Full Text Available Desi Ghee was thermally oxidized at 160°C for 9 h and characterized for peroxide value (PV, free fatty acid (FFA, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, radical scavenging activity (RSA, and fatty acid and cholesterol composition using GC-MS. Oxidized (OG and normal ghee (NG were fed to rabbits in different doses. Blood was collected for hematology and biochemical analyses after 7 and 14 days. The oxidation of desi ghee increased the PV, FFA, and TBARS values and showed a decline in the RSA values. GC-MS revealed that desi ghee was rich in saturated fatty acids (55.9 g/100 g and significant amounts of oleic acid (26.2 g/100 g. The OG significantly decreased the body weight, which was normalized by the coadministration of NG. Serum lipid profile showed a dose dependent increase in total cholesterol, triglycerides, and low density lipoproteins (LDL and decrease in RBCs count, hematocrit, glucose, and hemoglobin concentration with OG feeding. These parameters were normalized by coadministration of NG. Liver histopathology of OG fed groups showed bile duct dilation and necrotic changes, while normal architecture showed in NG groups, compared to control. These results indicate that NG has no significant effect on rabbits comparing with OG and that it was beneficial when coadministered with oxidized ghee.
Milk and/or cream are allowed to ferment for up to 12 hours and butter is separated by churning in a gourd. The butter/ghee-making practices in the cattle corridor of Uganda differ in how the milk is handled before churning to separate the butterfat. The study revealed that butter/ghee-making is an effective way to reduce ...
Sharma, Hari; Zhang, Xiaoying; Dwivedi, Chandradhar
Ghee, also known as clarified butter, has been utilized for thousands of years in Ayurveda as a therapeutic agent. In ancient India, ghee was the preferred cooking oil. In the last several decades, ghee has been implicated in the increased prevalence of coronary artery disease (CAD) in Asian Indians due to its content of saturated fatty acids and cholesterol and, in heated ghee, cholesterol oxidation products. Our previous research on Sprague-Dawley outbred rats, which serve as a model for the general population, showed no effect of 5 and 10% ghee-supplemented diets on serum cholesterol and triglycerides. However, in Fischer inbred rats, which serve as a model for genetic predisposition to diseases, results of our previous research showed an increase in serum total cholesterol and triglyceride levels when fed a 10% ghee-supplemented diet. In the present study, we investigated the effect of 10% dietary ghee on microsomal lipid peroxidation, as well as serum lipid levels in Fischer inbred rats to assess the effect of ghee on free radical mediated processes that are implicated in many chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease. Results showed that 10% dietary ghee fed for 4 weeks did not have any significant effect on levels of serum total cholesterol, but did increase triglyceride levels in Fischer inbred rats. Ghee at a level of 10% in the diet did not increase liver microsomal lipid peroxidation or liver microsomal lipid peroxide levels. Animal studies have demonstrated many beneficial effects of ghee, including dose-dependent decreases in serum total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), and triglycerides; decreased liver total cholesterol, triglycerides, and cholesterol esters; and a lower level of nonenzymatic-induced lipid peroxidation in liver homogenate. Similar results were seen with heated (oxidized) ghee which contains cholesterol oxidation products. A preliminary clinical study showed that high doses of
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Trans fatty acids are known as the most harmful type of dietary fats, so this study was done to compare the effects of hydrogenated, liquid and ghee oils on serum lipids profile of healthy adults. METHODS: This study was a randomized clinical trial conducted on 129 healthy participants aged from 20 to 60 years old who were beneficiaries of Imam-e-Zaman charitable organization. Subjects were randomly divided into 3 groups and each group was treated with a diet containing cooking and frying liquid, ghee, or hydrogenated for 40 days. Fasting serum lipids, including total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C, HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C, apoprotein A (Apo A, and apoprotein B (Apo B were measured before and after the study. RESULTS: TC, TG and Apo B had a significant reduction in the liquid oil group compared to the hydrogenated oil group. In the ghee group TG declined and Apo A increased significantly (p < 0.01. Liquid oil group had a significant reduction in HDL-C, compared to the ghee oil group (P < 0.05. CONCLUSION: It was concluded that consuming liquid oil along with frying oil caused to reduce all serum lipid levels. However, ghee oil only reduced TG and increased HDL-C levels. Keywords: Serum lipids, Apoproteins, Liquid oil, Hydrogenated oil, Ghee, Clinical trial
Full Text Available Aim: To analyze and identify the fatty acids found in homemade ghee and in olive oil and compare those to fatty acids found in bronchoalevolar lavage of children with lipoid pneumonia.Methods: The fatty acids found in homemade fat ”Ghee” and olive oil were analyzed by gas chromatography. Methyl ester derivatives suitable for GC analysis were prepared directly from olive oil or from Ghee using anhydrous methanolic-HCl. Bronchoscopy and bronchoalevolar lavage was performed in eight children aged between 2 and 4 years, all with history of using homemade ghee and/or olive oil in the recumbent position.Results: The analysis of fatty acids in Ghee and olive oil show similar gas chromatographic pattern as those of bronchoalevolar lavage.Conclusion: The three fatty acids responsible for the deleterious effects of lipoid pneumonia were identified. Lipoid pneumonia should be one of the differentials diagnosis in children presenting with respiratory distress. (Med J Indones 2010; 19:252-7Keywords: Bronchoalevolar lavage, gas chromatography, Ghee, methyl esters, lipoid pneumonia
Newton, Angela E; Fairbanks, Antony J; Golding, Matt; Andrewes, Paul; Gerrard, Juliet A
Food systems, such as cream and butter, have an emulsion or emulsion-like structure. When these food emulsions are heated to high temperatures to make products such as ghee, the Maillard reaction forms a range of volatile flavour compounds. The objective of this paper was to unravel the specific influence of emulsion structure on the Maillard reaction pathways that occur during the cooking of ghee using model systems. Switching the dispersed phase from oil to water provided a means of altering the ratios of volatile compounds produced in the cooked samples. The oil-in-water emulsion generated a volatile compound profile similar to that of the fat containing two phase model matrix, whereas the water-in-oil emulsion produced a different ratio of these compounds. The ability to generate different volatile compound profiles through the use of inverted emulsion structures could point to a new avenue for control of the Maillard reaction in high temperature food systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ahmed, I.; Ali, S.; Jan, M.R.
Samples of the effluents from various Ghee/Edible Oil Industries were collected on fortnightly basis from July 1993 to June 1994 and the emissions from January to April 1994. Parameters such as temperature, pH, conductivity, total dissolved solids (TDS), total suspended solids (TSS), total alkalinity total acidity, total hardness, chemical oxygen demand (COD). chlorides, sulphates, phosphates, silica, calcium magnesium, sodium, and iron were determined in the effluents, Trace metals like copper, manganese, nickel, and zinc were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy, whereas SO/sub 2/, CO CO/sub 2/, hydrocarbons, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen and argon were examined in the flue gases by Gas Chromatography and other standard techniques such as Orsat Gas Analyzer and Dragger Detection Tubes. Remedial measures were suggested for the pollutants exceeding the National Environmental Quality Standards, (NEQS). Parameters like chlorine, ammonia, sulphides, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, lead and tin were also analyzed in the effluents and were found to be nil or below the detection limit, while particulate matters, HCl, chlorine, HF, H/sub 2/S, mercaptans and NH/sub 3/ were found to be nil in the flue gases. (author)
Ibrahim Nasir, Mohammad
Full Text Available Crystallization rate of partial hydrogenated blend of soybean oil and cottonseed oil used for making vegetable ghee (vanaspati was investigated, by solid fat content (SFC using pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance (p-NMR. The effects of adding sucrose fatty acid esters or sucrose polyesters (SPE on the crystallization rate of the blend fat were studied. Sucrose tetrastearate DK ester F-10 (stearate 70% - palmitate 30% was added to the fat at different concentration, namely 0.5% and 1.0%. Blank sample and sample containing 0.5% and 1.0% DK ester F-10 / (DK F-10 were chosen to measure the change in SFC at constant temperature of 15ÂºC for a period of 25 hr. Five determinations of SFC were taken to the fat samples during the 25 hr i.e. 2,5,9,13 and 25th hr. SFC vs. time of crystallization of the three samples showed continuous increasing in SFC in all samples during the 25 hr, with sharp increasing at the first two hours. Samples containing 0.0% and 0.5% DK F-10, showed no significant difference in SFC during the first thirteen hours, while sample containing 1.0% DK F-10, showed higher SFC than the other two samples, through out the period. The amount of SFC for 1.0% DK F-10 sample at the 13th hour is equal to the SFC of the blank (0.0% sample at the 25th hour. Melting point of the same samples increased with the increasing DK F-10 concentration in the fat samples. The results of SFC make it sure that the addition of 1.0% DK F- 10 will shorten the time required for the crystallization of vegetable ghee while the addition of 0.5% will not have significant effect.Se ha investigado, mediante el contenido en grasa sólida (SFC por resonancia magnética nuclear pulsada (p-NMR, la velocidad de cristalización de mezcla de aceite de la soja y aceite de semilla del algodón parcialmente hidrogenada utilizada en la elaboración de ghee vegetal (vanaspati. Se han estudiado los efectos de añadir ésteres de sacarosa de ácidos grasos o poliésteres de
Application of attenuated total reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) in MIR range coupled with chemometrics for detection of pig body fat in pure ghee (heat clarified milk fat)
Upadhyay, Neelam; Jaiswal, Pranita; Jha, Shyam Narayan
Pure ghee is superior to other fats and oils due to the presence of bioactive lipids and its rich flavor. Adulteration of ghee with cheaper fats and oils is a prevalent fraudulent practice. ATR-FTIR spectroscopy was coupled with chemometrics for the purpose of detection of presence of pig body fat in pure ghee. Pure mixed ghee was spiked with pig body fat @ 3, 4, 5, 10, 15% level. The spectra of pure (ghee and pig body fat) along with the spiked samples was taken in MIR from 4000 to 500 cm-1. Some wavenumber ranges were selected on the basis of differences in the spectra obtained. Separate clusters of the samples were obtained by employing principal component analysis at 5% level of significance on the selected wavenumber range. Probable class membership was predicted by applying SIMCA approach. Approximately, 90% of the samples classified into their respective class and pure ghee and pig body fat never misclassified themselves. The value of R2 was >0.99 for both calibration and validation sets using partial least square method. The study concluded that spiking of pig body fat in pure ghee can be detected even at a level of 3%.
Latif, A.; Khan, F.; Noor, S.; Amin-ur-Rehman
Samples of different brands of banaspati ghee (Hydrogenated vegetable oil) were procured from local market in Peshawar. Nickel, Pro-oxidants and other heavy metals in these samples were determined by microwave acid digestion method and were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry to evaluate the value of different brands of banaspati ghee found in the local Peshawar market. Microwave acid digestion program was developed to give reliable estimates for metals in small sample (0.5g) of banaspati ghee. It reduced the external contamination and required small quantities of acid, improving the detection-limits and overall accuracy of the analytical method. Iron and copper concentrations were found in ranges of (0.44-4.64 ppm), (0.072 - 0.38 ppm), respectively. Nickel ranged (0.098 - 0.24 ppm), while the concentrations of chromium, cadmium, lead, manganese and zinc ranged (0. 035 - 0. 15ppm), (0.022 - 0. 16ppm), (0.025 - 0.095ppm), (0.029 - 0.12 ppm) and (0.019 - 0.13 ppm), respectively.(author)
Sharma, Hanjabam Barun; Vyas, Soniya; Kumar, Jayant; Manna, Soumen
Background Ghee (G) is attributed with numerous health benefits in Ayurveda. However, due to the high saturated fat content, it has been predicted to increase the cardiovascular disease risk. Hence, the current study was performed to evaluate the effect of G consumption as compared to mustard oil (MO) on lipid profile. Methods Two hundred (100 males) apparently healthy adults (≥40 years) were randomly selected out of the total individuals interviewed in a house-to-house survey. They were divided into three groups based on G and MO consumption: (A) MO >1 L/month, G1.25 kg/month. Serum lipid parameters were compared among the groups. Results Group C had the significantly lowest triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), TC/HDL and LDL/HDL and highest high-density lipoprotein (HDL). A similar finding was found when analysis was done separetely for male and female. Conclusions A favorable lipid profile might suggest a possible beneficial effect of predominantly G consumption over MO.
Sakarkar, Dinesh M; Dorle, Avinash K; Mahajan, Nilesh Manoharrao; Sudke, Suresh Gendappa
The objective of the present study was to design ferrous fumarate (FF) sustained release (SR) pellets using of cow ghee (CG) as an important hot-melt coating (HMC) agent. The pellets were coated by HMC technique using CG and ethyl cellulose composition by conventional coating pan without the use of spray system. FF formulated as pellets and characterized with regard to the drug content and physico-chemical properties. Stability studies were carried out on the optimized formulation for a period of 6 months at 40 ± 2°C and 75 ± 5% relative humidity. Pellets with good surface morphology and smooth texture confirmed by stereo micrographs. HMC is easy, efficient, rapid and simple method since virtually no agglomeration seen during coating. In-vitro release from pellets at a given level of coating and for present pellet size was dependent upon the physico-chemical property of the drug and mostly aqueous solubility of the drug. The selection of optimized FF formulation was confirmed by comparing percent cumulative drug release with theoretical release profile. Formulation F2 had difference factor (f 1) and similarity factor (f 2) values was found to be 5 and 66 respectively. F2 showed SR of drug for 8 h with cumulative per cent release of 98.03 ± 4.49%. Release kinetics indicates approximately zero order release pattern. HMC pellets were stable during the course of stability study. By means of HMC using CG and ethyl cellulose, SR pellets containing FF were successfully prepared.
Higes, M.; Rodríguez-García, C.; Gómez-Moracho, T.; Meana, A.; Bartolomé, C.; Maside, X.; Barrios, L.; Martín-Hernández, R.
Crithidia mellificae, a trypanosomatid parasite of Apis mellifera, has been proposed to be one of the pathogens responsible for the serious honey bee colony losses produced worldwide in the last decade, either alone or in association with Nosema ceranae. Since this pathogenic effect contradicts the results of the experimental infections originally performed by Langridge and McGhee nearly 40 years ago, we investigated the potential linkage of this protozoan with colony decline under laboratory conditions. Nosema-free and trypanosomatid-free honey bees from three different colonies were experimentally infected with fresh C. mellificae spheroid forms (reference strain ATCC30254), with N. ceranae fresh spores and with both parasites at the same time. Replicate cages were kept at 27 °C and used to analyse survival. C. mellificae spheroid forms did not reduce significantly the survival of the worker bees (64.5% at 30 days post-infection vs. 77.8% for the uninfected bees used as controls; differences were non statistically significant) under these experimental conditions. In contrast, the cages infected with N. ceranae exhibited higher rates of mortality from the 20th day post-infection onwards, irrespective of the presence of C. mellificae, suggesting that the spheroid forms of the latter have no pathological effect on A. mellifera. (Author)
shales and siltstones are 700.2000 .0 brown, brownish gray, medium to dark gray. lossililerous. calcareous: limestones are argillaceous to pure , gray...shale. PUMPKIN Shale and siltstone, reddish-brown to qsoyish-red. gteenish~gtary and 100-750 VALLEY SHALE oliv*egray: with thin sandstones. limestones...Rogersville shale Wrt..............Cambrian Rutledge limestone Ipv ..............Cambrian Pumpkin Valley ................... Cambrian Rome Figure 111.2
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In the sensory evaluation, two commercially marketed ghee products (Sameer, and Lubega brands) were added. Total viable counts in all the samples were in the range ... churning and two representative marketed products. Key words: Butter, ghee, microbial safety, churning, traditional processing, human-centered design ...
Center for Homeland Defense and Security
Center for Homeland Defense and Security, PRESS RELEASES Aurora (Colo.) Police Lt. Sam McGhee has served numerous traditional roles in law enforcement such as emergency services coordinator, media relations manager, narcotics and intelligence commander and sector commander. Currently,...
Prevention of antibiotic associated diarrhoea, reduction in lactose intolerance, production of conjugated linoliec acid ..... Factor (TGF)-β2 in the breast milk of probiotic treated mothers ..... in amacunda than in ghee because heat clarification of.
Kandhroab, A.A.; Sherazi, S.T.H.; Mahesar, S.A.; Talpura, M.Y.; Bhutto, A.A.
Evaluation of fatty acid profile including trans fat and lipid bioactive (tocopherol and sterol contents) of most commonly used vanaspati ghee and cooking oil brands was made by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometer detector (GC-MSD). Among the saturated fatty acids (SFA), palmitic and stearic acid were dominant fatty acids; the mean value of SFA in ghee and oil was 44.98 and 30.83%, respectively. Mean values of monounsaturated, polyunsaturated and trans fatty acids in ghee were 47.51, 7.49 and 8.08%, and in oil 49.26, 19.90 and 0.91%, respectively. alpha-tocopherol was the major tocopherol while campesterol, stigmasterol and sitosterol were main phytosterols in terms of their quantity. (author)
Once it is fermented, it is shaken or agitated in the calabash for hours to churn into butter. Butter granules are removed and either made into butter or boiled to make Ghee or butter oil known as Omazeothung'ombe by the Herero community and the remaining liquid is the fermented buttermilk or Omashikwa, Consumers of ...
Aug 22, 2014 ... air draft drying oven (40°C) until the moisture content became 12% or less. .... from pasteurized and un-ripened buffaloes' cream. The butter was converted into ghee by boiling according to the method described by Fahmi ... values were detected. Heating ..... sheep's non-pasteurized and pasteurized milk.
Wiers, RW; van Woerden, N; Smulders, FTY; de Jong, Peter
Implicit and explicit alcohol-related cognitions were measured in 2 dimensions: positive-negative (valence) and arousal-sedation, with 2 versions of the Implicit Association Test (IAT; A. G. Greenwald, D. E. McGhee, & J. L. Schwartz) and related explicit measures. Heavy drinkers (h 24) strongly
White, R. C., Jr.
A hybrid computer Monte Carlo technique for the simulation and optimization of systems with random parameters is presented. The method is applied to the simultaneous optimization of the means and variances of two parameters in the radar-homing missile problem treated by McGhee and Levine.
Ahmed, T.; Atta, S.; Sohail, M.; Khan, A.R.; Akhter, S.
Photo oxidative stress were applied to commonly consumed edible oil and fat i.e., animal fat (AF), vanaspati ghee (VG), sunflower oil (SFO), desi ghee (DG), rapeseed oil (RSO), soybean oil (SBO) as well as sea buckthorn seed oil (SB Seed oil) and sea buckthorn pulp oil (SB Pulp oil). The changes in their quality parameters i.e. free fatty acid (FFA), peroxide value (POV), beta-carotene and color (OD) were determined. Photo oxidative stress significantly (p < 0.05) increased the FFA, POV and OD, however, concentration of beta carotene decreased in all the samples with the increase in storage time. The Sea buckthorn oil was found to be more stable than other oils owing to the presence of tocopherol contents and beta-carotene. (author)
In meiner Dissertationsschrift unterschied ich zwischen expliziten und impliziten Repräsentationen der eigenen Persönlichkeit und konzeptualisierte diese als Teile des reflektiven bzw. impulsiven Systems (Strack & Deutsch, in press). Am Beispiel der Persönlichkeitseigenschaften Schüchternheit, Ängstlichkeit und Ärgerlichkeit erfasste ich implizite Repräsentationen des Persönlichkeits-Selbstkonzeptes mit Hilfe von Impliziten Assoziations Tests (IATs, Greenwald, McGhee & Schwartz, 1998) und den...
looking back towards Manta sonar beam, Manta plus sonar from 1000m off track. 185 NUWC sponsor Erik Chaum Principal investigator Don Brutzman...USN Sonar Officer LT Kevin Byrne USN Intelligence Officer CPT Russell Storms USA Erik Chaum works in NUWC Code 22. He supervised the design and...McGhee, Bob, "The Phoenix Autonomous Underwater Vehicle," chapter 13, AI-BasedMobile Robots, editors David Kortenkamp, Pete Bonasso and Robin Murphy
Maliszewski Norbert; Kuźmińska Anna O.; Wieczorkowska-Wierzbińska Grażyna; Werner-Maliszewska Anna
The aim of three studies was to examine the differences between business majors and non-business majors, in their level of implicit (measured by an Implicit Association Test [IAT], Greenwald, McGhee, & Schwarz, 1998) and explicit power motivation (measured by Power Motivation and Helping Power Motivation scales, Frieze & Boneva, 2001).It was predicted that there are no differences between these two groups in the general (implicit) level of power motivation, but that differences exist in the w...
ARL-TR-8352 ● APR 2018 US Army Research Laboratory Engineering Evaluation and Assessment (EE&A) Report for the Symbolic and Sub...APR 2018 US Army Research Laboratory Engineering Evaluation and Assessment (EE&A) Report for the Symbolic and Sub-symbolic Robotics...Intelligence Control System (SS-RICS) by Troy Dale Kelley and Eric Avery Human Research and Engineering Directorate, ARL Sean McGhee STG Inc
Grison, P.L.; McKey, M.H.; Jaco, M.G.; Jean-Marie, B. Phytochemistry 2002, 61, 61. 3. Sergio, R.P.S.; Hee, B.C.; Young, G.S.; Thawatchai, S.; Vichai, R.; Norman, R.F.; Geoffrey,. A.C.; John, M.P.; Duglas, A.K. Planta Med. 2002, 68, 186. 4. Hong, J.Z.; Pamela, A.T.; Zeynep, A.; Ghee, T.T.; Yoko, S.; Hashimoto, K.; Masaya, N.;.
Eyassu Seifu; Asaminew Tassew
This study was conducted to assess processing, utilization and marketing of traditional dairy products produced in Bahir Dar Zuria and Mecha districts in Northwestern Ethiopia. A single-visit-multiple-subject formal survey was conducted to collect data. A total of 150 households (75 households from each district) were individually interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. The major dairy products produced in the study area include butter, ghee, Ayib, Arera (defatted sour milk), Ergo ...
Datta, Hema Sharma; Mitra, Shankar Kumar; Patwardhan, Bhushan
The traditional Indian medicine—Ayurveda, describes various herbs, fats, oils and minerals with anti-aging as well as wound healing properties. With aging, numerous changes occur in skin, including decrease in tissue cell regeneration, decrease in collagen content, loss of skin elasticity and mechanical strength. We prepared five topical anti-aging formulations using cow ghee, flax seed oil, Phyllanthus emblica fruits, Shorea robusta resin, Yashada bhasma as study materials. For preliminary e...
Sumeet, Gupta; Rachna, Kumria; Samrat, Chauhan; Ipshita, Chattopadhyaya; Vikas, Jhawat; Manu, Sharma
Inflammation is the key mediator for arthritis. Plant based products are most useful for treating various disorders, but at the same time drug absorption is utmost important for effective therapy. The present aim of our study was to find out the therapeutic concern in pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters in an arthritis induced rat model. Carregenan and complete Freud's adjuvant, both were used for an arthritis induction as an animal model. Formulation of curcumin was prepared in different quality of milk brand, high fat milk with ghee and in an aqueous suspension. They were administered orally to the rats for 21 days continuously. Different pharmacodyanmic parameters were analyzed which include percentage inhibition of inflammation, cytokines (IL-6 and TNF-α), hematological levels, X-Rays and histology condition. Pharmacokinetics was also determined like Cmax, Tmax and Kel using HPLC method. The result concludes that, curcumin in full fat milk with ghee and full fat curcumin formulation treated group showed a higher statistical significant effect in the prevention of inflammation in both the models. The presence of curcumin in plasma was higher only in full fat with ghee formulation and full fat milk formulation treated group when compared to the other groups. Hence, it concludes that the presence of adjuvant act as an enhancer can increase the bioavailability of curcumin for achieving maximum effectiveness. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at firstname.lastname@example.org.
bandles the import of edible oil put for sale in the eight-day fair for the Ghee Corporation ef Pak- would. be handicrafts, carpets, istk which has...indicated its to-garments, cutlery items, sports itn hc a niae t ogoods and some other goods tal requirement for current fiscal gcar at 434,000 metric tons... edible *ait fair. Oil. OVERALL EXPORTS Apart from these ems, he said About overall exports of TCP the fiv has also idlsorted tea during current
Qandil, Amjad M; Rezigue, Meriem M; Tashtoush, Bassam M
Combination therapy of fibrates and nicotinic acid has been reported to be synergistic. Herein, we describe a covalent codrug of gemfibrozil (GEM) and nicotinic acid (NA) that was synthesized and characterized by (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, FT-IR, MS analysis and elemental analysis. A validated HPLC method was developed that allows for the accurate quantitative determination of the codrug and its hydrolytic products that are formed during the in vitro chemical and enzymatic hydrolysis. The physico-chemical properties of codrug were improved compared to its parent drugs in term of water solubility and partition coefficient. The kinetics of hydrolysis of the codrug was studied using accelerated hydrolysis experiments at high temperatures in aqueous phosphate buffer solution in pH 1.2, 6.8 and 7.4. Using the Arrhenius equation, the extrapolated half-life at 37°C were 289 days at pH 1.2 for the codrug and 130 and 20,315 days at pH 6.8 for the codrug and gemfibrozil 2-hydroxyethyl ester (GHEE), respectively. The shortest half-lives were at pH 7.4; 42 days for the codrug and 5837 days for GHEE, respectively. The hydrolysis of the latter was studied, alone, at 80°C and pH 1.2 and compared to its hydrolysis when it is produced from the codrug using similar conditions. The k(obs) was found in both cases to be 1.60×10(-3)h(-1). The half-lives in plasma were 35.24 min and 26.75 h for the codrug and GHEE, respectively. With regard to liver homogenate, the hydrolysis half-lives were 1.96 min and 48.13 min for the codrug and GHEE, respectively. It can be expected that in vivo, the codrug will liberate NA immediately in plasma then GEM will be liberated from its 2-hydroxyethyl ester in the liver. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Liscum-Powell, J.L.; Lorence, L.J. Jr.; Morel, J.E.; Prinja, A.K.
Recently, Morel and McGhee described an alternate second-order form of the transport equation called the self adjoint angular flux (SAAF) equation that has the angular flux as its unknown. The SAAF formulation has all the advantages of the traditional even- and odd-parity self-adjoint equations, with the added advantages that it yields the full angular flux when it is numerically solved, it is significantly easier to implement reflective and reflective-like boundary conditions, and in the appropriate form it can be solved in void regions. The SAAF equation has the disadvantage that the angular domain is the full unit sphere and, like the even- and odd- parity form, S n source iteration cannot be implemented using the standard sweeping algorithm. Also, problems arise in pure scattering media. Morel and McGhee demonstrated the efficacy of the SAAF formulation for neutral particle transport. Here we apply the SAAF formulation to coupled electron-photon transport problems using multigroup cross-sections from the CEPXS code and S n discretization
Liscum-Powell, J.L.; Prinja, A.K.; Morel, J.E.; Lorence, L.J. Jr.
Recently, Morel and McGhee described an alternate second-order form of the transport equation called the self-adjoint angular flux (SAAF) equation that has the angular flux as its unknown. The SAAF formulation has all the advantages of the traditional even- and odd-parity self-adjoint equations, with the added advantages that it yields the full angular flux when it is numerically solved, it is significantly easier to implement reflective and reflective-like boundary conditions, and in the appropriate form it can be solved in void regions. The SAAF equation has the disadvantage that the angular domain is the full unit sphere, and, like the even- and odd-parity form, S n source iteration cannot be implemented using the standard sweeping algorithm. Also, problems arise in pure scattering media. Morel and McGhee demonstrated the efficacy of the SAAF formulation for neutral particle transport. Here, the authors apply the SAAF formulation to coupled electron-photon transport problems using multigroup cross sections from the CEPXS code and S n discretization
Full Text Available A 62-year-old, male patient radiologically diagnosed as a case of avascular necrosis of femur head with grade 4, presented the following chief complaints. Pain in the left hip joint radiating to thigh (anterior part, of grade ′9′ on “visual analog scale (VAS” associated with swelling in bilateral feet and decreased range of movements in the hip joint. This presentation was correlated with Asthi-majjagata vāta (musculo-skeletal disorder and treated accordingly. Initially, patient had been administered dīpana and pācana followed by nityavirecana (therapeutic purgation. Further Saghrita kṣīrabasti (medicated enema prepared with milk and ghee was administered in kalābasti schedule (16 in number. This resulted with relief of pain to grade “3” on “VAS” and complete resolution of pedal edema and improvement in range of movement of hip joint.
Review of hazardous chemical regulation at nuclear facilities by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and other federal agencies. Hearing before a Subcommittee of the Committee on Government Operations, House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, Second Session, March 14, 1986
Seven witnesses from agencies and the nuclear industry testified on the status of chemical regulation at nuclear facilities, the potential for accidents, and the quality of emergency plans in the event of a release of chemical substances. Impetus for the review came from incidents at Kerr-McGhee's Sequoyah plant in Oklahoma and the release of uranium hexafluoride, as well as a pattern of accidents which occur after the potential hazard has already been identified. The witnesses included Richard Krimm of the Federal Emergency Management Agency, James Makris of the Environmental Protection Agency, John Miles of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, Nunxio Palladino of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and representatives of DOE and Kerr-McGee. Additional materials submitted for the record follows the testimony
Full Text Available Forty-one individual food samples were analyzed for their fatty acid contents by gas-liquid chromatography using capillary tubes. The samples belonged to 5 different food groups and included vegetable oils, butter & ghee, animal fats, dairy products, fishes, chicken & meats and other popular dishes. The results show that maize oil was lowest in its total saturated fatty acid content (11% and richest in linolenic acid. On the other hand, total saturated fatty acids made up 42-62 % of the total fatty acid patterns of the lamb and camel fat tallow, respectively. Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (C20-C22 with two to six double bonds were present only in fishes. Estimate of fat intake amounted to 36 grams per subject per day and the % contribution of the analyzed fats was presented. The ratio of polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acids amounted to 0.96; which falls within the optimum dietary goals.Cuarenta y una muestras de alimentos individuales fueron analizadas por su contenido en ácidos grasos mediante cromatografía gas-líquido usando columnas capilares. Las muestras pertenecieron a 5 grupos diferentes, incluyendo aceites vegetales, mantequilla y Â«gheeÂ», grasas animales, productos lácteos, pescados, pollo y carnes, y otros platos populares. Los resultados mostraron que el aceite de maíz fue el que tuvo el más bajo contenido en ácidos grasos saturados totales (11% y el más rico en ácido linolénico. Por otro lado, los ácidos grasos saturados totales alcanzaron el 42-62% de los ácidos grasos totales del sebo de cordero y camello respectivamente. Los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados de cadena larga (C20-C22 con dos a seis dobles enlaces estuvieron presentes solo en pescados. La estimación de la ingesta ascendió a 36 g por sujeto y día, y se presenta el porcentaje de contribución de las grasas analizadas. La relación de ácidos grasos poliinsaturados a saturados ascendió a 0.96; estando dentro del óptimo alimenticio.
Priyadarshani Arvind Kadus
Full Text Available Oral administration of medicated fats (oil or ghee is termed as Snehapana. It is an essential step before Vamana (therapeutic emesis and Virechana (therapeutic purgation. Ayurveda physicians often experience a poor compliance in 10-15% patients for oral administration of medicated fats especially in escalating doses. Incomplete Snehapana sometimes creates a problem for a physician to prepare the patient for these processes. These inconveniences made us think about effective alternatives to counter drawbacks and improve acceptance of Snehapana. The present study was planned to assess the efficacy of Anuvasana Basti (oil enema in escalating doses as an alternative for Snehapana. Anuvasana Basti of medicated sesame oil with rock salt was administered in 10 patients for three to seven days till they showed signs and symptoms of complete Snehana. The symptoms of Snehana like semisolid or loose stools, feeling exhausted without much exertion, lightness of body and oiliness of skin were observed. Though the Snehana symptoms varied in intensity, they were similar as they are produced after oral administration of fats. This trend suggests Anuvasana Basti in escalating dose is an alternative for Snehapana before administration of Shodhana therapy like Vamana or Virechana.
Kadus, Priyadarshani Arvind; Vedpathak, Surendra M
Oral administration of medicated fats (oil or ghee) is termed as Snehapana. It is an essential step before Vamana (therapeutic emesis) and Virechana (therapeutic purgation). Ayurveda physicians often experience a poor compliance in 10-15% patients for oral administration of medicated fats especially in escalating doses. Incomplete Snehapana sometimes creates a problem for a physician to prepare the patient for these processes. These inconveniences made us think about effective alternatives to counter drawbacks and improve acceptance of Snehapana. The present study was planned to assess the efficacy of Anuvasana Basti (oil enema) in escalating doses as an alternative for Snehapana. Anuvasana Basti of medicated sesame oil with rock salt was administered in 10 patients for three to seven days till they showed signs and symptoms of complete Snehana. The symptoms of Snehana like semisolid or loose stools, feeling exhausted without much exertion, lightness of body and oiliness of skin were observed. Though the Snehana symptoms varied in intensity, they were similar as they are produced after oral administration of fats. This trend suggests Anuvasana Basti in escalating dose is an alternative for Snehapana before administration of Shodhana therapy like Vamana or Virechana.
Katz, Andrew D; Hoyt, William T
The broad goal of this study was to examine multiple potential predictors of anti-Black bias among counselors. Specifically, in an online survey of 173 trainees and professionals in mental health, this study used 3 measures related to cultural sensitivity as predictors of therapists' expectancies for bond and prognosis with African American clients compared with White clients. The Multicultural Counseling Inventory (MCI; Sodowsky, Taffe, Gutkin, & Wise, 1994) was used to measure global multicultural competence. The Implicit Association Test (IAT; Greenwald, McGhee, & Schwartz, 1998) served as a measure of automatic prejudice toward Blacks. Additionally, a new self-report measure of anti-Black clinical prejudice was created specifically for this study. The Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding (Paulhus, 1984) was included to control for socially desirable responding. Each predictor of cultural sensitivity uniquely explained variance in anti-Black bias in bond ratings, with the IAT accounting for more variance than the 2 self-reports. Our novel measure of clinical prejudice accounted for anti-Black bias in prognosis ratings, but the MCI and the IAT did not. Researchers studying cultural competence are encouraged to consider the roles of automatic and deliberate prejudice in determining disparities in clinical expectancies and cross-racial therapeutic alliances. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available Background & Objective: Inappropriate use of fat in diets is a significant risk factor that can cause cardiovascular diseases, morbidity, and mortality in the world. This study was designed to determine the fat consumption pattern in east Tehran habitants. Materials & Methods: In this cross sectional study 500 east Tehran habitants were evaluated. Data was collected by a questionnaire designed by the authors of the present study. The validity and reliability of the questionnaire was confirmed in a pilot study. The Data was analyzed with SPSS software. Results: The average of family members was 3.9±1.4. The highest amount ofoil consumed was that of solid candy oil, while The lowest was animal oil. For cooking, 36.8% and 31% of samples were using liquid oil and solid candy oil, respectively. For fraying 33.8%, 20%, 32.4% of samples were using liquid oil, solid candy oil and frying oil, respectively. a relationship was found between higher educational level and mothers working out of the house and higher consumption of liquid oil, fraying oil and olive oil (p<0.001. High age, housekeeper mothers and higher family span were associated with the higher consumption of solid oils, butter and ghee (p<0.02. Conclusion: This study revealed that the significant portion of daily oil consumption of Tehran habitants consist of solid oils. It seems to be necessary to organize proper training programs to increase social awareness about the hazards of solid saturated fats.
Sharif, Saima; Anwar, Naureen; Farasat, Tasnim; Naz, Shagufta
To determine if there is any significant association between ABO blood groups and ischemic heart disease (IHD). The study was performed at Punjab Institute of Cardiology (PIC), Lahore. Study duration was from January 2012 to September 2012. This study included 200 IHD patients and 230 control individuals. Self design questionnaire was used to collect information regarding risk factors. Standard agglutination test was performed to determine the blood groups. Data was analyzed on SPSS 16. The prevalence of blood groups in IHD group was 34% in blood group A, 29% in blood group B, 14% in blood group AB and 23% in blood group O. In control group the distribution of B, A, AB and O blood groups were 34.4%, 20.9%, 12.6%, 32.2% respectively. Rh+ve factor was prevalent in 90.5% among IHD group and 92.6% in control subjects. The prevalence of IHD was more in males (63.5%) as compared to females (36.5%). Mean age was 56.4±0.86 (yrs) and BMI was 26.4±0.33 (kg/m(2)). The prevalence of hypertension was 58.5%, diabetes was 53%, family history of cardiac disease was 45%, 35.5% of patients were doing exercise regularly, 58.5% used ghee, and 58% were smokers. C onclusion: Subjects with blood group A had significantly (pblood groups.
Aziz, K.; Faruqui, A.M.A.; Manolio, T.; Davis, C.E.; Denis, B.H.; Burke, G.L.
Cardiovascular risk factors (RF) and coronary heart diseases (CHD) are increasing in Pakistan. The National Inst. of Cardiovascular Diseases (NICVD), Karachi, in collaboration with National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI) in Bethesda, Maryland, USA, designed a 5-year diet intervention study (MHS) for modification of RF. This was done by education, designed to increase knowledge and attitudes regarding CHD and by modifying the diet in 400 households in Metrovitte, which is a lower middle class community in Karachi. The Department of preventive cardiology of NICVD trained doctors, social workers including volunteers from the community for data collection and recording. The education was imparted in health fairs and home conferences and diet modification was achieved by 14 home visits of social workers over a 28-month period with a final goal of reducing salt by 28% and replacement of ghee with vegetable oils and reducing fat by 33%. Community center was used for data collection and involved demographic, blood pressure, serum cholesterol, hemoglobin and blood glucose data at base line and at screening 11(280) households. All phases of the study have been successfully implemented and results are being analyzed. Various aspects of the methods of implementation are discussed. (author)
Abbasi, Arshad Mehmood; Khan, M A; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Zafar, Muhammad; Jahan, Sarwat; Sultana, Shahzia
The present investigation is an attempt to find out ethnopharmacological application of medicinal plants to cure skin diseases and in folk cosmetics. We interviewed respondents in 30 remote sites of North-West Frontier Province by a structured interview form in the local language and respondents were queried for the type of herbal cure known to him. A total of 66 plant species belonging to 45 families have been recorded. Seventy-five medications for 15 skin diseases and cosmetics were documented. The mode of application was topical as well as oral administration. Water, milk, ghee, oil, eggs, sulphur and butter are used during administration of herbal remedies. About 15 plant species are known for their use to cure multiple skin diseases. Among these Berberis lyceum, Bergenia ciliata, Melia azedarach, Otostegia limbata, Phyla nodiflora, Prunus persica and Zingiber officinale constitutes major plants. The herbal cosmetics products range from face freshness, removal of ugly spots, hair care, and colouring of palm, feet, gums, and teeth. Most of the reported species are wild and rare; this demands an urgent attention to conserve such vital resources so as to optimize their use in the primary health care system. Since most of the skin diseases are caused by bacteria, viruses and fungi in this context, phytochemical screening for active constituents, biological activities and clinical studies is of global importance. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ostafin, Brian D; Marlatt, G Alan; Greenwald, Anthony G
Addiction is characterized by dyscontrol - substance use despite intentions to restrain. Using a sample of at-risk drinkers, the present study examined whether an implicit measure of alcohol motivation (the Implicit Association Test [IAT]; Greenwald, A.G., McGhee, D.E., & Schwartz, J.L.K. (1998). Measuring individual differences in implicit cognition: the Implicit Association Test. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 1464-1480) would predict dyscontrol of alcohol use. Participants completed an IAT and, to elicit motivation to restrain alcohol use, were instructed that greater consumption in a taste test would impair performance on a later task for which they could win a prize. All participants viewed aversive slides and then completed a thought-listing task. Participants either exerted self-control by suppressing negative affect and thoughts regarding the slides or did not exert self-control. Post-manipulation, the groups did not differ in mood, urge to drink or motivation to restrain consumption. During the subsequent taste test, participants whose self-control resources were depleted consumed more alcohol than did those in the control group. Additionally, the IAT, but not an explicit measure of alcohol motivation, more strongly predicted alcohol use when self-control resources were depleted. The results indicate that the IAT may have utility in predicting dyscontrolled alcohol use.
Amit Kumar Mishra, Smita Panda, Prakash Chandra Panda
Full Text Available Introduction: In INDIA almost 20000 people die (40% of world death each year from rabies. Most of these deaths could be prevented by post exposure prophylaxis with wound washing, rabies immunoglobulin & vaccination. Local wound management alone can reduce viral load by up to 80%. Objective: To study self-wound management practices in animal exposure patients before attending a tertiary level ARV clinic. Methodology: Data regarding wound management was collected by individual interview of patients attending the ARV clinic during OCT 2011 to MAR 2012. The data collected in the form of a questionnaire. Analysis of data was done in the Department Of Community Medicine, V.S.S. Medical College, Burla. Results: Total 493 cases of animal exposure were attended during the study period. Most common biting animal was dog (94.5%. 31% of cases were under the age of 10 years & 23% belongs to the age of 10-19 years. Male to female ratio was 3:1. Most of the cases (91% were of category III exposure. Immediate management of wound was practiced by 63-77% of cases before visiting ARV clinic; only 2% wash the wound with running water & soap for 15 minutes. 39% of cases applied Dettol/savlon at the wound side & other 38% applied turmeric, red chilli, kerosene, Band-Aid & ghee locally. Most cases (61% reported to ARV clinic within 24hours.
Akhlaq A. Farooqui
Full Text Available Ayurvedic medicine is a personalized system of traditional medicine native to India and the Indian subcontinent. It is based on a holistic view of treatment which promotes and supports equilibrium in different aspects of human life: the body, mind, and soul. Popular Ayurvedic medicinal plants and formulations that are used to slow down brain aging and enhance memory include Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera, Turmeric (Curcuma longa, Brahmi (Bacopa monnieri, Shankhpushpi (Convolvulus pluricaulis, Evolvulus alsinoides, and other species, gotu kola (Centella asiatica, and guggulu (Commiphora mukul and related species and a formulation known as Brāhmī Ghṛita, containing Brahmi, Vacā (Acorus calamus, Kuṣṭha (Saussurea lappa, Shankhpushpi, and Purāṇa Ghṛita (old clarified butter/old ghee. The rationale for the utilization of Ayurvedic medicinal plants has depended mostly on traditional usage, with little scientific data on signal transduction processes, efficacy, and safety. However, in recent years, pharmacological and toxicological studies have begun to be published and receive attention from scientists for verification of their claimed pharmacological and therapeutic effects. The purpose of this review is to outline the molecular mechanisms, signal transduction processes, and sites of action of some Ayurvedic medicinal plants. It is hoped that this description can be further explored with modern scientific methods, to reveal new therapeutic leads and jump-start more studies on the use of Ayurvedic medicine for prevention and treatment of dementia.
Khokhar, Santosh; Ashkanani, Fatemah; Garduño-Diaz, Sara D; Husain, Wafaa
Lack of food composition data, recipe information and portion sizes for ethnic foods are commonly reported problems for dietary assessment of ethnic minority groups. One of the main aims of this study was to use food composition data to validate portion sizes, identify important sources of nutrients and describe the characteristics of the South Asian diet. The top five ethnic foods containing highest levels of selected nutrients were lamb balti (3mg/100g iron), lamb kebab (3.2mg/100g zinc), mixed dhal (62μg/100g folate), fish curry (1.4μg/100g vitamin D), ghee (968μg/100g retinol) and toor dhal (9.1g/100g dietary fibre). Typical adult South Asian diets included traditional cereals (chapatti, rice and paratha) and low consumption of meat dishes; with vegetable curries contributing most towards energy intake. A higher consumption of full fat milk and fruit juices by toddlers and school children were observed when compared with the National Diet and Nutrition Survey of the UK. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Full Text Available Ageism has been generally defined as a prejudice people from a certain age group hold towards other age groups (Butler, 1969; 1975. Although such definitions do not restrict the use of the term to researching prejudices regarding a certain age group, currently ageism is deployed in studies concerning prejudices regarding older people and includes cognitive evaluations (negative stereotypes people might have regarding older people as well as affective – emotional reactions towards older people, in different instances of daily life. Researchers admit the fact that some of the ageist reactions (both cognitive and emotional could be captured by implicit measures. Implicit association tests have been used to measure subtle cues of ageism (see Levy & Banaji, 2002 and the validity of these measurements are largely discussed in the international psychological literature (see Greenwald, McGhee & Schwartz, 1998; Rudman et al., 1999, for a review. Drawing could also be used as a tool to research implicit ageism, though it has been approached to a lesser extend to research on ageism (see for example Barrett & Cantwell, 2007. In the current research, we employ the drawing technique on a sample of undergraduate students from a public university (N=165 to assess their visual representations of older people. Examining the features of the drawing allows us to talk about implicit ageism and the way the drawing tool could be a valid tool to examine implicit ageism.
Zhao, J.M., E-mail: email@example.com [School of Energy Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, 92 West Dazhi Street, Harbin 150001, People' s Republic of China (China); Tan, J.Y., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [School of Auto Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology at Weihai, 2 West Wenhua Road, Weihai 264209, People' s Republic of China (China); Liu, L.H., E-mail: email@example.com [School of Energy Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, 92 West Dazhi Street, Harbin 150001, People' s Republic of China (China); School of Auto Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology at Weihai, 2 West Wenhua Road, Weihai 264209, People' s Republic of China (China)
A new second order form of radiative transfer equation (named MSORTE) is proposed, which overcomes the singularity problem of a previously proposed second order radiative transfer equation [J.E. Morel, B.T. Adams, T. Noh, J.M. McGhee, T.M. Evans, T.J. Urbatsch, Spatial discretizations for self-adjoint forms of the radiative transfer equations, J. Comput. Phys. 214 (1) (2006) 12-40 (where it was termed SAAI), J.M. Zhao, L.H. Liu, Second order radiative transfer equation and its properties of numerical solution using finite element method, Numer. Heat Transfer B 51 (2007) 391-409] in dealing with inhomogeneous media where some locations have very small/zero extinction coefficient. The MSORTE contains a naturally introduced diffusion (or second order) term which provides better numerical property than the classic first order radiative transfer equation (RTE). The stability and convergence characteristics of the MSORTE discretized by central difference scheme is analyzed theoretically, and the better numerical stability of the second order form radiative transfer equations than the RTE when discretized by the central difference type method is proved. A collocation meshless method is developed based on the MSORTE to solve radiative transfer in inhomogeneous media. Several critical test cases are taken to verify the performance of the presented method. The collocation meshless method based on the MSORTE is demonstrated to be capable of stably and accurately solve radiative transfer in strongly inhomogeneous media, media with void region and even with discontinuous extinction coefficient.
Ferrucci, Leah M; Daniel, Carrie R; Kapur, Kavita; Chadha, Puneet; Shetty, Hemali; Graubard, Barry I; George, Preethi S; Osborne, Whitney; Yurgalevitch, Susan; Devasenapathy, Niveditha; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Gupta, Prakash C; Mathew, Aleyamma; Sinha, Rashmi
Bioactive components of many foods added during cooking have potential antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antibacterial and chemopreventive properties. However, epidemiologic studies generally do not collect detailed information on these items, which include spices, chilies, coconuts, garlic, onions, and oils. Since India has some of the highest spice consumption in the world, we developed a computer-based food preparer questionnaire to estimate per capita consumption of 19 spices, chilies, coconuts, garlic, onions, and 13 cooking oils among 3,625 participants in the India Health Study, a multicenter pilot study in three regions of India. We observed notable regional differences in consumption of spices, chilies, coconut, garlic, and onions. In Trivandrum, over 95 percent of the participants consumed 12 different spices, while in New Delhi and Mumbai, 95 percent of participants consumed only four and five spices, respectively. Cooking oil use also varied, as ghee was most common in New Delhi (96.8%) followed by mustard seed oil (78.0%), while in Trivandrum the primary oil was coconut (88.5%) and in Mumbai it was peanut (68.5%). There was some variation in consumption by education, income, and religion. Using a novel method for assessing food items primarly added during cooking, we successfully estimated per capita consumption within an epidemiologic study. Based on basic science research and suggestive ecologic level data on cancer incidence and spice consumption, improving epidemiologic assessment of these potentially chemopreventive food items may enhance our understanding of diet and cancer risk.
Ferrucci, Leah M.; Daniel, Carrie R.; Kapur, Kavita; Chadha, Puneet; Shetty, Hemali; Graubard, Barry I.; George, Preethi S.; Osborne, Whitney; Yurgalevitch, Susan; Devasenapathy, Niveditha; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Gupta, Prakash C.; Mathew, Aleyamma; Sinha, Rashmi
Bioactive components of many foods added during cooking have potential antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antibacterial and chemopreventive properties. However, epidemiologic studies generally do not collect detailed information on these items which include spices, chilies, coconuts, garlic, onions, and oils. Since India has some of the highest spice consumption in the world, we developed a computer-based food preparer questionnaire to estimate per capita consumption of 19 spices, chilies, coconuts, garlic, onions, and 13 cooking oils among 3,625 participants in the India Health Study, a multicenter pilot study in three regions of India. We observed notable regional differences in consumption of spices, chilies, coconut, garlic, and onions. In Trivandrum, over 95 percent of the participants consumed 12 different spices, while in New Delhi and Mumbai, 95 percent of participants consumed only four and five spices, respectively. Cooking oil use also varied, as ghee was most common in New Delhi (96.8%) followed by mustard seed oil (78.0%), while in Trivandrum the primary oil was coconut (88.5%) and in Mumbai it was peanut (68.5%). There was some variation in consumption by education, income, and religion. Using a novel method for assessing food items primarily added during cooking, we successfully estimated per capita consumption within an epidemiologic study. Based on basic science research and suggestive ecologic level data on cancer incidence and spice consumption, improving epidemiologic assessment of these potentially chemopreventive food items may enhance our understanding of diet and cancer risk. PMID:21338207
Banse, R; Seise, J; Zerbes, N
Two experiments were conducted to investigate the psychometric properties of an Implicit Association Test (IAT; Greenwald, McGhee, & Schwartz, 1998) that was adapted to measure implicit attitudes towards homosexuality. In a first experiment, the validity of the Homosexuality-IAT was tested using a known group approach. Implicit and explicit attitudes were assessed in heterosexual and homosexual men and women (N = 101). The results provided compelling evidence for the convergent and discriminant validity of the Homosexuality-IAT as a measure of implicit attitudes. No evidence was found for two alternative explanations of IAT effects (familiarity with stimulus material and stereotype knowledge). The internal consistency of IAT scores was satisfactory (alpha s > .80), but retest correlations were lower. In a second experiment (N = 79) it was shown that uninformed participants were able to fake positive explicit but not implicit attitudes. Discrepancies between implicit and explicit attitudes towards homosexuality could be partially accounted for by individual differences in the motivation to control prejudiced behavior, thus providing independent evidence for the validity of the implicit attitude measure. Neither explicit nor implicit attitudes could be changed by persuasive messages. The results of both experiments are interpreted as evidence for a single construct account of implicit and explicit attitudes towards homosexuality.
Chew, S C; Khor, G L; Loh, S P
Data on folate availability of Malaysian cooked foods would be useful for estimation of dietary folate intake; however such information is scarce. A total of 53 samples of frequently consumed foods in Malaysia were selected from the Nutrient Composition of Malaysian Foods. Folate content was determined using HPLC method hyphenated with a stainless steel C18 column and ultraviolet detector (lambda = 280 nm). The index of folate availability was defined as the proportion of folate identified as monoglutamyl derivatives from the total folate content. Total folate content of different food samples varied from 30-95 microg/100g fresh weight. Among rice-based dishes, the highest and the lowest total folate was in coconut milk rice (nasi lemak) and ghee rice (nasi minyak), respectively. In noodle dishes, fried rice noodle (kuey teow goreng) and curry noodle (mee kari) had the highest folate contents. The highest index of folate availability was in a flat rice noodle dish (kuey teow bandung) (12.13%), while the lowest was in a festival cake (kuih bakul) (0.13%). Folate content was found to be negatively related to its availability. This study determined folate content and folate availability in commonly consumed cooked foods in Malaysia. The uptake of folate from foods with high folate content may not be necessarily high as folate absorption also depends on the capacity of intestinal deconjugation and the presence of high fibre in the foods.
Full Text Available During the Celtic Tiger period, Ireland grows faster than the Eurozone only to later suffer the harsh impact of the recession. This coincides with increased in-group essentialism leading to prejudice against minorities (Zagefka et al. 2013. Whilst extremist politicians justify anti-immigration beliefs, racism becomes a problem in Ireland. Attacks on certain groups rise dramatically: Women, Travellers, Africans or homosexuals endure verbal and physical mistreatment. Financial crises cause social and discursive marginalisation (Gabrielatos and Baker 2008, and intolerance inevitably contributes to discriminatory views underpinning old-fashioned values. In such a context, we argue that there will be a tendency to nurse the demonisation of the Other (Said 1978, and that the ideological bent of the media sources (see Fowler 1991, Rosen 1999, Barnhurst 2005, van Dijk 2006 will have some impact on how otherness is portrayed. The latter justifies an analysis of how bias fostering exclusion is reinforced in the public domain (Wodak and Chilton 2005. Given Irish gays’ new status following the controversy around same-sex marriage, here we examine newspaper articles to observe the discourse construction of homosexuality (Collier 1995, Stychin 1995, Naidoo 1997, McGhee 2001, Baker 2005, and detect any instances of homophobia. To do so, a corpus-based critical discourse analysis is conducted with our focus on the notion of transitivity (Halliday and Matthiessen 2014 as a means to reveal people’s perspectives on the topic at hand.
Emotion tunes cognition, such that approach-motivated positive states promote verbal cognition, whereas withdrawal-motivated negative states promote spatial cognition (Gray, 2001). The current research examined whether self-control resources become depleted and influence subsequent behavior when emotion tunes an inappropriate cognitive tendency. In 2 experiments, either an approach-motivated positive state or a withdrawal-motivated negative state was induced, and then participants completed a verbal or a spatial working memory task creating conditions of emotion-cognition alignment (e.g., approach/verbal) or misalignment (e.g., approach/spatial). A control condition was also included. To examine behavioral costs due to depleted self-control resources, participants completed either a Stroop task (Stroop, 1935; Experiment 1) or a Black/White implicit association test (IAT; Greenwald, McGhee, & Schwartz, 1998; Experiment 2). Participants in the misalignment conditions performed worse on the Stroop task, and they were worse at controlling their implicit attitude biases on the IAT. Thus, when emotion tunes inappropriate cognitive tendencies for one's current environment, self-control resources become depleted, impairing behavioral control. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).
Snagowski, Jan; Wegmann, Elisa; Pekal, Jaro; Laier, Christian; Brand, Matthias
Recent studies show similarities between cybersex addiction and substance dependencies and argue to classify cybersex addiction as a behavioral addiction. In substance dependency, implicit associations are known to play a crucial role, and such implicit associations have not been studied in cybersex addiction, so far. In this experimental study, 128 heterosexual male participants completed an Implicit Association Test (IAT; Greenwald, McGhee, & Schwartz, 1998) modified with pornographic pictures. Further, problematic sexual behavior, sensitivity towards sexual excitation, tendencies towards cybersex addiction, and subjective craving due to watching pornographic pictures were assessed. Results show positive relationships between implicit associations of pornographic pictures with positive emotions and tendencies towards cybersex addiction, problematic sexual behavior, sensitivity towards sexual excitation as well as subjective craving. Moreover, a moderated regression analysis revealed that individuals who reported high subjective craving and showed positive implicit associations of pornographic pictures with positive emotions, particularly tended towards cybersex addiction. The findings suggest a potential role of positive implicit associations with pornographic pictures in the development and maintenance of cybersex addiction. Moreover, the results of the current study are comparable to findings from substance dependency research and emphasize analogies between cybersex addiction and substance dependencies or other behavioral addictions. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
S. Ahmad*, M. Yaqoob, N. Hashmi1, S. Ahmad2, M. A. Zaman3 and M. Tariq
Full Text Available Increasing human population in the world has arisen the issue of food security. In order to combat with this issue, there is need to explore a new world of resources. Camel can serve the best useful addition to the food supply chain in terms of milk, meat and other products. Dromedary camel is found in Pakistan and its population is highest in Baluchistan (41%. In Pakistan, there are 21 breeds of camel. The main two types are riverine and mountainous. Camels are of vital socio-economic importance in the country as people use it for drawing water from wells, ploughing and leveling land, working mini-mills for oil extraction, grinding wheat, corn and other grains and for crushing sugarcane, and pulling carts for the transportation of goods as well as people. Well-fed camel can yield 10-15L milk per day. Camel milk can also be used for making yogurt, kurth, butter, ghee, rabbri and khoa. Meat, hides and hair are useful by-products of camel. Camel farming will be beneficial for farmers when proper marketing infrastructure is established. Also, standard procedures for the classification and identification of camel breeds for different purposes need more attention. Camel ranching schemes and collaborative research approach are need of the hour. These measures can lead us to utilize this novel animal as a natural resource for coping food demand of ever increasing population.
Awan, A.Y.; Channa, N.A.; Solangi, D.A.; Tabassum, N.
Objective: Females with different menopausal status are compared for serum lipids to explore the role of menopausal status in developing gallstones. Methodology: This study was conducted at Institute of Biochemistry, University of Sindh Jamshoro, Pakistan. A total number of 135 female gallstone patients admitted at Liaquat University Hospital, Wali Bhai Rajputana Hospital, Hyderabad and other hospitals of Hyderabad, Pakistan and 170 age and gender matched control subjects were selected for the study. The serum samples of patients of different menopausal status and control group were analyzed for the lipid contents. Gallstones recovered from the patients were also analyzed for the composition by FTIR. Results: Serum total cholesterol (TC) and serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were significantly varied among all age groups while serum triglycerides (TG), serum very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) and serum total lipids (TL) were found to be significantly differed among four different types of gallstone formers. Consumers of non-branded oil and non-branded ghee were found with significant lipid alterations in comparison to control group. Major lipid alterations were found in female gallstone patients with pre and peri-menopause. Conclusion: Raised serum TC, serum TG and decreased serum HDL-C in addition to pre- and peri-menopausal status may be considered as biomarkers for female gallstone patients.
Full Text Available This paper sought to test weather modifying the Implicit Association Test (IAT to contextualize it would better predict depressive symptoms, compared to the classical IAT. Additionally, we explored how both versions of the IAT interact with explicit measures of self-esteem. Using a total of 99 university students (75.75% female, we collected measures of implicit self-esteem (IAT; Greenwald, McGhee, & Schwartz, 1998, actual implicit self-esteem (modified IAT, explicit self-esteem (ESE; Rosenberg,1965, and depression (Spitzer et al, 1999. The same data was collected again after 2 weeks. After employing several hierarchical stepwise regression analyses, results show that the only valid predictor for depression is ESE, with both IAT measurements failing to provide significant results. However, a significant relationship between depression at Time 1 were associated with both standard ISE at Time 2 (r=- 0.24, p<.05 and actual ISE at Time 2 (r=- 0.28, p<.05. No interaction effects were found between either IAT measure and ESE in predicting self-esteem. Moreover, no significant correlations were found between either type of ISE and ESE. The implications of the study are discussed.
Babanejad, M.; Delpisheh, A.; Najafi, F.; Hashemian, A. H.; Parizad, E. G.; Asadollahi, K.
Objective: To investigate the association between lifestyle risk factors and impaired fasting glucose level. Methods: The large-scale, community-based, cross-sectional study was conducted in 2012 in Ilam province, Iran, and comprised 150 impaired fasting glucose cases and 450 controls. Face-to-face interviews were conducted using a standard lifestyle questionnaire, and subjects were checked for fasting plasma glucose. Chi-square test and multivariate logistic regression were used for statistical analysis. Results: Of the 600 participants, 172(28.7%) were males and 428(71.3%) were females. Their ages ranged from 20 to 83 years with a mean of 48.9+-14.2 years for the cases and 45.5+-13.4 years for the controls (p 0.05). Using multivariate logistic regression, ghee consumption increased the risk of impaired fasting glucose up to 2.2 folds (Odds Ratio=1.28, 95% Confidence Interval: 0.75-2.2); inactivity up to 2.33 folds (Odds Ratio=1.33, 95% Confidence Interval: 0.75-2.33) and smoking up to 3.13 folds (Odds Ratio=1.46, 95% Confidence Interval: 0.68-3.13). The differences were not statistically significant. Conclusion: Risk of impaired fasting glucose increases with lifestyle risk factors that need to be considered seriously by policy makers. (author)
Jeevangi Santoshkumar, Manjunath S, Sakhare Pranavkumar M
Full Text Available : Emblica Officinalis (Amla, belonging to the genus, Phyllanthus emblica is widely used for medicinal purpose. Its fruits have been used traditionally as a hypolipidemic. Objectives: The present study was aimed to evaluate hypolipedimic and anti-atherogenic activity of fruit of Emblica officinalis in high fat fed albino rats. Materials and Methods: For study of anti-hyperlipidemic, hypolipidemic, and anti-atherogenic activity. 5 groups of 6 animals in each received normal saline, E. Officinalis powder, high fat diet, High fat diet plus E. Officinalis powder both and Atorvastatin respectively for 8 weeks. Hyperlipidemia was induced by feeding animals with high fat diet per orally, consisting of coconut oil and vanaspati ghee, daily ad libitum. At the end of the study, blood samples of the animals were sent for the estimation of the lipid profile and effects of test drug studied by comparing levels of Total Cholesterol, Triglycerides, HDL, LDL, and Atherogenic index. The statistical significance between groups was analysed by using one way ANOVA, followed by Dunnet’s multiple comparison test. Results: Fruit of Amla showed significant anti-hyperlipidemic, hypolipidemic, and anti-atherogenic effect. All these effects may contribute to its anti-atherogenic activity. Conclusion: Present study revealed the antihyperlipidemic, hypolipidemic, and anti-atherogenic effect of Amla fruit powder and can be safely used in the treatment of mild to moderate cases of hyperlipidemia considering its easy availability, cost effectiveness, and other beneficial effects.
Hema Sharma Datta
Full Text Available The traditional Indian medicine—Ayurveda, describes various herbs, fats, oils and minerals with anti-aging as well as wound healing properties. With aging, numerous changes occur in skin, including decrease in tissue cell regeneration, decrease in collagen content, loss of skin elasticity and mechanical strength. We prepared five topical anti-aging formulations using cow ghee, flax seed oil, Phyllanthus emblica fruits, Shorea robusta resin, Yashada bhasma as study materials. For preliminary efficacy evaluation of the anti-aging activity we chose excision and incision wound healing animal models and studied the parameters including wound contraction, collagen content and skin breaking strength which in turn is indicative of the tissue cell regeneration capacity, collagenation capacity and mechanical strength of skin. The group treated with the formulations containing Yashada bhasma along with Shorea robusta resin and flax seed oil showed significantly better wound contraction (P < .01, higher collagen content (P < .05 and better skin breaking strength (P < .01 as compared to control group; thus proposing them to be effective prospective anti-aging formulations.
Hirpara, Krupa B; Patel, H G; Prajapati, J P
Traditional Indian Dairy Products are manufactured in India using an age old practice which varies from place to place. For manufacture of these products industrially, a standard formulation is required. Thabdi, a region specific, very popular heat desiccated milk product is one of such products which has not been studied scientifically. Sugar plays an important role in physico-chemical, sensory, textural characteristics and also the shelf life of any milk sweet. Hence for process standardization of Thabdi manufacture, different levels of sugar i.e. 4, 6, 8 and 10 (percent of milk) were studied so that an optimum level yielding best organoleptic characteristics in final product can be selected. The product was made from milk standardized to 0.66 Fat:SNF level and added with ghee @ 1.2 % of milk at the time of colour and texture development stage as selected from the earlier phase of study. Based on the results obtained, a level of 8 % sugar addition on the milk basis at the time of manufacture has been selected to have full taste and sensory attributes.
Heavy metal contamination of soils resulting from irrigation by wastewater is causing major concern due to the potential health risk involved. This study was therefore designed to investigate the heavy metal ions viz., Cu/sup 2/sup +/, Fe/sup 2+/, Mn/sup 2+/, Zn/sup 2+/, Pb/sup 2+/, Ni/sup 2+ and Cd/sup 2+/ concentrations by lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) grown in pots. This leafy vegetable was irrigated with 5 different concentrations of wastewater collected from 3 different localities viz., Chiltan town, Chiltan Ghee Mill (oil industry) and Zarghoon town of Quetta city. Tap water was used as background water. Plant samples were analyzed for their heavy metal contents using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS). Results showed that localities, treatments and their interactions (except Cu/sup 2+/ and Pb/sup 2+/) generally exhibited highly significant (P=0.01) influence on the accumulation of heavy metals. The maximum values of 9.71; 509.06; 32.47; 94.38; 8.58; 5.05 and 7.45 mg kg/sup -1/ for Cu/sup 2+/, total Fe/sup 2+/, Mn/sup 2+/, Zn/sup 2+/, Ni/sup 2+/,Pb/sup 2+/, and Cd/sup 2+/ respectively, were generally obtained in highest concentration of effluents. While maximum values of 9.02; 4.47 and 7.90 mg kg-1 of Cu/sup 2+/, Ni/sup 2+/ and Cd/sup 2+/ were obtained for Chiltan ghee mill effluents. However, maximum values i.e., 435.96 and 80.47 mg kg-1 of total Fe and Zn/sup 2+/ were recorded for Chiltan town. The highest values of 30.09 and 6.32 mg kg-1 for Mn/sup 2+/ and Pb/sup 2+/ were noted in Zarghoon town, respectively. On the basis of grand mean values,the magnitude of heavy metals detected for various metals is in order: Fe > Zn >Mn> Cu >Pb> Cd > Ni. Results further demonstrated that the total concentrations of Cu/sup 2+/, Fe/sup 2+/, Mn/sup 2+/, Zn/sup 2+/ and Ni/sup 2+/ are within the recommended international standards set by WHO/FAO, but could be reached to toxic level either by the consecutive use of effluents or by increased dietary pattern of the consumers
Wong, Judy; Morrison, Amanda S.; Heimberg, Richard G.; Goldin, Philippe R.; Gross, James J.
Implicit associations of the self to concepts like “calm” have been shown to be weaker in persons with social anxiety than in non-anxious healthy controls. However, other implicit self associations, such as those to acceptance or rejection, have been less studied in social anxiety, and none of this work has been conducted with clinical samples. Furthermore, the importance of depression in these relationships has not been well investigated. We addressed these issues by administering two Implicit Association Tests (IATs; Greenwald, McGhee, & Schwartz, 1998), one examining the implicit association of self/other to anxiety/calmness and the other examining the association of self/other to rejection/acceptance, to individuals with generalized social anxiety disorder (SAD, n = 85), individuals with generalized SAD and a current or past diagnosis of major depressive disorder or current dysthymic disorder (n = 47), and non-anxious, non-depressed healthy controls (n = 44). The SAD and SAD-depression groups showed weaker implicit self-calmness associations than healthy controls, with the comorbid group showing the weakest self-calmness associations. The SAD-depression group showed the weakest implicit self-acceptance associations; no difference was found between non-depressed individuals with SAD and healthy controls. Post hoc analyses revealed that differences appeared to be driven by those with current depression. The SAD-only and SAD-depression groups did not differ in self-reported (explicit) social anxiety. The implications of these findings for the understanding of SAD-depression comorbidity and for the treatment of SAD are considered. PMID:24983794
Soumya, MS Surya; Sarasa, TP
Purpose: 1. To find out the effect of Thriphaladi Rasayana along with Yoga Therapy on low grade Non Hodgkins Lymphoma and resistant intermediate and high grade NonHodgkins Lymphoma. 2. To apply a less costly, less morbid, well accepted method of treatment on NHL. 3.To find a simple method to increase the immunity. 4.To try a drug which is easy to prepare? Method: Purposive sampling technique was used for the study. Sample of 30 patients age range 25 75 years with histologicaly proven NonHodgkins lymphoma, attending the M.O.I.O.P of the regional cancer centre during a period of 18 months. Groups1) Low grade NonHodgkins Lymphoma 2) Resistant intermediate &High grade NonHodgkins lymphoma (failed chemotherapy) were taken. Procedure : 2 groups were given Triphaladhi Rasayana (15 grams of powder with ghee and honey) twice dailymorning& at bed time with milk as anupana for period of 1month along with selected yoga asanas and niyama? Result: Symptoms included were fever, night sweats, weight loss, lymph nodes enlargement, splenomegaly, and hepatomegaly. In low grade symptom relief was noted in almost all cases. Lymph node changes notedLow grade5 2% (complete remission), 38% (partial remission), 10% (no change), intermediate35% (CR), 52% (PR) & 13% (NC), High grade67% (CR), 33%(PR). Hepatomegaly changes :ve in low grade92.86%, intermediate 90.9% & high grade100%. Splenomegaly changes :ve in low grade92.86%, intermediate72.72% & high grade80% Over all remission status of 30 patientscomplete remission30%, partial remission 30% & no change30%? Conclusion: Thriphaladirasayana along with Yoga therapy is very effective in Low grade NonHodgkins lymphoma and resistant intermediate and high grade Non hodgkins Lymphoma?
Brewer et al. (Biophys. J. 85 (2003) 2519-2524) have studied the compaction of dsDNA in a double flow cell by observing the extension of stained DNA tethered in buffer solutions with or without Abf2p. They use a Langmuir adsorption model in which one Abf2p molecule adsorbs on one site on the DNA, and the binding constant, K, is given as the ratio of the experimental rates of adsorption and desorption. This paper presents an improved interpretation. Instead of Langmuir adsorption we use the more appropriate McGhee-von Hippel (J. Mol. Biol. 86 (1974) 469-489) theory for the adsorption of large ligands to a one-dimensional lattice. We assume that each adsorbed molecule shortens the effective contour length of DNA by the foot print of Abf2p of 27 base pairs. When Abf2p adsorbs to DNA stretched in the flowing buffer solution, we account for a tension effect that decreases the adsorption rate and the binding constant by a factor of 2 to 4. The data suggest that the accessibility to Abf2p decreases significantly with increasing compaction of DNA, resulting in a lower adsorption rate and a lower binding constant. The kinetics reported by Brewer et al. (Biophys. J. 85 (2003) 2519-2524) lead to a binding constant K=3.6 x 10(6) M(-1) at the beginning, and to K=5 x 10(5) M(-1) near the end of a compaction run, more than an order of magnitude lower than the value K=2.57 x 10(7) M(-1) calculated by Brewer et al. (Biophys. J. 85 (2003) 2519-2524).
Full Text Available Background: Azaraqi (Strychnos nux-vomica, Loganiaceae has been the important Unani medicine since long time as a stimulant, anti-inflammatory, and blood purifier. It has been used very frequently by the Unani practitioner. But the Unani system recommends application of azaraqi in medicine only after its detoxification (tadbeer may be because of the presence of its deadly poisonous alkaloids (strychnine and brucine. In the present investigation, an attempt has been made to quantify the actual content of their toxic alkaloids before and after the tadbeer. Materials and Methods: A sensitive high-performance thin layer chromatographic (HPTLC method has been developed for estimation of strychnine and brucine in different samples of azaraqi before and after tadbeer. Precoated HPTLC silica gel plates were used as stationary phase and (toluene: Ethyl acetate: Dietylamine 7:2:1 v/v/v was used as mobile phase. Result: The Rfvalue of strychnine and brucine was found as 0.53 and 0.41, respectively. Detection and quantification were performed by densitometry at 270 nm. The calibration plot was linear in the range of 50–1000 ng of strychnine and brucine, respectively, with the correlation coefficient (r2 0.993 and 0.991 for strychnine and brucine, respectively, which confirms good linearity. The content of strychnine was 0.175, 0.07, 0.18, 0.051, and 0.075% w/w whereas brucine was 0.16, 0.117, 0.061, 0.045, and 0.057 in crude azaraqi, azaraqi without outer cover, azaraqi outer cover only, azaraqi mudabbar and azaraqi mudabbar by fried in ghee, respectively. Conclusion: The detoxification results in sharp decrease in content of toxic metabolites. The process by boiling in milk was found much effective but tedious as compare to frying method.
Gupta, Noopur; Vashist, Praveen; Tandon, Radhika; Gupta, Sanjeev K; Kalaivani, Mani; Dwivedi, S N
To determine the type and nature of traditional eye medicine (TEM), their sources and use and practices related to self-medication for ophthalmic diseases in a rural Indian population. A population-based, cross-sectional study was conducted in 25 randomly selected clusters of Rural Gurgaon, Haryana, India as part of CORE (Cornea Opacity Rural Epidemiological) study. In addition to comprehensive ophthalmic examination, health-seeking behavior and use of self-medication and TEM was assessed in the adult population using a semi-structured questionnaire. Physical verification of available ophthalmic medications in the enumerated households was conducted by the study team. Descriptive statistics were computed along with multivariable logistic regression analysis to determine associated factors for use of self-medication and TEM. Of the 2160 participants interviewed, 396 (18.2%) reported using ophthalmic medications without consulting an ophthalmologist, mainly for symptoms like watering (37.1%), redness (27.7%), itching (19.2%) and infection (13.6%). On physical verification of available eye drops that were being used without prescription, 26.4% participants were practicing self-medication. Steroid, expired/unlabeled and indigenous eye drops were being used by 151(26.5%), 120(21.1%) and 75 (13.2%) participants respectively. Additionally, 25.7% (529) participants resorted to home remedies like 'kajal'(61.4%), honey (31.4%), ghee (11.7%) and rose water (9.1%). Use of TEM is prevalent in this population. The rampant use of steroid eye drops without prescription along with use of expired or unlabelled eye drops warrants greater emphasis on safe eye care practices in this population. Public awareness and regulatory legislations must be implemented to decrease harmful effects arising due to such practices.
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Background: Male circumcision is a removal of the foreskin of the glans penis. There are medical, ritual and religious reasons for male circumcision. The purpose of this study is to explore the current practices, perceptions, future recommendations and health seeking behavior during and after performing male circumcision in a Muslim community of western Nepal. Method: A total of 64 households were sampled by a simple random sampling method. Information was collected using semi-structured questionnaires and focus group discussions. Result: Circumcision was practiced among all Muslim households and the main reason was religious rite and ritual. It was the traditional circumciser, locally known as hazam, who circumcised all male children in the community. Interestingly, in only 5 % of the household children had been circumcised using modern medicines. The rest of the households, i.e. 95%, relied on traditional healing systems, the use of local herbs and homemade ointments (mainly the suspension of ghee and ash.A Non-sterilized knife was the main surgical instrument used during circumcision. The wound healing after circumcision was much longer, even up to 90 days or more. Conclusions: Circumcision is a practice that is still largely carried out outside the domain of the formal health care system in this community. It demands a design of service delivery models from health policy makers in the Ministry of Health, thus bringing circumcision within formal health care systems in those communities. It deserves an urgent attention to provide safe, culturally acceptable and sustainable services from health institutions.
Ravoet, Jorgen; Schwarz, Ryan S; Descamps, Tine; Yañez, Orlando; Tozkar, Cansu Ozge; Martin-Hernandez, Raquel; Bartolomé, Carolina; De Smet, Lina; Higes, Mariano; Wenseleers, Tom; Schmid-Hempel, Regula; Neumann, Peter; Kadowaki, Tatsuhiko; Evans, Jay D; de Graaf, Dirk C
Trypanosomatids infecting honey bees have been poorly studied with molecular methods until recently. After the description of Crithidia mellificae (Langridge and McGhee, 1967) it took about forty years until molecular data for honey bee trypanosomatids became available and were used to identify and describe a new trypanosomatid species from honey bees, Lotmaria passim (Evans and Schwarz, 2014). However, an easy method to distinguish them without sequencing is not yet available. Research on the related bumble bee parasites Crithidia bombi and Crithidia expoeki revealed a fragment length polymorphism in the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1), which enabled species discrimination. In search of fragment length polymorphisms for differential diagnostics in honey bee trypanosomatids, we studied honey bee trypanosomatid cell cultures of C. mellificae and L. passim. This research resulted in the identification of fragment length polymorphisms in ITS1 and ITS1-2 markers, which enabled us to develop a diagnostic method to differentiate both honey bee trypanosomatid species without the need for sequencing. However, the amplification success of the ITS1 marker depends probably on the trypanosomatid infection level. Further investigation confirmed that L. passim is the dominant species in Belgium, Japan and Switzerland. We found C. mellificae only rarely in Belgian honey bee samples, but not in honey bee samples from other countries. C. mellificae was also detected in mason bees (Osmia bicornis and Osmia cornuta) besides in honey bees. Further, the characterization and comparison of additional markers from L. passim strain SF (published as C. mellificae strain SF) and a Belgian honey bee sample revealed very low divergence in the 18S rRNA, ITS1-2, 28S rRNA and cytochrome b sequences. Nevertheless, a variable stretch was observed in the gp63 virulence factor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The aim of three studies was to examine the differences between business majors and non-business majors, in their level of implicit (measured by an Implicit Association Test [IAT], Greenwald, McGhee, & Schwarz, 1998 and explicit power motivation (measured by Power Motivation and Helping Power Motivation scales, Frieze & Boneva, 2001.It was predicted that there are no differences between these two groups in the general (implicit level of power motivation, but that differences exist in the way it is explicitly expressed: through desire for leadership and prominence vs. desire for helping. Results of Study 1 indicated that business majors (management, N=79 declared a higher leadership motive and a lower helping motive than non-business majors (history, psychology, linguistics, N=62.Study 2 addressed question whether the above differences in power motivation stem from socialization at the university level or from pre-selection. The relationship between high school students’ (N=134 academic major preferences and their power motivation was tested. It was found that the more they were business-oriented, the higher their scores were on leadership, and lower on helping scales. In Study 3, business majors (economics, N=75 and non-business majors (psychology, N=82 completed the same questionnaire as participants in previous studies, as well as performed the IAT. Non-business majors declared stronger explicit helping motive, while business majors expressed stronger prominence and leadership motives. Furthermore, for non-business majors, IAT results could be predicted by their helping score. Implications and possible limitations of the presented results are discussed.
Shailaja, U; Rao, Prasanna N; Girish, K J; Arun Raj, G R
Cerebral palsy is a static encephalopathy that may be defined as a non-progressive disorder of posture and movement often associated with epilepsy and abnormalities in speech, vision and intellect resulting from a defect or lesion of the developing brain. There are 25 lakhs cerebral palsy affected children in India. To assess the efficacy of Rajayapana Basti (RB) and Baladi Yoga in motor disabilities of cerebral palsy in children. Total 98 children satisfying diagnostic criteria and between the age group of 2-10 years were included and randomly divided into two groups. In RB with Baladi group (n = 40) patients were treated with Mustadi Rajayapana Basti for 8 days, followed by oral administration of Baladi Yoga with honey and ghee for 60 days. Before administering Basti, patients were subjected to Sarvanga Abhyanga and Sastikashali Pinda Sveda. In the control group (n = 40), patients were given tablets of Godhuma Choorna for 60 days. Before administering the placebo tablet, the patients of the control group were given Sarvanga Abhyanga and Sastikashali Pinda Sveda for 8 days. The patients of the control group were given Basti with lukewarm water for 8 days. RB group has shown improvements in understanding ability (13.43%), speech (10%) and performance skill (11.11%), in fine motor functions such as putting small object in to a container (14.3%), throws the ball in all direction (21.8%), use of thumb and index finger (10.93%), retaining 2 inch cube in fist (19.04%), folds paper and inserts into envelope (10.30%), in gross motor functions such as in crawling (26.7%), sitting (31.7%), standing (13.75%), walking (9.5%) and claps hands (13.9%) respectively. Mustadi RB along with Baladi Yoga provided a significant improvement in all the parameters and has promising result in managing motor disabilities of cerebral palsy in children.
Marion, C; Bezot, P; Hesse-Bezot, C; Roux, B; Bernengo, J C
Quasielastic laser light scattering measurements have been made on chromatin oligomers to obtain information on the transition in their electrooptical properties, previously observed for the hexameric structures [Marion, C. and Roux, B. (1978) Nucleic Acids Res. 5, 4431-4449]. Translational diffusion coefficients were determined for mononucleosomes to octanucleosomes containing histone H1 over a range of ionic strength. At high ionic strength, oligomers show a linear dependence of the logarithm of diffusion coefficient upon the logarithm of number of nucleosomes. At low ionic strength a change occurs between hexamer and heptamer. Our results agree well with the recent sedimentation data of Osipova et al. [Eur. J. Biochem. (1980) 113, 183-188] and of Butler and Thomas [J. Mol. Biol. (1980) 140, 505-529] showing a change in stability with hexamer. Various models for the arrangements of nucleosomes in the superstructure of chromatin are discussed. All calculations clearly indicate a conformational change with the hexanucleosome and the results suggest that, at low ionic strength, the chromatin adopts a loosely helical structure of 28-nm diameter and 22-nm pitch. These results are also consistent with a discontinuity every sixth nucleosome, corresponding to a turn of the helix. This discontinuity may explain the recent electric dichroism data of Lee et al. [Biochemistry (1981) 20, 1438-1445]. The hexanucleosome structure which we have previously suggested, with the faces of nucleosomes arranged radially to the helical axis has been recently confirmed by Mc Ghee et al. [Cell (1980) 22, 87-96]. With an increase of ionic strength, the helix becomes more regular and compact with a slightly reduced outer diameter and a decreased pitch, the dimensions resembling those proposed for solenoid models.
Full Text Available Background: Ferulago carduchorum Boiss and Hausskn belongs to the Apiaceae family. This plant grows in west part of Iran that local people added it to dairy and oil ghee to delay expiration date and give them a pleasant taste. The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant, antimicrobial, acetyl cholinesterase inhibition, cytotoxic, larvicidal activities and composition of essential oil of F. carduchorum.Methods: Acetyl cholinesterase (AChE inhibitory, larvicidal activities and chemical composition of essential oil of F. carduchorum were investigated. Besides, antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of essential oil were tested using DPPH, microdilution method and MTT assay, respectively.Results: The major components of essential oil were (z-β-ocimene (43.3%, α-pinene (18.23% and bornyl acetate (3.98%. Among 43 identified components, monoterpenes were the most compounds (84.63%. The essential oil had noticeable efficiency against Candida albicans (MIC= 2340 μg ml-1 and it was effective against Anophelesstephensi with LC50 and LC90 values of 12.78 and 47.43 ppm, respectively. The essential oil could inhibit AChE (IC50= 23.6 μl ml-1. The essential oil showed high cytotoxicity on T47D, HEP-G2 and HT-29 cell lines (IC50< 2 μg ml-1.Conclusion: The essential oil of F. carduchorum collected from west of Iran had anti-Candida, larvicidal and cytotoxicity effects and should be further investigated in others in vitro and in vivo experimental models.
Craeynest, Mietje; Crombez, Geert; Koster, Ernst H W; Haerens, Leen; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse
Cognitive-motivational accounts of fat food intake propose an association between fat food and action dispositions, which are according to the biphasic emotion theory of Lang [(1995). The emotion probe. Studies of motivation and attention. American Psychologist, 50, 372-385; Lang, P.J., Bradley, M.M., & Cuthbert, M.M. (1997). Motivated attention: Affect, activation and action. In P.J. Lang, R.F. Simons & M.T. Balaban (Eds.). Attention and orienting: Sensory and motivational processes (pp. 97-134). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.] characterized by high levels of arousal. In two experiments, this association was investigated in lean and overweight youngsters. In the first experiment, 29 overweight and 29 lean youngsters conducted two Implicit Association Tasks (IAT; Greenwald, A.G., McGhee, D.E., & Schwartz, J.L. (1998). Measuring individual differences in implicit cognition: The implicit association test. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 1464-1480.). In a positive arousal IAT, implicit associations between fat vs. lean food, and high and low arousal words with a positive valence were assessed. In a negative arousal IAT, high and low arousal words with a negative valence were used. A second experiment was conducted to replicate Experiment 1 in 29 youngsters with severe obesity and 29 lean peers. The results revealed strong implicit associations between fat food and arousal in both the overweight and the control group. No differences were found between the groups, nor between the positive and the negative arousal task. These results are related to cognitive-motivational theories of fat food intake.
Nicholson, P. D.
A revolution in the studies in planetary rings studies occurred in the period 1977--1981, with the serendipitous discovery of the narrow, dark rings of Uranus, the first Voyager images of the tenuous jovian ring system, and the many spectacular images returned during the twin Voyager flybys of Saturn. In subsequent years, ground-based stellar occultations, HST observations, and the Voyager flybys of Uranus (1986) and Neptune (1989), as well as a handful of Galileo images, provided much additional information. Along with the completely unsuspected wealth of detail these observations revealed came an unwelcome problem: are the rings ancient or are we privileged to live at a special time in history? The answer to this still-vexing question may lie in the complex gravitational interactions recent studies have revealed between the rings and their retinues of attendant satellites. Among the four known ring systems, we see elegant examples of Lindblad and corotation resonances (first invoked in the context of galactic disks), electromagnetic resonances, spiral density waves and bending waves, narrow ringlets which exhibit internal modes due to collective instabilities, sharp-edged gaps maintained via tidal torques from embedded moonlets, and tenuous dust belts created by meteoroid impact onto parent bodies. Perhaps most puzzling is Saturn's multi-stranded, clumpy F ring, which continues to defy a simple explanation 20 years after it was first glimpsed in grainy images taken by Pioneer 11. Voyager and HST images reveal a complex, probably chaotic, dynamical interaction between unseen parent bodies within this ring and its two shepherd satellites, Pandora and Prometheus. The work described here reflects contributions by Joe Burns, Jeff Cuzzi, Luke Dones, Dick French, Peter Goldreich, Colleen McGhee, Carolyn Porco, Mark Showalter, and Bruno Sicardy, as well as those of the author. This research has been supported by NASA's Planetary Geology and Geophysics program and the
Miller, Carol T; Varni, Susan E; Solomon, Sondra E; DeSarno, Michael J; Bunn, Janice Y
This study examined how community levels of implicit HIV prejudice are associated with the psychological and physical well-being of people with HIV living in those same communities. It also examined whether community motivation to control prejudice and/or explicit HIV prejudice moderates the relationship of implicit prejudice and well-being. Participants were 206 people with HIV living in 42 different communities in New England who completed measures that assessed psychological distress, thriving, and physical well-being. Telephone surveys of 347 residents of these same communities (selected via random digit dialing) were used to assess community explicit HIV prejudice and motivation to control HIV prejudice. These community residents then completed an online measure of implicit prejudice toward people with HIV, the Implicit Association Test (IAT; Greenwald, McGhee, & Schwartz, 1998). Multilevel analyses showed that higher community implicit HIV prejudice was associated with greater psychological distress among residents with HIV living in that community. The physical well-being of participants with HIV was negatively related to community implicit HIV prejudice in communities in which residents were unmotivated to control HIV prejudice or had high levels of explicit HIV prejudice. These findings indicate that implicit prejudice of residents of real-world communities may create an environment that may impair the well-being of stigmatized people. Implicit prejudice can therefore be considered an element of macro-level or structural stigma. The discussion considered the possible role of implicit HIV prejudice on a community's social capital as a pathway by which it compromises the well-being of residents with HIV. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Wong, Judy; Morrison, Amanda S; Heimberg, Richard G; Goldin, Philippe R; Gross, James J
Implicit associations of the self to concepts like "calm" have been shown to be weaker in persons with social anxiety than in non-anxious healthy controls. However, other implicit self associations, such as those to acceptance or rejection, have been less studied in social anxiety, and none of this work has been conducted with clinical samples. Furthermore, the importance of depression in these relationships has not been well investigated. We addressed these issues by administering two Implicit Association Tests (IATs; Greenwald, McGhee, & Schwartz, 1998), one examining the implicit association of self/other to anxiety/calmness and the other examining the association of self/other to rejection/acceptance, to individuals with generalized social anxiety disorder (SAD, n=85), individuals with generalized SAD and a current or past diagnosis of major depressive disorder or current dysthymic disorder (n=47), and non-anxious, non-depressed healthy controls (n=44). The SAD and SAD-depression groups showed weaker implicit self-calmness associations than healthy controls, with the comorbid group showing the weakest self-calmness associations. The SAD-depression group showed the weakest implicit self-acceptance associations; no difference was found between non-depressed individuals with SAD and healthy controls. Post hoc analyses revealed that differences appeared to be driven by those with current depression. The SAD-only and SAD-depression groups did not differ in self-reported (explicit) social anxiety. The implications of these findings for the understanding of SAD-depression comorbidity and for the treatment of SAD are considered. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bartolo, Angela; Benuzzi, Francesca; Nocetti, Luca; Baraldi, Patrizia; Nichelli, Paolo
Humor is a unique ability in human beings. Suls [A two-stage model for the appreciation of jokes and cartoons. In P. E. Goldstein & J. H. McGhee (Eds.), The psychology of humour. Theoretical perspectives and empirical issues. New York: Academic Press, 1972, pp. 81-100] proposed a two-stage model of humor: detection and resolution of incongruity. Incongruity is generated when a prediction is not confirmed in the final part of a story. To comprehend humor, it is necessary to revisit the story, transforming an incongruous situation into a funny, congruous one. Patient and neuroimaging studies carried out until now lead to different outcomes. In particular, patient studies found that right brain-lesion patients have difficulties in humor comprehension, whereas neuroimaging studies suggested a major involvement of the left hemisphere in both humor detection and comprehension. To prevent activation of the left hemisphere due to language processing, we devised a nonverbal task comprising cartoon pairs. Our findings demonstrate activation of both the left and the right hemispheres when comparing funny versus nonfunny cartoons. In particular, we found activation of the right inferior frontal gyrus (BA 47), the left superior temporal gyrus (BA 38), the left middle temporal gyrus (BA 21), and the left cerebellum. These areas were also activated in a nonverbal task exploring attribution of intention [Brunet, E., Sarfati, Y., Hardy-Bayle, M. C., & Decety, J. A PET investigation of the attribution of intentions with a nonverbal task. Neuroimage, 11, 157-166, 2000]. We hypothesize that the resolution of incongruity might occur through a process of intention attribution. We also asked subjects to rate the funniness of each cartoon pair. A parametric analysis showed that the left amygdala was activated in relation to subjective amusement. We hypothesize that the amygdala plays a key role in giving humor an emotional dimension.
Emadian, Amir; England, Clare Y; Thompson, Janice L
Objective It is widely recognised that South Asian men living in the UK are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) than their white British counterparts. Despite this, limited data have been published quantifying current dietary intake patterns and qualitatively exploring eating behaviours in this population. The objectives of this study were to (1) assess diet, (2) explore perceptions of T2DM, (3) investigate factors influencing eating behaviours in overweight/obese South Asian men and (4) determine the suitability of the UK Diet and Diabetes Questionnaire (UKDDQ) for use in this population. Setting Community-based setting in the Greater London, UK area. Participants South Asian men aged 18–64 years, with a body mass index of over 23.0 kg/m2, not previously diagnosed with T2DM. Methods A cross-sectional mixed-methods design, including assessment of dietary intake using UKDDQ (n=63), followed by semistructured interviews in a purposive sample (n=36). Results UKDDQ scores indicated 54% of participants had a ‘healthy’ diet with a mean sample score of 3.44±0.43 out of a maximum of 5. Oily fish consumption was low (1.84±1.85). Body weight was positively associated with a high-added sugar subscore (r=0.253, p=0.047), with 69.8% of the men having ‘unhealthy’ intakes of sugar-sweetened beverages. Cultural commitments (eg, extended family and faith events), motivation and time were identified as key barriers to dietary change, with family support an important facilitator to making healthy dietary changes. Participants stated that UKDDQ was suitable for assessing diets of South Asians and made suggestions for tailoring questions related to rice consumption, providing examples of Indian sweets, and including ghee as a fat source. Conclusion Many of the areas of dietary improvement and factors affecting eating behaviours identified in this study are similar to those observed in the general UK population. Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages
Full Text Available Introduction: South Asian population has a particularly high prevalence of thyroid disorders mainly due to iodine deficiency and goitrogen use. There is no data available for prevalence of thyroid disorders in the general population living in nonmountainous regions of Pakistan. Materials and Methods: A total of 2335 residents of Pak Pattan, Punjab, Pakistan were interviewed about demographic, dietary, medical and environmental history as well as screened for goiter. Individuals of all ages and either gender were included. Results: Median age was 34 (10-88 years and 1164 (49.9% were males. Median monthly income was 49 (3.9-137 USD. Six hundred and sixty-nine (28.7% subjects had palpable goiter. 77.5% (n = 462 and 22.5% (n = 133 had World Health Organization Grade I and Grade II goiters respectively, further screened by measuring thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH. In subjects with TSH <0.4 mg/dL, free T3 and free T4 levels were measured. In 185 goiter subjects when TSH was measured, 50% (n = 93 were euthyroid, 48% (n = 89 were hyperthyroid, and one subject each was hypothyroid and subclinically hyperthyroid. 29/89 hyperthyroid subjects underwent radionuclide scanning. Twelve subjects had heterogeneous uptake consistent with multinodular goiter, 12 subjects had diffuse uptake, two had cold nodules and two had hyperfunctioning single nodules. Goiter was significantly more common among females, unmarried individuals and individuals drinking tube well (subterranean water. Goiter was less common among those who consumed daily milk, daily ghee (hydrogenated oil, spices, chilies, and turmeric. Discussion: In our study population, goiter was endemic with very high prevalence of hyperthyroidism. Turmeric use was association with reduced goitrogenesis. Further studies to assess iodine sufficiency, thiocyanate exposure and autoimmunity need to be conducted. Masses consuming high goitrogen diets should be educated to incorporate turmeric, spices and green
Poonam Ashish Gupte
Full Text Available Context: Depression, a sustained mood disorder caused by selective diminution of specialized cells in brain is increasing at an alarming rate. It will be the second largest morbid illness by next decade and is the leading cause of suicidal deaths. The available antidepressant medications benefit only a third of its recipients and have many side effects. Hence, it is imperative to search in Ayurveda for leads. Aim: To evaluate Anti- depressant activity of Hiṅgvādi Ghṛta in vivo. Settings and Design: Comparative preclinical study. Materials and Methods: Hiṅgvādi Ghṛta (HG was prepared using standard operating procedure, physicochemically analyzed and assessed. Tail Suspension Test (TST model with Swiss albino mice and Forced Swim Test (FST model with Wistar albino rats were used to assess anti-depressant activity. Imipramine hydrochloride in dose of 15 mg/kg for TST and 10 mg/kg for FST, was the standard drug and Ghee as vehicle control in dose of 0.1g/20g for TST and 0.72g/200g for FST orally. Hiṅgvādi Ghṛta in doses of 0.05g/20g (x/2, 0.1g/20g (x and 0.2 g/20g (2x for TST and 0.36g/200g (x/2, 0.72g/200g (x and 1.44g/200g (2x for FST was administered to 3 test groups for 21 days orally except Plain control group which received only distilled water. Duration of immobility in seconds for TST and number of rotations for FST were noted for assessment. Statistical Analysis Used: One way ANOVA followed by Dunnets test and Paired t test. Results: HG was significantly effective at dose of 0.1gm/20gm for TST (P = 0.0037; P < 0.01 and 0.72g/200g for FST (P = 0.0055, P < 0.01 comparable to Imipramine hydrochloride. Conclusions: HG displayed potent anti depressant activity comparable to standard drug Imipramine Hydrochloride.
Misra, Anoop; Singhal, Neha; Khurana, Lokesh
Developing countries are undergoing rapid nutrition transition concurrent with increases in obesity, the metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). From a healthy traditional high-fiber, low-fat, low-calorie diet, a shift is occurring toward increasing consumption of calorie-dense foods containing refined carbohydrates, fats, red meats, and low fiber. Data show an increase in the supply of animal fats and increased intake of saturated fatty acid (SFAs) (obtained from coconut oil, palm oil, and ghee [clarified butter]) in many developing countries, particularly in South Asia and South-East Asia. In some South Asian populations, particularly among vegetarians, intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) (obtained from flaxseed, mustard, and canola oils) and long-chain (LC) n-3 PUFAs (obtained from fish and fish oils) is low. Further, the effect of supplementation of n-3 PUFAs on metabolic risk factors and insulin resistance, except for demonstrated benefit in terms of decreased triglycerides, needs further investigation among South Asians. Data also show that intake of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) ranged from 4.7% to 16.4%en in developing countries, and supplementing it from olive, canola, mustard, groundnut, and rice bran oils may reduce metabolic risk. In addition, in some developing countries, intake of n-6 PUFAs (obtained from sunflower, safflower, corn, soybean, and sesame oils) and trans-fatty acids (TFAs) is increasing. These data show imbalanced consumption of fats and oils in developing countries, which may have potentially deleterious metabolic and glycemic consequences, although more research is needed. In view of the rapid rise of T2DM in developing countries, more aggressive public health awareness programs coupled with governmental action and clear country-specific guidelines are required, so as to promote widespread use of healthy oils, thus curbing intake of SFAs and TFAs, and increasing intake of n-3 PUFAs and MUFAs. Such
Devi, L; Devi, Y; Mendhapurkar, S
The conditions of rural women in villages of Kamad, Dhandi, Kumarkot, and Brahmpuri in Uttar Pradesh in India are revealed in the responses of 3 women to questions about their life. Improvement in women's conditions can be accomplished by empowerment; the women agreed that having women's groups and open discussion would help women stand up to their husbands who beat them or take their money. Conversations with the women were initially blocked by the village men, but after 5 months, dialogues were conducted. The conversations reflect very labor-intensive activity every day regardless of the season. Jungle surrounds the villages and the climate is harsh with both monsoons and snow. Men do not care for their women very well, and health and reproductive functions are neglected. The women are hopeful that things will change. Minu Devi explained that she was bought for Rs.5000 by her husband when she was 6-7 years old, but most now marry at 12-14 years and the girl's father is paid Rs.20,000-30,000. The work day is 18-20 hours. If the husband is disobeyed or the wife refuses to work, the husband tells his wife that he has the right to beat her. Minu's first child was born when she was 13-14, but died within hours. There was no understanding of prenatal or postnatal care. The practice of childbirth was described: living in the cattle house on a bed of paddy husks, and giving birth with the help of a Dai. The mother cuts the umbilical cord with a sickle and heats water to bathe herself and baby. Cooking, squatting, and washing clothes are all performed in the cattle house. A ration of rice and ghee is provided. After 24 hours, the mother must walk to a crossroads and throw away the birth remains and bathe within 3 days. On day 5 she is allowed to go to the river to wash clothes. Others may not touch her clothes and her path is sprinkled with cow urine. Day 11 brings with it some salt for the rice portion. Thereafter she may move to another room although still without
Philpot, Cindy J.
Recent reform efforts in science education focus on scientific literacy for all citizens. In order to be scientifically literate, an individual must have informed understandings of nature of science (NOS), scientific inquiry, and science content matter. This study specifically focused on Science Olympiad students' understanding of NOS as one piece of scientific literacy. Research consistently shows that science students do not have informed understandings of NOS (Abd-El-Khalick, 2002; Bell, Blair, Crawford, and Lederman, 2002; Kilcrease and Lucy, 2002; Schwartz, Lederman, and Thompson, 2001). However, McGhee-Brown, Martin, Monsaas and Stombler (2003) found that Science Olympiad students had in-depth understandings of science concepts, principles, processes, and techniques. Science Olympiad teams compete nationally and are found in rural, urban, and suburban schools. In an effort to learn from students who are generally considered high achieving students and who enjoy science, as opposed to the typical science student, the purpose of this study was to investigate Science Olympiad students' understandings of NOS and the experiences that formed their understandings. An interpretive, qualitative, case study method was used to address the research questions. The participants were purposefully and conveniently selected from the Science Olympiad team at a suburban high school. Data collection consisted of the Views of Nature of Science -- High School Questionnaire (VNOS-HS) (Schwartz, Lederman, & Thompson, 2001), semi-structured individual interviews, and a focus group. The main findings of this study were similar to much of the previous research in that the participants had informed understandings of the tentative nature of science and the role of inferences in science, but they did not have informed understandings of the role of human imagination and creativity, the empirical nature of science, or theories and laws. High level science classes and participation in
Full Text Available Sajesh K Veettil,1 Nattawat Teerawattanapong,2 Siew Mooi Ching,3,4 Kean Ghee Lim,5 Surasak Saokaew,6–9 Pochamana Phisalprapa,10 Nathorn Chaiyakunapruk7,8,11,12 1School of Pharmacy/School of Postgraduate Studies, International Medical University, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 2Division of Pharmacy Practice, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ubon Ratchathani University, Ubon Ratchathani, Thailand; 3Department of Family Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, 4Malaysian Research Institute on Ageing, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, 5Clinical School, Department of Surgery, International Medical University, Seremban, Negeri Sembilan, 6Center of Health Outcomes Research and Therapeutic Safety (Cohorts, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Phayao, Phayao, 7School of Pharmacy, Monash University Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia; 8Centre of Pharmaceutical Outcomes Research, Department of Pharmacy Practice, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Naresuan University, Phitsanulok, Thailand; 9Unit of Excellence on Herbal Medicine, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Phayao, Thailand; 10Division of Ambulatory Medicine, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, 11School of Pharmacy, University of Wisconsin, Madison, USA; 12Health and Well-being Cluster, Global Asia Platform in the 21st Century (GA21 Platform, Monash University Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia Background: Protective effects of several chemopreventive agents (CPAs against colorectal adenomas have been well documented in randomized controlled trials (RCTs; however, there is uncertainty regarding which agents are the most effective.Methods: We searched for RCTs published up until September 2016. Retrieved trials were evaluated using risk of bias. We performed both pairwise analysis and network meta-analysis (NMA of RCTs to compare the effects of CPAs on the recurrence of colorectal adenomas (primary outcome. Using NMA, we
meet high-quality standards requires investment in and adherence to tested and established methods and protocols for sensor operation and data management (Pellerin et al., 2013). For example, optical sensor measurements can be strongly influenced by a variety of matrix effects, including water temperature, inner filtering from highly colored water, and scattering of light by suspended particles (Downing et al., 2012). Characterizing and correcting sensors for these effects – as well as the continued development of common methodologies and protocols for sensor use – will be critical to ensuring comparable measurements across sites and over time. In addition, collaborative efforts such as the Nutrient Sensor Challenge (www.nutrients-challenge.org) will continue to accelerate the development, production and use of affordable, reliable and accurate sensors for a range of environments. REFERENCES Bergamaschi .B.A., Fleck J.A., Downing B.D., Boss E., Pellerin B.A., Ganju N.K., Schoellhamer D.H., Byington A.A., Heim W.A., Stephenson M., Fujii R. (2011), Methyl mercury dynamics in a tidal wetland quantified using in situ optical measurements. Limnology and Oceanography, 56(4): 1355-1371. Carpenter K.D., Kraus T.E.C., Goldman J.H., Saraceno J., Downing B.D., Bergamaschi B.A., McGhee G., Triplett T. (2013), Sources and Characteristics of Organic Matter in the Clackamas River, Oregon, Related to the Formation of Disinfection By-products in Treated Drinking Water: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2013–5001, 78 p. Downing .B.D., Pellerin B.A., Bergamaschi B.A., Saraceno J., Kraus T.E.K. (2012), Seeing the light: The effects of particles, temperature and inner filtering on in situ CDOM fluorescence in rivers and streams. Limnology and Oceanography: Methods, 10: 767-775. Pellerin B.A., Bergamaschi B.A., Downing B.D., Saraceno J., Garrett J.D., Olsen L.D. (2013), Optical Techniques for the Determination of Nitrate in En