Sample records for ghee

  1. Detection of tallow adulteration in cow ghee by derivative spectrophotometry.

    Jirankalgikar, Nikhil M; De, Subrata


    Ghee is a widely consumed dairy product in India and that prepared from cow milk is mentioned in ayurvedic texts as an ingredient of many formulations/additive as well. Detection of cow ghee adulteration with vegetable oils/fats and animal body fats is a key concern. Indicated values for commonly used parameters to differentiate pure and adulterated ghee materials are many a times overlapping. Among reported techniques, ultraviolet fluorescence and paper chromatography technique are not that much sensitive while other methods require sophisticated instrumental facilities (such as gas chromatography, mass spectrometry) and costly analytical processes. The present paper deals with a promising spectroscopic method to determine the tallow adulteration in cow ghee. Ghee and tallow (taken in chloroform) as such and mixed in different proportions were scanned by spectrophotometer and their second order spectra were analyzed. The value of the ratio of the absorbance of peaks at about 238 nm and 297 nm steadily decreases with the increasing proportion of tallow. This decrease shows consistent linearity suggesting its applicability for quantitative estimation of tallow in cow ghee. The developed derivative spectroscopic method is a rapid, sensitive, cost-effective method for detection of tallow adulteration in cow ghee.

  2. Evaluation of ghee based formulation for wound healing activity.

    Prasad, Vure; Dorle, Avinash Kumar


    Formulation containing neomycin and ghee was evaluated for wound-healing potential on different experimental models of wounds in rats. The rats were divided into six groups of group 1 as control, group 2 as treated with neomycin only, group 3 as treated only with ghee, group 4 treated with F-1 formulation containing ghee 40% and neomycin 0.5%, group 5 treated with F-2 formulation containing ghee 50% and neomycin 0.5% and group 6 treated with F-3 formulation containing ghee and ointment base in all two wound models, each group consisting of six rats. Wound contraction ability in excision wound model was measured at different time intervals and study was continued until wound is completely healed. Tensile strength was measured in 10-day-old incision wound and quantitative estimation of hydroxy proline content in the healed tissue was determined in 10-day-old excision wound. Histological studies were done on 10-day-old sections of regenerated tissue of incision wound. F-2 formulation containing ghee 50% and neomycin 0.5% showed statistically significant response, in terms of wound contracting ability, wound closure time, period of epithelization, tensile strength of the wound, regeneration of tissues at wound site when compared with the control group and these results were comparable to those of a reference neomycin ointment.


    Karamaradi S


    Full Text Available Ghee is also known as clarified butter, utilized for thousands of years in Ayurveda as a therapeutic agent. Ghee which is known as “Gritha” in Ayurveda, described as the best among lipid media due to its quality of inheriting and enhancing the drug potency. Even though ghee is an animal fat, earlier studies have shown that larger doses given for cleansing purpose did not increase the level of Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL. Instead increased High Density Lipoprotein (HDL or some time did not alter lipid profile at all. Earlier studies in rats, which were fed up to 10% dietary ghee showed dose dependent decrease in cholesterol and other lipid profiles. There are two methods in preparation of butter. One is from milk cream, clarified butter and the other from curds, cultured butter. Butter will be further processed to convert it into ghee. None of the earlier studies have shown, which type of ghee is better and compared their effects on lipid profiles. So, our objective of the study was to know the effects of 5% and 10% milk cream ghee (Ghee from clarified Butter and curd ghee (Ghee made out of Cultured Butter supplementation on lipid profile in Wistar rats. So we supplied 5% and 10% dietary ghee in a nutritionally balanced diet to 8 weeks old male rats for 12 weeks and estimated Total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, Very Low Density Lipoprotein (VLDL and Triglycerides (TGL levels after 12 weeks. These results indicate that 5% and 10% of cream ghee and 10% curds ghee did increase body weight after 12 weeks of consumption and 5% curds ghee was found not to increase the body weight; 5% Curd Ghee has shown to lower total cholesterol, LDL, VLDL, triglycerides levels and cholesterol ratio more than other groups in our experimental model. HDL levels were increased in all the groups, which was not statistically significant in 5% cream and 5% curd ghee groups.

  4. Antioxidant activities of orange peel extract in ghee (butter oil) stored at different storage temperatures.

    Asha, A; Manjunatha, M; Rekha, R M; Surendranath, B; Heartwin, P; Rao, J; Magdaline, E; Sinha, Chitranayak


    Antioxidant activities of butylatedhydroxyanisole (BHA) and orange peel powder extract in ghee stored at different storage temperatures (T1:6 ± 2 °C; T2: 32 ± 2 °C; T3:60 ± 2 °C) were evaluated during storage period of 21 days. Peroxide value (PV), thiobarbituric acid (TBA), radical scavenging activity (RSA) and free fatty acids (FFA) of ghee samples were analyzed during the study. PV, TBA and FFA of ghee samples increased significantly while radical scavenging activity (RSA) of ghee samples decreased significantly at accelerated temperature (T3) as compared to the temperatures at T1 and T2. Effect of storage temperature on development of peroxides and TBA of ghee samples was significantly higher than the effect of treatment and storage period while treatment had more significant effect on the change in FFA and RSA as compared to storage temperature and storage period. Ghee incorporated with orange peel extract (OPE) showed stronger activity in quenching DPPH radicals and least development of PV, TBA and FFA than ghee incorporated with BHA and control. The study revealed that orange peel could be a good natural source of antioxidants which can be used in fat rich food products like ghee to retard oxidative deterioration.


    Waqas Ahmad


    Full Text Available To convert vegetable edible oils into vanaspati ghee, nickel is used as a catalyst in the hydrogenation process. A simple and fast method for the trace level determination of nickel in ghee is reported. In this different methods were applied for the extraction of residual nickel from ghee samples. Using toluene, as organic solvents, an acid mixture was used for the extraction of nickel. Extracted nickel was quantified with atomic absorption. Among the organic solvents, toluene proved to be the best solvent mediating a 95% extraction of nickel from ghee samples. Nickel was extracted and determined in ten different brands of ghee and in all samples its amount was well above the permissible limit of WHO (0.2 μg/g. Other metals like lead, zinc, copper, and cadmium were also determined and their concentrations were found to be much below the WHO permissible limits.

  6. Comparison between the Effect of Cow Ghee and Butter on Memory and Lipid Profile of Wistar Rats

    Bansude, Akshata Sanjay; Angadi, Eesha Ajit


    Introduction The traditional texts designate Cow Ghee as Medhya Rasayana, beneficial for mental alertness and memory. There has been concern about increased risk of cardiovascular disease due to its high percentage of saturated fatty acids in ghee. Amongst all edible fats, nutrition composition of cow ghee and butter is comparatively similar. Hence we had planned a study to assess effect of cow ghee on memory and lipid profile. Aim So the aim of this study is to assess the effect of cow ghee on memory and lipid profile Materials and Methods Nootropic activity of test drugs was assessed by Elevated Plus Maze (EPM) and Morris Water Maze (MWM) model. Rats were divided into four groups namely control, Piracetam, cow ghee and butter. All drugs were given orally for 21 days. Transfer latency was measured in EPM model and probe test was done in MWM model. Results Cow ghee and butter group showed no significant effect on memory in EPM and MWM model. There was reduction in weight of animals in Cow Ghee group and increase in weight with Butter. In both the models there was a significant increase in Triglyceride (TG) and Very Low Density Lipoproteins (VLDL) levels of rats in butter groups and increase in TG and VLDL of rats with cow ghee in EPM model. Conclusion The result of experiment suggests that no beneficial effect cow ghee and butter on cognition was seen. However, ghee is relatively safer when compared to Butter in considering lipid profile. PMID:27790463

  7. Evaluation the rate of trans fatty acids isomers in ghee and tail sheep consumption in Lorestan

    Roshanak Hedayatifar


    Conclusion: Ghee and tail sheep contains high percentage of saturated fatty acids including trans and saturated fatty acids. Therefore, people who consume these foods may put themselves at elevated risk of cardiovascular disease.

  8. Ghee-making in the cattle corridor of Uganda | Sempiira | African ...

    ... the legs on a cushion followed by shaking reportedly causes knee and elbow pains and ... productivity in terms of reduced labor and/or increased incomes, but will also ... Key words: Smallholder, poverty, ghee, traditional processing, labor, ...

  9. Effects of cow ghee (clarified butter oil) & soybean oil on carcinogen-metabolizing enzymes in rats.

    Rani, Rita; Kansal, Vinod K


    Our previous study showed that cow ghee relative to soybean oil had a protective effect against carcinogen induced mammary cancer in rats. The objective of this study was to elucidate its biochemical mechanism. Two groups of 21 day old rats (20 each) were fed for 44 wk diet containing cow ghee or soybean oil (10%). Five animals from each group were sacrificed at 0 day and at 5, 21 and 44 wk for analysis of phase I and phase II pathways enzymes of carcinogen metabolism. Dietary cow ghee relative to soybean oil decreased the activities of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP1B1 and CYP2B1, responsible for activation of carcinogen in liver. Carcinogen detoxification activities of uridinediphospho-glucuronosyl transferase (UDPGT) and quinone reductase (QR) in liver, and γ-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGTP) and QR in mammary tissue were significantly higher in cow ghee fed rats than in soybean oil fed rats. The hepatic GGTP activity decreased on soybean oil diet; while in cow ghee group it remained unaffected. Our findings show that dietary cow ghee compared to soybean oil downregulates the enzyme activities responsible for carcinogen activation in liver and upregulates carcinogen detoxification activities in liver and mammary tissues.

  10. Antioxidant activities of orange peel extract in ghee (butter oil) stored at different storage temperatures

    Asha, A; Manjunatha, M; Rekha, R M; Surendranath, B; Heartwin, P; Rao, J; Magdaline, E; Sinha, Chitranayak


    Antioxidant activities of butylatedhydroxyanisole (BHA) and orange peel powder extract in ghee stored at different storage temperatures (T1:6 ± 2 °C; T2: 32 ± 2 °C; T3:60 ± 2 °C...

  11. Occurrence and spatial distribution of pesticide residues in butter and ghee (clarified butter fat) in Punjab (India).

    Bedi, J S; Gill, J P S; Aulakh, R S; Kaur, Prabhjit


    The present study was undertaken to monitor organochlorine, organophosphate, and synthetic pyrethroid pesticide residues in butter (n = 55) and ghee (n = 56) samples collected from three different regions of Punjab. The estimation of pesticide residues was done by multiple residue analytical technique using gas chromatography equipped with GC-ECD and GC-FTD. The confirmation of residues was done on gas chromatography mass spectrometry in both selective ion monitoring (SIM) and scan mode. Results indicated the presence of hexacholorocyclohexane (HCH) and p,p' DDE as predominant contaminant in both butter and ghee. Residues of HCH were detected in 25 and 23% samples of butter and ghee, respectively, while residues of p,p' DDE were recorded in 29 and 25% of butter and ghee samples, respectively. None of the butter and ghee sample violated the MRL values of 200 ng g(-1) for HCH and 1250 ng g(-1) for dichorodiphenyl tricholorethane (DDT). The presence of endosulfan, cypermethrin, fenvalerate, deltamethrin, and chlorpyrifos were observed in a few butter and ghee samples at traces. The spatial variation for comparative occurrence of pesticide residues indicated higher levels in the south-western region of Punjab. Additionally, the temporal variation indicated the significant reduction of HCH and DDT levels in butter and ghee in Punjab.

  12. Monitoring of butter and ghee (clarified butter fat) for pesticidal contamination from cotton belt of Haryana, India.

    Kumari, Beena; Singh, Jagdeep; Singh, Shashi; Kathpal, T S


    Butter (45) and ghee (55) samples were collected from rural and urban areas of cotton growing belt of Haryana and analysed for detecting the residues of organochlorine, synthetic pyrethroid and organophosphate insecticides. The estimation was carried out by using multi residue analytical technique employing GC-ECD and GC-NPD systems equipped with capillary columns. Butter samples were comparatively more contaminated (97%) than ghee (94%), showing more contamination with organochlorine insecticides from urban samples. About 11% samples of butter showed endosulfan residues above MRL value and 2% samples had residues of synthetic pyrethroids and organophosphates each above their respective MRL values. In ghee, residues of HCH & DDT both and of endosulfan exceeded the MRL values in 5 and 20% samples, respectively. Among organophosphates, only chlorpyriphos was detected with 9% samples showing its residue above MRL value. Irrespective of contamination levels, residues above the MRL values were more in ghee. More extensive study covering other agricultural regions/zones of Haryana has been suggested to know the overall scenario of contamination of milk products.

  13. Effect of sucrose polyesters on crystallization rate of vegetable ghee: solid fat content study

    Ibrahim Nasir, Mohammad


    Full Text Available Crystallization rate of partial hydrogenated blend of soybean oil and cottonseed oil used for making vegetable ghee (vanaspati was investigated, by solid fat content (SFC using pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance (p-NMR. The effects of adding sucrose fatty acid esters or sucrose polyesters (SPE on the crystallization rate of the blend fat were studied. Sucrose tetrastearate DK ester F-10 (stearate 70% - palmitate 30% was added to the fat at different concentration, namely 0.5% and 1.0%. Blank sample and sample containing 0.5% and 1.0% DK ester F-10 / (DK F-10 were chosen to measure the change in SFC at constant temperature of 15ºC for a period of 25 hr. Five determinations of SFC were taken to the fat samples during the 25 hr i.e. 2,5,9,13 and 25th hr. SFC vs. time of crystallization of the three samples showed continuous increasing in SFC in all samples during the 25 hr, with sharp increasing at the first two hours. Samples containing 0.0% and 0.5% DK F-10, showed no significant difference in SFC during the first thirteen hours, while sample containing 1.0% DK F-10, showed higher SFC than the other two samples, through out the period. The amount of SFC for 1.0% DK F-10 sample at the 13th hour is equal to the SFC of the blank (0.0% sample at the 25th hour. Melting point of the same samples increased with the increasing DK F-10 concentration in the fat samples. The results of SFC make it sure that the addition of 1.0% DK F- 10 will shorten the time required for the crystallization of vegetable ghee while the addition of 0.5% will not have significant effect.Se ha investigado, mediante el contenido en grasa sólida (SFC por resonancia magnética nuclear pulsada (p-NMR, la velocidad de cristalización de mezcla de aceite de la soja y aceite de semilla del algodón parcialmente hidrogenada utilizada en la elaboración de ghee vegetal (vanaspati. Se han estudiado los efectos de añadir ésteres de sacarosa de ácidos grasos o poliésteres de

  14. Reduction of saturated fat in traditional foods by substitution of ghee with olive and sunflower oils – A case study with halwa

    A. Manickavasagan


    Full Text Available Diet related diseases are increasing at an alarming rate all over the world. Restriction in dietary saturated fat intake is one of the major components in healthy diet as a mean of preventing cardiovascular and other associated diseases. Ghee is one of the high saturated fat types (around 60% saturated fat which is consumed along with many Asian traditional foods. As a model food, halwa, a traditional confection in Oman, which is popular in domestic and many other gulf countries is modified by replacing ghee with healthy vegetable oils and tested for their acceptability. Three types of halwa, olive oil halwa, sunflower oil halwa and ghee halwa (control were produced in a commercial production facility and their textural and sensorial attributes were determined. In instrumental texture profiles, there were no significant differences in cohesiveness, springiness, chewiness and gumminess between olive oil, sunflower oil and ghee halwa samples. The hardness of olive oil halwa was the highest and sunflower oil halwa was the lowest among three tested samples. In sensory evaluation of developed halwa products, there was no significant difference in the overall acceptability between ghee and sunflower oil halwa. In blind sensory test, 60% of females and 80% of males selected sunflower oil halwa, and only 10% of females and 10% males selected olive oil halwa as their first choice of preferences. But in informed sensory test, the selection of olive oil halwa as the first choice was increased to 55% in females and 30% in males. About 80% of the panelists in informed sensory test were ready to accept non-ghee halwa the way it was prepared or with product improvement. There are opportunities to modify traditional foods which are rich in saturated fat by replacing with healthy oils, and to educate the people about the health benefits of these modifications.

  15. Study on cow ghee versus soybean oil on 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)-anthracene induced mammary carcinogenesis & expression of cyclooxygenase-2 & peroxisome proliferators activated receptor-γ in rats.

    Rani, Rita; Kansal, Vinod K


    Breast cancer is a leading cause of cancer death in women; dietary fat is the one of the factors that influences its incidence. In the present study we investigated the effect of feeding cow ghee versus soybean oil on 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) induced mammary cancer in rat and expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and peroxisome proliferators activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) in mammary gland. Two groups of 21 day old female rats (30 each) were fed for 44 wk diet containing cow ghee or soybean oil (10%). The animals were given DMBA (30 mg/kg body weight) through oral intubation after 5 wk feeding. Another two groups (8 each) fed similarly but not given DMBA served as control for the gene expression study. In DMBA treated groups, the animal fed soybean oil had higher tumour incidence (65.4%), tumour weight (6.18 g) and tumour volume (6285 mm3) compared to those fed cow ghee (26.6%, 1.67 g, 1925 mm3, respectively). Tumour latency period was 23 wk on soybean oil compared to 27 wk on cow ghee. Histological analysis of tumours showed that the progression of carcinogenesis was more rapid on soybean oil than on cow ghee. The expression of cyclooxygenase-2 was observed only in DMBA treated rats and it was significantly less on cow ghee than on soybean oil. The expression of PPAR-γ was significantly more on cow ghee than on soybean oil. Our results show that dietary cow ghee opposed to soybean oil attenuates mammary carcinogenesis induced by DMBA; and the effect is mediated by decreased expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and increased expression of PPAR-γ in the former group.

  16. Study on the plasticizer of microcapsules wall material of Xizang ghee%微胶囊化西藏酥油壁材增塑剂的研究

    石燕; 郑为完; 刘凡; 葛辉


    By adding three different kinds of plasticizer into the maltodextrin microcapsule wall material respectively, a comprehensive study had been done to analyze the nature, property and usage amount of these three kinds of plasticizer.When this were added into the microcapsules wall material of Xizang ghee,the results showed that the plasticizer with collagen as its major component achieved the optimal performance. The relatively appropriate dosage was 16% .When this kind of plasticizer was added into the maltodextrin microcapsule wall material of Xizang ghee,the particle surface of the microcapsule of Xizang ghee product was smoother and the particle shape was better than the microcapsule of Xizang ghee product been produced by using traditional formula.%在微胶囊壁材麦芽糊精中分别添加三种不同性质的增塑剂,对三种增塑剂的性质、性能及用量进行了研究,并将其添加于西藏酥油微胶囊壁材中.结果表明:以胶原蛋白为主要成分的增塑剂性能最好,用量为16%.将其添加于壁材麦芽糊精中所制得的酥油微胶囊产品在颗粒形状及表面光滑度方面均优于用传统配方生产的酥油微胶囊产品.

  17. 水滴撞击高温酥油表面的动力学过程模拟试验研究%Simulated research into the dynamic process of water-drop impact on the hot ghee surface

    陈萍萍; 王喜世; 张毅


    细永雾与酥油池火相互作用的初始阶段,或细水雾不能有效抑制酥油池火时,往往会发生火焰燃烧被强化的现象.为了深入认识这一现象的发生机理,通过模拟试验研究水滴撞击到不同温度酥油表面的动力学过程.试验中水滴的初始直径为(2.61±0 1)mm,韦伯散为77.9;酥油温度变化范围为200~300℃.整个碰撞过程采用Phctron Fastcam高速摄影仪进行拍摄记录.结果表明:水滴撞击到高温酥油油池时,水滴会迅速蒸发并在酥油中生成气泡,气泡上升到酥油-空气交界面时破裂,或者在油池内部发生蒸汽爆炸导致酥油液滴或酥油液桂飞溅;当酥油温度达到300℃时,水滴进入酥油后114ms左右即发生剧烈的蒸汽爆炸,大量高温酥油被溅起,这应该是导致细水雾熄灭酥油池火时发生火焰燃烧被强化的主要原因之一.%The paper is aimed to present our experimental research results of the flame combustion enhancement due to the cumulative impacts of the water drop onto the ghee surface. In order to enhance our understanding of the mechanism of such phenomena, we have laid out a dynamical process of water-drop impacting onto the hot molten-ghee surface with the initial diameter of the drop of (2.61 ±0.1) mm and its impact Weber number being about 77.9. Then let the temperature of the molten-ghee vary from 200 ℃ to 300 ℃ and the whole process of the impaction recorded by using a high speed Photron Fast-cam camera at 500 frames each second. When the water droplets impact the hot molten-ghee pool, it would get fragmented, and eventully lead to a vapor explosion. The experimental results of ours show that as the water drops impact on the hot molten-ghee, they would evaporate soon and produce bubbles inside the molten-ghee. And, afterwards, the little bubbles would break while rising at the ghee-air interface , or produce vapor explosion inside the molten-ghee and finally result in ghee droplet

  18. Short communication: Survival of honey bees (Apis mellifera) infected with Crithidia mellificae (Langridge and McGhee: ATCC® 30254™) in the presence of Nosema ceranae

    Higes, M.; Rodríguez-García, C.; Gómez-Moracho, T.; Meana, A.; Bartolomé, C.; Maside, X.; Barrios, L.; Martín-Hernández, R.


    Crithidia mellificae, a trypanosomatid parasite of Apis mellifera, has been proposed to be one of the pathogens responsible for the serious honey bee colony losses produced worldwide in the last decade, either alone or in association with Nosema ceranae. Since this pathogenic effect contradicts the results of the experimental infections originally performed by Langridge and McGhee nearly 40 years ago, we investigated the potential linkage of this protozoan with colony decline under laboratory conditions. Nosema-free and trypanosomatid-free honey bees from three different colonies were experimentally infected with fresh C. mellificae spheroid forms (reference strain ATCC30254), with N. ceranae fresh spores and with both parasites at the same time. Replicate cages were kept at 27 °C and used to analyse survival. C. mellificae spheroid forms did not reduce significantly the survival of the worker bees (64.5% at 30 days post-infection vs. 77.8% for the uninfected bees used as controls; differences were non statistically significant) under these experimental conditions. In contrast, the cages infected with N. ceranae exhibited higher rates of mortality from the 20th day post-infection onwards, irrespective of the presence of C. mellificae, suggesting that the spheroid forms of the latter have no pathological effect on A. mellifera. (Author)

  19. Characterization of Two Species of Trypanosomatidae from the Honey Bee Apis mellifera: Crithidia mellificae Langridge and McGhee, and Lotmaria passim n. gen., n. sp.

    Schwarz, Ryan S; Bauchan, Gary R; Murphy, Charles A; Ravoet, Jorgen; de Graaf, Dirk C; Evans, Jay D


    Trypanosomatids are increasingly recognized as prevalent in European honey bees (Apis mellifera) and by default are attributed to one recognized species, Crithidia mellificae Langridge and McGhee, 1967. We provide reference genetic and ultrastructural data for type isolates of C. mellificae (ATCC 30254 and 30862) in comparison with two recent isolates from A. mellifera (BRL and SF). Phylogenetics unambiguously identify strains BRL/SF as a novel taxonomic unit distinct from C. mellificae strains 30254/30862 and assign all four strains as lineages of a novel clade within the subfamily Leishmaniinae. In vivo analyses show strains BRL/SF preferably colonize the hindgut, lining the lumen as adherent spheroids in a manner identical to previous descriptions from C. mellificae. Microscopy images show motile forms of C. mellificae are distinct from strains BRL/SF. We propose the binomial Lotmaria passim n. gen., n. sp. for this previously undescribed taxon. Analyses of new and previously accessioned genetic data show C. mellificae is still extant in bee populations, however, L. passim n. gen., n. sp. is currently the predominant trypanosomatid in A. mellifera globally. Our findings require that previous reports of C. mellificae be reconsidered and that subsequent trypanosomatid species designations from Hymenoptera provide genetic support.

  20. 耐盐及耐茶汁西藏酥油微胶囊乳化体系研究%Study on emulsifier system of resistance to salt and tea Tibet ghee microcapsule

    石燕; 郑为完; 刘凡; 葛辉


    Using different species, ratio and the amount of emulsifier to prepare ghee microcapslues, then contrasted the effect of oil emulsion stability and ghee microcapslues to set up butter monoglyceride-diacetyl tartaric acid ester of monodiglyceride (DATEM) -sodium caseinate Tibet ghee microcapsule emulsifier system. The best proportioning was 2.3:0.?:3.The result showed that the system was helpful to stabilize the emulsion and there was no destabilization in the spray drying process.Meanwhile, with the application of the emulsifier system, reconstituted milk appeared ivory, had a good stability, without any delamination and particle hang wall phenomenon.At the same time there was no emulsion breaking phenomenon even in the high concentration salt (5%) and high concentration tea juice(includinq 1% substance distilled from black tea).%通过比较不同种类、配比及用量的乳化剂制备的酥油乳状液稳定性及酥油微胶囊化效果,建立了牛油单甘酯一二乙酰酒石酸单双甘酯一酪朊酸钠的西藏酥油微胶囊乳化体系,最佳配比为23:0.7:3。结果表明:用该乳化体系制备的酥油乳状液性质稳定,产品酥油微胶囊在喷雾干燥过程中无转型破乳现象。同时,该乳化体系制备的酥油微胶囊加水复原乳状液色白、稳定,添加高浓度(5%)食盐和高浓度茶汁(含1%红茶提取物),乳状液无分层及粒子粘壁现象。

  1. Preliminary Assessment McGhee - Tyson ANGB, McGhee - Tyson Municipal Airport, Knoxville, Tennessee


    Marketing Service EPA U. S. Environmental Protection Agency FTA Fire Training Area HARM U. S. Air Force Hazard Assessment Rating Methology HAS Hazard...and/or JP-4 fuel. Site No. 3 - Oil/Water Separator at 110/119th TCF Vehicle Maintenance Area. Building 100 (HAS - 56) Stress vegetation was observed ...Building 126 (HAS -56) Oil stained soil and stress vegetation was observed in a drainage swale directly adjacent to the twin oil/water (o/w)separators. In

  2. McGhee-Tyson Airport, Tennessee. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.


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  3. The lactose and galactose content of milk fats and suitability for galactosaemia

    Portnoi, P. A.; Macdonald, A.


    Introduction: Butter oil, ghee and butter are theoretically low in lactose. All three products are high in milk fat; butter oil and ghee contain approximately 99.3% fat and butter around 80% fat. We report the lactose and galactose content of butter, ghee, and butter oil and assess their suitability in a low galactose diet. Methods: A total of 12 samples (butter oil n = 5, ghee n = 5, butter n = 2) were analysed by High-Performance Anion Exchange Chromatography with Pulsed Amperometric Det...

  4. The lactose and galactose content of milk fats and suitability for galactosaemia

    P.A. Portnoi


    Conclusions: Butter oil (commonly used in food industry and ghee contain minimal lactose and galactose and so are permitted in a UK galactosaemia diet. Butter is considered too high in lactose and is unsuitable in a low galactose diet.

  5. Open sesame: Identification of sesame oil and oil soot ink in organic deposits of Tang Dynasty lamps from Astana necropolis in China

    Shevchenko, Anna; Yang, Yimin; Knaust, Andrea; Verbavatz, Jean-Marc; Mai, Huijuan; Wang, Bo; Wang, Changsui; Shevchenko, Andrej


    .... We found that ruminant (mostly, sheep) fat, cattle ghee and sesame oil were common combustibles in Astana and concluded that sesame as an oilseed appeared in China under Tang Dynasty concomitantly with the expansion of Buddhism.

  6. "Let Me Show You a Trick!": A Toddler's Use of Humor to Explore, Interpret, and Negotiate Her Familial Environment during a Day in the Life

    Cameron, E. Leslie; Kennedy, Katherine M.; Cameron, Catherine Ann


    Children employ different types of humor as they explore, interpret, and negotiate their environments. Whereas an appreciation of verbal incongruity has been a hallmark of older preschooler humor (e.g., McGhee, 1989), more recently, other violations of expectations and clowning also have been identified as ubiquitous during the first two years of…

  7. Disease: H00789 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Full Text Available 78802 (description, gene) Edwards M, McGhee CN, Dean S The genetics of keratoconus. Clin Experiment Ophthalm...te L, Bisceglia L Mutational screening of VSX1, SPARC, SOD1, LOX, and TIMP3 in keratoconus. Mol Vis 17:2482-94 (2011) ...

  8. Protective Immunization Against Inhalational Anthrax: A Comparison of Minimally Invasive Delivery Platforms


    associ- ated with the technique. Intranasal (inl) delivery is another alternative to im delivery. It has the potential to induce mucosal immunity [21–26...Leppla SH, Fujihashi K, McGhee JR. Effective mucosal immunity to anthrax: neutralizing antibodies and Th cell responses following nasal immunization

  9. Balancing Accountability and Ethics: A Case Study of an Elementary School Principal

    Hall, Dorothy Ledbetter


    In recent years, the federal No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act has increasingly had a major impact on daily decisions in schools, especially for principals' performance. Depending on the accountability rating, schools are in jeopardy of closing, and principals and teachers are at risk of being fired (McGhee & Nelson, 2005). As a result, it is…

  10. Dynamic Reconfiguration and Link Fault Tolerance in a Transputer Network


    Naval Postgraduate School Monterey, CA 93943 5. Dr. Gregory Buzzard, Code 52Bu Department of Computer Sceince Naval Postgraduate School Monterey, CA...of MASTER OF SCIENCE IN COMPUTER SCIENCE from the NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL June 1989 Author: Winfred P. Pikelis Approved by: / ’ 4-- Uno /R. Kodres...Th is Advisor ,\\ g ory fu. zlrd,. Second Reader Robert B. McGhee, Chairman, Department of Computer Science Kneale T. M""Mt’l z -- Dean of Information

  11. Pili in Microspheres Protect Rabbits From Diarrhoea Induced by E. Coli Strain RDEC-1


    antibodies secreted in bile. 14. UIJIT TRMS J~*NUjMBER OF PAGES Keywo- Fntenic vaccine; mucosal immunity ; biliary EgA; mucosal attachment: enteroadherent...vaccine; mucosal immunity ; biliary IgA; mucosal attachment; enteroadherent Escherichia coli INTRODUCTION intestinal tract3 or inadequate uptake of the... Mucosal Immunity and Infections at Mucosal Surfaces (Eds 1986, pp. 143-145 Strober. W., Lamm. M.E., McGhee, J.R. and James, S.P.) Oxford 4 Eldridge

  12. Simulation of the type of coralin alkaloid-DNA binding

    Kulikov, K. G.; Koshlan, T. V.


    Interaction between a synthesized coralin protoberberine alkaloid and the DNA double helix of the calf's thymus in a salt solution is studied by optical absorption spectroscopy and spectropolarimetry. The dependence of the spectral characteristics of the alkaloid on a ratio between the DNA base pair concentration and the alkaloid molecule concentration is considered. The parameters of bonds between the coralin alkaloid and the DNA double helix are determined using modified McGhee-von Hippel equations.

  13. Effect of Shodhana (processing) on Kupeelu (Strychnos nux-vomica Linn.) with special reference to strychnine and brucine content

    Mitra, Swarnendu; Shukla, V. J.; Acharya, Rabinarayan


    Kupeelu (Strychnos nux-vomica Linn.) commonly known as nux vomica is a poisonous plant used extensively in various ayurvedic formulations, with great therapeutic significance. Ayurveda recommended the administration of Kupeelu only after purification in different media like cow's urine (Go mutra), cow's milk (Go dugdha), cow's ghee (Go ghrita), Kanji (sour gruel), and so on. Apart from the classical methods some other methods are also adopted by the traditional practitioners using castor oil ...

  14. Hepatoprotective activity of Haridradi ghrita on carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage in rats.

    Satturwar, P M; Fulzele, S V; Joshi, S B; Dorle, A K


    Haridradi ghrita, a ghee based polyherbal formulation, (50, 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg) significantly lowered marker enzymes (SGPT, SGOT, ALP) and bilirubin in serum and liver peroxide, superoxide dismutase and catalase in liver homogenate following CCl4 (0.7 ml/kg, ip) toxicity. The protective effect was further supported by reversal of CCl4 induced histological changes. The results demonstrate significant hepatoprotective action of H. ghrita in CCl4 damaged rats.

  15. Docosahexaenoic acid content is significantly higher in ghrita prepared by traditional Ayurvedic method

    Kalpana S Joshi


    Full Text Available Background: Ghee (clarified butter also known as ghrita, has been utilized for thousands of years in Ayurveda. Ghee is mostly prepared by traditional method in Indian households or by direct cream method at industry level. Ayurvedic classics mention that ghrita made from cow milk is superior. However, there is no scientific comparison available on preparation methods and essential fatty acids content of ghrita. Objective: To investigate fatty acid composition of ghrita prepared by traditional/Ayurvedic method and commercial method (direct cream method. Materials and Methods: Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME extracted from ghrita samples were analysed on Gas Chromatography (GC Shimadzu B using capillary column BPX70 (0.32 mmFNx0160 m, ID of 0.25 mm. The fatty acids in the samples were identified by comparing peaks with the external standard 68A (Nu-Chek-Prep, Inc.USA. Significant differences between the experimental groups were assessed by analysis of variance. Results: Distribution of fatty acids was compared in ghrita samples prepared by traditional method and direct cream method which is commercially used. Saturated fatty acids were predominant in both the groups. Mono unsaturated fatty acids and poly unsaturated fatty acids were in the range of 17-18% and 3-6% respectively. DHA content was significantly higher in ghee prepared by traditional method using curd starter fermentation. Conclusion: The findings suggested that ghrita prepared by traditional ayurvedic methods contains higher amount of DHA; Omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, which is a major component of retinal and brain tissues and remains important in prevention of various diseases.

  16. To Study the Efficacy of Ayurvedic Dhoopan for Operation Theater Sterilization

    Anantkumar V. Shekokar


    Full Text Available Since Vedic period Homa-havana and Yadnya, sterilization of air by Agnihotra, sterilization of house & place around it by Dhoopan, is going on traditionally. Also it is useful in branches of Ayurveda like Shalya, Shalakya, Kaumarbhrutyat and Prasutistreeroga. Sushruta has also explained the method of treating Vrana, Vranitaagara and Shastrakarmaghruha by this method of Dhoopana. Hence present experimental study was planned to study the efficacy of Ayurvedic Dhoopana Dravya like Guggulu, Aguru, Sarjarasa and Sarshapa, added with Lavana, Nimbapatra & Ghee. After Dhoopan process swab were collected & send to laboratory for testing and significant results was obtained.


    Rao N Prasanna


    Full Text Available Swarna Prashana has been traditionally practiced across India as a recipe for child growth and memory enhancement and also to promote longevity. Swarnamrita Prashana is a modified preparation of Swarna Prashana, containing Swarnabhasma along with Medhya (nootropic drugs in the media of ghee. It is administered once a month on the day of Pushyanakshatra .This has been started as public health initiative by SDM College of Ayurveda and Hospital, Hassan in 16 centers spread across Karnataka. Acceptance of this public health initiative assessed on the basis of public response.

  18. 谈培训的适应性问题

    董慧; 申燕


    @@ 一、确定培训需求 确定培训需求,也就是明确培训目的,使培训工作有的放矢,是取得高效培训成果的首要条件.麦吉(Mc Ghee)和撒耶(Thaytr)在(Trining in Business and Industry,John Wiley and sons,Mew York,1961.)一书中,提出一种确定培训需求的方法,称为三项分析法.该方法包括:

  19. Binding Parameters of Alkaloids Berberine and Sanguinarine with DNA

    Gumenyuk, V G; Kutovyy, S Yu; Yashchuk, V M; Zaika, L A


    We study the interaction of berberine and sanguinarine (plant alkaloids) with DNA in aqueous solutions, by using optical spectroscopy methods (absorption and fluorescence). The dependencies of alkaloid spectral characteristics on the concentration ratio N/c between the DNA base pairs and alkaloid molecules in the solutions are considered, and the manifestations of the alkaloid-DNA binding are revealed. The character of binding is found to depend on N/c. The parameters of the binding of berberine and sanguinarine with DNA are determined, by using the modified Scatchard and McGhee-von Hippel equations

  20. Effect of particle size of rice flour on physical and sensory properties of Sel-roti.

    Subba, Dilip; Katawal, Surendra Bahadur


    Sel-roti is a delicious, deep-fat fried, puffed, ring shaped spongy doughnut like Nepalese indigenous food prepared from the batter of rice flour, ghee and sugar. A study was conducted to determine the effect of particle size of rice flour on bulk density, oil uptake and texture of Sel-roti. Rice was soaked in water and ground with the help of iron mortar and pestle and the flour was analyzed for particle size distribution by using standard sieves and separated into three particle size categories as coarse (> 890 u), medium (120-890 u) and fine ( 0.05) were found.

  1. Evaluation of CNS activity of Bramhi Ghrita

    Achliya G


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To eavaluate the CNS activity of Bramhi Ghrita, a polyherbal formulation containing Bacopa monneri, Evolvulus alsinoids, Acorus calamus, Saussurea lappa and cow′s ghee. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The effect of Bramhi Ghrita on motor coordination, behavior, sleep, convulsions, locomotion and analgesia was evaluated in mice using standard procedures. RESULTS: The formulation exhibited reduced alertness, spontaneous locomotor activity and reactivity. It also antagonized the behavioral effects of d-amphetamine, potentiated the pentobarbitone-induced sleep and increased the pain threshold. Bramhi Ghrita protected mice from maximum electroshock and pentylene tetrazole-induced convulsions.

  2. A Study on the Economics of Milk Processing in a Dairy Plant in Haryana


    The economics of manufacturing of different dairy products, viz. ghee, full-cream milk, standardized milk, toned milk, double-toned milk, skimmed milk and ice-cream (processing only) have been reported. The study has been conducted in an ISO-9002 dairy plant situated in the north-eastern part of Haryana. It has been observed that all the products, except the double-toned milk are being produced above the recommended breakeven level. A comparison of unit manufacturing cost with unit price rece...

  3. Quality of effluents from Hattar Industrial Estate



    Of 6634 registered industries in Pakistan, 1228 are considered to be highly polluting. The major industries include textile, pharmaceutical, chemicals (organic and inorganic), food industries, ceramics, steel, oil mills and leather tanning which spread all over four provinces, with the larger number located in Sindh and Punjab, with smaller number in North Western Frontier Province (NWFP) and Baluchistan. Hattar Industrial Estate extending over 700 acres located in Haripur district of NWFP is a new industrial estate, which has been developed with proper planning for management of industrial effluents. The major industries located in Hattar are ghee industry, chemical (sulfuric acid, synthetic fiber) industry, textile industry and pharmaceuticals industry.These industries, although developed with proper planning are discharging their effluents in the nearby natural drains and ultimately collected in a big drain near Wah. The farmers in the vicinity are using these effluents for growing vegetables and cereal crops due to shortage of water. In view of this discussion, there is a dire need to determine ifthese effluents are hazardous for soil and plant growth. So, effluents from different industries, sewage and normal tap water samples were collected and analysed for pH,electrical conductivity (EC), total soluble salts (TSS), biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen, cations and anions and heavy metals. The effluents of ghee and textile industries are highly alkaline. EC and TSS loads of ghee and textile industries are also above the National Environmental Quality Standards (NEQS), Pakistan. All the effluents had residual sodium carbonates (RSCs), carbonates and bicarbonates in amounts that cannot be used for irrigation. Total toxic metals load in all the effluents is also above the limit i.e. 2.0 mg/L. Copper in effluents of textile and sewage, manganese in ghee industry effluents and iron contents in all the effluents were higher

  4. Description of the males of Lincus singularis and Lincus incisus (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae: Discocephalinae

    Aline S. Maciel


    Full Text Available The Neotropical Lincus Stål, 1867 includes 35 species, thirteen of which are known only from females. Several species are vectors of Phytomonas staheli McGhee & McGhee, 1979, a trypanosomatid parasitic in palm-trees in South America that causes hart-rot, sudden and slow wilt diseases. The hitherto unknown males of L. singularis Rolston, 1983 ("swollen head" species group found in the oil palm Elaeis guineensis Jacq., and L. incisus Rolston, 1983 ("hatchet-lobed" species group; found in the coconut tree Cocos nucifera L., are described with emphasis on the morphology of the genitalia, and taxonomic remarks are provided. Males of L. singularis can be distinguished from other species included in "swollen head" group by their pronotal lobes with anterior and posterior margins subparallel and projected laterally from the eye margin, while males of L. incisus can be distinguished from the species of the "swollen head" group by an obtuse projection with a deepest incision and several additional diagnostic characters of the genitalia.

  5. MSM POEMS: A case of identity

    Ajai R. Singh


    Full Text Available Tonight at a classical dance recital symbolizing the eternal quest of the soul-force for God I too raised for myself some questions As I saw the dancer adopt body twisted beautifully gymnastic postureslike a question mark put before me -who am I?Am I the inquisitive streetwalker listening at pavements to snake charmers' aphrodisiac calls, watching indolently as the fast cycling rogue whirling past knocks her off, squeezes her breasts, makes off and leaves me to pacify her smothered adolescence. Or am I the automaton That hangs on to footboards and breezes past in fast trains every morning and evening the only sensation left in me being in my hands holding on for dear life, and in my lips wolf whistling as I swirl past platforms. Or just the nimble fingers typing away at jet-speed, taking down bosses' notes, thumbing across wads of money, hand shaking with prospective customers. Or just tongues, tongues and more tongues with mounds and mounds of sugar and ghee and adulterated oils pouring it all into unknowing ears furthering business prospects feeding everyone around in slow poison doses and fattening on pure ghee, purity of expression, conscience. So that I can decorate my drawing room with costly paintings and upholstery watch expensive dance recitals and answer question marks once in a while.

  6. Formulation and evaluation of medicated lipstick of allantoin

    Shaikh Saba


    Full Text Available Cosmetics are incredible in demand since historical time till day. Lipstick formulations are most widely used to enhance the beauty of lips and to add glamor′s touch to the makeup. It is difficult to apply lipsticks to the dried, chafed, chapped, cracked lips with sores and lesions. In such cases, one can use medicated lipsticks for the purpose of curing topical infections and beautification of lips. With this aim and objectives, an attempt was made to formulate medicated lipstick by using cow ghee and honey as natural excipients that substituted synthetic ingredients like isopropyl myristate, lanolin, cetyl alcohol, and castor oil. Allantoin was selected a model drug for the local action on lips. In vitro evaluation was done on bovine lip membrane, and the data suggested that the drug remained on the membrane only and did not diffuse through the membrane in diffusion studies for 8 h. After 8 h, 0.16% drug release was observed till 12 h. Thus, allantoin can remain topically on lips for 8 h without showing any systemic effects. The lipsticks were evaluated for their organoleptic properties such as spreading, covering property, hardness, shine, and gloss and found to be satisfactory product to give attractive beauty with therapeutic effect on the diseased lips. Thus, the medicated lipsticks with the natural ingredients like cow ghee and honey can serve as economical and effective cosmoseutical product.

  7. Can people really "laugh at themselves?"--experimental and correlational evidence.

    Beermann, Ursula; Ruch, Willibald


    Laughing at oneself is considered a core component of the sense of humor in the theories of several authors. In McGhee's (1996) eight-step-training program of the sense of humor, laughing at oneself constitutes one of the most difficult levels. However, until now, only little empirical evidence on laughing at oneself exists. Using a multimethod approach, in the current study, 70 psychology students and a total of 126 peers filled in the Sense of Humor Scale (SHS, McGhee, 1996), containing as a subscale "Laughing at oneself". In addition, the participants answered the Trait and State forms of the State-Trait-Cheerfulness-Inventory (STCI, Ruch, Köhler, & van Thriel, 1996; Ruch, Köhler, & van Thriel, 1997). They then were confronted with six distorted images of themselves. Facial responses of the participants were videotaped and analyzed using the Facial Action Coding System (FACS, Ekman, Friesen, & Hager, 2002). Four indicators of exhilaration were examined: (a) experienced funniness, (b) AU12 smiles, (c) Duchenne displays, and (d) laughter. Furthermore, fake and masking smiles were studied. Results demonstrated that self- and peer reports of "laughing at oneself" converged moderately. All four indicators of exhilaration were shown, but funniness and laughter seemed to be the most strongly related indicators. Trait cheerfulness and (low) seriousness, and a cheerful mood state formed further characteristics of persons who laugh at themselves.

  8. A reassessment of risk factors for neonatal tetanus.

    Traverso, H. P.; Kamil, S.; Rahim, H.; Samadi, A. R.; Boring, J. R.; Bennett, J. V.


    A hospital-based case-control study was conducted to further examine the risk factors for neonatal tetanus (NNT) in the North-west Frontier Province of Pakistan. Three control infants were concurrently evaluated for each of 102 consecutively diagnosed NNT cases hospitalized over an 8-week period. Application of clarified butter (ghee) during the first few days of life was shown to be a significant risk factor, confirming our previously reported finding. However, the risk appeared to be limited to ghee made in the home from cow's milk. The tool used to cut the umbilical cord was again refuted to be a risk factor; application of topical antibiotics conferred significant protection. Multivariate analysis of the matched data showed that delivery by persons with academic training (physicians, nurses, and lady health visitors) was also protective. Mothers with a past history of NNT babies were shown to have a significantly increased risk, and accounted for more than one-third of all cases in the present study. The findings suggest possible ways to augment the effectiveness of NNT elimination programmes. PMID:1959158

  9. Acrylamide formation in vegetable oils and animal fats during heat treatment.

    Daniali, G; Jinap, S; Hajeb, P; Sanny, M; Tan, C P


    The method of liquid chromatographic tandem mass spectrometry was utilized and modified to confirm and quantify acrylamide in heating cooking oil and animal fat. Heating asparagine with various cooking oils and animal fat at 180°C produced varying amounts of acrylamide. The acrylamide in the different cooking oils and animal fat using a constant amount of asparagine was measured. Cooking oils were also examined for peroxide, anisidine and iodine values (or oxidation values). A direct correlation was observed between oxidation values and acrylamide formation in different cooking oils. Significantly less acrylamide was produced in saturated animal fat than in unsaturated cooking oil, with 366ng/g in lard and 211ng/g in ghee versus 2447ng/g in soy oil, followed by palm olein with 1442ng/g. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Agnihotra - a useful adjunct in recovery of a resistant demotivated smack addict.

    Golechha, G R; Deshpande, M; Sethi, I C; Singh, R A


    AGNIHOTRA is a simple vedic ritual of lightening a pyramid of fire in a small copper pot and giving offering of Ghee & Rice on this fire at the time of sunset and sunrise with enchanting of two mantras. It is reported to enhance the state of tranquility of mind and is reported to be of benefit to those addicted to various types of intoxicants. We used Agnihotra in a young smack addict who was poorly motivated and resisted all efforts to help him even when he got over the physical withdrawal features. The results were encouraging. Over a period of 4 weeks, we found him to be a totally changed man who could go back to his work without any drugs. Follow up for more than a year, revealed no recurrence and positive achievements in his work performance. The paper presents practice of Agnihotra, also known as homa therapy, and discusses its role in drug addiction.

  11. Open sesame: Identification of sesame oil and oil soot ink in organic deposits of Tang Dynasty lamps from Astana necropolis in China.

    Shevchenko, Anna; Yang, Yimin; Knaust, Andrea; Verbavatz, Jean-Marc; Mai, Huijuan; Wang, Bo; Wang, Changsui; Shevchenko, Andrej


    Lamp illuminants evidence the exploitation of natural resources, animal and plant domestication, commerce, religious practices and nutrition of ancient populations. However, the physicochemical analysis of their major constituent-burned, degraded and aged mixture of triacylglycerols is imprecise and may lead to ambiguous interpretations. We applied proteomics to analyze fuel deposits from eight lamps dated by 6th to 8th centuries AD that were excavated at the Astana necropolis (Xinjiang, China) and determined their origin by identifying organism-specific proteins. Proteomics evidence corroborated and detailed the assignments of source organism relying upon comparative profiling of intact triacylglycerols by shotgun lipidomics. We found that ruminant (mostly, sheep) fat, cattle ghee and sesame oil were common combustibles in Astana and concluded that sesame as an oilseed appeared in China under Tang Dynasty concomitantly with the expansion of Buddhism.

  12. Shedding light on some common dietetic misconceptions

    Virag Ganesh Gokhale


    Full Text Available Certain misconceptions in dietetics are so deeply ingrained in the minds of people that it is difficult to convince them as to what the truth is. Busy family physicians often skip queries on such topics or give some casual replies that may further support the misunderstanding. Some of these misconceptions can even be harmful. A few such misconceptions like - that ghee is harmful or that beetroot is good for treating iron deficiency, that Sunflower oil is heart friendly, that a patient of hepatitis should avoid fatty food, or that vegetarian proteins are poor quality proteins are some such beliefs. That the truth is contrary to such beliefs is pointed out with scientific evidence.

  13. Knowledge amongst adolescent girls about nutritive value of foods and diet during diseases, pregnancy and lactation.

    Kapil, U; Bhasin, S; Manocha, S


    Knowledge about nutritive value of food, diet during diseases and antenatal and postnatal period was assessed amongst 152 adolescent school girls. A total of 23.69 and 55.93% students had incorrect knowledge that pulses and non-vegetarian foods should be avoided during later half of the pregnancy. A total of 63.82, 66.45 and 71.72% of subjects had incorrect knowledge that almonds have more nutritive value than groundnuts, fruits are rich sources of calories and desi ghee has more nutritive value than vanaspathi, respectively. Majority (90.78%) had correct knowledge that obesity is caused due to excess intake of calories than required by an individual and low iron content and poor availability of iron from food is a major cause of anemia in mothers and children.

  14. An approach to avascular necrosis by Saghṛta kṣīrabasti

    Sreelaksmi Chaganti


    Full Text Available A 62-year-old, male patient radiologically diagnosed as a case of avascular necrosis of femur head with grade 4, presented the following chief complaints. Pain in the left hip joint radiating to thigh (anterior part, of grade ′9′ on “visual analog scale (VAS” associated with swelling in bilateral feet and decreased range of movements in the hip joint. This presentation was correlated with Asthi-majjagata vāta (musculo-skeletal disorder and treated accordingly. Initially, patient had been administered dīpana and pācana followed by nityavirecana (therapeutic purgation. Further Saghrita kṣīrabasti (medicated enema prepared with milk and ghee was administered in kalābasti schedule (16 in number. This resulted with relief of pain to grade “3” on “VAS” and complete resolution of pedal edema and improvement in range of movement of hip joint.

  15. Evaluation of sedative and anticonvulsant activities of Unmadnashak Ghrita.

    Achliya, Girish S; Wadodkar, Sudhir G; Dorle, Avinash K


    'Unmadnashak Ghrita' (UG) is a ayurvedic formulation containing Ferula narthex (6 g), Gardenia gummifera (6 g), Ellataria cardamom (6 g), Bacopa monneri (6 g), and cow's ghee (clarified butter fat) (76 g). In the present study, neuropharmacological activities of UG were evaluated for its gross behavioural effect, pentobarbitone sleeping time, spontaneous locomotor activity, antagonism to amphetamine induced hyperlocomotor activity, analgesic activity by tail flick test, rota-rod performance (motor coordination test), maximal electroshock (MES) induced seizures, and pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) induced convulsions in mice. The formulation showed CNS-depressant activity in gross behavioural test, potentiated pentobarbitone sleeping time and there was significant decrease in spontaneous locomotor count in mice. The formulation also antagonized the behavioral effects of CNS-stimulant drug amphetamine, and showed analgesic effect in mice. UG failed to affect the motor coordination test. The formulation also protected mice from MES and PTZ induced convulsions. These results suggest that UG has CNS-depressant and anticonvulsant activity in mice.

  16. Neuropharmacological actions of panchagavya formulation containing Emblica officinalis Gaerth and Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn in mice.

    Achliya, Girish S; Wadodkar, Sudhir G; Avinash, K Dorle


    A panchagavya Ayurvedic formulation containing E. officinalis, G. glabra, and cow's ghee was evaluated for its effect on pentobarbital-induced sleeping time, pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures, maximal electroshock-induced seizures, spontaneous motor activity, rota-rod performance (motor coordination) and antagonism to amphetamine in mice. The formulation (300, 500 mg/kg, po) produced a significant prolongation of pentobarbital-induced sleeping time and reduced spontaneous locomotor activity. The formulation also significantly antagonised the amphetamine induced hyper-locomotor activity (500, 750 mg/kg, po) and protected mice against tonic convulsions induced by maximal electroshock (500, 750 mg/kg, po). The formulation slightly prolonged the phases of seizure activity but did not protect mice against lethality induced by pentylenetetrazole. The formulation did not show neurotoxicity. The results suggest that the panchagavya formulation is sedative in nature.

  17. Assessment of the fatty acid patterns in vegetable oils, fats and fat-rich foods commonly consumed in Egypt

    Cantellops, Dennis


    Full Text Available Forty-one individual food samples were analyzed for their fatty acid contents by gas-liquid chromatography using capillary tubes. The samples belonged to 5 different food groups and included vegetable oils, butter & ghee, animal fats, dairy products, fishes, chicken & meats and other popular dishes. The results show that maize oil was lowest in its total saturated fatty acid content (11% and richest in linolenic acid. On the other hand, total saturated fatty acids made up 42-62 % of the total fatty acid patterns of the lamb and camel fat tallow, respectively. Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (C20-C22 with two to six double bonds were present only in fishes. Estimate of fat intake amounted to 36 grams per subject per day and the % contribution of the analyzed fats was presented. The ratio of polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acids amounted to 0.96; which falls within the optimum dietary goals.Cuarenta y una muestras de alimentos individuales fueron analizadas por su contenido en ácidos grasos mediante cromatografía gas-líquido usando columnas capilares. Las muestras pertenecieron a 5 grupos diferentes, incluyendo aceites vegetales, mantequilla y «ghee», grasas animales, productos lácteos, pescados, pollo y carnes, y otros platos populares. Los resultados mostraron que el aceite de maíz fue el que tuvo el más bajo contenido en ácidos grasos saturados totales (11% y el más rico en ácido linolénico. Por otro lado, los ácidos grasos saturados totales alcanzaron el 42-62% de los ácidos grasos totales del sebo de cordero y camello respectivamente. Los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados de cadena larga (C20-C22 con dos a seis dobles enlaces estuvieron presentes solo en pescados. La estimación de la ingesta ascendió a 36 g por sujeto y día, y se presenta el porcentaje de contribución de las grasas analizadas. La relación de ácidos grasos poliinsaturados a saturados ascendió a 0.96; estando dentro del óptimo alimenticio.

  18. Reversed-Phase Liquid Chromatographic Separation and Determination of Ni(II, Cu(II, Pd(II, and Ag(I Using 2-Pyrrolecarboxaldehyde-4-phenylsemicarbazone as a Complexing Reagent

    Arfana Mallah


    Full Text Available This paper reports the utilization of 2-pyrrolecarboxaldehyde-4-phenylsemicarbazone (PPS as a complexing reagent for the simultaneous determination and separation of Ni(II, Cu(II, Pd(II, and Ag(I by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detector. A good separation was achieved using Microsorb C18 column (150 × 4.6 mm i.d. with a mobile phase consisted of methanol : acetonitrile : water : sodium acetate (1 mM (68 : 6.5 : 25 : 0.5 v/v/v/v at a flow rate of 1 mL/min. The detection was performed at 280 nm. The linear calibration range was 2–10 μg/mL for all metal ions. The detection limits (S/N = 3 were 80 pg/mL for Ni(II, 0.8 ng/mL for Cu(II, 0.16 ng/mL for Pd(II, and 0.8 ng/mL for Ag(I. The applicability and the accuracy of the developed method were estimated by the analysis of Ni(II in hydrogenated oil (ghee samples and Pd(II in palladium charcoal.

  19. Taxonomical outlines of bio-diversity of Karnataka in a 14th century Kannada toxicology text Khagendra Mani Darpana

    Sathyanarayana Bhat; Kumaraswamy Udupa


    Origin of ancient Indian toxicology can be dated back to vedic literature. Toxins of both animate and inanimate world were very well understood during the era. Rig and Atharva vedic texts describe such details. After classifying such toxins, Charaka Samhitha, thebasic literature of Indian Medicine used gold and ghee as panaceas to counter act them. Ayurveda considers toxicology as one among the eight specialized branches of medical wisdom. Unfortunately, the available literature on this is very limited. Moreover, they have been discussed briefly in Charaka and Sushrutha Samhitha. Mangarasa I, a Jain scholar who lived on the foothills of the Western Ghats, in Southern India in 1350 A.D., felt this vacuum and composed an independent, elaborate Kannada text on toxicology. His less known text Khagendra Mani Darpana (KMD) is the first ever documented complete text on toxicology in the world. Medieval Indian wisdom on plant and animal diversities are very well reflected in this unique toxicological text. Centuries past to Linnean era, KMD gives vivid descriptions on zoological and botanical diversities of the time. This astonishing fact is an evidence of our ancestor's curiosities about the nature around them. A critical overview of the bio-diversity described in KMD text is discussed in this paper.

  20. Taxonomical outlines of bio-diversity of Karnataka in a 14th century Kannada toxicology text Khagendra Mani Darpana.

    Bhat, Sathyanarayana; Udupa, Kumaraswamy


    Origin of ancient Indian toxicology can be dated back to vedic literature. Toxins of both animate and inanimate world were very well understood during the era. Rig and Atharva vedic texts describe such details. After classifying such toxins, Charaka Samhitha, the basic literature of Indian Medicine used gold and ghee as panaceas to counter act them. Ayurveda considers toxicology as one among the eight specialized branches of medical wisdom. Unfortunately, the available literature on this is very limited. Moreover, they have been discussed briefly in Charaka and Sushrutha Samhitha. Mangarasa I, a Jain scholar who lived on the foothills of the Western Ghats, in Southern India in 1350 A.D., felt this vacuum and composed an independent, elaborate Kannada text on toxicology. His less known text Khagendra Mani Darpana (KMD) is the first ever documented complete text on toxicology in the world. Medieval Indian wisdom on plant and animal diversities are very well reflected in this unique toxicological text. Centuries past to Linnean era, KMD gives vivid descriptions on zoological and botanical diversities of the time. This astonishing fact is an evidence of our ancestor's curiosities about the nature around them. A critical overview of the bio-diversity described in KMD text is discussed in this paper.


    Amit Kumar Mishra, Smita Panda, Prakash Chandra Panda


    Full Text Available Introduction: In INDIA almost 20000 people die (40% of world death each year from rabies. Most of these deaths could be prevented by post exposure prophylaxis with wound washing, rabies immunoglobulin & vaccination. Local wound management alone can reduce viral load by up to 80%. Objective: To study self-wound management practices in animal exposure patients before attending a tertiary level ARV clinic. Methodology: Data regarding wound management was collected by individual interview of patients attending the ARV clinic during OCT 2011 to MAR 2012. The data collected in the form of a questionnaire. Analysis of data was done in the Department Of Community Medicine, V.S.S. Medical College, Burla. Results: Total 493 cases of animal exposure were attended during the study period. Most common biting animal was dog (94.5%. 31% of cases were under the age of 10 years & 23% belongs to the age of 10-19 years. Male to female ratio was 3:1. Most of the cases (91% were of category III exposure. Immediate management of wound was practiced by 63-77% of cases before visiting ARV clinic; only 2% wash the wound with running water & soap for 15 minutes. 39% of cases applied Dettol/savlon at the wound side & other 38% applied turmeric, red chilli, kerosene, Band-Aid & ghee locally. Most cases (61% reported to ARV clinic within 24hours.

  2. Toxic studies on biochemical parameters carried out in rats with Serankottai nei, a siddha drug-milk extract of Semecarpus anacardium nut.

    Vijayalakshmi, T; Muthulakshmi, V; Sachdanandam, P


    A toxicological study was carried out in rats with a Siddha preparation, milk extracts of Semecarpus anacardium nuts. The effect of acute (72 h) and subacute (30 days) treatment of the drug with different dosage on liver and kidney functions and hematological parameters were studied. The acute toxicity studies with this drug did not produce mortality at any dose level given (75-2000 mg/kg body weight). No marked adverse alterations were observed in hematological and biochemical parameters during the subacute toxicity studies (50, 100, 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight). In the subacute treatment, the highest dose (500 mg/kg body weight) alone showed a moderate increase in the level of blood glucose, plasma urea, uric acid, and creatinine. In addition, alteration in lipid profiles were observed which may be attributed to the ghee preparation of the drug. Decrease in urinary urea, uric acid and creatinine levels were also observed. Histopathological examination of vital organs showed normal architecture suggesting no morphological disturbances.

  3. Constructing Perceptions of Sexual Orientation: A Corpus-based Critical Discourse Analysis of Transitivity in the Irish Press

    Leanne Bartley


    Full Text Available During the Celtic Tiger period, Ireland grows faster than the Eurozone only to later suffer the harsh impact of the recession. This coincides with increased in-group essentialism leading to prejudice against minorities (Zagefka et al. 2013. Whilst extremist politicians justify anti-immigration beliefs, racism becomes a problem in Ireland. Attacks on certain groups rise dramatically: Women, Travellers, Africans or homosexuals endure verbal and physical mistreatment. Financial crises cause social and discursive marginalisation (Gabrielatos and Baker 2008, and intolerance inevitably contributes to discriminatory views underpinning old-fashioned values. In such a context, we argue that there will be a tendency to nurse the demonisation of the Other (Said 1978, and that the ideological bent of the media sources (see Fowler 1991, Rosen 1999, Barnhurst 2005, van Dijk 2006 will have some impact on how otherness is portrayed. The latter justifies an analysis of how bias fostering exclusion is reinforced in the public domain (Wodak and Chilton 2005. Given Irish gays’ new status following the controversy around same-sex marriage, here we examine newspaper articles to observe  the discourse construction of homosexuality (Collier 1995, Stychin 1995, Naidoo 1997, McGhee 2001, Baker  2005, and detect any instances of homophobia. To do so, a corpus-based critical discourse analysis is conducted with our focus on the notion of transitivity (Halliday and Matthiessen 2014 as a means to reveal people’s perspectives on the topic at hand.

  4. The Study of Oils Consumption Pattern and Its Related Factors in east Tehran

    Farhad Jafari


    Full Text Available Background & Objective: Inappropriate use of fat in diets is a significant risk factor that can cause cardiovascular diseases, morbidity, and mortality in the world. This study was designed to determine the fat consumption pattern in east Tehran habitants. Materials & Methods: In this cross sectional study 500 east Tehran habitants were evaluated. Data was collected by a questionnaire designed by the authors of the present study. The validity and reliability of the questionnaire was confirmed in a pilot study. The Data was analyzed with SPSS software. Results: The average of family members was 3.9±1.4. The highest amount ofoil consumed was that of solid candy oil, while The lowest was animal oil. For cooking, 36.8% and 31% of samples were using liquid oil and solid candy oil, respectively. For fraying 33.8%, 20%, 32.4% of samples were using liquid oil, solid candy oil and frying oil, respectively. a relationship was found between higher educational level and mothers working out of the house and higher consumption of liquid oil, fraying oil and olive oil (p<0.001. High age, housekeeper mothers and higher family span were associated with the higher consumption of solid oils, butter and ghee (p<0.02. Conclusion: This study revealed that the significant portion of daily oil consumption of Tehran habitants consist of solid oils. It seems to be necessary to organize proper training programs to increase social awareness about the hazards of solid saturated fats.

  5. Cytological Findings Suggesting Sexuality in Phytomonas davidi (Protozoa: Kinetoplastida

    Maria Auxiliadora de Sousa


    Full Text Available On few occasions, Phytomonas davidi (McGhee & Postell isolate cultures in LIT (liver infusion-tryptose medium around 27oC presented, as seen in Giemsa-stained smears, a set of peculiar morphological features, among them being noticeable the pairs of apposed cells attached by their posterior ends, where occurred a stained line and/or a dilatation, usually bulb-like in shape; sometimes this dilatation could occupy one of the cells or hold both together. In some pairs, the nucleus of each parasite seemed migrating towards the other, entering into such dilatation; in others, both nuclei were inside it, sometimes in close proximity or seeming fused; peculiar chromatin arrangements involving both nuclei were occasionally observed. Several mono or binucleate round forms bearing one or two flagella, as well as flagellate slender cells without nucleus were concomitantly seen there. In some instances, an intriguing small stained body occurred beside a single large nucleus, either in pairs presenting the bulb-like structure or in round cells. These cytological findings seemed steps of a dynamic process suggesting sexuality, since in several of them nuclear interactions following fusion of two parasites appeared to occur




    Full Text Available India is an agricultural country having variety of plants and animals. Among the animals, cattle like cow has a prominent place in our country. It is considered as go-mata and worshipped by every hindu of India. The five products of cow called “Panchgavya” is a precious gift of this holy animal to our society, which consist of milk, curd, ghee, urine and dung. Among these, cow dung also called cow pad, is a component having crude protein, cellulose, hemicellulose and minerals. It is an efficient organic manure used to increase plant yield in fields. Cow dung slurry is also used by people of our country for plastering the floors and walls of their houses. Considering this custom of our society, a study had been done to evaluate antibacterial and antifungal properties of cow dung extract in distil water, ethanol and n- hexane against Candida, E. coli, Pseudomonas and Staphylococcus aureus and found it highly effective against these microbes. The study revealed that cow dung extract possess antimicrobial properties, which can be used to fight against certain pathogenic diseases and other ailments.

  7. ¡Marte es divertido! Sobre humor, apreciación y emociones en niños

    Leonor Ruiz Gurrillo


    Full Text Available Este artículo tiene como objetivo proponer un acercamiento pragmático a la apreciación del humor. La bibliografía sobre psicología ha mostrado que los niños disfrutan de las historias divertidas, humorísticas y fantásticas. Sin embargo, la apreciación del humor ha sido escasamente investigada desde una perspectiva productiva. Nuestro corpus está compuesto por 149 narraciones humorísticas de escolares de nueve y diez años . Así, los informantes de nuestro corpus se sitúan en el estadio 5 de acertijos y chistes (McGhee, 2002, lo que representa un punto de inflexión hacia el humor adulto. Concretamente, los niños desarrollan un sentido del humor (Thorson y Powell, 1993 en el que la apreciación del humor es el mecanismo más importante. En consecuencia, se describirán los tipos de apreciación del humor (Klein, 2003: 7; Orekoya et al., 2014, así como lo divertido, la fantasía y las emociones implicadas.

  8. Wound Healing Activity of Topical Application Forms Based on Ayurveda

    Hema Sharma Datta


    Full Text Available The traditional Indian medicine—Ayurveda, describes various herbs, fats, oils and minerals with anti-aging as well as wound healing properties. With aging, numerous changes occur in skin, including decrease in tissue cell regeneration, decrease in collagen content, loss of skin elasticity and mechanical strength. We prepared five topical anti-aging formulations using cow ghee, flax seed oil, Phyllanthus emblica fruits, Shorea robusta resin, Yashada bhasma as study materials. For preliminary efficacy evaluation of the anti-aging activity we chose excision and incision wound healing animal models and studied the parameters including wound contraction, collagen content and skin breaking strength which in turn is indicative of the tissue cell regeneration capacity, collagenation capacity and mechanical strength of skin. The group treated with the formulations containing Yashada bhasma along with Shorea robusta resin and flax seed oil showed significantly better wound contraction (P < .01, higher collagen content (P < .05 and better skin breaking strength (P < .01 as compared to control group; thus proposing them to be effective prospective anti-aging formulations.


    Radhika K Varma


    Full Text Available In Ayurvedic classical texts administration of potent psycho-physical rejuvenator formulations comes under Rasayana chikitsa which frees one of diseases, improves quality of life and delays senile degenerative changes. Eleven among the most commonly used anti-oxidant, adaptogenic potent, well established rejuvenator herbs viz., Hareetaki (Terminalia chebula Retz, Vibheetaki (Terminalia bellerica Roxb Amalaki (Emblica officinalis Linn, Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia Miers, Gokshura (Tribulus terrestris Linn, Yashtimadhu (Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn, Tulasi (Ocimum sanctum Linn., Haridra (Curcuma longa Linn, Daruharidra (Berberis aristata DC, Shunthi (Zingiber officinale Rosc, Punarnava (Boerhavia diffusa L were administered along with unequal quantity of ghee and honey as Anupana (vehicle to delay senile changes and reverse cataract formation in the eyes. For the first time the herbal compound in the powder form was subjected to Pharmacognstical evaluation, physico-chemical screening, phyto-chemical analysis and HPTLC studies. The presence of Scalariform vessels, Acicular crystals, Border pitted vessel, Starch grains were the characteristic features observed in the microscopy. The Phyto-chemical analysis indicated presence of alkaloids, tannins, saponins, flavonoids and glycosides.

  10. The influence of multicultural counseling competence and anti-Black prejudice on therapists' outcome expectancies.

    Katz, Andrew D; Hoyt, William T


    The broad goal of this study was to examine multiple potential predictors of anti-Black bias among counselors. Specifically, in an online survey of 173 trainees and professionals in mental health, this study used 3 measures related to cultural sensitivity as predictors of therapists' expectancies for bond and prognosis with African American clients compared with White clients. The Multicultural Counseling Inventory (MCI; Sodowsky, Taffe, Gutkin, & Wise, 1994) was used to measure global multicultural competence. The Implicit Association Test (IAT; Greenwald, McGhee, & Schwartz, 1998) served as a measure of automatic prejudice toward Blacks. Additionally, a new self-report measure of anti-Black clinical prejudice was created specifically for this study. The Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding (Paulhus, 1984) was included to control for socially desirable responding. Each predictor of cultural sensitivity uniquely explained variance in anti-Black bias in bond ratings, with the IAT accounting for more variance than the 2 self-reports. Our novel measure of clinical prejudice accounted for anti-Black bias in prognosis ratings, but the MCI and the IAT did not. Researchers studying cultural competence are encouraged to consider the roles of automatic and deliberate prejudice in determining disparities in clinical expectancies and cross-racial therapeutic alliances. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Measurement of spices and seasonings in India: opportunities for cancer epidemiology and prevention.

    Ferrucci, Leah M; Daniel, Carrie R; Kapur, Kavita; Chadha, Puneet; Shetty, Hemali; Graubard, Barry I; George, Preethi S; Osborne, Whitney; Yurgalevitch, Susan; Devasenapathy, Niveditha; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Gupta, Prakash C; Mathew, Aleyamma; Sinha, Rashmi


    Bioactive components of many foods added during cooking have potential antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antibacterial and chemopreventive properties. However, epidemiologic studies generally do not collect detailed information on these items, which include spices, chilies, coconuts, garlic, onions, and oils. Since India has some of the highest spice consumption in the world, we developed a computer-based food preparer questionnaire to estimate per capita consumption of 19 spices, chilies, coconuts, garlic, onions, and 13 cooking oils among 3,625 participants in the India Health Study, a multicenter pilot study in three regions of India. We observed notable regional differences in consumption of spices, chilies, coconut, garlic, and onions. In Trivandrum, over 95 percent of the participants consumed 12 different spices, while in New Delhi and Mumbai, 95 percent of participants consumed only four and five spices, respectively. Cooking oil use also varied, as ghee was most common in New Delhi (96.8%) followed by mustard seed oil (78.0%), while in Trivandrum the primary oil was coconut (88.5%) and in Mumbai it was peanut (68.5%). There was some variation in consumption by education, income, and religion. Using a novel method for assessing food items primarly added during cooking, we successfully estimated per capita consumption within an epidemiologic study. Based on basic science research and suggestive ecologic level data on cancer incidence and spice consumption, improving epidemiologic assessment of these potentially chemopreventive food items may enhance our understanding of diet and cancer risk.

  12. A study of anti-hyperlipidemia, hypolipedimic and anti-atherogenic activity of fruit of emblica officinalis (amla in high fat fed albino rats

    Jeevangi Santoshkumar, Manjunath S, Sakhare Pranavkumar M


    Full Text Available : Emblica Officinalis (Amla, belonging to the genus, Phyllanthus emblica is widely used for medicinal purpose. Its fruits have been used traditionally as a hypolipidemic. Objectives: The present study was aimed to evaluate hypolipedimic and anti-atherogenic activity of fruit of Emblica officinalis in high fat fed albino rats. Materials and Methods: For study of anti-hyperlipidemic, hypolipidemic, and anti-atherogenic activity. 5 groups of 6 animals in each received normal saline, E. Officinalis powder, high fat diet, High fat diet plus E. Officinalis powder both and Atorvastatin respectively for 8 weeks. Hyperlipidemia was induced by feeding animals with high fat diet per orally, consisting of coconut oil and vanaspati ghee, daily ad libitum. At the end of the study, blood samples of the animals were sent for the estimation of the lipid profile and effects of test drug studied by comparing levels of Total Cholesterol, Triglycerides, HDL, LDL, and Atherogenic index. The statistical significance between groups was analysed by using one way ANOVA, followed by Dunnet’s multiple comparison test. Results: Fruit of Amla showed significant anti-hyperlipidemic, hypolipidemic, and anti-atherogenic effect. All these effects may contribute to its anti-atherogenic activity. Conclusion: Present study revealed the antihyperlipidemic, hypolipidemic, and anti-atherogenic effect of Amla fruit powder and can be safely used in the treatment of mild to moderate cases of hyperlipidemia considering its easy availability, cost effectiveness, and other beneficial effects.

  13. Effect of purificatory measures through cow's urine and milk on strychnine and brucine content of Kupeelu (Strychnos nuxvomica Linn.) seeds.

    Mitra, Swarnendu; Shukla, V J; Acharya, Rabinarayan


    Strychnos nux vomica Linn.(Loganaceae) commonly known as Nux vomica (Kupeelu), is a poisonous plant and its seeds are used widely in Ayurvedic system of medicine since time immemorial. Ayurveda advocates that nux vomica seeds are to be administered in therapeutics only after going through certain purificatory measures (Shodhana). There are more than six media: cow's urine (Go mutra), cow's milk (Go dugdha), cow's ghee (Go ghrita), Kanji (thin gruel), castor oil (Eranda taila) and fresh ginger juice (Ardraka swarasa) etc., which have been reported in different classical texts of Ayurveda for proper processing of nux vomica seeds. In this study, an attempt has been made to purify the seeds by using three different methods as described in ancient treatise by using cow's urine and cow's milk as media alone and together. This study revealed that all the methods studied reduced the toxicity of strychnine and brucine contents in comparison to the raw seeds as determined by HPTLC. Out of these three methods maximum reduction in strychnine and brucine contents was found when the seeds were purified by keeping them in cow's urine for seven days followed by boiling in cow's milk for three hrs.

  14. Wound healing and antiinflammatory potential of madhu ghrita

    Charde M


    Full Text Available Madhu ghrita is a herbal formulation containing honey and ghee (clarified butterfat as its constituents. The aim of present study is to verify the wound healing and antiinflammatory claims of Madhu ghrita . Incision and excision wound models were used for evaluation of wound healing activity followed by histopathological study in which healing markers like keratinization, epithelization, fibrosis, neovascularisation and collagenation were evaluated in male Wistar rats. The results of Madhu ghrita were compared with the results of untreated control group and results of framycetine sulphate cream, considered as a positive control. The formulation was also tested for antiinflammatory activity, using carrageenan-induced paw oedema in male Wistar rats. The test formulation Madhu ghrita enhanced the tensile strength, which significantly improved over untreated wounds. The tensile strength of untreated control wound was 281±5.82, while with the Madhu ghrita and framycetine sulphate cream 1% w/w, it was 328±8.9 and 398±6.32, respectively. Treatment with Madhu ghrita alone promoted wound contraction and reduced the wound closure time, so increase in tensile strength and wound contraction shows the wound healing potential of Madhu ghrita . Histopathological study shows that proliferation of epithelial tissue promotes angiogenesis, multiplication of fibrous connective tissue due to treatment with Madhu ghrita . The test formulation Madhu ghrita also shows significant antiinflammatory activity when the results are compared with the activity of ibuprofen gel as reference standard. The present study demonstrates the wound healing and antiinflammatory potential of Madhu ghrita .

  15. Implicit identification with drug and alcohol use predicts retention in residential rehabilitation programs.

    Wolff, Nathan; von Hippel, Courtney; Brener, Loren; von Hippel, William


    Research has identified numerous factors associated with successful treatment in alcohol and drug rehabilitation programs, yet treatment completion rates are often low and subsequent relapse rates very high. We propose that people's implicit identification with drugs and alcohol may be an additional factor that impacts their ability to complete abstinence-based rehabilitation programs. In the current research, we measured implicit identification with drugs and alcohol using the Implicit Association Test (Greenwald, McGhee, & Schwartz, 1998) among 137 members of a residential rehabilitation program for drugs and alcohol (104 men; mean age = 35 years old, 47 of whom were court-ordered to attend). Implicit identification with drugs and alcohol was measured within 1 week of arrival and again 3 weeks later, prior to the onset of the treatment phase of the program. Duration in rehabilitation was assessed 1 year later. Consistent with predictions, implicit identification with drugs and alcohol predicted the duration that people remained in residential rehabilitation even though a self-report measure of identification with drugs and alcohol did not. These results suggest that implicit identification with drugs and alcohol might be an important predictor of treatment outcomes, even among those with serious problems with drug and alcohol use. (PsycINFO Database Record

  16. Ethnobotany of medicinal plants used by Assamese people for various skin ailments and cosmetics.

    Saikia, Abinash Pratim; Ryakala, Venkat Kishore; Sharma, Pragya; Goswami, Pranab; Bora, Utpal


    The present paper deals with the medicinal plants used by the people of Assam for curing different skin ailments and for cosmetics. A total of 85 plants belonging to 49 families have been documented for their therapeutic use against skin diseases and as herbal care. The herbal medicines were prepared from various plant parts of single plant, or multiple plants. The majority of the preparation was made using water as the medium. The mode of application was topical, but in many cases it was also administered orally. In several cases the pure herbal preparations was administered along with milk, ghee, honey, coconut oil, curd, etc. Remedies for 18 skin ailments were documented through this study. About 14 plants are known for their use to cure multiple skin diseases. Among these Curcuma longa and Melia azaderach constitute the major plants. The herbal cosmetic products used by the people of Assam ranges from the enhancement of skin colour, hair care, removal of ugly spots, colouring of nails, palms, and teeth. However, many of the plant preparations used for enhancing beauty were also applied for therapeutic use. Herbal remedies were also available for skin burns, prickly heat and pimples. Information on nine plants used for managing dry skin also emerged from this study.

  17. Effect of Shodhana (processing) on Kupeelu (Strychnos nux-vomica Linn.) with special reference to strychnine and brucine content.

    Mitra, Swarnendu; Shukla, V J; Acharya, Rabinarayan


    Kupeelu (Strychnos nux-vomica Linn.) commonly known as nux vomica is a poisonous plant used extensively in various ayurvedic formulations, with great therapeutic significance. Ayurveda recommended the administration of Kupeelu only after purification in different media like cow's urine (Go mutra), cow's milk (Go dugdha), cow's ghee (Go ghrita), Kanji (sour gruel), and so on. Apart from the classical methods some other methods are also adopted by the traditional practitioners using castor oil (Eranda taila), ginger juice (Ardraka swarasa), in the purification of Kupeelu seeds. In the present study an attempt has been made to purify the seeds by performing two different methods (one classical and another traditional) using Kanji and Ardrakaswarasa as Shodhana media. This study reveals that both the methods studied reduce the strychnine and brucine contents in comparison to the raw seeds as determined by high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC). After purification in Kanji and Ardraka swarasa, the strychnine content was reduced by 39.25% and 67.82%, respectively, and the brucine content in the purified seeds was also found to have decreased by 17.60% and 40.06%, in comparison to the raw seeds.

  18. A second order radiative transfer equation and its solution by meshless method with application to strongly inhomogeneous media

    Zhao, J. M.; Tan, J. Y.; Liu, L. H.


    A new second order form of radiative transfer equation (named MSORTE) is proposed, which overcomes the singularity problem of a previously proposed second order radiative transfer equation [J.E. Morel, B.T. Adams, T. Noh, J.M. McGhee, T.M. Evans, T.J. Urbatsch, Spatial discretizations for self-adjoint forms of the radiative transfer equations, J. Comput. Phys. 214 (1) (2006) 12-40 (where it was termed SAAI), J.M. Zhao, L.H. Liu, Second order radiative transfer equation and its properties of numerical solution using finite element method, Numer. Heat Transfer B 51 (2007) 391-409] in dealing with inhomogeneous media where some locations have very small/zero extinction coefficient. The MSORTE contains a naturally introduced diffusion (or second order) term which provides better numerical property than the classic first order radiative transfer equation (RTE). The stability and convergence characteristics of the MSORTE discretized by central difference scheme is analyzed theoretically, and the better numerical stability of the second order form radiative transfer equations than the RTE when discretized by the central difference type method is proved. A collocation meshless method is developed based on the MSORTE to solve radiative transfer in inhomogeneous media. Several critical test cases are taken to verify the performance of the presented method. The collocation meshless method based on the MSORTE is demonstrated to be capable of stably and accurately solve radiative transfer in strongly inhomogeneous media, media with void region and even with discontinuous extinction coefficient.

  19. Characterization of some Indian Himalayan Capsicums through floral morphology and EMA-based chromosome analysis.

    Jha, Timir Baran; Saha, Partha Sarathi


    The North Eastern Himalayan (NEH) regions of India are considered as one of the major repositories of the "Capsicum annuum complex" which comprises of three cultivated species namely C. annuum, C. frutescens, and C. chinense. The interspecific delimitation within this large complex is ill-defined due to poorly developed crossing barriers and lack of discontinuous morphological characters. The present study elucidates the relationship among nine different cultivars of three Capsicum species on the basis of floral morphology and karyological parameters for the first time. Different floral characteristics such as margins and constrictions of calyx, type of pedicel, flower size, and color were found to have paramount importance in the species delimitation within the studied members of "C. annuum complex." The present karyomorphometric study explicitly revealed differences between the observed chromosomal data such as karyotype formulae, ordering of satellite bearing chromosome pairs and total diploid chromatin length which aid in resolving interspecific relationship among the studied cultivars of Capsicum. The present analyses unambiguously distinguished all cultivars of C. annuum from the members of C. frutescens and C. chinense and also proposed that among the five cultivars of C. annuum, Ghee lanka was comparatively distant from the other four cultivars on the basis of their karyomorphological characteristics. For the first time karyotype of hottest Indian chili is included in this paper. Comprehensive knowledge on floral morphology and karyotypes of some Himalayan Capsicums not only help to conserve genetic diversity but also help capsicum breeders for their basic and applied research.

  20. Is sensitivity to reward associated with the malleability of implicit inclinations toward high-fat food?

    Ashby, Casey R; Stritzke, Werner G K


    Two experiments examined the effect of positive and negative priming on implicit approach and avoidance inclinations toward high-fat food stimuli in participants high or low in reward sensitivity, using personalized unipolar variants of the Implicit Association Test (IAT; A. G. Greenwald, D. E. McGhee, & J. L. K. Schwartz, 1998, "Measuring individual differences in implicit cognition: The Implicit Association Test," Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 74, pp. 1464-1480). Participants high in reward sensitivity showed an automatic processing bias that is characterized by a dual vulnerability of being particularly susceptible to priming of the rewarding aspects of high-fat foods, while being unaffected by priming of the negative aspects of those foods. In contrast, participants low in reward sensitivity generally showed no facilitation of implicit-approach inclinations following positive priming, but consistently showed facilitation of implicit-avoidance inclinations following negative priming. These results are consistent with the revised reinforcement sensitivity theory ( J. A. Gray & N. McNaughton, 2000, The neuropsychology of anxiety: An enquiry into the functions of the septo-hippocampal system, 2nd ed., New York, NY, Oxford University Press.) and suggest that the systems mediating reward sensitivity and punishment sensitivity are not orthogonal, as predicted by the separable subsystems hypothesis, but can be interdependent, as predicted by the joint subsystems hypothesis.

  1. The meaning of beauty: implicit and explicit self-esteem and attractiveness beliefs in body dysmorphic disorder.

    Buhlmann, Ulrike; Teachman, Bethany A; Naumann, Eva; Fehlinger, Tobias; Rief, Winfried


    Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is characterized by imagined or slight defects in one's appearance. We evaluated implicit and explicit biases among individuals diagnosed with BDD (n=21), individuals with subclinical BDD symptoms (n=21), and healthy control participants (n=21). Specifically, we used the Implicit Association Test [IAT; Greenwald, A. G., McGhee, D. E., & Schwartz, J. L. K. (1998). Measuring individual differences in implicit cognition: the implicit association test. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 1464-1480] to examine automatic associations related to self-esteem, associations between attractive and important, and a physical attractiveness stereotype (associations between attractive and competent). BDD participants had significantly lower implicit self-esteem, relative to control participants, and the subclinical BDD participants were intermediate between these groups. Although no group differences were observed on the implicit Attractive Important IAT; as predicted, BDD participants had significantly stronger implicit associations between attractive and competent than the other groups, in line with a common stereotype about physical attractiveness. Both the Attractive Competent IAT and Self-Esteem IAT were significant predictors of BDD symptom severity, and distress and avoidance during a mirror exposure task. Findings are discussed in light of cognitive-behavioral models of BDD.

  2. Application of ethnic food composition data for understanding the diet and nutrition of South Asians in the UK.

    Khokhar, Santosh; Ashkanani, Fatemah; Garduño-Diaz, Sara D; Husain, Wafaa


    Lack of food composition data, recipe information and portion sizes for ethnic foods are commonly reported problems for dietary assessment of ethnic minority groups. One of the main aims of this study was to use food composition data to validate portion sizes, identify important sources of nutrients and describe the characteristics of the South Asian diet. The top five ethnic foods containing highest levels of selected nutrients were lamb balti (3mg/100g iron), lamb kebab (3.2mg/100g zinc), mixed dhal (62μg/100g folate), fish curry (1.4μg/100g vitamin D), ghee (968μg/100g retinol) and toor dhal (9.1g/100g dietary fibre). Typical adult South Asian diets included traditional cereals (chapatti, rice and paratha) and low consumption of meat dishes; with vegetable curries contributing most towards energy intake. A higher consumption of full fat milk and fruit juices by toddlers and school children were observed when compared with the National Diet and Nutrition Survey of the UK.

  3. Synthesis, physicochemical studies, embryos toxicity and DNA interaction of some new Iron(II) Schiff base amino acid complexes

    Abdel-Rahman, Laila H.; El-Khatib, Rafat M.; Nassr, Lobna A. E.; Abu-Dief, Ahmed M.


    New Fe(II) Schiff base amino acid complexes derived from the condensation of o-hydroxynaphthaldehyde with L-alanine, L-phenylalanine, L-aspartic acid, L-histidine and L-arginine were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, electronic spectra, and conductance measurements. The stoichiometry and the stability constants of the complexes were determined spectrophotometrically. The investigated Schiff bases exhibited tridentate coordination mode with the general formulae [Fe(HL)2]·nH2O for all amino acids except L-histidine. But in case of L-histidine, the ligand acts as tetradentate ([FeL(H2O)2]·2H2O), where HL = mono anion and L = dianion of the ligand. The structure of the prepared complexes is suggested to be octahedral. The prepared complexes were tested for their toxicity on chick embryos and found to be safe until a concentration of 100 μg/egg with full embryos formation. The interaction between CT-DNA and the investigated complexes were followed by spectrophotometry and viscosity measurements. It was found that, the prepared complexes bind to DNA via classical intercalative mode and showed a different DNA cleavage activity with the sequence: nhi > nari > nali > nasi > nphali. The thermodynamic Profile of the binding of nphali complex and CT-DNA was constructed by analyzing the experimental data of absorption titration and UV melting studies with the McGhee equation, van't Hoff's equation, and the Gibbs-Helmholtz equation.

  4. Removal of Organic Based Oil and Grease from Food Service Facility Effluent Using a Laterite Column

    H. Ajith Hebbar


    Full Text Available The effluents from food service facilities like restaurants, hostels and cafeteria typically contain floating cooked oil, ghee, and other fatty materials which are of organic in origin. Conventionally, before allowing this effluent to treatment plant or sewer, grease traps and skimming devices are used to separate these floating organic matters. If these are not effectively separated, these may clog sewers or interfere with biological treatment system. But these conventional methods need frequent maintenance and may not be cost effective. Alternatively, in this experimental work, an attempt was made to remove floating oil and grease using adsorption by passing the wastewater through a Laterite grain column. A real scale study unit was set up at the effluent point of a restaurant. The Various parameters like height of the column, grain size, and flow rate were monitored during the experiment. The results showed that the oil and grease could be removed up to an extent of 97.6% proving that Laterite has good adsorption potential.

  5. Taxonomical outlines of bio–diversity of Karnataka in a 14th century Kannada toxicology text Khagendra Mani Darpana

    Sathyanarayana Bhat


    Full Text Available Origin of ancient Indian toxicology can be dated back to vedic literature. Toxins of both animate and inanimate world were very well understood during the era. Rig and Atharva vedic texts describe such details. After classifying such toxins, Charaka Samhitha, thebasic literature of Indian Medicine used gold and ghee as panaceas to counter act them. Ayurveda considers toxicology as one among the eight specialized branches of medical wisdom. Unfortunately, the available literature on this is very limited. Moreover, they have been discussed briefly in Charaka and Sushrutha Samhitha. Mangarasa I, a Jain scholar who lived on the foothills of the Western Ghats, in Southern India in 1350 A.D., felt this vacuum and composed an independent, elaborate Kannada text on toxicology. His less known text Khagendra Mani Darpana (KMD is the first ever documented complete text on toxicology in the world. Medieval Indian wisdom on plant and animal diversities are very well reflected in this unique toxicological text. Centuries past to Linnean era, KMD gives vivid descriptions on zoological and botanical diversities of the time. This astonishing fact is an evidence of our ancestor's curiosities about the nature around them. A critical overview of the bio-diversity described in KMD text is discussed in this paper.

  6. Anuvasan Basti in escalating dose is an alternative for Snehapana before Vamana and Virechana: Trends from a pilot study

    Priyadarshani Arvind Kadus


    Full Text Available Oral administration of medicated fats (oil or ghee is termed as Snehapana. It is an essential step before Vamana (therapeutic emesis and Virechana (therapeutic purgation. Ayurveda physicians often experience a poor compliance in 10-15% patients for oral administration of medicated fats especially in escalating doses. Incomplete Snehapana sometimes creates a problem for a physician to prepare the patient for these processes. These inconveniences made us think about effective alternatives to counter drawbacks and improve acceptance of Snehapana. The present study was planned to assess the efficacy of Anuvasana Basti (oil enema in escalating doses as an alternative for Snehapana. Anuvasana Basti of medicated sesame oil with rock salt was administered in 10 patients for three to seven days till they showed signs and symptoms of complete Snehana. The symptoms of Snehana like semisolid or loose stools, feeling exhausted without much exertion, lightness of body and oiliness of skin were observed. Though the Snehana symptoms varied in intensity, they were similar as they are produced after oral administration of fats. This trend suggests Anuvasana Basti in escalating dose is an alternative for Snehapana before administration of Shodhana therapy like Vamana or Virechana.

  7. Economic Importance of Camel: A Unique Alternative under Crisis

    S. Ahmad*, M. Yaqoob, N. Hashmi1, S. Ahmad2, M. A. Zaman3 and M. Tariq


    Full Text Available Increasing human population in the world has arisen the issue of food security. In order to combat with this issue, there is need to explore a new world of resources. Camel can serve the best useful addition to the food supply chain in terms of milk, meat and other products. Dromedary camel is found in Pakistan and its population is highest in Baluchistan (41%. In Pakistan, there are 21 breeds of camel. The main two types are riverine and mountainous. Camels are of vital socio-economic importance in the country as people use it for drawing water from wells, ploughing and leveling land, working mini-mills for oil extraction, grinding wheat, corn and other grains and for crushing sugarcane, and pulling carts for the transportation of goods as well as people. Well-fed camel can yield 10-15L milk per day. Camel milk can also be used for making yogurt, kurth, butter, ghee, rabbri and khoa. Meat, hides and hair are useful by-products of camel. Camel farming will be beneficial for farmers when proper marketing infrastructure is established. Also, standard procedures for the classification and identification of camel breeds for different purposes need more attention. Camel ranching schemes and collaborative research approach are need of the hour. These measures can lead us to utilize this novel animal as a natural resource for coping food demand of ever increasing population.

  8. 3种藏药乙醇提取物对食用油脂抗氧化性的研究%Antioxidant effects on oils and fats of ethanol extracts of three kinds of Tebitan herbal medicines



    Ethanol extracts of three kinds of Tebitan herbal medicines including Descurainia sophia(L. ) , Hedyasrum multijugum Maxim, and Stellaria media(L. ) Cyrill were added into rapeseed oil, ghee, lard, peanut oil and soybean oil, and Vc was used as reference substance, and then the POV of the edible oils and fats were determined to study the antioxidant activities of three kinds of ethanol extracts. The result showed that ethanol extracts of three kinds of Tebitan herbal medicines had definite antioxidant effects on five kinds of edible oils and fats.%在日常食用的菜籽油、酥油、猪油、花生油、大豆油中添加播娘蒿、红花岩黄芪和繁缕3种藏药的乙醇提取物,以Vc为对照,测定不同时期油脂的过氧化值,以研究3种藏药乙醇提取物对食用油脂的抗氧化作用.结果表明,3种藏药的乙醇提取物均有一定的抗氧化作用.

  9. Implicit associations in cybersex addiction: Adaption of an Implicit Association Test with pornographic pictures.

    Snagowski, Jan; Wegmann, Elisa; Pekal, Jaro; Laier, Christian; Brand, Matthias


    Recent studies show similarities between cybersex addiction and substance dependencies and argue to classify cybersex addiction as a behavioral addiction. In substance dependency, implicit associations are known to play a crucial role, and such implicit associations have not been studied in cybersex addiction, so far. In this experimental study, 128 heterosexual male participants completed an Implicit Association Test (IAT; Greenwald, McGhee, & Schwartz, 1998) modified with pornographic pictures. Further, problematic sexual behavior, sensitivity towards sexual excitation, tendencies towards cybersex addiction, and subjective craving due to watching pornographic pictures were assessed. Results show positive relationships between implicit associations of pornographic pictures with positive emotions and tendencies towards cybersex addiction, problematic sexual behavior, sensitivity towards sexual excitation as well as subjective craving. Moreover, a moderated regression analysis revealed that individuals who reported high subjective craving and showed positive implicit associations of pornographic pictures with positive emotions, particularly tended towards cybersex addiction. The findings suggest a potential role of positive implicit associations with pornographic pictures in the development and maintenance of cybersex addiction. Moreover, the results of the current study are comparable to findings from substance dependency research and emphasize analogies between cybersex addiction and substance dependencies or other behavioral addictions. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Randomised placebo controlled study on Sarasvata choorna in generalised anxiety disorder

    Kshama Gupta


    Full Text Available Background: Generalised anxiety disorder (GAD is characterised by a pattern of frequent, persistent worry and anxiety, which is out of proportion to the impact of the event or circumstance that is the focus of the worry. GAD is associated with muscle tension, trembling, twitching, feeling shaky and muscle aches or soreness. Many individuals with GAD also experience somatic symptoms like sweating, nausea and diarrhoea. Epidemiological studies reveal that the prevalence rate of GAD in India is 5.8%. Objective: The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of Sarasvata choorna in the management of GAD. Materials and Methods: In this study, a total of 114 patients with GAD satisfying the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders - Text Revision (DSM IV - TR diagnostic criteria were selected and randomly divided; of these, 102 patients completed the course of treatment. In trial group, Sarasvata choorna and in control group, placebo (wheat powder was given with the dose of 1 g thrice a day (i.e. 3 g/day along with madhu (honey and ghrita (cow′s ghee orally for 60 days. Fifteen days of follow up period was kept after treatment. Two assessments were done before and after treatment. Criterion of assessment was based on the scoring of Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A. Paired and unpaired ′t′- test was used for statistical analysis. Results and Conclusion: In trial group (n = 51, 51.1% improvement and in control group (n = 51, 47.67% of improvement was observed with the significance of (P 0.05 was found in between the two groups. Sarasvata choorna did not provide better relief compared with placebo.

  11. The impact of explicit and implicit power motivation on educational choices

    Maliszewski Norbert


    Full Text Available The aim of three studies was to examine the differences between business majors and non-business majors, in their level of implicit (measured by an Implicit Association Test [IAT], Greenwald, McGhee, & Schwarz, 1998 and explicit power motivation (measured by Power Motivation and Helping Power Motivation scales, Frieze & Boneva, 2001.It was predicted that there are no differences between these two groups in the general (implicit level of power motivation, but that differences exist in the way it is explicitly expressed: through desire for leadership and prominence vs. desire for helping. Results of Study 1 indicated that business majors (management, N=79 declared a higher leadership motive and a lower helping motive than non-business majors (history, psychology, linguistics, N=62.Study 2 addressed question whether the above differences in power motivation stem from socialization at the university level or from pre-selection. The relationship between high school students’ (N=134 academic major preferences and their power motivation was tested. It was found that the more they were business-oriented, the higher their scores were on leadership, and lower on helping scales. In Study 3, business majors (economics, N=75 and non-business majors (psychology, N=82 completed the same questionnaire as participants in previous studies, as well as performed the IAT. Non-business majors declared stronger explicit helping motive, while business majors expressed stronger prominence and leadership motives. Furthermore, for non-business majors, IAT results could be predicted by their helping score. Implications and possible limitations of the presented results are discussed.

  12. Modulation of acridine mutagen ICR191 intercalation to DNA by methylxanthines--analysis with mathematical models.

    Gołuński, Grzegorz; Woziwodzka, Anna; Iermak, Ievgeniia; Rychłowski, Michał; Piosik, Jacek


    Caffeine (CAF) and other methylxanthines (MTX) may interact directly with several aromatic, intercalating ligands through mixed stacking aggregation. Formation of such stacking hetero-complexes may decrease their free form concentration and, in consequence, diminish their biological activity, which is often related to their direct interaction with DNA. In this paper interactions of acridine mutagen (ICR191) with DNA in the presence of three MTX: caffeine (CAF), pentoxifylline (PTX) and theophylline (TH) are investigated. Several mathematical models are used to calculate all association constant values and every component concentration in each analyzed mixture. Model McGhee-von Hippel is used to analyze ligand-DNA interaction, and model Zdunek et al.--to analyze ligand-MTX interactions. Finally, two distinct mathematical models are employed to analyze three-component mixture containing ligand, MTX and DNA molecules. The first model describes possible interactions of ligand with DNA and MTX, and rejects direct MTX interactions with DNA. The second model describes all interactions mentioned above and, additionally, allows MTX to interact directly with DNA. Results obtained using these models are similar. However, correspondence of theoretical results to experimental data is better for the first model than the second one. In this paper possible interactions of ICR191 with eukaryotic cell chromatin are also analyzed, showing that CAF reduces acridine mutagen potential to interact directly with cell chromatin. Additionally, it is demonstrated that MTX inhibit mutagenic activity of ICR191 in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, biological activity of ICR191-MTX mixtures corresponds with concentration of free mutagen form calculated using appropriate mathematical model.

  13. Technological suitability of sheep milk for processing

    Romualda Danków


    Full Text Available Annual world sheep milk production is estimated at the level of 8.2 million tons and constitutes 1.5% of the total milk production obtained from various species of mammals. Majority of this milk is used to manufacture cheeses and fermented beverages. These products are commonly considered as regional articles and are protected by legal regulations which guarantee their taste and aroma typical for a given region and which they owe to traditional production technologies. In Poland, sheep are reared, primarily, in mountainous areas (Podhale, Bieszczady but also in Wielkopolska and Podlasie. The sheep population in Poland is estimated at 223 000 animals but milk is obtained only from a small number of animals and its annual production is assessed at the level of 1000 t. The nutritional value of sheep milk is higher in comparison with goat or cow milk. Sheep milk protein is characterised by a high biological value comparable with the biological value of the whole chicken egg. In addition, products manufactured from sheep milk possess high nutritive value. Due to its rich chemical composition, sheep milk provides an excellent raw material for processing into maturing soft and hard cheeses (75-80% of protein is casein, for fermented beverages, both natural and with different tastes, as well as butter, ghee and ice-cream. High proportion of dry matter (up to 18% found in sheep milk does not require application of any thickeners in production of fermented beverages. That is why these beverages are fully natural and free of additives.

  14. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinally important wild edible fruits species used by tribal communities of Lesser Himalayas-Pakistan.

    Abbasi, Arshad Mehmood; Khan, Mir Ajab; Khan, Nadeem; Shah, Munir H


    Present survey was conducted to explore ethnomedicinal uses and cultural importance of wild edible fruits species by the inhabitants of Lesser Himalayas-Pakistan. Information was obtained through informed consent semi-structured interviews, questionnaires, market survey, focus group conversation, unceremonious dialogue and village walks with key informants. Cultural significance of each species was calculated based on use report by participants at each study site. A total of 35 wild edible fruits belonging to 21 genera and 17 families were used for the treatment of various ailments and consumed. Rosaceae was found dominating family with (8 spp.), followed by Moraceae (6 spp.), Rhamnaceae (5 spp.), Palmae and Vitaceae (2 spp. each) and remaining families were represented by one species each. Fruits (48%) were found highly utilized plant parts, followed by leaves (34%), bark, flowers and seeds (4% each), branches, latex and roots (2% each). Water was used as a medium for preparation while milk, ghee, oil, egg and butter are used for application. Modes of preparation were fall into seven categories like fresh parts eaten raw (38%), powder (24%), decoction (20%), extract (12 %), paste (4%), juice and latex (2% each). Based on cultural important index (CI) Morus nigra was found most significant species within top ten fruit plants followed by Morus alba, Olea ferruginea, Berberis lycium, Pyrus pashia, Ficus carica, Ficus palmata, Ziziphus mauritiana, Diospyros lotus and Ziziphus nummularia. Traditional uses of wild edible plant depend mainly on socio-economic factors rather than climatic conditions or wealth of flora. Use reports and citation demonstrated that there is a common cultural heritage regarding the gathered food plants. Further investigation is required for Antioxidant study, essential and toxic components, pharmacological applications; dietary requirements and biotechnological techniques to improve yields. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights

  15. Cognitive-motivational determinants of fat food consumption in overweight and obese youngsters: the implicit association between fat food and arousal.

    Craeynest, Mietje; Crombez, Geert; Koster, Ernst H W; Haerens, Leen; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse


    Cognitive-motivational accounts of fat food intake propose an association between fat food and action dispositions, which are according to the biphasic emotion theory of Lang [(1995). The emotion probe. Studies of motivation and attention. American Psychologist, 50, 372-385; Lang, P.J., Bradley, M.M., & Cuthbert, M.M. (1997). Motivated attention: Affect, activation and action. In P.J. Lang, R.F. Simons & M.T. Balaban (Eds.). Attention and orienting: Sensory and motivational processes (pp. 97-134). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.] characterized by high levels of arousal. In two experiments, this association was investigated in lean and overweight youngsters. In the first experiment, 29 overweight and 29 lean youngsters conducted two Implicit Association Tasks (IAT; Greenwald, A.G., McGhee, D.E., & Schwartz, J.L. (1998). Measuring individual differences in implicit cognition: The implicit association test. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 1464-1480.). In a positive arousal IAT, implicit associations between fat vs. lean food, and high and low arousal words with a positive valence were assessed. In a negative arousal IAT, high and low arousal words with a negative valence were used. A second experiment was conducted to replicate Experiment 1 in 29 youngsters with severe obesity and 29 lean peers. The results revealed strong implicit associations between fat food and arousal in both the overweight and the control group. No differences were found between the groups, nor between the positive and the negative arousal task. These results are related to cognitive-motivational theories of fat food intake.

  16. Effect of Bougainvillea spectabilis Leaves on Serum Lipids in Albino Rats Fed with High Fat Diet

    H. Saikia


    Full Text Available Dyslipidemia is major problem among population those have sedentary life style as well as in diabetics. Bougainvillea spectabilis is most commonly found in India as an ornamental plant and has got anti-diabetic action due to presence of one insulin mimicking agent D-pinitol (3-O-methyl-chiroinositol. The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate the effect of alcoholic extract of leaves of Bougainvillea spectabilis (AEBSL on serum lipid profile in albino rats fed with high fat diet (HFD and to compare it with a standard hypolipidaemic drug simvastatin. Thirty healthy albino rats of both sexes (100-200 g were randomized into 5 groups of 6 animals each. The groups were treated as follows: Group A: normal diet (ND; Group B: HFD (vanaspati ghee + coconut oil mixture in ratio of 3:2 at 10 ml/kg/day; Group C: HFD+ AEBSL (100 mg/kg/day; Group D: HFD + AEBSL (200 mg/kg/day; Group E: HFD + simvastatin (1.8 mg/kg/day. Lipid profile was estimated after 8 weeks of treatment. AEBSL showed a significant (p<0.01 reduction in total cholesterol (TC, Triglyceride (TG, Low density lipoprotein (LDL, Very low density lipoprotein (VLDL levels and significant (p<0.01 increase in high density lipoproteins (HDL in hypercholesteromic rats (Group C and Group D. AEBSL 200 mg/kg/day found to be more effective than AEBSL 100 mg/kg/day. There is also significant improvement in atherogenic index (p<0.01 and increases the percentage of protection AEBSL treated animals. Alcoholic extract of leaves of Bougainvillea spectabilis leaves have excellent lipid lowering potentiality.

  17. Protective effect of Yashtimadhu (Glycyrrhiza glabra) against side effects of radiation/chemotherapy in head and neck malignancies.

    Das, Debabrata; Agarwal, S K; Chandola, H M


    One of the very common side effects of Radiation/Chemotherapy especially of the head and neck malignancies is mucositis. Cancer therapy or the cancer itself may cause changes in the body chemistry that results in loss of appetite, pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and very common mucositis which makes eating difficult. Loss of appetite is followed by an undesirable loss of weight due to insufficient amount of calories every day which can lead to loss of muscle mass and strength and other complications by causing interruptions of medical therapy, impeding effective cancer therapy. Mucositis cause decreased immunity and quality of life as well as poor tolerance to surgery and altered efficacy of Chemotherapy and Radiotherapy. The present study is designed with the objective to minimize the radiation induced mucositis, skin reaction, xerostomia, change in voice etc. with an Ayurvedic preparation Yashtimadhu Ghrita (processed ghee). Total 75 patients were randomly divided into four groups and drugs were administered: Group A with local application of Yashtimadhu powder and honey in the oral cavity for few minutes prior to radiotherapy along with oral intake of Yashtimadhu Ghrita; Group B with only local application of the Yashtimadhu powder and honey in the oral cavity; Group C patients administered with only local application of honey in the oral cavity; Group D on conventional modern medication controlled group. All these patients under four groups had received Radiotherapy and Chemotherapy for maximum duration of 7 weeks. Mucositis and Skin reactions were observed in 100% of patients with varying degree. The intensity of Radiation and Chemotherapy induced mucositis was reduced to a great extent by the trial drug. Yashtimadhu (Glycyrrhiza glabra) can be used effectively in prevention and treatment of oral mucositis post radiation and chemotheraphy in patients of cancer, especially of the head and neck region. It proves beneficial in two ways: (i) there were no

  18. Differential diagnosis of the honey bee trypanosomatids Crithidia mellificae and Lotmaria passim.

    Ravoet, Jorgen; Schwarz, Ryan S; Descamps, Tine; Yañez, Orlando; Tozkar, Cansu Ozge; Martin-Hernandez, Raquel; Bartolomé, Carolina; De Smet, Lina; Higes, Mariano; Wenseleers, Tom; Schmid-Hempel, Regula; Neumann, Peter; Kadowaki, Tatsuhiko; Evans, Jay D; de Graaf, Dirk C


    Trypanosomatids infecting honey bees have been poorly studied with molecular methods until recently. After the description of Crithidia mellificae (Langridge and McGhee, 1967) it took about forty years until molecular data for honey bee trypanosomatids became available and were used to identify and describe a new trypanosomatid species from honey bees, Lotmaria passim (Evans and Schwarz, 2014). However, an easy method to distinguish them without sequencing is not yet available. Research on the related bumble bee parasites Crithidia bombi and Crithidia expoeki revealed a fragment length polymorphism in the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1), which enabled species discrimination. In search of fragment length polymorphisms for differential diagnostics in honey bee trypanosomatids, we studied honey bee trypanosomatid cell cultures of C. mellificae and L. passim. This research resulted in the identification of fragment length polymorphisms in ITS1 and ITS1-2 markers, which enabled us to develop a diagnostic method to differentiate both honey bee trypanosomatid species without the need for sequencing. However, the amplification success of the ITS1 marker depends probably on the trypanosomatid infection level. Further investigation confirmed that L. passim is the dominant species in Belgium, Japan and Switzerland. We found C. mellificae only rarely in Belgian honey bee samples, but not in honey bee samples from other countries. C. mellificae was also detected in mason bees (Osmia bicornis and Osmia cornuta) besides in honey bees. Further, the characterization and comparison of additional markers from L. passim strain SF (published as C. mellificae strain SF) and a Belgian honey bee sample revealed very low divergence in the 18S rRNA, ITS1-2, 28S rRNA and cytochrome b sequences. Nevertheless, a variable stretch was observed in the gp63 virulence factor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The use of medicinal plants in the trans-himalayan arid zone of Mustang district, Nepal

    Chaudhary Ram P


    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study documents the use of medicinal plants from the Mustang district of the north-central part of Nepal. Traditional botanical medicine is the primary mode of healthcare for most of the population of this district and traditional Tibetan doctors (Amchi serve as the local medical experts. Methods Field research was conducted in 27 communities of the Mustang district in Nepal from 2005-2007. We sampled 202 interviewees, using random and snowball sampling techniques. After obtaining prior informed consent, we collected data through semi-structured interviews and participant-observation techniques. Voucher specimens of all cited botanic species were deposited at TUCH in Nepal. Results We recorded the traditional uses of 121 medicinal plant species, belonging to 49 vascular plant and 2 fungal families encompassing 92 genera. These 121 species are employed to treat a total of 116 ailments. We present data on 58 plant species previously unknown for their medicinal uses in the Mustang district. Of the medicinal plants reported, the most common growth form was herbs (73% followed by shrubs, trees, and climbers. We document that several parts of individual plant species are used as medicine. Plant parts were generally prepared using hot or cold water as the 'solvent', but occasionally remedies were prepared with milk, honey, jaggery, ghee and oil. Amchis recommended different types of medicine including paste, powder, decoction, tablet, pills, infusion, and others through oral, topical, nasal and others routes of administration. Conclusions The traditional pharmacopoeia of the Mustang district incorporates a myriad of diverse botanical flora. Traditional knowledge of the remedies is passed down through oral traditions and dedicated apprenticeships under the tutelage of senior Amchi. Although medicinal plants still play a pivotal role in the primary healthcare of the local people of Mustang, efforts to ensure the conservation and

  20. Effect of detoxification (tadbeer in content of toxic metabolites of Strychnos nux-vomica: A Unani approach for its use in human

    Noman Anwar


    Full Text Available Background: Azaraqi (Strychnos nux-vomica, Loganiaceae has been the important Unani medicine since long time as a stimulant, anti-inflammatory, and blood purifier. It has been used very frequently by the Unani practitioner. But the Unani system recommends application of azaraqi in medicine only after its detoxification (tadbeer may be because of the presence of its deadly poisonous alkaloids (strychnine and brucine. In the present investigation, an attempt has been made to quantify the actual content of their toxic alkaloids before and after the tadbeer. Materials and Methods: A sensitive high-performance thin layer chromatographic (HPTLC method has been developed for estimation of strychnine and brucine in different samples of azaraqi before and after tadbeer. Precoated HPTLC silica gel plates were used as stationary phase and (toluene: Ethyl acetate: Dietylamine 7:2:1 v/v/v was used as mobile phase. Result: The Rfvalue of strychnine and brucine was found as 0.53 and 0.41, respectively. Detection and quantification were performed by densitometry at 270 nm. The calibration plot was linear in the range of 50–1000 ng of strychnine and brucine, respectively, with the correlation coefficient (r2 0.993 and 0.991 for strychnine and brucine, respectively, which confirms good linearity. The content of strychnine was 0.175, 0.07, 0.18, 0.051, and 0.075% w/w whereas brucine was 0.16, 0.117, 0.061, 0.045, and 0.057 in crude azaraqi, azaraqi without outer cover, azaraqi outer cover only, azaraqi mudabbar and azaraqi mudabbar by fried in ghee, respectively. Conclusion: The detoxification results in sharp decrease in content of toxic metabolites. The process by boiling in milk was found much effective but tedious as compare to frying method.

  1. Implicit associations in social anxiety disorder: the effects of comorbid depression.

    Wong, Judy; Morrison, Amanda S; Heimberg, Richard G; Goldin, Philippe R; Gross, James J


    Implicit associations of the self to concepts like "calm" have been shown to be weaker in persons with social anxiety than in non-anxious healthy controls. However, other implicit self associations, such as those to acceptance or rejection, have been less studied in social anxiety, and none of this work has been conducted with clinical samples. Furthermore, the importance of depression in these relationships has not been well investigated. We addressed these issues by administering two Implicit Association Tests (IATs; Greenwald, McGhee, & Schwartz, 1998), one examining the implicit association of self/other to anxiety/calmness and the other examining the association of self/other to rejection/acceptance, to individuals with generalized social anxiety disorder (SAD, n=85), individuals with generalized SAD and a current or past diagnosis of major depressive disorder or current dysthymic disorder (n=47), and non-anxious, non-depressed healthy controls (n=44). The SAD and SAD-depression groups showed weaker implicit self-calmness associations than healthy controls, with the comorbid group showing the weakest self-calmness associations. The SAD-depression group showed the weakest implicit self-acceptance associations; no difference was found between non-depressed individuals with SAD and healthy controls. Post hoc analyses revealed that differences appeared to be driven by those with current depression. The SAD-only and SAD-depression groups did not differ in self-reported (explicit) social anxiety. The implications of these findings for the understanding of SAD-depression comorbidity and for the treatment of SAD are considered. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Male circumcision: care practices and attitudes in a Muslim community of western Nepal

    Mohan Paudel


    Full Text Available

    Background: Male circumcision is a removal of the foreskin of the glans penis. There are medical, ritual and religious reasons for male circumcision. The purpose of this study is to explore the current practices, perceptions, future recommendations and health seeking behavior during and after performing male circumcision in a Muslim community of western Nepal. Method: A total of 64 households were sampled by a simple random sampling method. Information was collected using semi-structured questionnaires and focus group discussions. Result: Circumcision was practiced among all Muslim households and the main reason was religious rite and ritual. It was the traditional circumciser, locally known as hazam, who circumcised all male children in the community. Interestingly, in only 5 % of the household children had been circumcised using modern medicines. The rest of the households, i.e. 95%, relied on traditional healing systems, the use of local herbs and homemade ointments (mainly the suspension of ghee and ash.A Non-sterilized knife was the main surgical instrument used during circumcision. The wound healing after circumcision was much longer, even up to 90 days or more. Conclusions: Circumcision is a practice that is still largely carried out outside the domain of the formal health care system in this community. It demands a design of service delivery models from health policy makers in the Ministry of Health, thus bringing circumcision within formal health care systems in those communities. It deserves an urgent attention to provide safe, culturally acceptable and sustainable services from health institutions.

  3. Risk factors of Cancer Prostate A case control study.

    Kamel, Nahed M; Tayel, Eiman S; El Abbady, Ahmed A; Khashab, Sahar S


    The purpose of this study is to reveal the different risk factors related to this cancer particularly that there is no agreement about which factors affect the risk. A fishing expedition hospital based case control study was carried out. Cases and controls were identified from the Urology Department of Alexandria Main University Hospital, 2004. All cases diagnosed as having the tumor were included in the case series. For each case the second subject proved to have a negative pathological examination was included in the control group (50).Data collection was carried out blindly using a structured interview schedule. Analysis was applied using Chi-square test, Fisher exact and Student's t-test. Odds Ratios and 95% Confidence Intervals were calculated. Results indicated that regular consumption of sausages was greater among cases than controls (X(2)= 10.19, p= 0.001 and an odds ratio of 5.92 (CI: 1.69-25.99). Also more cases claimed consuming regularly butter and natural ghee than controls (X(2)= 5.47, p= 0.019). The estimate risk was as high as 2.79 (Cl: 1.07-7.33). However regular consumption of vegetables was more encountered among controls than cases (X(2) = 5.005, p= 0.025 where the odds ratio was 0.19 (Cl: 0.02-1.01). Moreover the multiple regression analysis confirmed the results obtained from univariate analysis. The consistency of results of current work as regards sausages and butter with several other research works can support the identification of these specific possible risk factors. Also other research workers pointed out to the protective effect of vegetables. However further research is needed to address other risk factors.

  4. Clinical efficacy of Amalaki Rasayana in the management of Pandu (Iron deficiency anemia)

    Layeeq, Shaizi; Thakar, Anup B.


    Introduction: Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is one of the most common nutritional deficiencies worldwide, which can be correlated to Pandu described in ayurvedic classics. Poor absorption of iron is one of the main reasons of IDA. Amalaki (Phyllanthus emblica L.) has Tridoshahara, especially Pittashamaka (pacifying Pitta) and Rasayana (rejuvenative) properties, thus nourishes the Dhatus and is also known to enhance the absorption of iron. Aims: To evaluate the efficacy of Amalaki Rasayana in the management of Pandu w.s.r. IDA. Materials and Methods: A randomized controlled open clinical trial was conducted at Institute for Post Graduate Teaching and Research in Ayurveda, Jamnagar. Iron deficient anemic patients (n = 25) having Hb <12g% in females and 13g% in males and S.Iron <50mg/dl were selected and divided into two groups. Group A was given 2 g of Amalaki Rasayana thrice a day with unequal quantity of honey and ghee for 45 days, while Group B was given 150 mg ferrous fumarate + 1500 mcg folic acid (standard control) once a day with water for 45 days. Assessment was done on the basis of relief in cardinal symptoms of Pandu and hematological parameters. Results and Conclusion: The formulation showed highly significant relief in Panduta (pallor), Daurbalya (weakness), Shirahshoola (headache), Shrama (fatigue), and Gaurava (heaviness) while statistically significant relief in Aruchi (anorexia) and Pindikodweshtan (leg cramps) was reported. On hematological parameters statistically significant increase was found in mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin while on biochemical markers statistically significant decrease was found in total iron binding capacity only. However the formulation was not found as effective as standard control. PMID:27313416

  5. Biological Activities and Composition of Ferulago carduchorum Essential Oil

    Golfakhrabadi, Fereshteh; Khanavi, Mahnaz; Ostad, Seyed Nasser; Saeidnia, Soodabeh; Vatandoost, Hassan; Abai, Mohammad Reza; Hafizi, Mitra; Yousefbeyk, Fatemeh; Rad, Yaghoob Razzaghi; Baghenegadian, Ameneh; Ardekani, Mohammad Reza Shams


    Background: Ferulago carduchorum Boiss and Hausskn belongs to the Apiaceae family. This plant grows in west part of Iran that local people added it to dairy and oil ghee to delay expiration date and give them a pleasant taste. The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant, antimicrobial, acetyl cholinesterase inhibition, cytotoxic, larvicidal activities and composition of essential oil of F. carduchorum. Methods: Acetyl cholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory, larvicidal activities and chemical composition of essential oil of F. carduchorum were investigated. Besides, antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of essential oil were tested using DPPH, microdilution method and MTT assay, respectively. Results: The major components of essential oil were (z)-β-ocimene (43.3%), α-pinene (18.23%) and bornyl acetate (3.98%). Among 43 identified components, monoterpenes were the most compounds (84.63%). The essential oil had noticeable efficiency against Candida albicans (MIC= 2340 μg ml−1) and it was effective against Anopheles stephensi with LC50 and LC90 values of 12.78 and 47.43 ppm, respectively. The essential oil could inhibit AChE (IC50= 23.6 μl ml−1). The essential oil showed high cytotoxicity on T47D, HEP-G2 and HT-29 cell lines (IC50< 2 μg ml−1). Conclusion: The essential oil of F. carduchorum collected from west of Iran had anti-Candida, larvicidal and cytotoxicity effects and should be further investigated in others in vitro and in vivo experimental models. PMID:26114148

  6. Conformation of chromatin oligomers. A new argument for a change with the hexanucleosome.

    Marion, C; Bezot, P; Hesse-Bezot, C; Roux, B; Bernengo, J C


    Quasielastic laser light scattering measurements have been made on chromatin oligomers to obtain information on the transition in their electrooptical properties, previously observed for the hexameric structures [Marion, C. and Roux, B. (1978) Nucleic Acids Res. 5, 4431-4449]. Translational diffusion coefficients were determined for mononucleosomes to octanucleosomes containing histone H1 over a range of ionic strength. At high ionic strength, oligomers show a linear dependence of the logarithm of diffusion coefficient upon the logarithm of number of nucleosomes. At low ionic strength a change occurs between hexamer and heptamer. Our results agree well with the recent sedimentation data of Osipova et al. [Eur. J. Biochem. (1980) 113, 183-188] and of Butler and Thomas [J. Mol. Biol. (1980) 140, 505-529] showing a change in stability with hexamer. Various models for the arrangements of nucleosomes in the superstructure of chromatin are discussed. All calculations clearly indicate a conformational change with the hexanucleosome and the results suggest that, at low ionic strength, the chromatin adopts a loosely helical structure of 28-nm diameter and 22-nm pitch. These results are also consistent with a discontinuity every sixth nucleosome, corresponding to a turn of the helix. This discontinuity may explain the recent electric dichroism data of Lee et al. [Biochemistry (1981) 20, 1438-1445]. The hexanucleosome structure which we have previously suggested, with the faces of nucleosomes arranged radially to the helical axis has been recently confirmed by Mc Ghee et al. [Cell (1980) 22, 87-96]. With an increase of ionic strength, the helix becomes more regular and compact with a slightly reduced outer diameter and a decreased pitch, the dimensions resembling those proposed for solenoid models.

  7. Animal Bite Management Practices: Study at Three Municipal Corporation Hospitals of Ahmedabad

    Vyas Sheetal, Gupta Kinnari, Bhatt Gneyaa, Tiwari Hemant


    Full Text Available Context: Rabies is a deadly Zoonotic disease most often transmitted to humans through a dog bite. Most of these deaths could be prevented through post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP, including immediate wound washing, rabies immunoglobulin administration and vaccination. Aims: To study attitude and pre-treatment practices among the study population. Methods: Cross sectional study was carried out by conducting exit interview of 100 cases of animal bite each from three hospitals run by Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation. Observations: Total 300 cases of animal bites were studied in the present study. Most common biting animal was dog as 97.33% cases gave history of dog bite. Almost half of the cases belonged to age group less than 20 years with mean age of 19+ 20.2 years and male to female ratio was 3:1. Right lower limb was the most common (45.7% biting site and majority (59% had category III bites. Immediate pre-treatment of wound was practiced by 72% of cases before visiting hospitals however only 5.7% had gone for immediate washing of wound with soap and water. The local applications at the site of bite were tobacco snuff, red chilli, turmeric, and miscellaneous things like Garlic, Jaggery, Kerosene, Lime, Bandage, Soframycine, Ghee, Wheat flour etc. which were practiced by 66% of cases. The average time interval between bite and visiting the hospital was 32 hours. Conclusions: With the availability of safe and effective tissue culture vaccines prevention of rabies is virtually assured by immediate and appropriate post exposure treatment. There is need for creating awareness in public and medical community about proper wound management, judicious use of anti-rabies serum and use of modern tissue culture vaccine after animal bite.

  8. Present status of edible oil consumption and household demand projection for Tamil Nadu (India

    Govindaraj Gurrappanaidu


    Full Text Available Until the 1990s the major edible oil consumed in Tamil Nadu state was peanut and sesame oil. The technological, economic and policy changes thereafter induced dynamism in consumer demand for food, including edible oils. In this study, the household demand for individual edible oils based on present consumption was assessed and forecasted for 2015 and 2020 for Tamil Nadu. Due to constraints in the secondary data published by National Sample Survey Organisation (NSSO, the primary data was used. The Almost Ideal Demand System (AIDS model was employed to estimate the income (expenditure elasticities and in turn used to project the demand for edible oils and associated products like ghee and butter. The overall edible oil demand is expected to grow at 7.0% per annum in Tamil Nadu, with the highest growth of sunflower oil (8.7% followed by other oils (7.8%, sesame oil (6.6%, peanut oil (6.6% and palm oil (3.1%. The demand for total edible oil in rural Tamil Nadu increases from 3.14 lakh tonnes (2009-10 to 5.3 lakh tonnes (2020, whereas, in urban areas, it increases from 3.24 lakh tonnes to 5.45 lakh tonnes. The non-traditional oil like sunflower oil and other oils (soybean, corn, rice bran, palm oil has made inroads in the consumption basket and will continue to dominate in the future. Hence, concerted efforts like increasing seed replacement rate, increasing the intensity of adoption of improved technology and appropriate price policy are required to increase productivity of non-traditional crops besides promoting traditional crops (peanut and sesame to meet the growing edible oil demand in the state.

  9. Implicit attitudes in sexuality: gender differences.

    Geer, James H; Robertson, Gloria G


    This study examined the role of gender in both implicit and explicit attitudes toward sexuality. Implicit attitudes are judgments or evaluations of social objects that are automatically activated, often without the individual's conscious awareness of the causation. In contrast, explicit attitudes are judgments or evaluations that are well established in awareness. As described in Oliver and Hyde's (1993) meta-analysis of self-report (explicit) data, women report greater negative attitudes toward sexuality than do men. In the current study, we used the Sexual Opinion Survey (SOS) developed by Fisher, Byrne, White, and Kelley (1988) to index explicit attitudes and the Implicit Association Test (IAT) developed by Greenwald, McGhee, and Schwartz (1998) to index implicit attitudes. Research has demonstrated that the IAT reveals attitudes that participants may be reluctant to express. Independent variables examined were participant gender, social acceptability of sexual words, and order of associated evaluations in the IAT (switching from positive to negative evaluations or the reverse). The IAT data revealed a significant Order x Gender interaction that showed that women had more negative implicit attitudes toward sexuality than did men. There was also a significant Order x Acceptability interaction, indicating that implicit attitudes were more strongly revealed when the sexual words used in the IAT were more socially unacceptable. As expected, on the SOS, women had more negative explicit attitudes toward sexuality. There was no significant correlation between explicit and implicit attitudes. These data suggest that at both automatic (implicit) and controlled (explicit) levels of attitudes, women harbor more negative feelings toward sex than do men.

  10. Biological Activities and Composition of Ferulago carduchorum Essential Oil

    Fereshteh Golfakhrabadi


    Full Text Available Background: Ferulago carduchorum Boiss and Hausskn belongs to the Apiaceae family. This plant grows in west part of Iran that local people added it to dairy and oil ghee to delay expiration date and give them a pleasant taste. The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant, antimicrobial, acetyl cholinesterase inhibition, cytotoxic, larvicidal activities and composition of essential oil of F. carduchorum.Methods: Acetyl cholinesterase (AChE inhibitory, larvicidal activities and chemical composition of essential oil of F. carduchorum were investigated. Besides, antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of essential oil were tested using DPPH, microdilution method and MTT assay, respectively.Results: The major components of essential oil were (z-β-ocimene (43.3%, α-pinene (18.23% and bornyl acetate (3.98%. Among 43 identified components, monoterpenes were the most compounds (84.63%. The essential oil had noticeable efficiency against Candida albicans (MIC= 2340 μg ml-1 and it was effective against Anophelesstephensi with LC50 and LC90 values of 12.78 and 47.43 ppm, respectively. The essential oil could inhibit AChE (IC50= 23.6 μl ml-1. The essential oil showed high cytotoxicity on T47D, HEP-G2 and HT-29 cell lines (IC50< 2 μg ml-1.Conclusion: The essential oil of F. carduchorum collected from west of Iran had anti-Candida, larvicidal and cytotoxicity effects and should be further investigated in others in vitro and in vivo experimental models.

  11. Clinical study on the efficacy of Rajayapana Basti and Baladi Yoga in motor disabilities of cerebral palsy in children.

    Shailaja, U; Rao, Prasanna N; Girish, K J; Arun Raj, G R


    Cerebral palsy is a static encephalopathy that may be defined as a non-progressive disorder of posture and movement often associated with epilepsy and abnormalities in speech, vision and intellect resulting from a defect or lesion of the developing brain. There are 25 lakhs cerebral palsy affected children in India. To assess the efficacy of Rajayapana Basti (RB) and Baladi Yoga in motor disabilities of cerebral palsy in children. Total 98 children satisfying diagnostic criteria and between the age group of 2-10 years were included and randomly divided into two groups. In RB with Baladi group (n = 40) patients were treated with Mustadi Rajayapana Basti for 8 days, followed by oral administration of Baladi Yoga with honey and ghee for 60 days. Before administering Basti, patients were subjected to Sarvanga Abhyanga and Sastikashali Pinda Sveda. In the control group (n = 40), patients were given tablets of Godhuma Choorna for 60 days. Before administering the placebo tablet, the patients of the control group were given Sarvanga Abhyanga and Sastikashali Pinda Sveda for 8 days. The patients of the control group were given Basti with lukewarm water for 8 days. RB group has shown improvements in understanding ability (13.43%), speech (10%) and performance skill (11.11%), in fine motor functions such as putting small object in to a container (14.3%), throws the ball in all direction (21.8%), use of thumb and index finger (10.93%), retaining 2 inch cube in fist (19.04%), folds paper and inserts into envelope (10.30%), in gross motor functions such as in crawling (26.7%), sitting (31.7%), standing (13.75%), walking (9.5%) and claps hands (13.9%) respectively. Mustadi RB along with Baladi Yoga provided a significant improvement in all the parameters and has promising result in managing motor disabilities of cerebral palsy in children.

  12. A Secular Resonance Between Iapetus and the Giant Planets

    Cuk, Matija; Dones, Henry C. Luke; Nesvorny, David; Walsh, Kevin J.


    Iapetus is the outermost of the regular satellites of Saturn, and its origin and evolution present a number of unsolved problems. From the point of view of orbital dynamics, it is remarkable that Iapetus has a large inclination (8 degrees) and a significantly smaller eccentricity (0.03), contrary to the pattern expected if its orbit was excited by encounters between Saturn and other planets early in the Solar System's history (Nesvorny et al, 2014). Here we report our long-term numerical integrations of Iapetus's orbit that show multi-Myr oscillations of Iapetus's eccentricity with an amplitude on the order of 0.01. We find that the basic argument causing this behavior is the sum of the longitude of pericenter and the longitude of the node of Iapetus, with a 0.3 Myr period. This argument appears to be in resonance with the period of the g5 mode in the eccentricity and perihelion of Saturn. We find that our nominal solution, including Saturn's oblateness, Titan, Iapetus and all four giant planets, shows librations of the argument: ǎrpi_Iapetus - ǎrpi_g5 + \\Omega_Iapetus - \\Omega_SaturnEq, where ǎrpi and \\Omega are the longitudes of pericenters and nodes, respectively, and \\Omega_SaturnEq is Saturn's equinox. While planetary perturbations are crucial in generating the g5 mode and therefore maintaining this resonance, we find that Iapetus is affected by the planets only indirectly, with the Sun being the dominant direct perturber. The libration is stable for tens of Myr for the nominal rate of Saturn's pole precession (French et al, 2017), and appears stable indefinitely if we assume a secular resonance between Saturn's node and the secular mode g18 (Ward and Hamilton, 2004; Hamilton and Ward, 2004). We will present the implication of this resonance for the origin of Iapetus's orbit and the dynamical history of Saturn's system. This research is funded by NASA Outer Planets Research Program award NNX14AO38G. References: French, R. G., McGhee-French, C. A

  13. IR spectra of Saturn's ring spokes and multiple shines in the Saturn-rings system

    D'Aversa, Emiliano; Bellucci, Giancarlo; Filacchione, Gianrico; Cerroni, Priscilla; Nicholson, Phil D.; Carrozzo, Filippo G.; Altieri, Francesca; Oliva, Fabrizio; Geminale, Anna; Sindoni, Giuseppe; Hedman, Matthew M.


    highlight the importance of including illumination sources other than the Sun in the radiative transfer analysis, namely the Saturn-shine and the ring-shine. Their effect, more evident in the infrared range thanks to the deep water ice and methane bands, may bias the retrieval of spoke's micro-physics depending on the overall geometry of the scene. Possible debiasing and evaluation of consequences for visible retrievals will be illustrated. Acknowledgments - This work has been supported by Italian Space Agency (ASI) through Cassini contract. References - [1] Smith et al.,1981,Science,212,163. [2] McGhee et al.,2005,Icarus,173,508. [3] Mitchell et al.,2013,Icarus,225,446. [4] D'Aversa et al.,2010,Geoph.Res.Lett.,37,GL041427.

  14. Turmeric use is associated with reduced goitrogenesis: Thyroid disorder prevalence in Pakistan (THYPAK study

    Ali Jawa


    Full Text Available Introduction: South Asian population has a particularly high prevalence of thyroid disorders mainly due to iodine deficiency and goitrogen use. There is no data available for prevalence of thyroid disorders in the general population living in nonmountainous regions of Pakistan. Materials and Methods: A total of 2335 residents of Pak Pattan, Punjab, Pakistan were interviewed about demographic, dietary, medical and environmental history as well as screened for goiter. Individuals of all ages and either gender were included. Results: Median age was 34 (10-88 years and 1164 (49.9% were males. Median monthly income was 49 (3.9-137 USD. Six hundred and sixty-nine (28.7% subjects had palpable goiter. 77.5% (n = 462 and 22.5% (n = 133 had World Health Organization Grade I and Grade II goiters respectively, further screened by measuring thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH. In subjects with TSH <0.4 mg/dL, free T3 and free T4 levels were measured. In 185 goiter subjects when TSH was measured, 50% (n = 93 were euthyroid, 48% (n = 89 were hyperthyroid, and one subject each was hypothyroid and subclinically hyperthyroid. 29/89 hyperthyroid subjects underwent radionuclide scanning. Twelve subjects had heterogeneous uptake consistent with multinodular goiter, 12 subjects had diffuse uptake, two had cold nodules and two had hyperfunctioning single nodules. Goiter was significantly more common among females, unmarried individuals and individuals drinking tube well (subterranean water. Goiter was less common among those who consumed daily milk, daily ghee (hydrogenated oil, spices, chilies, and turmeric. Discussion: In our study population, goiter was endemic with very high prevalence of hyperthyroidism. Turmeric use was association with reduced goitrogenesis. Further studies to assess iodine sufficiency, thiocyanate exposure and autoimmunity need to be conducted. Masses consuming high goitrogen diets should be educated to incorporate turmeric, spices and green

  15. Development of anti-acne gel formulation of anthraquinones rich fraction from Rubia cordifolia (Rubiaceae

    K Khan


    Full Text Available Summary. Acne vulgaris, a common skin disorder speculated in the age group of 15-25 years begins with increased production of sebum followed by the attack of Propionibacterium acne (Kathryn et al. Most of the synthetic anti-acne drugs tend to exhibit mild to severe side effects along with peeling and darkening of skin, ultimately leading to social withdrawal. Hence, there arises a need to develop a safe and effective anti-acne formulation that would cure and also prevent recurrence of acne. Considering the fact that roots of R. cordifolia (Rubiaceae are rich in anthraquinones characterized for their anti-inflammatory as well as wound healing property, (Singh, 2004 a gel formulation of anthraquinone rich fraction was developed and evaluated for its anti-acne potential using Cup plate diffusion method. A gel formulation containing 0.1 % of anthraquinone rich fraction exhibited optimum anti-acne activity against P.acne, S.epidermidis, M.furfur (zone of inhibition- 28.9, 20.4, 24.6 mm respectively when compared with standard i.e. Clindamycin gel (zone of inhibition- 36.7, 35.3, 32.7 mm respectively. Thus anthraquinone rich fraction in a gel formulation is proved to have a better potential in treating acne. Industrial relevance. Rubia cordifolia, often known as Common Madder, Indian Madder or Manjistha is highly recommended in skin diseases associated with edema and oozing (Yuangang Zu et al, 2010. The root powder was found to work well with ghee, for the medicament of acne. Used externally as a paste by itself or with honey, it heals inflammation and gives the skin an even tone and smoothness. Since the roots are claimed to be rich in anthraquinones, in this research work anthraquinone rich fraction from the roots R. cordifolia were extracted and formulated into an herbal gel and evaluated for its anti-acne activity. Topical gels are very useful as palliative products and prove to be economical and safe; hence it was decided to formulate a simple

  16. 具有抗肿瘤活性的6,7-二氰基-二吡啶基[2,2-d:2',3'-f]喹喔啉合钴(Ⅱ)配合物的合成、晶体结构及与DNA结合的研究%Cobalt (Ⅱ) Complex of 6,7-Dicycanodipyridoquinoxaline with Antitumor Activities: Synthesis, Crystal Structure and Binding with DNA

    徐志栋; 刘河; 王敏; 肖苏龙; 杨铭; 卜显和


    A novel complex Co (Ⅱ) with the planar ligand 6,7-dicycanodipyrido[ 2,2-d:2′ ,3′-f]quinoxaline (L),[ CoL(NO3 )2 ( CH3 CN) ] (1) has been synthesized and characterized. The crystal structure of the complex was determined by X-ray diffraction analysis. Tne cobalt atom was heptacoordinated to form a distorted pentagonal-bipyramid geometry by three nitrogen atoms of L and a CH3 CN, four oxygen atoms of two NO3 - in complex 1. Biological tests against four different cell lines (HL-60, KB, Hela and BGC-823) showed that the complex had strong antitumor properties with the 50% inhibiplex, the binding modes of the complex with calf thymus DNA had also been investigated with spectrophotometric methods,viscosity and thermal denaturation measurements. The experimental results indicated that complex 1 intercalated into DNA termined by absorption titration and calculated with the model of McGhee and Von Hippel.%合成了6,7-二氰基-二吡啶[2,2-d:2′,3′-f]喹喔啉(L)与钴(Ⅱ)形成的配合物[CoL(NO3)2(CH3CN)](1).通过元素分析、IR对其组成和性质进行了表征,并测定了它的晶体结构.结果表明,钴原子与3个N原子和四个O氧原子形成变形五角双锥配位构型.体外抗肿瘤活性筛选试验结果表明:该配合物具有强的抗肿瘤活性,且配合物活性明显优于配体.通过紫外滴定、粘度滴定、解链温度测定等方法研究了化合物及配体与CT-DNA的作用模式及结合常数,结果表明配合物与CT-DNA的作用模式为典型的嵌插作用,配合物和配体与CT-DNA的结合常数分别为4.43×105mol·L-1和1.65×105mol·L-1.

  17. Obesity, the metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes in developing countries: role of dietary fats and oils.

    Misra, Anoop; Singhal, Neha; Khurana, Lokesh


    Developing countries are undergoing rapid nutrition transition concurrent with increases in obesity, the metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). From a healthy traditional high-fiber, low-fat, low-calorie diet, a shift is occurring toward increasing consumption of calorie-dense foods containing refined carbohydrates, fats, red meats, and low fiber. Data show an increase in the supply of animal fats and increased intake of saturated fatty acid (SFAs) (obtained from coconut oil, palm oil, and ghee [clarified butter]) in many developing countries, particularly in South Asia and South-East Asia. In some South Asian populations, particularly among vegetarians, intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) (obtained from flaxseed, mustard, and canola oils) and long-chain (LC) n-3 PUFAs (obtained from fish and fish oils) is low. Further, the effect of supplementation of n-3 PUFAs on metabolic risk factors and insulin resistance, except for demonstrated benefit in terms of decreased triglycerides, needs further investigation among South Asians. Data also show that intake of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) ranged from 4.7% to 16.4%en in developing countries, and supplementing it from olive, canola, mustard, groundnut, and rice bran oils may reduce metabolic risk. In addition, in some developing countries, intake of n-6 PUFAs (obtained from sunflower, safflower, corn, soybean, and sesame oils) and trans-fatty acids (TFAs) is increasing. These data show imbalanced consumption of fats and oils in developing countries, which may have potentially deleterious metabolic and glycemic consequences, although more research is needed. In view of the rapid rise of T2DM in developing countries, more aggressive public health awareness programs coupled with governmental action and clear country-specific guidelines are required, so as to promote widespread use of healthy oils, thus curbing intake of SFAs and TFAs, and increasing intake of n-3 PUFAs and MUFAs. Such

  18. All in a day's work -- women of village Kamad.

    Devi, L; Devi, Y; Mendhapurkar, S


    The conditions of rural women in villages of Kamad, Dhandi, Kumarkot, and Brahmpuri in Uttar Pradesh in India are revealed in the responses of 3 women to questions about their life. Improvement in women's conditions can be accomplished by empowerment; the women agreed that having women's groups and open discussion would help women stand up to their husbands who beat them or take their money. Conversations with the women were initially blocked by the village men, but after 5 months, dialogues were conducted. The conversations reflect very labor-intensive activity every day regardless of the season. Jungle surrounds the villages and the climate is harsh with both monsoons and snow. Men do not care for their women very well, and health and reproductive functions are neglected. The women are hopeful that things will change. Minu Devi explained that she was bought for Rs.5000 by her husband when she was 6-7 years old, but most now marry at 12-14 years and the girl's father is paid Rs.20,000-30,000. The work day is 18-20 hours. If the husband is disobeyed or the wife refuses to work, the husband tells his wife that he has the right to beat her. Minu's first child was born when she was 13-14, but died within hours. There was no understanding of prenatal or postnatal care. The practice of childbirth was described: living in the cattle house on a bed of paddy husks, and giving birth with the help of a Dai. The mother cuts the umbilical cord with a sickle and heats water to bathe herself and baby. Cooking, squatting, and washing clothes are all performed in the cattle house. A ration of rice and ghee is provided. After 24 hours, the mother must walk to a crossroads and throw away the birth remains and bathe within 3 days. On day 5 she is allowed to go to the river to wash clothes. Others may not touch her clothes and her path is sprinkled with cow urine. Day 11 brings with it some salt for the rice portion. Thereafter she may move to another room although still without

  19. The efficacy of nitrosonaphthol functionalized XAD-16 resin for the preconcentration/sorption of Ni(II) and Cu(II) ions.

    Memon, Saima Q; Bhanger, M Iqbal; Hasany, S M; Khuhawar, M Y


    Amberlite XAD-16 resin has been functionalized using nitrosonaphthol as a ligand and characterized employing elemental, thermogravimetric analysis and FT-IR spectroscopy. The sorption of Ni(II) and Cu(II) ions onto this functionalized resin is investigated and optimized with respect to the sorptive medium (pH), shaking speed and equilibration time between liquid and solid phases. The monitoring of the influence of diverse ions on the sorption of metal ions has revealed that phosphate, bicarbonate and citrate reduce the sorption up to 10-14%. The sorption data followed Langmuir, Freundlich, and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherms. The Freundlich parameters computed are 1/n=0.56+/-0.03 and 0.49+/-0.05, A=9.54+/-1.5 and 6.0+/-0.5 mmol g(-1) for Ni(II) and Cu(II) ions, respectively. D-R isotherm yields the values of X(m)=0.87+/-0.07 and 0.35+/-0.05 mmol g(-1) and of E=9.5+/-0.23 and 12.3+/-0.6 kJ mol(-1) for Ni(II) and Cu(II) ions, respectively. Langmuir characteristic constants estimated are Q=0.082+/-0.005 and 0.063+/-0.003 mmol g(-1), b=(4.7+/-0.2)x10(4) and (7.31+/-0.11)x10(4)l mol(-1) for Ni(II) and Cu(II) ions, respectively. The variation of sorption with temperature gives thermodynamic quantities of DeltaH=-58.9+/-0.12 and -40.38+/-0.11 kJ mol(-1), DeltaS=-183+/-10 and -130+/-8 J mol(-1)K(-1) and DeltaG=-4.4+/-0.09 and -2.06+/-0.08 kJ mol(-1) at 298 K for Ni(II) and Cu(II) ions, respectively. Using kinetic equations, values of intraparticle transport and of first order rate constant have been computed for both the metal ions. The sorption procedure is utilized to preconcentrate these ions prior to their determination in tea, vegetable oil, hydrogenated oil (ghee) and palm oil by atomic absorption spectrometry using direct and standard addition methods.

  20. Effects of chemopreventive agents on the incidence of recurrent colorectal adenomas: a systematic review with network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    Veettil SK


    Full Text Available Sajesh K Veettil,1 Nattawat Teerawattanapong,2 Siew Mooi Ching,3,4 Kean Ghee Lim,5 Surasak Saokaew,6–9 Pochamana Phisalprapa,10 Nathorn Chaiyakunapruk7,8,11,12 1School of Pharmacy/School of Postgraduate Studies, International Medical University, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 2Division of Pharmacy Practice, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ubon Ratchathani University, Ubon Ratchathani, Thailand; 3Department of Family Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, 4Malaysian Research Institute on Ageing, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, 5Clinical School, Department of Surgery, International Medical University, Seremban, Negeri Sembilan, 6Center of Health Outcomes Research and Therapeutic Safety (Cohorts, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Phayao, Phayao, 7School of Pharmacy, Monash University Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia; 8Centre of Pharmaceutical Outcomes Research, Department of Pharmacy Practice, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Naresuan University, Phitsanulok, Thailand; 9Unit of Excellence on Herbal Medicine, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Phayao, Thailand; 10Division of Ambulatory Medicine, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, 11School of Pharmacy, University of Wisconsin, Madison, USA; 12Health and Well-being Cluster, Global Asia Platform in the 21st Century (GA21 Platform, Monash University Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia Background: Protective effects of several chemopreventive agents (CPAs against colorectal adenomas have been well documented in randomized controlled trials (RCTs; however, there is uncertainty regarding which agents are the most effective.Methods: We searched for RCTs published up until September 2016. Retrieved trials were evaluated using risk of bias. We performed both pairwise analysis and network meta-analysis (NMA of RCTs to compare the effects of CPAs on the recurrence of colorectal adenomas (primary outcome. Using NMA, we

  1. Applications of optical sensors for high-frequency water-quality monitoring and research

    Pellerin, Brian


    meet high-quality standards requires investment in and adherence to tested and established methods and protocols for sensor operation and data management (Pellerin et al., 2013). For example, optical sensor measurements can be strongly influenced by a variety of matrix effects, including water temperature, inner filtering from highly colored water, and scattering of light by suspended particles (Downing et al., 2012). Characterizing and correcting sensors for these effects – as well as the continued development of common methodologies and protocols for sensor use – will be critical to ensuring comparable measurements across sites and over time. In addition, collaborative efforts such as the Nutrient Sensor Challenge ( will continue to accelerate the development, production and use of affordable, reliable and accurate sensors for a range of environments. REFERENCES Bergamaschi .B.A., Fleck J.A., Downing B.D., Boss E., Pellerin B.A., Ganju N.K., Schoellhamer D.H., Byington A.A., Heim W.A., Stephenson M., Fujii R. (2011), Methyl mercury dynamics in a tidal wetland quantified using in situ optical measurements. Limnology and Oceanography, 56(4): 1355-1371. Carpenter K.D., Kraus T.E.C., Goldman J.H., Saraceno J., Downing B.D., Bergamaschi B.A., McGhee G., Triplett T. (2013), Sources and Characteristics of Organic Matter in the Clackamas River, Oregon, Related to the Formation of Disinfection By-products in Treated Drinking Water: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2013–5001, 78 p. Downing .B.D., Pellerin B.A., Bergamaschi B.A., Saraceno J., Kraus T.E.K. (2012), Seeing the light: The effects of particles, temperature and inner filtering on in situ CDOM fluorescence in rivers and streams. Limnology and Oceanography: Methods, 10: 767-775. Pellerin B.A., Bergamaschi B.A., Downing B.D., Saraceno J., Garrett J.D., Olsen L.D. (2013), Optical Techniques for the Determination of Nitrate in En