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Sample records for gills seasonal effect

  1. Particle effects on fish gills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Cao; Kania, Per W.; Buchmann, Kurt

    2018-01-01

    Particles composed of inorganic, organic and/or biological materials occur in both natural water bodies and aquaculture facilities. They are expected to affect fish health through a direct chemical, mechanical and biological interaction with gills during ventilation but the nature of the reactions...... and the relative importance of mechanical versus chemical and biological stimulation are unknown. The present work presents an immune gene expression method for evaluation of gill disturbance and sets a baseline for the mechanical influence on fish gills of chemically inert spherical particles. The method may...... be applied to investigate particle impact at different combinations of temperature, fish size, water quality and particle composition. Spherical polystyrene particles (diameters 0.2 μm, 1 μm, 20 μm, 40 μm and 90 μm) were adopted as the particle model and the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fingerlings...

  2. Seasonal abundance, distribution, and catch per unit effort using gill ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Catch per unit effort was obtained for the fish of the Sundays .... Methods. Catch per unit effort (numbers and weight/net) of fish in the estuary was obtained from 55 .... Table 1 CPUE (number and mass) of fish caught monthly using gill-net over 12·h periods with 55 nettings at .... The abundance of some other species may.

  3. Seasonal and PAH impact on DNA strand-break levels in gills of transplanted zebra mussels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Cécile; Bourgeault, Adeline; Gourlay-Francé, Catherine; Palais, Frédéric; Geffard, Alain; Vincent-Hubert, Françoise

    2013-06-01

    Genotoxicity endpoints are useful tools to biomonitor the physicochemical and biological quality of aquatic ecosystems. A caging study on the freshwater bivalve Dreissena polymorpha was planned to run over four seasons in the Seine River basin in order to assess whether DNA damage measured in transplanted mussels to polluted area vary according to seasonal changes. Three sites were chosen along the Seine River, one upstream from Paris and two downstream, corresponding to a chemical gradient of water contamination. The DNA strand break (comet assay) and chromosomal damage (micronucleus test) were measured in caged mussels at each site and in winter, spring and summer, along with PAH water contamination, PAH bioaccumulation, the mussel condition index (CI), the gonado-somatic index (GSI) and the filtration rate (FR). The level of DNA strand break measured in winter was low and increased in spring, concomitantly with FR and GSI. Over the same period, micronucleus (MN) frequency and PAH bioaccumulation decreased significantly in caged mussels, with both parameters positively correlated to each other. DNA strand-break levels and MN frequencies showed inter-site variations corresponding to the chemical contamination gradient. These two genotoxicity endpoints usefully complement each other in field studies. These results show that the MN test and comet assay, when applied to gill cells of caged zebra mussels, are sensitive tools for freshwater genotoxicity monitoring. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Reynolds number effects on gill pumping mechanics in mayfly nymphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sensenig, Andrew; Shultz, Jeffrey; Kiger, Ken

    2006-11-01

    Mayfly nymphs have an entirely aquatic life stage in which they frequently inhabit stagnant water. Nymphs have the capability to generate a ventilation current to compensate for the low oxygen level of the water by beating two linear arrays of plate-like gills that typically line the lateral edge of the abdomen. The characteristic Reynolds number associated with the gill motion changes with animal size, varying over a span of Re = 5 to 100 depending on age and species. The assumption that the system maintains optimal energetic efficiency leads to the prediction that animals transition from rowing to flapping mechanisms with increasing Re, while possibly utilizing a squeeze mechanism to a greater extent at lower Re. To investigate this hypothesis, we capture the motion of the gills through 3D imaging to investigate the effect of Reynolds number on the stroke patterns. PIV is utilized to assess flow rates and viscous dissipation. The effectiveness of the ventilation mechanism at each size has important consequences for the range of oxygen levels, and hence the habitat range, that can be tolerated by that size.

  5. Expression of aquaporin 3 in gills of the Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus): Effects of seawater acclimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Dawoon; Sato, J. Denry; Shaw, Joseph R.; Stanton, Bruce A.

    2011-01-01

    Estuarine fish, such as the Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus), are constantly and rapidly exposed to changes in salinity. Although ion transport in killifish gills during acclimation to increased salinity has been studied extensively, no studies have examined the role of aquaglyceroporin 3 (AQP3), a water, glycerol, urea, and ammonia transporter, during acclimation to increased salinity in this sentinel environmental model organism. The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that transfer from freshwater to seawater decreases AQP3 gene and protein expression in the gill of killifish. Transfer from freshwater to seawater decreased AQP3 mRNA in the gill after 1 day, but had no effect on total gill AQP3 protein abundance as determined by western blot. Quantitative confocal immunocytochemistry confirmed western blot studies that transfer from freshwater to seawater did not change total AQP3 abundance in the gill; however, immunocytochemistry revealed that the amount of AQP3 in pillar cells of secondary lamellae decreased in seawater fish, whereas the amount of AQP3 in mitochondrion rich cells (MRC) in primary filaments of the gill increased in seawater fish. This response of AQP3 expression is unique to killifish compared to other teleosts. Although the role of AQP3 in the gill of killifish has not been completely elucidated, these results suggest that AQP3 may play an important role in the ability of killifish to acclimate to increased salinity. PMID:22193757

  6. Effect of cadmium on protein synthesis in gill tissue of marine mollusc Mytilus edulis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veldhuizen-Tsoerkan, M.B.; Mast, C.A. van der; Zandee, D.I.

    1988-01-01

    Mussels have a high capacity to accumulate cadmium and other heavy metals without notable toxic effects. However, they have recently found that cadmium is toxic to M. edulis at a relatively low concentration, as anoxic survival time of the animals was significantly shortened after two weeks of exposure to 50 ppb Cd. Based on this finding, a research was started to study the toxic effects of cadmium at a macromolecular level (proteins, RNA). Mussels were exposed to 250 ppb Cd for short periods. Then excised gills were incubated with 35 s-methionine for 4 hours. In the gill tissue of 7 and 15 days Cd-exposed animals, a significantly decrease in the incorporation rate of the introduced label was found of 30 and 37%, respectively. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was used to analyze the de novo synthesized gill tissue proteins

  7. Combined effects of silver nanoparticles and mercury on gill histopathology of zebrafish (Danio rerio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borhan Mansouri

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the combined effects of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs and Hg2+ on the gill histopathology of zebrafish (Danio rerio under the controlled conditions. Methods: In this study, one non-lethal concentration of Ag NPs (0.1 mg/L, six concentrations of Hg2+ (0.001, 0.005, 0.01, 0.05, 0.1 and 0.2 mg/L, and six mixture concentrations of Ag NPs and Hg2+ (0.1 plus 0.001, 0.005, 0.01, 0.05, 0.1, and 0.2 mg/L were used as the control group. After 4 days of exposure, samples were prepared for gill histology. Results: The results showed that notable damages were observed in aneurism, such as vacuolation of secondary lamella, fusion, hypertrophy, mucus secretion and necrosis. Moreover, our findings indicated that the Hg2+ and Ag NPs alone led to shorter secondary lamella length and smaller lamellae’s diameter of gills compared to the mixture of Ag NPs and Hg2+. However, the extent of damages in gill tissues after exposure to mixture of Ag NPs and Hg2+ was lower than Hg2+ ions and Ag NPs. Conclusions: It appears that the presence of Ag NPs can potentially reduce the toxicity of Hg2+ ions. However, to assess the toxicity mechanisms of nanoparticles in presence of pollutants, further studies should be encouraged.

  8. SEM study of the effects of crude oil on the gills and air breathing organs of climbing perch, Anabas testudineus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, M.S.

    1991-01-01

    Ultrastructural studies on the effects of crude oil on the gills are scanty. Recently, researchers studied the effect of crude oil on the air breathing organs of striped gourami using scanning electron microscope and observed mucous cell hyperplasia coupled with telangiectasis in the epithelia of air breathing organs. The present investigation has been undertaken to study crude oil toxicity by observing the morphological changes occurring in the epithelia of gills and air breathing organs of climbing perch, Anabas testudineus at SEM level. Since the epithelia of gills and air breathing organs function in two different media, a comparative account for their sensitivity to crude oil solutions would be informative

  9. Infestation of gill copepod Lernanthropus latis (Copepoda: Lernanthropidae) and its effect on cage-cultured Asian sea bass Lates calcarifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kua, B C; Noraziah, M R; Nik Rahimah, A R

    2012-09-01

    Twenty Asian sea bass Lates calcarifer from a floating cage in Bt. Tambun, Penang were examined for the presence of parasitic gill copepod, Lernanthropus latis. The prevalence of L. latis was 100% with the intensity of infection ranging from 1 to 18 parasites per host or 3.75 of mean intensity. Female parasites having oblong cephalothorax and egg-strings were seen mainly on the entire gill of examined Asian sea bass. The infected gill of Asian sea bass was pale and had eccessive mucus production. Under light and scanning electron microscopies (SEM), L. latis was seen grasping or holding tightly to the gill filament using their antenna, maxilla and maxilliped. These structures are characteristically prehensile and uncinate for the parasite to attach onto the host tissue. The damage was clearly seen under SEM as the hooked end of the antenna was embedded into the gill filament. The parasite also has the mandible which is styliform with eight teeth on the inner margin. The pathological effects such as erosion, haemorrhages, hyperplasia and necrosis along the secondary lamellae of gill filaments were seen and more severe at the attachment site. The combined actions of the antenna, maxilla and maxilliped together with the mandible resulted in extensive damage as L. latis attached and fed on the host tissues.

  10. Effects of phenol on ATPase activities in crude gill homogenates of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri Richardson)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poston, T.M.

    1979-01-01

    The ATPase specific activities from crude gill homogenates of rainbow trout were lower than those from microsomal preparations reported in the literature. Sodium pump activity (ouabain sensitive NaK-ATPase) was demonstrable at 37/sup 0/C. An ouabain insensitive NaK-ATPase was demonstrable at temperatures below 30/sup 0/C and may represent a Na-ATPase activity reported by others. Energy of activation at 25/sup 0/C for total NaK-ATPase ws 10,500 cal.mole/sup -1/. Mg-baseline activity had an energy of activation at 25/sup 0/C of 15,600 cal.mole/sup -1/. Mg-baseline activity was thermally labile at temperatures in excess of 30/sup 0/C. Concentrations of Mg/sup +2/ in excess of 5 mM appeared to inhibit total NaK-ATPase activity. At 37/sup 0/C, Na/sup +/ and K/sup +/ exerted little, if any, stimulatory effect on ATPase activities, in spite of the fact that 37/sup 0/C was the only temperature at which sodium pump activity was demonstrable. MS-222 failed to produce any discernible changes in any of the demonstrable ATPase activities in crude gill homogenates. Total NaK-ATPase activities were more sensitive than Mg-baseline activities to in vitro inhibition by phenol. Concentrations of phenol which produce 50% inhibition in total NaK-ATPase produced only 35% inhibition in Mg-baseline activity. The nature of in vitro inhibition was uncompetitive. Sodium pump activity was unaffected by phenol at concentrations as high as 25 mM. An effort was made to demonstrate an in vivo effects of phenol on rainbow trout gill ATPase activites. An infestation of a parasite (Gyrodactilus) on the experimental fish precludes any definative assessment of in vivo effects.

  11. Effects of increased CO2 on fish gill and plasma proteome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Bresolin de Souza

    Full Text Available Ocean acidification and warming are both primarily caused by increased levels of atmospheric CO2, and marine organisms are exposed to these two stressors simultaneously. Although the effects of temperature on fish have been investigated over the last century, the long-term effects of moderate CO2 exposure and the combination of both stressors are almost entirely unknown. A proteomics approach was used to assess the adverse physiological and biochemical changes that may occur from the exposure to these two environmental stressors. We analysed gills and blood plasma of Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus exposed to temperatures of 12 °C (control and 18 °C (impaired growth in combination with control (400 µatm or high-CO2 water (1000 µatm for 14 weeks. The proteomic analysis was performed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE followed by Nanoflow LC-MS/MS using a LTQ-Orbitrap. The high-CO2 treatment induced the up-regulation of immune system-related proteins, as indicated by the up-regulation of the plasma proteins complement component C3 and fibrinogen β chain precursor in both temperature treatments. Changes in gill proteome in the high-CO2 (18 °C group were mostly related to increased energy metabolism proteins (ATP synthase, malate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase thermostable, and fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase, possibly coupled to a higher energy demand. Gills from fish exposed to high-CO2 at both temperature treatments showed changes in proteins associated with increased cellular turnover and apoptosis signalling (annexin 5, eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1γ, receptor for protein kinase C, and putative ribosomal protein S27. This study indicates that moderate CO2-driven acidification, alone and combined with high temperature, can elicit biochemical changes that may affect fish health.

  12. Cadmium accumulation, gill Cd binding, acclimation, and physiological effects during long term sublethal Cd exposure in rainbow trout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollis, L.; McGeer, J.C.; McDonald, D.G.; Wood, C.M.

    1999-01-01

    Juvenile rainbow trout, on 3% of body weight daily ration, were exposed to 0 (control), 3, and 10 μg l -1 Cd (as Cd(NO 3 ) 2 · 4H 2 O) in moderately hard (140 mg l -1 as CaCO 3 ), alkaline (95 mg l -1 as CaCO 3 , pH 8.0) water for 30 days. Particular attention focused on acclimation, and on whether a gill surface binding model, originally developed in dilute softwater, could be applied in this water quality to fish chronically exposed to Cd. Only the higher Cd concentration caused mortality (30%, in the first few days). The costs of acclimation, if any, in our study were subtle since no significant effects of chronic Cd exposure were seen in growth rate, swimming performance (stamina and U Crit ), routine O 2 consumption, or whole body ion levels. Substantial acclimation occurred in both exposure groups, manifested as 11- to 13-fold increases in 96-h LC 50 values. In water quality regulations, which are based on toxicity tests with non-acclimated fish only, this remarkable protective effect of acclimation is not taken into account. Cd accumulated in a time- and concentration-dependent fashion to 60-120x (gills), 8-20x (liver), 2-7x (carcass), and 5-12x (whole bodies) control levels by 30 days. Chronically accumulated gill Cd could not be removed by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) challenge. These gill Cd concentrations were 20- to 40-fold greater than levels predicted by the gill-binding model to cause mortality during acute exposure. In short-term gill Cd-binding experiments (up to 70 μg l -1 exposures for 3 h), gill Cd burden increased as predicted in control fish, but was not detectable against the high background concentrations in acclimated fish. In light of these results, Cd uptake/turnover tests were performed using radioactive 109 Cd to improve sensitivity. With this approach, a small saturable binding component was seen, but could not be related to toxic response in acclimated fish. Acclimated trout internalized less 109 Cd than control fish, but

  13. Effects of cortisol, growth hormone and prolactin on gill claudin expression in Atlantic salmon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tipsmark, Christian Kølbæk; Jørgensen, Charlotte; Brande-Lavridsen, Nanna

    2009-01-01

    We recently showed that a series of tight junction proteins of the claudin family are regulated in the gill of salmon during salinity acclimation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of cortisol, growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL) on regulation of expression of these iso......We recently showed that a series of tight junction proteins of the claudin family are regulated in the gill of salmon during salinity acclimation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of cortisol, growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL) on regulation of expression...... antagonists RU486 and spironolactone, respectively. The observed in vitro responses were blocked by RU486, suggesting the involvement of a glucocorticoid type receptor. Injections of FW salmon with cortisol increased the expression of claudin 10e, 27a, and 30 but did not affect claudin 28a and 28b...... significantly. While GH had no effect on its own, the combination of GH and cortisol reduced claudin 28b levels. Injection of SW salmon with PRL selectively increased the expression of claudin 28a but had no effect on the other examined isoforms. The data shows that FW- (27a and 30) and SW-induced (10e...

  14. Effects of sodium fluoride on MAPKs signaling pathway in the gills of a freshwater teleost, Cyprinus carpio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jinling; Chen, Jianjie; Wang, Jundong; Klerks, Paul; Xie, Lingtian

    2014-07-01

    Exposure to elevated levels of fluoride can cause a variety of adverse effects in fish. Previously we showed that fluoride causes injuries and apoptosis in the gills of Cyprinus carpio. In this study, the effects of fluoride on caspase-3 activity and on accumulation of proteins in the MAPKs pathways were evaluated using Western blotting and immunohistochemistry methods in vivo and in vitro. In vivo experiments showed that the caspase-3 activity increased with fluoride exposure level in a dose-dependent pattern Western blotting and immunohistochemistry results indicated that ERK relative activation tended to decrease as a function of fluoride exposure concentration. In contrast, relative activation of JNK increased with fluoride exposure level. Fluoride exposure did not appear to affect p38 activation. Furthermore, pretreatment of branchial cells with MAPK-specific inhibitors effectively prevented JNK induction and ERK inhibition, respectively, as well as reversed caspase-3 activity in fluoride-treated branchial cells. Our results indicate that activation of JNK and inactivation of ERK were caused by increased ROS and decreased antioxidant capacity in the gills of chronically exposed C. carpio described previously, which eventually caused the observed apoptosis in the fluoride-exposed gills and cells in C. carpio. JNK activation and ERK inactivation mechanism play a crucial role in gill impairment induced by chronic fluorosis. These findings contribute to a better understanding of the initial molecular and cellular events in the gill of fish chronically exposed to fluoride. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of cadmium chloride on oxygen consumption and gill morphology of Indian flying barb, Esomus danricus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Suchismita; Gupta, Abhik

    2012-11-01

    Effects of three sub lethal concentrations of cadmium chloride (0.636, 0.063 and 0.006 mg l(-1)) on oxygen consumption and gill morphology in Indian flying barb, Esomus danricus (Hamilton-Buchanan), a teleost fish, were studied. When compared to control, 0.636 mg l(-1) of cadmium chloride after 7,14, 21 and 28 day exposure showed a significant decline in rates of oxygen consumption at 32.98, 28.40, 23.88 and 21.69 ml hr(1) 100 g(-1) of tissue, respectively; while, 0.063 mg l(-1) of cadmium chloride for the same exposure durations showed a significant decline in rates of oxygen consumption at 34.28, 29.30, 28.05 and 26.47 ml hr(1)100 g(-1) of tissue, respectively. However, significant decline in the rate of oxygen consumption at 0.006 mg l(-1) of cadmium chloride could be observed from 21st day of exposure. Gill tissue showed various histopathological changes including epithelial lifting, hyperplasia, mucous secretion, marked leucocyte infiltration in the epithelium after 28 days of cadmium chloride exposure.

  16. Effect of cadmium on protein synthesis in gill tissue of the sea mussel Mytilus edulis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veldhuizen-Tsoerkan, M.B.; Holwerda, D.A.; Van der Mast, C.A.; Zandee, D.I.

    1990-01-01

    Cellular toxicity of cadmium was studied in the gill tissue of the sea mussel, Mytilus edulis. Mussels were exposed to cadmium chloride at 50 or 250 microgram Cd/L for short periods. Then the gills were excised and incubated with 35-S-methionine or cysteine for 4 hr. Uptake of radiolabeled amino acids by the isolated gills was not affected by Cd, whereas the incorporation of label was significantly decreased after Cd exposure. Two dimensional gel electrophoresis was used to analyze the de novo synthesized gill proteins. It revealed that the expression of particular proteins was differently altered by Cd. One dimensional gel analysis by 35-S-cysteine labeled gill proteins demonstrated that Cd induced, in a concentration dependent manner, a cysteine-rich protein with a molecular weight of approximately 13 kDa, consisting of two isomers with low isoelectric points

  17. The effect of acidity on gill variations in the aquatic air-breathing fish, Trichogaster lalius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chun-Yen; Lin, Hui-Chen

    2011-01-01

    Climate change affects organisms that inhabit not only in aerial but also in aquatic environments by making water more hypoxic and acidic. In the past, we evaluated morphological and functional variations in the gills of 12 species of aquatic air-breathing fishes. The aim of the present study is to examine the degree of gill modification in the aquatic air-breathing fish, Trichogaster lalius, in response to acidic stress. This provides a link between the ecological and physiological studies. We evaluated the changes in morphology and function of the gills, labyrinth organ, and kidney when the fish were subjected to acidic water and deionized water (DW). In the first experiment, fish were sampled at 1, 2, 4, and 7 days after acidic treatment. Apparent morphological modification was observed on day 4 and recovery was noted on day 7. Protein expression and enzyme activity of vacuolar-type H+-ATPase (VHA) and the protein expression of the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) of the 1st and 4th gill arches both increased in the 4-day and 7-day acidic groups while the enzyme activity of Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA) decreased. In the second experiment, fish were tested for changes in the 1st and 4th gill arches and kidney after exposure to DW and acidic water for 4days. The gill structure of the fish in the DW was not different from that of the control group (fresh water). The protein expression and enzyme activity of the VHA of the 1st and 4th gill arches increased in both the DW and acidic groups for 4 days. We found a decrease in the protein expression of NKA in the kidney and in the enzyme activity of NKA in the 1st and 4th gill arches in the DW and acidic groups. From these results, we suggest that T. lalius exhibited significantly different ionic regulation and acid-base regulatory abilities in the DW and acidic groups in the 1st and 4th gill arches and kidney. The responses of the gills in T. lalius were different from those fish that show apparent morphological

  18. Histopathological effects of chlorpyrifos on the gills, hepatopancreas and gonads of the freshwater crab Zilchiopsis collastinensis. Persistent effects after exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negro, C L; Collins, P

    2017-06-01

    Sublethal effects of the pesticide chlorpyrifos were evaluated in the crab Zilchiopsis collastinensis (Decapoda, Trichodactylidae). Crabs were exposed to high concentrations of chlorpyrifos at the beginning of the experiment and controlled dilution, under natural light and temperature conditions. A control and three concentrations (22.4, 41.25 and 61.4µg chlorpyrifos L -1 ) were evaluated in triplicate. Nine crabs per concentration and day were used. The gills, hepatopancreas and ovaries were sampled before pesticide exposure (day 0) and 8, 15 and 22 days later, when concentrations were diluted and below the detection limits. The histopathological effects and their variations in time were observed and quantified. In gills, hyperplasias were observed in several cases, mainly in crabs exposed to chlorpyrifos. The number of collapsed lamellae and the number of affected lamellae quickly increased in exposed crabs, as effects were observed on day 8 and remained until day 22. In hepatopancreas there was an increase in the number of F and B -cells and affected tubules, especially after 22 days of exposure (p<0.05). In ovaries, there were no effects on gonadosomatic indexes or oocyte volume, but there was a significant increase in the atretic oocyte proportion related to pesticide exposure (p<0.05). The histopathological effects on the gills, hepatopancreas and ovaries were observed after exposure and persist even after dilution, and might be related to earlier exposures. Thus, these histopathological effects might be used as pesticide biomarkers even after the pesticide is not detected by chemical methods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Cadmium accumulation, gill Cd binding, acclimation, and physiological effects during long term sublethal Cd exposure in rainbow trout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollis, L.; McGeer, J.C.; McDonald, D.G.; Wood, C.M. [Department of Biology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)

    1999-07-01

    Juvenile rainbow trout, on 3% of body weight daily ration, were exposed to 0 (control), 3, and 10 {mu}g l{sup -1} Cd (as Cd(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} {center_dot} 4H{sub 2}O) in moderately hard (140 mg l{sup -1} as CaCO{sub 3}), alkaline (95 mg l{sup -1} as CaCO{sub 3}, pH 8.0) water for 30 days. Particular attention focused on acclimation, and on whether a gill surface binding model, originally developed in dilute softwater, could be applied in this water quality to fish chronically exposed to Cd. Only the higher Cd concentration caused mortality (30%, in the first few days). The costs of acclimation, if any, in our study were subtle since no significant effects of chronic Cd exposure were seen in growth rate, swimming performance (stamina and U{sub Crit}), routine O{sub 2} consumption, or whole body ion levels. Substantial acclimation occurred in both exposure groups, manifested as 11- to 13-fold increases in 96-h LC{sub 50} values. In water quality regulations, which are based on toxicity tests with non-acclimated fish only, this remarkable protective effect of acclimation is not taken into account. Cd accumulated in a time- and concentration-dependent fashion to 60-120x (gills), 8-20x (liver), 2-7x (carcass), and 5-12x (whole bodies) control levels by 30 days. Chronically accumulated gill Cd could not be removed by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) challenge. These gill Cd concentrations were 20- to 40-fold greater than levels predicted by the gill-binding model to cause mortality during acute exposure. In short-term gill Cd-binding experiments (up to 70 {mu}g l{sup -1} exposures for 3 h), gill Cd burden increased as predicted in control fish, but was not detectable against the high background concentrations in acclimated fish. In light of these results, Cd uptake/turnover tests were performed using radioactive {sup 109}Cd to improve sensitivity. With this approach, a small saturable binding component was seen, but could not be related to toxic response in

  20. BIOCHEMICAL AND HISTOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF DELTAMETHRIN EXPOSURE ON THE GILLS OF CARASSIUS AURATUS GIBELIO (Pisces Cyprinidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIANA COSTIN

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the alterations in the activities of several antioxidant enzymes inthe gills of the freshwater fish Carassius auratus gibelio exposed to deltamethrin. To getthis goal, groups of 10 individuals were exposed for one, two, three, seven and fourteendays to sublethal concentration of deltamethrin (2 µg/L. Another group was used ascontrol. The activities of catalase, gluthatione peroxidase and gluthatione reductasewere significantly decreased, while the glutathione-S-transferase was up-regulated. Allfish, exposed to 2 µg/L deltamethrin revealed gills morphological alterations after 48h ofexposure which were accentuated after 14 days. In the gills hyperemia, fusion ofsecondary lamellae, epithelial layer rupture and chloride cells proliferation wereobserved. These results suggest that an immediate adaptive response to the oxidativestress appeared, demonstrating alterations in the antoxidant defense mechanism in thegills of deltamethrin intoxicated fish.

  1. Ultrastructural effects on gill, muscle, and gonadal tissues induced in zebrafish (Danio rerio) by a waterborne uranium exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barillet, Sabrina; Larno, Valerie; Floriani, Magali; Devaux, Alain; Adam-Guillermin, Christelle

    2010-01-01

    Experiments on adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) were conducted to assess histopathological effects induced on gill, muscle, and gonadal tissues after waterborne uranium exposure. Although histopathology is often employed as a tool for the detection and assessment of xenobiotic-mediated effects in aquatic organisms, few studies have been dedicated to the investigation of histopathological consequences of uranium exposure in fish. Results showed that gill tissue architecture was markedly disrupted. Major symptoms were alterations of the secondary lamellae epithelium (from extensive oedema to desquamation), hyperplasia of chloride cells, and breakdown of the pillar cell system. Muscle histology was also affected. Degeneration and disorganization of myofibrillar sarcomeric pattern as well as abnormal localization of mitochondria within muscle and altered endomysial sheaths were observed. Morphological alterations of spermatozoa within the gonadal tissue were also noticed. This study demonstrated that uranium exposure induced a variety of histological impairments in fish, supporting environmental concerns when uranium contaminates aquatic systems.

  2. Ultrastructural effects on gill, muscle, and gonadal tissues induced in zebrafish (Danio rerio) by a waterborne uranium exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barillet, Sabrina, E-mail: sabrina.barillet@free.fr [Laboratory of Radioecology and Ecotoxicology, IRSN (Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety), DEI/SECRE/LRE, Cadarache, Bat 186, BP 3, 13115 St-Paul-Lez-Durance cedex (France); Larno, Valerie, E-mail: valerie.larno@irsn.fr [Laboratory of Radioecology and Ecotoxicology, IRSN (Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety), DEI/SECRE/LRE, Cadarache, Bat 186, BP 3, 13115 St-Paul-Lez-Durance cedex (France); Floriani, Magali, E-mail: magali.floriani@irsn.fr [Laboratory of Radioecology and Ecotoxicology, IRSN (Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety), DEI/SECRE/LRE, Cadarache, Bat 186, BP 3, 13115 St-Paul-Lez-Durance cedex (France); Devaux, Alain, E-mail: alain.devaux@entpe.fr [INRA, EFPA Department, 54280, Champenoux and Environmental Science Laboratory, ENTPE, 69518 Vaulx en Velin cedex (France); Adam-Guillermin, Christelle, E-mail: christelle.adam-guillermin@irsn.fr [Laboratory of Radioecology and Ecotoxicology, IRSN (Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety), DEI/SECRE/LRE, Cadarache, Bat 186, BP 3, 13115 St-Paul-Lez-Durance cedex (France)

    2010-11-01

    Experiments on adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) were conducted to assess histopathological effects induced on gill, muscle, and gonadal tissues after waterborne uranium exposure. Although histopathology is often employed as a tool for the detection and assessment of xenobiotic-mediated effects in aquatic organisms, few studies have been dedicated to the investigation of histopathological consequences of uranium exposure in fish. Results showed that gill tissue architecture was markedly disrupted. Major symptoms were alterations of the secondary lamellae epithelium (from extensive oedema to desquamation), hyperplasia of chloride cells, and breakdown of the pillar cell system. Muscle histology was also affected. Degeneration and disorganization of myofibrillar sarcomeric pattern as well as abnormal localization of mitochondria within muscle and altered endomysial sheaths were observed. Morphological alterations of spermatozoa within the gonadal tissue were also noticed. This study demonstrated that uranium exposure induced a variety of histological impairments in fish, supporting environmental concerns when uranium contaminates aquatic systems.

  3. Sublethal effects of copper nanoparticles on the histology of gill, liver and kidney of the Caspian roach, Rutilus rutilus caspicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. Aghamirkarimi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The current study has determined the toxicity effects of copper nanoparticles on the some vital organs such as gill, liver and kidney of Caspian Roach; Rutillus rutillus caspicus. For this purpose, 120 fishes were used as experimental samples and exposed to 0.1, 0.2 and 0.5 mg/L of Cu nanoparticles for 21 days, and 30 fishes assumed as the experiment control. The mean water temperature of the aquaria was 22±2 ºC, dissolved oxygen 5.2 mg/L, pH at 7±0.004 and the concentration of calcium carbonate was 270 ppm. On 7, 14 and 21 days after exposing the fishes to copper nanoparticles, three fishes were randomly selected from each aquaria, sacrificed and samples from their gill, liver and kidney were taken and fixed in cold 10 % buffered formalin. Then microscopic sections were prepared and examined by light microscope which showed histological alternations in the gill, liver and kidney tissues. Evaluation of these changes could be useful in estimating the harmful effects of copper nanoparticles. Histological alternation in gills included: hyperplasia, fusion and detachment of secondary lamellae, blood congestion in vascular axis of primary filaments, reduced secondary lamellae length and cellular degeneration. Histological changes in liver included blood congestion in the central veins, cytoplasmic vacuolation of the hepatocytes, cellular degeneration and congestion in the blood sinusoids and necrosis of the hepatocytes. Histological changes in kidneys included glomerular shrinkage, severe degeneration in the tubules cells, interstitial tissue and glomerulus, increase in interstitial tissue cells and macrophages aggregation. The degree of damages was more intensive at higher copper nanoparticles concentrations. The result of the study showed that copper nanoparticles could cause severe damages in the vital tissues of Caspian roach; Rutillus rutillus caspicus and have lethal effects for fish.

  4. Behavioural and gill histopathological effects of acute exposure to sodium chloride in moneda (Metynnis orinocensis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velasco-Santamaría, Yohana M.; Cruz-Casallas, Pablo E.

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the toxicity of sodium chloride (NaCl), juveniles and adult Metynnis orinocensis were exposed for 96 h to 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 or 40 g L-1 of salt. Food intake, behaviour, opercular frequency (OF), mortality, body weight and gill microscopic alterations were evaluated. Behavioural changes...

  5. Effects of Short-Term Exposure to Sublethal Concentrations of Silver Nanoparticles on Histopathology and Electron Microscope Ultrastructure of Zebrafish (Danio Rerio Gills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borhan Mansouri

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The increasing use of nanomaterials and nanoproducts has increased the possibility of contamination of the environment, which may have adverse effects on different organisms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of silver nanoparticles on histopathology and gill ultrastructure of zebrafish (Danio rerio under laboratory conditions. Methods: Zebrafish were exposed to four concentrations of silver nanoparticles (0.0015, 0.00375, 0.0075, and 0.015 mg/l for a period of 4 days. Gill ultrastructure and histopathological changes were studied using scanning electron microscope and haematoxylin - eosin staining. Results: Exposure to silver nanoparticles significantly (P < 0.001 increased the diameter of gill filaments and secondary lamellae, while silver nanoparticles significantly reduced the length of the secondary gills in zebrafish. Moreover, other changes such as vacuolization, dilated and clubbed tips, hyperplasia, edema, fusion, swelling of mucocytes, hypertrophy, and necrosis were observed. The effects of silver nanoparticles in zebrafish gills were dose dependent. Conclusion: Based on the adverse effects of AgNPs on zebrafish gills, silver nanoparticle solutions can be hazardous pollutants for the environment.

  6. In vivo effects of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae DC-1 aphantoxins on gas exchange and ion equilibrium in the zebrafish gill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Delu; Liu, Siyi; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Jian Kong; Hu, Chunxiang; Liu, Yongding

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Aphantoxins induce respiratory dysfunction in zebrafish gills. • Changes in LDH and cellular ultrastructure indicate gill damage. • Decreased NKA and CA reflect abnormal ion transport and gas exchange. • Increased ROS and decreased T-AOC suggest oxidative stress in the gills. - Abstract: Aphantoxins, neurotoxins or paralytic shellfish poisons (PSPs) generated by Aphanizomenon flos-aquae, are a threat to environmental safety and human health in eutrophic waters worldwide. The molecular mechanisms of neurotoxin function have been studied; however, the effects of these neurotoxins on oxidative stress, ion transport, gas exchange, and branchial ultrastructure in fish gills are not fully understood. Aphantoxins extracted from A. flos-aquae DC-1 were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography. The major ingredients were gonyautoxins 1 and 5 and neosaxitoxin, which comprised 34.04%, 21.28%, and 12.77% of the total, respectively. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) were administered A. flos-aquae DC-1 aphantoxins at 5.3 or 7.61 μg saxitoxin equivalents (eq)/kg (low and high doses, respectively) by intraperitoneal injection. The activities of Na"+-K"+-ATPase (NKA), carbonic anhydrase (CA), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), ultrastructural alterations in chloride and epithelial cells, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) and total antioxidative capacity (T-AOC) were investigated in the gills during the first 24 h after exposure. Aphantoxins significantly increased the level of ROS and decreased the T-AOC in zebrafish gills from 3 to 12 h post-exposure, suggesting an induction of oxidative stress and inhibition of antioxidant capacity. Reduced activities of NKA and CA demonstrated abnormal ion transport and gas exchange in the gills of aphantoxin-treated fish. Toxin administration also resulted in increased LDH activity and ultrastructural alterations in chloride and epithelial cells, suggesting a disruption of function and structure in zebrafish gills. The

  7. In vivo effects of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae DC-1 aphantoxins on gas exchange and ion equilibrium in the zebrafish gill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Delu, E-mail: deluzh@163.com [Department of Lifescience and Biotechnology, College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Life Sciences, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Liu, Siyi [Department of Lifescience and Biotechnology, College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Life Sciences, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Zhang, Jing [College of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Zhang, Jian Kong [Department of Lifescience and Biotechnology, College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Life Sciences, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Hu, Chunxiang, E-mail: deluzh@ihb.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Algal Biology, Institute of Hydrobiology, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430072 (China); Liu, Yongding [Key Laboratory of Algal Biology, Institute of Hydrobiology, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430072 (China)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Aphantoxins induce respiratory dysfunction in zebrafish gills. • Changes in LDH and cellular ultrastructure indicate gill damage. • Decreased NKA and CA reflect abnormal ion transport and gas exchange. • Increased ROS and decreased T-AOC suggest oxidative stress in the gills. - Abstract: Aphantoxins, neurotoxins or paralytic shellfish poisons (PSPs) generated by Aphanizomenon flos-aquae, are a threat to environmental safety and human health in eutrophic waters worldwide. The molecular mechanisms of neurotoxin function have been studied; however, the effects of these neurotoxins on oxidative stress, ion transport, gas exchange, and branchial ultrastructure in fish gills are not fully understood. Aphantoxins extracted from A. flos-aquae DC-1 were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography. The major ingredients were gonyautoxins 1 and 5 and neosaxitoxin, which comprised 34.04%, 21.28%, and 12.77% of the total, respectively. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) were administered A. flos-aquae DC-1 aphantoxins at 5.3 or 7.61 μg saxitoxin equivalents (eq)/kg (low and high doses, respectively) by intraperitoneal injection. The activities of Na{sup +}-K{sup +}-ATPase (NKA), carbonic anhydrase (CA), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), ultrastructural alterations in chloride and epithelial cells, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) and total antioxidative capacity (T-AOC) were investigated in the gills during the first 24 h after exposure. Aphantoxins significantly increased the level of ROS and decreased the T-AOC in zebrafish gills from 3 to 12 h post-exposure, suggesting an induction of oxidative stress and inhibition of antioxidant capacity. Reduced activities of NKA and CA demonstrated abnormal ion transport and gas exchange in the gills of aphantoxin-treated fish. Toxin administration also resulted in increased LDH activity and ultrastructural alterations in chloride and epithelial cells, suggesting a disruption of function and structure in zebrafish

  8. Toxicological effects induced by cadmium in gills of Manila clam ruditapes philippinarum using NMR-based metabolomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Linbao; Liu, Xiaoli; You, Liping; Zhou, Di [Key Laboratory of Coastal Zone Environment Processes, CAS, Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Coastal Zone Environment Processes, Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai (China); The Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Yu, Junbao; Zhao, Jianmin; Wu, Huifeng [Key Laboratory of Coastal Zone Environment Processes, CAS, Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Coastal Zone Environment Processes, Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai (China); Feng, Jianghua [Department of Electronic Science, Fujian Key Laboratory of Plasma and Magnetic Resonance, State Key Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces, Xiamen University, Xiamen (China)

    2011-11-15

    Cadmium (Cd) has become an important heavy metal contaminant in the sediment and seawater along the Bohai Sea and been of great ecological risk due to its toxic effects to marine organisms. In this work, the toxicological effects caused by environmentally relevant concentrations (10 and 40 {mu}g L{sup -1}) of Cd were studied in the gill tissues of Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum after exposure for 24, 48, and 96 h. Both low (10 {mu}g L{sup -1}) and high (40 {mu}g L{sup -1}) doses of Cd caused the disturbances in energy metabolism and osmotic regulation and neurotoxicity based on the metabolic biomarkers such as succinate, alanine, branched chain amino acids, betaine, hypotaurine, and glutamate in clam gills after 24 h of exposure. However, the recovery of toxicological effects of Cd after exposure for 96 h was obviously observed in clam to Cd exposures. Overall, these results indicated that NMR-based metabolomics was applicable to elucidate the toxicological effects of heavy metal contaminants in the marine bioindicator. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  9. Effects of cadmium exposure on the gill proteome of Cottus gobio: Modulatory effects of prior thermal acclimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorts, Jennifer, E-mail: jennifer.dorts@unamur.be [Research Unit in Environmental and Evolutionary Biology (URBE), University of Namur, Rue de Bruxelles 61, B-5000 Namur (Belgium); Kestemont, Patrick [Research Unit in Environmental and Evolutionary Biology (URBE), University of Namur, Rue de Bruxelles 61, B-5000 Namur (Belgium); Thézenas, Marie-Laetitia; Raes, Martine [Research Unit in Cell Biology (URBC) (NARILIS), University of Namur, Rue de Bruxelles 61, B-5000 Namur (Belgium); Silvestre, Frédéric [Research Unit in Environmental and Evolutionary Biology (URBE), University of Namur, Rue de Bruxelles 61, B-5000 Namur (Belgium)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Fish acclimated to elevated temperature were subsequently exposed to cadmium. • Interaction of both stressors on LDH activity and protein expression was complex. • Both stressors have opposite effects at branchial protein expression level. • Proteins belonging to the same functional class exhibited differing responses. • Prior acclimation to elevated temperature modulated the effects of cadmium exposure. - Abstract: Temperature and trace metals are common environmental stressors, and their importance is increasing due to global climate change and anthropogenic pollution. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether acclimation to elevated temperature affects the response of the European bullhead (Cottus gobio) to subsequent cadmium (Cd) exposure by using enzymatic and proteomic approaches. Fish acclimated to 15 (standard temperature), 18 or 21 °C for 28 days were exposed to 1 mg Cd/L for 4 days at the respective acclimation temperature. First, exposure to Cd significantly decreased the activity of the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in gills of fish acclimated to 15 or 18 °C. However, an acclimation to 21 °C suppressed the inhibitory effect of Cd. Second, using a proteomic analysis by 2D-DIGE, we observed that thermal acclimation was the first parameter affecting the protein expression profile in gills of C. gobio, while subsequent Cd exposure seemed to attenuate this temperature effect. Moreover, our results showed opposite effects of these two environmental stressors at protein expression level. From the 52 protein spots displaying significant interaction effects of temperature and Cd exposure, a total of 28 different proteins were identified using nano LC–MS/MS and the Peptide and Protein Prophet algorithms of Scaffold software. The identified differentially expressed proteins can be categorized into diverse functional classes, related to protein turnover, folding and chaperoning, metabolic process, ion transport, cell

  10. Effects of cadmium exposure on the gill proteome of Cottus gobio: Modulatory effects of prior thermal acclimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorts, Jennifer; Kestemont, Patrick; Thézenas, Marie-Laetitia; Raes, Martine; Silvestre, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Fish acclimated to elevated temperature were subsequently exposed to cadmium. • Interaction of both stressors on LDH activity and protein expression was complex. • Both stressors have opposite effects at branchial protein expression level. • Proteins belonging to the same functional class exhibited differing responses. • Prior acclimation to elevated temperature modulated the effects of cadmium exposure. - Abstract: Temperature and trace metals are common environmental stressors, and their importance is increasing due to global climate change and anthropogenic pollution. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether acclimation to elevated temperature affects the response of the European bullhead (Cottus gobio) to subsequent cadmium (Cd) exposure by using enzymatic and proteomic approaches. Fish acclimated to 15 (standard temperature), 18 or 21 °C for 28 days were exposed to 1 mg Cd/L for 4 days at the respective acclimation temperature. First, exposure to Cd significantly decreased the activity of the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in gills of fish acclimated to 15 or 18 °C. However, an acclimation to 21 °C suppressed the inhibitory effect of Cd. Second, using a proteomic analysis by 2D-DIGE, we observed that thermal acclimation was the first parameter affecting the protein expression profile in gills of C. gobio, while subsequent Cd exposure seemed to attenuate this temperature effect. Moreover, our results showed opposite effects of these two environmental stressors at protein expression level. From the 52 protein spots displaying significant interaction effects of temperature and Cd exposure, a total of 28 different proteins were identified using nano LC–MS/MS and the Peptide and Protein Prophet algorithms of Scaffold software. The identified differentially expressed proteins can be categorized into diverse functional classes, related to protein turnover, folding and chaperoning, metabolic process, ion transport, cell

  11. Effect of Heavy Metals on Liver, Kidney, Gills and Muscles of Cyprinus carpio and Wallago attu inhabited in the Indus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahid Mahboob

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The present study was aimed to evaluate the effect of heavy metals on an important tissue of two fish species Cyprinus carpio and Wallago attu, sampled from the Indus river, Mianwali District, Pakistan. The concentration of selected heavy metals Fe, Cr, Cu, and in gills, muscles, kidney and liver was compared with an International standard of food fish. The overall metal concentrations among different weight categories in C. carpio were in the order of Fe > Cu > Cr >. In W. attu the overall accumulation of these metals were, in order of Fe > Cu > Cr > Pb The order of accumulation of metals in gills and muscle of C. carpio was Fe > Cr > Pb > Cu; kidney and muscles of W. attu was Fe > Cr > Cu > Pb; liver Fe > Cu > Cr > Pb. An increasing trend of concentration of iron, copper, chromium and lead occurred with an increase in weight of C. carpio and W. attu. There was a significant difference in the accumulation of heavy metals in different organs of both species (p<0.01. All studied heavy metals except Cr were within permissible limits described by various international agencies like WHO, FAO and FEPA in edible tissues of C. carpio and W. attu.

  12. Cytokine Responses in Gills of Capoeta umbla as Biomarkers of Environmental Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danabas, Durali; Yildirim, Nuran Cikcikoglu; Yildirim, Numan; Onal, Ayten Oztufekci; Uslu, Gulsad; Unlu, Erhan; Danabas, Seval; Ergin, Cemil; Tayhan, Nilgun

    2016-03-01

    Immunological biomarkers reflect the effects of exposure to environmental contaminants. In this study, the suitability and sensitivity of cytokine responses, interleukin1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in gill tissues of Capoeta umbla (Heckel, 1843), collected from different regions, as early warning indices of environmental pollution and ecosystem health was evaluated. Fish and water samples were taken from ten stations in March and September 2011 and 2012. Tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-1β and IL-6 levels were determined in samples of the gill tissues by using an ELISA kit. Significant variations of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 levels observed between stations and seasons. The results of this study show that seasonal variations of cytokine responses in gills of Capoeta umbla are sensitive to the contaminants present in Uzuncayir Dam Lake (Tunceli, Turkey) water and are valuable biomarkers for environmental pollution and ecosystem health.

  13. Effects of the 2,4-D herbicide on gills epithelia and liver of the fish Poecilia vivipara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana F. Vigário

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, usually named 2,4-D is one of the most widely used herbicides in the world. Acute toxicity of 2,4-D herbicide was investigated through its effects on guppies (Poecilia vivipara Bloch et Schneider 1801. Fish were exposed to the herbicide at concentrations of 10, 20 and 40µl per liter of water for 24 hours to determine its effects on gills and liver epithelia. The estimated LC50 was 34.64µl of 2,4-D per liter of water. Histochemical analyses and Feulgen's reaction were conducted to detect glycoconjugates and DNA, respectively, in gills and liver epithelia. Histochemistry revealed qualitative variations of glycoconjugates present on mucous cells and granules. The four types of mucous cells contained neutral granules, acids, or both. Increasing amounts of syalomucins were observed from the control group to the group exposed to the highest concentration of 2,4-D, suggesting increased mucous viscosity and the formation of plaques that could inhibit gas exchange and osmoregulation. Lamellar fusion observed in the group exposed to 40µl of 2,4-D suggests a defense mechanism. Hepatocytes showed vacuolization in the 10 and 20µl/L groups. The 40 µl/L group showed normal hepatocytes as well as changed ones, many Ito cells, micronuclei, and nuclear swelling. These effects may be associated with toxicity or adaptative processes to cellular stress. The data from this study indicates the importance of assessing similar risks to aquatic species and suggests that Poecilia vivipara is an adequate biological model for analysis of environmental contamination.

  14. In vivo effects of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae DC-1 aphantoxins on gas exchange and ion equilibrium in the zebrafish gill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Delu; Liu, Siyi; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Jian Kong; Hu, Chunxiang; Liu, Yongding

    2016-08-01

    Aphantoxins, neurotoxins or paralytic shellfish poisons (PSPs) generated by Aphanizomenon flos-aquae, are a threat to environmental safety and human health in eutrophic waters worldwide. The molecular mechanisms of neurotoxin function have been studied; however, the effects of these neurotoxins on oxidative stress, ion transport, gas exchange, and branchial ultrastructure in fish gills are not fully understood. Aphantoxins extracted from A. flos-aquae DC-1 were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography. The major ingredients were gonyautoxins 1 and 5 and neosaxitoxin, which comprised 34.04%, 21.28%, and 12.77% of the total, respectively. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) were administered A. flos-aquae DC-1 aphantoxins at 5.3 or 7.61μg saxitoxin equivalents (eq)/kg (low and high doses, respectively) by intraperitoneal injection. The activities of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase (NKA), carbonic anhydrase (CA), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), ultrastructural alterations in chloride and epithelial cells, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) and total antioxidative capacity (T-AOC) were investigated in the gills during the first 24h after exposure. Aphantoxins significantly increased the level of ROS and decreased the T-AOC in zebrafish gills from 3 to 12h post-exposure, suggesting an induction of oxidative stress and inhibition of antioxidant capacity. Reduced activities of NKA and CA demonstrated abnormal ion transport and gas exchange in the gills of aphantoxin-treated fish. Toxin administration also resulted in increased LDH activity and ultrastructural alterations in chloride and epithelial cells, suggesting a disruption of function and structure in zebrafish gills. The observed abnormalities in zebrafish gills occurred in a time- and dose-dependent manner. These findings demonstrate that aphantoxins or PSPs may inhibit ion transport and gas exchange, increase LDH activity, and result in ultrastructural damage to the gills through elevations in oxidative stress and reduced

  15. Effect of hydrogen peroxide and/or Flavobacterium psychrophilum on the gills of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Maya Maria Mihályi; Kania, P. W.; Buchmann, K.

    2015-01-01

    The immune response and morphological changes in the gills of rainbow trout fry after immersion in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), Flavobacterium psychrophilum or combined exposure were examined. The gills were sampled 4, 48, 125 and 192 h after exposure, and the regulation of expression of the following...... with gene expression. Although pretreatment with H2O2 before immersion in F. psychrophilum did not significantly alter the amount of bacteria found in the gill, the immune response was influenced: exposure to F. psychrophilum resulted in a negative correlation with expression of IL‐17c1, MHC I and MHC II...

  16. Use of a combined effect model approach for discriminating between ABCB1- and ABCC1-type efflux activities in native bivalve gill tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faria, Melissa [Department of Environmental Chemistry, IDAEA-CSIC, Jordi Girona 18, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); CESAM & Departamento de Biologia, Universidade de Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Pavlichenko, Vasiliy [Siberian Institute of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences (SIPPB SB RAS), Lermontov Str. 132, 664033, Irkutsk (Russian Federation); Department of Bioanalytical Ecotoxicology, UFZ — Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Permoserstr. 15, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany); Burkhardt-Medicke, Kathleen [Department of Bioanalytical Ecotoxicology, UFZ — Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Permoserstr. 15, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany); Institute of Hydrobiology, Dresden University of Technology, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Soares, Amadeu M.V.M. [CESAM & Departamento de Biologia, Universidade de Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Altenburger, Rolf [Department of Bioanalytical Ecotoxicology, UFZ — Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Permoserstr. 15, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany); Barata, Carlos [Department of Environmental Chemistry, IDAEA-CSIC, Jordi Girona 18, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Luckenbach, Till, E-mail: till.luckenbach@ufz.de [Department of Bioanalytical Ecotoxicology, UFZ — Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Permoserstr. 15, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany)

    2016-04-15

    Aquatic organisms, such as bivalves, employ ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters for efflux of potentially toxic chemicals. Anthropogenic water contaminants can, as chemosensitizers, disrupt efflux transporter function enabling other, putatively toxic compounds to enter the organism. Applying rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) PCR we identified complete cDNAs encoding ABCB1- and ABCC1-type transporter homologs from zebra mussel providing the molecular basis for expression of both transporter types in zebra mussel gills. Further, efflux activities of both transporter types in gills were indicated with dye accumulation assays where efflux of the dye calcein-am was sensitive to both ABCB1- (reversin 205, verapamil) and ABCC1- (MK571) type specific inhibitors. The assumption that different inhibitors targeted different efflux pump types was confirmed when comparing measured effects of binary inhibitor compound mixtures in dye accumulation assays with predictions from mixture effect models. Effects by the MK571/reversin 205 mixture corresponded better with independent action, whereas reversin 205/verapamil joint effects were better predicted by the concentration addition model indicating different and equal targets, respectively. The binary mixture approach was further applied to identify the efflux pump type targeted by environmentally relevant chemosensitizing compounds. Pentachlorophenol and musk ketone, which were selected after a pre-screen of twelve compounds that previously had been identified as chemosensitizers, showed mixture effects that corresponded better with concentration addition when combined with reversine 205 but with independent action predictions when combined with MK571 indicating targeting of an ABCB1-type efflux pump by these compounds. - Highlights: • Sequences and function of ABC efflux transporters in bivalve gills were explored. • Full length Dreissena polymorpha abcb1 and abcc1 cDNA sequences were identified. • A mixture effect

  17. Use of a combined effect model approach for discriminating between ABCB1- and ABCC1-type efflux activities in native bivalve gill tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faria, Melissa; Pavlichenko, Vasiliy; Burkhardt-Medicke, Kathleen; Soares, Amadeu M.V.M.; Altenburger, Rolf; Barata, Carlos; Luckenbach, Till

    2016-01-01

    Aquatic organisms, such as bivalves, employ ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters for efflux of potentially toxic chemicals. Anthropogenic water contaminants can, as chemosensitizers, disrupt efflux transporter function enabling other, putatively toxic compounds to enter the organism. Applying rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) PCR we identified complete cDNAs encoding ABCB1- and ABCC1-type transporter homologs from zebra mussel providing the molecular basis for expression of both transporter types in zebra mussel gills. Further, efflux activities of both transporter types in gills were indicated with dye accumulation assays where efflux of the dye calcein-am was sensitive to both ABCB1- (reversin 205, verapamil) and ABCC1- (MK571) type specific inhibitors. The assumption that different inhibitors targeted different efflux pump types was confirmed when comparing measured effects of binary inhibitor compound mixtures in dye accumulation assays with predictions from mixture effect models. Effects by the MK571/reversin 205 mixture corresponded better with independent action, whereas reversin 205/verapamil joint effects were better predicted by the concentration addition model indicating different and equal targets, respectively. The binary mixture approach was further applied to identify the efflux pump type targeted by environmentally relevant chemosensitizing compounds. Pentachlorophenol and musk ketone, which were selected after a pre-screen of twelve compounds that previously had been identified as chemosensitizers, showed mixture effects that corresponded better with concentration addition when combined with reversine 205 but with independent action predictions when combined with MK571 indicating targeting of an ABCB1-type efflux pump by these compounds. - Highlights: • Sequences and function of ABC efflux transporters in bivalve gills were explored. • Full length Dreissena polymorpha abcb1 and abcc1 cDNA sequences were identified. • A mixture effect

  18. The Ability of PAS, Acetylsalicylic Acid and Calcium Disodium EDTA to Protect Against the Toxic Effects of Manganese on Mitochondrial Respiration in Gill of Crassostrea virginica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Sherine; Davis, Kiyya; Saddler, Claudette; Joseph, Jevaun; Catapane, Edward J; Carroll, Margaret A

    2011-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential metal that at excessive levels in brain causes Manganism, a condition similar to Parkinson's disease. Previously we showed that Mn had a neurotoxic effect on the dopaminergic, but not serotonergic, innervation of the lateral ciliated cells in the gill of the Eastern Oyster, Crassostrea virginica. While the mechanism of action of Mn toxicity is not completely understood, studies suggest that Mn toxicity may involve mitochondrial damage and resulting neural dysfunction in the brain's dopaminergic system. In this study we utilized micro-batch chambers and oxygen probes to measure oyster gill mitochondrial respiration in the presence of Mn and potential Mn blockers. The addition of Mn to respiring mitochondria caused a dose dependent decrease in mitochondrial O(2) consumption. Pretreating mitochondria with calcium disodium EDTA (caEDTA), p aminosalicylic acid (PAS) or acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) before Mn additions, provided full protection against the toxic effects of Mn. While mitochondrial pretreatment with any of the 3 drugs effectively blocked Mn toxicity, none of the drugs tested was able to reverse the decrease in mitochondrial O(2) consumption seen in Mn treated mitochondria. The study found that high levels of Mn had a toxic effect on gill mitochondrial O(2) consumption and that this effect could be blocked by the drugs caEDTA, PAS and ASA. C. virginica continues to be a good model with which to investigate the mechanism that underlies manganese neurotoxcity and in the pharmacological study of drugs to treat or prevent Manganism.

  19. Gill structural change in response to turbidity has no effect on the oxygen uptake of a juvenile sparid fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumming, H; Herbert, N A

    2016-01-01

    Turbidity as a result of increased suspended sediments in coastal waters is an environmental stress of worldwide concern. Recent research on fish suggests that detrimental changes to gill structure can occur in turbid waters, with speculation that these alterations diminish fitness variables, such as growth and development, by negatively impacting the O 2 uptake capacity (respiration) of fish. Specifically to address this unknown, the impact of turbid water on the gill structure, somatic growth rate and O 2 uptake rates of a juvenile sparid species ( Pagrus auratus ) was addressed following exposure to five different turbidity treatments (turbidity units) for 30 days. Significant gill structural change was apparent with a progressive increase in turbidity and was quantified as a reduction in lamellar density, as well as an increase in basal hyperplasia, epithelial lifting and increased oxygen diffusion distance across the lamellae. The weight of control fish did not change throughout the experiment, but all fish exposed to turbid waters lost weight, and weight loss increased with nephelometric turbidity units, confirming that long-term turbidity exposure is detrimental to growth productivity. The growth of fish could be impacted in a variety of ways, but the specific hypothesis that structural alteration of the gills impairs O 2 uptake across the gills and limits growth fitness was not supported because there was no measurable difference in the standard metabolic rate, maximal metabolic rate, aerobic metabolic scope or critical oxygen saturation limit of fish measured in clear water after 30 days of exposure. Although impaired O 2 uptake as a result of structurally adjusted gills is unlikely to be the cause of poor fish growth, the exact mechanism by which growth productivity is affected in turbid conditions remains unclear and warrants further investigation.

  20. Effect of salinity on hemolymph osmotic pressure, sodium concentration and Na+-K+-ATPase activity of gill of Chinese crab, Eriocheir sinensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongyu; Pan, Luqing; Fu, Lü

    2008-02-01

    The effects of salinity on hemolymph osmotic pressure, Na+ concentration and Na+-K+-ATPase activity of gill of Chinese crab Eriocheir sinensis were studied. The results showed that hemolymph osmotic pressure and Na+ concentration increased significantly ( P0.05); However, the protein concentration decreased gradually with the increase of salinity from 0.25 d to 1 d, and then tended to be stable from day 1 to day 15.

  1. The effect of pH on the toxicity of fatty acids and fatty acid amides to rainbow trout gill cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertin, Matthew J; Voronca, Delia C; Chapman, Robert W; Moeller, Peter D R

    2014-01-01

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs) expose aquatic organisms to multiple physical and chemical stressors during an acute time period. Algal toxins themselves may be altered by water chemistry parameters affecting their bioavailability and resultant toxicity. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of two abiotic parameters (pH, inorganic metal salts) on the toxicity of fatty acid amides and fatty acids, two classes of lipids produced by harmful algae, including the golden alga, Prymnesium parvum, that are toxic to aquatic organisms. Rainbow trout gill cells were used as a model of the fish gill and exposed to single compounds and mixtures of compounds along with variations in pH level and concentration of inorganic metal salts. We employed artificial neural networks (ANNs) and standard ANOVA statistical analysis to examine and predict the effects of these abiotic parameters on the toxicity of fatty acid amides and fatty acids. Our results demonstrate that increasing pH levels increases the toxicity of fatty acid amides and inhibits the toxicity of fatty acids. This phenomenon is reversed at lower pH levels. Exposing gill cells to complex mixtures of chemical factors resulted in dramatic increases in toxicity compared to tests of single compounds for both the fatty acid amides and fatty acids. These findings highlight the potential of physicochemical factors to affect the toxicity of chemicals released during algal blooms and demonstrate drastic differences in the effect of pH on fatty acid amides and fatty acids. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Effect of cadmium on glutathione S-transferase and metallothionein gene expression in coho salmon liver, gill and olfactory tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espinoza, Herbert M.; Williams, Chase R.; Gallagher, Evan P.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Developed qPCR assays to distinguish closely related GST isoforms in salmon. ► Examined the effect of cadmium on GST and metallothionein genes in 3 tissues. ► Modulation of GST varied among isoforms, tissues, and included a loss of expression. ► Metallothionein outperformed, but generally complemented, GSTs as biomarkers. ► Salmon olfactory genes were among the most responsive to cadmium. - Abstract: The glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are a multifunctional family of phase II enzymes that detoxify a variety of environmental chemicals, reactive intermediates, and secondary products of oxidative damage. GST mRNA expression and catalytic activity have been used as biomarkers of exposure to environmental chemicals. However, factors such as species differences in induction, partial analyses of multiple GST isoforms, and lack of understanding of fish GST gene regulation, have confounded the use of GSTs as markers of pollutant exposure. In the present study, we examined the effect of exposure to cadmium (Cd), a prototypical environmental contaminant and inducer of mammalian GST, on GST mRNA expression in coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) liver, gill, and olfactory tissues. GST expression data were compared to those for metallothionein (MT), a prototypical biomarker of metal exposure. Data mining of genomic databases led to the development of quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assays for salmon GST isoforms encompassing 9 subfamilies, including alpha, mu, pi, theta, omega, kappa, rho, zeta and microsomal GST. In vivo acute (8–48 h) exposures to low (3.7 ppb) and high (347 ppb) levels of Cd relevant to environmental scenarios elicited a variety of transient, albeit minor changes (<2.5-fold) in tissue GST profiles, including some reductions in GST mRNA expression. In general, olfactory GSTs were the earliest to respond to cadmium, whereas, more pronounced effects in olfactory and gill GST expression were observed at 48 h relative to earlier time

  3. The effects of hypoxia on active ionic transport processes in the gill epithelium of hyperregulating crab, Carcinus maneas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucu, Čedomil; Ziegler, Andreas

    2017-09-01

    Effects of hypoxia on the osmorespiratory functions of the posterior gills of the shore crab Carcinus maenas acclimated to 12ppt seawater (DSW) were studied. Short-circuit current (Isc) across the hemilamella (one epithelium layer supported by cuticle) was substantially reduced under exposure to 1.6, 2.0, or 2.5mg O 2 /L hypoxic saline (both sides of epithelium) and fully recovered after reoxygenation. Isc was reduced equally in the epithelium exposed to 1.6mg O 2 /L on both sides and when the apical side was oxygenated and the basolateral side solely exposed to hypoxia. Under 1.6mg O 2 /L, at the level of maximum inhibition of Isc, conductance was decreased from 40.0mScm -2 to 34.7mScm -2 and fully recovered after reoxygenation. Isc inhibition under hypoxia and reduced 86 Rb + (K + ) fluxes across apically located K + channels were caused preferentially by reversible inhibition of basolaterally located and ouabain sensitive Na + ,K + -ATPase mediated electrogenic transport. Reversible inhibition of Isc is discussed as decline in active transport energy supply down regulating metabolic processes and saving energy during oxygen deprivation. In response to a 4day exposure of Carcinus to 2.0mg O 2 /L, hemolymph Na + and Cl - concentration decreased, i.e. hyperosmoregulation was weakened. Variations of the oxygen concentration level and exposure time to hypoxia lead to an increase of the surface of mitochondria per epithelium area and might in part compensate for the decrease in oxygen availability under hypoxic conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of Antifouling Biocides on Molecular and Biochemical Defense System in the Gill of the Pacific Oyster Crassostrea gigas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Mi Seon; Kim, Young Dae; Kim, Bo-Mi; Kim, Youn-Jung; Kim, Jang Kyun; Rhee, Jae-Sung

    2016-01-01

    Antifouling biocides such as organotin compounds and their alternatives are potent toxicants in marine ecosystems. In this study, we employed several molecular and biochemical response systems of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas to understand a potential mode of action of antifouling biocides (i.e. tributyltin (TBT), diuron and irgarol) after exposure to different concentrations (0.01, 0.1, and 1 μg L-1) for 96 h. As a result, all the three antifouling biocides strongly induced the antioxidant defense system. TBT reduced both enzymatic activity and mRNA expression of Na+/K+-ATPase and acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Lower levels of both Na+/K+-ATPase activity and AChE mRNA expression were observed in the diuron-exposed oysters compared to the control, while the irgarol treatment reduced only the transcriptional expression of AChE gene. We also analyzed transcript profile of heat shock protein (Hsp) superfamily in same experimental conditions. All antifouling biocides tested in this study significantly modulated mRNA expression of Hsp superfamily with strong induction of Hsp70 family. Taken together, overall results indicate that representative organotin TBT and alternatives have potential hazardous effects on the gill of C. gigas within relatively short time period. Our results also suggest that analyzing a series of molecular and biochemical parameters can be a way of understanding and uncovering the mode of action of emerging antifouling biocides. In particular, it was revealed that Pacific oysters have different sensitivities depend on the antifouling biocides. PMID:28006823

  5. Effects of Antifouling Biocides on Molecular and Biochemical Defense System in the Gill of the Pacific Oyster Crassostrea gigas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Mi Seon; Kim, Young Dae; Kim, Bo-Mi; Kim, Youn-Jung; Kim, Jang Kyun; Rhee, Jae-Sung

    2016-01-01

    Antifouling biocides such as organotin compounds and their alternatives are potent toxicants in marine ecosystems. In this study, we employed several molecular and biochemical response systems of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas to understand a potential mode of action of antifouling biocides (i.e. tributyltin (TBT), diuron and irgarol) after exposure to different concentrations (0.01, 0.1, and 1 μg L-1) for 96 h. As a result, all the three antifouling biocides strongly induced the antioxidant defense system. TBT reduced both enzymatic activity and mRNA expression of Na+/K+-ATPase and acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Lower levels of both Na+/K+-ATPase activity and AChE mRNA expression were observed in the diuron-exposed oysters compared to the control, while the irgarol treatment reduced only the transcriptional expression of AChE gene. We also analyzed transcript profile of heat shock protein (Hsp) superfamily in same experimental conditions. All antifouling biocides tested in this study significantly modulated mRNA expression of Hsp superfamily with strong induction of Hsp70 family. Taken together, overall results indicate that representative organotin TBT and alternatives have potential hazardous effects on the gill of C. gigas within relatively short time period. Our results also suggest that analyzing a series of molecular and biochemical parameters can be a way of understanding and uncovering the mode of action of emerging antifouling biocides. In particular, it was revealed that Pacific oysters have different sensitivities depend on the antifouling biocides.

  6. Effect of Dry Season Tomato Farming on Poverty Alleviation among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Dry Season Tomato Farming on Poverty Alleviation among Women ... their major sources of resources for tomato farming, marketing and marketing ... and the effect of dry season tomato farming as strategy for poverty reduction; ...

  7. The Effects of Mercury Exposure on the Surface Morphology of Gill Filaments in Perna perna (Mollusca: Bivalvia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory, M.A.; George, R.C.; Marshall, D.J.; Anandraj, A.; McClurg, T.P.

    1999-01-01

    This study investigated the possibility that changes in the surface morphology of mussel (Perna perna) gill filaments may be used to indicate the relative toxicity of pollutants in the marine environment. Healthy, adult P. perna were collected and immersed in 2 free-flow tanks. Mercury was added to seawater as it entered tank 1 to achieve a constant level of 50 μg/l -1 over 24 days. Uncontaminated seawater was circulated over the mussels in tank 2 (control) for the same period. A 25 mm 2 area of gill filament was removed from each of the 5 specimens before and after 24 days immersion in tank 2, and after immersion for 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 24 days in tank 1. These were examined using a scanning electron microscope. The remaining soft tissues from each animal were analysed for mercury using an atomic absorption spectrometer. Mercury concentration increased from 0.13 (pre-immersion) to 87 μg/g after day 24. Surface morphology remained normal for all animals in tank 2 and for those exposed to Hg for up to 8 days. However, from 16 to 24 days exposure there was a gradual increase in the diameters of microvilli, a depletion of abfrontal cilia, an increase in abnormal, perhaps necrotic cells and an unusual increase in the number of cilia on the lateral surfaces. These results confirm that P. perna is an efficient bio-accumulator and suggest that their gill pathomorphology may be a useful indicator of toxicity

  8. Effects of salinity stress on Bufo balearicus and Bufo bufo tadpoles: Tolerance, morphological gill alterations and Na+/K+-ATPase localization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernabò, Ilaria; Bonacci, Antonella; Coscarelli, Francesca; Tripepi, Manuela; Brunelli, Elvira

    2013-01-01

    Freshwater habitats are globally threatened by human-induced secondary salinization. Amphibians are generally poorly adapted to survive in saline environments. We experimentally investigated the effects of chronic exposure to various salinities (5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, 30% and 35% seawater, SW) on survival, larval growth and metamorphosis of tadpoles from two amphibian populations belonging to two species: the green toad Bufo balearicus and the common toad Bufo bufo. In addition, gill morphology of tadpoles of both species after acute exposure to hypertonic conditions (20%, 25%, and 30% SW) was examined by light and electron microscopy. Tadpoles experienced 100% mortality above 20% SW in B. balearicus while above 15% SW in B. bufo. We detected also sublethal effects of salinity stress on growth and metamorphosis. B. bufo cannot withstand chronic exposure to salinity above 5% SW, tadpoles grew slower and were significantly smaller than those in control at metamorphosis. B. balearicus tolerated salinity up to 20% SW without apparent effects during larval development, but starting from 15% SW tadpoles metamorphosed later and at a smaller size compared with control. We also revealed a negative relation between increasing salt concentration and gill integrity. The main modifications were increased mucous secretion, detachment of external layer, alteration of epithelial surface, degeneration phenomena, appearance of residual bodies, and macrophage immigration. These morphological alterations of gill epithelium can interfere with respiratory function and both osmotic and acid-base regulation. Significant variations in branchial Na + /K + -ATPase activity were also observed between two species; moreover an increase in enzyme activity was evident in response to SW exposure. Epithelial responses to increasing salt concentration were different in the populations belonging to two species: the intensity of histological and ultrastructural pathology in B. bufo was greater and we

  9. Toxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): Gill injury, oxidative stress, and other physiological effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Federici, Gillian; Shaw, Benjamin J. [Ecotoxicology and Stress Biology Research Group, School of Biological Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Handy, Richard D. [Ecotoxicology and Stress Biology Research Group, School of Biological Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)], E-mail: rhandy@plymouth.ac.uk

    2007-10-30

    Mammalian and in vitro studies have raised concerns about the toxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO{sub 2} NPs), but there are very limited data on ecotoxicity to aquatic life. This paper is an observational study where we aim to describe the toxicity of TiO{sub 2} NPs to the main body systems of rainbow trout. Stock solutions of dispersed TiO{sub 2} NPs were prepared by sonication without using solvents. A semi-static test system was used to expose rainbow trout to either a freshwater control, 0.1, 0.5, or 1.0 mg l{sup -1} TiO{sub 2} NPs for up to 14 days. Exposure to TiO{sub 2} NPs caused some gill pathologies including oedema and thickening of the lamellae. No major haematological or blood disturbances were observed in terms of red and white blood cell counts, haematocrit values, whole blood haemoglobin, and plasma Na{sup +} or K{sup +} concentrations. Tissue metal levels (Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, Ca{sup 2+} and Mn) were generally unaffected. However, some exposure concentration-dependent changes in tissue Cu and Zn levels were observed, especially in the brain. Exposure to TiO{sub 2} NPs caused statistically significant decreases in Na{sup +}K{sup +}-ATPase activity (ANOVA, P < 0.05) in the gills and intestine, and a trend of decreasing enzyme activity in the brain (the latter was not statistically significant). Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) showed exposure concentration-dependent and statistically significant (ANOVA or Kruskal-Wallis test, P < 0.05) increases (two-fold or more) in the gill, intestine and brain, but not the liver during exposure to TiO{sub 2} NPs compared to controls. TiO{sub 2} NP exposure caused statistically significant (ANOVA, P < 0.05) increases in the total glutathione levels in the gills, but depletion of hepatic glutathione compared to controls. Total glutathione levels in the brain and intestine were unaffected. Liver cells exposed to TiO{sub 2} NPs showed minor fatty change and lipidosis, and some hepatocytes

  10. Osmotic and thermal effects on in situ ATPase activity in permeabilized gill epithelial cells of the fish Gillichthys mirabilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    KÜLtz; Somero

    1995-01-01

    Long-jawed mudsuckers (Gillichthys mirabilis) were acclimated to sea water (SW) at 7 °C, SW at 26 °C or dilute sea water (DSW) at 26 °C for 5 months. Gill cells were isolated and the proportion of mitochondria-rich (MR) cells was determined. The number of cells harvested amounted to 4.7x10(7)±0.6x10(7) to 10.6x10(7)±1.1x10(7) and the yield was between 7.1x10(8)±0.6x10(8) and 10.7x10(8)±1.4x10(8) cells g-1 gill epithelial mass. Cell viability was 96.8±0.4 to 97.8±0.6 %. The number, size and volume of MR cells decreased significantly during DSW acclimation, but did not change during thermal acclimation. The protein content was not influenced by osmotic or thermal acclimation and ranged between 20.0±1.6 and 22.1±1.5 pg cell-1. Using a new method, which is based on the formation of plasma membrane channels by alamethicin, we were able to permeabilize gill cells. For the first time, the Na+/K+-ATPase and H+-ATPase activities of fish gills were determined in intact cells in situ. The activity of both ATPases was dependent on alamethicin concentration (optimum 100 µg mg-1 protein) and on preincubation time (optimum 10 min). The in situ activity of both ATPases was influenced by osmotic, but not thermal, acclimation. A positive linear correlation was found between in situ Na+/K+-ATPase activity and total MR cell volume. However, we show, for the first time, that a negative linear correlation exists between H+-ATPase activity and total MR cell volume, suggesting a localization of H+-ATPase in pavement cells. In permeabilized cells, the activity of both ATPases was 2.6­3.9 times higher than that of crude homogenates and 1.6­2.1 times higher than that of permeabilized homogenate vesicles. We hypothesize that in crude homogenates three-quarters of Na+/K+-ATPase and two-thirds of H+-ATPase activity are not detectable both because of a mixture of inside-out and right-side-out vesicles and because of the disruption of membrane and enzyme integrity.

  11. Effects of waterborne Fe(II) on juvenile turbot Scophthalmus maximus: analysis of respiratory rate, hematology and gill histology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhihao; You, Feng; Liu, Hongjun; Liu, Mengxia; Li, Jun; Zhang, Peijun

    2012-03-01

    The concentration of Fe(II) is high in some groundwater supplies used in turbot culture, and the toxicity of waterborne Fe(II) is unknown. We investigated the stress responses of juvenile turbot, Scophthalmus maximus, exposed to Fe(II) of different concentrations (0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1, and 2 mg/L) for 1, 7, 14, and 28 d, under the same ambient conditions of other parameters. Changes in respiratory rate, hematological parameters, and gill structure were determined. The results show that waterborne Fe(II) did not cause severe hematological perturbation to turbot. A low-medium Fe(II) concentration (lower than 0.1 mg/L) could boost the respiratory rate, and caused no or very limited damage to fish. A high Fe(II) concentration (0.1 mg/L or higher), however, caused gill damage, such as vacuoles in branchial lamellae, epithelial necrosis, and hypertrophy of epithelial cells, and even death after extended exposure time. Therefore, excess waterborne Fe(II) and long-term exposure to Fe(II) could be responsible for poor growth and high mortality of turbot in culture. The concentration of waterborne Fe(II) in turbot culture should be kept below 0.1 mg/L.

  12. Molecular characterization of cytochrome P450 1A and 3A and the effects of perfluorooctanoic acid on their mRNA levels in rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus) gills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Yong; Wang Jianshe; Wei Yanhong; Zhang Hongxia; Liu Yang [Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Datun Road, Beijing 100101 (China); Dai Jiayin [Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Datun Road, Beijing 100101 (China)], E-mail: daijy@ioz.ac.cn

    2008-07-07

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), a potentially toxic perfluorinated compound (PFC), has been widely disseminated in the environment. In the present study, rare minnows (Gobiocypris rarus) exposed to PFOA exhibited histopathological gill damage, including epithelial hyperplasia of the lamellae, inflammatory cell infiltration, and lamellar fusion. Cytochrome P450s (CYPs) play a central role in the metabolism and biotransformation of a wide range of endogenous substrates and foreign compounds. Thus, we studied the CYPs and the effects of waterborne PFOA on their corresponding mRNA levels in the gills of rare minnows. Two novel CYP cDNAs (CYP1A and CYP3A) were identified in rare minnow and their mRNAs were ubiquitously expressed in all tissues examined. Upregulation of CYP3A mRNA was observed in the gills of male rare minnows exposed to 30 mg/L PFOA, while no significant changes occurred in exposed females. In contrast, down regulation of CYP1A mRNA was detected in the gills of male and female minnows exposed to PFOA. However, the effect of PFOA on gill mRNA levels of their potential regulators, aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) for CYP1A, and pregnane X receptor (PXR) for CYP3A, were not consistent with the observed effects of PFOA on the corresponding CYP mRNA concentrations. This suggests a different or more complex transcriptional regulation of CYP expression following PFOA exposure.

  13. Gill damage, metallothionein gene expression and metal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water and sediment samples from each site, together with fish muscle and gills, were analysed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) for Li, Na, Mg, Al, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, ... Keywords: anthropogenic impacts, bioaccumulation, biomarkers, histopathology, rivers, sediments, toxic effects

  14. Effects of McGill stabilization exercises and conventional physiotherapy on pain, functional disability and active back range of motion in patients with chronic non-specific low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbanpour, Arsalan; Azghani, Mahmoud Reza; Taghipour, Mohammad; Salahzadeh, Zahra; Ghaderi, Fariba; Oskouei, Ali E

    2018-04-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to compare the effects of "McGill stabilization exercises" and "conventional physiotherapy" on pain, functional disability and active back flexion and extension range of motion in patients with chronic non-specific low back pain. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty four patients with chronic non-specific low back pain were randomly assigned to McGill stabilization exercises group (n=17) and conventional physiotherapy group (n=17). In both groups, patients performed the corresponding exercises for six weeks. The visual analog scale (VAS), Quebec Low Back Pain Disability Scale Questionnaire and inclinometer were used to measure pain, functional disability, and active back flexion and extension range of motion, respectively. [Results] Statistically significant improvements were observed in pain, functional disability, and active back extension range of motion in McGill stabilization exercises group. However, active back flexion range of motion was the only clinical symptom that statistically increased in patients who performed conventional physiotherapy. There was no significant difference between the clinical characteristics while compared these two groups of patients. [Conclusion] The results of this study indicated that McGill stabilization exercises and conventional physiotherapy provided approximately similar improvement in pain, functional disability, and active back range of motion in patients with chronic non-specific low back pain. However, it appears that McGill stabilization exercises provide an additional benefit to patients with chronic non-specific low back, especially in pain and functional disability improvement.

  15. Effect of seasonal collection on callus Induction, proliferation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hevea brasiliensis that is grown in Thailand and Southeast Asia is a very valuable source of natural rubber. However, few studies have been conducted to evaluate the effects of seasonal effect on plantlet regenera-tion through somatic embryogenesis from anther culture. Thus, this study discussed the effect of season on ...

  16. Effects of salinity stress on Bufo balearicus and Bufo bufo tadpoles: Tolerance, morphological gill alterations and Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase localization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernabò, Ilaria; Bonacci, Antonella; Coscarelli, Francesca [Department of Ecology, University of Calabria, Via P. Bucci, 87036 Rende (Cosenza) (Italy); Tripepi, Manuela [University of Pennsylvania, Department of Biology, 201 Leidy Laboratories, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Brunelli, Elvira, E-mail: brunelli@unical.it [Department of Ecology, University of Calabria, Via P. Bucci, 87036 Rende (Cosenza) (Italy)

    2013-05-15

    Freshwater habitats are globally threatened by human-induced secondary salinization. Amphibians are generally poorly adapted to survive in saline environments. We experimentally investigated the effects of chronic exposure to various salinities (5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, 30% and 35% seawater, SW) on survival, larval growth and metamorphosis of tadpoles from two amphibian populations belonging to two species: the green toad Bufo balearicus and the common toad Bufo bufo. In addition, gill morphology of tadpoles of both species after acute exposure to hypertonic conditions (20%, 25%, and 30% SW) was examined by light and electron microscopy. Tadpoles experienced 100% mortality above 20% SW in B. balearicus while above 15% SW in B. bufo. We detected also sublethal effects of salinity stress on growth and metamorphosis. B. bufo cannot withstand chronic exposure to salinity above 5% SW, tadpoles grew slower and were significantly smaller than those in control at metamorphosis. B. balearicus tolerated salinity up to 20% SW without apparent effects during larval development, but starting from 15% SW tadpoles metamorphosed later and at a smaller size compared with control. We also revealed a negative relation between increasing salt concentration and gill integrity. The main modifications were increased mucous secretion, detachment of external layer, alteration of epithelial surface, degeneration phenomena, appearance of residual bodies, and macrophage immigration. These morphological alterations of gill epithelium can interfere with respiratory function and both osmotic and acid-base regulation. Significant variations in branchial Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase activity were also observed between two species; moreover an increase in enzyme activity was evident in response to SW exposure. Epithelial responses to increasing salt concentration were different in the populations belonging to two species: the intensity of histological and ultrastructural pathology in B. bufo was

  17. Differential regulation of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator and Na+,K+ -ATPase in gills of striped bass, Morone saxatilis: effect of salinity and hormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Steffen; Jensen, Lars Nørholm; Tipsmark, Christian Kølbaek

    2007-01-01

    -regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 was stimulated by EGF but not affected by IGF-I. This study is the first to report a branchial EGF response and to demonstrate a functional ERK 1/2 pathway in the teleost gill. In conclusion, CFTR and Na(+),K(+) -ATPase are differentially regulated by salinity and hormones in gills...

  18. The effects of the painkiller diclofenac and hypoxia on gene transcription and antioxidant system in the gills of three-spined stickleback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubiana, Pedro; Prokkola, Jenni M; Nikinmaa, Mikko; Burmester, Thorsten; Kanerva, Mirella; Götting, Miriam

    2016-01-01

    Aquatic organisms face multiple stressors in natural ecosystems. More and more often painkillers are detected in surface waters since their prescription has increased worldwide within the last years. Here we examined the effects of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) diclofenac and hypoxia on three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus). We exposed sticklebacks to an environmentally relevant concentration of diclofenac (1μg/L) for 14days, to 24h of hypoxia (2.0mg O2/L), and a combination of both. Hypoxia and diclofenac both can be associated with oxidative stress in fish, but it is unclear whether they would act synergistically. Expression analysis of genes related to antioxidant response, hypoxia response, and chemical metabolism in gills showed that diclofenac alone had little effect, while the combination of hypoxia and diclofenac affected transcript levels most, indicating synergistic effects of these stressors. Of the antioxidant enzymes, only superoxide dismutase activity remained unchanged by treatments, while glutathione peroxidase (GPx) was the most affected antioxidant response on both the transcript and activity levels. Our results suggest that diclofenac may lead to suppressed catalase (CAT) activity but increased GPx activity, probably as compensatory mechanism to remove increasing H2O2 in the gills, and that this response is not affected by hypoxia. The activities of lactate dehydrogenase, CAT, and GPx also showed temporal variability during treatments, which can be attributable to tissue-specific circadian rhythms. Our study shows how responses to NSAIDs and hypoxia can interact in fish, suggesting that getting more insight into temporal variation and about the different levels of regulation of environmental responses is necessary in future studies. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Effect of season on fresh and cryopreserved stallion semen

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of season on sperm quality parameters, expression of the fertility-related protein SP22 and selected mRNA transcripts infresh and cryopreserved stallion sperm. Four stallions were collected in each of the four seasons: summ...

  20. Effects of regrowth period, season and harvesting frequency on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of regrowth period, season and harvesting frequency on the yield and nutritive value of Chloris gayana in the southern highlands of Tanzania. ... In vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) and metabolisable energy (ME) declined faster with increasing periods of growth in the early than in the late wet season. ME ranged ...

  1. Effects of riparian buffers on hydrology of northern seasonal ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall K. Kolka; Brian J. Palik; Daniel P. Tersteeg; James C. Bell

    2011-01-01

    Although seasonal ponds are common in northern, glaciated, forested landscapes, forest management guidelines are generally lacking for these systems. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of riparian buffer type on seasonal pond hydrology following harvest of the adjacent upland forest. A replicated block design consisting of four buffer treatments...

  2. Seasonality effect on the allelopathy of cerrado species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AB Gatti

    Full Text Available The Brazilian cerrado presents strong climate seasonality. During the dry season, plants may be exposed to stressful situations, such as a soil surface water deficit, that stimulate their chemical defenses. However, the seasonality effect on the production of allelopathic compounds of cerrado plant species is poorly understood. In this study, the phytotoxic activities of common native cerrado plants were evaluated during rainy and dry seasons. Crude leaves extracts (10% concentration: weight/volume, with dry leaves and distilled water from eleven species were tested on lettuce and sesame germination. The negative effects on germination percentages, rates and informational entropies of the target species were higher when submitted to plant extracts from the dry season, where the germination rate was the most sensible parameter. The higher sensibility of lettuce and the germination rate parameter showed this difference. Only two exceptions had higher effects for rainy season extracts; one species showed higher negative effects on germination informational entropy of lettuce and another species on the germination rate of sesame. Thus, increases in the allelopathic activity were seen in the majority of the studied cerrado plant species during the dry season. These distinct responses to stressful situations in a complex environment such as the Brazilian cerrado may support the establishment and survival of some species.

  3. INTERACTION EFFECT OF SEASON Senna occid. CORRECTED. L.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. K.J. Umar

    Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Science (June, 2015), 23(1): 39-44 ... ABSTRACT: This study was aimed to assess the effect of season, habitat and leaf age on proximate ... most developing nations, for example in Nigeria, food.

  4. 不同粒径塑料微颗粒在斑马鱼腮组织中的积累及其对蒽毒性的影响%Retention of polystyrene particles of different sizes in zebrafish gills and their effect on toxicity of anthracene to gill cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡亚云; 赵佳玥; 李文锋; 宋文娟; 张道勇; 潘响亮

    2017-01-01

    Microplastics pollution is an emerging environmental issue,but the knowledge about its toxicological effects on aquatic animals and ecological risk is very limited.Retention of polystyrene microplastics of different sizes (10 nm to 1 μm) in zebrafish (Danio rerio) gills and their effects on the damage caused by anthracene to DNA of gill cells were investigated.It was demonstrated that 20 and 50 nm polystyrene particles could be retained in zebrafish gills whereas particles of bigger sizes (200,500,or 1 000 nm) were not found on the gill surface.The retained microplastics could be cleared when the zebrafish had not been exposed to microplastics for one week.The 500 nm polystyrene particles had a slight adverse effect on DNA of gill cells,and exposure to anthracene alone caused significant damage to DNA.Addition of 500 nm polystyrene particles together with anthracene effectively mitigated the damage of anthracene to gill cell DNA.Effects of microplastics on toxicity of toxic organic pollutants needed further study.%水环境微塑料颗粒污染非常严重,为了解其对水生动物的毒害效应和生态风险,应用荧光标记聚苯乙烯微球和激光扫描共聚焦荧光显微镜,研究不同粒径(10 nm-1 μm)的聚苯乙烯塑料颗粒在斑马鱼(Danio rerio)腮部的积累差异,以及微塑料颗粒存在时对多环芳烃蒽的腮细胞毒性的影响.结果表明,20和50 nm的聚苯乙烯塑料易积累在鱼鳃上,而更大粒径(200,500,1 000 nm)的微塑料颗粒不会滞留在腮部.将染毒后的斑马鱼进行清水实验,鱼鳃上积累的微塑料颗粒也会被清除掉.单独暴露于各种粒径的聚苯乙烯颗粒48 h可导致腮细胞DNA轻微损伤,导致彗星拖尾长度、拖尾DNA比例等轻微增加,单独暴露于200μg/L蒽48 h可严重损伤腮细胞的DNA,彗星拖尾长度、尾DNA比例及尾矩分别从单独塑料颗粒处理的7.1、2.4%和0.65增加到了43.6、44.2%和12.9.当斑马鱼同时暴露于500 nm聚苯

  5. Effects of carbon nanomaterials fullerene C60 and fullerol C60(OH)18–22 on gills of fish Cyprinus carpio (Cyprinidae) exposed to ultraviolet radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Socoowski Britto, Roberta; Longaray Garcia, Márcia; Martins da Rocha, Alessandra; Artigas Flores, Juliana; Pinheiro, Maurício V. Brant; Monserrat, José María; Ribas Ferreira, Josencler L.

    2012-01-01

    In consequence of their growing use and demand, the inevitable environmental presence of nanomaterials (NMs) has raised concerns about their potential deleterious effects to aquatic environments. The carbon NM fullerene (C 60 ), which forms colloidal aggregates in water, and its water-soluble derivative fullerol (C 60 (OH) 18–22 ), which possesses antioxidant properties, are known to be photo-excited by ultraviolet (UV) or visible light. To investigate their potential hazards to aquatic organisms upon exposure to UV sunlight, this study analyzed (a) the in vitro behavior of fullerene and fullerol against peroxyl radicals (ROO·) under UV-A radiation and (b) the effects of these photo-excited NMs on oxidative stress parameters in functional gills extracted from the fish Cyprinus carpio (Cyprinidae). The variables measured were the total antioxidant capacity, lipid peroxidation (TBARS), the activities of the antioxidant enzymes glutathione reductase (GR) and glutamate cysteine ligase (GCL), and the levels of the non-enzymatic antioxidant glutathione (GSH). The obtained results revealed the following: (1) both NMs behaved in vitro as antioxidants against ROO· in the dark and as pro-oxidants in presence of UV-A, the latter effect being reversed by the addition of sodium azide, which is a singlet oxygen ( 1 O 2 ) quencher; (2) fullerene induced toxicity with or without UV-A incidence, with a significant (p 1 O 2 generation; and (3) fullerol also decreased GCL activity and GSH formation (p 1 O 2 formation.

  6. Molecular characterization of branchial aquaporin 1aa and effects of seawater acclimation, emersion or ammonia exposure on its mRNA expression in the gills, gut, kidney and skin of the freshwater climbing perch, Anabas testudineus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuen K Ip

    Full Text Available We obtained a full cDNA coding sequence of aquaporin 1aa (aqp1aa from the gills of the freshwater climbing perch, Anabas testudineus, which had the highest expression in the gills and skin, suggesting an important role of Aqp1aa in these organs. Since seawater acclimation had no significant effects on the branchial and intestinal aqp1aa mRNA expression, and since the mRNA expression of aqp1aa in the gut was extremely low, it can be deduced that Aqp1aa, despite being a water channel, did not play a significant osmoregulatory role in A. testudineus. However, terrestrial exposure led to significant increases in the mRNA expression of aqp1aa in the gills and skin of A. testudineus. Since terrestrial exposure would lead to evaporative water loss, these results further support the proposition that Aqp1aa did not function predominantly for the permeation of water through the gills and skin. Rather, increased aqp1aa mRNA expression might be necessary to facilitate increased ammonia excretion during emersion, because A. testudineus is known to utilize amino acids as energy sources for locomotor activity with increased ammonia production on land. Furthermore, ammonia exposure resulted in significant decreases in mRNA expression of aqp1aa in the gills and skin of A. testudineus, presumably to reduce ammonia influx during ammonia loading. This corroborates previous reports on AQP1 being able to facilitate ammonia permeation. However, a molecular characterization of Aqp1aa from A. testudineus revealed that its intrinsic aquapore might not facilitate NH3 transport. Hence, ammonia probably permeated the central fifth pore of the Aqp1aa tetramer as suggested previously. Taken together, our results indicate that Aqp1aa might have a greater physiological role in ammonia excretion than in osmoregulation in A. testudineus.

  7. Differential effects of cortisol and 11-deoxycorticosterone on ion transport protein mRNA levels in gills of two euryhaline teleosts, Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) and striped bass (Morone saxatilis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiilerich, Pia; Tipsmark, Christian K; Borski, Russell J; Madsen, Steffen S

    2011-04-01

    The role of cortisol as the only corticosteroid in fish osmoregulation has recently been challenged with the discovery of a mineralocorticoid-like hormone, 11-deoxycorticosterone (DOC), and necessitates new studies of the endocrinology of osmoregulation in fish. Using an in vitro gill explant incubation approach, DOC-mediated regulation of selected osmoregulatory target genes in the gill was investigated and compared with that of cortisol in two euryhaline teleosts, Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) and striped bass (Morone saxatilis). The effects were tested in gills from both fresh water (FW)- and seawater (SW)-acclimated fish. Both cortisol and DOC caused an up-regulation of the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase α1 subunit in SW-acclimated tilapia but had no effect in FW-acclimated fish. Cortisol conferred an increase in Na(+),K(+),2Cl(-) cotransporter (NKCC) isoform 1a transcript levels in FW- and SW-acclimated tilapia, whereas DOC had a stimulatory effect only in SW-acclimated fish. Cortisol had no effect on NKCC isoform 1b mRNA levels at both salinities, while DOC stimulated this isoform in SW-acclimated fish. In striped bass, cortisol conferred an up-regulation of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase α1 and NKCC transcript levels in FW- and SW-acclimated fish, whereas DOC resulted in down-regulation of these transcripts in FW-acclimated fish. It was also found that both corticosteroids may rapidly (30 min) alter the mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling pathway in gill, inducing phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 (ERK1) and ERK2 in a salinity-dependent manner. The study shows a disparate organisation of corticosteroid signalling mechanisms involved in ion regulation in the two species and adds new evidence to a role of DOC as a mineralocorticoid hormone in teleosts.

  8. Gilles Trachez (1969-2012)

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    We are deeply saddened to announce the death of our friend and colleague Gilles Trachez. A senior technician in electro-mechanics, and at CERN since 1992, Gilles was a unique example of vibrant energy, with a broad smile and a hearty laugh even when facing utmost difficulties.   Gilles put vigour, flexibility and creativity at the service of the development of the superconducting magnets for the LHC, and in practice all main LHC magnets contain a part of his work. He followed critical contracts for the supply of magnet shells and laminations, and we have fond memories of the visits to a supplier in the Basque region of Spain, ending, after long working days, in happy evenings spent in the local ‘sidreria’. Similarly, we recall long nights spent designing and assembling a polymerization oven to provide an urgent solution for the insulation of the LHC dipole cold bores. Gilles always had a smile on his face, and never hesitated to help a colleague. In the same spirit, he ...

  9. Assessment of respiratory and ion transport potential of Penaeus japonicus gills in response to environmental pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.A. ABDEL-MOHSEN

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to pinpoint the respiratory and ion transport potential of gills of Penaeus japonicus living in Abu-Qir Bay, East of Alexandria, Egypt. Our results revealed clear histological impairments in gill structure. These alterations were mainly represented by the presence of large vacuoles in gill axis and gill lamellae. In addition, narrow, disrupted gill lamellae with wavy cuticle and shrunk pillar cells were detected. Moreover, some cells clearly showed pyknosis. Gill ultrastructure also showed abnormal chromatin condensation inside the nucleus. Obvious alterations in the typical shape and structure of mitochondria were observed. Noticeably, the main characteristics of ion regulating gill epithelium were absent thus suggesting a low ion transport activity of P. japonicus gills. Statistically, this was further proved by the significantly higher activity levels of respiratory enzymes, namely, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and succinate dehydrogenase (SDH compared to those of the ion transport enzymes, namely, adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase and carbonic anhydrase (CA in gills and haemolymph. SDH activity levels were higher than the corresponding levels of LDH in gills and its own level in haemolymph, indicating a contradictory effect of pollution on respiratory enzyme activity levels.

  10. Effect of cadmium exposure on hepatopancreas and gills of the estuary mud crab (Scylla paramamosain): Histopathological changes and expression characterization of stress response genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qi-Hui; Zhou, Zhong-Kai; Tu, Dan-Dan; Zhou, Yi-Lian; Wang, Cong; Liu, Ze-Peng; Gu, Wen-Bin; Chen, Yu-Yin; Shu, Miao-An

    2018-02-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a heavy metal that accumulates easily in organisms and causes several detrimental effects, including tissue damage. Cd contamination from anthropogenic terrestrial sources flows into rivers, and through estuaries to the ocean. To evaluate the toxic effects of Cd on estuary crustaceans, we exposed the mud crab Scylla paramamosain to various Cd concentrations (0, 10.0, 20.0, and 40.0mg/L) for 24h. We also exposed mud crabs to a fixed Cd concentration (20.0mg/L) for various periods of time (0, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72h). We observed that after exposure to Cd, the surfaces of the gill lamellae were wrinkled, and the morphologies of the nuclei and mitochondria in the hepatopancreas were altered. We analyzed the expression profiles of 36 stress-related genes after Cd exposure, including those encoding metallothioneins, heat shock proteins, apoptosis-related proteins, and antioxidant proteins, with quantitative reverse transcription PCR. We found that exposure to Cd altered gene expression, and that some genes might be suitable bioindicators of Cd stress. Gene expression profiles were organ-, duration-, and concentration-dependent, suggesting that stress-response genes might be involved in an innate defense system for handling heavy metal exposure. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first one of histopathology and stress-response gene expression pattern of Scylla paramamosain after Cd exposure. Our work could increase our understanding of the effect of environmental toxins on estuary crustaceans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of hypoxia on ionic regulation, glycogen utilization and antioxidative ability in the gills and liver of the aquatic air-breathing fish Trichogaster microlepis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chun-Yen; Lin, Hui-Chen; Lin, Cheng-Huang

    2015-01-01

    We examined the hypothesis that Trichogaster microlepis, a fish with an accessory air-breathing organ, uses a compensatory strategy involving changes in both behavior and protein levels to enhance its gas exchange ability. This compensatory strategy enables the gill ion-regulatory metabolism to maintain homeostasis during exposure to hypoxia. The present study aimed to determine whether ionic regulation, glycogen utilization and antioxidant activity differ in terms of expression under hypoxic stresses; fish were sampled after being subjected to 3 or 12h of hypoxia and 12h of recovery under normoxia. The air-breathing behavior of the fish increased under hypoxia. No morphological modification of the gills was observed. The expression of carbonic anhydrase II did not vary among the treatments. The Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase enzyme activity did not decrease, but increases in Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase protein expression and ionocyte levels were observed. The glycogen utilization increased under hypoxia as measured by glycogen phosphorylase protein expression and blood glucose level, whereas the glycogen content decreased. The enzyme activity of several components of the antioxidant system in the gills, including catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxidase dismutase, increased in enzyme activity. Based on the above data, we concluded that T. microlepis is a hypoxia-tolerant species that does not exhibit ion-regulatory suppression but uses glycogen to maintain energy utilization in the gills under hypoxic stress. Components of the antioxidant system showed increased expression under the applied experimental treatments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Temperature and Salinity Effects on Bioaccumulation, Gill Structure, and Radiation Dose Estimation in the Milkfish Chanos chanos Exposed to 137Cs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.R. Prihatiningsih

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present trend of global warming has led to an increase in seawater temperature and salinity. The effects of increasing salinity and temperature on the accumulation of 137Cs by milkfish Chanos chanos was studied under laboratory conditions to obtain information on Chanos chanos adaptability under environmental changes. The uptake of radioactive cesium by Chanos chanos increased with temperature of seawater. The concentration factors (CF of 137Cs for temperatures of 25°C, 27°C, 29°C, and 31°C at steady state period were 5.25, 5.91, 6.78, and 9.98 mL g-1 for the whole-body of Chanos chanos. The concentration factors at steady state (CFss of 137Cs for salinities of 26‰, 29‰, 32‰, and 35‰ were 6.23, 9.93, 9.24, and 6.86 mL g-1, respectively. After temperature exposure to 31°C, the fish gills showed hyperplasia of epithelial cells in branchial secondary lamellae, congestion of blood vessels, and hypertrophy of pillar cells. The fish from the treatment group exhibited hemorrhage between the branchial secondary lamellae and an abundance of mucous substance in comparison with control group. This study links radionuclide bioaccumulation data and monitoring data obtained in the field and laboratory experiment with radiation dose determined by ERICA Tools, an approach that will enable better linkages to be made between exposure and dose in Chanos chanos and its marine food web.

  13. Effect of housing, initial weight and season on feedlot performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Feedlot information, submitted by Iowa cattle producers to the Iowa State University Feedlot Performance and Cost Monitoring Program, was examined to determine the effects of housing, initial weight and season interactions on beef steer performance. Feedlot information, consisting of 1225 pens of steers, contained ...

  14. Effects of seasonal variation and tidal regimes on macrobenthic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An assessment of the effects of seasonal variation and tidal regimes on the distribution and density of macrobenthic invertebrates of the coastal Warri River, southern Nigeria was carried out from July 2014 to February 2015. Samples were collected from five longitudinal stations from headwater to mouth during high and low ...

  15. Effects of seasonal advancement on the forage availability, quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of seasonal advancement on the forage availability, quality and acceptability by grazing gudali cattle in the humid zone of Nigeria. ... There were significant (p<0.05) differences in the dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP) and neutral detergent fibre (NDF) contents of all the forages. DM content ranged from 9.6% (Tridax ...

  16. The effects of seasons on cholesterol content and fatty acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The aim of the present study is the determination of the effects of seasonal variations on the proximate analysis, cholesterol content and fatty acid compositions of Helix aspersa. Materials and Methods: Garden snails (Helix aspersa) were picked up by hand from the Central Anatolia Region of Turkey, in autumn ...

  17. Mao-Gilles Stabilization Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Jérôme Gilles

    2013-01-01

    Originally, the Mao-Gilles stabilization algorithm was designed to compensate the non-rigid deformations due to atmospheric turbulence. Given a sequence of frames affected by atmospheric turbulence, the algorithm uses a variational model combining optical flow and regularization to characterize the static observed scene. The optimization problem is solved by Bregman Iteration and the operator splitting method. The algorithm is simple, efficient, and can be easily generalized for different sce...

  18. Mao-Gilles Stabilization Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme Gilles

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Originally, the Mao-Gilles stabilization algorithm was designed to compensate the non-rigid deformations due to atmospheric turbulence. Given a sequence of frames affected by atmospheric turbulence, the algorithm uses a variational model combining optical flow and regularization to characterize the static observed scene. The optimization problem is solved by Bregman Iteration and the operator splitting method. The algorithm is simple, efficient, and can be easily generalized for different scenarios involving non-rigid deformations.

  19. Gilles Sauvage (1939-2010)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Gilles Sauvage, a physicist from LAPP-Annecy working with ATLAS, passed away on 21 April 2010.   We will always remember Gilles’ smile. Gilles Sauvage was deeply involved in many generations of experiments at CERN as he followed the evolution of the field at the energy forefront. He started with the LAL-Orsay group in the WA2 Hyperon experiment at the SPS West Area, where he worked from 1976 to 1979. With the same group he was then a founding member of the UA2 Collaboration at the SPS p-pbar Collider, in which he was active throughout the duration of the experiment. He then moved to LAPP-Annecy in 1986 and joined first the L3 group at LEP, making important contributions to the construction, calibration, installation and commissioning of the BGO crystal calorimeter. Later, in the mid-1990s, Gilles joined ATLAS and led the LAPP-Annecy group through the intense period of the construction of one third of the ATLAS LAr barrel electromagnetic calorimeter modules at LAPP, and followed hands-o...

  20. Co-infestation of gills by different parasite groups in the mullet, Mugil platanus Günther, 1880 (Osteichthyes, Mugilidae): effects on relative condition factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranzani-Paiva, M J T; Silva-Souza, A T

    2004-08-01

    This study involved 334 specimens of mullet, Mugil platanus, captured monthly in the estuarine region of Cananéia, São Paulo State, Brazil, from July 1988 to June 1989, and examined for the presence of gill parasites. Parasitological inspections revealed the occurrence of the following groups: Trichodina sp., Monogenoidea, Copepoda, and Hirudinea. Only four mullets were not parasitized. Total weight and total length of all 334 mullet specimens examined were used for adjusting the weight-length relationship curve and calculating the relative condition factor (Kn). The 118 specimens infested with monogenoideans on average had lower weights than expected (Kn 1.0. It was possible to infer that gill infestation with monogenoideans alters mullet weight, especially in the presence of co-infestation with Trichodina sp. and copepods.

  1. Co-infestation of gills by different parasite groups in the mullet, Mugil platanus Günther, 1880 (Osteichthyes, Mugilidae: effects on relative condition factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. T. Ranzani-Paiva

    Full Text Available This study involved 334 specimens of mullet, Mugil platanus, captured monthly in the estuarine region of Cananéia, São Paulo State, Brazil, from July 1988 to June 1989, and examined for the presence of gill parasites. Parasitological inspections revealed the occurrence of the following groups: Trichodina sp., Monogenoidea, Copepoda, and Hirudinea. Only four mullets were not parasitized. Total weight and total length of all 334 mullet specimens examined were used for adjusting the weight-length relationship curve and calculating the relative condition factor (Kn. The 118 specimens infested with monogenoideans on average had lower weights than expected (Kn 1.0. It was possible to infer that gill infestation with monogenoideans alters mullet weight, especially in the presence of co-infestation with Trichodina sp. and copepods.

  2. Lagrangian approach to understanding the origin of the gill-kinematics switch in mayfly nymphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabreyrie, R; Balaras, E; Abdelaziz, K; Kiger, K

    2014-12-01

    The mayfly nymph breathes under water through an oscillating array of plate-shaped tracheal gills. As the nymph grows, the kinematics of these gills change abruptly from rowing to flapping. The classical fluid dynamics approach to consider the mayfly nymph as a pumping device fails in giving clear reasons for this switch. In order to shed some light on this switch between the two distinct kinematics, we analyze the problem under a Lagrangian viewpoint. We consider that a good Lagrangian transport that effectively distributes and stirs water and dissolved oxygen between and around the gills is the main goal of the gill motion. Using this Lagrangian approach, we are able to provide possible reasons behind the observed switch from rowing to flapping. More precisely, we conduct a series of in silico mayfly nymph experiments, where body shape, as well as gill shapes, structures, and kinematics are matched to those from in vivo. In this paper, we show both qualitatively and quantitatively how the change of kinematics enables better attraction, confinement, and stirring of water charged of dissolved oxygen inside the gills area. We reveal the attracting barriers to transport, i.e., attracting Lagrangian coherent structures, that form the transport skeleton between and around the gills. In addition, we quantify how well the fluid particles are stirred inside the gills area, which by extension leads us to conclude that it will increase the proneness of molecules of dissolved oxygen to be close enough to the gills for extraction.

  3. Effects of age and season on haematological parameters of donkeys during the rainy and cold-dry seasons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakari, Friday Ocheja; Ayo, Joseph Olusegun; Rekwot, Peter Ibrahim; Kawu, Mohammed Umar

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of age and season on haematological parameters of donkeys at rest during the rainy and cold-dry seasons. Thirty healthy donkeys divided into three groups based on their age served as the subjects. During each season, blood sample was collected from each donkey thrice, 2 weeks apart, for haematological analysis, and the dry-bulb temperature (DBT), relative humidity (RH) and temperature-humidity index (THI) were obtained thrice each day during the experimental period using standard procedures. During the rainy season, the mean DBT (33.05 ± 0.49 °C), RH (73.63 ± 1.09 %) and THI (84.39 ± 0.71) were higher ( P donkeys were higher ( P donkeys were higher ( P < 0.05) in the rainy than in the cold-dry season. In conclusion, PCV, RBC, Hb and LYM were considerably higher in foals than yearlings or adults during the rainy season, while erythrocytic indices and platelet counts were higher in adults or yearlings than in foals in both seasons. Erythrocytic indices, PLT and N/L were higher in the rainy than the cold-dry season in adults, yearlings and foals.

  4. Effects of seasonal variations on thermoregulation of ostrich

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basuony, H.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Twelve ostrich aged 7 months old were used during summer and winter from the breeding flock of the ostrich farm, at the Nuclear Research Center in Inshas, of Atomic Energy Authority, Egypt. In the study all birds were exposed to ambient temperatures in summer and winter, and the birds were fed grower ration ad libitum (19% protein and 2450 K cal ME /Kg).The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of temperature variation during summer and winter seasons and diurnal effect on changes in some physiological and blood chemical parameters, the daily feed consumption (g/bird/day) and water consumption (ml/bird/day) these parameters were measured during 7 days in each season. Cloacal temperatures was measured and blood samples were taken twice, one in the morning at 7 am and once in the afternoon at 3 pm during a representative 7 hot days of June (40±2 degree C) (summer) and the 7 cold days of January (18±2 degree C) (winter). Red blood cell (RBCs) counts and total white blood cell (WBCs) counts, hemoglobin concentration (Hb) and packed cell volume (PCV) were determined. Mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentrations (MCHC) were calculated. Serum, total protein (TP), albumen (A) and globulin (G) concentrations were measured. Furthermore, serum alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), glucose and triglycerides concentrations were determined. Also, serum triiodothyronine (T 3 ), and aldosterone levels were estimated. Also, the amount of total body water was determined by the antipyren method. Finally, serum protein profile it was conducted by Native-PAGE method (Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis) on vertical slab gel to determine protein profiles in blood proteins of ostrich. Results indicated that feed consumption unlike water consumption was significantly increased during winter than in summer season. Moreover, body temperature increased significantly during the

  5. Cost-effectiveness of decompression according to Gill versus instrumented spondylodesis in the treatment of sciatica due to low grade spondylolytic spondylolisthesis: a prospective randomised controlled trial [NTR1300].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arts, Mark P; Verstegen, Marco J T; Brand, Ronald; Koes, Bart W; van den Akker, M Elske; Peul, Wilco C

    2008-09-28

    Nerve root decompression with instrumented spondylodesis is the most frequently performed surgical procedure in the treatment of patients with symptomatic low-grade spondylolytic spondylolisthesis. Nerve root decompression without instrumented fusion, i.e. Gill's procedure, is an alternative and less invasive approach. A comparative cost-effectiveness study has not been performed yet. We present the design of a randomised controlled trial on cost-effectiveness of decompression according to Gill versus instrumented spondylodesis. All patients (age between 18 and 70 years) with sciatica or neurogenic claudication lasting more than 3 months due to spondylolytic spondylolisthesis grade I or II, are eligible for inclusion. Patients will be randomly allocated to nerve root decompression according to Gill, either unilateral or bilateral, or pedicle screw fixation with interbody fusion. The main primary outcome measure is the functional assessment of the patient measured with the Roland Disability Questionnaire for Sciatica at 12 weeks and 2 years. Other primary outcome measures are perceived recovery and intensity of leg pain and low back pain. The secondary outcome measures include, incidence of re-operations, complications, serum creatine phosphokinase, quality of life, medical consumption, costs, absenteeism, work perception, depression and anxiety, and treatment preference. The study is a randomised prospective multicenter trial in which two surgical techniques are compared in a parallel group design. Patients and research nurse will not be blinded during the follow-up period of 2 years. Currently, nerve root decompression with instrumented fusion is the golden standard in the surgical treatment of low-grade spondylolytic spondylolisthesis, although scientific proof justifying instrumented spondylodesis over simple decompression is lacking. This trial is designed to elucidate the controversy in best surgical treatment of symptomatic patients with low

  6. Cost-effectiveness of decompression according to Gill versus instrumented spondylodesis in the treatment of sciatica due to low grade spondylolytic spondylolisthesis: A prospective randomised controlled trial [NTR1300

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brand Ronald

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nerve root decompression with instrumented spondylodesis is the most frequently performed surgical procedure in the treatment of patients with symptomatic low-grade spondylolytic spondylolisthesis. Nerve root decompression without instrumented fusion, i.e. Gill's procedure, is an alternative and less invasive approach. A comparative cost-effectiveness study has not been performed yet. We present the design of a randomised controlled trial on cost-effectiveness of decompression according to Gill versus instrumented spondylodesis. Methods/design All patients (age between 18 and 70 years with sciatica or neurogenic claudication lasting more than 3 months due to spondylolytic spondylolisthesis grade I or II, are eligible for inclusion. Patients will be randomly allocated to nerve root decompression according to Gill, either unilateral or bilateral, or pedicle screw fixation with interbody fusion. The main primary outcome measure is the functional assessment of the patient measured with the Roland Disability Questionnaire for Sciatica at 12 weeks and 2 years. Other primary outcome measures are perceived recovery and intensity of leg pain and low back pain. The secondary outcome measures include, incidence of re-operations, complications, serum creatine phosphokinase, quality of life, medical consumption, costs, absenteeism, work perception, depression and anxiety, and treatment preference. The study is a randomised prospective multicenter trial in which two surgical techniques are compared in a parallel group design. Patients and research nurse will not be blinded during the follow-up period of 2 years. Discussion Currently, nerve root decompression with instrumented fusion is the golden standard in the surgical treatment of low-grade spondylolytic spondylolisthesis, although scientific proof justifying instrumented spondylodesis over simple decompression is lacking. This trial is designed to elucidate the controversy in best

  7. Effect of season on peripheral resistance to localised cold stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, M.; Harimura, Y.; Tochihara, Y.; Yamazaki, S.; Ohnaka, T.; Matsui, J.; Yoshida, K.

    1984-03-01

    This study was carried out to determine the effect that seasonal changes have on the effect of localised cold stress on peripheral temperatures using the foot immersion method with a cold water bath. The subjects were six males and four females. The data were obtained in April, July, October and January. Skin temperature of the right index finger, the forehead, the arm, the cheek, the second toe and the instep were measured before, during and after the immersion of the feet in water at 15°C for 10 mins, as well as oxygen consumption before immersion of the feet. The average finger temperature was highest during foot immersion in the summer, next highest in the winter, then spring, and the lowest during foot immersion in the autumn. The finger temperatures during the pre-immersion period in the autumn tended to be lower than in other seasons. The finger temperatures during the pre-immersion period affected the temperature change of the finger during the immersion period. The rate of increase of the toe temperature and the foot temperature during post-immersion in the summer and the spring were greater than those in the autumn and winter. Oxygen consumption during the pre-immersion period in the autumn was significantly lower than in the other seasons (pCooling the feet caused no significant changes in the temperatures the cheek, forehead or forearm. The cheek temperature in the summer and autumn was cooler than corresponding temperatures taken in the winter and spring.

  8. Characterization of copper transport in gill cells of a mangrove crab Ucides cordatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sá, M.G. [Biosciences Institute, Department of Physiology, University of São Paulo, Rua do Matão, Travessa 14, 101, São Paulo 05508-900, SP (Brazil); Zanotto, F.P., E-mail: fzanotto@usp.br [Biosciences Institute, Department of Physiology, University of São Paulo, Rua do Matão, Travessa 14, 101, São Paulo 05508-900, SP (Brazil); Department of Biophysics, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo, Rua Três de Maio 100, Sao Paulo 04044-020 (Brazil)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •Copper transport in gill cells of a mangrove crab Ucides cordatus is dependent of calcium. •Copper transport mechanism is ATP-dependent. •Transport was monitored second by second during 300 s. -- Abstract: The branchial epithelium of crustaceans is exposed to the environment and is the first site affected by metal pollution. The aim of this work was to characterize copper (Cu) transport using a fluorescent dye, Phen Green, in gill cells of a hypo-hyper-regulator mangrove crab Ucides cordatus. The results showed that added extracellular CuCl{sub 2} (0, 0.025, 0.150, 0.275, 0.550 and 1.110 μM) showed typical Michaelis–Menten transport for Cu in anterior and posterior gill cells (V{sub max} for anterior and posterior gills: 0.41 ± 0.12 and 1.76 ± 0.27 intracellular Cu in μM × 22.10{sup 4} cells{sup −1} × 300 s{sup −1} respectively and K{sub m} values: 0.44 ± 0.04 and 0.32 ± 0.13 μM, respectively). Intracellular Cu was significantly higher for posterior gill cells compared to anterior gill cells, suggesting differential accumulation for each gill type. Extracellular Ca at 20 mM decreased cellular Cu transport for both anterior and posterior gill cells. Nifedipine and verapamil, calcium channel inhibitors from plasma membrane, decreased Cu transport and affected K{sub m} for both gills. These results could be due to a competition between Cu and Ca. Amiloride, a Na/Ca exchanger inhibitor, as well as bafilomycin, a proton pump inhibitor, caused a decrease of intracellular Cu compared to control. Ouabain and KB-R 7943, acting on Na homeostasis, similarly decreased intracellular Cu in both gill cells. Besides that, gill cells exposed to ATP and Cu simultaneously, showed an increase in intracellular copper, which was inhibited by vanadate, an inhibitor of P-type ATPase. These results suggest either the presence of a Cu-ATPase in crab gill cells, responsible for Cu influx, or the effect of a change in electrochemical membrane potential that

  9. Characterization of copper transport in gill cells of a mangrove crab Ucides cordatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sá, M.G.; Zanotto, F.P.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Copper transport in gill cells of a mangrove crab Ucides cordatus is dependent of calcium. •Copper transport mechanism is ATP-dependent. •Transport was monitored second by second during 300 s. -- Abstract: The branchial epithelium of crustaceans is exposed to the environment and is the first site affected by metal pollution. The aim of this work was to characterize copper (Cu) transport using a fluorescent dye, Phen Green, in gill cells of a hypo-hyper-regulator mangrove crab Ucides cordatus. The results showed that added extracellular CuCl 2 (0, 0.025, 0.150, 0.275, 0.550 and 1.110 μM) showed typical Michaelis–Menten transport for Cu in anterior and posterior gill cells (V max for anterior and posterior gills: 0.41 ± 0.12 and 1.76 ± 0.27 intracellular Cu in μM × 22.10 4 cells −1 × 300 s −1 respectively and K m values: 0.44 ± 0.04 and 0.32 ± 0.13 μM, respectively). Intracellular Cu was significantly higher for posterior gill cells compared to anterior gill cells, suggesting differential accumulation for each gill type. Extracellular Ca at 20 mM decreased cellular Cu transport for both anterior and posterior gill cells. Nifedipine and verapamil, calcium channel inhibitors from plasma membrane, decreased Cu transport and affected K m for both gills. These results could be due to a competition between Cu and Ca. Amiloride, a Na/Ca exchanger inhibitor, as well as bafilomycin, a proton pump inhibitor, caused a decrease of intracellular Cu compared to control. Ouabain and KB-R 7943, acting on Na homeostasis, similarly decreased intracellular Cu in both gill cells. Besides that, gill cells exposed to ATP and Cu simultaneously, showed an increase in intracellular copper, which was inhibited by vanadate, an inhibitor of P-type ATPase. These results suggest either the presence of a Cu-ATPase in crab gill cells, responsible for Cu influx, or the effect of a change in electrochemical membrane potential that could also drive Cu to the gill cell

  10. Prolactin receptors in liver, kidney, and gill of the tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus): Characterization and effect of salinity on specific binding of iodinated ovine prolactin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dauder, S.; Young, G.; Hass, L.; Bern, H.A.

    1990-01-01

    Specific binding of 125 I-ovine prolactin (oPRL) to microsomal fractions from gill, kidney, and liver of adult tilapia was determined. Specific binding varied among tissues, the highest values being displayed by kidney membranes. In the liver, the binding of oPRL was not strongly displaced by tilapia prolactins (tPRL177 and tPRL188), although tPRL177 was six times more potent than tPRL188. On the other hand, in kidney and gill membranes, the two tPRLs were equipotent. Tilapia PRLs showed low potency in competing for oPRL-binding sites when pregnant rat liver membranes were utilized. Tilapia growth hormone (tGH) and human growth hormone (hGH) displaced 125 I-oPRL from liver as well as did tPRL177 but were not recognized well by renal or branchial receptors. Two 125 I-oPRL-binding sites were detected in every tissue tested. These binding sites are subject to physiological regulation since adaptation to seawater resulted in a significant decrease in specific binding

  11. Effects of two water disinfectants (chloramine T and peracetic acid) on the epidermis and gills of Garra rufa used in human ichthyotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirri, R; Zaccaroni, A; Di Biase, A; Mordenti, O; Stancampiano, L; Sarli, G; Mandrioli, L

    2013-01-01

    Doctor fish (Garra rufa) have recently been used for aesthetic purposes and as a medical treatment in patients with psoriasis (ichthyotherapy). For this particular kind of human therapy it is essential to guarantee adequate hygienic conditions for both people and fish. The aim of this study was to test two concentrations of water disinfectants, chloramine T and peracetic acid, on Garra rufa to ascertain possible exposure damage to the epidermis and gills. Fish were exposed to 2 mg/l and 10 mg/l of chloramine T and to 15 microl/l and 45 microl/l of peracetic acid in a 40-minute static bath up to six times a day for one week. The epidermis and gills were checked for histological changes and the number of epidermal mucous cells, club cells and taste buds were quantified; mucous cells were also characterized histochemically to detect alterations in mucin production. No mortality or severe histological changes were found in treated or control fish. Cell count showed a significant increase (p peracetic acid independently of the dose. Club cell number showed a significant (p peracetic acid (mean 78.17 +/- 10.5) compared to controls (mean 107.0 +/- 19.2). Histochemical evaluation of mucous cells did not reveal changes in mucin type in fish exposed to the two disinfectants. The results suggest a good tolerability of Garra rufa to the two disinfectants at the concentrations tested.

  12. Gilles Jobin Collide@CERN - Strangels Intervention

    CERN Multimedia

    Gregory Batardon

    2012-01-01

    STRANGELS Cie Gilles Jobin. Site specific choreographic intervention inside the CERN's library. Three strangels on a migration to another dimension rest at the CERN's library. Strangels need food for thoughts. Do not pay attention to them they are only strangels. Dancers : Ruth Childs, Susana Panadès Diaz, Gilles Jobin

  13. Comparison of the Effect of Dry Cupping Therapy and Acupressure at BL23 Point on Intensity of Postpartum Perineal Pain Based on the Short Form of McGill Pain Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbarzade, Marzieh; Ghaemmaghami, Mehrnoush; Yazdanpanahi, Zahra; Zare, Najaf; Mohagheghzadeh, Abdolali; Azizi, Amir

    2016-01-01

    Perineal pain is a major morbidity in the first few days after delivery. This study aimed to investigate the effect of dry cupping therapy and acupressure at BL23 point on the intensity of postpartum perineal pain based on the short-form of McGill pain questionnaire (SMPQ). The present clinical trial was conducted on 150 subjects in 3 groups of 50 cases. After at least 4-8 hr of delivery, cupping therapy was performed for 15-20 min up to 3 times a week (once a day) and acupressure was performed for 15-20 min based on clockwise model. The short-form of McGill pain questionnaire was completed both before and after the intervention. The SPSS statistical software was used to analyze the data using repeated measures ANOVA. Besides, pcupping therapy group, mean of the perineal pain intensity reduced from 37.5±6.8 before the intervention to 11.1±6.1, 6.9±4.7, and 3.8±3.6 immediately, 24 hr, and 2 weeks after the intervention, respectively. The results of study showed that the differences between the intervention and control groups were statistically significant (pcupping therapy and acupressure reduced perineal pain. Therefore, they may be considered as effective treatments for reducing pain intensity of allowing delivery.

  14. Distribution of Hatschekia pagellibogneravei (Copepoda: Hatschekiidae) on the gills of Pagellus bogaraveo (Teleostei: Sparidae) from Madeira, Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermida, Margarida; Cruz, Cristina; Saraiva, Aurélia

    2012-06-01

    A population of the gill parasite Hatschekia pagellibogneravei (Hesse, 1878) was studied on one of its sparid fish hosts, the blackspot seabream, Pagellus bogaraveo (Brünnich), off the coast of Madeira Island, Portugal, northeast Atlantic. Very high infection levels of this copepod were detected, with no significant seasonal differences. Abundance was negatively correlated with fish size. There were significant differences in the distribution of this copepod among the gill arches of the host, which seem to be best explained by differences in water flow within the gill habitat.

  15. Characterization of cadmium plasma membrane transport in gills of a mangrove crab Ucides cordatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortega, P.; Custódio, M.R.; Zanotto, F.P.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Cd 2+ gill cell transport, a non-essential toxic metal, was characterized in a hypo-hyper-regulating mangrove crab Ucides cordatus. • Cd 2+ enter gill cells through Ca 2+ channels and is dependent of intracellular Ca 2+ levels. • Route of entry in gill cells also involves a Cd 2+ /Ca 2+ (2Na) exchanger. • Cd transport depends on Na + /K + -ATPase and gill cell electrochemical gradient. • Vanadate inhibits gill Cd 2+ transport and ouabain increase gill Cd 2+ transport. - Abstract: Membrane pathway for intracellular cadmium (Cd 2+ ) accumulation is not fully elucidated in many organisms and has not been studied in crab gill cells. To characterize membrane Cd 2+ transport of anterior and posterior gill cells of Ucides cordatus, a hypo-hyper-regulating crab, a change in intracellular Cd 2+ concentration under various experimental conditions was examined by using FluoZin, a fluorescent probe. The membrane Cd 2+ transport was estimated by the augmentation of FluoZin fluorescence induced by extracellular application of CdCl 2 and different inhibitors. Addition of extracellular calcium (Ca 2+ ) to the cells affected little the fluorescence of FluoZin, confirming that Cd 2+ was the main ion increasing intracellular fluorescence. Ca 2+ channels blockers (nimodipine and verapamil) decreased Cd 2+ influx as well as vanadate, a Ca 2+ -ATPase blocker. Chelating intracellular Ca 2+ (BAPTA) decreased Cd 2+ influx in gill cells, while increasing intracellular Ca 2+ (caffeine) augmented Cd influx. Cd 2+ and ATP added at different temporal conditions were not effective at increasing intracellular Cd 2+ accumulation. Ouabain (Na + /K + -ATPase inhibitor) increased Cd 2+ influx probably through a change in intracellular Na and/or a change in cell membrane potential. Routes of Cd 2+ influx, a non-essential metal, through the gill cell plasma membrane of crabs are suggested

  16. Cellular and humoral factors involved in the response of rainbow trout gills to Ichthyophthirius multifiliis infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Moonika Marana; Kania, Per Walter; Heinecke, Rasmus Demuth

    2011-01-01

    a significant down-regulating effect on genes incoding IgT, IgM, CD4, CD8, IFN-g, IL-8 and IL-22 in all groups. Immunohistochemistry, using monoclonal antibodies to detect cellular markers, demonstrated active involvement of CD8, MHC II, IgT and IgM positive cells in gill tissue. Putative T-cells (CD8 positive...... cells) were detected in the intraepithelial lymphoid tissue located at the base of gill filaments and in hyperplastic gill tissue but following infection a clear efflux of these cells was detected. MHC II positive cells were distributed across the gill filaments and accumulated in hyperplastic tissue...... in gill arterioles and the lamellar capillaries. The present work indicates an intensive activity and specialized function of immune cells (B-cells, T-cells and macrophages) and humoral elements such as immunoglobulins IgT and IgM which are orchestrated by cytokines in gill tissue reacting against I...

  17. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles modulate the toxicological response to cadmium in the gills of Mytilus galloprovincialis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Della Torre, Camilla; Balbi, Teresa; Grassi, Giacomo; Frenzilli, Giada; Bernardeschi, Margherita; Smerilli, Arianna; Guidi, Patrizia; Canesi, Laura; Nigro, Marco; Monaci, Fabrizio; Scarcelli, Vittoria; Rocco, Lucia; Focardi, Silvano; Monopoli, Marco; Corsi, Ilaria

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Nano-TiO 2 modulate CdCl 2 cellular responses in gills of marine mussel. • Nano-TiO 2 reduced CdCl 2 -induced effects by lowering abcb1 m-RNA and GST activity. • Nano-TiO 2 reduced Cd accumulation in mussel’s gills but not in whole soft tissue. • Higher accumulation of Ti in the presence of CdCl 2 was observed in gills. - Abstract: We investigated the influence of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nano-TiO 2 ) on the response to cadmium in the gills of the marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis in terms of accumulation and toxicity. Mussels were in vivo exposed to nano-TiO 2 , CdCl 2 , alone and in combination. Several cellular biomarkers were investigated in gills: ABC transport proteins and metallothioneins at gene/protein (abcb1, abcc-like and mt-20) and functional level, GST activity, NO production and DNA damage (Comet assay). Accumulation of total Cd and titanium in gills as in whole soft tissue was also investigated. Significant responses to Cd exposure were observed in mussel gills as up-regulation of abcb1 and mt-20 gene transcription, increases in total MT content, P-gp efflux and GST activity, DNA damage and NO production. Nano-TiO 2 alone increased P-gp efflux activity and NO production. When combined with Cd, nano-TiO 2 reduced the metal-induced effects by significantly lowering abcb1 gene transcription, GST activity, and DNA damage, whereas, additive effects were observed on NO production. A lower concentration of Cd was observed in the gills upon co-exposure, whereas, Ti levels were unaffected. A competitive effect in uptake/accumulation of nano-TiO 2 and Cd seems to occur in gills. A confirmation is given by the observed absence of adsorption of Cd onto nano-TiO 2 in sea water media

  18. Intraspecific variation in gill morphology of juvenile Nile perch, Lates niloticus, in Lake Nabugabo, Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Jaclyn A.; Chapman, Lauren J.; Schofield, Pamela J.

    2010-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated intraspecific variation in fish gill size that relates to variation in dissolved oxygen (DO) availability across habitats. In Lake Nabugabo, East Africa, ecological change over the past 12 years has coincided with a shift in the distribution of introduced Nile perch such that a larger proportion of the population now inhabits waters in or near wetland ecotones where DO is lower than in open waters of the lake. In this study, we compared gill size of juvenile Nile perch between wetland and exposed (open-water) habitats of Lake Nabugabo in 2007, as well as between Nile perch collected in 1996 and 2007. For Nile perch of Lake Nabugabo [<20 cm total length (TL)], there was a significant habitat effect on some gill traits. In general, fish from wetland habitats were characterized by a longer total gill filament length and average gill filament length than conspecifics from exposed habitats. Nile perch collected from wetland areas in 2007 had significantly larger gills (total gill filament length) than Nile perch collected in 1996, but there was no difference detected between Nile perch collected from exposed sites in 2007 and conspecifics collected in 1996.

  19. Hydrodynamic resistance and flow patterns in the gills of a tilapine fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strother, James A

    2013-07-15

    The gills of teleost fishes are often discussed as an archetypal counter-current exchange system, capable of supporting the relatively high metabolic rates of some fishes despite the low oxygen solubility of water. Despite an appreciation for the physiology of exchange at the gills, many questions remain regarding the hydrodynamical basis of ventilation in teleost fishes. In this study, the hydrodynamic resistance and flow fields around the isolated gills of a tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus, were measured as a function of the applied pressure head. At ventilatory pressures typical of a fish at rest, the hydrodynamic resistance of the gills was nearly constant, the flow was laminar, shunting of water around the gills was essentially absent, and the distribution of water flow was relatively uniform. However, at the higher pressures typical of an active or stressed fish, some of these qualities were lost. In particular, at elevated pressures there was a decrease in the hydrodynamic resistance of the gills and substantial shunting of water around the gills. These effects suggest mechanical limits to maximum aerobic performance during activity or under adverse environmental conditions.

  20. Effects of orally administered chemotherapeutics (quinine, salinomycin) against Henneguya sp. Thelohán, 1892 (Myxozoa: Myxobolidae), a gill parasite in the tapir fish Gnathonemus petersii Günther, 1862 (Teleostei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohle, Angelika; Schmahl, Günter; Raether, Wolfgang; Schmidt, Hartmut; Ritter, Günter

    2002-09-01

    When given orally, quinine or salinomycin cause irreversible damage to the plasmodial developmental stages of Henneguya sp., a gill parasite in the tapir fish Gnathonemus petersii. Naturally infected tapir fish measured 75-169 mm in total length and their total weight ranged over 4.3-11.7 g. The fish bore 7-77 plasmodia in their gill arches. Medicinal food containing either quinine (5 g/1000 g food) or salinomycin (0.075 g/1000 g food) was given once a day to naturally infected fish in a food chain via water fleas ( Daphnia spp) for a period of 3, 6, or 9 days. From the monitored feeding of the tapir fish and weight determinations of the water fleas, it was calculated that gross uptake was 18.5 micro g/kg body weight fish daily for pure salinomycin and was 1.25 mg/kg body weight daily for quinine. After the end of the experiments, the fish were sacrificed and the plasmodia were carefully prepared from the gill arches and processed for transmission electron microscopy. As seen by ultrastructure investigations, for both substances the grade of damage in the parasites correlated positively with the period of application. When quinine was given for a 3-day period, the trophozoite ecto- and endoplasm exerted numerous vacuoles, caused by the drug, and the presporogonous and the pansporoblastic stages were malformed. Following a 6-day period, numerous abortive polar capsules were found in the trophozoite cytoplasm. To a large extent, the limiting membranes of the polaroblasts and valvogenic cells were destroyed. In addition, deep clefts between the polaroblasts, the valvogenic cells and between the two sporoblasts were observed. Following a 9-day treatment, all damage increased and, in addition, generative cells and two-cell stages were no longer detectable. As a first sign for the effects of salinomycin, following a 3-day treatment, a shrinking of the whole plasmodia occurred and the sutures in the pansporoblasts were enlarged. The polar capsules were malformed and the

  1. EFFECTS OF SEASON OF SOWING ON WATER USE AND YIELD ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (Received 9 May, 2000; accepted 5 May, 2002) Abstract Soil water availability is a major constraint to crop production in the post-rainy season period in the humid tropics. The seasonal pattern of water use was, therefore, studied in field-grown tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) during two consecutive rainy and post-rainy ...

  2. The 2009-2010 influenza pandemic: effects on pandemic and seasonal vaccine uptake and lessons learned for seasonal vaccination campaigns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poland, Gregory A

    2010-09-07

    Individual and national/cultural differences were apparent in response to the 2009-2010 influenza pandemic. Overall pandemic influenza immunization rates were low across all nations, including among healthcare workers. Among the reasons for the low coverage rates may have been a lack of concern about the individual risk of influenza, which may translate into a lack of willingness or urgency to be vaccinated, particularly if there is mistrust of information provided by public health or governmental authorities. Intuitively, a link between willingness to be vaccinated against seasonal influenza and against pandemic influenza exists, given the similarities in decision-making for this infection. As such, the public is likely to share common concerns regarding pandemic and seasonal influenza vaccination, particularly in the areas of vaccine safety and side effects, and personal risk. Given the public's perception of the low level of virulence of the recent pandemic influenza virus, there is concern that the perception of a lack of personal risk of infection and risk of vaccine side effects could adversely affect seasonal vaccine uptake. While governments are more often concerned about public anxiety and panic, as well as absenteeism of healthcare and other essential workers during a pandemic, convincing the public of the threat posed by pandemic or seasonal influenza is often the more difficult, and underappreciated task. Thus, appropriate, timely, and data-driven health information are very important issues in increasing influenza vaccine coverage, perhaps even more so in western societies where trust in government and public health reports may be lower than in other countries. This article explores what has been learned about cross-cultural responses to pandemic influenza, and seeks to apply those lessons to seasonal influenza immunization programs. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Genotoxicity of freshwater ecosystem shows DNA damage in preponderant fish as validated by in vivo micronucleus induction in gill and kidney erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obiakor, M O; Okonkwo, J C; Ezeonyejiaku, C D

    2014-12-01

    Genotoxicity of Anambra River was studied by micronucleus (MN) assay of preponderant fish species in the river. The micronucleus indices obtained were used as biomarker to estimate and predict pollution profile and possible danger of feeding on the aquatic species. Micronuclei profile of the fish was measured from gill and kidney erythrocytes using microscopic technique. Season, species and location effects on micronuclei, together with their interactions were also determined. Two major seasons (rainy and dry) and preponderant fish species in the river (Synodontis clarias, Linnaeus, 1758 and Tilapia nilotica, Linnaeus, 1757) were studied at five distinct locations that displayed differential environmental stresses. The study showed that the micronucleus index of fish is an excellent biomarker for measuring pollution level and genotoxicity of freshwater habitat. Season, species of fish and location affect micronuclei profile of the fish species sampled in the river. Disease outbreak among rural dwellers depending on the river for domestic and other uses is imminent and they lack knowledge on its health implication. Moreover, the study maintained that the micronuclei in fish could be measured from either the gill or kidney; however, gill is more efficient as it enables collection of several samples from the same individuals without sacrificing it, and Synodontis clarias fish species appeared to be more vulnerable to the genotoxic damage than Tilapia nilotica. Consequently, the study recommended regular monitoring (micronucleus tests) of edible aquatic life such as Synodontis clarias in order to eliminate the danger of people feeding on toxic metals, some of which are carcinogenic. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Vaccine Effectiveness - How Well Does the Seasonal Flu Vaccine Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... work. CDC has been working with researchers at universities and hospitals since the 2003-2004 flu season ... maintained by: Office of the Associate Director for Communication, Digital Media Branch, Division of Public Affairs Email ...

  5. Effect of mycorrhiza and pruning regimes on seasonality of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GRACE

    2006-07-16

    Jul 16, 2006 ... seasonality of hedgerow tree mulch contribution to alley-cropped ... Field experiments were carried out on an alley-cropping farm in Ajibode village, near Ibadan where cassava ...... Research Guide series 61. p.27. Osonubi O ...

  6. Growth of nacre in abalone: Seasonal and feeding effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, M.I.; Chen, P.Y.; McKittrick, J.; Meyers, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    The processes of aggregation of mineral and organic materials to the growing surfaces in red abalone (Haliotis rufescens) are analyzed. The flat pearl implantation method is used to observe the transient stages of calcium carbonate deposition, the structure of the organic interlayer, and the steady-state growth of aragonite tiles. The morphology of the organic interlayer is characterized by scanning electron microscopy. These results enable a realistic depiction of the formation of the terraced cones that comprise the principal biomineralization mechanism in this gastropod. In all cases, the growth initiated through spherulites, followed by tile formation. The transient stage with spherulitic formation was shorter at higher temperature; this is indicative of a greater activity of the animal at 21 deg. C. The growth rate in a normally fed gastropod was found to be higher compared with one provided with limited food. The effect of water temperature (seasonal) was also established, with growth proceeding faster in the summer (T ∼ 21 deg. C) than in winter (15 deg. C). The structures of the organic interlayer and of the epithelium are revealed by scanning electron microscopy.

  7. Growth of nacre in abalone: Seasonal and feeding effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, M.I., E-mail: mil032@ucsd.edu; Chen, P.Y.; McKittrick, J.; Meyers, M.A.

    2011-03-12

    The processes of aggregation of mineral and organic materials to the growing surfaces in red abalone (Haliotis rufescens) are analyzed. The flat pearl implantation method is used to observe the transient stages of calcium carbonate deposition, the structure of the organic interlayer, and the steady-state growth of aragonite tiles. The morphology of the organic interlayer is characterized by scanning electron microscopy. These results enable a realistic depiction of the formation of the terraced cones that comprise the principal biomineralization mechanism in this gastropod. In all cases, the growth initiated through spherulites, followed by tile formation. The transient stage with spherulitic formation was shorter at higher temperature; this is indicative of a greater activity of the animal at 21 deg. C. The growth rate in a normally fed gastropod was found to be higher compared with one provided with limited food. The effect of water temperature (seasonal) was also established, with growth proceeding faster in the summer (T {approx} 21 deg. C) than in winter (15 deg. C). The structures of the organic interlayer and of the epithelium are revealed by scanning electron microscopy.

  8. The effect of seasonality on burn incidence, severity and outcome in Central Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyson, Anna F; Gallaher, Jared; Mjuweni, Stephen; Cairns, Bruce A; Charles, Anthony G

    2017-08-01

    In much of the world, burns are more common in cold months. However, few studies have described the seasonality of burns in sub-Saharan Africa. This study examines the effect of seasonality on the incidence and outcome of burns in central Malawi. A retrospective analysis was performed at Kamuzu Central Hospital and included all patients admitted from May 2011 to August 2014. Demographic data, burn mechanism, total body surface area (%TBSA), and mortality were analyzed. Seasons were categorized as Rainy (December-February), Lush (March-May), Cold (June-August) and Hot (September-November). A negative binomial regression was used to assess the effect of seasonality on burn incidence. This was performed using both the raw and deseasonalized data in order to evaluate for trends not attributable to random fluctuation. A total of 905 patients were included. Flame (38%) and Scald (59%) burns were the most common mechanism. More burns occurred during the cold season (41% vs 19-20% in the other seasons). Overall mortality was 19%. Only the cold season had a statistically significant increase in burn . The incidence rate ratios (IRR) for the hot, lush, and cold seasons were 0.94 (CI 0.6-1.32), 1.02 (CI 0.72-1.45) and 1.6 (CI 1.17-2.19), respectively, when compared to the rainy season. Burn severity and mortality did not differ between seasons. The results of this study demonstrate the year-round phenomenon of burns treated at our institution, and highlights the slight predominance of burns during the cold season. These data can be used to guide prevention strategies, with special attention to the implications of the increased burn incidence during the cold season. Though burn severity and mortality remain relatively unchanged between seasons, recognizing the seasonal variability in incidence of burns is critical for resource allocation in this low-income setting. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  9. Cost-effectiveness of decompression according to Gill versus instrumented spondylodesis in the treatment of sciatica due to low grade spondylolytic spondylolisthesis: A prospective randomised controlled trial [NTR1300

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P. Arts (Mark); M.J.T. Verstegen (Marco); R. Brand (René); B.W. Koes (Bart); M.E. van den Akker-van Marle (Elske); W.C. Peul (Wilco)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBackground. Nerve root decompression with instrumented spondylodesis is the most frequently performed surgical procedure in the treatment of patients with symptomatic low-grade spondylolytic spondylolisthesis. Nerve root decompression without instrumented fusion, i.e. Gill's procedure,

  10. CYP1A inhibition in fish gill filaments: A novel assay applied on pharmaceuticals and other chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beijer, Kristina; Abrahamson, Alexandra; Brunstroem, Bjoern [Department of Environmental Toxicology, Uppsala University, Norbyvaegen 18A, SE-752 36 Uppsala (Sweden); Brandt, Ingvar, E-mail: ingvar.brandt@ebc.uu.se [Department of Environmental Toxicology, Uppsala University, Norbyvaegen 18A, SE-752 36 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2010-01-31

    The gill filament 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) assay was originally developed as a biomarker for cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) induction by Ah-receptor agonists in water. In this study, the assay was adapted to measure inhibition of CYP1A activity in fish gill filaments ex vivo. The experiments were carried out using gill arch filaments from {beta}-naphthoflavone ({beta}NF)-exposed three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). Candidate CYP1A inhibitors were added to the assay buffer. Nine selected pharmaceuticals and five known or suspected CYP1A-modulating chemicals were examined with regard to their ability to reduce EROD activity in gill filaments. Ellipticine, a well characterized CYP1A inhibitor, was the most effective inhibitor of the compounds tested. At a concentration in the assay buffer of 1 {mu}M the antifungal azoles ketoconazole, miconazole and bitertanol, and the plant flavonoid acacetin reduced gill EROD activity by more than 50%, implying IC50 values below 1 {mu}M. These compounds have previously been shown to inhibit EROD activity in liver microsomes from fish and mammals at similar concentrations. The proton pump inhibitor omeprazole reduced the gill EROD activity by 39% at 10 {mu}M. It is concluded that the modified gill filament EROD assay is useful to screen for waterborne pollutants that inhibit catalytic CYP1A activity in fish gills.

  11. CYP1A inhibition in fish gill filaments: A novel assay applied on pharmaceuticals and other chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beijer, Kristina; Abrahamson, Alexandra; Brunstroem, Bjoern; Brandt, Ingvar

    2010-01-01

    The gill filament 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) assay was originally developed as a biomarker for cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) induction by Ah-receptor agonists in water. In this study, the assay was adapted to measure inhibition of CYP1A activity in fish gill filaments ex vivo. The experiments were carried out using gill arch filaments from β-naphthoflavone (βNF)-exposed three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). Candidate CYP1A inhibitors were added to the assay buffer. Nine selected pharmaceuticals and five known or suspected CYP1A-modulating chemicals were examined with regard to their ability to reduce EROD activity in gill filaments. Ellipticine, a well characterized CYP1A inhibitor, was the most effective inhibitor of the compounds tested. At a concentration in the assay buffer of 1 μM the antifungal azoles ketoconazole, miconazole and bitertanol, and the plant flavonoid acacetin reduced gill EROD activity by more than 50%, implying IC50 values below 1 μM. These compounds have previously been shown to inhibit EROD activity in liver microsomes from fish and mammals at similar concentrations. The proton pump inhibitor omeprazole reduced the gill EROD activity by 39% at 10 μM. It is concluded that the modified gill filament EROD assay is useful to screen for waterborne pollutants that inhibit catalytic CYP1A activity in fish gills.

  12. Effects of season and regulated photoperiod on the reproductive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    constant photoperiod (10 h light and 14 h darkness) and control sows (n = 187) ... Keywords: Season, regulated photoperiod, return to oestrus, farrowing rate, litter size .... were exposed to a minimum daylight cycle of 10.4 h during winter and a ...

  13. Effect of seasonal drawdown variations on groundwater quality in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2013-07-24

    Jul 24, 2013 ... each of the 10 selected zones and special attention was given to two abattoirs in .... levels during the two seasons was also shown in Figure. 1. There were ..... Ground Water and Surface Water Pollution by. Open Refuse dump ...

  14. Blue Oak Canopy Effect on Seasonal Forage Production and Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    William E. Frost; Neil K. McDougald; Montague W. Demment

    1991-01-01

    Forage production and forage quality were measured seasonally beneath the canopy of blue oak (Quercus douglasii) and in open grassland at the San Joaquin Experimental Range. At the March and peak standing crop sampling dates forage production was significantly greater (p=.05) beneath blue oak compared to open grassland. At most sampling dates, the...

  15. Learning to Teach--Gill's Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, Gill; Rowland, Tim

    2006-01-01

    Gill Hatch was a very fine mathematician. Indeed, following her undergraduate studies in Cambridge in the late 1950s, she was one of the elite who went on to the notoriously difficult Part III of the Mathematical Tripos. In this article, the author describes the autobiographical accounts of Hatch during her teaching career in teacher education, as…

  16. Histopathological evaluation of Oreochromis mossambicus gills and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oreochromis mossambicus were sampled from a semi-intensively managed polyculture earthen pond in Bagauda, Nigeria for histopathological changes in the gills and liver as early warning signs of pond water pollution. Pond water was sourced from nearby Bagauda dam through a single 28 inches water pipe.

  17. Effects of foraging mode and season on the energetics of the Marine Iguana, Amblyrhynchus cristatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drent, J; Lichtenbelt, WDV; Wikelski, M

    1, Marine Iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus) inhabiting the rocky shores of the Galapagos Islands apply two foraging strategies, intertidal and subtidal foraging, in a seasonal climate. Effects of both foraging strategy and seasonality on the daily energy expenditure (DEE) were measured using doubly

  18. Effectiveness of in-season manager changes in English Premier League Football

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besters, Lucas; van Ours, Jan; van Tuijl, Martin

    We analyze the performance effects of in-season manager changes in English Premier League football during the seasons 2000/2001–2014/2015. We find that some managerial changes are successful, while others are counterproductive. On average, performance does not improve following a managerial

  19. Effects of seasonality on drosophilids (Insecta, Diptera) in the northern part of the Atlantic Forest, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho-Silva, R D; Montes, M A; Oliveira, G F; de Carvalho-Neto, F G; Rohde, C; Garcia, A C L

    2017-10-01

    Seasonality is an important aspect associated with population dynamic and structure of tropical insect assemblages. This study evaluated the effects of seasonality on abundance, richness, diversity and composition of an insect group, drosophilids, including species native to the Neotropical region and exotic ones. Three preserved fragments of the northern Atlantic Forest were surveyed, where temperatures are above 20 °C throughout the year and rainfall regimes define two seasons (dry and rainy). As opposed to other studies about arthropods in tropical regions, we observed that abundance of drosophilids was significantly higher in the dry season, possibly due to biological aspects and the colonization strategy adopted by the exotic species in these environments. Contrarily to abundance, we did not observe a seasonal pattern for richness. As for other parts of the Atlantic Forest, the most representative Neotropical species (Drosophila willistoni, D. sturtevanti, D. paulistorum and D. prosaltans) were significantly more abundant in the rainy season. Among the most abundant exotic species, D. malerkotliana, Zaprionus indianus and Scaptodrosophila latifasciaeformis were more importantly represented the dry season, while D. simulans was more abundant in the rainy period. The seasonality patterns exhibited by the most abundant species were compared to findings published in other studies. Our results indicate that exotic species were significantly more abundant in the dry season, while native ones exhibited an opposite pattern.

  20. Effect of season on the quality of forages selected by sheep in citrus plantations in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonard K. Adjorlolo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed at assessing the effects of season on chemical composition of forages selected by sheep grazing in a citrus plantation. Forage species growing in a sweet orange (Citrus sinensis plantation were identified and sampled monthly for 2 years. Samples were bulked on monthly basis for chemical analysis. The average dry matter content of the forages increased from the rainy to the dry season but effects of season on the chemical components were inconsistent. Some species, such as Asystasia gangetica, had a higher crude protein concentration in the dry season, whereas for others, such as Panicum repens, the reverse occurred. However, average concentrations of crude protein, detergent fiber and components of fiber for all species for the rainy season were not significantly different from the dry season values. It was concluded that there were differences among forage species in their responses to changing seasons, such that grazing ruminants may select a diet to enable them to meet their nutritional requirements, provided forage biomass is adequate.Keywords: Crop-livestock integration, tree plantations, chemical composition, seasonal effects, forage quality.DOI: 10.17138/TGFT(2271-277

  1. Claudin-8d is a cortisol-responsive barrier protein in the gill epithelium of trout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolosov, Dennis; Kelly, Scott P

    2017-10-01

    The influence of claudin (Cldn) 8 tight junction (TJ) proteins on cortisol-mediated alterations in gill epithelium permeability was examined using a primary cultured trout gill epithelium model. Genes encoding three Cldn-8 proteins ( cldn-8b, -8c and -8d ) have been identified in trout and all are expressed in the model gill epithelium. Cortisol treatment 'tightened' the gill epithelium, as indicated by increased transepithelial resistance (TER) and reduced paracellular [ 3 H]polyethylene glycol (MW 400 Da; PEG-400) flux. This occurred in association with elevated cldn-8d mRNA abundance, but no alterations in cldn-8b and -8c mRNA abundance were observed. Transcriptional knockdown (KD) of cldn-8d inhibited a cortisol-induced increase in Cldn-8d abundance and reduced the 'epithelium tightening' effect of cortisol in association with increased paracellular PEG-400 flux. Under simulated in vivo conditions (i.e. apical freshwater), cldn-8d KD hindered a cortisol-mediated reduction in basolateral to apical Na + and Cl - flux (i.e. reduced the ability of cortisol to mitigate ion loss). However, cldn-8d KD did not abolish the tightening effect of cortisol on the gill epithelium. This is likely due, in part, to the effect of cortisol on genes encoding other TJ proteins, which in some cases appeared to exhibit a compensatory response. Data support the idea that Cldn-8d is a barrier protein of the gill epithelium TJ that contributes significantly to corticosteroid-mediated alterations in gill epithelium permeability. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.

  2. Characterization of cadmium plasma membrane transport in gills of a mangrove crab Ucides cordatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega, P.; Custódio, M.R. [Instituto de Biociências, Departamento de Fisiologia, Universidade de São Paulo, Rua do Matão, Travessa 14, #101, São Paulo 05508-900, SP (Brazil); Zanotto, F.P., E-mail: fzanotto@usp.br [Instituto de Biociências, Departamento de Fisiologia, Universidade de São Paulo, Rua do Matão, Travessa 14, #101, São Paulo 05508-900, SP (Brazil); Departamento de Biofísica, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Rua Três de Maio 100, São Paulo 04044-020 (Brazil)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Cd{sup 2+} gill cell transport, a non-essential toxic metal, was characterized in a hypo-hyper-regulating mangrove crab Ucides cordatus. • Cd{sup 2+} enter gill cells through Ca{sup 2+} channels and is dependent of intracellular Ca{sup 2+} levels. • Route of entry in gill cells also involves a Cd{sup 2+}/Ca{sup 2+} (2Na) exchanger. • Cd transport depends on Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase and gill cell electrochemical gradient. • Vanadate inhibits gill Cd{sup 2+} transport and ouabain increase gill Cd{sup 2+} transport. - Abstract: Membrane pathway for intracellular cadmium (Cd{sup 2+}) accumulation is not fully elucidated in many organisms and has not been studied in crab gill cells. To characterize membrane Cd{sup 2+} transport of anterior and posterior gill cells of Ucides cordatus, a hypo-hyper-regulating crab, a change in intracellular Cd{sup 2+} concentration under various experimental conditions was examined by using FluoZin, a fluorescent probe. The membrane Cd{sup 2+} transport was estimated by the augmentation of FluoZin fluorescence induced by extracellular application of CdCl{sub 2} and different inhibitors. Addition of extracellular calcium (Ca{sup 2+}) to the cells affected little the fluorescence of FluoZin, confirming that Cd{sup 2+} was the main ion increasing intracellular fluorescence. Ca{sup 2+} channels blockers (nimodipine and verapamil) decreased Cd{sup 2+} influx as well as vanadate, a Ca{sup 2+}-ATPase blocker. Chelating intracellular Ca{sup 2+} (BAPTA) decreased Cd{sup 2+} influx in gill cells, while increasing intracellular Ca{sup 2+} (caffeine) augmented Cd influx. Cd{sup 2+} and ATP added at different temporal conditions were not effective at increasing intracellular Cd{sup 2+} accumulation. Ouabain (Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase inhibitor) increased Cd{sup 2+} influx probably through a change in intracellular Na and/or a change in cell membrane potential. Routes of Cd{sup 2+} influx, a non-essential metal, through the

  3. Impact of ocean acidification on antimicrobial activity in gills of the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernroth, B; Baden, S; Tassidis, H; Hörnaeus, K; Guillemant, J; Bergström Lind, S; Bergquist, J

    2016-08-01

    Here, we aimed to investigate potential effects of ocean acidification on antimicrobial peptide (AMP) activity in the gills of Mytilus edulis, as gills are directly facing seawater and the changing pH (predicted to be reduced from ∼8.1 to ∼7.7 by 2100). The AMP activity of gill and haemocyte extracts was compared at pH 6.0, 7.7 and 8.1, with a radial diffusion assay against Escherichia coli. The activity of the gill extracts was not affected by pH, while it was significantly reduced with increasing pH in the haemocyte extracts. Gill extracts were also tested against different species of Vibrio (V. parahaemolyticus, V. tubiashii, V. splendidus, V. alginolyticus) at pH 7.7 and 8.1. The metabolic activity of the bacteria decreased by ∼65-90%, depending on species of bacteria, but was, as in the radial diffusion assay, not affected by pH. The results indicated that AMPs from gills are efficient in a broad pH-range. However, when mussels were pre-exposed for pH 7.7 for four month the gill extracts presented significantly lower inhibit of bacterial growth. A full in-depth proteome investigation of gill extracts, using LC-Orbitrap MS/MS technique, showed that among previously described AMPs from haemocytes of Mytilus, myticin A was found up-regulated in response to lipopolysaccharide, 3 h post injection. Sporadic occurrence of other immune related peptides/proteins also pointed to a rapid response (0.5-3 h p.i.). Altogether, our results indicate that the gills of blue mussels constitute an important first line defence adapted to act at the pH of seawater. The antimicrobial activity of the gills is however modulated when mussels are under the pressure of ocean acidification, which may give future advantages for invading pathogens. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Seasonal variability of rocky reef fish assemblages: Detecting functional and structural changes due to fishing effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriques, Sofia; Pais, Miguel Pessanha; Costa, Maria José; Cabral, Henrique Nogueira

    2013-05-01

    The present study analyzed the effects of seasonal variation on the stability of fish-based metrics and their capability to detect changes in fish assemblages, which is yet poorly understood despite the general idea that guilds are more resilient to natural variability than species abundances. Three zones subject to different levels of fishing pressure inside the Arrábida Marine Protected Area (MPA) were sampled seasonally. The results showed differences between warm (summer and autumn) and cold (winter and spring) seasons, with the autumn clearly standing out. In general, the values of the metrics density of juveniles, density of invertebrate feeders and density of omnivores increased in warm seasons, which can be attributed to differences in recruitment patterns, spawning migrations and feeding activity among seasons. The density of generalist/opportunistic individuals was sensitive to the effect of fishing, with higher values at zones with the lowest level of protection, while the density of individuals with high commercial value only responded to fishing in the autumn, due to a cumulative result of both juveniles and adults abundances during this season. Overall, this study showed that seasonal variability affects structural and functional features of the fish assemblage and that might influence the detection of changes as a result of anthropogenic pressures. The choice of a specific season, during warm sea conditions after the spawning period (July-October), seems to be more adequate to assess changes on rocky-reef fish assemblages.

  5. Molecular characterization of three Rhesus glycoproteins from the gills of the African lungfish, Protopterus annectens, and effects of aestivation on their mRNA expression levels and protein abundance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You R Chng

    Full Text Available African lungfishes are ammonotelic in water. They can aestivate for long periods on land during drought. During aestivation, the gills are covered with dried mucus and ammonia excretion ceases. In fishes, ammonia excretion through the gills involves Rhesus glycoproteins (RhGP/Rhgp. This study aimed to obtain the complete cDNA coding sequences of rhgp from the gills of Protopterus annectens, and to determine their branchial mRNA and protein expression levels during the induction, maintenance and arousal phases of aestivation. Three isoforms of rhgp (rhag, rhbg and rhcg were obtained in the gills of P. annectens. Their complete cDNA coding sequences ranged between 1311 and 1398 bp, coding for 436 to 465 amino acids with estimated molecular masses between 46.8 and 50.9 kDa. Dendrogramic analyses indicated that Rhag was grouped closer to fishes, while Rhbg and Rhcg were grouped closer to tetrapods. During the induction phase, the protein abundance of Rhag, but not its transcript level, was down-regulated in the gills, suggesting that there could be a decrease in the release of ammonia from the erythrocytes to the plasma. Furthermore, the branchial transcript levels of rhbg and rhcg decreased significantly, in preparation for the subsequent shutdown of gill functions. During the maintenance phase, the branchial expression levels of rhag/Rhag, rhbg/Rhbg and rhcg/Rhcg decreased significantly, indicating that their transcription and translation were down-regulated. This could be part of an overall mechanism to shut down branchial functions and save metabolic energy used for transcription and translation. It could also be regarded as an adaptive response to stop ammonia excretion. During the arousal phase, it is essential for the lungfish to regain the ability to excrete ammonia. Indeed, the protein abundance of Rhag, Rhbg and Rhcg recovered to the corresponding control levels after 1 day or 3 days of recovery from 6 months of aestivation.

  6. Seasonal changes in stress biomarkers of an exotic coastal species - Chaetopleura angulata (Polyplacophora) - Implications for biomonitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeira, Diana; Vinagre, Catarina; Mendonça, Vanessa; Diniz, Mário Sousa

    2017-07-15

    Knowledge on baseline values of stress biomarkers in natural conditions is urgent due to the need of reference values for monitoring purposes. Here we assessed the cellular stress response of the chiton Chaetopleura angulata in situ. Biomarkers commonly used in environmental monitoring (heat shock protein 70kDa, total ubiquitin, catalase, glutathione-S-transferase, superoxide-dismutase, lipid peroxidation) were analyzed in the digestive system, gills and muscle of C. angulata, under spring and summer conditions in order to assess seasonal tissue-specific responses. Season had an effect on all targeted organs, especially affecting the digestive system which displayed clear seasonal clusters. The respective Integrated Biomarker Response (IBR) showed a 7.2-fold seasonal difference. Muscle and gills showed similar IBRs between seasons making them appropriate organs to monitor chemical pollution as they were less responsive to seasonal variation. The most stable biomarkers in these organs were ubiquitin and superoxide-dismutase thus being reliable for monitoring purposes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles modulate the toxicological response to cadmium in the gills of Mytilus galloprovincialis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Della Torre, Camilla [Department of Physical, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Siena (Italy); Balbi, Teresa [Department of Earth, Environmental and Life Sciences-DISTAV, University of Genoa (Italy); Grassi, Giacomo [Department of Physical, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Siena (Italy); Frenzilli, Giada; Bernardeschi, Margherita [Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa (Italy); Smerilli, Arianna [Department of Environmental, Biological and Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technologies (DiSTABiF), Seconda Università di Napoli, Caserta (Italy); Guidi, Patrizia [Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa (Italy); Canesi, Laura [Department of Earth, Environmental and Life Sciences-DISTAV, University of Genoa (Italy); Nigro, Marco [Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa (Italy); Monaci, Fabrizio [Department of Physical, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Siena (Italy); Scarcelli, Vittoria [Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa (Italy); Rocco, Lucia [Department of Environmental, Biological and Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technologies (DiSTABiF), Seconda Università di Napoli, Caserta (Italy); Focardi, Silvano [Department of Physical, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Siena (Italy); Monopoli, Marco [Centre for BioNanoInteractions, School of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, University College Dublin (Ireland); Corsi, Ilaria, E-mail: ilaria.corsi@unisi.it [Department of Physical, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Siena (Italy)

    2015-10-30

    Highlights: • Nano-TiO{sub 2} modulate CdCl{sub 2} cellular responses in gills of marine mussel. • Nano-TiO{sub 2} reduced CdCl{sub 2}-induced effects by lowering abcb1 m-RNA and GST activity. • Nano-TiO{sub 2} reduced Cd accumulation in mussel’s gills but not in whole soft tissue. • Higher accumulation of Ti in the presence of CdCl{sub 2} was observed in gills. - Abstract: We investigated the influence of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nano-TiO{sub 2}) on the response to cadmium in the gills of the marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis in terms of accumulation and toxicity. Mussels were in vivo exposed to nano-TiO{sub 2}, CdCl{sub 2}, alone and in combination. Several cellular biomarkers were investigated in gills: ABC transport proteins and metallothioneins at gene/protein (abcb1, abcc-like and mt-20) and functional level, GST activity, NO production and DNA damage (Comet assay). Accumulation of total Cd and titanium in gills as in whole soft tissue was also investigated. Significant responses to Cd exposure were observed in mussel gills as up-regulation of abcb1 and mt-20 gene transcription, increases in total MT content, P-gp efflux and GST activity, DNA damage and NO production. Nano-TiO{sub 2} alone increased P-gp efflux activity and NO production. When combined with Cd, nano-TiO{sub 2} reduced the metal-induced effects by significantly lowering abcb1 gene transcription, GST activity, and DNA damage, whereas, additive effects were observed on NO production. A lower concentration of Cd was observed in the gills upon co-exposure, whereas, Ti levels were unaffected. A competitive effect in uptake/accumulation of nano-TiO{sub 2} and Cd seems to occur in gills. A confirmation is given by the observed absence of adsorption of Cd onto nano-TiO{sub 2} in sea water media.

  8. Effect of irradiation dose on sensory characteristics and microbiological contamination of chosen seasonings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaminski, E.; Wasowicz, E.; Zawirska-Wojtasiak, R.; Czaczyk, K.; Trojanowska, K.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of gamma irradiation (3, 5, 10 kGy) on sensory characteristics, volatiles constituents and microbiological contamination of several seasonings were studied. The dose of 3 kGy reduced microflora effectively, and did not cause evident changes in aroma. Complete sterilization, however, required 7 or 10 kGy particularly in the case of paprika. Such doses substantially changed the smell and taste of seasonings. Is some of them (paprika, mustard, coriander) the total volatiles content increased after radiation

  9. Synthesis of calcium carbonate using extract components of croaker gill as morphology and polymorph adjust control agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Hao; Qing, Chengsong; Zheng, Jiaoling; Liu, Yuxi; Wu, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Biomimetic synthesis of calcium carbonate with various polymorphs, sizes and morphologies by using organic substrates has become an interesting topic for the last years. Calcium carbonate has been synthesized by the reaction of Na 2 CO 3 and CaCl 2 in the presence of extract components of croaker gill. The products were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrum, and particle morphologies were observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results show that at lower concentration yellow croaker gill extract has no effect on calcium carbonate crystal polymorph. Calcite was obtained only. But the morphologies of calcite particle change with the increase of the concentration. The corners of the particle change from angular to curved. However, with the further increase of the concentration of yellow croaker gill extract, the calcium carbonate obtained is a mixture of calcite and vaterite. The vaterite component in the mixture rises with increasing concentration of extract solution, indicating that the proteins from the yellow croaker gill during growth play a crucial role in stabilizing and directing the crystal growth. - Graphical abstract: Calcium carbonate has been synthesized by using extract components of croaker gill as adjust control agent. The results indicate that yellow croaker gill extract has no effect on calcium carbonate crystal polymorph when its concentration is low. But the morphologies of calcite particle change with the increase of the concentration. With the further increase of the concentration of yellow croaker gill extract, the calcium carbonate obtained is a mixture of calcite and vaterite. The vaterite component in the mixture rises with increasing concentration of extract solution, indicating that the proteins from the yellow croaker gill during growth play a crucial role in stabilizing and directing the crystal growth. - Highlights: • Biomimetic synthesis of calcium carbonate

  10. An effective algorithm for approximating adaptive behavior in seasonal environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sainmont, Julie; Andersen, Ken Haste; Thygesen, Uffe Høgsbro

    2015-01-01

    Behavior affects most aspects of ecological processes and rates, and yet modeling frameworks which efficiently predict and incorporate behavioral responses into ecosystem models remain elusive. Behavioral algorithms based on life-time optimization, adaptive dynamics or game theory are unsuited...... for large global models because of their high computational demand. We compare an easily integrated, computationally efficient behavioral algorithm known as Gilliam's rule against the solution from a life-history optimization. The approximation takes into account only the current conditions to optimize...... behavior; the so-called "myopic approximation", "short sighted", or "static optimization". We explore the performance of the myopic approximation with diel vertical migration (DVM) as an example of a daily routine, a behavior with seasonal dependence that trades off predation risk with foraging...

  11. Seasonal effect on physiological, reproductive and fertility profiles in breeding mithun bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Perumal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyse the seasonal effect on physiological parameters, reproductive profiles and in vitro fertility in breeding mithun bulls.Methods: A total of ten adult mithun bulls age of 5 to 6 years old with good body condition (score 5-6 were selected from ICAR-NRC on Mithun, Jharnapani, Nagaland, India. The seasons were categorised into winter, spring, summer and autumn seasons based on the meteorological data and sunshine hours. The physiological parameters, reproductive profiles and in vitro fertility parameters were assessed during different seasons in mithun under the semi-intensive system of management.Results: The statistical analysis revealed that these experimental parameters were differed significantly (P<0.05 among the seasons and in overall spring and winter seasons were more beneficial in mithun breeding programme, although, the breeding in mithun occurred throughout the year with variation.Conclusions: It is concluded that collection & preservation of mithun semen and artificial insemination in mithun species during the season of spring and winter has significant beneficial effect in terms of semen production, freezability and fertility for artificial breeding programme in mithun under the semi-intensive system.

  12. Investigation of Seasonal and Latitudinal Effects on the Expression of Clock Genes in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Seyede Sanaz; Nazarimehr, Fahimeh; Jafari, Sajad

    The primary goal in this work is to develop a dynamical model capturing the influence of seasonal and latitudinal variations on the expression of Drosophila clock genes. To this end, we study a specific dynamical system with strange attractors that exhibit changes of Drosophila activity in a range of latitudes and across different seasons. Bifurcations of this system are analyzed to peruse the effect of season and latitude on the behavior of clock genes. Existing experimental data collected from the activity of Drosophila melanogaster corroborate the dynamical model.

  13. Effects of seasonal operation on the quality of water produced by public-supply wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bexfield, Laura M; Jurgens, Bryant C

    2014-09-01

    Seasonal variability in groundwater pumping is common in many places, but resulting effects of seasonal pumping stress on the quality of water produced by public-supply wells are not thoroughly understood. Analysis of historical water-quality samples from public-supply wells completed in deep basin-fill aquifers in Modesto, California (134 wells) and Albuquerque, New Mexico (95 wells) indicates that several wells have seasonal variability in concentrations of contaminants of concern. In Modesto, supply wells are more likely to produce younger groundwater with higher nitrate and uranium concentrations during the summer (high) pumping season than during the winter (low) pumping season. In Albuquerque, supply wells are more likely to produce older groundwater with higher arsenic concentrations during the winter pumping season than during the summer pumping season. Seasonal variability in contaminant concentrations in Modesto is influenced primarily by effects of summer pumping on vertical hydraulic gradients that drive migration of shallow groundwater through the aquifer to supply wells. Variability in Albuquerque is influenced primarily by the period of time that a supply well is idle, allowing its wellbore to act as a conduit for vertical groundwater flow and contaminant migration. However, both processes are observed in each study area. Similar findings would appear to be likely in other alluvial basins with stratified water quality and substantial vertical head gradients. Results suggest that even in aquifers dominated by old groundwater, changes to seasonal pumping patterns and/or to depth of well completion can help reduce vulnerability to selected contaminants of either natural or anthropogenic origin. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Groundwater published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of National Ground Water Association.

  14. Effects of seasonal operation on the quality of water produced by public-supply wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bexfield, Laura M.; Jurgens, Bryant C.

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal variability in groundwater pumping is common in many places, but resulting effects of seasonal pumping stress on the quality of water produced by public-supply wells are not thoroughly understood. Analysis of historical water-quality samples from public-supply wells completed in deep basin-fill aquifers in Modesto, California (134 wells) and Albuquerque, New Mexico (95 wells) indicates that several wells have seasonal variability in concentrations of contaminants of concern. In Modesto, supply wells are more likely to produce younger groundwater with higher nitrate and uranium concentrations during the summer (high) pumping season than during the winter (low) pumping season. In Albuquerque, supply wells are more likely to produce older groundwater with higher arsenic concentrations during the winter pumping season than during the summer pumping season. Seasonal variability in contaminant concentrations in Modesto is influenced primarily by effects of summer pumping on vertical hydraulic gradients that drive migration of shallow groundwater through the aquifer to supply wells. Variability in Albuquerque is influenced primarily by the period of time that a supply well is idle, allowing its wellbore to act as a conduit for vertical groundwater flow and contaminant migration. However, both processes are observed in each study area. Similar findings would appear to be likely in other alluvial basins with stratified water quality and substantial vertical head gradients. Results suggest that even in aquifers dominated by old groundwater, changes to seasonal pumping patterns and/or to depth of well completion can help reduce vulnerability to selected contaminants of either natural or anthropogenic origin.

  15. Exploring the Bullwhip Effect and Inventory Stability in a Seasonal Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Costantino

    2013-08-01

    when the demand noise is low. In contrast, all the performance measures become less sensitive to the seasonality level when the noise is high. This performance indicates that using the ratios to measure seasonal supply chain dynamics is misleading, and that it is better to directly use the variance (without dividing by the demand variance as the estimates for the bullwhip effect and inventory performance. The results also show that the supply chain performances are highly sensitive to forecasting and safety stock parameters, regardless of the seasonality level. Furthermore, the impact of information sharing quantification shows that all the performance measures are improved regardless of demand seasonality. With information sharing, the bullwhip effect and inventory variance ratios are consistent with average fill rate results.

  16. Seasonal Changing Effect on Airflow and Pollutant Dispersion Characteristics in Urban Street Canyons

    OpenAIRE

    Jingliang Dong; Zijing Tan; Yimin Xiao; Jiyuan Tu

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the effect of seasonal variation on air flow and pollutant dispersion characteristics was numerically investigated. A three-dimensional urban canopy model with unit aspect ratio (H/D = 1) was used to calculate surface temperature distribution in the street canyon. Four representative time events (1000 LST, 1300 LST, 1600 LST and 2000 LST) during typical clear summer and winter days were selected to examine the air flow diurnal variation. The results revealed the seasonal variat...

  17. Effectiveness of in-season manager changes in English Premier League Football

    OpenAIRE

    Besters, Lucas; van Ours, Jan; van Tuijl, Martin

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the performance effects of in-season manager changes in English Premier League football during the seasons 2000/2001–2014/2015. We find that some managerial changes are successful, while others are counterproductive. On average, performance does not improve following a managerial replacement. The successfulness of managerial turnover depends on specific highly unpredictable circumstances, as we illustrate through case-studies.

  18. Effects of Forecasts on the Revisions of Concurrent Seasonally Adjusted Data Using the X-11 Seasonal Adjustment Procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobbitt, Larry; Otto, Mark

    Three Autoregressive Integrated Moving Averages (ARIMA) forecast procedures for Census Bureau X-11 concurrent seasonal adjustment were empirically tested. Forty time series from three Census Bureau economic divisions (business, construction, and industry) were analyzed. Forecasts were obtained from fitted seasonal ARIMA models augmented with…

  19. Comparison of the Effects of Dry Cupping and Acupressure at Acupuncture Point (BL23) on the Women with Postpartum Low Back Pain (PLBP) Based on Short Form McGill Pain Questionnaires in Iran: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdanpanahi, Zahra; Ghaemmaghami, Mehrnoush; Akbarzadeh, Marzieh; Zare, Najaf; Azisi, Amir

    2017-06-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effects of acupuncture branches on postpartum low back pain severity among the primiparous subjects visiting the selected educational centers affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran. Materials and methods: This clinical trial was conducted on 150 (each group of 50 people) cases in 2012. Cupping therapy was done every other day in four 15-20 minute sessions a week. Besides, acupressure was applied according to the circular model for 20 minutes. The patients filled out the short form McGill Pain Questionnaires. Then, the data were analyzed using the SPSS statistical software (v. 16) and repeated measurements and Chi-square tests. Results: In the cupping group, the mean difference of postpartum Low Back Pain intensity reached from 31.8 ± 10.8 before the intervention to 9.0 ± 6.7, 7.5 ± 6.6, and 4.1 ± 3.6 immediately, 24 hours, and 2 weeks after the intervention, respectively and the results of repeated measures ANOVA showed a significant difference between the three follow-up periods (p < 0.05). On the other hand, this measure reached from 31.1 ± 11.0 before the intervention to 22.1 ± 7.3, 16.2±6.0, and 11.7 ± 5.3 immediately, 24 hours, and 2 weeks after the intervention, respectively in the acupressure group. Conclusion: The study results showed that these modalities could sedate the pain. Therefore, they can be applied as efficient treatments for reducing the low back pain.

  20. Comparison of the Effects of Dry Cupping and Acupressure at Acupuncture Point (BL23 on the Women with Postpartum Low Back Pain (PLBP Based on Short Form McGill Pain Questionnaires in Iran: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Yazdanpanahi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effects of acupuncture branches on postpartum low back pain severity among the primiparous subjects visiting the selected educational centers affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.Materials and methods: This clinical trial was conducted on 150 (each group of 50 people cases in 2012. Cupping therapy was done every other day in four 15-20 minute sessions a week. Besides, acupressure was applied according to the circular model for 20 minutes. The patients filled out the short form McGill Pain Questionnaires. Then, the data were analyzed using the SPSS statistical software (v. 16 and repeated measurements and Chi-square tests.Results: In the cupping group, the mean difference of postpartum Low Back Pain intensity reached from 31.8 ± 10.8 before the intervention to 9.0 ± 6.7, 7.5 ± 6.6, and 4.1 ± 3.6 immediately, 24 hours, and 2 weeks after the intervention, respectively and the results of repeated measures ANOVA showed a significant difference between the three follow-up periods (p < 0.05. On the other hand, this measure reached from 31.1 ± 11.0 before the intervention to 22.1 ± 7.3, 16.2±6.0, and 11.7 ± 5.3 immediately, 24 hours, and 2 weeks after the intervention, respectively in the acupressure group.Conclusion: The study results showed that these modalities could sedate the pain. Therefore, they can be applied as efficient treatments for reducing the low back pain. 

  1. Description of two new gill myxozoans from smallmouth (Micropterus dolomieu) and largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Heather L.; Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Glenney, Gavin W.; Iwanowicz, Deborah D.; Blazer, Vicki

    2012-01-01

    Two previously undescribed species of myxozoan parasites were observed in the gills of bass inhabiting the Potomac and James River basins. They are described using morphological characteristics and small-subunit (SSU) rDNA gene sequences. Both were taxonomically identified as new species of Myxobolus; Myxobolus branchiarum n. sp. was found exclusively in smallmouth bass, and Myxobolus micropterii n. sp. was found in largemouth and smallmouth bass. Small, spherical, white plasmodia of M. branchiarum from smallmouth bass were observed grossly in the gills; these plasmodia had an average length of 320.3 µm and width of 246.1 µm. The development of the plasmodia is intralamellar in the secondary lamellae of the gills. Mature spores were pyriform in shape with a length of 12.8 ± 1.4 (8.1–15.1) µm and width of 6.9 ± 1.1 (4.0–9.0) µm. Analysis of SSU rDNA identified M. branchiarum in a sister-group to 3 species of Henneguya, although morphologically caudal appendages were absent. Myxobolus micropterii observed in the gills of largemouth and smallmouth bass had larger, ovoid, cream-colored plasmodia with an average length of 568.1 µm and width of 148.1 µm. The cysts developed at the distal end of the gill filament within the primary lamellae. The mature spores were ovoid in shape with a length of 10.8 ± 0.7 (9.2–12.2) µm and width of 10.6 ± 0.6 (9.0–11.8) µm. SSU rDNA analysis placed M. micropterii in a sister group with Henneguya lobosa and Myxobolus oliveirai. The highest prevalence of M. branchiarum was observed in the gills of bass collected from the Cowpasture River (50.9%). Prevalence was 44.6% in bass from the Potomac River and only 4.3% in bass collected from the Shenandoah River. A seasonal study of M. branchiarum, which included both infected and uninfected smallmouth bass, determined that a significantly higher intensity was observed in the spring than in the summer (P < 0.001) or fall (P  =  0.004). In an analysis excluding uninfected

  2. Description of two new gill myxozoans from smallmouth (Micropterus dolomieu) and largemouth (Micropterus salmoides) bass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Heather L; Iwanowicz, Luke R; Glenney, Gavin W; Iwanowicz, Deborah D; Blazer, Vicki S

    2012-04-01

    Two previously undescribed species of myxozoan parasites were observed in the gills of bass inhabiting the Potomac and James River basins. They are described using morphological characteristics and small-subunit (SSU) rDNA gene sequences. Both were taxonomically identified as new species of Myxobolus; Myxobolus branchiarum n. sp. was found exclusively in smallmouth bass, and Myxobolus micropterii n. sp. was found in largemouth and smallmouth bass. Small, spherical, white plasmodia of M. branchiarum from smallmouth bass were observed grossly in the gills; these plasmodia had an average length of 320.3 µm and width of 246.1 µm. The development of the plasmodia is intralamellar in the secondary lamellae of the gills. Mature spores were pyriform in shape with a length of 12.8 ± 1.4 (8.1-15.1) µm and width of 6.9 ± 1.1 (4.0-9.0) µm. Analysis of SSU rDNA identified M. branchiarum in a sister-group to 3 species of Henneguya , although morphologically caudal appendages were absent. Myxobolus micropterii observed in the gills of largemouth and smallmouth bass had larger, ovoid, cream-colored plasmodia with an average length of 568.1 µm and width of 148.1 µm. The cysts developed at the distal end of the gill filament within the primary lamellae. The mature spores were ovoid in shape with a length of 10.8 ± 0.7 (9.2-12.2) µm and width of 10.6 ± 0.6 (9.0-11.8) µm. SSU rDNA analysis placed M. micropterii in a sister group with Henneguya lobosa and Myxobolus oliveirai . The highest prevalence of M. branchiarum was observed in the gills of bass collected from the Cowpasture River (50.9%). Prevalence was 44.6% in bass from the Potomac River and only 4.3% in bass collected from the Shenandoah River. A seasonal study of M. branchiarum , which included both infected and uninfected smallmouth bass, determined that a significantly higher intensity was observed in the spring than in the summer (P < 0.001) or fall (P  =  0.004). In an analysis excluding uninfected bass, a

  3. Effect of Pseudomonas sp. MT5 baths on Flavobacterium columnare infection of rainbow trout and on microbial diversity on fish skin and gills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suomalainen, L R; Tiirola, M A; Valtonen, E T

    2005-01-25

    Use of Pseudomonas sp. strain MT5 to prevent and treat Flavobacterium columnare infection was studied in 2 experiments with fingerling rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. In the first experiment, length heterogeneity analysis of PCR-amplified DNA fragments (LH-PCR) was used to assess the effect of antagonistic baths on the microbial diversity of healthy and experimentally infected fish. In the 148 samples studied, no difference was found between bathed and unbathed fish, and 3 fragment lengths were detected most frequently: 500 (in 75.7% of the samples), 523 (62.2%) and 517 bp (40.5%). The species contributing to these fragment sizes were Pseudomonas sp., Rhodococcus sp. and F. columnare, respectively. A specific PCR for detection of Pseudomonas sp. MT5 was designed, but none of the tissue samples were found to be positive, most likely indicating poor adhesion of the strain during bathing. LH-PCR was found to be a more powerful tool for detecting F. columnare in fish tissue than traditional culture methods (chi2 = 3.9, df = 1, p < 0.05). Antagonistic baths had no effect on the outbreak of infection or on fish mortality. F. columnare was also detected in healthy fish prior to and after experimental infection, indicating that these fish were carriers of the disease. In the second experiment, intensive Pseudomonas sp. MT5 antagonistic baths were given daily to rainbow trout suffering from a natural columnaris infection. Again, the antagonistic bacteria had no effect on fish mortality, which reached 95 % in both control and antagonist-treated groups in 7 d.

  4. Effect of season on reproductive behaviors and fertilization success in cavies (Cavia aperea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hribal, Romy; Rübensam, Kathrin; Bernhardt, Sandra; Jewgenow, Katarina; Guenther, Anja

    2018-04-05

    Finding the optimal timing for breeding is crucial for small mammals to ensure survival and maximize lifetime reproductive success. Species living in temperate regions therefore often restrict breeding to seasons with favorable food and weather conditions. Although caviomorph rodents such as guinea pigs are described as non-seasonal breeders, a series of recent publications has shown seasonal adaptations in litter size, offspring birth mass and maternal investment. Here, we aim to test if seasonal patterns of litter size variation found in earlier studies, are mediated by seasonal differences in female estrus length, fertilization rate and mating behavior. The female estrus period was longer in fall compared to all other seasons (p < 0.001), frequently lasting 7-9 days while estrus in spring usually lasted less than 2 days. In fall, females mated later during estrus (p < 0.001), resulting in reduced fertilization rates (p < 0.001). Fertilization rate was well above 95% in summer while it dropped to less than 85% in fall and winter. While none of the male mating characteristics such as number and duration of copulations differed across seasons, the number of mating bouts was reduced in fall (p = 0.04). Finally, the developmental stages of flushed embryos were more diverse in spring and summer compared to fall and winter. These results suggest that seasonal differences in fertilization rate and quality of implanted embryos are mediated by female estrus length and timing and intensity of mating behavior. Together, these effects contribute to the observed differences in litter size across seasons. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The Effect of Soil Temperature Seasonality on Climate Reconstructions from Paleosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, T. M.; Hren, M. T.; Sheldon, N. D.

    2017-12-01

    Accurate continental temperature reconstructions provide important constraints on climate sensitivity to changes in atmospheric pCO2, the timing and rates of tectonic uplift, and the driving mechanisms and feedbacks associated with major climate events. Temperature seasonality is an important variable to consider, because not only does it exert a strong control on the biosphere, but it can obfuscate changes in mean annual air temperature (MAAT) in the geologic record. In order to better understand the effect temperature seasonality has on paleosol temperature proxies, soil temperature data was compiled from over 200 stations that comprise the NCDC Soil Climate Analysis Network. Observed soil temperature variations were then compared to predicted soil temperature values based on normal seasonal air temperature trends. Approximately one quarter of sites record less temperature variation than predicted. This reduction in soil temperature seasonality is a result of warmer than predicted cold-season temperatures, driven by cold-season processes such as snow cover insulation. The reduction in soil temperature seasonality explains why pedo-transfer functions to break down below MAAT values of 6-8 °C. Greater than predicted soil temperature seasonality is observed at nearly half of the sites, driven primarily by direct heating of the soil surface by solar radiation. Deviations larger than 2 °C are not common until mean annual precipitation falls below 300 mm, suggesting that complications introduced by ground heating are primarily restricted to paleosols that formed in more arid environments. Clumped isotope measurements of pedogenic carbonate and bulk paleosol elemental data from a stacked series of paleosols spanning the Eocene-Oligocene in Northeastern Spain are also examined to demonstrate how the documented seasonal trends in modern soils can help inform paleo-applications.

  6. Gill pathology in Scottish farmed Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., associated with the microsporidian Desmozoon lepeophtherii Freeman et Sommerville, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, C G G; Richards, R H; Shinn, A P; Cox, D I

    2013-10-01

    Gill disorders have emerged in recent years as a significant problem in the production of marine-stage Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L. The multi-aetiological condition 'proliferative gill inflammation' (PGI) has been reported to cause heavy losses in western Norway, yet reports of Scottish cases of the disease have remained anecdotal. In the present study, histopathological material from a marine production site in the Scottish Highlands experiencing mortalities due to a seasonal gill disease with proliferative-type pathology was examined using light microscopy, special staining techniques and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The microsporidian Desmozoon lepeophtherii Freeman et Sommerville, 2009 (syn. Paranucleospora theridion) was identified by staining using a Gram Twort method and TEM associated with distinctive proliferative and necrotic pathology confined to the interlamellar Malpighian cell areas of the primary filaments. Epitheliocystis was not a feature of the gill pathology observed. It is believed this is the first report of D. lepeophtherii being identified associated with pathology in a Scottish gill disease case, and supports anecdotal reports that a disease at least partly synonymous with PGI as described by Norwegian researchers is present in Scottish aquaculture. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Seasonality in trauma admissions - Are daylight and weather variables better predictors than general cyclic effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Røislien, Jo; Søvik, Signe; Eken, Torsten

    2018-01-01

    Trauma is a leading global cause of death, and predicting the burden of trauma admissions is vital for good planning of trauma care. Seasonality in trauma admissions has been found in several studies. Seasonal fluctuations in daylight hours, temperature and weather affect social and cultural practices but also individual neuroendocrine rhythms that may ultimately modify behaviour and potentially predispose to trauma. The aim of the present study was to explore to what extent the observed seasonality in daily trauma admissions could be explained by changes in daylight and weather variables throughout the year. Retrospective registry study on trauma admissions in the 10-year period 2001-2010 at Oslo University Hospital, Ullevål, Norway, where the amount of daylight varies from less than 6 hours to almost 19 hours per day throughout the year. Daily number of admissions was analysed by fitting non-linear Poisson time series regression models, simultaneously adjusting for several layers of temporal patterns, including a non-linear long-term trend and both seasonal and weekly cyclic effects. Five daylight and weather variables were explored, including hours of daylight and amount of precipitation. Models were compared using Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC). A regression model including daylight and weather variables significantly outperformed a traditional seasonality model in terms of AIC. A cyclic week effect was significant in all models. Daylight and weather variables are better predictors of seasonality in daily trauma admissions than mere information on day-of-year.

  8. Seasonality in trauma admissions – Are daylight and weather variables better predictors than general cyclic effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søvik, Signe; Eken, Torsten

    2018-01-01

    Background Trauma is a leading global cause of death, and predicting the burden of trauma admissions is vital for good planning of trauma care. Seasonality in trauma admissions has been found in several studies. Seasonal fluctuations in daylight hours, temperature and weather affect social and cultural practices but also individual neuroendocrine rhythms that may ultimately modify behaviour and potentially predispose to trauma. The aim of the present study was to explore to what extent the observed seasonality in daily trauma admissions could be explained by changes in daylight and weather variables throughout the year. Methods Retrospective registry study on trauma admissions in the 10-year period 2001–2010 at Oslo University Hospital, Ullevål, Norway, where the amount of daylight varies from less than 6 hours to almost 19 hours per day throughout the year. Daily number of admissions was analysed by fitting non-linear Poisson time series regression models, simultaneously adjusting for several layers of temporal patterns, including a non-linear long-term trend and both seasonal and weekly cyclic effects. Five daylight and weather variables were explored, including hours of daylight and amount of precipitation. Models were compared using Akaike’s Information Criterion (AIC). Results A regression model including daylight and weather variables significantly outperformed a traditional seasonality model in terms of AIC. A cyclic week effect was significant in all models. Conclusion Daylight and weather variables are better predictors of seasonality in daily trauma admissions than mere information on day-of-year. PMID:29425210

  9. Seasonal effect on trace metal elements behaviour in a reservoir of northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grellier, S; Janeau, J L; Thothong, W; Boonsaner, A; Bonnet, M P; Lagane, C; Seyler, P

    2013-07-01

    Trace metal elements (TME) can be real threats for living organisms. However, few studies dealt with TME in reservoirs in rural areas where farming practises could induce negative effects. Mae Thang reservoir (northern Thailand) has been studied for 3 years to understand the seasonal behaviour of dissolved TME: Fe, Mn, Cd, Al, Pb, V, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Mo, U and As and associated physicochemical parameters. In situ measurements of these parameters were done during the dry and the wet seasons as well as water samples along the water column for further analyses and TME determination by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). In the dry season, the water column was characterized by a strong stratification and anoxic conditions in the hypolimnion. High rain and water input from the watershed during the wet season induced mixing of the water. All TME, except Ni, Co and Cr were less concentrated in the wet season indicating a dilution effect by water input. There was thus no important dissolved pollution coming from the watershed. The anoxic conditions in the dry season enhanced the reduction of Fe and Mn and the desorption processes. Depth, and thus oxic-anoxic conditions were the main drivers of TME in the dry season, while in the wet season, dissolution processes from parent rocks of watershed were favoured. The average concentrations of TME in the reservoir were in the limit of the international and Thai standards. Only localized values in the bottom of the reservoir for Fe and Mn were higher than the limits.

  10. Seasonal dynamics and diversity of bacteria in retail oyster tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dapeng; Zhang, Qian; Cui, Yan; Shi, Xianming

    2014-03-03

    Oysters are one of the important vehicles for the transfer of foodborne pathogens. It was reported that bacteria could be bio-accumulated mainly in the gills and digestive glands. In artificially treated oysters, bacterial communities have been investigated by culture-independent methods after harvest. However, little information is available on the seasonal dynamics of bacterial accumulation in retail oyster tissues. In this study, retail oysters were collected from local market in different seasons. The seasonal dynamics and diversity of bacteria in oyster tissues, including the gills, digestive glands and residual tissues, were analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). It was interesting that the highest bacterial diversity appeared in the Fall season, not in summer. Our results indicated that Proteobacteria was the predominant member (23/46) in oyster tissues. Our results also suggested that bacterial diversity in gills was higher than that in digestive glands and other tissues. In addition, not all the bacteria collected from surrounding water by gills were transferred to digestive glands. On the other hand, few bacteria were found in oyster tissues except in the gills. Therefore, the gills could be the best candidate target tissue for monitoring of pathogenic bacteria either to human or to oyster. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Seasonality, mobility, and livability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-31

    Signature project 4a, Seasonality, Mobility, and Livability investigated the effects of weather, season, built environment, community amenities, attitudes, and demographics on mobility and quality of life (QOL). A four season panel survey exami...

  12. Disentangling the effects of date, individual, and territory quality on the seasonal decline in fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pärt, Tomas; Knape, Jonas; Low, Matthew; Öberg, Meit; Arlt, Debora

    2017-08-01

    The seasonal timing of reproduction is a major fitness factor in many organisms. Commonly, individual fitness declines with time in the breeding season. We investigated three suggested but rarely tested hypotheses for this seasonal fitness decline: (1) time per se (date hypothesis), (2) late breeders are of lower quality than early ones (individual quality hypothesis), and (3) late breeders are breeding at poorer territories than early breeders (territory quality hypothesis). We used Bayesian variance component analyses to examine reproductive output (breeding success, number fledged, and number of recruits) from repeated observations of female Northern Wheatears (Oenanthe oenanthe) and individual territories from a 20-yr population study. The major part of the observed seasonal decline in reproductive output seemed to be driven by date-related effects, whereas female age and territory type (i.e., known indicators of temporary quality) contributed to a smaller degree. Other, persistent effects linked to individual and territory identity did not show any clear patterns on the seasonal decline in reproductive output. To better disentangle the quality effects (persistent and temporary) of individual and territory from effects caused by the deterioration of the environment we suggest a protocol combining experimental manipulation of breeding time with a variance-covariance partitioning method used here. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  13. The effect of seasonal changes and climatic factors on suicide attempts of young people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkaya-Kalayci, Türkan; Vyssoki, Benjamin; Winkler, Dietmar; Willeit, Matthaeus; Kapusta, Nestor D; Dorffner, Georg; Özlü-Erkilic, Zeliha

    2017-11-15

    Seasonal changes and climatic factors like ambient temperature, sunlight duration and rainfall can influence suicidal behavior. This study analyses the relationship between seasonal changes and climatic variations and suicide attempts in 2131 young patients in Istanbul, Turkey. In our study sample, there was an association between suicide attempts in youths and seasonal changes, as suicide attempts occurred most frequently during summer in females as well as in males. Furthermore, there was a positive correlation between the mean temperature over the past 10 days and temperature at the index day and suicide attempts in females. After seasonality effects were mathematically removed, the mean temperature 10 days before a suicide attempt remained significant in males only, indicating a possible short-term influence of temperature on suicide attempts. This study shows an association between suicide attempts of young people and climatic changes, in particular temperature changes as well as seasonal changes. Therefore, the influence of seasonal changes and climatic factors on young suicide attempters should get more attention in research to understand the biopsychosocial mechanisms playing a role in suicide attempts of young people. As suicide attempts most frequently occur in young people, further research is of considerable clinical importance.

  14. Antioxidant deficit in gills of Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) exposed to chlorodinitrobenzene increases menadione toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trevisan, Rafael; Arl, Miriam; Sacchet, Cássia Lopes; Engel, Cristiano Severino; Danielli, Naissa Maria; Mello, Danielle Ferraz; Brocardo, Caroline; Maris, Angelica Francesca; Dafre, Alcir Luiz

    2012-01-01

    Disturbances in antioxidant defenses decrease cellular protection against oxidative stress and jeopardize cellular homeostasis. To knock down the antioxidant defenses of Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas, animals were pre-treated with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) and further challenged with pro-oxidant menadione (MEN). CDNB pre-treatment (10 μM for 18 h) was able to consume cellular thiols in gills, decreasing GSH (53%) and decrease protein thiols (25%). CDNB pre-treatment also disrupted glutathione reductase and thioredoxin reductase activity in the gills, but likewise strongly induced glutathione S-transferase activity (270% increase). Surprisingly, hemocyte viability was greatly affected 24 h after CDNB removal, indicating a possible vulnerability of the oyster immune system to electrophilic attack. New in vivo approaches were established, allowing the identification of higher rates of GSH–CDNB conjugate export to the seawater and enabling the measurement of the organic peroxide consumption rate. CDNB-induced impairment in antioxidant defenses decreased the peroxide removal rate from seawater. After showing that CDNB decreased gill antioxidant defenses and increased DNA damage in hemocytes, oysters were further challenged with 1 mM MEN over 24 h. MEN treatment did not affect thiol homeostasis in gills, while CDNB pre-treated animals recovered GSH and PSH to the control level after 24 h of depuration. Interestingly, MEN intensified GSH and PSH loss and mortality in CDNB-pre-treated animals, showing a clear synergistic effect. The superoxide-generating one-electron reduction of MEN was predominant in gills and may have contributed to MEN toxicity. These results support the idea that antioxidant-depleted animals are more susceptible to oxidative attack, which can compromise survival. Data also corroborate the idea that gills are an important detoxifying organ, able to dispose of organic peroxides, induce phase II enzymes, and efficiently export GSH

  15. Antioxidant deficit in gills of Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) exposed to chlorodinitrobenzene increases menadione toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trevisan, Rafael; Arl, Miriam [Departamento de Bioquimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900 Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Sacchet, Cassia Lopes [Universidade do Oeste do Estado de Santa Catarina, 89600-000 Joacaba, SC (Brazil); Engel, Cristiano Severino; Danielli, Naissa Maria; Mello, Danielle Ferraz [Departamento de Bioquimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900 Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Brocardo, Caroline [Universidade do Oeste do Estado de Santa Catarina, 89600-000 Joacaba, SC (Brazil); Maris, Angelica Francesca [Departamento de Biologia Celular, Embriologia e Genetica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900 Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Dafre, Alcir Luiz, E-mail: alcir@ccb.ufsc.br [Departamento de Bioquimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900 Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2012-02-15

    Disturbances in antioxidant defenses decrease cellular protection against oxidative stress and jeopardize cellular homeostasis. To knock down the antioxidant defenses of Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas, animals were pre-treated with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) and further challenged with pro-oxidant menadione (MEN). CDNB pre-treatment (10 {mu}M for 18 h) was able to consume cellular thiols in gills, decreasing GSH (53%) and decrease protein thiols (25%). CDNB pre-treatment also disrupted glutathione reductase and thioredoxin reductase activity in the gills, but likewise strongly induced glutathione S-transferase activity (270% increase). Surprisingly, hemocyte viability was greatly affected 24 h after CDNB removal, indicating a possible vulnerability of the oyster immune system to electrophilic attack. New in vivo approaches were established, allowing the identification of higher rates of GSH-CDNB conjugate export to the seawater and enabling the measurement of the organic peroxide consumption rate. CDNB-induced impairment in antioxidant defenses decreased the peroxide removal rate from seawater. After showing that CDNB decreased gill antioxidant defenses and increased DNA damage in hemocytes, oysters were further challenged with 1 mM MEN over 24 h. MEN treatment did not affect thiol homeostasis in gills, while CDNB pre-treated animals recovered GSH and PSH to the control level after 24 h of depuration. Interestingly, MEN intensified GSH and PSH loss and mortality in CDNB-pre-treated animals, showing a clear synergistic effect. The superoxide-generating one-electron reduction of MEN was predominant in gills and may have contributed to MEN toxicity. These results support the idea that antioxidant-depleted animals are more susceptible to oxidative attack, which can compromise survival. Data also corroborate the idea that gills are an important detoxifying organ, able to dispose of organic peroxides, induce phase II enzymes, and efficiently export GSH

  16. Causes, Effects and Possible Solution of Seasonal Egg Gluts: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to assess small holder poultry farmers' perspectives on the causes, effects and solution to the cyclical egg glut in Ejigbo, Nigeria using questionnaire for data collection and descriptive data analysis. Farmers interviewed agreed that government policies have a registered effect on drop of egg sales ...

  17. Season and humidity dependence of the effects of air pollution on COPD hospitalizations in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Hong; Yu, Ignatius Tak Sun; Wang, Xiaorong; Tian, Linwei; Tse, Lap Ah; Wong, Tze Wai

    2013-09-01

    Associations between ambient pollution and respiratory morbidity including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have been confirmed. Weather factors, such as temperature, season and relative humidity (RH), may modify the effects of air pollution. This time series study was conducted to examine whether the effects of air pollution on emergency COPD hospital admissions in Hong Kong varied across seasons and RH levels, and explore the possible joint modification of season and RH on the effects of pollution. Data of daily air pollution concentrations mean temperature and RH, and COPD hospital admissions from 1998 to 2007 were collected. Generalized additive Poisson models with interaction terms were used to estimate the effects of pollution across seasons and RH levels. We observed an increase in the detrimental effects of air pollution in the cool season and on low humidity days. On the cool and dry days, a 10 μg m-3 increment of lag03 exposure was associated with an increase in emergency COPD admissions by 1.76% (95%CI: 1.19-2.34%), 3.43% (95%CI: 2.80-4.07%), and 1.99% (95%CI: 0.90-3.09%) for nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3), and sulfur dioxide (SO2), respectively, all of which were statistically significantly higher than those on the other days. No consistent modification of weather factors was found for the effects of particles with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 μm (PM10). The results suggested that season and RH jointly modified the effects of gaseous pollutants, resulting in increased emergency COPD hospitalizations on the cool and dry days.

  18. Effects of carbon nanomaterials fullerene C{sub 60} and fullerol C{sub 60}(OH){sub 18-22} on gills of fish Cyprinus carpio (Cyprinidae) exposed to ultraviolet radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Socoowski Britto, Roberta; Longaray Garcia, Marcia; Martins da Rocha, Alessandra [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande - FURG, Instituto de Ciencias Biologicas, Campus Carreiros, Av. Italia km 8 s/n, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Programa de Pos Graduacao em Fisiologia Animal Comparada - Fisiologia Animal Comparada, FURG (Brazil); Artigas Flores, Juliana [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande - FURG, Instituto de Ciencias Biologicas, Campus Carreiros, Av. Italia km 8 s/n, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Pinheiro, Mauricio V. Brant [Departamento de Fisica, ICEx, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, MG (Brazil); Monserrat, Jose Maria [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande - FURG, Instituto de Ciencias Biologicas, Campus Carreiros, Av. Italia km 8 s/n, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Programa de Pos Graduacao em Fisiologia Animal Comparada - Fisiologia Animal Comparada, FURG (Brazil); Ribas Ferreira, Josencler L., E-mail: josenclerf@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande - FURG, Instituto de Ciencias Biologicas, Campus Carreiros, Av. Italia km 8 s/n, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Programa de Pos Graduacao em Fisiologia Animal Comparada - Fisiologia Animal Comparada, FURG (Brazil)

    2012-06-15

    In consequence of their growing use and demand, the inevitable environmental presence of nanomaterials (NMs) has raised concerns about their potential deleterious effects to aquatic environments. The carbon NM fullerene (C{sub 60}), which forms colloidal aggregates in water, and its water-soluble derivative fullerol (C{sub 60}(OH){sub 18-22}), which possesses antioxidant properties, are known to be photo-excited by ultraviolet (UV) or visible light. To investigate their potential hazards to aquatic organisms upon exposure to UV sunlight, this study analyzed (a) the in vitro behavior of fullerene and fullerol against peroxyl radicals (ROO{center_dot}) under UV-A radiation and (b) the effects of these photo-excited NMs on oxidative stress parameters in functional gills extracted from the fish Cyprinus carpio (Cyprinidae). The variables measured were the total antioxidant capacity, lipid peroxidation (TBARS), the activities of the antioxidant enzymes glutathione reductase (GR) and glutamate cysteine ligase (GCL), and the levels of the non-enzymatic antioxidant glutathione (GSH). The obtained results revealed the following: (1) both NMs behaved in vitro as antioxidants against ROO{center_dot} in the dark and as pro-oxidants in presence of UV-A, the latter effect being reversed by the addition of sodium azide, which is a singlet oxygen ({sup 1}O{sub 2}) quencher; (2) fullerene induced toxicity with or without UV-A incidence, with a significant (p < 0.05) increase in lipid peroxidation (with greater damage under illumination), a decrease in GCL activity, and the depletion of GSH stocks (under illumination), all of which were attributed to {sup 1}O{sub 2} generation; and (3) fullerol also decreased GCL activity and GSH formation (p < 0.05) but without lipid damage. The overall results show that fullerene can be toxic with or without light incidence, whereas UV radiation seems to play a key role in the environmental toxicity of carbon NMs through {sup 1}O{sub 2} formation.

  19. Influenza vaccine effectiveness assessment through sentinel virological data in three post-pandemic seasons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torner, Núria; Martínez, Ana; Basile, Luca; Marcos, M Angeles; Antón, Andrés; Mar Mosquera, M; Isanta, Ricard; Cabezas, Carmen; Jané, Mireia; Domínguez, Angela; Program of Catalonia, the PIDIRAC Sentinel Surveillance

    2014-01-01

    Influenza vaccination aims at reducing the incidence of serious disease, complications and death among those with the most risk of severe influenza disease. Influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) through sentinel surveillance data from the PIDIRAC program (Daily Acute Respiratory Infection Surveillance of Catalonia) during 2010–2011, 2011–2012, and 2012–2013 influenza seasons, with three different predominant circulating influenza virus (IV) types [A(H1N1)pdm09, A(H3N2) and B, respectively] was assessed. The total number of sentinel samples with known vaccination background collected during the study period was 3173, 14.7% of which had received the corresponding seasonal influenza vaccine. 1117 samples (35.2%) were positive for IV. A retrospective negative case control design was used to assess vaccine effectiveness (VE) for the entire period and for each epidemic influenza season. An overall VE of 58.1% (95% CI:46.8–67) was obtained. Differences in VE according to epidemic season were observed, being highest for the 2012–2013 season with predominance of IV type B (69.7% ;95% CI:51.5–81) and for the 2010–2011 season, with predominance of the A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza virus strain (67.2% ;95%CI:49.5–78.8) and lowest for the 2011–2012 season with A(H3N2) subtype predominance (34.2% ;95%CI:4.5–54.6). Influenza vaccination prevents a substantial number of influenza-associated illnesses. Although vaccines with increased effectiveness are needed and the search for a universal vaccine that is not subject to genetic modifications might increase VE, nowadays only the efforts to increase vaccination rates of high-risk population and healthcare personnel let reduce the burden of influenza and its complications. PMID:25483540

  20. Effect of seasonal drawdown variations on groundwater quality in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2013-07-24

    Jul 24, 2013 ... Igbinosa and Okoh (2009) reported the damaging conse- quences of leachate infiltration into groundwater bodies on life expectancy of such water consumers, while Quinn et al. (2006) enumerated its effect and that of delayed drawdown on moist plant productivity and wetland ecology. Several studies have ...

  1. Seasonal climate effects anemotaxis in newly emerged adult Anopheles gambiae Giles in Mali, West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoukis, Nicholas C; Baber, Ibrahima; Diallo, Moussa; Sogoba, Nafomon; Ribeiro, José M C

    2011-01-01

    The direction and magnitude of movement by the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae Giles has been of great interest to medical entomologists for over 70 years. This direction of movement is likely to be affected by many factors, from environmental conditions and stage of life history of the mosquito to the existence of attractants in the vicinity. We report here the direction of movement of newly emerged An. gambiae in nature, around the village of Donéguébougou, Mali. We assessed the direction of movement for individual mosquitoes by placing them in a novel enclosure with exit traps oriented in the direction of the cardinal and intermediate points of the compass. We consistently found predominantly Southward directions of movement during 2009 and 2010, with an additional Eastward component during the dry season and a Westward one during the wet season. Our data indicate that wind has an important effect on the direction of movement, but that this effect varied by season: Average directions of movement were downwind during the dry season and upwind during the wet season. A switch in anemotactic response suggests that the direction of movement of An. gambiae relative to the wind immediately after emergence under varying conditions of humidity should be further investigated under controlled conditions.

  2. Seasonal climate effects anemotaxis in newly emerged adult Anopheles gambiae Giles in Mali, West Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas C Manoukis

    Full Text Available The direction and magnitude of movement by the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae Giles has been of great interest to medical entomologists for over 70 years. This direction of movement is likely to be affected by many factors, from environmental conditions and stage of life history of the mosquito to the existence of attractants in the vicinity. We report here the direction of movement of newly emerged An. gambiae in nature, around the village of Donéguébougou, Mali. We assessed the direction of movement for individual mosquitoes by placing them in a novel enclosure with exit traps oriented in the direction of the cardinal and intermediate points of the compass. We consistently found predominantly Southward directions of movement during 2009 and 2010, with an additional Eastward component during the dry season and a Westward one during the wet season. Our data indicate that wind has an important effect on the direction of movement, but that this effect varied by season: Average directions of movement were downwind during the dry season and upwind during the wet season. A switch in anemotactic response suggests that the direction of movement of An. gambiae relative to the wind immediately after emergence under varying conditions of humidity should be further investigated under controlled conditions.

  3. Effectiveness of 2010/2011 seasonal influenza vaccine in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Barret, A S

    2012-02-01

    We conducted a case-control study to estimate the 2010\\/2011 trivalent influenza vaccine effectiveness (TIVE) using the Irish general practitioners\\' influenza sentinel surveillance scheme. Cases were influenza-like illness (ILI) patients with laboratory-confirmed influenza. Controls were ILI patients who tested negative for influenza. Participating sentinel general practitioners (GP) collected swabs from patients presenting with ILI along with their vaccination history and other individual characteristics. The TIVE was computed as (1 - odds ratiofor vaccination) x100%. Of 60 sentinel GP practices, 22 expressed interest in participating in the study and 17 (28%) recruited at least one ILI patient. In the analysis, we included 106 cases and 85 controls. Seven controls (8.2%) and one influenza case (0.9%) had been vaccinated in 2010\\/2011. The estimated TIVE against any influenza subtype was 89.4% [95% CI: 13.8; 99.8%], suggesting a protective effect against GP-attended laboratory confirmed influenza. This study design could be used to monitor influenza vaccine effectiveness annually but sample size and vaccination coverage should be increased to obtain precise and adjusted estimates.

  4. Studies on the suitability of HDPE material for gill nets

    OpenAIRE

    Subramania Pillai, N.; Boopendranath, M.R.; Kunjipalu, K.K.

    1989-01-01

    The suitability of HDPE yarn and HDPE twine in place of nylon for gill nets has been studied. As regards total catch nylon gill net is found to be better than HDPE nets. However, statistical analysis of the catch in respect of quality fishes shows that HDPE yarn nets are equally efficient as nylon nets.

  5. Acetylcholinesterase inhibition and gill lesions in Rasbora caverii, an indigenous fish inhabiting rice field associated waterbodies in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijeyaratne, W M D N; Pathiratne, Asoka

    2006-10-01

    The present study was aimed at applying condition factor (CF), brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and gill histology as biomarkers for detecting possible exposure/effect induced by pesticides in fish residing rice field associated waterbodies in Sri Lanka. Biomarkers of an indigenous fish, Rasbora caverii collected from five sampling sites including canals near rice fields, a river and a reservoir (the reference site) were evaluated at four sampling stages covering pesticide application periods during rice cultivation season in 2004. Results indicated that CF of the fish did not show significant alterations regardless of the sampling sites or sampling stages. Site specific differences in AChE activities of the fish were not evident either prior to application of pesticides or at 7 days after Paraquat application to the rice fields. Two days after the application of a mixture of Fenthion and Phenthoate to the rice fields, AChE activity of the fish collected from canals near rice fields was significantly depressed (65-75%) compared to the fish in the reference site. The activities remain depressed to 50-56% even at 65 days after the insecticides application. Laboratory studies showed that prior exposure of R. caverii to Paraquat (2 microg l(-1), 7 days) enhanced the extent of inhibition of brain AChE activity induced by Fenthion (3 microg l(-1)) or a mixture of Fenthion (3 microg l(-1)) and Phenthoate (5 microg l(-1)). Gills of fish collected from canals near rice fields exhibited abnormal multiple divisions at the tips of some secondary lamellae in addition to hyperplasia, hypertrophy and club shaped deformities. Results indicate that application of pesticides in rice culture could manifest a threat to native fish populations residing rice field associated waterbodies. The response of brain AChE and histological changes in the gills of R. caverii allowed differentiating sampling sites after insecticide applications to the rice fields. Hence, R. caverii may be

  6. Distinct hormonal regulation of Na+,K+-ATPase genes in the salmonid gill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tipsmark, Christian Kølbæk; Madsen, Steffen

    2009-01-01

    the a1a (freshwater (FW) isoform) and the a1b  seawater (SW) isoform) by cortisol, Gh, prolactin (Prl) and Igf 1. Injection with cortisol into FW salmon increased a1a expression, while Gh had no effect. Conversely, both cortisol and Gh stimulated a1b expression, and a significant synergy was observed....... igf1 expression was increased by Gh in both gill and liver, and inhibited by cortisol in the liver. Gill Igf1 and Gh receptor expression increased in response to cortisol. Injection with Prl into SW salmon compromised their hypo-osmoregulatory performance, selectively reduced the expression of the a1b...... isoform and decreased enzymatic NaC,KC-atpase activity in the gill. Cortisol and Prl reduced gill and liver igf1 expression, and both hormones stimulated gill Igf1 receptor expression. In a short-term experiment with incubation of FW gill cell suspensions, cortisol stimulated a1a and a1b expression, while...

  7. Cultured branchial epithelia from freshwater fish gills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood; PÄRt

    1997-01-01

    We have developed a method for the primary culture of gill epithelial cells from freshwater rainbow trout on permeable supports, polyethylene terephthalate membranes ('filter inserts'). Primary cultures of gill cells (6-9 days in Leibowitz L-15 culture medium plus foetal bovine serum and glutamine) are trypsinized and the cells seeded onto the inserts. After 6 days of growth with L-15 medium on both surfaces (approximately isotonic to trout plasma), the cells form a tight epithelium as judged from a progressive rise in transepithelial resistance which reaches a stable plateau for a further 6 days, as long as L-15 exposure is continued on both surfaces. The cultured epithelium (approximately 8 µm thick) typically consists of 2-4 overlapping cell layers organized as in the lamellae in vivo, with large intercellular spaces, multiple desmosomes and putative tight junctions. The cells appear to be exclusively pavement-type cells with an apical surface glycocalyx, an abundance of rough endoplasmic reticulum, no selective DASPEI staining and relatively few mitochondria. Transepithelial resistance (approximately 3.5 k cm2), permeability to a paracellular marker (polyethylene glycol-4000; 0.17x10(-6) cm s-1) and unidirectional flux of Na+ and Cl- (approximately 300 nmol cm-2 h-1) all appear realistic because they compare well with in vivo values; net fluxes of Na+ and Cl- are zero. The preparation acidifies the apical medium, which accumulates a greater concentration of ammonia. Upon exposure to apical freshwater, resistance increases six- to elevenfold and a basolateral-negative transepithelial potential (TEP) develops as in vivo. These responses occur even when mannitol is used to prevent changes in apical osmotic pressure. Net Na+ and Cl- loss rates are low over the first 12 h (-125 nmol cm-2 h-1) but increase substantially by 48 h. The elevated resistance and negative TEP gradually attenuate but remain significantly higher than pre-exposure values after 48 h of apical

  8. Effects of seasonal and climate variations on calves' thermal comfort and behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripon, Iulian; Cziszter, Ludovic Toma; Bura, Marian; Sossidou, Evangelia N

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the effect of season and climate variations on thermal comfort and behaviour of 6-month-old dairy calves housed in a semi-opened shelter to develop animal-based indicators for assessing animal thermal comfort. The ultimate purpose was to further exploit the use of those indicators to prevent thermal stress by providing appropriate care to the animals. Measurements were taken for winter and summer seasons. Results showed that season significantly influenced (P ≤ 0.01) the lying down behaviour of calves by reducing the time spent lying, from 679.9 min in winter to 554.1 min in summer. Moreover, season had a significant influence (P ≤ 0.01) on feeding behaviour. In detail, the total length of feeding periods was shorter in winter, 442.1 min in comparison to 543.5 min in summer. Time spent drinking increased significantly (P ≤ 0.001), from 11.9 min in winter to 26.9 min in summer. Furthermore, season had a significant influence (P ≤ 0.001) on self grooming behaviour which was 5.5 times longer in duration in winter than in summer (1,336 s vs 244 s). It was concluded that calves' thermal comfort is affected by seasonal and climate variations and that this can be assessed by measuring behaviour with animal-based indicators, such as lying down, resting, standing up, feeding, rumination, drinking and self grooming. The indicators developed may be a useful tool to prevent animal thermal stress by providing appropriate housing and handling to calves under seasonal and climate challenge.

  9. The effect of calving season on reproductive performance of Jersey cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ercan Soydan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dairy records, containing 1269 lactation record of 462 Jersey dairy cows collected over 16 years, from an agricultural state farm were used. Data for reproductive performance of cows were also collected. Means of the herd for lactation milk yield, calving interval, days open, interval from calving to the first insemination, lactation length, gestation length and dry period were 3195.7±20.2 kg, 366.6±1.7 d, 92.9±1.6 d, 78.0±1.3 d, 301.7±1.1 d, 275.2±0.2 d and 69.3±0.8 d, respectively. The effect of calving season (winter, spring, summer and autumn on reproductive performance for high, low and moderate milk-yield cows was investigated. Calving season affected the days from calving to first insemination in high and moderate yielding cows (P<0.001 while didn’t affect low yielding cows. In summer, days open in high yielding cows were 35 days longer compared to winter season (P<0.001 as observed for moderate yielding cows (P<0.01. In high yielding cows, calving interval was 18 days longer in spring compared to winter calving season. Calving season also affected the first service conception rate in high yielding cows (P<0.05. Services per conception in autumn were lower than the other seasons (P<0.001. In conclusion, high yielding dairy cows need more attention in summer season with respect to body condition score, dietary energy: protein ratio, uterus health and elimination of heat stress, to get more profit in dairy farm.

  10. Precipitation effects on microbial pollution in a river: lag structures and seasonal effect modification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Tornevi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The river Göta Älv is a source of freshwater for 0.7 million swedes. The river is subject to contamination from sewer systems discharge and runoff from agricultural lands. Climate models projects an increase in precipitation and heavy rainfall in this region. This study aimed to determine how daily rainfall causes variation in indicators of pathogen loads, to increase knowledge of variations in river water quality and discuss implications for risk management. METHODS: Data covering 7 years of daily monitoring of river water turbidity and concentrations of E. coli, Clostridium and coliforms were obtained, and their short-term variations in relation with precipitation were analyzed with time series regression and non-linear distributed lag models. We studied how precipitation effects varied with season and compared different weather stations for predictive ability. RESULTS: Generally, the lowest raw water quality occurs 2 days after rainfall, with poor raw water quality continuing for several more days. A rainfall event of >15 mm/24-h (local 95 percentile was associated with a three-fold higher concentration of E. coli and 30% higher turbidity levels (lag 2. Rainfall was associated with exponential increases in concentrations of indicator bacteria while the effect on turbidity attenuated with very heavy rainfall. Clear associations were also observed between consecutive days of wet weather and decreased water quality. The precipitation effect on increased levels of indicator bacteria was significant in all seasons. CONCLUSIONS: Rainfall elevates microbial risks year-round in this river and freshwater source and acts as the main driver of varying water quality. Heavy rainfall appears to be a better predictor of fecal pollution than water turbidity. An increase of wet weather and extreme events with climate change will lower river water quality even more, indicating greater challenges for drinking water producers, and suggesting better

  11. Influenza epidemics, seasonality, and the effects of cold weather on cardiac mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background More people die in the winter from cardiac disease, and there are competing hypotheses to explain this. The authors conducted a study in 48 US cities to determine how much of the seasonal pattern in cardiac deaths could be explained by influenza epidemics, whether that allowed a more parsimonious control for season than traditional spline models, and whether such control changed the short term association with temperature. Methods The authors obtained counts of daily cardiac deaths and of emergency hospital admissions of the elderly for influenza during 1992–2000. Quasi-Poisson regression models were conducted estimating the association between daily cardiac mortality, and temperature. Results Controlling for influenza admissions provided a more parsimonious model with better Generalized Cross-Validation, lower residual serial correlation, and better captured Winter peaks. The temperature-response function was not greatly affected by adjusting for influenza. The pooled estimated increase in risk for a temperature decrease from 0 to −5°C was 1.6% (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1-2.1%). Influenza accounted for 2.3% of cardiac deaths over this period. Conclusions The results suggest that including epidemic data explained most of the irregular seasonal pattern (about 18% of the total seasonal variation), allowing more parsimonious models than when adjusting for seasonality only with smooth functions of time. The effect of cold temperature is not confounded by epidemics. PMID:23025494

  12. Gilles Deleuze and the contemporary biopolitical debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Antonelli

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The present work is a research on Gilles Deleuze’s contribution to the contemporary biopolitical debate. To begin with, we analyze his interpretation of Foucault’s conception of biopolitics, especially the vitalist matrix of his reading, and we examine its impact on the distinction between “biopower” and “biopolitics” according to certain authors (Lazzarato, Negri, Revel. We then reveal the presence of deleuzian notions in other perspectives (the “impersonal” in Esposito, the “society of control” in Negri. Finally, we propose renewing the fundamental tensions of the debate on Life, Politics, Language and the Condition of Man, based on concepts elaborated by Deleuze

  13. Adrian E. Gill 1937”1986

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Allan J.

    On April 19, Adrian Gill, FRS, my former thesis advisor and distinguished friend, died suddenly of cancer. My sadness and disbelief are more strongly felt because the life of this gifted and generous man ended so early.Born in Melbourne, Australia, Adrian was granted his Ph.D. at Cambridge University, Cambridge, U.K., in 1963. After a year at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (Cambridge, Mass.), he returned to Cambridge in Britain, where he spent most of the rest of his life. In 1984, he left Cambridge to become director and cofounder of the Hooke Institute in Oxford, U.K. During his career he enjoyed many summers working in the United States.

  14. The effect of transport time, season and position on the truck on stress response in rabbits

    OpenAIRE

    Liste, M.G; María, G. A.; García-Belenguer, S.; Chacón, G.; Gazzola, P.; Villarroel, M.

    2008-01-01

    The present study analyzed the effect of transport time, season and position on the truck on physiological stress response of commercial rabbits in Aragón (Spain). A total of 156 animals were sampled in a 2x2x3 factorial design testing two transport times: short, 1 hour (1hT) and long, 7 hours (7hT), in two different seasons: hot, during summer (HT) and cold during winter (CT), and three different positions on the truck: upper, middle or lower decks in multi-floor cages on rolling stands (MFR...

  15. Ecological effects of prescribed fire season: a literature review and synthesis for managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric E. Knapp; Becky L. Estes; Carl N. Skinner

    2009-01-01

    Prescribed burning may be conducted at times of the year when fires were infrequent historically, leading to concerns about potential adverse effects on vegetation and wildlife. Historical and prescribed fire regimes for different regions in the continental United States were compared and literature on season of prescribed burning synthesized. In regions and vegetation...

  16. Evaluation of the effects of season on yield, viscosity and colour of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper evaluates the effect of production season on pulp yield, apparent viscosity and colour of tomato (Lycopersiconesculentum var. Roma VF), watermelon (Vitrullus vulgaris var. Babyblack) and pineapple (Ananascomosus var. Smooth cayennes) pulps. Tomato, watermelon and pineapple pulps from two harvesting ...

  17. Season and weather effects on travel-related mood and travel satisfaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ettema, Dick; Friman, Margareta; Olsson, Lars E.; Gärling, Tommy

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the effects of season and weather on mood (valence and activation) and travel satisfaction (measured by the Satisfaction with Travel Scale). Analyses are presented of 562 time-sampled morning commutes to work made by 363 randomly sampled people in three different Swedish cities

  18. The effect of seasonal grazing on the infiltration capacity of soils in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The infiltration measurements were determined by means of a flood type concentric ring infiltrometer. The results showed that grazing during any one of the seasons reduced the infiltration capacity of the soils. The detrimental effects of summer and autumn grazing were, however, larger titan those of winter and spring ...

  19. Seasonal influenza vaccine policy, use and effectiveness in the tropics and subtropics: a systematic literature review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hirve, S.; Lambach, P.; Paget, J.; Vandemaele, K.; Fitzner, J.; Zhang, W.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The evidence needed for tropical countries to take informed decisions on influenza vaccination is scarce. This paper reviews policy, availability, use and effectiveness of seasonal influenza vaccine in tropical and subtropical countries. Method: Global health databases were searched in three

  20. A preliminary note on the effect of season on the reproductive tract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A preliminary note on the effect of season on the reproductive tract of the eland bull Taurotragus oryx. J.D. Skinner, J.A.H. Heerden, J.H.M. van Zyl. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online.

  1. Vegetative buffer strips for reducing herbicide transport in runoff: effects of buffer width, vegetation, and season

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of vegetative buffer strip (VBS) width, vegetation, and season of the year on herbicide transport in runoff has not been well documented for runoff prone soils. A multi-year replicated plot-scale study was conducted on an eroded claypan soil with the following objectives: 1) assess the ef...

  2. The effect of season on aspects of in vitro embryo production in sub ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of season on aspects of in vitro embryo production in sub-fertile beef cows. ... Forty beef (40) cows of different breeds and parities were used in a trial ... in follicular populations could be established for different months of the year.

  3. Seasonal influenza vaccine policy, use and effectiveness in the tropics and subtropics - a systematic literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hirve, S.; Lambach, P.; Paget, J.; Vandemaele, K.; Fitzner, J.; Zhang, W.

    2016-01-01

    AIM: The evidence needed for tropical countries to take informed decisions on influenza vaccination is scarce. This article reviews policy, availability, use and effectiveness of seasonal influenza vaccine in tropical and subtropical countries. METHOD: Global health databases were searched in three

  4. Temperature effects on seaweed-sustaining top-down control vary with season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Franziska J; Graiff, Angelika; Matthiessen, Birte

    2016-03-01

    Rising seawater temperature and CO2 concentrations (ocean acidification) represent two of the most influential factors impacting marine ecosystems in the face of global climate change. In ecological climate change research, full-factorial experiments performed across seasons in multispecies, cross-trophic-level settings are essential as they permit a more realistic estimation of direct and indirect effects as well as the relative importance of the effects of both major environmental stressors on ecosystems. In benthic mesocosm experiments, we tested the responses of coastal Baltic Sea Fucus vesiculosus communities to elevated seawater temperature and CO2 concentrations across four seasons of one year. While increasing [CO2] levels had only minor effects, warming had strong and persistent effects on grazers, and the resulting effects on the Fucus community were found to be season dependent. In late summer, a temperature-driven collapse of grazers caused a cascading effect from the consumers to the foundation species, resulting in overgrowth of Fucus thalli by epiphytes. In fall/winter (outside the growing season of epiphytes), intensified grazing under warming resulted in a significant reduction in Fucus biomass. Thus, we were able to confirm the prediction that future increases in water temperatures will influence marine food-web processes by altering top-down control, but we were also able to show that specific consequences for food-web structure depend on the season. Since F. vesiculosus is the dominant habitat-forming brown algal system in the Baltic Sea, its potential decline under global warming implies a loss of key functions and services such as provision of nutrient storage, substrate, food, shelter, and nursery grounds for a diverse community of marine invertebrates and fish in Baltic Sea coastal waters.

  5. Effects of plant cover on soil N mineralization during the growing season in a sandy soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Y.; Shao, M.; Wei, X.; Fu, X.

    2017-12-01

    Soil nitrogen (N) mineralization and its availability plays a vital role in regulating ecosystem productivity and C cycling, particularly in semiarid and desertified ecosystems. To determine the effect of plant cover on N turnover in a sandy soil ecosystem, we measured soil N mineralization and inorganic N pools in soil solution during growing season in a sandy soil covered with various plant species (Artemisia desertorum, Salix psammophila, and Caragana korshinskii). A bare sandy soil without any plant was selected as control. Inorganic N pools and N mineralization rates decreased overtime during the growing season, and were not affected by soil depth in bare land soils, but were significantly higher at the 0-10 cm layer than those at the 10-20 cm soil layer under any plant species. Soil inorganic N pool was dominated by ammonium, and N mineralization was dominated by nitrification regardless of soil depth and plant cover. Soils under C. korshinskii have significant higher inorganic N pools and N mineralization rate than soils under bare land and A. desertorum and S. psammophila, and the effects of plant cover were greater at the 0-10 cm soil layer than at the 10-20 cm layer. The effects of C. korshinskii on soil inorganic N pools and mineralization rate varied with the stage of growing season, with greater effects on N pools in the middle growing season, and greater effects on mineralization rate at the last half of the growing season. The results from this study indicate that introduction of C. korshinskii has the potential to increase soil N turnover and availability in sandy soils, and thus to decrease N limitation. Caragana korshinskii is therefore recommend for the remediation of the desertified land.

  6. The cost-effectiveness of vaccinating pregnant women against seasonal influenza in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jit, Mark; Cromer, Deborah; Baguelin, Marc; Stowe, Julia; Andrews, Nick; Miller, Elizabeth

    2010-12-10

    We assessed the cost-effectiveness of vaccinating pregnant women against seasonal influenza in England and Wales, taking into account the timing of vaccination relative to both the influenza season and trimester of pregnancy. Women were assumed to be vaccinated in their second or third trimester. Vaccination between September and December was found to have an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of £23,000 per quality adjusted life year (QALY) (95% CI £10,000-£140,000) if it is assumed that infants are partially protected through their mothers, and of £28,000 per QALY gained (95% CI £13,000-£200,000) if infants are not protected. If some vaccine protection lasts for a second season, then the ratio is only £15,000 per QALY gained (95% CI £6,000-£93,000). Most of the benefit of vaccination is in preventing symptomatic episodes, regardless of health care resource use. Extending vaccination beyond December is unlikely to be cost-effective unless there is good protection into a second influenza season. Key sources of uncertainty are the cost of vaccine delivery and the quality of life detriment due to a clinically apparent episode of confirmed influenza. The cost of vaccine purchase itself is relatively low. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of Seasonal Changes, Age and Smoking on Haemostatic Factors and Thyroxine Level in Egyptian Men

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamal, T.H.; Bahgat, M. M.; Haggag, A. M.; Taha, M. E.

    2002-01-01

    ONE hundred and twenty male volunteers arranged into 6 equal groups participated in the present study to investigate the influence of age, smoking and season on clot formation, clot lysis and thyroxine hormone. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate, clotting time, platelet count, haemoglobin content, red blood cell count, haematocrit, total leukocytic count, fibrinogen, prothrombin time and concentration, partial thromboplastin time, factor V, VIII, plasminogen and thyroxine hormone were estimated in each group. The effect of age was studied by comparing young individuals (11-16 years) with adult non smokers (30-40 years) . Simultaneously adult non smokers were compared to adult smokers to evaluate the effect of smoking.Three groups: young , adult non smokers and adult smokers during winter were compared with their corresponding groups in summer to assess the season effect.The results revealed that most changes in the three groups were due to temperature variation and the young group had a better thermoregulation control than both adult groups .In non smoker adult group winter caused hypercoagulation with a concomitant increase in fibrinolytic activity as a protective mechanism against thrombus formation. Smoking caused disturbances in many coagulation factors and interaction between smoking and season is evident causing vascular disturbances. In summer smokers are more liable to bleeding, while in winter they are more liable to thrombus formation providing the other condition interfering with bleeding and thrombus formation are constant. There is relative hypothyroidism in smoker group only in summer season

  8. Hydrodynamic pumping by serial gill arrays in the mayfly nymph Centroptilum triangulifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sensenig, Andrew T; Kiger, Ken T; Shultz, Jeffrey W

    2010-10-01

    Aquatic nymphs of the mayfly Centroptilum triangulifer produce ventilatory flow using a serial array of seven abdominal gill pairs that operates across a Reynolds numbers (Re) range from 2 to 22 during ontogeny. Net flow in small animals is directed ventrally and essentially parallel to the stroke plane (i.e. rowing), but net flow in large animals is directed dorsally and essentially transverse to the stroke plane (i.e. flapping). Detailed flow measurements based on Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) ensemble-correlation analysis revealed that the phasing of the gills produces a time-dependent array of vortices associated with a net ventilatory current, a fluid kinematic pattern, here termed a 'phased vortex pump'. Absolute size of vortices does not change with increasing animal size or Re, and thus the vortex radius (R(v)) decreases relative to inter-gill distance (L(is)) during mayfly growth. Given that effective flapping in appendage-array animals requires organized flow between adjacent appendages, we hypothesize that rowing should be favored when L(is)/R(v)1. Significantly, the rowing-to-flapping transition in Centroptilum occurs at Re∼5, when the mean dynamic inter-gill distance equals the vortex radius. This result suggests that the Re-based rowing-flapping demarcation observed in appendage-array aquatic organisms may be determined by the relative size of the propulsive mechanism and its self-generated vortices.

  9. Seasonal variation in standardized litter decomposition and effects of elevation and land use at Mount Kilimanjaro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Joscha; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2017-04-01

    Decomposition is one of most important ecological steps in organic matter and nutrient cycles, but studies and reliable data from tropical regions in Africa are still scarce. At the global scale, litter decomposition and recycling is controlled by climatic factors and land-use intensity. These factors can be linked to specific ecosystem characteristics along the unique elevation gradient of Mt. Kilimanjaro. Our objectives were to assess the effects of climatic conditions (i.e. elevation) and land-use intensity on C turnover and stabilization and investigated the seasonal variations. Tea-bag Index (see www.teatime4science.org) was used to measure decomposition of a standardized litter substrate by microorganisms and mesofauna coffee plantations or cloud forest (S=0.11) respectively and strongly increased again to a maximum of S=0.41 in the alpine helichrysum ecosystem. During all seasons, we found the highest decomposition rates at mid elevation. However, during both warm seasons the peak is shifted upslope. Savanna experienced the strongest seasonal variation, with 23 times higher S-values in dry- compared to rainy season. Mean annual k-values increased for about 30% with increasing land-use intensity. C stabilization in Mt. Kilimanjaro ecosystems is strongly dependent on seasonal moisture limitation (lower slope) and perennial temperature limitation (alpine zone). Ecosystems at mid elevation (around 1920 & 2120m) represent the interception zone of optimal moisture and temperature conditions. High input and fast turnover drive the C sequestration in these ecosystems, while restrains on decomposition control the C turnover in lower and higher elevation zones. Land-use intensification decreases stabilization from new C inputs in transition zones from savanna to maize monocultures and from traditional homegardens to large-scale coffee plantations.

  10. Simulated effects of a seasonal precipitation change on the vegetation in tropical Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Gritti

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Pollen data collected in Africa at high (Kuruyange, valley swamp, Burundi and low altitude (Victoria, lake, Uganda; Ngamakala, pond, Congo showed that after 6 ky before present (BP, pollen of deciduous trees increase their relative percentage, suggesting thus the reduction of the annual amount of precipitation and/or an increase of in the length of the dry season. Until now, pollen-climate transfer functions only investigated mean annual precipitation, due to the absence of modern pollen-assemblage analogs under diversified precipitation regimes. Hence these functions omit the potential effect of a change in precipitation seasonality modifying thus the length of the dry season. In the present study, we use an equilibrium biosphere model (i.e. BIOME3.5 to estimate the sensitivity of equatorial African vegetation, at specific sites, to such changes. Climatic scenarios, differing only in the monthly distribution of the current annual amount of precipitation, are examined at the above three locations in equatorial Africa. Soil characteristics, monthly temperatures and cloudiness are kept constant at their present-day values. Good agreement is shown between model simulations and current biomes assemblages, as inferred from pollen data. To date, the increase of the deciduous forest component in the palaeodata around 6 ky BP has been interpreted as the beginning of a drier climate period. However, our results demonstrate that a change in the seasonal distribution of precipitation could also induce the observed changes in vegetation types. This study confirms the importance of taking into account seasonal changes in the hydrological balance. Palaeoecologists can greatly benefit from the use of dynamic process based vegetation models to acccount for modification of the length of the dry season when they wish to reconstruct vegetation composition or to infer quantitative climate parameters, such as temperature and precipitation, from pollen or vegetation

  11. Effects of season on ecological processes in extensive earthen tilapia ponds in Southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favaro, E G P; Sipaúba-Tavares, L H; Milstein, A

    2015-11-01

    In Southeastern Brazil tilapia culture is conducted in extensive and semi-intensive flow-through earthen ponds, being water availability and flow management different in the rainy and dry seasons. In this region lettuce wastes are a potential cheap input for tilapia culture. This study examined the ecological processes developing during the rainy and dry seasons in three extensive flow-through earthen tilapia ponds fertilized with lettuce wastes. Water quality, plankton and sediment parameters were sampled monthly during a year. Factor analysis was used to identify the ecological processes occurring within the ponds and to construct a conceptual graphic model of the pond ecosystem functioning during the rainy and dry seasons. Processes related to nitrogen cycling presented differences between both seasons while processes related to phosphorus cycling did not. Ecological differences among ponds were due to effects of wind protection by surrounding vegetation, organic loading entering, tilapia density and its grazing pressure on zooplankton. Differences in tilapia growth among ponds were related to stocking density and ecological process affecting tilapia food availability and intraspecific competition. Lettuce wastes addition into the ponds did not produce negative effects, thus this practice may be considered a disposal option and a low-cost input source for tilapia, at least at the amounts applied in this study.

  12. Effect of season on characteristics of pecorino cheese and ricotta of Pistoiese Appennine: first results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Giustini

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The “Pecorino pistoiese” is made from milk of Massese Sheep. The flocks are reared by grazing on natural pastures of Pistoiese Appennine. The farms product cheeses by milk without pasteurization. The handmade cheeses are characterized by a remarkable variability due to farm and to season. The aim of this work is to study the effect of season on characteristics of the pecorino e ricotta pistoiese with particular attention for the determination of the yield. One trial was run in each season (4 trials and in 3 farms. Every phases of the cheesemaking were controlled and milk, cheese and ricotta were weighed and analysed. The season showed some significant effects on the chemical composition of milk: lactose and SNF showed lower values in summer. The pecorino cheese showed 18.5% of fat and 24.7% of protein on average. In spring and in summer the yield in pecorino cheese (15.8% was significantly worse than in winter (19.3%. The ricotta cheese was fatter in summer (27.6% than in winter (17.5%. The yield of ricotta at 24 hours was 13.5% on average.

  13. The Effect of Agricultural Growing Season Change on Market Prices in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    deBeurs, K.M.; Brown, M. E.

    2013-01-01

    to plan effective adaptation strategies. Remote sensing data can also provide some understanding of the spatial extent of these changes and whether they are likely to continue. Given the agricultural nature of most economies on the African continent, agricultural production continues to be a critical determinant of both food security and economic growth (Funk and Brown, 2009). Crop phenological parameters, such as the start and end of the growing season, the total length of the growing season, and the rate of greening and senescence are important for planning crop management, crop diversification, and intensification. The World Food Summit of 1996 defined food security as: "when all people at all times have access to sufficient, safe, nutritious food to maintain a healthy and active life". Food security roughly depends on three factors: 1) availability of food; 2) access to food and 3) appropriate use of food, as well as adequate water and sanitation. The first factor is dependent on growing conditions and weather and climate. In a previous paper we have investigated this factor by evaluating the effect of large scale climate oscillation on land surface phenology (Brown et al., 2010). We found that all areas in Africa are significantly affected by at least one type of large scale climate oscillations and concluded that these somewhat predictable oscillations could perhaps be used to forecast agricultural production. In addition, we have evaluated changes in agricultural land surface phenology over time (Brown et al., 2012). We found that land surface phenology models, which link large-scale vegetation indices with accumulated humidity, could successfully predict agricultural productivity in several countries around the world. In this chapter we are interested in the effect of variability in peak timing of the growing season, or phenology, on the second factor of food security, food access. In this chapter we want to determine if there is a link between market prices

  14. Specific immunotherapy has long-term preventive effect of seasonal and perennial asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, L; Niggemann, B; Dreborg, S

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: 3-year subcutaneous specific immunotherapy (SIT) in children with seasonal allergic rhinoconjunctivitis reduced the risk of developing asthma during treatment and 2 years after discontinuation of SIT (5-year follow-up) indicating long-term preventive effect of SIT. OBJECTIVE: We......: Specific immunotherapy has long-term clinical effects and the potential of preventing development of asthma in children with allergic rhino conjunctivitis up to 7 years after treatment termination....

  15. Regulation of gill claudin paralogs by salinity, cortisol and prolactin in Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipsmark, Christian K; Breves, Jason P; Rabeneck, D Brett; Trubitt, Rebecca T; Lerner, Darren T; Grau, E Gordon

    2016-09-01

    In euryhaline teleosts, reorganization of gill tight junctions during salinity acclimation involves dynamic expression of specific claudin (Cldn) paralogs. We identified four transcripts encoding Cldn tight junction proteins in the tilapia gill transcriptome: cldn10c, cldn10e, cldn28a and cldn30. A tissue distribution experiment found cldn10c and cldn10e expression levels in the gill to be 100-fold higher than any other tissues examined. cldn28a and cldn30 levels in the gill were 10-fold greater than levels in other tissues. Expression of these genes in Mozambique tilapia was examined during acclimation to fresh water (FW), seawater (SW), and in response to hormone treatments. Transfer of tilapia from FW to SW elevated cldn10c and cldn10e, while cldn28a and cldn30 were stimulated following transfer from SW to FW. In hypophysectomized tilapia transferred to FW, pituitary extirpation induced reduced expression of cldn10c, cldn10e and cldn28a; these effects were mitigated equally by either prolactin or cortisol replacement. In vitro experiments with gill filaments showed that cortisol stimulated expression of all four cldns examined, suggesting a direct action of cortisol in situ. Our data indicate that elevated cldn10c and cldn10e expression is important during acclimation of tilapia to SW possibly by conferring ion specific paracellular permeability. On the other hand, expression of cldn28a and cldn30 appears to contribute to reorganization of branchial epithelium during FW acclimation. Hormone treatment experiments showed that particular FW- and SW-induced cldns are controlled by cortisol and prolactin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Seasonal Precipitation Variability Effects on Carbon Exchange in a Tropical Dry Forest of Northwest Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verduzco, V.; Garatuza-Payan, J.; Yépez, E. A.; Watts, C. J.; Rodriguez, J. C.; Robles-Morua, A.; Vivoni, E. R.

    2015-12-01

    The Tropical Dry Forest (TDF) cover a large area in tropical and subtropical regions in the Americas and its productivity is thought to have an important contribution to the atmospheric carbon fluxes. However, due to this ecosystem complex dynamics, our understanding about the mechanisms controlling net ecosystem exchange is limited. In this study, five years of continue water and carbon fluxes measurements from eddy covariance complemented with remotely sensed vegetation greenness were used to investigate the ecosystem carbon balance of a TDF in the North American Monsoon region under different hydro climatic conditions. We identified a large CO2 efflux at the start of the summer season that is strongly related to the preceding winter precipitation and greenness. Since this CO2 efflux occurs prior to vegetation green-up, we infer a predominant heterotrophic control owed to high decomposition of accumulated labile soil organic matter from prior growing season. Overall, ecosystem respiration has an important effect on the net ecosystem production over the year, but can be overwhelmed by the strength of the primary productivity during the monsoon season. Precipitation characteristics during the monsoon have significant controls on sustaining carbon fixation in the TDF ecosystem into the fall season. A threshold of ~350 to 400 mm of summer precipitation was identify to switch the annual carbon balance in the TDF ecosystem from a net source (+102 g C/m2/yr) to a net sink (-249 g C/m2/yr). This research points at the needs for understanding the potential effects of changing seasonal precipitation patterns on ecosystem dynamics and carbon sequestration in subtropical regions.

  17. Low twinning rate and seasonal effects on twinning in a fertile population, the Hutterites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonaka, K.; Miura, T.; Peter, K.

    1993-09-01

    This paper analyzes from the mid 18th century to 1987 the birth records of the “Dariusleut,” one of the three subgroups of the Hutterite population. The aim of this study is to describe several aspects of the twinning rate in a fertile population. The overall rate of twinning was 0.90%:103 twins among all 11492 maternities. The rate peaked at the 7th birth order and at the maternal age of 40 years and over. Until the mid 19th century when the Hutterites lived in Russia, the twinning rate was higher (1.5%), and it decreased during the migration period in the second half of the 19th century (0.7%). After the group had settled in the USA and Canada, the population maintained a twinning rate of 1.0% until 1965. After 1965 the rate decreased to 0.7%, partly due to a decline in fertility among women aged 30 years and over. There was a significant seasonal variation: the twinning rate decreased to 0.5% in May July compared to 1.2% for the other three seasons during the years up to 1965 ( P<0.01), while more recent mothers did not show such a seasonal variation. The incidence of twin births in this population seems to have been influenced by environmental factors, which would change their effect seasonally and secularly.

  18. Effects of body weight and season on serum lipid concentrations in sloth bears (Melursus ursinus ursinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugam, Arun Attur; Kumar, Jadav Kajal; Selvaraj, Illayaraja; Selvaraj, Vimal

    2011-09-01

    Serum lipid levels were measured in 66 healthy sloth bears (Melursus ursinus ursinus) living under semicaptive conditions with access to natural food resources in the Bannerghatta Biological Park (Karnataka, India), a portion of their native habitat range in the Indian peninsula. Total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were analyzed. The effects of age, body weight, and season on these lipid parameters were statistically evaluated. There were no correlations between age and any of the serum lipid parameters analyzed. Positive correlations of body weight to both triglyceride and HDL cholesterol levels in these bears were identified. In addition, seasonal trends in physiological serum lipid values, potentially due to variations in the sloth bear diet, were identified. Serum triglyceride levels were higher during postmonsoon season and cholesterol levels were higher during winter compared to other seasons. Serum lipid values obtained from sloth bears in this study were also compared to previously published data on other members of the family Ursidae. This is the first report of serum lipid values as a reference for sloth bears. These values can be used as sensitive predictors of overall health and nutritional status to aid in the captive management and feeding of these bears.

  19. The effects of season and meteorology on human mortality in tropical climates: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkart, Katrin; Khan, Md Mobarak Hossain; Schneider, Alexandra; Breitner, Susanne; Langner, Marcel; Krämer, Alexander; Endlicher, Wilfried

    2014-07-01

    Research in the field of atmospheric science and epidemiology has long recognized the health effects of seasonal and meteorological conditions. However, little scientific knowledge exists to date about the impacts of atmospheric parameters on human mortality in tropical regions. Working within the scope of this systematic review, this investigation conducted a literature search using different databases; original research articles were chosen according to pre-defined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Both seasonal and meteorological effects were considered. The findings suggest that high amounts of rainfall and increasing temperatures cause a seasonal excess in infectious disease mortality and are therefore relevant in regions and populations in which such diseases are prevalent. On the contrary, moderately low and very high temperatures exercise an adverse effect on cardio-respiratory mortality and shape the mortality pattern in areas and sub-groups in which these diseases are dominant. Atmospheric effects were subject to population-specific factors such as age and socio-economic status and differed between urban and rural areas. The consequences of climate change as well as environmental, epidemiological and social change (e.g., emerging non-communicable diseases, ageing of the population, urbanization) suggest a growing relevance of heat-related excess mortality in tropical regions. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Seasonal changes and effect of harvest on glucosinolates in Isatis leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohn, Tobias; Suter, Kathrin; Hamburger, Matthias

    2008-04-01

    The seasonal fluctuation of glucosinolates in five defined Isatis tinctoria and one Isatis indigotica accessions (first year, rosette stage), grown on field plots under identical conditions, was investigated. Analysis of the intact glucosinolates was carried out with shock frozen, freeze dried leaf samples using a recently developed and validated PLE (pressurized liquid extraction) protocol and ion-pair HPLC coupled with ESI-MS in the negative mode. When comparing the two Isatis species, significant qualitative and quantitative differences in the glucosinolate patterns were observed. Differences among the various Isatis tinctoria accessions were much smaller. We studied the effects of repeated harvesting during the growth season on glucosinolate concentrations and found that repeated harvest did not have a major effect on glucosinolate concentrations of newly grown leaves. Glucosinolates could not be detected in woad leaves submitted to conventional drying.

  1. McGill's Integrated Civil and Common Law Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morissette, Yves-Marie

    2002-01-01

    Describes the bijural program of McGill University Faculty of Law. The program educates all first-degree law students in both the common law and civil law traditions, preparing them for the increasing globalization of legal practice. (EV)

  2. Household economic modelsof gill net fishermen at Madura strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primyastanto, M.

    2018-04-01

    The purposes of this research was to analyze household economic models of gill net fishermen at Madura strait. 30 families of gillnet fishermenwere used for purposive sampling. Data analysis used descriptive qualitative and quantitative (regression analysis). Quantitative descriptive analysis was used to analyze research and compare to factors that affecting household economic models of gill net fishermen family. Research results showed tha thousehold economic models of gill net fishermen at Madura strait was production value level or fishermen revenue at sea was strongly influenced byp roduction asset production, education level, fuel, and work flow. Work flow rate of fishermen families affected by asset production, non fisheries workflow and number of male workforce. Non fishing income level was strongly influenced by non-fishery business assets, number of family members owned andnon-fishing work flow. Spending levels of gill net fishermen at Madura strait was affected by fishing income, non-fishing income, fishermen wife education and fishermen family members.

  3. The Symptomatology and Diagnosis of Gilles de la Tourette's Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Arthur; And Others

    1973-01-01

    The symptomatology of 34 patients with Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome was described in detail. The purpose was to clarify the diagnostic criteria for Tourette's syndrome by describing the type, variety, and frequency of symptoms in this illness. (Author)

  4. The effect of the competitive season in professional basketball on inflammation and iron metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzedzej, A; Ignatiuk, W; Jaworska, J; Grzywacz, T; Lipińska, P; Antosiewicz, J; Korek, A

    2016-01-01

    Following acute physical activity, blood hepcidin concentration appears to increase in response to exercise-induced inflammation, but the long-term impact of exercise on hepcidin remains unclear. Here we investigated changes in hepcidin and the inflammation marker interleukin-6 to evaluate professional basketball players’ response to a season of training and games. The analysis also included vitamin D (25(OH)D3) assessment, owing to its anti-inflammatory effects. Blood samples were collected for 14 players and 10 control non-athletes prior to and after the 8-month competitive season. Athletes’ performance was assessed with the NBA efficiency score. At the baseline hepcidin correlated with blood ferritin (r = 0.61; 90% CL ±0.31), but at the end of the season this correlation was absent. Compared with the control subjects, athletes experienced clear large increases in hepcidin (50%; 90% CI 15-96%) and interleukin-6 (77%; 90% CI 35-131%) and a clear small decrease in vitamin D (-12%; 90% CI -20 to -3%) at the season completion. Correlations between change scores of these variables were unclear (r = -0.21 to 0.24, 90% CL ±0.5), but their uncertainty generally excluded strong relationships. Athletes were hence concluded to have experienced acute inflammation at the beginning but chronic inflammation at the end of the competitive season. At the same time, the moderate correlation between changes in vitamin D and players’ performance (r = 0.43) was suggestive of its beneficial influence. Maintaining the appropriative concentration of vitamin D is thus necessary for basketball players’ performance and efficiency. The assessment of hepcidin has proven to be useful in diagnosing inflammation in response to chronic exercise. PMID:27601776

  5. The effect of the competitive season in professional basketball on inflammation and iron metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzedzej, A; Ignatiuk, W; Jaworska, J; Grzywacz, T; Lipińska, P; Antosiewicz, J; Korek, A; Ziemann, E

    2016-09-01

    Following acute physical activity, blood hepcidin concentration appears to increase in response to exercise-induced inflammation, but the long-term impact of exercise on hepcidin remains unclear. Here we investigated changes in hepcidin and the inflammation marker interleukin-6 to evaluate professional basketball players' response to a season of training and games. The analysis also included vitamin D (25(OH)D3) assessment, owing to its anti-inflammatory effects. Blood samples were collected for 14 players and 10 control non-athletes prior to and after the 8-month competitive season. Athletes' performance was assessed with the NBA efficiency score. At the baseline hepcidin correlated with blood ferritin (r = 0.61; 90% CL ±0.31), but at the end of the season this correlation was absent. Compared with the control subjects, athletes experienced clear large increases in hepcidin (50%; 90% CI 15-96%) and interleukin-6 (77%; 90% CI 35-131%) and a clear small decrease in vitamin D (-12%; 90% CI -20 to -3%) at the season completion. Correlations between change scores of these variables were unclear (r = -0.21 to 0.24, 90% CL ±0.5), but their uncertainty generally excluded strong relationships. Athletes were hence concluded to have experienced acute inflammation at the beginning but chronic inflammation at the end of the competitive season. At the same time, the moderate correlation between changes in vitamin D and players' performance (r = 0.43) was suggestive of its beneficial influence. Maintaining the appropriative concentration of vitamin D is thus necessary for basketball players' performance and efficiency. The assessment of hepcidin has proven to be useful in diagnosing inflammation in response to chronic exercise.

  6. Pan-Tropical Analysis of Climate Effects on Seasonal Tree Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Fabien; Rossi, Vivien; Aubry-Kientz, Mélaine; Bonal, Damien; Dalitz, Helmut; Gliniars, Robert; Stahl, Clément; Trabucco, Antonio; Hérault, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Climate models predict a range of changes in tropical forest regions, including increased average temperatures, decreased total precipitation, reduced soil moisture and alterations in seasonal climate variations. These changes are directly related to the increase in anthropogenic greenhouse gas concentrations, primarily CO2. Assessing seasonal forest growth responses to climate is of utmost importance because woody tissues, produced by photosynthesis from atmospheric CO2, water and light, constitute the main component of carbon sequestration in the forest ecosystem. In this paper, we combine intra-annual tree growth measurements from published tree growth data and the corresponding monthly climate data for 25 pan-tropical forest sites. This meta-analysis is designed to find the shared climate drivers of tree growth and their relative importance across pan-tropical forests in order to improve carbon uptake models in a global change context. Tree growth reveals significant intra-annual seasonality at seasonally dry sites or in wet tropical forests. Of the overall variation in tree growth, 28.7% was explained by the site effect, i.e. the tree growth average per site. The best predictive model included four climate variables: precipitation, solar radiation (estimated with extrasolar radiation reaching the atmosphere), temperature amplitude and relative soil water content. This model explained more than 50% of the tree growth variations across tropical forests. Precipitation and solar radiation are the main seasonal drivers of tree growth, causing 19.8% and 16.3% of the tree growth variations. Both have a significant positive association with tree growth. These findings suggest that forest productivity due to tropical tree growth will be reduced in the future if climate extremes, such as droughts, become more frequent. PMID:24670981

  7. Climate change effect on Betula (birch) and Quercus (oak) pollen seasons in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Bielory, Leonard; Georgopoulos, Panos G.

    2014-07-01

    Climatic change is expected to affect the spatiotemporal patterns of airborne allergenic pollen, which has been found to act synergistically with common air pollutants, such as ozone, to cause allergic airway disease (AAD). Observed airborne pollen data from six stations from 1994 to 2011 at Fargo (North Dakota), College Station (Texas), Omaha (Nebraska), Pleasanton (California), Cherry Hill and Newark (New Jersey) in the US were studied to examine climate change effects on trends of annual mean and peak value of daily concentrations, annual production, season start, and season length of Betula (birch) and Quercus (oak) pollen. The growing degree hour (GDH) model was used to establish a relationship between start/end dates and differential temperature sums using observed hourly temperatures from surrounding meteorology stations. Optimum GDH models were then combined with meteorological information from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, and land use land coverage data from the Biogenic Emissions Land use Database, version 3.1 (BELD3.1), to simulate start dates and season lengths of birch and oak pollen for both past and future years across the contiguous US (CONUS). For most of the studied stations, comparison of mean pollen indices between the periods of 1994-2000 and 2001-2011 showed that birch and oak trees were observed to flower 1-2 weeks earlier; annual mean and peak value of daily pollen concentrations tended to increase by 13.6 %-248 %. The observed pollen season lengths varied for birch and for oak across the different monitoring stations. Optimum initial date, base temperature, and threshold GDH for start date was found to be 1 March, 8 °C, and 1,879 h, respectively, for birch; 1 March, 5 °C, and 4,760 h, respectively, for oak. Simulation results indicated that responses of birch and oak pollen seasons to climate change are expected to vary for different regions.

  8. Seasonal variation of Brazilian red propolis: Antibacterial activity, synergistic effect and phytochemical screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regueira, M S; Tintino, Saulo Relison; da Silva, Ana Raquel Pereira; Costa, Maria do Socorro; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Matias, Edinardo F F; de Queiroz Balbino, Valdir; Menezes, Irwin R A; Melo Coutinho, Henrique Douglas

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the dry and rainy season on the antibacterial activity and chemical composition of the Brazilian red propolis. The samples were collected in rainy (RP-PER) and dry (RP-PED) seasons and analyzed by HPLC-DAD. The extracts were tested alone and in association with antibiotics against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. The HPLC analysis identified luteolin and quercetin as the main compounds. Seasonal variation was observed according to concentrations of the compounds. The MIC values against E. coli ranged from 128 μg/mL to 512 μg/mL (EC 06 and EC ATCC). The red propolis showed MIC values of 512 μg/mL against both strains of P. aeruginosa used in our study (PA03 and PA24) and against strains of Gram-positive bacteria S. aureus the MICs ranged from 64 μg/mL to ≥1024 μg/mL (SA10). A synergistic effect was observed when we combined the RP-PED with gentamicin against all the strains tested. When we combined the RP-PED with Imipenem, we only observed synergistic effect against P. aeruginosa. According to our synergistic activity results, the utilization of red propolis collected in the drier periods can be used as an adjuvant against multiresistant bacterial infections. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Gear and seasonal bias associated with abundance and size structure estimates for lentic freshwater fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Jesse R.; Quist, Michael C.

    2014-01-01

    All freshwater fish sampling methods are biased toward particular species, sizes, and sexes and are further influenced by season, habitat, and fish behavior changes over time. However, little is known about gear-specific biases for many common fish species because few multiple-gear comparison studies exist that have incorporated seasonal dynamics. We sampled six lakes and impoundments representing a diversity of trophic and physical conditions in Iowa, USA, using multiple gear types (i.e., standard modified fyke net, mini-modified fyke net, sinking experimental gill net, bag seine, benthic trawl, boat-mounted electrofisher used diurnally and nocturnally) to determine the influence of sampling methodology and season on fisheries assessments. Specifically, we describe the influence of season on catch per unit effort, proportional size distribution, and the number of samples required to obtain 125 stock-length individuals for 12 species of recreational and ecological importance. Mean catch per unit effort generally peaked in the spring and fall as a result of increased sampling effectiveness in shallow areas and seasonal changes in habitat use (e.g., movement offshore during summer). Mean proportional size distribution decreased from spring to fall for white bass Morone chrysops, largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides, bluegill Lepomis macrochirus, and black crappie Pomoxis nigromaculatus, suggesting selectivity for large and presumably sexually mature individuals in the spring and summer. Overall, the mean number of samples required to sample 125 stock-length individuals was minimized in the fall with sinking experimental gill nets, a boat-mounted electrofisher used at night, and standard modified nets for 11 of the 12 species evaluated. Our results provide fisheries scientists with relative comparisons between several recommended standard sampling methods and illustrate the effects of seasonal variation on estimates of population indices that will be critical to

  10. Synergistic effects of seasonal rainfall, parasites and demography on fluctuations in springbok body condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Wendy C.; Versfeld, Wilferd D.; Kilian, J. Werner; Getz, Wayne M.

    2011-01-01

    Summary 1. Seasonality of rainfall can exert a strong influence on animal condition and on host-parasite interactions. The body condition of ruminants fluctuates seasonally in response to changes in energy requirements, foraging patterns and resource availability, and seasonal variation in parasite infections may further alter ruminant body condition. 2. This study disentangles effects of rainfall and gastrointestinal parasite infections on springbok (Antidorcas marsupialis) body condition and determines how these factors vary among demographic groups. 3. Using data from four years and three study areas, we investigated i) the influence of rainfall variation, demographic factors and parasite interactions on parasite prevalence or infection intensity, ii) whether parasitism or rainfall is a more important predictor of springbok body condition and iii) how parasitism and condition vary among study areas along a rainfall gradient. 4. We found that increased parasite intensity is associated with reduced body condition only for adult females. For all other demographic groups, body condition was significantly related to prior rainfall and not to parasitism. Rainfall lagged by two months had a positive effect on body condition. 5. Adult females showed evidence of a “periparturient rise” in parasite intensity, and had higher parasite intensity and lower body condition than adult males after parturition and during early lactation. After juveniles were weaned, adult females had lower parasite intensity than adult males. Sex differences in parasitism and condition may be due to differences between adult females and males in the seasonal timing of reproductive effort and its effects on host immunity, as well as documented sex differences in vulnerability to predation. 6. Our results highlight that parasites and the environment can synergistically affect host populations, but that these interactions might be masked by their interwoven relationships, their differential

  11. Effects of season and storage period on accumulation of individual carotenoids in pumpkin flesh (Cucurbita moschata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaswir, Irwandi; Shahidan, Norshazila; Othman, Rashidi; Has-Yun Hashim, Yumi Zuhanis; Octavianti, Fitri; bin Salleh, Mohammad Noor

    2014-01-01

    Carotenoids are antioxidants with pharmaceutical potential. The major carotenoids important to humans are α-carotene, β-carotene, lycopene, lutein, zeaxanthin, and β-cryptoxanthin. Some of the biological functions and actions of these individual carotenoids are quite similar to each other, whereas others are specific. Besides genotype and location, other environmental effects such as temperature, light, mineral uptake, and pH have been found affect carotenoid development in plant tissues and organs. Therefore, this research investigated the effects of the season and storage periods during postharvest handling on the accumulation of carotenoid in pumpkin. This study shows that long-term storage of pumpkins resulted in the accumulation of lutein and β-carotene with a slight decrease in zeaxanthin. The amounts of β-carotene ranged from 174.583±2.105 mg/100g to 692.871±22.019 mg/100g, lutein from 19.841±9.693 mg/100g to 59.481±1.645 mg/100g, and zeaxanthin from not detected to 2.709±0.118 mg/100g. The pumpkins were collected three times in a year; they differed in that zeaxanthin was present only in the first season, while the amounts of β-carotene and lutein were the highest in the second and third seasons, respectively. By identifying the key factors among the postharvest handling conditions that control specific carotenoid accumulations, a greater understanding of how to enhance the nutritional values of pumpkin and other crops will be gained. Postharvest storage conditions can markedly enhance and influence the levels of zeaxanthin, lutein, and β-carotene in pumpkin. This study describes how the magnitudes of these effects depend on the storage period and season.

  12. Occurrence of THM and NDMA precursors in a watershed: Effect of seasons and anthropogenic pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Egemen; Yaman, Fatma Busra; Ates Genceli, Esra; Topuz, Emel; Erdim, Esra; Gurel, Melike; Ipek, Murat; Pehlivanoglu-Mantas, Elif

    2012-06-30

    In pristine watersheds, natural organic matter is the main source of disinfection by-product (DBP) precursors. However, the presence of point or non-point pollution sources in watersheds may lead to increased levels of DBP precursors which in turn form DBPs in the drinking water treatment plant upon chlorination or chloramination. In this study, water samples were collected from a lake used to obtain drinking water for Istanbul as well as its tributaries to investigate the presence of the precursors of two disinfection by-products, trihalomethanes (THM) and N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA). In addition, the effect of seasons and the possible relationships between these precursors and water quality parameters were evaluated. The concentrations of THM and NDMA precursors measured as total THM formation potential (TTHMFP) and NDMA formation potential (NDMAFP) ranged between 126 and 1523μg/L THM and NDMA, respectively. Such wide ranges imply that some of the tributaries are affected by anthropogenic pollution sources, which is also supported by high DOC, Cl(-) and NH(3) concentrations. No significant correlation was found between the water quality parameters and DBP formation potential, except for a weak correlation between NDMAFP and DOC concentrations. The effect of the sampling location was more pronounced than the seasonal variation due to anthropogenic pollution in some tributaries and no significant correlation was obtained between the seasons and water quality parameters. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Seasonal, spatial, and maternal effects on gut microbiome in wild red squirrels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Tiantian; Boutin, Stan; Humphries, Murray M; Dantzer, Ben; Gorrell, Jamieson C; Coltman, David W; McAdam, Andrew G; Wu, Martin

    2017-12-21

    Our understanding of gut microbiota has been limited primarily to findings from human and laboratory animals, but what shapes the gut microbiota in nature remains largely unknown. To fill this gap, we conducted a comprehensive study of gut microbiota of a well-studied North American red squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) population. Red squirrels are territorial, solitary, and live in a highly seasonal environment and therefore represent a very attractive system to study factors that drive the temporal and spatial dynamics of gut microbiota. For the first time, this study revealed significant spatial patterns of gut microbiota within a host population, suggesting limited dispersal could play a role in shaping and maintaining the structure of gut microbial communities. We also found a remarkable seasonal rhythm in red squirrel's gut microbial composition manifested by a tradeoff between relative abundance of two genera Oscillospira and Corpococcus and clearly associated with seasonal variation in diet availability. Our results show that in nature, environmental factors exert a much stronger influence on gut microbiota than host-associated factors including age and sex. Despite strong environmental effects, we found clear evidence of individuality and maternal effects, but host genetics did not seem to be a significant driver of the gut microbial communities in red squirrels. Taken together, the results of this study emphasize the importance of external ecological factors rather than host attributes in driving temporal and spatial patterns of gut microbiota in natural environment.

  14. Seasonality Effects on Nonlinear Properties of Hydrometeorological Records: A New Method of Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livina, V. N.; Ashkenazy, Y.; Bunde, A.; Havlin, S.

    2007-12-01

    Climatic time series in general, and hydrological time series in particular, exhibit pronounced annual periodicity. This periodicity and its corresponding harmonics affect the nonlinear properties of the relevant time series (i.e., the long-range volatility correlations and width of multifractal spectrum) and thus have to be filtered out before studying fractal and volatility properties. We compare several filtering techniques (one of them proposed here) and find that in order to eliminate the periodicity effect on the nonlinear properties of the time series (i.e., the volatility and multifractal properties) it is necessary to filter out the seasonal standard deviation in addition to the filtering of the seasonal mean. The obtained results indicate weak volatility correlations (weak nonlinearity) in the river data, and this can be seen using different filterings approaches. [1] Livina~V.~N., Y.~Ashkenazy, A.~Bunde, and S.~Havlin, Seasonality effects on nonlinear properties of hydrometeorological records, in Extremes, Trends, and Correlations in Hydrology and Climate (ed. by J.P.Kropp & H.-J.Schellnhuber), Springer, Berlin, submitted.

  15. Effects of season, pregnancy and lactation on serum thyroxine level in dairy cattle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoda, Y [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Agriculture; Ishii, T

    1976-11-01

    Serum thyroxine level was determined monthly for fifteen Holstein cows by radio stereoassay using polyvinyl alcohol (PVF) sponge throughout a year to investigate the effects of season, pregnancy and lactation on the thyroxine level seasonably, the serum thyroxine level was low in summer, and the average level in July and August was 12.6 ..mu..g/dl, which was a half of the average winter level in January and February of 26.2 ..mu..g/dl. It became low level at the late stage of gestation, showing the lowest value of 13.7 ..mu..g/dl just before delivery, and increased suddenly in the second month of lactation attaining the highest level of 27.0 ..mu..g/dl. It reduced slightly thereafter to be 22.1 ..mu..g/dl at the end of lactation.

  16. Effects of season, pregnancy and lactation on serum thyroxine level in dairy cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoda, Yoichi; Ishii, Tadao.

    1976-01-01

    Serum thyroxine level was determined monthly for fifteen Holstein cows by radio stereoassay using polyvinyl alcohol (PVF) sponge throughout a year to investigate the effects of season, pregnancy and lactation on the thyroxine level seasonably, the serum thyroxine level was low in summer, and the average level in July and August was 12.6 μg/dl, which was a half of the average winter level in January and February of 26.2 μg/dl. It became low level at the late stage of gestation, showing the lowest value of 13.7 μg/dl just before delivery, and increased suddenly in the second month of lactation attaining the highest level of 27.0 μg/dl. It reduced slightly thereafter to be 22.1 μg/dl at the end of lactation. (Kobatake, H.)

  17. Age and body weight of Moroccan local cattle at puberty: Effect of season

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazouz, A.; Asri, A.

    1988-01-01

    Moroccan local cattle are a distinct breed comprising almost 90% of the total cattle population of 2.5 million. The age and the body weight of some 1662 heifers attaining puberty were determined under two production systems by monitoring plasma progesterone levels as an indicator of the first ovulation. The effect of season on these parameters was also studied. Ovarian cyclicity commenced in 50% of heifers by the age of 16.5 months and at a body weight of 144 kg (70% of the mature body weight). The time of puberty was correlated with both age and body weight and was influenced by both the season of the year at which puberty was reached and the system of rearing. The mean age at which behavioural oestrus was first observed and the heifer inseminated was 26.5 months. Fifty per cent of 546 heifers were pregnant by 27 months of age. (author). 18 refs, 7 figs

  18. Influence of water chemistry and natural organic matter on active and passive uptake of inorganic mercury by gills of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinck, Joel; Dunbar, Michael; Brown, Stephanie; Nichols, Joel; Winter, Anna; Hughes, Christopher; Playle, Richard C.

    2005-01-01

    To distinguish physiologically regulated uptake from passive uptake of inorganic Hg in fish, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were exposed to inorganic Hg (0.5, 1, or 2 μM total Hg) in ion-poor water with various treatments. Addition of ions to the water (mM concentrations of Ca, K, Cl) did not consistently alter Hg accumulation by trout gills, although there was a trend to higher Hg accumulation at higher ion concentrations. The apical Ca channel blockers Verapamil and lanthanum also did not consistently affect Hg accumulation by trout gills. Pre-treatment of trout with the Na channel blocker Phenamil decreased Hg uptake by about half. These results suggest a combination of physiologically regulated and passive uptake of Hg by trout gills. Strong complexing agents of Hg (EDTA, NTA, ethylenediamine, cysteine) decreased Hg-binding by trout gills in a dose-dependent manner. From these data, a conditional equilibrium binding constant for Hg to the gills was estimated as log K Hg-gill = 18.0, representing very strong binding of Hg to the gills. This value is a first step in creating a biotic ligand model (BLM) for inorganic Hg and fish. Natural organic matter (2-10 mg C/L) also decreased Hg-binding by trout gills, although mM concentrations of Na, K, and Cl interfered with this effect. At low concentrations of these ions, natural organic matter samples isolated from various sources bound Hg to similar degrees, as judged by Hg accumulation by trout gills. A conditional binding constant to natural organic matter (NOM) was estimated as log K Hg-NOM = 18.0 with about 0.5 μmol binding sites per mg C, representing strong binding of Hg to NOM

  19. Influence of water chemistry and natural organic matter on active and passive uptake of inorganic mercury by gills of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klinck, Joel [Department of Biology, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, Ont., N2L 3C5 (Canada); Dunbar, Michael [Department of Biology, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, Ont., N2L 3C5 (Canada); Brown, Stephanie [Department of Biology, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, Ont., N2L 3C5 (Canada); Nichols, Joel [Department of Biology, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, Ont., N2L 3C5 (Canada); Winter, Anna [Department of Biology, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, Ont., N2L 3C5 (Canada); Hughes, Christopher [Department of Biology, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, Ont., N2L 3C5 (Canada); Playle, Richard C. [Department of Biology, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, Ont., N2L 3C5 (Canada)]. E-mail: rplayle@wlu.ca

    2005-03-25

    To distinguish physiologically regulated uptake from passive uptake of inorganic Hg in fish, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were exposed to inorganic Hg (0.5, 1, or 2 {mu}M total Hg) in ion-poor water with various treatments. Addition of ions to the water (mM concentrations of Ca, K, Cl) did not consistently alter Hg accumulation by trout gills, although there was a trend to higher Hg accumulation at higher ion concentrations. The apical Ca channel blockers Verapamil and lanthanum also did not consistently affect Hg accumulation by trout gills. Pre-treatment of trout with the Na channel blocker Phenamil decreased Hg uptake by about half. These results suggest a combination of physiologically regulated and passive uptake of Hg by trout gills. Strong complexing agents of Hg (EDTA, NTA, ethylenediamine, cysteine) decreased Hg-binding by trout gills in a dose-dependent manner. From these data, a conditional equilibrium binding constant for Hg to the gills was estimated as log K {sub Hg-gill} = 18.0, representing very strong binding of Hg to the gills. This value is a first step in creating a biotic ligand model (BLM) for inorganic Hg and fish. Natural organic matter (2-10 mg C/L) also decreased Hg-binding by trout gills, although mM concentrations of Na, K, and Cl interfered with this effect. At low concentrations of these ions, natural organic matter samples isolated from various sources bound Hg to similar degrees, as judged by Hg accumulation by trout gills. A conditional binding constant to natural organic matter (NOM) was estimated as log K {sub Hg-NOM} = 18.0 with about 0.5 {mu}mol binding sites per mg C, representing strong binding of Hg to NOM.

  20. Influence of water chemistry and natural organic matter on active and passive uptake of inorganic mercury by gills of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinck, Joel; Dunbar, Michael; Brown, Stephanie; Nichols, Joel; Winter, Anna; Hughes, Christopher; Playle, Richard C

    2005-03-25

    To distinguish physiologically regulated uptake from passive uptake of inorganic Hg in fish, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were exposed to inorganic Hg (0.5, 1, or 2 microM total Hg) in ion-poor water with various treatments. Addition of ions to the water (mM concentrations of Ca, K, Cl) did not consistently alter Hg accumulation by trout gills, although there was a trend to higher Hg accumulation at higher ion concentrations. The apical Ca channel blockers Verapamil and lanthanum also did not consistently affect Hg accumulation by trout gills. Pre-treatment of trout with the Na channel blocker Phenamil decreased Hg uptake by about half. These results suggest a combination of physiologically regulated and passive uptake of Hg by trout gills. Strong complexing agents of Hg (EDTA, NTA, ethylenediamine, cysteine) decreased Hg-binding by trout gills in a dose-dependent manner. From these data, a conditional equilibrium binding constant for Hg to the gills was estimated as logK(Hg-gill) = 18.0, representing very strong binding of Hg to the gills. This value is a first step in creating a biotic ligand model (BLM) for inorganic Hg and fish. Natural organic matter (2-10 mg C/L) also decreased Hg-binding by trout gills, although mM concentrations of Na, K, and Cl interfered with this effect. At low concentrations of these ions, natural organic matter samples isolated from various sources bound Hg to similar degrees, as judged by Hg accumulation by trout gills. A conditional binding constant to natural organic matter (NOM) was estimated as logK(Hg-NOM) = 18.0 with about 0.5 micromol binding sites per mg C, representing strong binding of Hg to NOM.

  1. Effects of thermal vapor diffusion on seasonal dynamics of water in the unsaturated zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milly, Paul C.D.

    1996-01-01

    The response of water in the unsaturated zone to seasonal changes of temperature (T) is determined analytically using the theory of nonisothermal water transport in porous media, and the solutions are tested against field observations of moisture potential and bomb fallout isotopic (36Cl and 3H) concentrations. Seasonally varying land surface temperatures and the resulting subsurface temperature gradients induce thermal vapor diffusion. The annual mean vertical temperature gradient is close to zero; however, the annual mean thermal vapor flux is downward, because the temperature‐dependent vapor diffusion coefficient is larger, on average, during downward diffusion (occurring at high T) than during upward diffusion (low T). The annual mean thermal vapor flux is shown to decay exponentially with depth; the depth (about 1 m) at which it decays to e−1of its surface value is one half of the corresponding decay depth for the amplitude of seasonal temperature changes. This depth‐dependent annual mean flux is effectively a source of water, which must be balanced by a flux divergence associated with other transport processes. In a relatively humid environment the liquid fluxes greatly exceed the thermal vapor fluxes, so such a balance is readily achieved without measurable effect on the dynamics of water in the unsaturated zone. However, if the mean vertical water flux through the unsaturated zone is very small (theoretical prediction is supported by long‐term field measurements in the Chihuahuan Desert. The analysis also makes predictions, confirmed by the field observations, regarding the seasonal variations of matric potential at a given depth. The conceptual model of unsaturated zone water transport developed here implies the possibility of near‐surface trapping of any aqueous constituent introduced at the surface.

  2. Neuropeptides and nitric oxide synthase in the gill and the air-breathing organs of fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaccone, Giacomo; Mauceri, Angela; Fasulo, Salvatore

    2006-05-01

    Anatomical and histochemical studies have demonstrated that the bulk of autonomic neurotransmission in fish gill is attributed to cholinergic and adrenergic mechanisms (Nilsson. 1984. In: Hoar WS, Randall DJ, editors. Fish physiology, Vol. XA. Orlando: Academic Press. p 185-227; Donald. 1998. In: Evans DH, editor. The physiology of fishes, 2nd edition. Boca Raton: CRC Press. p 407-439). In many tissues, blockade of adrenergic and cholinergic transmission results in residual responses to nerve stimulation, which are termed NonAdrenergic, NonCholinergic (NANC). The discovery of nitric oxide (NO) has provided a basis for explaining many examples of NANC transmissions with accumulated physiological and pharmacological data indicating its function as a primary NANC transmitter. Little is known about the NANC neurotransmission, and studies on neuropeptides and NOS (Nitric Oxide Synthase) are very fragmentary in the gill and the air-breathing organs of fishes. Knowledge of the distribution of nerves and effects of perfusing agonists may help to understand the mechanisms of perfusion regulation in the gill (Olson. 2002. J Exp Zool 293:214-231). Air breathing as a mechanism for acquiring oxygen has evolved independently in several groups of fishes, necessitating modifications of the organs responsible for the exchange of gases. Aquatic hypoxia in freshwaters has been probably the more important selective force in the evolution of air breathing in vertebrates. Fishes respire with gills that are complex structures with many different effectors and potential control systems. Autonomic innervation of the gill has received considerable attention. An excellent review on branchial innervation includes Sundin and Nilsson's (2002. J Exp Zool 293:232-248) with an emphasis on the anatomy and basic functioning of afferent and efferent fibers of the branchial nerves. The chapters by Evans (2002. J Exp Zool 293:336-347) and Olson (2002) provide new challenges about a variety of

  3. Temperature Sensitivity of Soil Respiration to Nitrogen Fertilization: Varying Effects between Growing and Non-Growing Seasons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qingfang; Wang, Rui; Li, Rujian; Hu, Yaxian; Guo, Shengli

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) fertilization has a considerable effect on food production and carbon cycling in agro-ecosystems. However, the impacts of N fertilization rates on the temperature sensitivity of soil respiration (Q10) were controversial. Five N rates (N0, N45, N90, N135, and N180) were applied to a continuous winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) crop on the semi-arid Loess Plateau, and the in situ soil respiration was monitored during five consecutive years from 2008 to 2013. During the growing season, the mean soil respiration rates increased with increasing N fertilization rates, peaking at 1.53 μmol m−2s−1 in the N135 treatment. A similar dynamic pattern was observed during the non-growing season, yet on average with 7.3% greater soil respiration rates than the growing season. In general for all the N fertilization treatments, the mean Q10 value during the non-growing season was significantly greater than that during the growing season. As N fertilization rates increased, the Q10 values did not change significantly in the growing season but significantly decreased in the non-growing season. Overall, N fertilization markedly influenced soil respirations and Q10 values, in particular posing distinct effects on the Q10 values between the growing and non-growing seasons. PMID:27992576

  4. Toward a Multifactorial Conception of the Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome and Persistent Chronic Tic Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Lavoie, Marc E.; O?Connor, Kieron

    2017-01-01

    Despite recent giant leaps in understanding Gilles de la Tourette?s syndrome (now Tourette Disorder in the DSM 5), accurate multi-modal description, rigorous assessment procedures, and the improvement of evidence-based treatment currently pose a considerable challenge. In this context, the current special edition aims to elaborate three important dimensions in Tourette Disorder. Firstly, the effective characterization and etiological basis of the disorder are reviewed, since such characteriza...

  5. Histopathology of the gill and liver tissues of the African catfish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An investigation on the effect of the heavy metal, lead (Pb) on the gill and liver of the African catfish Clarias gariepinus was carried out in the laboratory. One hundred and sixty (160) fingerlings of the fish were exposed to continuous exposure to sub-lethal concentrations (0.006 mg/l and 0.008 mg/l) of lead for a period of ...

  6. Seasonal Changing Effect on Airflow and Pollutant Dispersion Characteristics in Urban Street Canyons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingliang Dong

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of seasonal variation on air flow and pollutant dispersion characteristics was numerically investigated. A three-dimensional urban canopy model with unit aspect ratio (H/D = 1 was used to calculate surface temperature distribution in the street canyon. Four representative time events (1000 LST, 1300 LST, 1600 LST and 2000 LST during typical clear summer and winter days were selected to examine the air flow diurnal variation. The results revealed the seasonal variation significantly altered the street canyon microclimate. Compared with the street canyon surface temperature distribution in summer, the winter case showed a more evenly distributed surface temperature. In addition, the summer case showed greater daily temperature fluctuation than that of the winter case. Consequently, distinct pollutant dispersion patterns were observed between summer and winter scenarios, especially for the afternoon (1600 LST and night (2000 LST events. Among all studied time events, the pollutant removal performance of the morning (1000 LST and the night (2000 LST events were more sensitive to the seasonal variation. Lastly, limited natural ventilation performance was found during the summer morning and the winter night, which induced relatively high pollutant concentration along the pedestrian height level.

  7. Effects of 6-week pre-season plyometric training to performance characteristics in female handball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kale Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a 6-week pre-season plyometric training on the performance characteristics in female handball players. Nineteen female handball players voluntarily participated in the study. They were divided into 2 groups [experimental group (ETG; N = 10, and control group (NTG; N = 9]. Both groups continued regular pre-season training for 6-weeks. The ETG also did plyometric training. Sprints (10 m, 20 m, and 30 m, squat jump (SJ, countermovement jump (CMJ, anaerobic power and capacity (AP and AC, and aerobic variables at fixed blood lactate levels (FBLLs [running velocity (RV, heart rate (HR, and oxygen consumption (VO2] were compared before and after the training. The results have shown that there are significant differences in SJ and CMJ (p<0.05, all sprints (p<0.01, AP and AC (p<0.05, VO2max (p<0.01, RV, HR, and VO2 at each of FBLLs (p<0.01 between pre- and post-training results of ETG. Pre- and post training results also showed significant differences in SJ and CMJ (p<0.05, all sprints (p<0.01, and AP (p<0.05 in NTG. In conclusion, was found that a 6-week plyometric training is an important parameter in addition to physical fitness, technical, and tactical training for the female handball players who get prepared for the woman handball super league which affects pre-season performance characteristics.

  8. Seasonal and depth effects on some parameters of a forest soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimas Augusto Morozin Zaia

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this paper is to study the effect of wet/dry season and the depth on several parameters of the forest soil. This work has shown that the concentration of Al3+ increases and that the concentration of exchangeable cations (Ca2+, Mg2+ and pHs (distilled water and CaCl2 decreases with the increase in depth and that these results are correlated. The concentrations of exchangeable cations (Al3+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and organic matter (OM are affected by dry/wet season. Rain increases the solubility of organic carbon, thus decreasing OM and releasing exchangeable cations (Al3+, Ca2+, Mg2+. P (available shows an increase in its concentration with an increase in depth. The low concentration of P (available in the soil samples could be due to the low pH of the soils. The value of pHpzc is influenced by exchangeable cations (Al3+, Ca2+, Mg2+, and the pHs (CaCl2 and distilled water are higher than pHpzc. This means that the net charge of these soils is negative. CEC and CECpotential decrease with the increase in depth in most soil samples. For mostly of the samples, the season (wet/dry does not affect CEC, CECpotential, K+, or Na+.

  9. Effects of seasonings on the stability of ascorbic acid in a cooking model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishida, Etsu; Maeda, Tomoko; Nishihama, Akiko; Kojo, Shosuke; Masuzawa, Yasuo

    2004-12-01

    The thermolability of ascorbic acid (AA) in aqueous solution at 100 degrees C was assessed in the presence of various seasonings commonly used in Japanese-style cooking. A model system approximated Japanese cooking with regard to the concentrations of AA and seasonings and the heating time. The decrease of AA in the reaction system of this experiment was a first-order reaction with respect to the concentration of AA loss. Although kinetic constants for AA loss decreased with increasing concentrations of AA (25-400 microg/mL), the absolute amounts degraded were almost the same for all AA concentrations, suggesting that dissolved oxygen is one of main factors affecting the stability of AA solutions during heating at 100 degrees C. When each seasoning was added to AA solution, salt stabilized AA and Japanese alcohol-containing admixtures, such as sake and sweet sake (mirin), did not have a significant effect on the stability. Conversely, soy sauce, miso (fermented soybean paste) and broth powder from skipjack accelerated the decrease of AA in a concentration-dependent manner. The kinetic study suggested that oxygen was rapidly consumed and AA loss accelerated by addition of soy sauce or miso to AA solution. Consequently it is likely that a reaction mechanism shifts from aerobic to anaerobic and the forward reactions proceed. Of the constituents of Japanese seasonings, not only iron but also amino acids are involved in the acceleration of AA degradation. The presence of amino acids should be taken into account when considering the levels of AA in soups.

  10. Histopathological and Ultrastructural Changes in the Liver and Gills of the Killifish Aphanius Dispar (Cyprinodontidae Exposed to Aflatoxin B1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horiya H. Al-Azri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 is a mycotoxin which can cause serious toxicity to animals and humans.  The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of AFB1 in Aphanius dispar fish and measure residues in tissues after in vivo exposure. Aphanius dispar were fed diets containing 50, 100, 150 and 200 µg AFB1/kg for 10, 20 and 30 days. At the end of the experiment, the liver and gills were dissected out and processed for light and electron microscopy. During the experiment, no external changes or unusual behavior were observed in the fish. Histopathological and ultrastructural changes in liver appeared under all four treatments: 50, 100, 150 and 200 µg AFB1/kg. Gill tissues were affected at high doses of 100,150 and 200 µg AFB1/kg. Accumulation of AFB1 residues in liver and gill tissues was found to be related to a dose and duration of exposure.

  11. Gill ATPase activity in Procambarus clarkii as an indicator of heavy metal pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torreblanca, A.; Del Ramo, J.; Diaz-Mayans, J. (Univ. of Valencia (Spain))

    1989-06-01

    Lake Albufera and the surrounding rice field waters are subjected to very heavy loads of sewage and toxic industrial residues, including heavy metals, from the many urban and waste waters of this area. The American red crayfish, Procambarus clarkii have a high resistance to toxic effects of heavy metals. The sublethal effects of heavy metals on gills of fish and aquatic invertebrates have been extensively studied. Some metabolic disturbances and histologic damages have been reported, as well as osmoregulation alterations. However, little work has been done about the effect of heavy metals on Na,K and Mg-ATPases of freshwater invertebrate gills. Na,K-ATPase is the prime mediator of ion transport across cellular membranes and plays a central role in whole body ion regulation in marine and estuarine animals. Na,K-ATPase has been reviewed and assessed as a potentially useful indicator of pollution stress in aquatic animals. The purpose of this study is look for the relation, if any, between crayfish gill ATP-ase activity changes and metal exposure in laboratory. This find would allow the authors to assay this potential indicator in the field.

  12. Effect of Weather Variability on Seasonal Influenza Among Different Age Groups in Queensland, Australia: A Bayesian Spatiotemporal Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaodong; Mengersen, Kerrie; Milinovich, Gabriel; Hu, Wenbiao

    2017-06-01

    The effects of weather variability on seasonal influenza among different age groups remain unclear. The comparative study aims to explore the differences in the associations between weather variability and seasonal influenza, and growth rates of seasonal influenza epidemics among different age groups in Queensland, Australia. Three Bayesian spatiotemporal conditional autoregressive models were fitted at the postal area level to quantify the relationships between seasonal influenza and monthly minimum temperature (MIT), monthly vapor pressure, school calendar pattern, and Index of Relative Socio-Economic Advantage and Disadvantage for 3 age groups (Weather variability appears to be more influential on seasonal influenza transmission in younger (0-14) age groups. The growth rates of influenza at postal area level were relatively small for older (≥65) age groups in Queensland, Australia. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. MALATHION INDUCED HISTOLOGICAL MODIFICATIONS IN GILLS AND KIDNEY OF CARASSIUS AURATUS GIBELIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDREA CRISTINA STAICU

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Malathion is an organophosphorous insecticide, used in agriculture and a possible source of environmental poisoning. During malathion metabolization, mitochondria generates reactive oxygen species, responsible for significant structural changes. In this study, gills and kidney histological changes in Carassius auratus gibelio exposed to 0.05 mg/l malathion were investigated. In kidney, the effects were dramatic. The 24 -72 hours exposure to malathion induced cytoplasm vacuolization and changes in cell and nuclear volumes. In addition, necrotic renal tubules appeared, nuclear malformations of epithelial cells, anisokary, nuclei pycnosis and nuclei hypertrophy, were noticed. Epithelial ruptures, secondary lamellae fusion and hyperplasia of branchial epithelium, vascular congestion were the main changes noticed soon after pollutant exposure. We suggest that structural changes in gill and kidney could be used as good response to aquatic pollution with organophosphorous insecticides.

  14. LDH ACTIVITY IN COPPER INTOXICATION OF CARASSIUS AURATUS GIBELIO GILLS AND INTESTINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIELA TEODORESCU

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The pathological effects of two sublethal concentrations (100 μg/l and 250 μg/l of copper (CuSO4x5H2O on goldfish Carassius auratus gibelio were studied for 7,14 and 21 days. The specific activity of LDH in gills and intestine, two target organs that uptake the metal from the water were assayed. In gills at 100 μg Cu2+/l the specific activity of LDH was gradually decreasing, while in the intestine, after 7 days of exposure, the enzymatic activity was distinct significantly increased. LDH activity demonstrated a hypoxic condition and a stimulation of glycolysis. In the both organs ,the 250 μg Cu2+/l concentration generated a decrease of LDH specific activity after 7 days followed by an increase of this after 14 and 21 days of exposure. Histologically, the modifications are, generally, directly correlated with the toxicant dose and exposure time.

  15. Effects of Instruction on Preservice Elementary Teachers' Conceptions of the Causes of Night and Day and the Seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwood, Ronald K.; Atwood, Virginia A.

    1997-01-01

    Details a study that tests the effectiveness of brief instruction on the causes of night and day and the seasons. Employs simple, inexpensive models. Findings are useful for science teacher educators. Contains 32 references. (DDR)

  16. The Effect of Seasonal Weather Variation on the Dynamics of the Plague Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rigobert C. Ngeleja

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Plague is a historic disease which is also known to be the most devastating disease that ever occurred in human history, caused by gram-negative bacteria known as Yersinia pestis. The disease is mostly affected by variations of weather conditions as it disturbs the normal behavior of main plague disease transmission agents, namely, human beings, rodents, fleas, and pathogens, in the environment. This in turn changes the way they interact with each other and ultimately leads to a periodic transmission of plague disease. In this paper, we formulate a periodic epidemic model system by incorporating seasonal transmission rate in order to study the effect of seasonal weather variation on the dynamics of plague disease. We compute the basic reproduction number of a proposed model. We then use numerical simulation to illustrate the effect of different weather dependent parameters on the basic reproduction number. We are able to deduce that infection rate, progression rates from primary forms of plague disease to more severe forms of plague disease, and the infectious flea abundance affect, to a large extent, the number of bubonic, septicemic, and pneumonic plague infective agents. We recommend that it is more reasonable to consider these factors that have been shown to have a significant effect on RT for effective control strategies.

  17. Effectiveness of Metarhizium anisopliae and Entomopathogenic Nematodes to Control Oryctes rhinoceros Larvae in the Rainy Season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indriyanti, Dyah Rini; Widiyaningrum, Priyantini; Haryuni; Slamet, Muji; Maretta, Yoris Adi

    2017-01-01

    Metarhizium anisopliae (MET) and entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) are microorganisms that attack the larvae of Oryctes rhinoceros. The effects of MET, EPN and the combination of both on the O. rhinoceros larvae were studied during the rainy season in Jepara Indonesia. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of Metarhizium anisopliae and entomopathogenic nematodes to control Oryctes rhinoceros larvae in the rainy season. There were four level doses of MET, four level doses of EPN and four mixture of MET and EPN. The experiment used 72 containers that were placed in the garden with coconut palm shade. Five kilograms of organic soil that was mixed with biological control agents (MET, EPN and MET+EPN) and ten O. rhinoceros larvae 3rd instar were put in each other container. The data were analyzed by descriptive analysis. Every larvae mortality was observed once a week and observations are for 8 weeks. The result showed that the larval mortality due to MET treatment occurred on 2nd-7th week. Meanwhile, the larval mortality due to EPN treatment took place on 2nd-8th weeks and the larval mortality due to MET+EPN treatment occurred on 1st-5th weeks. The combination of MET and EPN was simultaneously effective to control O. rhinoceros larvae than separate use of MET or EPN. Result of this study showed that using two agents of biocontrol was more effective, so that it can be beneficial for controlling O. rhinoceros larvae in the field.

  18. Heat-Related Hospitalizations in Older Adults: An Amplified Effect of the First Seasonal Heatwave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liss, Alexander; Wu, Ruiruo; Chui, Kenneth Kwan Ho; Naumova, Elena N.

    2017-01-01

    Older adults are highly vulnerable to the detriment of extreme weather. The rapid non-linear increase in heat-related morbidity is difficult to quantify, hindering the attribution of direct effects of exposure on severe health outcomes. We examine the effects of ambient temperatures on heat-related hospitalizations (HH) among the elderly in presence of strong seasonality and by assessing the effects caused by the first and subsequent seasonal heatwaves. We empirically derived the thresholds for a heatwave episode in Boston MSA based on 16 years of daily observations. We compared the health risks of heatwaves using the proposed and four alternative definitions. 701 cases of HH in older residents of Boston area were examined using harmonic regression models, designed to capture the non-linear effects of ambient temperatures and heatwave episodes when the night-time temperature is above 65.5 °F for 3 consecutive nights. The overall relative risk of HH associated with a heatwave episode was 6.9 [95%CI:4.8-9.8]. The relative risk of HH associated with the first heatwave increases up to 13.3 [95%CI:7.4-24.0]. The risk declined to 3.7 [95%CI:2.4-5.8] for the subsequent heatwave. Four other commonly used heatwave definitions confirmed these findings. Public health actions have to target the first heatwave to maximize the impact of preventive measures.

  19. Extraction and metabolism of circulating catecholamines by the trout gill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nekvasil, N.P.; Olson, K.R.

    1986-01-01

    Extraction and metabolism of [3H]-norepinephrine (NE) and [3H]epinephrine (E) by the respiratory (efferent branchial) and filamental (venous) vasculature of the trout gill were examined using an isolated perfused arch technique in which outflow from the two circulations was separated. Deaminated and O-methylated metabolites in the effluent were identified by ion-exchange chromatography. Metabolism by tissue homogenates was also measured. Gill homogenates deaminate catecholamines (CAs) faster than homogenates of liver, kidney, and skeletal muscle; branchial O-methylation was comparable to that of liver and kidney. The perfused gill extracted 60% of a NE pulse and 47% of an E pulse. During continuous CA perfusion the gill removed greater than 30% of the NE from the circulation through extraction and metabolism; only 7% of the E was removed. The gill venous system extracts and metabolizes more CAs than the efferent. NE is the preferred substrate for extraction and metabolism. A mechanism is proposed whereby high circulating CA levels, common during stress, are maintained through CA-induced reduction in venous blood flow. After the stress is alleviated, CA levels begin to fall, flow to the venous pathway increases, and the rate of inactivation of circulating CAs increases

  20. Seasonal variation of serum vitamin D and the effect of vitamin D supplementation in Irish community-dwelling older people.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Romero-Ortuno, Roman

    2011-03-01

    Ireland is at 53°N, and its population risk of vitamin D deficiency is high. Previous Irish studies suggested a significant seasonality of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and a beneficial effect of supplementation in raising 25(OH)D levels. However, in Irish older people, little is known about the magnitude of the supplementation effect and whether supplementation affects 25(OH)D seasonality.

  1. Gill histopathology of goldfish exposed to oil sands processed-waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nero, V.; Farwell, A.J.; Dixon, D.G.; Lee, L.E.J.

    2002-01-01

    Large volumes of processed wastewater are generated through the oil extraction process at Alberta's Athabasca oil sand deposit. These wastewaters are very toxic to aquatic biota because they are high in salinity and consist of napthenic acids and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). In this study, goldfish were caged in 3 different experimental ponds in order to evaluate the biological effects of aquatic reclamation alternatives for process-affected waters. The first pond was a control pond, while the other 2 ponds consisted of known and varying chemicals. The fish were exposed to the ponds for 19 days. Those in the pond with elevated levels of napthenic acids and high salinity exhibited severe gill histopathological changes. Alterations included epithelial hyperplasia resulting in severe lamellar fusion, chloride cell hyperplasia, and lamellar edema, all of which were believed to be defense responses of the fish. Additional severe gill alterations were also observed that may indicate the direct negative effects of oil sands processed-water on fish. Exposed goldfish also showed signs of necrosis and degenerative changes resulting in desquamation of the epithelial surfaces of the gill, which are symptoms seen in free-range exposure of yellow perch, a native fish species, at the same sites and exposure times

  2. Gill histopathology of goldfish exposed to oil sands processed-waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nero, V.; Farwell, A.J.; Dixon, D.G. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Biology; Lister, A.; Van Der Kraak, G.J. [Guelph Univ., ON (Canada); Lee, L.E.J. [Wilfred Laurier Univ., Waterloo, ON (Canada). Dept. of Biology

    2002-07-01

    Large volumes of processed wastewater are generated through the oil extraction process at Alberta's Athabasca oil sand deposit. These wastewaters are very toxic to aquatic biota because they are high in salinity and consist of napthenic acids and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). In this study, goldfish were caged in 3 different experimental ponds in order to evaluate the biological effects of aquatic reclamation alternatives for process-affected waters. The first pond was a control pond, while the other 2 ponds consisted of known and varying chemicals. The fish were exposed to the ponds for 19 days. Those in the pond with elevated levels of napthenic acids and high salinity exhibited severe gill histopathological changes. Alterations included epithelial hyperplasia resulting in severe lamellar fusion, chloride cell hyperplasia, and lamellar edema, all of which were believed to be defense responses of the fish. Additional severe gill alterations were also observed that may indicate the direct negative effects of oil sands processed-water on fish. Exposed goldfish also showed signs of necrosis and degenerative changes resulting in desquamation of the epithelial surfaces of the gill, which are symptoms seen in free-range exposure of yellow perch, a native fish species, at the same sites and exposure times.

  3. Fish gill responses to pollutants from oil sands mining-associated waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, L.E.J.; Willfang, S.; Lamb, M.P.; Nero, V.; Farwell, A.J.; Dixon, D.G.

    2002-01-01

    The processing of Athabasca Deposit oil sands results in large amounts of liquid wastes associated with oil sand tailings. In addition to containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), these waste waters are high in salinity and naphthenic acids which may be toxic to aquatic biota and their effects must be clarified. This study presents a suite of tests for in-depth and quick analysis of tailings water toxicity and contributes to the assessment of environmental risk. Yellow perch, fathead minnows, and rainbow trout were exposed to reclamation ponds where both in vivo and in vitro evaluation of crude and individual naphthenic acids and salts were conducted to examine their effect on fish gills which are very susceptible to contaminants. The fish exposed to the reclamation ponds showed higher incidence of gill pathological changes than control fish in Mildred Lake, a reservoir lake whose waters are diverted for use in oil sands extraction. Notable gill histopathological changes were observed when fish were exposed in vivo to sulfate/chloride salts and to abietic acid. Changes in membrane integrity, lysosomal activity and general morphology were observed when fished were exposed in vitro to salts, commercial napthenic acids or crude naphthenic extracts from the reclamation ponds

  4. Effects of urban green infrastructure (UGI) on local outdoor microclimate during the growing season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yafei; Bakker, Frank; de Groot, Rudolf; Wörtche, Heinrich; Leemans, Rik

    2015-12-01

    This study analyzed how the variations of plant area index (PAI) and weather conditions alter the influence of urban green infrastructure (UGI) on microclimate. To observe how diverse UGIs affect the ambient microclimate through the seasons, microclimatic data were measured during the growing season at five sites in a local urban area in The Netherlands. Site A was located in an open space; sites B, C, and D were covered by different types and configurations of green infrastructure (grove, a single deciduous tree, and street trees, respectively); and site E was adjacent to buildings to study the effects of their façades on microclimate. Hemispherical photography and globe thermometers were used to quantify PAI and thermal comfort at both shaded and unshaded locations. The results showed that groves with high tree density (site B) have the strongest effect on microclimate conditions. Monthly variations in the differences of mean radiant temperature (∆Tmrt) between shaded and unshaded areas followed the same pattern as the PAI. Linear regression showed a significant positive correlation between PAI and ∆Tmrt. The difference of daily average air temperature (∆T a ) between shaded and unshaded areas was also positively correlated to PAI, but with a slope coefficient below the measurement accuracy (±0.5 °C). This study showed that weather conditions can significantly impact the effectiveness of UGI in regulating microclimate. The results of this study can support the development of appropriate UGI measures to enhance thermal comfort in urban areas.

  5. Variety and Harvesting Season Effects on Antioxidant Activity and Vitamins Content of Citrus sinensis Macfad.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Cardeñosa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Five sweet orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck varieties cultivated in Huelva (Spain and picked at two seasons during two consecutive years, were characterized for their antioxidant activity (free radicals scavenging activity, reducing power and lipid peroxidation inhibition and vitamin content (vitamin E and vitamin C. The effects induced by sweet orange variety and stage of maturity were comprehensively compared by applying 2-way ANOVA and linear discriminant analysis. The results indicated higher differences in antioxidant activity and vitamin contents in response to the effect of the harvesting season, when compared to the effect of sweet orange variety. Nevertheless, the results observed in 2012 showed less marked differences among the assayed sweet orange varieties. Either way, it might be concluded that oranges sampled in January show the highest antioxidant activity and vitamin contents. Furthermore, concerning the properties evaluated in this work, all sweet orange varieties represent good alternatives, except for Rhode Summer, which would not be the preferable choice as a target to enhance sweet orange overall characteristics.

  6. Efectos del parasitismo sobre el tejido branquial en peces cultivados: estudio parasitologico e histopatologico Effect of the parasitism on the gill tissue of cultivated fishes: parasitological and histopathological studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Laterça Martins

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available One hundred four out of 225 diagnosticated cases were myxosporidian, monogenean, Ichthyophthirius multifiliis Fouquet, 1876 and bacterial diseases in Piaractus mesopotamicus Holmberg, 1887 (pacu, Colossoma macropomum Cuvier, 1818 (tambaqui and tambacu, at Aquaculture Center, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP, Jaboticabal, São Paulo, Brazil, between 1992 and 1995. The gills were fixed in 10% buffered formalin solution to posterior histologic routine. It was observed Henneguya sp. cysts into the capillaries of the secondary lamellae, encapsulated by the respiratory epithelium cells. It provoked adherence of the adjacent lamellae, hyperplasia, congestion, oedema and epithelium displacement. Monogeneans infestations by Anacanthorus penilabiatus Boeger, Husak & Martins, 1995 and Ancyrocephalinae sub-family caused light inflammatory reaction and hyperplasia. In severe infestations was observed hyperplasia of primary lamellae, necrosis, oedema, respiratory epithelium displacement, ruptured pillar cells and telangiectasis. Response to I. multifiliis was limited to surrounding epithelial cells in young fishes and hyperplasia, necrosis, inflammatory infiltrate and oedema in old fishes. Such lesions iniciate hyperplasic and oedematous process that with inflammation of the parasitic sites, provoked alterations over gases and ions interchange surface and consequently fish metabolism.

  7. No evidence for a major gene effect of the dopamine D{sub 4} receptor gene in the susceptibility to Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome in five Canadian families

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barr, C.L.; Wigg, K.G.; Tsui, Lap-Chee [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada)] [and others

    1996-05-31

    Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome (TS) is a neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by both motor and vocal tics affecting approximately 1/10,000 females and 1/2000 males. Because of the success of neuroleptics and other agents interacting with the dopaminergic system in the suppression of tics, a defect in the dopamine system has been hypothesized in the etiology of TS. In this paper we test the hypothesis that the dopamine D{sub 4} receptor (DRD44) is linked to the genetic susceptibility to TS in five families. We tested three polymorphisms in the DRD4 gene and a polymorphism in the closely linked locus, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). We found no evidence for linkage of DRD4 or TH to TS using an autosomal dominant model with reduced penetrance or using non-parametric methods. The presence of a mutation that results in a truncated non-functional D{sub 4} receptor protein was also tested for, but was not observed in these families. 36 refs., 1 tab.

  8. Effects of cortisol and salinity acclimation on Na+/K+/2Cl–- cotransporter gene expression and Na+, K+-ATPase activity in the gill of Persian sturgeon, Acipenser persicus, fry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saber Khodabandeh

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Na+, K+-ATPase activity and Na+/K+/2Cl–- cotransporter (NKCC gene expression in the gills of Persian sturgeon, Acipenser persicus, fry (2-3 g, 3.30-8.12 cm total body length in freshwater (control group, diluted Caspian Sea water (5 ppt and after treatment with cortisol in freshwater were studied. Na+, K+-ATPase activity was lower in the 5 ppt-acclimated fish (1.07±0.05 _mol Pi/mg protein/h than in the control fish (1.19±0.05 μmol Pi/mg protein/h but this difference was not significant. nKCC gene expression in the 5 ppt-acclimated fish (1.6±0.07 was significantly higher than in the control fish (0.8±0.00. In the cortisol treated fish, Na+, K+-ATPase activity (1.91±0.05 μmol Pi/mg protein/h and NKCC gene expression (3.2±0.1 were significantly higher than in the control group. our results show that Persian sturgeon fry (2-3 g can tolerate 5 ppt salinity by changing their enzymatic content and activity, and that exogenous cortisol application can increase the osmoregulatory capacity of fry before release into brackish water and can reduce their mortality.

  9. The effect of the holiday season on body weight and composition in college students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hester Casey N

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the rapid increase in obesity rates, determining critical periods for weight gain and the effects of changes in fat mass is imperative. The purpose of this study was to examine changes in body weight and composition over the holiday season (Thanksgiving through New Year's in male and female college students. Methods Subjects completed three visits: the first occurred within 2 weeks prior to Thanksgiving, the second occurred within 5 to 7 days following Thanksgiving, and the third occurred within 10 days following New Year's Day. A total of 82 healthy male and female college age subjects participated. Body composition by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA was assessed at visits 1 and 3 while body weight was assessed at all three visits. Results Average body weight remained relatively unchanged from pre-Thanksgiving to post-New Year's (71.3 ± 14 kg vs. 71.2 ± 15 kg; P = 0.71 and, in fact, a subset of normal weight subjects lost a significant amount of body weight. However, percent body fat (25.9 ± 9 %fat vs. 27.0 ± 9 %fat; P P P = 0.08 was not significantly different than the post-New Year's. A significant positive relationship (P P Conclusion Despite the fact that body weight remained unchanged over the course of the holiday season, a significant increase in %body fat and fat mass was observed. With recent evidence showing marked morbidity and mortality to be associated with increased body fat (particularly abdominal adiposity, results from this study suggest body weight alone may underestimate the potentially deleterious effects of the holiday season.

  10. Cost-effectiveness of inactivated seasonal influenza vaccination in a cohort of Thai children ≤60 months of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittikraisak, Wanitchaya; Suntarattiwong, Piyarat; Ditsungnoen, Darunee; Pallas, Sarah E; Abimbola, Taiwo O; Klungthong, Chonticha; Fernandez, Stefan; Srisarang, Suchada; Chotpitayasunondh, Tawee; Dawood, Fatimah S; Olsen, Sonja J; Lindblade, Kim A

    2017-01-01

    Vaccination is the best measure to prevent influenza. We conducted a cost-effectiveness evaluation of trivalent inactivated seasonal influenza vaccination, compared to no vaccination, in children ≤60 months of age participating in a prospective cohort study in Bangkok, Thailand. A static decision tree model was constructed to simulate the population of children in the cohort. Proportions of children with laboratory-confirmed influenza were derived from children followed weekly. The societal perspective and one-year analytic horizon were used for each influenza season; the model was repeated for three influenza seasons (2012-2014). Direct and indirect costs associated with influenza illness were collected and summed. Cost of the trivalent inactivated seasonal influenza vaccine (IIV3) including promotion, administration, and supervision cost was added for children who were vaccinated. Quality-adjusted life years (QALY), derived from literature, were used to quantify health outcomes. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was calculated as the difference in the expected total costs between the vaccinated and unvaccinated groups divided by the difference in QALYs for both groups. Compared to no vaccination, IIV3 vaccination among children ≤60 months in our cohort was not cost-effective in the introductory year (2012 season; 24,450 USD/QALY gained), highly cost-effective in the 2013 season (554 USD/QALY gained), and cost-effective in the 2014 season (16,200 USD/QALY gained). The cost-effectiveness of IIV3 vaccination among children participating in the cohort study varied by influenza season, with vaccine cost and proportion of high-risk children demonstrating the greatest influence in sensitivity analyses. Vaccinating children against influenza can be economically favorable depending on the maturity of the program, influenza vaccine performance, and target population.

  11. Cost-effectiveness of inactivated seasonal influenza vaccination in a cohort of Thai children ≤60 months of age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanitchaya Kittikraisak

    Full Text Available Vaccination is the best measure to prevent influenza. We conducted a cost-effectiveness evaluation of trivalent inactivated seasonal influenza vaccination, compared to no vaccination, in children ≤60 months of age participating in a prospective cohort study in Bangkok, Thailand.A static decision tree model was constructed to simulate the population of children in the cohort. Proportions of children with laboratory-confirmed influenza were derived from children followed weekly. The societal perspective and one-year analytic horizon were used for each influenza season; the model was repeated for three influenza seasons (2012-2014. Direct and indirect costs associated with influenza illness were collected and summed. Cost of the trivalent inactivated seasonal influenza vaccine (IIV3 including promotion, administration, and supervision cost was added for children who were vaccinated. Quality-adjusted life years (QALY, derived from literature, were used to quantify health outcomes. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER was calculated as the difference in the expected total costs between the vaccinated and unvaccinated groups divided by the difference in QALYs for both groups.Compared to no vaccination, IIV3 vaccination among children ≤60 months in our cohort was not cost-effective in the introductory year (2012 season; 24,450 USD/QALY gained, highly cost-effective in the 2013 season (554 USD/QALY gained, and cost-effective in the 2014 season (16,200 USD/QALY gained.The cost-effectiveness of IIV3 vaccination among children participating in the cohort study varied by influenza season, with vaccine cost and proportion of high-risk children demonstrating the greatest influence in sensitivity analyses. Vaccinating children against influenza can be economically favorable depending on the maturity of the program, influenza vaccine performance, and target population.

  12. Pollen foraging in colonies of Melipona bicolor (Apidae, Meliponini): effects of season, colony size and queen number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilário, S D; Imperatriz-Fonseca, V L

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated the ratio between the number of pollen foragers and the total number of bees entering colonies of Melipona bicolor, a facultative polygynous species of stingless bees. The variables considered in our analysis were: seasonality, colony size and the number of physogastric queens in each colony. The pollen forager ratios varied significantly between seasons; the ratio was higher in winter than in summer. However, colony size and number of queens per colony had no significant effect. We conclude that seasonal differences in pollen harvest are related to the production of sexuals and to the number of individuals and their body size.

  13. A clinical study of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, A J; Robertson, M; Trimble, M R; Murray, N M

    1984-01-01

    The clinical features of 53 British-born patients with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome are described. The mean age at onset of body tics was seven years and for vocalisations 11 years. Coprolalia was present in 39%, copropraxia in 21%, echolalia in 46% and echopraxia in 21%. Complicated antics and mannerisms were also common, often involving the compulsive touching of objects or self-injurious behaviour. Forty-six per cent of cases had a family history of tics in a single close relative and in two individuals a further member of the family had Gilles de la Tourette syndrome. Focal dystonia was present in four patients who had never received neuroleptics drugs and chorea was seen in two other untreated patients. In three patients acoustic startle consistently induced brief eye blink followed by a whole body jerk or jump. Rapid repetitive movements of the hands increased the frequency and severity of tics in 13 patients, but the performance of mental arithmetic under time pressure had a much more unpredictable effect. Electroencephalographic abnormalities occurred in eight (13%) but no definite CT brain scan abnormalities were detected. The incidence of left handedness did not differ from that in the general population and no evidence to suggest organic impairment was found on neuropsychological testing. This study provides no support for the notion that Gilles de la Tourette syndrome is a degenerative disorder of the central nervous system but provides some evidence for heterogeneity. PMID:6582230

  14. Impact of ontogenetic changes in branchial morphology on gill function in Arapaima gigas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, R J; Brauner, C J; Wang, Y X; Richards, J G; Patrick, M L; Xi, W; Matey, V; Val, A L

    2010-01-01

    Soon after hatching, the osteoglossid fish Arapaima gigas undergoes a rapid transition from a water breather to an obligate air breather. This is followed by a gradual disappearance of gill lamellae, which leaves smooth filaments with a reduced branchial diffusion capacity due to loss of surface area, and a fourfold increase in diffusion distance. This study evaluated the effects these changes have on gill function by examining two size classes of fish that differ in gill morphology. In comparison to smaller fish (approximately 67.5 g), which still have lamellae, larger fish (approximately 724.2 g) without lamellae took up a slightly greater percentage of O2 across the gills (30.1% vs. 23.9%), which indicates that the morphological changes do not place limitations on O2 uptake in larger fish. Both size groups excreted similar percentages of CO2 across the gills (85%-90%). However, larger fish had higher blood PCO2 (26.51.9 vs. 16.51.5 mmHg) and HCO3(-) (40.2 +/- 2.9 vs. 33.6 +/- 4.5 mmol L(-1)) concentrations and lower blood pH (7.58 +/- 0.01 vs. 7.70 +/- 0.04) than did smaller fish, despite having lower mass-specific metabolisms, suggesting a possible diffusion limitation for CO2 excretion in larger fish. With regard to ion regulation, rates of diffusive Na+ loss were about 3.5 times higher in larger fish than they were in smaller fish, despite the lowered branchial diffusion capacity, and rates of Na+ uptake were higher by about the same amount despite 40% lower activity of branchial Na+/K+-ATPase. Kinetic analysis of Na uptake revealed an extremely low-affinity (K(m) = 587.9 +/- 169.5 micromol L(-1)), low-capacity (J(max) = 265.7 +/- 56.8 nmol g(-1) h(-1)) transport system. These data may reflect a general reduction in the role of the gills in ion balance. Renal Na+/K+-ATPase activity was 5-10 times higher than Na+/K+-ATPase activity in the gills, and urine: plasma ratios for Na+ and Cl(-) were very low (0.001-0.005) relative to that of other fish, which

  15. Quantifying the effect of seasonal and vertical habitat tracking on planktonic foraminifera proxies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Jonkers

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The composition of planktonic foraminiferal (PF calcite is routinely used to reconstruct climate variability. However, PF ecology leaves a large imprint on the proxy signal: seasonal and vertical habitats of PF species vary spatially, causing variable offsets from annual mean surface conditions recorded by sedimentary assemblages. PF seasonality changes with temperature in a way that minimises the environmental change that individual species experience and it is not unlikely that changes in depth habitat also result from such habitat tracking. While this behaviour could lead to an underestimation of spatial or temporal trends as well as of variability in proxy records, most palaeoceanographic studies are (implicitly based on the assumption of a constant habitat. Up to now, the effect of habitat tracking on foraminifera proxy records has not yet been formally quantified on a global scale. Here we attempt to characterise this effect on the amplitude of environmental change recorded in sedimentary PF using core top δ18O data from six species. We find that the offset from mean annual near-surface δ18O values varies with temperature, with PF δ18O indicating warmer than mean conditions in colder waters (on average by −0.1 ‰ (equivalent to 0.4 °C per °C, thus providing a first-order quantification of the degree of underestimation due to habitat tracking. We use an empirical model to estimate the contribution of seasonality to the observed difference between PF and annual mean δ18O and use the residual Δδ18O to assess trends in calcification depth. Our analysis indicates that given an observation-based model parametrisation calcification depth increases with temperature in all species and sensitivity analysis suggests that a temperature-related seasonal habitat adjustment is essential to explain the observed isotope signal. Habitat tracking can thus lead to a significant reduction in the amplitude of recorded environmental change

  16. Analyzing the edge effects in a Brazilian seasonally dry tropical forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arruda, D M; Eisenlohr, P V

    2016-02-01

    Due to the deciduous nature of dry forests (widely known as seasonally dry tropical forests) they are subject to microclimatic conditions not experienced in other forest formations. Close examinations of the theory of edge effects in dry forests are still rare and a number of questions arise in terms of this topic. In light of this situation we examined a fragment of the dry forest to respond to the following questions: (I) Are there differences in canopy cover along the edge-interior gradient during the dry season? (II) How does the microclimate (air temperature, soil temperature, and relative humidity) vary along that gradient? (III) How does the microclimate influence tree species richness, evenness and abundance along that gradient? (IV) Are certain tree species more dominant closer to the forest edges? Regressions were performed to address these questions. Their coefficients did not significantly vary from zero. Apparently, the uniform openness of the forest canopy caused a homogeneous internal microclimate, without significant differentiation in habitats that would allow modifications in biotic variables tested. We conclude that the processes of edge effect commonly seen in humid forests, not was shared with the dry forest assessed.

  17. Vaccine effectiveness against medically attended laboratory-confirmed influenza in Japan, 2011-2012 Season.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motoi Suzuki

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to estimate influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE against medically attended, laboratory-confirmed influenza during the 2011-2012 season in Japan using a test-negative case-control study design. The effect of co-circulating non-influenza respiratory viruses (NIRVs on VE estimates was also explored. Nasopharyngeal swab samples were collected from outpatients with influenza-like illnesses (ILIs in a community hospital in Nagasaki, Japan. Thirteen respiratory viruses (RVs, including influenza A and B, were identified from the samples using a multiplex polymerase chain reaction. The difference in VE point estimates was assessed using three different controls: ILI patients that tested negative for influenza, those that tested negative for all RVs, and those that tested positive for NIRVs. The adjusted VE against medically attended, laboratory-confirmed influenza using all influenza-negative controls was 5.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], -60.5 to 44.1. The adjusted VEs using RV-negative and NIRV-positive controls were -1.5% (95% CI, -74.7 to 41 and 50% (95% CI, -43.2 to 82.5, respectively. Influenza VE was limited in Japan during the 2011-2012 season. Although the evidence is not conclusive, co-circulating NIRVs may affect influenza VE estimates in test-negative case-control studies.

  18. Responses of metabolic and antioxidant enzymatic activities in gill, liver and plasma of Catla catla during methyl parathion exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.D. Abhijith

    2016-10-01

    Conclusion: The results of the present investigation suggest that gill is the most sensitive organ to MP toxicity. The alterations of the enzymatic parameters can be effectively used as potential biomarkers for monitoring of the organophosphorus pesticides in aquatic environment. Further, MP should be used with caution in order to protect natural waters and aquatic organisms.

  19. Genetikken bag Gilles de laTourettes syndrom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Birgitte; Melchior, L.; Debes, Nanette Mol

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge about the aetiology of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) is very limited. GTS has a complex mode of inheritance in which both genetic and environmental factors are believed to be involved in disease development. Different approaches to identify GTS associated genes have led to the di......Knowledge about the aetiology of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) is very limited. GTS has a complex mode of inheritance in which both genetic and environmental factors are believed to be involved in disease development. Different approaches to identify GTS associated genes have led...

  20. Intrinsic and extrinsic drivers of succession: Effects of habitat age and season on an aquatic insect community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murrell, Ebony G; Ives, Anthony R; Juliano, Steven A

    2014-06-01

    1. Classical studies of succession, largely dominated by plant community studies, focus on intrinsic drivers of change in community composition, such as interspecific competition and changes to the abiotic environment. They often do not consider extrinsic drivers of colonization, such as seasonal phenology, that can affect community change. 2. We investigated both intrinsic and extrinsic drivers of succession for dipteran communities that occupy ephemeral pools, such as those in artificial containers. By initiating communities at different times in the season and following them over time, we compared the relative importance of intrinsic (i.e., habitat age) vs. extrinsic (i.e., seasonal phenology) drivers of succession. 3. We placed water-filled artificial containers in a deciduous forest with 20 containers initiated in each of three months. Containers were sampled weekly to assess community composition. Repeated-measures mixed-effects analysis of community correspondence analysis (CA) scores enabled us to partition intrinsic and extrinsic effects on succession. Covariates of temperature and precipitation were also tested. 4. Community trajectories (as defined by CA) differed significantly with habitat age and season, indicating that both intrinsic and extrinsic effects influence succession patterns. Comparisons of AICcs showed that habitat age was more important than season for species composition. Temperature and precipitation did not explain composition changes beyond those explained by habitat age and season. 5. Quantification of relative strengths of intrinsic and extrinsic effects on succession in dipteran and other ephemeral communities enables us to disentangle processes that must be understood for predicting changes in community composition.

  1. Effect of land use on the seasonal variation of streamwater quality in the Wei River basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, S.; Xu, Z.; Wu, W.; Zuo, D.

    2015-05-01

    The temporal effect of land use on streamwater quality needs to be addressed for a better understanding of the complex relationship between land use and streamwater quality. In this study, GIS and Pearson correlation analysis were used to determine whether there were correlations of land-use types with streamwater quality at the sub-basin scale in the Wei River basin, China, during dry and rainy seasons in 2012. Temporal variation of these relations was observed, indicating that relationships between water quality variables and proportions of different land uses were weaker in the rainy season than that in the dry season. Comparing with other land uses, agriculture and urban lands had a stronger relationship with water quality variables in both the rainy and dry seasons. These results suggest that the aspect of temporal effects should be taken into account for better land-use management.

  2. Effects of seasonal smog on asthma and COPD exacerbations requiring emergency visits in Chiang Mai, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pothirat, Chaicharn; Tosukhowong, Apiwat; Chaiwong, Warawut; Liwsrisakun, Chalerm; Inchai, Juthamas

    2016-12-01

    Seasonal smog produces particulate matters that are less than 10 microns in diameter (PM₁₀), which are known to have several impacts on the respiratory system. This study was to determine the association of an increased PM10 level due to seasonal smog in Chiang Mai and emergency visits for asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations. A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted between the months of January and March from 2006 until 2009. The association of an increased PM₁₀ level and the daily number of asthma and COPD exacerbations were analyzed using a generalized linear model; a Poisson regression model was fit to the number of daily emergency visits using predictor variables: lags of PM10, day of the week, and time. There were a total of 917 emergency visits for acute exacerbations of asthma and COPD, with a median of 2 visits per day (range 0-10). The median PM₁₀ level during the same interval was 64.5 microgram per cubic meter (μg/m3) (16-304). For every 10 μg/m3 rise in PM10 concentration, there was a lag time of 6 days for asthma exacerbations [Adjusted relative risk (RR)=1.020; 95% confident interval (CI), 1.001-1.040; (p=0.014)], 7 days for COPD exacerbations [RR=1.030; 95%CI, 1.010-1.050 (p=0.024)] and 7 days for all exacerbations [RR=1.030 95%CI, 1.010-1.040 (p<0.001)]. This study confirms the effect of increasing PM₁₀ concentrations from seasonal smog on asthma and COPD exacerbations. However, there was an approximately 1 week lag time between the elevated PM₁₀ levels and time to emergency visits due to disease exacerbation.

  3. Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness: Maintained Protection Throughout the Duration of Influenza Seasons 2010-2011 through 2013-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-08

    effectiveness: Maintained protection throughout the duration of influenza seasons 2010–2011 through 2013–2014http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine...Unfortunately, we did not have data on the proportion who received the higher-dose vaccine. Another limitation of our study is that we did not conduct a...significant protection against influenza infection for the duration of the influenza season or up to 6 months postvac- cination. Since the start of the

  4. Exploring the mid-infrared region for urban remote sensing: seasonal and view angle effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krehbiel, C. P.; Kovalskyy, V.; Henebry, G. M.

    2013-12-01

    Spanning 3-5 microns, the mid-infrared (MIR) region is the mixing zone between reflected sunlight and emitted earthlight in roughly equal proportions. While the MIR has been utilized in atmospheric remote sensing, its potential in terrestrial remote sensing--particularly urban remote sensing, has yet to be realized. One major advantage of the MIR is the ability to penetrate most anthropogenic haze and smog. Green vegetation appears MIR-dark, urban building materials appear MIR-grey, and bare soil and dried vegetation appear MIR-bright. Thus, there is an intrinsic seasonality in MIR radiance dynamics due both to surface type differences and to seasonal change in insolation. These factors merit exploration into the potential applications of the MIR for monitoring urban change. We investigated MIR radiance dynamics in relation to (1) the spectral properties of land cover types, (2) time of year and (3) sensor view zenith angle (VZA). We used Aqua MODIS daily swaths for band 23 (~ 4.05 μm) at 1 km spatial resolution from 2009-2010 and the NLCD Percent Impervious Surface Area (%ISA) 30 m product from 2001 and 2006. We found the effects of time of year, sensor VZA, and %ISA to be three principal factors influencing MIR radiance dynamics. We focused on analyzing the relationship between MIR radiance and %ISA over eight major cities in the Great Plains of the USA. This region is characterized by four distinct seasons, relatively flat terrain, and isolated urban centers situated within a vegetated landscape. We used west-east transects beginning in the agricultural areas outside of each city, passing through the urban core and extending back out into the agricultural periphery to observe the spatial pattern of MIR radiance and how it changes seasonally. Sensor VZA influences radiance dynamics by affecting the proportion of surface elements detected--especially pertinent at the coarse spatial resolution (~1 km) of MODIS. For example, smaller VZAs (30°). Larger VZAs detect

  5. Effect of elevated [CO2] and nutrient management on wet and dry season rice production in subtropical India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sushree Sagarika Satapathy; Dillip Kumar Swain; Surendranath Pasupalak; Pratap Bhanu Singh Bhadoria

    2015-01-01

    The present experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of elevated [CO2] with varying nutrient management on rice–rice production system. The experiment was conducted in the open field and inside open-top chambers (OTCs) of ambient [CO2] (≈390μmol L−1) and elevated [CO2] environment (25%above ambient) during wet and dry seasons in 2011–2013 at Kharagpur, India. The nutrient management included recommended doses of N, P, and K as chemical fertilizer (CF), integration of chemical and organic sources, and application of increased (25%higher) doses of CF. The higher [CO2] level in the OTC increased aboveground biomass but marginally decreased filled grains per panicle and grain yield of rice, compared to the ambient environment. However, crop root biomass was increased significantly under elevated [CO2]. With respect to nutrient management, increasing the dose of CF increased grain yield significantly in both seasons. At the recommended dose of nutrients, integrated nutrient management was comparable to CF in the wet season, but significantly inferior in the dry season, in its effect on growth and yield of rice. The [CO2] elevation in OTC led to a marginal increase in organic C and available P content of soil, but a decrease in available N content. It was concluded that increased doses of nutrients via integration of chemical and organic sources in the wet season and chemical sources alone in the dry season will minimize the adverse effect of future climate on rice production in subtropical India.

  6. Effects of irrigation on the seasonal abundance of Empoasca vitis in north-Italian vineyards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornasiero, D; Duso, C; Pozzebon, A; Tomasi, D; Gaiotti, F; Pavan, F

    2012-02-01

    The effect of irrigation on the abundance of Empoasca vitis (Göthe) populations was investigated in four vineyards located in northeastern Italy. In two experiments, we compared leafhopper population densities in plots irrigated (micro-spray irrigation system) or nonirrigated. In another experiment, we studied the effect of various irrigation systems on E. vitis populations over two successive seasons. In particular, five treatments were compared: control (not irrigated), traditional drip system, three types of subirrigation varying in distance from the row (40, 135, and 95 cm). In this vineyard, stem water potential was monitored with a pressure chamber. E. vitis population densities were affected by irrigation, with higher densities of this pest recorded on irrigated vines. Highest E. vitis densities were detected in drip irrigation plots compared with nonirrigated plots where water stress was highest. Moderate water stress (subirrigation plots) was associated with intermediate leafhopper densities. Implications for integrated pest management are discussed.

  7. Observation of seasonal effects in traveling ionospheric disturbances by the directional deviation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, E.K.; Bailey, A.D.

    1976-01-01

    An experiment was performed during the years 1962 through 1964 in which direction of arrival data were collected on pulse signals received over a 450 km east-west path. In order to determine the effect that traveling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs) had on these data, a ''corrugation'' model was proposed. The corrugation model assumes that TIDs can be treated as if they were moving cylindrical sinusoidal perturbations on the ionospheric reflecting surface. Lateral deviations in the experimental data of the type predicted by this model were found to be quite common. Variations in the detected TIDs as a function of time of year were found to be consistent with the ''seasonal effect'' studied by Munro in 1958, Jones 1969, and Davies and Jones in 1971

  8. Mid-Season Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness Estimates for the 2016-2017 Influenza Season (Open Access Publisher’s Version)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    VE) and findings are shared annually at the Food and Drug Administration’s advisory committee meet- ing on U.S. influenza vaccine strain selec- tion...Aeromedical Services Information Manage - ment System) and self-report from patient questionnaires. Individuals were consid- ered vaccinated if they received...surveillance are used to estimate midseason influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) and findings are shared annually at the Food and Drug

  9. The Effect of Seasonal and Long-Period Geopotential Variations on the GPS Orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melachroinos, Stavros A.; Lemoine, Frank G.; Chinn, Douglas S.; Zelensky, Nikita P.; Nicholas, Joseph B.; Beckley, Brian D.

    2013-01-01

    We examine the impact of using seasonal and long-period time-variable gravity field (TVG) models on GPS orbit determination, through simulations from 1994 to 2012. The models of time-variable gravity that we test include the GRGS release RL02 GRACE-derived 10-day gravity field models up to degree and order 20 (grgs20x20), a 4 x 4 series of weekly coefficients using GGM03S as a base derived from SLR and DORIS tracking to 11 satellites (tvg4x4), and a harmonic fit to the above 4 x 4 SLR-DORIS time series (goco2s_fit2). These detailed models are compared to GPS orbit simulations using a reference model (stdtvg) based on the International Earth Rotation Service (IERS) and International GNSS Service (IGS) repro1 standards. We find that the new TVG modeling produces significant along, cross-track orbit differences as well as annual, semi-annual, draconitic and long-period effects in the Helmert translation parameters (Tx, Ty, Tz) of the GPS orbits with magnitudes of several mm. We show that the simplistic TVG modeling approach used by all of the IGS Analysis Centers, which is based on the models provided by the IERS standards, becomes progressively less adequate following 2006 when compared to the seasonal and long-period TVG models.

  10. The Effect of PM10 on Allergy Symptoms in Allergic Rhinitis Patients During Spring Season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Il Gyu Kang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Asian sand dust (ASD that originates in the Mongolian Desert in the spring induces serious respiratory health problems throughout East Asia (China, Korea, Japan. PM10 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter <10 μm is a major air pollutant component in ASD. We studied the effects of PM10 on allergy symptoms in patients with allergic rhinitis during the spring season, when ASD frequently develops. Methods: We investigated the changes in allergic symptoms in 108 allergic patients and 47 healthy subjects by comparing their 120-day symptom scores from February to May 2012. At the same time, the contributions of pollen count and PM10 concentration were also assessed. We also compared symptom scores before and 2 days after the daily PM10 concentration was >100 μg/m3. Results: The PM10 concentration during the 120 days was <150 μg/m3. No significant correlations were observed between changes in the PM10 concentration and allergic symptom scores (p > 0.05. However, allergic symptoms were significantly correlated with outdoor activity time (p < 0.001. Conclusions: These results demonstrate that a PM10 concentration <150 μg/m3 did not influence allergy symptoms in patients with allergic rhinitis during the 2012 ASD season.

  11. Effect of the Holiday Season on Weight Gain: A Narrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Zavala, Rolando G; Castro-Cantú, María F; Valencia, Mauro E; Álvarez-Hernández, Gerardo; Haby, Michelle M; Esparza-Romero, Julián

    2017-01-01

    Several studies suggest that the holiday season, starting from the last week of November to the first or second week of January, could be critical to gaining weight. This study aims to review the literature to determine the effects of the holidays on body weight. In studies of adults, a significant weight gain was consistently observed during this period (0.4 to 0.9 kg, p 0.05) during this period. Among individuals with obesity who attempt to lose weight, an increase in weight was observed (0.3 to 0.9 kg, significant in some but not in all studies), as well as increase in weight in motivated self-monitoring people (0.4 to 0.6%, p holidays (phone calls and daily mailing) appeared to prevent weight gain, but information is limited. The holiday season seems to increase body weight in adults, even in participants seeking to lose weight and in motivated self-monitoring people, whereas in children, adolescents, and college students, very few studies were found to make accurate conclusions.

  12. Analysis of an age structured model for tick populations subject to seasonal effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kaihui; Lou, Yijun; Wu, Jianhong

    2017-08-01

    We investigate an age-structured hyperbolic equation model by allowing the birth and death functions to be density dependent and periodic in time with the consideration of seasonal effects. By studying the integral form solution of this general hyperbolic equation obtained through the method of integration along characteristics, we give a detailed proof of the uniqueness and existence of the solution in light of the contraction mapping theorem. With additional biologically natural assumptions, using the tick population growth as a motivating example, we derive an age-structured model with time-dependent periodic maturation delays, which is quite different from the existing population models with time-independent maturation delays. For this periodic differential system with seasonal delays, the basic reproduction number R0 is defined as the spectral radius of the next generation operator. Then, we show the tick population tends to die out when R0 1. When there is no intra-specific competition among immature individuals due to the sufficient availability of immature tick hosts, the global stability of the positive periodic state for the whole model system of four delay differential equations can be obtained with the observation that a scalar subsystem for the adult stage size can be decoupled. The challenge for the proof of such a global stability result can be overcome by introducing a new phase space, based on which, a periodic solution semiflow can be defined which is eventually strongly monotone and strictly subhomogeneous.

  13. Effects of ocean initial perturbation on developing phase of ENSO in a coupled seasonal prediction model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun-Chul; Kumar, Arun; Wang, Wanqiu

    2018-03-01

    Coupled prediction systems for seasonal and inter-annual variability in the tropical Pacific are initialized from ocean analyses. In ocean initial states, small scale perturbations are inevitably smoothed or distorted by the observational limits and data assimilation procedures, which tends to induce potential ocean initial errors for the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) prediction. Here, the evolution and effects of ocean initial errors from the small scale perturbation on the developing phase of ENSO are investigated by an ensemble of coupled model predictions. Results show that the ocean initial errors at the thermocline in the western tropical Pacific grow rapidly to project on the first mode of equatorial Kelvin wave and propagate to the east along the thermocline. In boreal spring when the surface buoyancy flux weakens in the eastern tropical Pacific, the subsurface errors influence sea surface temperature variability and would account for the seasonal dependence of prediction skill in the NINO3 region. It is concluded that the ENSO prediction in the eastern tropical Pacific after boreal spring can be improved by increasing the observational accuracy of subsurface ocean initial states in the western tropical Pacific.

  14. Effect of the Holiday Season on Weight Gain: A Narrative Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolando G. Díaz-Zavala

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Several studies suggest that the holiday season, starting from the last week of November to the first or second week of January, could be critical to gaining weight. This study aims to review the literature to determine the effects of the holidays on body weight. In studies of adults, a significant weight gain was consistently observed during this period (0.4 to 0.9 kg, p0.05 during this period. Among individuals with obesity who attempt to lose weight, an increase in weight was observed (0.3 to 0.9 kg, significant in some but not in all studies, as well as increase in weight in motivated self-monitoring people (0.4 to 0.6%, p<0.001. Programs focused on self-monitoring during the holidays (phone calls and daily mailing appeared to prevent weight gain, but information is limited. The holiday season seems to increase body weight in adults, even in participants seeking to lose weight and in motivated self-monitoring people, whereas in children, adolescents, and college students, very few studies were found to make accurate conclusions.

  15. Coupling Mars' Dust and Water Cycles: Effects on Dust Lifting Vigor, Spatial Extent and Seasonality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahre, M. A.; Hollingsworth, J. L.; Haberle, R. M.; Montmessin, F.

    2012-01-01

    The dust cycle is an important component of Mars' current climate system. Airborne dust affects the radiative balance of the atmosphere, thus greatly influencing the thermal and dynamical state of the atmosphere. Dust raising events on Mars occur at spatial scales ranging from meters to planet-wide. Although the occurrence and season of large regional and global dust storms are highly variable from one year to the next, there are many features of the dust cycle that occur year after year. Generally, a low-level dust haze is maintained during northern spring and summer, while elevated levels of atmospheric dust occur during northern autumn and winter. During years without global-scale dust storms, two peaks in total dust loading were observed by MGS/TES: one peak occurred before northern winter solstice at Ls 200-240, and one peak occurred after northern winter solstice at L(sub s) 305-340. These maxima in dust loading are thought to be associated with transient eddy activity in the northern hemisphere, which has been observed to maximize pre- and post-solstice. Interactive dust cycle studies with Mars General Circulation Models (MGCMs) have included the lifting, transport, and sedimentation of radiatively active dust. Although the predicted global dust loadings from these simulations capture some aspects of the observed dust cycle, there are marked differences between the simulated and observed dust cycles. Most notably, the maximum dust loading is robustly predicted by models to occur near northern winter solstice and is due to dust lifting associated with down slope flows on the flanks of the Hellas basin. Thus far, models have had difficulty simulating the observed pre- and post- solstice peaks in dust loading. Interactive dust cycle studies typically have not included the formation of water ice clouds or their radiative effects. Water ice clouds can influence the dust cycle by scavenging dust from atmosphere and by interacting with solar and infrared radiation

  16. Gilles de la Tourette syndrome and disruptive behavior disorders: prevalence, associations, and explanation of the relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Mary M; Cavanna, Andrea E; Eapen, Valsamma

    2015-01-01

    Gilles de la Tourette syndrome and conduct disorder (CD) are both heterogeneous childhood onset conditions, and although patients with CD have been described in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome cohorts, little is known about the etiology of CD in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome or of the interrelationships. A cohort of 578 consecutive patients with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome was assessed using standard assessment protocols. A total of 13.5% of participants had only Gilles de la Tourette syndrome, whereas the rest had associated comorbidities and psychopathology. CD occurred in 14.5% of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome probands. These findings suggest that CD is not an integral part of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome but rather that CD in the context of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome is related to the presence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, as well as, and importantly, a family history of aggressive and violent behavior and forensic encounters.

  17. Effects of seasonality, transport pathway, and spatial structure on greenhouse gas fluxes in a restored wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNicol, Gavin; Sturtevant, Cove S; Knox, Sara H; Dronova, Iryna; Baldocchi, Dennis D; Silver, Whendee L

    2017-07-01

    Wetlands can influence global climate via greenhouse gas (GHG) exchange of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), methane (CH 4 ), and nitrous oxide (N 2 O). Few studies have quantified the full GHG budget of wetlands due to the high spatial and temporal variability of fluxes. We report annual open-water diffusion and ebullition fluxes of CO 2 , CH 4 , and N 2 O from a restored emergent marsh ecosystem. We combined these data with concurrent eddy-covariance measurements of whole-ecosystem CO 2 and CH 4 exchange to estimate GHG fluxes and associated radiative forcing effects for the whole wetland, and separately for open-water and vegetated cover types. Annual open-water CO 2 , CH 4 , and N 2 O emissions were 915 ± 95 g C-CO 2  m -2  yr -1 , 2.9 ± 0.5 g C-CH 4  m -2  yr -1 , and 62 ± 17 mg N-N 2 O m -2  yr -1 , respectively. Diffusion dominated open-water GHG transport, accounting for >99% of CO 2 and N 2 O emissions, and ~71% of CH 4 emissions. Seasonality was minor for CO 2 emissions, whereas CH 4 and N 2 O fluxes displayed strong and asynchronous seasonal dynamics. Notably, the overall radiative forcing of open-water fluxes (3.5 ± 0.3 kg CO 2 -eq m -2  yr -1 ) exceeded that of vegetated zones (1.4 ± 0.4 kg CO 2 -eq m -2  yr -1 ) due to high ecosystem respiration. After scaling results to the entire wetland using object-based cover classification of remote sensing imagery, net uptake of CO 2 (-1.4 ± 0.6 kt CO 2 -eq yr -1 ) did not offset CH 4 emission (3.7 ± 0.03 kt CO 2 -eq yr -1 ), producing an overall positive radiative forcing effect of 2.4 ± 0.3 kt CO 2 -eq yr -1 . These results demonstrate clear effects of seasonality, spatial structure, and transport pathway on the magnitude and composition of wetland GHG emissions, and the efficacy of multiscale flux measurement to overcome challenges of wetland heterogeneity. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Suboptimal effectiveness of the 2011-2012 seasonal influenza vaccine in adult Korean populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won Suk Choi

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of the 2011-2012 seasonal influenza vaccine was evaluated in adult Korean populations with regard to how well it could prevent laboratory-confirmed influenza and influenza-related complications.A retrospective case-control and retrospective cohort study was conducted among patients who visited four selected hospitals from September 2011 to May 2012. The analysis included 1,130 laboratory-confirmed influenza patients. For each influenza case, one control patient was chosen at a ratio of 1:1. A control was defined as an age group-matched patient who visited the same hospital with influenza-like illness within 48 hours of symptom onset but for whom laboratory tests were negative for influenza. Age group and visit date were matched between the cases and controls. Vaccine effectiveness (VE was defined as [100 × (1-odds ratio for influenza in vaccinated versus non-vaccinated persons]. The patients with laboratory-confirmed influenza were followed for at least one month through reviewing the medical records and conducting a telephone interview.The VE of the 2011-2012 seasonal influenza vaccine was 3.8% [95% confidence interval (CI, -16.5% to 20.6%] for preventing laboratory-confirmed influenza, -16.1% (95% CI, -48.3 to 9.1 for influenza A and 26.2% (95% CI, -2.6 to 46.2 for influenza B. The age-specific adjusted VE was 0.3% (95% CI, -29.4 to 23.1 among participants aged 19 to 49 years, 11.9% (95% CI, -34.3 to 42.2 among those aged 50 to 64 years and -3.9% (-60.1 to 32.5 among those aged ≥65 years. The adjusted VE for preventing any influenza-related complications was -10.7% (95% CI, -41.1% to 42.2%.The 2011-2012 seasonal influenza vaccine was not effective in preventing laboratory-confirmed influenza or influenza-related complications in adult Korean populations.

  19. Matter in Motion: The Educational Materialism of Gilles Deleuze

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, David R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper critically examines the materialism that Gilles Deleuze espouses in his oeuvre to the benefit of educational theory. In "Difference and Repetition", he presented transcendental empiricism by underwriting Kant with realism (Deleuze, 1994). Later, in "Capitalism & Schizophrenia I & II" that were co-written with Felix Guattari (1984, 1988)…

  20. Long-Term Outcome of Gilles De La Tourette Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Videotapes recorded 1978 through 1991 of 56 children (ages 8 to 14 with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS were reviewed and 31 of the patients (28 men and 3 women, age>20 years were recruited for a second videotape and in-person assessment at Rush-Presbyterian-St Luke’s Movement Disorder Center, Chicago, IL.

  1. Structural Connectivity in Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana B Chelse

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Investigators from Centre de Reference National Maladie Rare ‘Syndrome Gilles de la Tourette’ and Sorbonne University report white matter abnormalities in the pathways connecting the cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, and thalamus in a group of 49 adults with Tourette syndrome (TS.

  2. A case of Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Prakash

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome is an uncommon illness associated with repetitive un-voluntary abnormal movements and utterance. It is often associated with other psychiatric morbidities. Management requires awareness of this uncommon illness, keen observation, relevant evaluation, and combination of pharmacology and psychotherapy for an optimal outcome. This case is brought out here for florid presentation and nuances of management.

  3. Psychological Aspects of Gilles De La Tourette Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Hildreth Youkilis; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Evaluated the psychopathological features that may underlie or accompany Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome. Univariate analyses indicated that Tourette subjects scored higher on the following scales of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory: Schizophrenia, Depression, Psychopathic Deviate, Psychasthenia and Hypochondriasis. The results…

  4. Identifying the Child with Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Donna J.

    1993-01-01

    This article presents a brief introduction to Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome (a neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by motor and vocal tics and obsessive-compulsive behaviors). It describes the nature of the disorder, treatment, and service provision (evaluation and assessment and the Individual Education Plan). (DB)

  5. Genetikken bag Gilles de laTourettes syndrom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Birgitte; Melchior, Linea Cecilie; Debes, Nanette Mol

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge about the aetiology of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) is very limited. GTS has a complex mode of inheritance in which both genetic and environmental factors are believed to be involved in disease development. Different approaches to identify GTS associated genes have led...

  6. Third intervention of Gilles Jobin and Collide@CERN

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Everything you wanted to know about contemporary dance but were afraid to ask. - 4 September 2012 at 4 p.m. in the Council Chamber -   A subjective and personal presentation of the recent history of contemporary dance by Gilles Jobin, Collide@CERN choreographer in residence.

  7. Histopathological biomarkers and genotoxicity in gill and liver ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In addition, the degree of DNA damage was measured using the comet assay. To indicate the severity of water pollution at the two sites, physico-chemical properties and heavy metal concentrations were investigated. Gill damage, including lamellar cell hyperplasia and aneurysm, was observed in the fish samples from the ...

  8. EFFECT OF MELATONIN DURING THE SEASONAL ANOESTROUS ON THE REACTIVATION OF THE SEXUAL ACTIVITY AND SEMEN PRODUCTION AT THE NORMAL BREEDING SEASON ON MEDITERRANEAN BUCKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Zarazaga

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available One experiment was conducted to determine if the onset of the reproductive activity and semen production could be modified by a previous treatment with exogenous melatonin, used to enhance reproductive activity during the seasonal anoestrous in Mediterranean bucks. Two balanced groups of bucks were used. The 18th march 2005, one group (M group received 3 s.c. implants of melatonin (N=7 and other group (N=4 was used like control (C group. From June to September, body weight and testosterone was measured weekly and testicular weight every 15 days. The reproductive activity of each buck was assessed using characteristics of the testosterone profile. During the first 8 days of each month, volume of ejaculate and sperm concentration was assessed. Each of these 8-d periods was divided into 3-d periods of daily sperm collection separated by 2 d of rest. The semen was collected using an artificial vagina. The effect of treatment and month was studied on each variable. An interaction, month-treatment was observed on ejaculate volume, July was the month with higher volume (0.62 ± 0.06 mL vs 1.07 ± 0.15 mL for M and C group respectively, P < 0.05. Sperm concentration was influenced by treatment (6.13 x109 ± 2.49 x108 vs 4.26 x109 ± 3.12 x108 sperm/mL, for M and C, respectively, P < 0.05. The onset of the reproductive activity, after the study of the testosterone concentrations was similar for both groups (31st August ± 7.89 days and 4th September ± 25.66 days for M and C group, respectively. Results demonstrate that melatonin treatment during the seasonal anoestrous does not influence the onset of the normal breeding season or ejaculate volume but it seems that could increases the sperm concentration at the normal breeding season in Mediterranean goat males.

  9. On the effect of cover tilt angle of the simple solar still on its productivity in different seasons and latitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalifa, Abdul Jabbar N.

    2011-01-01

    Many experimental and numerical studies have been carried out on different configurations of solar stills to optimize the design by investigating the effect of climatic, operational and design parameters on its performance. One of the main parameters that have received a considerable attention is the cover tilt angle. A large number of studies on the effect of cover tilt angle on productivity in different seasons and latitude angles are cited in this article. The investigation that tackle the detailed effect of the cover tilt angle on productivity report contradictory conclusions about the effect of tilt angle on productivity and the value of the optimum tilt angle. A relation between the cover tilt angle and productivity of simple solar still in various seasons is established together with a relation between the optimum tilt angle and the latitude angle by an extensive review of the literature. The conclusions of this study should assist in choosing the proper cover tilt angle in various seasons and latitudes.

  10. Phytoestrogens and Their Metabolites in Bulk-Tank Milk: Effects of Farm Management and Season

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler, Steffen A; Purup, Stig; Hansen-Møller, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Phytoestrogens have structures similar to endogenous steroids and may induce or inhibit the response of hormone receptors. The objectives of the present study were to compare the effects of long-term vs. short-term grassland management in organic and conventional dairy production systems, compare...... organic and conventional production systems and assess seasonal variation on phytoestrogen concentrations in bulk-tank milk. The concentrations of phytoestrogens were analyzed in bulk-tank milk sampled three times in two subsequent years from 28 dairy farms: Fourteen organic (ORG) dairy farms with either...... short-term or long-term grassland management were paired with 14 conventional (CON) farms with respect to grassland management. Grassland management varied in terms of time since establishment. Short-term grassland management (SG) was defined as establishment or reseeding every fourth year or more often...

  11. Revealing livestock effects on bunchgrass vegetation with Landsat ETM+ data across a grazing season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Vincent S.

    Remote sensing provides monitoring solutions for more informed grazing management. To investigate the ability to detect the effects of cattle grazing on bunchgrass vegetation with Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) data, we conducted a study on the Zumwalt Prairie in northeastern Oregon across a gradient of grazing intensities. Biophysical vegetation data was collected on vertical structure, biomass, and cover at three different time periods during the grazing season: June, August, and October 2012. To relate these measures to the remotely sensed Landsat ETM+ data, Pearson's correlations and multiple regression models were computed. Using the best models, predicted vegetation metrics were then mapped across the study area. Results indicated that models using common vegetation indices had the ability to discern different levels of grazing across the study area. Results can be distributed to land managers to help guide grassland conservation by improving monitoring of bunchgrass vegetation for sustainable livestock management.

  12. Seasonal Effects on Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity of Six Economically Important Brassica Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo A.S. Rosa

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Research on natural and bioactive compounds is increasingly focused on their effects on human health, but there are unexpectedly few studies evaluating the relationship between climate and natural antioxidants. The aim of this study was analyze the biological role of six different Brassica vegetables (Brassica oleracea L. and Brassica rapa L. as a natural source of antioxidant compounds. The antioxidant activity may be assigned to high levels of L-ascorbic acid, total phenolics and total flavonoids of each sample. The climate seasons affected directly the concentration of bioactive components and the antioxidant activity. Broccoli inflorescences and Portuguese kale showed high antioxidant activity in Spring-Summer whilst turnip leaves did so in Summer-Winter. The Brassica vegetables can provide considerable amounts of bioactive compounds and thus may constitute an important natural source of dietary antioxidants.

  13. THE EFFECT OF DECOMPOSITION METHOD AS DATA PREPROCESSING ON NEURAL NETWORKS MODEL FOR FORECASTING TREND AND SEASONAL TIME SERIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subanar Subanar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, one of the central topics for the neural networks (NN community is the issue of data preprocessing on the use of NN. In this paper, we will investigate this topic particularly on the effect of Decomposition method as data processing and the use of NN for modeling effectively time series with both trend and seasonal patterns. Limited empirical studies on seasonal time series forecasting with neural networks show that some find neural networks are able to model seasonality directly and prior deseasonalization is not necessary, and others conclude just the opposite. In this research, we study particularly on the effectiveness of data preprocessing, including detrending and deseasonalization by applying Decomposition method on NN modeling and forecasting performance. We use two kinds of data, simulation and real data. Simulation data are examined on multiplicative of trend and seasonality patterns. The results are compared to those obtained from the classical time series model. Our result shows that a combination of detrending and deseasonalization by applying Decomposition method is the effective data preprocessing on the use of NN for forecasting trend and seasonal time series.

  14. Interaction Effects of Season of Birth and Cytokine Genes on Schizotypal Traits in the General Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita V. Alfimova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Literature suggests that the effect of winter birth on vulnerability to schizophrenia might be mediated by increased expression of proinflammatory cytokines due to prenatal infection and its inadequate regulation by anti-inflammatory factors. As the response of the immune system depends on genotype, this study assessed the interaction effects of cytokine genes and season of birth (SOB on schizotypy measured with the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ-74. We searched for associations of IL1B rs16944, IL4 rs2243250, and IL-1RN VNTR polymorphisms, SOB, and their interactions with the SPQ-74 total score in a sample of 278 healthy individuals. A significant effect of the IL4 X SOB interaction was found, p=0.007 and η2=0.028. We confirmed this effect using an extended sample of 373 individuals. Homozygotes CC born in winter showed the highest SPQ total score and differed significantly from winter-born T allele carriers, p=0.049. This difference was demonstrated for cognitive-perceptual and disorganized but not interpersonal dimensions. The findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the cytokine genes by SOB interaction can influence variability of schizotypal traits in the general population. The IL4 T allele appeared to have a protective effect against the development of positive and disorganized schizotypal traits in winter-born individuals.

  15. Interaction Effects of Season of Birth and Cytokine Genes on Schizotypal Traits in the General Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfimova, Margarita V; Korovaitseva, Galina I; Lezheiko, Tatyana V; Golimbet, Vera E

    2017-01-01

    Literature suggests that the effect of winter birth on vulnerability to schizophrenia might be mediated by increased expression of proinflammatory cytokines due to prenatal infection and its inadequate regulation by anti-inflammatory factors. As the response of the immune system depends on genotype, this study assessed the interaction effects of cytokine genes and season of birth (SOB) on schizotypy measured with the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ-74). We searched for associations of IL1B rs16944, IL4 rs2243250, and IL-1RN VNTR polymorphisms, SOB, and their interactions with the SPQ-74 total score in a sample of 278 healthy individuals. A significant effect of the IL4 X SOB interaction was found, p = 0.007 and η 2 = 0.028. We confirmed this effect using an extended sample of 373 individuals. Homozygotes CC born in winter showed the highest SPQ total score and differed significantly from winter-born T allele carriers, p = 0.049. This difference was demonstrated for cognitive-perceptual and disorganized but not interpersonal dimensions. The findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the cytokine genes by SOB interaction can influence variability of schizotypal traits in the general population. The IL4 T allele appeared to have a protective effect against the development of positive and disorganized schizotypal traits in winter-born individuals.

  16. Regulation of the glucocorticoid receptor mRNA levels in the gills of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar during smoltification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAZURAIS D.

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available The regulation of the Glucocorticoid Receptor (GR transcript was investigated in the gills of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar during the parr-smolt transformation. Sampling of parr and smolt fish was performed between December and July and in particular during the smoltification period occurring in spring. Quantification of GR transcripts revealed differences between the two groups in March and at the beginning of April. During these dates, the amounts of GR mRNA in parr gills were respectively three and two fold lower than those measured in smolts. In order to determine which factors are responsible for these differences, we studied the long-term effects of prolactin and Cortisol treatments on GR transcript in the gills of presmolt fish. The plasma levels of these two hormones respectively drop and rise during smoltification. Contrary to Cortisol long-term treatment which did not modify the amount of gill GR transcript, short-term treatment induced a significant decrease within 12 hours. Prolactin long-term treatment caused a significant increase of GR transcript abundance after 13 days of implant treatment. This result is unexpected with regard to those obtained in the smoltification analysis but is in agreement with previous studies performed in mammary gland revealing a positive control of PRL on GR in epithelial cells. Our data suggest that the regulation of the GR transcript during the parr-smolt transformation probably involves several hormonal factors.

  17. Reproductive pattern of local sheep in Egypt with special reference to the effects of breed, season and management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakha, A.M.; Essawy, S.A.; El Azab, A.I.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of season on ovulation has been monitored in two local breeds of Egyptian ewes - the Barki (desert type), and the Rahmani (fat tailed Nile valley breed), by sequentially measuring cyclic changes in plasma progesterone concentration throughout a period of one year in the absence of any possible ram effect. The modal length of the ovulatory cycle was 17-18 days for both breeds, with the progesterone concentration peaking around day 11. No effect of season on progesterone concentration was apparent for the Barki breed but in the Rahmani, progesterone values were lower (P < 0.05) during the summer than during the autumn months. While the Barki have a restricted breeding season from June to November, the Rahmani have only a short period of anovulation within April. Thirty-three per cent of the Rahmani breed were identified as having cycled throughout the year. (author). 9 refs, 4 figs

  18. Seasonal variation exceeds effects of salmon carcass additions on benthic food webs in the Elwha River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, S.A.; Coe, H.J.; Duda, J.J.; Dunphy, L.S.; McHenry, M.L.; Beckman, B.R.; Elofson, M.; Sampson, E. M.; Ward, L.

    2016-01-01

    Dam removal and other fish barrier removal projects in western North America are assumed to boost freshwater productivity via the transport of marine-derived nutrients from recolonizing Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.). In anticipation of the removal of two hydroelectric dams on the Elwha River in Washington State, we tested this hypothesis with a salmon carcass addition experiment. Our study was designed to examine how background nutrient dynamics and benthic food webs vary seasonally, and how these features respond to salmon subsidies. We conducted our experiment in six side channels of the Elwha River, each with a spatially paired reference and treatment reach. Each reach was sampled on multiple occasions from October 2007 to August 2008, before and after carcass placement. We evaluated nutrient limitation status; measured water chemistry, periphyton, benthic invertebrates, and juvenile rainbow trout (O. mykiss) response; and traced salmon-derived nutrient uptake using stable isotopes. Outside of winter, algal accrual was limited by both nitrogen and phosphorous and remained so even in the presence of salmon carcasses. One month after salmon addition, dissolved inorganic nitrogen levels doubled in treatment reaches. Two months after addition, benthic algal accrual was significantly elevated. We detected no changes in invertebrate or fish metrics, with the exception of 15N enrichment. Natural seasonal variability was greater than salmon effects for the majority of our response metrics. Yet seasonality and synchronicity of nutrient supply and demand are often overlooked in nutrient enhancement studies. Timing and magnitude of salmon-derived nitrogen utilization suggest that uptake of dissolved nutrients was favored over direct consumption of carcasses. The highest proportion of salmon-derived nitrogen was incorporated by herbivores (18–30%) and peaked 1–2 months after carcass addition. Peak nitrogen enrichment in predators (11–16%) occurred 2–3

  19. Seasonal influenza vaccine effectiveness against influenza in 2012-2013 : A hospital-based case-control study in Lithuania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gefenaite, Giedre; Rahamat-Langendoen, Janette; Ambrozaitis, Arvydas; Mickiene, Aukse; Jancoriene, Ligita; Kuliese, Monika; Velyvyte, Daiva; Niesters, Hubert; Stolk, Ronald P.; Zagminas, Kestutis; Hak, Eelko

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Due to scarce information on seasonal influenza vaccine effectiveness (SIVE) against severe clinical influenza outcomes in risk populations, we conducted a case-control study to assess its effects against laboratory-confirmed influenza in hospitalized patients during the 2012-2013

  20. Effects of thermal discharges on the seasonal patterns of nutrient concentrations in brackish water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitchals, D.

    1985-05-01

    Massiv quantities of water are used in power plant cooling systems, especially nuclear power plants, and are often returned to the donor ecosystem at significantly elevated temperatures. Few studies of the environmental effects of such a situation have looked extensively at the effects on nutrients in the water. The present study examined the effects of cooling water discharges from a nuclear power plant on the seasonal nutrient patterns within and outside a brackish water, research artificial lake, the 0.9 km 2 Biotest Basin on Sweden's east coast. The lack of ice cover in winter is the most apparent effect. In a portion of the lake with a relatively long water residence time, on the order of a few days, the vernal nutrient depletion of phosphate, nitrate, and nitrite apparently began sooner than outside the lake. Benthic influence on nutrient concentrations in the free water mass may be very significant in coastal areas receiving heat inputs. This study's data apparently support the conclusion by other researchers that phosphorus may be the nutrient limiting algal growth in the spring in this area of the central Baltic Sea. Determination of a nutrient budget for the Basin was unachievable because inlet and outlet nutrient concentrations were insufficiently different to override experimental variation. Implications for management of heat inputs to coastal ecosystems include avoidance of areas with high nutrient content, rich organic sediment, or poor flushing. (author)

  1. Quantifying salinity and season effects on eastern oyster clearance and oxygen consumption rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, S.M.; Lavaud, Romain; LaPeyre, Megan K.; Comeau, L. A.; Filgueira, R.; LaPeyre, Jerome F.

    2018-01-01

    There are few data on Crassostrea virginica physiological rates across the range of salinities and temperatures to which they are regularly exposed, and this limits the applicability of growth and production models using these data. The objectives of this study were to quantify, in winter (17 °C) and summer (27 °C), the clearance and oxygen consumption rates of C. virginica from Louisiana across a range of salinities typical of the region (3, 6, 9, 15 and 25). Salinity and season (temperature and reproduction) affected C. virginica physiology differently; salinity impacted clearance rates with reduced feeding rates at low salinities, while season had a strong effect on respiration rates. Highest clearance rates were found at salinities of 9–25, with reductions ranging from 50 to 80 and 90 to 95% at salinities of 6 and 3, respectively. Oxygen consumption rates in summer were four times higher than in winter. Oxygen consumption rates were within a narrow range and similar among salinities in winter, but varied greatly among individuals and salinities in summer. This likely reflected varying stages of gonad development. Valve movements measured at the five salinities indicated oysters were open 50–60% of the time in the 6–25 salinity range and ~ 30% at a salinity of 3. Reduced opening periods, concomitant with narrower valve gap amplitudes, are in accord with the limited feeding at the lowest salinity (3). These data indicate the need for increased focus on experimental determination of optimal ranges and thresholds to better quantify oyster population responses to environmental changes.

  2. Effects of origin, seasons and storage under different temperatures on germination of Senecio vulgaris (Asteraceae) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndihokubwayo, Noel; Nguyen, Viet-Thang; Cheng, Dandan

    2016-01-01

    Invasive plants colonize new environments, become pests and cause biodiversity loss, economic loss and health damage. Senecio vulgaris L. (Common groundsel, Asteraceae), a widely distributing cosmopolitan weed in the temperate area, is reported with large populations in the north-eastern and south-western part, but not in southern, central, or north-western parts of China. We studied the germination behavior of S. vulgaris to explain the distribution and the biological invasion of this species in China. We used seeds originating from six native and six invasive populations to conduct germination experiments in a climate chamber and under outdoor condition. When incubated in a climate chamber (15 °C), seeds from the majority of the populations showed >90% germination percentage (GP) and the GP was equal for seeds with a native and invasive origin. The mean germination time (MGT) was significantly different among the populations. Under outdoor conditions, significant effects of origin, storage conditions (stored at 4 °C or ambient room temperature, ca. 27 °C) and seasons (in summer or autumn) were observed on the GP while the MGT was only affected by the season. In autumn, the GP (38.6%) was higher and the MGT was slightly longer than that in summer. In autumn, seeds stored at 4 °C showed higher GP than those stored at ambient room temperature (ca.27 °C), and seeds from invasive populations revealed higher GP than those from native populations. The results implied that the high temperature in summer has a negative impact on the germination and might cause viability loss or secondary dormancy to S. vulgaris seeds. Our study offers a clue to exploring what factor limits the distribution of S. vulgaris in China by explaining why, in the cities in South-East China and central China such as Wuhan, S. vulgaris cannot establish natural and viable populations.

  3. Genetic and environmental effects on a meat spotting defect in seasoned dry-cured ham

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Pagnacco

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of this investigation was to determine the nature of a visible spotting defect on the slice of dry-cured ham and assess environmental and genetic causes of this frequent problem. A group of 233 pigs from commercial cross-breeding lines, progeny of ten boars and forty seven sows, was raised in a single herd to obtain the “Italian Heavy Pig”, typically slaughtered at 160 ± 10 kg live weight and older than 9 months of age. A quality evaluation of their right dry-cured hams, seasoned according to the Parma P.D.O. protocol, was undertaken. Each ham was cross-sectioned to obtain a slice of Semimembranosus, Semitendinosus and Biceps Femoris muscles. The focused phenotype was the presence/absence of brownish spots in these muscles, which represent a remarkable meat defect with strong impact on the final sale price. Environmental and management factors were considered in order to evaluate variability related to the phenotype. Animals were raised on two different flooring types (concrete and slatted floor and a Vitamin C diet was also supplemented in the last 45 days before slaughtering to half of the animals. While the pre-planned environmental effects did not show any significant contribution to the total variability of the phenotype, the genetic analysis showed a near to zero value for heritability with a consistent 0.32 repeatability. The proportion of the total phenotypic variance was explained by an important dominance genetic component (0.26 indicating that the technological seasoning process may play a secondary role on the expression of this phenotype.

  4. Effects of origin, seasons and storage under different temperatures on germination of Senecio vulgaris (Asteraceae seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noel Ndihokubwayo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Invasive plants colonize new environments, become pests and cause biodiversity loss, economic loss and health damage. Senecio vulgaris L. (Common groundsel, Asteraceae, a widely distributing cosmopolitan weed in the temperate area, is reported with large populations in the north–eastern and south–western part, but not in southern, central, or north-western parts of China. We studied the germination behavior of S. vulgaris to explain the distribution and the biological invasion of this species in China. We used seeds originating from six native and six invasive populations to conduct germination experiments in a climate chamber and under outdoor condition. When incubated in a climate chamber (15 °C, seeds from the majority of the populations showed >90% germination percentage (GP and the GP was equal for seeds with a native and invasive origin. The mean germination time (MGT was significantly different among the populations. Under outdoor conditions, significant effects of origin, storage conditions (stored at 4 °C or ambient room temperature, ca. 27 °C and seasons (in summer or autumn were observed on the GP while the MGT was only affected by the season. In autumn, the GP (38.6% was higher and the MGT was slightly longer than that in summer. In autumn, seeds stored at 4 °C showed higher GP than those stored at ambient room temperature (ca.27 °C, and seeds from invasive populations revealed higher GP than those from native populations. The results implied that the high temperature in summer has a negative impact on the germination and might cause viability loss or secondary dormancy to S. vulgaris seeds. Our study offers a clue to exploring what factor limits the distribution of S. vulgaris in China by explaining why, in the cities in South-East China and central China such as Wuhan, S. vulgaris cannot establish natural and viable populations.

  5. An Optimal Cost Effectiveness Study on Zimbabwe Cholera Seasonal Data from 2008–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardar, Tridip; Mukhopadhyay, Soumalya; Bhowmick, Amiya Ranjan; Chattopadhyay, Joydev

    2013-01-01

    Incidence of cholera outbreak is a serious issue in underdeveloped and developing countries. In Zimbabwe, after the massive outbreak in 2008–09, cholera cases and deaths are reported every year from some provinces. Substantial number of reported cholera cases in some provinces during and after the epidemic in 2008–09 indicates a plausible presence of seasonality in cholera incidence in those regions. We formulate a compartmental mathematical model with periodic slow-fast transmission rate to study such recurrent occurrences and fitted the model to cumulative cholera cases and deaths for different provinces of Zimbabwe from the beginning of cholera outbreak in 2008–09 to June 2011. Daily and weekly reported cholera incidence data were collected from Zimbabwe epidemiological bulletin, Zimbabwe Daily cholera updates and Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs Zimbabwe (OCHA, Zimbabwe). For each province, the basic reproduction number () in periodic environment is estimated. To the best of our knowledge, this is probably a pioneering attempt to estimate in periodic environment using real-life data set of cholera epidemic for Zimbabwe. Our estimates of agree with the previous estimate for some provinces but differ significantly for Bulawayo, Mashonaland West, Manicaland, Matabeleland South and Matabeleland North. Seasonal trend in cholera incidence is observed in Harare, Mashonaland West, Mashonaland East, Manicaland and Matabeleland South. Our result suggests that, slow transmission is a dominating factor for cholera transmission in most of these provinces. Our model projects cholera cases and cholera deaths during the end of the epidemic in 2008–09 to January 1, 2012. We also determine an optimal cost-effective control strategy among the four government undertaken interventions namely promoting hand-hygiene & clean water distribution, vaccination, treatment and sanitation for each province. PMID:24312540

  6. Modelling the effects of seasonality and socioeconomic impact on the transmission of Rift Valley fever virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yanyu; Beier, John C.; Cantrell, Robert Stephen; Cosner, Chris; DeAngelis, Donald L.; Ruan, Shigui

    2015-01-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is an important mosquito-borne viral zoonosis in Africa and the Middle East that causes human deaths and significant economic losses due to huge incidences of death and abortion among infected livestock. Outbreaks of RVF are sporadic and associated with both seasonal and socioeconomic effects. Here we propose an almost periodic three-patch model to investigate the transmission dynamics of RVF virus (RVFV) among ruminants with spatial movements. Our findings indicate that, in Northeastern Africa, human activities, including those associated with the Eid al Adha feast, along with a combination of climatic factors such as rainfall level and hydrological variations, contribute to the transmission and dispersal of the disease pathogen. Moreover, sporadic outbreaks may occur when the two events occur together: 1) abundant livestock are recruited into areas at risk from RVF due to the demand for the religious festival and 2) abundant numbers of mosquitoes emerge. These two factors have been shown to have impacts on the severity of RVF outbreaks. Our numerical results present the transmission dynamics of the disease pathogen over both short and long periods of time, particularly during the festival time. Further, we investigate the impact on patterns of disease outbreaks in each patch brought by festival- and seasonal-driven factors, such as the number of livestock imported daily, the animal transportation speed from patch to patch, and the death rate induced by ceremonial sacrifices. In addition, our simulations show that when the time for festival preparation starts earlier than usual, the risk of massive disease outbreaks rises, particularly in patch 3 (the place where the religious ceremony will be held).

  7. Effects of drought season length on live moisture content dynamic in Mediterranean shrubs: 8 years of data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellizzaro, Grazia; Ventura, Andrea; Bortolu, Sara; Duce, Pierpaolo

    2017-04-01

    Mediterranean shrubs are an important component of Mediterranean vegetation communities. In this kind of vegetation, live fuel is a relevant component of the available fuel which catches fire and, consequently, its water content plays an important role in determining fire occurrence and spread. In live plant, water content patterns are related to both environmental conditions (e.g. meteorological variables, soil water availability) and ecophysiological characteristics of the plant species. According to projections on future climate, an increase in risk of summer droughts is likely to take place in Southern Europe. More prolonged drought seasons induced by climatic changes are likely to influence general flammability characteristics of fuel. In addition, variations in precipitation and mean temperature could directly affect fuel water status and length of critical periods of high ignition danger for Mediterranean ecosystems. The aims of this work were to analyse the influence of both weather seasonality and inter-annual weather variability on live fuel moisture content within and among some common Mediterranean species, and to investigate the effects of prolonged drought season on live moisture content dynamic. The study was carried out in North Sardinia (Italy). Measurements of LFMC seasonal pattern of two really common and flammable Mediterranean shrub species (Cistus monspeliensis and Rosmarinus officinalis) were performed periodically for 8 years. Meteorological variables were also recorded. Relationships between live fuel moisture content and environmental conditions (i.e. rainfall, air temperature and soil moisture) were investigated and effects of different lengths of drought season on LFMC pattern were analysed. Results showed that distribution and amount of rainfall affected seasonal variation of live fuel moisture content. In particular more prolonged drought seasons caused a longer period in which LFMC was below 95 -100% that is commonly considered as

  8. Seasonal Effects in a Lake Sediment Archaeal Community of the Brazilian Savanna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Rodrigues

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Cerrado is a biome that corresponds to 24% of Brazil’s territory. Only recently microbial communities of this biome have been investigated. Here we describe for the first time the diversity of archaeal communities from freshwater lake sediments of the Cerrado in the dry season and in the transition period between the dry and rainy seasons, when the first rains occur. Gene libraries were constructed, using Archaea-specific primers for the 16S rRNA and amoA genes. Analysis revealed marked differences between the archaeal communities found in the two seasons. I.1a and I.1c Thaumarchaeota were found in greater numbers in the transition period, while MCG Archaea was dominant on the dry season. Methanogens were only found in the dry season. Analysis of 16S rRNA sequences revealed lower diversity on the transition period. We detected archaeal amoA sequences in both seasons, but there were more OTUs during the dry season. These sequences were within the same cluster as Nitrosotalea devanaterra’s amoA gene. The principal coordinate analysis (PCoA test revealed significant differences between samples from different seasons. These results provide information on archaeal diversity in freshwater lake sediments of the Cerrado and indicates that rain is likely a factor that impacts these communities.

  9. Seasonal effects in a lake sediment archaeal community of the Brazilian Savanna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Thiago; Catão, Elisa; Bustamante, Mercedes M C; Quirino, Betania F; Kruger, Ricardo H; Kyaw, Cynthia M

    2014-01-01

    The Cerrado is a biome that corresponds to 24% of Brazil's territory. Only recently microbial communities of this biome have been investigated. Here we describe for the first time the diversity of archaeal communities from freshwater lake sediments of the Cerrado in the dry season and in the transition period between the dry and rainy seasons, when the first rains occur. Gene libraries were constructed, using Archaea-specific primers for the 16S rRNA and amoA genes. Analysis revealed marked differences between the archaeal communities found in the two seasons. I.1a and I.1c Thaumarchaeota were found in greater numbers in the transition period, while MCG Archaea was dominant on the dry season. Methanogens were only found in the dry season. Analysis of 16S rRNA sequences revealed lower diversity on the transition period. We detected archaeal amoA sequences in both seasons, but there were more OTUs during the dry season. These sequences were within the same cluster as Nitrosotalea devanaterra's amoA gene. The principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) test revealed significant differences between samples from different seasons. These results provide information on archaeal diversity in freshwater lake sediments of the Cerrado and indicates that rain is likely a factor that impacts these communities.

  10. Effects of Seasonal Land Surface Conditions on Hydrometeorological Dynamics in South-western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-21

    rain gauges to measure precipitation , and 1 internal mini-flume to measure runoff . 9 Fig. 8. Processed fluxes measured at the two eddy...SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: Arid and semiarid landscapes in regions with seasonal precipitation experience dramatic changes that alter land surface...semiarid landscapes in regions with seasonal precipitation experience dramatic changes that alter land surface conditions, including soil moisture

  11. Effects of seasonal variation of photosynthetic capacity on the carbon fluxes of a temperate deciduous forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Medvigy; Su-Jong Jeong; Kenneth L. Clark; Nicholas S. Skowronski; Karina V. R. Schäfer

    2013-01-01

    Seasonal variation in photosynthetic capacity is an important part of the overall seasonal variability of temperate deciduous forests. However, it has only recently been introduced in a few terrestrial biosphere models, and many models still do not include it. The biases that result from this omission are not well understood. In this study, we use the Ecosystem...

  12. [Effects of conservation tillage on soil CO2 and N2O emission during the following winter-wheat season].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Ying; Hu, Zheng-Hu; Wu, Yang-Zhou; Sun, Yin-Yin; Sheng, Lu; Chen, Shu-Tao; Xiao, Qi-Tao

    2014-07-01

    In order to study the effect of conservation tillage on soil CO2 and N2O emissions in the following crop-growing season, field experiments were conducted in the winter wheat-growing season. Four treatments were conventional tillage (T), no-tillage with no straw cover (NT), no-tillage with straw cover (NTS), and conventional tillage with straw incorporation (TS), respectively. The CO2 and N2O fluxes were measured using a static chamber-gas chromatograph technique. The results showed that in the following winter wheat-growing season, conservation tillage did not change the seasonal pattern of CO2 and N2O emission fluxes from soil, and had no significant effect on crop biomass. Conservation tillage significantly reduced the accumulative amount of CO2 and N2O. Compared with the T treatment, the accumulative amount of CO2 under TS, NT, and NTS treatments were reduced by 5.95% (P = 0.132), 12.94% (P = 0.007), and 13.91% (P = 0.004), respectively, and the accumulative amount of N2O were significantly reduced by 31.23% (P = 0.000), 61.29% (P = 0.000), and 33.08% (P = 0.000), respectively. Our findings suggest that conservation tillage significantly reduced CO2 and N2O emission from soil in the following winter wheat-growing season.

  13. Assessment of gill pathological responses in the tropical fish yellowfin seabream of Persian Gulf under mercury exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Hassaninezhad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gill histomorphological alterations were used to assess the effects of chronic exposure to HgCl2 on the yellowfin seabream, Acanthopagrus latus. In this regard, 90 A. latus were exposed to sublethal concentrations of HgCl2 (10, 20, 35 and 50 μg/L for 3 weeks. Treated fish were erratic and showed respiratory distress. The most common morphological abnormalities included: filaments disorganization, increase of mucus secretion, debris and blood plaques on the filaments, losing or shortening of some filaments. The most frequent histopathological changes detected in the gills included extensive lifting of the lamellar epithelium and edema of lamellae with enlarged sub-epithelial spaces, exfoliated epithelium of lamellae, telangiectasia, hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the epithelial cell resulted in partial fusion of the secondary lamellae and a reduction of the water space, club shaping of gill lamellae, blood congestion. Some more severe alternations found in the gill of fish exposed to higher levels of HgCl2 (35 and 50 μg/L included lamellar aneurysm and hemorrhages with rupture of the lamellar epithelium. According to the results of the present study, mercuric chloride could cause major histomorphological changes in the gill of A. latus, decreasing its gas exchange capability. Two mercury concentrations (10 and 20 μg/L used in the present study were in agreement with the concentration of mercury in the water of different parts of Mahshahr creeks (the north of Persian Gulf (3.66 to 15 μg/L. Therefore, based on the results the presence of pathological alteration in A. latus inhibited in the natural environment (Mahshahr creeks seems to be logical.

  14. Effects of in-season circuit training on physical abilities in male handball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermassi, Souhail; Wollny, Rainer; Schwesig, René; Shephard, Roy J; Chelly, Mohamed Souhaiel

    2017-10-07

    This study analyzed the effects of a resistance-type circuit training program (RCT) (30-35 minutes, performed twice a week for 10 weeks) on male handball players. Twenty-two males were divided into experimental (E; age 20.3 ± 0.5 years) and control groups (C; age 20.1± 0.5 years). Measures before and after RCT included squat (SJ) and countermovement jumps (CMJ), one repetition maximum (1-RM) ofbench press, pull-over and back half-squats, throwing velocity (a 3-step throw with run (RT), and a jump throw (JT)), repeated-sprint ability (six 2 x 15-m shuttle sprints with recording of best time for a single trial), anthropometric estimates of leg and thigh muscle volumes and mean thigh cross-sectional area (CSA), and a test of agility. The agility T-half test showed a significant interaction effect (p=0.001; η=0.422), with an inter-group difference in effect size (d) of 1.27 (dTG=1.24 vs. dCG=-0.03). The SJ displayed no interaction effect. The interaction effects for half back-squat (d=2.73, η=0.740) and CMJ (d=3.76, η=0.700) were large, but that for RT was smaller (η=0.460) than that for JT (η=0.745). The throwing velocity of C decreased for both measures, with negative effect sizes (d=-0.18 and d=-0.93 respectively). Upper body, leg, and thigh muscle volumes and thigh CSA increased significantly after resistance training. However, repeated-sprint parameters showed no significant changes. During the competitive season, 10 weeks of RCT with only 2 training sessions per week improved numerous measures of athletic performance in handball players, and such conditioning can be highly recommended as part of the annual training program for elite handball players.

  15. Effects of season on the bathypelagic mysid Gnathophausia ingens: water content, respiration, and excretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiller-Adams, Page; Childress, James J.

    1983-06-01

    Water contents, oxygen consumption rates and ammonia excretion rates of individuals of the large bathypelagic mysid Gnathophausia ingens were measured as a function of size and season (winter and summer). Individuals of the sizes studied live permanently beneath the euphotic zone. Water content, as a percent of wet weight, is higher in winter than in summer, suggesting seasonal variability in the midwater environment. Our data suggest that the seasonal change in water content increases with increasing size. We suggest that the changes are due in part to seasonal changes in food intake. Seasonal differences were not observed in wet-weight-specific rates of either respiration or ammonia excretion. Both rates decrease with increasing size. The constancy of the atomic O:N ratio and its high value (geometric mean = 44.3) indicate that the average proportions of lipid and protein metabolized by individuals were independent of size and season and that lipid stores were not sufficiently depleted, even in small animals, to cause a shift to predominantly protein metabolism in winter or summer. On the average, metabolic rates of individuals were unaffected by seasonal variation in the midwater environment.

  16. Effects of Male on Reproductive Behavior of Markhoz Female Goats in Breeding Season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Daghigh Kia

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effect of male on reproductive behavior of female goats, 88 Markhoz breed goats with initial body weight of 42±2kg, 3.5 year old, and 10 male goats were used for 6 weeks. This study was conducted in two phases. In the first experiment 48 female goats were allocated in three groups, each group included eight animals with 2 replicate on both sides of male goats, respectively, at intervals of 0-5, 10-15 and 25-30 meters. In the second experiment, 24 female goats having CIDR were used in an order similar to that of first group. However, the goats were located only in one side of the males. The third group was the control group which was treated in a separate saloon in two groups, each of them having eight animals in it. Results showed a significant effect of male animal in estrus synchronization, the earlier beginning of the reproductive cycle and fertility in the early reproductive season. The first group showed better results in creation and synchronization of estrus in comparison to CIDR received animals (respectively 116.7 vs. 91.6%.

  17. Effect of elevated [CO2] and nutrient management on wet and dry season rice production in subtropical India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sushree Sagarika Satapathy; Dillip Kumar Swain; Surendranath Pasupalak; Pratap Bhanu Singh Bhadoria

    2015-01-01

    The present experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of elevated [CO2] with varying nutrient management on rice–rice production system. The experiment was conducted in the open field and inside open-top chambers(OTCs) of ambient [CO2](≈ 390 μmol L-1) and elevated [CO2] environment(25% above ambient) during wet and dry seasons in 2011–2013at Kharagpur, India. The nutrient management included recommended doses of N, P, and K as chemical fertilizer(CF), integration of chemical and organic sources, and application of increased(25% higher) doses of CF. The higher [CO2] level in the OTC increased aboveground biomass but marginally decreased filled grains per panicle and grain yield of rice, compared to the ambient environment. However, crop root biomass was increased significantly under elevated [CO2]. With respect to nutrient management, increasing the dose of CF increased grain yield significantly in both seasons. At the recommended dose of nutrients, integrated nutrient management was comparable to CF in the wet season, but significantly inferior in the dry season, in its effect on growth and yield of rice. The [CO2] elevation in OTC led to a marginal increase in organic C and available P content of soil, but a decrease in available N content. It was concluded that increased doses of nutrients via integration of chemical and organic sources in the wet season and chemical sources alone in the dry season will minimize the adverse effect of future climate on rice production in subtropical India.

  18. Phytoestrogens and Their Metabolites in Bulk-Tank Milk: Effects of Farm Management and Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Steffen A.; Purup, Stig; Hansen-Møller, Jens; Thuen, Erling; Steinshamn, Håvard

    2015-01-01

    Phytoestrogens have structures similar to endogenous steroids and may induce or inhibit the response of hormone receptors. The objectives of the present study were to compare the effects of long-term vs. short-term grassland management in organic and conventional dairy production systems, compare organic and conventional production systems and assess seasonal variation on phytoestrogen concentrations in bulk-tank milk. The concentrations of phytoestrogens were analyzed in bulk-tank milk sampled three times in two subsequent years from 28 dairy farms: Fourteen organic (ORG) dairy farms with either short-term or long-term grassland management were paired with 14 conventional (CON) farms with respect to grassland management. Grassland management varied in terms of time since establishment. Short-term grassland management (SG) was defined as establishment or reseeding every fourth year or more often, and long-term grassland management (LG) was defined as less frequent establishment or reseeding. The proportion of red clover (Trifolium pretense L.) in the herbage was positively correlated with milk concentrations of the mammalian isoflavone equol. Therefore, organically produced bulk-tank milk contained more equol than conventionally produced milk, and milk from ORG-SG farms had more equol than milk from ORG-LG farms. Milk produced during the indoor-feeding periods had more equol than milk produced during the outdoor feeding period, because pastures contained less red clover than fields intended for silage production. Organically produced milk had also higher concentrations of the mammalian lignan enterolactone, but in contrast to equol, concentrations increased in the outdoor-feeding periods compared to the indoor-feeding periods. There were no indications of fertility problems on ORG-SG farms who had the highest red clover proportions in the herbage. This study shows that production system, grassland management, and season affect milk concentrations of phytoestrogens

  19. Phytoestrogens and their metabolites in bulk-tank milk: effects of farm management and season.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen A Adler

    Full Text Available Phytoestrogens have structures similar to endogenous steroids and may induce or inhibit the response of hormone receptors. The objectives of the present study were to compare the effects of long-term vs. short-term grassland management in organic and conventional dairy production systems, compare organic and conventional production systems and assess seasonal variation on phytoestrogen concentrations in bulk-tank milk. The concentrations of phytoestrogens were analyzed in bulk-tank milk sampled three times in two subsequent years from 28 dairy farms: Fourteen organic (ORG dairy farms with either short-term or long-term grassland management were paired with 14 conventional (CON farms with respect to grassland management. Grassland management varied in terms of time since establishment. Short-term grassland management (SG was defined as establishment or reseeding every fourth year or more often, and long-term grassland management (LG was defined as less frequent establishment or reseeding. The proportion of red clover (Trifolium pretense L. in the herbage was positively correlated with milk concentrations of the mammalian isoflavone equol. Therefore, organically produced bulk-tank milk contained more equol than conventionally produced milk, and milk from ORG-SG farms had more equol than milk from ORG-LG farms. Milk produced during the indoor-feeding periods had more equol than milk produced during the outdoor feeding period, because pastures contained less red clover than fields intended for silage production. Organically produced milk had also higher concentrations of the mammalian lignan enterolactone, but in contrast to equol, concentrations increased in the outdoor-feeding periods compared to the indoor-feeding periods. There were no indications of fertility problems on ORG-SG farms who had the highest red clover proportions in the herbage. This study shows that production system, grassland management, and season affect milk concentrations of

  20. Enhanced habit formation in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delorme, Cécile; Salvador, Alexandre; Valabrègue, Romain; Roze, Emmanuel; Palminteri, Stefano; Vidailhet, Marie; de Wit, Sanne; Robbins, Trevor; Hartmann, Andreas; Worbe, Yulia

    2016-02-01

    Tics are sometimes described as voluntary movements performed in an automatic or habitual way. Here, we addressed the question of balance between goal-directed and habitual behavioural control in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome and formally tested the hypothesis of enhanced habit formation in these patients. To this aim, we administered a three-stage instrumental learning paradigm to 17 unmedicated and 17 antipsychotic-medicated patients with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome and matched controls. In the first stage of the task, participants learned stimulus-response-outcome associations. The subsequent outcome devaluation and 'slip-of-action' tests allowed evaluation of the participants' capacity to flexibly adjust their behaviour to changes in action outcome value. In this task, unmedicated patients relied predominantly on habitual, outcome-insensitive behavioural control. Moreover, in these patients, the engagement in habitual responses correlated with more severe tics. Medicated patients performed at an intermediate level between unmedicated patients and controls. Using diffusion tensor imaging on a subset of patients, we also addressed whether the engagement in habitual responding was related to structural connectivity within cortico-striatal networks. We showed that engagement in habitual behaviour in patients with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome correlated with greater structural connectivity within the right motor cortico-striatal network. In unmedicated patients, stronger structural connectivity of the supplementary motor cortex with the sensorimotor putamen predicted more severe tics. Overall, our results indicate enhanced habit formation in unmedicated patients with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome. Aberrant reinforcement signals to the sensorimotor striatum may be fundamental for the formation of stimulus-response associations and may contribute to the habitual behaviour and tics of this syndrome. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press on

  1. Effect of breeding method and season on pregnancy rate and embryonic and fetal losses in lactating Nili-Ravi buffaloes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qayyum, Arslan; Arshad, Usman; Yousuf, Muhammad Rizwan; Ahmad, Nasim

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of breeding method and season on pregnancy rate and cumulative embryonic and fetal losses in Nili-Ravi buffalo. Estrus detection was performed twice a day by teaser buffalo bull for 1 hour each. A 2 × 2 factorial design was used to address the breeding method and season. Buffaloes (n = 130) exhibiting estrus were randomly assigned to be bred either in peak breeding season (PBS; n = 80) or low breeding season (LBS; n = 50). Within each season, buffaloes were divided to receive either natural service (NS; n = 65) or artificial insemination (AI; n = 65). NS buffaloes, in estrus, were allowed to remain with the bull until mating. AI was achieved, using frozen thawed semen of bull of known fertility. PBS comprised of September to December and LBS were from May to July. Serial ultrasonography was performed on days 30, 45, 60, and 90 after breeding (day 0) to monitor pregnancy rate and embryonic and fetal losses. The pregnancy rate on day 30 after breeding was higher in NS as compared to AI group (63 vs. 43%; P  0.05) in LBS. The cumulative embryonic and fetal losses between days 31 and 90 were significantly lower in PBS than LBS (33 vs. 60%; P losses were higher in LBS in Nili-Ravi buffalo.

  2. Effect of farming activities on seasonal variation of water quality of Bonsma Dam, KwaZulu-Natal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayanda N. Shabalala

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture has both direct and indirect effects on the quality of surface water and groundwater and is among the leading causes of water quality degradation, mainly as a result of the excessive use of agrochemicals. Water samples were collected in a selected catchment area (Bonsma Dam in KwaZulu-Natal and analysed for physicochemical variables. The concentrations of most of the elements and total dissolved solids, as well as the pH and electrical conductivity values, met the water quality requirements for domestic, agricultural, livestock and aquatic ecosystem uses. However, the inlet streams feeding the dam were found to be eutrophic during the wet season. Analysis of nitrate in the water body of the study area indicated that agricultural applications of manure and fertilisers may be a potential source of nitrate contamination. Most elements were more concentrated in the dam during the wet season. The overall ionic conductivity values were also higher in the wet season, while the pH was lower. The outcome of this work links the concentrations of physicochemical variables to land use, agricultural practice and local geomorphology. Seasonal patterns in the concentration of physicochemical variables occur, as land use, rainfall and farming activities change seasonally, and these concentrations should therefore be determined periodically.

  3. Agricultural management, season and trace elements effects on volatile oil production from Melissa officinalis L. (Lemon balm)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sussa, Fabio Vitorio; Duarte, Celina Lopes; Silva, Paulo Sergio Cardoso da; Furlan, Marcos Roberto

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to provide information about organic and mineral fertilization, season and trace elements effects on volatile oil production by the species Melissa officinalis. Elemental concentration was determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrometry. The volatile oil was extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer. The elemental content and the main compounds vary according to agricultural management and season. The results indicate that the production of volatile oil main compounds from M. officinalis is correlated with the concentrations of Na, Co, Rb, Cd, Cs, La, Sm and Hf. (author)

  4. Effectiveness of controlled internal drug release device treatment to alleviate reproductive seasonality in anestrus lactating or dry Barki and Rahmani ewes during non-breeding season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Mokadem, M Y; Nour El-Din, Anm; Ramadan, T A; Rashad, A M; Taha, T A; Samak, M A; Salem, M H

    2018-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of hormonal treatments on ovarian activity and reproductive performance in Barki and Rahmani ewes during non-breeding season. Forty-eight multiparous ewes, 24 Barki and 24 Rahmani ewes were divided into two groups, 12 lactating and 12 dry ewes for each breed. Controlled internal drug release (CIDR) device was inserted in all ewes for 14 days in conjunction with intramuscular 500 IU equine chronic gonadotrophin (eCG) at day of CIDR removal. Data were analysed using PROC MIXED of SAS for repeated measures. Breed, physiological status and days were used as fixed effects and individual ewes as random effects. Barki ewes recorded higher (p ewes. Lactating ewes recorded higher (p ewes. Number and diameter of large follicles recorded the highest (p ewes recorded longer (p ewes. In conclusion, CIDR-eCG protocol was more potent in improving ovarian activity in Barki compared to Rahmani ewes, but this protocol seems to induce hormonal imbalance in Barki ewes that resulted in increasing conception failure compared to Rahmani ewes. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Seasonal variation in the acute effect of particulate air pollution on mortality in the China Air Pollution and Health Effects Study (CAPES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Renjie; Peng, Roger D.; Meng, Xia; Zhou, Zhijun; Chen, Bingheng; Kan, Haidong

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological findings concerning the seasonal variation in the acute effect of particulate matter (PM) are inconsistent. We investigated the seasonality in the association between PM with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 10 μm (PM10) and daily mortality in 17 Chinese cities. We fitted the “main” time-series model after adjustment for time-varying confounders using smooth functions with natural splines. We established a “seasonal” model to obtain the season-specific effect estimates of PM10, and a “harmonic” model to show the seasonal pattern that allows PM10 effects to vary smoothly with the day in a year. At the national level, a 10 μg/m3 increase in the two-day moving average concentrations (lag 01) of PM10 was associated with 0.45% [95% posterior interval (PI), 0.15% to 0.76%], 0.17% (95% PI, −0.09% to 0.43%), 0.55% (95% PI, 0.15% to 0.96%) and 0.25% (95%PI, −0.05% to 0.56%) increases in total mortality for winter, spring, summer and fall, respectively. For the smoothly-varying plots of seasonality, we identified a two-peak pattern in winter and summer. The observed seasonal pattern was generally insensitive to model specifications. Our analyses suggest that the acute effect of particulate air pollution could vary by seasons with the largest effect in winter and summer in China. To our knowledge, this is the first multicity study in developing countries to analyze the seasonal variations of PM-related health effects. PMID:23500824

  6. Gilles Jobin Final residency lecture - Collision between dance and physics

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Doser, Michael; Dimou, Maria; Jobin, Gilles

    2012-01-01

    CERN, the Republic and Canton of Geneva, and the City of Geneva are delighted to invite you to the final public lecture about collisions between dance and physics by the first winner of Collide@CERN Geneva, the choreographer Gilles Jobin. The event marks the end of his residency and will be held at the CERN Globe of Science and Innovation on 6th November at 1800. Doors open at 17.30 Programme 18.00 - Opening address by Rolf-Dieter Heuer, CERN Director General, Ariane Koek, CERN Cultural Specialist, Sami Kanaan, Administrative Councilor in charge of the Department of Culture and Sport of the City of Geneva, and Charles Beer, Vice President of the State Council in charge of the Department of Education, Culture and Sport. 18.30 - Presentation by Gilles Jobin (Switzerland) of his residency experience at CERN with live demonstrations with his dancers 19.15 - Discussion on CERN as a Place of Collisions and Interventions between Dance and Physics with Gilles Jobin (Switzerland) and CERN scientists Maria Dimo...

  7. Famous people with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaco, Francesco; Servo, Serena; Cavanna, Andrea Eugenio

    2009-12-01

    Virtually no neurologist nor psychiatrist today can be unaware of the diagnosis of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS). Although the eponymous description by Dr. Georges Gilles de la Tourette was published in 1885, familiarity with this syndrome has been achieved only recently. In this article, the two most renown accounts of exceptional individuals retrospectively diagnosed with GTS are critically analyzed: British lexicographer Samuel Johnson and Austrian musician Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. In both cases, clinical descriptions have been retrieved from written documents predating Gilles de la Tourette's original publication. The case for Samuel Johnson having GTS is strong, mainly based on Boswell's extensive biographical account. Johnson was reported to have a great range of tics and compulsions, including involuntary utterances, repetitive ejaculations, and echo-phenomena. On the other hand, there is circumstantial evidence that Mozart may have had hyperactivity, restlessness, sudden impulses, odd motor behaviors, echo/palilalia, love of nonsense words, and scatology, the latter being documented in autograph letters ("coprographia"). However, the evidence supporting the core features of GTS, i.e., motor and vocal tics, is rather inconsistent. Thus, GTS seems to be an implausible diagnosis in Mozart's medical history and completely unrelated to his undisputed musical genius.

  8. Effects of Nitrogen Rate and Regrowth Interval on Perennial Ryegrass Fatty Acid Content during the Growing Season

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witkowska, I.M.; Wever, C.J.G.; Gort, G.; Elgersma, A.

    2008-01-01

    The content of fatty acids (FA) in herbage is important for forage quality and animal-source foods, but there is a lack of knowledge on effects of agronomic practices, and on environmental factors related to seasonal variation in FA concentrations and FA composition. This research investigated the

  9. The effects of blue-enriched light treatment compared to standard light treatment in seasonal affective disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gordijn, M. C. M.; 't Mannetje, D.; Meesters, Y.

    Background: One of the most frequently investigated hypotheses of the pathophysiology underlying Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) is a disturbance of circadian rhythms. Since the circadian system as well as other non-visual effects is especially sensitive to blue light, a new light therapy device

  10. Effects of Protein Supplementation During the Dry Season on Feed Intake and the Performance of Borgou Cows in Benin Republic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alkoiret, I.T.; Akouedegni, G.C.; Toukourou, Y.; Bosma, R.H.; Mensah, G.A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of dry season protein supplementation of Borgou cows on feed intake, milk production, body weight and calves growth performance. Animals (24 cows) were all given a basal diet of straw bush ad libitum. Cows of 1st group (8 cows in each group) were

  11. Effect of seasonal flooding cycle on litterfall production in alluvial rainforest on the middle Xingu River (Amazon basin, Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, M; Giarrizzo, T; Jesus, A J S

    2015-08-01

    The assumption for this study was that litterfall in floodplain environments of the middle Xingu river follows a pattern of seasonal variation. According to this view, litterfall production (total and fractions) was estimated in four alluvial rainforest sites on the middle Xingu River over an annual cycle, and examined the effect of seasonal flooding cycle. The sites included two marginal flooded forests of insular lakes (Ilha Grande and Pimentel) and two flooded forests on the banks of the Xingu itself (Boa Esperança and Arroz Cru). Total litterfall correlated with rainfall and river levels, but whereas the leaf and fruit fractions followed this general pattern, the flower fraction presented an inverse pattern, peaking in the dry season. The litterfall patterns recorded in the present study were consistent with those recorded at other Amazonian sites, and in some other tropical ecosystems.

  12. Seasonal and interannual effects of hypoxia on fish habitat quality in central Lake Erie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arend, Kristin K.; Beletsky, Dmitry; DePinto, Joseph; Ludsin, Stuart A.; Roberts, James J.; Rucinski, Daniel K.; Scavia, Donald; Schwab, David J.; Höök, Tomas O.

    2011-01-01

    1. Hypoxia occurs seasonally in many stratified coastal marine and freshwater ecosystems when bottom dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations are depleted below 2–3 mg O2 L-1. 2. We evaluated the effects of hypoxia on fish habitat quality in the central basin of Lake Erie from 1987 to 2005, using bioenergetic growth rate potential (GRP) as a proxy for habitat quality. We compared the effect of hypoxia on habitat quality of (i) rainbow smelt, Osmerus mordax mordax Mitchill (young-of-year, YOY, and adult), a cold-water planktivore, (ii) emerald shiner, Notropis atherinoides Rafinesque (adult), a warm-water planktivore, (iii) yellow perch, Perca flavescens Mitchill (YOY and adult), a cool-water benthopelagic omnivore and (iv) round goby Neogobius melanostomus Pallas (adult) a eurythermal benthivore. Annual thermal and DO profiles were generated from 1D thermal and DO hydrodynamics models developed for Lake Erie’s central basin. 3. Hypoxia occurred annually, typically from mid-July to mid-October, which spatially and temporally overlaps with otherwise high benthic habitat quality. Hypoxia reduced the habitat quality across fish species and life stages, but the magnitude of the reduction varied both among and within species because of the differences in tolerance to low DO levels and warm-water temperatures. 4. Across years, trends in habitat quality mirrored trends in phosphorus concentration and water column oxygen demand in central Lake Erie. The per cent reduction in habitat quality owing to hypoxia was greatest for adult rainbow smelt and round goby (mean: -35%), followed by adult emerald shiner (mean: -12%), YOY rainbow smelt (mean: -10%) and YOY and adult yellow perch (mean: -8.5%). 5. Our results highlight the importance of differential spatiotemporally interactive effects of DO and temperature on relative fish habitat quality and quantity. These effects have the potential to influence the performance of individual fish species as well as population dynamics

  13. Effects of seasonal and well construction variables on soil vapor extraction pilot tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, R.; Hudon, N.; Bass, D.

    1995-01-01

    The selection and design of an effective soil vapor extraction system is dependent upon data generated from pilot testing. Therefore, it is critical to understand factors that may affect the testing prior to selecting or designing a system. In Sebago Lake Village, Maine, two adjacent gasoline stations experienced a release. Gasoline migrated through fine sand into the groundwater and discharged to a small stream. Soil vapor extraction was investigated as a remedial alternative to reduce volatile organic compounds in the unsaturated soil. Three soil vapor extraction pilot tests were performed at one of the sites and one test at the other site. The results of the testing varied. Data collected during a summer test indicated soil vapor extraction was less likely to work. The wells tested were installed using an excavator. An adequate surface seal was not present in any of the tested wells. An additional test was performed in the winter using wells installed by a drill rig. Winter test results indicated that soil vapor extraction could be effective. Another test was performed after a horizontal soil vapor extraction system with a surface seal was installed. The results of this testing indicated that soil vapor extraction was more effective than predicted by the earlier tests. Tests performed on the other property indicated that the horizontal wells were more effective than the vertical wells. Testing results were affected by the well installation method, well construction, proximity to manmade structures, and the season in which testing was performed. Understanding factors that affect the testing is critical in selecting and designing the system

  14. Seasonal variations in diet selection of Nguni goats: effects of physical and chemical traits of browse

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Fomum, SW

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Goats select some browse species more than others, given options. Seasonal trends of diet selection of Nguni goats indexed by intake were investigated in cafeteria-style experiments. The relationships between diet selection and plant chemical...

  15. Effect of age and season on sperm morphology of Friesland bulls at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mev Louw

    between age and season on the sperm morphological characteristics of a .... The long-term average rainfall of the area is 640 mm per annum, ... Theoriogenology, 1976) and expressed as a percentage of the total number of cells counted.

  16. Effects of Permafrost and Seasonally Frozen Ground on the Seismic Response of Transportation Infrastructure Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    This interdisciplinary project combined seismic data recorded at bridge sites with computer models to identify how highway bridges built on permanently and seasonally frozen ground behave during an earthquake. Two sites one in Anchorage and one in...

  17. EFFECTS OF FRESHWATER RELEASES AND SEASON ON OYSTERS (CRASSOSTREA VIRGINICA) IN CALOOSAHATCHEE ESTUARY, FLORIDA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The influence of freshwater releases and season on disease prevalence and intensity of Perkinsus marinus, condition index, gonadal condition, recruitment potential, and growth of oysters was examined monthly at five locations along the Caloosahatchee estuary, Florida. Temperature...

  18. Nitrogen Fertilization Effect on Phosphorus Remediation Potential of Three Perennial Warm-Season Forages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Newman, Y.C.; Agyin-Birikorang, S.; Adjei, M.B.; Scholberg, J.M.S.; Silveira, M.L.; Vendramini, J.M.B.; Rechcigl, J.E.; Sollenberger, L.E.

    2009-01-01

    Warm-season C-4 grasses are capable of removing excess soil nutrients because of their high Yield potential and nutrient uptake efficiency. Bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum Flugge), limpograss [Hemarthria altissima (Poir.) Stapf& Hubb], and stargrass (Cynodon nlemfuensis Vanderyst), three commonly

  19. Seasonal effects of the low-grade heat on a phytoplankton community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMahon, J.W.; Docherty, A.E.

    1980-06-01

    Field studies, carried out over the period 1976 March to December, examined the effects of heat-enriched cooling waters on a natural phytoplankton community. Algal concentrations, composition, species succession and carbon fixation rates were determined twice-weekly in heated and unheated (control) polyethylene enclosures located in a northern oligotrophic lake. Results were compared with data collected from the open lake. Of 31 species quantitatively studied, eleven dominant species were examined in detail. A marked response to heat enrichment by the phytoplankton occurred in the spring and was attributed to a single species of Bacillariophyceae - Synedra ulna. Species composition and seasonal succession patterns were similar in the experimental column, the control column and the lake. The relationship between production biomass quotients (P/B) and water temperature in the lake and experimental enclosure is discussed. It is suggested that thermal enrichment might be used beneficially in cold waters for enhancing biomass production of unicellular aquatic organisms. This increased availability of food, in conjuction with increased water temperatures, might then accelerate productivity of filter-feeding zooplankton and other herbivores. (auth)

  20. Seasonal effect on biomarkers of exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons in fish from Kuwait's marine area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beg, M U; Al-Subiai, S N; Al-Jandal, N; Butt, S A; Beg, K R; Al-Husaini, M

    2015-11-30

    The aquatic biota of the Arabian Gulf deals with exposure to chronic oil pollution, several constituents of which cause induction of Cytochrome P450 1A that serves as a biomarker of AhR ligand exposure. In this study, fluorescent aromatic compounds (FACs) in bile and 7-ethoxyresorufin-o-deethylase (EROD) catalytic activity were determined as a measure of exposure biomarkers in two fish species, yellow fin seabream (Acanthopagrus latus) and tonguesole (Cynoglossus arel) captured from Kuwait Bay and outside the Bay area. FACs in fish bile determined by using fixed-wavelength fluorescence (FF) showed high fluorescence ratios between FF290/335 and FF380/430 indicating predominant exposure to low molecular weight, naphthalene-rich petroleum products (375±91.0 pg ml(-1)). Exposures to benzo(a)pyrene-type high-molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) originating from burnt fuel were also present in appreciable concentration in the bile. The ratio of petrogenic to pyrogenic hydrocarbon was twofold higher in winter compared to summer months in both species. Seasonal effect on EROD was significant in tonguesole in Auha site (Ppollution in Kuwait Bay area. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of feed supplements on dry season milk yield and profitability of crossbred cows in Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiber, Christoph; Peters, Michael; Möhring, Jens; Schultze-Kraft, Rainer

    2013-06-01

    The contribution of dry season silage feeding on daily milk yield (MY) and dairying profitability in terms of income over feed cost (IOFC) was evaluated in dual-purpose cattle production systems in Honduras. MY records of 34 farms from two milk collection centres were collected over a 2-year period. Farms were surveyed to obtain information on the type, quantity and cost of supplemented feed, breed type and number of lactating cows in each month. Farms were classified in silage farms (SF, with a short silage supplementation period), non-silage farms (NSF) and prototype farms (PF, with an extended silage supplementation period). Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and a linear mixed model approach. PF had significantly higher MY than SF and NSF but, due to higher expenses for both concentrate and silage, similar IOFC compared to NSF. SF had similar MY but lower IOFC compared to NSF, due to higher feed expenses. The effect of silage feeding, particularly maize silage, on MY was significant and superior to that of other forage supplements. Silage supplementation contributed to the highest MY and IOFC on farms with crossbred cows of >62.5 % Bos taurus and to the second highest profitability on farms with >87.5 % Bos indicus share. It is concluded that silage can play an important role in drought-constrained areas of the tropics and can contribute to profitable dairying, irrespective of breed.

  2. Key issues for estimating the impact and cost-effectiveness of seasonal influenza vaccination strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jit, Mark; Newall, Anthony T; Beutels, Philippe

    2013-04-01

    Many countries have considered or are considering modifying their seasonal influenza immunization policies. Estimating the impact of such changes requires understanding the existing clinical and economic burden of influenza, as well as the potential impact of different vaccination options. Previous studies suggest that vaccinating clinical risk groups, health care workers, children and the elderly may be cost-effective. However, challenges in such estimation include: (1) potential cases are not usually virologically tested; (2) cases have non-specific symptoms and are rarely reported to surveillance systems; (3) endpoints for influenza proxies (such as influenza-like illness) need to be matched to case definitions for treatment costs, (4) disease burden estimates vary from year to year with strain transmissibility, virulence and prior immunity, (5) methods to estimate productivity losses due to influenza vary, (6) vaccine efficacy estimates from trials differ due to variation in subtype prevalence, vaccine match and case ascertainment, and (7) indirect (herd) protection from vaccination depends on setting-specific variables that are difficult to directly measure. Given the importance of knowing the impact of changes to influenza policy, such complexities need careful treatment using tools such as population-based trial designs, meta-analyses, time-series analyses and transmission dynamic models.

  3. Effect of fertilization at sowing on nutrition and yield of crambe in second season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Peres Soratto

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The interest in crambe (Crambe abyssinica cultivation in Brazil is on the rise, whereas information on the nutrient requirements for this crop is scarce. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium (N-P2O5-K2O formula 8:28:16 fertilization (0, 150, and 300 kg ha-1 on crambe shoot biomass production, grain and oil yields, and nutrient extraction and exportation in the second growing season after soybean. The experiment with a Haplorthox (Dystroferric Red Latosol was carried out for two years in Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil. A randomized complete block design with eight replications was used. Fertilization with NPK at sowing increased the shoot biomass production, grain yield, grain oil content, as well as nutrient extraction and exportation at harvest. In the fertilized treatments, the average amounts of nutrients extracted per hectare were 91 kg K, 71 kg N, 52 kg Ca, 9.4 kg P, 9.4 kg Mg, 7.9 kg S, 2,348 g Fe, 289 g Zn, 135 g Mn, and 18.2 g Cu; while the average values of nutrient exportation per hectare were 54 kg N, 20 kg K, 12.3 kg Ca, 10 kg P, 6.6 kg S, 3.2 kg Mg, 365 g Zn, 60 g Fe, 50 g Mn, and 7.3 g Cu, with NPK fertilizer application.

  4. Effect of storage time on microbial quality of some spices and dried seasonings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adu-Gyamfi, A.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of storage time on the microbial quality of some spices and dried seasonings (SOS) (dawadawa, pepper, ginger, shrimp and fish powders) was studied over a 12-month period. Microbial load and profile of irradiated and unirradiated SOS were assessed at 0, 6 and 12-month periods. The range of total variable counts (TVCs) were initially determined at 0.81-4.53 and 4.658.51 log 10 cfu g -1 for irradiated and un irradiated SDS, respectively; those for mould and yeast counts (MYCs) were determined at 0-1.74 and 1.55-3.35 log 10 cfu g -1 , respectively. Generally, TVCs were not significantly affected (P<0.05) by the 6 and 12-month periods, but MYCs were significantly reduced (P<0.05) after the storage periods in some SDS. Microbial profile, mainly dominated by Bacillus spp., Laclobacillus spp., Clostridium spp., Aspergillus spp. and Penicillium spp., was stable after the 6 and 12-month periods for all the SDS. However, the profile was consistently more diverse on dawadawa. pepper and ginger powders. No adverse change in microbial quality of irradiated and unirradiated SDS was observed at the end of the storage periods

  5. Reprint of: Growth of nacre in abalone: Seasonal and feeding effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, M.I., E-mail: mil032@ucsd.edu; Chen, P.Y.; McKittrick, J.; Meyers, M.A.

    2011-05-10

    The processes of aggregation of mineral and organic materials to the growing surfaces in red abalone (Haliotis rufescens) are analyzed. The flat pearl implantation method is used to observe the transient stages of calcium carbonate deposition, the structure of the organic interlayer, and the steady-state growth of aragonite tiles. The morphology of the organic interlayer is characterized by scanning electron microscopy. These results enable a realistic depiction of the formation of the terraced cones that comprise the principal biomineralization mechanism in this gastropod. In all cases, the growth initiated through spherulites, followed by tile formation. The transient stage with spherulitic formation was shorter at higher temperature; this is indicative of a greater activity of the animal at 21 deg. C. The growth rate in a normally fed gastropod was found to be higher compared with one provided with limited food. The effect of water temperature (seasonal) was also established, with growth proceeding faster in the summer (T {approx} 21 deg. C) than in winter (15 deg. C). The structures of the organic interlayer and of the epithelium are revealed by scanning electron microscopy.

  6. Reprint of: Growth of nacre in abalone: Seasonal and feeding effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, M.I.; Chen, P.Y.; McKittrick, J.; Meyers, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    The processes of aggregation of mineral and organic materials to the growing surfaces in red abalone (Haliotis rufescens) are analyzed. The flat pearl implantation method is used to observe the transient stages of calcium carbonate deposition, the structure of the organic interlayer, and the steady-state growth of aragonite tiles. The morphology of the organic interlayer is characterized by scanning electron microscopy. These results enable a realistic depiction of the formation of the terraced cones that comprise the principal biomineralization mechanism in this gastropod. In all cases, the growth initiated through spherulites, followed by tile formation. The transient stage with spherulitic formation was shorter at higher temperature; this is indicative of a greater activity of the animal at 21 deg. C. The growth rate in a normally fed gastropod was found to be higher compared with one provided with limited food. The effect of water temperature (seasonal) was also established, with growth proceeding faster in the summer (T ∼ 21 deg. C) than in winter (15 deg. C). The structures of the organic interlayer and of the epithelium are revealed by scanning electron microscopy.

  7. Soil moisture effects on seasonal temperature and precipitation forecast scores in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurk, Bart van den; Camargo, Helio [Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute, KNMI, PO Box 201, AE De Bilt (Netherlands); Doblas-Reyes, Francisco [Catalan Institute of Climate Sciences (IC3), Barcelona (Spain); European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), Reading (United Kingdom); Balsamo, Gianpaolo [European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), Reading (United Kingdom); Koster, Randal D. [NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Global Modeling and Assimilation Office, Greenbelt, MD (United States); Seneviratne, Sonia I. [Institute for Atmospheric and Climate Science, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2012-01-15

    The Second Global Land Atmosphere Coupling Experiment (GLACE2) is designed to explore the improvement of forecast skill of summertime temperature and precipitation up to 8 weeks ahead by using realistic soil moisture initialization. For the European continent, we show in this study that for temperature the skill does indeed increase up to 6 weeks, but areas with (statistically significant) lower skill also exist at longer lead times. The skill improvement is smaller than shown earlier for the US, partly because of a lower potential predictability of the European climate at seasonal time scales. Selection of extreme soil moisture conditions or a subset of models with similar initial soil moisture conditions does improve the forecast skill, and sporadic positive effects are also demonstrated for precipitation. Using realistic initial soil moisture data increases the interannual variability of temperature compared to the control simulations in the South-Central European area at longer lead times. This leads to better temperature forecasts in a remote area in Western Europe. However, the covered range of forecast dates (1986-1995) is too short to isolate a clear physical mechanism for this remote correlation. (orig.)

  8. Pathological glutamatergic neurotransmission in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaan, Ahmad Seif; Gerasch, Sarah; García-García, Isabel; Lampe, Leonie; Pampel, André; Anwander, Alfred; Near, Jamie; Möller, Harald E; Müller-Vahl, Kirsten

    2017-01-01

    Gilles de la Tourette syndrome is a hereditary, neuropsychiatric movement disorder with reported abnormalities in the neurotransmission of dopamine and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Spatially focalized alterations in excitatory, inhibitory and modulatory neurochemical ratios within specific functional subdivisions of the basal ganglia, may lead to the expression of diverse motor and non-motor features as manifested in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome. Current treatment strategies are often unsatisfactory thus provoking the need for further elucidation of the underlying pathophysiology. In view of (i) the close spatio-temporal synergy exhibited between excitatory, inhibitory and modulatory neurotransmitter systems; (ii) the crucial role played by glutamate (Glu) in tonic/phasic dopaminergic signalling; and (iii) the interdependent metabolic relationship exhibited between Glu and GABA via glutamine (Gln); we postulated that glutamatergic signalling is related to the pathophysiology of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome. As such, we examined the neurochemical profile of three cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical regions in 37 well-characterized, drug-free adult patients and 36 age/gender-matched healthy control subjects via magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 3 T. To interrogate the influence of treatment on metabolite concentrations, spectral data were acquired from 15 patients undergoing a 4-week treatment with aripiprazole. Test-retest reliability measurements in 23 controls indicated high repeatability of voxel localization and metabolite quantitation. We report significant reductions in striatal concentrations of Gln, Glu + Gln (Glx) and the Gln:Glu ratio, and thalamic concentrations of Glx in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome in comparison to controls. ON-treatment patients exhibited no significant metabolite differences when compared to controls but significant increases in striatal Glu and Glx, and trends for increases in striatal Gln and thalamic Glx compared to baseline

  9. Disruptive effects of light pollution on sleep in free-living birds: Season and/or light intensity-dependent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raap, Thomas; Sun, Jiachen; Pinxten, Rianne; Eens, Marcel

    2017-11-01

    Light pollution or artificial light at night (ALAN) is an increasing anthropogenic environmental pollutant posing an important potential threat for wildlife. Evidence of its effects on animal physiology and behaviour is accumulating. However, in order to effectively mitigate light pollution it is important to determine which factors contribute to the severity of effects of ALAN. In this experimental study we explored whether there are seasonal-dependent effects of ALAN on sleep in free-living great tits (Parus major), an important model species. Additionally, we looked at whether light intensity determined the severity of effects of ALAN on sleep. We therefore exposed animals to artificial light inside the nest box (3lx) in December (winter) and February (pre-breeding season). Results from February were compared with the results from a previous study in February, using a lower light intensity (1.6lx). We found little evidence for a season-dependent response. Effects of ALAN hardly differed between high and low light intensity. ALAN disrupted sleep with as main effect a decrease in sleep duration (≈-40min) as animals woke up earlier (≈-24min). However, compared to a natural dark situation sleep onset was delayed by high but not by low light intensity of ALAN. Our study underlines earlier found disruptive effects of ALAN on sleep of free-living animals. While we found no conclusive evidence for seasonal or light intensity-dependent effects of ALAN, additional experimental work using lower light intensities might show such differences. Examining potential management options is crucial in mitigating disruptive effects of light pollution, which will be an important focus for future studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of seasonal change and parity on raw milk composition and related indices in Chinese Holstein cows in northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, L; Yang, Q; Yi, M; Pang, Z H; Xiong, B H

    2013-01-01

    This study was to investigate the effects of seasonal change and parity on milk composition and related indices, and to analyze the relationships among milk indices in Chinese Holstein cows from an intensive dairy farm in northern China. The 6,520 sets of complete Dairy Herd Improvement data were obtained and grouped by natural month and parity. The data included daily milk yield (DMY), milk solids percentage (MSP), milk fat percentage (MFP), milk protein percentage (MPP), milk lactose percentage (MLP), somatic cell count (SCC), somatic cell score (SCS), milk production loss (MPL), and fat-to-protein ratio (FPR). Data analysis showed that the above 9 indices were affected by both seasonal change and parity. However, the interaction between parity and seasonal change showed effects on MLP, SCS, MPL, and DMY, but no effects on MFP, MPP, MSP, and FPR. Duncan's multiple comparison on seasonal change showed that DMY (23.58 kg/d), MSP (12.35%), MPP (3.02%), and MFP (3.81%) were the lowest in June, but SCC (288.7 × 10(3)/mL) and MPL (0.69 kg/d) were the lowest in January; FPR (1.32) was the highest in February. Meanwhile, Duncan's multiple comparison on parities showed that MSP, MPP, and MLP were reduced rapidly in the fourth lactation, but SCC and MPL increased with increasing parities. The canonical correlation analysis for indices showed that SCS had high positive correlation with MPL (0.8360). Therefore, a few models were developed to quantify the effects of seasonal change and parity on raw milk composition using the Wood model. The changing patterns of milk composition and related indices in different months and parities could provide scientific evidence for improving feeding management and nutritional supplementation of Chinese Holstein cows. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A study of the effect of seasonal climatic factors on the electrical resistivity response of three experimental graves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jervis, John R.; Pringle, Jamie K.

    2014-09-01

    Electrical resistivity surveys have proven useful for locating clandestine graves in a number of forensic searches. However, some aspects of grave detection with resistivity surveys remain imperfectly understood. One such aspect is the effect of seasonal changes in climate on the resistivity response of graves. In this study, resistivity survey data collected over three years over three simulated graves were analysed in order to assess how the graves' resistivity anomalies varied seasonally and when they could most easily be detected. Thresholds were used to identify anomalies, and the ‘residual volume' of grave-related anomalies was calculated as the area bounded by the relevant thresholds multiplied by the anomaly's average value above the threshold. The residual volume of a resistivity anomaly associated with a buried pig cadaver showed evidence of repeating annual patterns and was moderately correlated with the soil moisture budget. This anomaly was easiest to detect between January and April each year, after prolonged periods of high net gain in soil moisture. The resistivity response of a wrapped cadaver was more complex, although it also showed evidence of seasonal variation during the third year after burial. We suggest that the observed variation in the graves' resistivity anomalies was caused by seasonal change in survey data noise levels, which was in turn influenced by the soil moisture budget. It is possible that similar variations occur elsewhere for sites with seasonal climate variations and this could affect successful detection of other subsurface features. Further research to investigate how different climates and soil types affect seasonal variation in grave-related resistivity anomalies would be useful.

  12. Seasonal influenza vaccination for children in Thailand: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeyai, Aronrag; Praditsitthikorn, Naiyana; Kotirum, Surachai; Kulpeng, Wantanee; Putthasri, Weerasak; Cooper, Ben S; Teerawattananon, Yot

    2015-05-01

    Seasonal influenza is a major cause of mortality worldwide. Routine immunization of children has the potential to reduce this mortality through both direct and indirect protection, but has not been adopted by any low- or middle-income countries. We developed a framework to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of influenza vaccination policies in developing countries and used it to consider annual vaccination of school- and preschool-aged children with either trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) or trivalent live-attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) in Thailand. We also compared these approaches with a policy of expanding TIV coverage in the elderly. We developed an age-structured model to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of eight vaccination policies parameterized using country-level data from Thailand. For policies using LAIV, we considered five different age groups of children to vaccinate. We adopted a Bayesian evidence-synthesis framework, expressing uncertainty in parameters through probability distributions derived by fitting the model to prospectively collected laboratory-confirmed influenza data from 2005-2009, by meta-analysis of clinical trial data, and by using prior probability distributions derived from literature review and elicitation of expert opinion. We performed sensitivity analyses using alternative assumptions about prior immunity, contact patterns between age groups, the proportion of infections that are symptomatic, cost per unit vaccine, and vaccine effectiveness. Vaccination of children with LAIV was found to be highly cost-effective, with incremental cost-effectiveness ratios between about 2,000 and 5,000 international dollars per disability-adjusted life year averted, and was consistently preferred to TIV-based policies. These findings were robust to extensive sensitivity analyses. The optimal age group to vaccinate with LAIV, however, was sensitive both to the willingness to pay for health benefits and to assumptions about contact

  13. Seasonal effects on great ape health: a case study of wild chimpanzees and Western gorillas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelly Masi

    Full Text Available Among factors affecting animal health, environmental influences may directly or indirectly impact host nutritional condition, fecundity, and their degree of parasitism. Our closest relatives, the great apes, are all endangered and particularly sensitive to infectious diseases. Both chimpanzees and western gorillas experience large seasonal variations in fruit availability but only western gorillas accordingly show large changes in their degree of frugivory. The aim of this study is to investigate and compare factors affecting health (through records of clinical signs, urine, and faecal samples of habituated wild ape populations: a community (N = 46 individuals of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes in Kanyawara, Kibale National Park (Uganda, and a western gorilla (G. gorilla group (N = 13 in Bai Hokou in the Dzanga-Ndoki National Park (Central African Republic. Ape health monitoring was carried out in the wet and dry seasons (chimpanzees: July-December 2006; gorillas: April-July 2008 and December 2008-February 2009. Compared to chimpanzees, western gorillas were shown to have marginally greater parasite diversity, higher prevalence and intensity of both parasite and urine infections, and lower occurrence of diarrhea and wounds. Parasite infections (prevalence and load, but not abnormal urine parameters, were significantly higher during the dry season of the study period for western gorillas, who thus appeared more affected by the large temporal changes in the environment in comparison to chimpanzees. Infant gorillas were the most susceptible among all the age/sex classes (of both apes having much more intense infections and urine blood concentrations, again during the dry season. Long term studies are needed to confirm the influence of seasonal factors on health and parasitism of these great apes. However, this study suggest climate change and forest fragmentation leading to potentially larger seasonal fluctuations of the environment may affect

  14. The Effect of Seasonal Variability of Atlantic Water on the Arctic Sea Ice Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, V. V.; Repina, I. A.

    2018-01-01

    Under the influence of global warming, the sea ice in the Arctic Ocean (AO) is expected to reduce with a transition toward a seasonal ice cover by the end of this century. A comparison of climate-model predictions with measurements shows that the actual rate of ice cover decay in the AO is higher than the predicted one. This paper argues that the rapid shrinking of the Arctic summer ice cover is due to its increased seasonality, while seasonal oscillations of the Atlantic origin water temperature create favorable conditions for the formation of negative anomalies in the ice-cover area in winter. The basis for this hypothesis is the fundamental possibility of the activation of positive feedback provided by a specific feature of the seasonal cycle of the inflowing Atlantic origin water and the peaking of temperature in the Nansen Basin in midwinter. The recently accelerated reduction in the summer ice cover in the AO leads to an increased accumulation of heat in the upper ocean layer during the summer season. The extra heat content of the upper ocean layer favors prerequisite conditions for winter thermohaline convection and the transfer of heat from the Atlantic water (AW) layer to the ice cover. This, in turn, contributes to further ice thinning and a decrease in ice concentration, accelerated melting in summer, and a greater accumulation of heat in the ocean by the end of the following summer. An important role is played by the seasonal variability of the temperature of AW, which forms on the border between the North European and Arctic basins. The phase of seasonal oscillation changes while the AW is moving through the Nansen Basin. As a result, the timing of temperature peak shifts from summer to winter, additionally contributing to enhanced ice melting in winter. The formulated theoretical concept is substantiated by a simplified mathematical model and comparison with observations.

  15. Effect of Fadama III program on dry-season vegetable growers in Kwara State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babatunde Michael Matanmi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the effect of the Fadama III program on dry-season vegetable growers in Kwara State, Nigeria. The study emanated from the need to know how well agricultural programs have achieved their targets. Data collected from 200 beneficiaries selected through a combination of purposive and random sampling techniques were used for the study. The data obtained were analyzed with descriptive statistics, a five-point Likert scale, and a t test. The results showed that the beneficiaries were mainly female, married, and relatively old, with farming as their primary occupation. The benefits accrued from the program by the farmers were a knapsack sprayer, training on record keeping, agro-chemicals, fertilizer, improved seeds, a watering can, pest and disease management, conflict resolution, and the construction of a well, borehole, cooling shed and market stall. The mean farm size of the farmers before and after participating in the program was 1.15 and 2.15 ha, respectively, with a corresponding average monthly income of NGN 6,833.75 and NGN 16,137.50, respectively (USD 1 = NGN 165. The study further revealed a positive effect of the program on the farmers' livelihoods. The major problems faced by the farmers were inadequate credit, conflict with herdsmen, land ownership problems, inadequate labor, and poor market linkage. Therefore, the study recommends the provision of credit facilities by relevant stakeholders, putting lasting conflict resolution measures in place, encouraging youths to practice agriculture, and training farmers on market linkage.

  16. A season-long team-building intervention: examining the effect of team goal setting on cohesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senécal, Julie; Loughead, Todd M; Bloom, Gordon A

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of the current study was to determine whether the implementation of a season-long team-building intervention program using team goal setting increased perceptions of cohesion. The participants were 86 female high school basketball players from 8 teams. The teams were randomly assigned to either an experimental team goal-setting or control condition. Each participant completed the Group Environment Questionnaire (GEQ; Carron, Brawley, & Widmeyer, 2002; Carron, Widmeyer, & Brawley, 1985), which assessed cohesion at both the beginning and end of the season. Overall, the results revealed a significant multivariate effect, Pillai's trace F(12, 438) = 2.68, p = .002. Post hoc analyses showed that at the beginning of the season, athletes from both conditions did not differ in their perceptions of cohesion. However, at the end of the season, athletes in the team goal-setting condition held higher perceptions of cohesion than athletes in the control condition. Overall, the results indicated that team goal setting was an effective team-building tool for influencing cohesiveness in sport teams.

  17. Fading positive effect of biochar on crop yield and soil acidity during five growth seasons in an Indonesian Ultisol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelissen, Gerard; Jubaedah; Nurida, Neneng L; Hale, Sarah E; Martinsen, Vegard; Silvani, Ludovica; Mulder, Jan

    2018-09-01

    Low fertility limits crop production on acidic soils dominating much of the humid tropics. Biochar may be used as a soil enhancer, but little consensus exists on its effect on crop yield. Here we use a controlled, replicated and long-term field study in Sumatra, Indonesia, to investigate the longevity and mechanism of the effects of two contrasting biochars (produced from rice husk and cacao shell, and applied at dosages of 5 and 15tha -1 ) on maize production in a highly acidic Ultisol (pH KCl 3.6). Compared to rice husk biochar, cacao shell biochar exhibited a higher pH (9.8 vs. 8.4), CEC (197 vs. 20cmol c kg -1 ) and acid neutralizing capacity (217 vs. 45cmol c kg -1 ) and thus had a greater liming potential. Crop yield effects of cacao shell biochar (15tha -1 ) were also much stronger than those of rice husk biochar, and could be related to more favorable Ca/Al ratios in response to cacao shell biochar (1.0 to 1.5) compared to rice husk biochar (0.3 to 0.6) and nonamended plots (0.15 to 0.6). The maize yield obtained with the cacao shell biochar peaked in season 2, continued to have a good effect in seasons 3-4, and faded in season 5. The yield effect of the rice husk biochar was less pronounced and already faded from season 2 onwards. Crop yields were correlated with the pH-related parameters Ca/Al ratio, base saturation and exchangeable K. The positive effects of cocoa shell biochar on crop yield in this Ultisol were at least in part related to alleviation of soil acidity. The fading effectiveness after multiple growth seasons, possibly due to leaching of the biochar-associated alkalinity, indicates that 15tha -1 of cocoa shell biochar needs to be applied approximately every third season in order to maintain positive effects on yield. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. [Tics and Gilles de la Tourette syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tijero-Merino, B; Gómez-Esteban, J C; Zarranz, J J

    2009-01-23

    Tourette syndrome is a neurologic disorder characterized by involuntary vocal and motor tics. It affects around 1 to 2% of school-age children and is the most common movement disorder in paediatric age. Tics are involuntary or semivoluntary, sudden, brief, intermittent, repetitive movements (motor tics) or sounds (phonic tics). It is often associated with psychiatric comorbidities, mainly attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Given its diverse presentation, Tourette's syndrome can almost mimic many hyperkinetic disorders, making the diagnosis challenging at times. The etiology of this syndrome is thought to be related to basal ganglia dysfunction and many clues have been pursued, both genetic and environmental factors, but no compelling major contribution to the pathogenesis of the disease has yet emerged. Treatment can be behavioural, pharmacologic, or surgical, and is dictated by the most incapacitating symptoms. Alpha-2-adrenergic agonists are the first line of pharmacologic therapy, but dopamine-receptor-blocking drugs are required for multiple, complex tics. Dopamine-receptor-blocking drugs are associated with potential side effects. Appropriate diagnosis and treatment can substantially improve quality of life and psychosocial functioning in affected patients.

  19. Effect of nitrogen on the seasonal course of growth and maintenance respiration in stems of Norway spruce trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockfors, Jan; Linder, Sune

    1998-03-01

    To determine effects of stem nitrogen concentration ([N]) on the seasonal course of respiration, rates of stem respiration of ten control and ten irrigated-fertilized (IL), 30-year-old Norway spruce trees (Picea abies (L.) Karst.), growing in northern Sweden, were measured on seven occasions from June 1993 to April 1994. To explore sources of seasonal variation and mechanisms of fertilization effects on respiration, we separated total respiration into growth and maintenance respiration for both xylem and phloem bark. Stem respiration increased in response to the IL treatment and was positively correlated with growth rate, volume of living cells and stem nitrogen content. However, no significant effect of IL treatment or [N] in the living cells was found for respiration per unit volume of live cells. Total stem respiration during the growing season (June to September) was estimated to be 16.7 and 29.7 mol CO(2) m(-2) for control and IL-treated trees, respectively. Respiration during the growing season accounted for approximately 64% of total annual respiration. Depending on the method, estimated growth respiration varied between 40 and 60% of total respiration during the growing season. Between 75 and 80% of the live cell volume in the stems was in the phloem, and phloem maintenance accounted for about 70% of maintenance respiration. Because most of the living cells were found in the phloem, and the living xylem cells were concentrated in the outer growth rings, we concluded that the best base for expressing rates of stem growth and maintenance respiration in young Norway spruce trees is stem surface area.

  20. Implications in estimation of indoor thoron levels: season and ventilation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauhan, R.P.; Amit Kumar

    2015-01-01

    The measurement of radon and thoron in dwellings and workplaces are most important for general public health point. Due to short half life of thoron, sometimes its contribution to radiation doses is assumed to be negligible, but their role is important for areas containing higher thorium content in soil and building materials. The thoron levels in dwellings were determined by various SSNTD detector using different cup geometry and dimensions along with bare mode in past at National and International level. These exercises were carried out in dwellings constructed with different building materials, different ventilation rates and seasons. Most of the times the results of radon and thoron levels were found same in spite of having different diffusion length in air due to different half life. This causes increase in uncertainty in measurement of thoron levels in different season and ventilation. Thus the problem of relative variation of thoron levels in different season and ventilation still exist in radiation field. In this work the measurement of indoor thoron levels from some selected dwelling having different ventilation and in different seasons using Pin hole based radon thoron dosimeters are reported. The results show that indoor thoron value is slightly lower in case of dwellings with poor ventilation, which is contrary to the results published in literature. An effort was made to explain the variation of thoron level under different season and ventilation. Some protocol suggestions are also given at the end of this work for future reference to carry out the measurement and mapping of indoor thoron. (author)

  1. Effects of application of corn straw on soil microbial community structure during the maize growing season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ping; Lin, Yin-Hua; Yang, Zhong-Qi; Xu, Yan-Peng; Tan, Fei; Jia, Xu-Dong; Wang, Miao; Xu, De-Rong; Wang, Xi-Zhuo

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of corn straw application on soil microbial communities and the relationship between such communities and soil properties in black soil. The crop used in this study was maize (Zea mays L.). The five treatments consisted of applying a gradient (50, 100, 150, and 200%) of shattered corn straw residue to the soil. Soil samples were taken from May through September during the 2012 maize growing season. The microbial community structure was determined using phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis. Our results revealed that the application of corn straw influenced the soil properties and increased the soil organic carbon and total nitrogen. Applying corn straw to fields also influenced the variation in soil microbial biomass and community composition, which is consistent with the variations found in soil total nitrogen (TN) and soil respiration (SR). However, the soil carbon-to-nitrogen ratio had no effect on soil microbial communities. The abundance of PLFAs, TN, and SR was higher in C1.5 than those in other treatments, suggesting that the soil properties and soil microbial community composition were affected positively by the application of corn straw to black soil. A Principal Component Analysis indicated that soil microbial communities were different in the straw decomposition processes. Moreover, the soil microbial communities from C1.5 were significantly different from those of CK (p soil and significant variations in the ratio of monounsaturated-to-branched fatty acids with different straw treatments that correlated with SR (p soil properties and soil microbial communities and that these properties affect these communities. The individual PLFA signatures were sensitive indicators that reflected the changes in the soil environment condition. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Effects of seasonality and a daily photo-protection upon some facial signs of Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flament, F; Qiu, H

    2017-06-01

    These were two-fold: (i) to record through standardized pictures, the possible changes in 31 facial signs induced, in a 6-month period, by the periodical shift from winter to summer in a group of 43 Chinese women and (ii) to appraise the preventive effects of a strong photo-protective product, daily applied to the faces of an additional group (N = 40) of women of same age-range and presenting same severities of facial signs in winter. Facial signs (structural and pigmentation-related) were scored in blind by a panel of 12 experts from photographs taken under standard conditions. Scorings were performed under specific scales as established by a previously published referential Skin Aging Atlas, Volume 2, Asian Type. A significant seasonal impact was found for more than 60% of facial signs, that is presenting a higher severity in summer in the unprotected group. Some changes are of a low or subtle extent, whereas some others show significant amplitudes. The latter comprise eight signs, among the 31, that became, far above scoring threshold, indeed affected during this 6-month period. The observed changes in six of these eight signs, in majority related to pigmentation, appeared efficiently alleviated in the photo-protected group. The shift from winter to summer exposure is confirmed in altering some facial pigmented signs among Chinese women. Such changes appear much alleviated by a daily strong photo-protective regimen. © 2016 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  3. Influence of Temperature, Environmental Salinity and Fasting on the Patterns of Fatty Acid Synthesized by Gills and Liver of the European Eel (Anguilla Anguilla)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Heinz Johs. Max; Abraham, S.

    1983-01-01

    A rise in temperature on the average from 8 to 28 degrees C resulted in an enhanced relative incorporation of 1-14Cacetate into saturated fatty acids in liver tissue. The same effect was seen in gill tissue, but only after incubation in vitro and when the precursor was injected into the eel. When 1...... in the gills, due to the labelled precursor itself taking part in biological ion transport when it is added to the water. It would appear that palmitoleic acid plays a special role in the function of the salt transport cell. When 1-14Cacetate was added to the water in the incubation tank...... there was a significantly enhanced percentage incorporation into saturated gill fatty acids in fresh water relative to sea water. Fasting led to less relative incorporation of 1-14Cacetate into saturated liver fatty acids in vitro....

  4. The effects of dust–haze on mortality are modified by seasons and individual characteristics in Guangzhou, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Tao [Guangdong Provincial Institute of Public Health, Guangdong Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, No. 160, Qunxian Road, Panyu District, Guangzhou 511430 (China); Environment and Health, Guangdong Provincial Key Medical Discipline of Twelfth Five-Year Plan, Guangzhou 511430 (China); Zhang, Yong Hui [Guangdong Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Guangzhou 511430 (China); Xu, Yan Jun [Institute of Chronic Noncommunicable Disease Prevention and Control, Guangdong Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Guangzhou 511430 (China); Lin, Hua Liang [Guangdong Provincial Institute of Public Health, Guangdong Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, No. 160, Qunxian Road, Panyu District, Guangzhou 511430 (China); Environment and Health, Guangdong Provincial Key Medical Discipline of Twelfth Five-Year Plan, Guangzhou 511430 (China); Xu, Xiao Jun [Institute of Chronic Noncommunicable Disease Prevention and Control, Guangdong Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Guangzhou 511430 (China); Luo, Yuan; Xiao, JianPeng; Zeng, Wei Lin [Guangdong Provincial Institute of Public Health, Guangdong Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, No. 160, Qunxian Road, Panyu District, Guangzhou 511430 (China); Environment and Health, Guangdong Provincial Key Medical Discipline of Twelfth Five-Year Plan, Guangzhou 511430 (China); Zhang, Wan Fang [Liwan Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Guangzhou 510176 (China); Chu, Cordia; Keogh, Kandice; Rutherford, Shannon [Griffith University, Brisbane 4111 (Australia); Qian, Zhengmin [Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Saint Louis University, Saint Louis, MO 63104 (United States); Du, Yao Dong [Climate Center of Guangdong Province, Guangzhou 510080 (China); others, and

    2014-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of dust–haze on mortality and to estimate the seasonal and individual-specific modification effects in Guangzhou, China. Mortality, air pollution and meteorological data were collected for 2006–2011. A dust–haze day was defined as daily visibility <10 km with relative humidity <90%. This definition was further divided into light (8–10 km), medium (5–8 km) and heavy dust–haze (<5 km). A distributed lag linear model (DLM) was employed. Light, medium and heavy dust–haze days were associated with increased mortality of 3.4%, 6.8% and 10.4% respectively, at a lag of 0–6 days. This effect was more pronounced during the cold season, for cardiovascular mortality (CVD), respiratory mortality (RESP), in males and people ≥60years. These effects became insignificant after adjustment for PM{sub 10}. We concluded that dust–haze significantly increased mortality risk in Guangzhou, China, and this effect appears to be dominated by particulate mass and modified by season and individual-specific factors. - Highlights: • We assessed the health impact of dust–haze in a megacity of southern China. • A dust–haze was defined according to visibility and relative humidity. • Dust–haze increased mortality risk, which may be dominated by particulate mass. • The dust–haze effects were modified by season and individual-specific factors. - This study extends our understanding of the health impact of dust–haze in southern China, and provides local evidence for health to advocate for improved air emissions control and strategies to reduce population exposure.

  5. Decreasing but still significant facilitation effect of cold-season macrophytes on wetlands purification function during cold winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xiangxu; Zhang, Hui; Zuo, Jie; Wang, Penghe; Zhao, Dehua; An, Shuqing

    2016-06-01

    To identify the facilitation effect of a cool-season aquatic macrophyte (FEam) for use in effluent purification via constructed floating wetlands (CFWs) and to determine the possible pathways used during a winter period with an average temperature of less than 5 °C, pilot-scale CFWs were planted with the cold-season macrophyte Oenanthe clecumbens and were operated as batch systems. Although some leaves withered, the roots retained relatively high levels of activity during the winter, which had average air and water temperatures of 3.63 and 5.04 °C, respectively. The N and P removal efficiencies in CFWs decreased significantly in winter relative to those in late autumn. The presence of cool-season plants resulted in significant improvements in N and P removal, with a FEam of 15.23-25.86% in winter. Microbial N removal accounted for 71.57% of the total N removed in winter, and the decrease in plant uptake was the dominant factor in the wintertime decrease in N removal relative to that in late autumn. These results demonstrate the importance of cold-season plants in CFWs for the treatment of secondary effluent during cold winters.

  6. Plasma biochemical reference values in clinically healthy captive bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps) and the effects of sex and season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamukai, Kenichi; Takami, Yoshinori; Akabane, Yoshihito; Kanazawa, Yuko; Une, Yumi

    2011-09-01

    Bearded dragons are one of the most popular pet lizard species, and biochemical reference values are useful for health management of these reptiles. The objectives of this study were to measure plasma biochemical values in healthy captive bearded dragons, determine reference values, and evaluate the effects of sex and season on the results. Blood samples were collected from 100 captive healthy bearded dragons in Tokyo during the summer and winter. Plasma biochemical measurements were performed using a dry-slide automated biochemical analyzer. The data were then compared based on sex and season using 2-way ANOVA. Globulin, cholesterol, and calcium concentrations of females were higher in both summer and winter compared with the values obtained for males. Both males and females had higher uric acid concentrations in winter than in summer. When compared with males, females had a higher chloride concentration in summer and a higher total protein concentration and aspartate aminotransferase activity in winter. Potassium concentration in males was lower in winter than in summer, whereas in females cholesterol concentration was lower in winter than in summer. Biochemical values that differed based on sex and season in bearded dragons were similar to those in other lizards. These differences reflect physiologic differences in reproductive status in females and seasonal changes in temperature and hydration status. Plasma biochemical values established for bearded dragons in this study will be useful in the diagnostic assessment of captive animals. ©2011 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  7. The influence of thermal inertia on Mars' seasonal pressure variation and the effect of the weather component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, S. E.; Paige, D. A.

    Using a Leighton-Murray type diurnal and seasonal Mars thermal model, we found that it is possible to reproduce the seasonal variation in daily-averaged pressures (approximately 680-890 Pa) measured by Viking Lander 1 (VL1), during years without global dust storms, with a standard deviation of less than 5 Pa. In this simple model, surface CO2, frost condensation, and sublimation rates at each latitude are determined by the net effects of radiation, latent heat, and heat conduction in subsurface soil layers. An inherent assumption of our model is that the seasonal pressure variation is due entirely to the exchange of mass between the atmosphere and polar caps. However, the results of recent Mars GCM modeling have made it clear that there is a significant dynamical contribution to the seasonal pressure variation. This 'weather' component is primarily due to large-scale changes in atmospheric circulation, and its magnitude depends somewhat on the dust content of the atmosphere. The overall form of the theoretical weather component at the location of VL1, as calculated by the AMES GCM, remains the same over the typical range of Mars dust opacities.

  8. Evaluation of DNA damage induced by gamma radiation in gill and muscle tissues of Cyprinus carpio and their relative sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M K, Praveen Kumar; Shyama, Soorambail K; D'Costa, Avelyno; Kadam, Samit B; Sonaye, Bhagatsingh Harisingh; Chaubey, Ramesh Chandra

    2017-10-01

    The effect of radiation on the aquatic environment is of major concern in recent years. Limited data is available on the genotoxicity of gamma radiation on different tissues of aquatic organisms. Hence, the present investigation was carried out to study the DNA damage induced by gamma radiation in the gill and muscle tissues and their relative sensitivity using the comet assay in the freshwater teleost fish, common carp (Cyprinus carpio). The comet assay was optimized and validated in common carp using cyclophosphamide (CP), a reference genotoxic agent. The fish were exposed (acute) to various doses of gamma radiation (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10Gy) and samplings (gill and muscle tissue) were done at regular intervals (24, 48 and 72h) to assess the DNA damage. A significant increase in DNA damage was observed as indicated by an increase in % tail DNA for all doses of gamma radiation in both tissues. We also observed a dose-related increase and a time-dependent decrease of DNA damage. In comparison, DNA damage showed different sensitivity among the tissues at different doses. This shows that a particular dose may have different effects on different tissues which could be due to physiological factors of the particular tissue. Our study also suggests that the gills and muscle of fish are sensitive and reliable tissues for evaluating the genotoxic effects of reference and environmental agents, using the comet assay. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Effects of seasonal variations on antioxidant activity of pink guava fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Haniza; Abdullah, Aminah

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of seasonal variations during rainy and hot season on antioxidant activity of pink guava fruits in approximately one year duration specifically on November 2012, December 2012, January 2013, March 2013, April 2013, May 2013, July 2013, August 2013 and November 2013. Fruit samples (Sungkai and Semenyih variants) were collected from Sime Darby Beverages plantation located in Sitiawan. The fruits were samples for 9 times from Nov 2012 to Nov 2013 except Feb 2013, Jun 2013, Sept 2013 and Oct 2013. Fruits were peeled, seeded and blended into uniform puree. Samples were then extracted for its antioxidant activity determination using 50% acetone. Antioxidant activity was evaluated using total phenolic compounds (TPC) assay, ferric-reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP) and 1,1-diphenyl1-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical-scavenging capacity (DPPH). Analysis was conducted using 96-well microplate spectrophotometer UV. The highest TPC result was Semenyih var recorded 2192.80 mg GAE/100g FW whilst Sungkai var 1595.98 mg GAE/100g FW both on July 2013 with rainfall was at the least (45mm) and the lowest for Sungkai var was 792.75 mg GAE/100g FW and 1032.41 mg GAE/100g FW for Semenyih var, both on Nov 2012 with 185mm rainfall. There were significant negative correlation between TPC and rainfall (mm) for both Semenyih var (r = - 0.699, p<0.005, r2 = 0.489) and Sungkai var (r = -0.72, p<0.05, r2 = 0.531). The highest FRAP result (mg TE/100g FW) was 1677.74 for Semenyih var (Aug 2013, rainfall = 160.5mm) and the highest FRAP for Sungkai var was 1104.60 (Jul 2013, rainfall = 45.0mm) whereas the lowest for Semenyih and Sungkai var was 1090.22 (Mar 2013, rainfall = 97.5mm) and 767.88 (Nov 2012, rainfall = 185.50) respectively. There was weak negative correlation between FRAP and rainfall(mm) for both Sungkai var (r = - 0.324, p<0.05, r2 = 0.105) and Semenyih var (r = - 0.362, p<0.05, r2 = 0.132). The highest DPPH for Semenyih var was 88.40% (Aug

  10. Adenylate cyclase activity in fish gills in relation to salt adaptation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guibbolini, M.E.; Lahlou, B.

    1987-01-01

    The influence of salt adaptation on specific adenylate cyclase activity (measured by conversion of [α- 32 P] - ATP into [α- 32 P] - cAMP) was investigated in gill plasma membranes of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) adapted to various salinities (deionized water, DW; fresh water, FW; 3/4 sea water, 3/4 SW; sea water, SW) and in sea water adapted- mullet (Mugil sp.). Basal activity declined by a factor of 2 in trout with increasing external salinity (pmoles cAMP/mg protein/10 min: 530 in DW, 440 in FW, 340 in 3/4 SW; 250 in SW) and was very low in SW adapted-mullet: 35. The Km for ATP was similar (0.5 mM) in both FW adapted- and SW adapted- trout in either the absence (basal activity) or in the presence of stimulating agents (isoproterenol; NaF) while the Vm varied. Analysis of stimulation ratios with respect to basal levels of the enzyme showed that hormones and pharmacological substances (isoproterenol, NaF) display a greater potency in high salt than in low salt adapted- fish gills. In contrast, salt adaptation did not have any effect on the regulation of adenylate cyclase by PGE 1 . These results are interpreted in relation to the general process of osmoregulation. 27 references, 6 figures

  11. An assay of optimal cytochrome c oxidase activity in fish gills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yau-Chung; Chung, Meng-Han; Lee, Tsung-Han

    2018-07-15

    Cytochrome c oxidase (COX) catalyzes the terminal oxidation reaction in the electron transport chain (ETC) of aerobic respiratory systems. COX activity is an important indicator for the evaluation of energy production by aerobic respiration in various tissues. On the basis of the respiratory characteristics of muscle, we established an optimal method for the measurement of maximal COX activity. To validate the measurement of cytochrome c absorbance, different ionic buffer concentrations and tissue homogenate protein concentrations were used to investigate COX activity. The results showed that optimal COX activity is achieved when using 50-100 μg fish gill homogenate in conjunction with 75-100 mM potassium phosphate buffer. Furthermore, we compared branchial COX activities among three species of euryhaline teleost (Chanos chanos, Oreochromis mossambicus, and Oryzias dancena) to investigate differences in aerobic respiration of osmoregulatory organs. COX activities in the gills of these three euryhaline species were compared with COX subunit 4 (COX4) protein levels. COX4 protein abundance and COX activity patterns in the three species occurring in environments with various salinities increased when fish encountered salinity challenges. This COX activity assay therefore provides an effective and accurate means of assessing aerobic metabolism in fish. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Histopathological changes induced by malathion in the gills of bluegill Lepomis macrochirus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richmonds, C.; Dutta, H.M. (Kent State Univ., OH (USA))

    1989-07-01

    Malathion is a widely used broad spectrum organophosphorus insecticide. Its wide use provides many occasions for its entry into aquatic environments. The presence of this chemical in the aquatic environment would adversely affect many non-target species like fish. About 50 to 90% of the absorbed malathion can be eliminated in one to three days by the fish. About 25% of malathion remained in river water after 2 wk, and 10% remained after 4 wk from the time of its entry. Respiratory distress is one of the early symptoms of pesticide poisoning. These toxicants appear to cause a loss of adhesion between the epithelial cells and the underlying pillar cell system, accompanied by a collapse of the structural integrity of the secondary lamellae. Gills are important in respiration as well as osmoregulation of the fish. Therefore it was decided to study the effects of malathion on the gills of bluegill sunfish, Lepomis macrochirus. Bluegills were selected for this study due to the following reasons: (1) Bluegills are more sensitive to malathion when compared to fathead minnows and goldfish. (2) They are important both as edible and game fish. (3) They are easily available and easy to maintain in the laboratory.

  13. Effect of seasonal and geographical differences on skin and effect of treatment with an osmoprotectant: Sorbitol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muizzuddin, Neelam; Ingrassia, Michael; Marenus, Kenneth D; Maes, Daniel H; Mammone, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Human skin maintains an optimal permeability barrier function in a terrestrial environment that varies considerably in humidity. Cells cultured under hyperosmotic stress accumulate osmolytes including sorbitol. Epidermal keratinocytes experience similar high osmolality under dry environmental conditions because of increased transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and concomitant drying of the skin. This study was designed to determine if epidermal keratinocytes, in vitro, could be protected from high osmotic stress, with the exogenous addition of sorbitol. In addition, we evaluated the effect of a formulation containing topical sorbitol on skin barrier and moisturization of subjects living in arid and humid regions in summer as well as in winter. Results from in vitro experiments showed that 50 mM sorbitol protected epidermal keratinocytes from osmotic toxicity induced by sodium chloride. Clinical studies indicated that skin chronically exposed to hot, dry environment appeared to exhibit stronger skin barrier and a lower baseline TEWL. In addition, skin barrier was stronger in summer than in winter. Sorbitol exhibited significant improvement in both barrier repair and moisturization, especially in individuals subjected to arid environmental conditions.

  14. Sobre la cultura hipermoderna: entrevista a Gilles Lipovetsky

    OpenAIRE

    Cejudo Córdoba, Rafael; Montero Ariza, María del Mar; Ruiz Sánchez, José Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Esta entrevista a Gilles Lipovetsky (París, 1944) aborda varias cuestiones acerca del consumo cultural en la sociedad actual. La obra de Lipovetsky es difícil de categorizar en un solo ámbito de conocimiento. Podría decirse de él que es un intelectual «híbrido» puesto que sus intereses oscilan entre el análisis social y la filosofía, atendiendo al lado paradójico de los acontecimientos mediante la atención prestada a asuntos poco frecuentes en el pensamiento político y ético. Algunos...

  15. The effects of dust–haze on mortality are modified by seasons and individual characteristics in Guangzhou, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Tao; Zhang, Yong Hui; Xu, Yan Jun; Lin, Hua Liang; Xu, Xiao Jun; Luo, Yuan; Xiao, JianPeng; Zeng, Wei Lin; Zhang, Wan Fang; Chu, Cordia; Keogh, Kandice; Rutherford, Shannon; Qian, Zhengmin; Du, Yao Dong

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of dust–haze on mortality and to estimate the seasonal and individual-specific modification effects in Guangzhou, China. Mortality, air pollution and meteorological data were collected for 2006–2011. A dust–haze day was defined as daily visibility 10 . We concluded that dust–haze significantly increased mortality risk in Guangzhou, China, and this effect appears to be dominated by particulate mass and modified by season and individual-specific factors. - Highlights: • We assessed the health impact of dust–haze in a megacity of southern China. • A dust–haze was defined according to visibility and relative humidity. • Dust–haze increased mortality risk, which may be dominated by particulate mass. • The dust–haze effects were modified by season and individual-specific factors. - This study extends our understanding of the health impact of dust–haze in southern China, and provides local evidence for health to advocate for improved air emissions control and strategies to reduce population exposure

  16. Effects of urban green infrastructure (UGI) on local outdoor microclimate during the growing season

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Yafei; Bakker, Frank; Groot, de Rudolf; Wörtche, Heinrich; Leemans, Rik

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzed how the variations of plant area index (PAI) and weather conditions alter the influence of urban green infrastructure (UGI) on microclimate. To observe how diverse UGIs affect the ambient microclimate through the seasons, microclimatic data were measured during the growing

  17. Effects of eutrophication, seasonality and macrofouling on the diversity of bacterial biofilms in equatorial coral reefs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Sawall

    Full Text Available Biofilms play an important role as a settlement cue for invertebrate larvae and significantly contribute to the nutrient turnover in aquatic ecosystems. Nevertheless, little is known about how biofilm community structure generally responds to environmental changes. This study aimed to identify patterns of bacterial dynamics in coral reef biofilms in response to associated macrofouling community structure, microhabitat (exposed vs. sheltered, seasonality, and eutrophication. Settlement tiles were deployed at four reefs along a cross-shelf eutrophication gradient and were exchanged every 4 months over 20 months. The fouling community composition on the tiles was recorded and the bacterial community structure was assessed with the community fingerprinting technique Automated Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Analysis (ARISA. Bacterial operational taxonomic unit (OTU number was higher on exposed tiles, where the fouling community was homogenous and algae-dominated, than in sheltered habitats, which were occupied by a variety of filter feeders. Furthermore, OTU number was also highest in eutrophied near-shore reefs, while seasonal variations in community structure were most pronounced in the oligotrophic mid-shelf reef. In contrast, the macrofouling community structure did not change significantly with seasons. Changes in bacterial community patterns were mostly affected by microhabitat, seasonal and anthropogenically derived changes in nutrient availability, and to a lesser extent by changes in the macrofouling community structure. Path analysis revealed a complex interplay of various environmental and biological factors explaining the spatial and temporal variations in bacterial biofilm communities under natural conditions.

  18. Effect of season on the chemical composition and in vitro digestibility ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Samples were analysed for dry matter and crude protein (percent CP), neutral detergent fibre (percent NDF), acid detergent fibre (percent ADF), cellulose, acid detergent lignin (ADL), and in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVD). Significant differences were observed with season (P0.05) with dry ...

  19. The effect of the seasonal cerebro-spinal meningitis on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We found that the peak of the incidence of acquired hydrocephalus in young children follows that of the seasonal cerebro-spinal meningitis (CSM) by few weeks. The age group affected by post-meningetic hydrocephalus was that below two years. Children of this age group were not included in the national vaccination ...

  20. Effect of season on growth, fruit yield and nutrient profile of two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    flowers aborted. The early season crop had significantly higher ascorbic acid composition (25.2 mg/100 ... Ether extract. Protein. Fiber. Total sugar. Ascorbic acid oxalate. Variant (V) ns ns ns ns ns ns ..... Analysis of Oxalic Acid in. Carambola ...

  1. Effects of season on the yield and quality of agar from Gelidium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this work was to study the seasonal variations in the yield and physicochemical properties of agar of Gelidium sesquipedale. The algae were col lected from January 2011 to December 2011, from the coast of Mostaganem, western Algeria. The overall results show that the dry biomass of Gelidium sesquipedale ...

  2. Seasonal analysis of the short-term effects of air pollution on daily mortality in Northeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Satbyul Estella; Honda, Yasushi; Hashizume, Masahiro; Kan, Haidong; Lim, Youn-Hee; Lee, Hyewon; Kim, Clara Tammy; Yi, Seung-Muk; Kim, Ho

    2017-01-15

    The constituents and concentrations of pollutants, individual exposures, and biologic responses to air pollution may vary by season and meteorological conditions. However, evidence regarding seasonality of the acute effects of air pollution on mortality is limited and inconsistent. Herein, we examined seasonal patterns in the short-term associations of particulate matter (PM) smaller than 10μm (PM 10 ) with daily mortality in 29 cities of three northeast Asian countries. Stratified time-series models were used to determine whether season altered the effect of PM 10 on mortality. This effect was first quantified within each season and at each location using a time-series model, after which city-specific estimates were pooled using a hierarchical Bayesian model. In all data sets, 3,675,348 non-accidental deaths were registered from 1993 to 2009. In Japan, a 10μg/m 3 increase in PM 10 was significantly associated with increases in non-accidental mortality of 0.44% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.03%, 0.8%) in spring and 0.42% (0.02%, 0.82%) in fall. In South Korea, a 10μg/m 3 increase in PM 10 was significantly associated with increases in non-accidental mortality of 0.51% (0.01%, 1.01%) in summer and 0.45% (0.03%, 0.87%) in fall, in cardiovascular disease mortality of 0.96% (0.29%, 1.63%) in fall, and in respiratory disease mortality of 1.57% (0.40%, 2.75%) in fall. In China, a 10μg/m 3 increase in PM 10 was associated with increases in non-accidental mortality of 0.33% (0.01%, 0.66%) in summer and 0.41% (0.09%, 0.73%) in winter, in cardiovascular disease mortality of 0.41% (0.08%, 0.74%) in spring and 0.33% (0.02%, 0.64%) in winter, and in respiratory diseases mortality of 0.78% (0.27%, 1.30%) in winter. Our analyses suggest that the acute effect of particulate air pollution could vary seasonally and geographically. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Oxidative stress responses in gills of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) at different salinities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handayani, Kiki Syaputri; Novianty, Zahra; Saputri, Miftahul Rohmah; Irawan, Bambang; Soegianto, Agoes

    2017-08-01

    The objective of present study is to evaluate the impact of different salinities on the levels of CAT, GSH and MDA of the gills of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Nile tilapia was treated by exposure to salinities concentration 0 ‰, 5 ‰ and 10 ‰. Research models were weakened and sacrificed, then took the left and right sides of the gills. The result of gills homogenity was centrifuged for supernatan, then supernatan was proceed with testing levels of CAT, GSH and MDA by ELISA assay methods. The levels of CAT in gills were significantly higher at 10 ‰ than at 5 ‰ and 0 ‰. The levels of GSH in gills were significantly higher at 0 ‰ than 5 ‰. The levels of GSH in gills at 5 ‰ and 10 ‰ salinities were not significantly different. The levels of MDA in gills at salinity 10 ‰ and 5 ‰ were higher than in control gills at 0 ‰ salinities. This occurs because the salinity of 10 ‰ salinity was optimal for live of fish tilapia. In conclusion, salinity impact the increasing of CAT, GSH, and MDA levels in gills of Nile tilapia.

  4. Morphological and biochemical variations in the gills of 12 aquatic air-breathing anabantoid fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chun-Yen; Lin, Chung-Ping; Lin, Hui-Chen

    2011-01-01

    All fish species in the Anabantoidei suborder are aquatic air-breathing fish. These species have an accessory air-breathing organ, called the labyrinth organ, in the branchial cavity and can engulf air at the surface of the water to assist in gas exchange. It is therefore necessary to examine the extent of gill modification among anabantoid fish species and the potential trade-offs in their function. The experimental hypothesis that we aimed to test is whether anabantoid fishes have both morphological and functional variations in the gills among different species. We examined the gills of 12 species from three families and nine genera of Anabantoidei. Though the sizes of the fourth gill arch in three species of Trichogaster were reduced significantly, not all anabantoid species had morphological and functional variations in the gills. In these three species, the specific enzyme activity and relative protein abundance of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase were significantly higher in the anterior gills as compared with the posterior gills and the labyrinth organ. The relative abundance of cytosolic carbonic anhydrase, an indicator of gas exchange, was found to be highest in the labyrinth organ. The phylogenetic distribution of the fourth gill's morphological differentiation suggests that these variations are lineage specific, which may imply a phylogenetic influence on gill morphology in anabantoid species.

  5. Effects of seasonal drawdowns on fish assemblages in sections of an impounded river-canal system in upstate New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Scott D.; Baldigo, Barry P.; Wells, Scott M

    2016-01-01

    The Mohawk River and New York State Barge Canal run together as a series of permanent and temporary impoundments for most of the distance between Rome and Albany, New York. The downstream or lower section is composed of two permanent impoundments, the middle section of a series of temporary (seasonal) impoundments, and the upper section of a series of permanent impoundments. In the middle section, movable dams are lifted from the water during winter and the wetted surface area decreases by 36–56%. We used boat electrofishing during spring 2014 and 2015 to compare the relative abundance of fish populations and the composition of fish assemblages between the permanently and seasonally impounded sections of the Barge Canal and to infer the effects of the two flow management practices. A total of 3,264 individuals from 38 species were captured, and total catch per unit effort (CPUE) ranged from 46.0 to 134.7 fish/h at sites in the seasonally impounded section, compared with 140.0–342.0 fish/h in the permanent lower section and 89.0–282.0 fish/h in the permanent upper section. The amount of drawdown explained 55% of the variation in total CPUE and was a highly significant predictor variable. Mean total CPUE in the seasonally impounded section was significantly lower (by about 50%) than that in either permanently impounded section, and the assemblage composition differed significantly between sections. The relative abundance of many lentic species was markedly lower in the seasonally impounded section, while the relative abundance of several native cyprinids and the percentage of individuals belonging to species that are native to the watershed was greater in this section. Overall, these findings suggest that winter dam removal in impounded rivers may reduce the abundance of fish but may also create more natural riverine conditions that favor some native species.

  6. Comparison of seasonal effects on some hematological and biochemical parameters between ewes with subclinical mastitis and healthy ewes

    OpenAIRE

    R.N. Sani; M. Moezifar

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to compare the effects of season on some hematological and biochemical parameters in ewes with subclinical mastitis and healthy ewes. A total of 1192 milk and blood samples were collected from ewes between February and April (791 samples in spring), August and October (401 samples in summer). California Mastitis Test (CMT), milk culture, hematologic and serum biochemical parameters were obtained from the medical records. Samples which were positive by bacterial cultur...

  7. Dual temperature effects on oxygen isotopic ratio of shallow-water coral skeleton: Consequences on seasonal and interannual records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juillet-Leclerc, A.; Reynaud, S.

    2009-04-01

    Oxygen isotopic ratio from coral skeleton is regarded for a long time as promising climate archives at seasonal scale. Although in isotopic disequilibrium relative to seawater, it is supposed to obey to the isotope thermometer. Indeed, coral oxygen isotopic records are strongly temperature dependent, but d18O-temperature calibrations derived from different corals are highly variable. The isotope thermometer assumption does not take into account vital effects due to biogenic origin of the mineral. Corals are animals living in symbiosis with algae (zooxanthellae). Interactions between symbiont photosynthesis and coral skeleton carbonation have been abundantly observed but they remain poorly understood and the effects of photosynthesis on coral growth and skeleton oxygen ratio are ignored. Coral cultured under two light conditions enabled to relate metabolic parameters and oxygen isotopic variability with photosynthetic activity. By examining responses provided by each colony they revealed that photosynthesis significantly affected d18O, by an opposite sense compared with the sole temperature influence. Since temperature and light changes are associated during seasonal variations, this complicates the interpretation of seasonal record. Additionally, this complexity is amplified because photosynthetic activity is also directly impacted by temperature variability. Thus, the annual isotopic amplitude due to the "physical" temperature influence is partly compensated through photosynthesis. Similar opposite effect is also shown by extension rate of the cultured colonies. First, we will examine and quantify consequences of photosynthesis on growth rate and oxygen isotopic signature, from cultured corals. Second, we will consider the consequences of this vital effect on data series, at seasonal and interannual time scales.

  8. The effective mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions from rice paddies without compromising yield by early-season drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Syed Faiz-Ul; van Groenigen, Jan Willem; Jensen, Lars Stoumann; Sander, Bjoern Ole; de Neergaard, Andreas

    2018-01-15

    Global rice production systems face two opposing challenges: the need to increase production to accommodate the world's growing population while simultaneously reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Adaptations to drainage regimes are one of the most promising options for methane mitigation in rice production. Whereas several studies have focused on mid-season drainage (MD) to mitigate GHG emissions, early-season drainage (ED) varying in timing and duration has not been extensively studied. However, such ED periods could potentially be very effective since initial available C levels (and thereby the potential for methanogenesis) can be very high in paddy systems with rice straw incorporation. This study tested the effectiveness of seven drainage regimes varying in their timing and duration (combinations of ED and MD) to mitigate CH 4 and N 2 O emissions in a 101-day growth chamber experiment. Emissions were considerably reduced by early-season drainage compared to both conventional continuous flooding (CF) and the MD drainage regime. The results suggest that ED+MD drainage may have the potential to reduce CH 4 emissions and yield-scaled GWP by 85-90% compared to CF and by 75-77% compared to MD only. A combination of (short or long) ED drainage and one MD drainage episode was found to be the most effective in mitigating CH 4 emissions without negatively affecting yield. In particular, compared with CF, the long early-season drainage treatments LE+SM and LE+LM significantly (pemissions were small and not significantly affected by ED. It is concluded that ED+MD drainage might be an effective low-tech option for small-scale farmers to reduce GHG emissions and save water while maintaining yield. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Simulated Seasonal Photoperiods and Fluctuating Temperatures Have Limited Effects on Blood Feeding and Life History in Aedes triseriatus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westby, K M; Juliano, S A

    2015-09-01

    Biotic and abiotic factors change seasonally and impact life history in temperate-zone ectotherms. Temperature and photoperiod are factors that change in predictable ways. Most studies testing for effects of temperature on vectors use constant temperatures and ignore potential correlated effects of photoperiod. In two experiments, we tested for effects of larval rearing environments creating ecologically relevant temperatures and photoperiods simulating early and late season conditions (June and August), or constant temperatures (cool and warm) with the June or August photoperiods, respectively. We determined effects on survivorship, development, size, and a composite performance index in a temperate-zone population of Aedes triseriatus (Say). We followed cohorts of resulting females, all held under the same environmental conditions, to assess carry-over effects of rearing conditions for larvae on longevity, blood feeding, and egg production. Larval survivorship was affected by treatment in one experiment. Development time was greater in the June and cool treatments, but the constant and fluctuating temperatures did not differ. Significantly larger mosquitoes were produced in fluctuating versus constant temperature treatments. There were no significant treatment effects on the composite performance index. Adult female longevity was lower after rearing at constant versus fluctuating temperature, but there was no difference between June and August, nor did size affect longevity. There was no effect of treatments on blood feeding and a limited effect on egg production. We conclude that seasonal temperatures and photoperiods during development have limited effects on this population of A. triseriatus and find little evidence of strong effects of fluctuating versus constant temperatures. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. effect of extreme seasonal variations and environments on some stress hormones and clotting factors of type 2 diabetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, A.I.

    2006-01-01

    the present study aimed to to investigate the effect of seasons (summer and winter) and environments (Cairo and Assiut) on some serum components including fasting and postprandial blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin cholesterol and triglycerides in type Il diabetic patients . measure also included prothrombin time, partial thromboplastin time, plasma fibrinogen, factor Vlll and plasminogen . the study also aimed to investigate the effect of season and environments on serum insulin, glucagon, cortisol and prolactin. twenty male diabetics and ten normal control have shared from each governorate during summer and winter. data from this study showed: 1- during summer, there was an increase in postprandial glucose of normal volunteers and in fasting and postprandial glucose in cairo diabetics. 2- normal assiut volunteers experienced increased FBG in summer while diabetics experienced lower postprandial glucose during summer. 3- during winter, cairo diabetics had significantly lower fasting and postprandial glucose than assiut diabetics.4- during summer, cairo diabetics had increased postprandial serum glucose in comparison to assiut. 5-the more the level of glucose the less the effect of seasons on blood glucose. 6- serum triglycerides were higher in cairo during summer, while serum cholesterol was higher in assiut in summer than in winter

  11. Effect of Prophylactic Ankle-Brace Use During a High School Competitive Basketball Season on Dynamic Postural Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crockett, Nathan J; Sandrey, Michelle A

    2015-08-01

    Few studies have evaluated the long-term effects of prophylactic ankle-brace use during a sport season. To determine the effects of prophylactic ankle-brace use during a high school basketball season on dynamic postural control and functional tests. Prospective repeated-measures design. High school athletic facility. 21 healthy high school basketball athletes (13 girls, 8 boys). The order of testing was randomized using the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) for posteromedial (PM), medial (M), and anteromedial (AM) directions and 3 functional tests (FT) consisting of the single-leg crossover hop, single-leg vertical jump, and the single-leg 6-m hop for time at pre-, mid-, and postseason. After pretesting, the ankle brace was worn on both limbs during the entire 16-wk competitive basketball season. SEBT for PM, M, and AM and 3 single-leg FTs. Dynamic postural control using the SEBT and the 3 FTs improved over time, notably from pretest to posttest. The left limb was different from the right limb during the single-leg vertical jump. Effect sizes were large for pretest to posttest for the 3 SEBT directions and 2 of the 3 FTs. The 16-wk basketball prophylactic ankle-brace intervention significantly improved dynamic postural control and single-limb FTs over time.

  12. Gill Na+,K+-ATPase of Atlantic salmon smolts in freshwater is not a predictor of long-term growth in seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zydlewski, Gayle B.; Zydlewski, Joseph D.

    2012-01-01

    Gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity is a widely used measure of osmoregulatory preparedness in salmonid smolts. The degree to which this measure may predict long term performance is uncertain. In order to assess the relationship of this enzyme to long term growth and ion homeostasis, a cohort of Atlantic salmon hatchery smolts was used in a controlled environment with no salinity perturbations. In May 2006, gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity from 940 individually PIT tagged, Penobscot River smolts (USFWS, Green Lake National Fish Hatchery, Maine, United States) was measured immediately prior to isothermal transfer from freshwater to 32 ppt seawater. From the observed range of activities, individuals were classified as having “low”, “middle”, or “high” enzyme activity levels. Individual size (fork length and mass) was recorded on days 0, 1, 3, and 14 and monthly for four months. Growth rates over four time periods were calculated for individual fish maintained until the end of the experiment. Gill Na+,K+-ATPase activities were also measured from a subset of sampled fish. All groups effectively osmoregulated as evidenced by minor perturbations in plasma osmolyte levels. Apart from initial weight loss on transfer, fish grew throughout the experiment, however, there were no differences (fish size, growth rate, and gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity in seawater) among groups with initially different gill Na+,K+-ATPase activities (prior to seawater entry). While gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity may be predictive of performance during the acute phase of acclimation (first few days), typical variation in this enzyme, expressed in freshwater at the peak of smolting, does not appear to be predictive of long-term growth in seawater.

  13. The gill microbiota of invasive and indigenous Spondylus oysters from the Mediterranean Sea and northern Red Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roterman, Yahala Rina; Benayahu, Yehuda; Reshef, Lea; Gophna, Uri

    2015-12-01

    The gill tissue of bivalve mollusks hosts rich symbiotic microbial communities that may contribute to the animal's metabolism. Spondylus spinosus is an invasive oyster that has become highly abundant along the eastern Mediterranean Sea (EMS) coastline, but is scarce in the northern Red Sea (NRS), its indigenous region. The composition and seasonal dynamics of the gill microbial communities of S. spinosus were examined in both regions, using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. Additionally, two Red Sea Spondylus species, S. avramsingeri and S. pickeringae, were investigated using the same approach. Significant differences were found between microbial communities of the EMS S. spinosus and the three NRS species. Bacteria from the family Hahellaceae dominated the communities of the EMS S. spinosus and the NRS S. avramsingeri, oysters that are dominant in their habitat, yet were rare in the NRS S. spinosus and S. pickeringae, which are only seldom encountered. Bacterial communities of EMS S. spinosus were more similar to those of NRS S. spinosus than to those of other NRS Spondylus species, indicating that either part of the microbiota had co-invaded with their host into the Mediterranean Sea, or that there are species-specific selective constraints on microbial composition. © 2015 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Effects of Student Skill Level on Knowledge, Decision Making, Skill Execution and Game Performance in a Mini-Volleyball Sport Education Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahedero, Pilar; Calderón, Antonio; Arias-Estero, José Luis; Hastie, Peter A.; Guarino, Anthony J.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the paper was to examine the effects of student skill level on knowledge, decision making, skill execution and game performance in a mini-volleyball Sport Education season. Forty-eight secondary school students from two classes participated in a 12 lesson season. Knowledge, decision-making and skill execution (components of game…

  15. Effect of seasonal and long-term changes in stress on sources of water to wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Thomas E.; Pollock, David W.

    1995-01-01

    The source of water to wells is ultimately the location where the water flowing to a well enters the boundary surface of the ground-water system . In ground-water systems that receive most of their water from areal recharge, the location of the water entering the system is at the water table . The area contributing recharge to a discharging well is the surface area that defines the location of the water entering the groundwater system. Water entering the system at the water table flows to the well and is eventually discharged from the well. Many State agencies are currently (1994) developing wellhead-protection programs. The thrust of some of these programs is to protect water supplies by determining the areas contributing recharge to water-supply wells and by specifying regulations to minimize the opportunity for contamination of the recharge water by activities at the land surface. In the analyses of ground-water flow systems, steady-state average conditions are frequently used to simplify the problem and make a solution tractable. Recharge is usually cyclic in nature, however, having seasonal cycles and longer term climatic cycles. A hypothetical system is quantitatively analyzed to show that, in many cases, these cyclic changes in the recharge rates apparently do not significantly affect the location and size of the areas contributing recharge to wells. The ratio of the mean travel time to the length of the cyclic stress period appears to indicate whether the transient effects of the cyclic stress must be explicitly represented in the analysis of contributing areas to wells. For the cases examined, if the ratio of the mean travel time to the period of the cyclic stress was much greater than one, then the transient area contributing recharge to wells was similar to the area calculated using an average steady-state condition. Noncyclic long-term transient changes in water use, however, and cyclic stresses on systems with ratios less than 1 can and do affect the

  16. Smoke exposure and associated health effects across several fire seasons and locations in the Western US

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dell, K.; Ford, B.; Gan, R.; Liu, J.; Lassman, W.; Burke, M.; Pfister, G.; Vaidyanathan, A.; Volckens, J.; Magzamen, S.; Fischer, E. V.; Pierce, J. R.

    2017-12-01

    Wildfires are a significant source of particulate matter in the western United States. Wildfire activity in this region has increased over the past few decades and is projected to continue to increase further due to warmer and drier conditions. Particulate matter with diameters smaller than or equal to 2.5 microns (PM2.5) has known adverse effects on human health. However, due to an inconsistent association of wildfire PM2.5 and several disease outcomes, it is unclear if wildfire PM exerts similar health impacts as anthropogenic PM. Improved wildfire smoke exposure estimates are needed to gain a clearer understanding of the health impacts of wildfire PM2.5. Characterizing PM2.5 concentrations from wildfire smoke is challenging due to the transient nature of smoke. Current methods of determining smoke exposure rely on satellite retrievals of aerosol optical depth (AOD), estimates from chemical transport models (CTMs), or values reported by surface monitoring sites; each of these data sources has some limitations. To improve the accuracy of our exposure estimates, we developed new methods to blend these data. Our results indicate that blending information from the above-mentioned data sources along with counts of wildfire-smoke-related social-media posts results in better characterization of smoke exposure than any individual tool. We link our daily smoke PM2.5 exposure estimates with hospitalization and urgent-care admission data from Washington, Oregon, and Colorado during several fire seasons as well as prescription filling data from Oregon. We find a robust relationship, where a 10 μg m-3 increase in smoke is significantly associated with a 9.5% (95% CI: 6.2, 12.9) increase in the rate of asthma admissions and a 7.7% increase (95% CI: 6.5. 8.8) in the risk for respiratory rescue medication prescription refills. There was no significant association between smoke exposure and any cardiovascular endpoints. Our findings support the association of wildfire smoke

  17. Effect of consecutive re-synchronization protocols on pregnancy rate in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) heifers out of the breeding season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neglia, Gianluca; Capuano, Massimo; Balestrieri, Anna; Cimmino, Roberta; Iannaccone, Francesco; Palumbo, Francesco; Presicce, Giorgio A; Campanile, Giuseppe

    2018-06-01

    The combined effect of six consecutive timed artificial inseminations (TAIs) on pregnancy rates, following two different synchronization protocols on buffalo heifers, over a period of seven months typically characterized by low breeding performances, were investigated in this study. A total of 2189 TAIs were performed on 1463 buffalo heifers within a large buffalo farm in the south of Italy. Individual animals were allowed to undergo synchronization protocol (either a slightly modified Ovsynch or Progesterone treatment) and TAI until establishment of pregnancy or else for not more than six consecutive times. Semen of seven proven bulls was used throughout the study, which was carried out from March to September of the same year. Therefore, other than the effect given by consecutive TAIs over time, a monthly and a seasonal effect could also be tested, once the entire period was split into a Low Breeding Season (LBS) from March to June, and a Transition to Breeding Season (TBS) from July to September. From the data recorded in this study and the statistical analysis performed, it can be stated that the two protocols for the synchronization of ovulation were similar in efficiency in determining pregnancies with an overall fertility rate of 89.4% when the comparison was run both on a monthly basis or when months were grouped into two different seasons. In addition, an average of 1.83 AI/pregnancy was reported, slightly higher for the Ovsynch when compared to the Progesterone protocol: 1.91 vs 1.70, respectively. Finally, when considering the number of progressive synchronization treatments implemented over time as covariate, neither Ovsynch nor Progesterone treatment significantly affected pregnancy rates following the first of the six synchronization sessions. However, repeating the synchronization procedure, the progesterone based protocol resulted in significantly higher probability of success in terms of established pregnancies during the second and third re

  18. Filter feeding mechanics of Hypophthalmichthys molitrix regarding porous gill rakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, David; Bulusu, Kartik V.; Cohen, Karly; Hernandez, Particia; Leftwich, Megan C.; Plesniak, Michael W.

    2017-11-01

    The silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) is a filter-feeding fish known to feed upon algal-growth in lakes, rivers, and aquacultures. The filter-feeding process centers on sponge-like membranes located in the carp's pharynx supported by fused gill rakers (GRs), which can efficiently strain suspended food particles as small as 4 µm without clogging. Guided by the anatomy of the silver carp, scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of GRs, and video of the silver carp feeding, we have hypothesized that the filtration mechanism involves a pump-based biological function to capture food particles within the GRs. Dye visualization experiments were performed on a silver carp cadaver head, an excised GR sample, and on a scaled GR in vitro model - the Artificial Gill Raker (AGR). Measurements are performed for the AGR using laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) and penetration pressure monitoring with a biologically-inspired pumping mechanism. The role of mucus in the retention and capture of food particles has also been explored through rheological measurements, and further experimentation is planned. Our motivation stems from the potential to develop bioinspired industrial-scale filtration technologies ranging from wastewater treatment to filtration in the food industry. supported by GW Center for Biomimetics and Bioinspired Engineering.

  19. Older medical students' performances at McGill University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feil, D; Kristian, M; Mitchell, N

    1998-01-01

    To compare admission data and academic performances of medical students younger and older than 25, and to qualify older students' experiences and perceptions in medical school. The authors reviewed 1988-1991 data for applications to the McGill University Faculty of Medicine. Data included GPAs and MCAT scores, as well as ratings for reference letters, autobiographical statements, and interviews. For those same years, the authors measured students' academic performances in the preclinical and clinical years. The authors compared the data by students' age: "younger" students, aged 17 to 24; and "older" students, aged 25 and above. All enrolled students took the Derogatis Stress Profile, and the older students participated in focus groups. The older applicants had lower GPAs and MCAT scores, but higher interview and reference letter ratings. For older accepted students, basic science course scores were lower than those of younger students, but clinical scores did not differ significantly between the groups. The two groups had similar stress levels, although older students tested lower in driven behavior, relaxation potential, attitude posture, and hostility. In focus groups, the older students spoke of learning style differences, loss of social support, and loss of professional identity. Different scores in admission criteria suggest that McGill uses different standards to select older medical students. Older students admitted under different criteria, however, do just as well as do younger students by their clinical years. A broad-based study of admission criteria and outcomes for the older student population is warranted.

  20. Phil Wallace and Theoretical Physics at McGill in the 1950's: A Personal Perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, John David

    2010-01-01

    In 1946 Philip (Phil) Russell Wallace joined the Mathematics Department of McGill University as an Associate Professor of Applied Mathematics, apparently because A. H. S. Gillson, Dean of Arts and Science, wanted theoretical physicists to be in the Mathematics Department. He came with the dream of creating a theoretical physics group at McGill. By the spring of 1949, Phil was authorized to recruit two junior faculty in Mathematics. He hired Theodore (Ted) F. Morris from U. Toronto, who joined in September 1949, and me, who came in January 1950. The group had begun. Phil Wallace was born in Toronto in 1915 and grew up there. He entered the University of Toronto in 1933, earned a B.A. in mathematics in 1937, a M.A. in 1938, and a Ph.D. in applied mathematics in 1940 under Leopold Infeld. His Ph.D. thesis in general relativity was entitled 'On the relativistic equations of motion in electromagnetic theory.' In 1940 World War II had engulfed Europe and was having its effect on Canada, but the US was still at peace. L. J. Synge, Head of the Applied Mathematics Department at Toronto, told Wallace that people such as he would be needed in war work, but things were not ready quite yet. Hold yourself ready. Phil took a two-year position as lecturer in mathematics at the University of Cincinnati (1940-42); in the fall of 1942 he became a lecturer in mathematics at M.I.T. It was from there that he was recruited by Synge to join the war effort from 1943 to 1946 at N.R.C.'s Montreal Laboratory, the genesis of the Canadian Atomic Energy Project. Phil has described those heady wartime years in these pages. Much of the effort of the theoretical physicists was on nuclear reactor theory and the properties of relevant materials, such as graphite, under long and intense neutron bombardment. In late 1945 Phil was sent for four months to Bristol to learn about the properties of graphite from the esteemed N. F. Mott. This exposure led Phil to a life-long interest in graphite and in

  1. Early Response of Protein Quality Control in Gills Is Associated with Survival of Hypertonic Shock in Mozambique tilapia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Cheng-Hao; Lee, Tsung-Han

    2013-01-01

    The protein quality control (PQC) mechanism is essential for cell function and viability. PQC with proper biological function depends on molecular chaperones and proteases. The hypertonicity-induced protein damage and responses of PQC mechanism in aquatic organisms, however, are poorly understood. In this study, we examine the short-term effects of different hypertonic shocks on the levels of heat shock proteins (HSPs, e.g., HSP70 and HSP90), ubiquitin-conjugated proteins and protein aggregation in gills of the Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus). Following transfer from fresh water (FW) to 20‰ hypertonicity, all examined individuals survived to the end of experiment. Moreover, the levels of branchial HSPs and ubiquitin-conjugated proteins significantly increased at 3 and 24 h post-transfer, respectively. Up-regulation of HSPs and ubiquitin-conjugated proteins was sufficient to prevent the accumulation of aggregated proteins. However, the survival rate of tilapia dramatically declined at 5 h and all fish died within 7 h after direct transfer to 30‰ hypertonicity. We presumed that this result was due to the failed activation of gill PQC system, which resulted in elevating the levels of aggregated proteins at 3 and 4 h. Furthermore, in aggregated protein fractions, the amounts of gill Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA) remained relatively low when fish were transferred to 20‰ hypertonicity, whereas abundant NKA was found at 4 h post-transfer to 30‰ hypertonicity. This study demonstrated that the response of PQC in gills is earlier than observable changes in localization of ion-secreting transport proteins upon hypertonic challenge. To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the regulation of PQC mechanism in fish and characterize its important role in euryhaline teleost survival in response to hypertonic stress. PMID:23690986

  2. Effect of Batik Waste Water on Kali Wangan Water Quality in Different Seasons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestari, S.; Sudarmadji; Tandjung, S. D.; Santoso, S. J.

    2018-02-01

    Sokaraja Batik Center is one of batik industrial centers in Banyumas Regency. The craftsmen in Sokaraja Batik Center dispose of their waste water directly to a river named Kali Wangan. This study aims at figuring out the quality of Kali Wangan in dry and rainy seasons. The research is conducted along the Wangan River in January - November 2015. The research method used is survey with Purposive Random Sampling. The Kali Wangan water is sampled in four observation stations. The obtained data are analyzed descriptively and compared against the environmental quality standards. The research results show that the quality of Kali River water is found contaminated by the batik waste water, all parameters are below the class III standards quality based on Government Regulation Number 82 Year 2001 during dry and rainy season

  3. Citrobacter freundii impairs the phosphoryl transfer network in the gills of Rhamdia quelen: Impairment of bioenergetics homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldissera, Matheus D; Souza, Carine F; Junior, Guerino B; Moreira, Karen Luise S; da Veiga, Marcelo L; da Rocha, Maria Izabel U M; Baldisserotto, Bernardo

    2018-04-01

    The precise coupling of spatially separated intracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-producing and ATP-consuming, catalyzed by creatine kinase (CK), adenylate kinase (AK), and pyruvate kinase (PK), is a critical process in the bioenergetics of tissues with high energy demand, such as the branchial tissue. The effects of Citrobacter freundii infection on gills remain poorly understood, limited only to histopathological studies. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate whether experimental infection by C. freundii impairs the enzymes of the phosphoryl transfer network in gills of silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen). The CK (cytosolic and mitochondrial) and AK activities decreased in infected compared to uninfected animals, while the PK activity did not differ between groups. The gill histopathology of infected animals revealed extensive degeneration with fusion and necrosis of secondary lamellae, detachment of superficial epithelium, aneurysm, vessel congestion and inflammatory process. Based on these evidences, the inhibition and absence of an efficient communication between CK compartments caused the impairment of the branchial bioenergetics homeostasis, which was not compensated by the augmentation on branchial AK activity in an attempt to restore energy homeostasis. In summary, these alterations contribute to disease pathogenesis linked to branchial tissue in animals infected with C. freundii. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Macromolecule oxidation and DNA repair in mussel (Mytilus edulis L.) gill following exposure to Cd and Cr(VI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emmanouil, C.; Sheehan, T.M.T.; Chipman, J.K.

    2007-01-01

    The oxidation of DNA and lipid was analysed in the marine mussel (Mytilus edulis) in response to exposure (10 μg/l and 200 μg/l) to cadmium (Cd) and chromium [Cr(VI)]. Concentration dependent uptake of both metals into mussel tissues was established and levels of gill ATP were not depleted at these exposure levels. DNA strand breakage in gill cells (analysed by the comet assay) was elevated by both metals, however, DNA oxidation [measured by DNA strand breakage induced by the DNA repair enzyme formamidopyrimidine glycosylase (FPG)] was not elevated. This was despite a statistically significant increase in both malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxynonenal - indicative of lipid peroxidation - following treatment with Cd. In contrast, both frank DNA stand breaks and FPG-induced DNA strand breaks (indicative of DNA oxidation) were increased following injection of mussels with sodium dichromate (10.4 μg Cr(VI)/mussel). The metals also showed differential inhibitory potential towards DNA repair enzyme activity with Cd exhibiting inhibition of DNA cutting activity towards an oligonucleotide containing 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine and Cr(VI) showing inhibition of such activity towards an oligonucleotide containing ethenoadenosine, both at 200 μg/l. The metals thus show DNA damage activity in mussel gill with distinct mechanisms involving both direct and indirect (oxidative) DNA damage, as well as impairing different DNA repair capacities. A combination of these activities can contribute to adverse effects in these organisms

  5. Timing of seasonal migration in mule deer: effects of climate, plant phenology, andlife-history characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Monteith, Kevin L.; Bleich, Vernon C.; Stephenson, Thomas R.; Pierce, Becky M.; Conner, Mary M.; Klaver, Robert W.; Bowyer, R. Terry

    2011-01-01

    Phenological events of plants and animals are sensitive to climatic processes. Migration is a life-history event exhibited by most large herbivores living in seasonal environments, and is thought to occur in response to dynamics of forage and weather. Decisions regarding when to migrate, however, may be affected by differences in life-history characteristics of individuals. Long-term and intensive study of a population of mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) in the Sierra Nevada, California, USA, ...

  6. Tundra shrub effects on growing season energy and carbon dioxide exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafleur, Peter M.; Humphreys, Elyn R.

    2018-05-01

    Increased shrub cover on the Arctic tundra is expected to impact ecosystem-atmosphere exchanges of carbon and energy resulting in feedbacks to the climate system, yet few direct measurements of shrub tundra-atmosphere exchanges are available to corroborate expectations. Here we present energy and carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes measured using the eddy covariance technique over six growing seasons at three closely located tundra sites in Canada’s Low Arctic. The sites are dominated by the tundra shrub Betula glandulosa, but percent cover varies from 17%–60% and average shrub height ranges from 18–59 cm among sites. The site with greatest percent cover and height had greater snow accumulation, but contrary to some expectations, it had similar late-winter albedo and snow melt dates compared to the other two sites. Immediately after snowmelt latent heat fluxes increased more slowly at this site compared to the others. Yet by the end of the growing season there was little difference in cumulative latent heat flux among the sites, suggesting evapotranspiration was not increased with greater shrub cover. In contrast, lower albedo and less soil thaw contributed to greater summer sensible heat flux at the site with greatest shrub cover, resulting in greater total atmospheric heating. Net ecosystem exchange of CO2 revealed the potential for enhanced carbon cycling rates under greater shrub cover. Spring CO2 emissions were greatest at the site with greatest percent cover of shrubs, as was summer net uptake of CO2. The seasonal net sink for CO2 was ~2 times larger at the site with the greatest shrub cover compared to the site with the least shrub cover. These results largely agree with expectations that the growing season feedback to the atmosphere arising from shrub expansion in the Arctic has the potential to be negative for CO2 fluxes but positive for turbulent energy fluxes.

  7. Effects of the Competitive Season on the Isokinetic Muscle Parameters Changes in World-Class Handball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurelli, Olivier; Bernard, Pierre L; Dubois, Romain; Ahmaidi, Said; Prioux, Jacques

    2018-05-25

    Maurelli, O, Bernard, PL, Dubois, R, Ahmaidi, S, and Prioux, J. Effects of the competitive season on the isokinetic muscle parameters changes in world-class handball players. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of the competitive season on isokinetic muscular parameters of the lower limbs in world-class handball players. Nineteen, male, world-class, handball players (age, 26.6 ± 5.4 years) participated in the study. Two bilateral isokinetic tests of knee joint flexors (H; hamstring) and extensors (Q; quadriceps) were performed in the beginning and end of the competitive season to determine the peak torque (PT), the mean power, and agonist-antagonist ratio, dominant-nondominant ratio (DNDR), and combined ratio. The results showed a significant decrease in PT values at low angular velocity (60°·s) in concentric mode for Q on dominant leg (p handball players. Accordingly, this study should help trainers to modify their planning to maximize strength and power qualities of the lower limbs of their players in addition to avoiding injuries.

  8. Wind effects on the migration routes of trans-Saharan soaring raptors: geographical, seasonal, and interspecific variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal-Mateo, Javier; Mellone, Ugo; López-López, Pascual; La Puente, Javier De; García-Ripollés, Clara; Bermejo, Ana; Urios, Vicente

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Wind is among the most important environmental factors shaping birds’ migration patterns. Birds must deal with the displacement caused by crosswinds and their behavior can vary according to different factors such as flight mode, migratory season, experience, and distance to goal areas. Here we analyze the relationship between wind and migratory movements of three raptor species which migrate by soaring–gliding flight: Egyptian vulture Neophron percnopterus, booted eagle Aquila pennata, and short-toed snake eagle Circaetus gallicus. We analyzed daily migratory segments (i.e., the path joining consecutive roosting locations) using data recorded by GPS satellite telemetry. Daily movements of Egyptian vultures and booted eagles were significantly affected by tailwinds during both autumn and spring migrations. In contrast, daily movements of short-toed eagles were only significantly affected by tailwinds during autumn migration. The effect of crosswinds was significant in all cases. Interestingly, Egyptian vultures and booted eagles showed latitudinal differences in their behavior: both species compensated more frequently at the onset of autumn migration and, at the end of the season when reaching their wintering areas, the proportion of drift segments was higher. In contrast, there was a higher drift at the onset of spring migration and a higher compensation at the end. Our results highlight the effect of wind patterns on the migratory routes of soaring raptors, with different outcomes in relation to species, season, and latitude, ultimately shaping the loop migration patterns that current tracking techniques are showing to be widespread in many long distance migrants. PMID:29491895

  9. Seasonal effects of cadmium accumulation in periphytic diatom communities of freshwater biofilms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thi Thuy Duong; Morin, Soizic; Herlory, Olivier; Feurtet-Mazel, Agnes; Coste, Michel; Boudou, Alain

    2008-01-01

    The relationships between diatom species and cadmium (Cd) accumulated in biofilms of the Riou-Mort River (SW, France) were studied in July 2004 and March 2005. Biofilms were sampled from artificial substrates immersed along a metallic pollution gradient during 20 days. Dynamics of diatom communities and cadmium accumulation were followed by collecting samples after 4, 7, 14 and 20 days of biofilm colonization. Cd accumulation in biofilms during experiment was significantly higher in Cd polluted station (Joanis) than in reference station (Firmi) for both seasons. Periphytic diatom composition varied between sites and seasons. At Firmi station, seasonal dynamics of diatom communities were stable with the dominance of Cyclotella meneghiniana and Melosira varians in July and Surirellabrebissonnii and Navicula gregaria in March. At Joanis station, diatom communities mainly responded to high levels of metal by a high proportion of small, adnate species. Positive correlations between Eolimna minima, Nitzschia palea, Encyonema minutum, Surirella angusta, and Gomphonema parvulum and cadmium accumulation were observed, indicating that these species are tolerant to high levels of cadmium. On the other hand, negative correlations of C. meneghiniana, N. gregaria, Navicula lanceolata, M. varians and Nitzschia dissipata with cadmium qualify them as sensitive diatom species. Periphytic diatom composition through the presence of specific species highlight metal tolerant indicator diatom groups which will be meaningful for biomonitoring pollution in natural aquatic systems

  10. Seasonal effects on ground water chemistry of the Ouachita Mountains. National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steele, K.F.; Fay, W.M.; Cavendor, P.N.

    1982-08-01

    Samples from 13 ground water sites (10 springs and 3 wells) in the Ouachita Mountains were collected nine times during a 16-month period. Daily sampling of six sites was carried out over an 11-day period, with rain during this period. Finally, hourly sampling was conducted at a single site over a 7-hour period. The samples were analyzed for pH, conductivity, temperature, total alkalinity, nitrate, ammonia, sulfate, phosphate, chloride, silica, Na, K, Li, Ca, Mg, Sr, Ba, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Co, Ni, Pb, Hg, Br, F, V, Al, Dy, and U. Despite the dry season during late summer, and wet seasons during late spring and late fall in the Ouachita Mountain region, there was no significant change in the ground water chemistry with season. Likewise, there was no significant change due to rain storm events (daily sampling) or hourly sampling. The report is issued in draft form, without detailed technical and copy editing. This was done to make the report available to the public before the end of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation. 9 figures, 19 tables

  11. Effects of Forest Gaps on Litter Lignin and Cellulose Dynamics Vary Seasonally in an Alpine Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To understand how forest gaps and the associated canopy control litter lignin and cellulose dynamics by redistributing the winter snow coverage and hydrothermal conditions in the growing season, a field litterbag trial was conducted in the alpine Minjiang fir (Abies faxoniana Rehder and E.H. Wilson forest in a transitional area located in the upper reaches of the Yangtze River and the eastern Tibetan Plateau. Over the first year of litter decomposition, the litter exhibited absolute cellulose loss and absolute lignin accumulation except for the red birch litter. The changes in litter cellulose and lignin were significantly affected by the interactions among gap position, period and species. Litter cellulose exhibited a greater loss in the winter with the highest daily loss rate observed during the snow cover period. Both cellulose and lignin exhibited greater changes under the deep snow cover at the gap center in the winter, but the opposite pattern occurred under the closed canopy in the growing season. The results suggest that decreased snowpack seasonality due to winter warming may limit litter cellulose and lignin degradation in alpine forest ecosystems, which could further inhibit litter decomposition. As a result, the ongoing winter warming and gap vanishing would slow soil carbon sequestration from foliar litter in cold biomes.

  12. Particle mixing processes of Chernobyl fallout in deep Norwegian Sea sediments: Evidence for seasonal effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balzer, W.

    1996-09-01

    A 1430 m deep station in the Norwegian Sea (Voering Plateau) was occupied five times between May 1986 and February 1987 to investigate the seasonal variation in sediment mixing rates. Cherbnbyl-derived radiocesium, identified by its high proportion of short-lived 134Cs, was used as a tracer for mixing. Most of the nuclide input arrived at the sediment within a narrow time span in June/early July during the beginning of the seasonal biogenic sedimentation pulse. Measured 137Cs profiles in the sediment over time were compared with modelled distributions calculated with a finite difference scheme. The input function of radiocesium to the sea floor was evaluated from the increase of the total inventory with time. Time-invariant mixing coefficients did not provide reasonable fits to either summer or winter distributions. The best fit was obtained with a rate of mixing proportional to the radiocesium input flux, with an average enhancement factor of 6.6 during the two summer months. It appears that the benthic macrofauna are more active during the food supply season and rapidly ingest/bury freshly sedimented materials.

  13. Seasonal effects of cadmium accumulation in periphytic diatom communities of freshwater biofilms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thi Thuy Duong [Institute of Environmental Technology, Vietnamese Academy of Science and Technology, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet Road, Cau Giay, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Universite de Bordeaux 1, CNRS, UMR 5805 EPOC, Place du Dr Peyneau, 33120 Arcachon (France)], E-mail: duongthuy0712@yahoo.com; Morin, Soizic [Cemagref, UR REBX, 50 avenue de Verdun, F-33612 Cestas cedex (France); Herlory, Olivier [Universite de Bordeaux 1, CNRS, UMR 5805 EPOC, Place du Dr Peyneau, 33120 Arcachon (France); Feurtet-Mazel, Agnes [Universite de Bordeaux 1, CNRS, UMR 5805 EPOC, Place du Dr Peyneau, 33120 Arcachon (France)], E-mail: a.feurtet-mazel@epoc.u-bordeaux1.fr; Coste, Michel [Cemagref, UR REBX, 50 avenue de Verdun, F-33612 Cestas cedex (France); Boudou, Alain [Universite de Bordeaux 1, CNRS, UMR 5805 EPOC, Place du Dr Peyneau, 33120 Arcachon (France)

    2008-10-20

    The relationships between diatom species and cadmium (Cd) accumulated in biofilms of the Riou-Mort River (SW, France) were studied in July 2004 and March 2005. Biofilms were sampled from artificial substrates immersed along a metallic pollution gradient during 20 days. Dynamics of diatom communities and cadmium accumulation were followed by collecting samples after 4, 7, 14 and 20 days of biofilm colonization. Cd accumulation in biofilms during experiment was significantly higher in Cd polluted station (Joanis) than in reference station (Firmi) for both seasons. Periphytic diatom composition varied between sites and seasons. At Firmi station, seasonal dynamics of diatom communities were stable with the dominance of Cyclotella meneghiniana and Melosira varians in July and Surirellabrebissonnii and Navicula gregaria in March. At Joanis station, diatom communities mainly responded to high levels of metal by a high proportion of small, adnate species. Positive correlations between Eolimna minima, Nitzschia palea, Encyonema minutum, Surirella angusta, and Gomphonema parvulum and cadmium accumulation were observed, indicating that these species are tolerant to high levels of cadmium. On the other hand, negative correlations of C. meneghiniana, N. gregaria, Navicula lanceolata, M. varians and Nitzschia dissipata with cadmium qualify them as sensitive diatom species. Periphytic diatom composition through the presence of specific species highlight metal tolerant indicator diatom groups which will be meaningful for biomonitoring pollution in natural aquatic systems.

  14. EFFECT OF BODY CONDITION AND SEASON ON THE YIELD AND QUALITY OF CATTLE EMBRYOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Kubovičová

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Unsatisfactory reproductive performance in dairy cows has been associated with environmental influences, such as season, chronic and acute changes in dietary intake and body composition. These factors can affect fertility especially ovarian function and yield and quality of oocytes and embryos. In our study the cow ´s body condition affected the overall embryo recovery rate (proportion of collected embryos to palpated corpora lutea. The significantly higher number of embryos was collected from cows with BCS 2.5- 2.75 (68.32 % embryo recovery rate and 3.0- 3.25 (63.30 % compared to the cows with BCS 2.0-2.25 (53.33% and 3.5-4.0 (47.87%; P0.05. On the contrary, the yield of transferable embryos was higher (P<0.05 during the autumn months (78.94% compared to spring (58.38% or summer (60.00% months. In conclusion, body condition and season may affect the yield and quality of bovine embryos. Higher embryo yield was recorded in average BCS (2.5-3.25 cows, whilst most transferable embryos were obtained in the higher BCS (3.5-4.0. Our results indicate that the best season for collection of transferable bovine embryos is autumn.

  15. Effects of growth-promoting agents and season on yearling feedlot heifer performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreikemeier, W M; Mader, T L

    2004-08-01

    Angus x crossbred heifers (270 per trial) were used in an experiment conducted over one 105-d summer and one 104-d winter feeding period. Treatments were identical for each trial and included: 1) control, 2) estrogenic implant (E), 3) trenbolone acetate implant (TBA), 4) E + TBA (ET), 5) melengestrol acetate (MGA) in the feed, and 6) ET + MGA (ETM). Each treatment was replicated in five pens, with nine heifers per pen in each season. Initial weights (mean = 384 kg, SE = 57) were the same for each season. There were no treatment x season interactions for final BW, ADG, G:F, water intake, or carcass characteristics. Heifers receiving a growth-promoting agent were 11.6 kg (SE = 4.08) heavier and gained 0.108 kg/d (SE = 0.04) more (P coldest and hottest portions of the year. Heifers fed MGA and implanted with ET tended (P = 0.07) to have greater DMI in the summer but lesser DMI in the winter. In general, differences among growth-promotant programs were relatively similar over the entire summer and in winter.

  16. Regulation of Na+/K+-ATPase activity by nitric oxide in the kidney and gill of the brown trout (Salmo trutta)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tipsmark, Christian K; Madsen, Steffen S

    2003-01-01

    In teleost fish, successful osmoregulation involves controlled ion transport mechanisms in kidney and gill epithelia. In this study, the effect of nitric oxide (NO) on Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase was investigated in vitro in these two tissues in brown trout (Salmo trutta) acclimated to freshwater...

  17. The effect of Lameness before and during the breeding season on fertility in 10 pasture-based Irish dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somers, Joris R; Huxley, Jon; Lorenz, Ingrid; Doherty, Michael L; O'Grady, Luke

    2015-01-01

    The effects of lameness on fertility have been documented frequently but few data are available from seasonally breeding, pasture-based herds (such as those used in Ireland) where cows are housed during the winter months but managed at pasture for the remainder of the year. This study determined the prevalence of lameness in a group of 786 cows in 10 pasture-based Irish dairy herds before, during and after the breeding season and assessed the relationship between lameness and the reproductive performance in these herds through serial locomotion scoring during the grazing period. Lameness prevalences of 11.6 % before, 14.6 % during and 11.6 % after the breeding season were found and these compared favourably to results from housed cattle and are similar to other studies carried out in grazing herds. A Cox proportional hazards model with locomotion score as time varying covariate was used. After controlling for the effect of farm, month of calving, body condition score at calving, body condition score loss after calving and economic breeding index, cows identified as lame during the study were less likely to become pregnant. Cows lame before the earliest serve date but no longer lame during the breeding season, cows becoming lame after the earliest serve date and cows identified lame both before and after this date were respectively 12 %, 35 % and 38 % less likely to become pregnant compared to cows never observed lame during the study. However, these findings were only significant for cows becoming lame after the earliest serve date and cows lame both before and after the start of breeding. This study found that the reproductive efficiency was significantly (p  0.05) lower in these animals compared to cows never diagnosed as lame. In addition to lameness status, nutritional status and genetics were found to influence the reproductive performance in pasture-based Irish dairy herds.

  18. Anti-inflammatory effects of pre-seasonal Th1-adjuvant vaccine to Parietaria judaica in asthmatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scichilone, Nicola; Minaldi, Chiara; Santagata, Roberta; Battaglia, Salvatore; Camarda, Gaetana; Bellia, Vincenzo

    2011-01-01

    Background: The ultra-short course pre-seasonal allergy vaccine, containing appropriate allergoids with the adjuvant monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL), may be effective in treating allergic symptoms. Objective: To explore the timing of the immunological responses to the pre-seasonal allergy vaccine. Methods: Four subcutaneous injections of the active product (Pollinex Quattro) were administered to 20 Parietaria-sensitive intermittent asthmatics (M/F: 12/8; age: 48 ± 10 years; FEV1% predicted: 108% ± 12%) during the 6 weeks prior to the start of the pollen season. Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) was collected immediately before the first and immediately after the last injections (t1 and t2), during the pollen season (t3) and after (t4) the pollen season. EBC was analyzed to determine the levels of pH and 8-isoprostane. Ten Parietaria-sensitive asthmatics served as the untreated control group at t1 and t2. Results: Measured pH levels were 7.64 ± 0.33 at t1, 7.67 ± 0.23 at t2, 7.72 ± 0.34 at t3, and 7.82 ± 0.34 at t4 (P = 0.049 vs baseline). 8-isoprostane levels were significantly lower than baseline at each visit (mean difference from baseline, for t2: −0.77 pg, P = 0.031; for t3: −0.92 pg, P = 0.010; for t4: −0.70 pg, P = 0.048). In the control group, pH levels were 7.73 ± 0.26 at baseline and did not change after 6 weeks (7.79 ± 0.25, P = 0.33). Similarly, the concentrations of 8-isoprostane in the control group were not different from those of the study group at baseline (P = 0.86), and the levels remained unchanged after 6 weeks (P = 0.58). Conclusion: These findings show that the ultra-short course of vaccine adjuvated with MPL acutely reduces the degree of airway inflammation, as expressed by markers of oxidative stress, and suggest that this reduction is maintained during and after the pollen season. PMID:21660177

  19. Anti-inflammatory effects of pre-seasonal Th1-adjuvant vaccine to Parietaria judaica in asthmatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scichilone N

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Nicola Scichilone, Chiara Minaldi, Roberta Santagata, Salvatore Battaglia, Gaetana Camarda, Vincenzo Bellia Dipartimento Biomedico di Medicina Interna e Specialistica (Di.Bi.M.I.S., Sezione di Pneumologia, University of Palermo, Palermo, ItalyBackground: The ultra-short course pre-seasonal allergy vaccine, containing appropriate allergoids with the adjuvant monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL, may be effective in treating allergic symptoms. Objective: To explore the timing of the immunological responses to the pre-seasonal allergy vaccine.Methods: Four subcutaneous injections of the active product (Pollinex Quattro were administered to 20 Parietaria-sensitive intermittent asthmatics (M/F: 12/8; age: 48 ± 10 years; FEV1% predicted: 108% ± 12% during the 6 weeks prior to the start of the pollen season. Exhaled breath condensate (EBC was collected immediately before the first and immediately after the last injections (t1 and t2, during the pollen season (t3 and after (t4 the pollen season. EBC was analyzed to determine the levels of pH and 8-isoprostane. Ten Parietaria-sensitive asthmatics served as the untreated control group at t1 and t2.Results: Measured pH levels were 7.64 ± 0.33 at t1, 7.67 ± 0.23 at t2, 7.72 ± 0.34 at t3, and 7.82 ± 0.34 at t4 (P = 0.049 vs baseline. 8-isoprostane levels were significantly lower than baseline at each visit (mean difference from baseline, for t2: —0.77 pg, P = 0.031; for t3: —0.92 pg, P = 0.010; for t4: —0.70 pg, P = 0.048. In the control group, pH levels were 7.73 ± 0.26 at baseline and did not change after 6 weeks (7.79 ± 0.25, P = 0.33. Similarly, the concentrations of 8-isoprostane in the control group were not different from those of the study group at baseline (P = 0.86, and the levels remained unchanged after 6 weeks (P = 0.58.Conclusion: These findings show that the ultra-short course of vaccine adjuvated with MPL acutely reduces the degree of airway inflammation, as expressed by markers of

  20. Effects of seasonal olive mill wastewater applications on hydrological and biological soil properties in an olive orchard in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmetz, Zacharias; Kurtz, Markus; Peikert, Benjamin; Zipori, Isaac; Dag, Arnon; Schaumann, Gabriele E.

    2014-05-01

    During olive oil production in Mediterranean countries, large amounts of olive mill wastewater (OMW) are generated within a short period of time. OMW has a high nutrient content and could serve as fertilizer when applied on land. However, its fatty and phenolic constituents have adverse effects on hydrological and biological soil properties. It is still unknown how seasonal fluctuations in temperature and precipitation influence the fate and effect of OMW components on soil in a long-term perspective. An appropriate application season could mitigate negative consequences of OMW while preserving its beneficial effects. In order to investigate this, 14 L OMW m-2 were applied to different plots of an olive orchard in Gilat, Israel, in winter, spring, and summer, respectively. Hydrological soil properties (water drop penetration time, hydraulic conductivity, dynamic contact angle), physicochemical parameters (pH, EC, soluble ions, phenolic compounds, organic matter), and biological degradation (bait-lamina test) were measured to assess the soil state after OMW application. After one rainy season following OMW application, the soil quality of summer treatments significantly decreased compared to the control. This was particularly apparent in a ten-fold higher soil water repellency, a three-times lower biodegradation performance, and a four-fold higher content of phenolic compounds. 1.5 years after the last OMW application, the soil properties of winter treatments were comparable to the control, which suggests a certain recovery potential of the soil. Spring treatments resulted in an intermediate response compared to summer and winter treatments, but without any precipitation following OMW application. Strongest OMW effects were found in the top soil layers. Further research is needed to quantify the effect of spring treatments as well as to gain further insight into leaching effects, the composition of organic OMW constituents, and the kinetics of their degradation in

  1. Imitation in patients with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome--a behavioral study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonas, Melanie; Thomalla, Götz; Biermann-Ruben, Katja

    2010-01-01

    Echophenomena in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) may relate to deficient processing of observed biological movements. This would be reflected in altered effects of movement observation on motor responses in these patients. We studied reaction times in 11 unmedicated GTS patients without...... in both groups, provided stimulus presentation and response initiation coincided. Healthy subjects responded faster to compatible biological than nonbiological stimuli. In contrast, GTS patients responded slower to incompatible biological than nonbiological stimuli. Patients' mean reaction time...... in experiment 2 correlated with phonic tic-frequency. Motor facilitation by observing biological movements appears to rely on concomitance of stimuli and responses in GTS patients and healthy individuals. Differing behavioral effects of movement observation in GTS might reflect altered activation of an action...

  2. Convulsive Tic Disorder Georges Gilles de la Tourette, Guinon and Grasset on the Phenomenology and Psychopathology of Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary M. Robertson

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Gilles de la Tourette gained eponymous fame when he described nine cases of multiple tics, coprolalia and echolalia, and later he, Guinon and Grasset were the first to document the psychopathology of the Gilles de la Tourette syndrome. In particular, they noted the association between obsessional thoughts and behaviours and the tic disorder. In this paper we present the first English translations of their works referring to the psychopathology, comparing and contrasting their ideas to current concepts.

  3. Gill rakers in six teleost species: influence of feeding habit and body size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Gottlieb Almeida

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the structure of the gill rakers of Parapimelodus valenciennis and Parapimelodus nigribarbis (planktivorous, Serrasalmus maculatus and Hoplias malabaricus (piscivorous, Iheringichthys labrosus (benthophagous and Hypostomus commersonii (detritivorous and related it with the body size and feeding habits of these species. The species of Parapimelodus and H. commersonii showed long, filiform and closely spaced gill rakers, similar to those of species that use the gill rakers as a filter to assist in the retention of small particles. The widely spaced gill rakers of I. labrosus probably allow the retention of insect larvae, but not particles of inorganic matter. In H. malabaricus and S. maculatus the gill rakers are most likely related to prey capture and swallowing, as observed in other piscivorous species. In general, gill raker length and the distance between gill rakers have a positive relationship with fish length. The gill rakers show adaptations related to the diet of the fish, but morphological variation may occur even between species whose feeding habits are the same.

  4. Comparative study on gill morphology of gastropods from Moreton Bay, Queensland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eertman, R.H.M.

    1996-01-01

    This paper reports the gill morphology of seven common gastropods from Moreton Bay, southeastern Queensland, to test the level of difference in gill structure between major taxa. The investigated species include representatives of the clades Patellogastropoda, Neritimorpha and Vetigastropda as well

  5. Effect of season and age on Indian red jungle fowl (Gallus gallus murghi) semen characteristics: A 4-year retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakha, B A; Ansari, M S; Akhter, S; Blesbois, E

    2017-09-01

    The reproductive potential of the adult males is expected to vary with age/season and largely differ not only in closely related avian species but even in subspecies, breeds and/or strains of the same species. Thus, it is pre-requisite to have knowledge of seminal parameters to achieve maximum production potential of at-risk species for ex situ in vitro conservation programs. A 4-year study was designed to evaluate the effect of age and season (spring, summer, autumn and winter) on semen characteristics of Indian red jungle fowl (Gallus gallus murghi) in a retrospective manner. Semen ejaculates (n = 1148) were regularly collected from eight adult cocks 6 to 54 months of age. Quantitative and qualitative semen parameters viz; volume (μL), concentration (1 × 10 9  mL -1 ), total sperm number per ejaculate (1 × 10 9  mL -1 ), motility (%), viability (%), plasma membrane integrity (%), acrosome integrity (%) and semen quality factor were recorded. A chronological increasing trend with age of most sperm quantitative and qualitative traits (semen volume, sperm concentration, total sperm number per ejaculate, plasma membrane integrity, viability, acrosomal integrity and semen quality factor) was observed. The highest values were observed at four years of age (P semen ejaculates of highest quality achieved for semen banking at the age of four year in the spring season. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Asymptomatic Knees in Collegiate Basketball Players: The Effect of One Season of Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, George P; Vogelsong, Melissa A; Staroswiecki, Ernesto; Gold, Garry E; Safran, Marc R

    2016-11-01

    To determine the prevalence of abnormal structural findings using 3.0-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the asymptomatic knees of male and female collegiate basketball players before and after a season of high-intensity basketball. Institutional review board-approved prospective case series. Asymptomatic knees of 24 NCAA Division I collegiate basketball players (12 male, 12 female) were imaged using a 3.0-T MRI scanner before and after the end of the competitive season. Three subjects did not undergo scanning after the season. Images were evaluated for prepatellar bursitis, fat pad edema, patellar and quadriceps tendinopathy, bone marrow edema, and articular cartilage and meniscal injury. Every knee imaged had at least 1 structural abnormality both preseason and postseason. A high preseason and postseason prevalence of fat pad edema (75% and 81%), patellar tendinopathy (83% and 90%), and quadriceps tendinopathy (75% and 90%) was seen. Intrameniscal signal change was observed in 50% preseason knees and 62% of postseason knees, but no discrete tears were found. Bone marrow edema was seen in 75% and 86% of knees in the preseason and postseason, respectively. Cartilage findings were observed in 71% and 81% of knees in the preseason and postseason, respectively. The cartilage injury score increased significantly in the postseason compared with the preseason (P = 0.0009). A high prevalence of abnormal knee MRI findings was observed in a population of asymptomatic young elite athletes. These preliminary data suggest that high-intensity basketball may have potentially deleterious effects on articular cartilage.

  7. Effect of seasonality on chemical composition and antibacterial and anticandida activities of Argentine propolis. Design of a topical formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isla, María Inés; Dantur, Yanina; Salas, Ana; Danert, Carolina; Zampini, Catiana; Arias, Myriam; Ordóñez, Roxana; Maldonado, Luis; Bedascarrasbure, Enrique; Nieva Moreno, María Inés

    2012-10-01

    The effect of seasonality on Argentine propolis collected during one year on its phenolic and flavonoid content and on the growth of Gram-positive and Gram-negative antibiotic resistant bacteria and Candida species was evaluated. Extracts of propolis samples collected in the summer and spring showed higher phenolic and flavonoid contents than the samples collected in other seasons (5.86 to 6.06 mg GAE/mL and 3.77 to 4.23 mg QE/mL, respectively). The propolis collected in summer and autumn showed higher antibacterial activity (30 microg/mL) than the other samples (MIC values between 30 and 120 microg/mL). No antibacterial activity was detected against Gram-negative bacteria. Also, these extracts were able to inhibit the development of five Candida species, with MFC values of 15-120 microg/mL. Pharmaceutical formulations containing the more active propolis extract were prepared. The hydrogel of acrylic acid polymer containing summer propolis extract as an antimicrobial agent showed microbiological, physical and functional stability during storage for 180 days. The pharmaceutical preparation, as well as the propolis extracts, was active against Candida sp. and antibiotic-multi-resistant Gram-positive bacteria. These results reveal that propolis samples collected by scraping in four seasons, especially in summer in Calingasta, San Juan, Argentina, can be used to obtain tinctures and hydrogels with antibacterial and antimycotic potential for topical use.

  8. Seasonal climate manipulations have only minor effects on litter decomposition rates and N dynamics but strong effects on litter P dynamics of sub-arctic bog species.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aerts, R.; Callaghan, T.V.; Dorrepaal, E.; van Logtestijn, R.S.P; Cornelissen, J.H.C.

    2012-01-01

    Litter decomposition and nutrient mineralization in high-latitude peatlands are constrained by low temperatures. So far, little is known about the effects of seasonal components of climate change (higher spring and summer temperatures, more snow which leads to higher winter soil temperatures) on

  9. Effects of a Changing Climate on Seasonal Variation in Natural Recharge of Unconfined Coastal Aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonellini, Marco; Nella Mollema, Pauline

    2013-04-01

    Irregular rainfall patterns throughout the year result in the discontinuous natural recharge of coastal aquifers, which has an effect on the size of freshwater lenses present in sandy deposits. The thickness of the freshwater lenses is important in the context of farmland salinization and coastal ecosystems survival. This study presents numerical models that simulate continuous and discontinuous recharge in sandy coastal aquifers and the thickness of resulting fresh water lenses under current and future climate scenarios. Temperature data for the period 1960-1990 from LOCCLIM FAO and from the IPCC SRES A1b scenario for 2070-2100, have been used to calculate the potential evapotranspiration. Potential recharge was defined as the difference between the precipitation and potential evapotranspiration in twelve locations around the world: Ameland (The Netherlands), Auckland and Wellington (New Zealand), Hong Kong, Ravenna (Italy), Mekong (Vietnam), Mumbai (India), New Jersey (USA), Nile Delta (Egypt), Kobe and Tokyo (Japan), and Singapore. These locations have shallow coastal aquifers along low lying coasts and comparable aquifer structure, which is the result of similar sediment supply and deposition in the Holocene as well as by the sea level changes from the last ice age to the present time. Particular attention has been paid to temporal variations of natural recharge that can vary from continuous recharge throughout the year to discontinuous recharge. The most dramatic reduction in the magnitude of potential annual recharge by the end of this century will occur at lower latitudes (Mumbai, Singapore, Hong Kong and Mekong). The most pronounced change in length of the dry period occurs for Kobe (Japan) and Singapore even though the total annual amount of recharge remains practically the same. The Influence of variable recharge on the size of freshwater lenses surrounded by saline water is simulated with the SEAWAT model. Models where the recharge is applied

  10. Salinity Regulates Claudin mRNA and Protein Expression in the Teleost Gill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tipsmark, Christian K; Baltzegar, David A; Ozden, Ozkan

    2008-01-01

    The teleost gill carries out NaCl uptake in fresh water (FW) and NaCl excretion in seawater (SW). This transformation with salinity requires close regulation of ion transporter capacity and epithelial permeability. This study investigates the regulation of tight junctional claudins during salinity...... was localized deep in the FW gill filament, whereas staining was found apically in SW gill. Claudin 4-like proteins are localized predominantly in the filament outer epithelial layer and staining appears more intense in gill of FW versus SW fish. Additionally, tilapia claudin 28a and 30 genes were characterized......, and mRNA expression was found to increase during FW acclimation. These studies are the first to detect putative claudin proteins in teleosts and show their localization and regulation with salinity in gill epithelium. The data indicate that claudins may be important in permeability changes associated...

  11. Effects of Global Warming on Predatory Bugs Supported by Data Across Geographic and Seasonal Climatic Gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuldiner-Harpaz, Tarryn; Coll, Moshe

    2013-01-01

    Global warming may affect species abundance and distribution, as well as temperature-dependent morphometric traits. In this study, we first used historical data to document changes in Orius (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae) species assemblage and individual morphometric traits over the past seven decades in Israel. We then tested whether these changes could have been temperature driven by searching for similar patterns across seasonal and geographic climatic gradients in a present survey. The historical records indicated a shift in the relative abundance of dominant Orius species; the relative abundance of O. albidipennis, a desert-adapted species, increased while that of O. laevigatus decreased in recent decades by 6 and 10–15 folds, respectively. These shifts coincided with an overall increase of up to 2.1°C in mean daily temperatures over the last 25 years in Israel. Similar trends were found in contemporary data across two other climatic gradients, seasonal and geographic; O. albidipennis dominated Orius assemblages under warm conditions. Finally, specimens collected in the present survey were significantly smaller than those from the 1980’s, corresponding to significantly smaller individuals collected now during warmer than colder seasons. Taken together, results provide strong support to the hypothesis that temperature is the most likely driver of the observed shifts in species composition and body sizes because (1) historical changes in both species assemblage and body size were associated with rising temperatures in the study region over the last few decades; and (2) similar changes were observed as a result of contemporary drivers that are associated with temperature. PMID:23805249

  12. Seasonal and Interannual variability of the Odden ice tongue and a study of environmental effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Comiso, Josefino C.; Wadhams, Peter; Pedersen, Leif Toudal

    2001-01-01

    quantified in terms of average concentration, standard deviation of ice concentrations, persistence, maximum extent, and anomalies in extent, and the results show vastly different formation characteristics and seasonalities during different years. The monthly average extents of the Odden are shown to have......, directly influencing size and shape and sometimes initiating the formation of Nordbukta. The Odden was most extensive in 1979, 1982, 1986 and 1997 and most persistent in 1988, 1989, and 1997 but did not appear in 1984, 1994. and 1995, suggesting decadal periodicity for the 20 year period. With the use...

  13. Immunohistochemical localization of inflammatory cells and cell cycle proteins in the gills of Loma salmonae infected rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Powell, M. D.; Yousaf, M. N.; Rasmussen, Karina Juhl

    2014-01-01

    Microsporidial gill diseases particularly those caused by Loma salmonae incur significant economic losses to the salmonid aquaculture industry. The gill responses to infection include the formation of xenomas and the acute hyperplastic inflammatory responses once the xenomas rupture releasing inf...

  14. The deconstruction of Gilles de la Tourette’s syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowan Voirrey Sandle

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The present deconstruction of Gilles de la Tourette’s Syndrome introduces this complex disorder using an existential paradigm. An analysis of the history of constructed reason and power highlights the assumptions of ‘disorder’ that infiltrate society and serves to critique predisposed thought with reference to Tourette’s. The review considers the representationalist theory of language and concepts within psychiatric discourse. A brief analysis of previous case studies shows Tourettic energy as part of the individual ‘self’ and introduces a comparison of Tourettic movement to more mutual human experience, such as music and poetry. Past research that explores preventative social interaction is introduced, which show positive advancements in treatment by challenging the conventions of internal etiology and which highlights the importance of reducing attached stigma.

  15. GILLES CLÉMENT: MANIFIESTO DEL TERCER PAISAJE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iñigo García-Odiaga

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN El pequeño libro que contiene el Manifiesto del Tercer Paisaje de Gilles Clément, parece intentar ocultar en la sencillez de su edición la revolución teórica y práctica que va desgranando el texto. Teórica por que centra la mirada sobre unos territorios abandonados, inciertos y desdibujados que el autor es capaz de clasificar, determinar y analizar. Y práctica porque planteadas las virtudes de estos territorios ocultos, apuesta por su confirmación y mantenimiento de forma precisa. Finalmente sólo cabe preguntarse si estas mismas reflexiones que Clément centra en el paisaje, no son también un camino posible para entender algunos de los interrogantes que plantea la ciudad contemporánea.

  16. The greening of the McGill Paleoclimate Model. Part I: Improved land surface scheme with vegetation dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yi; Mysak, Lawrence A.; Wang, Zhaomin [McGill University, Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, Global Environmental and Climate Change Centre (GEC3), Montreal, QC (Canada); Brovkin, Victor [Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK), Potsdam (Germany)

    2005-04-01

    The formulation of a new land surface scheme (LSS) with vegetation dynamics for coupling to the McGill Paleoclimate Model (MPM) is presented. This LSS has the following notable improvements over the old version: (1) parameterization of deciduous and evergreen trees by using the model's climatology and the output of the dynamic global vegetation model, VECODE (Brovkin et al. in Ecological Modelling 101:251-261 (1997), Global Biogeochemical Cycles 16(4):1139, (2002)); (2) parameterization of tree leaf budburst and leaf drop by using the model's climatology; (3) parameterization of the seasonal cycle of the grass leaf area index; (4) parameterization of the seasonal cycle of tree leaf area index by using the time-dependent growth of the leaves; (5) calculation of land surface albedo by using vegetation-related parameters, snow depth and the model's climatology. The results show considerable improvement of the model's simulation of the present-day climate as compared with that simulated in the original physically-based MPM. In particular, the strong seasonality of terrestrial vegetation and the associated land surface albedo variations are in good agreement with several satellite observations of these quantities. The application of this new version of the MPM (the ''green'' MPM) to Holocene millennial-scale climate changes is described in a companion paper, Part II. (orig.)

  17. Topoclimate effects on growing season length and montane conifer growth in complex terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, D. M.; Barnard, H. R.; Molotch, N. P.

    2017-05-01

    Spatial variability in the topoclimate-driven linkage between forest phenology and tree growth in complex terrain is poorly understood, limiting our understanding of how ecosystems function as a whole. To characterize the influence of topoclimate on phenology and growth, we determined the start, end, and length of the growing season (GSstart, GSend, and GSL, respectively) using the correlation between transpiration and evaporative demand, measured with sapflow. We then compared these metrics with stem relative basal area increment (relative BAI) at seven sites among elevation and aspects in a Colorado montane forest. As elevation increased, we found shorter GSL (-50 d km-1) due to later GSstart (40 d km-1) and earlier GSend (-10 d km-1). North-facing sites had a 21 d shorter GSL than south-facing sites at similar elevations (i.e. equal to 200 m elevation difference on a given aspect). Growing season length was positively correlated with relative BAI, explaining 83% of the variance. This study shows that topography exerts strong environmental controls on GSL and thus forest growth. Given the climate-related dependencies of these controls, the results presented here have important implications for ecosystem responses to changes in climate and highlight the need for improved phenology representation in complex terrain.

  18. Combined Effects of Nitrogen Concentration and Seasonal Changes on the Production of Lipids in Nannochloropsis oculata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Olofsson

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Instead of sole nutrient starvation to boost algal lipid production, we addressed nutrient limitation at two different seasons (autumn and spring during outdoor cultivation in flat panel photobioreactors. Lipid accumulation, biomass and lipid productivity and changes in fatty acid composition of Nannochloropsis oculata were investigated under nitrogen (N limitation (nitrate:phosphate N:P 5, N:P 2.5 molar ratio. N. oculata was able to maintain a high biomass productivity under N-limitation compared to N-sufficiency (N:P 20 at both seasons, which in spring resulted in nearly double lipid productivity under N-limited conditions (0.21 g L−1 day−1 compared to N-sufficiency (0.11 g L−1 day−1. Saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids increased from 76% to nearly 90% of total fatty acids in N-limited cultures. Higher biomass and lipid productivity in spring could, partly, be explained by higher irradiance, partly by greater harvesting rate (~30%. Our results indicate the potential for the production of algal high value products (i.e., polyunsaturated fatty acids during both N-sufficiency and N-limitation. To meet the sustainability challenges of algal biomass production, we propose a dual-system process: Closed photobioreactors producing biomass for high value products and inoculum for larger raceway ponds recycling waste/exhaust streams to produce bulk chemicals for fuel, feed and industrial material.

  19. Factors determining the reproductive potential of Pelibuey sheep: Effects of season and parturition on reproductive performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Reyna, A.; Ortega Rivas, E.; Murphy, B.D.

    1990-01-01

    The Pelibuey sheep in Mexico are known for their hardiness and reproductive capacity: as a result they represent a reliable source of animal protein especially at the village level. Although their reproductive parameters have been studied, little endocrinological information is available. The objectives of the present study were to characterize the annual reproductive cycle in the Pelibuey ram and ewe, and to study methods of shortening the interval from parturition to first oestrus in lactating post-partum ewes. Under conditions of nutrition and management prevailing in this study, season affected levels of testosterone and LH in the male and LH in the female. Season also influenced oestrous activity, the proportion of ewes ovulating per month and the mean ovulation rate per month. The results indicated that the majority of Pelibuey ewes cycle throughout the year but exhibit reduced gonadal activity during late winter. Pelibuey rams appear to have longer periods of reduced activity (during late autumn and winter), although testosterone levels suggest that rams return to their full reproductive activity earlier (late winter) than ewes. (author). 30 refs, 7 figs, 3 tabs

  20. Temporal, seasonal and weather effects on cycle volume: an ecological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tin Tin Sandar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cycling has the potential to provide health, environmental and economic benefits but the level of cycling is very low in New Zealand and many other countries. Adverse weather is often cited as a reason why people do not cycle. This study investigated temporal and seasonal variability in cycle volume and its association with weather in Auckland, New Zealand's largest city. Methods Two datasets were used: automated cycle count data collected on Tamaki Drive in Auckland by using ZELT Inductive Loop Eco-counters and weather data (gust speed, rain, temperature, sunshine duration available online from the National Climate Database. Analyses were undertaken using data collected over one year (1 January to 31 December 2009. Normalised cycle volumes were used in correlation and regression analyses to accommodate differences by hour of the day and day of the week and holiday. Results In 2009, 220,043 bicycles were recorded at the site. There were significant differences in mean hourly cycle volumes by hour of the day, day type and month of the year (p p Conclusions There are temporal and seasonal variations in cycle volume in Auckland and weather significantly influences hour-to-hour and day-to-day variations in cycle volume. Our findings will help inform future cycling promotion activities in Auckland.

  1. Gills scanning images of the seawater fish Eugerres brasilianus (Gerreidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daura Regina Eiras-Stofella

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The gills of the adult fish, Eugerres brasilianus (Gerreidae were analyzed in a scanning electron microscope. The stratified epithelium was uniform on all parts of the branchial arch. Concentric microridges were present on cells that form this epithelium and were mainly observed in the primary lamellae and pharyngeal region where mucous cells were also abundant. The ultrastructural features of E. brasilianus gills indicated that this was not a filtering species, and that the feeding habit included mainly the intake of small organisms. The results presently obtained agreed with other literature data which determined the feeding habit of this species by means of stomach content analysis and other aspects.Peixes adultos da espécie Eugerres brasilianus (Gerreidae tiveram suas brânquias analisadas em microscópio eletrônico de varredura. O epitélio de revestimento é uniforme em todas as porções dos arcos. É formado por células com micropregas concêntricas principalmente nas lamelas primárias e na região faríngea, locais onde são abundantes as células que secretam muco. A caracterização ultra-estrutural das brânquias de E. brasilianus indica que a espécie não é filtradora e que em sua alimentação deve predominar a ingestão de pequenos organismos. Esses resultados estão de acordo com os dados da literatura que determinam o hábito alimentar da espécie através de análises de conteúdo estomacal e outros aspectos.

  2. Biodegradation of carbamate pesticides by natural river biofilms in different seasons and their effects on biofilm community structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tien, Chien-Jung; Lin, Mon-Chu; Chiu, Wan-Hsin; Chen, Colin S.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the ability of natural river biofilms from different seasons to degrade the carbamate pesticides methomyl, carbaryl and carbofuran in single and multiple pesticide systems, and the effects of these pesticides on algal and bacterial communities within biofilms. Spring biofilms had the lowest biomass of algae and bacteria but showed the highest methomyl degradation (>99%) and dissipation rates, suggesting that they might contain microorganisms with high methomyl degradation abilities. Degradation of carbofuran (54.1–59.5%) by biofilms in four seasons was similar, but low degradation of carbaryl (0–27.5%) was observed. The coexistence of other pesticides was found to cause certain effects on pesticide degradation and primarily resulted in lower diversity of diatoms and bacteria than when using a single pesticide. The tolerant diatoms and bacteria potentially having the ability to degrade test pesticides were identified. River biofilms could be suitable biomaterials or used to isolate degraders for bioremediating pesticide-contaminated water. -- Highlights: •Natural river biofilms showed high ability to degrade methomyl and carbofuran. •The presence of other pesticides caused certain effects on pesticide degradation. •Carbamate pesticides caused adverse effects on communities of diatoms and bacteria. •The tolerant diatoms and bacteria were found as potential pesticide-degraders. -- Biodegradation of carbamate pesticides by river biofilms

  3. The effectiveness of seasonal trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine in preventing laboratory confirmed influenza hospitalisations in Auckland, New Zealand in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Nikki; Pierse, Nevil; Bissielo, Ange; Huang, Q Sue; Baker, Michael G; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Kelly, Heath

    2014-06-17

    Few studies report the effectiveness of trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) in preventing hospitalisation for influenza-confirmed respiratory infections. Using a prospective surveillance platform, this study reports the first such estimate from a well-defined ethnically diverse population in New Zealand (NZ). A case test-negative design was used to estimate propensity adjusted vaccine effectiveness. Patients with a severe acute respiratory infection (SARI), defined as a patient of any age requiring hospitalisation with a history of a fever or a measured temperature ≥38°C and cough and onset within the past 7 days, admitted to public hospitals in South and Central Auckland were eligible for inclusion in the study. Cases were SARI patients who tested positive for influenza, while non-cases (controls) were SARI patients who tested negative. Results were adjusted for the propensity to be vaccinated and the timing of the influenza season. The propensity and season adjusted vaccine effectiveness (VE) was estimated as 39% (95% CI 16;56). The VE point estimate against influenza A (H1N1) was lower than for influenza B or influenza A (H3N2) but confidence intervals were wide and overlapping. Estimated VE was 59% (95% CI 26;77) in patients aged 45-64 years but only 8% (-78;53) in those aged 65 years and above. Prospective surveillance for SARI has been successfully established in NZ. This study for the first year, the 2012 influenza season, has shown low to moderate protection by TIV against influenza positive hospitalisation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The effectiveness of seasonal trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine in preventing laboratory confirmed influenza hospitalisations in Auckland, New Zealand in 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Nikki; Pierse, Nevil; Bissielo, Ange; Huang, Q Sue; Baker, Michael; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Kelly, Heath

    2015-01-01

    Background Few studies report the effectiveness of trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) in preventing hospitalisation for influenza-confirmed respiratory infections. Using a prospective surveillance platform, this study reports the first such estimate from a well-defined ethnically diverse population in New Zealand (NZ). Methods A case test-negative study was used to estimate propensity adjusted vaccine effectiveness. Patients with a severe acute respiratory infection (SARI), defined as a patient of any age requiring hospitalization with a history of a fever or a measured temperature ≥38°C and cough and onset within the past 7 days, admitted to public hospitals in Central, South and East Auckland were eligible for inclusion in the study. Cases were SARI patients who tested positive for influenza, while non-cases (controls) were SARI patients who tested negative. Results were adjusted for the propensity to be vaccinated and the timing of the influenza season Results The propensity and season adjusted vaccine effectiveness (VE) was estimated as 37% (95% CI 18;51). The VE point estimate against influenza A (H1N1) was higher than for influenza B or influenza A (H3N2) but confidence intervals were wide and overlapping. Estimated VE was 51% (95% CI 28;67) in patients aged 18-64 years but only 6% (95% CI -51;42) in those aged 65 years and above. Conclusion Prospective surveillance for SARI has been successfully established in NZ . This study for the first year, the 2012 influenza season, has shown low to moderate protection by TIV against hospitalisation for laboratory-confirmed influenza. PMID:24768730

  5. Comet assay in gill cells of Prochilodus lineatus exposed in vivo to cypermethrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poletta, G L; Gigena, F; Loteste, A; Parma, M J; Kleinsorge, E C; Simoniello, M F

    2013-11-01

    Agricultural chemicals can induce genetic alterations on aquatic organisms that have been associated with effects on growth, reproduction and population dynamics. The evaluation of DNA damage in fish using the comet assay (CA) frequently involves the utilization of erythrocytes. However, epithelial gill cells (EGC) can be more sensitive, as they are constantly dividing and in direct contact with potentially stressing compounds from the aquatic environment. The aim of the present study was to evaluate (1) the sensitivity and suitability of epithelial gill cells of Prochilodus lineatus in response to different genotoxic agents through the application of the CA, (2) the induction of DNA damage in this cell population after in vivo exposure to cypermethrin. Baseline value of the CA damage index (DI) for EGC of juvenile P. lineatus was 144.68±5.69. Damage increased in a dose-dependent manner after in vitro exposure of EGC to methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) and H2O2, two known genotoxic agents. In vivo exposure of fish to cypermethrin induced a significant increase in DNA DI of EGC at 0.150μg/l (DI: 239.62±6.21) and 0.300μg/l (270.63±2.09) compared to control (150.25±4.38) but no effect was observed at 0.075μg/l (168.50±10.77). This study shows that EGC of this species are sensitive for the application of the CA, demonstrating DNA damage in response to alkylation (MMS), oxidative damage (H2O2), and to the insecticide cypermethryn. These data, together with our previous study on DNA damage induction on erythrocytes of this species, provides useful information for future work involving biomonitoring in regions where P. lineatus is naturally exposed to pesticides and other genotoxic agents. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Natural mineral particles are cytotoxic to rainbow trout gill epithelial cells in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Michel

    Full Text Available Worldwide increases in fluvial fine sediment are a threat to aquatic animal health. Fluvial fine sediment is always a mixture of particles whose mineralogical composition differs depending on the sediment source and catchment area geology. Nonetheless, whether particle impact in aquatic organisms differs between mineral species remains to be investigated. This study applied an in vitro approach to evaluate cytotoxicity and uptake of four common fluvial mineral particles (quartz, feldspar, mica, and kaolin; concentrations: 10, 50, 250 mg L(-1 in the rainbow trout epithelial gill cell line RTgill-W1. Cells were exposed for 24, 48, 72, and 96 h. Cytotoxicity assays for cell membrane integrity (propidium iodide assay, oxidative stress (H2DCF-DA assay, and metabolic activity (MTT assay were applied. These assays were complemented with cell counts and transmission electron microscopy. Regardless of mineral species, particles ≤ 2 µm in diameter were taken up by the cells, suggesting that particles of all mineral species came into contact and interacted with the cells. Not all particles, however, caused strong cytotoxicity: Among all assays the tectosilicates quartz and feldspar caused sporadic maximum changes of 0.8-1.2-fold compared to controls. In contrast, cytotoxicity of the clay particles was distinctly stronger and even differed between the two particle types: mica induced concentration-dependent increases in free radicals, with consistent 1.6-1.8-fold-changes at the 250 mg L(-1 concentration, and a dilated endoplasmic reticulum. Kaolin caused concentration-dependent increases in cell membrane damage, with consistent 1.3-1.6-fold increases at the 250 mg L(-1 concentration. All effects occurred in the presence or absence of 10% fetal bovine serum. Cell numbers per se were marginally affected. Results indicate that (i. natural mineral particles can be cytotoxic to gill epithelial cells, (ii. their cytotoxic potential differs between mineral

  7. The effective mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions from rice paddies without compromising yield by early-season drainage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Syed Faiz-Ul; van Groenigen, Jan Willem; Jensen, Lars Stoumann

    2018-01-01

    Global rice production systems face two opposing challenges: the need to increase production to accommodate the world's growing population while simultaneously reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Adaptations to drainage regimes are one of the most promising options for methane mitigation...... only. A combination of (short or long) ED drainage and one MD drainage episode was found to be the most effective in mitigating CH4 emissions without negatively affecting yield. In particular, compared with CF, the long early-season drainage treatments LE+SM and LE+LM significantly (p

  8. Impact of lengthening open water season on food security in Alaska coastal communities: Global impacts may outweigh local "frontline" effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolph, R.; Mahoney, A. R.

    2015-12-01

    Using ice concentration data from the Alaska Sea Ice Atlas from 1953-2013 for selected communities in Alaska, we find a consistent trend toward later freeze up and earlier breakup, leading a lengthened open water period. Such changes are often considered to bring a variety of "frontline" local impacts to Arctic coastal communities such as increased rates of coastal erosion. However, direct consequences of these changes to local food security (e.g. through impacts on subsistence activities and marine transport of goods) may be outweighed at least in the short term by the effects of large scale Arctic sea ice change coupled with global oil markets. For example, a later freeze-up might delay local hunters' transition from boats to snow-machines, but whether this trend will affect hunting success, especially in the next few years, is uncertain. Likewise, the magnitude of change in open water season length is unlikely to be sufficient to increase the frequency with which communities are served by barges. However, an expanding open water season throughout the Arctic has implications for the global economy, which can have indirect effects on local communities. In the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas, where rapid sea ice change has been accompanied by increased interest in oil and gas development, the U.S. Bureau of Ocean Energy Management currently requires drilling operations to cease 38 days prior to freeze up. Taking this into account, the lengthening open water season has effectively extended the drilling season for oil companies by 184% since the 1950s. If oil development goes ahead, local communities will likely experience a range of indirect impacts on food security due to increased vessel traffic and demand on infrastructure coupled with changes in local economies and employment opportunities. Increased likelihood of an oil spill in coastal waters also poses a significant threat to local food security. Thus, while Arctic coastal communities are already experiencing

  9. Seasonal Effects of Habitat on Sources and Rates of Snowshoe Hare Predation in Alaskan Boreal Forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dashiell Feierabend

    Full Text Available Survival and predation of snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus has been widely studied, yet there has been little quantification of the changes in vulnerability of hares to specific predators that may result from seasonal changes in vegetation and cover. We investigated survival and causes of mortalities of snowshoe hares during the late increase, peak, and decline of a population in interior Alaska. From June 2008 to May 2012, we radio-tagged 288 adult and older juvenile hares in early successional and black spruce (Picea mariana forests and, using known-fate methods in program MARK, evaluated 85 survival models that included variables for sex, age, and body condition of hares, as well as trapping site, month, season, year, snowfall, snow depth, and air temperature. We compared the models using Akaike's information criterion with correction for small sample size. Model results indicated that month, capture site, and body condition were the most important variables in explaining survival rates. Survival was highest in July, and more generally during summer, when alternative prey was available to predators of hares. Low survival rates coincided with molting periods, breeding activity in the spring, and the introduction of juveniles to the sample population in the fall. We identified predation as the cause of mortality in 86% of hare deaths. When the source of predation could be determined, hares were killed more often by goshawks (Accipiter gentilis than other predators in early successional forest (30%, and more often by lynx (Lynx canadensis than other predators in black spruce forest (31%. Great horned owls (Bubo virginianus and coyotes (Canis latrans represented smaller proportions of hare predation, and non-predatory causes were a minor source (3% of mortality. Because hares rely on vegetative cover for concealment from predators, we measured cover in predation sites and habitats that the hares occupied and concluded that habitat type had a

  10. D1-like dopamine receptors downregulate Na+-K+-ATPase activity and increase cAMP production in the posterior gills of the blue crab Callinectes sapidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaldo, Francis B; Villar, Van Anthony M; Konkalmatt, Prasad R; Owens, Shaun A; Asico, Laureano D; Jones, John E; Yang, Jian; Lovett, Donald L; Armando, Ines; Jose, Pedro A; Concepcion, Gisela P

    2014-09-15

    Dopamine-mediated regulation of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity in the posterior gills of some crustaceans has been reported to be involved in osmoregulation. The dopamine receptors of invertebrates are classified into three groups based on their structure and pharmacology: D1- and D2-like receptors and a distinct invertebrate receptor subtype (INDR). We tested the hypothesis that a D1-like receptor is expressed in the blue crab Callinectes sapidus and regulates Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity. RT-PCR, using degenerate primers, showed the presence of D1βR mRNA in the posterior gill. The blue crab posterior gills showed positive immunostaining for a dopamine D5 receptor (D5R or D1βR) antibody in the basolateral membrane and cytoplasm. Confocal microscopy showed colocalization of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase and D1βR in the basolateral membrane. To determine the effect of D1-like receptor stimulation on Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity, intact crabs acclimated to low salinity for 6 days were given an intracardiac infusion of the D1-like receptor agonist fenoldopam, with or without the D1-like receptor antagonist SCH23390. Fenoldopam increased cAMP production twofold and decreased Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity by 50% in the posterior gills. This effect was blocked by coinfusion with SCH23390, which had no effect on Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity by itself. Fenoldopam minimally decreased D1βR protein expression (10%) but did not affect Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase α-subunit protein expression. This study shows the presence of functional D1βR in the posterior gills of euryhaline crabs chronically exposed to low salinity and highlights the evolutionarily conserved function of the dopamine receptors on sodium homeostasis. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  11. Biochar Application in Malaysian Sandy and Acid Sulfate Soils: Soil Amelioration Effects and Improved Crop Production over Two Cropping Seasons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theeba Manickam

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of biochar as an agricultural soil improvement was tested in acid sulfate and sandy soils from Malaysia, cropped with rice and corn. Malaysia has an abundance of waste rice husks that could be used to produce biochar. Rice husk biochar was produced in a gasifier at a local mill in Kelantan as well as in the laboratory using a controlled, specially designed, top lift up draft system (Belonio unit. Rice husk biochar was applied once to both soils at two doses (2% and 5%, in a pot set up that was carried out for two cropping seasons. Positive and significant crop yield effects were observed for both soils, biochars and crops. The yield effects varied with biochar type and dosage, with soil type and over the cropping seasons. The yield increases observed for the sandy soil were tentatively attributed to significant increases in plant-available water contents (from 4%–5% to 7%–8%. The yield effects in the acid sulfate soil were likely a consequence of a combination of (i alleviation of plant root stress by aluminum (Ca/Al molar ratios significantly increased, from around 1 to 3–5 and (ii increases in CEC. The agricultural benefits of rice husk biochar application to Malaysian soils holds promise for its future use.

  12. [Seasonal variations in the myocardial infarction incidence and possible effects of geomagnetic micropulsations on the cardiovascular system in humans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleĭmenova, N G; Kozyreva, O V; Breus, T K; Rapoport, S I

    2007-01-01

    The analysis of the ambulance calls in Moscow, related to myocardial infarction (85.000 events), sudden death (71.700 events), and hypertension crises (165.500 events) over the period of 1979-1981 demonstrated their clear seasonal variations with a profound summer minimum and a winter maximum. The same results were obtained in the analysis of statistical monthly data on sudden death from infarction in Bulgaria over the period of 15 years (1970-1985). However, there are a great number of clinical and statistical studies confirming the rises in the incidence of myocardial infarction, hypertension crise, and sudden death during geomagnetic disturbances, which have maximum occurrence near equinox, not in winter. In order to explain this contradiction, we suggested that one of critical factors that affect the human cardiovascular system is geomagnetic micropulsations Pc1 having the frequency comparable with the frequency of heart rate beatings and winter maximum in their occurrence. The results of a comparative analysis of data of ambulance calls in Moscow related to myocardial infarction and sudden death and the catalog of Pc1 observations at the geophysical observatory "Borok" (Yaroslavl region) are presented. It is shown that in approximately 70% of days with an anomalously large number of ambulance calls related to myocardial infarction, Pc1 micropulsations have been registered. The probability of simultaneous occurrence of myocardial infarction and Pc1 in the winter season was 1.5 times greater than their accidental coincidence. Moreover, it was found that in winter the effects of magnetic storms and Pc1 IM(A) were much higher than in summer. We suggested that one of possible reasons for the seasonal variations in the occurrence of myocardial infarction is an increase in the production of the pineal hormone melatonin in winter which leads to an unstable state of the human organism and an increase in its sensitivity to the effect of geomagnetic pulsations.

  13. Effect of Different Calcium Concentration in Contaminate Soil on 90S Accumulation by the Seasonal Vegetative Growth of Lettuce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodah, Z.; Makahle, M.; Al- Omari, M.; Al-Qawasmi, W.

    2004-01-01

    Pot experiment was conducted in greenhouse at National Center for Agriculture Research and Technology Transfer (NCARTT) farm in Baqa. To establish the effect of different calcium concentration in the contaminated soil on the 90 S accumulation by the seasonal vegetative growth of lettuce. The pots were distributed in split plot in RCBD design with four replicates. The main plots of experiment were four concentration of calcium (Ca ++ ) in the soil. The calcium soluble solution was applied and mixed with the soil. Four concentrations of calcium were 50, 100, 150 and 200 mg Ca /Kg. The sub main plots of experiment were four specific activities of Strontium-90. The contamination has been done with 90 S to the surface area of the soil after one week of planting. The specific activities of 90 S were: 40, 57, 73 and 89 Bq/Kg soil . The results indicate after 70 days of planting (duration of season), that the specific active of 90Sr in vegetative mass of plant (Lettuce) and in leached irrigation water at the end of season was nonsignificant increased with the increment of Ca concentration in the soil . The specific active of 90 Sr reached to 1.12 Bq/Kg in plant and to 1.13 Bq/ l in irrigation water. There was strong linear correlation between specific active of 90 Sr in vegetative mass of plant (Lettuce) with the increment of Ca concentration in the soil (r 2 = 94) , the similar results was observed for irrigation water (r 2 =88) . The distribution of specific active of 90 Sr in the soil, plant and irrigation water was not significant effected by the increasing of specific active of 90 Sr in contaminated soil and / or by increasing of Ca concentration in the soil. It was found that most of specific active of 90 Sr in all treatments were remained at the end of season in the soil (96.6-97.9%). The values of Stander Transfer Factor (TFs) for 90 Sr by plant or irrigation water weren't effected with increasing of specific active of 90 Sr in the soil .On contrary the increasing

  14. Simulation of climate-tick-host-landscape interactions: Effects of shifts in the seasonality of host population fluctuations on tick densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hsiao-Hsuan; Grant, W E; Teel, P D; Hamer, S A

    2015-12-01

    Tick vector systems are comprised of complex climate-tick-host-landscape interactions that are difficult to identify and estimate from empirical observations alone. We developed a spatially-explicit, individual-based model, parameterized to represent ecological conditions typical of the south-central United States, to examine effects of shifts in the seasonal occurrence of fluctuations of host densities on tick densities. Simulated shifts in the seasonal occurrence of periods of high and low host densities affected both the magnitude of unfed tick densities and the seasonality of tick development. When shifting the seasonal densities of all size classes of hosts (small, medium, and large) synchronously, densities of nymphs were affected more by smaller shifts away from the baseline host seasonality than were densities of larval and adult life stages. When shifting the seasonal densities of only a single size-class of hosts while holding other size classes at their baseline levels, densities of larval, nymph, and adult life stages responded differently. Shifting seasonal densities of any single host-class earlier resulted in a greater increase in adult tick density than when seasonal densities of all host classes were shifted earlier simultaneously. The mean densities of tick life stages associated with shifts in host densities resulted from system-level interactions of host availability with tick phenology. For example, shifting the seasonality of all hosts ten weeks earlier resulted in an approximately 30% increase in the relative degree of temporal co-occurrence of actively host-seeking ticks and hosts compared to baseline, whereas shifting the seasonality of all hosts ten weeks later resulted in an approximately 70% decrease compared to baseline. Differences among scenarios in the overall presence of active host-seeking ticks in the system were due primarily to the degree of co-occurrence of periods of high densities of unfed ticks and periods of high densities

  15. Hormonal regulation of aquaporin 3: opposing actions of prolactin and cortisol in tilapia gill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breves, Jason P; Inokuchi, Mayu; Yamaguchi, Yoko; Seale, Andre P; Hunt, Bethany L; Watanabe, Soichi; Lerner, Darren T; Kaneko, Toyoji; Grau, E Gordon

    2016-09-01

    Aquaporins (Aqps) are expressed within key osmoregulatory tissues where they mediate the movement of water and selected solutes across cell membranes. We leveraged the functional plasticity of Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) gill epithelium to examine how Aqp3, an aquaglyceroporin, is regulated in response to osmoregulatory demands. Particular attention was paid to the actions of critical osmoregulatory hormones, namely, prolactin (Prl), growth hormone and cortisol. Branchial aqp3 mRNA levels were modulated following changes in environmental salinity, with enhanced aqp3 mRNA expression upon transfer from seawater to freshwater (FW). Accordingly, extensive Aqp3 immunoreactivity was localized to cell membranes of branchial epithelium in FW-acclimated animals. Upon transferring hypophysectomized tilapia to FW, we identified that a pituitary factor(s) is required for Aqp3 expression in FW. Replacement with ovine Prl (oPrl) was sufficient to stimulate Aqp3 expression in hypophysectomized animals held in FW, an effect blocked by coinjection with cortisol. Both oPrl and native tilapia Prls (tPrl177 and tPrl188) stimulated aqp3 in incubated gill filaments in a concentration-related manner. Consistent with in vivo responses, coincubation with cortisol blocked oPrl-stimulated aqp3 expression in vitro Our data indicate that Prl and cortisol act directly upon branchial epithelium to regulate Aqp3 in tilapia. Thus, within the context of the diverse actions of Prl on hydromineral balance in vertebrates, we define a new role for Prl as a regulator of Aqp expression. © 2016 Society for Endocrinology.

  16. On the structure of fish gill, with special reference to its absorptive and excretory function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oguri, Mikio

    1981-01-01

    The gill of fish is not only the respiratory organ, but also the absorptive and excretory one of various substances, such as pesticides, anesthetics and minerals including radionuclides. Branchial absorption of Ca, Cr, Zn, Sr and Hg, and dieldrin (a pesticide) has been demonstrated by the gill-perfusion experiments using eel and rainbow trout. Also, branchial excretion of Cl, Ca and Sr has been ascertained by the same method using eel. Therefore, the gill is an important organ in relation to the accumulation and metabolism of radionuclides in fishes. Compared with the kidney, another excretory organ in fish, the structure of fish gill is rather simple. Histologically, the gill lamella, main functional portion of gill, is enveloped with simple squamous epithelium on each side. Between these two thin layers, pilaster cells and lacuna of branchial capillary are recognized as tissue components. In the gills of marine fishes, well-developed salt-secreting cells are detectable at the basal area of gill lamella. The cytoplasm of these cells are acidophilic and abundant in mitochondria and tubular endoplasmic reticulum. The cells are also called chloride cells and said to be involved in the extra-renal excretion of Na and Cl took in by marine fishes. The important problem is whether the salt-secreting cells in marine fishes are also concerned with the branchial excretion of another minerals such as Ca, Sr, I and so on, or these minerals are excreted across the ordinal epithelial cells of gill lamella. To elucidate this, detailed investigatios are awaited with interest. (author)

  17. Evolution of the branchiostegal membrane and restricted gill openings in Actinopterygian fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farina, Stacy C; Near, Thomas J; Bemis, William E

    2015-06-01

    A phylogenetic survey is a powerful approach for investigating the evolutionary history of a morphological characteristic that has evolved numerous times without obvious functional implications. Restricted gill openings, an extreme modification of the branchiostegal membrane, are an example of such a characteristic. We examine the evolution of branchiostegal membrane morphology and highlight convergent evolution of restricted gill openings. We surveyed specimens from 433 families of actinopterygians for branchiostegal membrane morphology and measured head and body dimensions. We inferred a relaxed molecular clock phylogeny with branch length estimates based on nine nuclear genes sampled from 285 species that include all major lineages of Actinopterygii. We calculated marginal state reconstructions of four branchiostegal membrane conditions and found that restricted gill openings have evolved independently in at least 11 major actinopterygian clades, and the total number of independent origins of the trait is likely much higher. A principal component analysis revealed that fishes with restricted gill openings occupy a larger morphospace, as defined by our linear measurements, than do fishes with nonrestricted openings. We used a decision tree analysis of ecological data to determine if restricted gill openings are linked to certain environments. We found that fishes with restricted gill openings repeatedly occur under a variety of ecological conditions, although they are rare in open-ocean pelagic environments. We also tested seven ratios for their utility in distinguishing between fishes with and without restricted gill openings, and we propose a simple metric for quantifying restricted gill openings (RGO), defined as a ratio of the distance from the ventral midline to the gill opening relative to half the circumference of the head. Functional explanations for this specialized morphology likely differ within each clade, but its repeated evolution indicates a need

  18. Effects of a long-term disturbance on arthropods and vegetation in subalpine wetlands: manifestations of pack stock grazing in early versus mid-season.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey G Holmquist

    Full Text Available Conclusions regarding disturbance effects in high elevation or high latitude ecosystems based solely on infrequent, long-term sampling may be misleading, because the long winters may erase severe, short-term impacts at the height of the abbreviated growing season. We separated a long-term effects of pack stock grazing, manifested in early season prior to stock arrival, from b additional pack stock grazing effects that might become apparent during annual stock grazing, by use of paired grazed and control wet meadows that we sampled at the beginning and end of subalpine growing seasons. Control meadows had been closed to grazing for at least two decades, and meadow pairs were distributed across Sequoia National Park, California, USA. The study was thus effectively a landscape-scale, long-term manipulation of wetland grazing. We sampled arthropods at these remote sites and collected data on associated vegetation structure. Litter cover and depth, percent bare ground, and soil strength had negative responses to grazing. In contrast, fauna showed little response to grazing, and there were overall negative effects for only three arthropod families. Mid-season and long-term results were generally congruent, and the only indications of lower faunal diversity on mid-season grazed wetlands were trends of lower abundance across morphospecies and lower diversity for canopy fauna across assemblage metrics. Treatment x Season interactions almost absent. Thus impacts on vegetation structure only minimally cascaded into the arthropod assemblage and were not greatly intensified during the annual growing season. Differences between years, which were likely a response to divergent snowfall patterns, were more important than differences between early and mid-season. Reliance on either vegetation or faunal metrics exclusively would have yielded different conclusions; using both flora and fauna served to provide a more integrative view of ecosystem response.

  19. Effects of a long-term disturbance on arthropods and vegetation in subalpine wetlands: manifestations of pack stock grazing in early versus mid-season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmquist, Jeffrey G; Schmidt-Gengenbach, Jutta; Haultain, Sylvia A

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions regarding disturbance effects in high elevation or high latitude ecosystems based solely on infrequent, long-term sampling may be misleading, because the long winters may erase severe, short-term impacts at the height of the abbreviated growing season. We separated a) long-term effects of pack stock grazing, manifested in early season prior to stock arrival, from b) additional pack stock grazing effects that might become apparent during annual stock grazing, by use of paired grazed and control wet meadows that we sampled at the beginning and end of subalpine growing seasons. Control meadows had been closed to grazing for at least two decades, and meadow pairs were distributed across Sequoia National Park, California, USA. The study was thus effectively a landscape-scale, long-term manipulation of wetland grazing. We sampled arthropods at these remote sites and collected data on associated vegetation structure. Litter cover and depth, percent bare ground, and soil strength had negative responses to grazing. In contrast, fauna showed little response to grazing, and there were overall negative effects for only three arthropod families. Mid-season and long-term results were generally congruent, and the only indications of lower faunal diversity on mid-season grazed wetlands were trends of lower abundance across morphospecies and lower diversity for canopy fauna across assemblage metrics. Treatment x Season interactions almost absent. Thus impacts on vegetation structure only minimally cascaded into the arthropod assemblage and were not greatly intensified during the annual growing season. Differences between years, which were likely a response to divergent snowfall patterns, were more important than differences between early and mid-season. Reliance on either vegetation or faunal metrics exclusively would have yielded different conclusions; using both flora and fauna served to provide a more integrative view of ecosystem response.

  20. Land use and land use change effects on nitrous oxide emissions in the seasonally dry ecosystems of Zimbabwe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyamadzawo, G; Chirinda, Ngoni; Mapanda, F

    2012-01-01

    . The savanna woodlands cover over 95% of Zimbabwe’s forest area, and are divided into five woodland types: Acacia, miombo, mopane, teak (Baikiaea Plurijuga) and Terminalia-Combretaceae. This review is aimed at exploring the effects of land-use changes and land management practices on N2O emissions in Zimbabwe...... emissions were mainly concentrated in the wet season as N2O production is strongly enhanced by high soil moisture. During the dry season pyrogenic emissions were also important sources of N2O, contributing, an estimated 6.7 Gg N2O annually. Land use change in the form of biomass burning and conversion...... of emissions of N2O. Land-use change from savanna to agricultural production results in an immediate increase in N2O emissions. However, the emissions will decrease with time. The current estimates are associated with large uncertainties, thus, there is need for more detailed studies on the effects of land-use...

  1. An in vitro biotic ligand model (BLM) for silver binding to cultured gill epithelia of freshwater rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Bingsheng; Nichols, Joel; Playle, Richard C.; Wood, Chris M.

    2005-01-01

    'Reconstructed' gill epithelia on filter supports were grown in primary culture from dispersed gill cells of freshwater rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). This preparation contains both pavement cells and chloride cells, and after 7-9 days in culture, permits exposure of the apical surface to true freshwater while maintaining blood-like culture media on the basolateral surface, and exhibits a stable transepithelial resistance (TER) and transepithelial potential (TEP) under these conditions. These epithelia were used to develop a possible in vitro version of the biotic ligand model (BLM) for silver; the in vivo BLM uses short-term gill binding of the metal to predict acute silver toxicity as a function of freshwater chemistry. Radio-labeled silver ( 110m Ag as AgNO 3 ) was placed on the apical side (freshwater), and the appearance of 110m Ag in the epithelia (binding) and in the basolateral media (flux) over 3 h were monitored. Silver binding (greater than the approximate range 0-100 μg l -1 ) and silver flux were concentration-dependent with a 50% saturation point (apparent K d ) value of about 10 μg l -1 or 10 -7 M, very close to the 96-h LC50 in vivo in the same water chemistry. There were no adverse effects of silver on TER, TEP, or Na + , K + -ATPase activity, though the latter declined over longer exposures, as in vivo. Silver flux over 3 h was small ( + and dissolved organic carbon (humic acid) concentrations, increased by elevations in freshwater Cl - and reductions in pH, and insensitive to elevations in Ca 2+ . With the exception of the pH response, these effects were qualitatively and quantitatively similar to in vivo BLM responses. The results suggest that an in vitro BLM approach may provide a simple and cost-effective way for evaluating the protective effects of site-specific waters

  2. Effect of seasonal abiotic conditions and field margin habitat on the activity of Pandora neoaphidis inoculum on soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baverstock, J; Clark, S J; Pell, J K

    2008-03-01

    The ability of the aphid pathogenic fungus Pandora neoaphidis to remain active in the absence of a resting stage through a combination of continuous infection and as conidia deposited on soil was assessed alongside the potential for planted field margins to act as a refuge for the fungus. P. neoaphidis was able to infect the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, when maintained under controlled conditions that simulated those that occur seasonally in the UK. Although there was a significant inverse relationship between temperature and time-to-kill, with death occurring after 4.2, 6.9 and 13.6 days when maintained under fluctuating summer, autumn and winter temperatures, respectively, there were no additional statistically significant effects of photoperiod. The activity of inoculum on soil was indirectly assessed by baiting with A. pisum. Under controlled conditions P. neoaphidis remained active on soil and was able to infect aphids for up to 80 days. However, the percentage of aphids that became infected decreased from 76% on day 1 to 11% on day 80. Whereas there was little difference in the activity of conidia that had been maintained at 4 degrees C and 10 degrees C, activity at 18 degrees C was considerably reduced. Under field conditions the activity of inoculum was strongly influenced by season. On day 49 there was little or no activity during spring, summer or winter. However, during autumn a mean proportion of 0.08 aphids still became infected with P. neoaphidis. Margin type did not affect the activity of conidia nor was there a difference in activity between blocks that had regenerated naturally and those that had been planted. These results suggest that P. neoaphidis can infect aphids and remain active on soil under the abiotic conditions that occur seasonally in the UK and that this fungus may be able to persist annually without a resting stage.

  3. Effects of five-element music therapy on elderly people with seasonal affective disorder in a Chinese nursing home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xifang; Niu, Xin; Feng, Qianjin; Liu, Yaming

    2014-04-01

    To explore the effects of five-element music therapy on elderly patients with seasonal affective disorder in a Chinese nursing home. The patients (n = 50) were recruited from a Shijingshan district nursing home in Beijing, China. They were randomly assigned to two groups, a treatment group and a control group, with 25 participants in each group. The patients received music therapy for 1-2 h each week over an 8-week period. The music therapy involved four phases: introduction, activities, listening to the Chinese five-element music, and a concluding phase. The participants in the control group did not listen to the five-element music. This study consisted of two parts: (a) a qualitative study that used focus groups to understand the feelings of the patients with seasonal affective disorder; (b) a quantitative study that involved administration of the self-rating depression scale (SDS) and Hamilton depression scale (HAMD) before and after treatment. (a) Qualitative analysis results: strength derived from the five-element group music therapy and emotional adjustment. The five-element group music therapy can reduce patients' psychological distress and let them feel inner peace and enhance their life satisfaction. (b) No significant difference in SDS and HAMD scores was found between the two groups (P > 0.05) prior to treatment. After treatment, the mean SDS score of the control group was 49.9 +/- 18.8, while the treatment group's score was 40.2 +/- 18.1. The HAMD score of the control group was 11.2 +/-3.1, and the treatment group's score was 8.8 +/- 4.9. Following 8 weeks of music therapy, the SDS and HAMD scores of the treatment group were significantly lower than those for the control group (P music therapy alleviated the symptoms of seasonal affective disorder in the elderly patients.

  4. The effect of season and latitude on in vitro vitamin D formation by sunlight in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettifor, J M; Moodley, G P; Hough, F S; Koch, H; Chen, T; Lu, Z; Holick, M F

    1996-10-01

    To assess the effect of season and latitude on the in vitro formation of previtamin D3 and vitamin D3 from 7-dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC) by sunlight in two cities in South Africa, Cape Town and Johannesburg. An in vitro study utilising vials containing 7-DHC, which were exposed to sunlight for a period of 1 hour between 8:00 and 17:00 on 1 day a month for a year. Previtamin D3 and vitamin D3 were separated from 7-DHC by high-performance liquid chromatography, and the amounts formed were calculated with the use of external standards. A marked seasonal variation in vitamin D3 production was noted in Cape Town, with very little being formed during the winter months of April through September. In Johannesburg, in vitro formation changed little throughout the year, and was similar to that found in Cape Town during the summer. During sunlit hours, vitamin D3 production was maximal at midday and small quantities were still being formed between 8:00 and 9:00, and between 16:00 and 17:00 during the summer. During winter in Cape Town, peak formation at midday was less than one-third of that in Johannesburg, and negligible amounts were formed before 10:00 and after 15:00. The previously documented seasonal variation in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D recorded in patients in Johannesburg is probably a consequence of the increased clothing worn and the decreased time spent out of doors during winter, rather than decreased ultraviolet radiation reaching the earth. The limited in vitro formation of vitamin D3 during winter in Cape Town may have clinical implications insofar as the management of metabolic bone diseases like rickets and osteoporosis is concerned. Breast-fed infants resident in the area are likely to suffer from vitamin D deficiency rickets unless vitamin D supplements are provided, or the mothers are encouraged to take their children out of doors.

  5. Medical Genetics at McGill: The History of a Pioneering Research Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canning, Christopher; Weisz, George; Tone, Andrea; Cambrosio, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    The McGill Group in Medical Genetics was formed in 1972, supported by the Medical Research Council and successor Canadian Institutes for Health Research until September 2009, making it the longest active biomedical research group in the history of Canada. We document the history of the McGill Group and situate its research within a broader history of medical genetics. Drawing on original oral histories with the Group's members, surviving documents, and archival materials, we explore how the Group's development was structured around epistemological trends in medical genetics, policy choices made by research agencies, and the development of genetics at McGill University and its hospitals.

  6. Seasonal effect and source apportionment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in PM2.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Md Firoz; Latif, Mohd Talib; Lim, Chee Hou; Amil, Norhaniza; Jaafar, Shoffian Amin; Dominick, Doreena; Mohd Nadzir, Mohd Shahrul; Sahani, Mazrura; Tahir, Norhayati Mohd

    2015-04-01

    This study aims to investigate distribution and sources of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) bound to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) captured in a semi-urban area in Malaysia during different seasons, and to assess their health risks. PM2.5 samples were collected using a high volume air sampler on quartz filter paper at a flow rate of 1 m3 min-1 for 24 h. PAHs on the filter paper were extracted with dichloromethane (DCM) using an ultrasonic centrifuge solid-phase extraction method and measured by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. The results showed that the range of PAHs concentrations in the study period was between 0.21 and 12.08 ng m-3. The concentrations of PAHs were higher during the south-west monsoon (0.21-12.08 ng m-3) compared to the north-east monsoon (0.68-3.80 ng m-3). The high molecular weight (HMW) PAHs (≥5 ring) are significantly prominent (>70%) compared to the low molecular weight (LMW) PAHs (≤4 ring) in PM2.5. The Spearman correlation indicates that the LMW and HMW PAHs correlate strongly among themselves. The diagnostic ratios (DRs) of I[c]P/I[c]P + BgP and B[a]P/B[g]P suggest that the HMW PAHs originated from fuel combustion sources. The source apportionment analysis of PAHs was resolved using DRs-positive matrix factorization (PMF)-multiple linear regression (MLR). The main sources identified were (a) gasoline combustion (65%), (b) diesel and heavy oil combustion (19%) and (c) natural gas and coal burning (15%). The health risk evaluation, by means of the lifetime lung cancer risk (LLCR), showed no potential carcinogenic risk from the airborne BaPeq (which represents total PAHs at the present study area in Malaysia). The seasonal LLCR showed that the carcinogenic risk of total PAHs were two fold higher during south-westerly monsoon compared to north-easterly monsoon.

  7. NEW SEASON NEW HOPES: OFF-SEASON OPTIMISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oguz Ersan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available While literature on the relation between on-field sports performance and stock returns is ample, there is very limited evidence on off-season stage. Constituting around 3 months, off-seasons do not only occupy a significant part of the year but also represent totally different characteristics than on-seasons. They lack the periodic, unambiguous news events in on-seasons (match results, instead they are associated with highly uncertain transfer news and rumors. We show that this distinction has several impacts on the stock market performances of soccer clubs. Most notably, off-seasons generate substantially higher (excess returns. After controlling for other variables, the estimated effect of off-season periods is as high as 38.75%, annually. In line with several seminal studies, we link this fact to increased optimism and betting behavior through uncertain periods; and periods prior to the start of a new calendar (in our case, new season. For all of the examined 7 clubs (3 from Italy and 4 from Turkey, mean excess returns over the market are positive (negative in off-seasons (on-seasons. On-seasons are associated with increased trading activity due to more frequent news. Stocks of Italian clubs are evidently more volatile through off-seasons while volatility results for the stocks of Turkish clubs are not consistent.

  8. Seasonal climate manipulations have only minor effects on litter decomposition rates and N dynamics but strong effects on litter P dynamics of sub-arctic bog species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerts, R; Callaghan, T V; Dorrepaal, E; van Logtestijn, R S P; Cornelissen, J H C

    2012-11-01

    Litter decomposition and nutrient mineralization in high-latitude peatlands are constrained by low temperatures. So far, little is known about the effects of seasonal components of climate change (higher spring and summer temperatures, more snow which leads to higher winter soil temperatures) on these processes. In a 4-year field experiment, we manipulated these seasonal components in a sub-arctic bog and studied the effects on the decomposition and N and P dynamics of leaf litter of Calamagrostis lapponica, Betula nana, and Rubus chamaemorus, incubated both in a common ambient environment and in the treatment plots. Mass loss in the controls increased in the order Calamagrostis Litter chemistry showed within each incubation environment only a few and species-specific responses. Compared to the interspecific differences, they resulted in only moderate climate treatment effects on mass loss and these differed among seasons and species. Neither N nor P mineralization in the litter were affected by the incubation environment. Remarkably, for all species, no net N mineralization had occurred in any of the treatments during 4 years. Species differed in P-release patterns, and summer warming strongly stimulated P release for all species. Thus, moderate changes in summer temperatures and/or winter snow addition have limited effects on litter decomposition rates and N dynamics, but summer warming does stimulate litter P release. As a result, N-limitation of plant growth in this sub-arctic bog may be sustained or even further promoted.

  9. Evolutionary history of the European whitefish Coregonus lavaretus (L.) species complex as inferred from mtDNA phylogeography and gill-raker numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Østbye, K; Bernatchez, L; Naesje, T F; Himberg, K-J M; Hindar, K

    2005-12-01

    We compared mitochondrial DNA and gill-raker number variation in populations of the European whitefish Coregonus lavaretus (L.) species complex to illuminate their evolutionary history, and discuss mechanisms behind diversification. Using single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) and sequencing 528 bp of combined parts of the cytochrome oxidase b (cyt b) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 3 (ND3) mithochondrial DNA (mtDNA) regions, we documented phylogeographic relationships among populations and phylogeny of mtDNA haplotypes. Demographic events behind geographical distribution of haplotypes were inferred using nested clade analysis (NCA) and mismatch distribution. Concordance between operational taxonomical groups,