WorldWideScience

Sample records for ghz ii imaging

  1. FIRST INTERFEROMETRIC IMAGES OF THE 36 GHz METHANOL MASERS IN THE DR21 COMPLEX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fish, Vincent L.; Muehlbrad, Talitha C.; Pratap, Preethi; Sjouwerman, Lorant O.; Strelnitski, Vladimir; Pihlstroem, Ylva M.; Bourke, Tyler L.

    2011-01-01

    Class I methanol masers are believed to be produced in the shock-excited environment around star-forming regions. Many authors have argued that the appearance of various subsets of class I masers may be indicative of specific evolutionary stages of star formation or excitation conditions. Until recently, however, no major interferometer was capable of imaging the important 36 GHz transition. We report on Expanded Very Large Array observations of the 36 GHz methanol masers and Submillimeter Array observations of the 229 GHz methanol masers in DR21(OH), DR21N, and DR21W. The distribution of 36 GHz masers in the outflow of DR21(OH) is similar to that of the other class I methanol transitions, with numerous multitransition spatial overlaps. At the site of the main continuum source in DR21(OH), class I masers at 36 and 229 GHz are found in virtual overlap with class II 6.7 GHz masers. To the south of the outflow, the 36 GHz masers are scattered over a large region but usually do not appear coincident with 44 GHz masers. In DR21W, we detect an 'S-curve' signature in Stokes V that implies a large value of the magnetic field strength if interpreted as due to Zeeman splitting, suggesting either that class I masers may exist at higher densities than previously believed or that the direct Zeeman interpretation of S-curve Stokes V profiles in class I masers may be incorrect. We find a diverse variety of different maser phenomena in these sources, suggestive of differing physical conditions among them.

  2. 37 GHz METHANOL MASERS : HORSEMEN OF THE APOCALYPSE FOR THE CLASS II METHANOL MASER PHASE?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellingsen, S. P.; Breen, S. L.; Sobolev, A. M.; Voronkov, M. A.; Caswell, J. L.; Lo, N.

    2011-01-01

    We report the results of a search for class II methanol masers at 37.7, 38.3, and 38.5 GHz toward a sample of 70 high-mass star formation regions. We primarily searched toward regions known to show emission either from the 107 GHz class II methanol maser transition, or from the 6.035 GHz excited OH transition. We detected maser emission from 13 sources in the 37.7 GHz transition, eight of these being new detections. We detected maser emission from three sources in the 38 GHz transitions, one of which is a new detection. We find that 37.7 GHz methanol masers are only associated with the most luminous 6.7 and 12.2 GHz methanol maser sources, which in turn are hypothesized to be the oldest class II methanol sources. We suggest that the 37.7 GHz methanol masers are associated with a brief evolutionary phase (of 1000-4000 years) prior to the cessation of class II methanol maser activity in the associated high-mass star formation region.

  3. ALMA Images of the Orion Hot Core at 349 GHz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, M. C. H.; Plambeck, R. L., E-mail: wright@astro.berkeley.edu [Radio Astronomy Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2017-07-10

    We present ALMA images of the dust and molecular line emission in the Orion Hot Core at 349 GHz. At 0.″2 angular resolution the images reveal multiple clumps in an arc ∼1″ east of Orion Source I, the protostar at the center of the Kleinmann–Low Nebula, and another chain of peaks from IRc7 toward the southwest. The molecular line images show narrow filamentary structures at velocities >10 km s{sup −1} away from the heavily resolved ambient cloud velocity ∼5 km s{sup −1}. Many of these filaments trace the SiO outflow from Source I, and lie along the edges of the dust emission. Molecular line emission at excitation temperatures 300–2000 K, and velocities >10 km s{sup −1} from the ambient cloud, suggest that the Hot Core may be heated in shocks by the outflow from Source I or from the Becklin–Neugebauer (BN)/SrcI explosion. The spectral line observations also reveal a remarkable molecular ring, ∼2″ south of SrcI, with a diameter ∼600 au. The ring is seen in high-excitation transitions of HC{sub 3}N, HCN v 2 = 1, and SO{sub 2}. An impact of ejecta from the BN/SrcI explosion with a dense dust clump could result in the observed ring of shocked material.

  4. HIGH RESOLUTION 36 GHz IMAGING OF THE SUPERNOVA REMNANT OF SN 1987A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potter, T. M.; Staveley-Smith, L.; Zanardo, G.; Ng, C.-Y.; Gaensler, B. M.; Ball, Lewis; Kesteven, M. J.; Manchester, R. N.; Tzioumis, A. K.

    2009-01-01

    The aftermath of supernova (SN) 1987A continues to provide spectacular insights into the interaction between an SN blastwave and its circumstellar environment. We here present 36 GHz observations from the Australia Telescope Compact Array of the radio remnant of SN 1987A. These new images, taken in 2008 April and 2008 October, substantially extend the frequency range of an ongoing monitoring and imaging program conducted between 1.4 and 20 GHz. Our 36.2 GHz images have a diffraction-limited angular resolution of 0.''3-0.''4, which covers the gap between high resolution, low dynamic range VLBI images of the remnant and low resolution, high dynamic range images at frequencies between 1 and 20 GHz. The radio morphology of the remnant at 36 GHz is an elliptical ring with enhanced emission on the eastern and western sides, similar to that seen previously at lower frequencies. Model fits to the data in the Fourier domain show that the emitting region is consistent with a thick inclined torus of mean radius 0.''85, and a 2008 October flux density of 27 ± 6 mJy at 36.2 GHz. The spectral index for the remnant at this epoch, determined between 1.4 GHz and 36.2 GHz, is α = -0.83. There is tentative evidence for an unresolved central source with flatter spectral index.

  5. 300 GHz imaging with 8 meter stand-off distance and one-dimensional synthetic image reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keil, Andreas; Quast, Holger; Loeffler, Torsten

    2011-01-01

    An active system for stand-off imaging operating in a frequency range from 234 GHz to 306 GHz is presented. Imaging is achieved by combining a line array consisting of 8 emitters and 16 detectors with a scanning cylindrical mirror system. A stand-off distance of 7-8 m is achieved using a system o...

  6. Transport of LCLS-II 1.3 Ghz cryomodule to SLAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGee, M. W.; Arkan, T.; Peterson, T.; Tang, Z.; Boo, S.; Carrasco, M.; Daly, E.; Huque, N.

    2016-06-30

    In a partnership with SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (SLAC) and Jefferson Lab, Fermilab will assemble and test 17 of the 35 total 1.3 GHz cryomodules for the Linac Coherent Light Source II (LCLS-II) Project. These include a prototype built and delivered by each Lab. Another two 3.9 GHz cryomodules will be built, tested and transported by Fermilab to SLAC. Each assembly will be transported over-the-road from Fermilab or Jefferson Lab using specific routes to SLAC. The transport system consists of a base frame, isolation fixture and upper protective truss. The strongback cryomodule lifting fixture is described along with other supporting equipment used for both over-the-road transport and local (on-site) transport at Fermilab. Initially, analysis of fragile components and stability studies will be performed in order to assess the risk associated with over-the-road transport of a fully assembled cryomodule.

  7. 10C survey of radio sources at 15.7 GHz - II. First results

    Science.gov (United States)

    AMI Consortium; Davies, Mathhew L.; Franzen, Thomas M. O.; Waldram, Elizabeth M.; Grainge, Keith J. B.; Hobson, Michael P.; Hurley-Walker, Natasha; Lasenby, Anthony; Olamaie, Malak; Pooley, Guy G.; Riley, Julia M.; Rodríguez-Gonzálvez, Carmen; Saunders, Richard D. E.; Scaife, Anna M. M.; Schammel, Michel P.; Scott, Paul F.; Shimwell, Timothy W.; Titterington, David J.; Zwart, Jonathan T. L.

    2011-08-01

    In a previous paper (Paper I), the observational, mapping and source-extraction techniques used for the Tenth Cambridge (10C) Survey of Radio Sources were described. Here, the first results from the survey, carried out using the Arcminute Microkelvin Imager Large Array (LA) at an observing frequency of 15.7 GHz, are presented. The survey fields cover an area of ≈27 deg2 to a flux-density completeness of 1 mJy. Results for some deeper areas, covering ≈12 deg2, wholly contained within the total areas and complete to 0.5 mJy, are also presented. The completeness for both areas is estimated to be at least 93 per cent. The 10C survey is the deepest radio survey of any significant extent (≳0.2 deg2) above 1.4 GHz. The 10C source catalogue contains 1897 entries and is available online. The source catalogue has been combined with that of the Ninth Cambridge Survey to calculate the 15.7-GHz source counts. A broken power law is found to provide a good parametrization of the differential count between 0.5 mJy and 1 Jy. The measured source count has been compared with that predicted by de Zotti et al. - the model is found to display good agreement with the data at the highest flux densities. However, over the entire flux-density range of the measured count (0.5 mJy to 1 Jy), the model is found to underpredict the integrated count by ≈30 per cent. Entries from the source catalogue have been matched with those contained in the catalogues of the NRAO VLA Sky Survey and the Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty-cm survey (both of which have observing frequencies of 1.4 GHz). This matching provides evidence for a shift in the typical 1.4-GHz spectral index to 15.7-GHz spectral index of the 15.7-GHz-selected source population with decreasing flux density towards sub-mJy levels - the spectra tend to become less steep. Automated methods for detecting extended sources, developed in Paper I, have been applied to the data; ≈5 per cent of the sources are found to be extended

  8. Commissioning of the 28 GHz ECRH power transmission line for the TJ-II stellarator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez-Fernández, J., E-mail: jose.martinez@ciemat.es [Laboratorio Nacional de Fusión (LNF), Centro de Investigaciones Tecnológicas, Medioambientales y Tecnológicas (CIEMAT), Av/Complutense 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Cappa, Á. [Laboratorio Nacional de Fusión (LNF), Centro de Investigaciones Tecnológicas, Medioambientales y Tecnológicas (CIEMAT), Av/Complutense 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Chirkov, A. [Institute of Applied Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Ros, A.; Tolkachev, A.; Catalán, G.; Soleto, A.; Redondo, M. [Laboratorio Nacional de Fusión (LNF), Centro de Investigaciones Tecnológicas, Medioambientales y Tecnológicas (CIEMAT), Av/Complutense 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Doane, J.L.; Anderson, J.P. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • The 28 GHz power transmission line of the TJ-II stellarator is described. • Mismatch and alignment problems are covered, presenting infrared measurements. • Beam distortion in the matching optics unit led to unwanted modes in the waveguide. • After a redesign distortion was eliminated and coupling maximized. • Final measurements suggest finer alignment must be performed. - Abstract: The commissioning of the 28 GHz power transmission line of the TJ-II stellarator, designed for the excitation of electron Bernstein waves (EBW) through the O-X-B mode conversion process, is presented in this paper. Based upon a comprehensive set of thermal measurements, its purpose is to go into details about the several problems that arouse during the whole process, namely higher order modes excitation because of the wider beam size and alignment mismatches at the waveguide mouth. All these drawbacks may have prevented the correct O-X mode conversion, thus providing a reasonable explanation for the unsuccessful EBW heating experiments.

  9. Investigation of radical locations in various sesame seeds by CW EPR and 9-GHz EPR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, K; Hara, H

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the location of radical in various sesame seeds using continuous-wave (CW) electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and 9-GHz EPR imaging. CW EPR detected persistent radicals (single line) for various sesame seeds. The EPR linewidth of black sesame seeds was narrower than that of the irradiated white sesame seeds. A very small signal was detected for the white sesame seeds. Two-dimensional (2D) imaging using a 9-GHz EPR imager showed that radical locations vary for various sesame seeds. The paramagnetic species in black sesame seeds were located on the seed coat (skin) and in the hilum region. The signal with the highest intensity was obtained from the hilum part. A very low-intensity image was observed for the white sesame seeds. In addition, the 2D imaging of the irradiated white sesame seeds showed that free radicals were located throughout the entire seed. For the first time, CW EPR and 9-GHz EPR imaging showed the exact location of radical species in various sesame seeds.

  10. Thermal-Mechanical Study of 3.9 GHz CW Coupler and Cavity for LCLS-II Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonin, Ivan [Fermilab; Harms, Elvin [Fermilab; Khabiboulline, Timergali [Fermilab; Solyak, Nikolay [Fermilab; Yakovlev, Vyacheslav [Fermilab

    2017-05-01

    Third harmonic system was originally developed by Fermilab for FLASH facility at DESY and then was adopted and modified by INFN for the XFEL project [1-3]. In contrast to XFEL project, all cryomodules in LCLS-II project will operate in CW regime with higher RF average power for 1.3 GHz and 3.9 GHz cavities and couplers. Design of the cavity and fundamental power coupler has been modified to satisfy LCLS-II requirements. In this paper we discuss the results of COMSOL thermal and mechanical analysis of the 3.9 GHz coupler and cavity to verify proposed modifica-tion of the design. For the dressed cavity we present simulations of Lorentz force detuning, helium pressure sensitivity df/dP and major mechanical resonances.

  11. LCLS-II 1.3 GHz cryomodule design - lessons learned from testing at Fermilab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaluzny, J.; Hurd, J.; Orlov, Y.; He, Y.; Bossert, R.; Grimm, C.; Schappert, W.; Atassi, O. Al; Wang, R.; Arkan, T.; Theilacker, J.; Klebaner, A.; White, M.; Wu, G.; Makara, J.; Ginsburg, C.; Pei, L.; Holzbauer, J.; Hansen, B.; Stanek, R.; Peterson, T.; Harms, E.

    2017-12-01

    Fermilab’s 1.3 GHz prototype cryomodule for the Linac Coherent Light Source Upgrade (LCLS-II) has been tested at Fermilab’s Cryomodule Test Facility (CMTF). Aspects of the cryomodule design have been studied and tested. The cooldown circuit was used to quickly cool the cavities through the transition temperature, and a heater on the circuit was used to heat incoming helium for warmup. Due to the 0.5% slope of the cryomodule, the liquid level is not constant along the length of the cryomodule. This slope as well as the pressure profile caused liquid level management to be a challenge. The microphonics levels in the cryomodule were studied and efforts were made to reduce them throughout testing. Some of the design approaches and studies performed on these aspects will be presented. Fermilab is operated by Fermi Research Alliance, LLC under Contract No. De-AC02-07CH11359 with the United States Department of Energy. This work was supported, in part, by the LCLS-II Project.

  12. Precise Absolute Astrometry from the VLBA Imaging and Polarimetry Survey at 5 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, L.; Taylor, G. B.

    2011-01-01

    We present accurate positions for 857 sources derived from the astrometric analysis of 16 eleven-hour experiments from the Very Long Baseline Array imaging and polarimetry survey at 5 GHz (VIPS). Among the observed sources, positions of 430 objects were not previously determined at milliarcsecond-level accuracy. For 95% of the sources the uncertainty of their positions ranges from 0.3 to 0.9 mas, with a median value of 0.5 mas. This estimate of accuracy is substantiated by the comparison of positions of 386 sources that were previously observed in astrometric programs simultaneously at 2.3/8.6 GHz. Surprisingly, the ionosphere contribution to group delay was adequately modeled with the use of the total electron content maps derived from GPS observations and only marginally affected estimates of source coordinates.

  13. PRECISE ABSOLUTE ASTROMETRY FROM THE VLBA IMAGING AND POLARIMETRY SURVEY AT 5 GHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, L.; Taylor, G. B.

    2011-01-01

    We present accurate positions for 857 sources derived from the astrometric analysis of 16 eleven-hour experiments from the Very Long Baseline Array imaging and polarimetry survey at 5 GHz (VIPS). Among the observed sources, positions of 430 objects were not previously determined at milliarcsecond-level accuracy. For 95% of the sources the uncertainty of their positions ranges from 0.3 to 0.9 mas, with a median value of 0.5 mas. This estimate of accuracy is substantiated by the comparison of positions of 386 sources that were previously observed in astrometric programs simultaneously at 2.3/8.6 GHz. Surprisingly, the ionosphere contribution to group delay was adequately modeled with the use of the total electron content maps derived from GPS observations and only marginally affected estimates of source coordinates.

  14. Molecular imaging II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semmler, Wolfhard; Schwaiger, Markus

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this textbook of molecular imaging is to provide an up to date review of this rapidly growing field and to discuss basic methodological aspects necessary for the interpretation of experimental and clinical results. Emphasis is placed on the interplay of imaging technology and probe development, since the physical properties of the imaging approach need to be closely linked with the biologic application of the probe (i.e. nanoparticles and microbubbles). Various chemical strategies are discussed and related to the biologic applications. Reporter-gene imaging is being addressed not only in experimental protocols, but also first clinical applications are discussed. Finally, strategies of imaging to characterize apoptosis and angiogenesis are described and discussed in the context of possible clinical translation. (orig.)

  15. Microfabricated, 94 GHz, 25 W, Helical Traveling Wave Tube, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Teraphysics Corporation completed the Phase I objectives for the electrical design of a 94 GHz, 26 W TWT with 53% overall efficiency, including the helical circuit...

  16. THE Q/U IMAGING EXPERIMENT: POLARIZATION MEASUREMENTS OF RADIO SOURCES AT 43 AND 95 GHz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huffenberger, K. M. [Department of Physics, Florida State University, P.O. Box 3064350, Tallahassee, FL 32306-4350 (United States); Araujo, D.; Zwart, J. T. L. [Department of Physics and Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Bischoff, C.; Buder, I. [Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, Department of Physics, Enrico Fermi Institute, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Chinone, Y.; Hasegawa, M. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Cleary, K. [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd M/C 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Kusaka, A. [Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Monsalve, R. [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, 781 E. Terrace Road, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Næss, S. K. [Department of Astrophysics, University of Oxford, Keble Road, Oxford, OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Newburgh, L. B. [Dunlap Institute, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada); Reeves, R. [CePIA, Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Concepción (Chile); Ruud, T. M.; Eriksen, H. K. [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1029 Blindern, NO-0315 Oslo (Norway); Wehus, I. K.; Gaier, T. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Dickinson, C. [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, Alan Turing Building, School of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Gundersen, J. O., E-mail: huffenbe@physics.fsu.edu [Department of Physics, University of Miami, 1320 Campo Sano Drive, Coral Gables, FL 33146 (United States); Collaboration: QUIET Collaboration; and others

    2015-06-10

    We present polarization measurements of extragalactic radio sources observed during the cosmic microwave background polarization survey of the Q/U Imaging Experiment (QUIET), operating at 43 GHz (Q-band) and 95 GHz (W-band). We examine sources selected at 20 GHz from the public, >40 mJy catalog of the Australia Telescope (AT20G) survey. There are ∼480 such sources within QUIET’s four low-foreground survey patches, including the nearby radio galaxies Centaurus A and Pictor A. The median error on our polarized flux density measurements is 30–40 mJy per Stokes parameter. At signal-to-noise ratio > 3 significance, we detect linear polarization for seven sources in Q-band and six in W-band; only 1.3 ± 1.1 detections per frequency band are expected by chance. For sources without a detection of polarized emission, we find that half of the sources have polarization amplitudes below 90 mJy (Q-band) and 106 mJy (W-band), at 95% confidence. Finally, we compare our polarization measurements to intensity and polarization measurements of the same sources from the literature. For the four sources with WMAP and Planck intensity measurements >1 Jy, the polarization fractions are above 1% in both QUIET bands. At high significance, we compute polarization fractions as much as 10%–20% for some sources, but the effects of source variability may cut that level in half for contemporaneous comparisons. Our results indicate that simple models—ones that scale a fixed polarization fraction with frequency—are inadequate to model the behavior of these sources and their contributions to polarization maps.

  17. Locations of radical species in black pepper seeds investigated by CW EPR and 9GHz EPR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Kouichi; Epel, Boris

    2014-10-15

    In this study, noninvasive 9GHz electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR)-imaging and continuous wave (CW) EPR were used to investigate the locations of paramagnetic species in black pepper seeds without further irradiation. First, lithium phthalocyanine (LiPC) phantom was used to examine 9GHz EPR imaging capabilities. The 9GHz EPR-imager easily resolved the LiPC samples at a distance of ∼2mm. Then, commercially available black pepper seeds were measured. We observed signatures from three different radical species, which were assigned to stable organic radicals, Fe(3+), and Mn(2+) complexes. In addition, no EPR spectral change in the seed was observed after it was submerged in distilled H2O for 1h. The EPR and spectral-spatial EPR imaging results suggested that the three paramagnetic species were mostly located at the seed surface. Fewer radicals were found inside the seed. We demonstrated that the CW EPR and 9GHz EPR imaging were useful for the determination of the spatial distribution of paramagnetic species in various seeds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. 300 GHz Imaging System with 8 Meter Stand-off Distance and One-Dimensional Synthetic Image Reconstruction for Remote Detection of Material Defects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keil, Andreas; Peuser, Jörn; Loeffler, Torsten

    2011-01-01

    An active stand-off imaging system operating at 230–320 GHz is presented. Imaging is achieved by combining a line array consisting of 8 sources and 16 detectors with a scanning cylindrical mirror system. The stand-off distance is 8 meters and the effective aperture of the system is 0.5 meters by ...

  19. Imaging Magnetic Vortices Dynamics Using Lorentz Electron Microscopy with GHz Excitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yimei

    2015-03-01

    Magnetic vortices in thin films are naturally formed spiral spin configurations with a core polarization pointing out of the film plane. They typically represent ground states with high structural and thermal stability as well as four different chirality-polarity combinations, offering great promise in the development of spin-based devices. For applications to spin oscillators, non-volatile memory and logic devices, the fundamental understanding and precise control of vortex excitations and dynamic switching behavior are essential. The compact dimensionality and fast spin dynamics set grand challenges for direct imaging technologies. Recently, we have developed a unique method to directly visualize the dynamic magnetic vortex motion using advanced Lorentz electron microscopy combined with GHz electronic excitations. It enables us to map the orbit of a magnetic vortex core in a permalloy square with modality. Our approach is complementary to X-ray magnetic circular dichroism and is of general interest to the magnetism community as it paves a way to study fundamental spin phenomena with unprecedented resolution and accuracy. Collaborations with S.D. Pollard, J.F. Pulecio, D.A. Arena and K.S. Buchanan are acknowledged. Work supported by DOE-BES, Material Sciences and Engineering Division, under Contract No. DE-AC02-98CH10886.

  20. VizieR Online Data Catalog: 22GHz image of 3C 273 (Bruni+, 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruni, G.; Gomez, J. L.; Casadio, C.; Lobanov, A.; Kovalev, Y. Y.; Sokolovsky, K. V.; Lisakov, M. M.; Bach, U.; Marscher, A.; Jorstad, S.; Anderson, J. M.; Krichbaum, T. P.; Savolainen, T.; Vega-Garcia, L.; Fuentes, A.; Zensus, J. A.; Alberdi, A.; Lee, S.-S.; Lu, R.-S.; Perez-Torres, M.; Ros, E.

    2017-07-01

    A global ground array of 22 antennas was used to perform observations, including VLBA (Sc, Hn, Nl, Fd, La, Kp, Pt, Ov, Br, Mk), EVN (Hh, Mc, Nt, Tr, Jb, Ef, Ys), Long Baseline Array (-LBA- At, Mp, Ho, Cd), and two Kvazar antennas (Sv, Zc), plus Kalyazin (managed by ASC, Russia), and Green Bank (NRAO, USA). The observations took place on January 18-19, 2014, for a total of 16.8 hours, and at three different frequencies: 15GHz, 22GHz, and 43GHz. RA was involved only for the 22GHz part, while for the other bands only the VLBA was used. Both the Green Bank and Pushchino tracking station took part in the experiment. A RA-compatible total bandwidth of 32MHz, split into two 16-MHz IFs, was used. RA was scheduled to observe three consecutive 9.5 minute scans every 1.25 hours, to allow for antenna cooling. (2 data files).

  1. Wavelets: Applications to Image Compression-II

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wavelets: Applications to Image Compression-II. Sachin P ... successful application of wavelets in image com- ... b) Soft threshold: In this case, all the coefficients x ..... [8] http://www.jpeg.org} Official site of the Joint Photographic Experts Group.

  2. The faint radio source population at 15.7 GHz - II. Multi-wavelength properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittam, I. H.; Riley, J. M.; Green, D. A.; Jarvis, M. J.; Vaccari, M.

    2015-11-01

    A complete, flux density limited sample of 96 faint (>0.5 mJy) radio sources is selected from the 10C survey at 15.7 GHz in the Lockman Hole. We have matched this sample to a range of multi-wavelength catalogues, including Spitzer Extragalactic Representative Volume Survey, Spitzer Wide-area Infrared Extragalactic survey, United Kingdom Infrared Telescope Infrared Deep Sky Survey and optical data; multi-wavelength counterparts are found for 80 of the 96 sources and spectroscopic redshifts are available for 24 sources. Photometric redshifts are estimated for the sources with multi-wavelength data available; the median redshift of the sample is 0.91 with an interquartile range of 0.84. Radio-to-optical ratios show that at least 94 per cent of the sample are radio loud, indicating that the 10C sample is dominated by radio galaxies. This is in contrast to samples selected at lower frequencies, where radio-quiet AGN and star-forming galaxies are present in significant numbers at these flux density levels. All six radio-quiet sources have rising radio spectra, suggesting that they are dominated by AGN emission. These results confirm the conclusions of Paper I that the faint, flat-spectrum sources which are found to dominate the 10C sample below ˜1 mJy are the cores of radio galaxies. The properties of the 10C sample are compared to the Square Kilometre Array Design Studies Simulated Skies; a population of low-redshift star-forming galaxies predicted by the simulation is not found in the observed sample.

  3. The Arcminute Microkelvin Imager catalogue of gamma-ray burst afterglows at 15.7 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, G. E.; Staley, T. D.; van der Horst, A. J.; Fender, R. P.; Rowlinson, A.; Mooley, K. P.; Broderick, J. W.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.; Rumsey, C.; Titterington, D. J.

    2018-01-01

    We present the Arcminute Microkelvin Imager (AMI) Large Array catalogue of 139 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). AMI observes at a central frequency of 15.7 GHz and is equipped with a fully automated rapid-response mode, which enables the telescope to respond to high-energy transients detected by Swift. On receiving a transient alert, AMI can be on-target within 2 min, scheduling later start times if the source is below the horizon. Further AMI observations are manually scheduled for several days following the trigger. The AMI GRB programme probes the early-time (<1 d) radio properties of GRBs, and has obtained some of the earliest radio detections (GRB 130427A at 0.36 and GRB 130907A at 0.51 d post-burst). As all Swift GRBs visible to AMI are observed, this catalogue provides the first representative sample of GRB radio properties, unbiased by multiwavelength selection criteria. We report the detection of six GRB radio afterglows that were not previously detected by other radio telescopes, increasing the rate of radio detections by 50 per cent over an 18-month period. The AMI catalogue implies a Swift GRB radio detection rate of ≳ 15 per cent, down to ∼0.2 mJy beam-1. However, scaling this by the fraction of GRBs AMI would have detected in the Chandra & Frail sample (all radio-observed GRBs between 1997 and 2011), it is possible ∼ 44-56 per cent of Swift GRBs are radio bright, down to ∼0.1-0.15 mJy beam-1. This increase from the Chandra & Frail rate (∼30 per cent) is likely due to the AMI rapid-response mode, which allows observations to begin while the reverse-shock is contributing to the radio afterglow.

  4. Design and development of cryo-module test system for 1.3 GHz LCLS-II cryomodule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khunt, A.C.S.; Anupam Kumar Sinha, B.; Aravind, T.C.; Mishra, D.V.K.; Sinha, E.A.K.; Mukesh Goyal, F.; Tejas Rane, G.

    2015-01-01

    Cryomodule Test System (CMTS) is a major cryogenic system designed and developed at Centre for Design and Manufacture (CDM), BARC under Indian Institutions and Fermi Lab Collaboration (IIFC). It is necessary test bed to measure the performance of superconducting RF cavities in Cryomodule. CMTS is required to test 1.3 GHz LCLS-II Cryomodule for Stanford Linear Accelerator Centre (SLAC), USA. Feed Cap and End Cap sub systems of Cryomodule Test System (CMTS) is designed and developed at CDM, BARC. Feed cap and End cap are 2K liquid helium distribution system for LCLS-II RF Cavity Bath and insulated by intermediate radiation shields maintained at 5K and 40K and Multilayer Insulation. The whole distribution system is enclosed in horizontal vacuum shells of approximately 1100 mm in diameter and 3000 mm in total length. This development was very challenging as many design considerations and decisions for 2K cryogenic requirements have been made and implemented. Also intricate mounting of ceramic sensors both internally and externally (surface mounted) for very low temperature measurements, low temperature epoxy bonding and multi-layer insulation wrapping were successfully completed. (author)

  5. Preparing Colorful Astronomical Images II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levay, Z. G.; Frattare, L. M.

    2002-12-01

    We present additional techniques for using mainstream graphics software (Adobe Photoshop and Illustrator) to produce composite color images and illustrations from astronomical data. These techniques have been used on numerous images from the Hubble Space Telescope to produce photographic, print and web-based products for news, education and public presentation as well as illustrations for technical publication. We expand on a previous paper to present more detail and additional techniques, taking advantage of new or improved features available in the latest software versions. While Photoshop is not intended for quantitative analysis of full dynamic range data (as are IRAF or IDL, for example), we have had much success applying Photoshop's numerous, versatile tools to work with scaled images, masks, text and graphics in multiple semi-transparent layers and channels.

  6. Observational demonstration of a high image rejection SIS mixer receiver using a new waveguide filter at 230 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Yutaka; Asayama, Shinichiro; Harada, Ryohei; Tokuda, Kazuki; Kimura, Kimihiro; Ogawa, Hideo; Onishi, Toshikazu

    2017-12-01

    A new sideband separation method was developed for use in millimeter-/submillimeter-band radio receivers using a novel waveguide frequency separation filter (FSF), which consists of two branch line hybrid couplers and two waveguide high-pass filters. The FSF was designed to allow the radio frequency (RF) signal to pass through to an output port when the frequency is higher than a certain value (225 GHz), and to reflect the RF signal back to another output port when the frequency is lower. The FSF is connected to two double sideband superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) mixers, and an image rejection ratio (IRR) is determined by the FSF characteristics. With this new sideband separation method, we can achieve good and stable IRR without the balancing two SIS mixers such as is necessary for conventional sideband-separating SIS mixers. To demonstrate the applicability of this method, we designed and developed an FSF for simultaneous observations of the J = 2-1 rotational transition lines of three CO isotopes (12CO, 13CO, and C18O): the 12CO line is in the upper sideband and the others are in the lower sideband with an intermediate-frequency range of 4-8 GHz at the radio frequency of 220/230 GHz. This FSF was then installed in the receiver system of the 1.85 m radio telescope of Osaka Prefecture University, and was used during the 2014 observation season. The observation results indicate that the IRR of the proposed receiver is 25 dB or higher for the 12CO line, and no significant fluctuation larger than 1 dB in the IRR was observed throughout the season. These results demonstrate the practical utility of the FSF receiver for observations like extensive molecular cloud surveys in specified lines with a fixed frequency setting.

  7. Internet Image Viewer (iiV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Joel T; Munch, Kristin R; Carlis, John V; Pardo, José V

    2008-01-01

    Visualizing 3-dimensional (3-D) datasets is an important part of modern neuroimaging research. Many tools address this problem; however, they often fail to address specific needs and flexibility, such as the ability to work with different data formats, to control how and what data are displayed, to interact with values, and to undo mistakes. iiV, an interactive software program for displaying 3-D brain images, is described. This tool was programmed to solve basic problems in 3-D data visualization. It is written in Java so it is extensible, is platform independent, and can display images within web pages. iiV displays 3-D images as 2-dimensional (2-D) slices with each slice being an independent object with independent features such as location, zoom, colors, labels, etc. Feature manipulation becomes easier by having a full set of editing capabilities including the following: undo or redo changes; drag, copy, delete and paste objects; and save objects with their features to a file for future editing. It can read multiple standard positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) file formats like ECAT, ECAT7, ANALYZE, NIfTI-1 and DICOM. We present sample applications to illustrate some of the features and capabilities. iiV is an image display tool with many useful features. It is highly extensible, platform independent, and web-compatible. This report summarizes its features and applications, while illustrating iiV's usefulness to the biomedical imaging community

  8. CW EPR and 9 GHz EPR imaging investigation of stable paramagnetic species and their antioxidant activities in dry shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Kouichi; Hara, Hideyuki

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the antioxidant activities and locations of stable paramagnetic species in dry (or drying) shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes) using continuous wave (CW) electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and 9 GHz EPR imaging. CW 9 GHz EPR detected paramagnetic species (peak-to-peak linewidth (ΔHpp) = 0.57 mT) in the mushroom. Two-dimensional imaging of the sharp line using a 9 GHz EPR imager showed that the species were located in the cap and shortened stem portions of the mushroom. No other location of the species was found in the mushroom. However, radical locations and concentrations varied along the cap of the mushroom. The 9 GHz EPR imaging determined the exact location of stable paramagnetic species in the shiitake mushroom. Distilled water extracts of the pigmented cap surface and the inner cap of the mushroom showed similar antioxidant activities that reduced an aqueous solution of 0.1 mM 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-1-oxyl. The present results suggest that the antioxidant activities of the edible mushroom extracts are much weaker than those of ascorbic acid. Thus, CW EPR and EPR imaging revealed the location and distribution of stable paramagnetic species and the antioxidant activities in the shiitake mushroom for the first time.

  9. An Interferometric Spectral Line and Imaging Survey of VY Canis Majoris in the 345 GHz Band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiński, T.; Gottlieb, C. A.; Young, K. H.; Menten, K. M.; Patel, N. A.

    2013-12-01

    A spectral line survey of the oxygen-rich red supergiant VY Canis Majoris was made between 279 and 355 GHz with the Submillimeter Array (SMA). Two hundred twenty-three spectral features from 19 molecules (not counting isotopic species of some of them) were observed, including the rotational spectra of TiO, TiO2, and AlCl for the first time in this source. The parameters and an atlas of all spectral features are presented. Observations of each line with a synthesized beam of ~0.''9, reveal the complex kinematics and morphology of the nebula surrounding VY CMa. Many of the molecules are observed in high-lying rotational levels or in excited vibrational levels. From these, it was established that the main source of the submillimeter-wave continuum (dust) and the high-excitation molecular gas (the star) are separated by about 0.''15. Apparent coincidences between the molecular gas observed with the SMA, and some of the arcs and knots observed at infrared wavelengths and in the optical scattered light by the Hubble Space Telescope are identified. The observations presented here provide important constraints on the molecular chemistry in oxygen-dominated circumstellar environments and a deeper picture of the complex circumstellar environment of VY CMa.

  10. Space-Ready Advanced Imaging System, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this Phase II effort Toyon will increase the state-of-the-art for video/image systems. This will include digital image compression algorithms as well as system...

  11. An Interferometric Spectral-Line and Imaging Survey of VY Canis Majoris in the 345 GHz Band

    OpenAIRE

    Kaminski, T.; Gottlieb, C. A.; Young, K. H.; Menten, K. M.; Patel, N. A.

    2013-01-01

    A spectral line survey of the oxygen-rich red supergiant VY Canis Majoris was made between 279 and 355 GHz with the Submillimeter Array. Two hundred twenty three spectral features from 19 molecules (not counting isotopic species of some of them) were observed, including the rotational spectra of TiO, TiO2, and AlCl for the first time in this source. The parameters and an atlas of all spectral features is presented. Observations of each line with a synthesized beam of ~0.9 arcsec, reveal the c...

  12. Imaging of multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN II A)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Hiroko; Kohno, Atsushi; Nojiri, Yoko

    1995-01-01

    A retrospective review of diagnostic imaging findings of 20 cases of multiple endocrine neoplasia II A (MEN II A) was performed. The characteristic findings of thyroidal medullary carcinomas were relatively well-defined hypo- to isoechoic masses on US and coarse calcifications on plain X-ray. The pheochromocytomas were smaller in size and less enhancing than the sporadic ones, and they revealed marked high intensity on T2WI of MRI. We consider that these imaging findings were useful for the supplementary diagnosis of MEN II A. (author)

  13. AN INTERFEROMETRIC SPECTRAL LINE AND IMAGING SURVEY OF VY CANIS MAJORIS IN THE 345 GHz BAND

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamiński, T.; Menten, K. M.; Gottlieb, C. A.; Young, K. H.; Patel, N. A.

    2013-01-01

    A spectral line survey of the oxygen-rich red supergiant VY Canis Majoris was made between 279 and 355 GHz with the Submillimeter Array (SMA). Two hundred twenty-three spectral features from 19 molecules (not counting isotopic species of some of them) were observed, including the rotational spectra of TiO, TiO 2 , and AlCl for the first time in this source. The parameters and an atlas of all spectral features are presented. Observations of each line with a synthesized beam of ∼0.''9, reveal the complex kinematics and morphology of the nebula surrounding VY CMa. Many of the molecules are observed in high-lying rotational levels or in excited vibrational levels. From these, it was established that the main source of the submillimeter-wave continuum (dust) and the high-excitation molecular gas (the star) are separated by about 0.''15. Apparent coincidences between the molecular gas observed with the SMA, and some of the arcs and knots observed at infrared wavelengths and in the optical scattered light by the Hubble Space Telescope are identified. The observations presented here provide important constraints on the molecular chemistry in oxygen-dominated circumstellar environments and a deeper picture of the complex circumstellar environment of VY CMa

  14. Video Vortex reader II: moving images beyond YouTube

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lovink, G.; Somers Miles, R.

    2011-01-01

    Video Vortex Reader II is the Institute of Network Cultures' second collection of texts that critically explore the rapidly changing landscape of online video and its use. With the success of YouTube ('2 billion views per day') and the rise of other online video sharing platforms, the moving image

  15. Implementation of neutron phase contrast imaging at FRM-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenz, Klaus

    2008-11-12

    At ANTARES, the beam line for neutron imaging at the Forschungsneutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz (FRM-II) in Garching, the option to do phase contrast imaging besides conventional absorption based neutron imaging was implemented and successfully used for the non-destructive testing of various types of objects. The used propagation-based technique is based on the interference of neutron waves in the detector plane that were differently strong diffracted by the sample. A comparison with other phase-sensitive neutron imaging techniques highlights assets and drawbacks of the different methods. In preliminary measurements at ANTARES and the spallation source SINQ at PSI in Villigen, the influence of the beam geometry, the neutron spectrum and the detector on the quality of the phase contrast measurements were investigated systematically. It was demonstrated that gamma radiation and epithermal neutrons in the beam contribute severely to background noise in measurements, which motivated the installation of a remotely controlled filter wheel for a quick and precise positioning of different crystal filters in the beam. By the installation of a similar aperture wheel, a quick change between eight different beam geometries was made possible. Besides pinhole and slit apertures, coded apertures based on non redundant arrays were investigated. The possibilities, which arise by the exploitation of the real part of the refractive index in neutron imaging, were demonstrated in experiments with especially designed test samples and in measurements with ordinary, industrial components. (orig.)

  16. Implementation of neutron phase contrast imaging at FRM-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenz, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    At ANTARES, the beam line for neutron imaging at the Forschungsneutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz (FRM-II) in Garching, the option to do phase contrast imaging besides conventional absorption based neutron imaging was implemented and successfully used for the non-destructive testing of various types of objects. The used propagation-based technique is based on the interference of neutron waves in the detector plane that were differently strong diffracted by the sample. A comparison with other phase-sensitive neutron imaging techniques highlights assets and drawbacks of the different methods. In preliminary measurements at ANTARES and the spallation source SINQ at PSI in Villigen, the influence of the beam geometry, the neutron spectrum and the detector on the quality of the phase contrast measurements were investigated systematically. It was demonstrated that gamma radiation and epithermal neutrons in the beam contribute severely to background noise in measurements, which motivated the installation of a remotely controlled filter wheel for a quick and precise positioning of different crystal filters in the beam. By the installation of a similar aperture wheel, a quick change between eight different beam geometries was made possible. Besides pinhole and slit apertures, coded apertures based on non redundant arrays were investigated. The possibilities, which arise by the exploitation of the real part of the refractive index in neutron imaging, were demonstrated in experiments with especially designed test samples and in measurements with ordinary, industrial components. (orig.)

  17. Proceedings of II Molecular Imaging Symposium Cuba - Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    In the Central Theater, University Hospital 'General Calixto Garcia' took place the II Symposium on Molecular Imaging Cuba Japan in the framework of the Scientific Convention for the 120th anniversary of the hospital. The event was organized by the hospital itself with the support of the Society of Medical Physics (medical physics section), CEADEN, the Embassy of Japan and the Theragnostic Compounds R&D Center Neuroscience Research Institute Gachon University, Incheon Korea. It was attended by 80 national scientific leaders and with the invaluable presence of Dr. Tatsuo IDO, Emeritus professor of Tohoku University (Sendai, Japan) who presented the results of the scientific papers presented this year in national and international events , referring to the new technologies of molecular imaging and the importance of medical physics in its development. During the meeting the importance of the new technologies of molecular imaging, its undisputed diagnosis intake and medical treatment and the value of human capital struggled to deal with the new technologies, the view that these are only used best when it is understood that they are multidisciplinary systems where each specialist and technical personnel plays an indispensable role. The challenge has medical physics to address these new technologies and the need for changes in the theoretical and practical training in the specialty. These analyzes will be given continuity in the next symposia molecular imaging. (author)

  18. Integrated 60GHz RF Beamforming in CMOS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Yikun; Baltus, P.G.M.; Roermund, van A.H.M.

    2011-01-01

    The 60GHz band is promising for applications such as high-speed short-range wireless personal area network (WPAN), real time video streaming at rates of several Gbps, automotive radar, and mm-Wave imaging, since it provides a large amount of bandwidth that can freely (i.e. without a license) be used

  19. A 24GHz Radar Receiver in CMOS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwok, K.C.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis investigates the system design and circuit implementation of a 24GHz-band short-range radar receiver in CMOS technology. The propagation and penetration properties of EM wave offer the possibility of non-contact based remote sensing and through-the-wall imaging of distance stationary or

  20. Superconducting ECR ion source: From 24-28 GHz SECRAL to 45 GHz fourth generation ECR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H. W.; Sun, L. T.; Guo, J. W.; Zhang, W. H.; Lu, W.; Wu, W.; Wu, B. M.; Sabbi, G.; Juchno, M.; Hafalia, A.; Ravaioli, E.; Xie, D. Z.

    2018-05-01

    The development of superconducting ECR source with higher magnetic fields and higher microwave frequency is the most straight forward path to achieve higher beam intensity and higher charge state performance. SECRAL, a superconducting third generation ECR ion source, is designed for 24-28 GHz microwave frequency operation with an innovative magnet configuration of sextupole coils located outside the three solenoids. SECRAL at 24 GHz has already produced a number of record beam intensities, such as 40Ar12+ 1.4 emA, 129Xe26+ 1.1 emA, 129Xe30+ 0.36 emA, and 209Bi31+ 0.68 emA. SECRAL-II, an upgraded version of SECRAL, was built successfully in less than 3 years and has recently been commissioned at full power of a 28 GHz gyrotron and three-frequency heating (28 + 45 + 18 GHz). New record beam intensities for highly charged ion production have been achieved, such as 620 eμA 40Ar16+, 15 eμA 40Ar18+, 146 eμA 86Kr28+, 0.5 eμA 86Kr33+, 53 eμA 129Xe38+, and 17 eμA 129Xe42+. Recent beam test results at SECRAL and SECRAL II have demonstrated that the production of more intense highly charged heavy ion beams needs higher microwave power and higher frequency, as the scaling law predicted. A 45 GHz superconducting ECR ion source FECR (a first fourth generation ECR ion source) is being built at IMP. FECR will be the world's first Nb3Sn superconducting-magnet-based ECR ion source with 6.5 T axial mirror field, 3.5 T sextupole field on the plasma chamber inner wall, and 20 kW at a 45 GHz microwave coupling system. This paper will focus on SECRAL performance studies at 24-28 GHz and technical design of 45 GHz FECR, which demonstrates a technical path for highly charged ion beam production from 24 to 28 GHz SECRAL to 45 GHz FECR.

  1. AgIIS, Agricultural Irrigation Imaging System, design and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberland, Julio Andres

    Remote sensing is a tool that is increasingly used in agriculture for crop management purposes. A ground-based remote sensing data acquisition system was designed, constructed, and implemented to collect high spatial and temporal resolution data in irrigated agriculture. The system was composed of a rail that mounts on a linear move irrigation machine, and a small cart that runs back and forth on the rail. The cart was equipped with a sensors package that measured reflectance in four discrete wavelengths (550 nm, 660 nm, 720 nm, and 810 nm, all 10 nm bandwidth) and an infrared thermometer. A global positioning system and triggers on the rail indicated cart position. The data was postprocessed in order to generate vegetation maps, N and water status maps and other indices relevant for site-specific crop management. A geographic information system (GIS) was used to generate images of the field on any desired day. The system was named AgIIS (A&barbelow;gricultural I&barbelow;rrigation I&barbelow;maging S&barbelow;ystem). This ground based remote sensing acquisition system was developed at the Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Department at the University of Arizona in conjunction with the U.S. Water Conservation Laboratory in Phoenix, as part of a cooperative study primarily funded by the Idaho National Environmental and Engineering Laboratory. A second phase of the study utilized data acquired with AgIIS during the 1999 cotton growing season to model petiole nitrate (PNO3 -) and total leaf N. A latin square experimental design with optimal and low water and optimal and low N was used to evaluate N status under water and no water stress conditions. Multivariable models were generated with neural networks (NN) and multilinear regression (MLR). Single variable models were generated from chlorophyll meter readings (SPAD) and from the Canopy Chlorophyll Content Index (CCCI). All models were evaluated against observed PNO3- and total leaf N levels. The NN models

  2. The 100 strongest radio point sources in the field of the Large Magellanic Cloud at 1.4 GHz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payne J.L.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the 100 strongest 1.4 GHz point sources from a new mosaic image in the direction of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC. The observations making up the mosaic were made using Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA over a ten year period and were combined with Parkes single dish data at 1.4 GHz to complete the image for short spacing. An initial list of co-identifications within 1000 at 0.843, 4.8 and 8.6 GHz consisted of 2682 sources. Elimination of extended objects and artifact noise allowed the creation of a refined list containing 1988 point sources. Most of these are presumed to be background objects seen through the LMC; a small portion may represent compact H ii regions, young SNRs and radio planetary nebulae. For the 1988 point sources we find a preliminary average spectral index (α of -0.53 and present a 1.4 GHz image showing source location in the direction of the LMC.

  3. A 90 GHz photoinjector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, D.T.; Hogan, M.J.; Ferrario, M.; Serafini, L.

    1999-01-01

    Photocathode rf guns depend on mode locked laser systems to produce an electron beam at a given phase of the rf. In general, the laser pulse is less than σ 2 = 10'' of rf phase in length and the required stability is on the order of Δφ = 1 At 90 GHz (W-band), these requirements correspond to σ 2 = 333 fsec and Δφ = 33 fsec. Laser system with pulse lengths in the fsec regime are commercially available, the timing stability is a major concern. It is proposed a multi-cell W-band photoinjector that does not require a mode locked laser system. Thereby eliminating the stability requirements at W-band. The laser pulse is allowed to be many rf periods long. In principle, the photoinjector can now be considered as a thermionic rf gun. Instead of using an alpha magnet to compress the electron bunch, which would have a detrimental effect on the transverse hase space quality due to longitudinal phase space mixing, it is here proposed to use long pulse laser system and a pair of undulators to produce a low emittance, high current, ultra-short electron bunch for beam dynamics experiments in the 90 GHz regime

  4. A Gimbal-Stabilized Compact Hyperspectral Imaging System, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Gimbal-stabilized Compact Hyperspectral Imaging System (GCHIS) fully integrates multi-sensor spectral imaging, stereovision, GPS and inertial measurement,...

  5. 143 GHz BRIGHTNESS MEASUREMENTS OF URANUS, NEPTUNE, AND OTHER SECONDARY CALIBRATORS WITH BOLOCAM BETWEEN 2003 AND 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayers, J.; Czakon, N. G.; Golwala, S. R.

    2012-01-01

    Bolocam began collecting science data in 2003 as the long-wavelength imaging camera at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory. The planets, along with a handful of secondary calibrators, have been used to determine the flux calibration for all of the data collected with Bolocam. Uranus and Neptune stand out as the only two planets that are bright enough to be seen with high signal-to-noise in short integrations without saturating the standard Bolocam readout electronics. By analyzing all of the 143 GHz observations made with Bolocam between 2003 and 2010, we find that the brightness ratio of Uranus to Neptune is 1.027 ± 0.006, with no evidence for any variations over that period. Including previously published results at ≅ 150 GHz, we find a brightness ratio of 1.029 ± 0.006 with no evidence for time variability over the period 1983-2010. Additionally, we find no evidence for time variability in the brightness ratio of either Uranus or Neptune to the ultracompact H II region G34.3 or the protostellar source NGC 2071IR. Using recently published Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe results we constrain the absolute 143 GHz brightness of both Uranus and Neptune to ≅ 3%. Finally, we present ≅ 3% absolute 143 GHz peak flux density values for the ultracompact H II regions G34.3 and K3-50A and the protostellar source NGC 2071IR.

  6. Visibility enhancement of color images using Type-II fuzzy membership function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Harmandeep; Khehra, Baljit Singh

    2018-04-01

    Images taken in poor environmental conditions decrease the visibility and hidden information of digital images. Therefore, image enhancement techniques are necessary for improving the significant details of these images. An extensive review has shown that histogram-based enhancement techniques greatly suffer from over/under enhancement issues. Fuzzy-based enhancement techniques suffer from over/under saturated pixels problems. In this paper, a novel Type-II fuzzy-based image enhancement technique has been proposed for improving the visibility of images. The Type-II fuzzy logic can automatically extract the local atmospheric light and roughly eliminate the atmospheric veil in local detail enhancement. The proposed technique has been evaluated on 10 well-known weather degraded color images and is also compared with four well-known existing image enhancement techniques. The experimental results reveal that the proposed technique outperforms others regarding visible edge ratio, color gradients and number of saturated pixels.

  7. Ultrasound Vector Flow Imaging: Part II: Parallel Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Nikolov, Svetoslav Ivanov; Yu, Alfred C. H.

    2016-01-01

    The paper gives a review of the current state-of-theart in ultrasound parallel acquisition systems for flow imaging using spherical and plane waves emissions. The imaging methods are explained along with the advantages of using these very fast and sensitive velocity estimators. These experimental...... ultrasound imaging for studying brain function in animals. The paper explains the underlying acquisition and estimation methods for fast 2-D and 3-D velocity imaging and gives a number of examples. Future challenges and the potentials of parallel acquisition systems for flow imaging are also discussed....

  8. The imaging manifestations of caseous pulmonary tuberculosis with type-II diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingyue Wang

    2015-11-01

    Conclusion: Type-II diabetic patients with caseous tuberculosis mainly showed consolidation and atypical lung field lesions on chest radiographs. Becoming familiar with these features will be helpful to imaging diagnosis of DMTB.

  9. The year 2012 in the European Heart Journal-Cardiovascular Imaging. Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plein, Sven; Knuuti, Juhani; Edvardsen, Thor; Saraste, Antti; Piérard, Luc A; Maurer, Gerald; Lancellotti, Patrizio

    2013-07-01

    The part II of the best of the European Heart Journal - Cardiovascular Imaging in 2012 specifically focuses on studies of valvular heart diseases, heart failure, cardiomyopathies, and congenital heart diseases.

  10. Quantitative imaging studies with PET VI. Project II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copper, M.; Chen, C.T.; Yasillo, N.; Gatley, J.; Ortega, C.; DeJesus, O.; Friedman, A.

    1985-01-01

    This project is focused upon the development of hardware and software to improve PET image analysis and upon clinical applications of PET. In this report the laboratory's progress in various attenuation correction methods for brain imaging are described. The use of time-of-flight information for image reconstruction is evaluated. The location of dopamine D1 and D2 receptors in brain was found to be largely in the basal ganghia. 1 tab. (DT)

  11. Despeckle filtering for ultrasound imaging and video II selected applications

    CERN Document Server

    Loizou, Christos P

    2015-01-01

    In ultrasound imaging and video visual perception is hindered by speckle multiplicative noise that degrades the quality. Noise reduction is therefore essential for improving the visual observation quality or as a pre-processing step for further automated analysis, such as image/video segmentation, texture analysis and encoding in ultrasound imaging and video. The goal of the first book (book 1 of 2 books) was to introduce the problem of speckle in ultrasound image and video as well as the theoretical background, algorithmic steps, and the MatlabTM for the following group of despeckle filters:

  12. Aesthetic Pursuits: Windows, Frames, Words, Images--Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Ken

    2005-01-01

    In Part I of this study (Burke, 2005), the author presented the essentials of Image Presentation Theory--IPT--and its application to the analytical explication of various spatial designs in and psychological responses to images, from the illusions of depth in what is referred to as "windows" in cinema theory to the more patterned abstractions of…

  13. CaII Κ Imaging to Understand UV Irradiance Variability

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    the observational details, a new method of analysis, and the preliminary results of the. CaII Κ spectroheliograms of the National Solar Observatory at Sacramento Peak. (NSO/Sac Peak). The main purpose of the present paper is to separate and to derive the relative intensity and area of various chromospheric features from ...

  14. Ulnar-sided wrist pain. II. Clinical imaging and treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Atsuya; Souza, Felipe [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Vezeridis, Peter S.; Blazar, Philip [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Boston, MA (United States); Yoshioka, Hiroshi [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); University of California-Irvine, Department of Radiological Sciences, Irvine, CA (United States); UC Irvine Medical Center, Department of Radiological Sciences, Orange, CA (United States)

    2010-09-15

    Pain at the ulnar aspect of the wrist is a diagnostic challenge for hand surgeons and radiologists due to the small and complex anatomical structures involved. In this article, imaging modalities including radiography, arthrography, ultrasound (US), computed tomography (CT), CT arthrography, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, and MR arthrography are compared with regard to differential diagnosis. Clinical imaging findings are reviewed for a more comprehensive understanding of this disorder. Treatments for the common diseases that cause the ulnar-sided wrist pain including extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU) tendonitis, flexor carpi ulnaris (FCU) tendonitis, pisotriquetral arthritis, triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) lesions, ulnar impaction, lunotriquetral (LT) instability, and distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) instability are reviewed. (orig.)

  15. Optics, illumination, and image sensing for machine vision II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svetkoff, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    These proceedings collect papers on the general subject of machine vision. Topics include illumination and viewing systems, x-ray imaging, automatic SMT inspection with x-ray vision, and 3-D sensing for machine vision

  16. Miniaturized Airborne Imaging Central Server System, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation is a miniaturized airborne imaging central server system (MAICSS). MAICSS is designed as a high-performance computer-based electronic backend that...

  17. Planetary Data Systems (PDS) Imaging Node Atlas II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanboli, Alice; McAuley, James M.

    2013-01-01

    The Planetary Image Atlas (PIA) is a Rich Internet Application (RIA) that serves planetary imaging data to the science community and the general public. PIA also utilizes the USGS Unified Planetary Coordinate system (UPC) and the on-Mars map server. The Atlas was designed to provide the ability to search and filter through greater than 8 million planetary image files. This software is a three-tier Web application that contains a search engine backend (MySQL, JAVA), Web service interface (SOAP) between server and client, and a GWT Google Maps API client front end. This application allows for the search, retrieval, and download of planetary images and associated meta-data from the following missions: 2001 Mars Odyssey, Cassini, Galileo, LCROSS, Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, Mars Exploration Rover, Mars Express, Magellan, Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Pathfinder, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, MESSENGER, Phoe nix, Viking Lander, Viking Orbiter, and Voyager. The Atlas utilizes the UPC to translate mission-specific coordinate systems into a unified coordinate system, allowing the end user to query across missions of similar targets. If desired, the end user can also use a mission-specific view of the Atlas. The mission-specific views rely on the same code base. This application is a major improvement over the initial version of the Planetary Image Atlas. It is a multi-mission search engine. This tool includes both basic and advanced search capabilities, providing a product search tool to interrogate the collection of planetary images. This tool lets the end user query information about each image, and ignores the data that the user has no interest in. Users can reduce the number of images to look at by defining an area of interest with latitude and longitude ranges.

  18. Evaluation of Laser Stabilization and Imaging Systems for LCLS-II - Final Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barry, Matthew [Auburn Univ., AL (United States)

    2015-08-20

    By combining the top performing commercial laser beam stabilization system with the most ideal optical imaging configuration, the beamline for the Linear Accelerator Coherent Light Source II (LCLS-II) will deliver the highest quality and most stable beam to the cathode. To determine the optimal combination, LCLS-II beamline conditions were replicated and the systems tested with a He-Ne laser. The Guidestar-II and MRC active laser beam stabilization systems were evaluated for their ideal positioning and stability. Both a two and four lens optical imaging configuration was then evaluated for beam imaging quality, magnification properties, and natural stability. In their best performances when tested over fifteen hours, Guidestar-II kept the beam stable over approximately 70-110um while the MRC system kept it stable over approximately 90-100um. During short periods of time, Guidestar-II kept the beam stable between 10-20um, but was more susceptible to drift over time, while the MRC system maintained the beam between 30-50um with less overall drift. The best optical imaging configuration proved to be a four lens system that images to the iris located in the cathode room and from there, imaged to the cathode. The magnification from the iris to the cathode was 2:1, within an acceptable tolerance to the expected 2.1:1 magnification. The two lens configuration was slightly more stable in small periods of time (less than 10 minutes) without the assistance of a stability system, approximately 55um compared to approximately 70um, but the four lens configurations beam image had a significantly flatter intensity distribution compared to the two lens configuration which had a Gaussian distribution. A final test still needs to be run with both stability systems running at the same time through the four lens system. With this data, the optimal laser beam stabilization system can be determined for the beamline of LCLS-II.

  19. Relationship between fatigue of generation II image intensifier and input illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qingyou

    1995-09-01

    If there is fatigue for an image intesifier, then it has an effect on the imaging property of the night vision system. In this paper, using the principle of Joule Heat, we derive a mathematical formula for the generated heat of semiconductor photocathode. We describe the relationship among the various parameters in the formula. We also discuss reasons for the fatigue of Generation II image intensifier caused by bigger input illumination.

  20. Near-infrared II fluorescence for imaging hindlimb vessel regeneration with dynamic tissue perfusion measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Guosong; Lee, Jerry C; Jha, Arshi; Diao, Shuo; Nakayama, Karina H; Hou, Luqia; Doyle, Timothy C; Robinson, Joshua T; Antaris, Alexander L; Dai, Hongjie; Cooke, John P; Huang, Ngan F

    2014-05-01

    Real-time vascular imaging that provides both anatomic and hemodynamic information could greatly facilitate the diagnosis of vascular diseases and provide accurate assessment of therapeutic effects. Here, we have developed a novel fluorescence-based all-optical method, named near-infrared II (NIR-II) fluorescence imaging, to image murine hindlimb vasculature and blood flow in an experimental model of peripheral arterial disease, by exploiting fluorescence in the NIR-II region (1000-1400 nm) of photon wavelengths. Because of the reduced photon scattering of NIR-II fluorescence compared with traditional NIR fluorescence imaging and thus much deeper penetration depth into the body, we demonstrated that the mouse hindlimb vasculature could be imaged with higher spatial resolution than in vivo microscopic computed tomography. Furthermore, imaging during 26 days revealed a significant increase in hindlimb microvascular density in response to experimentally induced ischemia within the first 8 days of the surgery (Pimaging make it a useful imaging tool for murine models of vascular disease. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  1. Ultrafuzziness Optimization Based on Type II Fuzzy Sets for Image Thresholding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudan Studiawan

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Image thresholding is one of the processing techniques to provide high quality preprocessed image. Image vagueness and bad illumination are common obstacles yielding in a poor image thresholding output. By assuming image as fuzzy sets, several different fuzzy thresholding techniques have been proposed to remove these obstacles during threshold selection. In this paper, we proposed an algorithm for thresholding image using ultrafuzziness optimization to decrease uncertainty in fuzzy system by common fuzzy sets like type II fuzzy sets. Optimization was conducted by involving ultrafuzziness measurement for background and object fuzzy sets separately. Experimental results demonstrated that the proposed image thresholding method had good performances for images with high vagueness, low level contrast, and grayscale ambiguity.

  2. Magnetic resonance imaging of the elbow. Part II: Abnormalities of the ligaments, tendons, and nerves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kijowski, Richard; Tuite, Michael; Sanford, Matthew [University of Wisconsin Hospital, Department of Radiology, Madison, WI (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Part II of this comprehensive review on magnetic resonance imaging of the elbow discusses the role of magnetic resonance imaging in evaluating patients with abnormalities of the ligaments, tendons, and nerves of the elbow. Magnetic resonance imaging can yield high-quality multiplanar images which are useful in evaluating the soft tissue structures of the elbow. Magnetic resonance imaging can detect tears of the ulnar collateral ligament and lateral collateral ligament of the elbow with high sensitivity and specificity. Magnetic resonance imaging can determine the extent of tendon pathology in patients with medial epicondylitis and lateral epicondylitis. Magnetic resonance imaging can detect tears of the biceps tendon and triceps tendon and can distinguishing between partial and complete tendon rupture. Magnetic resonance imaging is also helpful in evaluating patients with nerve disorders at the elbow. (orig.)

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in obstetrics. II. Fetal anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, M C; Worthington, B S; Buckley, J M; Symonds, E M

    1988-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed in 36 patients at between 10 and 38 weeks gestation to determine the fetal anatomy that could be identified at different gestations. Fetal motion significantly degraded the image quality in the first and second trimesters, but in the final trimester fetal anatomy was clearly demonstrated. T2 weighted sequences showed the fetal brain and lungs to have a high signal intensity. Shorter TR leading to a T1 weighting gave better resolution of the overall anatomy. MRI has revealed the potential for assessment of lung maturity and the growth-retarded fetus.

  4. Atlas of total body radionuclide imaging. Volume I and II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fordham, E.W.; Ali, A.; Turner, D.A.; Charters, J.

    1982-01-01

    This two-volume work on total body imaging may well be regarded by future historians of nuclear medicine as representing the high points in the art of total body imaging in clinical nuclear medicine. With regard to information content and volume, it is the largest collection of well-interpreted, beautifully reproduced, total body images available to date. The primary goal of this atlas is to demonstrate patterns of abnormality in both typical and less typical variations. This goal is accomplished with many well-described examples of technical artifacts, of normal variants, of common and of rare diseases, and of pitfalls in interpretations. Volume I is entirely dedicated to skeletal imaging with Tc-99m labeled phosphates or phosphonates. The volume is divided into 22 chapters, which include chapters on methodology and instrumentation, chapters on the important bone diseases and other topics such as a treatise on false-negative and false-positive scans, and soft tissue and urinary tract abnormalities recognizable on bone scintigrams

  5. Difference Image Analysis of Galactic Microlensing. II. Microlensing Events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcock, C.; Allsman, R. A.; Alves, D.; Axelrod, T. S.; Becker, A. C.; Bennett, D. P.; Cook, K. H.; Drake, A. J.; Freeman, K. C.; Griest, K. (and others)

    1999-09-01

    The MACHO collaboration has been carrying out difference image analysis (DIA) since 1996 with the aim of increasing the sensitivity to the detection of gravitational microlensing. This is a preliminary report on the application of DIA to galactic bulge images in one field. We show how the DIA technique significantly increases the number of detected lensing events, by removing the positional dependence of traditional photometry schemes and lowering the microlensing event detection threshold. This technique, unlike PSF photometry, gives the unblended colors and positions of the microlensing source stars. We present a set of criteria for selecting microlensing events from objects discovered with this technique. The 16 pixel and classical microlensing events discovered with the DIA technique are presented. (c) (c) 1999. The American Astronomical Society.

  6. Doppler coherence imaging of ion dynamics in VINETA.II and ASDEX-upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gradic, Dorothea; Ford, Oliver; Wolf, Robert [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Greifswald (Germany); Lunt, Tilmann [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    In magnetically confining plasma experiments, diagnosis of ion flows is of great importance to measure the plasma response to the magnetic field or the exhaust particle flows in the divertor areas. Doppler coherence imaging spectroscopy (CIS) is a relatively new technique for the observation of plasma bulk ion dynamics. It is a passive optical diagnostic enabling line-integrated measurements to obtain 2D images of the ion flow and ion temperature. The general principle is similar to traditional Doppler spectroscopy, however CIS uses an imaging interferometer to perform narrow-bandwidth Fourier spectroscopy. A major advantage of the coherence imaging technique is the large amount of spatial information recovered. This allows tomographic inversion of the line-integrated measurements. With existing CIS setups, scrape-off-layer and high field side edge impurity flows could be observed in the MAST, core and edge poloidal He II flows in the WEGA stellarator and divertor impurity flows in DIII-D. The main objective of this study is the research of ion dynamics in the small linear plasma experiment VINETA.II and ASDEX-Upgrade. First Doppler CIS measurements from Ar-II plasma discharges in VINETA.II and He-II, C-III divertor flows in ASDEX-Upgrade and their preliminary interpretation will be presented.

  7. Computer imaging of EBR-II handling equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, L.H.; Peters, G.G.

    1994-10-01

    This paper describes a three-dimensional graphics application used to visualize the positions of remotely operated fuel handling equipment in the EBR-II reactor. The system described in this paper uses actual signals to move a three-dimensional graphics model in real-time in response to movements of equipment in the plant. A three-dimensional (3D) visualization technique is necessary to simulate direct visual observation of the transfers of fuel and experiments into and out of the reactor because the fuel handling equipment is submerged in liquid sodium and therefore is not visible to the operator. This paper will present details on how the 3D model was created and how real-time dynamic behavior was added to each of the moving components

  8. Computer imaging of EBR-II fuel handling equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, G.G.; Hansen, L.H.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes a three-dimensional graphics application used to visualize the positions of remotely operated fuel handling equipment in the EBR-II reactor. A three-dimensional (3D) visualization technique is necessary to simulate direct visual observation of the transfers of fuel and experiments into and out of the reactor because the fuel handling equipment is submerged in liquid sodium and therefore is not visible to the operator. The system described in this paper uses actual signals to drive a three-dimensional computer-generated model in real-time in response to movements of equipment in the plant This paper will present details on how the 3D model of the intank equipment was created and how real-time dynamic behavior was added to each of the moving components

  9. MR imaging findings of painful type II accessory navicular bone: correlation with surgical and pathologic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Yun Sun; Lee, Kyung Tai; Kim, Eun Kyung; Kang, Heung Sik

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate the MR imaging findings of painful type II accessory navicular bone and to correlate these with the surgical and pathologic findings. The MR images of 17 patients with medial foot pain and surgically proven type II accessory navicular abnormalities were reviewed. The changes of signal intensity in the accessory navicular, synchondrosis and adjacent soft tissue, the presence of synchondrosis widening, and posterior tibial tendon (PTT) pathology on the T1-weighted and fat-suppressed T2-weighted images were analyzed. The MR imaging findings were compared with the surgical and pathologic findings. The fat-suppressed T2-weighted images showed high signal intensity in the accessory navicular bones and synchondroses in all patients, and in the soft tissue in 11 (64.7%) of the 17 patients, as well as synchondrosis widening in 3 (17.6%) of the 17 patients. The MR images showed tendon pathology in 12 (75%) of the 16 patients with PTT dysfunction at surgery. The pathologic findings of 16 surgical specimens included areas of osteonecrosis with granulomatous inflammation, fibrosis and destruction of the cartilage cap. The MR imaging findings of painful type II accessory navicular bone are a persistent edema pattern in the accessory navicular bone and within the synchondrosis, indicating osteonecrosis, inflammation and destruction of the cartilage cap. Posterior tibial tendon dysfunction was clinically evident in most patients

  10. Safety Assessment of Advanced Imaging Sequences II: Simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2016-01-01

    .6%, when using the impulse response of the probe estimated from an independent measurement. The accuracy is increased to between -22% to 24.5% for MI and between -33.2% to 27.0% for Ispta.3, when using the pressure response measured at a single point to scale the simulation. The spatial distribution of MI...... Mechanical Index (MI) and Ispta.3 as required by FDA. The method is performed on four different imaging schemes and compared to measurements conducted using the SARUS experimental scanner. The sequences include focused emissions with an F-number of 2 with 64 elements that generate highly non-linear fields....... The simulation time is between 0.67 ms to 2.8 ms per emission and imaging point, making it possible to simulate even complex emission sequences in less than 1 s for a single spatial position. The linear simulations yield a relative accuracy on MI between -12.1% to 52.3% and for Ispta.3 between -38.6% to 62...

  11. The Columbia University microbeam II endstation for cell imaging and irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigelow, A.W.; Ross, G.J.; Randers-Pehrson, G.; Brenner, D.J.

    2005-01-01

    The Columbia University Microbeam II has been built to provide a focused ion beam for irradiating designated mammalian cells with single particles. With the interest in irradiating non-stained cells and cells in three-dimensional tissue samples, the endstation was designed to accommodate a variety of imaging techniques, in addition to fluorescent microscopy. Non-stained cells are imaged either by quantitative phase microscopy (QPm) [IATIA, Box Hill North, Victoria, 3129, Australia [1

  12. Melanie II--a third-generation software package for analysis of two-dimensional electrophoresis images: II. Algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, R D; Vargas, J R; Palagi, P M; Walther, D; Hochstrasser, D F

    1997-12-01

    After two generations of software systems for the analysis of two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) images, a third generation of such software packages has recently emerged that combines state-of-the-art graphical user interfaces with comprehensive spot data analysis capabilities. A key characteristic common to most of these software packages is that many of their tools are implementations of algorithms that resulted from research areas such as image processing, vision, artificial intelligence or machine learning. This article presents the main algorithms implemented in the Melanie II 2-D PAGE software package. The applications of these algorithms, embodied as the feature of the program, are explained in an accompanying article (R. D. Appel et al.; Electrophoresis 1997, 18, 2724-2734).

  13. X-ray energy selected imaging with Medipix II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwig, J.; Zwerger, A.; Benz, K.-W.; Fiederle, M.; Braml, H.; Fauler, A.; Konrath, J.-P.

    2004-01-01

    Two different X-ray tube accelerating voltages (60 and 70 kV) are used for diagnosis of front teeth and molars. Different energy ranges are necessary as function of tooth thickness to obtain similar contrast for imaging. This technique drives the costs for the X-ray tube up and allows for just two optimized settings. Energy range selection for the detection of the penetrating X-rays would overcome these severe setbacks. The single photon counting chip MEDIPIX2 http://www.cern.ch/medipix exhibits exactly this feature. First simulations and measurements have been carried out using a dental X-ray source. As a demonstrator a real tooth has been used with different cavities and filling materials. Simulations showed in general larger improvements as compared to measurements regarding SNR and contrast: A beneficial factor of 4% wrt SNR and 25% for contrast, measurements showed factors of 2.5 and up to 10%, respectively

  14. X-ray energy selected imaging with Medipix II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, J.; Zwerger, A.; Benz, K.-W.; Fiederle, M.; Braml, H.; Fauler, A.; Konrath, J.-P.

    2004-09-01

    Two different X-ray tube accelerating voltages (60 and 70kV) are used for diagnosis of front teeth and molars. Different energy ranges are necessary as function of tooth thickness to obtain similar contrast for imaging. This technique drives the costs for the X-ray tube up and allows for just two optimized settings. Energy range selection for the detection of the penetrating X-rays would overcome these severe setbacks. The single photon counting chip MEDIPIX2 http://www.cern.ch/medipix exhibits exactly this feature.First simulations and measurements have been carried out using a dental X-ray source. As a demonstrator a real tooth has been used with different cavities and filling materials. Simulations showed in general larger improvements as compared to measurements regarding SNR and contrast: A beneficial factor of 4% wrt SNR and 25% for contrast, measurements showed factors of 2.5 and up to 10%, respectively.

  15. Early tumor detection afforded by in vivo imaging of near-infrared II fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Zhimin; Dang, Xiangnan; Huang, Xing; Muzumdar, Mandar D; Xu, Eric S; Bardhan, Neelkanth Manoj; Song, Haiqin; Qi, Ruogu; Yu, Yingjie; Li, Ting; Wei, Wei; Wyckoff, Jeffrey; Birrer, Michael J; Belcher, Angela M; Ghoroghchian, P Peter

    2017-07-01

    Cell-intrinsic reporters such as luciferase (LUC) and red fluorescent protein (RFP) have been commonly utilized in preclinical studies to image tumor growth and to monitor therapeutic responses. While extrinsic reporters that emit near infrared I (NIR-I: 650-950 nm) or near-infrared II (NIR-II: 1000-1700 nm) optical signals have enabled minimization of tissue autofluorescence and light scattering, it has remained unclear as to whether their use has afforded more accurate tumor imaging in small animals. Here, we developed a novel optical imaging construct comprised of rare earth lanthanide nanoparticles coated with biodegradable diblock copolymers and doped with organic fluorophores, generating NIR-I and NIR-II emissive bands upon optical excitation. Simultaneous injection of multiple spectrally-unique nanoparticles into mice bearing tumor implants established via intraperitoneal dissemination of LUC + /RFP + OVCAR-8 ovarian cancer cells enabled direct comparisons of imaging with extrinsic vs. intrinsic reporters, NIR-II vs. NIR-I signals, as well as targeted vs. untargeted exogenous contrast agents in the same animal and over time. We discovered that in vivo optical imaging at NIR-II wavelengths facilitates more accurate detection of smaller and earlier tumor deposits, offering enhanced sensitivity, improved spatial contrast, and increased depths of tissue penetration as compared to imaging with visible or NIR-I fluorescent agents. Our work further highlights the hitherto underappreciated enhancements in tumor accumulation that may be achieved with intraperitoneal as opposed to intravenous administration of nanoparticles. Lastly, we found discrepancies in the fidelity of tumor uptake that could be obtained by utilizing small molecules for in vivo as opposed to in vitro targeting of nanoparticles to disseminated tumors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. High power, 140 GHz gyrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreischer, K.E.; Temkin, R.J.; Mulligan, W.J.; MacCabe, S.; Chaplya, R.

    1982-01-01

    The design and construction of a pulsed 100 kW, 140 GHz gyrotron is described. Initial gyrotron operation is expected in early 1982. Advances in gyrotron theory have also been carried out in support of this experimental research. The application of gyrotrons to plasma diagnostics is also under investigation. (author)

  17. Atherosclerosis and the vulnerable plaque - imaging. Part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worthley, S.G.; Helft, G.; Zaman, A.G.; Fuster, V.; Badimon, J.J.

    2000-01-01

    identification, these lesions would be undetected by stress testing/imaging techniques. Given the critical role that atherosclerotic lesion composition has been shown to play in the risk of both plaque rupture and subsequent thrombogenicity, and consequently an acute coronary event, new detection techniques need to be investigated to document atherosclerotic lesion composition. In this review, we will focus on the status of imaging modalities being investigated to help identify patients at risk of coronary events

  18. Enhancing studies of the connectome in autism using the autism brain imaging data exchange II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Di Martino, A. (Adriana); O'Connor, D. (David); Chen, B. (Bosi); Alaerts, K. (Kaat); Anderson, J.S. (Jeffrey S.); Assaf, M. (Michal); Balsters, J.H. (Joshua H.); Baxter, L. (Leslie); Beggiato, A. (Anita); Bernaerts, S. (Sylvie); L.M.E. Blanken (Laura); Bookheimer, S.Y. (Susan Y.); Braden, B.B. (B. Blair); Byrge, L. (Lisa); Castellanos, F.X. (F. Xavier); Dapretto, M. (Mirella); R. Delorme (Richard); Fair, D.A. (Damien A.); Fishman, I. (Inna); Fitzgerald, J. (Jacqueline); L. Gallagher (Louise); Keehn, R.J.J. (R. Joanne Jao); Kennedy, D.P. (Daniel P.); Lainhart, J.E. (Janet E.); Luna, B. (Beatriz); S.H. Mostofsky (Stewart H.); Müller, R.-A. (Ralph-Axel); Nebel, M.B. (Mary Beth); Nigg, J.T. (Joel T.); O'Hearn, K. (Kirsten); Solomon, M. (Marjorie); R. Toro (Roberto); Vaidya, C.J. (Chandan J.); Wenderoth, N. (Nicole); T.J.H. White (Tonya); Craddock, R.C. (R. Cameron); Lord, C. (Catherine); Leventhal, B. (Bennett); Milham, M.P. (Michael P.)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe second iteration of the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (ABIDE II) aims to enhance the scope of brain connectomics research in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Consistent with the initial ABIDE effort (ABIDE I), that released 1112 datasets in 2012, this new multisite open-data

  19. Contrast enhancement of fingerprint images using intuitionistic type II fuzzy set

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devarasan Ezhilmaran

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A novel contrast image enhancement of fingerprint images using intuitionistic type II fuzzy set theory is recommended in this work. The method of Hamacher T co-norm(S norm which generates a new membership function with the help of upper and lower membership function of type II fuzzy set. The finger print identification is one of the very few techniques employed in forensic science to aid criminal investigations in daily life, providing access control in financial security;-, visa related services, as well as others. Mostly fingerprint images are poorly illuminated and hardly visible, so it is necessary to enhance the input images. The enhancement is useful for authentication and matching. The fingerprint enhancement is vital for identifying and authenticating people by matching their fingerprints with the stored one in the database. The proposed enhancement of the intuitionistic type II fuzzy set theory results showed that it is more effective, especially, very useful for forensic science operations. The experimental results were compared with non-fuzzy, fuzzy, intuitionistic fuzzy and type II fuzzy methods in which the proposed method offered better results with good quality, less noise and low blur features.

  20. Diagnostic imaging of psoriatic arthritis. Part II: magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasonography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona Sudoł-Szopińska

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Plain radiography reveals specific, yet late changes of advanced psoriatic arthritis. Early inflammatory changes are seen both on magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound within peripheral joints (arthritis, synovitis, tendons sheaths (tenosynovitis, tendovaginitis and entheses (enthesitis, enthesopathy. In addition, magnetic resonance imaging enables the assessment of inflammatory features in the sacroiliac joints (sacroiliitis, and the spine (spondylitis. In this article, we review current opinions on the diagnostics of some selective, and distinctive features of psoriatic arthritis concerning magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound and present some hypotheses on psoriatic arthritis etiopathogenesis, which have been studied with the use of magnetic resonance imaging. The following elements of the psoriatic arthritis are discussed: enthesitis, extracapsular inflammation, dactylitis, distal interphalangeal joint and nail disease, and the ability of magnetic resonance imaging to differentiate undifferentiated arthritis, the value of whole-body magnetic resonance imaging and dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging.

  1. The year 2013 in the European Heart Journal--Cardiovascular Imaging: Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plein, Sven; Edvardsen, Thor; Pierard, Luc A; Saraste, Antti; Knuuti, Juhani; Maurer, Gerald; Lancellotti, Patrizio

    2014-08-01

    The new multi-modality cardiovascular imaging journal, European Heart Journal - Cardiovascular Imaging, was created in 2012. Here we summarize the most important studies from the journal's second year in two articles. Part I of the review has summarized studies in myocardial function, myocardial ischaemia, and emerging techniques in cardiovascular imaging. Part II is focussed on valvular heart diseases, heart failure, cardiomyopathies, and congenital heart diseases. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2014. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Ultra-wideband and 60 GHz communications for biomedical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Yuce, Mehmet R

    2013-01-01

    This book investigates the design of devices, systems, and circuits for medical applications using the two recently established frequency bands: ultra-wideband (3.1-10.6 GHz) and 60 GHz ISM band. These two bands provide the largest bandwidths available for communication technologies and present many attractive opportunities for medical applications. The applications of these bands in healthcare are wireless body area network (WBAN), medical imaging, biomedical sensing, wearable and implantable devices, fast medical device connectivity, video data transmission, and vital signs monitoring. The r

  3. The Star Formation in Radio Survey: Jansky Very Large Array 33 GHz Observations of Nearby Galaxy Nuclei and Extranuclear Star-forming Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, E. J.; Dong, D.; Momjian, E.; Linden, S.; Kennicutt, R. C., Jr.; Meier, D. S.; Schinnerer, E.; Turner, J. L.

    2018-02-01

    We present 33 GHz imaging for 112 pointings toward galaxy nuclei and extranuclear star-forming regions at ≈2″ resolution using the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) as part of the Star Formation in Radio Survey. A comparison with 33 GHz Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope single-dish observations indicates that the interferometric VLA observations recover 78% ± 4% of the total flux density over 25″ regions (≈kpc scales) among all fields. On these scales, the emission being resolved out is most likely diffuse non-thermal synchrotron emission. Consequently, on the ≈30–300 pc scales sampled by our VLA observations, the bulk of the 33 GHz emission is recovered and primarily powered by free–free emission from discrete H II regions, making it an excellent tracer of massive star formation. Of the 225 discrete regions used for aperture photometry, 162 are extranuclear (i.e., having galactocentric radii r G ≥ 250 pc) and detected at >3σ significance at 33 GHz and in Hα. Assuming a typical 33 GHz thermal fraction of 90%, the ratio of optically-thin 33 GHz to uncorrected Hα star formation rates indicates a median extinction value on ≈30–300 pc scales of A Hα ≈ 1.26 ± 0.09 mag, with an associated median absolute deviation of 0.87 mag. We find that 10% of these sources are “highly embedded” (i.e., A Hα ≳ 3.3 mag), suggesting that on average, H II regions remain embedded for ≲1 Myr. Finally, we find the median 33 GHz continuum-to-Hα line flux ratio to be statistically larger within r G < 250 pc relative to the outer disk regions by a factor of 1.82 ± 0.39, while the ratio of 33 GHz to 24 μm flux densities is lower by a factor of 0.45 ± 0.08, which may suggest increased extinction in the central regions.

  4. TU-B-19A-01: Image Registration II: TG132-Quality Assurance for Image Registration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brock, K; Mutic, S

    2014-01-01

    AAPM Task Group 132 was charged with a review of the current approaches and solutions for image registration in radiotherapy and to provide recommendations for quality assurance and quality control of these clinical processes. As the results of image registration are always used as the input of another process for planning or delivery, it is important for the user to understand and document the uncertainty associate with the algorithm in general and the Result of a specific registration. The recommendations of this task group, which at the time of abstract submission are currently being reviewed by the AAPM, include the following components. The user should understand the basic image registration techniques and methods of visualizing image fusion. The disclosure of basic components of the image registration by commercial vendors is critical in this respect. The physicists should perform end-to-end tests of imaging, registration, and planning/treatment systems if image registration is performed on a stand-alone system. A comprehensive commissioning process should be performed and documented by the physicist prior to clinical use of the system. As documentation is important to the safe implementation of this process, a request and report system should be integrated into the clinical workflow. Finally, a patient specific QA practice should be established for efficient evaluation of image registration results. The implementation of these recommendations will be described and illustrated during this educational session. Learning Objectives: Highlight the importance of understanding the image registration techniques used in their clinic. Describe the end-to-end tests needed for stand-alone registration systems. Illustrate a comprehensive commissioning program using both phantom data and clinical images. Describe a request and report system to ensure communication and documentation. Demonstrate an clinically-efficient patient QA practice for efficient evaluation of image

  5. MATLAB-based Applications for Image Processing and Image Quality Assessment – Part II: Experimental Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Krasula

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides an overview of some possible usage of the software described in the Part I. It contains the real examples of image quality improvement, distortion simulations, objective and subjective quality assessment and other ways of image processing that can be obtained by the individual applications.

  6. Integrated 60GHz RF beamforming in CMOS

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Yikun; van Roermund, Arthur H M

    2011-01-01

    ""Integrated 60GHz RF Beamforming in CMOS"" describes new concepts and design techniques that can be used for 60GHz phased array systems. First, general trends and challenges in low-cost high data-rate 60GHz wireless system are studied, and the phased array technique is introduced to improve the system performance. Second, the system requirements of phase shifters are analyzed, and different phased array architectures are compared. Third, the design and implementation of 60GHz passive and active phase shifters in a CMOS technology are presented. Fourth, the integration of 60GHz phase shifters

  7. Polarization Imaging Apparatus for Cell and Tissue Imaging and Diagnostics, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This work proposes to capitalize on our Phase I success in a novel visible-near infrared Stokes polarization imaging technology based on high performance fast...

  8. Imaging of juvenile spondyloarthritis. Part II: Ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona Sudoł-Szopińska

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile spondyloarthropathies are mainly manifested by symptoms of peripheral arthritis and enthesitis. Early involvement of sacroiliac joints and spine is exceptionally rare in children; this usually happens in adulthood. Conventional radiographs visualize late inflammatory lesions. Early diagnosis is possible with the use of ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging. The first part of the article presented classifications and radiographic presentation of juvenile spondyloarthropathies. This part discusses changes seen on ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging. In patients with juvenile spondyloarthropathies, these examinations are conducted to diagnose inflammatory lesions in peripheral joints, tendon sheaths, tendons and bursae. Moreover, magnetic resonance also shows subchondral bone marrow edema, which is considered an early sign of inflammation. Ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging do not show specific lesions for any rheumatic disease. Nevertheless, they are conducted for early diagnosis, treatment monitoring and identifying complications. This article presents a spectrum of inflammatory changes and discusses the diagnostic value of ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging.

  9. Toward a unified view of radiological imaging systems. Part II: Noisy images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, R.F.

    1977-01-01

    ''The imaging process is fundamentally a sampling process.'' This philosophy of Otto Schade, utilizing the concepts of sample number and sampling aperture, is applied to a systems analysis of radiographic imaging, including some aspects of vision. It leads to a simple modification of the Rose statistical model; this results in excellent fits to the Blackwell data on the detectability of disks as a function of contrast and size. It gives a straightforward prescription for calculating a signal-to-noise ratio, which is applicable to the detection of low-contrast detail in screen--film imaging, including the effects of magnification. The model lies between the optimistic extreme of the Rose model and the pessimistic extreme of the Morgan model. For high-contrast detail, the rules for the evaluation of noiseless images are recovered

  10. Direct satellite TV - The 12-GHz challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawcette, J.

    1982-02-01

    Manufacturers in Japan and Europe are developing the hardware necessary for commercially feasible direct broadcast satellite TV, including high-frequency circuits and mini-dishes for spacecasting. US companies are lagging behind due to formidable regulatory and legal difficulties. The article focuses on efforts to develop simple, inexpensive receivers which will be able to convert 12-GHz satellite transmissions into high-quality TV images. Three basic receiver designs are being developed: the mixer-downcaster, microwave integrated circuits using FET-preamplifier front ends with transistors connected by bond-wires, and monolithic gallium arsenide integrated circuits. Several companies are on the verge of introducing commercialized receivers utilizing these different basic designs.

  11. Use of modulated excitation signals in ultrasound. Part II: Design and performance for medical imaging applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misaridis, Thanassis; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2005-01-01

    ultrasound presents design methods of linear FM signals and mismatched filters, in order to meet the higher demands on resolution in ultrasound imaging. It is shown that for the small time-bandwidth (TB) products available in ultrasound, the rectangular spectrum approximation is not valid, which reduces....... The method is evaluated first for resolution performance and axial sidelobes through simulations with the program Field II. A coded excitation ultrasound imaging system based on a commercial scanner and a 4 MHz probe driven by coded sequences is presented and used for the clinical evaluation of the coded...... excitation/compression scheme. The clinical images show a significant improvement in penetration depth and contrast, while they preserve both axial and lateral resolution. At the maximum acquisition depth of 15 cm, there is an improvement of more than 10 dB in the signal-to-noise ratio of the images...

  12. Whole-body 35-GHz security scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleby, Roger; Anderton, Rupert N.; Price, Sean; Sinclair, Gordon N.; Coward, Peter R.

    2004-08-01

    A 35GHz imager designed for Security Scanning has been previously demonstrated. That imager was based on a folded conical scan technology and was constructed from low cost materials such as expanded polystyrene and printed circuit board. In conjunction with an illumination chamber it was used to collect indoor imagery of people with weapons and contraband hidden under their clothing. That imager had a spot size of 20mm and covered a field of view of 20 x 10 degrees that partially covered the body of an adult from knees to shoulders. A new variant of this imager has been designed and constructed. It has a field of view of 36 x 18 degrees and is capable of covering the whole body of an adult. This was achieved by increasing the number of direct detection receivers from the 32 used in the previous design to 58, and by implementing an improved optical design. The optics consist of a front grid, a polarisation device which converts linear to circular polarisation and a rotating scanner. This new design uses high-density expanded polystyrene as a correcting element on the back of the front grid. This gives an added degree of freedom that allows the optical design to be diffraction limited over a very wide field of view. Obscuration by the receivers and associated components is minimised by integrating the post detection electronics at the receiver array.

  13. DIMOND II: Measures for optimising radiological information content and dose in digital imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowling, A.; Malone, J.; Marsh, D.

    2001-01-01

    The European Commission concerted action on 'Digital Imaging: Measures for Optimising Radiological Information Content and Dose', DIMOND II, was conducted by 12 European partners over the period January 1997 to June 1999. The objective of the concerted action was to initiate a project in the area of digital medical imaging where practice was evolving without structured research in radiation protection, optimisation or justification. The main issues addressed were patient and staff dosimetry, image quality, quality criteria and technical issues. The scope included computed radiography (CR), image intensifier radiography and fluoroscopy, cardiology and interventional procedures. The concerted action was based on the consolidation of work conducted in the partner's institutions together with elective new work. Protocols and approaches to dosimetry, radiological information content/image quality measurement and quality criteria were established and presented at an international workshop held in Dublin in June 1999. Details of the work conducted during the DIMOND II concerted action and a summary of the main findings and conclusions are presented in this contribution. (author)

  14. Lightning and 85-GHz MCSs in the Global Tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toracinta, E. Richard; Zipser, E. J.

    1999-01-01

    Numerous observations of tropical convection show that tropical continental mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) are much more prolific lightning producers than their oceanic counterparts. Satellite-based climatologies using 85-GHz passive microwave ice-scattering signatures from the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) indicate that MCSs of various size and intensity are found throughout the global tropics. In contrast, global lightning distributions show a strong land bias with an order of magnitude difference between land and ocean lightning. This is somewhat puzzling, since 85-GHz ice-scattering and the charge separation processes that lead to lightning are both thought to depend upon the existence of large graupel particles. The fact that low 85-GHz brightness temperatures are observed in tropical oceanic MCSs containing virtually no lightning leads to the postulate that tropical oceanic and tropical continental MCSs have fundamentally different hydrometeor profiles through the mixed phase region of the cloud (0 C Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS), and the first space-borne radar, facilitates high-resolution case studies of MCS structure throughout the global tropics. An important precursor, however, is to better understand the distribution of MCSs and lightning in the tropics. With that objective in mind, this research undertakes a systematic comparison of 85-GHz-defined MCSs and lightning over the global tropics for a full year, as an initial step toward quantifying differences between land and ocean convective systems.

  15. Performance Analysis of OFDM 60GHz System and SC-FDE 60GHz System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Xueyan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the performance of 60GHz wireless communication system with SC and OFDM is studied, the models of OFDM 60GHz system and SC 60GHz frequency domain equalization (SC-FDE system are established, and the bit error rate (BER performance of OFDM 60GHz system and SC-FDE 60GHz system in 802.15.3c channels is compared. The simulation results show that SC-FDE 60GHz system has a slight advantage over OFDM system in line-of-sight (LOS channels, while OFDM 60GHz system has a slight advantage over SC-FDE system in non-line-of-sight (NLOS channels. For 60GHz system, OFDM 60GHz system has a slight advantage over SC-FDE system in overcoming multipath fading, but the performance of both is close whether in the LOS or NLOS case.

  16. Image processing methods for noise reduction in the TJ-II Thomson Scattering diagnostic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dormido-Canto, S., E-mail: sebas@dia.uned.es [Departamento de Informatica y Automatica, UNED, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Farias, G. [Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Valparaiso (Chile); Vega, J.; Pastor, I. [Asociacion EURATOM/CIEMAT para Fusion, Madrid 28040 (Spain)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We describe an approach in order to reduce or mitigate the stray-light on the images and show the exceptional results. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We analyze the parameters to take account in the proposed process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We report a simplified exampled in order to explain the proposed process. - Abstract: The Thomsom Scattering diagnostic of the TJ-II stellarator provides temperature and density profiles. The CCD camera acquires images corrupted with noise that, in some cases, can produce unreliable profiles. The main source of noise is the so-called stray-light. In this paper we describe an approach that allows mitigation of the effects that stray-light has on the images: extraction regions with connected-components. In addition, the robustness and effectiveness of the noise reduction technique is validated in two ways: (1) supervised classification and (2) comparison of electron temperature profiles.

  17. [Digitalization, archival storage and use of image documentation in the GastroBase-II system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocna, P

    1997-05-14

    "GastroBase-II" is a module of the clinical information system "KIS-ComSyD"; The main part is represented by structured data-text with an expert system including on-line image digitalization in gastroenterology (incl. endoscopic, X-ray and endosonography pictures). The hardware and software of the GastroBase are described as well as six-years experiences with application of digitalized image data. An integration of a picture into text, reports, slides for a lecture or an electronic atlas is documented with examples. Briefly are reported out experiences with graphic editors (PhotoStyler), text editor (WordPerfect) and slide preparation for lecturing with the presentation software PowerPoint. The multimedia applications on the CD-ROM illustrate a modern trend using digitalized image documentation for pregradual and postgradual education.

  18. Design of site specific radiopharmaceuticals for tumor imaging. (Parts I and II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Dort, M.E.

    1983-01-01

    Part I. Synthetic methods were developed for the preparation of several iodinated benzoic acid hydrazides as labeling moieties for indirect tagging of carbonyl-containing bio-molecules and potential tumor-imaging agents. Biodistribution studies conducted in mice on the derivatives having the I-125 label ortho to a phenolic OH demonstrated a rapid in vivo deiodination. Part II. The reported high melanin binding affinity of quinoline and other heterocyclic antimalarial drugs led to the development of many analogues of such molecules as potential melanoma-imaging agents. Once such analogue iodochloroquine does exhibit high melanin binding, but has found limited clinical use due to appreciable accumulation in non-target tissues such as the adrenal cortex and inner ear. This project developed a new series of candidate melanoma imaging agents which would be easier to radio-label, could yield higher specific activity product, and which might demonstrate more favorable pharmacokinetic and dosimetric characteristics compared to iodochloroquine

  19. Elemental Composition of Mars Return Samples Using X-Ray Fluorescence Imaging at the National Synchrotron Light Source II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieme, J.; Hurowitz, J. A.; Schoonen, M. A.; Fogelqvist, E.; Gregerson, J.; Farley, K. A.; Sherman, S.; Hill, J.

    2018-04-01

    NSLS-II at BNL provides a unique and critical capability to perform assessments of the elemental composition and the chemical state of Mars returned samples using synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence imaging and X-ray absorption spectroscopy.

  20. 154 GHz collective Thomson scattering in LHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, K.; Nishiura, M.; Kubo, S.; Shimozuma, T.; Saito, T.; Moseev, D.; Abramovic, I.

    2018-01-01

    Collective Thomson scattering (CTS) was developed by using a 154 GHz gyrotron, and the first data has been obtained. Already, 77 GHz CTS has worked successfully. However, in order to access higher density region, 154 GHz option enhances the usability that reduces the refraction effect, which deteriorates in the local measurements. The system in the down converted frequency was almost identical to the system for 77 GHz. Probing beam, a notch filter, a mixer, and a local oscillator in the receiver system for 77 GHz option were replaced to those for the 154 GHz option. 154 GHz gyrotron was originally prepared for the second harmonic electron cyclotron heating (ECRH) at 2.75 T. However, scattering signal was masked by the second harmonic electron cyclotron emission (ECE) at 2.75 T. Therefore, 154 GHz CTS was operated at 1.375 T with fourth harmonic ECE, and an acceptable signal to noise ratio was obtained. There is a signature of fast ion components with neutral beam (NB) injection. In addition, the CTS spectrum became broader in hydrogen discharge than in deuterium discharge, as the theoretical CTS spectrum expects. This observation indicates a possibility to identify ion species ratio by the 154 GHz CTS diagnostic.

  1. High sensitivity broadband 360GHz passive receiver for TeraSCREEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Oldfield, Matthew; Maestrojuán, Itziar; Platt, Duncan; Brewster, Nick; Viegas, Colin; Alderman, Byron; Ellison, Brian N.

    2016-05-01

    TeraSCREEN is an EU FP7 Security project aimed at developing a combined active, with frequency channel centered at 360 GHz, and passive, with frequency channels centered at 94, 220 and 360 GHz, imaging system for border controls in airport and commercial ferry ports. The system will include automatic threat detection and classification and has been designed with a strong focus on the ethical, legal and practical aspects of operating in these environments and with the potential threats in mind. Furthermore, both the passive and active systems are based on array receivers with the active system consisting of a 16 element MIMO FMCW radar centered at 360 GHz with a bandwidth of 30 GHz utilizing a custom made direct digital synthesizer. The 16 element passive receiver system at 360 GHz uses commercial Gunn diode oscillators at 90 GHz followed by custom made 90 to 180 GHz frequency doublers supplying the local oscillator for 360 GHz sub-harmonic mixers. This paper describes the development of the passive antenna module, local oscillator chain, frequency mixers and detectors used in the passive receiver array of this system. The complete passive receiver chain is characterized in this paper.

  2. The EUMETSAT OSI SAF near 50 GHz sea ice emissivity model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasums T. Tonboe

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A sea ice thermal microwave emission model for 50 GHz was developed under EUMETSAT's Ocean and Sea Ice Satellite Application Facility (OSI SAF programme. The model is based on correlations between the surface brightness temperature at 18, 36 and 50 GHz. The model coefficients are estimated using simulated data from a combined thermodynamic and emission model. The intention with the model is to provide a first guess sea ice surface emissivity estimate for atmospheric temperature sounding applications in the troposphere in numerical weather prediction (NWP models assimilating Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU and Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder (SSMIS data. The spectral gradient ratio is defined as the difference over the sum of the SSMIS brightness temperatures at 18 and 36 GHz vertical linear polarisation (GR1836. The GR1836 is related to the emissivity at the atmospheric temperature sounding channels at around 50 GHz. Furthermore, the brightness temperatures and the polarisation ratio (PR at the neighbouring 18, 36 and 50 GHz channels are highly correlated. Both the gradient ratio at 18 and 36 GHz and the PR at 36 GHz measured by SSMIS are input into the model predicting the 50 GHz emissivity for horizontal and vertical linear polarisations and incidence angles between 0° and 60° The simulated emissivity is compared to the emissivity derived with alternative methods. The fit to real AMSU observations is investigated using the different emissivity estimates for simulating the observations with atmospheric data from a regional weather prediction model.

  3. Dual Nuclear/Fluorescence Imaging Potantial of Zinc(II) Phthalocyanine in MIA PaCa-2 Cell Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambrecht, Fatma Yurt; Ince, Mine; Er, Ozge; Ocakoglu, Kasim; Sarı, Fatma Aslıhan; Kayabasi, Cagla; Gunduz, Cumhur

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is very common and difficult to diagnose in early stage. Imaging systems for diagnosing cancer have many disadvantages. However, combining different imaging modalities offers synergistic advantages. Optical imaging is the most multidirectional and widely used imaging modality in both clinical practice and research. In present study, Zinc(II) phthalocyanine [Zn(II)Pc] was synthesized, labeled with iodine- 131 and in vitro study was carried out. The intracellular uptake studies of radiolabeled Zn(II)Pc were performed in WI-38 [ATCC CCL-75™, tissue: human fibroblast lung] and MIA PaCa-2 [ATCC CRL-1420™, tissue: human epithelial pancreas carcinoma] cell lines. The intracellular uptake efficiency of radiolabeled Zn(II)Pc in MIA PaCa-2 cells was determined two times higher than WI-38 cells. Also, fluorescence imaging (FI) efficiency of synthesized Zn(II)Pc was investigated in MIA PaCa-2 cells and significant uptake was observed. Zn(II)Pc might be used as a new agent for dual fluorescence/nuclear imaging for pancreatic cancer. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  4. Entanglement swapping of a GHZ state via a GHZ-like state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Chia-Wei; Hwang, Tzonelih, E-mail: hwangtl@ismail.csie.ncku.edu.t [National Cheng Kung University, Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering, No. 1 Ta-Hsueh Road, Tainan City 701, Taiwan (China)

    2011-10-15

    This study uses the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ)-like state |G>= 1/2 (|001>+|010>+|100>+|111>) to establish an entanglement swapping protocol on a pure GHZ state. A quantum circuit is proposed to assist in teleporting the entanglement of the pure GHZ state. Furthermore, on the basis of the generation of the GHZ-like state, an improved protocol to reduce the number of transmitted photons required in the process of entanglement swapping is proposed.

  5. Stereotactic Image-Guided Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy Using the HI-ART II Helical Tomotherapy System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, Timothy W.; Hudes, Richard; Dziuba, Sylwester; Kazi, Abdul; Hall, Mark; Dawson, Dana

    2008-01-01

    The highly integrated adaptive radiation therapy (HI-ART II) helical tomotherapy unit is a new radiotherapy machine designed to achieve highly precise and accurate treatments at all body sites. The precision and accuracy of the HI-ART II is similar to that provided by stereotactic radiosurgery systems, hence the historical distinction between external beam radiotherapy and stereotactic procedures based on differing precision requirements is removed for this device. The objectives of this work are: (1) to describe stereotactic helical tomotherapy processes (SRS, SBRT); (2) to show that the precision and accuracy of the HI-ART meet the requirements defined for SRS and SBRT; and (3) to describe the clinical implementation of a stereotactic image-guided intensity modulated radiation therapy (IG-IMRT) system that incorporates optical motion management

  6. MONSTIR II: A 32-channel, multispectral, time-resolved optical tomography system for neonatal brain imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, Robert J., E-mail: robert.cooper@ucl.ac.uk; Magee, Elliott; Everdell, Nick; Magazov, Salavat; Varela, Marta; Airantzis, Dimitrios; Gibson, Adam P.; Hebden, Jeremy C. [Biomedical Optics Research Laboratory, Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, University College London, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2014-05-15

    We detail the design, construction and performance of the second generation UCL time-resolved optical tomography system, known as MONSTIR II. Intended primarily for the study of the newborn brain, the system employs 32 source fibres that sequentially transmit picosecond pulses of light at any four wavelengths between 650 and 900 nm. The 32 detector channels each contain an independent photo-multiplier tube and temporally correlated photon-counting electronics that allow the photon transit time between each source and each detector position to be measured with high temporal resolution. The system's response time, temporal stability, cross-talk, and spectral characteristics are reported. The efficacy of MONSTIR II is demonstrated by performing multi-spectral imaging of a simple phantom.

  7. Imaging radar observations of Farley Buneman waves during the JOULE II experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. L. Hysell

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Vector electric fields and associated E×B drifts measured by a sounding rocket in the auroral zone during the NASA JOULE II experiment in January 2007, are compared with coherent scatter spectra measured by a 30 MHz radar imager in a common volume. Radar imaging permits precise collocation of the spectra with the background electric field. The Doppler shifts and spectral widths appear to be governed by the cosine and sine of the convection flow angle, respectively, and also proportional to the presumptive ion acoustic speed. The neutral wind also contributes to the Doppler shifts. These findings are consistent with those from the JOULE I experiment and also with recent numerical simulations of Farley Buneman waves and instabilities carried out by Oppenheim et al. (2008. Simple linear analysis of the waves offers some insights into the spectral moments. A formula relating the spectral width to the flow angle, ion acoustic speed, and other ionospheric parameters is derived.

  8. ALFALFA DISCOVERY OF THE NEARBY GAS-RICH DWARF GALAXY LEO P. II. OPTICAL IMAGING OBSERVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhode, Katherine L.; Salzer, John J.; Haurberg, Nathalie C.; Van Sistine, Angela; Young, Michael D. [Department of Astronomy, Indiana University, 727 East Third Street, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Adams, Elizabeth A. K. [Center for Radiophysics and Space Research, Space Sciences Building, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Cannon, John M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macalester College, Saint Paul, MN 55105 (United States); Skillman, Evan D.; McQuinn, Kristen B. W., E-mail: rhode@astro.indiana.edu, E-mail: slaz@astro.indiana.edu, E-mail: riccardo@astro.cornell.edu, E-mail: haynes@astro.cornell.edu, E-mail: betsey@astro.cornell.edu, E-mail: jcannon@macalester.edu, E-mail: skillman@astro.umn.edu, E-mail: kmcquinn@astro.umn.edu [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

    2013-06-15

    We present results from ground-based optical imaging of a low-mass dwarf galaxy discovered by the ALFALFA 21 cm H I survey. Broadband (BVR) data obtained with the WIYN 3.5 m telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO) are used to construct color-magnitude diagrams of the galaxy's stellar population down to V{sub o} {approx} 25. We also use narrowband H{alpha} imaging from the KPNO 2.1 m telescope to identify a H II region in the galaxy. We use these data to constrain the distance to the galaxy to be between 1.5 and 2.0 Mpc. This places Leo P within the Local Volume but beyond the Local Group. Its properties are extreme: it is the lowest-mass system known that contains significant amounts of gas and is currently forming stars.

  9. The Belle II imaging Time-of-Propagation (iTOP) detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fast, J.; Belle II Barrel Particle Identification Group

    2017-12-01

    High precision flavor physics measurements are an essential complement to the direct searches for new physics at the LHC ATLAS and CMS experiments. Such measurements will be performed using the upgraded Belle II detector that will take data at the SuperKEKB accelerator. With 40x the luminosity of KEKB, the detector systems must operate efficiently at much higher rates than the original Belle detector. A central element of the upgrade is the barrel particle identification system. Belle II has built and installed an imaging-Time-of-Propagation (iTOP) detector. The iTOP uses quartz optics as Cherenkov radiators. The photons are transported down the quartz bars via total internal reflection with a spherical mirror at the forward end to reflect photons to the backward end where they are imaged onto an array of segmented Micro-Channel Plate Photo-Multiplier Tubes (MCP-PMTs). The system is read out using giga-samples per second waveform sampling Application-Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs). The combined timing and spatial distribution of the photons for each event are used to determine particle species. This paper provides an overview of the iTOP system.

  10. Security scanning at 94GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderton, Rupert N.; Appleby, Roger; Beale, John E.; Coward, Peter R.; Price, Sean

    2006-05-01

    It is well known that millimetre waves can pass through clothing. In short range applications such as in the scanning of people for security purposes, operating at W band can be an advantage. The size of the equipment is decreased when compared to operation at Ka band and the equipments have similar performance. In this paper a W band mechanically scanned imager designed for imaging weapons and contraband hidden under clothing is discussed. This imager is based on a modified folded conical scan technology previously reported. In this design an additional optical element is added to give a Cassegrain configuration in image space. This increases the effective focal length and enables improved sampling of the image and provides more space for the receivers. This imager is constructed from low cost materials such as polystyrene, polythene and printed circuit board materials. The trade off between image spatial resolution and thermal sensitivity is discussed.

  11. Jet Propulsion Laboratory/NASA Lewis Research Center space qualified hybrid high temperature superconducting/semiconducting 7.4 GHz low-noise downconverter for NRL HTSSE-II program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javadi, H.H.S.; Bowen, J.G.; Rascoe, D.L.; Chorey, C.M.

    1996-01-01

    A deep space satellite downconverter receiver was proposed by Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) for the Naval Research Laboratory's (NRL) high temperature superconductivity space experiment, phase-II (HTSSE-II) program. Space qualified low-noise cryogenic downconverter receivers utilizing thin-film high temperature superconducting (HTS) passive circuitry and semiconductor active devices were developed and delivered to NRL. The downconverter consists of an HTS preselect filter, a cryogenic low-noise amplifier, a cryogenic mixer, and a cryogenic oscillator with an HTS resonator. HTS components were inserted as the front-end filter and the local oscillator resonator for their superior 77 K performance over the conventional components. The semiconducting low noise amplifier also benefited from cooling to 77 K. The mixer was designed specifically for cryogenic applications and provided low conversion loss and low power consumption. In addition to an engineering model, two space qualified units (qualification, flight) were built and delivered to NRL. Manufacturing, integration and test of the space qualified downconverters adhered to the requirements of JPL class-D space instruments and partially to MIL-STD-883D specifications. The qualification unit has ∼50 K system noise temperature which is a factor of three better than a conventional downconverter at room temperature

  12. CARM and harmonic gyro-amplifier experiments at 17 GHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menninger, W.L.; Danly, B.G.; Alberti, S.; Chen, C.; Rullier, J.L.; Temkin, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    Cyclotron resonance maser amplifiers are possible sources for applications such as electron cyclotron resonance heating of fusion plasmas and driving high-gradient rf linear accelerators. For accelerator drivers, amplifiers or phase locked-oscillators are required. A 17 GHz cyclotron autoresonance maser (CARM) amplifier experiment and a 17 GHz third harmonic gyro-amplifier experiment are presently underway at the MIT Plasma Fusion Center. Using the SRL/MIT SNOMAD II introduction accelerator to provide a 380 kV, 180 A, 30 ns flat top electron beam, the gyro-amplifier experiment has produced 5 MW of rf power with over 50 dB of gain at 17 GHz. The gyro-amplifier operates in the TE 31 mode using a third harmonic interaction. Because of its high power output, the gyro-amplifier will be used as the rf source for a photocathode rf electron gun experiment also taking place at MIT. Preliminary gyro-amplifier results are presented, including measurement of rf power, gain versus interaction length, and the far-field pattern. A CARM experiment designed to operate in the TE 11 mode is also discussed

  13. The visible intensified cameras for plasma imaging in the TJ-II stellarator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cal, E. de la; Carralero, D.; Pablos, J.L. de; Alonso, A.; Rios, L.; Garcia Sanchez, P.; Hidalgo, C.

    2011-01-01

    Visible cameras are widely used in fusion experiments for diagnosis and for machine safety issues. They are generally used to monitor the plasma emission, but are also sensible to surface Blackbody radiation and Bremsstrahlung. Fast or high speed cameras capable of operating in the 10 5 frames per second speed range are today commercially available and offer the opportunity to plasma fusion researchers of two-dimensional (2D) imaging of fast phenomena such as turbulence, ELMs, disruptions, dust, etc. The tracking of these fast phenomena requires short exposure times down to the μ s range and the light intensity can be often near the signal to noise ratio limit especially in low plasma emission regions such as the far SOL Additionally, when using interference filters to monitor, e.g. impurity line emission, the photon flux is strongly reduced and the emission cannot be imaged at high speed. Therefore, the use of image intensifiers that amplify the light intensity onto the camera sensor can be of great help. The present work describes the use of intensifiers in the visible fast cameras of TJ-II stellarator. We have achieved spectroscopic plasma imaging of filtered impurity atomic line emission at short exposure times down to the 10 μ s range depending on atomic line and concentration. Additionally, plasma movies at velocities of 2x10 5 frames per second near the camera operation limit can be recorded with exposure times well below 1 μ s with sufficient signal to noise ratio. Although an increasing degradation of the image quality appears when raising the light amplification, an effective gain of up to two orders of magnitude of the light intensity is feasible for many applications (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  14. Quality control of outpatient imaging examinations in North Rhine-Westphalia. Part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krug, B.; Boettge, M.; Zaehringer, M.; Reinecke, T.; Coburger, S.; Harnischmacher, U.; Luengen, M.; Lauterbach, K.W.; Lehmacher, W.; Lackner, K.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: In the state of North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW), Germany, a survey was conducted on radiologic examinations ordered by general practitioners (GPs). Part II of this study aims to determine the quality of the process and outcome. The reference standard is the assessment of both radiologists and physicians without board certification in radiology working at a university hospital and in outpatient facilities. Materials and Methods: All GPs in NRW were asked to cooperate. Participating GPs filled out a questionnaire for each patient. The patients recorded the symptoms prompting the imaging examinations. The radiologists or other physicians performing the examinations were asked to provide the images and written reports and to complete a questionnaire. A file was created for each of the 394 patients with image documentation of at least one examination. Each file, which included medical history, physical findings, imaging documentation and written report, was sequentially forwarded to a board-certified radiologist and to a physician without board certification in radiology working in a university hospital and in an outpatient facility. All physicians were requested to complete a structured questionnaire for each file. Results: The referral diagnoses were rated as medically plausible in 81%, the indications for imaging found correct in 76%, the examination techniques considered appropriate in 69%, the clinical question answered in 63%, the interpretation judged medically correct in 50% and all incidental findings documented in 49%. In retrospect, 32% of the examinations were judged superfluous. The sequence of multiple examinations performed on a particular patient was rated as appropriate in 51%. The interpretation revealed specialty-related differences. The plausibility of the referral diagnoses had a significant impact on the appropriateness of subsequent diagnostic investigations. Marked deficits showed sonography, performance by non-radiologists, self

  15. The visible intensified cameras for plasma imaging in the TJ-II stellarator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cal, E. de la; Carralero, D.; Pablos, J.L. de; Alonso, A.; Rios, L.; Garcia Sanchez, P.; Hidalgo, C. (Laboratorio Nacional de Fusion, Asociacion Euratom-Ciemat, Av. Complutense 22, E-28040 Madrid)

    2011-09-15

    Visible cameras are widely used in fusion experiments for diagnosis and for machine safety issues. They are generally used to monitor the plasma emission, but are also sensible to surface Blackbody radiation and Bremsstrahlung. Fast or high speed cameras capable of operating in the 10{sup 5} frames per second speed range are today commercially available and offer the opportunity to plasma fusion researchers of two-dimensional (2D) imaging of fast phenomena such as turbulence, ELMs, disruptions, dust, etc. The tracking of these fast phenomena requires short exposure times down to the {mu} s range and the light intensity can be often near the signal to noise ratio limit especially in low plasma emission regions such as the far SOL Additionally, when using interference filters to monitor, e.g. impurity line emission, the photon flux is strongly reduced and the emission cannot be imaged at high speed. Therefore, the use of image intensifiers that amplify the light intensity onto the camera sensor can be of great help. The present work describes the use of intensifiers in the visible fast cameras of TJ-II stellarator. We have achieved spectroscopic plasma imaging of filtered impurity atomic line emission at short exposure times down to the 10 {mu} s range depending on atomic line and concentration. Additionally, plasma movies at velocities of 2x10{sup 5} frames per second near the camera operation limit can be recorded with exposure times well below 1 {mu} s with sufficient signal to noise ratio. Although an increasing degradation of the image quality appears when raising the light amplification, an effective gain of up to two orders of magnitude of the light intensity is feasible for many applications (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  16. Prognostic relevance of gemistocytic grade II astrocytoma: gemistocytic component and MR imaging features compared to non-gemistocytic grade II astrocytoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heo, Young Jin [Inje University, Busan Paik Hospital, Department of Radiology, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Park, Ji Eun; Kim, Ho Sung; Lee, Ji Ye; Jung, Seung Chai; Choi, Choong Gon; Kim, Sang Joon [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Nam, Soo Jeong [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Pathology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-07-15

    To determine if gemistocytic grade II astrocytoma (GemA) and its MR imaging characteristics are associated with a shorter time-to-progression (TTP) compared with non-gemistocytic grade II astrocytoma (non-GemA). We enrolled 78 patients who were followed up more than 5 years (29 pathologically proven GemA and 49 non-GemA) during a 10-year period. Contrast-enhanced T1-weighted, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC), and MR spectroscopy (MRS) and clinical data were retrospectively reviewed. Clinical and MR imaging features were analyzed as possible prognostic factors of high-grade transformation, and multivariate analysis of TTP was performed using Cox proportional modeling. GemA showed more frequent high-grade features than non-GemA, including diffusion restriction (P <.001), increased choline/creatine (P =.02), and increased choline/NAA ratio (P =.015). Patients with GemA had a significantly shorter median TTP (53.1 vs 68 months; P <.001). A gemistocytic histopathology (hazard ratio = 3.42; P =.015) and low ADC (hazard ratio = 3.61; P =.001) were independently associated with a shorter TTP. GemA can present with MR imaging findings mimicking high-grade glioma at initial diagnosis and transforms to high-grade disease earlier than non-GemA. Low ADC on DWI might be useful in stratifying the risk of progression in patients with grade II astrocytoma. (orig.)

  17. Noncardiac findings on cardiac CT. Part II: spectrum of imaging findings.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Killeen, Ronan P

    2012-02-01

    Cardiac computed tomography (CT) has evolved into an effective imaging technique for the evaluation of coronary artery disease in selected patients. Two distinct advantages over other noninvasive cardiac imaging methods include its ability to directly evaluate the coronary arteries and to provide a unique opportunity to evaluate for alternative diagnoses by assessing the extracardiac structures, such as the lungs and mediastinum, particularly in patients presenting with the chief symptom of acute chest pain. Some centers reconstruct a small field of view (FOV) cropped around the heart but a full FOV (from skin to skin in the area irradiated) is obtainable in the raw data of every scan so that clinically relevant noncardiac findings are identifiable. Debate in the scientific community has centered on the necessity for this large FOV. A review of noncardiac structures provides the opportunity to make alternative diagnoses that may account for the patient\\'s presentation or to detect important but clinically silent problems such as lung cancer. Critics argue that the yield of biopsy-proven cancers is low and that the follow-up of incidental noncardiac findings is expensive, resulting in increased radiation exposure and possibly unnecessary further testing. In this 2-part review we outline the issues surrounding the concept of the noncardiac read, looking for noncardiac findings on cardiac CT. Part I focused on the pros and cons for and against the practice of identifying noncardiac findings on cardiac CT. Part II illustrates the imaging spectrum of cardiac CT appearances of benign and malignant noncardiac pathology.

  18. Detection of cerebral atrophy in type- II diabetes mellitus by magnetic resonance imaging of brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, G.; Khan, N.; Aziz, A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Diabetes is a metabolic disorder that affects many systems in the body. Cerebral atrophy is one of the complications of diabetes and research is on going to find out its aetiopathological factors. The main aim of the study was to determine the frequency of cerebral atrophy in type-II diabetes mellitus using magnetic resonance imaging of the brain. Methods: One hundred diabetic patients (Random blood sugar >126 mg/dl) were recruited in this study after the informed consent from every patient. Duration of diabetes was five years and more in all the patients as determined by their glycosylated haemoglobin which was >6 in all the patients. All the patients were undergone MRI of brain using 1.5 Tesla power magnetic resonance imaging machine of Picker Company. Evan's index, a specific parameter for measurement of cerebral atrophy was calculated on MR images and was used in this study. Results: In male group the frequency of cerebral atrophy was 22 (47%) and in female group it was found to be 23 (43%). When we study the overall population the frequency was found to be 45 (45%). The results are well in concordance with the previous data published on this issue. Conclusions: Cerebral atrophy, a complication of long standing diabetes is quite frequent in our population and is well diagnosed by MRI. (author)

  19. 110GHz ECH on DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cary, W.P.; Allen, J.C.; Callis, R.W.; Doane, J.L.; Harris, T.E.; Moetler, C.P.; Neren, A.; Prater, P.; Rensen, D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on a new high power electron cyclotron heating (ECH) system which has been introduced on DIII-D. This system is designed to operate at 110 GHz with a total output power of 2 MW. The system consists of four Varian VGT-8011 gyrotrons (output power of 500 kW), and their associated support equipment. All components have been designed for up to a 10 second pulse duration. The 110 GHz system is intended to further progress in rf current drive experiments on DIII-D when used in conjunction with the existing 60 GHz ECH (1. 6 MW) , and the 30-60 MHz ICH (2MW) systems. H-mode physics, plasma stabilization experiments and transport studies are also to be conducted at 110 GHz

  20. Thin film interference optics for imaging the O II 834-A airglow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seely, John F.; Hunter, William R.

    1991-01-01

    Normal incidence thin film interference mirrors and filters have been designed to image the O II 834-A airglow. It is shown that MgF2 is a useful spacer material for this wavelength region. The mirrors consist of thin layers of MgF2 in combination with other materials that are chosen to reflect efficiently in a narrow band centered at 834 A. Peak reflectance of 60 percent can be obtained with a passband 200 A wide. Al/MgF2/Si and Al/MgF2/SiC interference coatings have been designed to reflect 834 A and to absorb the intense H I 1216 A airglow. An In/MgF2/In interference filter is designed to transmit 834 A and attenuate 1216 A radiation. Interference photocathode coatings for rejecting 1216 A radiation are also discussed.

  1. Images in the rocket ultraviolet - Young clusters in H II regions of M83

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohlin, R.C.; Cornett, R.H.; Hill, J.K.; Stecher, T.P.

    1990-01-01

    UV images of M83 at 1540 and 2360 A reveal 18 compact sources that are associated with H II regions. E(B - V) values were estimated individually from the observed UV and optical colors and the Galactic UV extinction curve, using theoretical flux distributions. The dereddened colors are consistent with ages up to 3 x 10 to the 6th yr. A maximum possible age of 6.5 x 10 to the 6th yr is obtained assuming foreground reddening only. The distribution of observed colors is consistent with the Galactic reddening curve but not with enhanced far-UV extinction, as in the LMC 30 Dor curve. The H-alpha fluxes suggest either that dust within the H II regions absorbs up to 70 percent of the Lyman continuum radiation or that a similar fraction of the H-alpha flux is below the surface brightness detection limit. Cluster mass estimates depend on the range of stellar masses present but are probably in the range 10,000-100,000 solar masses. 25 refs

  2. Low conversion loss 94 GHz and 188 GHz doublers in InP DHBT technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhurbenko, Vitaliy; Johansen, Tom Keinicke; Squartecchia, Michele

    2017-01-01

    An Indium Phosphide (InP) Double Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor (DHBT) process has been utilized to design two doublers to cover the 94 GHz and 188 GHz bands. The 94 GHz doubler employs 4-finger DHBTs and provides conversion loss of 2 dB. A maximum output power of nearly 3 dBm is measured whil...... operate over a broad bandwidth. The total circuit area of each chip is 1.41 mm2....

  3. Recent operating experience with Varian 70 GHz and 140 GHz gyrotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felch, K.; Bier, R.; Fox, L.; Huey, H.; Ives, L.; Jory, H.; Lopez, N.; Shively, J.; Spang, S.

    1985-01-01

    The design features and initial test results of Varian 70 GHz and 140 GHz CW gyrotrons are presented. The first experimental 140 GHz tube has achieved an output power of 102 kW at 24% efficiency under pulsed conditions in the desired TE 031 0 cavity mode. Further tests aimed at achieving the design goal of 100 kW CW are currently underway. The 70 GHz tube has achieved an output power of 200 kW under pulsed conditions and possesses a wide dynamic range for output power variations. 6 refs., 8 figs

  4. Security scanning at 35 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderton, Rupert N.; Appleby, Roger; Coward, Peter R.; Kent, P. J.; Price, Sean; Sinclair, Gordon N.; Wasley, Matthew R. M.

    2001-08-01

    It has been known for some time that millimeter waves can pas through clothing. In short range applications such as in the scanning of people for security purposes, operating at Ka band can be an advantage. The penetration through clothing is increased and the cost of the equipment when compared to operation at W band. In this paper a Ka band mechanically scanned imager designed for security scanning is discussed. This imager is based on the folded conical scan technology previously reported. It is constructed from low cost materials such as polystyrene and printed circuit board. The trade off between image spatial resolution and the number of receivers will be described and solutions, which minimize this number discussed.

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging versus Acute Physiology And Chronic Healthy Evaluation II score in predicting the severity of acute pancreatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Wei; Zhang Xiaoming; Xiao Bo; Zeng Nanlin; Pan Huashan; Feng Zhisong; Xu Xiaoxue

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To study the correlation between established magnetic resonance (MR) imaging criteria of disease severity in acute pancreatitis and the Acute Physiology And Chronic Healthy Evaluation II (APACHE II) score, and to assess the utility of each prognostic indicators in acute pancreatitis. Materials and methods: In this study there were 94 patients with acute pancreatitis (AP), all had abdominal MR imaging. MR findings were categorized into edematous and necrotizing AP and graded according to the MR severity index (MRSI). The APACHE II score was calculated within 24 h of admission, and local complications, death, duration of hospitalization and ICU were recorded. Statistical analysis was performed to determine their correlation. Results: In patients with pancreatitis, no significant correlation can be found between the APACHE II score and the MRSI score (P = 0.196). The MRSI score correlated well with morbidity (P = 0.006) but not with mortality (P = 0.137). The APACHE II score correlated well with mortality (P = 0.002) but not with the morbidity (P = 0.112). The MRSI score was superior to the APACHE II score as a predictor of the length of hospitalization (r = 0.52 vs. r = 0.35). A high MRSI and APACHE II score correlated with the need for being in the intensive care unit (ICU) (P = 0.000 and P = 0.000, respectively). Conclusion: In patients with pancreatitis, MRSI is superior to APACHE II in assessing local complications from pancreatitis but has a limited role in determining systemic complications in which the APACHE II score excels.

  6. Architecture for a 1-GHz Digital RADAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallik, Udayan

    2011-01-01

    An architecture for a Direct RF-digitization Type Digital Mode RADAR was developed at GSFC in 2008. Two variations of a basic architecture were developed for use on RADAR imaging missions using aircraft and spacecraft. Both systems can operate with a pulse repetition rate up to 10 MHz with 8 received RF samples per pulse repetition interval, or at up to 19 kHz with 4K received RF samples per pulse repetition interval. The first design describes a computer architecture for a Continuous Mode RADAR transceiver with a real-time signal processing and display architecture. The architecture can operate at a high pulse repetition rate without interruption for an infinite amount of time. The second design describes a smaller and less costly burst mode RADAR that can transceive high pulse repetition rate RF signals without interruption for up to 37 seconds. The burst-mode RADAR was designed to operate on an off-line signal processing paradigm. The temporal distribution of RF samples acquired and reported to the RADAR processor remains uniform and free of distortion in both proposed architectures. The majority of the RADAR's electronics is implemented in digital CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor), and analog circuits are restricted to signal amplification operations and analog to digital conversion. An implementation of the proposed systems will create a 1-GHz, Direct RF-digitization Type, L-Band Digital RADAR--the highest band achievable for Nyquist Rate, Direct RF-digitization Systems that do not implement an electronic IF downsample stage (after the receiver signal amplification stage), using commercially available off-the-shelf integrated circuits.

  7. Antenne Design for 24 GHz and 60 GHz Emerging Microwave Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, F.; Dolmans, W.M.C.

    2006-01-01

    In this project integrated antennas on a LAMP3 substrate for automotive radar systems at 24 GHz and wireless networks at 60 GHz have been designed. The most severe requirements on the antennas were the large bandwidth, which can not be met with conventional patch antennas. A tapered slot antenna and

  8. A 60 GHz Frequency Generator Based on a 20 GHz Oscillator and an Implicit Multiplier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zong, Z.; Babaie, M.; Staszewski, R.B.

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a mm-wave frequency generation technique that improves its phase noise (PN) performance and power efficiency. The main idea is that a fundamental 20 GHz signal and its sufficiently strong third harmonic at 60 GHz are generated simultaneously in a single oscillator. The desired 60

  9. Contactless Investigations of Yeast Cell Cultivation in the 7 GHz and 240 GHz Ranges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wessel, J; Schmalz, K; Meliani, C; Gastrock, G; Cahill, B P

    2013-01-01

    Using a microfluidic system based on PTFE tubes, experimental results of contactless and label-free characterization techniques of yeast cell cultivation are presented. The PTFE tube has an inner diameter of 0.5 mm resulting in a sample volume of 2 μ1 for 1 cm sample length. Two approaches (at frequencies around 7 GHz and 240 GHz) are presented and compared in terms of sensitivity and applicability. These frequency bands are particularly interesting to gain information on the permittivity of yeast cells in Glucose solution. Measurements from 240 GHz to 300 GHz were conducted with a continuous wave spectrometer from Toptica. At 7 GHz band, measurements have been performed using a rat-race based characterizing system realized on a printed circuit board. The conducted experiments demonstrate that by selecting the phase as characterization parameter, the presented contactless and label-free techniques are suitable for cell cultivation monitoring in a PTFE pipe based microfluidic system.

  10. A 31 GHz Survey of Low-Frequency Selected Radio Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, B. S.; Weintraub, L.; Sievers, J.; Bond, J. R.; Myers, S. T.; Pearson, T. J.; Readhead, A. C. S.; Shepherd, M. C.

    2009-10-01

    The 100 m Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope and the 40 m Owens Valley Radio Observatory telescope have been used to conduct a 31 GHz survey of 3165 known extragalactic radio sources over 143 deg2 of the sky. Target sources were selected from the NRAO VLA Sky Survey in fields observed by the Cosmic Background Imager (CBI); most are extragalactic active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with 1.4 GHz flux densities of 3-10 mJy. The resulting 31 GHz catalogs are presented in full online. Using a maximum-likelihood analysis to obtain an unbiased estimate of the distribution of the 1.4-31 GHz spectral indices of these sources, we find a mean 31-1.4 GHz flux ratio of 0.110 ± 0.003 corresponding to a spectral index of α = -0.71 ± 0.01 (S ν vprop να) 9.0% ± 0.8% of sources have α > - 0.5 and 1.2% ± 0.2% have α > 0. By combining this spectral-index distribution with 1.4 GHz source counts, we predict 31 GHz source counts in the range 1 mJy S 31) = (16.7 ± 1.7) deg-2(S 31/1 mJy)-0.80±0.07. We also assess the contribution of mJy-level (S 1.4 GHz < 3.4 mJy) radio sources to the 31 GHz cosmic microwave background power spectrum, finding a mean power of ell(ell + 1)C src ell/(2π) = 44 ± 14 μK2 and a 95% upper limit of 80 μK2 at ell = 2500. Including an estimated contribution of 12 μK2 from the population of sources responsible for the turn-up in counts below S 1.4 GHz = 1 mJy, this amounts to 21% ± 7% of what is needed to explain the CBI high-ell excess signal, 275 ± 63 μK2. These results are consistent with other measurements of the 31 GHz point-source foreground.

  11. NIAC Phase II Orbiting Rainbows: Future Space Imaging with Granular Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quadrelli, Marco B.; Basinger, Scott; Arumugam, Darmindra; Swartzlander, Grover

    2017-01-01

    allow for unprecedented high resolution to discern continents and important features of other planets, hyperspectral imaging, adaptive systems, spectroscopy imaging through limb, and stable optical systems from Lagrange-points. Furthermore, future micro-miniaturization might hold promise of a further extension of our dust aperture concept to other more exciting smart dust concepts with other associated capabilities. Our objective in Phase II was to experimentally and numerically investigate how to optically manipulate and maintain the shape of an orbiting cloud of dust-like matter so that it can function as an adaptable ultra-lightweight surface. Our solution is based on the aperture being an engineered granular medium, instead of a conventional monolithic aperture. This allows building of apertures at a reduced cost, enables extremely fault-tolerant apertures that cannot otherwise be made, and directly enables classes of missions for exoplanet detection based on Fourier spectroscopy with tight angular resolution and innovative radar systems for remote sensing. In this task, we have examined the advanced feasibility of a crosscutting concept that contributes new technological approaches for space imaging systems, autonomous systems, and space applications of optical manipulation. The proposed investigation has matured the concept that we started in Phase I to TRL 3, identifying technology gaps and candidate system architectures for the space-borne cloud as an aperture.

  12. Clinical significance of nuclide renal dynamic imaging and urine microalbumin inspection of type II diabetic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ying; Jin Yaoge; Shi Xueying; Gao Yong

    2011-01-01

    To investigate clinical value of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and urine microalbumin in early diagnosis of diabetic nephropathy, GFR in 60 patients with type II diabetes mellitus and a control group of 20 were determined using 99 Tc m DTPA renal dynamic imaging and urine microalbumin. The following results were obtained.Among the 60 patients with diabetes, 5 patients had increased GFRs of, 142.0±13.6 mg/min, which was 35% higher than that of controls and differed significantly from the control (P<0.01); 20 patients had GFRs of 102.2±10.2 mg/min, which differed little from the control; and 35 patients had declined GFRs of 57.2±18.0 mg/min, which was 54.3% lowered than the control and differed significantly from the control (P<0.01). The urine microalbumin in diabetes patients was significantly higher than the control. In conclusion, the GFR is a good index of the early kidney injury in diabetic patients. The combined detection of GFR and urine microalbumin can improve the early diagnosis of diabetic nephropathy, and may help to monitor the treatment response and assess prognosis. (authors)

  13. The aerogel Ring Imaging Cherenkov system at the Belle II spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestotnik, R.; Adachi, I.; Dolenec, R.; Hataya, K.; Iori, S.; Iwata, S.; Kakuno, H.; Kataura, R.; Kawai, H.; Kindo, H.; Kobayashi, T.; Korpar, S.; Križan, P.; Kumita, T.; Mrvar, M.; Nishida, S.; Ogawa, K.; Ogawa, S.; Šantelj, L.; Sumiyoshi, T.; Tabata, M.; Yonenaga, M.; Yusa, Y.

    2017-12-01

    In the forward end-cap of the Belle II spectrometer, a proximity focusing Ring Imaging Cherenkov counter with an aerogel radiator will be installed. The detector will occupy a limited space inside solenoid magnet with longitudinal field of 1.5 T. It will consist of a double layer aerogel radiator, an expansion volume and a photon detector. 420 Hamamatsu hybrid avalanche photo sensors with 144 channels each will be used to read out single Cherenkov photons with high efficiency. More than 60,000 analog signals will be digitized and processed in the front end electronics and send to the unified experiment data acquisition system. The detector components have been successfully produced and are now being installed in the spectrometer. Tested before on the bench, they are currently being installed in the mechanical frame. Part of the detector have been commissioned and connected to the acquisition system to register the cosmic ray particles. The first preliminary results are in accordance with previous expectations. We expect an excellent performance of the device which will allow at least a 4σ separation of pions from kaons in the experiment kinematic region from 0.5 GeV/c to 4 GeV/c.

  14. PBFA II lithium beam characterization from inner-shell x-ray images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moats, A.R.; Derzon, M.S.; Chandler, G.A.; Dukart, R.J.; Haill, T.A.

    1994-01-01

    The Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator (PBFA II) is not driving targets with ICF-relevant lithium ion beams. During the most recent lithium beam target series, time-integrated x-ray pinhole cameras viewed the ion-induced inner-shell x-ray fluorescence from the central gold cone target and a titanium-coated strip. Ion beam profiles at a nominal 10 mm radius and fixed azimuthal direction were obtained from images of the Ti K α , fluorescence of a Ti-coated Al diagnostic wire. The gold cone gave us beam profiles at a nominal 3 mm radius and at all azimuthal angles from the Au L α fluorescence. From these profiles, we obtained the ion beam vertical focus position, full-width-at-half-maximum, and the degree of azimuthal uniformity for the lithium target shots. For these initial results, beam steering problems were evident. Azimuthal uniformity was measured from the ion beam footprint on the outer Au case (predominantly Au L α ) of the hohlraum target and were found to be in the same range (up to 30%) as for previous proton beam target series. We then present plans for Li beam diagnostics for an upcoming target experimental series

  15. Reconfigurable antenna options for 2.45/5 GHz wireless body area networks in healthcare applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Syed Muzahir; Ranga, Yogesh; Esselle, Karu P

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents electronically reconfigurable antenna options in healthcare applications. They are suitable for wireless body area network devices operating in the industrial, scientific, and medical (ISM) band at 2.45 GHz and IEEE 802.11 Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) band at 5 GHz (5.15-5.35 GHz, 5.25-5.35 GHz). Two types of antennas are investigated: Antenna-I has a full ground plane and Antenna-II has a partial ground plane. The proposed antennas provide ISM operation in one mode while in another mode they support 5 GHz WLAN band. Their performance is assessed for body centric wireless communication using a simplified human body model. Antenna sensitivity to the gap between the antenna and the human body is investigated for both modes of each antenna. The proposed antennas exhibit a wide radiation pattern along the body surface to provide wide coverage and their small width (14 mm) makes them suitable for on-body communication in healthcare applications.

  16. Submillimetric motion detection with a 94 GHz ground based synthetic aperture radar

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez Cervera, Arturo; Lort Cuenca, Marc; Aguasca Solé, Alberto; Broquetas Ibars, Antoni

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents the validation and experimental assessment of a 94 GHz (W-Band) CW-FM Radar that can be configured as a Ground Based SAR for high resolution imaging and interferometry. Several experimental campaigns have been carried out to assess the capability of the system to remotely observe submillimetric deformation and vibration in infrastructures. Peer Reviewed

  17. Retrieval of precipitable water using near infrared channels of Global Imager/Advanced Earth Observing Satellite-II (GLI/ADEOS-II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuji, M.; Uchiyama, A.

    2002-01-01

    Retrieval of precipitable water (vertically integrated water vapor amount) is proposed using near infrared channels og Global Imager onboard Advanced Earth Observing Satellite-II (GLI/ADEOS-II). The principle of retrieval algorithm is based upon that adopted with Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) onboard Earth Observing System (EOS) satellite series. Simulations were carried out with GLI Signal Simulator (GSS) to calculate the radiance ratio between water vapor absorbing bands and non-absorbing bands. As a result, it is found that for the case of high spectral reflectance background (a bright target) such as the land surface, the calibration curves are sensitive to the precipitable water variation. For the case of low albedo background (a dark target) such as the ocean surface, on the contrary, the calibration curve is not very sensitive to its variation under conditions of the large water vapor amount. It turns out that aerosol loading has little influence on the retrieval over a bright target for the aerosol optical thickness less than about 1.0 at 500nm. It is also anticipated that simultaneous retrieval of the water vapor amount using GLI data along with other channels will lead to improved accuracy of the determination of surface geophysical properties, such as vegetation, ocean color, and snow and ice, through the better atmospheric correction

  18. Magnetic films for GHz applications (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korenivski, V.; van Dover, R.B.

    1997-01-01

    Tremendous growth of the communications industry and the increasingly high demand for low-cost light-weight/small-size products drive technology to designs with a high degree of integration. In particular, planar inductors used in integrated circuits with significantly improved inductance per unit area characteristics are needed for further miniaturization of cellular phones operating at 0.95 and 1.9 GHz. Little has been done, however, to use magnetic films to improve the performance and/or reduce size of planar magnetic flux devices. The successful thin-film material would have a high ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) frequency (well above the operating frequency of the device), large permaeability, and low magnetic loss, and very importantly be technologically attractive, i.e., be process compatible with IC technology and have as few preparation steps as possible. Here, we report on fabrication of metallic ferromagnetic films of CoNbZr, CoNbZr/AlN mulitilayered laminates, and exchange-biased structures suitable for GHz applications. Lamination of CoNbZr with thin insulating layers of AlN is shown to significantly improve the microstructure and dc magnetic properties of the films having thicknesses >0.2 μm, as well as to be effective in suppressing eddy current losses at frequencies up to 1 endash 2 GHz. We use exchange biasing to increase the FMR frequency of soft CoNbZr. In-plane unidirectional anisotropy fields of ∼50 Oe are achieved, which result in FMR frequencies >2 GHz. Permeability values of ∼200 with quality factors of ∼10 at 1 GHz are demonstrated. The films are deposited at room temperature and require no postdeposition processing. Application of these films in planar inductors is discussed.copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  19. TIFR Near Infrared Imaging Camera-II on the 3.6 m Devasthal Optical Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baug, T.; Ojha, D. K.; Ghosh, S. K.; Sharma, S.; Pandey, A. K.; Kumar, Brijesh; Ghosh, Arpan; Ninan, J. P.; Naik, M. B.; D’Costa, S. L. A.; Poojary, S. S.; Sandimani, P. R.; Shah, H.; Krishna Reddy, B.; Pandey, S. B.; Chand, H.

    Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR) Near Infrared Imaging Camera-II (TIRCAM2) is a closed-cycle Helium cryo-cooled imaging camera equipped with a Raytheon 512×512 pixels InSb Aladdin III Quadrant focal plane array (FPA) having sensitivity to photons in the 1-5μm wavelength band. In this paper, we present the performance of the camera on the newly installed 3.6m Devasthal Optical Telescope (DOT) based on the calibration observations carried out during 2017 May 11-14 and 2017 October 7-31. After the preliminary characterization, the camera has been released to the Indian and Belgian astronomical community for science observations since 2017 May. The camera offers a field-of-view (FoV) of ˜86.5‧‧×86.5‧‧ on the DOT with a pixel scale of 0.169‧‧. The seeing at the telescope site in the near-infrared (NIR) bands is typically sub-arcsecond with the best seeing of ˜0.45‧‧ realized in the NIR K-band on 2017 October 16. The camera is found to be capable of deep observations in the J, H and K bands comparable to other 4m class telescopes available world-wide. Another highlight of this camera is the observational capability for sources up to Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) W1-band (3.4μm) magnitudes of 9.2 in the narrow L-band (nbL; λcen˜ 3.59μm). Hence, the camera could be a good complementary instrument to observe the bright nbL-band sources that are saturated in the Spitzer-Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) ([3.6] ≲ 7.92 mag) and the WISE W1-band ([3.4] ≲ 8.1 mag). Sources with strong polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission at 3.3μm are also detected. Details of the observations and estimated parameters are presented in this paper.

  20. Asteroid (16) Psyche: Triaxial Ellipsoid Dimensions and Rotational Pole from Keck II NIRC2 AO Images and Keck I OSIRIS Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Jack D.; Conrad, Al; Reddy, Vishnu; de Kleer, Katherine R.; Adamkovics, Mate; de Pater, Imke; Merline, William J.; Tamblyn, Peter

    2016-10-01

    Adaptive optics (AO) images of asteroid (16) Psyche obtained at 4 epochs with the NIRC2 camera at the 10m W. M. Keck Observatory (Keck II) on UT 2015 December 25 lead to triaxial ellipsoid diameters of 279±4 x 230±2 x 195±14 km, and a rotational pole at RA=29° and Dec=-2°. Adding 6 more epochs obtained nearly simultaneously with the OSIRIS system at Keck I, as well as two more epochs from Keck II in 2009, yields diameters of 273±2 x 232±2 x 165±3 km, and a pole at RA=37° and Dec=+1°. (Errors are formal fit parameter uncertainties; an additional 4% uncertainty is possible from systematic biases.) The differing perspectives between 2015 (sub-Earth latitude Θ=-50°) and 2009 (Θ=-6°) improves primarily the c dimension and the location of the rotational pole, but illustrates how well images from even a single night can determine the size, shape, and pole of an asteroid. The 2015 observations were obtained as part of a campaign to study Psyche with many techniques over a few months, including radar from Arecibo and images from Magellan.These handful of images show the same rugged outline as the radius vector model available on the DAMIT website, constructed from many lightcurves and scaled by previous Keck AO images. In fact Psyche has rotated some 125,350 times between the first lightcurve in 1955 and our 2015 AO images, exactly 60 years apart to the day. Since the asteroid has such a high obliquity, these lightcurves have scanned well into both northern and southern hemispheres. The difference between the pole derived from our images and the radius vector model pole is only 7°, and the mean diameters of Psyche are 219 and 211 km, respectively.

  1. Women and Body Image in Wartime: Advertisements for Foundation Garments during World War II in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    板橋, 晶子

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the images of women war workers in advertisements for foundation garments during World War II in the United States. In wartime America, functional underwear such as brassieres and girdles were sold as a “vital necessity” for women at work, especially those engaged in defense work. \\Advertisements for foundation garments frequently depicted women war workers who were doing man-sized jobs and lauded those women for their contribution to the war effort, and women war workers’...

  2. Influence of phantom and tube voltage in fluoroscopy on image intensifier (I.I.) incident dose rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seguchi, Shigenobu; Ishikawa, Yoshinobu; Kuwahara, Kazuyoshi; Morita, Miki; Mizuno, Shouta; Nakamura, Akio

    1999-01-01

    We examined the influence of phantoms and tube voltage in fluoroscopy on the image intensifier (I.I.) conversion factor. We used 20-cm-thick acrylic resin, 20 mm aluminum, and 1.5 mm copper, which are generally used as phantoms in the measurement of I.I. incident dose rate. We measured I.I. incident dose rate and conversion factor under conditions in which the range of tube voltage was from 60 kV to 120 kV. The result showed that the conversion factor is influenced by the type of phantom, with copper showing the highest value, aluminum second, and acrylic the smallest under the same condition of aluminum at half value layer. It was determined that conversion factor depends on tube voltage and has peaks from 80-100 kV. The location and height of the peak are influenced by the type of phantom. Therefore, I.I. incident dose rate is influenced by both the type of phantom and tube voltage under automatic brightness control fluoroscopy. Unification of phantoms and tube voltage is necessary for long-term evaluation of I.I. incident dose rate. (author)

  3. Traveling-Wave Maser for 32 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shell, James; Clauss, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The figure depicts a traveling-wave ruby maser that has been designed (though not yet implemented in hardware) to serve as a low-noise amplifier for reception of weak radio signals in the frequency band of 31.8 to 32.3 GHz. The design offers significant improvements over previous designs of 32-GHz traveling-wave masers. In addition, relative to prior designs of 32-GHz amplifiers based on high-electron-mobility transistors, this design affords higher immunity to radio-frequency interference and lower equivalent input noise temperature. In addition to the basic frequency-band and low-noise requirements, the initial design problem included a requirement for capability of operation in a closed-cycle helium refrigerator at a temperature .4 K and a requirement that the design be mechanically simplified, relative to prior designs, in order to minimize the cost of fabrication and assembly. Previous attempts to build 32- GHz traveling-wave masers involved the use of metallic slow-wave structures comprising coupled transverse electromagnetic (TEM)-mode resonators that were subject to very tight tolerances and, hence, were expensive to fabricate and assemble. Impedance matching for coupling signals into and out of these earlier masers was very difficult. A key feature of the design is a slow-wave structure, the metallic portions of which would be mechanically relatively simple in that, unlike in prior slow-wave structures, there would be no internal metal steps, irises, or posts. The metallic portions of the slow-wave structure would consist only of two rectangular metal waveguide arms. The arms would contain sections filled with the active material (ruby) alternating with evanescent-wave sections. This structure would be transparent in both the signal-frequency band (the aforementioned range of 31.8 to 32.3 GHz) and the pump-frequency band (65.75 to 66.75 GHz), and would impose large slowing factors in both frequency bands. Resonant ferrite isolators would be placed in the

  4. Amplifier Module for 260-GHz Band Using Quartz Waveguide Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmanabhan, Sharmila; Fung, King Man; Kangaslahti, Pekka P.; Peralta, Alejandro; Soria, Mary M.; Pukala, David M.; Sin, Seth; Samoska, Lorene A.; Sarkozy, Stephen; Lai, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Packaging of MMIC LNA (monolithic microwave integrated circuit low-noise amplifier) chips at frequencies over 200 GHz has always been problematic due to the high loss in the transition between the MMIC chip and the waveguide medium in which the chip will typically be used. In addition, above 200 GHz, wire-bond inductance between the LNA and the waveguide can severely limit the RF matching and bandwidth of the final waveguide amplifier module. This work resulted in the development of a low-loss quartz waveguide transition that includes a capacitive transmission line between the MMIC and the waveguide probe element. This capacitive transmission line tunes out the wirebond inductance (where the wire-bond is required to bond between the MMIC and the probe element). This inductance can severely limit the RF matching and bandwidth of the final waveguide amplifier module. The amplifier module consists of a quartz E-plane waveguide probe transition, a short capacitive tuning element, a short wire-bond to the MMIC, and the MMIC LNA. The output structure is similar, with a short wire-bond at the output of the MMIC, a quartz E-plane waveguide probe transition, and the output waveguide. The quartz probe element is made of 3-mil quartz, which is the thinnest commercially available material. The waveguide band used is WR4, from 170 to 260 GHz. This new transition and block design is an improvement over prior art because it provides for better RF matching, and will likely yield lower loss and better noise figure. The development of high-performance, low-noise amplifiers in the 180-to- 700-GHz range has applications for future earth science and planetary instruments with low power and volume, and astrophysics array instruments for molecular spectroscopy. This frequency band, while suitable for homeland security and commercial applications (such as millimeter-wave imaging, hidden weapons detection, crowd scanning, airport security, and communications), also has applications to

  5. 105 GHz Notch Filter Design for Collective Thomson Scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furtula, Vedran; Michelsen, Poul; Leipold, Frank

    2011-01-01

    A millimeter-wave notch filter with 105-GHz center frequency, >20-GHz passband coverage, and 1-GHz rejection bandwidth has been constructed. The design is based on a fundamental rectangular waveguide with cylindrical cavities coupled by narrow iris gaps, i.e., small elongated holes of negligible...

  6. Advanced imaging techniques II: using a compound microscope for photographing point-mount specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digital imaging technology has revolutionized the practice photographing insects for scientific study. Herein described are lighting and mounting techniques designed for imaging micro Hymenoptera. Techniques described here are applicable to all small insects, as well as other invertebrates. The ke...

  7. Precise Automatic Image Coregistration Tools to Enable Pixel-Level Change Detection, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Automated detection of land cover changes between multitemporal images (i.e., images captured at different times) has long been a goal of the remote sensing...

  8. LCLS-II Cryomodules Production at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arkan, Tug [Fermilab; Grimm, Chuck [Fermilab; Kaluzny, Joshua [Fermilab; Orlov, Yuriy [Fermilab; Peterson, Thomas [Fermilab; Premo, Ken [Fermilab

    2017-05-01

    LCLS-II is an upgrade project for the linear coherent light source (LCLS) at SLAC. The LCLS-II linac will consist of thirty-five 1.3 GHz and two 3.9 GHz superconducting RF continuous wave (CW) cryomodules that Fermilab and Jefferson Lab (JLab) will assemble in collaboration with SLAC. The LCLS-II 1.3 GHz cryomodule design is based on the European XFEL pulsed-mode cryomodule design with modifications needed for CW operation. Fermilab and JLab will each assemble and test a prototype 1.3 GHz cryomodule to assess the results of the CW modifications, in advance of 16 and 17 production 1.3 GHz cryomodules, respectively. Fermilab is solely responsible for the 3.9 GHz cryomodules. After the prototype cryomodule tests are complete and lessons learned incorporated, both laboratories will increase their cryomodule production rates to meet the challenging LCLS-II project requirement of approximately one cryomodule per month per laboratory. This paper presents the Fermilab Cryomodule Assembly Facility (CAF) infrastructure for LCLS-II cryomodule production, the Fermilab prototype 1.3 GHz CW cryomodule (pCM) assembly and readiness for production assembly.

  9. 10 GHz ECRIS for Warsaw Cyclotron

    CERN Document Server

    Sudlitz, K

    1999-01-01

    Cusp type, 10 GHz ECRIS has been built and tested earlier. For obtaining intensive beams, more relevant for cyclotron, cusp geometry has been replaced by hexapole. Discharge chamber (stainless steel, 50 mm diameter, 250 mm long) is an extension of a coaxial line, feeding RF (9,6 GHz, up to 200 W) to the plasma. The NdFeB hexapole (0,52 T on the surface) has been used. The axial magnetic field is created by water cooled coils. The axial injection line dedicated to K160 isochronous heavy ion cyclotron has been constructed. The line consists of Glaser lenses, double focusing magnet, solenoid and mirror type inflector. The system provides sufficient transmission of the beam from ECR ion source to the firsts orbits of the cyclotron for m/q ranging from 7 to 2. After successful initial tests which were done in July 1997 the ECRIS serves as an external source for Warsaw Cyclotron.

  10. Radiation dosimetry estimates of "1"8F-alfatide II based on whole-body PET imaging of mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Si-yang; Bao, Xiao; Wang, Ming-wei; Zhang, Yong-ping; Zhang, Ying-jian; Zhang, Jian-ping

    2015-01-01

    We estimated the dosimetry of "1"8F-alfatide II with the method established by MIRD based on biodistribution data of mice. Six mice (three females and three males) were scanned for 160 min on an Inveon MicroPET/CT scanner after injection of "1"8F-alfatide II via tail vein. Eight source organs were delineated on the CT images and their residence times calculated. The data was then converted to human using scaling factors based on organ and body weight. The absorbed doses for human and the resulting effective dose were computed by OLINDA 1.1 software. The highest absorbed doses was observed in urinary bladder wall (male 0.102 mGy/MBq, female 0.147 mGy/MBq); and the lowest one was detected in brain (male 0.0030 mGy/MBq, female 0.0036). The total effective doses were 0.0127 mSv/MBq for male and 0.0166 mSv/MBq for female, respectively. A 370-MBq injection of "1"8F-alfatide II led to an estimated effective dose of 4.70 mSv for male and 6.14 mSv for female. The potential radiation burden associated with "1"8F-alfatide II/PET imaging therefore is comparable to other PET examinations. - Highlights: • We demonstrated a proper mice model to estimate human radiation dosimetry. • This is the first paper to estimate human radiation dosimetry of "1"8F-alfatide II. • Estimated effective dose are in the range of routine nuclear medicine studies.

  11. Soft-x-ray imaging study on disruptions in the JIPP T-II tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, Shunji.

    1983-04-01

    A multi-channel soft X-ray imaging system (29 channels for viewing the plasma cross section, 3 channels for identifying poloidal and toroidal mode numbers, m and n, respectively) was installed on the JIPP T-II device to investigate external disruptions. A high-performance digital data acquisition system (12-bit resolution, 40 channels, 100 kHz/channel) was newly developed for data processing. A weak m=1/n=1 mode which is locked with an m=2/n=1 mode is observed preceding an external disruption. Once the disruption occured, the m=2/n=1 mode is converted into a strong m=1/n=1 mode. The internal thermal energy is swept out accompanied by vertically asymmetric collapse of soft X-ray profile due to the m=1/n=1 mode. A localized flash on the limiter is always observed due to a major disruption (a hard external disruption). These phenomena can be explained by the theory of asymmetric reconnections due to the interaction of the m=2/n=1 and m=1/n=1 modes proposed by B.B. Kadomtsev. If the amplitude of the m=2/n=1 mode becomes sufficiently large, the resulting islands begin to come closer and to produce a m=1/n=1 shift at the center. And eventually asymmetric reconnections will occur at the place where the shifted inner region due to the m=1/n=1 mode touches the X-point of the separatrix of the m=2/n=1 magnetic island. Since the modes with different helicities can not exist at the same place, the m=2/n=1 islands approach with each other and merge into an m=1/n=1 island. During this process the internal thermal energy is expelled in the same way as the usual internal disruption. If the reconnections extend to the plasma boundary, they may lead to a major diruption. Although the overlapping of the m=2/n=1 and m=3/n=2 islands is experimentally observed, the resulting ergodization of the magnetic surfaces only flatten the soft X-ray profile in the region between q = 2 and q = 3/2 surfaces. (author)

  12. Intravital Imaging Reveals Angiotensin II-Induced Transcytosis of Albumin by Podocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schießl, Ina Maria; Hammer, Anna; Kattler, Veronika; Gess, Bernhard; Theilig, Franziska; Witzgall, Ralph; Castrop, Hayo

    2016-03-01

    Albuminuria is a hallmark of kidney disease of various etiologies and usually caused by deterioration of glomerular filtration barrier integrity. We recently showed that angiotensin II (Ang II) acutely increases albumin filtration in the healthy kidney. Here, we used intravital microscopy to assess the effects of Ang II on podocyte function in rats. Acute infusion of 30, 60, or 80 ng/kg per minute Ang II enhanced the endocytosis of albumin by activation of the type 1 Ang II receptor and resulted in an average (±SEM) of 3.7±2.2, 72.3±18.6 (Palbumin-containing vesicles per glomerulus, respectively, compared with none at baseline or 10 ng/kg per minute Ang II. Immunostaining of Ang II-infused kidneys confirmed the presence of albumin-containing vesicles, which colocalized with megalin, in podocin-positive cells. Furthermore, podocyte endocytosis of albumin was markedly reduced in the presence of gentamicin, a competitive inhibitor of megalin-dependent endocytosis. Ang II infusion increased the concentration of albumin in the subpodocyte space, a potential source for endocytic protein uptake, and gentamicin further increased this concentration. Some endocytic vesicles were acidified and colocalized with LysoTracker. Most vesicles migrated from the capillary to the apical aspect of the podocyte and were eventually released into the urinary space. This transcytosis accounted for approximately 10% of total albumin filtration. In summary, the transcellular transport of proteins across the podocyte constitutes a new pathway of glomerular protein filtration. Ang II enhances the endocytosis and transcytosis of plasma albumin by podocytes, which may eventually impair podocyte function. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  13. Treatment outcome, body image, and sexual functioning after orchiectomy and radiotherapy for Stage I-II testicular seminoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incrocci, Luca; Hop, Wim C.J.; Wijnmaalen, Arendjan; Slob, A. Koos

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: Orchiectomy followed by infradiaphragmatic irradiation is the standard treatment for Stage I-II testicular seminoma in The Netherlands. Because body image and sexual functioning can be affected by treatment, a retrospective study was carried out to assess treatment outcome, body image, and changes in sexuality after orchiectomy and radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: The medical charts of 166 patients with Stage I-II testicular seminoma were reviewed. A questionnaire on body image and current sexual functioning regarding the frequency and quality of erections, sexual activity, significance of sex, and changes in sexuality was sent to 157 patients (at a mean of 51 months after treatment). Results: Seventy-eight percent (n=123, mean age 42 years) completed the questionnaire. During irradiation, almost half of patients experienced nausea and 19% nausea and vomiting. Only 3 patients had disease relapse. After treatment, about 20% reported less interest and pleasure in sex and less sexual activity. Interest in sex, erectile difficulties, and satisfaction with sexual life did not differ from age-matched healthy controls. At the time of the survey, 17% of patients had erectile difficulties, a figure that was significantly higher than before treatment, but which correlated also with age. Twenty percent expressed concerns about fertility, and 52% found their body had changed after treatment. Cancer treatment had negatively influenced sexual life in 32% of the patients. Conclusions: Orchiectomy with radiotherapy is an effective and well-tolerated treatment for Stage I-II testicular seminoma. Treatment-induced changes in body image and concerns about fertility were detected, but the sexual problems encountered did not seem to differ from those of healthy controls, although baseline data are lacking

  14. Processor for Real-Time Atmospheric Compensation in Long-Range Imaging, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Long-range imaging is a critical component to many NASA applications including range surveillance, launch tracking, and astronomical observation. However,...

  15. Evaluation of autoradiographs and images of biological objects with the electronically operating image analyzer 'Densitron II'. II. Determination of the specific and total radioactivity of single cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hess, J; Korn, U; Freyer, K; Ermisch, A [Karl-Marx-Universitaet, Leipzig (German Democratic Republic). Sektion Biowissenschaften; Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR, Leipzig. Zentralinstitut fuer Isotopen- und Strahlenforschung)

    1976-01-01

    Using the TV image analyzer Densitron, transparencies and areas can be measured by the grey value discrimination method equidensitometry. The time, necessary for one measurement, is approximately 1 min, the standard deviations do not exceed 2%. Microscopical objects such as single cells can be analyzed by this method. Photo-blackings and areas have been measured in autoradiographs of goldfish brain-sections after injection of /sup 3/H-phenylalanine. As a parallel, blacking and area calibration curves were obtained which allowed a conversion of the relative values into absolute ones. Using this conversion method, neurons of different brain regions were in the range from 104 to 1476..mu..m/sup 2/ in area and from 4.17 to 14.43..mu..Ci . cm/sup -3/ in specific radioactivity. The standard deviations of the absolute values were 6 and 4.5%, respectively. On the basis of these and additional values (thickness of section, number of sections per cell), calculations of the total radioactivity of a cell section or the whole cell can be made.

  16. Measurement Results of the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory 230 GHz and 460 GHz Balanced Receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooi, J. W.; Monje, R. R.; Force, B. L.; Rice, F.; Miller, D.; Phillips, T. G.

    2010-03-01

    The Caltech Submillimeter observatory (CSO) is located on top of Mauna Kea, Hawaii, at an altitude of 4.2km. The existing suite of heterodyne receivers covering the submillimeter band is rapidly aging, and in need of replacement. To this extend we have developed a family of balanced receivers covering the astrophysical important 180-720 GHz atmospheric windows. For the CSO, wide IF bandwidth receivers are implemented in a balanced receiver configuration with dual frequency observation capability. This arrangement was opted to be an optimal compromise between scientific merit and finite funding. In principle, the balanced receiver configuration has the advantage that common mode amplitude noise in the LO system is canceled, while at the same time utilizing all available LO power. Both of these features facilitate the use of commercially available synthesized LO system. In combination with a 4 GHz IF bandwidth, the described receiver layout allows for rapid high resolution spectral line surveys. Dual frequency observation is another important mode of operation offered by the new facility instrumentation. Two band observations are accomplished by separating the H and V polarizations of the incoming signal and routing them via folded optics to the appropriate polarization sensitive balanced mixer. Scientifically this observation mode facilitates pointing for the higher receiver band under mediocre weather conditions and a doubling of scientific throughput (2 x 4 GHz) under good weather conditions. Not only do these changes greatly enhance the spectroscopic capabilities of the CSO, they also enable the observatory to be integrated into the Harvard-Smithsonian Submillimeter Array (eSMA) as an additional baseline. The upgrade of the 345 GHz/650 GHz dual band balanced receivers is not far behind. All the needed hardware has been procured, and commissioning is expected the summer of 2010. The SIS junctions are capable of a 2-12 GHz bandwidth.

  17. Imaging the cranial nerves: part II: primary and secondary neoplastic conditions and neurovascular conflicts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Alexandra [Instituto Portugues de Oncologia Francisco Gentil- Centro de Lisboa, Radiology Department, Lisboa Codex (Portugal); Casselman, Jan [A. Z. St Jan Brugge and A. Z. St Augustinus Antwerpen Hospitals, Department of Radiology, Antwerp (Belgium)

    2007-09-15

    There have been unprecedented improvements in cross-sectional imaging in the last decades. The emergence of volumetric CT, higher field MR scanners and higher resolution MR sequences is largely responsible for the increasing diagnostic yield of imaging in patients presenting with cranial nerve deficits. The introduction of parallel MR imaging in combination with small surface coils allows the depiction of submillimetric nerves and nerve branches, and volumetric CT and MR imaging is able to provide high quality multiplanar and curved reconstructions that can follow the often complex course of cranial nerves. Seeking the cause of a cranial nerve deficit is a common indication for imaging, and it is not uncommon that radiologists are the first specialists to see a patient with a cranial neuropathy. To increase the diagnostic yield of imaging, high-resolution studies with smaller fields of view are required. To keep imaging studies within a reasonable time frame, it is mandatory to tailor the study according to neuro-topographic testing. This review article focuses on the contribution of current imaging techniques in the depiction of primary and secondary neoplastic conditions affecting the cranial nerves as well as on neurovascular conflicts, an increasingly recognized cause of cranial neuralgias. (orig.)

  18. Imaging the cranial nerves: part II: primary and secondary neoplastic conditions and neurovascular conflicts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, Alexandra; Casselman, Jan

    2007-01-01

    There have been unprecedented improvements in cross-sectional imaging in the last decades. The emergence of volumetric CT, higher field MR scanners and higher resolution MR sequences is largely responsible for the increasing diagnostic yield of imaging in patients presenting with cranial nerve deficits. The introduction of parallel MR imaging in combination with small surface coils allows the depiction of submillimetric nerves and nerve branches, and volumetric CT and MR imaging is able to provide high quality multiplanar and curved reconstructions that can follow the often complex course of cranial nerves. Seeking the cause of a cranial nerve deficit is a common indication for imaging, and it is not uncommon that radiologists are the first specialists to see a patient with a cranial neuropathy. To increase the diagnostic yield of imaging, high-resolution studies with smaller fields of view are required. To keep imaging studies within a reasonable time frame, it is mandatory to tailor the study according to neuro-topographic testing. This review article focuses on the contribution of current imaging techniques in the depiction of primary and secondary neoplastic conditions affecting the cranial nerves as well as on neurovascular conflicts, an increasingly recognized cause of cranial neuralgias. (orig.)

  19. Non-contrast MR imaging of the glenohumeral joint. Part II. Glenohumeral instability and labrum tears

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafii, Mahvash

    2004-01-01

    MR imaging of the shoulder without contrast is frequently used for evaluation of glenohumeral instability in spite of the popularity of MR arthrography. With proper imaging technique, familiarity with normal anatomy and variants as well as knowledge of the expected pathologic findings high diagnostic accuracy may be achieved. (orig.)

  20. Non-contrast MR imaging of the glenohumeral joint. Part II. Glenohumeral instability and labrum tears

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafii, Mahvash [NYU School of Medicine, NYU Medical Center, Department of Radiology, New York (United States)

    2004-11-01

    MR imaging of the shoulder without contrast is frequently used for evaluation of glenohumeral instability in spite of the popularity of MR arthrography. With proper imaging technique, familiarity with normal anatomy and variants as well as knowledge of the expected pathologic findings high diagnostic accuracy may be achieved. (orig.)

  1. A novel technique combining laparoscopic and endovascular approaches using image fusion guidance for anterior embolization of type II endoleak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mujeeb Zubair, MD

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Type II endoleak (T2E leading to aneurysm sac enlargement is one of the challenging complications associated with endovascular aneurysm repair. Recent guidelines recommend embolization of T2E associated with aneurysmal sac enlargement. Various percutaneous and endovascular techniques have been reported for embolization of T2E. We report a novel technique for T2E embolization combining laparoscopic and endovascular approaches using preoperative image fusion. We believe our technique provides a more direct access to the lumbar feeding vessels that is typically challenging with transarterial or translumbar embolization techniques.

  2. Adult onset glycogen storage disease type II (adult onset Pompe disease): report and magnetic resonance images of two cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Gaizo, Andrew; Banerjee, Sima; Terk, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Glycogen storage disease type II (GSDII), also referred to as Pompe disease or acid maltase deficiency, is a rare inherited condition caused by a deficiency in acid alpha-glucosidase (GAA) enzyme activity. The condition is often classified by age of presentation, with infantile and late onset variants (Laforet et al. J Neurology 55:1122-8, 2000). Late onset tends to present with progressive proximal muscle weakness and respiratory insufficiency (Winkel et al. J Neurology 252:875-84, 2005). We report two cases of biopsy confirmed adult onset GSDII, along with key Magnetic Resonance (MR) images. (orig.)

  3. Pre-clinical functional magnetic resonance imaging. Pt. II. The heart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messner, Nadja M.; Zoellner, Frank G.; Kalayciyan, Raffi; Schad, Lothar R. [Heidelberg Univ., Mannheim (Germany). Computer Assisted Clinical Medicine

    2014-07-01

    One third of all deaths worldwide in 2008 were caused by cardiovascular diseases (CVD), and the incidence of CVD related deaths rises ever more. Thus, improved imaging techniques and modalities are needed for the evaluation of cardiac morphology and function. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) is a minimally invasive technique that is increasingly important due to its high spatial and temporal resolution, its high soft tissue contrast and its ability of functional and quantitative imaging. It is widely accepted as the gold standard of cardiac functional analysis. In the short period of small animal MRI, remarkable progress has been achieved concerning new, fast imaging schemes as well as purpose-built equipment. Dedicated small animal scanners allow for tapping the full potential of recently developed animal models of cardiac disease. In this paper, we review state-of-the-art cardiac magnetic resonance imaging techniques and applications in small animals at ultra-high fields (UHF).

  4. WE-PIS-Exhibit Hall-01: Tools for TG-142 Linac Imaging QA II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Childress, N; Murray, B

    2014-01-01

    Partners in Solutions is an exciting new program in which AAPM partners with our vendors to present practical “hands-on” information about the equipment and software systems that we use in our clinics. The therapy topic this year is solutions for TG-142 recommendations for linear accelerator imaging QA. Note that the sessions are being held in a special purpose room built on the Exhibit Hall Floor, to encourage further interaction with the vendors. Using DoseLab to Perform TG-142 Imaging QA The goals of this session will be to present a clinical overview of acquiring images for TG-142 Imaging QA, as well as analyzing and evaluating results using DoseLab software. DoseLab supports planar imaging QA analysis using almost any QA phantom provided by numerous vendors. General advantages and disadvantages of selecting each of these phantoms will be briefly summarized. Best practices for selecting image acquisition parameters will be presented. A demonstration of using DoseLab software to perform a series of TG-142 tests will be performed. We will disuss why DoseLab uses its own set of imaging QA formulas, and why imaging QA measurement values of the same nominal properties will vary between TG- 142 software packages. Because TG-142 does not specify baseline and tolerance values for imaging QA, the presentation will recommend performing the manufacturer's acceptance test procedure to validate the equipment is functioning correctly. Afterwards, results can be obtained using the clinic's selected set of phantoms, image acquisition parameters, and TG-142 software to set proper baseline values. This presentation will highlight the reasons why comparing imaging QA results can be trickier than comparing linear accelerator treatment results and what physicists should keep in mind when comparing imaging QA results for different machines. Physicists are often unsure of the next step when there is an issue discovered during Imaging QA. Therefore, a few common examples

  5. WE-PIS-Exhibit Hall-01: Tools for TG-142 Linac Imaging QA II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Childress, N [Mobius Medical Management, LLC,, Houston, TX (United States); Murray, B [ZapIT Medical, Dublin, OH (Ireland)

    2014-06-15

    Partners in Solutions is an exciting new program in which AAPM partners with our vendors to present practical “hands-on” information about the equipment and software systems that we use in our clinics. The therapy topic this year is solutions for TG-142 recommendations for linear accelerator imaging QA. Note that the sessions are being held in a special purpose room built on the Exhibit Hall Floor, to encourage further interaction with the vendors. Using DoseLab to Perform TG-142 Imaging QA The goals of this session will be to present a clinical overview of acquiring images for TG-142 Imaging QA, as well as analyzing and evaluating results using DoseLab software. DoseLab supports planar imaging QA analysis using almost any QA phantom provided by numerous vendors. General advantages and disadvantages of selecting each of these phantoms will be briefly summarized. Best practices for selecting image acquisition parameters will be presented. A demonstration of using DoseLab software to perform a series of TG-142 tests will be performed. We will disuss why DoseLab uses its own set of imaging QA formulas, and why imaging QA measurement values of the same nominal properties will vary between TG- 142 software packages. Because TG-142 does not specify baseline and tolerance values for imaging QA, the presentation will recommend performing the manufacturer's acceptance test procedure to validate the equipment is functioning correctly. Afterwards, results can be obtained using the clinic's selected set of phantoms, image acquisition parameters, and TG-142 software to set proper baseline values. This presentation will highlight the reasons why comparing imaging QA results can be trickier than comparing linear accelerator treatment results and what physicists should keep in mind when comparing imaging QA results for different machines. Physicists are often unsure of the next step when there is an issue discovered during Imaging QA. Therefore, a few common examples

  6. Visual servoing in medical robotics: a survey. Part II: tomographic imaging modalities--techniques and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizian, Mahdi; Najmaei, Nima; Khoshnam, Mahta; Patel, Rajni

    2015-03-01

    Intraoperative application of tomographic imaging techniques provides a means of visual servoing for objects beneath the surface of organs. The focus of this survey is on therapeutic and diagnostic medical applications where tomographic imaging is used in visual servoing. To this end, a comprehensive search of the electronic databases was completed for the period 2000-2013. Existing techniques and products are categorized and studied, based on the imaging modality and their medical applications. This part complements Part I of the survey, which covers visual servoing techniques using endoscopic imaging and direct vision. The main challenges in using visual servoing based on tomographic images have been identified. 'Supervised automation of medical robotics' is found to be a major trend in this field and ultrasound is the most commonly used tomographic modality for visual servoing. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Time resolved, 2-D hard X-ray imaging of relativistic electron-beam target interactions on ETA-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crist, C.E.; Sampayan, S.; Westenskow, G.; Caporaso, G.; Houck, T.; Weir, J.; Trimble, D.; Krogh, M.

    1998-01-01

    Advanced radiographic applications require a constant source size less than 1 mm. To study the time history of a relativistic electron beam as it interacts with a bremsstrahlung converter, one of the diagnostics they use is a multi-frame time-resolved hard x-ray camera. They are performing experiments on the ETA-II accelerator at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to investigate details of the electron beam/converter interactions. The camera they are using contains 6 time-resolved images, each image is a 5 ns frame. By starting each successive frame 10 ns after the previous frame, they create a 6-frame movie from the hard x-rays produced from the interaction of the 50-ns electron beam pulse

  8. 34 GHz, 45 MW pulsed magnicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nezhevenko, Oleg A.; LaPointe, Michael A.; Yakovlev, Vyacheslav P.; Hirshfield, Jay L.; Serdobintsev, Gennady V.; Kuznetsov, Gennady I.; Persov, Boris Z.; Fix, Alexander

    2002-01-01

    A high efficiency, high power magnicon at 34.272 GHz has been designed and built as a microwave source to develop RF technology for a future multi-TeV electron-positron linear collider. The tube is designed to provide a peak output power of ∼45 MW in a 1 microsecond pulse, with a gain of 55 dB, using a 500 kV, 220 A, 1 mm-diameter electron beam. The status of the tube itself as well as the near-term experimental program is presented

  9. Electron gun simulation for 95 GHz gyrotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Udaybir; Kumar, Nitin; Sinha, A.K., E-mail: uday.ceeri@gmail.com, E-mail: aksinha@ceeri.ernet.in [Gyrotron Laboratory, Microwave Tube Area, Central Electronics Engineering Research Institute, Pilani (India); Purohit, L.P. [Department of Physics, Gurukul Kangri Vishwavidyalaya, Haridwar (India)

    2011-07-01

    A triode type Magnetron Injection Gun (MIG) for a 2 MW, 95 GHz Gyrotron has been designed by using commercially available code EGUN and another in-house developed code MIGANS. The operating mode of the gyrotron is TE{sub 24.8} and it is operated in the fundamental harmonic. The operating voltages of the modulating anode and the accelerating anode are 61 kV and 85 kV respectively. The parametric dependences of modulating anode voltage and cathode magnetic field on the beam quality have also been studied. (author)

  10. Electron gun simulation for 95 GHz gyrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Udaybir; Kumar, Nitin; Sinha, A.K.; Purohit, L.P.

    2011-01-01

    A triode type Magnetron Injection Gun (MIG) for a 2 MW, 95 GHz Gyrotron has been designed by using commercially available code EGUN and another in-house developed code MIGANS. The operating mode of the gyrotron is TE 24.8 and it is operated in the fundamental harmonic. The operating voltages of the modulating anode and the accelerating anode are 61 kV and 85 kV respectively. The parametric dependences of modulating anode voltage and cathode magnetic field on the beam quality have also been studied. (author)

  11. Surveys of radio sources at 5 GHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pauliny-Toth, I.I.K.

    1977-01-01

    A number of surveys have been carried out at a frequency of 5 GHz at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) and at the Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomy (MPIFR) with the aim of determining the number-flux density relation for the sources detected and also of obtaining their radio spectra and optical identifications. The surveys fall into two categories: first, the strong source (S) surveys which are intended in due course to cover the whole northern sky and to be complete above a flux density of about 0.6 Jy; second, surveys of limited areas of sky down to lower levels of the flux density. (Auth.)

  12. Upgrade of the automatic analysis system in the TJ-II Thomson Scattering diagnostic: New image recognition classifier and fault condition detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Makili, L.; Vega, J.; Dormido-Canto, S.; Pastor, I.; Pereira, A.; Farias, G.; Portas, A.; Perez-Risco, D.; Rodriguez-Fernandez, M. C.; Busch, P.

    2010-01-01

    An automatic image classification system based on support vector machines (SVM) has been in operation for years in the TJ-II Thomson Scattering diagnostic. It recognizes five different types of images: CCD camera background, measurement of stray light without plasma or in a collapsed discharge,

  13. GEOSTAR-II: A Prototype Water Vapor Imager/Sounder for the Path Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaier, Todd; Lambrigtsen, Bjorn; Kangaslahti, Pekka; Lim, Boon; Tanner, Alan; Harding, Dennis; Owen, Heather; Soria, Mary; ODwyer, Ian; Ruf, Christopher; hide

    2011-01-01

    We describe the development and progress of the GeoSTAR-II risk reduction activity for the NASA Earth Science Decadal Survey PATH Mission. The activity directly addresses areas of technical risk including the system design, low noise receiver production, sub-array development, signal distribution and digital signal processing.

  14. Imaging appearance of entrapped periosteum within a distal femoral Salter-Harris II fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Johnathan; Abel, Mark F.; Fox, Michael G.

    2015-01-01

    Salter Harris II fractures of the distal femur are associated with a high incidence of complications, especially premature physeal closure. Many risk factors for this high rate of premature physeal closure have been proposed. More recently, entrapment of periosteum within the physis has been suggested as an additional predisposing factor for premature physeal closure. The radiographic diagnosis of entrapped soft tissues, including periosteum, can be suggested in the setting of a Salter-Harris II fracture when the fracture does not reduce and physeal widening >3 mm remains. We report a patient who sustained a distal femoral Salter-Harris II fracture following a valgus injury. The patient had persistent distal medial physeal widening >5 mm following attempted reduction. A subsequent MRI revealed a torn periosteum entrapped within the distal femoral physis. Following removal of the periosteum, the patient developed a leg length discrepancy which required physiodesis of the contralateral distal femur. We present this case to raise awareness of the importance of having a high index of suspicion of periosteal entrapment in the setting of Salter-Harris II fractures since most consider entrapped periosteum an indication for surgery. (orig.)

  15. Microcomputer-based image processing system for CT/MRI scans II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwok, J.C.K.; Yu, P.K.N.; Cheng, A.Y.S.; Ho, W.C.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that a microcomputer-based image processing system is used to digitize and process serial sections of CT/MRI scan and reconstruct three-dimensional images of brain structures and brain lesions. The images grabbed also serve as templates and different vital regions with different risk values are also traced out for 3D reconstruction. A knowledge-based system employing rule-based programming has been built to help identifying brain lesions and to help planning trajectory for operations. The volumes of the lesions are also automatically determined. Such system is very useful for medical skills archival, tumor size monitoring, survival and outcome forecasting, and consistent neurosurgical planning

  16. Upgrade of the automatic analysis system in the TJ-II Thomson Scattering diagnostic: New image recognition classifier and fault condition detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makili, L.; Vega, J.; Dormido-Canto, S.; Pastor, I.; Pereira, A.; Farias, G.; Portas, A.; Perez-Risco, D.; Rodriguez-Fernandez, M.C.; Busch, P.

    2010-01-01

    An automatic image classification system based on support vector machines (SVM) has been in operation for years in the TJ-II Thomson Scattering diagnostic. It recognizes five different types of images: CCD camera background, measurement of stray light without plasma or in a collapsed discharge, image during ECH phase, image during NBI phase and image after reaching the cut off density during ECH heating. Each kind of image implies the execution of different application software. Due to the fact that the recognition system is based on a learning system and major modifications have been carried out in both the diagnostic (optics) and TJ-II plasmas (injected power), the classifier model is no longer valid. A new SVM model has been developed with the current conditions. Also, specific error conditions in the data acquisition process can automatically be detected and managed now. The recovering process has been automated, thereby avoiding the loss of data in ensuing discharges.

  17. Upgrade of the automatic analysis system in the TJ-II Thomson Scattering diagnostic: New image recognition classifier and fault condition detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makili, L. [Dpto. Informatica y Automatica - UNED, Madrid (Spain); Vega, J. [Asociacion EURATOM/CIEMAT para Fusion, Madrid (Spain); Dormido-Canto, S., E-mail: sebas@dia.uned.e [Dpto. Informatica y Automatica - UNED, Madrid (Spain); Pastor, I.; Pereira, A. [Asociacion EURATOM/CIEMAT para Fusion, Madrid (Spain); Farias, G. [Dpto. Informatica y Automatica - UNED, Madrid (Spain); Portas, A.; Perez-Risco, D.; Rodriguez-Fernandez, M.C. [Asociacion EURATOM/CIEMAT para Fusion, Madrid (Spain); Busch, P. [FOM Institut voor PlasmaFysica Rijnhuizen, Nieuwegein (Netherlands)

    2010-07-15

    An automatic image classification system based on support vector machines (SVM) has been in operation for years in the TJ-II Thomson Scattering diagnostic. It recognizes five different types of images: CCD camera background, measurement of stray light without plasma or in a collapsed discharge, image during ECH phase, image during NBI phase and image after reaching the cut off density during ECH heating. Each kind of image implies the execution of different application software. Due to the fact that the recognition system is based on a learning system and major modifications have been carried out in both the diagnostic (optics) and TJ-II plasmas (injected power), the classifier model is no longer valid. A new SVM model has been developed with the current conditions. Also, specific error conditions in the data acquisition process can automatically be detected and managed now. The recovering process has been automated, thereby avoiding the loss of data in ensuing discharges.

  18. The Application of Virtex-II Pro FPGA in High-Speed Image Processing Technology of Robot Vision Sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, Y J; Zhu, J G; Yang, X Y; Ye, S H

    2006-01-01

    The Virtex-II Pro FPGA is applied to the vision sensor tracking system of IRB2400 robot. The hardware platform, which undertakes the task of improving SNR and compressing data, is constructed by using the high-speed image processing of FPGA. The lower level image-processing algorithm is realized by combining the FPGA frame and the embedded CPU. The velocity of image processing is accelerated due to the introduction of FPGA and CPU. The usage of the embedded CPU makes it easily to realize the logic design of interface. Some key techniques are presented in the text, such as read-write process, template matching, convolution, and some modules are simulated too. In the end, the compare among the modules using this design, using the PC computer and using the DSP, is carried out. Because the high-speed image processing system core is a chip of FPGA, the function of which can renew conveniently, therefore, to a degree, the measure system is intelligent

  19. The Application of Virtex-II Pro FPGA in High-Speed Image Processing Technology of Robot Vision Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Y. J.; Zhu, J. G.; Yang, X. Y.; Ye, S. H.

    2006-10-01

    The Virtex-II Pro FPGA is applied to the vision sensor tracking system of IRB2400 robot. The hardware platform, which undertakes the task of improving SNR and compressing data, is constructed by using the high-speed image processing of FPGA. The lower level image-processing algorithm is realized by combining the FPGA frame and the embedded CPU. The velocity of image processing is accelerated due to the introduction of FPGA and CPU. The usage of the embedded CPU makes it easily to realize the logic design of interface. Some key techniques are presented in the text, such as read-write process, template matching, convolution, and some modules are simulated too. In the end, the compare among the modules using this design, using the PC computer and using the DSP, is carried out. Because the high-speed image processing system core is a chip of FPGA, the function of which can renew conveniently, therefore, to a degree, the measure system is intelligent.

  20. In-Situ / In-Flight Detection of Fluorescent Proteins Using Imaging Spectroscopy Sensors, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposal addresses technologies relevant to NASA's new Vision for Space Explorations in the areas of robotics, teleoperations, and macro and micro imaging...

  1. Three-Dimensional Backscatter X-Ray Imaging System, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall objective of the proposal is to design, develop and demonstrate a potentially portable Compton x-ray scatter 3D-imaging system by using specially...

  2. The First JFET-Based Silicon Carbide Active Pixel Sensor UV Imager, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Solar-blind ultraviolet (UV) imaging is needed in the fields of astronomy, national defense, and bio-chemistry. United Silicon Carbide, Inc. proposes to develop a...

  3. Conjugate Etalon Spectral Imager (CESI) & Scanning Etalon Methane Mapper (SEMM), Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Development of the CESI focal plane and optics technology will lead to miniaturized hyperspectral and SWIR-band spectral imaging instrumentation compatible with...

  4. Characterization of statistical prior image constrained compressed sensing (PICCS): II. Application to dose reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauzier, Pascal Thériault; Chen Guanghong

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The ionizing radiation imparted to patients during computed tomography exams is raising concerns. This paper studies the performance of a scheme called dose reduction using prior image constrained compressed sensing (DR-PICCS). The purpose of this study is to characterize the effects of a statistical model of x-ray detection in the DR-PICCS framework and its impact on spatial resolution. Methods: Both numerical simulations with known ground truth and in vivo animal dataset were used in this study. In numerical simulations, a phantom was simulated with Poisson noise and with varying levels of eccentricity. Both the conventional filtered backprojection (FBP) and the PICCS algorithms were used to reconstruct images. In PICCS reconstructions, the prior image was generated using two different denoising methods: a simple Gaussian blur and a more advanced diffusion filter. Due to the lack of shift-invariance in nonlinear image reconstruction such as the one studied in this paper, the concept of local spatial resolution was used to study the sharpness of a reconstructed image. Specifically, a directional metric of image sharpness, the so-called pseudopoint spread function (pseudo-PSF), was employed to investigate local spatial resolution. Results: In the numerical studies, the pseudo-PSF was reduced from twice the voxel width in the prior image down to less than 1.1 times the voxel width in DR-PICCS reconstructions when the statistical model was not included. At the same noise level, when statistical weighting was used, the pseudo-PSF width in DR-PICCS reconstructed images varied between 1.5 and 0.75 times the voxel width depending on the direction along which it was measured. However, this anisotropy was largely eliminated when the prior image was generated using diffusion filtering; the pseudo-PSF width was reduced to below one voxel width in that case. In the in vivo study, a fourfold improvement in CNR was achieved while qualitatively maintaining sharpness

  5. Comparison of Stationarity Regions for Wireless Channels From 2 GHz to 30 GHz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yi, Tan; Wang, Chengxiang; Nielsen, Jesper Ødum

    2017-01-01

    Millimeter wave (mmWave) communication works in the frequencies above 6 gigahertz (GHz), with the system bandwidth up to 500 megahertz (MHz) or wider. In this case, the channel situations are dramatically different from the existing wireless channels in Third Generation/Fourth Generation (3G/4G...

  6. Chirped Pulse Spectrometer Operating at 200 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindle, Francis; Bray, Cédric; Hickson, Kevin; Fontanari, Daniele; Mouelhi, Meriem; Cuisset, Arnaud; Mouret, Gaël; Bocquet, Robin

    2018-01-01

    The combination of electronic sources operating at high frequencies and modern microwave instrumentation has enabled the recent development of chirped pulse spectrometers for the millimetre and THz bands. This type of instrument can operate at high resolution which is particularly suited to gas-phase rotational spectroscopy. The construction of a chirped pulse spectrometer operating at 200 GHz is described in detail while attention is paid to the phase stability and the data accumulation over many cycles. Validation using carbonyl sulphide has allowed the detection limit of the instrument to be established as function of the accumulation. A large number of OCS transitions were identified using a 10-GHz chirped pulse and include the six most abundant isotopologues, the weakest line corresponding to the fundamental R(17) transition of 16O13C33S with a line strength of 4.3 × 10-26 cm-1/(molecule cm-2). The linearity of the system response for different degrees of data accumulation and transition line strength was confirmed over four orders of magnitudes. A simple analysis of the time-domain data was demonstrated to provide the line-broadening coefficient without the need for conversion by a Fourier transform. Finally, the pulse duration is discussed and optimal values are given for both Doppler-limited and collisional regimes.

  7. Dynamic whole-body PET parametric imaging: II. Task-oriented statistical estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakatsanis, Nicolas A; Lodge, Martin A; Zhou, Y; Wahl, Richard L; Rahmim, Arman

    2013-10-21

    In the context of oncology, dynamic PET imaging coupled with standard graphical linear analysis has been previously employed to enable quantitative estimation of tracer kinetic parameters of physiological interest at the voxel level, thus, enabling quantitative PET parametric imaging. However, dynamic PET acquisition protocols have been confined to the limited axial field-of-view (~15-20 cm) of a single-bed position and have not been translated to the whole-body clinical imaging domain. On the contrary, standardized uptake value (SUV) PET imaging, considered as the routine approach in clinical oncology, commonly involves multi-bed acquisitions, but is performed statically, thus not allowing for dynamic tracking of the tracer distribution. Here, we pursue a transition to dynamic whole-body PET parametric imaging, by presenting, within a unified framework, clinically feasible multi-bed dynamic PET acquisition protocols and parametric imaging methods. In a companion study, we presented a novel clinically feasible dynamic (4D) multi-bed PET acquisition protocol as well as the concept of whole-body PET parametric imaging employing Patlak ordinary least squares (OLS) regression to estimate the quantitative parameters of tracer uptake rate Ki and total blood distribution volume V. In the present study, we propose an advanced hybrid linear regression framework, driven by Patlak kinetic voxel correlations, to achieve superior trade-off between contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and mean squared error (MSE) than provided by OLS for the final Ki parametric images, enabling task-based performance optimization. Overall, whether the observer's task is to detect a tumor or quantitatively assess treatment response, the proposed statistical estimation framework can be adapted to satisfy the specific task performance criteria, by adjusting the Patlak correlation-coefficient (WR) reference value. The multi-bed dynamic acquisition protocol, as optimized in the preceding companion study

  8. Dynamic whole-body PET parametric imaging: II. Task-oriented statistical estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karakatsanis, Nicolas A; Lodge, Martin A; Zhou, Y; Wahl, Richard L; Rahmim, Arman

    2013-01-01

    In the context of oncology, dynamic PET imaging coupled with standard graphical linear analysis has been previously employed to enable quantitative estimation of tracer kinetic parameters of physiological interest at the voxel level, thus, enabling quantitative PET parametric imaging. However, dynamic PET acquisition protocols have been confined to the limited axial field-of-view (∼15–20 cm) of a single-bed position and have not been translated to the whole-body clinical imaging domain. On the contrary, standardized uptake value (SUV) PET imaging, considered as the routine approach in clinical oncology, commonly involves multi-bed acquisitions, but is performed statically, thus not allowing for dynamic tracking of the tracer distribution. Here, we pursue a transition to dynamic whole-body PET parametric imaging, by presenting, within a unified framework, clinically feasible multi-bed dynamic PET acquisition protocols and parametric imaging methods. In a companion study, we presented a novel clinically feasible dynamic (4D) multi-bed PET acquisition protocol as well as the concept of whole-body PET parametric imaging employing Patlak ordinary least squares (OLS) regression to estimate the quantitative parameters of tracer uptake rate K i and total blood distribution volume V. In the present study, we propose an advanced hybrid linear regression framework, driven by Patlak kinetic voxel correlations, to achieve superior trade-off between contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and mean squared error (MSE) than provided by OLS for the final K i parametric images, enabling task-based performance optimization. Overall, whether the observer's task is to detect a tumor or quantitatively assess treatment response, the proposed statistical estimation framework can be adapted to satisfy the specific task performance criteria, by adjusting the Patlak correlation-coefficient (WR) reference value. The multi-bed dynamic acquisition protocol, as optimized in the preceding companion

  9. Optimization and performance evaluation of the microPET II scanner for in vivo small-animal imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yongfeng; Tai Yuanchuan; Siegel, Stefan; Newport, Danny F; Bai, Bing; Li, Quanzheng; Leahy, Richard M; Cherry, Simon R

    2004-01-01

    MicroPET II is a newly developed PET (positron emission tomography) scanner designed for high-resolution imaging of small animals. It consists of 17 640 LSO crystals each measuring 0.975 x 0.975 x 12.5 mm 3 , which are arranged in 42 contiguous rings, with 420 crystals per ring. The scanner has an axial field of view (FOV) of 4.9 cm and a transaxial FOV of 8.5 cm. The purpose of this study was to carefully evaluate the performance of the system and to optimize settings for in vivo mouse and rat imaging studies. The volumetric image resolution was found to depend strongly on the reconstruction algorithm employed and averaged 1.1 mm (1.4 μl) across the central 3 cm of the transaxial FOV when using a statistical reconstruction algorithm with accurate system modelling. The sensitivity, scatter fraction and noise-equivalent count (NEC) rate for mouse- and rat-sized phantoms were measured for different energy and timing windows. Mouse imaging was optimized with a wide open energy window (150-750 keV) and a 10 ns timing window, leading to a sensitivity of 3.3% at the centre of the FOV and a peak NEC rate of 235 000 cps for a total activity of 80 MBq (2.2 mCi) in the phantom. Rat imaging, due to the higher scatter fraction, and the activity that lies outside of the field of view, achieved a maximum NEC rate of 24 600 cps for a total activity of 80 MBq (2.2 mCi) in the phantom, with an energy window of 250-750 keV and a 6 ns timing window. The sensitivity at the centre of the FOV for these settings is 2.1%. This work demonstrates that different scanner settings are necessary to optimize the NEC count rate for different-sized animals and different injected doses. Finally, phantom and in vivo animal studies are presented to demonstrate the capabilities of microPET II for small-animal imaging studies

  10. Assessment of the Performance of the Chilbolton 3-GHz Advanced Meteorological Radar for Cloud-Top-Height Retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naud, C. M.; Muller, J.-P.; Slack, E. C.; Wrench, C. L.; Clothiaux, E. E.

    2005-06-01

    The Chilbolton 3-GHz Advanced Meteorological Radar (CAMRa), which is mounted on a fully steerable 25-m dish, can provide three-dimensional information on the presence of hydrometeors. The potential for this radar to make useful measurements of low-altitude liquid water cloud structure is investigated. To assess the cloud-height assignment capabilities of the 3-GHz radar, low-level cloud-top heights were retrieved from CAMRa measurements made between May and July 2003 and were compared with cloud-top heights retrieved from a vertically pointing 94-GHz radar that operates alongside CAMRa. The average difference between the 94- and 3-GHz radar-derived cloud-top heights is shown to be -0.1 ± 0.4 km. To assess the capability of 3-GHz radar scans to be used for satellite-derived cloud-top-height validation, multiangle imaging spectroradiometer (MISR) cloud-top heights were compared with both 94- and 3-GHz radar retrievals. The average difference between 94-GHz radar and MISR cloud-top heights is shown to be 0.1 ± 0.3 km, while the 3-GHz radar and MISR average cloud-top-height difference is shown to be -0.2 ± 0.6 km. In assessing the value of the CAMRa measurements, the problems associated with low-reflectivity values from stratiform liquid water clouds, ground clutter, and Bragg scattering resulting from turbulent mixing are all addressed. It is shown that, despite the difficulties, the potential exists for CAMRa measurements to contribute significantly to liquid water cloud-top-height retrievals, leading to the production of two-dimensional transects (i.e., maps) of cloud-top height.

  11. WE-F-BRD-01: HDR Brachytherapy II: Integrating Imaging with HDR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craciunescu, O [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Todor, D [Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States); Leeuw, A de

    2014-06-15

    In recent years, with the advent of high/pulsed dose rate afterloading technology, advanced treatment planning systems, CT/MRI compatible applicators, and advanced imaging platforms, image-guided adaptive brachytherapy treatments (IGABT) have started to play an ever increasing role in modern radiation therapy. The most accurate way to approach IGABT treatment is to provide the infrastructure that combines in a single setting an appropriate imaging device, a treatment planning system, and a treatment unit. The Brachytherapy Suite is not a new concept, yet the modern suites are incorporating state-of-the-art imaging (MRI, CBCT equipped simulators, CT, and /or US) that require correct integration with each other and with the treatment planning and delivery systems. Arguably, an MRI-equipped Brachytherapy Suite is the ideal setup for real-time adaptive brachytherapy treatments. The main impediment to MRI-IGABT adoption is access to MRI scanners. Very few radiation oncology departments currently house MRI scanners, and even fewer in a dedicated Brachytherapy Suite. CBCT equipped simulators are increasingly offered by manufacturers as part of a Brachytherapy Suite installation. If optimized, images acquired can be used for treatment planning, or can be registered with other imaging modalities. This infrastructure is relevant for all forms of brachytherapy, especially those utilizing multi-fractionated courses of treatment such as prostate and cervix. Moreover, for prostate brachytherapy, US imaging systems can be part of the suite to allow for real-time HDR/LDR treatments. Learning Objectives: Understand the adaptive workflow of MR-based IGBT for cervical cancer. Familiarize with commissioning aspects of a CBCT equipped simulator with emphasis on brachytherapy applications Learn about the current status and future developments in US-based prostate brachytherapy.

  12. WE-F-BRD-01: HDR Brachytherapy II: Integrating Imaging with HDR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craciunescu, O; Todor, D; Leeuw, A de

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, with the advent of high/pulsed dose rate afterloading technology, advanced treatment planning systems, CT/MRI compatible applicators, and advanced imaging platforms, image-guided adaptive brachytherapy treatments (IGABT) have started to play an ever increasing role in modern radiation therapy. The most accurate way to approach IGABT treatment is to provide the infrastructure that combines in a single setting an appropriate imaging device, a treatment planning system, and a treatment unit. The Brachytherapy Suite is not a new concept, yet the modern suites are incorporating state-of-the-art imaging (MRI, CBCT equipped simulators, CT, and /or US) that require correct integration with each other and with the treatment planning and delivery systems. Arguably, an MRI-equipped Brachytherapy Suite is the ideal setup for real-time adaptive brachytherapy treatments. The main impediment to MRI-IGABT adoption is access to MRI scanners. Very few radiation oncology departments currently house MRI scanners, and even fewer in a dedicated Brachytherapy Suite. CBCT equipped simulators are increasingly offered by manufacturers as part of a Brachytherapy Suite installation. If optimized, images acquired can be used for treatment planning, or can be registered with other imaging modalities. This infrastructure is relevant for all forms of brachytherapy, especially those utilizing multi-fractionated courses of treatment such as prostate and cervix. Moreover, for prostate brachytherapy, US imaging systems can be part of the suite to allow for real-time HDR/LDR treatments. Learning Objectives: Understand the adaptive workflow of MR-based IGBT for cervical cancer. Familiarize with commissioning aspects of a CBCT equipped simulator with emphasis on brachytherapy applications Learn about the current status and future developments in US-based prostate brachytherapy

  13. Single molecule imaging of RNA polymerase II using atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhodin, Thor; Fu Jianhua; Umemura, Kazuo; Gad, Mohammed; Jarvis, Suzi; Ishikawa, Mitsuru

    2003-01-01

    An atomic force microscopy (AFM) study of the shape, orientation and surface topology of RNA polymerase II supported on silanized freshly cleaved mica was made. The overall aim is to define the molecular topology of RNA polymerase II in appropriate fluids to help clarify the relationship of conformational features to biofunctionality. A Nanoscope III atomic force microscope was used in the tapping mode with oxide-sharpened (8-10 nm) Si 3 N 4 probes in aqueous zinc chloride buffer. The main structural features observed by AFM were compared to those derived from electron-density plots based on X-ray crystallographic studies. The conformational features included a bilobal silhouette with an inverted umbrella-shaped crater connected to a reaction site. These studies provide a starting point for constructing a 3D-AFM profiling analysis of proteins such as RNA polymerase complexes

  14. GHz-rate optical parametric amplifier in hydrogenated amorphous silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Ke-Yao; Foster, Amy C

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate optical parametric amplification operating at GHz-rates at telecommunications wavelengths using a hydrogenated amorphous silicon waveguide through the nonlinear optical process of four-wave mixing. We investigate how the parametric amplification scales with repetition rate. The ability to achieve amplification at GHz-repetition rates shows hydrogenated amorphous silicon’s potential for telecommunication applications and a GHz-rate optical parametric oscillator. (paper)

  15. Interleaving cerebral CT perfusion with neck CT angiography. Pt. II. Clinical implementation and image quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oei, Marcel T.H.; Meijer, Frederick J.A.; Woude, Willem-Jan van der; Smit, Ewoud J.; Ginneken, Bram van; Manniesing, Rashindra; Prokop, Mathias [Radboud University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, P.O. Box 9101, Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2017-06-15

    Feasibility evaluation of the One-Step Stroke Protocol, which is an interleaved cerebral computed tomography perfusion (CTP) and neck volumetric computed tomography angiography (vCTA) scanning technique using wide-detector computed tomography, and to assess the image quality of vCTA. Twenty patients with suspicion of acute ischaemic stroke were prospectively scanned and evaluated with a head and neck CTA and with the One-Step Stroke Protocol. Arterial enhancement and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) in the carotid arteries was assessed. Three observers scored artefacts and image quality of the cervical arteries. The total z-coverage was evaluated. Mean enhancement in the carotid bifurcation was rated higher in the vCTA (595 ± 164 HU) than CTA (441 ± 117 HU). CNR was rated higher in vCTA. Image quality scores showed no significant difference in the region of the carotid bifurcation between vCTA and CTA. Lower neck image quality scores were slightly lower for vCTA due to artefacts, although not rated as diagnostically relevant. In ten patients, the origin of the left common carotid artery was missed by 1.6 ± 0.8 cm. Mean patient height was 1.8 ± 0.09 m. Carotid bifurcation and origin of vertebral arteries were covered in all patients. The One-Step Stroke Protocol is feasible with good diagnostic image quality of vCTA, although full z-coverage is limited in tall patients. (orig.)

  16. 270GHz SiGe BiCMOS manufacturing process platform for mmWave applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar-Roy, Arjun; Preisler, Edward J.; Talor, George; Yan, Zhixin; Booth, Roger; Zheng, Jie; Chaudhry, Samir; Howard, David; Racanelli, Marco

    2011-11-01

    TowerJazz has been offering the high volume commercial SiGe BiCMOS process technology platform, SBC18, for more than a decade. In this paper, we describe the TowerJazz SBC18H3 SiGe BiCMOS process which integrates a production ready 240GHz FT / 270 GHz FMAX SiGe HBT on a 1.8V/3.3V dual gate oxide CMOS process in the SBC18 technology platform. The high-speed NPNs in SBC18H3 process have demonstrated NFMIN of ~2dB at 40GHz, a BVceo of 1.6V and a dc current gain of 1200. This state-of-the-art process also comes with P-I-N diodes with high isolation and low insertion losses, Schottky diodes capable of exceeding cut-off frequencies of 1THz, high density stacked MIM capacitors, MOS and high performance junction varactors characterized up to 50GHz, thick upper metal layers for inductors, and various resistors such as low value and high value unsilicided poly resistors, metal and nwell resistors. Applications of the SBC18H3 platform for millimeter-wave products for automotive radars, phased array radars and Wband imaging are presented.

  17. A NIR-BODIPY derivative for sensing copper(II) in blood and mitochondrial imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shao-Jun; Xie, Yu-Wen; Chen, Qiu-Yun

    2018-04-01

    In order to develop NIR BODIPY for mitochondria targeting imaging agents and metal sensors, a side chain modified BODIPY (BPN) was synthesized and spectroscopically characterized. BPN has NIR emission at 765 nm when excited at 704 nm. The emission at 765 nm responded differently to Cu2+ and Mn2+ ions, respectively. The BPN coordinated with Cu2+ forming [BPNCu]2+ complex with quenched emission, while Mn2+ induced aggregation of BPN with specific fluorescence enhancement. Moreover, BPN can be applied to monitor Cu2+ in live cells and image mitochondria. Further, BPN was used as sensor for the detection of Cu2+ ions in serum with linear detection range of 0.45 μM-36.30 μM. Results indicate that BPN is a good sensor for the detection of Cu2+ in serum and image mitochondria. This study gives strategies for future design of NIR sensors for the analysis of metal ions in blood.

  18. A review of breast tomosynthesis. Part II. Image reconstruction, processing and analysis, and advanced applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sechopoulos, Ioannis

    2013-01-01

    Many important post-acquisition aspects of breast tomosynthesis imaging can impact its clinical performance. Chief among them is the reconstruction algorithm that generates the representation of the three-dimensional breast volume from the acquired projections. But even after reconstruction, additional processes, such as artifact reduction algorithms, computer aided detection and diagnosis, among others, can also impact the performance of breast tomosynthesis in the clinical realm. In this two part paper, a review of breast tomosynthesis research is performed, with an emphasis on its medical physics aspects. In the companion paper, the first part of this review, the research performed relevant to the image acquisition process is examined. This second part will review the research on the post-acquisition aspects, including reconstruction, image processing, and analysis, as well as the advanced applications being investigated for breast tomosynthesis. PMID:23298127

  19. The year 2014 in the European Heart Journal--Cardiovascular Imaging: part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Bernhard L; Edvardsen, Thor; Pierard, Luc A; Saraste, Antti; Knuuti, Juhani; Maurer, Gerald; Habib, Gilbert; Lancellotti, Patrizio

    2015-11-01

    The European Heart Journal-Cardiovascular Imaging, created in 2012, has become a reference for publishing multimodality cardiovascular imaging scientific and review papers. The impressive 2014 impact factor of 4.105 confirms the important position of our journal. In this part, we summarize the most important studies from the journal's third year, with specific emphasis on cardiomyopathies, congenital heart diseases, valvular heart diseases, and heart failure. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Motion correction of PET brain images through deconvolution: II. Practical implementation and algorithm optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghunath, N.; Faber, T. L.; Suryanarayanan, S.; Votaw, J. R.

    2009-02-01

    Image quality is significantly degraded even by small amounts of patient motion in very high-resolution PET scanners. When patient motion is known, deconvolution methods can be used to correct the reconstructed image and reduce motion blur. This paper describes the implementation and optimization of an iterative deconvolution method that uses an ordered subset approach to make it practical and clinically viable. We performed ten separate FDG PET scans using the Hoffman brain phantom and simultaneously measured its motion using the Polaris Vicra tracking system (Northern Digital Inc., Ontario, Canada). The feasibility and effectiveness of the technique was studied by performing scans with different motion and deconvolution parameters. Deconvolution resulted in visually better images and significant improvement as quantified by the Universal Quality Index (UQI) and contrast measures. Finally, the technique was applied to human studies to demonstrate marked improvement. Thus, the deconvolution technique presented here appears promising as a valid alternative to existing motion correction methods for PET. It has the potential for deblurring an image from any modality if the causative motion is known and its effect can be represented in a system matrix.

  1. Motion correction of PET brain images through deconvolution: II. Practical implementation and algorithm optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghunath, N; Faber, T L; Suryanarayanan, S; Votaw, J R

    2009-01-01

    Image quality is significantly degraded even by small amounts of patient motion in very high-resolution PET scanners. When patient motion is known, deconvolution methods can be used to correct the reconstructed image and reduce motion blur. This paper describes the implementation and optimization of an iterative deconvolution method that uses an ordered subset approach to make it practical and clinically viable. We performed ten separate FDG PET scans using the Hoffman brain phantom and simultaneously measured its motion using the Polaris Vicra tracking system (Northern Digital Inc., Ontario, Canada). The feasibility and effectiveness of the technique was studied by performing scans with different motion and deconvolution parameters. Deconvolution resulted in visually better images and significant improvement as quantified by the Universal Quality Index (UQI) and contrast measures. Finally, the technique was applied to human studies to demonstrate marked improvement. Thus, the deconvolution technique presented here appears promising as a valid alternative to existing motion correction methods for PET. It has the potential for deblurring an image from any modality if the causative motion is known and its effect can be represented in a system matrix.

  2. Motion correction of PET brain images through deconvolution: II. Practical implementation and algorithm optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raghunath, N; Faber, T L; Suryanarayanan, S; Votaw, J R [Department of Radiology, Emory University Hospital, 1364 Clifton Road, N.E. Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States)], E-mail: John.Votaw@Emory.edu

    2009-02-07

    Image quality is significantly degraded even by small amounts of patient motion in very high-resolution PET scanners. When patient motion is known, deconvolution methods can be used to correct the reconstructed image and reduce motion blur. This paper describes the implementation and optimization of an iterative deconvolution method that uses an ordered subset approach to make it practical and clinically viable. We performed ten separate FDG PET scans using the Hoffman brain phantom and simultaneously measured its motion using the Polaris Vicra tracking system (Northern Digital Inc., Ontario, Canada). The feasibility and effectiveness of the technique was studied by performing scans with different motion and deconvolution parameters. Deconvolution resulted in visually better images and significant improvement as quantified by the Universal Quality Index (UQI) and contrast measures. Finally, the technique was applied to human studies to demonstrate marked improvement. Thus, the deconvolution technique presented here appears promising as a valid alternative to existing motion correction methods for PET. It has the potential for deblurring an image from any modality if the causative motion is known and its effect can be represented in a system matrix.

  3. Cranial nerve clock. Part II: functional MR imaging of brain activation during a declarative memory task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, K L; Welsh, R C; Eldevik, P; Bieliauskas, L A; Steinberg, B A

    2001-12-01

    The authors performed this study to assess brain activation during encoding and successful recall with a declarative memory paradigm that has previously been demonstrated to be effective for teaching students about the cranial nerves. Twenty-four students underwent functional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging during encoding and recall of the name, number, and function of the 12 cranial nerves. The students viewed mnemonic graphic and text slides related to individual nerves, as well as their respective control slides. For the recall paradigm, students were prompted with the numbers 1-12 (test condition) intermixed with the number 14 (control condition). Subjects were tested about their knowledge of cranial nerves outside the MR unit before and after functional MR imaging. Students learned about the cranial nerves while undergoing functional MR imaging (mean post- vs preparadigm score, 8.1 +/- 3.4 [of a possible 12] vs 0.75 +/- 0.94, bilateral prefrontal cortex, left greater than right; P brain activation. Encoding revealed statistically significant activation in the bilateral prefrontal cortex, left greater than right [corrected]; bilateral occipital and parietal associative cortices, parahippocampus region, fusiform gyri, and cerebellum. Successful recall activated the left much more than the right prefrontal, parietal associative, and anterior cingulate cortices; bilateral precuneus and cerebellum; and right more than the left posterior cingulate. A predictable pattern of brain activation at functional MR imaging accompanies the encoding and successful recall of the cranial nerves with this declarative memory paradigm.

  4. Generalised model-independent characterisation of strong gravitational lenses. II. Transformation matrix between multiple images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, J.; Tessore, N.

    2018-05-01

    We determine the transformation matrix that maps multiple images with identifiable resolved features onto one another and that is based on a Taylor-expanded lensing potential in the vicinity of a point on the critical curve within our model-independent lens characterisation approach. From the transformation matrix, the same information about the properties of the critical curve at fold and cusp points can be derived as we previously found when using the quadrupole moment of the individual images as observables. In addition, we read off the relative parities between the images, so that the parity of all images is determined when one is known. We compare all retrievable ratios of potential derivatives to the actual values and to those obtained by using the quadrupole moment as observable for two- and three-image configurations generated by a galaxy-cluster scale singular isothermal ellipse. We conclude that using the quadrupole moments as observables, the properties of the critical curve are retrieved to a higher accuracy at the cusp points and to a lower accuracy at the fold points; the ratios of second-order potential derivatives are retrieved to comparable accuracy. We also show that the approach using ratios of convergences and reduced shear components is equivalent to ours in the vicinity of the critical curve, but yields more accurate results and is more robust because it does not require a special coordinate system as the approach using potential derivatives does. The transformation matrix is determined by mapping manually assigned reference points in the multiple images onto one another. If the assignment of the reference points is subject to measurement uncertainties under the influence of noise, we find that the confidence intervals of the lens parameters can be as large as the values themselves when the uncertainties are larger than one pixel. In addition, observed multiple images with resolved features are more extended than unresolved ones, so that

  5. Live-cell Imaging of Pol II Promoter Activity to Monitor Gene expression with RNA IMAGEtag reporters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Ilchung [Ames Laboratory; Ray, Judhajeet [Ames Laboratory; Gupta, Vinayak [Iowa State University; Ilgu, Muslum [Ames Laboratory; Beasley, Jonathan [Iowa State University; Bendickson, Lee [Ames Laboratory; Mehanovic, Samir [Molecular Express; Kraus, George A. [Iowa State University; Nilsen-Hamilton, Marit [Ames Laboratory

    2014-04-20

    We describe a ribonucleic acid (RNA) reporter system for live-cell imaging of gene expression to detect changes in polymerase II activity on individual promoters in individual cells. The reporters use strings of RNA aptamers that constitute IMAGEtags (Intracellular MultiAptamer GEnetic tags) that can be expressed from a promoter of choice. For imaging, the cells are incubated with their ligands that are separately conjugated with one of the FRET pair, Cy3 and Cy5. The IMAGEtags were expressed in yeast from the GAL1, ADH1 or ACT1 promoters. Transcription from all three promoters was imaged in live cells and transcriptional increases from the GAL1 promoter were observed with time after adding galactose. Expression of the IMAGEtags did not affect cell proliferation or endogenous gene expression. Advantages of this method are that no foreign proteins are produced in the cells that could be toxic or otherwise influence the cellular response as they accumulate, the IMAGEtags are short lived and oxygen is not required to generate their signals. The IMAGEtag RNA reporter system provides a means of tracking changes in transcriptional activity in live cells and in real time.

  6. Image compression evaluation for digital cinema: the case of Star Wars: Episode II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnuelle, David L.

    2003-05-01

    A program of evaluation of compression algorithms proposed for use in a digital cinema application is described and the results presented in general form. The work was intended to aid in the selection of a compression system to be used for the digital cinema release of Star Wars: Episode II, in May 2002. An additional goal was to provide feedback to the algorithm proponents on what parameters and performance levels the feature film industry is looking for in digital cinema compression. The primary conclusion of the test program is that any of the current digital cinema compression proponents will work for digital cinema distribution to today's theaters.

  7. CT Imaging of facial trauma. The role of different types of reconstruction. Part II - soft tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myga-Porosilo, J.; Sraga, W.; Borowiak, H.; Jackowska, Z.; Kluczewska, E.; Skrzelewski, S.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Injury to facial soft tissues as a complication of skeleton fractures is an important problem among patients with facial trauma. The aim of this work was to assess the value of multiplanar and three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction computed tomography (CT) images obtained by using multi-detector row technology in spiral data acquisition in patients with facial injuries of soft tissue. Material/Methods: Sixty-seven patients diagnosed with injury to the facial skeleton underwent a CT scan with the use of GE Hispeed Qx/i scanner. For each patient: a two-dimensional (2D) multiplanar reconstruction (MPR), maximum intensity projection (MIP), and 3D volume rendering (VR) were conducted. Post-injury lesions of soft tissues were assessed. During the assessment of the post-injury lesions of soft tissues, the following features were evaluated: Extra ocular muscle and fat tissue herniation through fractures in the medial and inferior orbital walls. Fluid in the sinuses and in the nasal cavity. Subcutaneous tissue emphysema. Results: For subcutaneous emphysema and sinus fluid imaging, both the axial and the 2D image reconstruction proved comparably effective. However, 2D reconstructions were superior to transverse plane images with regard to herniations into fractures of the inferior orbital wall. 3D reconstruction has no importance in diagnosing soft tissue injuries. Conclusions: Multiplanar CT reconstructions increase the effectiveness of imaging of orbital tissue herniations, especially in case of fractures in the inferior orbital wall. In suspected soft tissue herniations, as well as prior to surgical treatment, spiral CT with 2D multiplanar reconstructions should be the method of choice. (authors)

  8. System for verifiable CT radiation dose optimization based on image quality. part II. process control system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, David B; Malarik, Remo J; Hall, Seth M; Podberesky, Daniel J

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate the effect of an automated computed tomography (CT) radiation dose optimization and process control system on the consistency of estimated image noise and size-specific dose estimates (SSDEs) of radiation in CT examinations of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis. This quality improvement project was determined not to constitute human subject research. An automated system was developed to analyze each examination immediately after completion, and to report individual axial-image-level and study-level summary data for patient size, image noise, and SSDE. The system acquired data for 4 months beginning October 1, 2011. Protocol changes were made by using parameters recommended by the prediction application, and 3 months of additional data were acquired. Preimplementation and postimplementation mean image noise and SSDE were compared by using unpaired t tests and F tests. Common-cause variation was differentiated from special-cause variation by using a statistical process control individual chart. A total of 817 CT examinations, 490 acquired before and 327 acquired after the initial protocol changes, were included in the study. Mean patient age and water-equivalent diameter were 12.0 years and 23.0 cm, respectively. The difference between actual and target noise increased from -1.4 to 0.3 HU (P process control chart identified several special causes of variation. Implementation of an automated CT radiation dose optimization system led to verifiable simultaneous decrease in image noise variation and SSDE. The automated nature of the system provides the opportunity for consistent CT radiation dose optimization on a broad scale. © RSNA, 2013.

  9. Circular waveguide mode converters at 140 GHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trulsen, J.; Woskoboinikow, P.; Temkin, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    A unified derivation of the coupled mode equations for circular waveguide is presented. Also, approximate design criteria for TE/sub 0n/ to TE/sub 0n'/ axisymmetric, TE 01 to TE 11 wriggle, and TE 01 to TM 11 bend converters are reviewed. Numerically solving the coupled mode equations, an optimized set of mode converters has been designed for conversion of a 2 millimeter wave TE 03 mode into TE 11 . This set consists of axisymmetric TE 03 to TE 02 and TE 02 to TE 01 converters followed by a wriggle TE 01 to TE 11 converter. This mode converter set was fabricated and tested using a 3 kW, 137 GHz gyrotron. A TE 11 mode purity of better than 97% was achieved. The TE 01 to TE 11 wriggle converter was experimentally optimized for a measured conversion efficiency of better than 99% not including ohmic losses

  10. 30 GHz High Power Production for CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Syratchev, I V

    2006-01-01

    The CLIC Power Extraction and Transfer Structure (PETS) is a passive microwave device in which bunches of the drive beam interact with the impedance of the periodically loaded waveguide and excite preferentially the synchronous TM01 mode at 30 GHz. The RF power produced (several hundred MW) is collected at the downstream end of the structure by means of the Power Extractor and conveyed to the main linac structure. The PETS geometry is a result of multiple compromises between beam stability along a single decelerator sector (600 m) and the active length of the structure to match the main linac RF power needs and layout. Surface electric and magnetic fields, power extraction method, HOM damping, ON/OFF capability and fabrication technology were all evaluated to provide a reliable design.

  11. Quantum limited quasiparticle mixers at 100 GHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mears, C.A; Hu, Qing; Richards, P.L.; Worsham, A.H.; Prober, D.E.; Raeisaenen, A.V.

    1990-09-01

    We have made accurate measurements of the noise and gain of superconducting-insulating-superconducting (SIS) mixers employing small area (1μm 2 ) Ta/Ta 2 O 5 /Pb 0.9 Bi 0.1 tunnel junctions. We have measured an added mixer noise of 0.61 +/- 0.31 quanta at 95.0 GHz, which is within 25 percent of the quantum limit of 0.5 quanta. We have carried out a detailed comparison between theoretical predictions of the quantum theory of mixing and experimentally measured noise and gain. We used the shapes of I-V curves pumped at the upper and lower sideband frequencies to deduce values of the embedding admittances at these frequencies. Using these admittances, the mixer noise and gain predicted by quantum theory are in excellent agreement with experiment. 21 refs., 9 figs

  12. Molecular imaging of the human pulmonary vascular endothelium in pulmonary hypertension: a phase II safety and proof of principle trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harel, Francois [Montreal Heart Institute, Research Center, Montreal, QC (Canada); Universite de Montreal, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Langleben, David; Abikhzer, Gad [McGill University, Lady Davis Institute and Jewish General Hospital, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Provencher, Steve; Guimond, Jean [Institut Universitaire de Cardiologie et de Pneumologie de Quebec, Quebec (Canada); Fournier, Alain; Letourneau, Myriam [INRS-Institut Armand-Frappier, Laval, Quebec (Canada); Finnerty, Vincent; Nguyen, Quang T.; Levac, Xavier [Montreal Heart Institute, Research Center, Montreal, QC (Canada); Mansour, Asmaa; Guertin, Marie-Claude [Montreal Health Innovation Coordination Center, Montreal, QC (Canada); Dupuis, Jocelyn [Montreal Heart Institute, Research Center, Montreal, QC (Canada); Universite de Montreal, Department of Medicine, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    2017-07-15

    The adrenomedullin receptor is densely expressed in the pulmonary vascular endothelium. PulmoBind, an adrenomedullin receptor ligand, was developed for molecular diagnosis of pulmonary vascular disease. We evaluated the safety of PulmoBind SPECT imaging and its capacity to detect pulmonary vascular disease associated with pulmonary hypertension (PH) in a human phase II study. Thirty patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH, n = 23) or chronic thromboembolic PH (CTEPH, n = 7) in WHO functional class II (n = 26) or III (n = 4) were compared to 15 healthy controls. Lung SPECT was performed after injection of 15 mCi {sup 99m}Tc-PulmoBind in supine position. Qualitative and semi-quantitative analyses of lung uptake were performed. Reproducibility of repeated testing was evaluated in controls after 1 month. PulmoBind injection was well tolerated without any serious adverse event. Imaging was markedly abnormal in PH with ∝50% of subjects showing moderate to severe heterogeneity of moderate to severe extent. The abnormalities were unevenly distributed between the right and left lungs as well as within each lung. Segmental defects compatible with pulmonary embolism were present in 7/7 subjects with CTEPH and in 2/23 subjects with PAH. There were no segmental defects in controls. The PulmoBind activity distribution index, a parameter indicative of heterogeneity, was elevated in PH (65% ± 28%) vs. controls (41% ± 13%, p = 0.0003). In the only subject with vasodilator-responsive idiopathic PAH, PulmoBind lung SPECT was completely normal. Repeated testing 1 month later in healthy controls was well tolerated and showed no significant variability of PulmoBind distribution. In this phase II study, molecular SPECT imaging of the pulmonary vascular endothelium using {sup 99m}Tc-PulmoBind was safe. PulmoBind showed potential to detect both pulmonary embolism and abnormalities indicative of pulmonary vascular disease in PAH. Phase III studies with this novel tracer and

  13. MR imaging of the brain in children with neurofibromatosis types I and II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gusnard, D.A.; Cohen, B.H.; Zimmerman, R.A.; Bilaniuk, L.T.; Zackai, E.H.; Packer, R.J.; Branton, R.; Rorke, L.B.; Grossman, R.I.; Atlas, S.W.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on fifty pediatric patients with neurofibromatosis (NF) (47 with type 1, three with type 2) examined with 1.5-T MR imaging. Of the 50 patients, 47 had abnormal MR studies. Twenty-four patients had tumors (16 optic gliomas, six brain-stem gliomas, one glioblastoma, one neurofibrosarcoma), while 34 had other nonmass focal areas of abnormal signal intensity (FASI) in white and gray matter on proton density and T2-weighted images. Fourteen of the patients had gadolinium-enhanced MR studies; both the tumors and FASI showed variable enhancement patterns (no enhancement or peripheral, inhomogeneous, or homogeneous enhancement). The presence, number, and location of the FASI did not correlate with patients' school performance or reaching of developmental milestones. Correlation with neurologic findings and possible pathologic bases for the FASI is made

  14. Evaluation of a computer aided X-ray fluorographic system: Part II - image processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burch, S.F.; Cocking, S.J.

    1981-12-01

    The TV imagery from a computer aided X-ray fluorographic system has been digitally processed with an I 2 S model 70E image processor, controlled by a PDP 11/60 minicomputer. The image processor allowed valuable processing for detection of defects in cast components to be carried out at television frame rates. Summation of TV frames was used to reduce noise, and hence improve the thickness sensitivity of the system. A displaced differencing technique and interactive contrast enhancement were then used to improve the reliability of inspection by removing spurious blemishes and interference lines, while simultaneously enhancing the visibility of real defects. The times required for these operations are given, and the benefits provided for X-ray fluorography are illustrated by the results from inspection of aero engine castings. (author)

  15. High-resolution Imaging of Transiting Extrasolar Planetary systems (HITEP). II. Lucky Imaging results from 2015 and 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, D. F.; Southworth, J.; Smalley, B.; Jørgensen, U. G.; Dominik, M.; Andersen, M. I.; Bozza, V.; Bramich, D. M.; Burgdorf, M. J.; Ciceri, S.; D'Ago, G.; Figuera Jaimes, R.; Gu, S.-H.; Hinse, T. C.; Henning, Th.; Hundertmark, M.; Kains, N.; Kerins, E.; Korhonen, H.; Kokotanekova, R.; Kuffmeier, M.; Longa-Peña, P.; Mancini, L.; MacKenzie, J.; Popovas, A.; Rabus, M.; Rahvar, S.; Sajadian, S.; Snodgrass, C.; Skottfelt, J.; Surdej, J.; Tronsgaard, R.; Unda-Sanzana, E.; von Essen, C.; Wang, Yi-Bo; Wertz, O.

    2018-02-01

    Context. The formation and dynamical history of hot Jupiters is currently debated, with wide stellar binaries having been suggested as a potential formation pathway. Additionally, contaminating light from both binary companions and unassociated stars can significantly bias the results of planet characterisation studies, but can be corrected for if the properties of the contaminating star are known. Aim. We search for binary companions to known transiting exoplanet host stars, in order to determine the multiplicity properties of hot Jupiter host stars. We also search for and characterise unassociated stars along the line of sight, allowing photometric and spectroscopic observations of the planetary system to be corrected for contaminating light. Methods: We analyse lucky imaging observations of 97 Southern hemisphere exoplanet host stars, using the Two Colour Instrument on the Danish 1.54 m telescope. For each detected companion star, we determine flux ratios relative to the planet host star in two passbands, and measure the relative position of the companion. The probability of each companion being physically associated was determined using our two-colour photometry. Results: A catalogue of close companion stars is presented, including flux ratios, position measurements, and estimated companion star temperature. For companions that are potential binary companions, we review archival and catalogue data for further evidence. For WASP-77AB and WASP-85AB, we combine our data with historical measurements to determine the binary orbits, showing them to be moderately eccentric and inclined to the line of sight (and hence planetary orbital axis). Combining our survey with the similar Friends of Hot Jupiters survey, we conclude that known hot Jupiter host stars show a deficit of high mass stellar companions compared to the field star population; however, this may be a result of the biases in detection and target selection by ground-based surveys. Based on data collected by

  16. TESTING THE NO-HAIR THEOREM WITH OBSERVATIONS IN THE ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM. II. BLACK HOLE IMAGES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johannsen, Tim; Psaltis, Dimitrios

    2010-01-01

    According to the no-hair theorem, all astrophysical black holes are fully described by their masses and spins. This theorem can be tested observationally by measuring (at least) three different multipole moments of the spacetimes of black holes. In this paper, we analyze images of black holes within a framework that allows us to calculate observables in the electromagnetic spectrum as a function of the mass, spin, and, independently, the quadrupole moment of a black hole. We show that a deviation of the quadrupole moment from the expected Kerr value leads to images of black holes that are either prolate or oblate depending on the sign and magnitude of the deviation. In addition, there is a ring-like structure around the black hole shadow with a diameter of ∼10 black hole masses that is substantially brighter than the image of the underlying accretion flow and that is independent of the astrophysical details of accretion flow models. We show that the shape of this ring depends directly on the mass, spin, and quadrupole moment of the black hole and can be used for an independent measurement of all three parameters. In particular, we demonstrate that this ring is highly circular for a Kerr black hole with a spin a ∼< 0.9 M, independent of the observer's inclination, but becomes elliptical and asymmetric if the no-hair theorem is violated. Near-future very long baseline interferometric observations of Sgr A* will image this ring and may allow for an observational test of the no-hair theorem.

  17. Handoff Management in Radio over Fiber 60 GHz Indoor Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bien, V.Q.

    2014-01-01

    Because of high data rate multimedia applications such as HD and UHDTV, online games, etc., the future home networks are expected to support short-range gigabit transmission. With the worldwide availability of 5 GHz spectrum at the 60 GHz band, it creates the opportunity for a promising air

  18. 77 FR 45558 - 4.9 GHz Band

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    ..., our rules currently require 4.9 GHz licensees to ``cooperate in the selection and use of channels in... directional and thus can be represented as narrow paths on a coordination map; in contrast, they note, the low-power, less- directional, geographically-dispersed links in a 4.9 GHz network must be represented as a...

  19. Towards low-cost gigabit wireless systems at 60 GHz

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Haibing

    2008-01-01

    The world-wide availability of the huge amount of license-free spectral space in the 60 GHz band provides wide room for gigabit-per-second (Gb/s) wireless applications. A commercial (read: low-cost) 60-GHz transceiver will, however, provide limited system performance due to the stringent link budget

  20. The 1.4 GHZ light curve of GRB 970508

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galama, TJ; Wijers, RAMJ; Groot, PJ; Strom, RG; De Bruyn, AG; Kouveliotou, C; Robinson, CR; van Paradus, J

    1998-01-01

    We report on Westerbork 1.4 GHz radio observations of the radio counterpart to gamma-ray burst GRB 970508, between 0.80 and 138 days after this event. The 1.4 GHz light curve shows a transition from optically thick to thin emission between 39 and 54 days after the event. We derive the slope p of the

  1. 60 Gbit/s 400 GHz Wireless Transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Xianbin; Asif, Rameez; Piels, Molly

    2015-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a 400 GHz carrier wireless transmission system with real-time capable detection and demonstrate transmission of a 60 Gbit/s signal derived from optical Nyquist channels in a 12.5 GHz ultra-dense wavelength division multiplexing (UD-WDM) grid and carrying QPSK...

  2. Rectenna Technology Program: Ultra light 2.45 GHz rectenna 20 GHz rectenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, William C.

    1987-01-01

    The program had two general objectives. The first objective was to develop the two plane rectenna format for space application at 2.45 GHz. The resultant foreplane was a thin-film, etched-circuit format fabricated from a laminate composed of 2 mil Kapton F sandwiched between sheets of 1 oz copper. The thin-film foreplane contains half wave dipoles, filter circuits, rectifying Schottky diode, and dc bussing lead. It weighs 160 grams per square meter. Efficiency and dc power output density were measured at 85% and 1 kw/sq m, respectively. Special testing techniques to measure temperature of circuit and diode without perturbing microwave operation using the fluoroptic thermometer were developed. A second objective was to investigate rectenna technology for use at 20 GHz and higher frequencies. Several fabrication formats including the thin-film scaled from 2.45 GHz, ceramic substrate and silk-screening, and monolithic were investigated, with the conclusion that the monolithic approach was the best. A preliminary design of the monolithic rectenna structure and the integrated Schottky diode were made.

  3. A New 95 GHz Methanol Maser Catalog. I. Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Wenjin; Xu, Ye; Lu, Dengrong; Ju, Binggang; Li, Yingjie [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Science, Nanjing 210008 (China); Chen, Xi [Center for Astrophysics, GuangZhou University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Ellingsen, Simon P., E-mail: wjyang@pmo.ac.cn, E-mail: xuye@pmo.ac.cn, E-mail: chenxi@shao.ac.cn [School of Physical Sciences, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania (Australia)

    2017-08-01

    The Purple Mountain Observatory 13.7 m radio telescope has been used to search for 95 GHz (8{sub 0}–7{sub 1}A{sup +}) class I methanol masers toward 1020 Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey (BGPS) sources, leading to 213 detections. We have compared the line width of the methanol and HCO{sup +} thermal emission in all of the methanol detections, and on that basis, we find that 205 of the 213 detections are very likely to be masers. This corresponds to an overall detection rate of 95 GHz methanol masers toward our BGPS sample of 20%. Of the 205 detected masers, 144 (70%) are new discoveries. Combining our results with those of previous 95 GHz methanol maser searches, a total of 481 95 GHz methanol masers are now known. We have compiled a catalog listing the locations and properties of all known 95 GHz methanol masers.

  4. Micro-angiography for neuro-vascular imaging. II. Cascade model analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganguly, Arundhuti; Rudin, Stephen; Bednarek, Daniel R.; Hoffmann, Kenneth R.

    2003-01-01

    A micro-angiographic detector was designed and its performance was previously tested to evaluate its feasibility as an improvement over current x-ray detectors for neuro-interventional imaging. The detector was shown to have a modulation transfer function value of about 2% at the Nyquist frequency of 10 cycles/mm and a zero frequency detective quantum efficiency [DQE(0)] value of about 55%. An assessment of the system was required to evaluate whether the current system was performing at its full potential and to determine if any of its components could be optimized to further improve the output. For the purpose, in this study, the parallel cascade theory was used to analyze the performance of the detector under neuro-angiographic conditions by studying the output at the various stages in the imaging chain. A simple model for the spread of light in the CsI(Tl) entrance phosphor was developed and the resolution degradation due to K-fluorescence absorption was calculated. The total gain of the system was found to result in 21 e - (rms) detected at the charge coupled device per absorbed x-ray photon. The gain and the spread of quanta in the imaging chain were used to calculate theoretically the DQE using the parallel cascade model. The results of the model-based calculations matched fairly well with the experimental data previously obtained. This model was then used to optimize the phosphor thickness for the detector. The results showed that the area under the DQE curve had a maximum value at 150 μm of CsI(Tl), though when weighted by the squared signal in frequency space of a 100-μm-diam iodinated vessel, the integral DQE reached a maximum at 250 μm of CsI(Tl). Further, possible locations for gain increase in the imaging chain were determined, and the output of the improved system was simulated. Thus a theoretical analysis for the micro-angiographic detector was performed to better assess its potential

  5. Inelastic neutron scattering experiments with the monochromatic imaging mode of the RITA-II spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahl, C.R.H.; Lefmann, K.; Abrahamsen, A.B.; Ronnow, H.M.; Saxild, F.; Jensen, T.B.S.; Udby, L.; Andersen, N.H.; Christensen, N.B.; Jakobsen, H.S.; Larsen, T.; Haefliger, P.S.; Streule, S.; Niedermayer, Ch.

    2006-01-01

    Recently a monochromatic multiple data taking mode has been demonstrated for diffraction experiments using a RITA type cold neutron spectrometer with a multi-bladed analyser and a position-sensitive detector. Here, we show how this mode can be used in combination with a flexible radial collimator to perform real inelastic neutron scattering experiments. We present the results from inelastic powder, single crystal dispersion and single crystal constant energy mapping experiments. The advantages and complications of performing these experiments are discussed along with a comparison between the imaging mode and the traditional monochromatic focussing mode

  6. Inelastic neutron scattering experiments with the monochromatic imaging mode of the RITA-II spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahl, C.R.H. [Department of Materials Research, Riso National Laboratory, Building 227, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark) and Department of Physics, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark)]. E-mail: christian.bahl@risoe.dk; Lefmann, K. [Department of Materials Research, Riso National Laboratory, Building 227, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark)]. E-mail: kim.lefmann@risoe.dk; Abrahamsen, A.B. [Department of Materials Research, Riso National Laboratory, Building 227, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Ronnow, H.M. [Laboratory for Neutron Scattering, Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Saxild, F. [Department of Materials Research, Riso National Laboratory, Building 227, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Jensen, T.B.S. [Department of Materials Research, Riso National Laboratory, Building 227, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Udby, L. [Department of Materials Research, Riso National Laboratory, Building 227, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Andersen, N.H. [Department of Materials Research, Riso National Laboratory, Building 227, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Christensen, N.B. [Department of Materials Research, Riso National Laboratory, Building 227, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Laboratory for Neutron Scattering, Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Jakobsen, H.S. [Niels Bohr Institute for Astronomy, Physics and Geophysics, University of Copenhagen, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Larsen, T. [Niels Bohr Institute for Astronomy, Physics and Geophysics, University of Copenhagen, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Haefliger, P.S. [Laboratory for Neutron Scattering, Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Streule, S.; Niedermayer, Ch. [Laboratory for Neutron Scattering, Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland)

    2006-05-15

    Recently a monochromatic multiple data taking mode has been demonstrated for diffraction experiments using a RITA type cold neutron spectrometer with a multi-bladed analyser and a position-sensitive detector. Here, we show how this mode can be used in combination with a flexible radial collimator to perform real inelastic neutron scattering experiments. We present the results from inelastic powder, single crystal dispersion and single crystal constant energy mapping experiments. The advantages and complications of performing these experiments are discussed along with a comparison between the imaging mode and the traditional monochromatic focussing mode.

  7. Patient size and x-ray technique factors in head computed tomography examinations. II. Image quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huda, Walter; Lieberman, Kristin A.; Chang, Jack; Roskopf, Marsha L.

    2004-01-01

    We investigated how patient head characteristics, as well as the choice of x-ray technique factors, affect lesion contrast and noise values in computed tomography (CT) images. Head sizes and mean Hounsfield unit (HU) values were obtained from head CT images for five classes of patients ranging from the newborn to adults. X-ray spectra with tube voltages ranging from 80 to 140 kV were used to compute the average photon energy, and energy fluence, transmitted through the heads of patients of varying size. Image contrast, and the corresponding contrast to noise ratios (CNRs), were determined for lesions of fat, muscle, and iodine relative to a uniform water background. Maintaining a constant image CNR for each lesion, the patient energy imparted was also computed to identify the x-ray tube voltage that minimized the radiation dose. For adults, increasing the tube voltage from 80 to 140 kV changed the iodine HU from 2.62x10 5 to 1.27x10 5 , the fat HU from -138 to -108, and the muscle HU from 37.1 to 33.0. Increasing the x-ray tube voltage from 80 to 140 kV increased the percentage energy fluence transmission by up to a factor of 2. For a fixed x-ray tube voltage, the percentage transmitted energy fluence in adults was more than a factor of 4 lower than for newborns. For adults, increasing the x-ray tube voltage from 80 to 140 kV improved the CNR for muscle lesions by 130%, for fat lesions by a factor of 2, and for iodine lesions by 25%. As the size of the patient increased from newborn to adults, lesion CNR was reduced by about a factor of 2. The mAs value can be reduced by 80% when scanning newborns while maintaining the same lesion CNR as for adults. Maintaining the CNR of an iodine lesion at a constant level, use of 140 kV increases the energy imparted to an adult patient by nearly a factor of 3.5 in comparison to 80 kV. For fat and muscle lesions, raising the x-ray tube voltage from 80 to 140 kV at a constant CNR increased the patient dose by 37% and 7

  8. The use of BAS-TR imaging plates calibration in determining the resolving power of Fuji BAS-1800II image plate reader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnaimi, R.

    2018-01-01

    The importance of this work lies in assuring the reliability of the results obtained from both imaging plates type BAS-TR and Fuji Image Reader BAS-1800II as they are widely used in calculating essential x-ray sources parameters such as the source size, x-ray flux and brilliance, hence, the calibration presented in this work. For such quantitative analysis, a common practice used by many researchers, where Gold resolution meshes are utilised for such purpose, however not quite successful due to the transmission effect of high energy photons at their edges as well as the pixeling effect while magnifying the scanned image to secure the edge spread function (ESF) data. In contrast, the use of resolution test target (RTT) and wire mesh grid together with a set of test samples i.e. Stanley blades, Ta, Ti and Si wafer of 100, 300, 15, and 490 micron thickness respectively appeared to be efficient in determining IP pixel size and the resolution of the reader. Two different experiments were conducted using two different targets and lasers of very different performance. The first, was a 15 μm VHS video tape composed of Mylar as carrier film with Fe2O3 and CrO2 powder. Nd:YAG laser of long pulse 800 ps, 50 Hz repetition rate and single shot were utilised. Whereas, the second experiment were conducted on a 9μm C wire and a short pulse 500fs Cerberus single shot laser was used. The results obtained from both experiments were pretty much similar. The imaging plate spatial resolution was measured to be: 3.4 ± 0.2 pixels and a pixel size of 41.26 ± 1.4 μm, whereas the smallest resolvable object visible to the reader (1:1 imaging with magnification factor) was of order 140.3 ± 0.3 microns. This appeared to be worse by a factor of three which indicates the importance of the reader's calibration on a regular basis, and at the same time one has to reconsider any related work and calculation based upon the previous nominal values.

  9. Turn-by-Turn Imaging of the Transverse Beam Profile in PEP-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, Alan A.; Petree, Mark; /SLAC

    2006-12-18

    During injection or instability, the transverse profile of an individual bunch in a storage ring can change significantly in a few turns. However, most synchrotron-light imaging techniques are not designed for this time scale. We have developed a novel diagnostic that enhances the utility of a fast gated camera by adding, inexpensively, some features of a dual-axis streak camera, in order to watch the turn-by-turn evolution of the transverse profile, in both x and y. The beam's elliptical profile is reshaped using cylindrical lenses to form a tall and narrow ellipse--essentially the projection of the full ellipse onto one transverse axis. We do this projection twice, by splitting the beam into two paths at different heights, and rotating the ellipse by 90{sup o} on one path. A rapidly rotating mirror scans these vertical ''pencils'' of light horizontally across the photocathode of the camera, which is gated for 3 ns on every Nth ring turn. A single readout of the camera captures 100 images, looking like a stroboscopic photograph of a moving object. We have observed the capture of injected charge into a bunch and the rapid change of beam size at the onset of a fast instability.

  10. A bioaccumulative cyclometalated platinum(II) complex with two-photon-induced emission for live cell imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Chi-Kin; Wong, Ka-Leung; Man, Cornelia Wing-Yin; Lam, Yun-Wah; So, Leo King-Yan; Tam, Hoi-Lam; Tsao, Sai-Wah; Cheah, Kok-Wai; Lau, Kai-Chung; Yang, Yang-Yi; Chen, Jin-Can; Lam, Michael Hon-Wah

    2009-02-02

    The cyclometalated platinum(II) complex [Pt(L)Cl], where HL is a new cyclometalating ligand 2-phenyl-6-(1H-pyrazol-3-yl)pyridine containing C(phenyl), N(pyridyl), and N(pyrazolyl) donor moieties, was found to possess two-photon-induced luminescent properties. The two-photon-absorption cross section of the complex in N,N-dimethylformamide at room temperature was measured to be 20.8 GM. Upon two-photon excitation at 730 nm from a Ti:sapphire laser, bright-green emission was observed. Besides its two-photon-induced luminescent properties, [Pt(L)Cl] was able to be rapidly accumulated in live HeLa and NIH3T3 cells. The two-photon-induced luminescence of the complex was retained after live cell internalization and can be observed by two-photon confocal microscopy. Its bioaccumulation properties enabled time-lapse imaging of the internalization process of the dye into living cells. Cytotoxicity of [Pt(L)Cl] to both tested cell lines was low, according to MTT assays, even at loadings as high as 20 times the dose concentration for imaging for 6 h.

  11. Breakdown transient study of plasma distributions in a 2.45 GHz hydrogen discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortázar, O.D., E-mail: daniel.cortazar@uclm.es [Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, ETSII-INEI, Applied Mechanics and Projects Department, C.J. Cela s/n, 13170 Ciudad Real (Spain); Megía-Macías, A. [ESS Bilbao Consortium, Polígono Ugaldeguren-III Pol. A 7B, 48170-Zamudio, Vizcaya (Spain); Tarvainen, O.; Koivisto, H. [University of Jyväskylä, Department of Physics, PO Box 35 (YFL), 40500 Jyväskylä (Finland)

    2015-05-01

    Plasma distribution transients associated with the breakdown of a 2.45 GHz hydrogen discharge similar to high current microwave ion sources are studied by means of an ultra-fast frame image acquisition system in visible light range. Eight different plasma distributions have been studied by photographing the 2D projections of the discharge through a transparent plasma electrode. The temporal evolution of images in Balmer-alpha and Fulcher band wavelengths have been recorded associated to atomic and molecular excitation and ionization processes. Some unexpected plasma distributions transient behaviors during breakdown are reported.

  12. THE BOLOCAM GALACTIC PLANE SURVEY. II. CATALOG OF THE IMAGE DATA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosolowsky, Erik; Dunham, Miranda K.; Evans, Neal J.; Harvey, Paul; Ginsburg, Adam; Bally, John; Battersby, Cara; Glenn, Jason; Stringfellow, Guy S.; Bradley, E. Todd; Aguirre, James; Cyganowski, Claudia; Dowell, Darren; Drosback, Meredith; Walawender, Josh; Williams, Jonathan P.

    2010-01-01

    We present a catalog of 8358 sources extracted from images produced by the Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey (BGPS). The BGPS is a survey of the millimeter dust continuum emission from the northern Galactic plane. The catalog sources are extracted using a custom algorithm, Bolocat, which was designed specifically to identify and characterize objects in the large-area maps generated from the Bolocam instrument. The catalog products are designed to facilitate follow-up observations of these relatively unstudied objects. The catalog is 98% complete from 0.4 Jy to 60 Jy over all object sizes for which the survey is sensitive ( -2.4±0.1 and that the mean Galactic latitude for sources is significantly below the midplane: (b) = (-0. 0 095 ± 0. 0 001).

  13. Demonstration of two-beam acceleration in CTF II

    CERN Document Server

    Bossart, Rudolf; Carron, G; Chanudet, M; Chautard, F; Delahaye, J P; Godot, J C; Hutchins, S; Kamber, I; Martínez, C; Suberlucq, Guy; Tenenbaum, P G; Thorndahl, L; Valentini, M; Wilson, Ian H; Wuensch, Walter

    1999-01-01

    The second phase of the Compact LInear Collider (CLIC) Test Facility (CTF II) at CERN has demon-strated the feasibility of two-beam acceleration at 30 GHz using a high-charge drive beam, running paral lel to the main beam, as the RF power source. To date accelerating gradients of 59 MV/m at 30 GHz have been achieved. In CTF II, the two beams are generated by 3 GHz RF photo-injectors and are acceler ated in 3 GHz linacs, before injection into the 30 GHz modules. The drive beam linac has to accelerate a 16 ns long train of 48 bunches, each with a nominal charge of 13.4 nC. To cope with the very su bstantial beam-loading special accelerating structures are used (running slightly off the bunch repetition frequency). A magnetic chicane compresses the bunches to less than 5 ps fwhm, this is needed for efficient 30 GHz power generation. The 30 GHz modules are fully-engineered representative sections of CLIC, they include a 30 GHz decelerator for the drive beam, a 30 GHz accelerator for the main beam, high resolution...

  14. The Lyman alpha reference sample. II. Hubble space telescope imaging results, integrated properties, and trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, Matthew; Östlin, Göran; Duval, Florent; Sandberg, Andreas; Guaita, Lucia; Melinder, Jens; Rivera-Thorsen, Thøger [Department of Astronomy, Oskar Klein Centre, Stockholm University, AlbaNova University Centre, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Adamo, Angela [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Schaerer, Daniel [Université de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, F-31000 Toulouse (France); Verhamme, Anne; Orlitová, Ivana [Geneva Observatory, University of Geneva, 51 Chemin des Maillettes, CH-1290 Versoix (Switzerland); Mas-Hesse, J. Miguel; Otí-Floranes, Héctor [Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Departamento de Astrofísica, P.O. Box 78, E-28691 Villanueva de la Cañada (Spain); Cannon, John M.; Pardy, Stephen [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macalester College, 1600 Grand Avenue, Saint Paul, MN 55105 (United States); Atek, Hakim [Laboratoire dAstrophysique, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Observatoire, CH-1290 Sauverny (Switzerland); Kunth, Daniel [Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, UMR 7095, CNRS and UPMC, 98 bis Bd Arago, F-75014 Paris (France); Laursen, Peter [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Herenz, E. Christian, E-mail: matthew@astro.su.se [Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik (AIP), An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany)

    2014-02-10

    We report new results regarding the Lyα output of galaxies, derived from the Lyman Alpha Reference Sample, and focused on Hubble Space Telescope imaging. For 14 galaxies we present intensity images in Lyα, Hα, and UV, and maps of Hα/Hβ, Lyα equivalent width (EW), and Lyα/Hα. We present Lyα and UV radial light profiles and show they are well-fitted by Sérsic profiles, but Lyα profiles show indices systematically lower than those of the UV (n ≈ 1-2 instead of ≳ 4). This reveals a general lack of the central concentration in Lyα that is ubiquitous in the UV. Photometric growth curves increase more slowly for Lyα than the far ultraviolet, showing that small apertures may underestimate the EW. For most galaxies, however, flux and EW curves flatten by radii ≈10 kpc, suggesting that if placed at high-z only a few of our galaxies would suffer from large flux losses. We compute global properties of the sample in large apertures, and show total Lyα luminosities to be independent of all other quantities. Normalized Lyα throughput, however, shows significant correlations: escape is found to be higher in galaxies of lower star formation rate, dust content, mass, and nebular quantities that suggest harder ionizing continuum and lower metallicity. Six galaxies would be selected as high-z Lyα emitters, based upon their luminosity and EW. We discuss the results in the context of high-z Lyα and UV samples. A few galaxies have EWs above 50 Å, and one shows f{sub esc}{sup Lyα} of 80%; such objects have not previously been reported at low-z.

  15. The Lyman alpha reference sample. II. Hubble space telescope imaging results, integrated properties, and trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, Matthew; Östlin, Göran; Duval, Florent; Sandberg, Andreas; Guaita, Lucia; Melinder, Jens; Rivera-Thorsen, Thøger; Adamo, Angela; Schaerer, Daniel; Verhamme, Anne; Orlitová, Ivana; Mas-Hesse, J. Miguel; Otí-Floranes, Héctor; Cannon, John M.; Pardy, Stephen; Atek, Hakim; Kunth, Daniel; Laursen, Peter; Herenz, E. Christian

    2014-01-01

    We report new results regarding the Lyα output of galaxies, derived from the Lyman Alpha Reference Sample, and focused on Hubble Space Telescope imaging. For 14 galaxies we present intensity images in Lyα, Hα, and UV, and maps of Hα/Hβ, Lyα equivalent width (EW), and Lyα/Hα. We present Lyα and UV radial light profiles and show they are well-fitted by Sérsic profiles, but Lyα profiles show indices systematically lower than those of the UV (n ≈ 1-2 instead of ≳ 4). This reveals a general lack of the central concentration in Lyα that is ubiquitous in the UV. Photometric growth curves increase more slowly for Lyα than the far ultraviolet, showing that small apertures may underestimate the EW. For most galaxies, however, flux and EW curves flatten by radii ≈10 kpc, suggesting that if placed at high-z only a few of our galaxies would suffer from large flux losses. We compute global properties of the sample in large apertures, and show total Lyα luminosities to be independent of all other quantities. Normalized Lyα throughput, however, shows significant correlations: escape is found to be higher in galaxies of lower star formation rate, dust content, mass, and nebular quantities that suggest harder ionizing continuum and lower metallicity. Six galaxies would be selected as high-z Lyα emitters, based upon their luminosity and EW. We discuss the results in the context of high-z Lyα and UV samples. A few galaxies have EWs above 50 Å, and one shows f esc Lyα of 80%; such objects have not previously been reported at low-z.

  16. A 60-GHz interferometer with a local oscillator integrated antenna array for divertor simulation experiments on GAMMA 10/PDX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohagura, J., E-mail: kohagura@prc.tsukuba.ac.jp; Yoshikawa, M.; Shima, Y.; Nojiri, K.; Sakamoto, M.; Nakashima, Y. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan); Wang, X. [Saitama University, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan); Kuwahara, D. [Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan); Ito, N. [National Institute of Technology, Ube College, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8555 (Japan); Nagayama, Y. [National Institute of Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Mase, A. [Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan)

    2016-11-15

    In conventional multichannel/imaging microwave diagnostics of interferometry, reflectometry, and electron cyclotron emission measurements, a local oscillator (LO) signal is commonly supplied to a receiver array via irradiation using LO optics. In this work, we present a 60-GHz interferometer with a new eight-channel receiver array, called a local oscillator integrated antenna array (LIA). An outstanding feature of LIA is that it incorporates a frequency quadrupler integrated circuit for LO supply to each channel. This enables simple and uniform LO supply to the receiver array using only a 15-GHz LO source and a coaxial cable transmission line instead of using an expensive 60-GHz source, LO optics, and a waveguide transmission line. The new interferometer system is first applied to measure electron line-averaged density inside the divertor simulation experimental module (D-module) on GAMMA 10/PDX tandem mirror device.

  17. The 17 GHz active region number

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selhorst, C. L.; Pacini, A. A. [IP and D-Universidade do Vale do Paraíba-UNIVAP, São José dos Campos (Brazil); Costa, J. E. R. [CEA, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, São José dos Campos (Brazil); Giménez de Castro, C. G.; Valio, A. [CRAAM, Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, São Paulo (Brazil); Shibasaki, K., E-mail: caius@univap.br [Nobeyama Solar Radio Observatory/NAOJ, Minamisaku, Nagano 384-1305 (Japan)

    2014-08-01

    We report the statistics of the number of active regions (NAR) observed at 17 GHz with the Nobeyama Radioheliograph between 1992, near the maximum of cycle 22, and 2013, which also includes the maximum of cycle 24, and we compare with other activity indexes. We find that NAR minima are shorter than those of the sunspot number (SSN) and radio flux at 10.7 cm (F10.7). This shorter NAR minima could reflect the presence of active regions generated by faint magnetic fields or spotless regions, which were a considerable fraction of the counted active regions. The ratio between the solar radio indexes F10.7/NAR shows a similar reduction during the two minima analyzed, which contrasts with the increase of the ratio of both radio indexes in relation to the SSN during the minimum of cycle 23-24. These results indicate that the radio indexes are more sensitive to weaker magnetic fields than those necessary to form sunspots, of the order of 1500 G. The analysis of the monthly averages of the active region brightness temperatures shows that its long-term variation mimics the solar cycle; however, due to the gyro-resonance emission, a great number of intense spikes are observed in the maximum temperature study. The decrease in the number of these spikes is also evident during the current cycle 24, a consequence of the sunspot magnetic field weakening in the last few years.

  18. Image-derived and arterial blood sampled input functions for quantitative PET imaging of the angiotensin II subtype 1 receptor in the kidney

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Tao; Tsui, Benjamin M. W.; Li, Xin; Vranesic, Melin; Lodge, Martin A.; Gulaldi, Nedim C. M.; Szabo, Zsolt, E-mail: zszabo@jhmi.edu [Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, The Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21287 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: The radioligand {sup 11}C-KR31173 has been introduced for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of the angiotensin II subtype 1 receptor in the kidney in vivo. To study the biokinetics of {sup 11}C-KR31173 with a compartmental model, the input function is needed. Collection and analysis of arterial blood samples are the established approach to obtain the input function but they are not feasible in patients with renal diseases. The goal of this study was to develop a quantitative technique that can provide an accurate image-derived input function (ID-IF) to replace the conventional invasive arterial sampling and test the method in pigs with the goal of translation into human studies. Methods: The experimental animals were injected with [{sup 11}C]KR31173 and scanned up to 90 min with dynamic PET. Arterial blood samples were collected for the artery derived input function (AD-IF) and used as a gold standard for ID-IF. Before PET, magnetic resonance angiography of the kidneys was obtained to provide the anatomical information required for derivation of the recovery coefficients in the abdominal aorta, a requirement for partial volume correction of the ID-IF. Different image reconstruction methods, filtered back projection (FBP) and ordered subset expectation maximization (OS-EM), were investigated for the best trade-off between bias and variance of the ID-IF. The effects of kidney uptakes on the quantitative accuracy of ID-IF were also studied. Biological variables such as red blood cell binding and radioligand metabolism were also taken into consideration. A single blood sample was used for calibration in the later phase of the input function. Results: In the first 2 min after injection, the OS-EM based ID-IF was found to be biased, and the bias was found to be induced by the kidney uptake. No such bias was found with the FBP based image reconstruction method. However, the OS-EM based image reconstruction was found to reduce variance in the subsequent

  19. LeMMINGs - I. The eMERLIN legacy survey of nearby galaxies. 1.5-GHz parsec-scale radio structures and cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldi, R. D.; Williams, D. R. A.; McHardy, I. M.; Beswick, R. J.; Argo, M. K.; Dullo, B. T.; Knapen, J. H.; Brinks, E.; Muxlow, T. W. B.; Aalto, S.; Alberdi, A.; Bendo, G. J.; Corbel, S.; Evans, R.; Fenech, D. M.; Green, D. A.; Klöckner, H.-R.; Körding, E.; Kharb, P.; Maccarone, T. J.; Martí-Vidal, I.; Mundell, C. G.; Panessa, F.; Peck, A. B.; Pérez-Torres, M. A.; Saikia, D. J.; Saikia, P.; Shankar, F.; Spencer, R. E.; Stevens, I. R.; Uttley, P.; Westcott, J.

    2018-05-01

    We present the first data release of high-resolution (≤0.2 arcsec) 1.5-GHz radio images of 103 nearby galaxies from the Palomar sample, observed with the eMERLIN array, as part of the LeMMINGs survey. This sample includes galaxies which are active (low-ionization nuclear emission-line regions [LINER] and Seyfert) and quiescent (H II galaxies and absorption line galaxies, ALGs), which are reclassified based upon revised emission-line diagrams. We detect radio emission ≳0.2 mJy for 47/103 galaxies (22/34 for LINERS, 4/4 for Seyferts, 16/51 for H II galaxies, and 5/14 for ALGs) with radio sizes typically of ≲100 pc. We identify the radio core position within the radio structures for 41 sources. Half of the sample shows jetted morphologies. The remaining half shows single radio cores or complex morphologies. LINERs show radio structures more core-brightened than Seyferts. Radio luminosities of the sample range from 1032 to 1040 erg s-1: LINERs and H II galaxies show the highest and lowest radio powers, respectively, while ALGs and Seyferts have intermediate luminosities. We find that radio core luminosities correlate with black hole (BH) mass down to ˜107 M⊙, but a break emerges at lower masses. Using [O III] line luminosity as a proxy for the accretion luminosity, active nuclei and jetted H II galaxies follow an optical Fundamental Plane of BH activity, suggesting a common disc-jet relationship. In conclusion, LINER nuclei are the scaled-down version of FR I radio galaxies; Seyferts show less collimated jets; H II galaxies may host weak active BHs and/or nuclear star-forming cores; and recurrent BH activity may account for ALG properties.

  20. Imaging high energy photons with PILATUS II at the tagged photon beam at MAX-lab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, V. [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville 3010 (Australia)], E-mail: leev@physics.unimelb.edu.au; Peake, D.J.; Sobott, B. [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville 3010 (Australia); Schroeder, B. [MAX-lab, Lund University, Lund (Sweden); Broennimann, Ch. [DECTRIS Ltd., Baden (Switzerland); Henrich, B. [Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Hansen, K. [MAX-lab, Lund University, Lund (Sweden); O' Keefe, G.J. [Centre for PET, Austin Hospital, Heidelberg, Victoria 3084 (Australia); School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville 3010 (Australia); Taylor, G.N. [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville 3010 (Australia); Boland, M.J. [Australian Synchrotron, Clayton, Victoria 3168 (Australia); School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville 3010 (Australia); Thompson, M.N.; Rassool, R.P. [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville 3010 (Australia)

    2009-05-21

    In photonuclear experiments precise location of the photon beam relative to the experimental sample is critical. Previously used techniques such as using photographic film to identify the position, intensity and centroid of the beam is time-consuming and a faster method is required. PILATUS is a single-photon-counting pixel detector developed at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), Switzerland. It is a silicon-based, two-dimensional detector with a large dynamic range and zero readout noise. Designed as an X-ray detector, its optimal quantum efficiency is between 3 and 30 keV. This paper reports measurements carried out at the MAX-lab tagged photon facility in Lund, Sweden. The beam endpoint energy of approximately 200 MeV is far above the designed optimal energy detection range of PILATUS, and provides a critical test of the use of PILATUS under high energy conditions. The detector was placed in the photon beam and images were taken both downstream of other experiments, and in close range of a 19 mm collimator. The successful measurements demonstrate the versatility and robustness of the detector and provide an effective way of quickly and accurately monitoring beam position and profile in real time.

  1. A program of high power microwave source research and development from 8 GHz to 600 GHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granatstein, V.L.; Antonsen, T.M. Jr.; Bidwell, S.; Booske, J.; Carmel, Y.; Destler, W.W.; Kehs, R.A.; Latham, P.E.; Levush, B.; Lou, W.R.; Mayergoyz, I.D.; Minami, K.; Radack, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    We review research results both on a plasma filled, backward wave oscillator (BWO), and on a free electron laser (FEL) driven by a sheet electron beam. Recently, it was demonstrated that a plasma filled BWO driven by an intense relativistic electron beam can generate hundreds of megawatts of microwave radiation at an unusually high efficiency of 40% compared with a typical efficiency of ∼10% in a BWO without a background plasma. Furthermore, the enhanced efficiency can be maintained even for large electron beam currents approaching the vacuum space charge limiting current, and we anticipate this might hold even for larger current values. Theoretical studies and numerical simulations indicate that the enhanced efficiency as well as a lower value for the start oscillation current in the linear regime may be due to the finite length of the BWO circuit coupled with modification of the dispersion relation due to the background plasma. In the case of our FEL studies, we present designs for a 1 MW, CW, tapered FEL amplifier operating at frequencies of 280 GHz and 560 GHz. A short wiggler period (ell w ∼ 1 cm) is combined with a sheet beam of electrons having energy ∼1 MeV. Depressed collector techniques would allow the main power supply rating to be reduced to ∼200 kV. Efficient sheet beam transport (>99%) has been demonstrated through 10 wiggler periods, and transport through 60 wiggler periods is currently under study. Finally, plans for a proof-of-principle tapered FEL amplifier experiment at 94 GHz are presented. 8 refs., 7 figs

  2. The 30/20 GHz communications system functional requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siperko, C. M.; Frankfort, M.; Markham, R.; Wall, M.

    1981-01-01

    The characteristics of 30/20 GHz usage in satellite systems to be used in support of projected communication requirements of the 1990's are defined. A requirements analysis which develops projected market demand for satellite services by general and specialized carriers and an analysis of the impact of propagation and system constraints on 30/20 GHz operation are included. A set of technical performance characteristics for the 30/20 GHz systems which can serve the resulting market demand and the experimental program necessary to verify technical and operational aspects of the proposed systems is also discussed.

  3. Packaging of microwave integrated circuits operating beyond 100 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samoska, L.; Daniel, E.; Sokolov, V.; Sommerfeldt, S.; Bublitz, J.; Olson, K.; Gilbert, B.; Chow, D.

    2002-01-01

    Several methods of packaging high speed (75-330 GHz) InP HEMT MMIC devices are discussed. Coplanar wirebonding is presented with measured insertion loss of less than 0.5dB and return loss better than -17 dB from DC to 110 GHz. A motherboard/daughterboard packaging scheme is presented which supports minimum loss chains of MMICs using this coplanar wirebonding method. Split waveguide block packaging approaches are presented in G-band (140-220 GHz) with two types of MMIC-waveguide transitions: E-plane probe andantipodal finline.

  4. A study of 60 GHz intersatellite link applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzic, G.; Connolly, D. J.; Haugland, E. J.; Kosmahl, H. G.; Chitwood, J. S.

    Applications of intersatellite links operating at 60 GHz are reviewed. Likely scenarios, ranging from transmission of moderate and high data rates over long distances to low data rates over short distances are examined. A limited parametric tradeoff is performed with system variables such as radiofrequency power, receiver noise temperature, link distance, data rate, and antenna size. Present status is discussed and projections are given for both electron tube and solid state transmitter technologies. Monolithic transmit and receive module technology, already under development at 20 to 30 GHz, is reviewed and its extension to 60 GHz, and possible applicability is discussed.

  5. A study of 60 GHz intersatellite link applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzic, G.; Connolly, D. J.; Haugland, E. J.; Kosmahl, H. G.; Chitwood, J. S.

    1983-01-01

    Applications of intersatellite links operating at 60 GHz are reviewed. Likely scenarios, ranging from transmission of moderate and high data rates over long distances to low data rates over short distances are examined. A limited parametric tradeoff is performed with system variables such as radiofrequency power, receiver noise temperature, link distance, data rate, and antenna size. Present status is discussed and projections are given for both electron tube and solid state transmitter technologies. Monolithic transmit and receive module technology, already under development at 20 to 30 GHz, is reviewed and its extension to 60 GHz, and possible applicability is discussed.

  6. Discrimination between glioma grades II and III in suspected low-grade gliomas using dynamic contrast-enhanced and dynamic susceptibility contrast perfusion MR imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falk, Anna; Fahlström, Markus; Rostrup, Egill

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Perfusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be used in the pre-operative assessment of brain tumours. The aim of this prospective study was to identify the perfusion parameters from dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) and dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) perfusion imaging...... written informed consent in this review board-approved study. Regions of interests (ROIs) in tumour area were delineated on FLAIR images co-registered to DCE and DSC, respectively, in 25 patients with histopathological grade II (n = 18) and III (n = 7) gliomas. Statistical analysis of differences between...

  7. Feasibility of High Frequency Acoustic Imaging for Inspection of Containments: Phase II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudzinsky, J.; Bondaryk, J.; Conti, M.

    1999-01-01

    The nuclear power industry is concerned with corrosive thinning of portions of the metallic pressure boundary, particularly in areas that are not directly accessible for inspection. This study investigated the feasibility of detecting these thickness degradations using ultrasonic imaging. A commercial ultrasonic system was used to carry out several full-scale, controlled laboratory experiments. Measurements of 0.5 MHz shear wave levels propagated in 25-mm-thick steel plate embedded in concrete showed 1.4-1.6 dB of signal loss for each centimeter of two-way travel in the steel plate (compared to previous numerical predictions of 3-4 dB), and 1.3 dB of signal loss per centimeter of two-way travel in steel plates embedded in concrete prior to setting of the concrete (i.e., plastic). Negligible losses were measured in plates with a decoupling treatment applied between the steel and concrete to simulate the unbonded portions of the pressure boundary. Scattered signals from straight slots of different size and shape were investigated. The return from a 4-mm-deep rectangular slots exhibited levels 23 dB down relative to incidence and 4-6 dB higher than those obtained from both ''v'' shaped and rounded slots of similar depth. The system displayed an input/output dynamic range of 125 dB and measurement variability less than 1-2dB. Based on these results, a 4-mm-deep, rounded degradation embedded 30 cm in concrete has expected returns of -73dB relative to the input and should therefore be detectable. Results of this and a prior study indicate that the technique has merit and should be developed more fully and demonstrated in the field

  8. A customizable system for real-time image processing using the Blackfin DSProcessor and the MicroC/OS-II real-time kernel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, Stephen; Connell, Joseph

    2005-06-01

    This paper presents a development platform for real-time image processing based on the ADSP-BF533 Blackfin processor and the MicroC/OS-II real-time operating system (RTOS). MicroC/OS-II is a completely portable, ROMable, pre-emptive, real-time kernel. The Blackfin Digital Signal Processors (DSPs), incorporating the Analog Devices/Intel Micro Signal Architecture (MSA), are a broad family of 16-bit fixed-point products with a dual Multiply Accumulate (MAC) core. In addition, they have a rich instruction set with variable instruction length and both DSP and MCU functionality thus making them ideal for media based applications. Using the MicroC/OS-II for task scheduling and management, the proposed system can capture and process raw RGB data from any standard 8-bit greyscale image sensor in soft real-time and then display the processed result using a simple PC graphical user interface (GUI). Additionally, the GUI allows configuration of the image capture rate and the system and core DSP clock rates thereby allowing connectivity to a selection of image sensors and memory devices. The GUI also allows selection from a set of image processing algorithms based in the embedded operating system.

  9. Two-View Gravity Stress Imaging Protocol for Nondisplaced Type II Supination External Rotation Ankle Fractures: Introducing the Gravity Stress Cross-Table Lateral View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boffeli, Troy J; Collier, Rachel C; Gervais, Samuel J

    Assessing ankle stability in nondisplaced Lauge-Hansen supination external rotation type II injuries requires stress imaging. Gravity stress mortise imaging is routinely used as an alternative to manual stress imaging to assess deltoid integrity with the goal of differentiating type II from type IV injuries in cases without a posterior or medial fracture. A type II injury with a nondisplaced fibula fracture is typically treated with cast immobilization, and a type IV injury is considered unstable and often requires operative repair. The present case series (two patients) highlights a standardized 2-view gravity stress imaging protocol and introduces the gravity stress cross-table lateral view. The gravity stress cross-table lateral view provides a more thorough evaluation of the posterior malleolus owing to the slight external rotation and posteriorly directed stress. External rotation also creates less bony overlap between the tibia and fibula, allowing for better visualization of the fibula fracture. Gravity stress imaging confirmed medial-sided injury in both cases, confirming the presence of supination external rotation type IV or bimalleolar equivalent fractures. Open reduction and internal fixation was performed, and both patients achieved radiographic union. No further treatment was required at 21 and 33 months postoperatively. Copyright © 2017 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Poster - 01: LabPET II Pixelated APD-Based PET Scanner for High-Resolution Preclinical Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lecomte, Roger; Arpin, Louis; Beaudoin, Jean-François; Bergeron, Mélanie; Bouchard, Jonathan; Bouziri, Haithem; Cadorette, Jules; Gaudin, Émilie; Jürgensen, Nadia; Koua, Konin Calliste; Trépanier, Pierre-Yves Lauzier; Leroux, Jean-Daniel; Loignon-Houle, Francis; Njejimana, Larissa; Paillé, Maxime; Paulin, Caroline; Pepin, Catherine; Pratte, Jean-François; Samson, Arnaud; Thibaudeau, Christian [Université de Sherbrooke, Université de Sherbrooke, CIMS/CRCHUS, Université de Sherbrooke, Université de Sherbrooke, Université de Sherbrooke, CIMS/CRCHUS, Université de Sherbrooke, Université de Sherbrooke, 3IT, Université de Sherbrooke, Novalgo Inc., Université de Sherbrooke, Université de Sherbrooke, CIMS/CRCHUS, 3IT, Université de Sherbrooke, Université de Sherbrooke, Université de Sherbrooke, Université de Sherbrooke, 3IT, Université de Sherbrooke (Canada); and others

    2016-08-15

    Purpose: LabPET II is a new generation APD-based PET scanner designed to achieve sub-mm spatial resolution using truly pixelated detectors and highly integrated parallel front-end processing electronics. Methods: The basic element uses a 4×8 array of 1.12×1.12 mm{sup 2} Lu{sub 1.9}Y{sub 0.1}SiO{sub 5}:Ce (LYSO) scintillator pixels with one-to-one coupling to a 4×8 pixelated monolithic APD array mounted on a ceramic carrier. Four detector arrays are mounted on a daughter board carrying two flip-chip, 64-channel, mixed-signal, application-specific integrated circuits (ASIC) on the backside interfacing to two detector arrays each. Fully parallel signal processing was implemented in silico by encoding time and energy information using a dual-threshold Time-over-Threshold (ToT) scheme. The self-contained 128-channel detector module was designed as a generic component for ultra-high resolution PET imaging of small to medium-size animals. Results: Energy and timing performance were optimized by carefully setting ToT thresholds to minimize the noise/slope ratio. ToT spectra clearly show resolved 511 keV photopeak and Compton edge with ToT resolution well below 10%. After correction for nonlinear ToT response, energy resolution is typically 24±2% FWHM. Coincidence time resolution between opposing 128-channel modules is below 4 ns FWHM. Initial imaging results demonstrate that 0.8 mm hot spots of a Derenzo phantom can be resolved. Conclusion: A new generation PET scanner featuring truly pixelated detectors was developed and shown to achieve a spatial resolution approaching the physical limit of PET. Future plans are to integrate a small-bore dedicated mouse version of the scanner within a PET/CT platform.

  11. 1.3 GHz superconducting RF cavity program at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ginsburg, C.M.; Arkan, T.; Barbanotti, S.; Carter, H.; Champion, M.; Cooley, L.; Cooper, C.; Foley, M.; Ge, M.; Grimm, C.; Harms, E.; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    At Fermilab, 9-cell 1.3 GHz superconducting RF (SRF) cavities are prepared, qualified, and assembled into cryomodules (CMs) for Project X, an International Linear Collider (ILC), or other future projects. The 1.3 GHz SRF cavity program includes targeted R&D on 1-cell 1.3 GHz cavities for cavity performance improvement. Production cavity qualification includes cavity inspection, surface processing, clean assembly, and one or more cryogenic low-power CW qualification tests which typically include performance diagnostics. Qualified cavities are welded into helium vessels and are cryogenically tested with pulsed high-power. Well performing cavities are assembled into cryomodules for pulsed high-power testing in a cryomodule test facility, and possible installation into a beamline. The overall goals of the 1.3 GHz SRF cavity program, supporting facilities, and accomplishments are described.

  12. Feasibility of automotive radar at frequencies beyond 100 GHz

    OpenAIRE

    Köhler, Mike; Hasch, Jürgen; Blöcher, Hans Ludwig; Schmidt, Lorenz-Peter

    2014-01-01

    Radar sensors are used widely in modern driver assistance systems. Available sensors nowadays often operate in the 77 GHz band and can accurately provide distance, velocity, and angle information about remote objects. Increasing the operation frequency allows improving the angular resolution and accuracy. In this paper, the technical feasibility to move the operation frequency beyond 100 GHz is discussed, by investigating dielectric properties of radome materials, the attenuation of rain and ...

  13. Multiparty quantum secret sharing based on GHZ states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Tzonelih; Hwang, Cheng-Chieh [Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, 701 Taiwan (China); Li, Chuan-Ming, E-mail: hwangtl@ismail.csie.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Information Management, Shu-Zen College of Medicine and Management, Kaohsiung, 821 Taiwan (China)

    2011-04-15

    Gao (2009 Commun. Theor. Phys. 52 421-4) has proposed an efficient multiparty quantum secret sharing (MQSS) with two-photon three-dimensional Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) pairs. This work shows that a similar idea can also be used to construct an MQSS using the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) states. Compared to other MQSSs using GHZ-related states, the newly proposed protocol is more efficient in the aspect of qubit utilization.

  14. Structural brain alterations in bipolar disorder II: a combined voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosi, Elisa; Rossi-Espagnet, Maria Camilla; Kotzalidis, Georgios D; Comparelli, Anna; Del Casale, Antonio; Carducci, Filippo; Romano, Andrea; Manfredi, Giovanni; Tatarelli, Roberto; Bozzao, Alessandro; Girardi, Paolo

    2013-09-05

    Brain structural changes have been described in bipolar disorder (BP), but usually studies focused on both I and II subtypes indiscriminately and investigated changes in either brain volume or white matter (WM) integrity. We used combined voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) analysis to track changes in the grey matter (GM) and WM in the brains of patients affected by BPII, as compared to healthy controls. Using VBM and DTI, we scanned 20 DSM-IV-TR BPII patients in their euthymic phase and 21 healthy, age- and gender-matched volunteers with no psychiatric history. VBM showed decreases in GM of BPII patients, compared to controls, which were diffuse in nature and most prominent in the right middle frontal gyrus and in the right superior temporal gurus. DTI showed significant and widespread FA reduction in BPII patients in all major WM tracts, including cortico-cortical association tracts. The small sample size limits the generalisability of our findings. Reduced GM volumes and WM integrity changes in BPII patients are not prominent like those previously reported in bipolar disorder type-I and involve cortical structures and their related association tracts. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The 100 Strongest Radio Point Sources in the Field of the Large Magellanic Cloud at 1.4 GHz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payne, J. L.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available We present the 100 strongest 1.4~GHz point sources from a new mosaicimage in the direction of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC. The observationsmaking up the mosaic were made using Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCAover a ten year period and were combined with Parkes single dish data at 1.4 GHz to complete the image for short spacing. An initial list of co-identifications within 10arcsec at 0.843, 4.8 and 8.6 GHz consisted of 2682 sources. Elimination of extended objects and artifact noise allowed the creation of a refined list containing 1988 point sources. Most of these are presumed to be background objects seen through the LMC; a small portion may represent compact HII regions, young SNRs and radio planetary nebulae. For the 1988 point sources we find a preliminary average spectral index ($alpha$ of -0.53 and present a 1.4 GHz image showing source locationin the direction of the LMC.

  16. Design of 2.5 GHz broad bandwidth microwave bandpass filter at operating frequency of 10 GHz using HFSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasim, S. E.; Jusoh, M. A.; Mahmud, S. N. S.; Zamani, A. H.

    2018-04-01

    Development of low losses, small size and broad bandwidth microwave bandpass filter operating at higher frequencies is an active area of research. This paper presents a new route used to design and simulate microwave bandpass filter using finite element modelling and realized broad bandwidth, low losses, small dimension microwave bandpass filter operating at 10 GHz frequency using return loss method. The filter circuit has been carried out using Computer Aid Design (CAD), Ansoft HFSS software and designed with four parallel couple line model and small dimension (10 × 10 mm2) using LaAlO3 substrate. The response of the microwave filter circuit showed high return loss -50 dB at operating frequency at 10.4 GHz and broad bandwidth of 2.5 GHz from 9.5 to 12 GHz. The results indicate the filter design and simulation using HFSS is reliable and have the opportunity to transfer from lab potential experiments to the industry.

  17. Upgrade of the Automatic Analysis System in the TJ-II Thomson Scattering Diagnostic: New Image Recognition Classifier and Fault Condition Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makili, L.; Dormido-Canto, S. [UNED, Madrid (Spain); Vega, J.; Pastor, I.; Pereira, A.; Portas, A.; Perez-Risco, D.; Rodriguez-Fernandez, M. [Association EuratomCIEMAT para Fusion, Madrid (Spain); Busch, P. [FOM Instituut voor PlasmaFysica Rijnhuizen, Nieuwegein (Netherlands)

    2009-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: An automatic image classification system has been in operation for years in the TJ-II Thomson diagnostic. It recognizes five different types of images: CCD camera background, measurement of stray light without plasma or in a collapsed discharge, image during ECH phase, image during NBI phase and image after reaching the cut o density during ECH heating. Each kind of image implies the execution of different application software. Therefore, the classification system was developed to launch the corresponding software in an automatic way. The method to recognize the several classes was based on a learning system, in particular Support Vector Machines (SVM). Since the first implementation of the classifier, a relevant improvement has been accomplished in the diagnostic: a new notch filter is in operation, having a larger stray-light rejection at the ruby wavelength than the previous filter. On the other hand, its location in the optical system has been modified. As a consequence, the stray light pattern in the CCD image is located in a different position. In addition to these transformations, the power of neutral beams injected in the TJ-II plasma has been increased about a factor of 2. Due to the fact that the recognition system is based on a learning system and major modifications have been carried out in both the diagnostic (optics) and TJ-II plasmas (injected power), the classifier model is no longer valid. The creation of a new model (also based on SVM) under the present conditions has been necessary. Finally, specific error conditions in the data acquisition process can automatically be detected now. The recovering process can be automated, thereby avoiding the loss of data in ensuing discharges. (authors)

  18. A 311-GHz Fundamental Oscillator Using InP HBT Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaier, Todd; Fung, King Man; Samoska, Lorene; Radisic, Vesna; Sawdai, Donald; Scott, Dennis; Deal, W.R.

    2010-01-01

    amount of feedback than the common-emitter design, therefore preserving device gain, and was chosen for the oscillator design. The submillimeter-wave region offers several advantages for sensors and communication systems, such as high resolution and all-weather imaging due to the short-wavelength, and improved communication speeds by access to greater frequency bandwidth. This oscillator circuit is a prototype of the first HBT oscillator operating above 300 GHz. Additional development is necessary to increase the output power of the circuit for radar and imaging applications.

  19. 45-GHz and 60-GHz 90 nm CMOS power amplifiers with a fully symmetrical 8-way transformer power combiner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhengdong JIANG; Kaizhe GUO; Peng HUANG; Yiming FAN; Chenxi ZHAO; Yongling BAN; Jun LIU; Kai KANG

    2017-01-01

    In this paper,45 GHz and 60 GHz power amplifiers (PAs) with high output power have been successfully designed by using 90 nm CMOS process.The 45 GHz (60 GHz) PA consists of two (four) differential stages.The sizes of transistors have been designed in an appropriate way so as to trade-off gain,efficiency and stability.Due to limited supply voltage and low breakdown voltage of CMOS MOSFET compared with the traditional Ⅲ-Ⅴ technologies,the technique of power combining has been applied to achieve a high output power.In particular,a novel 8-way distributed active transformer power combiner has been proposed for realizing such mm-wave PA.The proposed transformer combiner with a fully symmetrical layout can improve its input impedance balance at mm-wave frequency regime significantly.Taking its advantages of this novel transformer based power combiner,our realized 45 GHz (60 GHz) mm-wave PA has achieved the gain of 20.3 dB (16.8 dB),the maximum PAE of 14.5% (13.4%) and the saturated output power of 21 dBm (21 dBm) with the 1.2 V supply voltage.

  20. 77 FR 48097 - Operation of Radar Systems in the 76-77 GHz Band

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-13

    ... modify the emission limits for vehicular radar systems operating within the 76-77 GHz band. Specifically.... 15.253 of the rules for vehicular radar systems operating in the 76-77 GHz band. Vehicular radars can... sensors operating in the 76-77 GHz band, the spectrum shall be investigated up to 231 GHz. (f) Fundamental...

  1. 47 CFR 25.136 - Licensing provisions for user transceivers in the 1.6/2.4 GHz, 1.5/1.6 GHz, and 2 GHz Mobile...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Incorporation of ancillary terrestrial component base station into an L-band mobile-satellite service system... ancillary terrestrial component (ATC) base stations as defined in § 25.201 at its own risk and subject to... Applications and Licenses Earth Stations § 25.136 Licensing provisions for user transceivers in the 1.6/2.4 GHz...

  2. 60-GHz Millimeter-Wave Radio: Principle, Technology, and New Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Guo

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The worldwide opening of a massive amount of unlicensed spectra around 60 GHz has triggered great interest in developing affordable 60-GHz radios. This interest has been catalyzed by recent advance of 60-GHz front-end technologies. This paper briefly reports recent work in the 60-GHz radio. Aspects addressed in this paper include global regulatory and standardization, justification of using the 60-GHz bands, 60-GHz consumer electronics applications, radio system concept, 60-GHz propagation and antennas, and key issues in system design. Some new simulation results are also given. Potentials and problems are explained in detail.

  3. In vivo imaging of oxidative stress in the kidney of diabetic mice and its normalization by angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonta, Toshiyo; Inoguchi, Toyoshi; Matsumoto, Shingo; Yasukawa, Keiji; Inuo, Mieko; Tsubouchi, Hirotaka; Sonoda, Noriyuki; Kobayashi, Kunihisa; Utsumi, Hideo; Nawata, Hajime

    2005-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate oxidative stress in the kidney of diabetic mice by electron spin resonance (ESR) imaging technique. Oxidative stress in the kidney was evaluated as organ-specific reducing activity with the signal decay rates of carbamoyl-PROXYL probe using ESR imaging. The signal decay rates were significantly faster in corresponding image pixels of the kidneys of streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice than in those of controls. This technique further demonstrated that administration of angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker (ARB), olmesartan (5 mg/kg), completely restored the signal decay rates in the diabetic kidneys to control values. In conclusion, this study provided for the first time the in vivo evidence for increased oxidative stress in the kidneys of diabetic mice and its normalization by ARB as evaluated by ESR imaging. This technique would be useful as a means of further elucidating the role of oxidative stress in diabetic nephropathy

  4. H I IMAGING OBSERVATIONS OF SUPERTHIN GALAXIES. II. IC 2233 AND THE BLUE COMPACT DWARF NGC 2537

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, Lynn D.; Uson, Juan M.

    2008-01-01

    We have used the Very Large Array to image the H I 21 cm line emission in the edge-on Sd galaxy IC 2233 and the blue compact dwarf NGC 2537. We also present new optical B, R, and Hα imaging of IC 2233 obtained with the WIYN telescope. Despite evidence of localized massive star formation in the form of prominent H II regions and shells, supergiant stars, and a blue integrated color, IC 2233 is a low surface brightness system with a very low global star formation rate (∼ sun yr -1 ), and we detect no significant 21 cm radio continuum emission from the galaxy. The H I and ionized gas disks of IC 2233 are clumpy and vertically distended, with scale heights comparable to that of the young stellar disk. Both the stellar and H I disks of IC 2233 appear flared, and we also find a vertically extended, rotationally anomalous component of H I extending to ∼ 2.4d 10 kpc from the midplane. The H I disk exhibits a mild lopsidedness as well as a global corrugation pattern with a period of ∼7d 10 kpc and an amplitude of ∼150d 10 pc. To our knowledge, this is the first time corrugations of the gas disk have been reported in an external galaxy; these undulations may be linked to bending instabilities or to underlying spiral structure and suggest that the disk is largely self-gravitating. Lying at a projected distance of 16'.7 from IC 2233, NGC 2537 has an H I disk with a bright, tilted inner ring and a flocculent, dynamically cold outer region that extends to ∼3.5 times the extent of the stellar light (D 25 ). Although NGC 2537 is rotationally-dominated, we measure H I velocity dispersions as high as σ V.HI ∼25 km s -1 near its center, indicative of significant turbulent motions. The inner rotation curve rises steeply, implying a strong central mass concentration. Our data indicate that IC 2233 and NGC 2537 do not constitute a bound pair and most likely lie at different distances. We also find no compelling evidence of a recent minor merger in either IC 2233 or NGC

  5. Integrated Geophysical Studies to Image the Remains of Amenemeht II Pyramid's Complex in Dahshour Necropolis, Giza, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Abbas Mohamed; Atya, Magdy; El-Emam, Ahmed; Ghazala, Hosny, ,, Prof.; Shaaban, Fathy, ,, Dr; Odah, Hatem, ,, Prof; Ibrahim, El-Khedr, ,, Prof; Lethy, Ahmed, ,, Dr

    2009-04-01

    Dahshour archaeological site is located adjacent to Giza necropolis at about 25 km south of Cairo. The site itself is an imperative necropolis that attracts the attention of the archaeologists. This location is a spectator of several historical episodes that start with the pyramidal complexes from the early dynasties (the mud brick tombs, the mastabas, and the Bent Pyramid) passing through the phase of the Step Pyramid of Zoser at Saqqara to the first complete pyramid in the history (the Red pyramid of Senefro "Khofo's father"). In 2002, the local archaeological supervisors suggested an area around the debris of the White pyramid (of Amenemeht II) for reconnaissance magnetic survey. The survey had been completed using the gradiometer FM36. More than 98 survey grids (20 x 20 m) of a surface area of 39200 m2 have been measured. The results reported the recognition of some parts of the mortuary temple, the causeway, and some other anomalies that could not be attributed to specific archaeological aspect. Therefore, an integrated geophysical survey was proposed, in the present work, to get more details help to identify these objects. The ground penetrating radar (GPR, SIR2000), the electrical resistance meter (Geoscan RM15), and the electromagnetic profiler (GEM300) have been utilized to acquire the data. They have been applied to selected zones to investigate specific objects and oriented to solve the problems questioned by the local archaeological inspectors. The study conveyed an superior image of the whole measured site and helped to identify most of the detected artifacts. Furthermore, the margins of the causeway and its infrastructure have been perfectly delineated. However, the possible place of the eastern entrance and the Valley temple have been tentatively located. Keywords: Archaeo-geophysics, Dahshour, White Pyramid

  6. Arbitrary waveform modulated pulse EPR at 200 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminker, Ilia; Barnes, Ryan; Han, Songi

    2017-06-01

    We report here on the implementation of arbitrary waveform generation (AWG) capabilities at ∼200 GHz into an Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) and Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP) instrument platform operating at 7 T. This is achieved with the integration of a 1 GHz, 2 channel, digital to analog converter (DAC) board that enables the generation of coherent arbitrary waveforms at Ku-band frequencies with 1 ns resolution into an existing architecture of a solid state amplifier multiplier chain (AMC). This allows for the generation of arbitrary phase- and amplitude-modulated waveforms at 200 GHz with >150 mW power. We find that the non-linearity of the AMC poses significant difficulties in generating amplitude-modulated pulses at 200 GHz. We demonstrate that in the power-limited regime of ω1 10 MHz) spin manipulation in incoherent (inversion), as well as coherent (echo formation) experiments. Highlights include the improvement by one order of magnitude in inversion bandwidth compared to that of conventional rectangular pulses, as well as a factor of two in improvement in the refocused echo intensity at 200 GHz.

  7. The relationship between Class I and Class II methanol masers at high angular resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, T. P.; Ellingsen, S. P.; Voronkov, M. A.; Cimò, G.

    2018-06-01

    We have used the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) to make the first high-resolution observations of a large sample of class I methanol masers in the 95-GHz (80-71A+) transition. The target sources consist of a statistically complete sample of 6.7-GHz class II methanol masers with an associated 95-GHz class I methanol maser, enabling a detailed study of the relationship between the two methanol maser classes at arcsecond angular resolution. These sources have been previously observed at high resolution in the 36- and 44-GHz transitions, allowing comparison between all three class I maser transitions. In total, 172 95-GHz maser components were detected across the 32 target sources. We find that at high resolution, when considering matched maser components, a 3:1 flux density ratio is observed between the 95- and 44-GHz components, consistent with a number of previous lower angular resolution studies. The 95-GHz maser components appear to be preferentially located closer to the driving sources and this may indicate that this transition is more strongly inverted nearby to background continuum sources. We do not observe an elevated association rate between 95-GHz maser emission and more evolved sources, as indicated by the presence of 12.2-GHz class II masers. We find that in the majority of cases where both class I and class II methanol emission is observed, some component of the class I emission is associated with a likely outflow candidate.

  8. Colorimetric detection of Hg(II) by measurement the color alterations from the "before" and "after" RGB images of etched triangular silver nanoplates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Zhang, Laiping; Zhao, Yan; Chen, Zhengbo

    2018-03-22

    It is shown that triangular silver nanoplates (TAgNPs) are viable colorimetric probes for the fast, sensitive and selective detection of Hg(II). Detection is accomplished by reducing Hg(II) ions to elemental Hg so that an Ag/Hg amalgam is formed on the surface of the TAgNPs. This leads to the inhibition of the etching TAgNPs by chloride ions. Correspondingly, a distinct color transition can be observed that goes from yellow to brown, purple, and blue. The color alterations extracted from the red, green, and blue part of digital (RGB) images can be applied to the determination of Hg(II). The relationship between the Euclidean distances (EDs), i.e. the square roots of the sums of the squares of the ΔRGB values, vary in the 5 nM to 100 nM Hg(II) concentration range, and the limit of detection is as low as 0.35 nM. The color changes also allow for a visual estimation of the concentrations of Hg(II). The method is simple in that it only requires a digital camera for data acquisition and a Photoshop software for extracting RGB variations and data processing. Graphical abstract Hg 2+ detection was achieved by anti-etching of TAgNPs caused by the formation of silver amalgam, along with vivid multicolor variations from yellow to brown, purple, and eventually to be blue.

  9. Experimental measurements on a 100 GHz frequency tunable quasioptical gyrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberti, S.; Tran, M.Q.; Hogge, J.P.; Tran, T.M.; Bondeson, A.; Muggli, P.; Perrenoud, A.; Joedicke, B.; Mathews, H.G.

    1990-01-01

    Experiments on a 100 GHz quasioptical (QO) gyrotron operating at the fundamental (ω=Ω ce ) are described. Powers larger than 90 kW at an efficiency of about 12% were achieved. Depending on the electron beam parameters, the frequency spectrum of the output can be either single moded or multimoded. One of the main advantages of the QO gyrotron over the conventional gyrotron is its continuous frequency tunability. Various techniques to tune the output frequency have been tested, such as changing the mirror separation, the beam voltage, or the main magnetic field. Within the limitations of the present setup, 5% tunability was achieved. The QO gyrotron designed for operation at the fundamental frequency exhibits simultaneous emission at 100 GHz (fundamental) and 200 GHz (second harmonic). For a beam current of 4 A, 20% of the total rf power is emitted at the second harmonic

  10. Controlled and secure direct communication using GHZ state and teleportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, T.

    2004-01-01

    A theoretical scheme for controlled and secure direct communication is proposed. The communication is based on GHZ state and controlled quantum teleportation. After insuring the security of the quantum channel (a set of qubits in the GHZ state), alice encodes the secret message directly on a sequence of particle states in the GHZ state and transmits them to Bob, supervised by Charlie using controlled quantum teleportation. Bob can read out the encoded messages directly by the measurement on his qubits. In this scheme, the controlled quantum teleportation transmits alice's message without revealing any information to a potential eavesdropper. Because there is not a transmission of the qubit carrying the secret messages between Alice and Bob in the public channel, it is completely secure for controlled and direct secret communication if a perfect quantum channel is used. The feature of this scheme is that the communication between two sides depends on the agreement of a third side. (orig.)

  11. 125-GHz Microwave Signal Generation Employing an Integrated Pulse Shaper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liao, Shasha; Ding, Yunhong; Dong, Jianji

    2017-01-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate an on-chip pulse shaper for 125-GHz microwave waveform generation. The pulse shaper is implemented based on a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) platform that has a structure with eight-tap finite impulse response (FIR) and there is an amplitude modulator on each...... of the generated microwave waveforms is larger than 100 GHz, and it has wide bandwidth when changing the time delay of the adjacent taps and compactness, capability for integration with electronics and small power consumption are also its merits.......We propose and experimentally demonstrate an on-chip pulse shaper for 125-GHz microwave waveform generation. The pulse shaper is implemented based on a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) platform that has a structure with eight-tap finite impulse response (FIR) and there is an amplitude modulator on each...

  12. A CMOS frequency generation module for 60-GHz applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Chunyuan; Zhang Lei; Wang Hongrui; Qian He

    2012-01-01

    A frequency generation module for 60-GHz transceivers and phased array systems is presented in this paper. It is composed of a divide-by-2 current mode logic divider (CML) and a doubler in push-push configuration. Benefiting from the CML structure and push-push configuration, the proposed frequency generation module has a wide operating frequency range to cover process, voltage, and temperature variation. It is implemented in a 90-nm CMOS process, and occupies a chip area of 0.64 × 0.65 mm 2 including pads. The measurement results show that the designed frequency generation module functions properly with input frequency over 15 GHz to 25 GHz. The whole chip dissipates 12.1 mW from a 1.2-V supply excluding the output buffers. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  13. How to COAAD Images. II. A Coaddition Image that is Optimal for Any Purpose in the Background-dominated Noise Limit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zackay, Barak; Ofek, Eran O. [Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, Weizmann Institute of Science, 76100 Rehovot (Israel)

    2017-02-20

    Image coaddition is one of the most basic operations that astronomers perform. In Paper I, we presented the optimal ways to coadd images in order to detect faint sources and to perform flux measurements under the assumption that the noise is approximately Gaussian. Here, we build on these results and derive from first principles a coaddition technique that is optimal for any hypothesis testing and measurement (e.g., source detection, flux or shape measurements, and star/galaxy separation), in the background-noise-dominated case. This method has several important properties. The pixels of the resulting coadded image are uncorrelated. This image preserves all the information (from the original individual images) on all spatial frequencies. Any hypothesis testing or measurement that can be done on all the individual images simultaneously, can be done on the coadded image without any loss of information. The PSF of this image is typically as narrow, or narrower than the PSF of the best image in the ensemble. Moreover, this image is practically indistinguishable from a regular single image, meaning that any code that measures any property on a regular astronomical image can be applied to it unchanged. In particular, the optimal source detection statistic derived in Paper I is reproduced by matched filtering this image with its own PSF. This coaddition process, which we call proper coaddition, can be understood as the maximum signal-to-noise ratio measurement of the Fourier transform of the image, weighted in such a way that the noise in the entire Fourier domain is of equal variance. This method has important implications for multi-epoch seeing-limited deep surveys, weak lensing galaxy shape measurements, and diffraction-limited imaging via speckle observations. The last topic will be covered in depth in future papers. We provide an implementation of this algorithm in MATLAB.

  14. SHARPENDING OF THE VNIR AND SWIR BANDS OF THE WIDE BAND SPECTRAL IMAGER ONBOARD TIANGONG-II IMAGERY USING THE SELECTED BANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Liu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The Tiangong-II space lab was launched at the Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center of China on September 15, 2016. The Wide Band Spectral Imager (WBSI onboard the Tiangong-II has 14 visible and near-infrared (VNIR spectral bands covering the range from 403–990 nm and two shortwave infrared (SWIR bands covering the range from 1230–1250 nm and 1628–1652 nm respectively. In this paper the selected bands are proposed which aims at considering the closest spectral similarities between the VNIR with 100 m spatial resolution and SWIR bands with 200 m spatial resolution. The evaluation of Gram-Schmidt transform (GS sharpening techniques embedded in ENVI software is presented based on four types of the different low resolution pan band. The experimental results indicated that the VNIR band with higher CC value with the raw SWIR Band was selected, more texture information was injected the corresponding sharpened SWIR band image, and at that time another sharpened SWIR band image preserve the similar spectral and texture characteristics to the raw SWIR band image.

  15. Microwave sintering of zirconia toughened alumina at 28GHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samandi, M.; Ji, H.; Miyake, S.

    1998-01-01

    Microwave radiation from a 10 kW, CW gyrotron operating at 28 GHz was employed to sinter 10% zirconia toughened alumina (ZTA) ceramic samples. It has been established that the use of millimetre wave radiation circumvents the difficulties encountered during the sintering of ceramics, i e. formation of hot spot, by radiation at industrially permissible frequency of 2.45GHz. Further, careful density measurement and microstructural characterisation of mm- wave and conventionally sintered samples by XRD, SEM and TEM has unequivocally demonstrated the effectiveness of mm-wave radiation for obtaining high density ceramics at lower sintering temperatures. Copyright (1998) Australasian Ceramic Society

  16. 24 GHz cmWave Radio Propagation Through Vegetation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez, Ignacio; Abreu, Renato Barbosa; Portela Lopes de Almeida, Erika

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a measurement-based analysis of cm-wave radio propagation through vegetation at 24 GHz. A set of dedicated directional measurements were performed with horn antennas located close to street level inside a densely-vegetated area illuminated from above. The full azimuth was exam......This paper presents a measurement-based analysis of cm-wave radio propagation through vegetation at 24 GHz. A set of dedicated directional measurements were performed with horn antennas located close to street level inside a densely-vegetated area illuminated from above. The full azimuth...

  17. Characterization of a 300-GHz Transmission System for Digital Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudlička, Martin; Salhi, Mohammed; Kleine-Ostmann, Thomas; Schrader, Thorsten

    2017-08-01

    The paper presents the characterization of a 300-GHz transmission system for modern digital communications. The quality of the modulated signal at the output of the system (error vector magnitude, EVM) is measured using a vector signal analyzer. A method using a digital real-time oscilloscope and consecutive mathematical processing in a computer is shown for analysis of signals with bandwidths exceeding that of state-of-the-art vector signal analyzers. The uncertainty of EVM measured using the real-time oscilloscope is open to analysis. Behaviour of the 300-GHz transmission system is studied with respect to various modulation schemes and different signal symbol rates.

  18. Molecular astronomy using heterodyne detection at 691 GHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fetterman, H.R.; Buhl, D.

    1984-01-01

    Observations of the CO J 6 - 5 transition at 691 GHz in new interstellar and planetary sources have been made. The heterodyne receiver uses an optically pumped laser local oscillator and a quasi-optical Schottky diode mixer, with measured noise temperatures consistently under 4000 K (double sideband). Continued improvements in system performance and antenna coupling have made possible the mapping of 691 GHz emission from W3, and the detection of CO J 5 - 6 absorption in the atmosphere of Venus. A detailed description of the instrumentation and recent observational data are provided. 14 references

  19. Calibrated complex impedance of CHO cells and E. coli bacteria at GHz frequencies using scanning microwave microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuca, Silviu-Sorin; Gramse, Georg; Kasper, Manuel; Oh, Yoo Jin; Zhu, Rong; Hinterdorfer, Peter; Badino, Giorgio; Brinciotti, Enrico; Rankl, Christian; Kienberger, Ferry

    2016-01-01

    The application of scanning microwave microscopy (SMM) to extract calibrated electrical properties of cells and bacteria in air is presented. From the S _1_1 images, after calibration, complex impedance and admittance images of Chinese hamster ovary cells and E. coli bacteria deposited on a silicon substrate have been obtained. The broadband capabilities of SMM have been used to characterize the bio-samples between 2 GHz and 20 GHz. The resulting calibrated cell and bacteria admittance at 19 GHz were Y _c_e_l_l = 185 μS + j285 μS and Y _b_a_c_t_e_r_i_a = 3 μS + j20 μS, respectively. A combined circuitry-3D finite element method EMPro model has been developed and used to investigate the frequency response of the complex impedance and admittance of the SMM setup. Based on a proposed parallel resistance–capacitance model, the equivalent conductance and parallel capacitance of the cells and bacteria were obtained from the SMM images. The influence of humidity and frequency on the cell conductance was experimentally studied. To compare the cell conductance with bulk water properties, we measured the imaginary part of the bulk water loss with a dielectric probe kit in the same frequency range resulting in a high level of agreement. (paper)

  20. Wideband Circularly Polarized Printed Ring Slot Antenna for 5 GHz – 6 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrun Osman, Mohamed; Rahim, Mohamad Helmi A.; Jusoh, Muzammil; Sabapathy, Thennarasan; Rahim, Mohamad Kamal A.; Norlyana Azemi, Saidatul

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents the design of circularly polarized printed slot antenna operating at 5 – 6 GHz. The proposed antenna consists of L-shaped feedline on the top of structure and circular ring slot positioned at the ground plane underneath the substrate as a radiator. A radial and narrow slot in the ground plane provides coupling between the L-shaped feedline and circular ring slot. The circular polarization is realized by implementing the slits perturbation located diagonally to perturb the current flow on the slot structure. The antenna prototype is fabricated on FR4 substrate. The simulated and measured results are compared and analyzed to demonstrate the performance of the antenna. Good measured of simulated results are obtained at the targeted operating frequency. The simulated -10dB reflection coefficient bandwidths and axial ratio are 750 MHz and 165 MHz, respectively. The investigation on the affect of the important parameters towards the reflection coefficient and axial are also presented. The proposed antenna is highly potential to be used for wireless local area network (WLAN) and wireless power transfer (WPT).

  1. A DEEP NARROWBAND IMAGING SEARCH FOR C iv AND He ii EMISSION FROM Lyα BLOBS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battaia, Fabrizio Arrigoni; Yang, Yujin; Hennawi, Joseph F. [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Prochaska, J. Xavier [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, California 95064 (United States); Matsuda, Yuichi [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Yamada, Toru [Astronomical Institute, Tohoku University, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8578 (Japan); Hayashino, Tomoki, E-mail: arrigoni@mpia.de [Research Center for Neutrino Science, Graduate School of Science, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan)

    2015-05-01

    We conduct a deep narrowband imaging survey of 13 Lyα blobs (LABs) located in the SSA22 proto-cluster at z ∼ 3.1 in the C iv and He ii emission lines in an effort to constrain the physical process powering the Lyα emission in LABs. Our observations probe down to unprecedented surface brightness (SB) limits of (2.1–3.4) × 10{sup −18} erg s{sup −1} cm{sup −2} arcsec{sup −2} per 1 arcsec{sup 2} aperture (5σ) for the He ii λ1640 and C iv λ1549 lines, respectively. We do not detect extended He ii and C iv emission in any of the LABs, placing strong upper limits on the He ii/Lyα and C iv/Lyα line ratios, of 0.11 and 0.16, for the brightest two LABs in the field. We conduct detailed photoionization modeling of the expected line ratios and find that, although our data constitute the deepest ever observations of these lines, they are still not deep enough to rule out a scenario where the Lyα emission is powered by the ionizing radiation from an obscured active galactic nucleus. Our models can accommodate He ii/Lyα and C iv/Lyα ratios as low as ≃0.05 and ≃0.07, respectively, implying that one needs to reach SB as low as (1–1.5) × 10{sup −18} erg s{sup −1} cm{sup −2} arcsec{sup −2} (at 5σ) in order to rule out a photoionization scenario. These depths will be achievable with the new generation of image-slicing integral field units such as the Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) on VLT and the Keck Cosmic Web Imager (KCWI). We also model the expected He ii/Lyα and C iv/Lyα in a different scenario, where Lyα emission is powered by shocks generated in a large-scale superwind, but find that our observational constraints can only be met for shock velocities v{sub s} ≳ 250 km s{sup −1}, which appear to be in conflict with recent observations of quiescent kinematics in LABs.

  2. A DEEP NARROWBAND IMAGING SEARCH FOR C iv AND He ii EMISSION FROM Lyα BLOBS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battaia, Fabrizio Arrigoni; Yang, Yujin; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Prochaska, J. Xavier; Matsuda, Yuichi; Yamada, Toru; Hayashino, Tomoki

    2015-01-01

    We conduct a deep narrowband imaging survey of 13 Lyα blobs (LABs) located in the SSA22 proto-cluster at z ∼ 3.1 in the C iv and He ii emission lines in an effort to constrain the physical process powering the Lyα emission in LABs. Our observations probe down to unprecedented surface brightness (SB) limits of (2.1–3.4) × 10 −18 erg s −1 cm −2 arcsec −2 per 1 arcsec 2 aperture (5σ) for the He ii λ1640 and C iv λ1549 lines, respectively. We do not detect extended He ii and C iv emission in any of the LABs, placing strong upper limits on the He ii/Lyα and C iv/Lyα line ratios, of 0.11 and 0.16, for the brightest two LABs in the field. We conduct detailed photoionization modeling of the expected line ratios and find that, although our data constitute the deepest ever observations of these lines, they are still not deep enough to rule out a scenario where the Lyα emission is powered by the ionizing radiation from an obscured active galactic nucleus. Our models can accommodate He ii/Lyα and C iv/Lyα ratios as low as ≃0.05 and ≃0.07, respectively, implying that one needs to reach SB as low as (1–1.5) × 10 −18 erg s −1 cm −2 arcsec −2  (at 5σ) in order to rule out a photoionization scenario. These depths will be achievable with the new generation of image-slicing integral field units such as the Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) on VLT and the Keck Cosmic Web Imager (KCWI). We also model the expected He ii/Lyα and C iv/Lyα in a different scenario, where Lyα emission is powered by shocks generated in a large-scale superwind, but find that our observational constraints can only be met for shock velocities v s ≳ 250 km s −1 , which appear to be in conflict with recent observations of quiescent kinematics in LABs

  3. A Compact, Wide Area Surveillance 3D Imaging LIDAR Providing UAS Sense and Avoid Capabilities, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Phase II effort will complete the design of a flight prototype of an eye safe 3D LIDAR which, when deployed on Unmanned Ariel Systems (UAS), will detect aircraft...

  4. Variability of GPS Radio Sources at 5 GHz

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    GPS) radio sources at 5 GHz and find that about one-third of them show considerable Inter-Month Variability (IMV), and these IMV phenomena are likely to be caused by interstellar scintillation (ISS). Furthermore, we find that those showing IMV ...

  5. Laboratory Heterodyne Spectrometers Operating at 100 and 300 GHZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maßen, Jakob; Wehres, Nadine; Hermanns, Marius; Lewen, Frank; Heyne, Bettina; Endres, Christian; Graf, Urs; Honingh, Netty; Schlemmer, Stephan

    2017-06-01

    Two new laboratory heterodyne emission spectrometers are presented that are currently used for high-resolution rotational spectroscopy of complex organic molecules. The room temperature heterodyne receiver operating between 80-110 GHz, as well as the SIS heterodyne receiver operating between 270-370 GHz allow access to two very important frequency regimes, coinciding with Bands 3 and 7 of the ALMA (Atacama Large Millimeter Array) telescope. Taking advantage of recent progresses in the field of mm/submm technology, we build these two spectrometers using an XFFFTS (eXtended Fast Fourier Transform Spectrometer) for spectral acquisition. The instantaneous bandwidth is 2.5 GHz in a single sideband, spread over 32768 channels. Thus, the spectral resolution is about 76 kHz per channel and thus comparable to high resolution spectra from telescopes. Both receivers are operated in double sideband mode resulting in a total instantaneous bandwidth of 5 GHz. The system performances, in particular the noise temperatures and stabilities are presented. Proof-of-concept is demonstrated by showing spectra of methyl cyanide obtained with both spectrometers. While the transition frequencies for this molecule are very well known, intensities of those transitions can also be determined with high accuracy using our new instruments. This additional information shall be exploited in future measurements to improve spectral predictions for astronomical observations. Other future prospects concern the study of more complex organic species, such as ethyl cyanide. These aspects of the new instruments as well as limitations of the two distinct receivers will be discussed.

  6. Characterisation of propagation in 60 GHz radio channels (invited)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smulders, P.F.M.; Correia, L.M.

    1997-01-01

    Narrowband as well as wideband measurements have been performed in various indoor and outdoor environments in order to enable the development of reliable prediction models for 60 GHz radio channels. In addition, results of deterministic modelling on the basis of geometric ray-tracing have been

  7. 2.4GHz energy harvesting for wireless sensor network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, H.; Baltus, P.G.M.; Mahmoudi, R.; Roermund, van A.H.M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the analysis of the performance of charge pump, and the design strategy and efficiency optimization of 2.4GHz micro-power charge pump using 65nm CMOS technology. The model of the charge pump takes account of the threshold voltage variation, bulk modulation, and the major

  8. Sideband Separating Mixer for 600-720 GHz

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khudchenko, Andrey; Hesper, Ronald; Barychev, Andrey; Gerlofma, Gerrit; Mena, Patricio; Zijlstra, Tony; Klapwijk, Teun; Spaans, Marco; Kooi, Jacob W.; Zhang, C; Zhang, XC; Siegel, PH; He, L; Shi, SC

    2010-01-01

    The ALMA Band 9 receiver cartridge (600-720 GHz) based on Dual Sideband (DSB) superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) mixer is currently in full production. In the case of spectral line observations, the integration time to reach a certain signal-to-noise level can be reduced by about a factor

  9. Rain-induced bistatic scattering at 60 GHz

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zanden, van der H.T.; Watson, R.J.; Herben, M.H.A.J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study into the modeling and prediction of rain-induced bistatic scattering at 60 GHz. The bistatic radar equation together withMie theory is applied as the basis for calculating the scattering. Together with the attenuation induced by the medium before and after

  10. Logo Antenna for 5.8 GHz Wireless Communications (invited)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kasper Lüthje; Jakobsen, Kaj Bjarne

    2016-01-01

    A logo antenna for the 5.8 GHz ISM band is presented. The idea behind the logo antenna is to use the company or university logo as part of the antenna. When disguised as a logo, it may be more acceptable to place the antenna at optimal locations to obtain good coverage. In the present work...

  11. Logo Antenna for 5.8 GHz Wireless Communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kasper Lüthje; Jakobsen, Kaj Bjarne

    2016-01-01

    A logo antenna for the 5.8 GHz ISM band is presented. The idea behind the logo antenna is to use the company or university logo as part of the antenna. When disguised as a logo, it may be more acceptable to place the antenna at optimal locations to obtain good coverage. In the present work...

  12. A 60-GHz rectenna for monolithic wireless sensor tags

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, H.; Johannsen, U.; Matters - Kammerer, M.; Milosevic, D.; Smolders, A.B.; Roermund, van A.H.M.; Baltus, P.G.M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the design of a 60-GHz rectenna with an on-chip antenna and rectifier in 65nm CMOS technology. The rectenna is often the bottleneck in realizing a fully-integrated monolithic wireless sensor tag. In this paper, problems of the mm-wave rectifier are discussed, and the

  13. Wearable Shell Antenna for 2.4 GHz Hearing Instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruaro, Andrea; Thaysen, Jesper; Jakobsen, Kaj Bjarne

    2016-01-01

    A novel concept for an electrically-small on-body antenna targeted for 2.4 GHz ISM band custom in-the-ear (ITE) hearing instrument (HI) applications is introduced. The antenna is based upon a cavity-backed design in order to take advantage of the maximum volume available in the ear while providin...

  14. Design of the 1-Mw, 200-Ghz, Fom Fusion Fem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urbanus, W. H.; Best, R. W. B.; Bongers, W. A.; Vaningen, A. M.; Manintveld, P.; Sterk, A. B.; Verhoeven, A. G. A.; van der Wiel, M. J.; Caplan, M.; Bratman, V. L.; Denisov, G. G.; Varfolomeev, A. A.; Khlebnikov, A. S.

    1993-01-01

    The FOM Institute for Plasma Physics has obtained funding for the development of a 1 MW, long pulse, 140-250 GHz free-electron maser. The engineering design is presently being performed in an international collaboration. In this paper the main components of the free-electron maser, the electron beam

  15. A 62GHz inductor-peaked rectifier with 7% efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, H.; Matters - Kammerer, M.; Milosevic, D.; Roermund, van A.H.M.; Baltus, P.G.M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the first 62 GHz fully onchip RF-DC rectifier in 65nm CMOS technology. The rectifier is the bottleneck in realizing on-chip wireless power receivers. In this paper, efficiency problems of the mm-wave rectifier are discussed and the inductor-peaked rectifier structure is proposed

  16. 47 CFR 15.251 - Operation within the bands 2.9-3.26 GHz, 3.267-3.332 GHz, 3.339-3.3458 GHz, and 3.358-3.6 GHz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... exceed 3000 microvolts/meter/MHz at 3 meters in any direction. Further, an AVIS, when in its operating position, shall not produce a field strength greater than 400 microvolts/meter/MHz at 3 meters in any... maximum of 100 microvolts/meter/MHz at 3 meters, measured from 30 MHz to 20 GHz for the complete system...

  17. Elements of a realistic 17 GHz FEL/TBA design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopkins, D.B.; Halbach, K.; Hoyer, E.H.; Sessler, A.M.; Sternbach, E.J.

    1989-01-01

    Recently, renewed interest in an FEL version of a two-beam accelerator (TBA) has prompted a study of practical system and structure designs for achieving the specified physics goals. This paper presents elements of a realistic design for an FEL/TBA suitable for a 1 TeV, 17 GHz linear collider. 13 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs

  18. Multi-gigabit wireless data transfer at 60 GHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soltveit, H K; Schöning, A; Wiedner, D; Brenner, R

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we describe the status of the first prototype of the 60 GHz wireless Multi-gigabit data transfer topology currently under development at University of Heidelberg using IBM 130 nm SiGe HBT BiCMOS technology. The 60 GHz band is very suitable for high data rate and short distance applications. One application can be a wireless multi Gbps radial data transmission inside the ATLAS silicon strip detector, making a first level track trigger feasible. The wireless transceiver consists of a transmitter and a receiver. The transmitter includes an On-Off Keying (OOK) modulator, a Local Oscillator (LO), a Power Amplifier (PA) and a Band-pass Filter (BPF). The receiver part is composed of a Band-pass Filter (BPF), a Low Noise Amplifier (LNA), a double balanced down-convert Gilbert mixer, a Local Oscillator (LO), then a BPF to remove the mixer introduced noise, an Intermediate Amplifier (IF), an On-Off Keying demodulator and a limiting amplifier. The first prototype would be able to handle a data-rate of about 3.5 Gbps over a link distance of 1 m. The first simulations of the LNA show that a Noise figure (NF) of 5 dB, a power gain of 21 dB at 60 GHz with a 3 dB bandwidth of more than 20 GHz with a power consumption 11 mW are achieved. Simulations of the PA show an output referred compression point P1dB of 19.7 dB at 60 GHz.

  19. Real-time image processing II; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Apr. 16-18, 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juday, Richard D.

    The present conference discusses topics in the fields of feature extraction and implementation, filter and correlation algorithms, optical correlators, high-level algorithms, and digital image processing for ranging and remote driving. Attention is given to a nonlinear filter derived from topological image features, IR image segmentation through iterative thresholding, orthogonal subspaces for correlation masking, composite filter trees and image recognition via binary search, and features of matrix-coherent optical image processing. Also discussed are multitarget tracking via hybrid joint transform correlator, binary joint Fourier transform correlator considerations, global image processing operations on parallel architectures, real-time implementation of a differential range finder, and real-time binocular stereo range and motion detection.

  20. Real-time image processing II; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Apr. 16-18, 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juday, Richard D. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    The present conference discusses topics in the fields of feature extraction and implementation, filter and correlation algorithms, optical correlators, high-level algorithms, and digital image processing for ranging and remote driving. Attention is given to a nonlinear filter derived from topological image features, IR image segmentation through iterative thresholding, orthogonal subspaces for correlation masking, composite filter trees and image recognition via binary search, and features of matrix-coherent optical image processing. Also discussed are multitarget tracking via hybrid joint transform correlator, binary joint Fourier transform correlator considerations, global image processing operations on parallel architectures, real-time implementation of a differential range finder, and real-time binocular stereo range and motion detection.

  1. Evaluation of orthognathic surgery on articular disc position and temporomandibular joint symptoms in skeletal class II patients: A Magnetic Resonance Imaging study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firoozei, Gholamreza; Shahnaseri, Shirin; Momeni, Hasan

    2017-01-01

    Background The purpose of orthognathic surgery is to correct facial deformity and dental malocclusion and to obtain normal orofacial function. However, there are controversies of whether orthognathic surgery might have any negative influence on temporomandibular (TM) joint. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of orthognathic surgery on articular disc position and temporomandibular joint symptoms of skeletal CI II patients by means of magnetic resonance imaging. Material and Methods For this purpose, fifteen patients with skeletal CI II malocclusion, aged 19-32 years (mean 23 years), 10 women and 5 men, from the Isfahan Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery were studied. All received LeFort I and bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO) osteotomies and all patients received pre- and post-surgical orthodontic treatment. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed 1 day preoperatively and 3 month postoperatively. Descriptive statistics and Wilcoxon and Mc-Nemar tests were used for statistical analysis. Psurgery (mean=5.74±1.21). After surgery disc position range was 4.36 to 7.40 (mean=5.65±1.06). Statistical analysis proved that although TM disc tended to move anteriorly after BSSO surgery, this difference was not statistically significant (p valueorthognathic surgery does not alter the disc and condyle relationship. Therefore, it has minimal effects on intact and functional TM joint. Key words:Orthognathic surgery, skeletal class 2, magnetic resonance imaging, temporomandibular disc. PMID:28936287

  2. Evaluation of orthognathic surgery on articular disc position and temporomandibular joint symptoms in skeletal class II patients: A Magnetic Resonance Imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firoozei, Gholamreza; Shahnaseri, Shirin; Momeni, Hasan; Soltani, Parisa

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of orthognathic surgery is to correct facial deformity and dental malocclusion and to obtain normal orofacial function. However, there are controversies of whether orthognathic surgery might have any negative influence on temporomandibular (TM) joint. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of orthognathic surgery on articular disc position and temporomandibular joint symptoms of skeletal CI II patients by means of magnetic resonance imaging. For this purpose, fifteen patients with skeletal CI II malocclusion, aged 19-32 years (mean 23 years), 10 women and 5 men, from the Isfahan Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery were studied. All received LeFort I and bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO) osteotomies and all patients received pre- and post-surgical orthodontic treatment. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed 1 day preoperatively and 3 month postoperatively. Descriptive statistics and Wilcoxon and Mc-Nemar tests were used for statistical analysis. P surgery (mean=5.74±1.21). After surgery disc position range was 4.36 to 7.40 (mean=5.65±1.06). Statistical analysis proved that although TM disc tended to move anteriorly after BSSO surgery, this difference was not statistically significant ( p valuesurgery does not alter the disc and condyle relationship. Therefore, it has minimal effects on intact and functional TM joint. Key words: Orthognathic surgery, skeletal class 2, magnetic resonance imaging, temporomandibular disc.

  3. Estudio experimental de Imaging a 100 GHz y 300 GHz para la detección de diversos objetos

    OpenAIRE

    Delgado Patiño, Héctor Kevin

    2017-01-01

    Las radiaciones cuyas longitudes de onda se sitúan en el rango de los terahertzios (THz) o décimas de terahertzio (0.1-1 THz) han despertado interés en tiempos recientes entre los investigadores dedicados al campo de las comunicaciones. Al estar situadas entre la región infrarroja y la región de microondas del espectro electromagnético, dichas radiaciones pueden propagarse con facilidad a través de materiales no polarizados, tales como la ropa o las envolturas de paquetes. Esto las hace pa...

  4. Cold test of cylindrical open resonator for 42 GHz, 200 kW gyrotron

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    particular quality factor for TE mode at the frequency 42 GHz. The perturbation tech ... frequency 42 GHz. The good agreement ... see its performance before the final assembly of the device. This paper .... theoretical work was found. The results ...

  5. Development of a 144-channel Hybrid Avalanche Photo-Detector for Belle II ring-imaging Cherenkov counter with an aerogel radiator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishida, S., E-mail: shohei.nishida@kek.jp [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba (Japan); Adachi, I. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba (Japan); Hamada, N. [Toho University, Funabashi (Japan); Hara, K. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba (Japan); Iijima, T. [Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan); Iwata, S.; Kakuno, H. [Tokyo Metropolitan University, Hachioji (Japan); Kawai, H. [Chiba University, Chiba (Japan); Korpar, S.; Krizan, P. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Ogawa, S. [Toho University, Funabashi (Japan); Pestotnik, R.; Ŝantelj, L.; Seljak, A. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Sumiyoshi, T. [Tokyo Metropolitan University, Hachioji (Japan); Tabata, M. [Chiba University, Chiba (Japan); Tahirovic, E. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Yoshida, K. [Tokyo Metropolitan University, Hachioji (Japan); Yusa, Y. [Niigata University, Niigata (Japan)

    2015-07-01

    The Belle II detector, a follow up of the very successful Belle experiment, is under construction at the SuperKEKB electron–positron collider at KEK in Japan. For the PID system in the forward region of the spectrometer, a proximity-focusing ring-imaging Cherenkov counter with an aerogel radiator is being developed. For the position sensitive photon sensor, a 144-channel Hybrid Avalanche Photo-Detector has been developed with Hamamatsu Photonics K.K. In this report, we describe the specification of the Hybrid Avalanche Photo-Detector and the status of the mass production.

  6. Differentiation of grade II/III and grade IV glioma by combining ''T1 contrast-enhanced brain perfusion imaging'' and susceptibility-weighted quantitative imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saini, Jitender; Gupta, Pradeep Kumar; Gupta, Rakesh Kumar; Sahoo, Prativa; Singh, Anup; Patir, Rana; Ahlawat, Suneeta; Beniwal, Manish; Thennarasu, K.; Santosh, Vani

    2018-01-01

    MRI is a useful method for discriminating low- and high-grade glioma using perfusion MRI and susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI). The purpose of this study is to evaluate the usefulness of T1-perfusion MRI and SWI in discriminating among grade II, III, and IV gliomas. T1-perfusion MRI was used to measure relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) in 129 patients with glioma (70 grade IV, 33 grade III, and 26 grade II tumors). SWI was also used to measure the intratumoral susceptibility signal intensity (ITSS) scores for each tumor in these patients. rCBV and ITSS values were compared to seek differences between grade II vs. grade III, grade III vs. grade IV, and grade III+II vs. grade IV tumors. Significant differences in rCBV values of the three grades of the tumors were noted and pairwise comparisons showed significantly higher rCBV values in grade IV tumors as compared to grade III tumors, and similarly increased rCBV was seen in the grade III tumors as compared to grade II tumors (p < 0.001). Grade IV gliomas showed significantly higher ITSS scores on SWI as compared to grade III tumors (p < 0.001) whereas insignificant difference was seen on comparing ITSS scores of grade III with grade II tumors. Combining the rCBV and ITSS resulted in significant improvement in the discrimination of grade III from grade IV tumors. The combination of rCBV values derived from T1-perfusion MRI and SWI derived ITSS scores improves the diagnostic accuracy for discrimination of grade III from grade IV gliomas. (orig.)

  7. Differentiation of grade II/III and grade IV glioma by combining ''T1 contrast-enhanced brain perfusion imaging'' and susceptibility-weighted quantitative imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saini, Jitender [National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Neuroimaging and Interventional Radiology, Bangalore (India); Gupta, Pradeep Kumar; Gupta, Rakesh Kumar [Fortis Memorial Research Institute, Department of Radiology and Imaging, Gurugram (India); Sahoo, Prativa [Philips Health System, Philips India Limited, Bangalore (India); Beckman Research Institute, Mathematical Oncology, Duarte, CA (United States); Singh, Anup [Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Center for Biomedical Engineering, Delhi (India); Patir, Rana [Fortis Memorial Research Institute, Department of Neurosurgery, Gurugram (India); Ahlawat, Suneeta [Fortis Memorial Research Institute, SRL Diagnostics, Gurugram (India); Beniwal, Manish [National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Department of Neurosurgery, Bangalore (India); Thennarasu, K. [National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Department of Biostatistics, Bangalore (India); Santosh, Vani [National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Department of Neuropathology, Bangalore (India)

    2018-01-15

    MRI is a useful method for discriminating low- and high-grade glioma using perfusion MRI and susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI). The purpose of this study is to evaluate the usefulness of T1-perfusion MRI and SWI in discriminating among grade II, III, and IV gliomas. T1-perfusion MRI was used to measure relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) in 129 patients with glioma (70 grade IV, 33 grade III, and 26 grade II tumors). SWI was also used to measure the intratumoral susceptibility signal intensity (ITSS) scores for each tumor in these patients. rCBV and ITSS values were compared to seek differences between grade II vs. grade III, grade III vs. grade IV, and grade III+II vs. grade IV tumors. Significant differences in rCBV values of the three grades of the tumors were noted and pairwise comparisons showed significantly higher rCBV values in grade IV tumors as compared to grade III tumors, and similarly increased rCBV was seen in the grade III tumors as compared to grade II tumors (p < 0.001). Grade IV gliomas showed significantly higher ITSS scores on SWI as compared to grade III tumors (p < 0.001) whereas insignificant difference was seen on comparing ITSS scores of grade III with grade II tumors. Combining the rCBV and ITSS resulted in significant improvement in the discrimination of grade III from grade IV tumors. The combination of rCBV values derived from T1-perfusion MRI and SWI derived ITSS scores improves the diagnostic accuracy for discrimination of grade III from grade IV gliomas. (orig.)

  8. The Gravestone of Felipe II in «El amante agradecido», by Lope de Vega: a Historical Image.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Sanz

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available  Felix Lope de Vega, in his play El Amante agradecido (ca. 1602, writes a praise to Felipe II, after the death of the king in 1598. The praise, almost three hundred lines dedicated to the gravestone that the city of Seville built in honour of Felipe II, does not really belong with the main purpose of the play: an urban comedy with a lot of picaresque components. This article focuses on why the writer included that sort of eulogy and studies the different sources of the fragment. 

  9. Status of the high current permanent magnet 2.45 GHz ECR ion source at Peking University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, S.X.; Song, Z.Z.; Yu, J.X.; Ren, H.T.; Zhang, M.; Yuan, Z.X.; Lu, P.N.; Zhao, J.; Chen, J.E.; Guo, Z.Y.; Lu, Y.R.

    2012-01-01

    Several compact 2.45 GHz Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Sources (ECRIS) have been developed at Peking University for ion implantation, for the Separated Function Radio Frequency Quadrupole project (SFRFQ) and for the Peking University Neutron Imaging Facility project (PKUNIFTY). Studies on 2.45 GHz ECR ion sources are concentrated on methods of microwave coupling and microwave window design, magnetic field generation and configuration, as well as the extraction electrodes structure. Investigation also covers the influence of the size of plasma chamber on the discharge efficiency and species factor. Up to now, our sources have produced 25 mA of O + ions, 40 mA of He + ions, 10 mA of N + ions, 100 mA of H + ions and 83 mA of D + ions, respectively. The paper is followed by the slides of the presentation. (authors)

  10. ALMA [N ii] 205 μ m Imaging Spectroscopy of the Interacting Galaxy System BRI 1202-0725 at Redshift 4.7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Nanyao; Xu, C. Kevin; Zhu, Lei [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing 100012 (China); Zhao, Yinghe [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650011 (China); Díaz-Santos, Tanio [Nucleo de Astronomia de la Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Diego Portales, Av. Ejercito Libertador 441, Santiago (Chile); Charmandaris, Vassilis [Department of Physics, University of Crete, GR-71003 Heraklion (Greece); Gao, Yu [Purple Mountain Observatory, CAS, Nanjing 210008 (China); Van der Werf, Paul P. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Privon, George C. [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Inami, Hanae [Centre de Recherche Astrophysique de Lyon (CRAL), Observatoire de Lyon, CNRS, UMR5574, F-69230, Saint-Genis-Laval (France); Rigopoulou, Dimitra [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Sanders, David B., E-mail: nanyao.lu@gmail.com [University of Hawaii, Institute for Astronomy, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2017-06-20

    We present the results from Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array imaging in the [N ii] 205 μ m fine-structure line (hereafter [N ii]) and the underlying continuum of BRI 1202-0725, an interacting galaxy system at z = 4.7, consisting of a quasi-stellar object (QSO), a submillimeter galaxy (SMG), and two Ly α emitters, all within ∼25 kpc of the QSO. We detect the QSO and SMG in both [N ii] and continuum. At the ∼1″ (or 6.6 kpc) resolution, both the QSO and SMG are resolved in [N ii], with the de-convolved major axes of ∼9 and ∼14 kpc, respectively. In contrast, their continuum emissions are much more compact and unresolved even at an enhanced resolution of ∼0.″7. The ratio of the [N ii] flux to the existing CO(7−6) flux is used to constrain the dust temperature ( T {sub dust}) for a more accurate determination of the FIR luminosity L {sub FIR}. Our best estimated T {sub dust} equals 43 (±2) K for both galaxies (assuming an emissivity index β = 1.8). The resulting L {sub CO(7−6)}/ L {sub FIR} ratios are statistically consistent with that of local luminous infrared galaxies, confirming that L {sub CO(7−6)} traces the star formation (SF) rate (SFR) in these galaxies. We estimate that the ongoing SF of the QSO (SMG) has an SFR of 5.1 (6.9) × 10{sup 3} M {sub ⊙} yr{sup −1} (±30%) assuming Chabrier initial mass function, takes place within a diameter (at half maximum) of 1.3 (1.5) kpc, and will consume the existing 5 (5) × 10{sup 11} M {sub ⊙} of molecular gas in 10 (7) × 10{sup 7} years.

  11. Detecting aircrafts from satellite images using saliency and conical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Samik Banerjee

    automatically detect all kinds of interesting targets in satellite images. .... which is used for text and image categorization, has been also introduced for object ...... 3.4 GHz processor, 32 GB RAM and Windows 7 (64 bit). Operating System. 6.

  12. Experimental study of a 1 MW, 170 GHz gyrotron oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Takuji

    A detailed experimental study is presented of a 1 MW, 170 GHz gyrotron oscillator whose design is consistent with the ECH requirements of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) for bulk heating and current drive. This work is the first to demonstrate that megawatt power level at 170 GHz can be achieved in a gyrotron with high efficiency for plasma heating applications. Maximum output power of 1.5 MW is obtained at 170.1 GHz in 85 kV, 50A operation for an efficiency of 35%. Although the experiment at MIT is conducted with short pulses (3 μs), the gyrotron is designed to be suitable for development by industry for continuous wave operation. The peak ohmic loss on the cavity wall for 1 MW of output power is calculated to be 2.3 kW/cm2, which can be handled using present cooling technology. Mode competition problems in a highly over-moded cavity are studied to maximize the efficiency. Various aspects of electron gun design are examined to obtain high quality electron beams with very low velocity spread. A triode magnetron injection gun is designed using the EGUN simulation code. A total perpendicular velocity spread of less than 8% is realized by designing a low- sensitivity, non-adiabatic gun. The RF power is generated in a short tapered cavity with an iris step. The operating mode is the TE28,8,1 mode. A mode converter is designed to convert the RF output to a Gaussian beam. Power and efficiency are measured in the design TE28,8,1 mode at 170.1 GHz as well as the TE27,8,1 mode at 166.6 GHz and TE29,8,1 mode at 173.5 GHz. Efficiencies between 34%-36% are consistently obtained over a wide range of operating parameters. These efficiencies agree with the highest values predicted by the multimode simulations. The startup scenario is investigated and observed to agree with the linear theory. The measured beam velocity ratio is consistent with EGUN simulation. Interception of reflected beam by the mod-anode is measured as a function of velocity ratio

  13. CONTEMPORANEOUS VLBA 5 GHz OBSERVATIONS OF LARGE AREA TELESCOPE DETECTED BLAZARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linford, J. D.; Taylor, G. B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of New Mexico, MSC07 4220, Albuquerque, NM 87131-0001 (United States); Romani, R. W. [Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Helmboldt, J. F. [Naval Research Laboratory, Code 7213, 4555 Overlook Avenue SW, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Readhead, A. C. S.; Reeves, R.; Richards, J. L. [Astronomy Department, California Institute of Technology, Mail Code 247-17, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2012-01-10

    The radio properties of blazars detected by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope have been observed contemporaneously by the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA). In total, 232 sources were observed with the VLBA. Ninety sources that were previously observed as part of the VLBA Imaging and Polarimetry Survey (VIPS) have been included in the sample, as well as 142 sources not found in VIPS. This very large, 5 GHz flux-limited sample of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) provides insights into the mechanism that produces strong {gamma}-ray emission. In particular, we see that {gamma}-ray emission is related to strong, uniform magnetic fields in the cores of the host AGN. Included in this sample are non-blazar AGNs such as 3C84, M82, and NGC 6251. For the blazars, the total VLBA radio flux density at 5 GHz correlates strongly with {gamma}-ray flux. The LAT BL Lac objects tend to be similar to the non-LAT BL Lac objects, but the LAT flat-spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) are significantly different from the non-LAT FSRQs. Strong core polarization is significantly more common among the LAT sources, and core fractional polarization appears to increase during LAT detection.

  14. CONTEMPORANEOUS VLBA 5 GHz OBSERVATIONS OF LARGE AREA TELESCOPE DETECTED BLAZARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linford, J. D.; Taylor, G. B.; Romani, R. W.; Helmboldt, J. F.; Readhead, A. C. S.; Reeves, R.; Richards, J. L.

    2012-01-01

    The radio properties of blazars detected by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope have been observed contemporaneously by the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA). In total, 232 sources were observed with the VLBA. Ninety sources that were previously observed as part of the VLBA Imaging and Polarimetry Survey (VIPS) have been included in the sample, as well as 142 sources not found in VIPS. This very large, 5 GHz flux-limited sample of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) provides insights into the mechanism that produces strong γ-ray emission. In particular, we see that γ-ray emission is related to strong, uniform magnetic fields in the cores of the host AGN. Included in this sample are non-blazar AGNs such as 3C84, M82, and NGC 6251. For the blazars, the total VLBA radio flux density at 5 GHz correlates strongly with γ-ray flux. The LAT BL Lac objects tend to be similar to the non-LAT BL Lac objects, but the LAT flat-spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) are significantly different from the non-LAT FSRQs. Strong core polarization is significantly more common among the LAT sources, and core fractional polarization appears to increase during LAT detection.

  15. Contemporaneous VLBA 5 GHz Observations of Large Area Telescope Detected Blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linford, J. D.; Taylor, G. B.; Romani, R. W.; Helmboldt, J. F.; Readhead, A. C. S.; Reeves, R.; Richards, J. L.

    2012-01-01

    The radio properties of blazars detected by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope have been observed contemporaneously by the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA). In total, 232 sources were observed with the VLBA. Ninety sources that were previously observed as part of the VLBA Imaging and Polarimetry Survey (VIPS) have been included in the sample, as well as 142 sources not found in VIPS. This very large, 5 GHz flux-limited sample of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) provides insights into the mechanism that produces strong γ-ray emission. In particular, we see that γ-ray emission is related to strong, uniform magnetic fields in the cores of the host AGN. Included in this sample are non-blazar AGNs such as 3C84, M82, and NGC 6251. For the blazars, the total VLBA radio flux density at 5 GHz correlates strongly with γ-ray flux. The LAT BL Lac objects tend to be similar to the non-LAT BL Lac objects, but the LAT flat-spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) are significantly different from the non-LAT FSRQs. Strong core polarization is significantly more common among the LAT sources, and core fractional polarization appears to increase during LAT detection.

  16. MOBILE MAPPING BY FMCW SYNTHETIC APERTURE RADAR OPERATING AT 300 GHZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Palm

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available While optical cameras or laser systems are widely used for mobile mapping low attention was payed for radar systems. Due to new semiconductor technologies, compact and leight weight SAR systems based on the Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW principle in the millimeter wave domain can serve for mobile radar mapping on cars. For mapping of long stripes along roads in close range a special strategy for focusing of SAR images was developed. Hereby local adapted planes for processing are used considering the IMU data of the sensor. An experimental system was designed for high resolution radar mapping of urban scenes in close range geometry. This small and leight weighted system has a bandwidth of 30 GHz (5 mm resolution and operates with 300 GHz in the lower terahertz domain. Experiments with a van in an urban scenario were carried out for proof of applicability of an operating SAR system resolving objects in the subcentimeter domain. The results show that narrow cracks in the asphalt of the road are visible and the measuring of small metallic objects placed in the scene is possible. Based on this mobile mapping techniques a first result from an acquisition of vertical facade structure is shown.

  17. Midrange affinity fluorescent Zn(II) sensors of the Zinpyr family: syntheses, characterization, and biological imaging applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Elizabeth M; Jaworski, Jacek; Racine, Maryann E; Sheng, Morgan; Lippard, Stephen J

    2006-11-27

    The syntheses and photophysical characterization of ZP9, 2-{2-chloro-6-hydroxy-3-oxo-5-[(2-{[pyridin-2-ylmethyl-(1H-pyrrol-2-ylmethyl)amino]methyl}phenylamino)methyl]-3H-xanthen-9-yl}benzoic acid, and ZP10, 2-{2-chloro-6-hydroxy-5-[(2-{[(1-methyl-1H-pyrrol-2-ylmethyl)pyridin-2-ylmethylamino]methyl}phenylamino)methyl]-3-oxo-3H-xanthen-9-yl}benzoic acid, two asymmetrically derivatized fluorescein-based dyes, are described. These sensors each contain an aniline-based ligand moiety functionalized with a pyridyl-amine-pyrrole group and have dissociation constants for Zn(II) in the sub-micromolar (ZP9) and low-micromolar (ZP10) range, which we define as "midrange". They give approximately 12- (ZP9) and approximately 7-fold (ZP10) fluorescence turn-on immediately following Zn(II) addition at neutral pH and exhibit improved selectivity for Zn(II) compared to the di-(2-picolyl)amine-based Zinpyr (ZP) sensors. Confocal microscopy studies indicate that such asymmetrical fluorescein-based probes are cell permeable and Zn(II) responsive in vivo.

  18. Neutron Imaging in Cultural Heritage Research at the FRM II Reactor of the Heinz Maier-Leibnitz Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burkhard Schillinger

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Neutron Imaging is ideally suited for applications in cultural heritage even at small reactors with moderate image resolution. However, recently, high resolution imaging is being increasingly used for advanced studies, especially in paleontology. The special contrast for hydrogen and between neighboring elements in the periodic system allows for new applications that are not accessible for X-rays, like organic material in enclosed containers made of ceramics or metals, fossilized bones in chalk rock or in ferrous “red” beds, and even for animal and hominid teeth. Fission neutrons permit the examination of large samples that otherwise show large attenuation for thermal neutrons.

  19. Aerosol extinction profiles at 525 nm and 1020 nm derived from ACE imager data: comparisons with GOMOS, SAGE II, SAGE III, POAM III, and OSIRIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Vanhellemont

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The Canadian ACE (Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment mission is dedicated to the retrieval of a large number of atmospheric trace gas species using the solar occultation technique in the infrared and UV/visible spectral domain. However, two additional solar disk imagers (at 525 nm and 1020 nm were added for a number of reasons, including the retrieval of aerosol and cloud products. In this paper, we present first comparison results for these imager aerosol/cloud optical extinction coefficient profiles, with the ones derived from measurements performed by 3 solar occultation instruments (SAGE II, SAGE III, POAM III, one stellar occultation instrument (GOMOS and one limb sounder (OSIRIS. The results indicate that the ACE imager profiles are of good quality in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere, although the aerosol extinction for the visible channel at 525 nm contains a significant negative bias at higher altitudes, while the relative differences indicate that ACE profiles are almost always too high at 1020 nm. Both problems are probably related to ACE imager instrumental issues.

  20. Two-dimensional imaging of edge plasma electron density and temperature by the passive helium emission ratio technique in TJ-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De la Cal, E; Guasp, J

    2011-01-01

    An intensified visible camera looks tangentially at a poloidal limiter where helium recycles, acting as a wide neutral source, and the atomic line emission due to plasma excitation becomes strongly localized there. It includes a bifurcated coherent bundle, each end with a different interference filter to select helium atomic lines, so that two simultaneous filtered images are captured in one single frame. The object of the proposed technique is to apply the well-known helium-beam line-ratio technique to obtain from selected filtered images the two-dimensional (2D) edge plasma n e and T e . The code EIRENE was used to demonstrate that the helium emission from recycling neutrals dominates the emission for the lines of view passing close above the limiter. Since these chords are nearly parallel to magnetic field lines in the emission region, the images can be approximated to poloidal cuts of the plasma emission within the tolerances discussed in the paper. The absolute radial profiles of T e and n e obtained with the method presented here were checked in the TJ-II stellarator to be in relatively good agreement with other diagnostics within a wide range of plasma parameters for both ECRH and NBI plasmas. The method is finally used to get 2D images of edge plasma T e and n e .

  1. Design of 20-44 GHz broadband doubler MMIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qin; Wang Zhigong; Li Wei

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the design and performance of a broadband millimeter-wave frequency doubler MMIC using active 0.15 μm GaAs PHEMT and operating at output frequencies from 20 to 44 GHz. This chip is composed of a single ended-into differential-out active Balun, balanced FETs in push-push configuration, and a distributed amplifier. The MMIC doubler exhibits more than 4 dB conversion gain with 12 dBm of output power, and the fundamental frequency suppression is typically -20 dBc up to 44 GHz. The MMIC works at V DD = 3.5 V, V SS = -3.5 V, I d = 200 mA and the chip size is 1.5 x 1.8 mm 2 . (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  2. A 2 MW, CW, 170 GHz gyrotron for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piosczyk, B.; Arnold, A.; Alberti, S.

    2003-01-01

    A 140 GHz gyrotron for CW operation is under development for the stellarator W7-X. With a prototype tube a microwave output power of about 0.9 MW has been obtained in pulses up to 180 s, limited by the capability of the high voltage power supply. The development work on coaxial cavity gyrotrons has demonstrated the feasibility of manufacturing of a 2 MW, CW 170 GHz tube that could be used for ITER. The problems specific to the coaxial arrangement have been investigated and all relevant information needed for an industrial realization of a coaxial gyrotron have been obtained in short pulse experiments (up to 17 ms). The suitability of critical components for a 2 MW, CW coaxial gyrotron has been studied and a first integrated design has been done. (author)

  3. Dielectric Spectroscopy of Biomolecules up to 110 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laux, Eva-Maria; Ermilova, Elena; Pannwitz, Daniel; Gibbons, Jessica; Hölzel, Ralph; Bier, Frank F.

    2018-03-01

    Radio-frequency fields in the GHz range are increasingly applied in biotechnology and medicine. In order to fully exploit both their potential and their risks detailed information about the dielectric properties of biological material is needed. For this purpose a measuring system is presented that allows the acquisition of complex dielectric spectra over 4 frequency decade up to 110 GHz. Routines for calibration and for data evaluation according to physicochemical interaction models have been developed. The frequency dependent permittivity and dielectric loss of some proteins and nucleic acids, the main classes of biomolecules, and of their sub-units have been determined. Dielectric spectra are presented for the amino acid alanine, the proteins lysozyme and haemoglobin, the nucleotides AMP and ATP, and for the plasmid pET-21, which has been produced by bacterial culture. Characterisation of a variety of biomolecules is envisaged, as is the application to studies on protein structure and function.

  4. 100 GHz, 1 MW, CW gyrotron study program. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felch, K.; Bier, R.; Caplan, M.; Jory, H.

    1983-09-01

    The results of a study program to investigate the feasibility of various approaches in designing a 100 GHz, 1 MW CW gyrotron are presented. A summary is given of the possible configurations for a high average power, high frequency gyrotron, including an historical survey of experimental results which are relevant to the various approaches. A set of basic scaling considerations which enable qualitative comparisons between particular gyrotron interaction circuits is presented. These calculations are important in understanding the role of various electron beam and circuit parameters in achieving a viable gyrotron design. Following these scaling exercises, a series of design calculations is presented for a possible approach in achieving 100 GHz, 1 MW CW. These calculations include analyses of the electron gun and interaction circuit parts of the gyrotron, and a general analysis of other aspects of a high average power, high frequency gyrotron. Scalability of important aspects of the design to other frequencies is also discussed, as well as key technology issues

  5. Future mobile satellite communication concepts at 20/30 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, S. K.; Norbury, J. R.

    1990-01-01

    The outline of a design of a system using ultra small earth stations (picoterminals) for data traffic at 20/30 GHz is discussed. The picoterminals would be battery powered, have an RF transmitter power of 0.5 W, use a 10 cm square patch antenna, and have a receiver G/T of about -8 dB/K. Spread spectrum modulation would be required (due to interference consideration) to allow a telex type data link (less than 200 bit/s data rate) from the picoterminal to the hub station of the network and about 40 kbit/s on the outbound patch. An Olympus type transponder at 20/30 GHz could maintain several thousand simultaneous picoterminal circuits. The possibility of demonstrating a picoterminal network with voice traffic using Olympus is discussed together with fully mobile systems based on this concept.

  6. Influence of Noises on Remote State Preparation Using GHZ State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Huaqiu; Liu Jinming

    2008-01-01

    Using a quantum channel consisting of a GHZ state exposed to noisy environment, we investigate how to remotely prepare an entangled state and a qubit state, respectively. By solving the master equation in the Lindblad form, the influence of the various types of noises on the GHZ state is first discussed. Then we use the fidelity to describe how close the remotely prepared state and the initial state are. Our results show that the fidelity is a function of the decoherence rates and the angles of the initial state. It is found that for each of the two RSP schemes, the influence of the noise acting simultaneously in x, y, and z directions on the average fidelity is the strongest while the influence of the noise acting in x or z direction on the average fidelity is relatively weaker

  7. An Automatic Control System for Conditioning 30 GHz Accelerating Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Dubrovskiy, A

    2008-01-01

    A software application programme has been developed to allow fast and automatic high-gradient conditioning of accelerating structures at 30 GHz in CTF3. The specificity of the application is the ability to control the high-power electron beam which produces the 30 GHz RF power used to condition the accelerating structures. The programme permits operation round the clock with minimum manpower requirements. In this paper the fast control system, machine control system, logging system, graphical user control interface and logging data visualization are described. An outline of the conditioning control system itself and of the feedback controlling peak power and pulse length is given. The software allows different types of conditioning strategies to be programmed

  8. Quantum Steganography via Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger GHZ4 State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Allati, A.; Hassouni, Y.; Medeni, M.B. Ould

    2012-01-01

    A quantum steganography communication scheme via Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger GHZ 4 state is constructed to investigate the possibility of remotely transferred hidden information. Moreover, the multipartite entangled states are become a hectic topic due to its important applications and deep effects on aspects of quantum information. Then, the scheme consists of sharing the correlation of four particle GHZ 4 states between the legitimate users. After insuring the security of the quantum channel, they begin to hide the secret information in the cover of message. Comparing the scheme with the previous quantum steganographies, capacity and imperceptibility of hidden message are good. The security of the present scheme against many attacks is also discussed. (general)

  9. The 30/20 GHz communications satellite trunking network study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, W.

    1981-01-01

    Alternative transmission media for a CONUS-wide trunking network in the years 1990 and 2000 are examined. The alternative technologies comprised fiber optic cable, conventional C- and Ku-band satellites, and 30/20 GHz satellites. Three levels of implementation were considered - a 10-city network, a 20-city network, and a 40-city network. The cities selected were the major metropolitan areas with the greatest communications demand. All intercity voice, data, and video traffic carried more than 40 miles was included in the analysis. In the optimized network, traffic transmitted less than 500 miles was found to be better served by fiber optic cable in 1990. By the year 2000, the crossover point would be down to 200 miles, assuming availability of 30/20 GHz satellites.

  10. InP Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor Amplifiers to 255 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radisic, Vesna; Sawdai, Donald; Scott, Dennis; Deal, William; Dang, Linh; Li, Danny; Cavus, Abdullah; To, Richard; Lai, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Two single-stage InP heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT) amplifiers operate at 184 and 255 GHz, using Northrop Grumman Corporation s InP HBT MMIC (monolithic microwave integrated circuit) technology. At the time of this reporting, these are reported to be the highest HBT amplifiers ever created. The purpose of the amplifier design is to evaluate the technology capability for high-frequency designs and verify the model for future development work.

  11. Startup and mode competition in a 420 GHz gyrotron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qixiang Zhao, A.; Sheng Yu, B.; Tianzhong Zhang, C.

    2017-09-01

    In the experiments of a 420 GHz second-harmonic gyrotron, it is found that the electron beam voltage and current ranges for single mode operation of TE17.4 are slightly narrower than those in the simulation. To explain this phenomenon, the startup scenario has been investigated with special emphasis on mode competition. The calculations indicate that the decreases of the operating ranges are caused by the voltage overshoot in the startup scenario.

  12. Construction of a 35 GHz 100 kW gyrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aso, Y.; Barroso, J.J.; Castro, P.J.; Correa, R.A.; Ludwing, G.O.; Montes, A.; Morgado, U.T.F.; Nono, M.C.A.; Rossi, J.O.; Silva, P.R.

    1989-09-01

    In this work a description of a 35 GHz 100 kW gyrocon is described which is under construction at the National Space Research Institute Plasma Laboratory. Project conceptual aspects are emphasized, specifically high current density thermionic cathodes, high time and spatial resolution intense magnetic fields generation, high-vacuum systems, techniques of ceramic-metal sealing, and high-voltage electrical modulator circuits. (author). 8 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  13. Microwave-assisted synthesis of BSA-modified silver nanoparticles as a selective fluorescent probe for detection and cellular imaging of cadmium(II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, Yu; Li, Nan; Gao, Mengmeng; Wang, Zilu; Xiao, Deli; Li, Yun; Jia, Huning; He, Hua

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a microwave-assisted method for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) whose surface is modified with bovine serum albumin (BSA). The reaction involves reduction of the BSA-Ag(I) complex by tyrosine in strongly alkaline solution to form BSA-AgNPs. The reaction takes a few minutes only owing to rapid and uniform microwave heating. The modified AgNPs were characterized by UV–vis and fluorescence spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X- ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The BSA-AgNPs are yellow and display luminescence with a maximum at 521 nm if excited at 465 nm. They have a hydrodynamic diameter of 3–5 nm and possess good colloidal stability in the pH 4.6 to 12.0 range. The fluorescence of the BSA-AgNPs is enhanced by Cd(II) ion due to the formation of a stable hybrid conjugate referred to as Cd-BSA-AgNPs. The effect was exploited to quantify Cd(II) in spiked real water samples with a 4.7 nM detection limit, and also to fluorescently image Cd(II) in Hepatoma cells. (author)

  14. Mapping the extent of disease by multislice computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and sentinel node evaluation in stage I and II cervical carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajaram S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: (1 To map the extent of disease in women with stage I and II carcinoma cervix by multislice spiral computed tomography (CT, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and sentinel nodes. (2 To assess accuracy of each modality individually and in conjunction with FIGO clinical staging. Design and Setting: Prospective, single-blind study. Departments of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Radiodiagnosis, and Pathology, UCMS and GTBH and Division of Radiological Imaging and Bioinformatics, INMAS, Delhi. Material and Method: The study was conducted on 25 women with cervical cancer FIGO stage I and II. Each woman underwent clinical staging, multislice spiral CT and MRI which was compared to the gold-standard histopathology/cytology. The overall accuracy of each modality and improvement of clinical staging by CT/MRI were noted. Sentinel nodes were evaluated by intracervical Patent Blue V dye injection. Statistical Analysis: Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were calculated by 2Χ2 contingency tables. Results: The accuracy of staging by FIGO, CT and MRI was 68%, 52% and 80%, respectively. MRI and CT improved the overall accuracy of FIGO staging to 96% and 80%, respectively. Sentinel nodes were identified in 89% of patients with 91% accuracy. Conclusion: MRI emerges as the most valuable stand-alone modality improving accuracy of FIGO staging to 96%. Sentinel lymph-node evaluation appears promising in evaluating spread beyond cervix.

  15. GRIP HURRICANE IMAGING RADIOMETER (HIRAD) V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GRIP Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRAD) V1 dataset contains measurements of brightness temperature taken at 4, 5, 6 and 6.6 GHz, as well as MERRA 2 m wind...

  16. An 8–18 GHz broadband high power amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lifa; Yang Ruixia; Li Yanlei; Wu Jingfeng

    2011-01-01

    An 8–18 GHz broadband high power amplifier (HPA) with a hybrid integrated circuit (HIC) is designed and fabricated. This HPA is achieved with the use of a 4-fingered micro-strip Lange coupler in a GaAs MMIC process. In order to decrease electromagnetic interference, a multilayer AlN material with good heat dissipation is adopted as the carrier of the power amplifier. When the input power is 25 dBm, the saturated power of the continuous wave (CW) outputted by the power amplifier is more than 39 dBm within the frequency range of 8–13 GHz, while it is more than 38.6 dBm within other frequency ranges. We obtain the peak power output, 39.4 dBm, at the frequency of 11.9 GHz. In the whole frequency band, the power-added efficiency is more than 18%. When the input power is 18 dBm, the small signal gain is 15.7 ± 0.7 dB. The dimensions of the HPA are 25 × 15 × 1.5 mm 3 . (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  17. GHz band frequency hopping PLL-based frequency synthesizers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Yong; WANG Zhi-gong; GUAN Yu; XU Zhi-jun; QIAO Lu-feng

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we describe a full-integrated circuit containing all building blocks of a completed PLL-based synthesizer except for low pass filter(LPF).The frequency synthesizer is designed for a frequency hopping (FH) transceiver operating up to 1.5 GHz as a local oscillator. The architecture of Voltage Controlled Oscillator (VCO) is optimized to get better performance, and a phase noise of -111.85-dBc/Hz @ 1 MHz and a tuning range of 250 MHz are gained at a centre frequency of 1.35 GHz.A novel Dual-Modulus Prescaler(DMP) is designed to achieve a very low jitter and a lower power.The settling time of PLL is 80 μs while the reference frequency is 400 KHz.This monolithic frequency synthesizer is to integrate all main building blocks of PLL except for the low pass filter,with a maximum VCO output frequency of 1.5 GHz,and is fabricated with a 0.18 μm mixed signal CMOS process. Low power dissipation, low phase noise, large tuning range and fast settling time are gained in this design.

  18. A 12 GHz RF Power Source for the CLIC Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schirm, Karl; /CERN; Curt, Stephane; /CERN; Dobert, Steffen; /CERN; McMonagle, Gerard; /CERN; Rossat, Ghislain; /CERN; Syratchev, Igor; /CERN; Timeo, Luca; /CERN; Haase, Andrew /SLAC; Jensen, Aaron; /SLAC; Jongewaard, Erik; /SLAC; Nantista, Christopher; /SLAC; Sprehn, Daryl; /SLAC; Vlieks, Arnold; /SLAC; Hamdi, Abdallah; /Saclay; Peauger, Franck; /Saclay; Kuzikov, Sergey; /Nizhnii Novgorod, IAP; Vikharev, Alexandr; /Nizhnii Novgorod, IAP

    2012-07-03

    The CLIC RF frequency has been changed in 2008 from the initial 30 GHz to the European X-band 11.9942 GHz permitting beam independent power production using klystrons for CLIC accelerating structure testing. A design and fabrication contract for five klystrons at that frequency has been signed by different parties with SLAC. France (IRFU, CEA Saclay) is contributing a solid state modulator purchased in industry and specific 12 GHz RF network components to the CLIC study. RF pulses over 120 MW peak at 230 ns length will be obtained by using a novel SLED-I type pulse compression scheme designed and fabricated by IAP, Nizhny Novgorod, Russia. The X-band power test stand is being installed in the CLIC Test Facility CTF3 for independent structure and component testing in a bunker, but allowing, in a later stage, for powering RF components in the CTF3 beam lines. The design of the facility, results from commissioning of the RF power source and the expected performance of the Test Facility are reported.

  19. LFI 30 and 44 GHz receivers Back-End Modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artal, E; Aja, B; Fuente, M L de la; Pascual, J P; Mediavilla, A; Martinez-Gonzalez, E; Pradell, L; Paco, P de; Bara, M; Blanco, E; GarcIa, E; Davis, R; Kettle, D; Roddis, N; Wilkinson, A; Bersanelli, M; Mennella, A; Tomasi, M; Butler, R C; Cuttaia, F

    2009-01-01

    The 30 and 44 GHz Back End Modules (BEM) for the Planck Low Frequency Instrument are broadband receivers (20% relative bandwidth) working at room temperature. The signals coming from the Front End Module are amplified, band pass filtered and finally converted to DC by a detector diode. Each receiver has two identical branches following the differential scheme of the Planck radiometers. The BEM design is based on MMIC Low Noise Amplifiers using GaAs P-HEMT devices, microstrip filters and Schottky diode detectors. Their manufacturing development has included elegant breadboard prototypes and finally qualification and flight model units. Electrical, mechanical and environmental tests were carried out for the characterization and verification of the manufactured BEMs. A description of the 30 and 44 GHz Back End Modules of Planck-LFI radiometers is given, with details of the tests done to determine their electrical and environmental performances. The electrical performances of the 30 and 44 GHz Back End Modules: frequency response, effective bandwidth, equivalent noise temperature, 1/f noise and linearity are presented.

  20. A 12 GHZ RF Power source for the CLIC study

    CERN Document Server

    Peauger, F; Curt, S; Doebert, S; McMonagle, G; Rossat, G; Schirm, KM; Syratchev, I; Timeo, L; Kuzikhov, S; Vikharev, AA; Haase, A; Sprehn, D; Jensen, A; Jongewaard, EN; Nantista, CD; Vlieks, A

    2010-01-01

    The CLIC RF frequency has been changed in 2008 from the initial 30 GHz to the European X-band 11.9942 GHz permitting beam independent power production using klystrons for CLIC accelerating structure testing. A design and fabrication contract for five klystrons at that frequency has been signed by different parties with SLAC. France (IRFU, CEA Saclay) is contributing a solid state modulator purchased in industry and specific 12 GHz RF network components to the CLIC study. RF pulses over 120 MW peak at 230 ns length will be obtained by using a novel SLED-I type pulse compression scheme designed and fabricated by IAP, Nizhny Novgorod, Russia. The X-band power test stand is being installed in the CLIC Test Facility CTF3 for independent structure and component testing in a bunker, but allowing, in a later stage, for powering RF components in the CTF3 beam lines. The design of the facility, results from commissioning of the RF power source and the expected performance of the Test Facility are reported.

  1. GHz Yb:KYW oscillators in time-resolved spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Changxiu; Krauß, Nico; Schäfer, Gerhard; Ebner, Lukas; Kliebisch, Oliver; Schmidt, Johannes; Winnerl, Stephan; Hettich, Mike; Dekorsy, Thomas

    2018-02-01

    A high-speed asynchronous optical sampling system (ASOPS) based on Yb:KYW oscillators with 1-GHz repetition rate is reported. Two frequency-offset-stabilized diode-pumped Yb:KYW oscillators are employed as pump and probe source, respectively. The temporal resolution of this system within 1-ns time window is limited to 500 fs and the noise floor around 10-6 (ΔR/R) close to the shot-noise level is obtained within an acquisition time of a few seconds. Coherent acoustic phonons are investigated by measuring multilayer semiconductor structures with multiple quantum wells and aluminum/silicon membranes in this ASOPS system. A wavepacket-like phonon sequence at 360 GHz range is detected in the semiconductor structures and a decaying sequence of acoustic oscillations up to 200 GHz is obtained in the aluminum/silicon membranes. Coherent acoustic phonons generated from semiconductor structures are further manipulated by a double pump scheme through pump time delay control.

  2. Non-surgical breast-conservation treatment (KORTUC-BCT) using a new image-guided, enzyme-targeted, and breast cancer stem cell targeted radiosensitization treatment (KORTUC II) for patients with stage I or II breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Yasuhiro; Kubota, Kei; Tadokoro, Michiko

    2012-01-01

    injected into breast tumor tissue twice a week under ultrasound guidance, just prior to each administration of radiation therapy, and we confirmed an even distribution of micro-bubbles of oxygen throughout the target tumor. The injection was started at the 6th fraction of radiation therapy. This injection protocol effectively preserves oxygen concentration in the tumor tissue for more than 24 h following intra-tumoral injection (Tokuhiro S, et al: Oncol Letters 1:1025-1028, 2010). Concerning radiation therapy, hypofraction radiotherapy was given using tangential fields approach and Field-in-field method; energy level was 4MV and the total radiation therapy dose was 44 Gy administered as 2.75 Gy/fraction. An electron boost of 3 Gy was added 3 times just following the 14th, 15th and 16th administrations of 4 MV X-ray irradiation. From a needle biopsy specimen, hormonal status (estrogen and progesterone receptors), HER-2 antigen, and CD44 receptor were examined by immunohistochemistry. Treatment was well tolerated with a minimum of adverse effects in all 39 patients. A total of 36 patients achieved clinically complete response on dynamic MRI study, and the study has not been performed yet for another 3. All of the patients did not show any complications (with the exception of mild dermatitis of Grade I for 24 and Grade II for 15), and cosmetic results were excellent/good for 35 patients. 15 patients under 75 y with stage II breast cancer underwent induction chemotherapy (EC and/or Taxan) prior to the KORTUC II treatment, and 36 patients with estrogen receptor-positive tumors also undertook hormonal therapy following KORTUC II. The mean follow-up period at the end of September 2011 was 30.1 months, at which time all 39 patients were alive without any distant metastases. Only 1 patient had local recurrence, which was discovered at 34 months follow-up. Non-surgical BCT (KORTUC-BCT) can be performed with KORTUC II. KORTUC II has 3 major characteristics: it is image-guided by

  3. cobalt (ii), nickel (ii)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    Department of Chemistry Bayero University, P. M. B. 3011, Kano, Nigeria. E-mail: hnuhu2000@yahoo.com. ABSTRACT. The manganese (II), cobalt (II), nickel (II) and .... water and common organic solvents, but are readily soluble in acetone. The molar conductance measurement [Table 3] of the complex compounds in.

  4. ANOMALOUS MICROWAVE EMISSION IN H ii REGIONS: IS IT REALLY ANOMALOUS? THE CASE OF RCW 49

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paladini, Roberta [Infrared Processing Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, 770 South Wilson Ave., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Ingallinera, Adriano; Agliozzo, Claudia; Umana, Grazia; Trigilio, Corrado [Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, Via S. Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania Italy (Italy); Tibbs, Christopher T. [Scientific Support Office, Directorate of Science and Robotic Exploration,European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESA/ESTEC), Keplerlaan 1, 2201 AZ, Noordwijk (Netherlands); Noriega-Crespo, Alberto [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Dickinson, Clive [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, Alan Turing Building, School of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2015-11-01

    The detection of an excess of emission at microwave frequencies with respect to the predicted free–free emission has been reported for several Galactic H ii regions. Here, we investigate the case of RCW 49, for which the Cosmic Background Imager tentatively (∼3σ) detected Anomalous Microwave Emission (AME) at 31 GHz on angular scales of 7′. Using the Australia Telescope Compact Array, we carried out a multi-frequency (5, 19, and 34 GHz) continuum study of the region, complemented by observations of the H109α radio recombination line. The analysis shows that: (1) the spatial correlation between the microwave and IR emission persists on angular scales from 3.′4 to 0.″4, although the degree of the correlation slightly decreases at higher frequencies and on smaller angular scales; (2) the spectral indices between 1.4 and 5 GHz are globally in agreement with optically thin free–free emission, however, ∼30% of these are positive and much greater than −0.1, consistent with a stellar wind scenario; and (3) no major evidence for inverted free–free radiation is found, indicating that this is likely not the cause of the Anomalous Emission in RCW 49. Although our results cannot rule out the spinning dust hypothesis to explain the tentative detection of AME in RCW 49, they emphasize the complexity of astronomical sources that are very well known and studied, such as H ii regions, and suggest that, at least in these objects, the reported excess of emission might be ascribed to alternative mechanisms such as stellar winds and shocks.

  5. Real Time Imaging of Biomarkers in the Parkinson's Brain Using Mini-Implantable Biosensors. II. Pharmaceutical Therapy with Bromocriptine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia A. Broderick

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We used Neuromolecular Imaging (NMI and trademarked BRODERICK PROBE® mini-implantable biosensors, to selectively and separately detect neurotransmitters in vivo, on line, within seconds in the dorsal striatal brain of the Parkinson’s Disease (PD animal model. We directly compared our results derived from PD to the normal striatal brain of the non-Parkinson’s Disease (non-PD animal. This advanced biotechnology enabled the imaging of dopamine (DA, serotonin (5-HT, homovanillic acid (HVA a metabolite of DA, L-tryptophan (L-TP a precursor to 5-HT and peptides, dynorphin A 1-17 (Dyn A and somatostatin (somatostatin releasing inhibitory factor (SRIF. Each neurotransmitter and neurochemical was imaged at a signature electroactive oxidation/half-wave potential in dorsal striatum of the PD as compared with the non-PD animal. Both endogenous and bromocriptine-treated neurochemical profiles in PD and non-PD were imaged using the same experimental paradigm and detection sensitivities. Results showed that we have found significant neurotransmitter peptide biomarkers in the dorsal striatal brain of endogenous and bromocriptine-treated PD animals. The peptide biomarkers were not imaged in dorsal striatal brain of non-PD animals, either endogenously or bromocriptine-treated. These findings provide new pharmacotherapeutic strategies for PD patients. Thus, our findings are highly applicable to the clinical treatment of PD.

  6. 200 and 270 GHz SIS receivers development for atmospheric observation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochiai, S.; Masuko, H.

    1993-01-01

    Superconducting mixers have been developed for observations of atmospheric minor constituents such as ClO and ozone at Communications Research Laboratory. This paper describes the work at development of 200 and 270 GHz SIS mixers. Nb/AlOx/Nb junctions were fabricated at Nobeyama Radio Observatory. The base Nb layer 200 nm, the Al (AlOx) insulation layer, and the counter Nb electrode 150 nm are sputtered. The area outside of a junction defined by etching of the counter electrode is insulated by anodized Nb layer and sputtered SiO 2 . After sputtering thick SiO 2 layer on the whole wafer, a contact hole is made by etching. The thickness of the wiring Nb layer is 500 nm. The junctions are formed on the 250 μm thick fused quartz substrate. After the process of the junction fabrication, the quartz substrate is shaved from the back side until 150 μm thickness. Each junction for 270 GHz mixer has an area of about 1 μm 2 . The normal resistance of the six junctions series array is around 70 Ω. The mixer block has a reduced waveguide (1.2 x 0.1 mm for 200 GHz and 0.98 x 0. 1 mm for 270 GHz). The waveguide has two tuners in addition to a fixed backshort cavity. This configuration can allow to realize the lower embedding impedance, and less sensitive to the position of the tuners. The SIS mixers are cooled in a closed cycle He refrigerator. The LO is optically injected through a Fabry Perot interferometer. The 5--7 GHz IF is fed to a HEMT amplifier cooled at 15 K. The authors have started a preliminary measurement of the noise temperature of the SIS receivers, and comparing with calculated DSB receiver noise temperature assuming 3-port model. They continue to improve the performance of the SIS mixers now. They intend that the receivers shall be utilized for atmospheric monitor from next winter

  7. Infrared imaging systems: Design, analysis, modeling, and testing II; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Apr. 3-5, 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holst, Gerald C.

    Topics addressed include MTF characteristics of a Scophony scene projector, design of an athermalized three-field-of-view infrared sensor, a 3D analysis framework and measurement methodology for imaging system noise, effects of phasing on MRT target visibility, a multisensor analysis tool, a computer simulation of stairing-array thermal imagers, and a validated CCD camera model. Also discussed are an end-to-end model for detection performance evaluation against scenario-specific targets, Wiener-matrix image restoration beyond tha sampling passband, thermal signature training for military observers, reporting data for arrays with many elements, determination of FLIR LOS stabilization errors, fixed-pattern-noise cancellation in linear pyro arrays, a SPRITE detector characterization through impulse response testing, sine wave measurements of SPRITE detector MTF.

  8. Toward in vivo diagnosis of skin cancer using multimode imaging dermoscopy: (II) molecular mapping of highly pigmented lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasefi, Fartash; MacKinnon, Nicholas; Farkas, Daniel L.

    2014-03-01

    We have developed a multimode imaging dermoscope that combines polarization and hyperspectral imaging with a computationally rapid analytical model. This approach employs specific spectral ranges of visible and near infrared wavelengths for mapping the distribution of specific skin bio-molecules. This corrects for the melanin-hemoglobin misestimation common to other systems, without resorting to complex and computationally intensive tissue optical models that are prone to inaccuracies due to over-modeling. Various human skin measurements including a melanocytic nevus, and venous occlusion conditions were investigated and compared with other ratiometric spectral imaging approaches. Access to the broad range of hyperspectral data in the visible and near-infrared range allows our algorithm to flexibly use different wavelength ranges for chromophore estimation while minimizing melanin-hemoglobin optical signature cross-talk.

  9. Polarimetry of 600 pulsars from observations at 1.4 GHz with the Parkes radio telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Simon; Kerr, Matthew

    2018-03-01

    Over the past 13 yr, the Parkes radio telescope has observed a large number of pulsars using digital filter bank backends with high time and frequency resolution and the capability for Stokes recording. Here, we use archival data to present polarimetry data at an observing frequency of 1.4 GHz for 600 pulsars with spin-periods ranging from 0.036 to 8.5 s. We comment briefly on some of the statistical implications from the data and highlight the differences between pulsars with high and low spin-down energy. The data set, images and table of properties for all 600 pulsars are made available in a public data archive maintained by the CSIRO.

  10. Evaluation of the medical imaging procedures for the diagnosis of liver diseases: Part II. Experiments on the effectiveness of diagnostic interpretation of liver images in 103 cases collected from nine participating countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuhisa, Kenjiro; Tateno, Yukio; Matsumoto, Toru; Fukuda, Morimichi; Sasaki, Yasuhito; Shishido, Fumio

    1996-01-01

    Part one of this report was a computer analysis of the results of nuclear medicine scintiscan (NM) and ultrasound (US) images obtained from a collection of liver disease cases in Japan, reported and interpreted by 126 physicians from 10 participating countries. While conducting Part I, we collected images for use in Part II of this study from participating institutions in each of the participating countries. These images were from liver disease cases with conditions similar to the cases in Part I of this study and with clinical information including final diagnoses. From those cases, we selected cases considered to be appropriate for this study. The images from the selected cases were copied onto the same type of recording medium as that used for the originals, and was added with brief clinical information (sex, age, liver function test classification, and tumor marker examination of AFP and CEA values) to each copy. We then distributed these copies among all the participating countries and asked physicians to interpret and give a final diagnosis in each case. Liver scintigraphy, sonographic findings, clinical history and laboratory investigation were analysed and interpreted

  11. Classification of sea ice types with single-band (33.6 GHz) airborne passive microwave imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppler, Duane T.; Farmer, L. Dennis; Lohanick, Alan W.; Hoover, Mervyn

    1986-09-01

    During March 1983 extensive high-quality airborne passive Ka band (33.6 GHz) microwave imagery and coincident high-resolution aerial photography were obtained of ice along a 378-km flight line in the Beaufort Sea. Analysis of these data suggests that four classes of winter surfaces can be distinguished solely on the basis of 33.6-GHz brightness temperature: open water, frazil, old ice, and young/first-year ice. New ice (excluding frazil) and nilas display brightness temperatures that overlap the range of temperatures characteristic of old ice and, to a lesser extent, young/first-year ice. Scenes in which a new ice or nilas are present in appreciable amounts are subject to substantial errors in classification if static measures of Ka band radiometric brightness temperature alone are considered. Textural characteristics of nilas and new ice, however, differ significantly from textural features characteristic of other ice types and probably can be used with brightness temperature data to classify ice type in high-resolution single-band microwave images. In any case, open water is radiometrically the coldest surface observed in any scene. Lack of overlap between brightness temperatures characteristic of other surfaces indicates that estimates of the areal extent of open water based on only 33.6-GHz brightness temperatures are accurate.

  12. [Accelerated partial breast irradiation with image-guided intensity-modulated radiotherapy following breast-conserving surgery - preliminary results of a phase II clinical study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mészáros, Norbert; Major, Tibor; Stelczer, Gábor; Zaka, Zoltán; Mózsa, Emõke; Fodor, János; Polgár, Csaba

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to implement accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) by means of image-guided intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IG-IMRT) following breast-conserving surgery (BCS) for low-risk early invasive breast cancer. Between July 2011 and March 2014, 60 patients with low-risk early invasive (St I-II) breast cancer who underwent BCS were enrolled in our phase II prospective study. Postoperative APBI was given by means of step and shoot IG-IMRT using 4 to 5 fields to a total dose of 36.9 Gy (9×4.1 Gy) using a twice-a-day fractionation. Before each fraction, series of CT images were taken from the region of the target volume using a kV CT on-rail mounted in the treatment room. An image fusion software was used for automatic image registration of the planning and verification CT images. Patient set-up errors were detected in three directions (LAT, LONG, VERT), and inaccuracies were adjusted by automatic movements of the treatment table. Breast cancer related events, acute and late toxicities, and cosmetic results were registered and analysed. At a median follow-up of 24 months (range 12-44) neither locoregional nor distant failure was observed. Grade 1 (G1), G2 erythema, G1 oedema, and G1 and G2 pain occurred in 21 (35%), 2 (3.3%), 23 (38.3%), 6 (10%) and 2 (3.3%) patients, respectively. No G3-4 acute side effects were detected. Among late radiation side effects G1 pigmentation, G1 fibrosis, and G1 fat necrosis occurred in 5 (8.3%), 7 (11.7%), and 2 (3.3%) patients, respectively. No ≥G2 late toxicity was detected. Excellent and good cosmetic outcome was detected in 45 (75%) and 15 (25%) patients. IG-IMRT is a reproducible and feasible technique for the delivery of APBI following conservative surgery for the treatment of low-risk, early-stage invasive breast carcinoma. Preliminary results are promising, early radiation side effects are minimal, and cosmetic results are excellent.

  13. Demonstration of a Submillimeter-Wave HEMT Oscillator Module at 330 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radisic, Vesna; Deal, W. R.; Mei, X. B.; Yoshida, Wayne; Liu, P. H.; Uyeda, Jansen; Lai, Richard; Samoska, Lorene; Fung, King Man; Gaier, Todd; hide

    2010-01-01

    In this work, radial transitions have been successfully mated with a HEMT-based MMIC (high-electron-mobility-transistor-based monolithic microwave integrated circuit) oscillator circuit. The chip has been assembled into a WR2.2 waveguide module for the basic implementation with radial E-plane probe transitions to convert the waveguide mode to the MMIC coplanar waveguide mode. The E-plane transitions have been directly integrated onto the InP substrate to couple the submillimeter-wave energy directly to the waveguides, thus avoiding wire-bonds in the RF path. The oscillator demonstrates a measured 1.7 percent DC-RF efficiency at the module level. The oscillator chip uses 35-nm-gate-length HEMT devices, which enable the high frequency of oscillation, creating the first demonstration of a packaged waveguide oscillator that operates over 300 GHz and is based on InP HEMT technology. The oscillator chip is extremely compact, with dimensions of only 1.085 x 320 sq mm for a total die size of 0.35 sq mm. This fully integrated, waveguide oscillator module, with an output power of 0.27 mW at 330 GHz, can provide low-mass, low DC-power-consumption alternatives to existing local oscillator schemes, which require high DC power consumption and large mass. This oscillator module can be easily integrated with mixers, multipliers, and amplifiers for building high-frequency transmit and receive systems at submillimeter wave frequencies. Because it requires only a DC bias to enable submillimeter wave output power, it is a simple and reliable technique for generating power at these frequencies. Future work will be directed to further improving the applicability of HEMT transistors to submillimeter wave and terahertz applications. Commercial applications include submillimeter-wave imaging systems for hidden weapons detection, airport security, homeland security, and portable low-mass, low-power imaging systems

  14. Vocabulary of signs and symptoms of the Musculoskeletal System, Vol. II: Medical imaging signs. Terminology bulletin No. 212

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lussier, A; Beauregard, G; Dionne, S

    1992-01-01

    This vocabulary is the second of four on the musculoskeletal system. It is compiled from recommended works and deals mainly with radiological aspects. It also includes fractures and diseases, imaging techniques, roentgenographic positions, angles, lines, and indexes. About 500 concepts are listed in English and French with each entry including the main entry term, synonym(s), textual support, and notes.

  15. CHEERS Results from NGC 3393. II. Investigating the Extended Narrow-line Region Using Deep Chandra Observations and Hubble Space Telescope Narrow-line Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maksym, W. Peter; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Elvis, Martin; Karovska, Margarita; Paggi, Alessandro; Raymond, John [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Wang, Junfeng [Department of Astronomy, Physics Building, Xiamen University Xiamen, Fujian, 361005 (China); Storchi-Bergmann, Thaisa, E-mail: walter.maksym@cfa.harvard.edu [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, IF, CP 15051, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2017-07-20

    The CHandra Extended Emission Line Region Survey (CHEERS) is an X-ray study of nearby active galactic nuclei (AGNs) designed to take full advantage of Chandra 's unique angular resolution by spatially resolving feedback signatures and effects. In the second paper of a series on CHEERS target NGC 3393, we examine deep high-resolution Chandra images and compare them with Hubble Space Telescope narrow-line images of [O iii], [S ii], and H α , as well as previously unpublished mid-ultraviolet (MUV) images. The X-rays provide unprecedented evidence that the S-shaped arms that envelope the nuclear radio outflows extend only ≲0.″2 (≲50 pc) across. The high-resolution multiwavelength data suggest that the extended narrow-line region is a complex multiphase structure in the circumnuclear interstellar medium (ISM). Its ionization structure is highly stratified with respect to outflow-driven bubbles in the bicone and varies dramatically on scales of ∼10 pc. Multiple findings show likely contributions from shocks to the feedback in regions where radio outflows from the AGN most directly influence the ISM. These findings include H α evidence for gas compression and extended MUV emission and are in agreement with existing STIS kinematics. Extended filamentary structure in the X-rays and optical suggests the presence of an undetected plasma component, whose existence could be tested with deeper radio observations.

  16. CHEERS Results from NGC 3393. II. Investigating the Extended Narrow-line Region Using Deep Chandra Observations and Hubble Space Telescope Narrow-line Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksym, W. Peter; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Elvis, Martin; Karovska, Margarita; Paggi, Alessandro; Raymond, John; Wang, Junfeng; Storchi-Bergmann, Thaisa

    2017-07-01

    The CHandra Extended Emission Line Region Survey (CHEERS) is an X-ray study of nearby active galactic nuclei (AGNs) designed to take full advantage of Chandra's unique angular resolution by spatially resolving feedback signatures and effects. In the second paper of a series on CHEERS target NGC 3393, we examine deep high-resolution Chandra images and compare them with Hubble Space Telescope narrow-line images of [O III], [S II], and Hα, as well as previously unpublished mid-ultraviolet (MUV) images. The X-rays provide unprecedented evidence that the S-shaped arms that envelope the nuclear radio outflows extend only ≲0.″2 (≲50 pc) across. The high-resolution multiwavelength data suggest that the extended narrow-line region is a complex multiphase structure in the circumnuclear interstellar medium (ISM). Its ionization structure is highly stratified with respect to outflow-driven bubbles in the bicone and varies dramatically on scales of ˜10 pc. Multiple findings show likely contributions from shocks to the feedback in regions where radio outflows from the AGN most directly influence the ISM. These findings include Hα evidence for gas compression and extended MUV emission and are in agreement with existing STIS kinematics. Extended filamentary structure in the X-rays and optical suggests the presence of an undetected plasma component, whose existence could be tested with deeper radio observations.

  17. CHEERS Results from NGC 3393. II. Investigating the Extended Narrow-line Region Using Deep Chandra Observations and Hubble Space Telescope Narrow-line Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maksym, W. Peter; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Elvis, Martin; Karovska, Margarita; Paggi, Alessandro; Raymond, John; Wang, Junfeng; Storchi-Bergmann, Thaisa

    2017-01-01

    The CHandra Extended Emission Line Region Survey (CHEERS) is an X-ray study of nearby active galactic nuclei (AGNs) designed to take full advantage of Chandra 's unique angular resolution by spatially resolving feedback signatures and effects. In the second paper of a series on CHEERS target NGC 3393, we examine deep high-resolution Chandra images and compare them with Hubble Space Telescope narrow-line images of [O iii], [S ii], and H α , as well as previously unpublished mid-ultraviolet (MUV) images. The X-rays provide unprecedented evidence that the S-shaped arms that envelope the nuclear radio outflows extend only ≲0.″2 (≲50 pc) across. The high-resolution multiwavelength data suggest that the extended narrow-line region is a complex multiphase structure in the circumnuclear interstellar medium (ISM). Its ionization structure is highly stratified with respect to outflow-driven bubbles in the bicone and varies dramatically on scales of ∼10 pc. Multiple findings show likely contributions from shocks to the feedback in regions where radio outflows from the AGN most directly influence the ISM. These findings include H α evidence for gas compression and extended MUV emission and are in agreement with existing STIS kinematics. Extended filamentary structure in the X-rays and optical suggests the presence of an undetected plasma component, whose existence could be tested with deeper radio observations.

  18. Star Imager

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Peter Buch; Jørgensen, John Leif; Thuesen, Gøsta

    1997-01-01

    The version of the star imager developed for Astrid II is described. All functions and features are described as well as the operations and the software protocol.......The version of the star imager developed for Astrid II is described. All functions and features are described as well as the operations and the software protocol....

  19. Investigation of the imaging characteristics of the ALBIRA II small animal PET system for {sup 18}F, {sup 68}Ga and {sup 64}Cu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Attarwala, Ali Asgar; Hardiansyah, Deni [Heidelberg Univ., Mannheim (Germany). Medical Radiation Physics/Radiation Protection; Heidelberg Univ., Mannheim (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Karanja, Yvonne Wanjiku; Romano, Chiara [Heidelberg Univ., Mannheim (Germany). Medical Radiation Physics/Radiation Protection; Roscher, Mareike; Waengler, Bjoern [Heidelberg Univ., Mannheim (Germany). Molecular Imaging and Radiochemistry; Glatting, Gerhard [Heidelberg Univ., Mannheim (Germany). Medical Radiation Physics/Radiation Protection; Ulm Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine

    2017-08-01

    In this study the performance characteristics of the Albira II PET sub-system and the response of the system for the following radionuclides {sup 18}F, {sup 68}Ga and {sup 64}Cu was analyzed. The Albira II tri-modal system (Bruker BioSpin MRI GmbH, Ettlingen, Germany) is a pre-clinical device for PET, SPECT and CT. The PET sub-system uses single continuous crystal detectors of lutetium yttrium orthosilicate (LYSO). The detector assembly consists of three rings of 8 detector modules. The transaxial field of view (FOV) has a diameter of 80 mm and the axial FOV is 148 mm. A NEMA NU-4 image quality phantom (Data Spectrum Corporation, Durham, USA) having five rods with diameters of 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 mm and a uniform central region was used. Measurements with {sup 18}F, {sup 68}Ga and {sup 64}Cu were performed in list mode acquisition over 10 h. Data were reconstructed using a maximum-likelihood expectation-maximization (MLEM) algorithm with iteration numbers between 5 and 50. System sensitivity, count rate linearity, convergence and recovery coefficients were analyzed. The sensitivities for the entire FOV (non-NEMA method) for {sup 18}F, {sup 68}Ga and {sup 64}Cu were (3.78 ± 0.05)%, (3.97 ± 0.18)% and (3.79 ± 0.37)%, respectively. The sensitivity based on the NEMA protocol using the {sup 22}Na point source yielded (5.53 ± 0.06)%. Dead-time corrected true counts were linear for activities ≤7 MBq ({sup 18}F and {sup 68}Ga) and ≤17 MBq ({sup 64}Cu) in the phantom. The radial, tangential and axial full widths at half maximum (FWHMs) were 1.52, 1.47 and 1.48 mm. Recovery coefficients for the uniform region with a total activity of 8 MBq in the phantom were (0.97 ± 0.05), (0.98 ± 0.06), (0.98 ± 0.06) for {sup 18}F, {sup 68}Ga and {sup 64}Cu, respectively. The Albira II pre-clinical PET system has an adequate sensitivity range and the system linearity is suitable for the range of activities used for pre-clinical imaging. Overall, the system showed a favorable image

  20. SU-E-J-88: Margin Reduction of Level II/III Planning Target Volume for Image-Guided Simultaneous Integrated Boost Head-And-Neck Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Can, S; Neylon, J; Qi, S; Santhanam, A; Low, D

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of improved normal tissue sparing for head-and-neck (H'N) image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) by employing tighter CTV-to-PTV margins for target level II/III though a GPU-based deformable image registration and dose accumulation framework. Methods: Ten H'N simultaneous integrated boost cases treated on TomoTherapy were retrospectively analyzed. Weekly kVCT scans in addition to daily MVCT scans were acquired for each patient. Reduced margin plans were generated with 0- mm margin for level II and III PTV (while 3-5 mm margin for PTV1) and compared with the standard margin plan using 3-5mm margin to all CTV1-3 (reference plan). An in-house developed GPU-based 3D image deformation tool was used to register and deform the weekly KVCTs with the planning CT and determine the delivered mean/minimum/maximum dose, dose volume histograms (DVHs), etc. Results: Compared with the reference plans, the averaged cord maximum, the right and left parotid doses reduced by 22.7 %, 16.5 %, and 9 % respectively in the reduced margin plans. The V95 for PTV2 and PTV3 were found within 2 and 5% between the reference and tighter margin plans. For the reduced margin plans, the averaged cumulative mean doses were consistent with the planned dose for PTV1, PTV2 and PTV3 within 1.5%, 1.7% and 1.4%. Similar dose variations of the delivered dose were seen for the reference and tighter margin plans. The delivered maximum and mean doses for the cord were 3.55 % and 2.37% higher than the planned doses; a 5 % higher cumulative mean dose for the parotids was also observed for the delivered dose than the planned doses in both plans. Conclusion: By imposing tighter CTV-to-PTV margins for level II and III targets for H'N irradiation, acceptable cumulative doses were achievable when coupled with weekly kVCT guidance while improving normal structure sparing

  1. 47 CFR 25.143 - Licensing provisions for the 1.6/2.4 GHz mobile-satellite service and 2 GHz mobile-satellite...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Licensing provisions for the 1.6/2.4 GHz mobile-satellite service and 2 GHz mobile-satellite service. 25.143 Section 25.143 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Applications and Licenses...

  2. 47 CFR 25.139 - NGSO FSS coordination and information sharing between MVDDS licensees in the 12.2 GHz to 12.7 GHz...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false NGSO FSS coordination and information sharing between MVDDS licensees in the 12.2 GHz to 12.7 GHz band. 25.139 Section 25.139 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Applications and Licenses...

  3. Vascular thrombus imaging in vivo via near-infrared fluorescent nanodiamond particles bioengineered with the disintegrin bitistatin (Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerstenhaber JA

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Jonathan A Gerstenhaber,1,* Frank C Barone,2,* Cezary Marcinkiewicz,1,3 Jie Li,2 Aaron O Shiloh,4 Mark Sternberg,3 Peter I Lelkes,1,* Giora Feuerstein1,3,* 1Department of Bioengineering, College of Engineering, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, 2Department of Neurology, State University of New York Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY, 3Debina Diagnostic Inc., Newtown Square, 4Diagnostic Imaging, Inc., Philadelphia, PA, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: The aim of this feasibility study was to test the ability of fluorescent nanodiamond particles (F-NDP covalently conjugated with bitistatin (F-NDP-Bit to detect vascular blood clots in vivo using extracorporeal near-infrared (NIR imaging. Specifically, we compared NIR fluorescence properties of F-NDP with N-V (F-NDPNV and N-V-N color centers and sizes (100–10,000 nm. Optimal NIR fluorescence and tissue penetration across biological tissues (rat skin, porcine axillary veins, and skin was obtained for F-NDPNV with a mean diameter of 700 nm. Intravital imaging (using in vivo imaging system [IVIS] in vitro revealed that F-NDPNV-loaded glass capillaries could be detected across 6 mm of rat red-muscle barrier and 12 mm of porcine skin, which equals the average vertical distance of a human carotid artery bifurcation from the surface of the adjacent skin (14 mm. In vivo, feasibility was demonstrated in a rat model of occlusive blood clots generated using FeCl3 in the carotid artery bifurcation. Following systemic infusions of F-NDPNV-Bit (3 or 15 mg/kg via the external carotid artery or femoral vein (N=3, presence of the particles in the thrombi was confirmed both in situ via IVIS, and ex vivo via confocal imaging. The presence of F-NDPNV in the vascular clots was further confirmed by direct counting of fluorescent particles extracted from clots following tissue solubilization. Our data suggest that F-NDPNV-Bit associate with vascular blood clots, presumably by binding

  4. First plasmas in the TJ-II flexible Heliac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alejaldre, C.; Alonso, J.; Almoguera, L.

    1999-01-01

    First plasmas have been successfully achieved in the TJ-II stellarator using electron cyclotron resonance heating (f = 53.2 GHz, P ECRH = 250 kW). Initial experiments have explored the TJ-II flexibility in a wide range of plasma volumes, different rotational transform and magnetic well values. In this paper, the main results of this campaign are presented and, in particular, the influence of plasma wall interaction phenomena on TJ-II operation is discussed briefly. (author)

  5. Investigation of detection limits for diffuse optical tomography systems: II. Analysis of slab and cup geometry for breast imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Ronny; Brendel, Bernhard; Rinneberg, Herbert; Nielsen, Tim

    2009-01-21

    Using a statistical (chi-square) test on simulated data and a realistic noise model derived from the system's hardware we study the performance of diffuse optical tomography systems for fluorescence imaging. We compare the predicted smallest size of detectable lesions at various positions in slab and cup geometry and model how detection sensitivity depends on breast compression and lesion fluorescence contrast. Our investigation shows that lesion detection is limited by relative noise in slab geometry and by absolute noise in cup geometry.

  6. Ultrasonographic and magnetic resonance imaging findings of transitional ceII carcinoma arising at penile fossa navicularis: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Woo; Cho, Jae Ho; Jang, Han Won; Kim, Dong Sug; Moon, Gi Hak [College of Medicine, Yeungnam Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-08-01

    Primary carcinoma of the male urethra are rare. Among the malignant tumors of the male urethra, squamous cell carcinoma is the most common. Transitional cell carcinoma is very rare, particularly in the distal urethra. We experienced a case of distal urethral transitional cell carcinoma, arising at the fossa navicuIaris of the penis, which we report here with a review of the literature. A 68-year-old male patient presented with bloody discharge from the prepuce for 1 month. Ultrasonography showed a poorly marginating, heterogeneous mass, invading the glans penis and the corpus spongiosum. The mass encircled the glandular urethra of the penis glans, and obstructed the glandular urethra and the fossa navicularis. A Doppler ultrasonogram revealed hypervascularity in this mass. The mass was isointense to the corpus carvernosum on the T1-weighted images and slightly hypointense to the corpus carvernosum on the T2-weighted images. Contrast-enhanced MR imaging showed a poorly enhancing mass in the glans penis. This mass was confirmed as a transitional cell carcinoma by histologic study and a partial penectomy was performed.

  7. Ultrasonographic and magnetic resonance imaging findings of transitional ceII carcinoma arising at penile fossa navicularis: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Woo; Cho, Jae Ho; Jang, Han Won; Kim, Dong Sug; Moon, Gi Hak

    2004-01-01

    Primary carcinoma of the male urethra are rare. Among the malignant tumors of the male urethra, squamous cell carcinoma is the most common. Transitional cell carcinoma is very rare, particularly in the distal urethra. We experienced a case of distal urethral transitional cell carcinoma, arising at the fossa navicuIaris of the penis, which we report here with a review of the literature. A 68-year-old male patient presented with bloody discharge from the prepuce for 1 month. Ultrasonography showed a poorly marginating, heterogeneous mass, invading the glans penis and the corpus spongiosum. The mass encircled the glandular urethra of the penis glans, and obstructed the glandular urethra and the fossa navicularis. A Doppler ultrasonogram revealed hypervascularity in this mass. The mass was isointense to the corpus carvernosum on the T1-weighted images and slightly hypointense to the corpus carvernosum on the T2-weighted images. Contrast-enhanced MR imaging showed a poorly enhancing mass in the glans penis. This mass was confirmed as a transitional cell carcinoma by histologic study and a partial penectomy was performed

  8. Molecular Spectroscopy With a Compact 557-GHz Heterodyne Receiver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumaier, Philipp F.-X.; Richter, Heiko; Stake, Jan

    2014-01-01

    We report on a heterodyne terahertz spectrometer based on a fully integrated 557-GHz receiver and a digital fast Fourier transform spectrometer. The receiver consists of a chain of multipliers and power amplifiers, followed by a heterostructure barrier varactor tripler that subharmonically pumps...... a membrane GaAs Schottky diode mixer. All sub-components are newly developed and optimized with regard to the overall receiver performance such as noise temperature, power consumption, weight and physical size. The receiver works at room temperature, has a double sideband noise temperature as low as 2000 K...

  9. Feasibility studies for a wireless 60 GHz tracking detector readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dittmeier, S.; Schöning, A.; Soltveit, H.K.; Wiedner, D.

    2016-01-01

    The amount of data produced by highly granular silicon tracking detectors in high energy physics experiments poses a major challenge to readout systems. At high collision rates, e.g. at LHC experiments, only a small fraction of data can be read out with currently used technologies. To cope with the requirements of future or upgraded experiments new data transfer techniques are required which offer high data rates at low power and low material budget. Wireless technologies operating in the 60 GHz band or at higher frequencies offer high data rates and are thus a promising upcoming alternative to conventional data transmission via electrical cables or optical fibers. Using wireless technology, the amount of cables and connectors in detectors can be significantly reduced. Tracking detectors profit most from a reduced material budget as fewer secondary particle interactions (multiple Coulomb scattering, energy loss, etc.) improve the tracking performance in general. We present feasibility studies regarding the integration of the wireless technology at 60 GHz into a silicon tracking detector. We use spare silicon strip modules of the ATLAS experiment as test samples which are measured to be opaque in the 60 GHz range. The reduction of cross talk between links and the attenuation of reflections is studied. An estimate of the maximum achievable link density is given. It is shown that wireless links can be placed as close as 2 cm next to each other for a layer distance of 10 cm by exploiting one or several of the following measures: highly directive antennas, absorbers like graphite foam, linear polarization and frequency channeling. Combining these measures, a data rate area density of up to 11 Tb/(s·m"2) seems feasible. In addition, two types of silicon sensors are tested under mm-wave irradiation in order to determine the influence of 60 GHz data transmission on the detector performance: an ATLAS silicon strip sensor module and an HV-MAPS prototype for the Mu3e

  10. 100 GHz Externally Modulated Laser for Optical Interconnects Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ozolins, Oskars; Pang, Xiaodan; Iglesias Olmedo, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    We report on a 116 Gb/s on-off keying (OOK), four pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) and 105-Gb/s 8-PAM optical transmitter using an InP-based integrated and packaged externally modulated laser for high-speed optical interconnects with up to 30 dB static extinction ratio and over 100-GHz 3-d......B bandwidth with 2 dB ripple. In addition, we study the tradeoff between power penalty and equalizer length to foresee transmission distances with standard single mode fiber....

  11. Influence of 2. 45 GHz microwave radiation on enzyme activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galvin, M J; Parks, D L; McRee, D I

    1981-05-01

    The in vitro activity of acetylcholinesterase and creatine phosphokinase was determined during in vitro exposure to 2.45 GHz microwave radiation. The enzyme activities were examined during exposure to microwave radiation at specific absorption rates (SAR) of 1, 10, 50, and 100 mW/g. These specific absorption rates had no effect on the activity of either enzyme when the temperature of the control and exposed samples were similar. These data demonstrate that the activity of these two enzymes is not affected by microwave radiation at the SARs and frequency employed in this study.

  12. 280 GHz Gyro-BWO design study: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-07-01

    This report summarizes the results of a design study of a 280 GHz Gyro-BWO tunable source. The purpose of this study is to identify and propose viable design alternatives for any significant technological risk associated with building an operational BWO system. The tunable Gyro-BWO system will have three major components: a Gyro-BWO microwave tube, a superconducting magnet, and a power supply/modulator. The design tasks for this study in order of decreasing importance are: design and specification of the superconducting magnet; preliminary design and layout of a Gyro-BWO microwave tube; and specification for the power supply/modulator. 2 refs., 4 figs

  13. 60 GHz Wireless Propagation Channels: Characterization, Modeling and Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Gustafson, Carl

    2014-01-01

    To be able to connect wirelessly to the internet is nowadays a part of everyday life and the number of wireless devices accessing wireless networks worldwide are increasing rapidly. However, with the increasing number of wireless devices and applications and the amount available bandwidth, spectrum shortage is an issue. A promising way to increase the amount of available spectrum is to utilize frequency bands in the mm-wave range of 30-300 GHz that previously have not been used for typical co...

  14. Water vapor absorption in the atmospheric window at 239 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, A.; Godon, M.; Carlier, J.; Ma, Q.

    1995-01-01

    Absolute absorption rates of pure water vapor and mixtures of water vapor and nitrogen have been measured in the atmospheric window at 239 GHz. The dependence on pressure as well as temperature has been obtained. The experimental data are compared with several theoretical or empirical models, and satisfactory agreement is obtained with the models involving a continuum; in the case of pure water vapor, the continuum contribution based upon recent theoretical developments gives good results. The temperature dependence is stronger than that proposed in a commonly used atmospheric transmission model.

  15. 24-71 GHz PCB Array for 5G ISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Markus H.; Volakis, John L.; Miranda, Felix A.

    2017-01-01

    Millimeter-wave 5G mobile architectures need to consolidate disparate frequency bands into a single, multifunctional array. Existing arrays are either narrow-band, prohibitively expensive or cannot be scaled to these frequencies. In this paper, we present the first ultra-wideband millimeter wave array to operate across six 5G and ISM bands spanning 24-71 GHz. Importantly, the array is realized using low-cost PCB. The paper presents the design and optimized layout, and discusses fabrication and measurements.

  16. The 30/20 GHz experimental communications satellite system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivo, J. N.

    NASA is continuing to pursue an agressive satellite communications technology development program focused on the 30/20 GHz frequency band. A review of the program progress to date is presented. Included is a discussion of the technology program status as well as a description of the experimental system concept under study. Expected system performance characteristics together with spacecraft and payload configuration details including weight and power budget is presented. Overall program schedules of both the technology development and the flight system development are included.

  17. Design and modeling of a 17 GHz photocathode RF gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, C.L.; Chen, S.C.; Wurtele, J.S.; Temkin, R.; Danly, B.

    1991-01-01

    The performance of a high-frequency (17 GHz), high accelerating gradient (250 MV/m) photocathode RF gun is studied with the particle-in-cell code MAGIC. For the parameter regime of interest, i.e. bunch charge smaller than 1 nC and bunch length shorter than 2 ps, space-charge forces and finite bunch length effects are less significant in determining the beam quality than nonlinear RF forces are. The cavity geometry, RF phase for photoemission, cathode size, and current density are being optimized to obtain high quality beams. Preliminary results are presented

  18. Feasibility studies for a wireless 60 GHz tracking detector readout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dittmeier, S., E-mail: dittmeier@physi.uni-heidelberg.de; Schöning, A.; Soltveit, H.K.; Wiedner, D.

    2016-09-11

    The amount of data produced by highly granular silicon tracking detectors in high energy physics experiments poses a major challenge to readout systems. At high collision rates, e.g. at LHC experiments, only a small fraction of data can be read out with currently used technologies. To cope with the requirements of future or upgraded experiments new data transfer techniques are required which offer high data rates at low power and low material budget. Wireless technologies operating in the 60 GHz band or at higher frequencies offer high data rates and are thus a promising upcoming alternative to conventional data transmission via electrical cables or optical fibers. Using wireless technology, the amount of cables and connectors in detectors can be significantly reduced. Tracking detectors profit most from a reduced material budget as fewer secondary particle interactions (multiple Coulomb scattering, energy loss, etc.) improve the tracking performance in general. We present feasibility studies regarding the integration of the wireless technology at 60 GHz into a silicon tracking detector. We use spare silicon strip modules of the ATLAS experiment as test samples which are measured to be opaque in the 60 GHz range. The reduction of cross talk between links and the attenuation of reflections is studied. An estimate of the maximum achievable link density is given. It is shown that wireless links can be placed as close as 2 cm next to each other for a layer distance of 10 cm by exploiting one or several of the following measures: highly directive antennas, absorbers like graphite foam, linear polarization and frequency channeling. Combining these measures, a data rate area density of up to 11 Tb/(s·m{sup 2}) seems feasible. In addition, two types of silicon sensors are tested under mm-wave irradiation in order to determine the influence of 60 GHz data transmission on the detector performance: an ATLAS silicon strip sensor module and an HV-MAPS prototype for the Mu3e

  19. High power testing of a 17 GHz photocathode RF gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.C.; Danly, B.G.; Gonichon, J.

    1995-01-01

    The physics and technological issues involved in high gradient particle acceleration at high microwave (RF) frequencies are under study at MIT. The 17 GHz photocathode RF gun has a 1 1/2 cell (π mode) room temperature cooper cavity. High power tests have been conducted at 5-10 MW levels with 100 ns pulses. A maximum surface electric field of 250 MV/m was achieved. This corresponds to an average on-axis gradient of 150 MeV/m. The gradient was also verified by a preliminary electron beam energy measurement. Even high gradients are expected in our next cavity design

  20. A 30 GHz 5-TeV Linear Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, Perry B

    2003-01-01

    We present parameters for a linear collider with a 3 to 5 TeV center-of-mass energy that utilizes conventional rf technology operating at a frequency around 30 GHz. We discuss the scaling laws and assumed limitations that lead to the parameters described and we compare the merits and liabilities of different technological options including rf power source, accelerator structure, and final focus system design. Finally, we outline the components of the collider while specifying the required alignment and construction tolerances

  1. Transmission Line for 258 GHz Gyrotron DNP Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdashov, Alexandr A.; Belousov, Vladimir I.; Chirkov, Alexey V.; Denisov, Gregory G.; Korchagin, Vyacheslav V.; Kornishin, Sergey Yu.; Tai, Evgeny M.

    2011-06-01

    We describe the design and test results of the transmission line for liquid-state (LS) and solid-state (SS) DNP spectrometers with the second-harmonic 258.6 GHz gyrotron at the Institute of the Biophysical Chemistry Center of Goethe University (Frankfurt). The 13-meter line includes a mode converter, HE11 waveguides, 4 mitre bends, a variable polarizer-attenuator, directional couplers, a water-flow calorimeter and a mechanical switch. A microwave power of about 15 W was obtained in the pure HE11 mode at the spectrometer inputs.

  2. Ru(II)-polypyridyl surface functionalised gold nanoparticles as DNA targeting supramolecular structures and luminescent cellular imaging agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Calvo, Miguel; Orange, Kim N; Elmes, Robert B P; la Cour Poulsen, Bjørn; Williams, D Clive; Gunnlaugsson, Thorfinnur

    2016-01-07

    The development of Ru(II) functionalized gold nanoparticles 1–3·AuNP is described. These systems were found to be mono-disperse with a hydrodynamic radius of ca. 15 nm in water but gave rise to the formation of higher order structures in buffered solution. The interaction of 1–3·AuNP with DNA was also studied by spectroscopic and microscopic methods and suggested the formation of large self-assembly structures in solution. The uptake of 1–3·AuNP by cancer cells was studied using both confocal fluorescence as well as transmission electron microscopy (TEM), with the aim of investigating their potential as tools for cellular biology. These systems displaying a non-toxic profile with favourable photophysical properties may have application across various biological fields including diagnostics and therapeutics.

  3. Microscopic study of dental hard tissues in primary teeth with Dentinogenesis Imperfecta Type II: Correlation of 3D imaging using X-ray microtomography and polarising microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Graham R; Fearne, Janice M; Sabel, Nina; Norén, Jörgen G

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the histological appearance of dental hard tissues in primary teeth from children with DI using conventional polarised light microscopy and correlate that with 3D imaging using X-ray microtomograpy (XMT) to gain a further understanding of the dentine structure of teeth diagnosed with dentinogenesis imperfecta. Undecalcified sections of primary teeth from patients diagnosed with Dentinogenesis Imperfecta Type II were examined using polarised light microscopy. XMT was employed for 3D-imaging and analysis of the dentine. The polarised light microscopy and XMT revealed tubular structures in the dentine seen as vacuoles coinciding with the path of normal dentinal tubules but not continuous tubules. The size of the tubules was close to that of capillaries. The largest tubular structures had a direction corresponding to where the pulp tissue would have been located during primary dentine formation. The dysfunctional mineralisation of the dentine and obliteration of the pulp evidently leaves blood vessels in the dentine which have in the main been tied off and, in the undecalcified sections, appear as vacuoles. Although from radiographs, the pulp in teeth affected by Dentinogenesis Imperfect type II appears to be completely obliterated, a network of interconnected vessels may remain. The presence of large dentinal tubules and blood vessels, or the remnants of blood vessels, could provide a pathway for bacteria from the oral cavity. This might account for why some of these teeth develop periapical abscesses in spite of apparently having no pulp. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Coumarin-Based Fluorescent Probes for Dual Recognition of Copper(II and Iron(III Ions and Their Application in Bio-Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olimpo García-Beltrán

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Two new coumarin-based “turn-off” fluorescent probes, (E-3-((3,4-dihydroxybenzylideneamino-7-hydroxy-2H-chromen-2-one (BS1 and (E-3-((2,4-dihydroxybenzylideneamino-7-hydroxy-2H-chromen-2-one (BS2, were synthesized and their detection of copper(II and iron(III ions was studied. Results show that both compounds are highly selective for Cu2+ and Fe3+ ions over other metal ions. However, BS2 is detected directly, while detection of BS1 involves a hydrolysis reaction to regenerate 3-amino-7-hydroxycoumarin (3 and 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde, of which 3 is able to react with copper(II or iron(III ions. The interaction between the tested compounds and copper or iron ions is associated with a large fluorescence decrease, showing detection limits of ca. 10−5 M. Preliminary studies employing epifluorescence microscopy demonstrate that Cu2+ and Fe3+ ions can be imaged in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells treated with the tested probes.

  5. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Radio image of Luminous Infrared Galaxies (Vardoulaki+, 2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardoulaki, E.; Charmandaris, V.; Murphy, E. J.; Diaz-Santos, T.; Armus, L.; Evans, A.; Mazzarella, J. M.; Privon, G. C.; Stierwalt, S.; Barcos-Munoz, L.

    2014-09-01

    VLA images at 1.49GHz (name_A2000.fits) and at 8.44GHz (name_X2000.fits). All images are in J2000 coordinates. Some maps contain both interacting galaxies of the system, while others are separated and marked accordingly. (2 data files).

  6. Signatures of human skin in the millimetre wave band (80-100) GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owda, Amani Y.; Rezgui, Nacer-Ddine; Salmon, Neil A.

    2017-10-01

    With the performance of millimeter wave security screening imagers improving (reduced speckle, greater sensitivity, and better spatial resolution) attention is turning to identification of anomalies which appear on the human body. Key to this identification is the understanding of how the emissive and reflective properties vary over the human body and between different categories of people, defined by age and gender for example. As the interaction of millimetre waves with the human body is only a fraction of a millimetre into the skin, precise measurement of the emission and reflection of this radiation will allow comparisons with the norm for that region of the body and person category. On an automated basis at security screening portals, this will increase detection probabilities and reduce false alarm rates, ensuring high throughputs at entrances to future airport departure lounges and transport networks. A technique to measure the human skin emissivity in vivo over the frequency band 80 GHz to 100 GHz is described. The emissivities of the skin of a sample of 60 healthy participants (36 males and 24 females) measured using a 90 GHz calibrated radiometer was found to range from 0.17+/-0.002 to 0.68+/-0.002. The radiometric measurements were made at four locations on the arm, namely: palm of hand, back of hand, dorsal surface of the forearm, and volar side of the forearm, where the water content and the skin thickness are known to be different. These measurements show significant variation in emissivity from person to person and, more importantly, significant variation at different locations on the arms of individuals. Males were found to have an emissivity 0.03 higher than those of females. The emissivity of the back of the hand, where the skin is thinner and the blood vessels are closer to the skin surface, was found to be lower by 0.0681 than the emissivity of the palm of the hand, where the skin is thicker. The measurements also show that the emissivity of the

  7. Advanced laser-backlit grazing-incidence x-ray imaging systems for inertial confinement fusion research. II. Tolerance analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, Guy R.; Folta, James A.

    2001-01-01

    Two example ultrahigh-spatial resolution laser-backlit grazing-incidence x-ray microscope designs for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) research have been described [Appl. Opt. 40, 4570 (2001)]. Here details of fabrication, assembly, and optical surface errors that are characteristic of present state-of-the-art superpolished multilayer-coated spherical mirrors are given. They indicate that good image qualities can be expected; in particular, <0.5-μm spatial resolution at very high x-ray energies (up to 25 keV) appears to be feasible. Existing ICF imaging diagnostics approach ∼2 μm spatial at low (<2 keV) energy. The improvement in resolution compared with that of other grazing-incidence devices is attributed to a fortuitous residual on-axis aberration dependence on short wavelengths; recent advances in mirror fabrication, including a new thin-film deposition technique to correct figure errors precisely in one dimension; and novel design. For even higher resolution, a means of creating precise aspherical mirrors of spheric-quality microroughness may be possible by use of the same deposition technique

  8. Green synthesis of nitrogen-doped carbon dots from lotus root for Hg(II) ions detection and cell imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Dan; Shang, Shaoming, E-mail: smshang@jiangnan.edu.cn; Yu, Qin; Shen, Jie

    2016-12-30

    Graphical abstract: Fluorescent nitrogen-doped carbon dots were synthesized by a facile, green, and fast microwave method, using lotus root as carbon source. These nitrogen-doped carbon dots can be used for Hg{sup 2+} detection and cell imaging. - Highlights: • A green, fast strategy for synthesizing carbon dots was established. • A simple, sensitive, selective and wide linear range sensing of Hg{sup 2+} was developed. • The sensor system was demonstrated to detect Hg{sup 2+} in environmental water sample. • The carbon dots could serve for multicolor fluorescence bioimaging. - Abstract: Herein, a facile, green, and fast method was developed in the synthesis of fluorescent nitrogen-doped carbon dots (CDs) with nitrogen content of 5.23%, using one-pot microwave treatment of lotus root (LR), without using any other surface passivation agents. The results show that these LR-CDs (with an average diameter of 9.41 nm) possess many outstanding features and have a high quantum yield of 19.0%. We further demonstrated applications of LR-CDs as probes for heavy metal ion detection. The LR-CDs exhibit captivating sensitivity and selectivity toward Hg{sup 2+} with a linear range from 0.1 to 60.0 μM and a detection limit of 18.7 nM. Eventually, the LR-CDs were applied for multicolor cell imaging, demonstrating their potential toward diverse applications.

  9. A six-membered-ring incorporated Si-rhodamine for imaging of copper(ii) in lysosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Baogang; Cui, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Chai, Xiaoyun; Ding, Hao; Wu, Qiuye; Guo, Zhongwu; Wang, Ting

    2016-07-12

    The regulation of copper homeostasis in lysosomes of living cells is closely related to various physiological and pathological processes. Thus, it is of urgent need to develop a fluorescent probe for selectively and sensitively monitoring the location and concentration of lysosomal Cu(2+). Herein, a six-membered ring, thiosemicarbazide, was incorporated into a Si-rhodamine (SiR) scaffold for the first time, affording a SiR-based fluorescent probe SiRB-Cu. Through the effective Cu(2+)-triggered ring-opening process, the probe exhibits fast NIR chromogenic and fluorogenic responses to Cu(2+) within 2 min as the result of formation of a highly fluorescent product SiR-NCS. Compared with a five-membered ring, the expanded ring retains great tolerance to H(+), ensuring the superior sensitivity with a detection limit as low as 7.7 nM and 200-fold enhancement of relative fluorescence in the presence of 1.0 equiv. of Cu(2+) in pH = 5.0 solution, the physiological pH of lysosome. Moreover, the thiosemicarbazide moiety acts not only as the chelating and reactive site, but also as an efficient lysosome-targeting group, leading to the proactive accumulation of the probe into lysosomes. Taking advantage of these distinct properties, SiRB-Cu provides a functional probe suitable for imaging exogenous and endogenous lysosomal Cu(2+) with high imaging contrast and fidelity.

  10. AN ACCURATE FLUX DENSITY SCALE FROM 1 TO 50 GHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perley, R. A.; Butler, B. J.

    2013-01-01

    We develop an absolute flux density scale for centimeter-wavelength astronomy by combining accurate flux density ratios determined by the Very Large Array between the planet Mars and a set of potential calibrators with the Rudy thermophysical emission model of Mars, adjusted to the absolute scale established by the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe. The radio sources 3C123, 3C196, 3C286, and 3C295 are found to be varying at a level of less than ∼5% per century at all frequencies between 1 and 50 GHz, and hence are suitable as flux density standards. We present polynomial expressions for their spectral flux densities, valid from 1 to 50 GHz, with absolute accuracy estimated at 1%-3% depending on frequency. Of the four sources, 3C286 is the most compact and has the flattest spectral index, making it the most suitable object on which to establish the spectral flux density scale. The sources 3C48, 3C138, 3C147, NGC 7027, NGC 6542, and MWC 349 show significant variability on various timescales. Polynomial coefficients for the spectral flux density are developed for 3C48, 3C138, and 3C147 for each of the 17 observation dates, spanning 1983-2012. The planets Venus, Uranus, and Neptune are included in our observations, and we derive their brightness temperatures over the same frequency range.

  11. Initial tests of an 11.4 GHz magnicon amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gold, S.H.; Sullivan, C.A.; Manheimer, W.M.; Hafizi, B.

    1994-01-01

    The magnicon, a scanning beam microwave amplifier related to the gyrocon, is a possible replacement for klystron amplifiers in future high-gradient linear accelerators. The magnicon circuit consists of a multicavity deflection system followed by an output cavity. The purpose of the deflection system is to spin up the electron beam phase-coherently to high transverse momentum. In order to do this, the deflection cavities employ rotating TM 11 modes, producing a gyrating electron beam whose centroid rotates about the cavity axis in synchronism with the advance in phase of the rf modes. The output cavity employs a cyclotron resonant mechanism to extract principally the transverse beam momentum. It employs an rf mode that rotates synchronously with the deflection cavity modes, and with the entry point of the electron beam into the output cavity, making possible a highly efficient interaction. The NRL magnicon uses a 100--200 A, 500 keV beam produced by a cold-cathode diode on the NRL Long-Pulse Accelerator Facility. The first cavity is externally driven at 5.7 GHz, while the output cavity is designed to produce megawatts of power at 11.4 GHz in the TM 210 mode. In this paper, the authors present a progress report on the NRL magnicon experiment. They will discuss the procedure used to cold test and calibrate the magnicon circuit, and present initial results from experimental operations

  12. A mechanism for tuning 5 GHz HTS filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohsaka, M.; Takeuchi, S.; Ono, S.; Lee, J.H.; Saito, A. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Yamagata University, 4-3-16 Johnan, Yonezawa 992-8510 (Japan); Akasegawa, A.; Yamanaka, K.; Kurihara, K. [Fujitsu LTD., 10-1 Wakamiya, Morinosato, Atsugi, Kanagawa 243-0197 (Japan); Ohshima, S. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Yamagata University, 4-3-16 Johnan, Yonezawa 992-8510 (Japan)], E-mail: ohshima@yz.yamagata-u.ac.jp

    2008-09-15

    We developed a tuning mechanism of HTS filter with a dielectric tuning plate, dielectric trimming rods, and conducting trimming rods. The tuning plate has windows through which the dielectric and conducting trimming rods pass. The tuning plate was designed for a 3-pole filter with 5 GHz center frequency (f{sub c}) and 100 MHz bandwidth (BW) using a 3-dimensional electromagnetic simulator. We were able to shift the f{sub c} to frequencies below 500 MHz using the tuning plate with a dielectric constant of 45. However, the insertion loss (IL) and the pass-band ripple of the filter became more severe and the BW of the filter was narrower after tuning. We tried to improve the filter properties after tuning using the dielectric and conducting trimming rods. We decreased the IL and the pass-band ripple by adjusting the height of the dielectric trimming rods to above the resonators. Also, the BW was improved by using copper (Cu) trimming rods above the spaces between the resonators. The tuning plate and the trimming rods did not affect the IL. So, we simulated 500 MHz tuning without the filter properties deteriorating at f{sub c} = 5 GHz. Also, we experimentally evaluated that the f{sub c} could be shifted to 340 MHz using the dielectric plate, the pass-band ripple could be decreased by ripple trimming using the dielectric rods, and the BW could be increased 31 MHz by BW trimming using the Cu rods.

  13. Velocity diagnostics of electron beams within a 140 GHz gyrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polevoy, J.T.

    1989-06-01

    Experimental measurements of the average axial velocity v parallel of the electron beam within the M.I.T. 140 GHz MW gyrotron have been performed. The method involves the simultaneous measurement of the radial electrostatic potential of the electron beam V p and the beam current I b . V p is measured through the use of a capacitive probe installed near or within the gyrotron cavity, while I b is measured with a previously installed Rogowski coil. Three capacitive probes have been designed and built, and two have operated within the gyrotron. The probe results are repeatable and consistent with theory. The measurements of v parallel and calculations of the corresponding transverse to longitudinal beam velocity ratio α = v perpendicular /v parallel at the cavity have been made at various gyrotron operation parameters. These measurements will provide insight into the causes of discrepancies between theoretical rf interaction efficiencies and experimental efficiencies obtained in experiments with the M.I.T. 140 GHz MW gyrotron. The expected values of v parallel and α are determined through the use of a computer code entitled EGUN. EGUN is used to model the cathode and anode regions of the gyrotron and it computes the trajectories and velocities of the electrons within the gyrotron. There is good correlation between the expected and measured values of α at low α, with the expected values from EGUN often falling within the standard errors of the measured values. 10 refs., 29 figs., 2 tabs

  14. Test results from the LLNL 250 GHz CARM experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulke, B.; Caplan, M.; Bubp, D.; Houck, T.; Rogers, D.; Trimble, D.; VanMaren, R.; Westenskow, G.; McDermott, D.B.; Luhmann, N.C. Jr.; Danly, B.

    1991-01-01

    The authors have completed the initial phase of a 250 GHz CARM experiment, driven by the 2 MeV, 1 kA, 30 ns induction linac at the LLNL ARC facility. A non-Brillouin, solid, electron beam is generated from a flux-threaded, thermionic cathode. As the beam traverses a 10 kG plateau produced by a superconducting magnet, ten percent of the beam energy is converted into rotational energy in a bifilar helix wiggler that produces a spiraling, 50 G, transverse magnetic field. The beam is then compressed to a 5 mm diameter as it drifts into a 30 kG plateau. For the present experiment, the CARM interaction region consisted of a single Bragg section resonator, followed by a smooth-bore amplifier section. Using high-pass filters, they have observed broadband output signals estimated to be at the several megawatt level in the range 140 to over 230 GHz. This is consistent with operation as a superradiant amplifier. Simultaneously, they also observed K a band power levels near 3 MW

  15. Prospect for a 60 GHz multicharged ECR ion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuillier, T.; Bondoux, D.; Angot, J.; Baylac, M.; Froidefond, E.; Jacob, J.; Lamy, T.; Leduc, A.; Sole, P.; Debray, F.; Trophime, C.; Skalyga, V.; Izotov, I.

    2018-05-01

    The conceptual design of a fourth generation hybrid electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source operated at 60 GHz is proposed. The axial magnetic mirror is generated with a set of three Nb3Sn coils, while the hexapole is made with room temperature (RT) copper coils. The motivations for such a hybrid development are to study further the ECR plasma physics and the intense multicharged ion beams' production and transport at a time when a superconducting (SC) hexapole appears unrealistic at 60 GHz. The RT hexapole coil designed is an evolution of the polyhelix technology developed at the French High Magnetic Field Facility. The axial magnetic field is generated by means of 3 Nb3Sn SC coils operated with a maximum current density of 350 A/mm2 and a maximum coil load line factor of 81%. The ECR plasma chamber resulting from the design features an inner radius of 94 mm and a length of 500 mm. The radial magnetic intensity is 4.1 T at the wall. Characteristic axial mirror peaks are 8 and 4.5 T, with 1.45 T minimum in between.

  16. Test results from the LLNL 250 GHz CARM experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulke, B.; Caplan, M.; Bubp, D.; Houck, T.; Rogers, D.; Trimble, D.; VanMaren, R.; Westenskow, G.; McDermott, D.B.; Luhmann, N.C. Jr.; Danly, B.

    1991-05-01

    We have completed the initial phase of a 250 GHz CARM experiment, driven by the 2 MeV, 1 kA, 30 ns induction linac at the LLNL ARC facility. A non-Brillouin, solid, electron beam is generated from a flux-threaded, thermionic cathode. As the beam traverses a 10 kG plateau produced by a superconducting magnet, ten percent of the beam energy is converted into rotational energy in a bifilar helix wiggler that produces a spiraling, 50 G, transverse magnetic field. The beam is then compressed to a 5 mm diameter as it drifts into a 30 kG plateau. For the present experiment, the CARM interaction region consisted of a single Bragg section resonator, followed by a smooth-bore amplifier section. Using high-pass filters, we have observed broadband output signals estimated to be at the several megawatt level in the range 140 to over 230 GHz. This is consistent with operation as a superradiant amplifier. Simultaneously, we also observed K a band power levels near 3 MW

  17. ATLAS 10 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source upgrade project

    CERN Document Server

    Moehs, D P; Pardo, R C; Xie, D

    2000-01-01

    A major upgrade of the first ATLAS 10 GHz electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source, which began operations in 1987, is in the planning and procurement phase. The new design will convert the old two-stage source into a single-stage source with an electron donor disk and high gradient magnetic field that preserves radial access for solid material feeds and pumping of the plasma chamber. The new magnetic-field profile allows for the possibility of a second ECR zone at a frequency of 14 GHz. An open hexapole configuration, using a high-energy-product Nd-Fe-B magnet material, having an inner diameter of 8.8 cm and pole gaps of 2.4 cm, has been adopted. Models indicate that the field strengths at the chamber wall, 4 cm in radius, will be 9.3 kG along the magnet poles and 5.6 kG along the pole gaps. The individual magnet bars will be housed in austenitic stainless steel, allowing the magnet housing within the aluminum plasma chamber to be used as a water channel for direct cooling of the magnets. Eight solenoid...

  18. Observation of 45 GHz current waveforms using HTS sampler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, M.; Suzuki, H.; Hato, T.; Wakana, H.; Nakayama, K.; Ishimaru, Y.; Horibe, O.; Adachi, S.; Kamitani, A.; Suzuki, K.; Oshikubo, Y.; Tarutani, Y.; Tanabe, K.

    2005-01-01

    We succeeded in observing high-frequency current waveforms up to 45 GHz using a high-temperature superconducting (HTS) sampler. In this experiment, we used a sampler circuit with a superconducting pickup coil, which magnetically detects current signals flowing through a micro-strip line on a printed board placed outside the cryochamber. This type of measurement enables non-contact current-waveform observation that seems useful for analyses of EMI, defects in LSI, etc. Computer simulation reveals that one of our latest versions of HTS sampler circuits having Josephson transmission lines with optimized biases as buffers has a potential of sampling high-frequency signals with a bandwidth above 100 GHz. To realize the circuit parameters required in the simulations, we developed an HTS circuit fabrication process employing a lower ground plane structure with SrSnO 3 insulating layers. We consider that improvement of the circuit fabrication process and optimization of the pickup coil lead to much higher signal frequency observable by the sampler

  19. An aviation security (AVSEC) screening demonstrator for the detection of non-metallic threats at 28-33 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Neil A.; Bowring, Nick; Hutchinson, Simon; Southgate, Matthew; O'Reilly, Dean

    2013-10-01

    The unique selling proposition of millimetre wave technology for security screening is that it provides a stand-off or portal scenario sensing capability for non-metallic threats. The capabilities to detect some non-metallic threats are investigated in this paper, whilst recommissioning the AVSEC portal screening system at the Manchester Metropolitan University. The AVSEC system is a large aperture (1.6 m) portal screening imager which uses spatially incoherent illumination at 28-33 GHz from mode scrambling cavities to illuminate the subject. The imaging capability is critically analysed in terms of this illumination. A novel technique for the measurement of reflectance, refractive index and extinction coefficient is investigated and this then use to characterise the signatures of nitromethane, hexane, methanol, bees wax and baking flour. Millimetre wave images are shown how these liquids in polycarbonate bottles and the other materials appear against the human body.

  20. Spatial and Temporal Characterization of Indoor Millimeter Wave Propagation at 24 GHz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seok-hwan Min

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Indoor millimeter wave propagation at the frequency of 24 GHz is studied by experimental methods. Measurements are performed to obtain temporal and spatial channel model using a channel sounder and rotating antennas in a corridor. The measured impulse responses are processed to obtain compact channel model following Saleh-Valenzuela’s model. The responses are compared with those of 5.3 GHz for the same test sites. Angular spread of 24 GHz is found to be smaller than that of 5.3 GHz, while echoes of 24 GHz are found to be longer than those of 5.3 GHz.

  1. 670-GHz Schottky Diode-Based Subharmonic Mixer with CPW Circuits and 70-GHz IF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Goutam; Schlecht, Erich T.; Lee, Choonsup; Lin, Robert H.; Gill, John J.; Mehdi, Imran; Sin, Seth; Deal, William; Loi, Kwok K.; Nam, Peta; hide

    2012-01-01

    GaAs-based, sub-harmonically pumped Schottky diode mixers offer a number of advantages for array implementation in a heterodyne receiver system. Since the radio frequency (RF) and local oscillator (LO) signals are far apart, system design becomes much simpler. A proprietary planar GaAs Schottky diode process was developed that results in very low parasitic anodes that have cutoff frequencies in the tens of terahertz. This technology enables robust implementation of monolithic mixer and frequency multiplier circuits well into the terahertz frequency range. Using optical and e-beam lithography, and conventional epitaxial layer design with innovative usage of GaAs membranes and metal beam leads, high-performance terahertz circuits can be designed with high fidelity. All of these mixers use metal waveguide structures for housing. Metal machined structures for RF and LO coupling hamper these mixers to be integrated in multi-pixel heterodyne array receivers for spectroscopic and imaging applications. Moreover, the recent developments of terahertz transistors on InP substrate provide an opportunity, for the first time, to have integrated amplifiers followed by Schottky diode mixers in a heterodyne receiver at these frequencies. Since the amplifiers are developed on a planar architecture to facilitate multi-pixel array implementation, it is quite important to find alternative architecture to waveguide-based mixers.

  2. Ultrasensitive and selective gold film-based detection of mercury (II) in tap water using a laser scanning confocal imaging-surface plasmon resonance system in real time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongyan; Yang, Liquan; Zhou, Bingjiang; Liu, Weimin; Ge, Jiechao; Wu, Jiasheng; Wang, Ying; Wang, Pengfei

    2013-09-15

    An ultrasensitive and selective detection of mercury (II) was investigated using a laser scanning confocal imaging-surface plasmon resonance system (LSCI-SPR). The detection limit was as low as 0.01ng/ml for Hg(2+) ions in ultrapure and tap water based on a T-rich, single-stranded DNA (ssDNA)-modified gold film, which can be individually manipulated using specific T-Hg(2+)-T complex formation. The quenching intensity of the fluorescence images for rhodamine-labeled ssDNA fitted well with the changes in SPR. The changes varied with the Hg(2+) ion concentration, which is unaffected by the presence of other metal ions. The coefficients obtained for ultrapure and tap water were 0.99902 and 0.99512, respectively, for the linear part over a range of 0.01-100ng/ml. The results show that the double-effect sensor has potential for practical applications with ultra sensitivity and selectivity, especially in online or real-time monitoring of Hg(2+) ions pollution in tap water with the further improvement of portable LSCI-SPR instrument. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Resonant excitation of high order modes in the 3.9 GHz cavity of the Linac Coherent Light Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunin, A.; Khabiboulline, T.; Solyak, N.; Sukhanov, A.; Yakovlev, V.

    2018-02-01

    Construction of the Linac Coherent Light Source II (LCLS-II) is underway for the world's first hard x-ray free-electron laser. A central part of the LCLS-II project is a 4 GeV superconducting radio frequency electron linac that will operate in the continuous wave (cw) mode. The linac is segmented into four sections named as L 0 , L 1 , L 2 , and L 3 . Two 3.9 GHz cryomodules, each housing of eight third-harmonic cavities similar to the cavities developed for the European X-ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL), will be used in section L 1 of the linac for linearizing the longitudinal beam profile. In this paper, we present a study of trapped high order modes (HOMs) excited by a cw electron beam in the third-harmonic cavities of the LCLS-II linac. A detailed comparison of the original XFEL design and the LCLS-II design with a modified end group is performed in order to estimate the effect of a reduced beam pipe aperture on the efficiency of HOM damping. Furthermore, we apply a statistical analysis of the eigenmode spectrum for the estimation of the probability of resonant HOM losses and influence of HOMs on beam dynamics.

  4. 1.4 GHz on the Fundamental Plane of black hole activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saikia, Payaswini; Körding, Elmar; Dibi, Salome

    2018-06-01

    The Fundamental Plane (FP) of black hole activity is an empirical relationship between the O III/X-ray luminosity depicting the accretion power, the radio luminosity as a probe of the instantaneous jet power and the mass of the black hole. For the first time, we use the 1.4 GHz FIRST radio luminosities on the optical FP, to investigate whether or not Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty-Centimetres (FIRST) fluxes can trace nuclear activity. We use an SDSS-FIRST cross-correlated sample of 10 149 active galaxies and analyse their positioning on the optical FP. We focus on various reasons that can cause the discrepancy between the observed FIRST radio fluxes and the theoretically expected core radio fluxes, and show that FIRST fluxes are heavily contaminated by non-nuclear, extended components and other environmental factors. We show that the subsample of `compact sources', which should have negligible lobe contribution, statistically follow the FP when corrected for relativistic beaming, while all the other sources lie above the plane. The sample of low-ionization nuclear emission-line regions (LINERs), which should have negligible lobe and beaming contribution, also follow the FP. A combined fit of the low-luminosity AGN and the X-ray binaries, with the LINERs, results in the relation log LR = 0.77 log L_{O III} + 0.69 log M. Assuming that the original FP relation is correct, we conclude that 1.4 GHz FIRST fluxes do not trace the pure `core' jet and instantaneous nuclear activity in the AGN, and one needs to be careful while using it on the FP of black hole activity.

  5. Electron-beam buncher to operate over the frequency range 1-4 GHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldberg, D.A.; Arthur, A.A.; Flood, W.S.; Voelker, F.

    1983-03-01

    We present a description of an electron buncher to be installed in the terminal of a Van de Graaff, which is to produce a modulated beam over the frequency range 1-4 GHz. The modulator geometry has been optimized so that the modulation amplitude should be nearly constant over the frequency ranges 1-2 GHz and 2-4 GHz. Preliminary results indicate the device works as predicted

  6. Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellum, C.D.; Fisher, L.M.; Tegtmeyer, C.J.

    1987-01-01

    This paper examines the advantages of the use of excretory urography for diagnosis. According to the authors, excretory urography remains the basic radiologic examination of the urinary tract and is the foundation for the evaluation of suspected urologic disease. Despite development of the newer diagnostic modalities such as isotope scanning, ultrasonography, CT, and magnetic resonsance imaging (MRI), excretory urography has maintained a prominent role in ruorradiology. Some indications have been altered and will continue to change with the newer imaging modalities, but the initial evaluation of suspected urinary tract structural abnormalities; hematuria, pyuria, and calculus disease is best performed with excretory urography. The examination is relatively inexpensive and simple to perform, with few contraindictions. Excretory urography, when properly performed, can provide valuable information about the renal parenchyma, pelvicalyceal system, ureters, and urinary bladder

  7. A Long-Term Dissipation of the EUV He ii (30.4 nm) Segmentation in Full-Disk Solar Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didkovsky, Leonid

    2018-06-01

    Some quiet-Sun days observed by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on-board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) during the time interval in 2010 - 2017 were used to continue our previous analyses reported by Didkovsky and Gurman ( Solar Phys. 289, 153, 2014a) and Didkovsky, Wieman, and Korogodina ( Solar Phys. 292, 32, 2017). The analysis consists of determining and comparing spatial spectral ratios (spectral densities over some time interval) from spatial (segmentation-cell length) power spectra. The ratios were compared using modeled compatible spatial frequencies for spectra from the Extreme ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (EIT) on-board the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) and from AIA images. With the new AIA data added to the EIT data we analyzed previously, the whole time interval from 1996 to 2017 reported here is approximately the length of two "standard" solar cycles (SC). The spectral ratios of segmentation-cell dimension structures show a significant and steady increase with no detected indication of SC-related returns to the values that characterize the SC minima. This increase in spatial power at high spatial frequencies is interpreted as a dissipation of medium-size EUV network structures to smaller-size structures in the transition region. Each of the latest ratio changes for 2010 through 2017 spectra calculated for a number of consecutive short-term intervals has been converted into monthly mean ratio (MMR) changes. The MMR values demonstrate variable sign and magnitudes, thus confirming the solar nature of the changes. These changes do not follow a "typical" trend of instrumental degradation or a long-term activity profile from the He ii (30.4 nm) irradiance measured by the Extreme ultraviolet Spectrophotometer (ESP) either. The ESP is a channel of the Extreme ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) on-board SDO.

  8. Comparison of clinical imaging characteristics of 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC with 111In-DTPA-octreotide: first result of a prospective phase II study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabriel, M.; Decristoforo, C.; Wenger, M.; Guggenberg, E. von; Moncayo, R.; Mather, S.J.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: 99m Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC(Tc-TOC) shows very similar clinical pharmacokinetics compared with 111 In-DTPA-octreotide (In-OCT), the gold standard for somatostatin receptor (SSTR) scintigraphy, and is a promising agent to image SSTR-positive tumors. Here we present the first results of a phase II trial comparing the clinical value of Tc-TOC in a prospective intra-patient comparison with In-OCT. Until now 26 oncological patients were enrolled in the study after giving informed consent. The patients presented with thyroid adeno-carcinomas (n=5), MW (n=3), GEP-tumors (n=10), carcinoid syndromes with unknown primary lesions (n=4), paragangliomas (n=2) and pituitary tumor (n=2), one of whom due to MEN. Posterior and anterior views and SPECT images of the corresponding ROIs were acquired at 4 hrs and 24 hrs alter injection of 111 MBq of In-OCT (octreoscan(r)). TcTOC was given at a dose of 300-350 MBq and imaging was done at 4 hrs p.i. including whole body planar and SPECT studies. Interpretations of these two sets of planar data were done independently by two different viewers. Final confirmation of suspected lesions was obtained by correlative inspection of matched CT or MR scans. In 7 patients SSTR-scintigraphy was negative with both Tc-TOC and In-OCT. Matching positive scintigraphic results with both tracers were obtained in 17 out of 19 patients. In-OCT failed to detect two CT-positive thoracic lesions in two patients with thyroid cancer, whereby these lesions were seen by Tc-TOC. In this series of patients 99m Tc-EDDA-HYNIC-TOC imaging resulted in equivalent diagnostic information on the SSTR-Status, with advantages of a single acquisition, one day protocol and lower radiation dose. The excellent imaging properties resulted in improved diagnosis in 2 of 26 patients when compared to 111 In-DTPA-octreotide. (author)

  9. MMIC Cavity Oscillator at 50 and 94 GHz (2007040), Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An innovative, ultra-low phase-noise, fully integrated single-chip cavity oscillator is proposed. The cavity is built on a standard MMIC process and has a quality...

  10. A 1.8 GHz Voltage-Controlled Oscillator using CMOS Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maisurah, M. H. Siti; Emran, F. Nazif; Norman Fadhil, Idham M.; Rahim, A. I. Abdul; Razman, Y. Mohamed

    2011-05-01

    A Voltage-Controlled Oscillator (VCO) for 1.8 GHz application has been designed using a combination of both 0.13 μm and 0.35 μm CMOS technology. The VCO has a large tuning range, which is from 1.39 GHz to 1.91 GHz, using a control voltage from 0 to 3V. The VCO exhibits a low phase-noise at 1.8 GHz which is around -119.8dBc/Hz at a frequency offset of 1 MHz.

  11. Use of the 37-38 GHz and 40-40.5 GHz Ka-bands for Deep Space Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morabito, David; Hastrup, Rolf

    2004-01-01

    This paper covers a wide variety of issues associated with the implementation and use of these frequency bands for deep space communications. Performance issues, such as ground station pointing stability, ground antenna gain, antenna pattern, and propagation effects such as due to atmospheric, charged-particle and space loss at 37 GHz, will be addressed in comparison to the 32 GHz Ka-band deep space allocation. Issues with the use of and competition for this spectrum also will be covered. The state of the hardware developed (or proposed) for operating in this frequency band will be covered from the standpoint of the prospects for achieving higher data rates that could be accommodated in the available bandwidth. Hardware areas to be explored include modulators, digital-to-analog converters, filters, power amplifiers, receivers, and antennas. The potential users of the frequency band will be explored as well as their anticipated methods to achieve the potential high data rates and the implications of the competition for bandwidth.

  12. Ten-year technical and clinical outcomes in TransAtlantic Inter-Society Consensus II infrainguinal C/D lesions using duplex ultrasound arterial mapping as the sole imaging modality for critical lower limb ischemia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sultan, Sherif

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate duplex ultrasound arterial mapping (DUAM) as the sole imaging modality when planning for bypass surgery (BS) and endovascular revascularization (EvR) in patients with critical limb ischemia for TransAtlantic Inter-Society Consensus (TASC) II C\\/D infrainguinal lesions.

  13. Coincidence measurements on detectors for microPET II: A 1 mm3 resolution PET scanner for small animal imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Chatziioannou, A; Shao, Y; Doshi, N K; Silverman, B; Meadors, K; Cherry, SR

    2000-01-01

    We are currently developing a small animal PET scanner with a design goal of 1 mm3 image resolution. We have built three pairs of detectors and tested performance in terms of crystal identification, spatial, energy and timing resolution. The detectors consisted of 12 multiplied by 12 arrays of 1 multiplied by 1 multiplied by 10mm LSO crystals (1.15 mm pitch) coupled to Hamamatsu H7546 64 channel PMTs via 5cm long coherent glass fiber bundles. Optical fiber connection is necessary to allow high packing fraction in a ring geometry scanner. Fiber bundles with and without extramural absorber (EMA) were tested. The results demonstrated an intrinsic spatial resolution of 1.12 mm (direct coupled LSO array), 1.23 mm (bundle without EMA) and 1.27 mm (bundle with EMA) using a similar to 500 micron diameter Na-22 source. Using a 330 micron line source filled with F-18, intrinsic resolution for the EMA bundle improved to 1.05 mm. The respective timing and energy resolution values were 1.96 ns, 21% (direct coupled), 2.20 ...

  14. The embedded young stars in the Taurus-Auriga molecular cloud. II - Models for scattered light images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Scott J.; Whitney, Barbara A.; Gomez, Mercedes; Hartmann, Lee

    1993-01-01

    We describe NIR imaging observations of embedded young stars in the Taurus-Auriga molecular cloud. We find a large range in J-K and H-K colors for these class I sources. The bluest objects have colors similar to the reddest T Tauri stars in the cloud; redder objects lie slightly above the reddening line for standard ISM dust and have apparent K extinctions of up to 5 mag. Most of these sources also show extended NIR emission on scales of 10-20 arcsec which corresponds to linear sizes of 1500-3000 AU. The NIR colors and nebular morphologies for this sample and the magnitude of linear polarization in several sources suggest scattered light produces most of the NIR emission in these objects. We present modeling results that suggest mass infall rates that agree with predictions for cold clouds and are generally consistent with rates estimated from radiative equilibrium models. For reasonable dust grain parameters, the range of colors and extinctions require flattened density distributions with polar cavities evacuated by bipolar outflows. These results support the idea that infall and outflow occur simultaneously in deeply embedded bipolar outflow sources. The data also indicate fairly large centrifugal radii and large inclinations to the rotational axis for a typical source.

  15. A decade of imaging surgeons' brain function (part II): A systematic review of applications for technical and nontechnical skills assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modi, Hemel Narendra; Singh, Harsimrat; Yang, Guang-Zhong; Darzi, Ara; Leff, Daniel Richard

    2017-11-01

    Functional neuroimaging technologies enable assessment of operator brain function and can deepen our understanding of skills learning, ergonomic optima, and cognitive processes in surgeons. Although there has been a critical mass of data detailing surgeons' brain function, this literature has not been reviewed systematically. A systematic search of original neuroimaging studies assessing surgeons' brain function and published up until November 2016 was conducted using Medline, Embase, and PsycINFO databases. Twenty-seven studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria, including 3 feasibility studies, 14 studies exploring the neural correlates of technical skill acquisition, and the remainder investigating brain function in the context of intraoperative decision-making (n = 1), neurofeedback training (n = 1), robot-assisted technology (n = 5), and surgical teaching (n = 3). Early stages of learning open surgical tasks (knot-tying) are characterized by prefrontal cortical activation, which subsequently attenuates with deliberate practice. However, with complex laparoscopic skills (intracorporeal suturing), prefrontal cortical engagement requires substantial training, and attenuation occurs over a longer time course, after years of refinement. Neurofeedback and interventions that improve neural efficiency may enhance technical performance and skills learning. Imaging surgeons' brain function has identified neural signatures of expertise that might help inform objective assessment and selection processes. Interventions that improve neural efficiency may target skill-specific brain regions and augment surgical performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A low power 2.4 GHz transceiver for ZigBee applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Weiyang; Chen Jingjing; Wang Haiyong; Wu Nanjian

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a low power 2.4 GHz transceiver for ZigBee applications. This transceiver adopts low power system architecture with a low-IF receiver and a direct-conversion transmitter. The receiver consists of a new low noise amplifier (LNA) with a noise cancellation function, a new inverter-based variable gain complex filter (VGCF) for image rejection, a passive quadrature mixer, and a decibel linear programmable gain amplifier (PGA). The transmitter adopts a quadrature mixer and a class-B mode variable gain power amplifier (PA) to reduce power consumption. This transceiver is implemented in 0.18 μm CMOS technology. The receiver achieves −95 dBm of sensitivity, 28 dBc of image rejection, and −8 dBm of third-order input intercept point (IIP3). The transmitter can deliver a maximum of +3 dBm output power with PA efficiency of 30%. The whole chip area is less than 4.32 mm 2 . It only consumes 12.63 mW in receiving mode and 14.22 mW in transmitting mode, respectively. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  17. An Interferometric 270--355 GHz Spectral Line Survey of the Red Supergiant VY CMa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menten, K. M.; Young, K. H.; Patel, N. A.; Gottlieb, C. A.; Thaddeus, P.; McCarthy, M. C.; Gurwell, M. A.; Belloche, A.; Kaminski, T.; Verheyen, L.; Decin, L.; Brunken, S.; Holger, S. P. M.

    2011-05-01

    We have used the Submillimeter Array to image the molecular line emission in the circumstellar envelope of the peculiar red supergiant star VY Canis Majoris over the whole 870 μm atmospheric window. Employing adaptive calibration using the object's continuum emission we achieve high quality one arcsecond resolution imaging of the whole 280--355 GHz range within which we find 211 distinct spectral lines from 33 molecules (including isotopologues) plus 40 unidentified lines. From the distribution of molecules we are obtaining their abundances and isotopologic abundance ratios. Using data for multiple transitions in a number of molecules we are deriving the physical conditions in the circumstellar envelope to reach a picture of the star's chemistry that can be compared with models. Our legacy survey is accompanied by a strong laboratory effort that helps with the identification of possibly newly found molecules traced by unidentified lines. We shall create a publicly accessible database of spectral-line channel-maps of the emission from all the lines detected in the survey.

  18. Preoperative high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging can identify good prognosis stage I, II, and III rectal cancer best managed by surgery alone: a prospective, multicenter, European study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Fiona G M; Quirke, Philip; Heald, Richard J; Moran, Brendan; Blomqvist, Lennart; Swift, Ian; Sebag-Montefiore, David J; Tekkis, Paris; Brown, Gina

    2011-04-01

    To assess local recurrence, disease-free survival, and overall survival in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-predicted good prognosis tumors treated by surgery alone. The MERCURY study reported that high-resolution MRI can accurately stage rectal cancer. The routine policy in most centers involved in the MERCURY study was primary surgery alone in MRI-predicted stage II or less and in MRI "good prognosis" stage III with selective avoidance of neoadjuvant therapy. Data were collected prospectively on all patients included in the MERCURY study who were staged as MRI-defined "good" prognosis tumors. "Good" prognosis included MRI-predicted safe circumferential resection margins, with MRI-predicted T2/T3a/T3b (less than 5 mm spread from muscularis propria), regardless of MRI N stage. None received preoperative or postoperative radiotherapy. Overall survival, disease-free survival, and local recurrence were calculated. Of 374 patients followed up in the MERCURY study, 122 (33%) were defined as "good prognosis" stage III or less on MRI. Overall and disease-free survival for all patients with MRI "good prognosis" stage I, II and III disease at 5 years was 68% and 85%, respectively. The local recurrence rate for this series of patients predicted to have a good prognosis tumor on MRI was 3%. The preoperative identification of good prognosis tumors using MRI will allow stratification of patients and better targeting of preoperative therapy. This study confirms the ability of MRI to select patients who are likely to have a good outcome with primary surgery alone.

  19. 10 GHz microstrip spanar antennas: an experimental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, Mohd Azlishah; Azman, Hazwani; Husain, Mohd Nor; Aziz, Mohamad Zoinol Abidin Abd; Rahim, Yahaya Abd; Pee, Ahmad Nairn Che; Motsidi, Mohamad Radzi; Othman, Mohd Fairuz Iskandar

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents Spanar Antenna designed using CST Microwave Studio Simulation 2011. The proposed antenna was designed to operate at 10 GHz, which suggested return loss, S 11 must be less than -10 dB and voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) must be less than 2. The best performance of simulation of Spanar Antenna was obtained at a small size of 24.8 mm × 8.0 mm with dimension board of FR4 substrate 31.7 mm × 18.5 mm. The thickness (h) and dielectric constant (εr) of substrate were 1.6 mm and 4.7. An analysis between simulation result and measurement result has been compared in order to see the antenna performance.

  20. Array of 1- to 2-GHz electrodes for stochastic cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voelker, F.; Henderson, T.; Johnson, J.

    1983-03-01

    Described is an array of directional-coupler loop pairs that are to be used as either pickup or kicker electrodes for the frequency range of 1 to 2 GHz. Each coupler pair is a lambda/4 long parallel-plane transmission line that is arranged to be flush with the upper and lower surfaces of a rectangular beam pipe. As pickups, the coupler pairs are used in arrays and are operated at 80 degrees Kelvin for improving the signal-to-noise ratio. The loop output power is added in stripline combiner networks before being fed to a low-noise preamplifier. When the couplers are used as kickers, the combining network serves to split power and distribute it uniformly to each electrode

  1. Experiments on a 14.5 GHz ECR source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, C.E.; Langbein, K.

    1996-01-01

    The 14.5 GHz ECR4 source supplied to CERN in the framework of the Heavy Ion Facility collaboration provided Pb 27+ operational beams to a new custom built linac in 1994. This source, which operates in the pulsed 'afterglow' mode, quickly met its design specification of 80 eμA and now provides currents >100 eμA regularly. Early source tests showed the existence of extremely stable modes of operation. In the search for higher intensities a number of experiments have been performed on plasma gas composition, RF power matching, extraction, beam pulse compression and a biased dynode. The results of these tests will be presented along with further ideas to improve source performance. (author)

  2. Feasibility studies for a wireless 60 GHz tracking detector readout

    CERN Document Server

    Dittmeier, Sebastian; Soltveit, Hans Kristian; Wiedner, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    The amount of data produced by highly granular silicon tracking detectors in high energy physics experiments poses a major challenge to readout systems. At high collision rates, e.g. at LHC experiments, only a small fraction of data can be read out with currently used technologies. To cope with the requirements of future or upgraded experiments new data transfer techniques are required which offer high data rates at low power and low material budget. Wireless technologies operating in the 60 GHz band or at higher frequencies offer high data rates and are thus a promising upcoming alternative to conventional data transmission via electrical cables or optical fibers. Using wireless technology, the amount of cables and connectors in detectors can be significantly reduced. Tracking detectors profit most from a reduced material budget as fewer secondary particle interactions (multiple Coulomb scattering, energy loss, etc.) improve the tracking performance in general. We present feasibility studies regarding the in...

  3. Analysis of parasitic oscillations in 42 GHz gyrotron beam tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, N.; Singh, U.; Singh, T. P.; Sinha, A. K.

    2011-02-01

    Parasitic oscillation excitation analysis has been carried out for the 42 GHz gyrotron beam tunnel. This article presents a systematic approach for the analysis of parasitic oscillation excitation. The electron trajectory code EGUN has been used for the estimation of the electron beam parameters in the beam tunnel. The electromagnetic simulation code CST-MS has been used for the eigenmode and Q value analysis. The analysis of the parasitic oscillations has been performed for the symmetric TE modes and the first three cavity side copper rings. Four different approaches- the Q value study, the mode maxima-electron beam radius mismatching, the electron cyclotron frequency-mode excitation frequency mismatching and the backward wave interaction analysis- have been used for the parasitic oscillation analysis.

  4. A 75 GHz silicon metal-semiconductor-metal Schottky photodiode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandrou, S.; Wang, C.; Hsiang, T.Y.; Liu, M.Y.; Chou, S.Y.

    1993-01-01

    The ultrafast characteristics of crystalline-silicon metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) photodiodes with 300 nm finger width and spacing were measured with a subpicosecond electro-optic sampling system. Electrical responses with full width at half maximum as short as 5.5 and 11 ps, at corresponding 3 dB bandwidths of 75 and 38 GHz, were generated by violet and red photons, respectively. The difference is attributed to the photon penetration depth which is much larger than the diode finger spacing at red, but smaller at violet. Light-intensity dependence was also examined at different wavelengths, indicating a linear relation and a higher sensitivity in the violet. These results not only demonstrated the fastest silicon photodetector reported to date, but also pinpointed the dominant speed-limiting factor of silicon MSM photodiodes. A configuration is suggested to improve the speed of these detectors at long wavelengths

  5. ASTEROID SIZING BY RADIOGALAXY OCCULTATION AT 5 GHZ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehtinen, K.; Muinonen, K.; Poutanen, M. [Finnish Geospatial Research Institute FGI, Geodeetinrinne 2, FI-02430 Masala (Finland); Bach, U. [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Radioobservatorium Effelsberg, Max-Planck-Str. 28, D-53902 Bad Münstereifel-Effelsberg (Germany); Petrov, L., E-mail: kimmo.lehtinen@nls.fi [Astrogeo Center, Falls Church, VA 22043 (United States)

    2016-05-10

    Stellar occultations by asteroids observed at visual wavelengths have been an important tool for studying the size and shape of asteroids and for revising the orbital parameters of asteroids. At radio frequencies, a shadow of an asteroid on the Earth is dominated by diffraction effects. Here, we show, for the first time, that a single observation of an occultation of a compact radio source at a frequency of 5 GHz can be used to derive the effective size of the occulting object and to derive the distance between the observer and the center of the occultation path on the Earth. The derived diameter of the occulting object, asteroid (115) Thyra, is 75 ± 6 km. The observed occultation profile shows features that cannot be explained by diffraction of a single asteroid.

  6. 4-GHz counters bring synthesizers up to speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, F.; Miller, R.

    1984-06-01

    The availability of digital IC counters built on GaAs makes direct frequency division in microwave synthesizers possible. Four GHz is the highest clock rate achievable in production designs. These devices have the ability to drive TTL/CMOS logic, and the counter can be connected directly to single-chip frequency synthesizers controllers. A complete microwave sythesizer is formed by two chips and a voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO). The advantages of GaAs are discussed along with flip-flop basics, aspects of device fabrication, and the characteristics of GaAs MESAFETs. Attention is given to a GaAs prescaler usable for direct conversion, four kinds of flip-flops in a divide-by-two mode, and seven-stage binary ripple counters.

  7. COMPREHENSIVE ANALYSIS OF PREBIOTIC PROPENAL UP TO 660 GHz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daly, A. M.; Bermúdez, C.; Kolesniková, L.; Alonso, J. L., E-mail: Adam.M.Daly@jpl.nasa.gov [Grupo de Espectroscopia Molecular (GEM), Edificio Quifima, Área de Química-Física, Laboratorios de Espectroscopia y Bioespectroscopia, Parque Científico UVa, Unidad Asociada CSIC, Universidad de Valladolid, E-47011 Valladolid (Spain)

    2015-06-22

    Since interstellar detection of propenal is only based on two rotational transitions in the centimeter wave region, its high resolution rotational spectrum has been measured up to 660 GHz and fully characterized by assignment of more than 12,000 transitions to provide direct laboratory data to the astronomical community. Spectral assignments and analysis include transitions from the ground state of the trans and cis isomers, three trans-{sup 13}C isotopologues, and ten excited vibrational states of the trans form. Combining new millimeter and submillimeter data with those from the far-infrared region has yielded the most precise set of spectroscopic constants of trans-propenal obtained to date. Newly determined rotational constants, centrifugal distortion constants, vibrational energies, and Coriolis and Fermi interaction constants are given with high accuracy and were used to predict transition frequencies and intensities over a wide frequency range. Results of this work should facilitate astronomers further observation of propenal in the interstellar medium.

  8. Intrinsic brightness temperatures of blazar jets at 15 GHz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hovatta Talvikki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a new Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo method to deconvolve light curves of blazars into individual flares, including proper estimation of the fit errors. We use the method to fit 15GHzlight curves obtained within the OVRO 40-m blazar monitoring program where a large number of AGN have been monitored since 2008 in support of the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope mission. The time scales obtained from the fitted models are used to calculate the variability brightness temperature of the sources. Additionally, we have calculated brightness temperatures of a sample of these objects using Very Long Baseline Array data from the MOJAVE survey. Combining these two data sets enables us to study the intrinsic brightness temperature distribution in these blazars at 15 GHz. Our preliminary results indicate that the mean intrinsic brightness temperature in a sample of 14 sources is near the equipartition brightness temperature of ~ 1011K.

  9. Gain-Enhanced On-Chip Antenna Utilizing Artificial Magnetic Conductor Reflecting Surface at 94 GHz

    KAUST Repository

    Nafe, Mahmoud

    2015-08-04

    Nowadays, there is a growing demand for high frequency-bandwidth mm-wave (30-300 GHz) electronic wireless transceiver systems to support applications such as high data-rate wireless communication and high resolution imaging. Such mm-wave systems are becoming more feasible due to the extreme transistor downscaling in silicon-based integrated circuits, which enabled densely-integrated high-speed elec- tronics operating up to more than 100 GHz with low fabrication cost. To further enhance system integrability, it is required to implement all wireless system compo- nents on the chip. Presently, the last major barrier to true System-on-Chip (SoC) realization is the antenna implementation on the silicon chip. Although at mm-wave frequencies the antenna size becomes small enough to fit on chip, the antenna performance is greatly deteriorated due the high conductivity and high relative permittivity of the silicon substrate. The negative e↵ects of the silicon substrate could be avoided by using a metallic reflecting surface on top of silicon, which e↵ectively isolates the antenna from the silicon. However, this approach has the shortcoming of having to implement the antenna on the usually very thin silicon oxide layer of a typical CMOS fabrication process (10’s of μm). This forces the antenna to be in a very close proximity (less than one hundredth of a wavelength) to the reflecting surface. In this regime, the use of conventional metallic reflecting surface for silicon shielding has severe e↵ects on the antenna performance as it tends to reduce the antenna radiation resistance resulting in most of the energy being absorbed rather than radiated. In this work, the use of specially patterned reflecting surfaces for improving on- chip antenna performance is investigated. By using a periodic metallic surface on top of a grounded substrate, the structure can mimic the behavior of a perfect mag- netic conductor, hence called Artificial Magnetic Conductor (AMC) surface

  10. Velocity diagnostics of electron beams within a 140 GHz gyrotron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polevoy, Jeffrey Todd

    1989-06-01

    Experimental measurements of the average axial velocity v(sub parallel) of the electron beam within the M.I.T. 140 GHz MW gyrotron have been performed. The method involves the simultaneous measurement of the radial electrostatic potential of the electron beam V(sub p) and the beam current I(sub b). The V(sub p) is measured through the use of a capacitive probe installed near or within the gyrotron cavity, while I(sub b) is measured with a previously installed Rogowski coil. Three capacitive probes have been designed and built, and two have operated within the gyrotron. The probe results are repeatable and consistent with theory. The measurements of v(sub parallel) and calculations of the corresponding transverse to longitudinal beam velocity ratio (alpha) = v(sub perpendicular)/v(sub parallel) at the cavity have been made at various gyrotron operation parameters. These measurements will provide insight into the causes of discrepancies between theoretical RF interaction efficiencies and experimental efficiencies obtained in experiments with the M.I.T. 140 GHz MW gyrotron. The expected values of v(sub parallel) and (alpha) are determined through the use of a computer code (EGUN) which is used to model the cathode and anode regions of the gyrotron. It also computes the trajectories and velocities of the electrons within the gyrotron. There is good correlation between the expected and measured values of (alpha) at low (alpha), with the expected values from EGUN often falling within the standard errors of the measured values.

  11. DISK IMAGING SURVEY OF CHEMISTRY WITH SMA. II. SOUTHERN SKY PROTOPLANETARY DISK DATA AND FULL SAMPLE STATISTICS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oeberg, Karin I.; Qi Chunhua; Andrews, Sean M.; Espaillat, Catherine; Wilner, David J.; Fogel, Jeffrey K. J.; Bergin, Edwin A.; Pascucci, Ilaria; Kastner, Joel H.

    2011-01-01

    This is the second in a series of papers based on data from DISCS, a Submillimeter Array observing program aimed at spatially and spectrally resolving the chemical composition of 12 protoplanetary disks. We present data on six Southern sky sources-IM Lup, SAO 206462 (HD 135344b), HD 142527, AS 209, AS 205, and V4046 Sgr-which complement the six sources in the Taurus star-forming region reported previously. CO 2-1 and HCO + 3-2 emission are detected and resolved in all disks and show velocity patterns consistent with Keplerian rotation. Where detected, the emission from DCO + 3-2, N 2 H + 3-2, H 2 CO 3 03 - 2 02 and 4 14 - 3 13 , HCN 3-2, and CN 2 33/4/2 - 1 22/3/1 are also generally spatially resolved. The detection rates are highest toward the M and K stars, while the F star SAO 206462 has only weak CN and HCN emission, and H 2 CO alone is detected toward HD 142527. These findings together with the statistics from the previous Taurus disks support the hypothesis that high detection rates of many small molecules depend on the presence of a cold and protected disk midplane, which is less common around F and A stars compared to M and K stars. Disk-averaged variations in the proposed radiation tracer CN/HCN are found to be small, despite a two orders of magnitude range of spectral types and accretion rates. In contrast, the resolved images suggest that the CN/HCN emission ratio varies with disk radius in at least two of the systems. There are no clear observational differences in the disk chemistry between the classical/full T Tauri disks and transitional disks. Furthermore, the observed line emission does not depend on the measured accretion luminosities or the number of infrared lines detected, which suggests that the chemistry outside of 100 AU is not coupled to the physical processes that drive the chemistry in the innermost few AU.

  12. A new VLA/e-MERLIN limit on central images in the gravitational lens system CLASS B1030+074

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quinn, Jonathan; Jackson, Neal; Tagore, Amitpal; Biggs, Andrew; Birkinshaw, Mark; Chapman, Scott; De Zotti, Gianfranco; McKean, John; Pérez-Fournon, Ismael; Scott, Douglas; Serjeant, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    We present the new Very Large Array 22 GHz and extended Multi-Element Remote-Linked Interferometer Network 5 GHz observations of CLASS B1030+074, a two-image strong gravitational lens system whose background source is a compact flat-spectrum radio quasar. In such systems we expect a third image of

  13. Prospective phase II study of image-guided local boost using a real-time tumor-tracking radiotherapy (RTRT) system for locally advanced bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishioka, Kentaro; Shimizu, Shinichi; Shinohara, Nobuo

    2014-01-01

    The real-time tumor-tracking radiotherapy system with fiducial markers has the advantage that it can be used to verify the localization of the markers during radiation delivery in real-time. We conducted a prospective Phase II study of image-guided local-boost radiotherapy for locally advanced bladder cancer using a real-time tumor-tracking radiotherapy system for positioning, and here we report the results regarding the safety and efficacy of the technique. Twenty patients with a T2-T4N0M0 urothelial carcinoma of the bladder who were clinically inoperable or refused surgery were enrolled. Transurethral tumor resection and 40 Gy irradiation to the whole bladder was followed by the transurethral endoscopic implantation of gold markers in the bladder wall around the primary tumor. A boost of 25 Gy in 10 fractions was made to the primary tumor while maintaining the displacement from the planned position at less than ±2 mm during radiation delivery using a real-time tumor-tracking radiotherapy system. The toxicity, local control and survival were evaluated. Among the 20 patients, 14 were treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy. The median follow-up period was 55.5 months. Urethral and bowel late toxicity (Grade 3) were each observed in one patient. The local-control rate, overall survival and cause-specific survival with the native bladder after 5 years were 64, 61 and 65%. Image-guided local-boost radiotherapy using a real-time tumor-tracking radiotherapy system can be safely accomplished, and the clinical outcome is encouraging. A larger prospective multi-institutional study is warranted for more precise evaluations of the technological efficacy and patients' quality of life. (author)

  14. Melanie II--a third-generation software package for analysis of two-dimensional electrophoresis images: I. Features and user interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, R D; Palagi, P M; Walther, D; Vargas, J R; Sanchez, J C; Ravier, F; Pasquali, C; Hochstrasser, D F

    1997-12-01

    Although two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) computer analysis software packages have existed ever since 2-DE technology was developed, it is only now that the hardware and software technology allows large-scale studies to be performed on low-cost personal computers or workstations, and that setting up a 2-DE computer analysis system in a small laboratory is no longer considered a luxury. After a first attempt in the seventies and early eighties to develop 2-DE analysis software systems on hardware that had poor or even no graphical capabilities, followed in the late eighties by a wave of innovative software developments that were possible thanks to new graphical interface standards such as XWindows, a third generation of 2-DE analysis software packages has now come to maturity. It can be run on a variety of low-cost, general-purpose personal computers, thus making the purchase of a 2-DE analysis system easily attainable for even the smallest laboratory that is involved in proteome research. Melanie II 2-D PAGE, developed at the University Hospital of Geneva, is such a third-generation software system for 2-DE analysis. Based on unique image processing algorithms, this user-friendly object-oriented software package runs on multiple platforms, including Unix, MS-Windows 95 and NT, and Power Macintosh. It provides efficient spot detection and quantitation, state-of-the-art image comparison, statistical data analysis facilities, and is Internet-ready. Linked to proteome databases such as those available on the World Wide Web, it represents a valuable tool for the "Virtual Lab" of the post-genome area.

  15. LCLS-II high power RF system overview and progress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeremian, Anahid Dian

    2015-10-07

    A second X-ray free electron laser facility, LCLS-II, will be constructed at SLAC. LCLS-II is based on a 1.3 GHz, 4 GeV, continuous-wave (CW) superconducting linear accelerator, to be installed in the first kilometer of the SLAC tunnel. Multiple types of high power RF (HPRF) sources will be used to power different systems on LCLS-II. The main 1.3 GHz linac will be powered by 280 1.3 GHz, 3.8 kW solid state amplifier (SSA) sources. The normal conducting buncher in the injector will use four more SSAs identical to the linac SSAs but run at 2 kW. Two 185.7 MHz, 60 kW sources will power the photocathode dual-feed RF gun. A third harmonic linac section, included for linearizing the bunch energy spread before the first bunch compressor, will require sixteen 3.9 GHz sources at about 1 kW CW. A description and an update on all the HPRF sources of LCLS-II and their implementation is the subject of this paper.

  16. First plasmas in the TJ-II flexible Heliac

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alejaldre, C.; Alonso, J.; Almoguera, L.; Ascasibar, E.; Baciero, A.; Balbin, R.; Blaumoser, M.; Botija, J.; Branas, B.; De La Cal, E.; Cappa, A.; Carrasco, R.; Castejon, F.; Cepero, J. R.; Cremy, C.; Doncel, J.; Dulya, C.; Estrada, T.; Fernandez, A.; Frances, M.; Fuentes, C.; Garcia, A.; Garcia-Cortes, I.; Guasp, J.; Herranz, J.; Hidalgo, C.; Jimenez, J. A.; Kirpitchev, I.; Krivenski, V.; Labrador, I.; Lapayese, F.; Likin, K.; Liniers, M.; Lopez-Fraguas, A.; Lopez-Sanchez, A.; de la Luna, E.; Martin, R.; Martinez, A.; Medrano, M.; Mendez, P.; McCarthy, K.; Medina, F.; van Milligen, B.; Ochando, M.; Pacios, L.; Pastor, I.; Pedrosa, M. A.; de la Pena, A.; Portas, A.; Qin, J.; Rodriguez-Rodrigo, L.; Salas, A.; Sanchez, E.; Sanchez, J.; Tabares, F.; Tafalla, D.; Tribaldos, V.; Vaga, J.; Zurro, B.; Akulina, D.; Fadyanin, O. I.; Grebenshchicov, S.; Kharchev, N.; Meshcheryakov, A.; Barth, R.; van Dijk, G.; van der Meiden, H.; Petrov, S.

    1999-01-01

    The first experimental campaign of the TJ-II stellarator has been conducted using electron cyclotron resonance heating (f = 53.2 GHz, P-ECRH approximate to 250 kW) with a pulse length of Delta t approximate to (80-200) ms. The flexibility of the device has been used to study five different

  17. A 65mW,0.4-2.3 GHz bandpass filter for satellite receivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, van der J.D.; Kasperkovitz, D.; Bretveld, A.

    2002-01-01

    A monolithic tunable bandpass filter for satellite receiver front-ends is presented. The nter frequency of the bandpass filter can be tuned from 0.4 GHz to 2.3 GHz. The filter is constructed using four transconductor-C poly-phase filter sections and has a 50 dB variable gain range. At 20 dB

  18. Channel Characteristics and User Body Effects in an Outdoor Urban Scenario at 15 and 28 GHz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Kun; Gustafson, Carl; Liao, Qingbi

    2017-01-01

    The effect of a user’s body on channel characteristics for single user downlink transmission in an urban scenario for the 5th generation (5G) systems is investigated with ray-tracing at 15 GHz and 28 GHz. Three different designs of user equipment (UE) antennas are fabricated and integrated into a...

  19. Comparison of the noise performance of 10GHz QW and QD mode-locked laser diodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carpintero, Guillermo; Thompson, Mark G.; Yvind, Kresten

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the experimental characterization of the noise performance of a quantum dot and a quantum well 10GHz passive mode locked laser diodes.......This paper reports the experimental characterization of the noise performance of a quantum dot and a quantum well 10GHz passive mode locked laser diodes....

  20. A 60 GHz Dual-Polarized Probe for Spherical Near-Field Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popa, Paula Irina; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2017-01-01

    to waveguide adapters up to 67 GHz for OMT-switch connection. A 27 dBi gain conical horn is designed by using WIPL-D software and in-house manufactured. The 60 GHz probe system is being assembled and tested in planar near-field (PNF) setup at DTU. The results are validated by comparison with WIPL-D simulations...

  1. 60 GHz Antenna Diagnostics from Planar Near Field Antenna Measurement Without External Frequency Conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popa, Paula Irina; Pivnenko, Sergey; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2015-01-01

    ,J.M. Nielsen, O. Breinbjerg, 60 GHz Antenna Measurement Setup using a VNA without External Frequency Conversion,36th Annual Symposium of the Antenna Measurement Technique Association ,October 12-17,Tucson, Arizona, 2014]. In this work we extend the validation of this 60 GHz planar near-field (PNF) set...

  2. Analysis of 38 GHz mmWave Propagation Characteristics of Urban Scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez Larrad, Ignacio; Nguyen, Huan Cong; Sørensen, Troels Bundgaard

    2015-01-01

    The 38 GHz mm-wave frequency band is a strong candidate for the future deployment of wireless systems. Compared to lower frequency bands, propagation in the 38 GHz band is relatively unexplored for access networks in urban scenarios. This paper presents a detailed measurement-based analysis of ur...

  3. Experimental Demonstration and Theoretical Analysis of Slow Light in a Semiconductor Waveguide at GHz Frequencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørk, Jesper; Kjær, Rasmus; Poel, Mike van der

    2005-01-01

    Experimental demonstration and theoretical analysis of slow light in a semiconductor waveguide at GHz frequencies slow-down of light by a factor of two in a semiconductor waveguide at room temperature with a bandwidth of 16.7 GHz using the effect of coherent pulsations of the carrier density...

  4. A 2.4GHz ULP OOK single-chip transceiver for healthcare applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vidojkovic, M.; Huang, X.; Harpe, P.J.A.; Rampu, S.; Zhou, C.; Huang, Li; Molengraft, van de J.; Imamura, K.; Büsze, B.; Bouwens, F.; Konijnenburg, M.; Santana, J.; Breeschoten, A.; Huisken, J.; Philips, K.; Dolmans, G.; Groot, de H.W.H.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes an ultra-low power (ULP) single chip transceiver for wireless body area network (WBAN) applications. It supports on-off keying (OOK) modulation, and it operates in the 2.36–2.4 GHz medical BAN and 2.4–2.485 GHz ISM bands. It is implemented in 90 nm CMOS technology. The direct

  5. Design and modeling of inductors, capacitors and coplanar waveguides at tens of GHz frequencies

    CERN Document Server

    Aryan, Naser Pour

    2015-01-01

    This book describes the basic principles of designing and modelling inductors, MIM capacitors and coplanar waveguides at frequencies of several tens of GHz. The author explains the design and modelling of key, passive elements, such as capacitors, inductors and transmission lines that enable high frequency MEMS operating at frequencies in the orders of tens of GHz.

  6. Megawatt Power Level 120 GHz Gyrotrons for ITER Start-Up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, E M; Marchewka, C; Mastovsky, I; Shapiro, M A; Sirigiri, J R; Temkin, R J [MIT - Plasma Science and Fusion Center, NW16-186, 167 Albany Street, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2005-01-01

    We report operation of a 110 GHz gyrotron with 1.67 MW of output power measured in short pulses (3{mu}s) at an efficiency of 42% in the TE{sub 22,6} mode. We also present a preliminary design of a 1 MW, 120 GHz gyrotron for ITER start-up with an efficiency greater than 50%.

  7. Megawatt Power Level 120 GHz Gyrotrons for ITER Start-Up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, E M; Marchewka, C; Mastovsky, I; Shapiro, M A; Sirigiri, J R; Temkin, R J

    2005-01-01

    We report operation of a 110 GHz gyrotron with 1.67 MW of output power measured in short pulses (3μs) at an efficiency of 42% in the TE 22,6 mode. We also present a preliminary design of a 1 MW, 120 GHz gyrotron for ITER start-up with an efficiency greater than 50%

  8. Medium access control and network layer design for 60 GHz wireless personal area networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    An, X.

    2010-01-01

    The unlicensed frequency band around 60 GHz is a very promising spectrum due to its potential to provide multiple gigabits per second based data rates for short range wireless communication. Hence, 60 GHz radio is an attractive candidate to enable ultra high rate Wireless Personal Area Networks

  9. Measuring the service level in the 2.4 GHz ISM band

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bloem, J.W.H.; Schiphorst, Roelof

    2011-01-01

    In this report we provide the findings of the 2.4 GHz service level research. Here service level means the following: can all devices in the 2.4 GHz band fulfill their communication needs. In other words this corresponds to the overall Quality of Service (QoS). The project is a short research

  10. Characteristics of ocular temperature elevations after exposure to quasi- and millimeter waves (18-40 GHz)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Masami; Suzuki, Yukihisa; Tsai, Cheng-Yu; Sasaki, Kensuke; Wake, Kanako; Watanabe, Soichi; Taki, Masao; Kamimura, Yoshitsugu; Hirata, Akimasa; Sasaki, Kazuyuki; Sasaki, Hiroshi

    2015-04-01

    In order to investigate changes in ocular temperature in rabbit eyes exposed to different frequencies (18 to 40 GHz) of quasi-millimeter waves, and millimeter waves (MMW). Pigmented rabbits were anesthetized with both general and topical anesthesia, and thermometer probes (0.5 mm in diameter) were inserted into their cornea (stroma), lens (nucleus) and vitreous (center of vitreous). The eyes were exposed unilaterally to 200 mW/cm2 by horn antenna for 3 min at 18, 22 and 26.5 GHz using a K band exposure system or 26.5, 35 and 40 GHz using a Ka band exposure system. Changes in temperature of the cornea, lens and vitreous were measured with a fluoroptic thermometer. Since the ocular temperatures after exposure to 26.5 GHz generated by the K band and Ka band systems were similar, we assumed that experimental data from these 2 exposure systems were comparable. The highest ocular temperature was induced by 40 GHz MMW, followed by 35 GHz. The 26.5 and 22 GHz corneal temperatures were almost the same. The lowest temperature was recorded at 18 GHz. The elevation in ocular temperature in response to exposure to 200 mW/cm2 MMW is dependent on MMW frequency. MMW exposure induced heat is conveyed not only to the cornea but also the crystalline lens.

  11. Market capture by 30/20 GHz satellite systems. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, R. B.; Saporta, L.

    1981-01-01

    Demand for 30/20 GHz satellite systems over the next two decades is projected. Topics include a profile of the communications market, switched, dedicated, and packet transmission modes, deferred and real-time traffic, quality and reliability considerations, the capacity of competing transmission media, and scenarios for the growth and development of 30/20 GHz satellite communications.

  12. A study of parametric instability in a harmonic gyrotron: Designs of third harmonic gyrotrons at 94 GHz and 210 GHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saraph, G.P.; Antonsen, T.M. Jr.; Nusinovich, G.S.; Levush, B.

    1995-01-01

    Mode competition can present a major hurdle in achieving stable, efficient operation of a gyrotron at the cyclotron harmonics. A type of mode interaction in which three modes at different cyclotron harmonics are parametrically coupled together is analyzed here. This coupling can lead to parametric excitation or suppression of a mode; cyclic mode hopping; or the coexistence of three modes. Simulation results are presented for the parametric instability involving modes at the fundamental, second harmonic, and third harmonic of the cyclotron frequency. It is shown that the parametric excitation can lead to stable, efficient operation of a high-power gyrotron at the third harmonic. Based on this phenomenon, two practical designs are presented here for the third harmonic operation at 94 and 210 GHz. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  13. Feasibility Study and Experimental Verification of Simplified Fiber-Supported 60-GHz Picocell Mobile Backhaul Links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lebedev, Alexander; Pang, Xiaodan; Vegas Olmos, Juan José

    2013-01-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a fiber-wireless transmission system for optimized delivery of 60-GHz radio frequency (RF) signals through picocell mobile backhaul connections. We identify advantages of 60-GHz links for utilization in short-range mobile backhaul through feasibility...... the wireless transmission distance from 4 m to a few hundred meters has been taken into account in the setup design, and the techniques to extend the wireless distance are analyzed....... analysis and comparison with an alternative E-band (60–90 GHz) technology. The 60-GHz fiber-wireless-fiber setup is then introduced: two spans of up to 20 km of optical fiber are deployed and bridged by up to 4 m of wireless distance. The 60-GHz radio-over-fiber technology is utilized in the first span...

  14. Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Derived Renal Oxygenation and Perfusion During Continuous, Steady-State Angiotensin-II Infusion in Healthy Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Bel, René; Coolen, Bram F; Nederveen, Aart J; Potters, Wouter V; Verberne, Hein J; Vogt, Liffert; Stroes, Erik S G; Krediet, C T Paul

    2016-03-28

    The role of kidney hypoxia is considered pivotal in the progression of chronic kidney disease. A widely used method to assess kidney oxygenation is blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD)-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), but its interpretation remains problematic. The BOLD-MRI signal is the result of kidney oxygen consumption (a proxy of glomerular filtration) and supply (ie, glomerular perfusion). Therefore, we hypothesized that with pharmacological modulation of kidney blood flow, renal oxygenation, as assessed by BOLD-MRI, correlates to filtration fraction (ie, glomerular filtration rate/effective renal plasma flow) in healthy humans. Eight healthy volunteers were subjected to continuous angiotensin-II infusion at 0.3, 0.9, and 3.0 ng/kg per minute. At each dose, renal oxygenation and blood flow were assessed using BOLD and phase-contrast MRI. Subsequently, "gold standard" glomerular filtration rate/effective renal plasma flow measurements were performed under the same conditions. Renal plasma flow decreased dose dependently from 660±146 to 467±103 mL/min per 1.73 m(2) (F[3, 21]=33.3, PMRI, we showed that cortical oxygenation measured by BOLD MRI relates poorly to glomerular filtration rate but is associated with filtration fraction. For future studies, there may be a need to include renal plasma flow measurements when employing renal BOLD-MRI. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  15. 41 GHz and 10.6 GHz low threshold and low noise InAs/InP quantum dash two-section mode-locked lasers in L band

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dontabactouny, M.; Piron, R.; Klaime, K.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports recent results on InAs/InP quantum dash-based, two-section, passively mode-locked lasers pulsing at 41 GHz and 10.6 GHz and emitting at 1.59 mu m at 20 degrees C. The 41-GHz device (1 mm long) starts lasing at 25 mA under uniform injection and the 10.6 GHz (4 mm long) at 71 m...

  16. Confinement studies in the TJ-II stellarator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alejaldre, C.; Alonso, J.; Almoguera, L.; Ascasibar, E.; Baciero, A.; Balbin, R.; Blaumoser, M.; Botija, J.; Branas, B.; De La Cal, E.; Cappa, A.; Carrasco, R.; Castejon, F.; Cepero, J. R.; Cremy, C.; Delgrado, J. M.; Doncel, J.; Dulya, C.; Estrada, T.; Fernandez, A.; Fuentes, C.; Garcia, A.; Garcia-Cortes, I.; Guasp, J.; Herranz, J.; Hidalgo, C.; Jimenez, J. A.; Kirpitchev, I.; Krivenski, V.; Labrador, I.; Lapayese, F.; Likin, K.; Linier, M.; Lopez-Fraguas, A.; Lopez-Sanchez, A.; de la Luna, E.; Martin, R.; Martinez, A.; Martinez-Laso, L.; Medrano, M.; Mendez, P.; McCarthy, K. J.; Medina, F.; van Milligen, B.; Ochando, M.; Pacios, L.; Pastor, I.; Pedrosa, M. A.; de la Pena, A.; Portas, A.; Qin, J.; Rodriguez-Rodrigo, L.; Salas, A.; Sanchez, E.; Sanchez, J.; Tabares, F.; Tafalla, D.; Tribaldos, V.; Vega, J.; Zurro, B.; Akulina, D.; Fedyanin, O. I.; Grebenshchikov, S.; Kharchev, N.; Meshcheryakov, A.; Sarksian, K. A.; Barth, R.; van Dijk, G.; van der Meiden, H.

    1999-01-01

    ECR (electron cyclotron resonance) heated plasmas have been studied in the low magnetic shear TJ-II stellarator (R = 1.5 m, a < 0.22 m, B = 1 T, f = 53.2 GHz, P-ECRH = 300 kW, power density = 1-25 W cm(-3)). Recent experiments have explored the flexibility of the TJ-II across a wide range of

  17. Analisis Kelayakan Implementasi Teknologi LTE 1.8 GHz Bagi Operator Seluler di Indonesia [Feasibility Analysis of LTE 1.8 GHz for Mobile Operators in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Ariyanti

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Peningkatan kebutuhan layanan data mendorong operator telekomunikasi berusaha mengimplementasikan jaringan akses broadband yang lebih handal.  Teknologi LTE merupakan salah satu teknologi dengan kecepatan mencapai tiga kali dibanding teknologi HSDPA, sehingga diharapkan dapat memenuhi kebutuhan pelanggan data mobile. Refarming frekuensi 1.8 GHz  untuk penerapan teknologi LTE memberikan efisiensi karena tidak perlu membayar BHP lagi untuk menyewa frekuensi baru. Teknologi 2G GSM selama ini juga semakin ditinggalkan, masyarakat di daerah perkotaan cenderung lebih banyak menggunakan layanan data.  Sebelum diterapkannya teknologi LTE pada frekuensi 1.8 GHz perlu adanya kajian untuk mengetahui kelayakan teknologi LTE pada frekuensi 1.8 GHz. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk melakukan cost-benefit analysis implementasi LTE pada frekuensi 1.8 GHz.  Metode penelitian menggunakan pendekatan kualitataif yang didukung dengan data kuantitatif.  Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa minimal bandiwdth yang diperlukan agar implementasi LTE layak digunakan adalah 15 MHz.  Meskipun tanpa Global Frequency Returning, penggunaan bandwidth 10 MHz tidak layak digunakan untuk implementasi LTE.      *****The incresing of data demand drives mobile operators to implement more reliable broadband access network. LTE technology has downlink peak rate up to three times than HSDPA,  hence it may fulfill the mobile data user requirement. Frequency 1.8 GHz refarming can be implemented to provide efficiency because They do not need to pay licence fee for leasing new frequency. GSM technology will be abandoned since it is not growing anymore. Besides that, dense urban users tend to use data mobile.  Before implementing LTE technology  on 1.8 GHz frequency, It is necessary to analysis the feasibility such technology. This research used qualitative method supported by quantitative  approach.  The result of this research showed that minimum bandwidth to implement 1.8 GHz LTE

  18. InP MMIC Chip Set for Power Sources Covering 80-170 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Catherine

    2001-01-01

    We will present a Monolithic Millimeter-wave Integrated Circuit (MMIC) chip set which provides high output-power sources for driving diode frequency multipliers into the terahertz range. The chip set was fabricated at HRL Laboratories using a 0.1-micrometer gate-length InAlAs/InGaAs/InP high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) process, and features transistors with an f(sub max) above 600 GHz. The HRL InP HEMT process has already demonstrated amplifiers in the 60-200 GHz range. In this paper, these high frequency HEMTs form the basis for power sources up to 170 GHz. A number of state-of-the-art InP HEMT MMICs will be presented. These include voltage-controlled and fixed-tuned oscillators, power amplifiers, and an active doubler. We will first discuss an 80 GHz voltage-controlled oscillator with 5 GHz of tunability and at least 17 mW of output power, as well as a 120 GHz oscillator providing 7 mW of output power. In addition, we will present results of a power amplifier which covers the full WRIO waveguide band (75-110 GHz), and provides 40-50 mW of output power. Furthermore, we will present an active doubler at 164 GHz providing 8% bandwidth, 3 mW of output power, and an unprecedented 2 dB of conversion loss for an InP HEMT MMIC at this frequency. Finally, we will demonstrate a power amplifier to cover 140-170 GHz with 15-25 mW of output power and 8 dB gain. These components can form a power source in the 155-165 GHz range by cascading the 80 GHz oscillator, W-band power amplifier, 164 GHz active doubler and final 140-170 GHz power amplifier for a stable, compact local oscillator subsystem, which could be used for atmospheric science or astrophysics radiometers.

  19. SOFIA/FORCAST AND SPITZER/IRAC IMAGING OF THE ULTRACOMPACT H II REGION W3(OH) AND ASSOCIATED PROTOSTARS IN W3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirsch, Lea; Adams, Joseph D.; Herter, Terry L.; Gull, George E.; Henderson, Charles P.; Schoenwald, Justin [Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, 105 Space Sciences Building, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Hora, Joseph L. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS 65, Cambridge, MA 02138-1516 (United States); De Buizer, James M.; Vacca, William [SOFIA-University Space Research Association, NASA Ames Reseach Center, Mail Stop N211-3, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Megeath, S. Thomas [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, Mailstop 111, 2801 West Bancroft Street, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Keller, Luke D. [Ithaca College, Physics Department, 264 Center for Natural Sciences, Ithaca, NY 14850 (United States)

    2012-10-01

    We present infrared observations of the ultracompact H II region W3(OH) made by the FORCAST instrument aboard the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) and by the Spitzer/Infrared Array Camera. We contribute new wavelength data to the spectral energy distribution (SED), which constrains the optical depth, grain size distribution, and temperature gradient of the dusty shell surrounding the H II region. We model the dust component as a spherical shell containing an inner cavity with radius {approx}600 AU, irradiated by a central star of type O9 and temperature {approx}31, 000 K. The total luminosity of this system is 7.1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} L{sub Sun }. An observed excess of 2.2-4.5 {mu}m emission in the SED can be explained by our viewing a cavity opening or clumpiness in the shell structure whereby radiation from the warm interior of the shell can escape. We claim to detect the nearby water maser source W3 (H{sub 2}O) at 31.4 and 37.1 {mu}m using beam deconvolution of the FORCAST images. We constrain the flux densities of this object at 19.7-37.1 {mu}m. Additionally, we present in situ observations of four young stellar and protostellar objects in the SOFIA field, presumably associated with the W3 molecular cloud. Results from the model SED fitting tool of Robitaille et al. suggest that two objects (2MASS J02270352+6152357 and 2MASS J02270824+6152281) are intermediate-luminosity ({approx}236-432 L{sub Sun }) protostars; one object (2MASS J02270887+6152344) is either a high-mass protostar with luminosity 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 3} L{sub Sun} or a less massive young star with a substantial circumstellar disk but depleted envelope; and the other (2MASS J02270743+6152281) is an intermediate-luminosity ({approx}768 L{sub Sun }) protostar nearing the end of its envelope accretion phase or a young star surrounded by a circumstellar disk with no appreciable circumstellar envelope.

  20. Diseño y validación de un radar CW-FM a 94 GHz

    OpenAIRE

    Varela Agrelo, David

    2013-01-01

    Diseño y validación de un radar CW-FM a 9g GHz 94 GHz CW-FM radar design and mesurement campaign validation. Desarrollo de un radar CW-FM a 94GHz y verificación de los resultados obtenidos durante la etapa de medidas. Desevolupament d'un radar CW-FM a 94GHz i verificació dels resultat obteinguts durante l'etapa de mesures.

  1. Effects of Wi-Fi (2.45 GHz) Exposure on Apoptosis, Sperm Parameters and Testicular Histomorphometry in Rats: A Time Course Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokri, Saeed; Soltani, Aiob; Kazemi, Mahsa; Sardari, Dariush; Mofrad, Farshid Babapoor

    2015-01-01

    In today's world, 2.45-GHz radio-frequency radiation (RFR) from industrial, scientific, medical, military and domestic applications is the main part of indoor-outdoor electromagnetic field exposure. Long-term effects of 2.45-GHz Wi-Fi radiation on male reproductive system was not known completely. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the major cause of male infertility during short- and long-term exposure of Wi-Fi radiation. This is an animal experimental study, which was conducted in the Department of Anatomical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan, IRAN, from June to August 2014. Three-month-old male Wistar rats (n=27) were exposed to the 2.45 GHz radiation in a chamber with two Wi-Fi antennas on opposite walls. Animals were divided into the three following groups: I. control group (n=9) including healthy animals without any exposure to the antenna, II. 1-hour group (n=9) exposed to the 2.45 GHz Wi-Fi radiation for 1 hour per day during two months and III.7-hour group (n=9) exposed to the 2.45 GHz Wi-Fi radiation for 7 hours per day during 2 months. Sperm parameters, caspase-3 concentrations, histomorphometric changes of testis in addition to the apoptotic indexes were evaluated in the exposed and control animals. Both 1-hour and 7-hour groups showed a decrease in sperm parameters in a time dependent pattern. In parallel, the number of apoptosis-positive cells and caspase-3 activity increased in the seminiferous tubules of exposed rats. The seminal vesicle weight reduced significantly in both1-hour or 7-hour groups in comparison to the control group. Regarding to the progressive privilege of 2.45 GHz wireless networks in our environment, we concluded that there should be a major concern regarding the timedependent exposure of whole-body to the higher frequencies of Wi-Fi networks existing in the vicinity of our living places.

  2. A 1.1-1.9 GHz SETI SURVEY OF THE KEPLER FIELD. I. A SEARCH FOR NARROW-BAND EMISSION FROM SELECT TARGETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siemion, Andrew P. V.; Korpela, Eric; Werthimer, Dan; Cobb, Jeff; Lebofsky, Matt; Marcy, Geoffrey W. [University of California, Berkeley, 110 Sproul Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Demorest, Paul; Maddalena, Ron J.; Langston, Glen [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Rd Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Howard, Andrew W. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 640 North A' ohoku Place, 209 Hilo, HI 96720-2700 (United States); Tarter, Jill [SETI Institute, 189 Bernardo Ave 100 Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States)

    2013-04-10

    We present a targeted search for narrow-band (<5 Hz) drifting sinusoidal radio emission from 86 stars in the Kepler field hosting confirmed or candidate exoplanets. Radio emission less than 5 Hz in spectral extent is currently known to only arise from artificial sources. The stars searched were chosen based on the properties of their putative exoplanets, including stars hosting candidates with 380 K > T{sub eq} > 230 K, stars with five or more detected candidates or stars with a super-Earth (R{sub p} < 3 R{sub Circled-Plus }) in a >50 day orbit. Baseband voltage data across the entire band between 1.1 and 1.9 GHz were recorded at the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope between 2011 February and April and subsequently searched offline. No signals of extraterrestrial origin were found. We estimate that fewer than {approx}1% of transiting exoplanet systems host technological civilizations that are radio loud in narrow-band emission between 1 and 2 GHz at an equivalent isotropically radiated power (EIRP) of {approx}1.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 21} erg s{sup -1}, approximately eight times the peak EIRP of the Arecibo Planetary Radar, and we limit the number of 1-2 GHz narrow-band-radio-loud Kardashev type II civilizations in the Milky Way to be <10{sup -6} M{sub Sun }{sup -1}. Here we describe our observations, data reduction procedures and results.

  3. The DIII-D 3 MW, 110 GHz ECH System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callis, R.W.; Lohr, J.; Ponce, D.; O'Neill, R.C.; Prater, R.; Luce, T.C.

    1999-01-01

    Three 110 GHz gyrotrons with nominal output power of 1 MW each have been installed and are operational on the DIII-D tokamak. One gyrotron is built by Gycom and has a nominal rating of 1 MW and a 2 s pulse length, with the pulse length being determined by the maximum temperature allowed on the edge cooled Boron Nitride window. The second and third gyrotrons were built by Communications and Power Industries (CPI). The first CPI gyrotron uses a double disc FC-75 cooled sapphire window which has a pulse length rating of 0.8 s at 1 MW, 2s at 0.5 MW and 10s at 0.35 MW. The second CPI gyrotron, utilizes a single disc chemical-vapor-deposition diamond window, that employs water cooling around the edge of the disc. Calculation predict that the diamond window should be capable of full 1 MW cw operation. All gyrotrons are connected to the tokamak by a low-loss-windowless evacuated transmission line using circular corrugated waveguide for propagation in the HEl 1 mode. Each waveguide system incorporates a two mirror launcher which can steer the rf beam poloidally from the center to the outer edge of the plasma. Central current drive experiments with the two gyrotrons with 1.5 MW of injected power drove about 0.17 MA. Results from using the three gyrotron systems will be reported as well as the plans to upgrade the system to 6 MW

  4. TFTR 60 GHz alpha particle collective Thomson Scattering diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machuzak, J.S.; Woskov, P.P.; Gilmore, J.; Bretz, N.L.; Park, H.K.; Bindslev, H.

    1995-03-01

    A 60 GHz gyrotron collective Thomson Scattering alpha particle diagnostic has been implemented for the D-T period on TFM. Gyrotron power of 0.1-1 kW in pulses of up to 1 second can be launched in X-mode. Efficient corrugated waveguides are used with antennaes and vacuum windows of the TFTR Microwave Scattering system. A multichannel synchronous detector receiver system and spectrum analyzer acquire the scattered signals. A 200 Megasample/sec digitizer is used to resolve fine structure in the frequency spectrum. By scattering nearly perpendicular to the magnetic field, this experiment will take advantage of an enhancement of the scattered signal which results from the interaction of the alpha particles with plasma resonances in the lower hybrid frequency range. Significant enhancements are expected, which will make these measurements possible with gyrotron power less than 1 kW, while maintaining an acceptable signal to noise ratio. We hope to extract alpha particle density and velocity distribution functions from the data. The D and T fuel densities and temperatures may also be obtainable by measurement of the respective ion cyclotron harmonic frequencies

  5. RADIO SOURCES FROM A 31 GHz SKY SURVEY WITH THE SUNYAEV-ZEL'DOVICH ARRAY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muchovej, Stephen; Hawkins, David; Lamb, James; Woody, David; Leitch, Erik; Carlstrom, John E.; Culverhouse, Thomas; Greer, Chris; Hennessy, Ryan; Loh, Michael; Marrone, Daniel P.; Pryke, Clem; Sharp, Matthew; Joy, Marshall; Miller, Amber; Mroczkowski, Tony

    2010-01-01

    We present the first sample of 31 GHz selected sources to flux levels of 1 mJy. From late 2005 to mid-2007, the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Array observed 7.7 deg 2 of the sky at 31 GHz to a median rms of 0.18 mJy beam -1 . We identify 209 sources at greater than 5σ significance in the 31 GHz maps, ranging in flux from 0.7 mJy to ∼200 mJy. Archival NVSS data at 1.4 GHz and observations at 5 GHz with the Very Large Array are used to characterize the sources. We determine the maximum-likelihood integrated source count to be N(>S) = (27.2 ± 2.5)deg -2 x (S mJy ) -1.18±0.12 over the flux range 0.7-15 mJy. This result is significantly higher than predictions based on 1.4 GHz selected samples, a discrepancy which can be explained by a small shift in the spectral index distribution for faint 1.4 GHz sources. From comparison with previous measurements of sources within the central arcminute of massive clusters, we derive an overdensity of 6.8 ± 4.4, relative to field sources.

  6. Effects of 1.8 GHz radiofrequency field on microstructure and bone metabolism of femur in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ling; Zhang, Jun-Ping; Zhang, Ke-Ying; Wang, Huan-Bo; Wang, Huan; An, Guang-Zhou; Zhou, Yan; Meng, Guo-Lin; Ding, Gui-Rong

    2018-04-30

    To investigate the effects of 1.8 GHz radiofrequency (RF) field on bone microstructure and metabolism of femur in mice, C57BL/6 mice (male, age 4 weeks) were whole-body exposed or sham exposed to 1.8 GHz RF field. Specific absorption rates of whole body and bone were approximately 2.70 and 1.14 W/kg (6 h/day for 28 days). After exposure, microstructure and morphology of femur were observed by microcomputed tomography (micro-CT), Hematoxylin and Eosin (HE) and Masson staining. Subsequently, bone parameters were calculated directly from the reconstructed images, including structure model index, bone mineral density, trabecular bone volume/total volume, connectivity density, trabecular number, trabecular thickness, and trabecular separation. Biomarkers that reflect bone metabolism, such as serum total alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BALP), and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRACP-5b), were determined by biochemical assay methods. Micro-CT and histology results showed that there was no significant change in bone microstructure and the above parameters in RF group, compared with sham group. The activity of serum ALP and BALP increased 29.47% and 16.82%, respectively, in RF group, compared with sham group (P microstructure; however, it might promote metabolic function of osteoblasts in mice. Bioelectromagnetics. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Performance Investigations of Quasi-Yagi Loop and Dipole Antennas on Silicon Substrate for 94 GHz Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama M. Haraz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces the design and implementation of two high gain Quasi-Yagi printed antennas developed on silicon substrate for 94 GHz imaging applications. The proposed antennas are based on either driven loop or dipole antennas fed by a coplanar waveguide (CPW feeding structure. For better matching with the driven antennas, a matching section has been added between the CPW feedline and the driven antenna element. To improve the gain of either loop or dipole antennas, a ground reflector and parasitic director elements have been added. Two Quasi-Yagi antenna prototypes based on loop and dipole antenna elements have been fabricated and experimentally tested using W-band probing station (75–110 GHz. The measured results show good agreement with simulated results and confirm that the proposed antennas are working. In addition, a feed and matching configuration is proposed to enable coupling a microbolometer element to the proposed Quasi-Yagi antenna designs for performing radiation pattern measurements.

  8. The effect of soil moisture on the 37 GHz microwave polarization difference index (MPDI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felde, G.W.

    1998-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the 37 GHz microwave polarization difference index (MPDI) has an inverse nonlinear relationship to the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) with the MPDI (NDVI) being more sensitive to vegetation density under sparse (moderate) vegetation conditions. It has also been noted that soil moisture can have a significant influence on the MPDI. This study quantifies the effect of soil moisture on the MPDI using the RADTRAN model and comparison with measurements from a few geographically restricted (eastern USA) study sites. Model results show the MPDI increases with soil moisture but its sensitivity approaches zero when soil moisture values or vegetation densities are large. Results based on special sensor microwave/imager (SSM/I) measured values of MPDI, using the NDVI as a surrogate for vegetation density and an antecedent precipitation index (API) as a surrogate for soil moisture, were consistent with those based on the model. Linear equations, one for each of three categories of vegetation density, expressing MPDI as a function of API were derived based on SSM/I measurements. These equations demonstrate that soil moisture information can be extracted from the MPDI when the NDVI is used to account for the effect of vegetation and that the effect of soil moisture on the MPDI should be taken into account if it is to be used as a vegetation index. The potential to normalize MPDI values for variations in soil moisture is discussed. (author)

  9. Observations Of Gamma-ray Loud Blazars With The VLBA At 5 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linford, Justin; Taylor, G. B.; Romani, R.; Readhead, A. C. S.; Reeves, R.; Richards, J. L.; Helmboldt, J. F.

    2011-01-01

    The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has been scanning the sky for more than a year. About half of the sources detected by Fermi's Large Area Telesope (LAT) are active galactic nuclei (AGN). Nearly all of these gamma-ray loud AGN are blazars; strong, compact radio emitters that exhibit variability in their flux and apparent superluminal motion in their jets. Several groups are currently monitoring the radio properties of these gamma-ray loud blazars. We present results from both archival and contemporaneous observations of 200 LAT-detected blazars using the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) at a frequency of 5 GHz (wavelength of 6 cm). Our large, flux-limited sample provides unique insights into the mechanism that produces strong gamma-ray emissions. We explore the parsec-scale properties of the cores and jets of these highly energetic objects, including core polarization. We compare the gamma-ray loud blazars to their gamma-ray quiet counterparts in the VLBA Imaging and Polarimetry Survey (VIPS). We also investigate the differences between the BL Lacertae objects (BL Lacs) and flat-spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs).

  10. Limits on Arcminute-Scale Cosmic Microwave Background Anisotropy at 28.5 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzapfel, W. L.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Grego, L.; Holder, G.; Joy, M.; Reese, E. D.

    2000-01-01

    We have used the Berkeley-Illinois-Maryland Association (BIMA) millimeter array outfitted with sensitive centimeter-wave receivers to search for cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies on arcminute scales. The interferometer was placed in a compact configuration that produces high brightness sensitivity, while providing discrimination against point sources. Operating at a frequency of 28.5 GHz, the FWHM primary beam of the instrument is approximately 6'.6. We have made sensitive images of seven fields, four of which where chosen specifically to have low infrared dust contrast and to be free of bright radio sources. Additional observations with the Owens Valley Radio Observatory (OVRO) millimeter array were used to assist in the location and removal of radio point sources. Applying a Bayesian analysis to the raw visibility data, we place limits on CMB anisotropy flat-band power of Q(sub flat) = 5.6(sub -5.6)(exp 3.0) microK and Q(sub flat) < 14.1 microK at 68% and 95% confidence, respectively. The sensitivity of this experiment to flat-band power peaks at a multipole of I = 5470, which corresponds to an angular scale of approximately 2'. The most likely value of Q(sub flat) is similar to the level of the expected secondary anisotropies.

  11. The Potential for a Ka-band (32 GHz) Worldwide VLBI Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, C. S.; Bach, U.; Colomer, F.; Garcia-Miro, C.; Gomez-Gonzalez, J.; Gulyaev, S.; Horiuchi, S.; Ichikawa, R.; Kraus, A.; Kronschnabl, G.; hide

    2012-01-01

    Ka-band (32 GHz, 9mm) Very Long Baseline Interferometric (VLBI) networking has now begun and has tremendous potential for expansion over the next few years. Ka-band VLBI astrometry from NASA's Deep Space Network has already developed a catalog of 470 observable sources with highly accurate positions. Now, several antennas worldwide are planning or are considering adding Ka-band VLBI capability. Thus, there is now an opportunity to create a worldwide Ka-band network with potential for high resolution imaging and astrometry. With baselines approaching a Giga-lambda, a Ka-band network would be able to probe source structure at the nano-radian (200 as) level ( 100X better than Hubble) and thus gain insight into the astrophysics of the most compact regions of emission in active galactic nuclei. We discuss the advantages of Ka-band, show the known sources and candidates, simulate projected baseline (uv) coverage, and discuss potential radio frequency feeds. The combination of these elements demonstrates the feasibility of a worldwide Ka network within the next few years!

  12. 1981 Image II Conference Proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-11-01

    Sulfide Photoconductor Light Valve (CdSLV), currently in production to support a growing line of graphic large screen display pro- ducts, resulted in...optics. 235 During the same time investigations have been made in order to grow larger crystals where the targets are cut. The DKDP crystals which allow...matches to their experience base. An individual who sees a rhinoceros for the first time may perceive it as a horse with a horn and call it a unicorn

  13. Prelaunch Performance of the 118 GHz Polarcube 3U Cubesat Temperature Sounding Radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periasamy, L.; Gasiewski, A. J.; Gallaher, D. W.; Sanders, B. T.; Belter, R.; Kraft, D.; Castillo, J.; Gordon, J. A.; Hurowitz, M.

    2017-12-01

    The low cost PolarCube 3U CubeSat supports a 118.75 GHz imaging spectrometer for temperature profiling of the troposphere and surface temperature. It is a demonstrator for a constellation of LEO passive microwave sensors at V-band and other frequencies using 3U/6U CubeSats. Such a satellite constellation for weather forecasting will provide data at high spatial and temporal resolution to observe rapidly evolving mesoscale weather. The satellite's payload is an eight channel, double sideband passive microwave temperature sounder with cross-track scanning and will provide 18 km surface resolution from a 400 km orbit. The radiometer implements a two-point calibration using an internal PIN switch and view of cold space. Although the instrument is based on a well established classical design, the challenges lie in developing a sensitive spectrometer that fits in a 1.5U volume, is low cost, consumes 4 W power and satisfies the CubeSat weight and envelope constraints. PolarCube is scheduled for launch on a Virgin Galactic flight in summer, 2018. The estimated radiometer sensitivity, ΔTrms varies from 0.3 to 2 K across the eight channels. The 50 MHz to 7 GHz 8-channel filter bank (designed with surface mount capacitors and inductors) fits on a 9x5 cm2 RO4350B PCB and includes 2-stage amplification and detector circuitry. The scanning reflector with an 8 cm2 main aperture uses a 3D printed corrugated feed that includes a WR8 to WC8 waveguide transition with a 17° bend. Initial performance results from the instrument using the 3D printed feed and IF/VA board obtained from airborne measurements over Antarctica on the NASA DC8 in early November 2016 indicate a well-functioning radiometer. The end-to-end characterization of the payload with the satellite bus, performance results from vibration and thermal-vacuum tests and roof-top measurements will be presented.

  14. Design of a 17.14 GHz quasi-optical pulse compressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petelin, M. I.; Kuzikov, S. V.; Danilov, Yu. Yu.; Granatstein, V. L.; Nusinovich, G. S.

    1999-01-01

    A quasi-optical version of the ring cavity pulse compressor is considered. This concept is based on the coupling of the input wave to a whispering gallery mode of a barrel-like cavity due to helical corrugations of the cavity wall. Low-power tests of the prototype were carried out at 11.4 GHz and demonstrated reasonable agree-ment between experimental data and theoretical predictions. The design of a similar pulse compressor at 17.14 GHz compatible with the 17.14 GHz, 100 MW gyroklystron currently under development at the University of Maryland is presented

  15. VizieR Online Data Catalog: ACT high significance 148 and 218GHz sources (Marsden+, 2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsden, D.; Gralla, M.; Marriage, T. A.; Switzer, E. R.; Partridge, B.; Massardi, M.; Morales, G.; Addison, G.; Bond, J. R.; Crichton, D.; Das, S.; Devlin, M.; Dunner, R.; Hajian, A.; Hilton, M.; Hincks, A.; Hughes, J. P.; Irwin, K.; Kosowsky, A.; Menanteau, F.; Moodley, K.; Niemack, M.; Page, L.; Reese, E. D.; Schmitt, B.; Sehgal, N.; Sievers, J.; Staggs, S.; Swetz, D.; Thornton, R.; Wollack, E.

    2014-11-01

    The ACT experiment (Swetz et al., 2011ApJS..194...41S) is situated on the slopes of Cerro Toco in the Atacama Desert of Chile at an elevation of 5190m. ACT's latitude gives access to both the northern and southern celestial hemispheres. Observations occurred simultaneously in three frequency bands, at 148GHz (2.0mm), 218GHz (1.4mm) and 277GHz (1.1mm) with angular resolutions of roughly 1.4 , 1.0 and 0.9-arcmin, respectively. (1 data file).

  16. A simple system for 160GHz optical terahertz wave generation and data modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yihan; He, Jingsuo; Sun, Xueming; Shi, Zexia; Wang, Ruike; Cui, Hailin; Su, Bo; Zhang, Cunlin

    2018-01-01

    A simple system based on two cascaded Mach-Zehnder modulators, which can generate 160GHz optical terahertz waves from 40GHz microwave sources, is simulated and tested in this paper. Fiber grating filter is used in the system to filter out optical carrier. By properly adjusting the modulator DC bias voltages and the signal voltages and phases, 4-tupling optical terahertz wave can be generated with fiber grating. This notch fiber grating filter is greatly suitable for terahertz over fiber (TOF) communication system. This scheme greatly reduces the cost of long-distance terahertz communication. Furthermore, 10Gbps digital signal is modulated in the 160GHz optical terahertz wave.

  17. Copper (II)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CLEMENT O BEWAJI

    Valine (2 - amino - 3 – methylbutanoic acid), is a chemical compound containing .... Stability constant (Kf). Gibb's free energy. ) (. 1. −. ∆. Mol. JG. [CuL2(H2O)2] ... synthesis and characterization of Co(ii), Ni(ii), Cu (II), and Zn(ii) complexes with ...

  18. THE ALLEN TELESCOPE ARRAY Pi GHz SKY SURVEY. III. THE ELAIS-N1, COMA, AND LOCKMAN HOLE FIELDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croft, Steve; Bower, Geoffrey C.; Whysong, David [Astronomy Department, University of California, Berkeley, B-20 Hearst Field Annex 3411, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2013-01-10

    We present results from a total of 459 repeated 3.1 GHz radio continuum observations (of which 379 were used in a search for transient sources) of the ELAIS-N1, Coma, Lockman Hole, and NOAO Deep Wide Field Survey fields as part of the Pi GHz Sky Survey. The observations were taken approximately once per day between 2009 May and 2011 April. Each image covers 11.8 square degrees and has 100'' FWHM resolution. Deep images for each of the four fields have rms noise between 180 and 310 {mu}Jy, and the corresponding catalogs contain {approx}200 sources in each field. Typically 40-50 of these sources are detected in each single-epoch image. This represents one of the shortest cadence, largest area, multi-epoch surveys undertaken at these frequencies. We compare the catalogs generated from the combined images to those from individual epochs, and from monthly averages, as well as to legacy surveys. We undertake a search for transients, with particular emphasis on excluding false positive sources. We find no confirmed transients, defined here as sources that can be shown to have varied by at least a factor of 10. However, we find one source that brightened in a single-epoch image to at least six times the upper limit from the corresponding deep image. We also find a source associated with a z = 0.6 quasar which appears to have brightened by a factor {approx}3 in one of our deep images, when compared to catalogs from legacy surveys. We place new upper limits on the number of transients brighter than 10 mJy: fewer than 0.08 transients deg{sup -2} with characteristic timescales of months to years; fewer than 0.02 deg{sup -2} with timescales of months; and fewer than 0.009 deg{sup -2} with timescales of days. We also plot upper limits as a function of flux density for transients on the same timescales.

  19. Room-temperature nine-µm-wavelength photodetectors and GHz-frequency heterodyne receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaferri, Daniele; Todorov, Yanko; Bigioli, Azzurra; Mottaghizadeh, Alireza; Gacemi, Djamal; Calabrese, Allegra; Vasanelli, Angela; Li, Lianhe; Davies, A. Giles; Linfield, Edmund H.; Kapsalidis, Filippos; Beck, Mattias; Faist, Jérôme; Sirtori, Carlo

    2018-04-01

    Room-temperature operation is essential for any optoelectronics technology that aims to provide low-cost, compact systems for widespread applications. A recent technological advance in this direction is bolometric detection for thermal imaging, which has achieved relatively high sensitivity and video rates (about 60 hertz) at room temperature. However, owing to thermally induced dark current, room-temperature operation is still a great challenge for semiconductor photodetectors targeting the wavelength band between 8 and 12 micrometres, and all relevant applications, such as imaging, environmental remote sensing and laser-based free-space communication, have been realized at low temperatures. For these devices, high sensitivity and high speed have never been compatible with high-temperature operation. Here we show that a long-wavelength (nine micrometres) infrared quantum-well photodetector fabricated from a metamaterial made of sub-wavelength metallic resonators exhibits strongly enhanced performance with respect to the state of the art up to room temperature. This occurs because the photonic collection area of each resonator is much larger than its electrical area, thus substantially reducing the dark current of the device. Furthermore, we show that our photonic architecture overcomes intrinsic limitations of the material, such as the drop of the electronic drift velocity with temperature, which constrains conventional geometries at cryogenic operation. Finally, the reduced physical area of the device and its increased responsivity allow us to take advantage of the intrinsic high-frequency response of the quantum detector at room temperature. By mixing the frequencies of two quantum-cascade lasers on the detector, which acts as a heterodyne receiver, we have measured a high-frequency signal, above four gigahertz (GHz). Therefore, these wide-band uncooled detectors could benefit technologies such as high-speed (gigabits per second) multichannel coherent data

  20. Quasi-optical internal mode converters for 110 GHz gyrotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, B.M.; Lorbeck, J.A.; Vernon, R.J.

    1995-01-01

    Many early gyrotrons had a microwave output in the same mode that was produced in the microwave cavity, e.g. the TE 02 mode. These modes were often converted outside of the tube to a more desirable mode for plasma heating using a system of perturbed-wall waveguide mode converters. The current generation of gyrotrons commonly have cavity modes with a high azimuthal index, such as the rotating TE 22,6 mode. Mode conversion by means of waveguide mode converters is not usually practical for such cases. However, an output of a Gaussian beam or other desirable field pattern can be obtained by using a Vlasov-type launcher feeding a series of two or more reflectors. This system may be placed outside or inside of the gyrotron but there are advantages to placing it within the tube, e.g. allowing for a larger collector and smaller reflectors. When such a converter system is placed inside the gyrotron, it is usually preferable to use a modification to the simple Vlasov launcher such as the Denisov-type launcher, which incorporates a series of perturbations within it. The authors have designed both internal and external versions of such quasi-optical converters. They discuss an internal converter which was designed for use inside of a Varian 110 GHz gyrotron producing the TE 22,6 cavity mode. This design consists of four reflectors which are fed by a Denisov-type launcher. Design techniques for the reflector system are discussed and experimental results are presented

  1. Miniature Packaging Concept for LNAs in the 200-300 GHz Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samoska, Lorene; Fung, Andy; Varonen, Mikko; Lin, Robert; Peralta, Alejandro; Soria, Mary; Lee, Choonsup; Padmanabhan, Sharmila; Sarkozy, Stephen; Lai, Richard

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we describe new miniaturized low noise amplifier modules which we developed for incorporation in small-scale satellites or Cubesats, and which exhibit similar or better performance compared to previously reported LNAs in the literature. We have targeted the WR4 (170-260 GHz) and WR3 (220-325 GHz) waveguide bands for the module development. The modules include two different methods of E-plane probes which have been developed for low loss, and stability at high frequencies. MMIC LNAs were also developed for these frequency ranges and fabricated in Northrop Grumman Corporation's 35 nm InP HEMT technology, and we have experimentally verified that noise performance is lower than reported in prior work. The best results include a miniature LNA module with 550K noise at 224 GHz, and a wideband LNA module with 15 dB gain from 230-280 GHz.

  2. Short optical pulse generation at 40 GHz with a bulk electro-absorption modulator packaged device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, Patrick; Moore, Ronald; Prosyk, Kelvin; O'Keefe, Sean; Oosterom, Jill A.; Betty, Ian; Foster, Robert; Greenspan, Jonathan; Singh, Priti

    2003-12-01

    Short optical pulse generation at 40GHz and 1540nm wavelength is achieved using fully packaged bulk quaternary electro-absorption modulator modules. Experimental results obtained with broadband and narrowband optimized packaged modules are presented and compared against empirical model predictions. Pulse duty cycle, extinction ratio and chirp are studied as a function of sinusoidal drive voltage and detuning between operating wavelength and modulator absorption band edge. Design rules and performance trade-offs are discussed. Low-chirp pulses with a FWHM of ~12ps and sub-4ps at a rate of 40GHz are demonstrated. Optical time-domain demultiplexing of a 40GHz to a 10GHz pulse train is also demonstrated with better than 20dB extinction ratio.

  3. Development of 24GHz Rectenna for Receiving and Rectifying Modulated Waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinohara, Naoki; Hatano, Ken

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we show experimental results of RF-DC conversion with modulated 24GHz waves. We have already developed class-F MMIC rectenna with resonators for higher harmonics at no modulated 24GHz microwave for RF energy transfer. Dimensions of the MMIC rectifying circuit is 1 mm × 3 mm on GaAs. Maximum RF-DC conversion efficiency is measured 47.9% for a 210 mW microwave input of 24 GHz with a 120 Ω load. The class-F rectenna is based on a single shunt full-wave rectifier. For future application of a simultaneous energy and information transfer system or an energy harvesting from broadcasting waves, input microwave will be modulated. In this paper, we show an experimental result of RF-DC conversion of the class-F rectenna with 24GHz waves modulated by 16QAM as 1st modulation and OFDM as 2nd modulation

  4. Development of 24GHz Rectenna for Receiving and Rectifying Modulated Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinohara, Naoki; Hatano, Ken

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, we show experimental results of RF-DC conversion with modulated 24GHz waves. We have already developed class-F MMIC rectenna with resonators for higher harmonics at no modulated 24GHz microwave for RF energy transfer. Dimensions of the MMIC rectifying circuit is 1 mm × 3 mm on GaAs. Maximum RF-DC conversion efficiency is measured 47.9% for a 210 mW microwave input of 24 GHz with a 120 Ω load. The class-F rectenna is based on a single shunt full-wave rectifier. For future application of a simultaneous energy and information transfer system or an energy harvesting from broadcasting waves, input microwave will be modulated. In this paper, we show an experimental result of RF-DC conversion of the class-F rectenna with 24GHz waves modulated by 16QAM as 1st modulation and OFDM as 2nd modulation.

  5. Results of RIKEN superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source with 28 GHz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higurashi, Y; Ohnishi, J; Nakagawa, T; Haba, H; Tamura, M; Aihara, T; Fujimaki, M; Komiyama, M; Uchiyama, A; Kamigaito, O

    2012-02-01

    We measured the beam intensity of highly charged heavy ions and x-ray heat load for RIKEN superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source with 28 GHz microwaves under the various conditions. The beam intensity of Xe(20+) became maximum at B(min) ∼ 0.65 T, which was ∼65% of the magnetic field strength of electron cyclotron resonance (B(ECR)) for 28 GHz microwaves. We observed that the heat load of x-ray increased with decreasing gas pressure and field gradient at resonance zone. It seems that the beam intensity of highly charged heavy ions with 28 GHz is higher than that with 18 GHz at same RF power.

  6. 80 Gbit/s 16-QAM Multicarrier THz Wireless Communication Link in the 400 GHz Band

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jia, Shi; Yu, Xianbin; Hu, Hao

    2016-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a high-speed multicarrier THz wireless communication system operating in the 400 GHz band. The use of spectrally efficient 16-QAM modulation and broadband THz transceivers enable link data rates up to 80 Gbit/s....

  7. Short-duration exposure to 2.45 GHz microwave radiation induces ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OBEMBE

    The genotoxic effects of 2.45 GHz microwave (MW) radiation on the testis ... electromagnetic radiation present in the environment and ..... intrinsic (quantum) energy is too low to dislodge an .... wave on brain enzymes of developing rat brain.

  8. 160 Gbit/s photonics wireless transmission in the 300-500 GHz band

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Yu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available To accommodate the ever increasing wireless traffic in the access networks, considerable efforts have been recently invested in developing photonics-assisted wireless communication systems with very high data rates. Superior to photonic millimeter-wave systems, terahertz (THz band (300 GHz-10 THz provides a much larger bandwidth and thus promises an extremely high capacity. However, the capacity potential of THz wireless systems has by no means been achieved yet. Here, we successfully demonstrate 160 Gbit/s wireless transmission by using a single THz emitter and modulating 25 GHz spaced 8 channels (20 Gbps per channel in the 300-500 GHz band, which is the highest bitrate in the frequency band above 300 GHz, to the best of our knowledge.

  9. Generation of large scale GHZ states with the interactions of photons and quantum-dot spins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Chun; Fang, Shu-Dong; Dong, Ping; Yang, Ming; Cao, Zhuo-Liang

    2018-03-01

    We present a deterministic scheme for generating large scale GHZ states in a cavity-quantum dot system. A singly charged quantum dot is embedded in a double-sided optical microcavity with partially reflective top and bottom mirrors. The GHZ-type Bell spin state can be created and two n-spin GHZ states can be perfectly fused to a 2n-spin GHZ state with the help of n ancilla single-photon pulses. The implementation of the current scheme only depends on the photon detection and its need not to operate multi-qubit gates and multi-qubit measurements. Discussions about the effect of the cavity loss, side leakage and exciton cavity coupling strength for the fidelity of generated states show that the fidelity can remain high enough by controlling system parameters. So the current scheme is simple and feasible in experiment.

  10. Time Domain Characterization of 1-2 GHz Circular-ended Bowtie Antenna Using Normalizad Impulse Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joko Suryana

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Frequency domain analysis is a powerful and compact tool for characterizing the antenna parameters such as gain, radiation pattern and the impedance as a function of frequency. However, if time or space is a major concern, such as in the GPR appication, the time domain analysis would be a very important tool due to their unique capability for determining the echo delay and range profile of target image. In this paper, we will describe the classical theory of system characterization in time domain, and then also propose the mathematical model for characterizing the 1 - 2 GHz circular-ended Bowtie antenna. From the measurement results, we concluded that the implemented Bowtie antenna has good normalized impulse response with very small ringing, so it is suitable for GPR applications.

  11. The Experimental Verification of Gaussian Beam Coupling for ECH Transmission Line at 400 GHz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choe Mun Seok

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We design a quasi-optical transmission line system for a 400 GHz gyrotron beam. The 400GHz Gaussian beam is injected to a corrugated waveguide bounced from a quasi-optical mirror. From detailed 2D field patterns of the output beam emitted from the corrugated waveguide, we analyze the mode contents and the source of non-ideal beam expansion

  12. The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS): 38 GHz Detector Array of Bolometric Polarimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, John W.; Ali, Aamir; Amiri, Mandana; Araujo, Derek; Bennett, Charles L.; Boone, Fletcher; Chan, Manwei; Cho, Hsiao-Mei; Chuss, David T.; Colazo, Felipe; hide

    2014-01-01

    The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) experiment aims to map the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) at angular scales larger than a few degrees. Operating from Cerro Toco in the Atacama Desert of Chile, it will observe over 65% of the sky at 38, 93, 148, and 217 GHz. In this paper we discuss the design, construction, and characterization of the CLASS 38 GHz detector focal plane, the first ever Q-band bolometric polarimeter array.

  13. Structured surface reflector design for oblique incidence beam splitter at 610 GHz

    OpenAIRE

    Defrance , Fabien; Casaletti , Massimiliano; Sarrazin , Julien; Wiedner , Martina; Gibson , Hugh; Gay , Gregory; Lefevre , Roland; Delorme , Yan

    2016-01-01

    International audience; An iterative alternate projection-based algorithm is developed to design structured surface reflectors to operate as beam splitters at GHz and THz frequencies. To validate the method, a surface profile is determined to achieve a reflector at 610 GHz that generates four equal-intensity beams towards desired directions of ±12.6° with respect to the specular reflection axis. A prototype is fabricated and the beam splitter behavior is experimentally demonstrated. Measureme...

  14. The cosmology large angular scale surveyor (CLASS): 38-GHz detector array of bolometric polarimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, John W.; Ali, Aamir; Amiri, Mandana; Araujo, Derek; Bennet, Charles L.; Boone, Fletcher; Chan, Manwei; Cho, Hsiao-Mei; Chuss, David T.; Colazo, Felipe; Crowe, Erik; Denis, Kevin; Dünner, Rolando; Eimer, Joseph; Essinger-Hileman, Thomas; Gothe, Dominik; Halpern, Mark; Harrington, Kathleen; Hilton, Gene; Hinshaw, Gary F.; Huang, Caroline; Irwin, Kent; Jones, Glenn; Karakula, John; Kogut, Alan J.; Larson, David; Limon, Michele; Lowry, Lindsay; Marriage, Tobias; Mehrle, Nicholas; Miller, Amber D.; Miller, Nathan; Moseley, Samuel H.; Novak, Giles; Reintsema, Carl; Rostem, Karwan; Stevenson, Thomas; Towner, Deborah; U-Yen, Kongpop; Wagner, Emily; Watts, Duncan; Wollack, Edward; Xu, Zhilei; Zeng, Lingzhen

    2014-07-01

    The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) experiment aims to map the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) at angular scales larger than a few degrees. Operating from Cerro Toco in the Atacama Desert of Chile, it will observe over 65% of the sky at 38, 93, 148, and 217 GHz. In this paper we discuss the design, construction, and characterization of the CLASS 38 GHz detector focal plane, the first ever Q-band bolometric polarimeter array.

  15. Toward 100 GHz direct modulation rate of antenna coupled nanoLED

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fortuna, Seth A.; Taghizadeh, Alireza; Yablonovitch, Eli

    2016-01-01

    We show that > 100 GHz direct modulation rate while maintaining a quantum efficiency higher than 25% is possible by using an optical antenna to enhance the spontaneous emission rate of an electrically injected III-V nanoLED.......We show that > 100 GHz direct modulation rate while maintaining a quantum efficiency higher than 25% is possible by using an optical antenna to enhance the spontaneous emission rate of an electrically injected III-V nanoLED....

  16. Implementation of image-guided intensity-modulated accelerated partial breast irradiation. Three-year results of a phase II clinical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meszaros, Norbert; Major, Tibor; Stelczer, Gabor; Zaka, Zoltan; Takacsi-Nagy, Zoltan; Fodor, Janos; Polgar, Csaba [National Institute of Oncology, Center of Radiotherapy, Budapest (Hungary); Mozsa, Emoke [National Institute of Oncology, Center of Radiotherapy, Budapest (Hungary); Landesklinikum, Department of Radiooncology and Radiotherapy, Wiener Neustadt (Austria); Pukancsik, David [National Institute of Oncology, Department of Breast and Sarcoma Surgery, Budapest (Hungary)

    2017-01-15

    To report 3-year results of accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) using image-guided intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IG-IMRT) following breast conserving surgery (BCS) for low-risk early invasive breast cancer. Between July 2011 and March 2014, 60 patients with low-risk early invasive breast cancer underwent BCS and were enrolled in this phase II prospective study. The total dose was 36.9 Gy (9 fractions of 4.1 Gy, two fractions/day). Patient setup errors were detected in LAT, LONG and VERT directions. Local tumour control, survival results, early and late side effects and cosmetic outcome were assessed. At a median follow-up of 39 months, all patients were alive and neither locoregional nor distant failure occurred. One contralateral breast cancer and two new primary malignancies outside the breast were observed. No grade (G) 3-4 acute toxicity was detected. G1 and G2 erythema occurred in 21 (35%) and 2 (3.3%) patients, respectively; while G1 oedema was observed in 23 (38.8%) cases. G1 and G2 pain was reported by 6 (10%) and 2 (3.3%) patients, respectively. Among the late radiation side effects, G1 pigmentation or telangiectasia, G1 fibrosis and G1 asymptomatic fat necrosis occurred in 10 (16.7%), 7 (11.7%) and 3 (5%) patients, respectively. No ≥ G2 late toxicity was detected. Cosmetic outcome was excellent in 43 (71.7%) and good in 17 (28.3%) patients. IG-IMRT is a reproducible and feasible technique for delivery of external beam APBI following BCS for treatment of low-risk, early-stage invasive breast carcinoma. In order to avoid toxicity, image guidance performed before each radiation fraction is necessary to minimize the PTV. Three-year results are promising, early and late radiation side-effects are minimal, and cosmetic results are excellent to good. (orig.) [German] Evaluierung der 3-Jahres-Ergebnisse der Teilbrustbestrahlung (APBI) mittels bildgefuehrter intensitaetsmodulierter Strahlentherapie (IG-IMRT) nach brusterhaltender Operation (BCS

  17. Advanced millimeter wave imaging systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuchardt, J. M.; Gagliano, J. A.; Stratigos, J. A.; Webb, L. L.; Newton, J. M.

    1980-01-01

    Unique techniques are being utilized to develop self-contained imaging radiometers operating at single and multiple frequencies near 35, 95 and 183 GHz. These techniques include medium to large antennas for high spatial resolution, lowloss open structures for RF confinemnt and calibration, wide bandwidths for good sensitivity plus total automation of the unit operation and data collection. Applications include: detection of severe storms, imaging of motor vehicles, and the remote sensing of changes in material properties.

  18. Steganalysis and improvement of a quantum steganography protocol via a GHZ4 state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Shu-Jiang; Chen Xiu-Bo; Niu Xin-Xin; Yang Yi-Xian

    2013-01-01

    Quantum steganography that utilizes the quantum mechanical effect to achieve the purpose of information hiding is a popular topic of quantum information. Recently, El Allati et al. proposed a new quantum steganography using the GHZ 4 state. Since all of the 8 groups of unitary transformations used in the secret message encoding rule change the GHZ 4 state into 6 instead of 8 different quantum states when the global phase is not considered, we point out that a 2-bit instead of a 3-bit secret message can be encoded by one group of the given unitary transformations. To encode a 3-bit secret message by performing a group of unitary transformations on the GHZ 4 state, we give another 8 groups of unitary transformations that can change the GHZ 4 state into 8 different quantum states. Due to the symmetry of the GHZ 4 state, all the possible 16 groups of unitary transformations change the GHZ 4 state into 8 different quantum states, so the improved protocol achieves a high efficiency

  19. A low noise 665 GHz SIS quasi-particle waveguide receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooi, J. W.; Walker, C. K.; Leduc, H. G.; Hunter, T. R.; Benford, D. J.; Phillips, T. G.

    1993-01-01

    Recent results on a 565-690 GHz SIS heterodyne receiver employing a 0.36 micron(sup 2) Nb/AlOx/Nb SIS tunnel junction with high quality circular non-contacting back short and E-plane tuners in a full height wave guide mount are reported. No resonant tuning structures were incorporated in the junction design at this time, even though such structures are expected to help the performance of the receiver. The receiver operates to at least the gap frequency of Niobium, approximately 680 GHz. Typical receiver noise temperatures from 565-690 GHz range from 160K to 230K with a best value of 185K DSB at 648 GHz. With the mixer cooled from 4.3K to 2K the measured receiver noise temperatures decreased by approximately 15 percent, giving roughly 180K DSB from 660 to 680 GHz. The receiver has a full 1 GHz IF pass band and was successfully installed at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory in Hawaii.

  20. Evaluation of the Normal Cochlear Second Interscalar Ridge Angle and Depth on 3D T2-Weighted Images: A Tool for the Diagnosis of Scala Communis and Incomplete Partition Type II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, T N; Wick, C; Clarke, R; Kutz, J W; Medina, M; Gorsage, D; Xi, Y; Isaacson, B

    2018-05-01

    Cochlear malformations may be be subtle on imaging studies. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the angle and depth of the lateral second interscalar ridge or notch in ears without sensorineural hearing loss (normal ears) and compare them with ears that have a documented incomplete type II partition malformation. The second interscalar ridge notch angle and depth were measured on MR imaging in normal ears by a single experienced neuroradiologist. The images of normal and incomplete partition II malformation ears were then randomly mixed for 2 novice evaluators to measure both the second interscalar ridge notch angle and depth in a blinded manner. For the mixed group, interobserver agreement was calculated, normal and abnormal ear measurements were compared, and receiver operating characteristic curves were generated. The 94 normal ears had a mean second interscalar ridge angle of 80.86° ± 11.4° and depth of 0.54 ± 0.14 mm with the 98th percentile for an angle of 101° and a depth of 0.3 mm. In the mixed group, agreement between the 2 readers was excellent, with significant differences for angle and depth found between normal and incomplete partition type II ears for angle and depth on average ( P 114° and a depth of the second interscalar ridge notch of ≤0.31 mm suggest the diagnosis of incomplete partition type II malformation and scala communis. These measurements can be accurately made by novice readers. © 2018 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.