 0.5 mm shorter upper central incisor and the asymmetric gingival migration (2 mm) of the upper central incisor. In the paired images, upper maxillary midline shift vs. occlusal plane inclination, the former was rated less esthetic, while in the asymmetric incisal edge vs. asymmetric gingival migration pair, the latter was considered to be less esthetic. Laypeople and generalists consider smiles more attractive. The only images considered esthetic were the asymmetric incisal edge of the central incisor shorter by 0.5 mm and the 2 mm asymmetric gingival migration of the upper central incisor. In the horizontal plane (maxillary midline shift vs. occlusal plane cant), the dental asymmetries were considered less esthetic than the gingival asymmetries. However, in the vertical plane (asymmetric incisal edge vs. asymmetric gingival migration) the opposite was recorded. Copyright © 2015 CEO. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Bacterial community development in experimental gingivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistler, James O; Booth, Veronica; Bradshaw, David J; Wade, William G

    2013-01-01

    Current knowledge of the microbial composition of dental plaque in early gingivitis is based largely on microscopy and cultural methods, which do not provide a comprehensive description of oral microbial communities. This study used 454-pyrosequencing of the V1-V3 region of 16S rRNA genes (approximately 500 bp), and bacterial culture, to characterize the composition of plaque during the transition from periodontal health to gingivitis. A total of 20 healthy volunteers abstained from oral hygiene for two weeks, allowing plaque to accumulate and gingivitis to develop. Plaque samples were analyzed at baseline, and after one and two weeks. In addition, plaque samples from 20 chronic periodontitis patients were analyzed for cross-sectional comparison to the experimental gingivitis cohort. All of the healthy volunteers developed gingivitis after two weeks. Pyrosequencing yielded a final total of 344,267 sequences after filtering, with a mean length of 354 bases, that were clustered into an average of 299 species-level Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) per sample. Principal coordinates analysis (PCoA) plots revealed significant shifts in the bacterial community structure of plaque as gingivitis was induced, and community diversity increased significantly after two weeks. Changes in the relative abundance of OTUs during the transition from health to gingivitis were correlated to bleeding on probing (BoP) scores and resulted in the identification of new health- and gingivitis-associated taxa. Comparison of the healthy volunteers to the periodontitis patients also confirmed the association of a number of putative periodontal pathogens with chronic periodontitis. Taxa associated with gingivitis included Fusobacterium nucleatum subsp. polymorphum, Lachnospiraceae [G-2] sp. HOT100, Lautropia sp. HOTA94, and Prevotella oulorum, whilst Rothia dentocariosa was associated with periodontal health. Further study of these taxa is warranted and may lead to new therapeutic approaches

  16. Melanin: A scavenger in gingival inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Nilima

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: One of the major direct or indirect targets of ultraviolet exposure of skin is the melanocyte or the melanin -forming cell. Epidermal melanocytes act as a trap for free radicals. Based on the protective role of melanocytes in medical literature, the role of melanin pigmentation in gingiva needs to be elucidated. Periodontal pathogens and their products demonstrate the ability to induce the generation of reactive oxygen species. Hence purpose of this study was to unravel the protective role of melanin (if any against the gingival inflammation. Materials and Methods: A total of 80 subjects; 20 in each group were selected. The selection of subjects regarding gingival pigmentation was based on Dummett′s scoring criteria 0, 3. A complete medical, dental history and an informed consent were obtained from the patients. After evaluation of clinical parameters the GCF was collected using microcapillary pipettes at the selected sites. IL-1β levels were quantitated using ELISA. Results: In non-pigmented healthy and gingivitis groups, there was a positive correlation between plaque index, gingival index and bleeding index versus IL-1β level: indicating an increase in the biochemical mediator of inflammation corresponding to an increase in the clinical parameters of inflammation. Also a positive correlation was found between the gingival index and bleeding index versus the IL-1β levels in the pigmented healthy group. The pigmented gingivitis groups showed a negative correlation between the plaque index, gingival index and bleeding index. Conclusions: The clinical markers of inflammation such as gingival index, bleeding index was of low numerical value in pigmented group than in the non-pigmented group, supposedly due to the protective action of melanin. The negative correlation of clinical markers of inflammation to the IL-1β levels in the pigmented gingivitis group could possibly be attributed to the protective role of melanins.

  17. Bacterial Community Development in Experimental Gingivitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistler, James O.; Booth, Veronica; Bradshaw, David J.; Wade, William G.

    2013-01-01

    Current knowledge of the microbial composition of dental plaque in early gingivitis is based largely on microscopy and cultural methods, which do not provide a comprehensive description of oral microbial communities. This study used 454-pyrosequencing of the V1–V3 region of 16S rRNA genes (approximately 500 bp), and bacterial culture, to characterize the composition of plaque during the transition from periodontal health to gingivitis. A total of 20 healthy volunteers abstained from oral hygiene for two weeks, allowing plaque to accumulate and gingivitis to develop. Plaque samples were analyzed at baseline, and after one and two weeks. In addition, plaque samples from 20 chronic periodontitis patients were analyzed for cross-sectional comparison to the experimental gingivitis cohort. All of the healthy volunteers developed gingivitis after two weeks. Pyrosequencing yielded a final total of 344 267 sequences after filtering, with a mean length of 354 bases, that were clustered into an average of 299 species-level Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) per sample. Principal coordinates analysis (PCoA) plots revealed significant shifts in the bacterial community structure of plaque as gingivitis was induced, and community diversity increased significantly after two weeks. Changes in the relative abundance of OTUs during the transition from health to gingivitis were correlated to bleeding on probing (BoP) scores and resulted in the identification of new health- and gingivitis-associated taxa. Comparison of the healthy volunteers to the periodontitis patients also confirmed the association of a number of putative periodontal pathogens with chronic periodontitis. Taxa associated with gingivitis included Fusobacterium nucleatum subsp. polymorphum, Lachnospiraceae [G-2] sp. HOT100, Lautropia sp. HOTA94, and Prevotella oulorum, whilst Rothia dentocariosa was associated with periodontal health. Further study of these taxa is warranted and may lead to new therapeutic approaches

  18. Bacterial community development in experimental gingivitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James O Kistler

    Full Text Available Current knowledge of the microbial composition of dental plaque in early gingivitis is based largely on microscopy and cultural methods, which do not provide a comprehensive description of oral microbial communities. This study used 454-pyrosequencing of the V1-V3 region of 16S rRNA genes (approximately 500 bp, and bacterial culture, to characterize the composition of plaque during the transition from periodontal health to gingivitis. A total of 20 healthy volunteers abstained from oral hygiene for two weeks, allowing plaque to accumulate and gingivitis to develop. Plaque samples were analyzed at baseline, and after one and two weeks. In addition, plaque samples from 20 chronic periodontitis patients were analyzed for cross-sectional comparison to the experimental gingivitis cohort. All of the healthy volunteers developed gingivitis after two weeks. Pyrosequencing yielded a final total of 344,267 sequences after filtering, with a mean length of 354 bases, that were clustered into an average of 299 species-level Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs per sample. Principal coordinates analysis (PCoA plots revealed significant shifts in the bacterial community structure of plaque as gingivitis was induced, and community diversity increased significantly after two weeks. Changes in the relative abundance of OTUs during the transition from health to gingivitis were correlated to bleeding on probing (BoP scores and resulted in the identification of new health- and gingivitis-associated taxa. Comparison of the healthy volunteers to the periodontitis patients also confirmed the association of a number of putative periodontal pathogens with chronic periodontitis. Taxa associated with gingivitis included Fusobacterium nucleatum subsp. polymorphum, Lachnospiraceae [G-2] sp. HOT100, Lautropia sp. HOTA94, and Prevotella oulorum, whilst Rothia dentocariosa was associated with periodontal health. Further study of these taxa is warranted and may lead to new

  19. Gingivitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be associated with some systemic diseases such as respiratory disease, diabetes, coronary artery disease, stroke and rheumatoid arthritis. ... 12 months. If you have risk factors that increase your chance of developing periodontitis — such as having ...

  20. Effects of 810-Nanometer Diode Laser as an Adjunct to Mechanical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-01-18

    Jan 18, 2016 ... periodontal parameters and gingival crevicular fluid volume of residual ... tweak, and build upon the work non-commercially, as long as the author is credited ... level and gingival recession were assessed at baseline and 8 weeks after treatment .... disease (i.e., diabetes mellitus, HIV infection), smoking,.

  1. Oral gingival metastasis: A diagnostic dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalini Aswath

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral cavity is a rare target for metastasis with an incidence of 1% among all oral cancers. In 24% of such cases, oral metastasis is the first indication of an undiagnosed primary. Metastatic oral malignancies have been reported in the mandible, tongue, and gingiva. Although gingival metastasis has been reported from lung, prostate, rectal carcinoma in men and carcinoma of breast, adrenal glands, and genitalia in females, gingival metastasis from carcinoma of the penis has not been reported. Herein, a case of metastatic gingival carcinoma that developed after extraction of teeth from primary carcinoma of the penis is presented. An extensive literature search revealed no such similar case reports.

  2. Treatment of Desquamative Gingivitis with Free Gingival Graft: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Vatankhah

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Recalcitrant gingival erythematous lichen planus lesions comprise a considerable therapeutic problem. This case of chronic desquamative gingivitis in a 25-year-old woman with erosive oral lichen planus was treated with topical and systemic corticosteroid administration, followed by placement of a free gingival graft on right upper quadrant. Although recurrence of the lesions was observed following both treatment modalities, free gingival graft despite being an aggressive therapy, proved more effective and with fewer side effects compared with topical or systemic steroid therapy, and seems to be a promising treatment modality with the benefit of more stable results, among others.

  3. An unusual clinical presentation of gingival melanoacanthoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. K. Kennedy Babu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gingival melanoacanthoma is a rare, benign pigmented lesion characterized clinically by sudden onset and rapid growth of a macular brown black lesion and histologically by acanthosis of superficial epithelium and proliferation of dendritic melanocytes. This article reports a previously undescribed case of pigmented unilateral diffuse gingival enlargement, which on histopathological examination proved to be melanoacanthoma. Intraoral examination revealed pigmented unilateral diffuse gingival enlargement in relation to second and third quadrants buccally, palatally/lingually. Based on these clinical findings, gingivectomy was performed and the excised tissue was sent for biopsy. Microscopic examination revealed acanthotic and parakeratotic surface epithelium with dendritic melanocytes distributed in basal and suprabasal layers of the epithelium. 1 year follow-up recall revealed no recurrence of lesion at the surgical sites. Our patient exhibits an unusual clinical presentation of melanoacanthoma of gingiva. Pigmented gingival overgrowth of recent origin and without any etiologic factors warrants histopathologic examination.

  4. The effect of periodontal treatment on C-reactive protein: A clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Santosh; Shah, Samir; Budhiraja, Shilpa; Desai, Khushboo; Shah, Chirag; Mehta, Dhaval

    2013-07-01

    Chronic periodontitis in amultifactorial inflammatory disease which is caused by various microorganisms. Many studies have found close association between chronic periodontitis and C-reactive protein (CRP). CRPis an inflammatory marker which increases in all inflammatory condition. The present clinical study was designed to show the effect of periodontal treatment on the CRP levels of gingival crevicular fluid and to determine the effect of nonsurgical therapy in minimizing the CRP levels in chronic generalized periodontitis. Gingival crevicular fluid was collected using a micro capillary pipette that was hand calibrated at every 1 mm till 10 mm, from selected sites in the subjects on the 1st, 14th and 45th days. Decreased CRP levels of gingival crevicular fluid were observed at the end of the study. There was a 37% reduction in probing pocket depth and 45% gain in clinical attachment level and a reduction of about 57% after 14 days and 90% reduction of CRP levels in gingival crevicular fluid after 45 days. Thus, the results show that the presence of CRP level is more significant in gingival crevicular fluid and confirms the underlying inflammatory component of the disease activity in chronic periodontitis.

  5. Gingival condition of patient with obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atikah Sabrina Alyani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of obesity has increased drastically in most developed countries. Many studies showed that obesity associated with oral diseases, especially periodontal disease. A recent study showed the relation between WC and periodontal disease counted by gingival index (GI. However, studies regarding the mechanism of the relationship between obesity and periodontal disease are still quite a few, whereas many studies conducted suggested that obesity was a medical problem. The study was aimed to know and assess the gingival condition of obese people who visited the Dental Polyclinic of Hasan Sadikin Hospital. The type of this study was descriptive with the survey technique. A total of 54 people consisted of 35 female and 19 male patients with the age range of 20-49 years old, and not using any dental prosthesis or orthodontic appliance. This study was using a questionnaire and clinical examination to assess the condition of the gingival using the Löe and Silness Gingival index (GI. Examination of obesity conducted by measuring the waist circumference with criteria from WHO. The average value of the gingival index was 1.22. Meanwhile, the average value of the waist circumference (WC was 95.89 cm and 107.74 cm consecutively for female and male. The majority of obese patients suffered moderate gingivitis.

  6. Segmentation of images for gingival growth measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Il; Wilson, Joseph N.

    1992-12-01

    The ability to measure gingival volume growth from dental casts would provide a valuable resource for periodontists. This problem is attractive from a computer vision standpoint due to the complexities of data acquisition, segmentation of gingival and tooth surfaces and boundaries, and extraction of features (such as tooth axes) to help solve the correspondence problem for multiple casts. In this paper, a structured light 3-D range finder is used to collect raw data. The most complicated subtask is that of detecting discontinuities such as the gingival margin. Discontinuity detection is hindered both by cast anomalies (such as bubbles and holes generated during the process of dental impression) and by the subtle nature of the discontinuities themselves. First, we discuss an approach to segmenting a dental cast into tooth and gingival units using depth and orientation discontinuities. The visible cast surface is reconstructed by obtaining the minimum of a parameterized functional. The first derivative of the energy functional (which corresponds to the Euler-Lagrange equation) is solved using the multigrid methods. both orientation and depth discontinuities are detected by adding a discrete discontinuity functional to the energy functional. The principal axes and boundaries of the teeth provide the information necessary to determine the region to be measured in estimating gingival growth. Finally, voxels corresponding to growth regions are counted to measure the target volume.

  7. Idiopathic Gingival Fibromatosis: Case Report and Its Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant P. Jaju

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic gingival fibromatosis is a rare condition. We present a case of idiopathic gingival fibromatosis with its multidisciplinary approach of management. The clinical, radiographic, and histopathological features have been described in detail.

  8. Diagnostic considerations concerning a case of an unusual gingivitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Haring, I.S.; Witjes, M.J.H.

    2006-01-01

    A young woman presented a severe gingivitis that wouldn't respond to antibiotics prescribed by her general practitioner. Thorough clinical examination showed atypical gingival inflammation. In such unusual cases a careful anamnesis is essential in determining appropriate continued diagnostic

  9. Response of chronic gingivitis to hygiene therapy and experimental gingivitis. Clinical, microbiological and metabonomic changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klukowska, Malgorzata; Goyal, C Ram; Khambe, Deepa; Cannon, Michael; Miner, Melanie; Gurich, Nataliya; Circello, Ben; Huggins, Tom; Barker, Matthew L; Furnish, Carrie; Conde, Erinn; Hoke, Phyllis; Haught, Chris; Xie, Sancai; White, Donald J

    2015-10-01

    To compare the clinical, microbiological and metabonomic profiles of subjects with high and low levels of chronic gingival bleeding during a controlled oral hygiene regimen intervention including sequential phases of rigorous therapeutic oral hygiene followed by experimental gingivitis (EG). Two cohorts of qualified study subjects with differences in gingival bleeding on probing levels at their baseline clinical examination were entered into the study. These two cohorts were followed through three separate study phases including a 1-week baseline phase, a 2-week phase of rigorous oral hygiene including dental prophylaxis, and a 3-week EG phase of no oral hygiene to encourage relapse of gingivitis. The 58 subjects were assessed during each phase of the study for clinical presentation of gingivitis and concurrently had plaque sampled for real-time polymerase chain reaction (RTPCR) microbiological characterization and salivary lavage samples for 'systems biology' metabonomics assessment by 1H-NMR. Subjects presenting with different levels of gingival bleeding on probing when they entered the study responded differently to rigorous oral hygiene and EG. Specifically, the high bleeding cohort responded sluggishly to rigorous oral hygiene and exhibited markedly greater relapse to gingivitis during EG. RTPCR analysis showed changes in bacterial populations that were associated with study phases, particularly the increases in putative periodontal pathogens during EG. However, the microbiological profiles of high- and low-susceptibility gingival bleeding patients were largely similar. Metabonomic analysis likewise revealed significant changes in metabolite composition during study phases associated with differences in plaque toxicity, especially the short chain carboxylic acids propionate and n-butyrate, which tracked clinical changes in gingivitis severity. Systems analysis of metabonomic changes suggested differences between cohorts, although analysis to date has not

  10. Prevalence of gingivitis among school attendees in Qazvin, Iran ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: In present study the frequency of gingivitis was found to be higher. According to the high prevalence of gingivitis the most prevalent areas of plaque and gingivitis identified in this study should be taken in consideration during oral hygiene instructions, which should be given to children, parents, and teachers ...

  11. Diverse modalities of gingival replacement: A report of three cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dileep N Vinnakota

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Gingival replacement is often a component of comprehensive prosthodontics. Gingival prostheses may be fixed or removable. It can be made from acrylics, composite resins, silicones or porcelain-based materials.This paper describes different clinical situations in which three types of gingival prostheses, removable acrylic veneer with melanin pigmentation, fixed ceramic veneer and flexible nylon based veneer, were used effectively.

  12. Salivary cytokine levels in early gingival inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belstrøm, Daniel; Damgaard, Christian; Könönen, Eija

    2017-01-01

    Salivary protein levels have been studied in periodontitis. However, there is lack of information on salivary cytokine levels in early gingival inflammation. The aim of this study was to determine salivary levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), interleukin (IL)-8, monocyte chemoattr......Salivary protein levels have been studied in periodontitis. However, there is lack of information on salivary cytokine levels in early gingival inflammation. The aim of this study was to determine salivary levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), interleukin (IL)-8, monocyte...

  13. Gingival recession: a cross-sectional clinical investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goutoudi, P; Koidis, P T; Konstantinidis, A

    1997-06-01

    In this cross-sectional study, risk and potentially causative factors of gingival recession were examined and their relationship to apical migration of the gingival margin evaluated. Thirty eight patients (18-60 years), displaying one or more sites with gingival recession but without any significant periodontal disease participated. A total of 28 parameters were evaluated in both 'test' teeth (50 teeth with gingival recession) and 'control' teeth (50 contralateral teeth). The results revealed that gingival margin recession was associated with both high inflammatory and plaque scores, with decreased widths of keratinized and attached gingiva and with the subjects' toothbrush bristle hardness.

  14. Sangramiento gingival y flora bacteriana en la gingivitis y la periodontitis

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    Iriam Baldemira Rodríguez

    1996-08-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron 30 sitios o áreas periodontales que presentaban gingivitis y 30 con periodontitis, con el objetivo de determinar la relación existente entre el sangramiento gingival y la flora microbiana presente en la gingivitis y la periodontitis. Los pacientes seleccionados no presentaban antecedentes de enfermedad general y no habían recibido medicación antimicrobiana ni tratamiento periodontal en los útimos 6 meses; en el caso de las mujeres, no podían estar embarazadas. En los dientes seleccionados se procedió a tomar la muestra cumpliendo con los requisitos establecidos; luego se examinó inmediatamente en el microscopio de campo oscuro. Los resultados obtenidos indican que no hubo relación entre los morfotipos microbianos y los diferentes valores del índice de sangramiento gingival.Thirty periodontal sites presenting with gingivitis and 30 with periodontitis were studied with the aim of determining the relation between gingival bleeding and microflora present in gingivitis and periodontitis. Patients selected for the study did not present with a history of systemic diseases and received neither antimicrobial medication nor periodontal treatment during the last 6 months, in the case of women it was required that they were not pregnant. The sample was taken in the teeth chosen in compliance with the requirements established; then the sample was immediately examined in the dark field microscope. Results obtained suggest that there was no relationship between microbial morphological types and the different values of the gingival bleeding index.

  15. Prevention of gingivitis: Oral hygiene and dentifrices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sälzer, S.A.

    2016-01-01

    At the basis of Oral Health lies daily oral hygiene self-care with the result, if correctly performed, of plaque and gingivitis reduction. Epidemiological studies indicate that the level of oral hygiene in the general population has increased over the last decades. However, there still appears to be

  16. Chronic desquamative gingivitis as part of mucocutaneous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Other less common mucocutaneous disorders affecting the oral mucosa (lupus erythromatosus, linear IgA, plasma cell gingivitis, chronic ulcerative stomatitis and psoriasis) are also described. Correct identification of these conditions entails taking a careful history and performing a thorough intra-oral examination. Presence ...

  17. Association between gingivitis and anterior gingival enlargement in subjects undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanatta, Fabricio Batistin; Ardenghi, Thiago Machado; Antoniazzi, Raquel Pippi; Pinto, Tatiana Militz Perrone; Rösing, Cassiano Kuchenbecker

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the association among gingival enlargement (GE), periodontal conditions and socio-demographic characteristics in subjects undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment. Methods A sample of 330 patients undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment for at least 6 months were examined by a single calibrated examiner for plaque and gingival indexes, probing pocket depth, clinical attachment loss and gingival enlargement. Socio-economic background, orthodontic treatment duration and use of dental floss were assessed by oral interviews. Associations were assessed by means of unadjusted and adjusted Poisson's regression models. Results The presence of gingival bleeding (RR 1.01; 95% CI 1.00-1.01) and excess resin around brackets (RR 1.02; 95% CI 1.02-1.03) were associated with an increase in GE. No associations were found between socio-demographic characteristics and GE. Conclusion Proximal anterior gingival bleeding and excess resin around brackets are associated with higher levels of anterior gingival enlargement in subjects under orthodontic treatment. PMID:25162567

  18. Treatment of chronic desquamative gingivitis using tissue-engineered human cultured gingival epithelial sheets: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Kazuhiro; Momose, Manabu; Murata, Masashi; Saito, Yoshinori; lnoie, Masukazu; Shinohara, Chikara; Wolff, Larry F; Yoshie, Hiromasa

    2004-04-01

    Human cultured gingival epithelial sheets were used as an autologous grafting material for regenerating gingival tissue in the maxillary left and mandibular right quadrants of a patient with chronic desquamative gingivitis. Six months post-surgery in both treated areas, there were gains in keratinized gingiva and no signs of gingival inflammation compared to presurgery. In the maxillary left quadrant, preoperative histopathologic findings revealed the epithelium was separated from the connective tissue and inflammatory cells were extensive. After grafting with the gingival epithelial sheets, inflammatory cells were decreased and separation between epithelium and connective tissue was not observed. The human cultured gingival epithelial sheets fabricated using tissue engineering technology showed significant promise for gingival augmentation in periodontal therapy.

  19. Primary prevention of periodontitis: managing gingivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapple, Iain L C; Van der Weijden, Fridus; Doerfer, Christof; Herrera, David; Shapira, Lior; Polak, David; Madianos, Phoebus; Louropoulou, Anna; Machtei, Eli; Donos, Nikos; Greenwell, Henry; Van Winkelhoff, Ari J; Eren Kuru, Bahar; Arweiler, Nicole; Teughels, Wim; Aimetti, Mario; Molina, Ana; Montero, Eduardo; Graziani, Filippo

    2015-04-01

    Periodontitis is a ubiquitous and irreversible inflammatory condition and represents a significant public health burden. Severe periodontitis affects over 11% of adults, is a major cause of tooth loss impacting negatively upon speech, nutrition, quality of life and self-esteem, and has systemic inflammatory consequences. Periodontitis is preventable and treatment leads to reduced rates of tooth loss and improved quality of life. However, successful treatment necessitates behaviour change in patients to address lifestyle risk factors (e.g. smoking) and, most importantly, to attain and sustain high standards of daily plaque removal, lifelong. While mechanical plaque removal remains the bedrock of successful periodontal disease management, in high-risk patients it appears that the critical threshold for plaque accumulation to trigger periodontitis is low, and such patients may benefit from adjunctive agents for primary prevention of periodontitis. The aims of this working group were to systematically review the evidence for primary prevention of periodontitis by preventing gingivitis via four approaches: 1) the efficacy of mechanical self-administered plaque control regimes; 2) the efficacy of self-administered inter-dental mechanical plaque control; 3) the efficacy of adjunctive chemical plaque control; and 4) anti-inflammatory (sole or adjunctive) approaches. Two meta-reviews (mechanical plaque removal) and two traditional systematic reviews (chemical plaque control/anti-inflammatory agents) formed the basis of this consensus. Data support the belief that professionally administered plaque control significantly improves gingival inflammation and lowers plaque scores, with some evidence that reinforcement of oral hygiene provides further benefit. Re-chargeable power toothbrushes provide small but statistically significant additional reductions in gingival inflammation and plaque levels. Flossing cannot be recommended other than for sites of gingival and periodontal

  20. Distribution of smile line, gingival angle and tooth shape among the Saudi Arabian subpopulation and their association with gingival biotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlQahtani, Nabeeh A; Haralur, Satheesh B; AlMaqbol, Mohammad; AlMufarrij, Ali Jubran; Al Dera, Ahmed Ali; Al-Qarni, Mohammed

    2016-04-01

    To determine the occurrence of smile line and maxillary tooth shape in the Saudi Arabian subpopulation, and to estimate the association between these parameters with gingival biotype. On the fulfillment of selection criteria, total 315 patients belong to Saudi Arabian ethnic group were randomly selected. Two frontal photographs of the patients were acquired. The tooth morphology, gingival angle, and smile line classification were determined with ImageJ image analyzing software. The gingival biotype was assessed by probe transparency method. The obtained data were analyzed with SPSS 19 (IBM Corporation, New York, USA) software to determine the frequency and association between other parameters and gingival biotype. Among the clinical parameters evaluated, the tapering tooth morphology (56.8%), thick gingival biotype (53%), and average smile line (57.5%) was more prevalent. The statistically significant association was found between thick gingival biotype and the square tooth, high smile line. The high gingival angle was associated with thin gingival biotype. The study results indicate the existence of an association between tooth shape, smile line, and gingival angle with gingival biotype.

  1. Familial gingival fibromatosis: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweta Sharma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary gingival fibromatosis is a rare condition that can occur as an isolated disease or as part of a syndrome or chromosomal abnormality. In severe cases, the gingival enlargement may cover the crowns of teeth and cause severe functional and aesthetic concerns. Here, we present a case of an 8-year-old girl with severe enlargement of gums in maxilla and mandible. Both deciduous and permanent teeth were not erupted in the oral cavity at all. Mutation in the Son-of-Sevenless (SOS-1 gene has been associated with the disease. The diagnosis was made based on clinical examination and family history. Surgical removal of the hyperplastic tissue was performed under general anesthesia.

  2. Gingival pigmentation beneath a metallic crown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, T.; Hirayasu, R.; Sakai, H.; Hashimoto, N.

    1988-01-01

    Light and electron microscopic studies and energy dispersive X-ray analysis disclosed that the essential cause of gingival discoloration following the placement of a metallic crown, was marked deposition of melanin pigment. Deposition of melanin pigment was observed in epithelial cells, on basement membranes, and in fibroblasts, macrophages and among intercellular ground substance of the proprial layer. Brown or dark brown colored granules were observed in the deep portion of the proprial layer. Some metallic elements as silver and sulfur were detected. It was presumed that these materials were dental metals accidentally implanted in gingival tissues during the therapeutic procedure. The deposition of melanin pigment closely corresponded with mucosal tissue where these materials were present in the deep portion of the proprial layer. These findings suggested that these materials influenced the physiological metabolism of melanin and induced its pathological deposition in the proprial tissue. (author)

  3. Chronic Inflammatory Gingival Overgrowths: Laser Gingivectomy & Gingivoplasty

    OpenAIRE

    Shankar, B Shiva; T, Ramadevi; S, Neetha M; Reddy, P Sunil Kumar; Saritha, G; Reddy, J Muralinath

    2013-01-01

    It is quite common to note chronic inflammatory Gingival overgrowths during and/or post orthodontic treatment. Sometimes the overgrowths may even potentially complicate and/or interrupt orthodontic treatment. With the introduction of soft tissue lasers these problems can now be addressed more easily. Amongst many LASERS now available in Dentistry DIODE LASERS seem to be most ideal for orthodontic soft tissue applications. As newer treatments herald into minimally invasive techniques, DIODE LA...

  4. Gingival condition of patient with obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Atikah Sabrina Alyani; Sri Wendari; Dede Hadidjah

    2018-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity has increased drastically in most developed countries. Many studies showed that obesity associated with oral diseases, especially periodontal disease. A recent study showed the relation between WC and periodontal disease counted by gingival index (GI). However, studies regarding the mechanism of the relationship between obesity and periodontal disease are still quite a few, whereas many studies conducted suggested that obesity was a medical problem. The study was aim...

  5. Treatment of gingival pigmentation : A case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad Deepak

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A smile expresses a feeling of joy, success, sensuality, affection and courtesy, and reveals self confidence and kindness. The harmony of the smile is determined not only by the shape, the position and the color of the teeth but also by the gingival tissues. Gingival health and appearance are essential components of an attractive smile. Gingival pigmentation results from melanin granules, which are produced by melanoblasts. The degree of pigmentation depends on melanoblastic activity. Although melanin pigmentation of the gingiva is completely benign and does not present a medical problem, complaints of ′black gums′ are common particularly in patients having a very high smile line (gummy smile. For depigmentation of gingiva different treatment modalities have been reported like- Bur abrasion, scraping, partial thickness flap, cryotherapy, electrosurgery and laser. In the present case series bur abrasion, scraping, partial thickness flap (epithelial excision cryotherapy and electrosurgery have been tried for depigmentation, which are simple, effective and yield good results, along with good patient satisfaction. The problems encountered with some of these techniques have also been discussed.

  6. Salivary biomarkers associated with gingivitis and response to therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syndergaard, Ben; Al-Sabbagh, Mohanad; Kryscio, Richard J; Xi, Jing; Ding, Xiuhua; Ebersole, Jeffrey L; Miller, Craig S

    2014-08-01

    Salivary biomarkers are potentially important for determining the presence, risk, and progression of periodontal disease. However, clinical translation of biomarker technology from lab to chairside requires studies that identify biomarkers associated with the transitional phase between health and periodontal disease (i.e., gingivitis). Eighty participants (40 with gingivitis, 40 healthy) provided saliva at baseline and 7 to 30 days later. An additional sample was collected from gingivitis participants 10 to 30 days after dental prophylaxis. Clinical parameters of gingival disease were recorded at baseline and the final visit. Salivary concentrations of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-8, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were measured. Clinical features of health and gingivitis were stable at both baseline visits. Participants with gingivitis demonstrated significantly higher bleeding on probing (BOP), plaque index (PI), and gingival index (GI) (P ≤0.002) and a significant drop in BOP, PI, and GI post-treatment (P ≤0.001). Concentrations of MIP-1α and PGE2 were significantly higher (2.8 times) in the gingivitis group than the healthy group (P ≤0.02). After dental prophylaxis, mean biomarker concentrations did not decrease significantly from baseline in the gingivitis group, although concentrations of IL-1β, IL-6, and MMP-8 approached healthy levels, whereas MIP-1α and PGE2 concentrations remained significantly higher than in the healthy group (P ≤0.04). Odds ratio analyses showed that PGE2 concentrations, alone and in combination with MIP-1α, readily discriminated gingivitis from health. Salivary PGE2 and MIP-1α discriminate gingivitis from health, and patients with gingivitis who return to clinical health continue to produce inflammatory mediators for weeks after dental prophylaxis.

  7. Isolated gingival overgrowths: A review of case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti Raizada

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinicians are often intrigued by the varied manifestations of the gingival tissue. Gingival overgrowth is a common clinical finding and most of them represent a reactive hyperplasia as a direct result of plaque-related inflammatory gingival disease. These types of growth generally respond to good plaque control, removal of the causative irritants, and conservative tissue management. This case series highlights three different cases of localized gingival overgrowth and its management with emphasis on the importance of patient awareness and motivation.

  8. Gingivitis and salivary osmolality in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Maria Teresa Botti Rodrigues; Ferreira, Maria Cristina Duarte; Guaré, Renata Oliveira; Diniz, Michele Baffi; Rösing, Cassiano Kuchenbecker; Rodrigues, Jonas Almeida; Duarte, Danilo Antonio

    2016-11-01

    To investigate the influence of salivary osmolality on the occurrence of gingivitis in children with cerebral palsy (CP). A total of 82 children with spastic CP were included in this cross-sectional study. Oral motor performance and gingival conditions were evaluated. Unstimulated saliva was collected using cotton swabs, and salivary osmolality was measured using a freezing point depression osmometer. Spearman's coefficient, receiver operating characteristic (ROC), and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed. Strong correlation (r > 0.7) was determined among salivary osmolality, salivary flow rate, visible plaque, dental calculus, and the occurrence of gingivitis. The area under the ROC to predict the influence of salivary osmolality on the occurrence of gingivitis was 0.88 (95% CI 0.81-0.96; P gingivitis was 22.5%, whereas for the group presenting osmolality >84.5 mOsm/kgH 2 O, the proportion of children with gingivitis was 77.5%. Salivary osmolality above 84.5 increased the likelihood of gingivitis fivefold, whereas each additional 0.1 mL of salivary flow reduced the likelihood of gingivitis by 97%. Gingivitis occurs more frequently in children with CP showing increased values of salivary osmolality. © 2016 BSPD, IAPD and John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. [Clinical study on the effect of anti-gingivitis IgY toothpaste in control of gingivitis and dental plaque].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Feng, Xi-Ping; Tao, Dan-Ying; Chen, Jian-Fen

    2016-08-01

    To observe the effect of anti-gingivitis IgY toothpaste in control of gingivitis and plaque. The study was a double-blind, randomized, parallel-controlled clinical trail with a total of 100 subjects who were divided into two groups, experimental group and control group. The subjects in experimental group used anti-gingivitis IgY toothpaste to brush twice daily for 3 minutes, and the subjects in control group used none anti-gingivitis IgY toothpaste. The examiner recorded GI, PI and BOP index of all subjects at the baseline, 6-weeks and 12-weeks. SPSS21.0 software package was used for statistical analysis. Twelve weeks later, there were significant differences in GI and BOP between the two groups. Yet no significant difference was found in PI. Anti-gingivitis IgY toothpaste is effective in control of gingivitis.

  10. MMP8, MMP9 AND TIMP1 LEVELS IN GCF AND GINGIVAL TISSUE OF PATIENTS WITH GINGIVAL OVERGROWTH DURING ORTHODONTIC TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Surlin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Periodontal remodellng produced during dental orthodontic treatment represents a series of biologicallyactive substances, part of them playing some role in the initiation and propagation of inflammatory processes. The present study aims at demonstrating the MMP8, MMP9 and TIMP1 levels intervening in tissular periodontal remodeling produced during orthodontic treatments, accompanied by gingival overgrowth, as a reaction of the marginal periodontium to mechanical stress. Materials and Method. Selected for the study were 21 patients – 13 females and 8 males – with ages between 13 and 32 years (17.6±1.3 years affected with dento-maxillary anomalies, who received orthodontic treatment with fixed apparatus. Sampling from the gingival fluid was performed 6 times, namely: 1 hour prior to the application of the orthodontic apparatus, 4 hours after its application, again after 8 and 24 hours and then 1 and, respectively, 2 weeks later. If gingival hypertrophy was installed (HTG, the hypertrophic gingiva was removed, and an immuno-histo-chemical examination was made. The patient was weekly monitorized in the first 6 weeks – during the initial orthodontic treatment, then monthly, samples being taken over from the gingival sulcus on each visit made in the first 6 weeks. Results. MMP-9 immuno-marking was positive both at corione level and in the deep structures of the covering epithelium. The positive cells at MMP-9 evidenced different intensities at the level of each structure forming the gingival mucous membrane. In four of the cases under analysis, disorganization of the normal layering/stratification of the epithelium was evidenced, along with the presence of numerous red cells in the chorione of the mucous membrane. In such cases, immuno-marking to MMP8 showed a normal intensity, even if few positive cells, dispersed among the extravasated red cells could be observed. Immunologically, MMP8 and MMP9 obey the same pattern, registering maximum

  11. Cellular composition of long-standing gingivitis and periodontitis lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorbert-Mros, S; Larsson, L; Berglundh, T

    2015-08-01

    Insufficient information on the cellular composition of long-standing gingivitis lesions without signs of attachment loss makes an understanding of differences in cellular composition between "destructive" and "nondestructive" periodontal lesions difficult. The aim of the current study was to analyze differences in cell characteristics between lesions representing long-standing gingivitis and severe periodontitis. Two groups of patients were recruited. One group consisted of 36 patients, 33-67 years of age, with severe generalized periodontitis (periodontitis group). The second group consisted of 28 patients, 41-70 years of age, with overt signs of gingival inflammation but no attachment loss (gingivitis group). From each patient a gingival biopsy was obtained from one selected diseased site and prepared for immunohistochemical analysis. Periodontitis lesions were twice as large and contained significantly larger proportions, numbers and densities of cells positive for CD138 (plasma cells) and CD68 (macrophages) than did gingivitis lesions. The proportion of B cells that expressed the additional CD5 marker (B-1a cells) was significantly larger in periodontitis lesions than in gingivitis lesions. The densities of T cells and B cells did not differ between periodontitis lesions and gingivitis lesions. T cells were not the dominating cell type in gingivitis lesions, as B cells together with their subset plasma cells comprised a larger number and proportion than T cells. Periodontitis lesions at teeth with advanced attachment and bone loss exhibit quantitative and qualitative differences in relation to gingivitis lesions at teeth with no attachment and bone loss. It is suggested that the large number and high density of plasma cells are the hallmarks of advanced periodontitis lesions and the most conspicuous difference in relation to long-standing gingivitis lesions. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Kekambuhan gingivitis hiperplasi setelah gingivektomi (Recurrent of hyperplastic gingivitis after gingivectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwan Ruhadi

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The inflammatory enlargement is clinically called hyperthropic gingivitis or gingival hyperplasia and generally related to local or systemic factors. They could be edematous or fibrous. The former is treated by scaling, but the latter that could not be treated by scaling only has to be removed by gingivectomy. There are some cases of gingivectomy resulting in recurrences. The writer wanted to find out the cause of the recurrences. The types of research were clinical and laboratories observational studies. The criteria of sample were: male or female patient who came to periodontal clinic of Faculty of Dentistry Airlangga University. They were diagnosed gingivitis hyperplasia; had no systemic diseases; did not wear the orthodontic appliances, prosthesis, and crown and bridge; do not smoke. The indicated teeth to be observed were the labial side of maxillary front teeth. The teeth had score hyperplastic index (HI = 2 at the 2nd weeks after scaling. There were 7 samples taken selectively. The results of the studies were based on the comparison of 1 hyperplasia index (HI; 2 the number and percentage of monosite and leucocytes from white blood impedance coutl (WIC and white blood optical coutl (WOC; 3 plaque Index; and 4 gingival index. The result of gingivectomy was reevaluated on the 30th, 45th, 60th, 90th day. The research concluded that the number of monosite was normal, but the dental plaque still accumulated and eventually caused the recurrences of the inflammation.

  13. Eosinophilic plasmacytic conjunctivitis concurrent with gingival fistula caused by Schizophyllum commune in a captive cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshizawa, Madoka; Kawarai, Shinpei; Torii, Yoshiko; Ota, Kaori; Tasaka, Kiyoshi; Nishimura, Kazuko; Fujii, Chieko; Kanemaki, Nobuyuki

    2017-12-01

    We describe for the first time the diagnosis of Schizophyllum commune infection in a captive cheetah. Eosinophilic plasmacytic conjunctivitis was detected histopathologically in a biopsy specimen. Both a second surgical specimen and drainage fluid from a gingival mass and fistula contained fungal hyphae in giant cells with granulomatous inflammation. Allergic S. commune mycosis was suspected at this point. A monokaryotic isolate was characterized morphologically, and then identified genetically. Treatment with itraconazole and pimaricin was effective.

  14. Does any relationship exist between self reported gingival bleeding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Data from this survey revealed an established relationship between gingival bleeding, perceived dental and gingival health, tooth brushing force, professional instruction on tooth brushing, perception of the condition of teeth in relation to daily tooth brushing, worry about the color of gingiva, and satisfaction with ...

  15. Amlodipine-induced gingival hyperplasia in chronic renal failure: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Amlodipine is a dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker that is used in the management of both hypertension and angina. Amlodipine induced side effects are headache, dizziness, edema, flushing, palpitations, and rarely gingival hyperplasia. The exact reason of amlodipine-induced gingival hyperplasia is not known.

  16. Acute necrotising ulcerative gingivitis in an immunocompromised young adult

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jessie; Kent, Paul; Lennon, Joshua M; Logan, Latania K

    2015-01-01

    Acute necrotising ulcerative gingivitis is an acute onset disease characterised by ulceration, necrosis, pain and bleeding in gingival surfaces. It is predominantly seen in severely malnourished children and young adults with advanced HIV infection. We present a unique presentation in a young adult with high-grade osteogenic sarcoma. PMID:26376700

  17. Experimental gingivitis during pregnancy and post-partum: immunohistochemical aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raber-Durlacher, J. E.; Leene, W.; Palmer-Bouva, C. C.; Abraham-Inpijn, L.

    1993-01-01

    The histoimmunological response of 8 individuals was studied longitudinally in relation to the development of experimental gingivitis during pregnancy and post-partum. At day 0 as well as at day 14 of experimental gingivitis the mean periodontal pocket bleeding index (PPBI) was higher during

  18. Relationship between oral hygiene and gingival condition of Malaysian students

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    Muhammad Arif Mohd Marsin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary etiologic agent of gingival disease was dental plaque which also involving the oral hygiene. The oral hygiene can be affected by individuals knowledge, attitude, practice, environment, and others. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between oral hygiene and gingival condition of Malaysian students. The type of this study was cross-sectional study. The study was conducted on a total of 66 Malaysian students. The data were collected by using an examination form and clinical examination using the Loe & Sillness gingival index followed by the Loe & Sillness plaque index. The results showed that 100% of students have gingivitis with the gingival index average of 1.25 and the plaque index average of 1.85. The relationship of gingival and plaque index was analyzed by using Spearman’s Rank Correlation Coefficient test, and the score was 0.623. It is concluded that the oral hygiene status of Malaysian students was in the fair category, and all Malaysian students had a moderate gingivitis. Also, there was a relationship between the oral hygiene status and gingival condition of Malaysian students.

  19. Plasma Cell Gingivitis Associated With Inflammatory Chelitis: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Plasma cell gingivitis (PGC) is a rare disease of gingival tissues which is difficult to treat. It has a higher rate of reoccurrence and needs a detailed and careful analysis of etiology. Further, its association with chelitis is rare, only few cases have been reported and the condition with this presentation poses a ...

  20. Gingivitis, Psychological Factors and Quality of Life in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Priscila de Lima; Barbosa, Taís de Souza; Amato, Juliana Neide; Montes, Ana Bheatriz Marangoni; Gavião, Maria Beatriz Duarte

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the associations between gingivitis, emotional status and quality of life in children. Sixty-four Brazilian students (11 to 12 years old) were examined for clinical and self-reported gingivitis. The participants were divided into two groups: those with gingivitis (n = 21) and controls (n = 43). Quality of life, anxiety and depression were measured using self-administered questionnaires. Saliva was collected 30 min after waking and at bedtime to measure the diurnal decline in salivary cortisol. The results were analysed using bivariate and multivariate analyses. There were significantly more female participants in the control group. Approximately 90% of the children with gingivitis had good oral hygiene and 10.5% had satisfactory oral hygiene. There was a significant positive correlation between anxiety and depression in both clinical groups. Anxiety was negatively correlated with quality of life in the control group. Depression was negatively correlated with quality of life and cortisol concentrations in the group with gingivitis, and with quality of life in the control group. Children with gingivitis were more likely to be older and males. Older children are more likely to experience gingival bleeding. The presence of gingivitis in children may be associated with worse psychological well-being, possibly compromising the quality of life.

  1. Gingival Tissue Color Related With Facial Skin and Acrylic Resin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study is to determine the predominant gingival tissue colour in this environment; to assess the association of gingival tissue colour with gender and facial skin colour. Four hundred and thirty subjects that attended the Dental Centre, University College Hospital, Ibadan, who consented to participate in the ...

  2. Gingival Recession in a Child‑Patient; Easily Missed Etiologies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    with age-appropriate complement of teeth except for a missing tooth 42. ... frenal attachment is more important in gingival recession in the child‑patient. A healthy child‑ ... spared rules out a possible role of brushing-induced gingival abrasion.

  3. Clinical efficacy of turmeric use in gingivitis: A comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoyell, Karissa A; Mappus, Jennifer L; Gandhi, Mona A

    2016-11-01

    Gingivitis affects an estimated 80% of the population, and is characterized as the world's most predominant inflammatory periodontal disease. Without intervention, gingivitis can advance to alveolar bone loss. Therefore, the primary goal in patients suffering with gingivitis is to control plaque buildup and soft tissue inflammation. Current guidelines consider chlorhexidine as the gold standard in the prevention and treatment of gingivitis. However, negative side effects of chlorhexidine, including oral mucosal erosion, discoloration of teeth, and bitter taste, provide an opportunity for alternative medications. Turmeric, a commonly used herb, possesses anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antibacterial, antiviral, and antifungal properties. By virtue of these properties, multiple controlled trials have been performed to investigate the efficacy of turmeric in gingivitis. The aim of this comprehensive review is to summarize and evaluate the evidence on the efficacy of turmeric as compared to chlorhexidine in the prevention and treatment of gingivitis. PubMed, MedLine (Web of Science), and EBSCO (academic search complete) were utilized as primary literature search tools. The following search strategy was used: ((turmeric OR curcumin OR curcuma) AND (gingivitis OR "gum inflammation")). Five reviewed studies show that both turmeric and chlorhexidine significantly decrease plaque index (PI) and gingival index (GI), and can therefore be used in the prevention and treatment of gingivitis. Both chlorhexidine and turmeric can be used as an adjunct to mechanical means in preventing and treating gingivitis. However, trials longer than 21 days with a greater number of patients are necessary to further evaluate the comparison between turmeric and chlorhexidine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Gingival recession: prevalence and risk indicators among young greek adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrysanthakopoulos, Nikolaos A

    2014-07-01

    The aim of the current research was to assess the prevalence of gingival recession and to investigate possible associations among this condition, periodontal and epidemiological variables in a sample of young Greek adults in a general dental practice. A total of 1,430 young adults was examined clinically and interviewed regarding several periodontal and epidemiological variables. Collected data included demographic variables, oral hygiene habits and smoking status. Clinical examination included the recording of dental plaque, supragingival calculus presence, gingival status and buccal gingival recession. Multivariate logistic regression analysis model was performed to access the possible association between gingival recession and several periodontal and epidemiological variables as potential risk factors. The overall prevalence of gingival recession was 63.9%. The statistical analysis indicated that higher educational level [OR= 2.12, 95% CI= 0.53-8.51], cigarette smoking [OR= 1.97, 95% CI= 1.48-7.91], frequent tooth brushing [OR= 0.98, 95% CI= 0.56-1.96], presence of oral piercing [OR= 0.92, 95% CI= 0.38-1.58], presence of gingival inflammation [OR= 4.54, 95% CI= 1.68-7.16], presence of dental plaque [OR= 1.67, 95% CI= 0.68-2.83] and presence of supragingival calculus [OR=1.34, 95% CI= 0.59-1.88], were the most important associated factors of gingival recession. The observations of the current research supported the results from previous authors that several periodontal factors, educational level and smoking were significantly associated with the presence of gingival recession, while presence of oral piercing was a new factor that was found to be associated with gingival recession. Key words:Gingival recession, prevalence, risk factors, young adults.

  5. Gingival Pigmentation Affected by Smoking among Different Age Groups: A Quantitative Analysis of Gingival Pigmentation Using Clinical Oral Photographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Tomotaka; Mizutani, Shinsuke; Takiuchi, Hiroya; Sugiyama, Seiichi; Hanioka, Takashi; Naito, Toru

    2017-08-04

    The presence of any age-related differences in gingival pigmentation associated with smoking, particularly in a young population, remains to be fully investigated. The purpose of this study was to determine the age-related differences in smoking gingival pigmentation. Gingival pigmentation was analyzed using the gingival melanosis record (GMR) and Hedin's classification with frontal oral photographs taken at 16 dental offices in Japan. Participants were categorized into 10-year age groups, and their baseline photographs were compared. In addition, to evaluate the effect of smoking cessation on gingival pigmentation, subjects were divided into a former smoker group (stopped smoking) and current smoker group. A total of 259 patients 19 to 79 years of age were analyzed. People in their 30s showed the most widespread gingival pigmentation. In addition, subjects in their 20s showed a weak effect of smoking cessation on gingival pigmentation. These findings suggested that the gingival pigmentation induced by smoking was more remarkable in young people than in middle-aged people. This information may be useful for anti-smoking education, especially among young populations with a high affinity for smoking.

  6. The effectiveness of dentifrices without and with sodium lauryl sulfate on plaque, gingivitis and gingival abrasion : a randomized clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sälzer, S.; Rosema, N.A.M.; Martin, E.C.J.; Slot, D.E.; Timmer, C.J.; Dörfer, C.E.; van der Weijden, G.A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of a dentifrice without sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) to a dentifrice with SLS in young adults aged 18–34 years on gingivitis. Material and methods One hundred twenty participants (non-dental students) with a moderate gingival inflammation

  7. Foreign body gingivitis: An iatrogenic disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daley, T.D.; Wysocki, G.P. (Univ. of Western Ontario, London (Canada))

    1990-06-01

    Gingival biopsy specimens from eight patients exhibiting a localized, erythematous, or mixed erythematous/leukoplakic gingivitis that was refractory to conventional periodontal therapy were examined histologically and by energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis. Histologic examination revealed variable numbers of small, usually subtle, sometimes equivocal, and occasionally obvious foci of granulomatous inflammation. Special stains for fungi and acid-fast bacilli were consistently negative. In all cases, the granulomatous foci contained particles of foreign material that were often inconspicuous and easily overlooked during routine histologic examination. Energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis of these foreign particles disclosed Ca, Al, Si, Ti, and P in most lesions. However, other elements such as Zr, V, Ag, and Ni were found only in specific biopsy specimens. By comparing the elemental analyses, clinical features, and history of the lesions, strong evidence for an iatrogenic source of the foreign material was found in one case, and good evidence in five cases. In the remaining two patients, the source of the foreign particles remains unresolved.

  8. A study on gingival component of smile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goutam Chakroborty

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Esthetic enhancement of smile requires prior quantification of gingival component of smile. Hence, a study has been designed on randomly selected volunteers′ and posed frontal smiling photographs were taken and analyzed through computer-aided ImageJ software. Aim: To determine the role of gingival component in designing a smile. Settings and Design: Present observational study includes one frontal photograph from each of 212 subjects who were attending the Department of Periodontics (examined during the study period and then divided into three age groups (18-30, 31-40, and 41-50 years. Materials and Methods: Standardized frontal photographs with posed smile from 212 volunteers irrespective of age and sex were taken and the images were analyzed in computer by using ImageJ software. Statistical analysis used: Mean and standard deviation of intercommissural width (ICW, interlabial gap (ILG, and smile index (SI during posed smiling were calculated for different sex. Comparison between male and female group were done by Mann-Whitney U test, and P-values were calculated for ICW, ILG, and SI. Spearman′s rank correlation coefficients (rho were calculated for SI and different components of central zone of smile. Results: Male group as compared to female group exhibited greater ICW and ILG, and there was existence of fair to good correlation between lip dynamics and different factors of smile. Conclusion: Present study indicates that different factors of central zone of smile havefair to good correlation with lip dynamics assessed by SI.

  9. Foreign body gingivitis: An iatrogenic disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daley, T.D.; Wysocki, G.P.

    1990-01-01

    Gingival biopsy specimens from eight patients exhibiting a localized, erythematous, or mixed erythematous/leukoplakic gingivitis that was refractory to conventional periodontal therapy were examined histologically and by energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis. Histologic examination revealed variable numbers of small, usually subtle, sometimes equivocal, and occasionally obvious foci of granulomatous inflammation. Special stains for fungi and acid-fast bacilli were consistently negative. In all cases, the granulomatous foci contained particles of foreign material that were often inconspicuous and easily overlooked during routine histologic examination. Energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis of these foreign particles disclosed Ca, Al, Si, Ti, and P in most lesions. However, other elements such as Zr, V, Ag, and Ni were found only in specific biopsy specimens. By comparing the elemental analyses, clinical features, and history of the lesions, strong evidence for an iatrogenic source of the foreign material was found in one case, and good evidence in five cases. In the remaining two patients, the source of the foreign particles remains unresolved

  10. [Precision and accuracy of a dental spectrophotometer in gingival color measurement of maxillary anterior gingival].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yang; Tan, Jian-guo; Chen, Li; Wang, Fang-ping; Tan, Yao; Zhou, Jian-feng

    2012-08-18

    To explore a gingival shade matching method and to evaluate the precision and accuracy of a dental spectrophotometer modified to be used in gingival color measurement. Crystaleye, a dental spectrophotometer (Olympus, Tokyo, Japan) with a custom shading cover was tested. For precision assessment, two experienced experimenters measured anterior maxillary incisors five times for each tooth. A total of 20 healthy gingival sites (attached gingiva, free gingiva and medial gingival papilla in anterior maxillary region) were measured,the Commission Internationale de I' Eclairage (CIE) color parameters (CIE L*a*b*) of which were analyzed using the supporting software. For accuracy assessment, a rectangular area of approximately 3 mm×3 mm was chosen in the attached gingival portion for spectral analysis. PR715 (SpectraScan;Photo Research Inc.,California, USA), a spectroradiometer, was utilized as standard control. Average color differences (ΔE) between the values from PR715 and Crystaleye were calculated. In precision assessment,ΔL* between the values in all the test sites and average values were from(0.28±0.16)to(0.78±0.57), with Δa*and Δb* from(0.28±0.15)to (0.87±0.65),from(0.19±0.09)to( 0.58±0.78), respectively. Average ΔE between values in all test sites and average values were from (0.62 ± 0.17) to (1.25 ± 0.98) CIELAB units, with a total average ΔE(0.90 ± 0.18). In accuracy assessment, ΔL* with control device were from(0.58±0.50)to(2.22±1.89),with Δa*and Δb* from(1.03±0.67)to(2.99±1.32),from(0.68±0.78)to(1.26±0.83), respectively. Average ΔE with the control device were from (2.44±0.82) to (3.51±1.03) CIELAB units, with a total average ΔE (2.96 ± 1.08). With appropriate modification, Crystaleye, the spectrophotometer, has demonstrated relative minor color variations that can be useful in gingival color measurement.

  11. Patient-Specific Variations in Biomarkers across Gingivitis and Periodontitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarajan, Radhakrishnan; Miller, Craig S.; Dawson, Dolph; Al-Sabbagh, Mohanad; Ebersole, Jeffrey L.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the use of saliva, as an emerging diagnostic fluid in conjunction with classification techniques to discern biological heterogeneity in clinically labelled gingivitis and periodontitis subjects (80 subjects; 40/group) A battery of classification techniques were investigated as traditional single classifier systems as well as within a novel selective voting ensemble classification approach (SVA) framework. Unlike traditional single classifiers, SVA is shown to reveal patient-specific variations within disease groups, which may be important for identifying proclivity to disease progression or disease stability. Salivary expression profiles of IL-1ß, IL-6, MMP-8, and MIP-1α from 80 patients were analyzed using four classification algorithms (LDA: Linear Discriminant Analysis [LDA], Quadratic Discriminant Analysis [QDA], Naïve Bayes Classifier [NBC] and Support Vector Machines [SVM]) as traditional single classifiers and within the SVA framework (SVA-LDA, SVA-QDA, SVA-NB and SVA-SVM). Our findings demonstrate that performance measures (sensitivity, specificity and accuracy) of traditional classification as single classifier were comparable to that of the SVA counterparts using clinical labels of the samples as ground truth. However, unlike traditional single classifier approaches, the normalized ensemble vote-counts from SVA revealed varying proclivity of the subjects for each of the disease groups. More importantly, the SVA identified a subset of gingivitis and periodontitis samples that demonstrated a biological proclivity commensurate with the other clinical group. This subset was confirmed across SVA-LDA, SVA-QDA, SVA-NB and SVA-SVM. Heatmap visualization of their ensemble sets revealed lack of consensus between these subsets and the rest of the samples within the respective disease groups indicating the unique nature of the patients in these subsets. While the source of variation is not known, the results presented clearly elucidate the

  12. Nonsurgical periodontal therapy with/without diode laser modulates metabolic control of type 2 diabetics with periodontitis: a randomized clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koçak, E.; Sağlam, M.; Kayış, S.A.; Dündar, N.; Kebapçılar, L.; Loos, B.G.; Hakki, S.S.

    2016-01-01

    In order to evaluate whether nonsurgical periodontal treatment with/without diode laser (DL) decontamination improves clinical parameters, the levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM), and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM) in gingival crevicular fluid and metabolic

  13. Surgical management of generalized gingival enlargement - a case series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhtar, M.U.; Nazir, A.; Montmorency College of Dentistry, Lahore; Kiran, S.; Montmorency College of Dentistry, Lahore

    2014-01-01

    Generalized gingival enlargement is characterized by massive and exuberant gingival overgrowth that poses social, aesthetic, phonetic and functional problems for the patient. Therefore, it requires meticulous management. Objective: To describe the surgical management of generalized gingival enlargement by electrosurgical excision of patients presenting to a tertiary care centre. Study Design: Case series. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, de'Montmorency College of Dentistry, Lahore, from January 2010 to December 2012. A total of sixteen patients were operated by using electrosurgical approach under general anaesthesia for surgical excision of generalized gingival enlargement. Results: All of the sixteen patients, 11 males and 5 females, showed excellent healing postoperatively without any recurrent gingival overgrowth. Discussion: To the best of our knowledge, the current study presents the largest case series of generalized gingival enlargement. Most of these cases were with massive disease due to lack of information of the study population about their disease, delay in referral by the general dental practitioners, painless and innocent nature of the problem. Early referral of such patients to tertiary care centers can prevent the patients from social and psychological embarrassment. Conclusion: Electrosurgical excision is an excellent surgical technique for management of generalized gingival enlargement. Moreover, cross comparative studies are required to establish some diagnostic and therapeutic standards for such patients. (author)

  14. THERAPEUTIC DIFFICULTIES IN ACHIEVEMENT OF OPTIMAL ROOT COVERAGE AND AESTHETIC IN CLASS III GINGIVAL RECESSION.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Popova

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The width of the attached gingiva is defined as a distance between the depth of the gingival sulcus or gingival/periodontal pocket to the mucogingival junction. Authors suggest that a minimal amount of attached gingiva is necessary to ensure the gingival health. When the buccal bone plate and gingival tissues are thin and the position of the tooth is too vestibular gingival margin often displaces apically, and gingival recession develops. In the presence of gingival recession and reduced vestibular depth oral hygiene procedures are embarrassed.The definition of class III gingival recession is marginal lack of tissue extended to/or beyond the mucogingival junction with bone and soft tissue loss interdentally or malpositioning of the tooth.Prognosis for class III and IV gingival recession is that only partial coverage can be expected after root coverage procedures - FGG (free gingival graft or connective tissue graft (CTG. Adjunctive surgical techniques would be helpful to achieve better aesthetic outcomes.

  15. Cyclosporine a inhibits apoptosis of rat gingival epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Su; Liu, Peihong; Li, Yanwu; Hou, Lin; Chen, Li; Qin, Chunlin

    2014-08-01

    The use of cyclosporine A (CsA) induces hyperplasia of the gingival epithelium in a site-specific response manner, but the molecular mechanism via which the lesion occurs is unclear. The present research aims to investigate the site-specific effect of CsA on the apoptosis of gingival epithelium associated with gingival hyperplasia. Forty Wistar rats were divided into CsA-treated and non-treated groups. Paraffin-embedded sections of mandibular first molars were selected for hematoxylin and eosin staining, immunohistochemistry analyses of bcl-2 and caspase-3, and the staining of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transfer-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL). The area of the whole gingival epithelium and the length of rete pegs were measured, and the number of bcl-2- and caspase-3-positive cells in the longest rete peg were counted. The analysis of variance for factorial designs and Fisher least significant difference test for post hoc analysis were used to determine the significance levels. In CsA-treated rats, bcl-2 expression was significantly upregulated, whereas caspase-3 expression was downregulated, along with a reduced number of TUNEL-positive cells. The site-specific distribution of bcl-2 was consistent with the site-specific hyperplasia of the gingival epithelium in CsA-treated rats. CsA inhibited gingival epithelial apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway and common pathway. The antiapoptotic protein bcl-2 might play a critical role in the pathogenesis of the site-specific hyperplasia of gingival epithelium induced by CsA. There were mechanistic differences in the regulation of apoptosis for cells in the attached gingival epithelium, free gingival epithelium, and junctional epithelium.

  16. Clinical Characteristics of Abutment Teeth with Gingival Discoloration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristic, Ljubisa; Dakovic, Dragana; Postic, Srdjan; Lazic, Zoran; Bacevic, Miljana; Vucevic, Dragana

    2017-04-06

    The grey-bluish discoloration of gingiva (known as "amalgam tattoo") does not appear only in the presence of amalgam restorations. It may also be seen in cases of teeth restored with cast dowels and porcelain-fused-to-metal (PFM) restorations. The aim of this article was to determine the clinical characteristics of abutment teeth with gingival discoloration. This research was conducted on 25 patients referred for cast dowel and PFM restorations. These restorations were manufactured from Ni-Cr alloys. Ninety days after cementing the fixed prosthodontic restorations, the abutment teeth (n = 61) were divided into a group with gingival discoloration (GD) (n = 25) and without gingival discoloration (NGD) (n = 36). The control group (CG) comprised the contralateral teeth (n = 61). Plaque index, gingival index, clinical attachment level, and probing depth were assessed before fabrication and also 90 days after cementation of the PFM restorations. The gingival index, clinical attachment level, and probing depths of the abutment teeth that had GD were statistically higher before restoration, in comparison with the abutment teeth in the NGD and control groups. Ninety days after cementation, the abutment teeth with GD had significantly lower gingival indexes and probing depths, compared to the abutment teeth in the NGD group. Both abutment teeth groups (GD and NGD) had significantly higher values of clinical attachment levels when compared to the control group. There were no statistically significant differences in plaque index values between the study groups. The results of this study indicated that impairment of periodontal status of abutment teeth seemed to be related to the presence of gingival discolorations. Therefore, fabrication of fixed prosthodontic restorations requires careful planning and abutment teeth preparation to minimize the occurrence of gingival discolorations. With careful preparation of abutment teeth for cast dowels and crown restorations it may be

  17. Effect of Sleep and Salivary Glucose on Gingivitis in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqaderi, H; Tavares, M; Hartman, M; Goodson, J M

    2016-11-01

    It has been shown that inadequate sleep has deleterious effects on health by suppressing immunity and promoting inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of sleep and salivary glucose levels on the development of gingivitis in a prospective longitudinal study of Kuwaiti children. Data were collected from 10-y-old children ( N = 6,316) in 2012 and again in 2014. Children were approximately equally distributed from 138 elementary schools representing the 6 governorates of Kuwait. Calibrated examiners conducted oral examination, self-reported sleep evaluation interviews, anthropomorphic measurements, and unstimulated whole saliva sample collection. Salivary glucose levels were measured by a florescent glucose oxidase method; values of salivary glucose ≥1.13 mg/dL were defined as high glucose levels. A multilevel random intercept and slope analysis was conducted to determine the relationship between sleep duration and gingivitis on 3 levels: within schools, among children, and over time. The outcome was the progression of the extent of gingival inflammation in children over time. The main independent variables were the number of daily sleep hours and salivary glucose levels. Other explanatory variables and confounders assessed were governorate, dental caries and restorations, and obesity by waist circumference (adjusted for snacking and sex). Gingivitis increased over time in children who had shorter sleep duration ( P 1.13 mg/dL predicted gingivitis ( P gingivitis ( P gingivitis and obesity. The level of gingivitis was different among the 6 governorates of Kuwait. Additionally, there was a strong clustering effect of the observations within schools and among children across time. Longitudinal analysis of 6,316 Kuwaiti children revealed that shorter sleep duration and higher salivary glucose levels were both associated with increased gingival inflammation.

  18. Microcirculation alterations in experimentally induced gingivitis in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Masato; Okudera, Toshimitsu; Takahashi, Shun-Suke; Wada-Takahashi, Satoko; Maeda, Shingo; Iimura, Akira

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to morphologically examine the gingival microvascular network using a microvascular resin cast (MRC) technique, and to investigate how inflammatory disease functionally affects gingival microcirculation using laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF). We used four beagle dogs with healthy periodontal tissue as experimental animals. To cause periodontal inflammation, dental floss was placed around the cervical neck portions of the right premolars. The unmanipulated left premolars served as controls, and received plaque control every 7 days. After 90 days, gingivitis was induced in the experimental side, while the control side maintained healthy gingiva. To perform morphological examinations, we used an MRC method involving the injection of low-viscosity synthetic resin into the blood vessels, leading to peripheral soft-tissue dissolution and permitting observation of the bone, teeth, and vascular cast. Gingival blood flow was estimated using an LDF meter. The control gingival vasculature showed hairpin-loop-like networks along the tooth surface. The blood vessels had diameters of 20-40 μm and were regularly arranged around the cervical portion. On the other hand, the vasculature in the experimental group was twisted and gathered into spiral forms, with blood vessels that had uneven surfaces and smaller diameters of 8-10 μm. LDF revealed reduced gingival blood flow in the group with experimentally induced gingivitis compared to controls. The actual measurements of gingival blood flow by LDF were in agreement with the alterations that would be expected based on the gingivitis-induced morphological alterations observed with the MRC technique.

  19. Sodium valproate induced gingival enlargement with pre-existing chronic periodontitis

    OpenAIRE

    Joshipura, Vaibhavi

    2012-01-01

    Gingival enlargement is a common clinical feature of gingival and periodontal diseases. Currently, more than 20 prescription medications are associated with gingival enlargement. Although the mechanisms of action may be different, the clinical and microscopic appearance of drug-induced gingival enlargement is similar with any drug. Gingival enlargement produces esthetic changes, and clinical symptoms including pain, tenderness, bleeding, speech disturbances, abnormal tooth movement, dental oc...

  20. Management of excessive gingival display: Lip repositioning technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upasana Sthapak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The lips form the frame of a smile and define the esthetic zone. Excessive gingival display during smile is often referred to as "gummy smile". A successful management of excessive gingival display with lip repositioning procedure has shown excellent results. The procedure involves removing a strip of partial thickness mucosa from maxillary vestibule, then suturing it back to the lip mucosa at the level of mucogingival junction. This technique results in restricted muscle pull and a narrow vestibule, thereby reducing the gingival display. In this case gummy smile was treated by modification of Rubinstein and Kostianovsky′s surgical lip repositioning technique which resulted in a harmonious smile.

  1. Gingival enlargement unveiling sarcoidosis: Report of a rare case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabeeha Abbas Kadiwala

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sarcoidosis is classified as an acquired systemic granulomatous disease. Because of the fact that sarcoidosis affects multiple tissues and organs, it is characterized by many potential signs and symptoms, as well as by the presence of non-caseating granulomas in the organs involved. Although oral sarcoidosis is relatively rare, it may however, present in the oral cavity. This report presents a rare case of sarcoidosis with the initial presenting symptom as severe generalized gingival enlargement. The gingival enlargement was treated by gingivectomy. After histopathological examination of gingival biopsy and certain special investigations, a diagnosis of sarcoidosis was made.

  2. A comparison of cord gingival displacement with the gingitage technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tupac, R G; Neacy, K

    1981-11-01

    Fifteen young adult dogs were divided into three groups representing 0, 7- and 21-day healing periods. Randomly selected cuspid teeth were used to compare cord gingival displacement and gingitage techniques for subgingival tooth preparation and impression making. Clinical and histologic measurements were used as a basis for comparison. Results indicate that (1) the experimental teeth were clinically healthy at the beginning of the experiment, (2) clinical health of the gingival tissues was controlled throughout the course of the experiment, and (3) within this experimental setting, there was no significant difference between the cord gingival displacement technique and the gingitage technique.

  3. Gingival squamous cell carcinoma: A diagnostic impediment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rekha Rani Koduganti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral squamous cell carcinomas represent 3% of cancers in men and 2% of cancers in women. More than 90% of oral cancer occurs in people older than 45 years Lesions of gingiva account for approximately 10% of the oral squamous cell carcinomas and may present clinically as an area of ulceration, exophytic mass, or red/white speckled patches. The proximity to the underlying periosteum may invite early bone invasion. Carcinoma of gingiva constitutes an extremely important group of neoplasms as the lesion frequently mimics the reactive and inflammatory conditions affecting the periodontium, delaying the diagnosis and making the prognosis of the patient poorer. A rare case of gingival squamous cell carcinoma has been reported here, in a 40 Year old male patient. Careful recording of the case history and results of clinical examination, radiographic, and laboratory investigations, along with a critical review of similar conditions led to the diagnosis, and treatment was initiated.

  4. Generalised Leukaemic Gingival Enlargement: a Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mechery Reenesh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute myeloblastic leukaemia is a malignant bone marrow neoplasm of myeloid precursors of white blood cells. Due to its high morbidity rate, early diagnosis and appropriate medical therapy is essential. Methods: The article highlights normal blood alterations like anaemia, thrombocytopenia, leukocytosis and advanced diagnostic aids like flow cytometry, special staining as a diagnostic modality as well as for prognostic information in acute leukaemia, particularly as a tool for assigning lineage and facilitating further pathologic classification which may be helpful in influencing treatment strategies.Results: On clinical examination the case presented with features of inflammatory gingival enlargement with presence of local deposits and calculus. Routine blood examination anaemia, thrombocytopenia, leukocytosis with haemoglobin 5.6 gm% and total leukocyte count of 1,12,000 / cu mm suggestive of leukaemia. Myeloperoxidase and leukocyte nonspecific esterase (NSE special stain were used which showed presence of myeloblasts in the peripheral smear suggestive of acute myelocytic leukaemia. Flow cytometry were done which further helped in interpretation of these cells which showed to be strongly positive for CD45, CD13, CD14, and anti HLADR and moderately positive for CD4, CD34 and Anti MPO confirming to be case of AML-M4 with 57.73% gating.Conclusions: Fact that gingival alterations are sometimes the first manifestations of the disease implies that dental professionals must be sufficiently familiarized with the clinical manifestations of systemic diseases. The timely referral by the general dentist for a suspicious lesion provided an early diagnosis and early intervention reducing the patient morbidity.

  5. Amlodipine-induced gingival hyperplasia in chronic renal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Keywords: Amlodipine, gingival hyperplasia, chronic renal failure. African Health ... for the treatment of hypertension and angina. Pharmacokinetic ... patient appealed to the dentist at first. ... Am Heart J. 1989 Nov; 118(5 Pt 2):. 1100-1103. 2.

  6. Gingival mask: A case report on enhancing smiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aashritha Shenava

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Periodontal attachment loss in the maxillary anterior region can often lead to esthetic and functional clinical problems including disproportional and elongated clinical crowns and visible interdental embrasures. Gingival replacement prosthesis has historically been used to replace lost tissue. A gingival mask is an easily constructed and practical device to optimize the esthetic and functional outcome in these special situations while permitting cleansibility of the prosthesis and supporting tissues. This is a case report of a young female patient treated using silicon gingival veneer with a 2-year follow-up. The silicon gingival mask has enabled the patient to regain her lost smile and face people with newly found confidence also enhancing the esthetic appearance. Virtually, no problem was encountered during the 2 years of usage of the veneer and the patient continues to use it comfortably.

  7. A Spectrophotometric Color Evaluation of Natural Teeth and Gingival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peng, Min; Hosseini, Mandana; Gotfredsen, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    positions of each tooth (incisal 1/3, body1/3, cervical 1/3 and gingival) were assessed using a spectrophotometer (SpectroShadeTM, Micro Dental, Seria No. HDL3214, MHT, S.p.A, Italy) in CIELab coordinates. Descriptive statistics of Spss17.0 was used to analyze the distribution of color coordinates. Pearson...... correlation was used to test the relationship between the coordinates and age. Independent t test was used to test the difference between gender groups. Results: All the color coordinates for teeth and gingival were in right-left symmetric distribution by the central incisors and the distribution was in same...... mode at each tooth. The body part of the central incisor had the highest L value and the cervical part of the canine had the highest a, b value. No statistical difference was found among positions regarding the gingival color. Statistical correlation was found between the gingival color...

  8. study of oral and gingival microbial flora in institutionalized mentally

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    from the mouth and gingiva of 138 institutionalized mentally retarded patients of Sari to culture in specific media to ... Key words: Oral and gingival microbial flora, Mental retardation, D%, Sari ... staphylococcus aureus and, in case of negative.

  9. Gingival and Periodontal Diseases in Children and Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Singh Chauhan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Periodontal diseases are among the most frequent diseases affecting children and adolescents. These include gingivitis, localized or generalized aggressive periodontitis (a.k.a., early onset periodontitis and periodontal diseases associated with systemic disorders. The effects of periodontal diseases observed in adults have earlier inception in life period. Gingival diseases in a child may progress to jeopardize the periodontium in adulthood. Therefore, periodontal diseases must be prevented and diagnosed early in the life. This paper reviews the most common periodontal diseases affecting children: chronic gingivitis (or dental plaque-induced gingival diseases and aggressive periodontitis. In addition, systemic diseases that affect the periodontium in young children and necrotizing periodontal diseases are addressed. The prevalence, diagnostic characteristics, microbiology, host- related factors, and therapeutic management of each of these disease entities are discussed.

  10. Gingival and Periodontal Diseases in Children and Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Vivek Singh Chauhan; Rashmi Singh Chauhan; Nihal Devkar; Akshay Vibhute; Shobha More

    2012-01-01

    Periodontal diseases are among the most frequent diseases affecting children and adolescents. These include gingivitis, localized or generalized aggressive periodontitis (a.k.a., early onset periodontitis) and periodontal diseases associated with systemic disorders. The effects of periodontal diseases observed in adults have earlier inception in life period. Gingival diseases in a child may progress to jeopardize the periodontium in adulthood. Therefore, periodontal diseases must be prevented...

  11. Experimental gingivitis, bacteremia and systemic biomarkers: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinane, D F; Zhang, P; Benakanakere, M; Singleton, J; Biesbrock, A; Nonnenmacher, C; He, T

    2015-12-01

    Bacteremia and systemic inflammatory markers are associated with periodontal and systemic diseases and may be linking mechanisms between these conditions. We hypothesized that in the development of gingival inflammation, systemic markers of inflammation and bacteremia would increase. To study the effect of bacteremia on systemic inflammatory markers, we recruited 80 subjects to participate in an experimental gingivitis study. Subjects were stratified based on gender, smoking and the number of bleeding sites and then randomized to one of two groups: control group (n = 40) or experimental gingivitis group (n = 40). Subjects in the control group conducted an oral hygiene regimen: brushing twice daily with a regular sodium fluoride cavity protection dentifrice and a standard manual toothbrush, flossing twice daily, and mouth rinsing with an anti-cavity fluoride rinse once daily. The experimental group stopped brushing and flossing, and used only the fluoride anti-cavity mouth rinse for 21 d. Seventy-nine of 80 subjects were evaluable. One subject in the control group was excluded from the results due to antibiotic use during the study. Our data showed the experimental gingivitis group exhibited a significant (p gingival inflammatory indices relative to baseline and the control group but a decrease in bacteremia and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 levels vs. baseline. Bacteremia was negatively correlated with gingival inflammatory indices and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 levels in the experimental gingivitis group, thus negating our hypothesis. We conclude that there are marked differences in systemic cytokine levels over the course of short-term experimentally induced gingivitis and further conclude that a long-term periodontitis study must be considered to address mechanisms whereby oral diseases may affect systemic diseases. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Risk factors for gingivitis in a group of Brazilian schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiapinotto, Fabiana Amaral; Vargas-Ferreira, Fabiana; Demarco, Flávio Fernando; Corrêa, Fernanda Oliveira Bello; Masotti, Alexandre Severo

    2013-01-01

    Studies on gingivitis in children and adolescents are scarce and the results are inconclusive. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and extension of gingivitis and associated factors in Brazilian schoolchildren. Cross-sectional data from 1,211 schoolchildren 8 to 12 years old from Southern Brazil in 20 public and private schools were analyzed. Socioeconomic, demographic, and oral hygiene habits were assessed by questionnaires answered by parents and children. Buccal examination assessed presence of plaque, crowding, and gingivitis. Data were analyzed using Poisson regression [prevalence ratio (PR); 95% confidence interval (CI)]. Prevalence of visible plaque was 89.7% (95% CI 88.0-91.3) and gingival bleeding on probing was 78.4% (95% CI 76.1-81.0). The mean and median numbers of sites with gingival bleeding were 3.10 and 2 (SD ± 3.22), respectively. In multivariate adjusted analysis, the presence of a greater number of sites with plaque was significantly associated with gingivitis (PR 1.26; 95% CI 1.07-1.47) and its extension (PR 1.96; 95% CI 1.53-2.51). Lighter-skinned black children had a lower probability of having severe gingivitis (PR 0.69; 95% CI 0.48-0.98) compared with white children. This association was observed after adjusting for other variables. Gingivitis was associated with higher number of sites with plaque and with skin color, reflecting the influence of biological and demographic factors on this oral condition. © 2012 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  13. Gingival Fibromatosis with Chronic Periodontitis – A Rare Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Sanadi Rizwan M

    2009-01-01

    Gingival fibromatosis is frequently an isolatedcondition of little consequence apart from a cosmeticproblem and occasional associations with uncommonsyndromes. This case report of a 38 year old femalepatient describes the gingival enlargement associatedwith chronic periodontitis. The enlargement extendedbeyond the middle thirds of the clinical crowns of theteeth. It was associated with generalized mobility,pocket formation and bone loss. The patient alsocomplained of bleeding gums and difficu...

  14. Treatment of gingival hyperpigmentation by open spray cryotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belkız Uyar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Although gingival hyperpigmentation is not a medical problem, people who have moderate or severe gingival pigmentation, particularly patients having a gummy smile, frequently request cosmetic treatment. For gingival depigmentation, different treatment modalities have been reported such as surgical treatment, cryotherapy, electrosurgery, and laser therapy. Materials and Methods: Twenty-one patients with gingival melanin pigmentation were included in the study. We applied liquid nitrogen to the hyperpigmented area for 5-10 seconds using open spray technique with a cryogun. Clinical observations for intensity of pigmentation were recorded at baseline and 3 months after the treatment. Clinical parameters, such as bleeding, swelling, redness, and healing, were evaluated immediately after the cryotherapy and 24 hours, and 1 week after the treatment. We used a numeric pain scale to evaluate the pain level. Results: Three months after the treatment, the mean gingival melanin pigmentation score decreased from 41.62±16.58 to 19.28±11.85. The difference between pretreatment and posttreatment mean scores was found to be statistically significant.Discussion: Removal of gingival melanin pigmentation can be performed safely by open spray cryotherapy in dermatology clinics.

  15. Smoking influences on the thickness of marginal gingival epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villar Cristina Cunha

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Smoking patients show reduction of inflammatory clinical signs that might be associated with local vasoconstriction and an increased gingival epithelial thickness. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the thickness of the marginal gingival oral epithelium in smokers and non-smokers, with clinically healthy gingivae or with gingivitis. Twenty biopsies were obtained from four different groups. Group I: non-smokers with clinically healthy gingivae (n = 5. Group II: non-smokers with gingivitis (n = 5. Group III: smokers with clinically healthy gingivae (n = 5. Group IV: smokers with gingivitis (n = 5. These biopsies were histologically processed, serially sectioned at 5 mm, stained with H. E., and examined by image analysis software (KS400, which was used to perform the morphometric evaluation and the quantification of the major epithelial thickness, the epithelial base thickness and the external and internal epithelial perimeters. Differences between the four groups were analyzed using ANOVA test and Tukey's test. The criteria for statistical significance were accepted at the probability level p < 0.05. A greater epithelial thickness was observed in smokers independent of the gingival health situation.

  16. DIFFERENTIAL HISTOMORPHOMETRIC CHANGES IN NORMAL AND INFLAMED GINGIVAL EPITHELIUM

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    Tanaskovic Stankovic Sanja

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and aim: In recent decades, many factors such as smoking, unhealthy diet as well as high alcohol intake were marked as risk factors that can lead to increased incidence of malignant alterations, gingivitis, periodontal disease and other oral epithelium pathological changes. Having in mind that in the group of non-malignant and non-dental oral pathology gingivitis and periodontal disease are the most common oral mucosa alterations aim of our research was to investigate histomorphometric characteristics of healthy and altered oral and gingival epithelium. Material and methods: Tissue samples of 24 oral and gingival mucosa specimens were collected. Samples were fixed in 10% buffered paraformaldehyde, routinely processed and embedded in paraffin blocks. From each block sections 5 micrometer thin were made and standard H/E staining as well as immunocytochemical detection of Ki-67 proliferation marker and CD79a lymphocyte marker were performed. Measurements and image analysis was performed with Image Pro Plus software (Media Cybernetics, USA and Axiovision (Ziess, USA. Results: We showed that inflamed gingival epithelium is increasing its thickness in proportion to the severity of adjacent inflammation. Furthermore, mitotic index is rising (up to 132% in the same manner as well as basal lamina length (up to 70% when normal and inflamed gingiva is compared. Architecture of epithelial ridges is changed from straightforward to mesh-like. Conclusion: Assessment of the free gingival epithelium thickness is directly related to the severity of the inflammation process i

  17. Risk factors associated with open gingival embrasures after orthodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Sang Su; Choi, Yoon Jeong; Kim, Ji Young; Chung, Chooryung J; Kim, Kyung-Ho

    2018-05-01

    To investigate the incidence of and contributing factors to open gingival embrasures between the central incisors after orthodontic treatment. One hundred posttreatment patients (29 men and 71 women; mean age, 24.7 years) were divided retrospectively into occurrence and nonoccurrence groups based on intraoral photographs. Based on the severity, the occurrence group was further divided into mild, moderate, and severe groups. Parameters from periapical radiographs, superimposed lateral cephalograms, and study models were compared between the occurrence and the nonoccurrence groups by using independent t-tests and were also analyzed on the basis of severity via analysis of variance. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the contributing factors to open gingival embrasures. The incidence of open gingival embrasures between the central incisors was 22% and 36% in the maxilla and the mandible, respectively. Lingual movement of the incisors, distance from the contact point to the alveolar crest after treatment, antero-posterior overlap of the two central incisors before treatment in the maxilla, and distance from the contact point to the alveolar crest after treatment in the mandible were significantly associated with the occurrence of open gingival embrasures ( P open gingival embrasures following orthodontic tooth movement is high. Therefore, attention should be paid to the contributing factors to prevent or reduce the occurrence of open gingival embrasures.

  18. Microbiota-based Signature of Gingivitis Treatments: A Randomized Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shi; Li, Zhen; He, Tao; Bo, Cunpei; Chang, Jinlan; Li, Lin; He, Yanyan; Liu, Jiquan; Charbonneau, Duane; Li, Rui; Xu, Jian

    2016-04-20

    Plaque-induced gingivitis can be alleviated by various treatment regimens. To probe the impacts of various anti-gingivitis treatments on plaque microflora, here a double blinded, randomized controlled trial of 91 adults with moderate gingivitis was designed with two anti-gingivitis regimens: the brush-alone treatment and the brush-plus-rinse treatment. In the later group, more reduction in both Plaque Index (TMQHI) and Gingival Index (mean MGI) at Day 3, Day 11 and Day 27 was evident, and more dramatic changes were found between baseline and other time points for both supragingival plaque microbiota structure and salivary metabonomic profiles. A comparison of plaque microbiota changes was also performed between these two treatments and a third dataset where 50 subjects received regimen of dental scaling. Only Actinobaculum, TM7 and Leptotrichia were consistently reduced by all the three treatments, whereas the different microbial signatures of the three treatments during gingivitis relieve indicate distinct mechanisms of action. Our study suggests that microbiota based signatures can serve as a valuable approach for understanding and potentially comparing the modes of action for clinical treatments and oral-care products in the future.

  19. Chronic gingivitis: the prevalence of periodontopathogens and therapy efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igic, M; Kesic, L; Lekovic, V; Apostolovic, M; Mihailovic, D; Kostadinovic, L; Milasin, J

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the level of gingival inflammation and the prevalence of periodontopathogenic microorganisms in adolescents with chronic gingivitis, as well as to compare the effectiveness of two approaches in gingivitis treatment-basic therapy alone and basic therapy + adjunctive low-level laser therapy (LLLT). After periodontal evaluation, the content of gingival pockets of 140 adolescents with gingivitis was analyzed by multiplex PCR for the presence of P. gingivalis, A. actinomycetemcomitans, T. forsythensis and P. intermedia. Subsequent to bacteria detection, the examinees were divided into two groups with homogenous clinical and microbiological characteristics. Group A was subjected to basic gingivitis therapy, and group B underwent basic therapy along with adjunctive LLLT. A statistically significant difference between the values of plaque-index (PI) and sulcus bleeding index (SBI) before and after therapy was confirmed in both groups (pgingivitis should be regarded as a sign for dentists to foster more effective oral health programs. LLLT appears to be beneficial as adjuvant to basic therapy.

  20. Oral health education and therapy reduces gingivitis during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisinger, Maria L; Geurs, Nicolaas C; Bain, Jennifer L; Kaur, Maninder; Vassilopoulos, Philip J; Cliver, Suzanne P; Hauth, John C; Reddy, Michael S

    2014-02-01

    Pregnant women demonstrate increases in gingivitis despite similar plaque levels to non-pregnant counterparts. To evaluate an intensive protocol aimed at reducing gingivitis in pregnant women and provide pilot data for large-scale randomized controlled trials investigating oral hygiene measures to reduce pregnancy gingivitis and alter maternity outcomes. One hundred and twenty participants between 16 and 24 weeks gestation with Gingival Index (GI) scores ≥2 at ≥50% of tooth sites were enrolled. Plaque index (PI), gingival inflammation (GI), probing depth (PD), and clinical attachment levels (CAL) were recorded at baseline and 8 weeks. Dental prophylaxis was performed at baseline and oral hygiene instructions at baseline, 4 and 8 weeks. Pregnancy outcomes were recorded at parturition. Mixed-model analysis of variance was used to compare clinical measurements at baseline and 8 weeks. Statistically significant reductions in PI, GI, PD, and CAL occurred over the study period. Mean whole mouth PI and GI scores decreased approximately 50% and the percentage of sites with PI and GI ≥2 decreased from 40% to 17% and 53% to 21.8%, respectively. Mean decreases in whole mouth PD and CAL of 0.45 and 0.24 mm, respectively, were seen. Intensive oral hygiene regimen decreased gingivitis in pregnant patients. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Predictive modeling of gingivitis severity and susceptibility via oral microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shi; Li, Rui; Zeng, Xiaowei; He, Tao; Zhao, Helen; Chang, Alice; Bo, Cunpei; Chen, Jie; Yang, Fang; Knight, Rob; Liu, Jiquan; Davis, Catherine; Xu, Jian

    2014-09-01

    Predictive modeling of human disease based on the microbiota holds great potential yet remains challenging. Here, 50 adults underwent controlled transitions from naturally occurring gingivitis, to healthy gingivae (baseline), and to experimental gingivitis (EG). In diseased plaque microbiota, 27 bacterial genera changed in relative abundance and functional genes including 33 flagellar biosynthesis-related groups were enriched. Plaque microbiota structure exhibited a continuous gradient along the first principal component, reflecting transition from healthy to diseased states, which correlated with Mazza Gingival Index. We identified two host types with distinct gingivitis sensitivity. Our proposed microbial indices of gingivitis classified host types with 74% reliability, and, when tested on another 41-member cohort, distinguished healthy from diseased individuals with 95% accuracy. Furthermore, the state of the microbiota in naturally occurring gingivitis predicted the microbiota state and severity of subsequent EG (but not the state of the microbiota during the healthy baseline period). Because the effect of disease is greater than interpersonal variation in plaque, in contrast to the gut, plaque microbiota may provide advantages in predictive modeling of oral diseases.

  2. Comparative assessment of gingival thickness in pigmented and nonpigmented gingiva

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    Radhika Bharamappa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is a known fact that clinical appearance of gingiva directly correlates with the inflammatory status of the periodontium. It has been observed that the gingival thickness (GT appears to differ in pigmented and nonpigmented gingiva. Thickness of gingiva seems to be of significance and an issue of concern in aesthetic and functional outcome of the periodontal, restorative and orthodontic therapy. So far in the periodontal literature, the gingival width has been discussed to a great extent. GT also plays an equally important role, but it has been given limited importance when compared to gingival width. Purpose of the Study: The purpose of this study was to comparatively assess the GT in pigmented and nonpigmented gingiva by transgingival probing. Materials and Methods: The study included 240 sites in 10 patients each of pigmented and nonpigmented gingiva. The GT was assessed mid-buccally in the attached gingiva, half way between mucogingival junction and free gingival groove and at the base of the interdental papilla. The gingival bleeding index and plaque index were also recorded. The data were statistically analysed using paired t-test and Z-test. Results and Conclusion: Gingival bleeding index and plaque index were similar between both the groups. Both midbuccal and interdental areas were thicker in pigmented gingiva when compared to nonpigmented gingiva.

  3. Ovate pontics: Phoenixing the gingival contour

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    Medha Vivek Bhuskute

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In today's busy world, most patients do not have time for long, drawn-out dental treatment. The time span between extraction and healing after loss of tooth in the anterior esthetic zone can be esthetically and psychologically devastating on the part of the patient. Especially, when a maxillary anterior tooth must be extracted and replaced, immediate tooth replacement with an ovate pontic on a provisional bridge is a good alternative. Ovate pontic helps in preservation of the interdental papilla, which in turn preserves the natural gingival contour that would have otherwise been lost after extraction. An immediate tooth replacement using ovate pontic not only eliminates the psychologically disturbing partially edentulous phase but also results in a much more esthetically pleasing replacement of tooth that is both hygienic and natural in appearance. Another added advantage of the use of ovate pontic is that it rules out the dissatisfaction resulting from an unesthetic ridge lap pontic placed directly over edentulous ridge. Just like the long-lived bird “Phoenix,” arising out of its own ashes, the ovate pontic creates an illusion that the pontic is emerging from the gingiva, even after tooth loss. This case report discusses how an integrated approach of fabricating heat cure provisional bridge with ovate pontics before extractions, benefitted a young patient in whom fractured anterior teeth were proposed for extraction.

  4. Production of immunoglobulins in gingival tissue explant cultures from juvenile periodontitis patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, E.R.; Falkler, W.A. Jr.; Suzuki, J.B.

    1990-01-01

    B lymphocytes and plasma cells are histologically observed in granulomatous periodontal tissues of juvenile periodontitis (JP) patients. Local immune processes may participate in protective or immunopathologic roles in the pathogenesis of this disease. An in vitro explant culture system was utilized to demonstrate the production of immunoglobulins by diseased JP tissues. Immunodiffusion studies using goat anti-human gamma, alpha, or mu chain serum revealed IgG to be the major immunoglobulin present in 92% of the day 1 supernatant fluids (SF) of the 47 JP gingival tissue explant cultures. IgA was present in 15% of the SF; however, no IgM was detected. Staph Protein A isolated 14C-labeled IgG from the SF, when allowed to react with goat anti-human gamma chain serum, formed lines of precipitation. Positive autoradiographs confirmed the biosynthesis of IgG by the explant cultures. The in vitro gingival tissue explant culture system described provides a useful model for the study of localized immunoglobulins produced by diseased tissues of JP patients

  5. Production of immunoglobulins in gingival tissue explant cultures from juvenile periodontitis patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, E.R.; Falkler, W.A. Jr.; Suzuki, J.B. (Univ. of Maryland Dental School, Baltimore (USA))

    1990-10-01

    B lymphocytes and plasma cells are histologically observed in granulomatous periodontal tissues of juvenile periodontitis (JP) patients. Local immune processes may participate in protective or immunopathologic roles in the pathogenesis of this disease. An in vitro explant culture system was utilized to demonstrate the production of immunoglobulins by diseased JP tissues. Immunodiffusion studies using goat anti-human gamma, alpha, or mu chain serum revealed IgG to be the major immunoglobulin present in 92% of the day 1 supernatant fluids (SF) of the 47 JP gingival tissue explant cultures. IgA was present in 15% of the SF; however, no IgM was detected. Staph Protein A isolated 14C-labeled IgG from the SF, when allowed to react with goat anti-human gamma chain serum, formed lines of precipitation. Positive autoradiographs confirmed the biosynthesis of IgG by the explant cultures. The in vitro gingival tissue explant culture system described provides a useful model for the study of localized immunoglobulins produced by diseased tissues of JP patients.

  6. Retracción gingival e hiperestesia dentinal: Causas y prevención Gingival recession and dentine hypersensitivity

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    Jorge Sotres Vázquez

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una investigación en 230 pacientes que acudieron a los Servicios de Prótesis y Periodoncia de la Clínica Estomatológica "Hermanos Gómez" durante el año 2002. Se les evaluó la presencia de retracción gingival, sus causas y la relación existente con la hiperestesia dentinal. Se determinó que el 17,3 % de los dientes examinados presentaron algún grado de retracción gingival. Las causas más frecuentes fueron ausencia de dientes antagonistas e inserciones frénicas anormales. Existió una estrecha relación entre la hiperestesia dentinal y la retracción gingival. No existieron diferencias significativas de retracción gingival según el sexo, pero sí con la edad, pues aumentó significativamente según aumentó la edad.A research study was performed on 230 patients who went to the Denture and Periodontics Service at "Hermanos Gómez" dental clinic in the year 2002. They were evaluated as to presence of gingival recession, its causes and its relation with dentine hypersensitity. It was determined that 17,3% of examined teeth presented with some level of gingival recession frequently caused by lack of opposite teeth and abnormal frenal insertions. Gingival recession did not show significant differences by sex but it did by age since it markedly increased with the age.

  7. Enlargement gingival treatment on teeth 11 and 21

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    Umi Ghoni Tjiptoningsih

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Gingival enlargement in the interdental papillae, thickened, rounded gingival contour and discomfort became major issues that must be treated in order to be optimal appearance and function. Gingival enlargement that experienced fibrosis would not disappear with only plaque control, but required surgery that is gingivectomy and gingivoplasty. The 24-year-old woman came to the periodonsia clinic with complaints maxillary anterior gingiva swelled at teeth 11-21 with plaque index 52%. The depth of the tooth pocket 11: labial (mesial: 4, medial: 1, distal: 3. Palatal (mesial: 3, medial: 2, distal 1. The depth of the tooth pocket 21 is labial (mesial: 4, medial: 1, distal: 1, palatal (mesial: 3, medial: 1, distal 1. Gingivectomy treatment and gingivoplasty were performed with the aim of eliminating pockets and restore physiologic gingival contour which can help prevent the recurrence of the disease periodontal. In performing surgical gingivectomy and gingivoplasty, which must be considered is to minimize the disposal of gingival tissue to maintain the aesthetic, adequate access to the bone defect in order to make good corrections, and the minimization of bleeding and discomfort after surgery.

  8. Gingival fibroma versus verrucous leukoplakia – A clinical dilemma!!!

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    Renu Garg

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Gingival overgrowths found in the oral cavity are mostly due to reactive hyperplasia and rarely depict neoplastic nature. It is a challenge for the clinician to give final diagnoses of gingival overgrowth. Gingiva is a common site for various benign and malignant lesions. Oral cavity is an ideal niche for the manifestation of various precancerous and cancerous lesions. Fibrous growths present in the oral cavity include a varying group of reactive, precancerous, and cancerous conditions. This report describes a case of a 55-year-old male who clinically presented with a localized fibromatous gingival overgrowth in relation to lower left mandibular canine-premolar region that was diagnosed as a gingival fibroma associated with leukoplakia. On histopathological examination, it was diagnosed as a case of proliferative verrucous leukoplakia. Many a times, clinicians face dilemma while diagnosing an overgrowth as it is difficult to differentiate clinically. Hence, a thorough clinical knowledge and a pathologist's opinion become mandatory to give final diagnosis to such gingival overgrowths.

  9. The effectiveness of propolis on gingivitis: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretz, Walter A; Paulino, Niraldo; Nör, Jacques E; Moreira, Alexandre

    2014-12-01

    A randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of a propolis rinse on induced gingivitis by using the co-twin study design. Twenty-one twin pairs (n=42) were enrolled in a gingivitis study with oral hygiene promotion (14 days) and gingivitis induction (21 days). During the gingivitis induction phase, one member of the twin pair was randomly assigned to a 2% typified propolis rinse, and the other was assigned a color-matched 0.05% sodium fluoride plus 0.05% cetylpyridinium chloride rinse (positive control). Patients rinsed twice daily with 20 mL for 30 seconds for 21 days. Gingivitis was measured on days -14 (baseline), 0 (after hygiene phase), and 21 (after no-hygiene phase) by using the Papillary Bleeding Score (PBS) and by standard digital imaging of the gum tissues (G-parameter). The 38 persons who completed the study (age 13-22 years) were well balanced according to PBS at baseline and G-parameter after the initial hygiene phase. After 21 days without oral hygiene, the propolis rinse and positive control rinse groups did not differ significantly for average PBS measurements or G-parameter. Use of a 2% typified propolis rinse was equivalent to a positive control rinse during a 21-day no-hygiene period.

  10. White-spot Lesions and Gingivitis Microbiotas in Orthodontic Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, A.C.R.; Sonis, A.L.; Lif Holgerson, P.; Starr, J.R.; Nunez, Y.; Kressirer, C.A.; Paster, B.J.; Johansson, I.

    2012-01-01

    White-spot lesions (WSL) associated with orthodontic appliances are a cosmetic problem and increase risk for cavities. We characterized the microbiota of WSL, accounting for confounding due to gingivitis. Participants were 60 children with fixed appliances, aged between 10 and 19 yrs, half with WSL. Plaque samples were assayed by a 16S rRNA-based microarray (HOMIM) and by PCR. Mean gingival index was positively associated with WSL (p = 0.018). Taxa associated with WSL by microarray included Granulicatella elegans (p = 0.01), Veillonellaceae sp. HOT 155 (p gingivitis by microarray included: Gemella sanguinis (p = 0.002), Actinomyces sp. HOT 448 (p = 0.003), Prevotella cluster IV (p = 0.021), and Streptococcus sp. HOT 071/070 (p = 0.023); and levels of S. mutans (p = 0.02) and Bifidobacteriaceae (p = 0.012) by qPCR. Species’ associations with WSL were minimally changed with adjustment for gingivitis level. Partial least-squares discriminant analysis yielded good discrimination between children with and those without WSL. Granulicatella, Veillonellaceae and Bifidobacteriaceae, in addition to S. mutans and S. wiggsiae, were associated with the presence of WSL in adolescents undergoing orthodontic treatment. Many taxa showed a stronger association with gingivitis than with WSL. PMID:22837552

  11. Endotoxemia and the host systemic response during experimental gingivitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahaidi, Vivian Y.; Kowolik, Michael J.; Eckert, George J.; Galli, Dominique M.

    2011-01-01

    Aim To assess endotoxemia episodes and subsequent changes in serum inflammatory biomarkers using the experimental gingivitis model Materials and Methods Data from 50 healthy black and white adult males and females were compared for serum concentrations of endotoxin, and serum biomarkers [neutrophil oxidative activity, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, C-reactive protein, and fibrinogen] at baseline, at 3 weeks of experimental gingivitis, and after 2 weeks of recovery. Means were compared using repeated measures ANOVA. Results Endotoxemia was reported in 56% of the serum samples at three weeks of induced gingivitis. At two weeks of recovery, endotoxin levels decreased to levels similar to those reported at baseline. Neutrophil oxidative activity increased significantly following three weeks of gingivitis versus baseline (pgingivitis was associated with endotoxemia and hyperactivity of circulating neutrophils, but not with changes in systemic levels of cytokines and acute phase proteins. This may be attributed to the mild nature and the short duration of the induced gingivitis. PMID:21320151

  12. Defective Wound-healing in Aging Gingival Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cáceres, M; Oyarzun, A; Smith, P C

    2014-07-01

    Aging may negatively affect gingival wound-healing. However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon. The present study examined the cellular responses associated with gingival wound-healing in aging. Primary cultures of human gingival fibroblasts were obtained from healthy young and aged donors for the analysis of cell proliferation, cell invasion, myofibroblastic differentiation, and collagen gel remodeling. Serum from young and old rats was used to stimulate cell migration. Gingival repair was evaluated in Sprague-Dawley rats of different ages. Data were analyzed by the Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests, with a p value of .05. Fibroblasts from aged donors showed a significant decrease in cell proliferation, migration, Rac activation, and collagen remodeling when compared with young fibroblasts. Serum from young rats induced higher cell migration when compared with serum from old rats. After TGF-beta1 stimulation, both young and old fibroblasts demonstrated increased levels of alpha-SMA. However, alpha-SMA was incorporated into actin stress fibers in young but not in old fibroblasts. After 7 days of repair, a significant delay in gingival wound-healing was observed in old rats. The present study suggests that cell migration, myofibroblastic differentiation, collagen gel remodeling, and proliferation are decreased in aged fibroblasts. In addition, altered cell migration in wound-healing may be attributable not only to cellular defects but also to changes in serum factors associated with the senescence process. © International & American Associations for Dental Research.

  13. Efficacy of probiotic administration in the complex treatment of chronic catarrhal gingivitis in children

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    O. I. Godovanets

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the leading pathogenic mechanisms of chronic catarrhal gingivitis development in children is disorders in the system of child macroorganism and oral cavity microorganisms interrelation as a result of normal microflora inhibition against the background of general amount of opportunistic and pathogenic microorganisms. The oral cavity protective mechanisms condition plays an important role in this process. Due to this fact a perspective direction is to study the methods of mentioned pathology treatment using probiotics containing strains of normal microflora with high antagonistic, enzymatic and immune-modeling properties able to inhibit growth of pathogenic bacteria. Objective: to improve the common method of catarrhal gingivitis treatment in children by means of oral microbiocenosis correction on the local level. Materials and methods. The method of catarrhal gingivitis treatment in children with administration of the probiotic “BioGaia Prodentis” has been developed. 30 children at the age of 12 with clinical signs of chronic catarrhal gingivitis were treated and dynamically observed. The children were divided into two groups: the main (with application of the improved method and the group of comparison (the common method was applied. The periodontal tissue condition in children was assessed on the basis of OHI-S, PMA, CPI indices, and Schiller-Pisaref test. The oral cavity local immunity was assessed by means of lysozyme activity, the level of secretory immunoglobulin A, the degree of dysbiosis by urease activity detection in the oral fluid of children. Results. Administration of the drug “BioGaia Prodentis” in the complex of chronic catarrhal gingivitis treatment in children resulted in a quick reverse development of clinical signs. Among the children of the main group on the 3–4th day of treatment a tendency to subsidence of inflammatory signs was observed. In the group of comparison the signs such as hyperemia, swelling and

  14. Eosinophilic plasmacytic conjunctivitis concurrent with gingival fistula caused by Schizophyllum commune in a captive cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus

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    Madoka Yoshizawa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We describe for the first time the diagnosis of Schizophyllum commune infection in a captive cheetah. Eosinophilic plasmacytic conjunctivitis was detected histopathologically in a biopsy specimen. Both a second surgical specimen and drainage fluid from a gingival mass and fistula contained fungal hyphae in giant cells with granulomatous inflammation. Allergic S. commune mycosis was suspected at this point. A monokaryotic isolate was characterized morphologically, and then identified genetically. Treatment with itraconazole and pimaricin was effective. Keywords: Allergic mycosis, Basidiomycosis, Granulomatous inflammation, Felidae, Schizophyllum commune

  15. Evaluation of Co-Q10 anti-gingivitis effect on plaque induced gingivitis: A randomized controlled clinical trial

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    Anirban Chatterjee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Deficiency of Co-Q10 has been found to be responsible for periodontal destruction; therefore, this study was undertaken to evaluate the anti-gingivitis effect of Co-Q10 on plaque induced gingivitis. Materials and Methods: Thirty subjects with plaque induced gingivitis were enrolled in a split mouth randomized controlled trial. For each subject, scaling was randomly performed for any two quadrants, followed by the topical application of Co-Q10 randomly in a previously scaled and as an unscaled quadrant for a period of 28 days. Four treatment options were planned: option A: scaling only; option B: Co-Q10 along with scaling; option C: Co-Q10. Results: Marked reduction in gingival, bleeding, and plaque scores were recorded at the sites where C0-Q10 was applied. Mean±S.D of aforementioned periodontal parameters at 28th day showed significant reduction for option A, B, and C when compared with baseline. Conclusion: Promising results were obtained after the solitary application of Co-Q10 as well as when it was used as an adjunct to scaling and root planing for treatment of plaque induced gingivitis.

  16. Management of gingival hyperpigmentation by semiconductor diode laser

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    Geeti Gupta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Gingival hyperpigmentation is caused by excessive deposition of melanin in the basal and suprabasal cell layers of the epithelium. Although melanin pigmentation of the gingiva is completely benign, cosmetic concerns are common, particularly in patients having a very high smile line (gummy smile. Various depigmentation techniques have been employed, such as scalpel surgery, gingivectomy, gingivectomy with free gingival autografting, cryosurgery, electrosurgery, chemical agents such as 90% phenol and 95% alcohol, abrasion with diamond burs, Nd:YAG laser, semiconductor diode laser, and CO 2 laser. The present case report describes simple and effective depigmentation technique using semiconductor diode laser surgery - for gingival depigmentation, which have produced good results with patient satisfaction.

  17. Plasma cell gingivitis associated with cheilitis: A diagnostic dilemma!

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    Presanthila Janam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Plasma cell gingivitis is a rare condition characterized by diffuse and massive infiltration of plasma cells into the sub-epithelial connective tissue. Clinically, it appears as a diffuse reddening and edematous swelling of the gingiva with a sharp demarcation along the mucogingival border. Though considered as a hypersensitive reaction to an allergen, the etiology of this bizarre condition is still not properly understood. Here, we present an interesting case of plasma cell gingivitis associated with an enlarged and fissured upper lip, which is quite a rarity. The condition was diagnosed based on clinical and histopathologic findings and treated by gingivectomy. The associated cheilitis has dramatically reduced after treatment of the gingival lesion.

  18. SPECT/CT in gingival squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolova, R.; Hadzhiyska, V.; Petrov, T.

    2015-01-01

    Gingival squamous cell carcinoma have a relatively poor prognosis and large differential diagnosis (periodontitis, osteomyelitis, etc.), therefore, it is usually diagnosed at a late stage. Hematogenous dissemination occurs in only about 10% of cases, including lung (66%), bone (22%), liver (10%), skin, bone marrow and mediastinum. Bone metastases are very rare compared to other malignancies, most commonly affect the axial skeleton (spine, pelvis, ribs and lumbar spine). In our case, we presented a patient with gingival squamous cell carcinoma and bone metastasis in the forearm detected with Whole Body Bone Scintigraphy (WBS), combined with Single Photon Emission Tomography /Computed Tomography (SPECT /CT). The obtained data suggest that the single use of WBS was not informative enough for making the final diagnosis, but the result of combined functional-morphological approach was the most pathognomonic. Thus, with single study can be obtained a complex information, which leads to a fast therapeutic decision. Key words: SPECT/CT. GINGiVAL. SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA

  19. Effect of concomitant administration of nifedipine and tacrolimus on the development of gingival overgrowth in rats

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    Sheng-Yi Chen

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion: Gingival overgrowth could be induced either by nifedipine or by tacrolimus, although the extent of gingival overgrowth induced by tacrolimus would be less than that by nifedipine. However, a concomitant administration of nifedipine and tacrolimus did not aggravate the induced gingival overgrowth.

  20. Presence of gingivitis and periodontitis significantly increases hospital charges in patients undergoing heart valve surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allareddy, Veerasathpurush; Elangovan, Satheesh; Rampa, Sankeerth; Shin, Kyungsup; Nalliah, Romesh P; Allareddy, Veerajalandhar

    2015-01-01

    To examine the prevalence and impact of gingivitis and periodontitis in patients having heart valve surgical procedures. Nationwide Inpatient Sample for the years 2004-2010 was used. All patients who had heart valve surgical procedures were selected. Prevalence of gingivitis/periodontitis was examined in these patients. Impact of gingivitis/periodontitis on hospital charges, length of stay, and infectious complications was examined. 596,190 patients had heart valve surgical procedures. Gingivitis/periodontitis was present in 0.2 percent. Outcomes included: median hospital charges ($175,418 with gingivitis/ periodontitis versus $149,353 without gingivitis/periodontitis) and median length of stay (14 days with gingivitis/periodontitis versus 8 days without gingivitis/periodontitis). After adjusting for the effects of patient- and hospital-level confounding factors, hospital charges and length of stay were significantly higher (p gingivitis/periodontitis compared to their counterparts. Further, patients with gingivitis/periodontitis had significantly higher odds for having bacterial infections (OR = 3.41, 95% CI = 2.33-4.98, p gingivitis/periodontitis. Presence of gingivitis and periodontitis is associated with higher risk for bacterial infections and significant hospital resource utilization.

  1. The impacts of gingivitis and calculus on Thai children's quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krisdapong, Sudaduang; Prasertsom, Piyada; Rattanarangsima, Khanit; Sheiham, Aubrey; Tsakos, Georgios

    2012-09-01

    To assess associations of socio-demographic, behavioural and the extent of gingivitis and calculus with oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) in nationally representative samples of 12- and 15-year-old Thai children. In the Thailand National Oral Health Survey, 1,063 twelve-year olds and 811 fifteen-year olds were clinically examined and interviewed for OHRQoL using the Child-OIDP and OIDP indices, respectively, and completed a behavioural questionnaire. We assessed associations of condition-specific impacts (CS-impacts) with gingivitis and calculus, adjusted for socio-demographic and behavioural factors. Gingivitis and calculus were highly prevalent: 79.3% in 12-year and 81.5% in 15-year olds. CS-impacts relating to calculus and/or gingivitis were reported by 26.0% of 12-year and 29.6% of 15-year olds. Except for calculus without gingivitis, calculus and/or gingivitis in any form was significantly related to any level of CS-impacts. At a moderate or higher level of CS-impacts, there were significant relationships with extensive calculus and/or gingivitis in 12-year olds and for extensive gingivitis and gingivitis without calculus in 15-year olds. Gingivitis was generally associated with any level of CS-impacts attributed to calculus and/or gingivitis. CS-impacts were related more to gingivitis than to calculus. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  2. Chronic gingivitis and aphthous stomatitis relationship hypothesis: A neuroimmunobiological approach

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    Chiquita Prahasanti

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Traumatic injuries to the oral mucosa in fixed orthodontic patients are common, especially in the first week of bracket placement, and occasionally lead to the development of aphthous stomatitis or ulcers. Nevertheless, these lesions are selflimiting. Purpose: The objective of this study is to reveal the connection between chronic gingivitis and aphthous stomatitis which is still unclear. Case: A patient with a persistent lesion for more than six months. Case Management: RAS was treated with scaling procedure, the gingival inflammation was healed. However, in this case report, despite the appropriate management procedures had been done, the lesion still worsen and became more painful. Moreover, the symptoms did not heal for more than two weeks. Actually, they had been undergone orthodontic treatment more than six months and rarely suffered from aphthous stomatitis. Coincidentally, at that time they also suffered from chronic gingivitis. It was interesting that after scaling procedures, the ulcer subsides in two days. Conclusion: Recently, the neuroimmunobiological researches which involved neurotransmitters and cytokines on cell-nerve signaling, and heat shock proteins in gingivitis and stomatitis are in progress. Nevertheless, they were done separately, thus do not explain the interrelationship. This proposed new concept which based on an integrated neuroimmunobiological approach could explain the benefit of periodontal treatment, especially scaling procedures, for avoiding prolonged painful episodes and unnecessary medications in aphthous stomatitis. However, for widely acceptance of the chronic gingivitis and aphthous stomatitis relationship, further clinical and laboratory study should be done. Regarding to the relatively fast healing after scaling procedures in this case report; it was concluded that the connection between chronic gingivitis and aphthous stomatitis is possible.

  3. Microbiota and Metatranscriptome Changes Accompanying the Onset of Gingivitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Over half of adults experience gingivitis, a mild yet treatable form of periodontal disease caused by the overgrowth of oral microbes. Left untreated, gingivitis can progress to a more severe and irreversible disease, most commonly chronic periodontitis. While periodontal diseases are associated with a shift in the oral microbiota composition, it remains unclear how this shift impacts microbiota function early in disease progression. Here, we analyzed the transition from health to gingivitis through both 16S v4-v5 rRNA amplicon and metatranscriptome sequencing of subgingival plaque samples from individuals undergoing an experimental gingivitis treatment. Beta-diversity analysis of 16S rRNA reveals that samples cluster based on disease severity and patient but not by oral hygiene status. Significant shifts in the abundance of several genera occurred during disease transition, suggesting a dysbiosis due to development of gingivitis. Comparing taxonomic abundance with transcriptomic activity revealed concordance of bacterial diversity composition between the two quantification assays in samples originating from both healthy and diseased teeth. Metatranscriptome sequencing analysis indicates that during the early stages of transition to gingivitis, a number of virulence-related transcripts were significantly differentially expressed in individual and across pooled patient samples. Upregulated genes include those involved in proteolytic and nucleolytic processes, while expression levels of those involved in surface structure assembly and other general virulence functions leading to colonization or adaptation within the host are more dynamic. These findings help characterize the transition from health to periodontal disease and identify genes associated with early disease. PMID:29666288

  4. Binding, uptake, and release of nicotine by human gingival fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanes, P.J.; Schuster, G.S.; Lubas, S.

    1991-01-01

    Previous studies of the effects of nicotine on fibroblasts have reported an altered morphology and attachment of fibroblasts to substrates and disturbances in protein synthesis and secretion. This altered functional and attachment response may be associated with changes in the cell membrane resulting from binding of the nicotine, or to disturbances in cell metabolism as a result of high intracellular levels of nicotine. The purpose of the present study, therefore, was to (1) determine whether gingival fibroblasts bound nicotine and if any binding observed was specific or non-specific in nature; (2) determine whether gingival fibroblasts internalized nicotine, and if so, at what rate; (3) determine whether gingival fibroblasts also released nicotine back into the extracellular environment; and (4) if gingival fibroblasts release nicotine intact or as a metabolite. Cultures of gingival fibroblasts were prepared from gingival connective tissue biopsies. Binding was evaluated at 4 degree C using a mixture of 3 H-nicotine and unlabeled nicotine. Specific binding was calculated as the difference between 3 H-nicotine bound in the presence and absence of unlabeled nicotine. The cells bound 1.44 (+/- 0.42) pmols/10(6) cells in the presence of unlabeled nicotine and 1.66 (+/- 0.55) pmols/10(6) cells in the absence of unlabeled nicotine. The difference was not significant. Uptake of nicotine was measured at 37 degree C after treating cells with 3 H-nicotine for time periods up to 4 hours. Uptake in pmols/10(6) cells was 4.90 (+/- 0.34) at 15 minutes, 8.30 (+/- 0.75) at 30 minutes, 12.28 (+/- 2.62) at 1 hour and 26.31 (+/- 1.15) at 4 hours

  5. Microbiota and Metatranscriptome Changes Accompanying the Onset of Gingivitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily M. Nowicki

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Over half of adults experience gingivitis, a mild yet treatable form of periodontal disease caused by the overgrowth of oral microbes. Left untreated, gingivitis can progress to a more severe and irreversible disease, most commonly chronic periodontitis. While periodontal diseases are associated with a shift in the oral microbiota composition, it remains unclear how this shift impacts microbiota function early in disease progression. Here, we analyzed the transition from health to gingivitis through both 16S v4-v5 rRNA amplicon and metatranscriptome sequencing of subgingival plaque samples from individuals undergoing an experimental gingivitis treatment. Beta-diversity analysis of 16S rRNA reveals that samples cluster based on disease severity and patient but not by oral hygiene status. Significant shifts in the abundance of several genera occurred during disease transition, suggesting a dysbiosis due to development of gingivitis. Comparing taxonomic abundance with transcriptomic activity revealed concordance of bacterial diversity composition between the two quantification assays in samples originating from both healthy and diseased teeth. Metatranscriptome sequencing analysis indicates that during the early stages of transition to gingivitis, a number of virulence-related transcripts were significantly differentially expressed in individual and across pooled patient samples. Upregulated genes include those involved in proteolytic and nucleolytic processes, while expression levels of those involved in surface structure assembly and other general virulence functions leading to colonization or adaptation within the host are more dynamic. These findings help characterize the transition from health to periodontal disease and identify genes associated with early disease.

  6. Efficacy of fluoride varnish for preventing white spot lesions and gingivitis during orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances-a prospective randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschneck, Christian; Christl, Jan-Joachim; Reicheneder, Claudia; Proff, Peter

    2016-12-01

    The development of white spot lesions around orthodontic brackets and gingivitis is a common problem during orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances. This prospective randomized double-blind controlled clinical trial investigated the preventive efficacy of a one-time application of two commonly used fluoride varnishes in patients with low to moderate caries risk. Ninety adolescent orthodontic patients with a low to moderate caries risk were prospectively randomized to three groups of 30 patients each: (1) standardized dental hygiene with fluoride toothpaste and one-time application of placebo varnish (control) or (2) of elmex® fluid or (3) of Fluor Protector S on all dental surfaces at the start of fixed therapy. The extent of enamel demineralization and gingivitis was determined with the ICDAS and the gingivitis index (GI) at baseline and after 4, 12, and 20 weeks. Each treatment group showed a significant increase of the ICDAS index, but not of the GI over the course of time with no significant intergroup differences detectable. A one-time application of fluoride varnish at the start of orthodontic treatment did not provide any additional preventive advantage over sufficient dental hygiene with fluoride toothpaste with regard to formation of white spots and gingivitis in patients with a low to moderate caries risk. In dental practice, patients often receive an application of fluoride varnish at the start of orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances. However, the efficacy of this procedure is still unclear.

  7. Gingival recession is likely associated with tongue piercings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Mark A

    2012-09-01

    A convenience sample of 60 subjects (27 male; 33 female) with tongue piercings (case group) and 120 subjects (43 male; 77 female) without tongue piercings (control group), ranging in age from 13 to 28 years, were identified from a mix of races living in a geographic area of low socioeconomic status in Brazil. Subjects were recruited from school groups and university centers between January 2008 and March 2009. For each case, 2 controls were selected on a consecutive basis from the same school according to criteria that included age, gender, smoking, and previous orthodontic treatment. Exclusion criteria included individuals with systemic diseases that might compromise the immune system, as well as antibiotics within 3 months or other medications that could affect the gingival tissues. The key study factor was the use or nonuse of tongue piercings (jewelry). The analysis compared periodontal parameters, such as the occurrence, location, and severity of gingival recession, in subjects with and without tongue jewelry. Gingival recession in the anterior lingual mandibular region was assessed as the primary outcome measure. The study sample was divided according to the presence or absence of gingival recession as well as the severity (1-2, 3, and ≥ 4 mm) of gingival recession. The average age of subjects was similar in the case and control groups (18.9 versus 17.7 years, respectively). Fractures of the anterior teeth were present significantly more frequently in cases than controls (26.7% versus 11.7%, respectively; P piercings (OR = 11.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] 5.02-24.09, P <.001). The severity of recession in this region was also significantly higher (calculated using an ordinal scale) in cases than in controls (P < .001). The final multivariate logistic regression model for occurrence of gingival recession included the variables tongue jewelry (yes/no), age, male gender, and the presence of bleeding on probing in the anterior region. Subjects with tongue

  8. Desquamative gingivitis: what's behind it? A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parwani, Simran R; Parwani, Rajkumar N

    2014-01-01

    Desquamative gingivitis (DG) is a clinical term used to describe red, painful, glazed, friable gingiva. It may be a manifestation of a mucocutaneous condition, such as lichen planus or other vesiculobulous disorders. Dentists must be aware of this rare clinical entity in order to distinguish DG from the far more common plaque-induced gingivitis. This case is unique in that it involves oral lichen planus and chronic DG, which may be secondary to plaque or a manifestation of the oral lichen planus. Intraoral examination and biopsy reports revealed features of chronic DG and oral reticular lichen planus.

  9. Microbiota and Metatranscriptome Changes Accompanying the Onset of Gingivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowicki, Emily M; Shroff, Raghav; Singleton, Jacqueline A; Renaud, Diane E; Wallace, Debra; Drury, Julie; Zirnheld, Jolene; Colleti, Brock; Ellington, Andrew D; Lamont, Richard J; Scott, David A; Whiteley, Marvin

    2018-04-17

    Over half of adults experience gingivitis, a mild yet treatable form of periodontal disease caused by the overgrowth of oral microbes. Left untreated, gingivitis can progress to a more severe and irreversible disease, most commonly chronic periodontitis. While periodontal diseases are associated with a shift in the oral microbiota composition, it remains unclear how this shift impacts microbiota function early in disease progression. Here, we analyzed the transition from health to gingivitis through both 16S v4-v5 rRNA amplicon and metatranscriptome sequencing of subgingival plaque samples from individuals undergoing an experimental gingivitis treatment. Beta-diversity analysis of 16S rRNA reveals that samples cluster based on disease severity and patient but not by oral hygiene status. Significant shifts in the abundance of several genera occurred during disease transition, suggesting a dysbiosis due to development of gingivitis. Comparing taxonomic abundance with transcriptomic activity revealed concordance of bacterial diversity composition between the two quantification assays in samples originating from both healthy and diseased teeth. Metatranscriptome sequencing analysis indicates that during the early stages of transition to gingivitis, a number of virulence-related transcripts were significantly differentially expressed in individual and across pooled patient samples. Upregulated genes include those involved in proteolytic and nucleolytic processes, while expression levels of those involved in surface structure assembly and other general virulence functions leading to colonization or adaptation within the host are more dynamic. These findings help characterize the transition from health to periodontal disease and identify genes associated with early disease. IMPORTANCE Although more than 50% of adults have some form of periodontal disease, there remains a significant gap in our understanding of its underlying cause. We initiated this study in order to

  10. Epidemiology of gingivitis in schoolchildren in Bucharest, Romania: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funieru, C; Klinger, A; Băicuș, C; Funieru, E; Dumitriu, H T; Dumitriu, A

    2017-04-01

    Gingivitis is the most prevalent oral disease in children, being strongly associated to social gradients. Many studies have reported different results concerning the extent and intra-oral distribution of gingivitis in children. The aim of this study was to investigate the epidemiologic parameters and socio-related risk factors of gingivitis in the 10-17-year-old Bucharest schoolchildren population and to analyze its intra-oral distribution. Cross-sectional data were obtained from 1595 schoolchildren, social condition being assigned using a simple questionnaire. Classes of students were used as clusters in a single-stage cluster sampling method. An intra-oral exam was performed for all the children included in this study. Silness and Löe scores, prevalence and the extent of gingivitis were calculated. The gingival scores showed a mild inflammation and the prevalence of gingivitis was 91%. Boys had a higher gingival (0.19 vs. 0.18; p gingival conditions (p Gingivitis was more severe on the upper teeth, with the maximum score being reached at the right upper lateral incisor (0.63 on distal surface). Gingival condition in Bucharest schoolchildren population was associated to social gradients. School dental services are also another factor that seems to be related with gingivitis. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Drug-induced gingival enlargement: Series of cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Manzur-Villalobos

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Gingival enlargement (GA is a benign condition of the oral cavity that is characterized by the excessive growth of the gingiva in mass and volume. This lesion is not only caused by hereditary factors or poor oral hygiene, but also by the intake of medications, including antihypertensive, anticonvulsant and immunosuppressive drugs. Objective: To sensitize the prevention or early care in patients with pathologies that merit the use of antihypertensive and anticonvulsants in conjunction with the dentist, to treat or avoid the drug-induced gingival enlargement (DIGE. Materials and methods: A series of clinical cases of patients with gingival enlargement by various drugs are reported, including Phenytoin, Amlodipine and Nifedipine. Periodontal and gingivectomy hygienic phase measures were applied to obtain better effects. Results: Satisfactory results were obtained with a considerable decrease in DIGE. Conclusions: The integral management is important in conjunction with the treating physician to follow up the drug that can be generating gingival enlargement. It is necessary to employ an initial approach with strategies of periodontal hygiene, and in severe cases and, as last resort, the periodontal surgery with gingivectomy and gingivoplasty.

  12. Association between maternal gingivitis, low birth weight and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the association between maternal gingivitis and pregnancy outcome, including low birth weight (LBW) and preterm delivery. This prospective study was conducted among 300 randomly selected pregnant women aged 20-34 years attending the antenatal clinic, University of Benin Teaching Hospital, ...

  13. Soft tissue engineering with micronized-gingival connective tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Sawako; Sumita, Yoshinori; Ohba, Seigo; Yamamoto, Hideyuki; Asahina, Izumi

    2018-01-01

    The free gingival graft (FGG) and connective tissue graft (CTG) are currently considered to be the gold standards for keratinized gingival tissue reconstruction and augmentation. However, these procedures have some disadvantages in harvesting large grafts, such as donor-site morbidity as well as insufficient gingival width and thickness at the recipient site post-treatment. To solve these problems, we focused on an alternative strategy using micronized tissue transplantation (micro-graft). In this study, we first investigated whether transplantation of micronized gingival connective tissues (MGCTs) promotes skin wound healing. MGCTs (≤100 µm) were obtained by mincing a small piece (8 mm 3 ) of porcine keratinized gingiva using the RIGENERA system. The MGCTs were then transplanted to a full skin defect (5 mm in diameter) on the dorsal surface of immunodeficient mice after seeding to an atelocollagen matrix. Transplantations of atelocollagen matrixes with and without micronized dermis were employed as experimental controls. The results indicated that MGCTs markedly promote the vascularization and epithelialization of the defect area 14 days after transplantation compared to the experimental controls. After 21 days, complete wound closure with low contraction was obtained only in the MGCT grafts. Tracking analysis of transplanted MGCTs revealed that some mesenchymal cells derived from MGCTs can survive during healing and may function to assist in wound healing. We propose here that micro-grafting with MGCTs represents an alternative strategy for keratinized tissue reconstruction that is characterized by low morbidity and ready availability. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. No association between gingival labial recession and facial type

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mazurova, K.; Renkema, A.M.; Navratilova, Z.; Katsaros, C.; Fudalej, P.S.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate if facial type is a predictor of the development of gingival recession. METHODS: A cohort of 179 orthodontic patients (76 males, 101 females; age before treatment T S = 12.4 years, SD = 0.8) were followed until 5 years post-treatment (T 5 = 20.7 years, SD = 1.2). The presence

  15. Gingival hyperplasia induced by diphenylhydantoin in a gorilla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, D; Oosterhuis, J

    1979-11-01

    An adult male lowland gorilla had been treated with diphenylhydantoin for 6 months following several acute convulsive episodes. The gorilla remained clinically normal during that period. Then, for no apparent reason, it refused its usual diet. Physical examination revealed acute inflammatory gingival hyperplasia. Full mouth gingivectomy and antibiotic and analgesic therapy resolved the oral inflammation and the anorexia.

  16. Esthetic Management of Gingival Lesions in Anterior Maxilla: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Treatment of soft tissue pathologic process that affects the ... During the pregnancy, it appeared and after that, it does not .... Periodontal plastic surgery associated with treatment for the removal of gingival overgrowth. J Periodontol 2006;77:922‑8. 10. Rahpeyma A, Khajehahmadi S. Modified VIP‑CT flap in late maxillary.

  17. Effect of phenytoin and age on gingival fibroblast enzymes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surena Vahabi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The alteration of cytokine balance is stated to exert greater influence on gingival overgrowth compared to the direct effect of the drug on the regulation of extracellular matrix metabolism. The current study evaluated the effect of phenytoin on the regulation of collagen, lysyl oxidase and elastin in gingival fibroblasts.Normal human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs were obtained from 4 healthy children and 4 adults. Samples were cultured with phenytoin. MTT test was used to evaluate the proliferation and ELISA was performed to determine the level of IL1β and PGE2 production by HGFs. Total RNA of gingival fibroblasts was extracted and RT-PCR was performed on samples. Mann-Whitney U test was used to analyze the data with an alpha error level less than 0.05.There was a significant difference in the expression of elastin between the controls and treated samples in both adult and pediatric groups and also in the lysyl oxidase expression of adult controls and treated adults. No significant difference was found between collagen expression in adults.The significant difference in elastin and lysyl oxidase expression between adult and pediatric samples indicates the significant effect of age on their production.

  18. Efektifitas Propolis Toothpaste sebagai Initial Therapy pada Mild Gingivitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nila Kasuma

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Karakteristik gingivitis ringan adalah terjadinya perubahan warna gusi, edema ringan, tidak ada pendarahan dan tanpa ada rasa nyeri. Jika pasien tidak mendapatkan perawatan yang tepat, gingivitis dapat berubah menjadi periodontitis yang menyebabkan kerusakan jaringan tulang rahang alveolar, menyebabkan kerusakan jaringan lebih lanjut secara lokal dan sistemik melalui pembuluh darah. Pemilihan terapi yang tepat sangat penting untuk mengurangi prevalensi dari penyakit ini. Selain proses scaling dan kontrol plak, penggunaan pasta gigi propolis dapat digunakan sebagai terapi awal. Komposisi pasta gigi yang mengandung propolis memiliki efek anti-inflamasi yang bermanfaat sebagai salah satu terapi awal untuk mengobati gingivitis ringan. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode eksperimen. Indeks gingiva dari 15 pasien diukur sebelum dan sesudah penggunaan pasta gigi propolis. Analisis data dilakukan dengan cara univariat untuk menggambarkan masing-masing variabel dengan Kolmogorov-Smirnof Test. Perbedaan indeks gingiva antara sebelum dan sesudah menyikat gigi dengan pasta gigi yang mengandung propolis dianalisis dengan uji T berpasangan. Pasta gigi yang mengandung propolis ini terbukti efektif dalam terapi awal gingivitis ringan dengan rata-rata pengurangan skor indeks gingiva sebelum dan sesudah adalah 0,40 ± 0,04. Terdepat perbedaan yang signifikan (p <0,05 antara rata-rata penurunan nilai gingiva indeks sebelum dan setelah penggunaan pasta gigi yang mengandung propolis.

  19. Prevention of gingival trauma : Oral hygiene devices and oral piercings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoenderdos, N.L.

    2017-01-01

    Maintaining healthy teeth and soft oral tissues for life is important. Oral hygiene devices and oral piercings can damage the soft oral tissues. This thesis investigates the safety of manual toothbrushes, interdental brushes and rubber bristles interdental cleaners by analysing the gingival abrasion

  20. Local and Systemic Inflammatory Responses to Experimentally Induced Gingivitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leishman, Shaneen J.; Seymour, Gregory J.; Ford, Pauline J.

    2013-01-01

    This study profiled the local and systemic inflammatory responses to experimentally induced gingivitis. Eight females participated in a 21-day experimental gingivitis model followed by a 14-day resolution phase. Bleeding on probing and plaque index scores were assessed before, during, and after resolution of gingival inflammation, and samples of saliva, GCF, and plasma were collected. Samples were assessed for biomarkers of inflammation using the BioPlex platform and ELISA. There were no significant changes in GCF levels of cytokines during the experimental phase; however, individual variability in cytokine profiles was noted. During resolution, mean GCF levels of IL-2, IL-6, and TNF-α decreased and were significantly lower than baseline levels (P = 0.003, P = 0.025, and P = 0.007, resp.). Furthermore, changes in GCF levels of IL-2, IL-6, and TNF-α during resolution correlated with changes in plaque index scores (r = 0.88, P = 0.004; r = 0.72, P = 0.042; r = 0.79, P = 0.019, resp.). Plasma levels of sICAM-1 increased significantly during the experimental phase (P = 0.002) and remained elevated and significantly higher than baseline levels during resolution (P gingivitis adds to the systemic inflammatory burden of an individual. PMID:24227893

  1. Radioautographic DNA synthesis study on mice Mus musculus gingival epithelium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silveira Tarelho, Z.V. da; Hetem, S.

    1984-01-01

    The DNA-synthetizing cells frequency in the gingival epithelium basal layer of the first lower molar region in young and adult mice were studied. The 3H-thymidine and radioautography were used. The labeled cells frequency was determined by calculating their proportions. The data were statiscally analysed. (M.A.C.) [pt

  2. Gingival fibromatosis with hypertrichosis syndrome: Case series of rare syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preetha Balaji

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Gingival fibromatosis with hypertrichosis syndrome is an extremely rare genetic condition characterized by profound overgrowth of hair and gums, as well as other variable features. Gingival fibromatosis is characterized by a large increase in the gingival dimension which extends above the dental crowns, covering them partially or completely. They were found to have a genetic origin, may also occur in isolation or be part of a syndrome, or acquired origin, due to specific drugs administered systemically. Congenital generalized hypertrichosis is a heterogeneous group of diseases with continuing excessive growth of terminal hair without androgenic stimulation. It has informally been called werewolf syndrome because the appearance is similar to that of a werewolf. Various syndromes have been associated with these features such as epilepsy, mental retardation, cardiomegaly, or osteochondrodysplasia. As so far very few cases have been reported in literature, we are reporting a series of three cases with management of the same. The excess gingival tissues, in these cases, were removed by conventional gingivectomy under general anesthesia. The postoperative result was uneventful and the patient's appearance improved significantly. Good esthetic result was achieved to allow patient to practice oral hygiene measures. Though this is not a serious condition clinically, psychosocial trauma cannot be neglected owing to the cosmetic disfigurement it produces.

  3. Unilateral Bimaxillary Idiopathic Fibrous Gingival Hyperplasia with Alveolar Bone Loss- Report of a Rare Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R S Sathawane

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Gingival enlargements are of many types and vary according to the etiologic factors and pathologic processes that produce them. Though there are many classifications of gingival enlargement, the most practical one is as follows: 1 Inflammatory gingival enlargement 2 Fibrous gingival hyperplasia 3 Combination of inflammatory and fibrous hyperplasia. Gingival hyperplasia is a heterogeneous group of disorder, which appears clinically as diffuse, firm, and massive enlargement of the gingiva covering most of the crown of the teeth. Idiopathic gingival enlargement is a rare condition of undetermined etiology, although some cases have definite hereditary basis. A case of unilateral idiopathic fibrous gingival hyperplasia on left side of both the jaws with severe bone resorption is presented.

  4. A review of factors influencing the incidence and severity of plaque-induced gingivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trombelli, L; Farina, R

    2013-06-01

    An individual variation in the gingival inflammatory response to the dental biofilm has been demonstrated. This variability can be observed between individuals with neither quantitative nor qualitative differences in plaque accumulation. The reported significant differences in gingival inflammatory response under quantitatively and/or qualitatively almost identical bacterial challenge suggest that the gingival response to plaque accumulation may be an individual trait, possibly genetic in origin. The most recent classification of periodontal diseases acknowledges that the clinical expression of plaque-induced gingival inflammation can be substantially modified by systemic factors, either inherent to the host or related to environmental influences. The aim of the present literature review is to describe (i) the factors influencing the development of plaque-induced gingivitis as well as (ii) those metabolic, environmental and systemic factors which have a direct impact on the etiopathogenetic pathway of plaque-induced gingivitis, thus altering the nature or course of the gingival inflammatory response to dental biofilm.

  5. Sodium valproate induced gingival enlargement with pre-existing chronic periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaibhavi Joshipura

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Gingival enlargement is a common clinical feature of gingival and periodontal diseases. Currently, more than 20 prescription medications are associated with gingival enlargement. Although the mechanisms of action may be different, the clinical and microscopic appearance of drug-induced gingival enlargement is similar with any drug. Gingival enlargement produces esthetic changes, and clinical symptoms including pain, tenderness, bleeding, speech disturbances, abnormal tooth movement, dental occlusion problems, enhancement of caries development and periodontal disorders. Sodium valproate is considered to produce gingival enlargement, but very rarely. This case report features sodium valproate induced gingival enlargement in a patient with pre-existing chronic periodontitis, who came to the Dental Department, Chinmaya Mission Hospital, Bangalore. The case is special as the patient did not develop the enlargement in spite of taking phenytoin for 1 year and developed enlargement with sodium valproate within 6 months.

  6. Sodium valproate induced gingival enlargement with pre-existing chronic periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshipura, Vaibhavi

    2012-04-01

    Gingival enlargement is a common clinical feature of gingival and periodontal diseases. Currently, more than 20 prescription medications are associated with gingival enlargement. Although the mechanisms of action may be different, the clinical and microscopic appearance of drug-induced gingival enlargement is similar with any drug. Gingival enlargement produces esthetic changes, and clinical symptoms including pain, tenderness, bleeding, speech disturbances, abnormal tooth movement, dental occlusion problems, enhancement of caries development and periodontal disorders. Sodium valproate is considered to produce gingival enlargement, but very rarely. This case report features sodium valproate induced gingival enlargement in a patient with pre-existing chronic periodontitis, who came to the Dental Department, Chinmaya Mission Hospital, Bangalore. The case is special as the patient did not develop the enlargement in spite of taking phenytoin for 1 year and developed enlargement with sodium valproate within 6 months.

  7. Relationship between xerostomia and gingival condition in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizutani, S; Ekuni, D; Tomofuji, T; Azuma, T; Kataoka, K; Yamane, M; Iwasaki, Y; Morita, M

    2015-02-01

    Xerostomia is a subjective symptom of dryness in the mouth. Although a correlation between xerostomia and oral conditions in the elderly has been reported, there are few such studies in the young adults. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship of xerostomia with the gingival condition in university students. A total of 2077 students (1202 male subjects and 875 female subjects), 18-24 years of age, were examined. The disease activity and severity of the gingival condition were assessed as the percentage of teeth with bleeding on probing (%BOP) and the presence of teeth with probing pocket depth of ≥ 4 mm, respectively. Additional information on xerostomia, oral health behaviors, coffee/tea intake and nasal congestion was collected via a questionnaire. Path analysis was used to test pathways from xerostomia to the gingival condition. One-hundred and eighty-three (8.8%) students responded that their mouths frequently or always felt dry. Xerostomia was related to %BOP and dental plaque formation, but was not related to the presence of probing pocket depth ≥ 4 mm. In the structural model, xerostomia was related to dental plaque formation (p Xerostomia was associated with coffee/tea intake (p Xerostomia was indirectly related to gingival disease activity through the accumulation of dental plaque. Nasal congestion and coffee/tea intake also affected xerostomia. These findings suggest that xerostomia should be considered in screening for gingivitis risk in young adults. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Effects of polyhexamethylene guanidine phosphate on human gingival fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitt, Anton; Slizen, Veronica; Boström, Elisabeth A; Yucel-Lindberg, Tülay; Kats, Anna; Sugars, Rachael V; Gustafsson, Anders; Buhlin, Kåre

    2017-10-01

    Polyhexamethylene guanidine phosphate (PHMG-P) was compared to chlorhexidine (CHX) in order to determine potential cytotoxic and immune-modulatory effects on human gingival fibroblasts. Cytotoxic effects of PHMG-P and CHX on human gingival fibroblasts were assessed using cell viability assay at various time points and concentrations. The effects of PHMG-P and CHX on the secretion of prostaglandin (PG) E 2 , interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8 and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 by non-stimulated or IL-1β stimulated fibroblasts were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. PHMG-P concentration 0.00009% led to the total loss of fibroblast viability within 24 h, whereas inhibition of fibroblast viability by CHX occurred at significantly higher concentrations of 0.0009% (p PHMG-P led to loss of fibroblast viability after 5 min, whilst cells exposed to 0.005% CHX survived 30 min of treatment (p PHMG-P or CHX at concentrations of 0.000045 or 0.0.00009% resulted in significantly decreased PGE 2 , IL-6, IL-8 and MMP-1 levels. PHMG-P or CHX alone did not affect the baseline secretion of PGE 2 , IL-6, IL-8 or MMP-1 by gingival fibroblasts. Cytotoxic effects on gingival fibroblasts were triggered by both PHMG-P and CHX at concentrations below those used in clinical practice. The tested antiseptics did not cause inflammation and reduced IL-1β-induced secretion of inflammatory mediators and collagenase by gingival fibroblasts, which suggests anti-inflammatory properties.

  9. Human Memory B Cells in Healthy Gingiva, Gingivitis, and Periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahanonda, Rangsini; Champaiboon, Chantrakorn; Subbalekha, Keskanya; Sa-Ard-Iam, Noppadol; Rattanathammatada, Warattaya; Thawanaphong, Saranya; Rerkyen, Pimprapa; Yoshimura, Fuminobu; Nagano, Keiji; Lang, Niklaus P; Pichyangkul, Sathit

    2016-08-01

    The presence of inflammatory infiltrates with B cells, specifically plasma cells, is the hallmark of periodontitis lesions. The composition of these infiltrates in various stages of homeostasis and disease development is not well documented. Human tissue biopsies from sites with gingival health (n = 29), gingivitis (n = 8), and periodontitis (n = 21) as well as gingival tissue after treated periodontitis (n = 6) were obtained and analyzed for their composition of B cell subsets. Ag specificity, Ig secretion, and expression of receptor activator of NF-κB ligand and granzyme B were performed. Although most of the B cell subsets in healthy gingiva and gingivitis tissues were CD19(+)CD27(+)CD38(-) memory B cells, the major B cell component in periodontitis was CD19(+)CD27(+)CD38(+)CD138(+)HLA-DR(low) plasma cells, not plasmablasts. Plasma cell aggregates were observed at the base of the periodontal pocket and scattered throughout the gingiva, especially apically toward the advancing front of the lesion. High expression of CXCL12, a proliferation-inducing ligand, B cell-activating factor, IL-10, IL-6, and IL-21 molecules involved in local B cell responses was detected in both gingivitis and periodontitis tissues. Periodontitis tissue plasma cells mainly secreted IgG specific to periodontal pathogens and also expressed receptor activator of NF-κB ligand, a bone resorption cytokine. Memory B cells resided in the connective tissue subjacent to the junctional epithelium in healthy gingiva. This suggested a role of memory B cells in maintaining periodontal homeostasis. Copyright © 2016 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  10. Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans lipopolysaccharide affects human gingival fibroblast cytoskeletal organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Venegas, Gloria; Contreras-Marmolejo, Luis Arturo; Román-Alvárez, Patricia; Barajas-Torres, Carolina

    2008-04-01

    The cytoskeleton is a dynamic structure that plays a key role in maintaining cell morphology and function. This study investigates the effect of bacterial wall lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a strong inflammatory agent, on the dynamics and organization of actin, tubulin, vimentin, and vinculin proteins in human gingival fibroblasts (HGF). A time-dependent study showed a noticeable change in actin architecture after 1.5 h of incubation with LPS (1 microg/ml) with the formation of orthogonal fibers and further accumulation of actin filament at the cell periphery by 24 h. When 0.01-10 microg/ml of LPS was added to human gingival fibroblast cultures, cells acquired a round, flat shape and gradually developed cytoplasmic ruffling. Lipopolysaccharides extracted from Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans periodontopathogenic bacteria promoted alterations in F-actin stress fibres of human gingival cells. Normally, human gingival cells have F-actin fibres that are organized in linear distribution throughout the cells, extending along the cell's length. LPS-treated cells exhibited changes in cytoskeletal protein organization, and F-actin was reorganized by the formation of bundles underneath and parallel to the cell membrane. We also found the reorganization of the vimentin network into vimentin bundling after 1.5 h of treatment. HGF cells exhibited diffuse and granular gamma-tubulin stain. There was no change in LPS-treated HGF. However, vinculin plaques distributed in the cell body diminished after LPS treatment. We conclude that the dynamic and structured organization of cytoskeletal filaments and actin assembly in human gingival fibroblasts is altered by LPS treatment and is accompanied by a decrease in F-actin pools.

  11. Matrix metalloproteinase-3 gene polymorphism in renal transplant patients with gingival overgrowth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozdzik, A; Kurzawski, M; Lener, A; Kozak, M; Banach, J; Drozdzik, M

    2010-02-01

    Gingival enlargement frequently occurs in transplant patients receiving immunosuppressive drugs. It was hypothesized that gingival enlargement associated with cyclosporine use results from reduced degradation of extracellular matrix in the gingiva. Matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) is involved in biodegradation of the extracellular matrix, and its inhibition may contribute to an abnormal accumulation of fibronectin and proteoglycans, which are MMP-3 substrates. The aim of this study was to investigate whether an association exists between MMP-3 genotypes and gingival enlargement in kidney transplant patients medicated with cyclosporine A. Sixty-four unrelated kidney transplant patients suffering from gingival overgrowth, as well as 111 control transplant patients without gingival overgrowth, were enrolled in the study. Gingival overgrowth was assessed 6 mo after transplantation. During the post-transplant period all patients were given cyclosporine A as a principal immunosuppressive agent. MMP-3 polymorphism was determined using a PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism assay. In kidney transplant patients suffering from gingival overgrowth the mean gingival overgrowth score was 1.35 +/- 0.57, whereas in control subjects the mean gingival overgrowth score was 0.0. The distribution of MMP-3-1178A/dupA alleles among all kidney transplant patients, as well as in the two study subgroups, did not differ significantly from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The frequency of the MMP-3-1171A/A genotype (28.1% for gingival overgrowth vs. 26.1% for controls) and of the MMP-3-1171dupA/dupA genotype (32.8% for gingival overgrowth vs. 22.5% for controls) was similar for both study groups. The risk of gingival overgrowth was lowest among patients carrying the MMP-3-1171A/dupA genotype (odds ratio 0.52), but this did not differ markedly from the other genotypes. No association between MMP-3 gene polymorphism and gingival overgrowth was revealed in kidney transplant patients

  12. Analysis of changes in gingival contour from three-dimensional co-ordinate data in subjects with drug-induced gingival overgrowth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomason, J M; Ellis, J S; Jovanovski, V; Corson, M; Lynch, E; Seymour, R A

    2005-10-01

    This aim of this study was to develop and assess a technique that could be used to assess accurately the gingival volume changes seen in drug-induced gingival overgrowth by the analysis of data obtained from an entire gingival surface by means of three-dimensional imaging. Stone dental models of patients before and after gingivectomy procedures were digitized with a laser scanner and then regenerated as computer models constructed from the acquired three-dimensional co-ordinate data. A comparison of superposed "before" and "after" surfaces was undertaken to assess and accurately quantify changes in gingival contour. The mean vertical tissue reduction varied from 1.58 to 2.56 mm in the four study subjects and individual differences are shown. The maximum thickness of removed buccal gingival overgrowth was found to range between 1.20 and 3.40 mm. The volume of tissue removed from each inter-dental papilla ranged from 4.2 to 46.1 mm3 and the mean volume of the papilla removed from each subject+/-SD values was 24.8+/-13.1 mm3. This method will measure changes in gingival tissues to within 60 microm in one plane, making it ideal for the assessment of longitudinal changes in gingival contour as seen in the development of gingival overgrowth, its recurrence after surgery or the changes in volume brought about by surgery.

  13. Advances in Gingival Augmentation Techniques - A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiral Shah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the current practice of periodontics, clinicians are faced with the challenge of not only addressing biological and functional problems present in the periodontium but also providing therapy that results in acceptable aesthetics. The presence of mucogingival problems and gingival recession around anterior, highly visible teeth exemplifies a situation in which a treatment modality that addresses both biological and aesthetic demands is required from the therapist. A variety of soft tissue augmentation procedures directed at root coverage have been documented in the literature utilizing autogenous or allogenic soft tissue grafting or guided tissue regeneration (GTR. The purpose of this review was to assess the effectiveness of newer materials in gingival augmentation procedures.

  14. Gingival Necrosis Caused by an Ill-Fitting Denture

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    Vanja VUČIĆEVIĆ BORAS

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of an 80-year-old male who was referred to the Department of Oral Medicine, School of Dental Medicine University of Zagreb, Croatia due to gingival ulcer which was present for eight days. Clinical examination has revealed exposed bone on the toothless alveolar ridge in the lower molar region on the right side of 0.8 cm in diameter. Otherwise, the patient was taking doxazosin due to urinary problems and ipatropium bromide due to respiratory problems. The patient wore a 6-year-old partial lower denture. He was initially treated with periodontal bandage (Resopack, HagenWerken, Germany for the first three days and was instructed not to wear the denture; however, no benefit could be seen. Therefore, we added a local corticosteroid (betamethasone and an oral antiseptic (chlorhexidine digluconate applied three times a day. After 3 weeks the lesion healed. A list of possible causative factors regarding gingival ulcers is included.

  15. Can Chemical Mouthwash Agents Achieve Plaque/Gingivitis Control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Weijden, Fridus A; Van der Sluijs, Eveline; Ciancio, Sebastian G; Slot, Dagmar E

    2015-10-01

    Also note that structured abstracts are not allowed per journal style: What is the effect of a mouthwash containing various active chemical ingredients on plaque control and managing gingivitis in adults based on evidence gathered from existing systematic reviews? The summarized evidence suggests that mouthwashes containing chlorhexidine(CHX) and essential oils (EO) had a large effect supported by a strong body of evidence. Also there was strong evidence for a moderate effect of cetylpyridinium chloride(CPC). Evidence suggests that a CHX mouthwash is the first choice, the most reliable alternative is EO. No difference between CHX and EO with respect to gingivitis was observed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Pink esthetics in periodontics - Gingival depigmentation: A case series

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    Arthiie Thangavelu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Smile expresses a feeling of joy, success, sensuality, affection, and courtesy, and reveals self-confidence and kindness. The harmony of the smile is determined not only by the shape, the position, and the color of the teeth, but also by the gingival tissues. Although melanin pigmentation of the gingiva is completely benign and does not present a medical problem, complaints of "black gums" are common, particularly in patients having a very high smile line. Thus, perio-esthetic treatment modalities strive to achieve a harmonious inter-relationship of the pink with white, which is imperative of all treatment procedures. For depigmentation of gingival, different treatment modalities have been reported, such as bur abrasion, scraping, partial thickness flap, cryotherapy, electrosurgery, and laser. In the present case series, scraping, electrosurgery, and diode laser have been tried for depigmentation, which are simple, effective, and yield good results, along with good patient satisfaction.

  17. A Rare Case Report of Amlodipine-Induced Gingival Enlargement and Review of Its Pathogenesis

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    Sanjeev Joshi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gingival enlargement is a common clinical feature of gingival and periodontal diseases. It is an unwanted side effect of certain systemic drugs given for nondental treatment. It is being reported with three main groups of drugs like calcium channel blockers (CCBs, immunosuppressants, and anticonvulsants. Among calcium channel blockers, nifedipine causes gingival hyperplasia in about 10% of patients, whereas the incidence of amlodipine-, a third generation calcium channel blocker, induced gingival hyperplasia is very limited. There are very few reports of amlodipine-induced gingival enlargement at a dose of 5 mg. We report a case of amlodipine-induced gingival enlargement in a 45-year-old hypertensive patient taking amlodipine at a dose of 5 mg.

  18. Clinical diagnosis and treatment of necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis in the orthodontic patient. A case report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Rodríguez-Pulido

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: About 0.1% of the population suffers from necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis, a disease of rapid progression and acute manifestation, which may progress to necrotizing ulcerative periodontitis and eventually to bone sequestration and loss of gingival tissue. Case report: A 21-year-old female patient undergoing orthodontic treatment for six months, diagnosed with necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis due to acute pain in the gingival tissue, spontaneous bleeding, halitosis and abundant plaque. The treatment was conservative and effective, obtaining total remission of the lesion after seven days and three months of postoperative follow-up. Conclusion: Today there are no epidemiological or clinical reports that support the relationship of necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis and orthodontic treatment. Prevention is critical to the success of the treatment, which is why the dentist should recognize the clinical features of necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis to raise awareness of its risks in the orthodontic patient.

  19. Treatment of Gingival Hyperpigmentation by Diode Laser for Esthetical Purposes

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    Hanaa M. El Shenawy

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Gingival hyperpigmentation is a common esthetical concern in patients with gummy smile or excessive gingival display. Laser ablation has been recognized recently as the most effective, pleasant and reliable technique. It has the advantage of easy handling, short treatment time, hemostasis, decontamination, and sterilization effect. AIM: In the present study we wanted to explore the efficacy of a 980 nm wavelength diode laser in gingival depigmentation clinically by using both VAS and digital imaging method as means of assessment. METHODS: Diode laser ablation was done for 15 patients who requested cosmetic therapy for melanin pigmented gums. The laser beam delivered by fiberoptic with a diameter of 320 µm, the diode laser system has 980 nm wave lengths and 3 W irradiation powers, in a continuous contact mode in all cases, the entire surface of each pigmented maxillary and mandibular gingiva that required treatment was irradiated in a single session. Clinical examination and digital image analysis were done and the patients were followed up for 3 successive months. RESULTS: There was a statistically significant change in prevalence of bleeding after treatment, as none of the cases showed any signs of bleeding 1 week, 1 month and 3 months after ablation. No statistically significant change was observed in the prevalence of swelling after treatment The VAS evaluation demonstrated that only 4 patients complained of mild pain immediately after the procedure. No pain was perceived from the patients in the rest of the follow up period. There was no statistically significant change in prevalence of pain immediately after treatment compared to pain during treatment. There was a decrease in cases with mild pain after 1 week, 1 month as well as 3 months compared to pain during treatment and immediately after treatment. CONCLUSION: Within the limitations of this study, the use of diode laser was shown to be a safe and effective treatment

  20. Acute Necrotizing Ulcerative Gingivitis: Microbial and Immunologic Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-10-01

    Fusobacterium nucleatum and Bacteroides strains isolated from ANUG patients, chronic periodontitis patients, non-oral abscesses and healthy gingival sulci...34 Odd ii 4n....00p IdaOdifir 0’ block flumber) Periodontal Disease Spirochetes Microbiology Fusobacteria immunology Bacteroides 20. AN3T7RAC~r C4.tft...and serological etudies with ’We 7. nucleatum isolates from patients with ANUG, chronic periodontitis , Juvenile periodontitis , and adults and children

  1. Simplificando el tratamiento quirúrgico de la sonrisa gingival

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    H. Chacón Martínez

    Full Text Available La sonrisa es una de las expresiones más comunes del ser humano como muestra de satisfacción, alegría o felicidad. Algunas personas al sonreír muestran la encía por encima de la base de los dientes, lo que ocasiona un aspecto antiestético. Esta situación repercute negativamente en el individuo, ya que altera la espontaneidad de la expresión facial. En el origen de la sonrisa gingival intervienen factores dentales, esqueléticos y de tejidos blandos. Proponemos una variante quirúrgica innovadora para corregir la sonrisa gingival en pacientes con alteraciones de los tejidos blandos. Se intervinieron quirúrgicamente 15 mujeres de entre 17 y 38 años de edad. En 7 de ellas se practicó rinoplastia además de corrección de la sonrisa gingival. Las 8 restantes se sometieron exclusivamente a corrección de la sonrisa gingival. Las 15 pacientes intervenidas mejoraron su apariencia y autoestima. No hubo complicaciones o problemas relacionados con la herida quirúrgica. Los resultados han sido permanentes a medio y largo plazo. La sonrisa de las pacientes es normal, mejoró su expresión y se conservaron la sensibilidad y la función muscular. La técnica propuesta es sencilla y de fácil reproducción; el tiempo quirúrgico estimado es de una hora y la operación es de tipo ambulatoria. Suele ser bien tolerada por los pacientes y no altera sus actividades cotidianas.

  2. Cytotoxicity of four denture adhesives on human gingival fibroblast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yoon; Ahn, Jin-Soo; Yi, Young-Ah; Chung, Shin-Hye; Yoo, Yeon-Jee; Ju, Sung-Won; Hwang, Ji-Yun; Seo, Deog-Gyu

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the cytotoxicity of four denture adhesives on human gingival fibroblast cells. Immortalized human gingival fibroblasts were cultured with one of four different denture adhesives, Polident, Protefix, Staydent or Denfix-A, which was placed in insert dishes (10% w/v concentration) for 48 h. The MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay and flow cytometric apoptosis assay were used to evaluate cell viability and apoptosis rates. The fibroblasts were also examined under a scanning electron microscope. The MTT assay showed that all denture adhesives resulted in a significantly lower cell viability compared to the control cells propagated in normal culture medium (p 0.05). Staydent showed the highest apoptosis rate. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the cells of the Staydent group underwent cytoplasmic membrane shrinkage, with cell free areas containing residual fragments of the membrane of dead cells. The four denture adhesives evaluated in this study imparted cytotoxic effects on human gingival fibroblast cells. Staydent showed the highest toxicity.

  3. Gingival profiles in a select Asian cohort: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wan Zhen; Ong, Marianne M A; Yeo, Alvin B-K

    2018-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the facial gingival profiles of teeth with a healthy periodontium in an Asian population. A total of 51 patients with a healthy periodontium were examined. Gingival thickness (GT) and gingival width (GW) were assessed at the maxillary and mandibular incisors to the first molars. GT was measured by transgingival probing (GT-TGP), and probe visibility through the marginal gingiva (GT-TRAN) was assessed. Results between groups (anterior and posterior, tooth types) were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and t-test. The mean age was 30.3±11.4 years, with 27 females and 24 males. The mean GT-TGP was 1.39±52 mm, while the mean GW was 4.59±1.34 mm. Considerable intra-individual and interindividual variation in GT (TGP and TRAN) was noted. GT increased from the anterior to posterior, and was thinnest at the mandibular centrals to the first premolars and maxillary canines. GT-TGP and GW were influenced by tooth type, plaque, recession, and TRAN, but not age, sex, or ethnicity. GW were recorded lowest at the mandibular canines and all premolars. Thin gingiva was recorded at 63.8%-92% (GT-TGPTGP and GT-TRAN. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  4. Aetiology and severity of gingival recession in an adult population sample in Greece

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    Nikolaos Andreas Chrysanthakopoulos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gingival recession is the most common and undesirable condition of the gingiva. The aim of study was to investigate the aetiology and severity of gingival recession in a Greek adult population sample. Methods : The study was performed on 165 males and 179 females, 18-68 years old who sought dental treatment in a private dental practice and showed gingival recession. All subjects were clinically examined and answered questions regarding their oral hygiene habits such as the type of toothbrush, frequency of brushing and method of brushing. The association between gingival recession and the following parameters was assessed: plaque score, gingival score and tooth position. Statistical analysis of the results was accomplished using chi-square test (α = 0.05. Results: The majority (79.4% of the patients showed grade I gingival recession and 15.3% showed grade II gingival recession. The maxillary 1 st and 2 nd molars (35.3% and the mandibular 1 st and 2 nd molars (28.7% were the teeth most frequently affected by root surface exposure. Patients with sub-gingival calculus, bacterial plaque and gingival inflammation (P < 0.05, malpositioned teeth (P < 0.001, horizontal brushing method, medium type of toothbrush (P < 0.001 and brushing once daily (P < 0.001 appeared to be the most common precipitating aetiological factor for gingival recession. Conclusion: According to the results of the present study, gingival recession was the result of more than one factor acting together. Horizontal brushing method, usage of medium type toothbrush and tooth brushing once daily were found to be more associated with gingival recession.

  5. Plasma cell gingivitis - A rare case related to Colocasia (arbi leaves

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    Deepika Bali

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Plasma cell gingivitis is an uncommon inflammatory condition of uncertain etiology often flavoured chewing gum, spices, foods, candies, or dentifrices. The diagnosis of plasma cell gingivitis is based on comprehensive history taking, clinical examination, and appropriate diagnostic tests. Here we are presenting a rare case of plasma cell gingivitis caused by consumption of colocasia (arbi leaves. Colocasia is a kind of vegetable, very commonly consumed in the regions of North India.

  6. Plasma cell gingivitis - A rare case related to Colocasia (arbi) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bali, Deepika; Gill, Sanjeet; Bali, Amit

    2012-09-01

    Plasma cell gingivitis is an uncommon inflammatory condition of uncertain etiology often flavoured chewing gum, spices, foods, candies, or dentifrices. The diagnosis of plasma cell gingivitis is based on comprehensive history taking, clinical examination, and appropriate diagnostic tests. Here we are presenting a rare case of plasma cell gingivitis caused by consumption of colocasia (arbi) leaves. Colocasia is a kind of vegetable, very commonly consumed in the regions of North India.

  7. Gingival depigmentation: A split mouth comparative study between scalpel and cryosurgery

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    Kaustubh P Patil

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Gingival hyperpigmentation is a major esthetic concern for many people. Although it is not a medical problem, many people complain of dark gums as unesthetic. Gingival depigmentation is a periodontal plastic surgical procedure, whereby the hyperpigmentation is removed or reduced by various techniques. For depigmentation of gingival, different treatment modalities have been reported, such as scalpel, cryosurgery, electrosurgery, lasers, etc., this article compares the management of three cases with scalpel and cryosurgery and also highlights the relevance of cryosurgery.

  8. Interleukin-22 (IL-22) Gingival Gene Expression and GCF Concentration in Periodontal Health and Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Amini Behbahani A; Sattari M; Mofid R; Ganji A

    2014-01-01

    IL-22 is a cytokine that is assumed to improve anti-microbial defense of epidermal and epithelial cells and the cells of gastrointestinal and respiratory systems. With respect to absence of enough relevant articles in this regard the aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between IL-22 gene expression in gingival tissues as well as its concentration in GCF and periodontal diseases. Gingival samples obtained from 60 patients of three different groups (healthy, gingivitis and chronic...

  9. Hyperthermia and massage are effect for the gingivitis improvement; Onnetsu to massaji ga shinikuen kaizen ni koka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-10-01

    It was confirmed that Kao and research group of Nosaka professor of Iwate Medical Univ. faculty of dentistry that hyperthermia and massage at the 40 degrees C for the gingival activate the gingival lymph duct function and that it improves the gingivitis was effective. By causing the microcirculation disorder of the gingival, the research of the vascularisation is main until now for the gingivitis. Present research demonstrated that the recovery of the lymph duct function was effective for the gingivitis improvement for the first time in the world. (translated by NEDO)

  10. Esthetic impact of gingival plastic surgery from the dentistry students’ perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyildiz, Erdem; Tan, Enes; Keklik, Hakan; Demirtag, Zulfikar; Celebi, Ahmet Arif; Pithon, Matheus Melo

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the this study was to evaluate the perception of smile esthetics and alterations in cases of gingival plastic surgery for correction of a gummy smile, by means of alterations in smile photograph among dentistry degree students. Materials and Methods: A frontal smile photograph of a 40-year-old woman having normal occlusion was used with diverse compositions of gingival exposure level and crown length of maxillary teeth. The eight photographs were evaluated by 216 dentistry students in five class groups (1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th classes). Results: The results revealed that almost all of the class’ students perceived differences between images, additionally, the highest percentage of students that answered “no difference” was 12% at 1st class’ students. 1st and 2nd class’ students most liked photograph which is 2.5 mm gingival display and 3rd class students liked two different photographs which are 2.5 mm gingival display and 2 mm gingival display whereas 4th class students preferred two different photographs which are 1.5 mm gingival display and 1 mm gingival display, 5th class students preferred photograph which is 1.5 mm gingival display as the most. Conclusion: Esthetic perception of smile improve as a student passes to higher study classes in terms of gingival exposure. The harmonious display of gingiva exhibits an important effect in the smile esthetics rather than reduced or excessive display. PMID:27403061

  11. [Gingival health and esthetics--another aspect of objectives of orthodontic treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Dongqing; Xu, Hui; Bai, Ding

    2013-04-01

    Contemporary orthodontic care should be a team approach to achieve health and esthetics of soft and hard tissue. It should be given enough attention that periodontal health provides the foundation for tooth movement, and that distinct esthetic results can be achieved by subtle changes in tooth alignment and gingival contours. Orthodontic treatment planning should include evaluation of gingival health and esthetics to anticipate the need for interdisciplinary approaches. Studies on the effect of orthodontic treatment on gingiva can provides basis for maintaining gingival health and esthetic. This article will focus primarily on the gingival health and esthetic care in orthodontic treatment.

  12. Coverage of Gingival Fenestration Using Modified Pouch and Tunnel Technique: A Novel Approach

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    Sunil Pendor

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gingival fenestration defects are a rare phenomenon. Gingival fenestration means the exposure of the tooth due to loss of the overlying bone and gingiva. Though treatment of mucosal fenestration occurring in association with chronic periapical inflammation has been reported previously, the occurrence and treatment of gingival fenestration have not been documented in great detail. This report describes the occurrence of a gingival fenestration that developed secondarily to a gutka chewing habit. Treatment of the fenestration along with coverage of an adjacent recession defect in a single-step procedure using a pouch and tunnel technique is described.

  13. Chronic inflammatory gingival enlargement associated with orthodontic therapy--a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhav, Tanya; Bhat, K Mahalinga; Bhat, G Subraya; Varghese, Jothi M

    2013-02-01

    Gingival enlargement, also synonymous with the terms gingival hyperplasia or hypertrophy, is defined as an abnormal overgrowth of gingival tissues. A case of a 19-year-old male presenting with maxillary and mandibular chronic inflammatory gingival enlargement associated with prolonged orthodontic therapy is reported here. Surgical therapy was carried out to provide a good aesthetic outcome. No recurrence was reported at the end of 1 year. The importance of patient motivation and compliance during and after therapy as a critical factor in the success of treatment has also been highlighted through this case report.

  14. Assesment of gingival microcirculation in anterior teeth using laser Doppler flowmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canjau, Silvana; Miron, Mariana I.; Todea, Carmen D.

    2016-03-01

    Introduction: Evaluating the health status of the gingival tissue represents an important objective in the daily practice. Inflammation changes the microcirculatory and micromorphological dynamics of human gingiva. Aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the microcirculation in subjects with moderate gingivitis and healthy gingiva by using laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF). Material and Methods: Recordings of the gingival microcirculation (GM) were taken from 20 healthy gingival sites and from 20 sites with moderate gingivitis. The gingival blood flows in the gingivitis group before treatment was significantly different from those in the healthy gingiva group. Signals were recorded with the aid of a laser Doppler MoorLab instrument VMS-LDF2 probe VP3 10 mm S/N 2482. Three consecutive determinations of the GM were registered for each site, as follows: before the initial therapy, at 24 hours after the initial therapy and then, 7 days after the initial therapy. The data were processed using the statistical analysis software SPSS v16.0.1. Results: The results of this preliminary study showed statistically significant differences among the GM values recorded before and after the initial therapy. Conclusions: LDF could be a useful, noninvasive, sensitive, reproducible, and harmless method for measuring gingival blood flow (gingival microcirculation) in humans.

  15. Prevention and treatment of chronic catarrhal gingivitis and gingival recession in patients with non-removable dental prosthesis designs

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    Анатолій Михайлович Петрушанко

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Schemes of prevention and treatment of chronic catarrhal gingivitis and gingival recession in patients with non-removable dental prosthesis designs. It is proved their clinical effectiveness and evaluation criteria of developed gum recession land. After application of preventive and therapeutic complexes, which observed in patients, improve the hygienic condition of the mouth, confirming the feasibility of their application.Methods. It is included 153 patients with various defects of individual teeth and dentition, including 85 women (55.6% and 68 men (44.4% aged from 25 to 55 years. The control group consisted of 35 healthy individuals of the same age without metallic inclusions in the mouth.Results. In analyzing the evaluation index hygienic condition of the oral cavity in patients 25-34 years of gingivitis against the backdrop of orthopedic treatment non-removable denture constructions the indices Green-Vermillion and Silness-Loe following data were obtained: patients of the main group before treatment, the rate Green Vermillion index was an average of 1,70 ± 0,07 points to 1,75 ± 0,08 points, indicating a satisfactory level of oral hygiene. After application of preventive and therapeutic complexes improve the hygienic condition of the oral cavity, which marked the studied index indicators hygiene.Analyzing the data should be noted that positive changes of hygienic condition of the oral cavity were observed throughout the study period in all age groups of patients in both subgroups of observation and comparison.Conclusions. We offer health care systems for the prevention and treatment of gum recession and chronic catarrhal gingivitis in patients after dental prosthetics of non-replaceable constructs allowed to suspend pathological processes in the gums and improve oral hygiene

  16. Reversal of drug-induced gingival overgrowth by UV-mediated apoptosis of gingival fibroblasts - an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchhart, Casey; Joy, Anita

    2018-05-01

    Gingival overgrowth (GO) is an undesirable result of certain drugs like Cyclosporine A (CsA). Histopathology of GO shows hyperplasia of gingival epithelium, expansion of connective tissue with increased collagen, or a combination. Factors such as age, gender, oral hygiene, duration, and dosage also influence onset and severity of GO. One of the mechanisms behind uncontrolled cell proliferation in drug-induced GO is inhibition of apoptotic pathways, with a consequent effect on normal cell turnover. Our objective was to determine if UV photo-treatment would activate apoptosis in the gingival fibroblast component. Human gingival fibroblast cells (HGF-1) were exposed to 200ng/ml or 400ng/ml CsA and maintained for 3, 6, and 9 days, followed by UV radiation for 2, 5, or 10min (N=6). Naïve (no CsA or UV), negative (UV, no CsA), and positive controls (CsA, no UV) were designated. Prior to UV treatment, growth media was replaced with 1M PBS to prevent absorption of UV radiation by serum proteins, and cells were incubated in growth media for 24h post-UV before processing for TUNEL assay, cell proliferation assays, or immunofluorescence. Data showed a temporal increase in proliferation of HGF-1 cells under the influence of CsA. The 200ng/ml dose was more effective in causing over-proliferation. UV treatment for 10min resulted in significant reduction in cell numbers, as evidenced by counts and proliferation assays. Our study is a first step to further evaluate UV-mediated apoptosis as a mechanism to control certain forms of GO. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Frequency of Gingival Display During Smiling and Comparison of Biometric Measurements in Subjects with and without Gingival Display

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, F.; Abbas, M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency of gingival display during smiling and to compare biometric measurements in subjects with and without gingival display. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Prosthodontics, Dr. Ishrat-ul-Ibad Khan Institute of Oral Health Sciences, Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi, from October 2012 to March 2013. Methodology: A total of 275 subjects (121 men and 154 women) were included in this study. The age of the participants ranged between 21 and 65 years. Measurements were carried out using digital caliper. For each participants, the gingival display was judged as either visible or not. The amounts of horizontal and vertical overlap of anterior teeth were measured using a digital caliper. Gender differences in these parameters and the relationship between subjects showing gingival display when smiling and the two intraoral dental biometric measurements were determined. Statistical analyses of data were performed using SPSS version 17.0 software. The mean scores for gender were calculated and a Student's t-test was used to identify significant differences between both groups. Significant level was set to 0.05. Results: A relatively small percentage of the subjects (37.8%) displayed gingiva when smiling. More women significantly displayed gingiva when smiling than men, with a 2:1 female: male ratio. Women had significantly (p=0.001) more horizontal overlap (3.34 +- 1.45 mm) than men (2.90 +- 1.44 mm), although no significant gender difference were found in vertical overlap. Subjects with gingival display had significantly (p < 0.05) more horizontal (3.49 +- 1.36 mm) and vertical (3.26 +- 1.47 mm) overlap of anterior teeth compared to those who did not display gingiva when smiling. Conclusion: Significantly more women displayed gingiva in smiling. Women had significantly more horizontal overlap than men. No gender differences were recorded between vertical overlap. Subjects who displayed

  18. Immunohistochemical analysis of Langerhans cells in chronic gingivitis using anti-CD1a antibody

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweta Jaitley

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Langerhans cells (LCs are dendritic cells (DCs which belong to the group of antigen presenting cells (APCs. Their function is to recognize the antigen, capture it, and present it to the T lymphocytes; thus initiating an early immune response. The antigen presenting functional LCs may play an important part in initiation and development of gingivitis. The aim of this study was to analyze the density, intraepithelial distribution, and morphology of LCs in gingival epithelium among different age groups with chronic gingivitis and to compare it with that of normal gingiva. Materials and Methods: Immunohistochemistry (IHC was performed to study LCs in normal gingival epithelium (n = 10 and gingival epithelium in chronic gingivitis (n = 30 using anti-CD1a antibody. Mann Whitney U test was performed to compare the density of LCs in normal gingiva with chronic gingivitis. The distribution of LCs in various layers of the epithelium within the three age groups was analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis test. P value less than 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: The density of LCs in chronic gingivitis was significantly higher then that of normal gingiva. Comparing different age groups, the younger individuals had more number of LCs which were located in the superficial layers of gingival epithelium. In chronic gingivitis, higher number of LCs were located in deeper layers when compared with that of normal gingiva. Three morphological types of CD1a positive LCs were observed in normal gingiva, out of which the density of LCs with branched dendritic processes was highest in normal gingiva. Conclusion: The LCs showed variable number, location, and morphology which indicated their adaptation for function in chronic gingivitis.

  19. Expression pattern of adhesion molecules in junctional epithelium differs from that in other gingival epithelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatakeyama, S; Yaegashi, T; Oikawa, Y; Fujiwara, H; Mikami, T; Takeda, Y; Satoh, M

    2006-08-01

    The gingival epithelium is the physiologically important interface between the bacterially colonized gingival sulcus and periodontal soft and mineralized connective tissues, requiring protection from exposure to bacteria and their products. However, of the three epithelia comprising the gingival epithelium, the junctional epithelium has much wider intercellular spaces than the sulcular epithelium and oral gingival epithelium. Hence, the aim of the present study was to characterize the cell adhesion structure in the junctional epithelium compared with the other two epithelia. Gingival epithelia excised at therapeutic flap surgery from patients with periodontitis were examined for expression of adhesion molecules by immunofluorescence. In the oral gingival epithelium and sulcular epithelium, but not in the junctional epithelium, desmoglein 1 and 2 in cell-cell contact sites were more abundant in the upper than the suprabasal layers. E-cadherin, the main transmembranous molecule of adherens junctions, was present in spinous layers of the oral gingival epithelium and sulcular epithelium, but was scarce in the junctional epithelium. In contrast, desmoglein 3 and P-cadherin were present in all layers of the junctional epithelium as well as the oral gingival epithelium and sulcular epithelium. Connexin 43 was clearly localized to spinous layers of the oral gingival epithelium, sulcular epithelium and parts of the junctional epithelium. Claudin-1 and occludin were expressed in the cell membranes of a few superficial layers of the oral gingival epithelium. These findings indicated that the junctional epithelium contains only a few desmosomes, composed of only desmoglein 3; adherens junctions are probably absent because of defective E-cadherin. Thus, the anchoring junctions connecting junctional epithelium cells are lax, causing widened intercellular spaces. In contrast, the oral gingival epithelium, which has a few tight junctions, functions as a barrier.

  20. Keadaan Oral Hygiene Dan Gingivitis Serta Faktor-Faktor Yang Mempengaruhinya Pada Anak SD Muhammadiyah 28 Kecamatan Medan Timur

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Syafri

    2008-01-01

    Gingivitis merupakan penyakit periodontal stadium awal berupa peradangan pada gingiva, termasuk penyakit paling umum yang sering ditemukan pada jaringan mulut. Gingivitis yang ringan umumnya tidak segera mendapatkan perhatian karena tidak menimbulkan rasa sakit atau gangguan fungsi, akan tetapi jika keadaan ini dibiarkan, gingivitis dapat menjadi bentuk yang destruktif. Prevalensi gingivitis dapat berkurang dengan bertambah baiknya status oral hygiene, pasok flour yang memadai, diet yang baik...

  1. Effect of dental restoration with epoxy and bioceramic paste on periodontal tissue damage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nan-Lin Meng

    2017-01-01

    Objective:To study the effect of dental restoration with epoxy and bioceramic paste on periodontal tissue damage.Methods: Patients with pulpal and periapical diseases who received root canal therapy in our hospital between May 2013 and October 2016 were retrospectively analyzed, and according to the different root canal filling materials they used, they were divided into epoxy group and bioceramic group who used epoxy paste and bioceramic paste as root canal filling materials respectively. Before and after treatment, gingival crevicular fluid was collected respectively to determine the levels of inflammatory factors, oxidative stress products, cell apoptosis molecules and protease-related molecules.Results: 2 weeks after treatment, IL-1β, IL-6, CRP, ROS, MDA, AOPP, Bcl-2, Bax, Cyt-C, caspase-3, Smac, EMMPRIN, MMP-1, MMP-2, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 levels in gingival crevicular fluid of epoxy group were not significantly different from those before treatment; IL-1β, IL-6, CRP, ROS, MDA, AOPP, Bax, Cyt-C, caspase-3, Smac, EMMPRIN, MMP-1 and MMP-2 levels in gingival crevicular fluid of bioceramic group were significantly higher than those before treatment while Bcl-2, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 levels were significantly lower than those before treatment; IL-1β, IL-6, CRP, ROS, MDA, AOPP, Bcl-2, Bax, Cyt-C, caspase-3, Smac, EMMPRIN, MMP-1, MMP-2, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 levels in gingival crevicular fluid were significantly different between two groups of patients after treatment.Conclusion:Epoxy paste for dental restoration causes less damage to periodontal tissue than bioceramic paste.

  2. Effect of dental restoration with epoxy and bioceramic paste on periodontal tissue damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan-Lin Meng

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of dental restoration with epoxy and bioceramic paste on periodontal tissue damage. Methods: Patients with pulpal and periapical diseases who received root canal therapy in our hospital between May 2013 and October 2016 were retrospectively analyzed, and according to the different root canal filling materials they used, they were divided into epoxy group and bioceramic group who used epoxy paste and bioceramic paste as root canal filling materials respectively. Before and after treatment, gingival crevicular fluid was collected respectively to determine the levels of inflammatory factors, oxidative stress products, cell apoptosis molecules and protease-related molecules. Results: 2 weeks after treatment, IL-1β, IL-6, CRP, ROS, MDA, AOPP, Bcl-2, Bax, Cyt-C, caspase-3, Smac, EMMPRIN, MMP-1, MMP-2, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 levels in gingival crevicular fluid of epoxy group were not significantly different from those before treatment; IL-1β, IL-6, CRP, ROS, MDA, AOPP, Bax, Cyt-C, caspase-3, Smac, EMMPRIN, MMP-1 and MMP-2 levels in gingival crevicular fluid of bioceramic group were significantly higher than those before treatment while Bcl-2, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 levels were significantly lower than those before treatment; IL-1β, IL-6, CRP, ROS, MDA, AOPP, Bcl-2, Bax, Cyt-C, caspase-3, Smac, EMMPRIN, MMP-1, MMP-2, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 levels in gingival crevicular fluid were significantly different between two groups of patients after treatment. Conclusion: Epoxy paste for dental restoration causes less damage to periodontal tissue than bioceramic paste.

  3. Redefining orthodontic space closure: sequential repetitive loading of the periodontal ligament--a clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalha, Anmol S; Kachiwala, Viral Ashok; Govardhan, Singatagere Nagaraj; McLaughlin, Richard P; Khurshaid, Syed Zameer

    2010-01-01

    To assess the rate of tooth movement, anchorage loss, root resorption, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) as a marker for bone remodeling during orthodontic space closure using two different mechanisms. Space closure was completed in 20 patients with extraction of all 4 premolars. Lateral cephalograms and radio-visiographs taken before (T1) and after (T2) space closure were assessed for anchorage loss and root resorption. Alkaline phosphatase levels were measured in 10 patients, which were divided into two groups of five each. Spaces were closed with a screw device in the first group and with active tie-backs in the second. Gingival crevicular fluid samples, collected at intervals, were assayed for alkaline phosphatase spectrophotometrically in each patient. The mean rate of tooth movement was 1.32 ± 0.22 mm/month. The mean amount of anchorage loss in the maxilla and mandible was 1.23 ± 0.60 mm and 1.08 ± 0.65 mm, respectively. Sixty (25%) roots showed no root resorption, while 180 (75%) roots displayed mild to moderate blunting of their apices. Gingival crevicular fluid-alkaline phosphatase level increased significantly from day 7 to day 28 in both groups, but significantly more in the screw retraction group (Pspace closure occurs more rapidly with sequential repetitive loading of the periodontal ligament than with conventional active tie-backs. This observation is in concurrence with a significant increase in the gingival crevicular fluid-alkaline phosphatase level. © 2010 BY QUINTESSENCE PUBLISHING CO, INC.

  4. Cetylpyridinium chloride mouth rinses alleviate experimental gingivitis by inhibiting dental plaque maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Fei; He, Tao; Huang, Shi; Bo, Cun-Pei; Li, Zhen; Chang, Jin-Lan; Liu, Ji-Quan; Charbonneau, Duane; Xu, Jian; Li, Rui; Ling, Jun-Qi

    2016-09-29

    Oral rinses containing chemotherapeutic agents, such as cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), can alleviate plaque-induced gingival infections, but how oral microbiota respond to these treatments in human population remains poorly understood. Via a double-blinded, randomised controlled trial of 91 subjects, the impact of CPC-containing oral rinses on supragingival plaque was investigated in experimental gingivitis, where the subjects, after a 21-day period of dental prophylaxis to achieve healthy gingivae, received either CPC rinses or water for 21 days. Within-subject temporal dynamics of plaque microbiota and symptoms of gingivitis were profiled via 16S ribosomal DNA gene pyrosequencing and assessment with the Mazza gingival index. Cetylpyridinium chloride conferred gingival benefits, as progression of gingival inflammation resulting from a lack of dental hygiene was significantly slower in the mouth rinse group than in the water group due to inhibition of 17 gingivitis-enriched bacterial genera. Tracking of plaque α and β diversity revealed that CPC treatment prevents acquisition of new taxa that would otherwise accumulate but maintains the original biodiversity of healthy plaques. Furthermore, CPC rinses reduced the size, local connectivity and microbiota-wide connectivity of the bacterial correlation network, particularly for nodes representing gingivitis-enriched taxa. The findings of this study provide mechanistic insights into the impact of oral rinses on the progression and maturation of dental plaque in the natural human population.

  5. Influence of age and immunization on development of gingivitis in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lekic, P; Klausen, B; Friis-Hasché, E

    1989-01-01

    To study the effect of age and antigenic priming on the development of gingivitis, 33 healthy rats were placed in contact with Streptococcus mutans, Actinomyces viscosus, Fusobacterium nucleatum, and Bacteroides gingivalis. On days 0, 3, 7, and 14 after inoculation, the gingival condition...

  6. The gingival condition of oral contraceptives users at desa Hegarmanah, Kecamatan Jatinangor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miduk Sibuea

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The change of hormonal condition is a systemic condition that affected the periodontium condition. Oral contraceptives is one of the systemic risk that can change hormonal condition. The purpose of the research was to evaluate gingival condition of oral contraceptives users and to find the difference of gingival condition between users and non users of oral contraceptives at Desa Hegarmanah, Kecamatan Jatinangor. The research method was descriptive analytic with purposive sampling, consist of 69 users and 30 non users of oral contraceptives. The gingival condition was scored by using Loe and Sillnes gingival index. The research showed that the average of gingival index in oral contraceptives users was 1.913 and non users was 1.707. The statistic analysis was U Mann Whitney non parametric test and the α was 5% showed that there was a significant difference of gingival condition between users and non users of oral contraceptives. The conclusion of the research was the gingival condition of oral contraceptives users was different with non users at Desa Hegarmanah Kecamatan Jatinangor but clinically was the same, that is in moderate gingivitis category.

  7. Effectiveness of feeding large kibbles with mechanical cleaning properties in cats with gingivitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrieling, HE; Theyse, LFH; van Winkelhoff, AJ; Dijkshoorn, NA; Logan, EI; Picovet, P

    2005-01-01

    Effectiveness of feeding large kibbles with mechanical cleaning properties in cats with gingivitis periodontal disease is the most common acquired oral disease in cats. it starts with plaque accumulation and gingivitis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of different types of

  8. Prevalence and severity of plaque-induced gingivitis in a Saudi adult population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idrees, Majdy M.; Azzeghaiby, Saleh N.; Hammad, Mohammad M.; Kujan, Omar B.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the prevalence and severity of plaque-induced gingivitis among a Saudi adult population in Riyadh region. Methods: Three hundred and eighty-five eligible participants in this cross-sectional study were recruited from routine dental patients attending the oral diagnosis clinic at Al-Farabi College in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia from June 2013 to December 2013. A clinical examination was performed by 2 dentists to measure the gingival and plaque indices of Löe and Silness for each participant. Results: The prevalence of gingivitis was 100% among adult subjects aged between 18-40 years old. Moreover, the mean gingival index was 1.68±0.31, which indicates a moderate gingival inflammation. In fact, males showed more severe signs of gingival inflammation compared with females (p=0.001). In addition, the mean plaque index was 0.875±0.49, which indicates a good plaque status of the participants. Interestingly, the age was not related either to the gingival inflammation (p=0.13), or to the amount of plaque accumulation (p=0.17). However, males were more affected than females (p=0.005). Conclusion: The results of this study show that plaque accumulation is strongly associated with high prevalence of moderate to severe gingivitis among Saudi subjects. PMID:25399215

  9. Candida spp. and gingivitis in children with nephrotic syndrome or type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olczak-Kowalczyk, Dorota; Pyrżak, Beata; Dąbkowska, Maria; Pańczyk-Tomaszewska, Małgorzata; Miszkurka, Grażyna; Rogozińska, Izabela; Swoboda-Kopeć, Ewa; Gozdowski, Dariusz; Kalińska, Angelika; Piróg, Anna; Mizerska-Wasiak, Małgorzata; Roszkowska-Blaim, Maria

    2015-05-08

    Diabetes and Nephrotic syndrome (NS) promote plaque-related gingivitis and yeast-like fungal infections. The study assesses the impact of Candida spp. and general disease- or treatment-related factors on plaque-related gingivitis severity in children and adolescents with Nephrotic syndrome /diabetes. Body mass index (BMI), BMI standard deviation score, and oral cavity (Plaque Index--PLI, Gingival Index--GI, mucosa status, presence and Candida enzymatic activity) were assessed in 96 patients (32 with NS: 30- immunosuppressive treatment, 35--type 1 diabetes, and 29 generally healthy), aged; 3-18 years. Laboratory included cholesterol and triglyceride measurements; in diabetic subjects- glycated haemoglobin, in NS: total protein, albumin, creatinine, haemoglobin, haematocrit, white cell count, urinary protein excretion. Medical records supplied information on disease duration and treatment. A statistical analysis was performed; Kendall Tau coefficient, chi-square test, t-test, and multiple regression analysis ( P Gingivitis occurred more frequently in patients with NS/diabetes. Gingivitis severity was correlated with PLI, age, and yeast enzyme activity in NS--to with immunosuppressive treatment with >1 drug, drug doses, treatment duration, lipid disorders, and BMI; in diabetes, with blood glucose and glycated haemoglobin >8%. Poor hygiene control is the main cause of gingivitis. Gingivitis severity is most likely related to age, lipid disorders and increase in body mass. Candida spp., in uncompensated diabetes and in those using immunosuppressive treatment, might intensify plaque-related gingivitis.

  10. Salivary Cytoprotective Proteins in Inflammation and Resolution during Experimental Gingivitis--A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboodi, Guy M; Sima, Corneliu; Moffa, Eduardo B; Crosara, Karla T B; Xiao, Yizhi; Siqueira, Walter L; Glogauer, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The protective mechanisms that maintain periodontal homeostasis in gingivitis and prevent periodontal tissue destruction are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to identify changes in the salivary proteome during experimental gingivitis. We used oral neutrophil quantification and whole saliva (WS) proteomics to assess changes that occur in the inflammatory and resolution phases of gingivitis in healthy individuals. Oral neutrophils and WS samples were collected and clinical parameters measured on days 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35. Increased oral neutrophil recruitment and salivary cytoprotective proteins increased progressively during inflammation and decreased in resolution. Oral neutrophil numbers in gingival inflammation and resolution correlated moderately with salivary β-globin, thioredoxin, and albumin and strongly with collagen alpha-1 and G-protein coupled receptor 98. Our results indicate that changes in salivary cytoprotective proteins in gingivitis are associated with a similar trend in oral neutrophil recruitment and clinical parameters. We found moderate to strong correlations between oral neutrophil numbers and levels of several salivary cytoprotective proteins both in the development of the inflammation and in the resolution of gingivitis. Our proteomics approach identified and relatively quantified specific cytoprotective proteins in this pilot study of experimental gingivitis; however, future and more comprehensive studies are needed to clearly identify and validate those protein biomarkers when gingivitis is active.

  11. Assessment of relationship between oral health behavior, oral hygiene and gingival status of dental students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsheen Lalani

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Thus, it is concluded that there is a significant relationship between the oral health behavior, oral hygiene, and gingival status of dental students. Dental students with better self-reported oral health behavior had lower plaque and gingival scores indicating a better attitude toward oral health.

  12. Antigen-presenting properties of gingival fibroblasts in chronic adult periodontitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wassenaar, A.; Snijders, A.; Abraham-Inpijn, L.; Kapsenberg, M. L.; Kievits, F.

    1997-01-01

    Chronic periodontitis is characterized by dense infiltrations of T lymphocytes in the connective tissue, which consists mainly of gingival fibroblasts. It is becoming increasingly clear that T lymphocytes and gingival fibroblasts are capable of influencing each other. For example, the T cell

  13. Gingival enlargement in orthodontic patients: Effect of treatment duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Alice Souza; Alves, Luana Severo; Zenkner, Júlio Eduardo do Amaral; Zanatta, Fabrício Batistin; Maltz, Marisa

    2017-10-01

    In this study, we aimed to assess the effect of the duration of fixed orthodontic treatment on gingival enlargement (GE) in adolescents and young adults. The sample consisted of 260 subjects (ages, 10-30 years) divided into 4 groups: patients with no fixed orthodontic appliances (G0) and patients undergoing orthodontic treatment for 1 year (G1), 2 years (G2), or 3 years (G3). Participants completed a structured questionnaire on sociodemographic characteristics and oral hygiene habits. Clinical examinations were conducted by a calibrated examiner and included the plaque index, the gingival index, and the Seymour index. Poisson regression models were used to assess the association between group and GE. We observed increasing means of plaque, gingivitis, and GE in G0, G1, and G2. No significant differences were observed between G2 and G3. Adjusted Poisson regression analysis showed that patients undergoing orthodontic treatment had a 20 to 28-fold increased risk for GE than did those without orthodontic appliances (G1, rate ratio [RR] = 20.2, 95% CI = 9.0-45.3; G2, RR = 27.0, 95% CI = 12.1-60.3; G3 = 28.1; 95% CI = 12.6-62.5). The duration of orthodontic treatment significantly influenced the occurrence of GE. Oral hygiene instructions and motivational activities should target adolescents and young adults undergoing orthodontic treatment. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Gingival squamous cell carcinoma masquerading as an aphthous ulcer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Prathypaty Santha; Kumar, Gudi Pavan; Bai, Yendluri Durga; Reddy, Eragam Yella Reddy Balaji Naveen

    2013-01-01

    Gingival squamous cell carcinoma (GSCC) is an uncommon condition of the oral cavity. It is seldom associated with classic risk factors of oral cancer and shows a predilection for females. It's close clinical resemblances to various lesions of the oral cavity may make it go unnoticed. This may lead to diagnosis at advanced stages and coupled with the proximity to underlying alveolar bone may result in subsequent morbidity and mortality. A case of GSCC camouflaged as an aphthous ulcer in a middle aged woman is presented. The article highlights the importance of early diagnosis resulting in conservative treatment approaches. PMID:24174737

  15. Efectividad de un programa educativo en mujeres adolescentes con gingivitis

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Albuja, María José; Pablo Jaramillo, Juan

    2017-01-01

    Se efectuó una intervención educativa en 30 mujeres adolescentes de 14 a 16 años de edad, que padecían gingivitis y fueron atendidas en el Centro de Salud de la Parroquia de Conocoto, en Quito, Ecuador, de julio a octubre del 2016, a fin de evaluar la efectividad de un programa educativo sobre la enfermedad en féminas de este grupo etario. Para ello se aplicaron una encuesta, un indicador de salud bucal y el índice de higiene bucal simplificado, antes y después de la intervención. Luego de re...

  16. Idiopathic Gingival Fibromatosis Rehabilitation: A Case Report with Two-Year Followup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh Jayachandran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gingival enlargements are quite common and may be either inflammatory, noninflammatory, or a combination of both. Gingival hyperplasia is a bizarre condition causing esthetic, functional, psychological, and masticatory disturbances of the oral cavity. Causes of gingival enlargement can be due to plaque accumulation, due to poor oral hygiene, inadequate nutrition, or systemic hormonal stimulation (Bakaeen and Scully, 1998. It can occur as an isolated disease or as part of a syndrome or chromosomal abnormality. A progressive fibrous enlargement of the gingiva is a facet of idiopathic fibrous hyperplasia of the gingiva (Carranza and Hogan, 2002; Gorlin et al., 1976. It is described variously as fibromatosis gingivae, gingivostomatitis, hereditary gingival fibromatosis, idiopathic fibromatosis, familial elephantiasis, and diffuse fibroma. We present a case of idiopathic gingival fibromatosis with its multidisciplinary approach of management.

  17. The effectiveness of dentifrices without and with sodium lauryl sulfate on plaque, gingivitis and gingival abrasion--a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sälzer, S; Rosema, N A M; Martin, E C J; Slot, D E; Timmer, C J; Dörfer, C E; van der Weijden, G A

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of a dentifrice without sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) to a dentifrice with SLS in young adults aged 18-34 years on gingivitis. One hundred twenty participants (non-dental students) with a moderate gingival inflammation (bleeding on probing at 40-70 % of test sites) were included in this randomized controlled double blind clinical trial. According to randomization, participants had to brush their teeth either with dentifrice without SLS or with SLS for 8 weeks. The primary outcome was bleeding on marginal probing (BOMP). The secondary outcomes were plaque scores and gingival abrasion scores (GA) as well as a visual analogue scale (VAS) score at exit survey. Baseline and end differences were analysed by univariate analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) test, between group differences by independent t test and within groups by paired sample t test. BOMP improved within groups from on average 0.80 at baseline to 0.60 in the group without SLS and to 0.56 in the group with SLS. No statistical difference for BOMP, plaque and gingival abrasion was found between both groups. VAS scores for taste, freshness and foaming effect were significantly in favour of the SLS-containing dentifrice. The test dentifrice without SLS was as effective as a regular SLS dentifrice on gingival bleeding scores and plaque scores. There was no significant difference in the incidence of gingival abrasion. In patients diagnosed with gingivitis, a dentifrice without SLS seems to be equally effective compared to a dentifrice with SLS and did not demonstrate any significant difference in gingival abrasion. In patient with recurrent aphthous ulcers, the absence of SLS may even be beneficial. However, participants indicate that they appreciate the foaming effect of a dentifrice with SLS more.

  18. Clinical and bacteriological study of the effect of Nd:YAG laser in gingivitis therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colojoara, Carmen; Mavrantoni, Androniki; Miron, Mariana I.

    2000-06-01

    The relationship between dental plaque and gingivitis was verified. Nonspecific gingivitis is an inflammatory process, frequently caused by enzymes and toxins liberate by bacteria form dental plaque. Loose plaque has come under a great deal of investigation because of its role in attachment loss. The current methods used in the treatment of non specific gingivitis encompass the use of antibiotics and conventional surgical techniques. Treating gingivitis with laser energy may further reduce the gingival inflammation and decrease the wound healing time. The lack of correlation between the quantity of dental plaque and the intensity of gingivitis determined us to study the effect of Nd:YAG pulsed laser in reduction of gingival inflammation and wound healing. The aim of this work is to evaluate clinically the anti- inflammatory and wound healing effect of pulsed Nd:YAG laser and to compare the appearance and the levels of the bacteria in the supergingival and subgingival plaque in adolescents with tooth crowding after Nd:YAG laser. The experimental procedure consisted of a clinical and bacteriological study which was undertaken in 20 patients presenting moderate gingivitis. A group of 10 patients was the subject of a bacteriological study and the other group of 10 was used for clinical and histological examination. For each group the clinical criteria of evaluation were: the gingival index, papillary bleeding index, spontaneous aches. Each patient was tested before and after laser exposure or conventional therapy for bacteriological analyses. The results prove that early gingivitis exposure to laser registers a decrease of bacterial colony number and absence of loss of attachment as compared to the application of the conventional treatment. Clinical study has shown that the combination of scaling and root planning with laser therapy is enough to provide improvement in clinical indices and reduction in the number of bacterial colonies.

  19. Is obesity associated with healing after non-surgical periodontal therapy? A local vs. systemic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duzagac, E; Cifcibasi, E; Erdem, M G; Karabey, V; Kasali, K; Badur, S; Cintan, S

    2016-10-01

    We aimed to detect the role of obesity on the healing response to periodontal therapy in terms of serum lipids, C-reactive protein (CRP) and both serum and gingival crevicular fluid adipocytokines. Thirty patients with periodontitis with (CPO) (n = 15) and without (n = 15) obesity and 15 healthy controls were included. Serum high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, triglyceride, CRP levels and levels of adiponectin, interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and IL-10 were evaluated before and 3 mo after initial periodontal therapy. Clinical periodontal measurements were also recorded at baseline and 3 mo. Periodontal parameters improved significantly in both periodontitis groups with or without obesity (p 0.05) and change in numbers of sites with probing depth ≥ 4 mm. High-density lipoprotein significantly increased in both groups (p > 0.05). CRP decreased significantly solely in the normal weight group. IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α levels in gingival crevicular fluid improved significantly based on therapy in both groups (p periodontitis without obesity. Patients with CPO respond to periodontal therapy as well as the non-obese controls. This similar response is accompanied with consistent adipokine levels in gingival crevicular fluid. However, obesity affects the CRP and serum adipocytokine levels in response to therapy. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Prognostic Indicators of Gingival Recession in Nigeria: Preliminary Findings

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    Michael Adedigba

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Literature is replete with studies on gingival recession, the apical shift of the gingival margin from the cemento-enamel junction. Chronic periodontitis and frequent toothbrushing are among its aetiological factors. Many of these were however prevalence studies. The current study was therefore aimed at separating prognostic indicators from determinants of the number of recessions. METHOD: 650 consecutive adult patients visiting a Nigerian teaching hospital were examined using a checklist including plaque, calculus, Miller’s class of recession and other parameters.. A total of 408 recession sites were identified. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients with recession was 42.3 years; mean number of recession was 4.74 Incisors had the highest number of recessions (35.7%. While a factor such as age was related both to the number and prognosis of recession sites, abrasion and plaque were only related to prognosis. Again, some of the factors previously significantly related to prognosis on univariate analysis like calculus and smoking, lost their significance on regression analysis. CONCLUSION: The three strongest predictors of prognosis (Miller’s class of recession were age, plaque and abrasion. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(3.000: 187-194

  1. Retractions of the gingival margins evaluated by holographic methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinescu, Cosmin; Negrutiu, Meda Lavinia; Manole, Marius; de Sabata, Aldo; Rusu, Laura-Cristina; Stratul, Stefan; Dudea, Diana; Dughir, Ciprian; Duma, Virgil-Florin

    2015-05-01

    The periodontal disease is one of the most common pathological states of the teeth and gums system. The issue is that its evaluation is a subjective one, i.e. it is based on the skills of the dental medical doctor. As for any clinical condition, a quantitative evaluation and monitoring in time of the retraction of the gingival margins is desired. This phenomenon was evaluated in this study with a holographic method by using a He-Ne laser with a power of 13 mW. The holographic system we have utilized - adapted for dentistry applications - is described. Several patients were considered in a comparative study of their state of health - regarding their oral cavity. The impressions of the maxillary dental arch were taken from a patient during his/her first visit and after a period of six months. The hologram of the first model was superposed on the model cast after the second visit. The retractions of the gingival margins could be thus evaluated three-dimensionally in every point of interest. An evaluation of the retraction has thus been made. Conclusions can thus be drawn for the clinical evaluation of the health of the teeth and gums system of each patient.

  2. Effect of posterior crown margin placement on gingival health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitemeier, Bernd; Hänsel, Kristina; Walter, Michael H; Kastner, Christian; Toutenburg, Helge

    2002-02-01

    The clinical impact of posterior crown margin placement on gingival health has not been thoroughly quantified. This study evaluated the effect of posterior crown margin placement with multivariate analysis. Ten general dentists reviewed 240 patients with 480 metal-ceramic crowns in a prospective clinical trial. The alloy was randomly selected from 2 high gold, 1 low gold, and 1 palladium alloy. Variables were the alloy used, oral hygiene index score before treatment, location of crown margins at baseline, and plaque index and sulcus bleeding index scores recorded for restored and control teeth after 1 year. The effect of crown margin placement on sulcular bleeding and plaque accumulation was analyzed with regression models (Prisk of bleeding at intrasulcular posterior crown margins was approximately twice that at supragingival margins. Poor oral hygiene before treatment and plaque also were associated with sulcular bleeding. Facial sites exhibited a lower probability of sulcular bleeding than lingual surfaces. Type of alloy did not influence sulcular bleeding. In this study, placement of crown margins was one of several parameters that affected gingival health.

  3. Gingival wound healing: an essential response disturbed by aging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, P C; Cáceres, M; Martínez, C; Oyarzún, A; Martínez, J

    2015-03-01

    Gingival wound healing comprises a series of sequential responses that allow the closure of breaches in the masticatory mucosa. This process is of critical importance to prevent the invasion of microbes or other agents into tissues, avoiding the establishment of a chronic infection. Wound healing may also play an important role during cell and tissue reaction to long-term injury, as it may occur during inflammatory responses and cancer. Recent experimental data have shown that gingival wound healing is severely affected by the aging process. These defects may alter distinct phases of the wound-healing process, including epithelial migration, granulation tissue formation, and tissue remodeling. The cellular and molecular defects that may explain these deficiencies include several biological responses such as an increased inflammatory response, altered integrin signaling, reduced growth factor activity, decreased cell proliferation, diminished angiogenesis, reduced collagen synthesis, augmented collagen remodeling, and deterioration of the proliferative and differentiation potential of stem cells. In this review, we explore the cellular and molecular basis of these defects and their possible clinical implications. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2014.

  4. Fluid Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drazin, Philip

    1987-01-01

    Outlines the contents of Volume II of "Principia" by Sir Isaac Newton. Reviews the contributions of subsequent scientists to the physics of fluid dynamics. Discusses the treatment of fluid mechanics in physics curricula. Highlights a few of the problems of modern research in fluid dynamics. Shows that problems still remain. (CW)

  5. Prevalence of gingivitis and perception of gingival colour among pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic of Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Idi-Araba

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    Modupeoluwa Omotunde Soroye

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the prevalence of gingivitis and perception of gingival colour among pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic of a tertiary health institution in Lagos State, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A single-point assessment was conducted using a self-reported questionnaire completed by participants. Information such as patients′ age, gestational age, educational status, occupation, and perception of gingival colours was obtained. Furthermore, the participants were examined by trained dentists to determine their gingival colours and the presence and severity of gingival inflammation. The data obtained were processed, and descriptive and comparative analyses were done using Epi info version 3.5.1 (2008. Statistical significance was established at P values <0.05. Results: Four hundred and forty-five pregnant women aged between 18 years and 43 years [mean age: 30.3 (±4.61 years] participated in the study. Gestational age was between 4 weeks and 41 weeks with a mean of 23.49 (±9.53 weeks. The prevalence of gingivitis was 85.2%. Two hundred and thirty (51.7% participants described their gingival colour as pink, 127 (28.5% as red, 51 (11.5% as black, 3 (0.7% as white, 2 (0.4% as brown, and 32 (7.2% could not determine the colour of their gingivae. Two hundred and ten (47.2% participants knew that pink was the normal colour of a healthy gingiva. From objective clinical examinations by dentists, 344 (77.3% patients had pink gingivae, 85 (19.1% had pigmented gingivae, and only 16 (3.6% had red gingivae. Conclusion: The higher prevalence of gingivitis during pregnancy is well-established and that observation is corroborated by this study. Since a change in gingival colour may be an early indication of gingival inflammation, early detection and prompt treatment could prevent further periodontal deterioration. Hence, there is the need to incorporate and intensify oral health education during antenatal care so that pregnant women are

  6. Nociones actuales sobre la flora microbiana del surco gingival Current notions on the microbial flora of the gingival sulcus

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    Tatiana Peña Ruiz

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available La enfermedad periodontal es un problema de salud bucal a escala mundial. Con el transcurso del tiempo, el conocimiento de la gingivitis ha sufrido grandes cambios, y es hoy en día una de las enfermedades de mayor frecuencia entre los pacientes que asisten a los servicios estomatológicos. Se realiza este estudio con el objetivo de profundizar en la relación entre los microorganismos de la placa dental y la etiología de la periodontitis. La placa dental es una comunidad microbiana compleja; como consecuencia de las interacciones entre las especies, se produce un nicho ecológico que favorece el crecimiento y la supervivencia de especies proteolíticas anaerobias estrictas, así como condiciones apropiadas para el desarrollo de periodontitis.Periodontal disease is an oral health problem worldwide. In the course of time, knowledge about gingivitis has greatly changed, and today, this is one of the most frequent diseases affecting the patients going to the dentistry service. This study was aimed at delving into the relationship between the dental plaque microorganisms and the periodontitis etiology. The dental plaque constitutes a complex microbial community; the interactions among the host species give rise to an ecological niche that favors growth and survival of strictly anaerobic proteolytic species as well as to adequate conditions for the onset of periodontitis.

  7. Gingival abscess due to an unusual nail-biting habit: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Denise; Pinto, Daniela; Araujo, Rebecca; Rego, Rodrigo Otavio; Moreira-Neto, Jose

    2010-03-01

    Nail-biting is one of the most frequent deleterious oral habits in children. It can result in systemic diseases or oral traumatic lesion. This report describes a case of gingival abscess in a child due to a fingernail-biting habit. A 5-year, 6-month-old female presented gingival swelling and fistula in the primary maxillary left central and right lateral incisors as an unusual sequelae to the periodontal tissues from fingernail-biting. A periodontal curette was used to remove the fragments and to curette the area. After the curettage, an exudate of blood and pus was drained. Then the area was irrigated with 0.12% chlorhexidine solution; applying finger pressure controlled the secretion. After one week, the patient returned with gingival swelling present in the same teeth. The same curettage procedure was performed. It was suggested that the deleterious habit was related to emotional tension and anxiety behaviors and the patient was referred for psychological treatment. When the patient returned one month later, she was still biting her fingernails, but she had stopped placing fragments into the gingival crevice. No more gingival inflammation or swelling was observed. his paper presents an unusual case report of a gingival abscess due to a fingernail-biting habit in a child, probably related to an emotional condition. The fingernail-biting habit can induce a periodontal traumatic injury yielding a more serious complication such as a gingival abscess.

  8. Gingival enlargment treatment on 11 and 21 teeth: A case report

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    Umi Ghoni Tjiptoningsih

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The main problem of gingival enlargement in the interdental papillae is thickening of gingival contour, rounde and uncomfort feeling, that must be needed immediate in order to be optimal appearance and functionale. Fibrosis gingival enlargement  wont be healed  with plaque control only, but must be require a surgery treatment such as gingivectomy and gingivoplasty. A 24-year-old woman  came into periodontia clinic complaining a hard swelling at anterior maxillary gingiva at 11-21. Plaque index 52%. Gingival pocket depth at tooth 11 is labial (mesial: 4, medial:1, distal:3. Palatal (mesial:3, medial:2, distal:1 and Tooth 21 is labial (mesial:4, medial:1, distal:1, palatal (mesial:3, medial:1, distal:1. Treatment planning done by gingivectomy and gingivoplasty. The aim of the treatment is to eliminating the gingival pocket and physiologic gingival recontouring that can be help to prevent the recurrence of the disease. We must be considered in gingivectomy and gingivoplasty surgery is to minimize disposal the gingival to maintain the aesthetic, adequate access to the bone defect in order to good correction, minimized the bleeding and discomfort after surgery.

  9. Severe Gingival Enlargement with Coexisting Erosive Lichen Planus in Severe Chronic Periodontitis Patient

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    Ambika Sharma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Plaque induced gingival enlargement is most commonly seen and when encountered simultaneously with erosive lichen planus poses a challenge to the treating dentist. Prognosis of one condition may influence the prognosis of another condition. The presented case highlights the significance of proper diagnosis and the management of simultaneously occurring gingival lesions. A 49-year-old hypertensive female presented with painful enlarged bleeding and suppurating gums with burning sensation on eating food along with long-term usage of antihypertensive drug amlodipine known for its gingival enlargement effect. All these multiple factors led to diagnostic dilemma. Effective management of the gingival enlargement was done by using electrocautery to rehabilitate the functions and esthetics of the patient. Gingival condition was also complicated by the presence of coexisting lichen planus which was predominantly erosive for which topical corticosteroid, antifungal, and antimicrobial agents were prescribed. Eight-month follow-up did not show recurrence of gingival enlargement. Electrocautery is an effective tool for the gingivectomy in severe inflammatory type of gingival enlargement because of rapid postoperative hemostasis. For the management of erosive lichen planus, long-term use of topical corticosteroids is an effective approach. Maintenance of oral hygiene and regular follow-ups are essential for these conditions.

  10. Dental flossing as a diagnostic method for proximal gingivitis: a validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grellmann, Alessandra Pascotini; Kantorski, Karla Zanini; Ardenghi, Thiago Machado; Moreira, Carlos Heitor Cunha; Danesi, Cristiane Cademartori; Zanatta, Fabricio Batistin

    2016-05-20

    This study evaluated the clinical diagnosis of proximal gingivitis by comparing two methods: dental flossing and the gingival bleeding index (GBI). One hundred subjects (aged at least 18 years, with 15% of positive proximal sites for GBI, without proximal attachment loss) were randomized into five evaluation protocols. Each protocol consisted of two assessments with a 10-minute interval between them: first GBI/second floss, first floss/second GBI, first GBI/second GBI, first tooth floss/second floss, and first gum floss-second floss. The dental floss was slid against the tooth surface (TF) and the gingival tissue (GF). The evaluated proximal sites should present teeth with established point of contact and probing depth ≤ 3mm. One trained and calibrated examiner performed all the assessments. The mean percentages of agreement and disagreement were calculated for the sites with gingival bleeding in both evaluation methods (GBI and flossing). The primary outcome was the percentage of disagreement between the assessments in the different protocols. The data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA, McNemar, chi-square and Tukey's post hoc tests, with a 5% significance level. When gingivitis was absent in the first assessment (negative GBI), bleeding was detected in the second assessment by TF and GF in 41.7% (p gingivitis in the second assessment (negative GBI), TF and GF detected bleeding in the first assessment in 38.9% (p = 0.004) and 58.3% (p gingivitis than GBI.

  11. Efficacy of triphala mouth rinse (aqueous extracts) on dental plaque and gingivitis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Ritesh; Nekkanti, Sridhar; Kumar, Nikesh G; Kapuria, Ketan; Acharya, Shashidhar; Pentapati, Kalyana C

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of triphala mouth rinse (aqueous) in the reduction of plaque and gingivitis among children. The study was a randomized, double-blinded, controlled trial, with a total of 60 school children (n = 30 in each group; triphala and chlorhexidine groups). Plaque and gingival indices were used to evaluate baseline and follow-up plaque and gingivitis. A total of 57 children completed the study. Both chlorhexidine and triphala groups showed significantly lower mean gingival and plaque index scores at follow up than baseline (P gingival index between the two groups (P = 0.826). The percentage change in the mean plaque index was significantly higher in the chlorhexidine group compared to the triphala group (P = 0.048). The effectiveness of triphala in the reduction of plaque and gingivitis was comparable to chlorhexidine, and can be used for short-term purposes without potential side-effects. It is a cost-effective alternative in reducing plaque and gingivitis. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  12. Gingival response in orthodontic patients: Comparative study between self-ligating and conventional brackets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folco, Alejandra A; Benítez-Rogé, Sandra C; Iglesias, Marina; Calabrese, Diana; Pelizardi, Cristina; Rosa, Alcira; Brusca, Marisa I; Hecht, Pedro; Mateu, María E

    2014-01-01

    Orthodontic brackets contribute to the accumulation of bacterial plaque on tooth surfaces because they hinder oral hygiene. In contrast to conventional brackets, self-ligating brackets do not require additional parts to support the arches, thus improving dental hygiene. The aim of this study was to compare the gingival response in orthodontic patients wearing self-ligating or conventional brackets. A sample of 22 patients aged 16 to 30 years was divided into two groups: Group A, treated with selfligating brackets (Damon system) and Group B, treated with conventional brackets (Roth technique). The following were assessed during the treatment: Plaque Index (PI), Gingival Index (GI) and Probing Depth (PD), and sub-gingival samples were taken from teeth 14/24 for microbiological observation. No statistically significant difference was found between Groups A and B; p>0.05 (sign-ranked) or between PI, GI and PD at the different times (Friedman's Analysis of Variance), even though the indices were found to increase at 14 days, particularly for self-ligating brackets. The quantity and quality of microorganisms present were compatible with health on days 0, 28 and 56. As from day 14 there is a predominance of microbiota compatible with gingivitis in both groups. In the samples studied, orthodontic treatment increases bacterial plaque and inflammatory gingival response, but gingival-periodontal health can be maintained with adequate basic therapy. Self-ligating and conventional brackets produced similar gingival response.

  13. Gingival immunologic defense index: a new indicator for evaluating dental plaque infection risk in allergic children

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    Seno Pradopo

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available There is a possible relationship between dental plaque and children allergic diseases. According to literatures, gingivitis suffered mostly by allergic children than control. Case reports also revealed that dental plaque control therapy was able to reduce, even eliminate rhinosinusitis and asthmatic symptoms without additional medications. However, the exact method for confirming the gingivitis-related allergy is still uncertain. Allergic diseases have multifactorial etiologies and dental plaque had been proposed as a new trigger of allergic symptoms. Nevertheless, since not every child with gingivitis suffered from allergy or vice versa, this uncertain phenomenon may lead to patients or other clinician disbelief. The objective of the present study was to propose a new method, which involving the Gingival immunologic defense index (GIDI to evaluate the susceptibility to allergic diseases. GIDI is an index that had been developed earlier for evaluating gingival immunologic defense with respect to immunoglobulin A (IgA levels. This index based on the simple count of the inflamed gingival surfaces of a child plus the measurement of salivary IgA content. It provides clinicians with important information about the immunologic defense potential of each subject. Interestingly, most allergic children also had inherited IgA deficiency, thus this concept is likely. Based on literatures, GIDI could be a potential index for evaluating the risk of allergic diseases through gingival health assessment. However, prior investigation to the value of Indonesian GIDI index which related to allergy should be conducted.

  14. Impact of a chronic smoking habit on the osteo-immunoinflammatory mediators in the peri-implant fluid of clinically healthy dental implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negri, Brenno Marcondes; Pimentel, Suzana Peres; Casati, Marcio Zaffalon; Cirano, Fabiano Ribeiro; Casarin, Renato Correa; Ribeiro, Fernanda Vieira

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of chronic cigarette smoking on the profile of osteo-immunoinflammatory markers in the peri-implant crevicular fluid (PICF) from clinically healthy implants DESIGNS: Twenty-five smokers and 23 non-smoker subjects with a unitary screwed implant-supported crown in the molar or pre-molar region were enrolled in this study. The implants should have been in functioning for at least 12 months, and the peri-implant tissue should be clinically healthy [probing depth (PD)0.05). Moreover, higher ICTP concentrations and a higher TH1/TH2 ratio were observed in the PICF of the smoker patients (p0.05). Smoking habit modulate peri-implant cytokine profile, leading to reductions in IL-4, -8 TNF-α, and OPG levels and an increased ICTP and TH1/TH2 ratio in peri-implant crevicular fluid. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The method of diagnosis and classification of the gingival line defects of the teeth hard tissues

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    Olena Bulbuk

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available For solving the problem of diagnosis and treatment of hard tissue defects the significant role belongs to the choice of tactics for dental treatment of hard tissue defects located in the gingival line of any tooth. This work aims to study the problems of diagnosis and classification of gingival line defects of the teeth hard tissues. That will contribute to the objectification of differentiated diagnostic and therapeutic approaches in the dental treatment of various clinical variants of these defects localization. The objective of the study – is to develop the anatomical-functional classification for differentiated estimation of hard tissue defects in the gingival part, as the basis for the application of differential diagnostic-therapeutic approaches to the dental treatment of hard tissue defects disposed in the gingival part of any tooth. Materials and methods of investigation: There was conducted the examination of 48 patients with hard tissue defects located in the gingival part of any tooth. To assess the magnitude of gingival line destruction the periodontal probe and X-ray examination were used. Results. The result of the performed research the classification of the gingival line defects of the hard tissues was offered using exponent power. The value of this indicator is equal to an integer number expressed in millimeters of distance from the epithelial attachment to the cavity’s bottom of defect. Conclusions. The proposed classification fills an obvious gap in academic representations about hard tissue defects located in the gingival part of any tooth. Also it offers the prospects of consensus on differentiated diagnostic-therapeutic approaches in different clinical variants of location.  This classification builds methodological “bridge of continuity” between therapeutic and prosthetic dentistry in the field of treatment of the gingival line defects of dental hard tissues.

  16. Profundidad del surco gingival en dientes primarios restaurados con coronas de acero cromo

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    Rubén Muñoz Delgado

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Evaluar la relación entre el ajuste marginal y la profundidad del surco gingival en dientes primarios restaurados con coronas de acero cromo. Métodos: Se midió la profundidad del surco gingival de 114 dientes primarios restaurados con coronas de acero cromo en 67 niños, ambos sexos, de 3 a 6 años de edad de la clínica de Estomatología Pediátrica de la UATx, México. La población en estudio fue dividida en tres grupos: a experimental (n=30, b control (n=8, y c control negativo (n=29. Previo consentimiento informado se tomaron los índices de placa (LöeSilness 1967 e índice gingival en seis superficies; se midió el surco gingival con sonda periodontal y las coronas de acero cromo fueron evaluadas clínica y radiográficamente según su ajuste marginal y longitud cervical. Resultados: Los índices de placa y gingival no mostraron diferencias significativas para los grupos experimental y control negativo. El 34% de las coronas mostraron buen ajuste marginal, 33% un mal ajuste, 10.5% cortas, 7.9% largas y el 14% otro tipo de mal ajuste. La profundidad del surco gingival fue estadísticamente significativa para el primer y segundo molar inferior derechos y en los caninos inferiores (p >0.05; la superficie disto-vestibular presentó la mayor profundidad del surco gingival (2.34 mm, siendo estadísticamente significativa (p>0.05. Conclusiones: La profundidad del surco gingival fue mayor en los dientes rehabilitados con coronas de acero cromo mal ajustadas y sobre contorneadas (largas. La presencia de placa bacteriana y gingivitis estuvo relacionada con las coronas de acero cromo mal ajustadas.

  17. Differences of protein profile before and after orthodontic treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasri, Farah Amirah Mohd; Wahab, Rohaya Megat Abdul; Karsani, Saiful Anuar; Ariffin, Shahrul Hisham Zainal

    2016-11-01

    Mechanical forces in orthodontic treatment used to treat malocclusion can cause inflamed gingival tissue and the process of tooth movement may resorb dental root. Root resorption is an iatrogenic effect of orthodontic treatment but it can be monitored using protein biomarker. This study aims to investigate the differences of protein profile before and after orthodontic treatment using different staining methods. Human gingival crevicular fluid and saliva were collected from orthodontic patients before and after treatment. Protein profile were observed using SDS-PAGE. Our study shows down regulation of proteins after 3 months of treatment. Hence, there are potential values from this study to aid in investigation for specific biomarkers for root resorption.

  18. Exodoncia atraumática e implante post exodoncia sin colgajo combinado con injerto gingival libre

    OpenAIRE

    García Linares, Sixto; Yon Guerrero, Helen

    2010-01-01

    Presentamos un caso donde se describe la técnica de exodoncia atraumática, colocación de un implante post exodoncia y cierre por primera intención mediante un injerto gingival libre. El uso de implantes post exodoncia necesita varias condiciones para poder realizarse, entre ellas: paredes óseas conservadas, hueso alveolar más allá del ápice mayor a 4 mm. , margen gingival conservado, ausencia de fístula, etc. El injerto gingival libre permite una cicatrización por primera intención n...

  19. Investigation of relationship between tumor necrosis factor α in gingival and periodontitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jingjie; Yang Xia; Hou Guihua; Wang Weiyue; Wang Haodan; Jia Hongying; Li Yantao

    1999-01-01

    42 periodontitis patients and 15 health controls are selected to determine the amount of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in inflamed gingival and the normal gingival by RIA. The elations between TNF-α and clinical parameters are analysed. The results show that the level of TNF-α in inflamed gingival is higher than that in the controls (P<0.01). The relationship between TNF-α and clinical parameters indicate that the level of TNF-α positively correlate to the degree of periodontitis and group damage. It indicates TNF-α may be one of the mechanism in the pathogenesis of periodontitis disease

  20. Antihypertensive treatment with telmisartan in a cat with amlodipine-induced gingival hyperplasia

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    Lien Desmet

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Case summary Systemic arterial hypertension is commonly reported in middle-aged-to-older cats. Amlodipine is recommended as the initial antihypertensive drug in cats. In this case report, gingival hyperplasia secondary to the use of amlodipine in a cat is described. Benazepril as a monotherapy was unsuccessful in reducing blood pressure in this cat. After replacement of benazepril by telmisartan, gingival hyperplasia disappeared and blood pressure was well controlled. Relevance and novel information This case report describes the first reported case of reversible gingival hyperplasia as a result of the treatment with amlodipine. It also contains the first published data on the effect of telmisartan in a hypertensive cat.

  1. Improved pathologic teeth migration following gingivectomy in a case of idiopathic gingival fibromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Keisuke; Sato, Shuichi; Asano, Yukhiro; Akutagawa, Hideyasu; Ito, Koichi

    2010-01-01

    A case is reported of a 20-year-old woman with generalized severe gingival overgrowth covering almost all of the teeth with diastemata, diagnosed as idiopathic gingival fibromatosis. After initial therapy, the patient underwent surgery consisting of a full-mouth internal beveled gingivectomy. Postoperatively, the maxillary anterior teeth spontaneously moved to almost optimal positions. Removing the cause by gingivectomy can lead to spontaneous correction of the pathologic tooth migration. With supportive periodontal treatment, the patient showed no recurrence of gingival enlargement or repositioning of the teeth at the 5-year follow-up.

  2. Periodontal Plastic Microsurgery in the Treatment of Deep Gingival Recession after Orthodontic Movement

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    Sérgio Kahn

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gingival recession is a condition that affects a large portion of the young and adult population and negatively affects the aesthetic aspects of the smile. Many factors are related to its development, including orthodontic movement beyond the osseous limits. Many treatment options have been proposed to cover the exposed root surface. The aim of this article was to describe three cases where a subepithelial connective tissue graft was performed, using a microsurgical technique, in the treatment of deep gingival recession after orthodontic treatment. This technique resulted in successful root coverage and keratinized tissue gain, improving the gingival esthetic pattern.

  3. Fluids engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Fluids engineering has played an important role in many applications, from ancient flood control to the design of high-speed compact turbomachinery. New applications of fluids engineering, such as in high-technology materials processing, biotechnology, and advanced combustion systems, have kept up unwaining interest in the subject. More accurate and sophisticated computational and measurement techniques are also constantly being developed and refined. On a more fundamental level, nonlinear dynamics and chaotic behavior of fluid flow are no longer an intellectual curiosity and fluid engineers are increasingly interested in finding practical applications for these emerging sciences. Applications of fluid technology to new areas, as well as the need to improve the design and to enhance the flexibility and reliability of flow-related machines and devices will continue to spur interest in fluids engineering. The objectives of the present seminar were: to exchange current information on arts, science, and technology of fluids engineering; to promote scientific cooperation between the fluids engineering communities of both nations, and to provide an opportunity for the participants and their colleagues to explore possible joint research programs in topics of high priority and mutual interest to both countries. The Seminar provided an excellent forum for reviewing the current state and future needs of fluids engineering for the two nations. With the Seminar ear-marking the first formal scientific exchange between Korea and the United States in the area of fluids engineering, the scope was deliberately left broad and general

  4. Gingival leiomyomatous hamartoma of the maxilla: a rare entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghunath, Vandana; Manjunatha, Bhari Sharanesha; Al-Thobaiti, Yasser

    2016-05-09

    Hamartoma is a tumour-like malformation appearing as a focal overgrowth of normal cells. Leiomyomatous hamartomas (LHs) are rare in the oral cavity and commonly seen in the Japanese and less than 40 cases have been reported in the Japanese and English literature. The clinical differential diagnoses are irritational (traumatic) fibroma and congenital epulis. It has to be differentiated histopathologically from its neoplastic counterparts and mesenchymomas. Hence, we report such a case of LHs, which presented as a sessile gingival growth occurring in the midline in a 15-year-old girl. The final diagnosis was based on the histopathological appearance which was confirmed by immunohistochemical staining of various markers. A review of the literature of previous cases was also carried out. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  5. Acute gingival bleeding as a complication of dengue hemorrhagic fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saif Khan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dengue fever is mosquito borne disease caused by dengue virus (DENV of Flaviviridae family. The clinical manifestations range from fever to severe hemorrhage, shock and death. Here, we report a case of 20-year-old male patient undergoing orthodontic treatment presenting with acute gingival bleeding with a history of fever, weakness, backache, retro orbital pain and ecchymosis over his right arm. The hematological investigations revealed anemia, thrombocytopenia and positive dengue non-structural protein-1 antigen and also positive immunoglobulin M and immunoglobulin G antibodies for DENV. Patient was diagnosed as a case of dengue hemorrhagic fever and was immediately referred for appropriate management. This case report emphasizes the importance of taking correct and thorough medical history.

  6. Evaluation of a hydrophilic gingival dental sealant in beagle dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitzman, Clarence

    2013-01-01

    A liquid solution, gingival sealant containing polymers that form a barrier film upon application was evaluated in dogs. It is a non-toxic, low viscosity, hydrophilic barrier sealant that dries in approximately 10 to 15-seconds after subgingival application. It was designed as a preventative to be applied immediately following a professional oral hygiene procedure in order to block plaque and calculus formation in the sulcus and aid in the prevention of periodontal disease in companion animals. Additionally, the polymer was designed to promote an aerobic environment in the sulcus by oxygen and water transport through engineered pores within the polymer. A 30-day split-mouth, blinded study in two groups of 15 beagle dogs was used. Plaque was significantly (p periodontal disease in dogs.

  7. Buffer fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirzadzhanzade, A Kh; Dedusanko, G Ya; Dinaburg, L S; Markov, Yu M; Rasizade, Ya N; Rozov, V N; Sherstnev, N M

    1979-08-30

    A drilling fluid is suggested for separating the drilling and plugging fluids which contains as the base increased solution of polyacrylamide and additive. In order to increase the viscoelastic properties of the liquid with simultaneous decrease in the periods of its fabrication, the solution contains as an additive dry bentonite clay. In cases of the use of a buffer fluid under conditions of negative temperatures, it is necessary to add to it table salt or ethylene glycol.

  8. The prevalence and risk factors of gingivitis in a population of 6-year-old children in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Jahanimoghadam

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIM: Gingivitis is a reversible inflammation of gingival tissue. The prevalence of gingivitis is different in various communities. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of gingivitis among 6-year-old (± 3 months children of Rayen, Kerman, Iran. METHODS: In this cross sectional study, 279 children (129 boys and 150 girls from all Rayen’s nursery schools and primary schools were selected. Data collected through clinical examination with the consent of parents and teachers. Gingival Bleeding Index (GBI was measured by using light and dental probe pressure. RESULTS: The prevalence of gingivitis was 37.8. There was statistically significant association between gender and gingivitis. Mouth breathing and toothbrush frequency were factors associated with gingivitis. CONCLUSION: This study showed relatively similar prevalence of gingivitis compared to other studies. The prevalence of gingivitis was more in boys than girls. Health educators and parents should have a more active role in children’s oral health education.

  9. Gingival and periodontal ligament fibroblasts differ in their inflammatory response to viable Porphyromonas gingivalis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheres, N; Laine, M L; de Vries, T J; Everts, V; van Winkelhoff, A J

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Porphyromonas gingivalis is an oral pathogen strongly associated with destruction of the tooth-supporting tissues in human periodontitis. Gingival fibroblasts (GF) and periodontal ligament fibroblasts (PDLF) are functionally different cell types in the periodontium that can

  10. Effect of Frequency of Brushing Teeth on Plaque and Calculus Accumulation, and Gingivitis in Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Colin; Serfilippi, Laurie; Barnvos, Donald

    2015-01-01

    The efficacy of brushing the teeth of beagle dogs in a randomized, controlled, blinded study design using a clearly-defined brushing technique was evaluated for 4 brushing frequencies: brushing daily, brushing every other day, brushing weekly and brushing every other week, compared with no brushing in a control group of dogs. All dogs were fed a standard dry kibble diet during the study. Standard plaque, calculus, and gingivitis indices were used to score the teeth. A 'clean tooth' model was used. No gingival or non-gingival lacerations or other signs of injury to oral tissues were found at the end of the 28 day trial period. Brushing more frequently had greater effectiveness in retarding accumulation of plaque and calculus, and reducing the severity of pre-existing gingivitis. Brushing daily or every other day produced statistically significant improved results compared with brushing weekly or every other week. Based on the results of this study, daily brushing is recommended.

  11. Strawberry gingivitis as the first presenting sign of wegener's granulomatosis: report of a case

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Wegener's granulomatosis is a rare multi-system disease characterized by the classic triad of necrotizing granulomas affecting the upper and lower respiratory tracts, disseminated vasculitis and glomerulonephritis. Oral lesions as a presenting feature are only encountered in 2% of these cases. Hyperplastic gingival lesions or strawberry gingivitis, is a characteristic sign of Wegener's granulomatosis. The latter consists of reddish-purple exophytic gingival swellings with petechial haemorrhages thus resembling strawberries. Recognition of this feature is of utmost importance for timely diagnosis and definitive management of this potentially fatal disease. A case of strawberry gingivitis as the first presenting sign of Wegener's granulomatosis affecting a 50-year-old Malay male is reported here. The differential diagnosis of red lesions that may present in the gingiva is discussed. PMID:21813375

  12. Gingival metastasis from the lung through a needle and a pin: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hentati, D.; Chraiet, N.; Kochbati, L.; Maalej, M.

    2007-01-01

    Gingival metastases are very rare. We report the case of a 47 year-old man presenting with a gingival metastasis from a non small cell lung carcinoma. According to the literature, the most probable way of spread of such metastasis is hematogenous. Local implantation of cancer cells, present in patient's expectoration, in a fragile gingival may be an other pathway of lung cancer metastasizing in this region as we will try to describe in this case report. Cytological and/or histological investigation is needed to assess the malignant and the metastatic character of these gingival lesions. A rapid regression is observed after a flash of external beam radiation; nevertheless metastasis prognosis depends on the primary tumour progress. (authors)

  13. Evaluation of resorbable membrane in treatment of human gingival isolated buccal recession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Narang

    2011-01-01

    Conclusion: Resorbable membrane is a versatile treatment modality for coverage of isolated buccal gingival recession. Although membrane exposure occurred in four patients, it did not interfere with post operative healing.

  14. Can chlorhexidine mouthwash twice daily ameliorate cyclosporine-induced gingival overgrowth?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Hwa Gau

    2013-03-01

    Conclusion: These findings suggest that chlorhexidine mouthwash used twice daily may reduce the severity of CsA-induced gingival overgrowth. Further research is warranted to determine the optimal dose and treatment regimen.

  15. Expression of Toll-like receptors 2 and 4 in gingivitis and chronic periodontitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah S

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Periodontal disease is the major cause of adult tooth loss and is commonly characterized by a chronic inflammation caused by infection by oral bacteria. Members of Toll-like receptor (TLR family recognize conserved microbial structures, such as bacterial lipopolysaccharides, and activate signaling pathways that result in immune responses against microbial infections. The aim of the present study was to assess the mRNA expression of TLR-2 and TLR-4 in gingivitis and chronic periodontitis. Gingival tissue samples were collected from patients with chronic periodontitis, gingivitis, and healthy controls. Total RNA was extracted and RT-PCR was done for TLR-2 and TLR-4. The results showed that TLR-2 was significantly increased in gingivitis compared to TLR-4 expression and decreased in chronic periodontitis.

  16. Leptin and Pro-Inflammatory Stimuli Synergistically Upregulate MMP-1 and MMP-3 Secretion in Human Gingival Fibroblasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel C Williams

    Full Text Available Gingival fibroblast-mediated extracellular matrix remodelling is implicated in the pathogenesis of periodontitis, yet the stimuli that regulate this response are not fully understood. The immunoregulatory adipokine leptin is detectable in the gingiva, human gingival fibroblasts express functional leptin receptor mRNA and leptin is known to regulate extracellular matrix remodelling responses in cardiac fibroblasts. We therefore hypothesised that leptin would enhance matrix metalloproteinase secretion in human gingival fibroblasts.We used in vitro cell culture to investigate leptin signalling and the effect of leptin on mRNA and protein expression in human gingival fibroblasts. We confirmed human gingival fibroblasts expressed cell surface leptin receptor, found leptin increased matrix metalloproteinase-1, -3, -8 and -14 expression in human gingival fibroblasts compared to unstimulated cells, and observed that leptin stimulation activated MAPK, STAT1/3 and Akt signalling in human gingival fibroblasts. Furthermore, leptin synergised with IL-1 or the TLR2 agonist pam2CSK4 to markedly enhance matrix metalloproteinase-1 and -3 production by human gingival fibroblasts. Signalling pathway inhibition demonstrated ERK was required for leptin-stimulated matrix metalloproteinase-1 expression in human gingival fibroblasts; whilst ERK, JNK, p38 and STAT3 were required for leptin+IL-1- and leptin+pam2CSK4-induced matrix metalloproteinase-1 expression. A genome-wide expression array and gene ontology analysis confirmed genes differentially expressed in leptin+IL-1-stimulated human gingival fibroblasts (compared to unstimulated cells were enriched for extracellular matrix organisation and disassembly, and revealed that matrix metalloproteinase-8 and -12 were also synergistically upregulated by leptin+IL-1 in human gingival fibroblasts.We conclude that leptin selectively enhances the expression and secretion of certain matrix metalloproteinases in human gingival

  17. Preliminary characterization of the oral microbiota of Chinese adults with and without gingivitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Shi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microbial communities inhabiting human mouth are associated with oral health and disease. Previous studies have indicated the general prevalence of adult gingivitis in China to be high. The aim of this study was to characterize in depth the oral microbiota of Chinese adults with or without gingivitis, by defining the microbial phylogenetic diversity and community-structure using highly paralleled pyrosequencing. Methods Six non-smoking Chinese, three with and three without gingivitis (age range 21-39 years, 4 females and 2 males were enrolled in the present cross-sectional study. Gingival parameters of inflammation and bleeding on probing were characterized by a clinician using the Mazza Gingival Index (MGI. Plaque (sampled separately from four different oral sites and salivary samples were obtained from each subject. Sequences and relative abundance of the bacterial 16 S rDNA PCR-amplicons were determined via pyrosequencing that produced 400 bp-long reads. The sequence data were analyzed via a computational pipeline customized for human oral microbiome analyses. Furthermore, the relative abundances of selected microbial groups were validated using quantitative PCR. Results The oral microbiomes from gingivitis and healthy subjects could be distinguished based on the distinct community structures of plaque microbiomes, but not the salivary microbiomes. Contributions of community members to community structure divergence were statistically accessed at the phylum, genus and species-like levels. Eight predominant taxa were found associated with gingivitis: TM7, Leptotrichia, Selenomonas, Streptococcus, Veillonella, Prevotella, Lautropia, and Haemophilus. Furthermore, 98 species-level OTUs were identified to be gingivitis-associated, which provided microbial features of gingivitis at a species resolution. Finally, for the two selected genera Streptococcus and Fusobacterium, Real-Time PCR based quantification of relative bacterial

  18. Preliminary characterization of the oral microbiota of Chinese adults with and without gingivitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Microbial communities inhabiting human mouth are associated with oral health and disease. Previous studies have indicated the general prevalence of adult gingivitis in China to be high. The aim of this study was to characterize in depth the oral microbiota of Chinese adults with or without gingivitis, by defining the microbial phylogenetic diversity and community-structure using highly paralleled pyrosequencing. Methods Six non-smoking Chinese, three with and three without gingivitis (age range 21-39 years, 4 females and 2 males) were enrolled in the present cross-sectional study. Gingival parameters of inflammation and bleeding on probing were characterized by a clinician using the Mazza Gingival Index (MGI). Plaque (sampled separately from four different oral sites) and salivary samples were obtained from each subject. Sequences and relative abundance of the bacterial 16 S rDNA PCR-amplicons were determined via pyrosequencing that produced 400 bp-long reads. The sequence data were analyzed via a computational pipeline customized for human oral microbiome analyses. Furthermore, the relative abundances of selected microbial groups were validated using quantitative PCR. Results The oral microbiomes from gingivitis and healthy subjects could be distinguished based on the distinct community structures of plaque microbiomes, but not the salivary microbiomes. Contributions of community members to community structure divergence were statistically accessed at the phylum, genus and species-like levels. Eight predominant taxa were found associated with gingivitis: TM7, Leptotrichia, Selenomonas, Streptococcus, Veillonella, Prevotella, Lautropia, and Haemophilus. Furthermore, 98 species-level OTUs were identified to be gingivitis-associated, which provided microbial features of gingivitis at a species resolution. Finally, for the two selected genera Streptococcus and Fusobacterium, Real-Time PCR based quantification of relative bacterial abundance validated the

  19. Gingival zenith and its role in redefining esthetics: A clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babita Pawar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to quantify some clinical parameters useful as esthetic guidelines when gingival contour is modified and to compare the left and right sides of six maxillary anterior teeth. Materials and Methods: Maxillary casts mounted on an articulator according to the axis orbital plane were photographed from 35 young adults. The angle formed between the gingival line and maxillary midline (GLA and the distance between the gingival zenith of the lateral incisor and the gingival line were measured (LID using a flexible protractor and digital vernier caliper, respectively. The asymmetry was evaluated using a paired t test for the left vs right measurements of GLA and LID. The descriptive statistics for GLA and LID were calculated. Results: The GLA measurements of the left side (86.7΀΁4.2΀ were significantly greater than those of the right side (84.6΀΁5.4΀, and the mean absolute symmetry for GLA was 1.7΀΁4.4΀. The mean LID measurement was 0.92΁0.11. Conclusions: The gingival zenith of the canine is apical to the gingival zenith of the incisors (GLA <90΀ and the gingival zenith of the lateral incisor is below or on (17% the gingival line when head is oriented on the axis orbital plane. A directional asymmetry was shown with the right side higher than the left side. Along with the other parameters related to dental esthetics, these clinical parameters may serve as esthetic guidelines and may enable us to obtain a more predictable outcome.

  20. Gingival recession following apical surgery in the esthetic zone: a clinical study with 70 cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Arx, Thomas; Salvi, Giovanni E; Janner, Simone

    2009-01-01

    ; pre-treatment pocket probing depth (PPD) (P PPD PPD > or = 2.5 mm; and type of incision (P ... incision, papilla-base incision or papilla-saving incision. The visual assessment using pre-treatment and 1-year follow-up photographs did not demonstrate significant changes in gingival level or papillary height after apical surgery. In conclusion, gingival biotype, pre-treatment PPD, and type of incision...

  1. Association of gingivitis with child oral health-related quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomazoni, Fernanda; Zanatta, Fabricio B; Tuchtenhagen, Simone; da Rosa, Guilherme N; Del Fabro, Joana P; Ardenghi, Thiago M

    2014-11-01

    Child oral health-related quality of life (COHRQoL) has been increasingly assessed. However, the full relationship between gingivitis and COHRQoL has been assessed by only a small number of studies. This study aims to assess the association between gingival bleeding and how a child perceives its OHRQoL. This cross-sectional study used multistage random sampling to enroll 1,134 12-year-old schoolchildren from Santa Maria, a southern city in Brazil. Participants were examined for gingival bleeding according to the community periodontal index criteria, a full-mouth clinical examination of six sites per tooth. COHRQoL was assessed by the Brazilian version of the Child Perceptions Questionnaire for 11- to 14-Year-Old Children (CPQ11-14), and data on socioeconomic status were collected. Multilevel Poisson regression models fitted the association of gingivitis with overall and domain-specific CPQ11-14 scores. In general, children with bleeding in ≥15% of sites had higher total CPQ11-14 scores and domain-specific scores than their counterparts. This association persisted after adjustment for other potential confounders. The presence and extent of gingival bleeding was associated mainly with emotional limitation domains of the CPQ11-14; those with extended levels of gingivitis had a 1.20 times higher mean score than those with low-level/no gingival bleeding (rate ratio = 1.20; 95% confidence interval = 1.10 to 1.31). The present results indicate that the presence of extensive levels of gingivitis might be negatively associated with how children perceive their oral health and their daily life.

  2. Biological effect of low-dose application beta-radiation on the gingival mucosa of dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ippolitov, Yu.A.; Kovtun, N.N.; Timofeev, L.V.

    1999-01-01

    Biological effect of low-dose application beta-radiation on the gingival mucosa of dogs is studied. Obtained data illustrate the interactions between tissues in local exposure of live tissue to beta-radiation and determine the threshold total dose as 400 sGy. Higher doses lead to secondary changes in the gingival mucosa after which the tissue barrier does not recover [ru

  3. Gingival abrasion and recession in manual and oscillating-rotating power brush users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosema, N A M; Adam, R; Grender, J M; Van der Sluijs, E; Supranoto, S C; Van der Weijden, G A

    2014-11-01

    To assess gingival recession (GR) in manual and power toothbrush users and evaluate the relationship between GR and gingival abrasion scores (GA). This was an observational (cross-sectional), single-centre, examiner-blind study involving a single-brushing exercise, with 181 young adult participants: 90 manual brush users and 91 oscillating-rotating power brush users. Participants were assessed for GR and GA as primary response variables. Secondary response variables were the level of gingival inflammation, plaque score reduction and brushing duration. Pearson correlation was used to describe the relationship between number of recession sites and number of abrasions. Prebrushing (baseline) and post-brushing GA and plaque scores were assessed and differences analysed using paired tests. Two-sample t-test was used to analyse group differences; ancova was used for analyses of post-brushing changes with baseline as covariate. Overall, 97.8% of the study population had at least one site of ≥1 mm of gingival recession. For the manual group, this percentage was 98.9%, and for the power group, this percentage was 96.7% (P = 0.621). Post-brushing, the power group showed a significantly smaller GA increase than the manual group (P = 0.004); however, there was no significant correlation between number of recession sites and number of abrasions for either group (P ≥ 0.327). Little gingival recession was observed in either toothbrush user group; the observed GR levels were comparable. Lower post-brushing gingival abrasion levels were seen in the power group. There was no correlation between gingival abrasion as a result of brushing and the observed gingival recession following use of either toothbrush. © 2014 The Authors International Journal of Dental Hygiene Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Schroedinger fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kan, K.K.

    1983-01-01

    The relationship of nuclear internal flow and collective inertia, the difference of this flow from that of a classical fluid, and the approach of this flow to rigid flow in independent-particle model rotation are elucidated by reviewing the theory of Schroedinger fluid and its implications for collective vibration and rotation. (author)

  5. Prevalence of necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis and associated factors in Koranic boarding schools in Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diouf, M; Cisse, D; Faye, A; Niang, P; Seck, I; Faye, D; Lo, C M M

    2012-06-01

    Necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis is the most common clinical syndrome preceding noma. It is found in developing countries and in malnourished children and especially in deprived groups such as children at Koranic boarding schools. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis and factors associated with its occurrence in a boarding school population. This was a cross-sectional study of children in Koranic boarding schools in the city of Touba, Senegal. A multistage sampling strategy was used and 8 out of 17 schools were selected. The variables collected were gender, age, oral hygiene habits, duration of residence, presence of ulcerative gingivitis and plaque, and gingival bleeding index. A logistic regression analysis with R software using the manual procedure down was used to identify factors associated with the dependent variables. There were 501 participants and boys made up 92% of the study group. The mean age was 9.3 (sd 4.0) years. The mean of duration residence was 3.4 (sd 1.5) years. The prevalence of necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis was 37% and 81% of children did not use a toothbrush or a chewing-stick. The length of residence, school size, hygiene habits and plaque and bleeding indices were significantly associated with necrotizing gingivitis after adjustment for other variables. It is necessary to develop oral hygiene programs, to establish policies to manage the oral health of children and to improve health and nutrition at Koranic boarding-schools.

  6. Laser Doppler flowmetry evaluation of gingival recovery response after laser treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todea, Carmen; Cânjǎu, Silvana; Dodenciu, Dorin; Miron, Mariana I.; Tudor, Anca; Bǎlǎbuc, Cosmin

    2013-06-01

    This study was performed in order to evaluate in vivo the applicability of Laser Doppler Flowmetry (LDF) in recording the gingival blood flow and to assess the changes of gingival blood flow following gingival reshaping performed with Er:YAG and 980 nm diode lasers. The LDF evaluation was performed on 20 anterior teeth, which underwent reshaping of gingiva, corresponding to 5 female patients (4 anterior teeth/patient), aged between 20 and 35. One part of the mouth was treated with Er:YAG laser (LP, VLP modes, 140 - 250 mJ, 10 - 20 Hz, using cylindrical sapphire tips) and other part with 980 nm diode laser (CW, 4 W, contact mode and saline solution cooling). The gingival blood flow was monitored using a MoorLab laser Doppler equipment (Moor Instruments Ltd., Axminster, UK) with a straight optical probe, MP3b, 10 mm. The data were processed using statistical analysis software SPSS v16.0.1. The investigation showed an evident decrease in perfusion for both areas in comparison with the baseline values 24 hours after treatment. The microvascular blood flow increased significantly after 7 days in both areas but mostly in diode area (pdiode area remained at a high level after 14 days. Both lasers proved efficiency in the surgical treatment of gingival tissue. Moreover, Laser Doppler Flowmetry is adequate for recording changes in gingival blood flow following periodontal surgery.

  7. Management of gingival recession associated with orthodontic treatment: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Tarun Kumar; Phogat, Megha; Sharma, Tarun; Prasad, Narayana; Singh, Shailendra

    2014-07-01

    Many patients undergo orthodontic treatment for aesthetic improvement. It is well established that the patients who undergo orthodontic treatment have a high susceptibility to present plaque accumulation on their teeth because of the presence of brackets, wires and/or other orthodontic elements on the teeth surfaces with which the oral hygiene procedures might be more difficult. The orthodontic treatment is a double-action procedure regarding the periodontal tissues which may be very meaningful in increasing the periodontal health status and may be a harmful procedure which can be followed by several types of periodontal complications. There is a strong correlation between the severity and extent of gingival recessions and the orthodontic treatment suggesting that orthodontic tooth movement may lead to gingival recession. The principal objective in the treatment of gingival recession is to cover the exposed root surfaces to improve aesthetics and to reduce hypersensitivity. Different soft tissue grafting procedures have been proposed in the treatment of gingival recessions. Subepithelial connective tissue graft is a reliable method for treatment of gingival recession. The purpose of this case report was to illustrate the relationship between orthodontic therapy and gingival recession and to describe the management of this case.

  8. Idiopathic gingival fibromatosis associated with progressive hearing loss: A nonfamilial variant of Jones syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagavad Gita

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gingival fibromatosis is characterized by gingival tissue overgrowth of a firm and fibrotic nature. The growth is slow and progressive and is drug-induced, idiopathic, or hereditary in etiology. It occurs isolated or frequently as a component of various syndromes. Our patient presented with the complaint of gingival enlargement associated with progressive deafness, characteristic of Jones syndrome. This case report is important and unique since it is the first known one to have a Jones syndrome-like presentation without a family history. A male patient aged 14 years reported with the chief complaint of swelling of gums and progressive hearing loss in both ears for the past one year. There was no family history or history of drug intake. Enlargement was generalized, fibrotic and bulbous, involving the free and attached gingiva, extending up to the middle 1/3 rd of the crown. Investigations such as pure tone audiogram, impedance audiometry, and Tone decay test concluded that there was severe right and moderate left sensorineural hearing loss. The case was diagnosed to be idiopathic, generalized gingival fibromatosis with progressive hearing loss. The gingival overgrowth was managed by gingivectomy and periodic review. The patient was advised to use high occlusion computer generated hearing aids for his deafness as it was not treatable by medicines or surgery. This unique case report once again emphasizes the heterogeneity of gingival fibromatosis, which can present in an atypical manner.

  9. Clinical effects of probiotics containing Bacillus species on gingivitis: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkaya, B; Laleman, I; Keceli, S; Ozcelik, O; Cenk Haytac, M; Teughels, W

    2017-06-01

    Lactobacillus spp. and bifidobacteria are the most frequently used probiotics in oral health research. However, although probiotic effects have been suggested for other genera, such as bacilli, no trials are available to describe the effect of bacilli probiotics on gingivitis in humans. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the clinical effects of a bacilli-containing toothpaste, a mouthrinse and a toothbrush cleaner versus a placebo in patients with generalized gingivitis. In this double-blind placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial, nonsmoking, systemically healthy patients with generalized gingivitis were included. They used a placebo or an experimental probiotic Bacillus subtilis-, Bacillus megaterium- and Bacillus pumulus-containing toothpaste, mouthrinse and toothbrush cleaner for 8 wk. Primary outcome measures of interest were plaque and gingivitis index, and the secondary outcome measures were pocket probing depth and bleeding on probing. Twenty male and 20 female patients were randomized over the two groups. All participants could be included in the final analysis. Although plaque and gingivitis indices were significantly reduced after 8 wk, no intergroup differences could be found at any time point. Also, for the secondary outcome measure, intragroup but no intergroup differences could be detected. No harm or unintended effects were reported by the patients after using the study products. This study did not show any statistically significant differences between a placebo and a bacilli-containing toothpaste, mouthrinse and toothbrush cleaner on gingivitis parameters. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Penanganan Gingivitis dengan Metoda "Toothpick Brushing" (Laporan kasus pada wanita pengguna kontrasepsi oral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armasastra Bahar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Gingivitis sebagai salah satu kelainan jaringan penyangga gigi telah diketahui disebabkan karena kebersihan mulut yang tidak baik dan berkaitan dengan kebiasaan dan cara menyikat gigi yang tidak memadai. Di samping itu telah banyak pula laporan yang mengatakan bahwa terjadinya gingivitis juga berhubungan dengan peningkatan hormon kelamin steroid darah seperti pada kehamilan, menstruasi dan pada pengguna kontrasepsi hormonal.Dalam pemeriksaan yang dilakukan pada beberapa wanita pengguna kontrasepsi oral di Puskesmas Serpong ditemukan kelainan gingivitis.Pada penderita tersebut dilakukan pemeriksaan intraoral dan Occult Blood Test untuk memperkuat pemeriksaan apakah keadaan gingivitisnya memerlukan terapi lebih lanjut. Setelah dilakukan penambalan gigi yang merupakan keluhan utama penderita datang ke BKIA, dilakukan usaha untuk menanggulangi gingivitis yang ada berupa penerangan tentang faktor-faktor yang menjadi penyebab gingivitis dan instruksi cara menyikat gigi dengan metoda "Toothpick brushing". Evaluasi yang dilakukan pada minggu II dan III, memperlihatkan hasil yang baik, nilai PI, PBI dan OBT menurun dibandingkan dengan nilai awal yang telah dilakukan.Pada kunjungan pada minggu III dilakukan pembersihan karang gigi. Menyikat gigi dengan metoda "Toothpick brushing" memperlihatkan hasil yang baik dalam memperbaiki kelainan gingivitis.

  11. Long term follow up of idiopathic gingival enlargement associated with chronic periodontitis: A case report and review

    OpenAIRE

    Girish P Nagarale; S Ravindra; Srinath Thakur; Swati Setty

    2013-01-01

    Background: Idiopathic gingival enlargement is a rare condition characterized by massive enlargement of the gingiva. It may be associated with other diseases/conditions characterizing a syndrome, but rarely associated with periodontitis. Case Description: This case report describes an unusual clinical form of gingival enlargement associated with chronic periodontitis. Clinical examination revealed diffuse gingival enlargement. The lesion was asymptomatic, firm, and pinkish red. Generalized pe...

  12. Impact of diabetes on gingival wound healing via oxidative stress.

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    Daisuke Kido

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the mechanisms linking high glucose to gingival wound healing. Bilateral wounds were created in the palatal gingiva adjacent to maxillary molars of control rats and rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. After evaluating postsurgical wound closure by digital imaging, the maxillae including wounds were resected for histological examinations. mRNA expressions of angiogenesis, inflammation, and oxidative stress markers in the surgical sites were quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Primary fibroblast culture from the gingiva of both rats was performed in high glucose and normal medium. In vitro wound healing and cell proliferation assays were performed. Oxidative stress marker mRNA expressions and reactive oxygen species production were measured. Insulin resistance was evaluated via PI3K/Akt and MAPK/Erk signaling following insulin stimulation using Western blotting. To clarify oxidative stress involvement in high glucose culture and cells of diabetic rats, cells underwent N-acetyl-L-cysteine treatment; subsequent Akt activity was measured. Wound healing in diabetic rats was significantly delayed compared with that in control rats. Nox1, Nox2, Nox4, p-47, and tumor necrosis factor-α mRNA levels were significantly higher at baseline in diabetic rats than in control rats. In vitro study showed that cell proliferation and migration significantly decreased in diabetic and high glucose culture groups compared with control groups. Nox1, Nox2, Nox4, and p47 expressions and reactive oxygen species production were significantly higher in diabetic and high glucose culture groups than in control groups. Akt phosphorylation decreased in the high glucose groups compared with the control groups. Erk1/2 phosphorylation increased in the high glucose groups, with or without insulin treatment, compared with the control groups. Impaired Akt phosphorylation partially normalized after antioxidant N

  13. Local immune disbalance correction of the oral cavity as a part of chronic catarrhal gingivitis complex treatment in children

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    Yury A. Ippolitov

    2017-05-01

    Conclusion — There was established the correspondence between blood plasma immunological indication changes in children with chronic catarrhal gingivitis receiving “Imudon” therapy before and after treatment.

  14. Diagnosis and management of nonsyndromic hereditary gingival fibromatosis in a 13 year old girl: Report of a rare case

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    Lata Goyal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary gingival fibromatosis is a rare condition characterized by various degree of gingival overgrowth. It usually develops as an isolated disorder but can manifest with multisystem syndrome. We are here presenting a case of a 13-year-old girl who presented with severe enlargement of gingiva covering all most the entire crown involving both maxillary and mandibular arches. Differential diagnosis includes drug-induced and idiopathic gingival enlargement. Excess gingival tissue was removed by full mouth gingivectomy and sent for histopathological examination. Postoperative course was uneventful and patient′s esthetics improved significantly. A 12 month postoperative period shows no recurrence.

  15. Fluid dynamics

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    Bernard, Peter S

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a focused, readable account of the principal physical and mathematical ideas at the heart of fluid dynamics. Graduate students in engineering, applied math, and physics who are taking their first graduate course in fluids will find this book invaluable in providing the background in physics and mathematics necessary to pursue advanced study. The book includes a detailed derivation of the Navier-Stokes and energy equations, followed by many examples of their use in studying the dynamics of fluid flows. Modern tensor analysis is used to simplify the mathematical derivations, thus allowing a clearer view of the physics. Peter Bernard also covers the motivation behind many fundamental concepts such as Bernoulli's equation and the stream function. Many exercises are designed with a view toward using MATLAB or its equivalent to simplify and extend the analysis of fluid motion including developing flow simulations based on techniques described in the book.

  16. Interest and satisfaction of dentists in practicing periodontics: A survey based on treatment of gingival recession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Vishakha; Kapoor, Anoop; Malhotra, Ranjan; Sachdeva, Sonia

    2012-07-01

    Gingival recession is a common occurrence and patients often report to dental clinic with associated problems such as root surface hypersensitivity, esthetic concerns, cervical root abrasions, and root caries that make it a concern for patients. Based upon the fact that gingival recession is an enigma for clinicians because of multitude of etiological factors and plethora of treatment modalities present for its treatment, a survey was conducted to assess knowledge as well as opinion about most common etiology, classification, and preferred treatment of gingival recession and to evaluate the interest and satisfaction of dentists in practicing periodontics. Study design consisted of a cross-sectional online survey, conducted among dentists practicing in state of Punjab, India, in the month of April 2011. A structured online questionnaire consisting of 17 questions evaluating the interest of dentists in periodontics based on knowledge about gingival recession (most of them giving the possibility of multiple choices of answers) was sent to about 300 dentists. Pearson Chi-Square and Mann-Whitney U tests were used for statistical analysis of data collected. P ≤ 0.05 was considered as statistically significant and P ≤ 0.01 considered as highly significant. A greater proportion of periodontists had better knowledge about etiology (P = 0.07), classification (P = 0.000), and treatment of gingival recession (P = 0.000). A greater number of periodontists opted for the surgical modalities to correct the defects produced by gingival recession as compared to non-periodontists and had better interest (P = 0.000) and satisfaction (P = 0.000) in practicing periodontics. The results elucidated that periodontists had better interest and satisfaction in practicing periodontics, and were more inclined towards surgical correction of gingival recession as compared to non-periodontists.

  17. Comparative Evaluation for Assessing Oratest as a Diagnostic Tool for Evaluation of Plaque Levels & Gingivitis

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    Mahasweta Joshi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims & Objectives: Periodontal disease comprises a group of inflammatory conditions of the supporting tissues of the teeth that are caused by bacteria. The present study was undertaken to evaluate whether Oratest could be used as a sensitive indicator of plaque levels and gingivitis. Material and Methods: Hundred caries free patients visiting the out-patient department of A.E.C.S. Maaruti College of Dental Sciences and Research Centre, Banglore were selected according to predetermined selection criteria. The study consisted of two clinical stages: Stage 1. Recording of Plaque Index (Loe, 1967 and Gingival Index (Loe & Silness 1963 in the subjects. Stage 2. Performance of the Oratest and recording the scores in the same subjects. The Oratest was performed by rinsing the mouth with sterilized UHT (Ultra high temperature milk. About 3 ml of expectorated milk was added to a test tube containing the 0.12 ml of 0.1% methylene blue. The time required for colour change from blue to white attained at the bottom of the tube was recorded. Plaque Index, Gingival Index and Oratest scores were compared using Student t test. Pearson correlation test was applied to assess correlation between the indices and Oratest scores. Results:The results of the study showed that as age increased plaque and Gingival Indexes also increased whereas Oratest scores decreased. No significant difference between males and females was found in mean values of Plaque Index, Gingival Index and Oratest scores. Negative correlation was seen between Plaque Index and Oratest scores (r = 0.724 and also between Gingival Index and Oratest scores (r = 0.728. Conclusions: The study showed high correlation between the plaque and gingival indices and Oratest scores. This study validates Oratest as a predictable & sensitive test to assess periodontal disease.

  18. SOPROCARE - 450 nm wavelength detection tool for microbial plaque and gingival inflammation: a clinical study

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    Rechmann, P.; Liou, Shasan W.; Rechmann, Beate M.; Featherstone, John D.

    2014-02-01

    Gingivitis due to microbial plaque and calculus can lead over time if left untreated to advanced periodontal disease with non-physiological pocket formation. Removal of microbial plaque in the gingivitis stage typically achieves gingival health. The SOPROCARE camera system emits blue light at 450 nm wavelength using three blue diodes. The 450 nm wavelength is located in the non-ionizing, visible spectral wavelength region and thus is not dangerous. It is assumed that using the SOPROCARE camera in perio-mode inflamed gingiva can easily be observed and inflammation can be scored due to fluorescence from porphyrins in blood. The assumption is also that illumination of microbial plaque with blue light induces fluorescence due to the bacteria and porphyrin content of the plaque and thus can help to make microbial plaque and calculus visible. Aim of the study with 55 subjects was to evaluate the ability of the SOPROCARE fluorescence camera system to detect, visualize and allow scoring of microbial plaque in comparison to the Turesky modification of the Quigley and Hein plaque index. A second goal was to detect and score gingival inflammation and correlated the findings to the Silness and Löe gingival inflammation index. The study showed that scoring of microbial plaque as well as gingival inflammation levels similar to the established Turesky modified Quigley Hein index and the Silness and Löe gingival inflammation index can easily be done using the SOPROCARE fluorescence system in periomode. Linear regression fits between the different clinical indices and SOPROCARE scores in fluorescence perio-mode revealed the system's capacity for effective discrimination between scores.

  19. LACK OF ASSOCIATION BETWEEN HERPESVIRUS DETECTION IN SALIVA AND GINGIVITIS IN HIV‑INFECTED CHILDREN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, Renata A; Nascimento, Flávia N N; Souza, Ivete P R; Silva, Raquel C; Lima, Rodrigo S; Robaina, Tatiana F; Câmara, Fernando P; Santos, Norma; Castro, Gloria F

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to compare the detection of human herpesviruses (HHVs) in the saliva of HIV-infected and healthy control children, and to evaluate associations between viral infection and gingivitis and immunodeficiency. Saliva samples were collected from 48 HIV-infected and 48 healthy control children. Clinical and laboratory data were collected during dental visits and from medical records. A trained dentist determined gingival indices and extension of gingivitis. Saliva samples were tested for herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2), varicella zoster virus (VZV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and cytomegalovirus (CMV) by nested polymerase chain reaction assays. Thirty-five HIV-infected and 16 control children had gingivitis. Seventeen (35.4%) HIV-infected children and 13 (27%) control children were positive for HHVs. CMV was the most commonly detected HHV in both groups (HIV-infected, 25%; control, 12.5%), followed by HSV-1 (6.2% in both groups) and HSV-2 (HIV-infected, 4.2%; control, 8.3%). The presence of HHVs in saliva was not associated with the presence of gingivitis in HIV-1-infected children (p = 0.104) or healthy control children (p = 0.251), or with immunosuppression in HIV-infected individuals (p = 0.447). Gingivitis was correlated with HIV infection (p = 0.0001). These results suggest that asymptomatic salivary detection of HHVs is common in HIV-infected and healthy children, and that it is not associated with gingivitis.

  20. A comparative evaluation of efficacy of Punica granatum and chlorhexidine on plaque and gingivitis

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    Sakshi Ahuja

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Periodontal diseases are chronic bacterial infections that lead to gingival inflammation, periodontal tissue destruction, and alveolar bone loss. Acting as powerful allies in the fight against periodontal disease, natural compounds can help safeguard against lethal age-related diseases that emanate from our mouths. Punica granatum (pomegranate shrub belongs to the Punicaceae family which has been used as an astringent, hemostatic, antidiabetic, antihelmintic, and also for diarrhea and dysentery. The aim of the present work was to investigate the possible efficacy of hydroalcoholic extract from Punica granatum fruit as an antiplaque and antigingivitis agent when compared with chlorhexidine. Materials and Methods: Twenty subjects diagnosed with chronic generalized gingivitis were selected and randomly divided into two groups: Group 1 - Pomegranate mouthwash and Group 2 - Chlorhexidine mouthwash. Punica granatum mouthwash was prepared using raw Punica granatum fruit. Patients were instructed to use the prescribed mouthwash for 15 days. Clinical evaluation was undertaken using the gingival index, the plaque index, and bleeding on probing at baseline, 7 days, and 15 days. Results: The clinical study observed significant improvement in gingival status in both the sites (P<0.05. Subjects using Punica granatum mouthwash showed significant improvement in bleeding and gingivitis score as compared with chlorhexidine. In contrast, Punica granatum was shown not to be so effective in reducing plaque scores. Chlorhexidine still remains as a standard in the reduction of plaque in subjects with gingivitis. Conclusion: Punica granatum mouthwash is beneficial in improving gingival status due to its profound styptic action, with sufficient reduction in plaque scores.

  1. Effect of coconut oil in plaque related gingivitis - A preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peedikayil, Faizal C; Sreenivasan, Prathima; Narayanan, Arun

    2015-01-01

    Oil pulling or oil swishing therapy is a traditional procedure in which the practitioners rinse or swish oil in their mouth. It is supposed to cure oral and systemic diseases but the evidence is minimal. Oil pulling with sesame oil and sunflower oil was found to reduce plaque related gingivitis. Coconut oil is an easily available edible oil. It is unique because it contains predominantly medium chain fatty acids of which 45-50 percent is lauric acid. Lauric acid has proven anti inflammatory and antimicrobial effects. No studies have been done on the benefits of oil pulling using coconut oil to date. So a pilot study was planned to assess the effect of coconut oil pulling on plaque induced gingivitis. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of coconut oil pulling/oil swishing on plaque formation and plaque induced gingivitis. A prospective interventional study was carried out. 60 age matched adolescent boys and girls in the age-group of 16-18 years with plaque induced gingivitis were included in the study and oil pulling was included in their oral hygiene routine. The study period was 30 days. Plaque and gingival indices of the subjects were assessed at baseline days 1,7,15 and 30. The data was analyzed using paired t test. A statistically significant decrease in the plaque and gingival indices was noticed from day 7 and the scores continued to decrease during the period of study. Oil pulling using coconut oil could be an effective adjuvant procedure in decreasing plaque formation and plaque induced gingivitis.

  2. Formulation of Bilayer Benzydamine HCl Patch Targeted For Gingivitis

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    Piyush Sanghai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study bilayer patch of benzydamine HCl was developed using solvent casting method. Different substrates were attempted like Petri dish, glass-and-ring, and teflon-and-ring for selection of the proper option to formulate patch that should give easily peelable film with adequate mechanical properties. HPMC E15 LV was used in different concentrations for obtaining proper viscosity of solution for pouring on to surface and ring, that it should not leak from ring. The second layer was optimized by using different polymer like eudragit RSPO, eudragit RSPO + EC, and eudragit NE30 D for efficient layer bonding. The minimum release from backing membrane was established by diffusion study as compared to from drug loaded layer. The optimized batches were evaluated for folding endurance, weight variation, thickness, drug content, drug release, tensile strength, layer separation, mucoadhesion, moisture uptake, and layer bonding. The novel gingival patch of benzydamine HCl developed would be beneficial in optimizing the therapy.

  3. Gingival squamous cell carcinoma: imaging analysis of seven patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Ricardo Pires de; Moreira, Paulo de Tarso Barbosa; Paes Junior, Ademar Jose de Oliveira; Pacheco Netto, Mario C.; Rapoport, Abrao; Soares, Aldemir Humberto

    2003-01-01

    The authors studied seven patients with gingival carcinoma attended at the Head and Neck Surgery and Otorrhinolaryngology Service and the Diagnostic Imaging Service of 'Complexo Hospitalar Heliopolis', Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil, between 1985 and 1996. Squamous cell type carcinomas were identified in all cases. All patients were male (100%) aged 48-72 years. Computed tomography was performed in six patients (85.6%). Four patients (57.1%) had not received any treatment before imaging examination whereas three patients (42.8%) had already been submitted to surgery or radiotherapy. The authors analyzed the primary site of the tumor and its extension to the mandible (5/7 cases; 71.4%), the floor of the mouth (3/7 cases; 42.8%), the floor of the maxillary sinus (1/7 cases; 14.2%) and the retromolar trigonum (1/7 cases; 14.2%). Metastatic lymph nodes were observed in five patients (71.4%). Diagnosis was confirmed by biopsy and histopathological examination in all cases. Comparison with surgical findings was possible in five cases (71.4%). (author)

  4. Excessive heat-associated gingival necrosis: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, P L; Rossi-Fedele, G

    2017-09-01

    Heat-delivery devices have been associated with relatively high temperatures. Previous basic research studies suggest that the risk for periodontal tissues is negligible, as the presence of the root filling materials, amongst other factors, reduce the risk of overheating. This report describes the case of a 45 year old male, who was undergoing restorative treatment in a multi-specialty dental practice. As part of his overall treatment planning, orthograde root canal retreatment for his maxillary left incisor teeth was deemed necessary, due to chronic apical periodontitis. Following cold lateral compaction, the coronal portion of the core material was severed using a System B Heat Source (Kerr Dental, Orange, CA, USA), with the patient reporting pain as well as a burning sensation. The following day the patient was seen by a periodontist and gingival necrosis in relation to the central incisor was found. The most likely cause of the complication was considered to be excessive heat during the operative procedure. The patient was followed up for a 2-year period and the soft tissues returned to their original condition without the need for periodontal treatment. © 2017 Australian Dental Association.

  5. Report a possible correlation between necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis and mononucleosis Reporte de una posible correlación entre la gingivitis ulceronecrotizante y la mononucleosis

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    Rosa Francinne Miranda

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis is a relatively uncommon periodontal disease, characterized by ulceration, necrosis, pain and gingival bleeding. Factors often related to its occurrence include stress and systemic viral infections, such as those caused by cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus type 1, the latter being also considered the causative agent of infectious mononucleosis. This article aims to describe a clinical case of a female patient who presented with necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis associated with a clinical picture of infectious mononucleosis, as well as to review the literature concerning a possible correlation between these pathologies. This patient presented to our health care facility with necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis accompanied by lymphadenopathy, fever and prostration, after laboratory tests, Epstein-Barr virus type 1 infection was confirmed, as well as the co-occurrence of pathologies: necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis and infectious mononucleosis. Symptom remission in both disorders also occurred concomitantly, after instruction in plaque control measures and palliative medication for control of systemic symptoms. Therefore, although there is no scientific validation of an association between these two pathologies, it is imperative that all diagnostic alternatives be considered and investigated, in order to establish the therapeutic approach most appropriate to the patient.La gingivitis ulcerativa necrótica es una enfermedad periodontal no común caracterizada por ulceración, necrosis, dolor y sangrado gingival. Los factores a menudo relacionados con su ocurrencia incluyen el estrés y las infecciones virales sistémicas como aquellas causadas por Cytomegalovirus y el virus Epstein-Barr tipo 1, donde este último es el agente causal de la mononuclerosis infecciosa. El objetivo de este trabajo fue describir el caso clínico de una mujer con gingivitis ulcerativa necrótica asociada a un cuadro clínico de

  6. Receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B (RANK as a determinant of peri-implantitis

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    Rakić Mia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Peri-implantitis presents inflammatory process that affects soft and hard supporting tissues of osseointegrated implant based on inflammatory osteoclastogenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B (RANK concentrations in peri-implant crevicular fluid could be associated with clinical parameters that reflect inflammatory nature of peri-implantitis. Methods. The study included 67 patients, 22 with diagnosed peri-implantitis, 22 persons with healthy peri-implant tissues and 23 patients with periodontitis. Clinical parameters from each patient were recorded and samples of peri-implant/gingival crevicular fluid were collected for the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA analysis. Results. RANK concentration was significantly increased in samples from the patients with periimplantitis when compared to healthy implants (p < 0.0001, where the average levels were 9 times higher. At the same time RANK concentration was significantly higher in periimplantitis than in periodontitis sites (p < 0.0001. In implant patients pocket depths and bleeding on probing values were positively associated with high RANK concentrations (p < 0.0001. Conclusion. These results revealed association of increased RANK concentration in samples of periimplant/ gingival crevicular fluid with peri-implant inflammation and suggests that RANK could be a pathologic determinant of peri-implantitis, thereby a potential parameter in assessment of peri-implant tissue inflammation and a potential target in designing treatment strategies.

  7. Injerto de tejido conectivo en recesión gingival de incisivo

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    Luis Fang Mercado

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLa recesión gingival es definida como la ubicación del margen gingival apical a la unión amelocementaria de uno o más dientes. Esta deformidad apical ocasiona generalmente sensibilidad radicular, pobre apariencia estética y lesiones cervicales cariosas por lo que los pacientes pueden preguntar de manera frecuente a los clínicos por procedimientos de recubrimiento radicular. Existen dos grandes grupos de causas de recesión gingival, las que se originan de enfermedad periodontal y de origen traumático, además, se consideran ciertos factores y se les clasifica como factores predisponentes y precipitantes desencadenantes. Patológicamente las recesiones gingivales están ocasionadas por la destrucción de tejido conectivo de la encía, lo cual ocasiona una disminución del flujo sanguíneo a nivel gingival. Se desarrollan varias técnicas con el mismo fin, dentro de estas están el colgajo pediculado, injerto gingival libre, injerto de tejido conectivo y la regeneración tisular guiada. Las condiciones de éxito en el tratamiento de las recesiones gingivales, descansan en el conocimiento de su etiología y de las posibilidades de cicatrización de acuerdo a las diferentes técnicas quirúrgicas consideradas para corregirlas. Los objetivos a considerar en el tratamiento de las recesiones son: mejorar la estética, recubrir las zonas radiculares expuestas y lograr estabilidad clínica. Se presenta un caso clínico donde se utilizó el enfoque del injerto de conectivo subpediculado en un diente único para crear encía adherida y a la vez intentar cubrir una recesión en diente inferior anterior. (DUAZARY 2011 No. 2, 206 - 212.AbstractGingival recession is defined as the location of gingival margin apical to the CEJ one or more teeth. This deformity causes apical usually root sensitivity, poor appearance aesthetics and carious cervical lesions so that Patients may wonder procedures root coverage. There are two main groups causes of

  8. Effects of an ascorbic acid-derivative dentifrice in patients with gingivitis: a double-masked, randomized, controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimabukuro, Yoshio; Nakayama, Yohei; Ogata, Yorimasa; Tamazawa, Kaoru; Shimauchi, Hidetoshi; Nishida, Tetsuya; Ito, Koichi; Chikazawa, Takashi; Kataoka, Shinsuke; Murakami, Shinya

    2015-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species might be associated with the onset and progression of gingival inflammation. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of a dentifrice containing L-ascorbic acid 2-phosphate magnesium salt (APM), a long-acting ascorbic acid derivative with antioxidant properties, on gingival inflammation. The clinical effects of APM were investigated in a multicenter, randomized, parallel-group, controlled clinical trial comprising 300 individuals with gingivitis. Half of the participants were given an APM-containing dentifrice and half were given a control dentifrice. The primary outcome was the gingival index (GI) at 3 months. Secondary outcomes included gingival redness as an indicator of the degree of local gingival inflammation, gingival bleeding as a measure of the gingivitis severity index, and total antioxidant activity of the saliva. Under the intent-to-treat analysis, GI did not significantly differ between the groups (P = 0.12). However, under the per-protocol analysis, GI was significantly lower in the APM group (P = 0.01) than in the control group. In the APM group, gingival redness was significantly lower, and the difference from the baseline gingivitis severity index was significantly greater (P = 0.04 and P = 0.02, respectively). The total antioxidant activity of the saliva was significantly higher in the APM group (P = 0.03). The incidence of adverse events did not significantly differ between the groups (P > 0.15). These findings indicate that the regular application of an APM-containing dentifrice could reduce gingival inflammation.

  9. Gingival recession in smokers and non-smokers with minimal periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Hans-Peter; Stadermann, Sabine; Heinecke, Achim

    2002-02-01

    Smoking is a major risk factor for destructive periodontal disease. There is limited information with regard to effects of smoking in subjects with minimal periodontal destruction. The aim of the present investigation was to assess the development of gingival recession in young adult smokers and non-smokers. 61 systemically healthy young adults, 19 to 30 years of age completed the final examination. 30 volunteers smoked at least 20 cigarettes per day, whereas 31 subjects were non-smokers. Clinical periodontal conditions were assessed 4x within a time period of 6 months. Site-specific analyses considering the correlated structure of data were performed. At the outset, 50% of subjects presented with gingival recession at 1 or more sites. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of gingival recession between non-smokers and smokers. Severe recession in excess of 2 mm affected about 23% non-smokers but only 7% smokers. Some further gingival recession developed during the 6-month observation period. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, the risk for recession development appeared not to be influenced by smoking status after adjusting for periodontal probing depth, recession at baseline, tooth brushing frequency, gender, jaw, tooth type and site. Present data did not support the hypothesis that smokers are at an increased risk for the development of gingival recession.

  10. Efek Kumur Ekstrak Teh Hijab (Camellia sinensis terhadap Derajat Kesamaan dan Volume Saliva Penderita Gingivitis

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    Didi Adriano Anwar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Gingivitis is an inflammatory condition of gingival tissue and caused by the accumulation of dental plaque. Green tea (Camellia sinensis is a plant matter that has been shown to inhibit the growth of acidogenic bacteria and the formation of dental plaque. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of green tea extract on pH and volume of saliva of gingivitis patients. The subjects were 30 male gingivitis patients, 18-25 years old. The subjects were divided into 3 groups according to mouthrinse used (0.25% and 0.5% green tea extract, and 0.1% hexetidine as positive control. The subjects were instructed to gargle during five consecutive days in the morning and at night with 5 ml of the mouthrinse for 30 seconds. The data were taken in the beginning and at the sixth day. Data for salivary volume and pH before and after gargle were compared using MANOVA (p<0.05. The results showed signifcant differences in salivary pH, suggesting that green tea extract can increase the salivary pH of gingivitis patients, and that the 0.5% concentration was the most influential.

  11. EFFECT OF FLAXSEED OIL IN PLAQUE INDUCED GINGIVITIS- A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED DOUBLE-BLIND STUDY

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    Alluru Deepika

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Oil pulling has been used extensively as a traditional remedy for many years. It is supposed to cure oral and systemic diseases, but the evidence is minimal. Intraorally it is supposed to cause strengthening of teeth, gums, and the jaw and to prevent decay, oral malodour, bleeding gums, dryness of the throat and cracked lips. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of oil pulling with flaxseed oil on plaque induced gingivitis and to compare its efficacy with chlorhexidine mouthwash. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 20 teenaged individuals attending the Out Patient - Department of Dentistry with plaque-induced gingivitis were selected for this study. They were divided randomly into the study or oil pulling group (Group I and the control or chlorhexidine group (Group II with 10 subjects in each group. Plaque index and modified gingival index scores were recorded for the selected individuals of both the groups. The study group was subjected to oil pulling with flaxseed oil every day in the morning before brushing whereas the control group used chlorhexidine mouth rinse. Reassessment of the index scores was done after 30 days in both the groups. RESULTS There was a statistically significant reduction of the pre- and post-values of the plaque and modified gingival index scores in both the study and control groups (P <0.001. CONCLUSION The oil pulling therapy with flaxseed oil is thus an effective adjuvant in reducing plaque-induced gingivitis.

  12. Frequency of gingival and periodontal diseases among troops deployed in operational area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousaf, A.; Manzoor, M.A.; Rafi, S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To find the Frequency of Gingival and Periodontal Diseases among Troops Deployed in Operational Area and to evaluate the treatment needs which might be helpful in oral health policy planning and specific intervention against periodontal disease. Design: Descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at 140 mobile dental unit Swat from Dec 2009 to June 2011. Subjects and Methods: the periodontal status of 1500 personnels of Pakistan Army was examined using Basic periodontal Examination Index. Data was evaluated by SPSS version 16. Percentage of various gingival and periodontal disease traits was calculated and treatment needs determined. Results: Out of total 1500 subjects 12.8% subjects were having satisfactory periodontal health and required no treatment whereas 38.3% were having gingivitis requiring oral hygiene instruction and prophylaxis. Gingivitis modified by local factors was seen in 23.5% and required oral hygiene instruction and correction of modifying factors. Some (13.6%) were having mild periodontitis and required scaling, root planning and oral hygiene instruction whereas 11.8% were having moderate or advance periodontitis and required comprehensive periodontal treatment including surgical treatment. Conclusion: A large number of cases (82.7%) of gingivitis and periodontitis were detected in subject population which shows lack of awareness and self -consciousness among troops regarding their oral hygiene. (author)

  13. Oral cleanliness and gingival health among Special Olympics athletes in Europe and Eurasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Luc; Fernandez, Carla; Kaschke, Imke; Perlman, Steven

    2015-09-01

    Special Olympics athletes, as well as the general population of people with intellectual disabilities, are expected to have poorer gingival health. The aim of the study is to explore the prevalence of gingival signs of inflammation and its relationship to oral cleanliness and age among Special Olympics athletes from Europe and Eurasia. A retrospective longitudinal study was performed with data collected through standardized oral from 15.941 athletes from annual Special Olympics events held in 49 countries, from Europe and Eurasia between 2007 and 2012. The data was analysed descriptively, with One-Way ANOVA test and Chi-Square test. The level of significance was predetermined at a p value < 0.05. A total of 7,754 athletes presented with gingival signs (48.64%). There were no significant differences (p= 0,095) in mean gingival signs between age groups, however the association between mouth cleaning and age, was statistically significant. The data suggests that there is a high prevalence of gingival signs among individuals with special needs; over 50% in more than 20 countries. Therefore, there is a serious need for education and preventive programs for the patients, their parents and caregivers.

  14. Effectiveness of Azadirachta indica (neem) mouthrinse in plaque and gingivitis control: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhingra, K; Vandana, K L

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the effectiveness of Azadirachta indica (neem)-based herbal mouthrinse in improving plaque control and gingival health. Literature search was accomplished using electronic databases (PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and EMBASE) and manual searching, up to February 2015, for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) presenting clinical data for efficacy of neem mouthrinses when used alone or as an adjunct to mechanical oral hygiene as compared to chlorhexidine mouthrinses for controlling plaque and gingival inflammation in patients with gingivitis. Of the total 206 articles searched, three randomized controlled trials evaluating neem-based herbal mouthrinses were included. Due to marked heterogeneity observed in study characteristics, meta-analysis was not performed. These studies reported that neem mouthrinse was as effective as chlorhexidine mouthrinse when used as an adjunct to toothbrushing in reducing plaque and gingival inflammation in gingivitis patients. However, the quality of reporting and evidence along with methods of studies was generally flawed with unclear risk of bias. Despite the promising results shown in existing randomized controlled trials, the evidence concerning the clinical use of neem mouthrinses is lacking and needs further reinforcement with high-quality randomized controlled trials based on the reporting guidelines of herbal CONSORT statement. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Efficacy of inter-dental mechanical plaque control in managing gingivitis--a meta-review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sälzer, Sonja; Slot, Dagmar E; Van der Weijden, Fridus A; Dörfer, Christof E

    2015-04-01

    What is the effect of mechanical inter-dental plaque removal in addition to toothbrushing, on managing gingivitis using various formats of inter-dental self-care in adults based on evidence gathered from existing systematic reviews? Three Internet sources were searched by a strategy designed to include systematic reviews on inter-dental cleaning devices. Plaque and gingivitis scores were the primary parameters of interest. Characteristics of selected papers were extracted. The potential risk of bias was estimated and the acquired evidence was graded. Screening of 395 papers resulted in six systematic reviews. Two papers evaluated the efficacy of dental floss, two of inter-dental brushes (IDB), one of woodsticks and one of the oral irrigator. Weak evidence of unclear or small magnitude was retrieved that supported dental floss, woodsticks and the oral irrigator to reduce gingivitis in addition to toothbrushing. No concomitant evidence for an effect on plaque emerged. There is moderate evidence that IDBs in combination with toothbrushing reduce both plaque and gingivitis. Evidence suggests that inter-dental cleaning with IDBs is the most effective method for inter-dental plaque removal. The majority of available studies fail to demonstrate that flossing is generally effective in plaque removal. All investigated devices for inter-dental self-care seem to support the management of gingivitis, however, to a varying extend. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. The oral microbial community of gingivitis and lumpy jaw in captive macropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antiabong, John F; Boardman, Wayne; Moore, Robert B; Brown, Melissa H; Ball, Andrew S

    2013-12-01

    Gingivitis and lumpy jaw are diseases of polymicrobial aetiology. Although Fusobacterium necrophorum has been associated with these diseases in macropods, little is known about other organisms associated with these diseases in this animal species. PCR-DGGE analysis revealed the potential pathogens associated with gingivitis and lumpy jaw in macropods. PCR-DGGE profile comparison between the healthy and disease groups indicated a shift in the oral bacterial community structures with similarity coefficients of 48% and 35% for gingivitis and lumpy jaw respectively. Moreover, gingivitis was associated with increase in bacterial diversity (Shannon index = 2.87; PL curve = 45%) while lumpy jaw resulted in a decline in bacterial diversity (Shannon index = 2.47; PL curve = 74%). This study suggest that the establishment of gingivitis and lumpy jaw diseases follows the ecological plaque hypothesis. This forms the basis for an expanded investigation in an epidemiological scale and suggests the need for the appropriate choice of antimicrobial agent(s) and for the effective management and control of polymicrobial diseases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A Pyrosequencing Investigation of Differences in the Feline Subgingival Microbiota in Health, Gingivitis and Mild Periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Stephen; Croft, Julie; O'Flynn, Ciaran; Deusch, Oliver; Colyer, Alison; Allsopp, Judi; Milella, Lisa; Davis, Ian J

    2015-01-01

    Periodontitis is the most frequently diagnosed health problem in cats yet little is known about the bacterial species important for the disease. The objective of this study was to identify bacterial species associated with health, gingivitis or mild periodontitis (gingivitis or mild periodontitis. Pyrosequencing of the V1-V3 region of the 16S rDNA from these plaque samples generated more than one million reads and identified a total of 267 operational taxonomic units after bioinformatic and statistical analysis. Porphyromonas was the most abundant genus in all gingival health categories, particularly in health along with Moraxella and Fusobacteria. The Peptostreptococcaceae were the most abundant family in gingivitis and mild periodontitis. Logistic regression analysis identified species from various genera that were significantly associated with health, gingivitis or mild periodontitis. The species identified were very similar to those observed in canine plaque in the corresponding health and disease states. Such similarities were not observed between cat and human at the bacterial species level but with disease progression similarities did emerge at the phylum level. This suggests that interventions targeted at human pathogenic species will not be effective for use in cats but there is more potential for commonalities in interventions for cats and dogs.

  18. 4 and 6 interleukin's action in the pathogenesis of periodontitis, gingivitis and dental alveolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezniakova, Alla I; Cheremisina, Valentуna F

    The paper presents the results of studying the role of interleukins 4 and 6 in the pathogenesis of periodontal tissue diseases, specifically, in periodontitis, gingivitis and alveolitis. To study the nature of participation of IL-4 and IL-6 in the mechanisms of development of periodontitis, gingivitis and alveolitis. Studies were carried out on 80 nonlinear male rats with a body weight of 200.0 to 220.0 g divided into four groups of 20 animals each. The serum level of cytokines was determined by an enzyme immunoassay on the Multiscane Biotech analyzer using test systems manufactured by Caltag laboratories (USA). Statistical processing of the obtained digital results was processed with the help of the program "Statistica 8.0". Indicators of the reliability of changes between the control and intact groups also used the Student's test and the Excel program. The confidence level was taken at p gingivitis, where it decreased by 74% and its level became less with alveolitis and periodontitis, since in these diseases the level of IL-6 was practically the same from the control (p gingivitis, on the contrary, indicates the realization of a pathological reaction of the organism. The change in the levels of pro- and anti-inflammatory interleukins, especially with gingivitis, indicates a decrease in the body's adaptive reserves and may affect the further dynamics of the inflammatory process in the periodontal tissues.

  19. Oral Health Knowledge of Pregnant Women on Pregnancy Gingivitis and Children's Oral Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, C; Ma, K N; Wong, Y S; So, Y; Lee, P C; Yang, Y

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancy gingivitis and early childhood caries remain prevalent in Hong Kong. The aim of this study was to assess pregnant women's knowledge and beliefs related to pregnancy gingivitis and children's oral health. An outreach survey was carried out in a clinic that provided antenatal examination. A written oral health questionnaire related to pregnancy gingivitis and early childhood caries was administered to pregnant women. Of the 106 pregnant women who enrolled in the study, 100 completed the questionnaires. Among the 100 subjects, only 39% correctly identified that hormonal changes contribute to pregnancy gingivitis. Only 36% identified red and swollen gums as signs of gingivitis. Furthermore, 53% of the surveyed pregnant women were not sure about the amount of toothpaste to administer to a child aged 18 months to 5 years. Almost 50% assumed that a replanted avulsed tooth would probably not survive within a short extra-alveolar period of less than 60 minutes. Prenatal women generally lack knowledge of a common oral disease that occurs during pregnancy and of what constitutes adequate oral health care for children. Oral health care education should be implemented as part of a prenatal care program.

  20. Triphala, a New Herbal Mouthwash for the Treatment of Gingivitis: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradeep, A R; Suke, Deepak Kumar; Martande, Santosh S; Singh, Sonender Pal; Nagpal, Kanika; Naik, Savitha B

    2016-11-01

    An antiplaque agent with minimal side effects that can be used as an effective adjunct to mechanical plaque control is needed. The current study is designed to evaluate efficacy of triphala (TRP) mouthwash in reduction of plaque and gingivitis. Ninety individuals with chronic generalized gingivitis were randomly assigned to three groups: 1) group I, placebo mouthwash; 2) group II, TRP mouthwash; and 3) group III, chlorhexidine (CHX) mouthwash. All individuals were instructed to rinse with their respective mouthwash twice daily. 1) Plaque index (PI); 2) gingival index (GI); 3) oral hygiene index-simplified (OHI-S); and 4) microbiologic colony counts were recorded at baseline and at 7, 30, and 60 days. All three groups showed gradual reduction in PI, GI, and OHI-S levels from baseline to 7, 30, and 60 days. There was also significant reduction in microbial counts in all groups at all time intervals except in group I. A significant difference was noticed with respect to reduction in PI, GI, OHI-S, and microbiologic counts in group I compared with groups II and III. However, no significant differences were found between groups II and III for any parameters at any time intervals. TRP mouthwash was found to decrease inflammatory parameters from baseline to follow-up intervals. Because improvement in gingivitis was comparable with that of CHX mouthwash, TRP mouthwash can be considered a potential therapeutic agent in the treatment of gingivitis.

  1. Investigation of Entamoeba gingivalis and Trichomonas tenax in Periodontitis or Gingivitis Patients in Kayseri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazar, Süleyman; Çetinkaya, Ülfet; Hamamcı, Berna; Alkan, Arzu; Şişman, Yıldıray; Esen, Çağrı; Kolay, Melike

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Entamoeba gingivalis and Trichomonas tenax in periodontitis and gingivitis patients. The study consisted of 107 periodontitis patients and 68 gingivitis patients. Bacterial plaque samples were collected with a curette from the deepest pocket in each quadrant and placed into separate tubes containing sterile 0.9% saline solution. Samples were examined at a magnification of ×400 by light microscopy. Cultivation for T. tenax was performed using the same samples, and the cultures were examined after 48 hours. E. gingivalis was present in the samples from 38 periodontitis patients, whereas T. tenax was present in samples from only 3 periodontitis patients. Both E. gingivalis and T. tenax were found together in the samples from 2 periodontitis patients. In total, 22 and 2 gingivitis patients were found to be infected with E. gingivalis and with T. tenax, respectively. Only 1 gingivitis patient was found to be infected with both E. gingivalis and T. tenax. In our study, oral protozoa were found in a high percentage in periodontitis and gingivitis patients. We believe that the prevalence of E. gingivalis and T. tenax should be determined via new studies and, in particular, the protection principles should be complied with.

  2. Experimental gingivitis induces systemic inflammatory markers in young healthy individuals: a single-subject interventional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhard, Jörg; Grote, Karsten; Luchtefeld, Maren; Heuer, Wieland; Schuett, Harald; Divchev, Dimitar; Scherer, Ralph; Schmitz-Streit, Ruth; Langfeldt, Daniela; Stumpp, Nico; Staufenbiel, Ingmar; Schieffer, Bernhard; Stiesch, Meike

    2013-01-01

    We here investigated whether experimental gingivitis enhances systemic markers of inflammation which are also known as surrogate markers of atherosclerotic plaque development. Gingivitis is a low-level oral infection induced by bacterial deposits with a high prevalence within Western populations. A potential link between the more severe oral disease periodontitis and cardiovascular disease has already been shown. 37 non-smoking young volunteers with no inflammatory disease or any cardiovascular risk factors participated in this single-subject interventional study with an intra-individual control. Intentionally experimental oral inflammation was induced by the interruption of oral hygiene for 21 days, followed by a 21-days resolving phase after reinitiation of oral hygiene. Primary outcome measures at baseline, day 21 and 42 were concentrations of hsCRP, IL-6, and MCP-1, as well as adhesion capacity and oxLDL uptake of isolated blood monocytes. The partial cessation of oral hygiene procedures was followed by the significant increase of gingival bleeding (34.0%, Pgingivitis. Bacterial-induced gingival low-level inflammation induced a systemic increase in inflammatory markers. Dental hygiene almost completely reversed this experimental inflammatory process, suggesting that appropriate dental prophylaxis may also limit systemic markers of inflammation in subjects with natural gingivitis. International Clinical Trials Register Platform of the World Health Organization, registry number: DRKS00003366, URL: http://apps.who.int/trialsearch/Default.aspx.

  3. Immunoexpression of interleukin-6 in drug-induced gingival overgrowth patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P R Ganesh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To analyze the role of proinflammatory cytokines in drug-induced gingival enlargement in Indian population. Aim: To evaluate for the presence of interleukin-6 (IL-6 in drug-induced gingival enlargement and to compare it with healthy control in the absence of enlargement. Materials and Methods: Thirty-five patients selected for the study and divided into control group (10 and study group (25 consisting of phenytoin (10; cyclosporin (10 and nifedipine (5 induced gingival enlargement. Gingival overgrowth index of Seymour was used to assess overgrowth and allot groups. Under LA, incisional biopsy done, tissue sample fixed in 10% formalin and immunohistochemically evaluated for the presence of IL-6 using LAB-SA method, Labeled- Streptavidin-Biotin Method (LAB-SA kit from Zymed- 2nd generation LAB-SA detection system, Zymed Laboratories, CA. The results of immunohistochemistry were statistically analyzed using Kruskaal–Wallis and Mann–Whitney test. Results: The data obtained from immunohistochemistry assessment shows that drug-induced gingival overgrowth (DIGO samples express more IL-6 than control group and cyclosporin expresses more IL-6 followed by phenytoin and nifedipine. Conclusion: Increased IL-6 expression was noticed in all three DIGO groups in comparison with control group. Among the study group, cyclosporin expressed maximum IL-6 expression followed by phenytoin and nifedipine.

  4. Effects of titanium surface topography on morphology and in vitro activity of human gingival fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaglia, L; Capece, G; Di Spigna, G; Bruno, M P; Buonocore, N; Postiglione, L

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate in vitro the biological behavior of human gingival fibroblasts cultured on two different titanium surfaces. Titanium test disks were prepared with a machined, relatively smooth (S) surface or a rough surface (O) obtained by a double acid etching procedure. Primary cultures of human gingival fibroblasts were plated on the experimental titanium disks and cultured up to 14 days. Titanium disk surfaces were analysed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Cell proliferation and a quantitative analysis by ELISA in situ of ECM components as CoI, FN and TN were performed. Results have shown different effects of titanium surface microtopography on cell expression and differentiation. At 96 hours of culture on experimental surfaces human gingival fibroblasts displayed a favourable cell attachment and proliferation on both surfaces although showing some differences. Both the relatively smooth and the etched surfaces interacted actively with in vitro cultures of human gingival fibroblasts, promoting cell proliferation and differentiation. Results suggested that the microtopography of a double acid-etched rough surface may induce a greater Co I and FN production, thus conditioning in vivo the biological behaviour of human gingival fibroblasts during the process of peri-implant soft tissue healing.

  5. Aloe vera herbal dentifrices for plaque and gingivitis control: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhingra, K

    2014-04-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of aloe vera containing herbal dentifrices in improving plaque control and gingival health. A manual and electronic literature (MEDLINE and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials) search was performed up to July 2012, for randomized controlled trials presenting clinical, microbiological, immunological, and patient-centered data for the efficacy of aloe vera herbal dentifrices for controlling plaque and gingival inflammation in patients with gingivitis. From 79 titles and abstracts, eight full-text articles were screened and finally two randomized controlled trials were selected. These randomized controlled trials reported that aloe vera dentifrices were similar in efficacy to control dentifrices in effectively reducing plaque and gingival inflammation in gingivitis patients based on the assessment of clinical, microbiological, and patient-centered treatment outcomes. However, many important details (composition and characteristics of aloe vera and control dentifrices along with appropriate randomization, blinding, and outcomes assessed) were lacking in these trials, and therefore, the quality of reporting and methods was generally flawed with high risk of bias. Even though there are some promising results, the clinical effectiveness of aloe vera herbal dentifrices is not sufficiently defined at present and warrants further investigations based on reporting guidelines of herbal CONSORT statement. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  6. Modified Lip Repositioning with Esthetic Crown Lengthening: A Combined Approach to Treating Excessive Gingival Display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Isis M; Gaud-Quintana, Sadja; Stern, Jacob K

    Lip repositioning surgery to address excessive gingival display induced by different etiologies has received major attention recently. Several techniques and variations have been reported, including myotomy or repositioning of the levator labii superioris muscle, Le Fort impaction, maxillary gingivectomies, botulinum toxin injections, and lip stabilization. This study reports a case of excessive gingival display treated by a modified combined approach. A 25-year-old woman with a 4- to 8-mm gingival display when smiling caused by a combination of short clinical crowns induced by an altered passive eruption and hypermobility of the upper lip underwent a staged esthetic crown-lengthening procedure followed by a modified lip repositioning technique. A description of the technique and a comparison with other modes of therapy is discussed. This modified approach for treating the hypermobile lip included a bilateral removal of a partial-thickness strip of mucosa from the maxillary buccal vestibule without severing the muscle, leaving the midline frenum intact and suturing the lip mucosa to the mucogingival line. The narrower vestibule and increased tooth length resulted in a symmetric and pleasing gingival display when smiling that remained stable over time. With proper diagnosis and sequence of therapy, modified lip repositioning surgery combined with esthetic crown lengthening can be used predictably to treat excessive gingival display and enhance smile esthetics.

  7. Class I and II histone deacetylase expression in human chronic periodontitis gingival tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantley, M D; Dharmapatni, A A S S K; Algate, K; Crotti, T N; Bartold, P M; Haynes, D R

    2016-04-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) are being considered to treat chronic inflammatory diseases at low doses. Currently HDACi that are more specific are being developed to target particular HDACs; therefore, this study aimed to determine levels and distribution of class I and II HDAC in human gingival samples obtained from patients with chronic periodontitis. Gingival biopsies were obtained from patients with and without (mild inflammation, no bone loss) periodontitis. Total RNA was isolated for real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction to determine expression of HDACs 1-10. Immunohistochemistry was used to determine protein distribution of HDACs 1, 5, 8 and 9. Factor VIII, CD3 and tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) were detected in serial sections to identify blood vessels, lymphocytes, pre-osteoclasts and osteoclasts cells respectively. Tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α) expression was also assessed. mRNA for HDAC 1, 5, 8 and 9 were significantly upregulated in chronic periodontitis gingival tissues compared to non-periodontitis samples (p chronic periodontitis samples (p chronic periodontitis gingival tissues. HDAC 1, 5, 8 and 9 expression was higher in gingival tissues from patients with chronic periodontitis compared to non-periodontitis samples. Results suggest that these HDACs could therefore be targeted with specific acting HDACi. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Surgical management of gingival overgrowth associated with Cowden sydrome: a case report and current understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feitosa, Daniela da Silva; Santamaria, Mauro Pedrine; Casati, Márcio Zaffalon; Sallum, Enilson Antonio; Nociti Júnior, Francisco Humberto; de Toledo, Sérgio

    2011-05-01

    Cowden syndrome, also known as multiple hamartoma syndrome, is a rare autosomal dominant disorder characterized by multiple hamartomas and a high risk of development of malignancy. Oral findings, such as papillomatous lesions and fibromas, are common features; however, a periodontal phenotype has not been reported previously. Therefore, this report presents a case of gingival overgrowth associated with Cowden syndrome, its successful surgical management, and the 12-month follow-up results. Additionally, we discuss the implications for clinicians. A 23-year-old woman was referred to the Department of Periodontics, Piracicaba Dental School, presenting with generalized gingival overgrowth. A detailed dental and medical history and clinical examination confirmed the systemic diagnosis of Cowden syndrome. Histology, radiographs, and clinical data document the entire clinical approach and follow-up. Clinically, there were minor signs of recurrence of gingival overgrowth in a 12-month period after gingivectomy; however, papular lesions reappeared in keratinized gingiva immediately after healing. No signs of bone loss related to the systemic condition were observed radiographically. Histologically, a dense connective tissue with a moderate chronic inflammatory infiltrate and epithelial acanthosis, which is characteristic of gingival hyperplasia, were demonstrated. Gingival overgrowth may occur as an oral phenotype related to Cowden syndrome and can be successfully treated by means of external bevel gingivectomy, followed by regular maintenance therapy, contributing to the patient's well-being, both functionally and esthetically.

  9. Gingival melanin depigmentation by Er:YAG laser: A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlic, Verica; Brkic, Zlata; Marin, Sasa; Cicmil, Smiljka; Gojkov-Vukelic, Mirjana; Aoki, Akira

    2018-04-01

    Laser ablation is recently suggested as a most effective and reliable technique for depigmentation of melanin hyperpigmented gingiva. To date, different lasers have been used for gingival depigmentation (CO 2 , diode, Nd:YAG, Er:YAG and Er,Cr:YSGG lasers). The use of Er:YAG laser for depigmentation of melanin hyperpigmented gingiva has gained increasing importance in recent years. The purpose of this study was to report removal of gingival melanin pigmentation using an Er:YAG laser in a literature review. The main outcomes, such as improvement of signs (clinical parameters of bleeding, erythema, swelling and wound healing), symptoms (pain) and melanin recurrence/repigmentation were measured. The literature demonstrated that depigmentation of gingival melanin pigmentation can be performed safely and effectively by Er:YAG laser resulting in healing and an esthetically significant improvement of gingival discoloration. Thus, Er:YAG laser seems to be safe and useful in melanin depigmentation procedure. However, the main issue in giving the final conclusion of the optimal Er:YAG laser use in melanin depigmentation is that, to date, studies are offering completely discrepant Er:YAG laser procedure protocols (complex settings of laser parameters), and different criteria for the assessment of depigmentation and repigmentation (recurrence), thus hampering the comparison of the results. Therefore, further studies are necessary to give an optimal recommendation on the use of Er:YAG laser in gingival melanin hyperpigmentation.

  10. Comparison of Three types of Tooth Brushes on Plaque and Gingival Indices: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeintaghavi, Amir; Sargolzaie, Naser; Rostampour, Mehrnoosh; Sarvari, Sara; Kargozar, Sanaz; Gharaei, Shideh

    2017-01-01

    To compare clinical results of three types of manual tooth brushes on plaque removal efficacy and gingivitis. This study is a single blind randomized trial with crossover design which involved 30 periodontaly healthy individuals. Professional plaque removal and oral hygiene instruction were performed for all the participants in the first step of our study followed by asking them to avoid brushing for 2 days. Thereafter plaque and gingivitis scores were measured using plaque and gingival indices (PI and GI). Then subjects were instructed to use Pulsar tooth brush for a two-week period and then, GI and PI indices were assessed again. After passing one-week period for wash out, subjects didn't brush for 2 days and indices were recorded again. The same procedure was done for CrossAction, and Butler 411 tooth brushes respectively and at the end of the study these variables were analyzed using SPSS software ver.16. Repeated measurement ANOVA test was used to compare the scores between different brushes. Finding of this study reveals that using all three types of tooth brushes resulted in significant plaque and gingivitis reduction compared to baseline levels. Pulsar tooth brush was significantly more effective in diminishing PI and GI than Butler tooth brush (p=0.044 and 0.031 respectively). According to our findings all 3 types of tooth brushes are effective in reduction of plaque and gingivitis and this reduction is significantly greater for Pulsar tooth brush compared to Butler and CrossAction tooth brushes.

  11. Interdental cleaning and gingival injury potential of interdental toothbrushes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Marc; Sener, Beatrice; Roos, M; Attin, Thomas; Schmidlin, Patrick R

    2014-01-01

    The effective cleaning of interdental spaces using toothbrushes is a challenge. The aim of the present in vitro study was to evaluate on the one hand the interdental cleaning efficiency and on the other hand the gingival injury potential of an electric single-headed sonic toothbrush (Water-pik) and two single-tufted manual toothbrushes (Curaprox 1009; Lactona Interdental Brush). Brushes were evaluated using a brushing device. Test dental casts (maxillary sextants) consisting of black teeth coated with white paint were brushed using standardized horizontal movements. Thereafter, black (i.e. cleaned) areas were measured planimetrically. The soft tissue injury potential was evaluated using front segments of porcine mandibles. In the same brushing device, test brushes were moved over the gingiva. Before and after each treatment, the porcine mucosa was stained with a plaque disclosing agent to visualize injured areas, which could then be measured planimetrically as well. These evaluations were each made after 15, 30, 60, and 120 seconds of brushing. The statistical analysis was performed using non-parametric Mann-Whitney tests, and the level of significance was set at 5%. The best cleaning performance of 46% across all interdental spaces assessed was found with the electric sonic toothbrush (Waterpik), while the performances of the manual brushes from Lactona and Curaprox were 14.8% and 5%, respectively. At each point of evaluation, the gingiva was injured most markedly by the powered sonic toothbrush (Waterpik), followed by the manual Curaprox brush. The smallest damage of the porcine gingiva was produced by the manual Lactona brush. When comparing the manual toothbrushes, the Lactona product revealed a better cleaning performance combined with a smaller injury potential than the Curaprox brush. Thus, the prophylactic goal to achieve high degrees of cleaning while producing minimal damage is important and should have priority when evaluating and selecting toothbrushes.

  12. Efecto de la Irrigación Crevicular con Azitromicina y con Tetraciclina en el Periodonto de Revestimiento y de Soporte en Pacientes Sometidos a Curetaje de Bolsa en el Centro Odontológico Dentalplans Arequipa 2009

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzales Calderón Juan Carlos

    2010-01-01

    La presente investigación tuvo como propósito central determinar el efecto de la Irrigación crevicular con azitromicina y con tetraciclina en el Periodonto de Revestimiento y de soporte en pacientes sometidos a curetaje de bolsa. La Investigación es cuasi experimental emparejado (intrasujeto) prospectiva, longitudinal, comparativa y de campo. Se conformó un grupo de estudio dividido en 2 sectores experimentales, cada uno de los cuáles estuvo constituido por 31 bolsas peri...

  13. Fluid Shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenger, M. B.; Hargens, A. R.; Dulchavsky, S. A.; Arbeille, P.; Danielson, R. W.; Ebert, D. J.; Garcia, K. M.; Johnston, S. L.; Laurie, S. S.; Lee, S. M. C.; hide

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. NASA's Human Research Program is focused on addressing health risks associated with long-duration missions on the International Space Station (ISS) and future exploration-class missions beyond low Earth orbit. Visual acuity changes observed after short-duration missions were largely transient, but now more than 50 percent of ISS astronauts have experienced more profound, chronic changes with objective structural findings such as optic disc edema, globe flattening and choroidal folds. These structural and functional changes are referred to as the visual impairment and intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome. Development of VIIP symptoms may be related to elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) secondary to spaceflight-induced cephalad fluid shifts, but this hypothesis has not been tested. The purpose of this study is to characterize fluid distribution and compartmentalization associated with long-duration spaceflight and to determine if a relation exists with vision changes and other elements of the VIIP syndrome. We also seek to determine whether the magnitude of fluid shifts during spaceflight, as well as any VIIP-related effects of those shifts, are predicted by the crewmember's pre-flight status and responses to acute hemodynamic manipulations, specifically posture changes and lower body negative pressure. Methods. We will examine a variety of physiologic variables in 10 long-duration ISS crewmembers using the test conditions and timeline presented in the figure below. Measures include: (1) fluid compartmentalization (total body water by D2O, extracellular fluid by NaBr, intracellular fluid by calculation, plasma volume by CO rebreathe, interstitial fluid by calculation); (2) forehead/eyelids, tibia, and calcaneus tissue thickness (by ultrasound); (3) vascular dimensions by ultrasound (jugular veins, cerebral and carotid arteries, vertebral arteries and veins, portal vein); (4) vascular dynamics by MRI (head/neck blood flow, cerebrospinal fluid

  14. Gingival bleeding, a possible "serious" adverse drug reaction: An observational study in the French PharmacoVigilance Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondon-Guitton, Emmanuelle; Mourgues, Thibaut; Rousseau, Vanessa; Cousty, Sarah; Cottin, Judith; Drablier, Guillaume; Micallef, Joëlle; Montastruc, Jean-Louis

    2017-09-01

    Antithrombotic drugs are known to increase the risk of gingival bleeding because they affect coagulation. However, other drugs could also be involved in gingival bleeding. We performed a pharmacoepidemiological study to identify the drugs most frequently "suspected" in the occurrence of gingival bleeding. We selected reports of "gingival bleeding" from 1 January 1985 to 30 September 2014 in the French PharmacoVigilance Database. Among 523,808 reports of adverse drug reactions, we identified 454 reports of gingival bleeding (0.09%). Most of them were "serious" (58.4%) and occurred in females (54.6%). The frequency of gingival bleeding increased with age. The most frequently "suspected" drugs were antithrombotics (67.8%), particularly fluindione. Other drugs frequently involved were furosemide followed by paracetamol, amiodarone, amoxicillin, paroxetine, ketoprofen, zolpidem, enalapril and ramipril. Thirty-nine reports involved a drug-drug interaction with antithrombotics, mainly with anti-infectives. Gingival bleeding can be an adverse drug reaction, often "serious" and rarely fatal. Patients older than 50 years and women are particularly at risk. Among drugs known to increase the risk of gingival bleeding, the most frequently involved were fluindione, furosemide, paracetamol, amiodarone, amoxicillin, paroxetine or ketoprofen. We also identified signal for drugs not usually known to be involved in bleeding, like zolpidem, enalapril or ramipril. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Differentiated embryonic chondrocytes 1 expression of periodontal ligament tissue and gingival tissue in the patients with chronic periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shenlin; Shang, Wei; Yue, Haitao; Chen, Ruini; Dong, Zheng; Hu, Jinhua; Mao, Zhao; Yang, Jian

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate the DEC1 expression of periodontal ligament tissue and gingival tissue in the patients with chronic periodontitis. 20 non-smoking patients with chronic periodontitis and 20 healthy individuals were enrolled. Periodontal ligament tissue and gingival tissue samples from healthy subjects were collected during teeth extraction for orthodontic reason or the third molar extraction. The parallel samples from patients with chronic periodontitis were obtained during periodontal flap operations or teeth extraction as part of periodontal treatment. The DEC1 expression and the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of both the periodontal ligament tissue and gingival tissue were determined by Western blot, Immunohistochemistry and ALP Detection Kit. The DEC1 expression of periodontal ligament tissue in the patients with chronic periodontitis decreased significantly along with the decreased ALP activity. On the contrary, the DEC1 expression of gingival tissue in the patients with chronic periodontitis increased significantly. Further study found that the DEC1 expression of gingival tissue increased mainly in the suprabasal layer of gingival epithelial cells but decreased in the gingival connective tissue of the patients with chronic periodontitis. The DEC1 expression decreases in the periodontal ligament tissue which is related to the osteogenic capacity, whereas the DEC1 expression increases in the suprabasal layer of gingival epithelial cells which are involved in immune inflammatory response in the patients with chronic periodontitis. The findings provide a new target to explore the pathology and the therapy of periodontitis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Is self interdental cleaning associated with dental plaque levels, dental calculus, gingivitis and periodontal disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocombe, L A; Brennan, D S; Slade, G D; Loc, D O

    2012-04-01

    To ascertain whether interdental cleaning behaviours of Australian adults were associated with lower levels of plaque, gingivitis and periodontal disease. Data were obtained from the National Survey of Adult Oral Health 2004-06. Outcome variables were three indicators of oral hygiene outcomes (the presence or not of dental plaque, dental calculus and gingivitis) and two of periodontal disease (the presence or not of at least one tooth with a periodontal pocket or clinical attachment loss of ≥ 4 mm). The independent variable was classified into the following three groups: regularly clean interproximally 'at least daily' (daily+); 'less than daily' (dental plaque (dental calculus (dental plaque and gingivitis, although there was no significant association between regular interdental cleaning and clinical attachment loss. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  17. Validity of a New Kit Measuring Salivary Lactate Dehydrogenase Level for Screening Gingivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekuni, Daisuke; Yamane-Takeuchi, Mayu; Kataoka, Kota; Yokoi, Aya; Taniguchi-Tabata, Ayano; Mizuno, Hirofumi; Miyai, Hisataka; Uchida, Yoko; Fukuhara, Daiki; Sugiura, Yoshio; Tomofuji, Takaaki; Morita, Manabu

    2017-01-01

    Aim . The aim of this study was to determine the usefulness of a new kit that can evaluate salivary lactate dehydrogenase (LD) level in real time for screening gingivitis. Materials and Methods . The study included 70 systemic healthy volunteers [29 males and 41 females; mean age ± SD: 24.1 ± 2.6 years]. Resting saliva was collected from each participant and LD level was evaluated in real time using the kit (a color-changing sheet with an integer scale ranging from 1 to 10). A dentist measured probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level, and the proportion of sites with bleeding on probing (% BOP) at six sites on all teeth. Gingivitis was diagnosed when the BOP value was ≥20%. Results . Salivary LD level was positively correlated with mean % BOP (odds ratio: 1.47, 95% confidence interval: 1.132-1.916, and P gingivitis in young adults, which contributes to early detection of future periodontitis.

  18. Fluid mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granger, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    This text offers the most comprehensive approach available to fluid mechanics. The author takes great care to insure a physical understanding of concepts grounded in applied mathematics. The presentation of theory is followed by engineering applications, helping students develop problem-solving skills from the perspective of a professional engineer. Extensive use of detailed examples reinforces the understanding of theoretical concepts

  19. Effectiveness of herbal and nonherbal fluoridated toothpaste on plaque and gingivitis: A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roopali Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dental plaque is a well-known etiologic factor for gingivitis. Ayurvedic drugs have been used since ancient times to treat diseases including periodontal diseases. Toothpastes made from herbal medicines are used in periodontal therapy to control bleeding and reduce inflammation. Aim: To compare the effectiveness of herbal and nonherbal fluoridated toothpaste on plaque and gingivitis among residents of ladies hostel in Mathura City. Materials and Methods: A randomized controlled clinical trial was carried out on 60 participants aged 18-30 years residing in a ladies hostel of Mathura City. The 60 participants were randomly allocated into two groups: Group-I: Experimental group using herbal toothpaste, Group-II: Control group using fluoridated toothpaste. The subjects were asked to brush twice daily with the assigned dentifrice using standardized brushing technique for 46 days. The plaque and gingival indices were recorded according to Silness and Loe (1964 and Loe and Silness (1963, respectively. These parameters were assessed at baseline, 3 weeks, and 6 weeks. Data were analyzed by Student paired t-test and unpaired t-test using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 21 manufactured by IBM Corporation - Armonk, New York, US. Results: Baseline plaque and gingival scores were found 1.02 ± 0.02 and 0.88 ± 0.06 for the experimental group and 1.02 ± 0.03 and 0.81 ± 0.08 for control group, respectively. After 6 weeks plaque and gingival scores were found 0.77 ± 0.07 and 0.72 ± 0.08 for experimental group and 0.78 ± 0.07 and 0.73 ± 0.11 for control group, respectively. Statistically significant differences were obtained before and after intervention in both groups (P ≤ 0.05. Conclusion: The herbal toothpaste was as effective as the conventionally formulated fluoride dentifrice in controlling plaque and gingivitis.

  20. Eugenia uniflora Dentifrice for Treating Gingivitis in Children: Antibacterial Assay and Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovito, Vanessa de Carvalho; Freires, Irlan Almeida; Ferreira, Danilo Augusto de Holanda; Paulo, Marçal de Queiroz; Castro, Ricardo Dias de

    2016-01-01

    School-age children are frequently at high risk for the onset of biofilm-dependent conditions, including dental caries and periodontal diseases. The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy of a dentifrice containing Eugenia uniflora Linn. (Surinam cherry) extract versus a triclosan-based comparator in treating gingivitis in children aged 10-12 years. The in vitro antibacterial potential of the dentifrice was tested against oral pathogens (Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus oralis and Lactobacillus casei). Then a phase-II clinical trial was conducted with 50 subjects aged 10-12 years, with clinical signs of gingivitis. The subjects were randomly assigned to the experimental group (n=25) and control group (n=25), in which participants used the experimental dentifrice and a triclosan-based fluoridated dentifrice (Colgate Total 12(r)), respectively. Clinical examinations assessed the presence of gingivitis (primary outcome) and biofilm accumulation (secondary outcome) using the Gingival-Bleeding Index (GBI) and Simplified Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S), respectively, at baseline and after seven days of tooth brushing 3x/day. The data were analyzed using paired and unpaired t-test (GBI) and Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney (OHI-S), with p≤0.05. The experimental dentifrice showed efficient antibacterial activity in vitro. In the clinical trial, a significant reduction in gingival bleeding was observed in both experimental and control groups (puniflora dentifrice showed anti-gingivitis properties in children aged 10-12 years. Thus, it may be a potentially efficient and safe product to be used alternatively in preventive dental practice.

  1. Self-reported gingival conditions and self-care in the oral health of Danish women during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, L.B.; Jeppe-Jensen, Dorte; Petersen, P.E.

    2003-01-01

    AND METHODS: The study group comprised 1935 pregnant women living in two areas of Denmark consecutively recruited from August 1998 to March 1999. The survey data were based on telephone interviews. Questions in the interview concerned general health, lifestyles, socioeconomic conditions, gingival conditions......OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the present study was to describe the self-assessment of gingival health conditions in pregnant women, their oral hygiene behaviour and dental visiting habits, and to analyse self-care practices of pregnant women in relation to perceived gingival problems. MATERIAL......, oral hygiene and utilisation of dental health services. RESULTS: One-third of the study population perceived signs of gingival inflammation; 5% of the pregnant women assessed their gingiva as poor, while 95% reported good or "normal" gingival condition. Ninety six per cent brushed their teeth at least...

  2. Efficacy of a barrier gel for reducing the development of plaque, calculus, and gingivitis in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellows, Jan; Carithers, Douglas S; Gross, Sheila J

    2012-01-01

    This study was performed to assess the field efficacy of a professional and home-care barrier gel against the development of plaque, calculus, gingival bleeding, and gingivitis in client-owned cats over a 56-day period compared with negative controls. In a randomized, negative-controlled, outcome evaluator-blinded, client-owned animal clinical field study, 31 cats were evaluated to assess if the barrier gel dental product was effective in cats. Following an enrollment-qualification assessment and enrollment of each cat, all cats received a professional dental cleaning, including polishing and irrigation. Following cleaning, a post-cleaning assessment was performed by the evaluator. Then, using a pre-developed randomization schedule, cats were assigned to the treated or control group. The professional version of the barrier gel was applied to the treated group on day 0. The negative-control group patients did not receive any applications of the barrier gel following dental cleaning. Treated-group cats were brought back to the clinic for subsequent applications of the home-care version of the barrier gel, applied by a non-blinded trained assistant. The home-care version product applications began on day 14 and then were applied weekly (days, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49 and 56) through day 56. All cats enrolled in the study underwent full oral examinations and assessments by the blinded evaluator on or about their respective days 28 and 56. At these evaluations, the evaluator performed standardized assessments for plaque, calculus, gingivitis, and gingival bleeding. Numeric scores were assigned for each assessment using predetermined target teeth to ensure consistency. Using these assessment scores, statistical analyses were performed to determine the efficacies against plaque and calculus deposition; additionally, measurements of gingivitis and gingival bleeding were assessed. Change in plaque score from baseline, for all teeth assessed (all 4 canine teeth, and all 4

  3. Trefoil factors in saliva and gingival tissues of patients with chronic periodontitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaiyarit, Ponlatham; Chayasadom, Anek; Wara-Aswapati, Nawarat

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Trefoil factors (TFFs) are secreted molecules that are involved in cytoprotection against tissue damage and the immune response. TFFs have been detected in saliva and oral tissues, but their clinical significance has never been investigated in patients with chronic periodontitis....... The objective of this study is to determine whether TFF expression in saliva and gingival tissues is associated with periodontal pathology. METHODS: Saliva and gingival tissue samples were collected from 25 non-periodontitis individuals and 25 patients with chronic periodontitis (CP). Enzyme...... observed in patients with CP (P = 0.003 and P periodontal pathology and number of Porphyromonas gingivalis...

  4. Gingival recession in school kids aged 10-15 years in Udaipur, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathur Anmol

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim : The study aimed to determine the incidence of gingival recession in the mandibular central incisor region among school children aged 10-15 years in Udaipur (India. Materials and Methods : A sample of 1800 males and female kids were examined in a mobile dental unit. World Health Organisation (WHO rules and standards were followed. Result : Gingival recession, when compared, with respect to age, mean clinical crown length, anterior crowding and frenal involvement was significant (p less than 0.00 with respect to affected teeth.

  5. Treatment of recalcitrant erosive oral lichen planus and desquamative gingivitis with oral apremilast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbuHilal, Mohn'd; Walsh, Scott; Shear, Neil

    2016-11-30

    Erosive oral lichen planus and desquamative gingivitis are uncommon but severe debilitating variants of oral lichen planus. Treatment of these presentations is difficult and challenging. A 44-year-old woman was referred to the dermatology clinic with chronic painful lichen planus-related gingivitis and buccal erosions. She has failed multiple treatments including topical clobetasol and tacrolimus, intralesional corticosteroids and several systemic and immunosuppressive agents. Following completion of three months of treatment with oral apremilast at a dose of 30 mg twice daily, significant improvement was noted in her disease activity. Oral apremilast may be a safe and effective treatment for erosive oral lichen planus.

  6. Oral hygiene status, gingival status, periodontal status, and treatment needs among pregnant and nonpregnant women: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meena Kashetty

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The gingival and periodontal changes during pregnancy are well known. Gingivitis is the most prevalent oral manifestations associated with pregnancy. The hormonal and vascular changes that accompany pregnancy are known to exaggerate the inflammatory response to the local irritants. Hence, a study was designed to assess oral hygiene status, gingival status, periodontal status, and treatment needs (TNs among pregnant and nonpregnant women. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 120 pregnant and 120 nonpregnant women of 18–44 years age attending the Outpatient Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Government Hospital of Belgaum city, Karnataka, India. The study consisted of an interview and oral examination. Type 3 examination was followed. Simplified Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S, Gingival Index, and Community Periodontal Index and TNs Index were used to assess “oral hygiene status,” “gingival status,” and “periodontal status and TNs,” respectively. Results: The pregnant women showed poor oral hygiene with the mean OHI-S score as 2.68. Gingivitis was prevalent in almost all the pregnant and nonpregnant women. However, it was found more severe in pregnant women with mean gingival score as 1.25. A definite increase in gingivitis was found from Trimester II to Trimester III. The mean number of sextants showing healthy gingiva was significantly (P < 0.01 lower among pregnant women. Conclusions: Pregnant women showed poor oral hygiene, more gingival inflammation, and more periodontal disease as compared to nonpregnant women. The severity of gingivitis increased in Trimester III. Proper oral hygiene practice can prevent these diseases and further complications.

  7. Fluid dynamics of dilatant fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakanishi, Hiizu; Nagahiro, Shin-ichiro; Mitarai, Namiko

    2012-01-01

    of the state variable, we demonstrate that the model can describe basic features of the dilatant fluid such as the stress-shear rate curve that represents discontinuous severe shear thickening, hysteresis upon changing shear rate, and instantaneous hardening upon external impact. An analysis of the model...

  8. [Microbiological testing of the artificial gingival margin in dentures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, Péter; Klein, Ildikó; Barna, Zsuzsanna; Kaán, Miklós; Fejérdy, Pál

    2004-06-01

    In everyday practice dental laboratories try to reproduce the natural form of sulcus gingivae at the transitional area between artificial teeth and gingiva of removable dentures, even on esthetically less important areas. Aim of these investigations were to examine how artificial recreation of the sulcus gingivae influences plaque retention, and what is the microbiological relevance of these. Investigations were carried out on the vestibular side of removable dentures of 32 randomly selected patients treated at the Department of Prosthodontics at the Faculty of Dentistry, Semmelweis University. Microbiological samples were taken from each patient using the same method. Samples were taken from the left upper first molars' artificial gingival margin using sterile paper points. Paper points were then transported in Eppendorf-tubes, in 2 ml of physiological saline solution, and processed within a two-hour period of time. Series dilutions were made of the sample solutions, then surface-streaked on Subaraud and Gentamycin, blood-agar, eosin-methylene blue and Mitis Salivarius culture enriched with Bacitracin. Subaraud culture was induced under aerob conditions, at room temperature for two days, then the total amount of fungi quantified. After pure-culturing Candida albicans ID-culture was used for identification, and BioMerieux ATB automatic equipment to identify different Candida species. From pure cultures identification was carried out with Gram-staining, Neisser-staining, catalase, oxidase and also with other biochemical reactions. Blood-agar was used to determine total germ count, and normal commensal pharyngeal and oral bacteria. After collecting the microbiological samples, the conventional shape of the dental margin of gingiva was abolished on one side of the dentures and a smooth transition was created between denture teeth and the artificial gingiva in the molar and premolar region. During our investigations only blastomycetes were found. Besides most common

  9. Fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Ruban, Anatoly I

    This is the first book in a four-part series designed to give a comprehensive and coherent description of Fluid Dynamics, starting with chapters on classical theory suitable for an introductory undergraduate lecture course, and then progressing through more advanced material up to the level of modern research in the field. The present Part 1 consists of four chapters. Chapter 1 begins with a discussion of Continuum Hypothesis, which is followed by an introduction to macroscopic functions, the velocity vector, pressure, density, and enthalpy. We then analyse the forces acting inside a fluid, and deduce the Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible and compressible fluids in Cartesian and curvilinear coordinates. In Chapter 2 we study the properties of a number of flows that are presented by the so-called exact solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations, including the Couette flow between two parallel plates, Hagen-Poiseuille flow through a pipe, and Karman flow above an infinite rotating disk. Chapter 3 is d...

  10. Correlation of gingival thickness with gingival width, probing depth, and papillary fill in maxillary anterior teeth in students of a dental college in Navi Mumbai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jyotsna; Rathod, Varsha J; Rao, Prajakta R; Patil, Aardra A; Langade, Deepak G; Singh, Roshan K

    2016-01-01

    The gingival biotype is of utmost importance for esthetics and biologic function. Anatomical characteristic of periodontium such as gingival thickness (GT), width of keratinized gingiva, and alveolar bone morphology will determine the behavior of periodontium when subjected to physical, chemical, or bacterial insult or during therapeutic procedure. The aim of this study was to correlate the GT with gingival width (GW), probing depth (PD), and papillary fill (PF) in relation to maxillary anterior region. Undergraduate dental students and interns from a dental college in Navi Mumbai were enrolled in the study according to the inclusion criteria. Six teeth per subject were assessed; a total of 2178 maxillary anterior teeth were examined. Subjects were examined clinically for GT, width of keratinized gingiva, pocket depth, and interdental PF. The data obtained was tabulated and subjected to statistical analysis. Spearman's correlation analysis test was performed to find the correlation of GT with GW, PD, and PF. Positive correlation was found between GT and GW ( r = 0.241). No significant correlation could be found between GT and PD; and between GT and PF. The present study confirmed a positive correlation between GT and GW. A weak negative correlation was found between GT and PD.

  11. The decreasing of NFκB level in gingival junctional epithelium of rat exposed to Porphyromonas gingivalis with application of 1% curcumin on gingival sulcus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agung Krismariono

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Periodontal disease is a chronic, multi-factorial disease. Chronic periodontitis is one of the main causes of tooth loss. Chronic periodontitis is usually caused by Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis. P. gingivalis can induce NFκB activation resulting in the increasing of periodontal extracellular matrix degradation. Curcumin can inhibit NFκB activation and reduce the severity of periodontal degradation. Purpose: This research was aimed to observe level of NFκB in gingival junctional epithelium of rat exposed to Porphyromonas gingivalis with local administration of curcumin. Methods: Sixteen Wistar rat were divided into two groups. Group 1 (treatment consisted of eight rat given 2 x 106CFU/ml P. gingivalis and 1% curcumin. Meanwhile, group 2 (control consisted of eight rat given 2 x 106 CFU/ml P. gingivalis only. GCF samples were collected from gingival sulcus. The samples were biochemically analyzed with ELISA method. Data were then analyzed statistically by using independent t-test (α=0.05. Results: The examination of NFκB level showed that there was significant difference between treatment group and control group (p<0.05. The level of NFκB in the treatment group was significantly lower than the control group. Conclusion: It can be concluded that 1% curcumin application can reduce NFκB level in gingival junctional epithelium of rat exposed to P. gingivalis.

  12. Comparison of salivary alpha-amylase levels in gingivitis and periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Nindita Carolina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The development of periodontal disease is influenced by bacteria-plaque, while there are also several factors modifying the host’s response, one of which is psychological stress. Alpha-amylase as a biomarker is also associated with periodontal inflammatory disease. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the difference of alpha-amylase level between gingivitis and periodontitis. Methods: This research constitutes a descriptive study involving 44 subjects, divided into two groups: one of 22 gingivitis subjects and the other of 22 periodontitis subjects. These individuals completed a PSS-14 questionnaire before their levels of alpha salivary amylase were measured by Cocorometer. Data was analyzed by means of a paired T test and a Mann Whitney test with p < 0.05. Results: There were significant differences between the alpha-amylase levels of gingivitis and periodontitis. However, no significant contrast existed in the PSS-14 scores of the two periodontal disease groups. Conclusion: In conclusion alpha-amylase levels in the periodontitis group were higher than those in the gingivitis group and could be used as marker indicators of stress.

  13. with gingivitis and periodontitis referring Resalat Dental Clinic, Chaleshtor in 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MS Khafari ghosheh

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract   Background & aim: Entamoeba gingivalis and Trichomonas tenax are oral protozoa that could cause periodontitis and gingivitis. The present study was done to determine the prevalence of these two protozoa in people over 14 years with periodontitis and gingivitis.   Methods: In this descriptive, cross-sectional study, 540 patients referring Resalat Dental Clinic, Shahrekord were enrolled and assigned in two groups of 270 patients with periodontitis and gingivitis and270 healthy individuals. The prepared specimens were examined by extensive wet procedures, Gimsa staining and Trichorom staining. Data were analyzed by chi-square, Fisher’s exact test, and logistic regression in SPSSv.20.   Results: No E. gingivalis- and T. tenax-positive cases were seen in the healthy group. The prevalence of E. gingivalis and T. tenax was obtained 3% by extensive wet procedure, 1.9% by Trichoderma staining, and 0.7% by Giemsa staining respectively. By logistic regression model, none of variables of age, gender, place of residence, smoking, tooth brushing, flossing, and oral PH were associated protozoan infection of E. gingivalis and T. tenax (P>0.05. Conclusion: In patients with periodontitis and gingivitis referred to the dental clinic, parasitic infections were attenuated to gingivialis and trichomoniasis vaginalis, and possibly other non-parasitic agents, including bacteria or other microorganisms, may play a role.    

  14. A Randomized Clinical Trial of Schinus terebinthifolius Mouthwash to Treat Biofilm-Induced Gingivitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freires, Irlan de Almeida; Alves, Livia Araújo; Ferreira, Gabriela Lacet Silva; Jovito, Vanessa de Carvalho; de Castro, Ricardo Dias; Cavalcanti, Alessandro Leite

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of a Schinus terebinthifolius (ST) mouthwash in reducing gingival inflammation levels (GI) and biofilm accumulation (BA) in children with gingivitis. Methods. This was a randomized, controlled, triple blind, and phase II clinical trial, with children aged 9–13 years (n = 27) presenting with biofilm-induced gingivitis. The sample was randomized into experimental (0.3125% ST, n = 14) and control (0.12% chlorhexidine/CHX, n = 13) groups. Products were masked as regards color, flavor and aroma. Intervention protocol consisted in supervised rinsing of 10 mL/day for 01 minute for 10 days. Gingival bleeding and simplified oral hygiene indexes were used to assess the efficacy variables, measured at baseline and after intervention by calibrated examiners. Data were statistically treated with paired t-test, unpaired t-test, and Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney tests (α = .05). Results. It was found that both ST and CHX were able to significantly reduce GI levels after 10 days (P 0.05). CHX was the only product able to significantly reduce BA after 10 days when compared to baseline (P < 0.05). Conclusion. ST mouthwash showed significant anti-inflammatory activity (equivalent to CHX), but it was not able to reduce biofilm accumulation. PMID:23843886

  15. Regulation of defensive function on gingival epithelial cells can prevent periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Tsuyoshi; Yoshimoto, Tetsuya; Kajiya, Mikihito; Ouhara, Kazuhisa; Matsuda, Shinji; Takemura, Tasuku; Akutagawa, Keiichi; Takeda, Katsuhiro; Mizuno, Noriyoshi; Kurihara, Hidemi

    2018-05-01

    Periodontal disease is a bacterial biofilm-associated inflammatory disease that has been implicated in many systemic diseases. A new preventive method for periodontal disease needs to be developed in order to promote the health of the elderly in a super-aged society. The gingival epithelium plays an important role as a mechanical barrier against bacterial invasion and a part of the innate immune response to infectious inflammation in periodontal tissue. The disorganization of cell-cell interactions and subsequent inflammation contribute to the initiation of periodontal disease. These make us consider that regulation of host defensive functions, epithelial barrier and neutrophil activity, may become novel preventive methods for periodontal inflammation. Based on this concept, we have found that several agents regulate the barrier function of gingival epithelial cells and suppress the accumulation of neutrophils in the gingival epithelium. We herein introduce the actions of irsogladine maleate, azithromycin, amphotericin B, and Houttuynia cordata (dokudami in Japanese), which is commonly used in traditional medicine, on the epithelial barrier and neutrophil migration in gingival epithelial cells in vivo and in vitro , in order to provide support for the clinical application of these agents to the prevention of periodontal inflammation.

  16. Creating durable and esthetic gingival anatomy on a polyoxymethylene overdenture by using a chairside procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Login, Gary R

    2017-07-01

    Snap-On Smile (DenMat) appliances are tooth-borne overdentures used for a variety of temporary esthetic applications. However, their benefit can be limited in patients with high smile lines and altered gingival architecture because the teeth look too large. In this report, the author shows the chairside application of a silicone denture reline material used to recreate gingival anatomy on an overdenture fabricated from crystallized acetyl resin, the material used in a Snap-On Smile appliance. The author shows the gingival application's durability of greater than 2 years in a 78-year-old patient with multiple missing teeth and a severe mandibular ridge deformity. The author tested several commonly available denture reline materials and their bonding agents, which are known to bond to acrylic resin but have not been shown to bond to crystallized acetyl resin. The author observed no candida colonization during the 2-year reporting period. The author presents a simple and durable chairside technique to reproduce gingival tissue esthetically on Snap-On Smile appliances. Copyright © 2017 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Alteration of metabolomic profiles by titanium dioxide nanoparticles in human gingivitis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Contreras, Rene; Sugimoto, Masahiro; Umemura, Naoki; Kaneko, Miku; Hatakeyama, Yoko; Soga, Tomoyoshi; Tomita, Masaru; Scougall-Vilchis, Rogelio J; Contreras-Bulnes, Rosalia; Nakajima, Hiroshi; Sakagami, Hiroshi

    2015-07-01

    Although nanoparticles (NPs) has afforded considerable benefits in various fields of sciences, several reports have shown their harmful effects, suggesting the necessity of adequate risk assessment. To clarify the mechanism of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs)-enhanced gingival inflammation, we conducted the full-scale metabolomic analyses of human gingival fibroblast cells treated with IL-1β alone or in combination with TiO2 NPs. Observation with transmission electron microscope demonstrated the incorporation of TiO2 NPs into vacuoles of the cells. TiO2 NPs significantly enhanced the IL-1β-induced prostaglandin E2 production and COX-1 and COX-2 protein expression. IL-1β reduced the intracellular concentrations of overall primary metabolites especially those of amino acid, urea cycle, polyamine, S-adenosylmethione and glutathione synthetic pathways. The addition of TiO2 NPs further augmented these IL-1β-induced metabolic changes, recommending careful use of dental materials containing TiO2 NPs towards patients with gingivitis or periodontitis. The impact of the present study is to identify the molecular targets of TiO2 NPs for the future establishment of new metabolic markers and therapeutic strategy of gingival inflammation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Radioautographic study of DNA synthesis on gingival epithelium of mice Mus musculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silveira Tarelho, Z.V. da; Hetem, S.

    1985-01-01

    The frequency of DNA-sinthetizing cells in the basal layer of the gingival epithelium of the first lower molar region of young and adult mice of both sexes was studied using 3 H-thymidine and radioautography. (M.A.C.) [pt

  19. Efficacy of homecare regimens for mechanical plaque removal in managing gingivitis a meta review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Weijden, Fridus A; Slot, Dagmar E

    2015-04-01

    Based on evidence as presented in systematic reviews what is the efficacy and safety of available homecare toothbrush regimens for mechanical plaque removal on plaque and gingivitis in adults? Three Internet sources were used (up to and including August 2014) to search for appropriate papers that satisfied the study purpose. Plaque scores and gingivitis scores were considered to be the primary parameter of interest. Safety was considered an important facet in relation to efficacy. Data and conclusions as presented in the selected papers were extracted. The potential risk of bias was estimated and the emerging evidence was graded. Independent screening of 176 unique reviews resulted in 10 published and eligible systematic reviews. They were categorized into one review evaluating the effect of an oral hygiene instruction with a toothbrush on plaque and gingivitis scores, five evaluating the efficacy of manual and power toothbrushes and three reviews evaluating toothbrush safety and one evaluating toothbrush contamination. Tooth brushing is effective in reducing levels of dental p