WorldWideScience

Sample records for ghats belt india

  1. Patchy charnockites from Jenapore, Eastern Ghats granulite belt, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    ∗Present address: Department of Geology, J. K. College, Purulia 723 101, West Bengal, India. The charnockite ... tor of the Eastern Ghats granulite belt, are disposed in a linear fashion and generally have sharp ... Subse- quently, many workers suggested that the 'patchy ..... bly represent two different frozen-in conditions, as.

  2. Pan-African U-Pb zircon age from apatite-magnetite veins of eastern ghats granulite belt, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovach, V.P.; Salnikova, E.B.; Kotov, A.B.; Yakovleva, S.Z.; Rao, A.T.

    1997-01-01

    206 Pb/ 238 U ages of zircon correspond to 502±3 Ma and 207 Pb/ 206 Pb ages are equal to 508±14 Ma. U-Pb isotopic study of the Kasipatnam zircon has led to the recognition of pan-African thermal event in the eastern ghats granulite belt, India. (author)

  3. Early lineations in a later shear zone: case study from the Eastern Ghats Belt, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, S.; Gupta, S.

    2016-12-01

    In polydeformed gneissic terranes, ductile shear zones may cut across rocks with older penetrative fabrics. Earlier lineations in later ductile shear zones need to be identified to avoid incorrect kinematic interpretation. To investigate the fate of early lineations during later ductile shearing, the Mahanadi Shear Zone (MSZ) from the Eastern Ghats Belt (EGB) in India is taken as a case study. The EGB is a Proterozoic granulite terrane correlated with Indo-Antarctica collision. The MSZ lies within the EGB, but is oriented almost perpendicular to the trend of the belt. The penetrative structural fabric in the EGB is NE-SW trending and dipping SE. However, a broad swing in structural trend from NE-SW to WNW-ESE can be detected near the MSZ from satellite imagery. In mylonitised rocks of the shear zone, a discrepancy between the shear zone lineation and inferred shear sense leads to uncertainty in kinematic interpretation of the shear zone. The EGB rock types include charnockites, quartzofeldspathic gneisses and garnet-sillimanite-bearing metapelitic gneisses (khondalites). Outside the MSZ, gneisses preserve an earlier, dominantly down-dip intersection lineation. Sillimanite needles in khondalites are aligned parallel to this lineation, while quartz and garnet are also annealed into the granulite facies fabric. In the vicinity of the shear zone, evidence of dextral non-coaxial shearing progressively increases but the lineation distribution is scattered. Quartz grains show strong undulose extinction caused by strain at lower temperatures, and crystallographic c-axis fabric analyses using EBSD indicate deformation by basal c-slip mechanism. Preferred alignment of the sillimanite needles is disrupted in khondalites within the MSZ because of partial rotation of the needles towards the sub-horizontal movement direction, with the extent of rotation of the needles being apparently controlled by grain size. Some sillimanite needles also appear to have undergone

  4. A reappraisal of polymetamorphism in the Eastern Ghats belt – A ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Department of Geology and Geophysics, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721 302, India. ∗e-mail address: ...... tributed to the improvement of the manuscript. .... logical evolution of the Proterozoic Eastern Ghats Mobile. Belt; Geol.

  5. A new high background radiation area in the Geothermal region of Eastern Ghats Mobile Belt (EGMB) of Orissa, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranwal, V.C.; Sharma, S.P.; Sengupta, D.; Sandilya, M.K.; Bhaumik, B.K.; Guin, R.; Saha, S.K.

    2006-01-01

    A high natural radiation zone is investigated for the first time in a geothermal region of Eastern Ghats Mobile Belt (EGMB) of Orissa state in India. The surrounding area comprises a geothermal region which has surveyed using a portable pulsed Geiger-Muller counter. On the basis of findings of GM counter, an area was marked as a high radiation zone. Soil and rock samples collected from the high radiation zone were analyzed by γ-ray spectrometry (GRS) using NaI(Tl) detector. The radioactivity is found to be contributed mainly by thorium. Concentration of thorium is reported to be very high compared to their normal abundance in crustal rocks. Further, concentrations of 238 U and 40 K are also high compared to normal abundance in crustal rocks but their magnitude is comparatively less than that of thorium. The average concentrations of 238 U (i.e. U(β-γ)), 232 Th and 40 K are found to be 33, 459ppm and 3%, respectively, in soils and 312, 1723ppm and 5%, respectively, in the granitic rocks. Maximum concentrations of 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K are found to be 95, 1194ppm and 4%, respectively, in soils and 1434, 10,590ppm and 8%, respectively, in the granitic rocks. Radioactive element emits various energies in its decay chain. High energies are utilized to estimate the concentration of actual 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K using a NaI(Tl) detector, however, low energies are used for the same in an HPGe detector. Some of the rock samples (eight in number) were also analyzed using HPGe detector for studying the behavior of low energies emitted in the decay series of uranium and thorium. The absorbed gamma dose rate in air and external annual dose rate of the high radiation zone are calculated to be 2431nGy/h and 3.0mSv/y, respectively. It is approximately 10 times greater than the dose rates obtained outside the high radiation zone. The high concentration of uranium and thorium may be one of the possible heat sources together with the normal geothermal gradient for hot springs

  6. Ancient terrane boundaries as probable seismic hazards: A case study from the northern boundary of the Eastern Ghats Belt, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saibal Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the eastern part of the Indian shield, late Paleozoic–Mesozoic sedimentary rocks of the Talchir Basin lie precisely along a contact of Neoproterozoic age between granulites of the Eastern Ghats Mobile Belt (EGMB and amphibolite facies rocks of the Rengali Province. At present, the northern part of the basin experiences periodic seismicity by reactivation of faults located both within the basin, and in the Rengali Province to the north. Detailed gravity data collected across the basin show that Bouguer anomalies decrease from the EGMB (∼+15 mGal, through the basin (∼−10 mGal, into the Rengali Province (∼−15 mGal. The data are consistent with the reportedly uncompensated nature of the EGMB, and indicate that the crust below the Rengali Province has a cratonic gravity signature. The contact between the two domains with distinct sub-surface structure, inferred from gravity data, coincides with the North Orissa Boundary Fault (NOBF that defines the northern boundary of the Talchir Basin. Post-Gondwana faults are also localized along the northern margin of the basin, and present-day seismic tremors also have epicenters close to the NOBF. This indicates that the NOBF was formed by reactivation of a Neoproterozoic terrane boundary, and continues to be susceptible to seismic activity even at the present-day.

  7. Sapphirine granulites from Panasapattu, Eastern Ghats belt, India: Ultrahigh-temperature metamorphism in a Proterozoic convergent plate margin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.V. Dharma Rao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report equilibrium sapphirine + quartz assemblage in biotite–orthopyroxene–garnet granulites from a new locality in Panasapattu of Paderu region in the Eastern Ghats granulite belt, which provide new evidence for ultrahigh-temperature (UHT metamorphism at 1030–1050 °C and 10 kbar in this region. The development of migmatitic texture, stabilization of the garnet–orthopyroxene–plagioclase–K-feldspar association, prograde biotite inclusions within garnet and sapphirine as well as sapphirine and cordierite inclusions within garnet in these granulites indicate that the observed peak assemblages probably formed during prograde dehydration melting of a Bt–Sill–Qtz assemblage, and constrain the prograde stage of the p–T path. The core domains of orthopyroxene porphyroblasts have up to w(Al2O3 9.6%, which suggest that the temperatures reached up to 1150 °C suggesting extreme crustal metamorphism. These conditions were also confirmed by the garnet–orthopyroxene thermobarometery, which yields a p–T range of 1012–960 °C and 9.4 kbar. The p–T phase topologies computed using isochemical sections calculated in the model system Na2O–CaO–K2O–FeO–MgO–Al2O3–SiO2–H2O (NCKFMASH for metapelites, garnet-free sapphirine granulites and garnet-bearing sapphirine granulites match the melt-bearing assemblages observed in these rocks. Isochemical sections constructed in the NCKFMASH system for an average sub-aluminous metapelite bulk composition, and contoured for modal proportions of melt and garnet, as well as for the compositional isopleths of garnet, predict phase and reaction relations that are consistent with those observed in the rocks. Garnet and orthopyroxene contain Ti-rich phlogopite inclusions, suggesting formation by prograde melting reactions at the expense of phlogopite during ultrahigh-temperature conditions. These p–T results underestimate ‘peak’ conditions, in part as a result of the modification

  8. Mafic dykes at the southwestern margin of Eastern Ghats belt ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ghats belt: Evidence of rifting and collision. S Bhattacharya. 1,∗ ... 1.3 Ga, which may have been initiated by intra-plate volcanism. 1. Introduction ... tively, is described as a compressional orogen. Keywords. ... charnockite gneiss, around Naraseraopet, AP (b) Thin mafic ... Sometimes orthopyroxene also occurs at margin of.

  9. Alkaline intrusion in a granulite ensemble in the Eastern Ghats belt

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Alkaline magmatism; Eastern Ghats belt; pull-apart structure; plume tectonics. ... is one of several bodies in the high-grade Eastern Ghats belt, but this one is an ... Geological Studies Unit, Indian Statistical Institute, 203 B. T. Road, Kolkata 700 ...

  10. Relative chronology in high-grade crystalline terrain of the Eastern Ghats, India: new insights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, S.; Kar, R.; Saw, A. K.; Das, P.

    2011-01-01

    The two major lithology or gneiss components in the polycyclic granulite terrain of the Eastern Ghats, India, are the supracrustal rocks, commonly described as khondalites, and the charnockite-gneiss. Many of the workers considered the khondalites as the oldest component with unknown basement and the charnockite-protoliths as intrusive into the khondalites. However, geochronological data do not corroborate the aforesaid relations. The field relations of the hornblende- mafic granulite with the two gneiss components together with geocronological data indicate that khondalite sediments were deposited on older mafic crustal rocks. We propose a different scenario: Mafic basement and supracrustal rocks were subsequently deformed and metamorphosed together at high to ultra-high temperatures - partial melting of mafic rocks producing the charnockitic melt; and partial melting of pelitic sediments producing the peraluminous granitoids. This is compatible with all the geochronological data as well as the petrogenetic model of partial melting for the charnockitic rocks in the Eastern Ghats Belt.

  11. CEPF Western Ghats Special Series: Fish fauna of Indrayani River, northern Western Ghats, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelesh Dahanukar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The freshwater fish fauna of the Indrayani River, a northern tributary of the Krishna River system in the Western Ghats of India was studied. A total of 57 species of freshwater fish belonging to 18 families and 39 genera were recorded. However, based on the previous literature it is possible that the Indrayani River harbours around 67 species. Out of the 57 species in the present collection, 12 are endemic to the Western Ghats while six are endemic to the Krishna River system. Neotropius khavalchor, an endemic fish of the Krishna River system, was recorded for the first time from the northern tributaries. The fish fauna of the Indrayani River is threatened due to seven introduced species and anthropogenic activities such as deforestation leading to siltation, tourism, sand mining, over fishing and organic and inorganic pollution. Since the Indrayani River hosts endemic and threatened species, including Glyptothorax poonaensis, conservation measures to ensure habitat protection in the river are essential.

  12. A reappraisal of polymetamorphism in the Eastern Ghats belt – A ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    African granulites in the Eastern Ghats belt north of the ... Partial resetting during a late, Pan-African ther- mal overprint at ∼550 Ma has also been ... geochronologic studies in the southern sector imply that north of the Godavari, the Eastern ...

  13. CEPF Western Ghats Special Series: Birds of Meghamalai Landscape, southern Western Ghats, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Babu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Species composition of birds in the Meghamalai landscape with respect to threat status, foraging guild and biome-restricted assemblage were assessed based on data collected opportunistically during two research projects: first one spanned 36 months (2006-2009 the other for 18 months (June 2011-December 2012 and from literature published during mid 1940s. A total of 254 species belonging to 55 families and 18 orders were recorded, which include 11% (18 of 159 species of globally threatened birds reported from India, 88% (14 of 16 species of endemic birds of the Western Ghats and a higher proportion of biome-restricted species (56% of Indo-Malayan tropical dry zone and 80% of Indian Peninsula inhabited by tropical moist forest birds. Among the foraging guilds, insectivorous birds (51% dominated the bird composition followed by frugivores and carnivores. The present data shows that Meghamalai deserves to be recognized as an Important Bird Area of International Bird Conservation Network. This would enhance the conservation prospects of the landscape in a long run. The present study also highlights the importance of the area for conserving the birds of the Western Ghats.

  14. CEPF Western Ghats Special Series: An overview of Asian Elephants in the Western Ghats, southern India: implications for the conservation of Western Ghats ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Baskaran

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The Western Ghats region is a global biodiversity hotspot and the source of all the major rivers of peninsular India. The conservation of this region is important for the biodiversity it harbours, and for ecological functions that include climate stability, erosion control, clean water and air, which are essential to safeguard economic growth, social stability and quality of life for the people of peninsular India. Possessing a unique diversity in topography, climate, vegetation, faunal communities, endemism and human communities, the Western Ghats is also known for its spectacular assemblage of larger mammals, including 25% of the global population of Asian Elephants. There are four major landscapes in the Western Ghats: (1 Uttara Kannada, (2 Brahmagiri-Nilgiris, (3 Anamalai-Nelliyampathy-High Range, and (4 Periyar-Agasthyamalai, spread across 30,000km2, harbouring a minimum 10,000 elephants in six different populations with signs of an increasing trend in some populations. The second landscape (Brahmagiri-Nilgiris with over 50% of the Ghats elephant population, along with its contiguity to the Eastern Ghats elephant landscape, forms the single largest global population of Asian Elephants. However, major threats to the long-term conservation of the elephant include further fragmentation of habitat, continued poaching of bulls for ivory, and escalation in human-elephant conflicts resulting in public antagonism toward the species. The goals of management should thus be to: (1 consolidate habitats and preserve corridors to avoid further fragmentation; (2 take steps through integrated land use planning at the landscape level to reduce human-elephant conflicts; and (3 build up a demographically and genetically viable elephant population by protecting the tusked males from ivory poaching. Being a wide-ranging umbrella species, ensuring the long-term conservation of Asian Elephants in the Ghats implies protecting its biodiversity and ecological

  15. Vignapandeyana (Fabaceae), a new species from northern Western Ghats, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaikwad, Sayajirao; Gore, Ramchandra; Randive, Sonali

    2015-01-01

    Vigna subg. Ceratotropis (Piper) Verdc. represents a homogenous and distinct group of species with highly specialized complex floral characters. It is most diverse in Asia. India, with 24 species, represents a secondary center of species diversity of the subgenus. A new species, Vignapandeyana RD Gore, SP Gaikwad & SD Randive, is described from hill slopes of the northern Western Ghats of India. It resembles Vignayadavii Gaikwad et al. and Vignadalzelliana (Kuntze) Verdc. but differs from the latter in its dimorphic shoots (some subterranean, with cleistogamous flowers) and densely hairy pods, from the former by its curved style, flattened style beak, foveolate seed coat and absence of standard protuberance and horn-like keel pocket in cleistogamous flowers.

  16. Salient Ecological Sensitive Regions of Central Western Ghats, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandra, T. V.; Bharath, Setturu; Subash Chandran, M. D.; Joshi, N. V.

    2018-02-01

    Ecologically sensitive regions (ESRs) are the `ecological units' with the exceptional biotic and abiotic elements. Identification of ESRs considering spatially both ecological and social dimensions of environmental variables helps in ecological and conservation planning as per Biodiversity Act, 2002, Government of India. The current research attempts to integrate ecological and environmental considerations into administration, and prioritizes regions at Panchayat levels (local administrative unit) in Uttara Kannada district, Central Western Ghats, Karnataka state considering attributes (biological, Geo-climatic, Social, etc.) as ESR (1-4) through weightage score metrics. The region has the distinction of having highest forest area (80.48%) in Karnataka State, India and has been undergoing severe anthropogenic pressures impacting biogeochemistry, hydrology, food security, climate and socio-economic systems. Prioritisation of ESRs helps in the implementation of the sustainable developmental framework with the appropriate conservation strategies through the involvement of local stakeholders.

  17. Salient Ecological Sensitive Regions of Central Western Ghats, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandra, T. V.; Bharath, Setturu; Subash Chandran, M. D.; Joshi, N. V.

    2018-05-01

    Ecologically sensitive regions (ESRs) are the `ecological units' with the exceptional biotic and abiotic elements. Identification of ESRs considering spatially both ecological and social dimensions of environmental variables helps in ecological and conservation planning as per Biodiversity Act, 2002, Government of India. The current research attempts to integrate ecological and environmental considerations into administration, and prioritizes regions at Panchayat levels (local administrative unit) in Uttara Kannada district, Central Western Ghats, Karnataka state considering attributes (biological, Geo-climatic, Social, etc.) as ESR (1-4) through weightage score metrics. The region has the distinction of having highest forest area (80.48%) in Karnataka State, India and has been undergoing severe anthropogenic pressures impacting biogeochemistry, hydrology, food security, climate and socio-economic systems. Prioritisation of ESRs helps in the implementation of the sustainable developmental framework with the appropriate conservation strategies through the involvement of local stakeholders.

  18. CEPF Western Ghats Special Series: Mammals of the Meghamalai landscape, southern Western Ghats, India - a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Babu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Reports on the concurrence of mammals in the Meghamalai landscape were collated from published literature and also the data obtained from a recent study spanning over 18 months (June 2011-December 2012. Sixty-three species belonging to 24 families occur in the landscape, which include 24 globally threatened (one Critically Endangered; seven Endangered; 11 Vulnerable and five Near Threatened species. Of the recorded species, four species are endemic to India and nine are endemic to the Western Ghats. The present study added five species, viz., Rusty-spotted Cat Prionailurus rubiginosus, Malabar Spiny Tree Mouse Platacanthomys lasiurus, Grizzled Giant Squirrel Ratufa macroura, Common Palm Civet Paradoxurus hermaphrodites and the Indian Grey Mongoose Herpestes edwardsii to the six decade old mammal list. But, 13 species reported by Hutton were not recorded during the study. Among them, occurrence of Malabar Civet Viverra civettina and Fishing Cat Prionailurus viverrinus in southern India remains unresolved. During our study, anthropogenic pressures such as conversion of natural habitats, encroachment, hunting, cattle grazing and tourism were observed to affect the distribution of mammals in the landscape.

  19. Isodon purpurescence (Lamiaceae, a new species from Western Ghats, Kerala, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Naveen Kumar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A new species, Isodon purpurescence Sunil, Naveen Kumar & Ratheesh, from Ernakulam (Western Ghats, India is described and illustrated. Its diagnostic characters are discussed and comments made on differences between this and related species.

  20. Potential hydrocarbon producing species of Western Ghats, Tamil Nadu, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augustus, G.D.P.S.; Jayabalan, M.; Rajarathinam, K. [Research Centre in Bombay, V.H.N.S.N. College, Virudhunagar (India); Ray, A.K. [Sardar Patel Univ., Anand (India). Dept. of Chemistry; Seiler, G.J. [USDA, ARS, Northern Crop Science Lab., Fargo, ND (United States)

    2002-09-01

    The decline in the world supplies of hydrocarbons has led to the search for alternate sources of fuel and chemicals. Plant species are potential sources of hydrocarbons. Large-scale screening of plants growing in the Western Ghats, Tamil Nadu, India was conducted to assess the hydrocarbon production and the type of isoprene compound(s) present. Three species contained more than 3% hydrocarbon. Sarcostemma brevistigma had the highest concentration of hydrocarbon with 3.6%. Seven species contained more than 2% of hydrocarbons among the plant species screened. The hydrocarbon fraction of Ficus elastica (leaf) had a gross heat value of 9834 cal/g (41.17 MJ/kg), which is close to the caloric value of fuel oil. Six hydrocarbon fractions contained gross heat values of more than 9000 cal/g (37.68 MJ/kg). Of the 13 species hydrocarbon fraction analysed, seven species contained cis-polyisoprene compounds, while two species contained trans-polyisoprenes. Cis and trans polyisoprenes are potential alternative energy sources for fuel and/or as industrial raw materials. (author)

  1. CEPF Western Ghats Special Series: Avian collision threat assessment at Bhambarwadi Wind Farm Plateau in northern Western Ghats, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pande

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To address the shortage of power in India, wind energy is increasingly harnessed as an alternate and renewable energy source. There is a rapid increase in the number of wind farms at suitable sites all over the country. Some of the key sites with optimal wind velocities are the plateaus on the Western Ghats - a global hotspot of biological diversity. The rocky plateaus on the Western Ghats are terrestrial habitat islands facing extreme micro-environmental conditions; however, scanty information is available on the ecology of these plateaus. We undertook a two-year study to assess the impact of wind farms on birds. We also documented the avian diversity at Bhambarwadi Plateau, northern Western Ghats, India. To the best of our knowledge this is the first such study in India. We recorded 89 avian species on the plateau, 27 of which flew in the risk area swept by the rotor blades, and hence are potentially at risk of collision. The collision index (the number of bird collisions with wind turbines over a period of one year assuming that the birds do not take any avoidance measure for these species were estimated. We also identified species at risk from collision with transformers and wind-masts, and at risk from electrocution. Reduction in avian activity in the study area was evident with progress of wind farm erection. Despite the small footprint of an individual wind turbine, the associated infrastructure development causes wider habitat modification and destruction resulting in a displacement effect. Therefore, wind farm erections in strategic locations such as biodiversity hotspots should be subject to prior site based strategic environmental assessments (SEA as well as environmental impact assessment (EIA studies.

  2. Ethnoveterinary medicine of the Shervaroy Hills of Eastern Ghats, India as alternative medicine for animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usha, Swaminathan; Rajasekaran, Chandrasekaran; Siva, Ramamoorthy

    2016-01-01

    The Eastern Ghats of India is well known for its wealth of natural vegetation and Shervaroy is a major hill range of the Eastern Ghats of Tamil Nadu. Ethnomedicinal studies in the Eastern Ghats of Tamil Nadu or the Shervaroy Hills have been carried out by various researchers. However, there is not much information available on ethnoveterinary medicine in the Eastern Ghats of India. The aim of this study was to examine the potential use of folk plants as alternative medicine for cattle to cure various diseases in the Shervaroy Hills of the Eastern Ghats. Based on interactions with traditional medicine practitioners, it has been observed that a total of 21 medicinal plants belonging to 16 families are used to cure various diseases such as mastitis, enteritis, arthritis, stomatitis, salivation from the mouth, wounding, and conjunctivitis in animals. It has been observed that the traditional knowledge of ethnoveterinary medicine is now confined only among the surviving older people and a few practitioners in the tribal communities of the Shervaroy Hills. Unfortunately, no serious attempts have been made to document and preserve this immense treasure of traditional knowledge.

  3. A New Species of Murdannia Royle (Commelinaceae from Northern Western Ghats of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayur Nandikar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Murdannia Royle (Commelinaceae, Murdannia brownii Nandikar & Gurav, is described and illustrated from northern Western Ghats of India. It differs from allied M. versicolor (Dalzell Bruckn. in having obovate, rose-red to flesh coloured petals, elliptic capsule and falsifoveate-glebulate seed surface.

  4. Sahyadria, a new genus of barbs (Teleostei: Cyprinidae from Western Ghats of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Raghavan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Redline Torpedo Barbs (Teleostei: Cyprinidae, comprising of two species, Puntius denisonii and P. chalakkudiensis, and six evolutionarily distinct lineages are endemic to the streams of the Western Ghats freshwater ecoregion in peninsular India. Based on molecular and osteological evidence, we demonstrate that these barbs comprise a distinct genus, for which we propose the name Sahyadria.

  5. Forest Dynamics in the Eastern Ghats of Tamil Nadu, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumar, S.; Ramachandran, A.; Bhaskaran, G.; Heo, J.

    2009-02-01

    The primary deciduous forests in the Eastern Ghats (EG) of Tamil Nadu (TN) India have undergone many changes owing to various need-based forest managements, such as timber extraction for industry, railway sleepers, charcoal, and forest clearance for hydroelectric projects and agriculture, during preindependence and postindependence periods (i.e., from 1800 to 1980). The enactment of a forest conservation act during the 1980s changed the perception of forest managers from utilization to conservation. This study was taken up to assess the forests dynamics in the EG of TN spatially between 1990 and 2003 and nonspatially between 1900 and the 1980s. Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Indian Remote Sensing satellite (IRS) 1D Linear Imaging and Self Scanning (LISS III) data were used to assess forests during 1990 and 2003, respectively. Field floristic survey and secondary data (such as published literature, floras, books, and forest working plans) were used to assess the forest dynamics in terms of forest type and species composition among the preindependence period, the postindependence period, and the present (i.e., before and after 1980). The satellite data analysis revealed a considerable amount of changes in all forest types during the 13 years. The comparison of species composition and forest types between the past and present revealed that need-based forest management along with anthropogenic activity have altered the primary deciduous forest in to secondary and postextraction secondary forests such as southern thorn and southern thorn scrub forests in the middle [400-900 m above mean sea level (MSL)] and lower slopes (900 m MSL) and plateau seemed not to be much affected by the forest management. The changes estimated by the satellite data processing in the major forest types such as evergreen, deciduous, southern thorn, and southern thorn scrub are really alarming because these changes have occurred after the implementation of a forest conservation act. The

  6. CEPF Western Ghats Special Series: First record of the genus Tigidia Simon, 1892 (Araneae: Barychelidae from India with description of three new species from the Western Ghats, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Siliwal

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Prior to this study the genus Tigidia Simon, 1892 of the Brush-footed Spider family Barychelidae was represented by eight species endemic to Madagascar and Mauritius Islands. The first occurrence of Tigidia in India is reported here with the description of three new species from the Western Ghats, T. sahyadri sp. nov. from Uttara Kannada District, Karnataka; T. nilgiriensis sp. nov. from Kotagiri, Nilgiri District, Tamil Nadu and T. rutilofronis sp. nov. from Maruthamalai, Coimbatore District, Tamil Nadu. This genus is probably a Gondwana relict. Natural history information is provided for all the species.

  7. Moisture Supply From the Western Ghats Forests to Water Deficit East Coast of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Supantha; Ghosh, Subimal; Rajendran, K.; Murtugudde, Raghu

    2018-05-01

    The mountainous western coast of India, known as the Western Ghats, is considered to be a biodiversity hot spot, but it is under a constant threat due to human activities. The region is characterized by high orographic monsoon precipitation resulting in dense vegetation cover. Feedback of such a dense vegetation on the southwest monsoon rainfall is not yet explored. Here we perform regional climate simulations with the Weather Research and Forecasting model and find that evapotranspiration from the vegetation of Western Ghats contributes 25-40% of the southwest monsoon rainfall over the water-deficit state of Tamil Nadu. This contribution reaches 50% during deficit monsoon years or dry spells within a season. Our findings suggest that recent deforestation in this area will affect not only the biodiversity of the region but also the water availability over Peninsular India, which is already impacted by water scarcity.

  8. Checklist of the earthworms (Oligochaeta) of Kerala, a constituent of Western Ghats biodiversity hotspot, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, S Prasanth; Sathrumithra, S; Christopher, G; Thomas, A P; Julka, J M

    2016-11-15

    A checklist of earthworm species hitherto known from Kerala, a constituent of the Western Ghats biodiversity hotspot in India, is presented. In total, 88 species and subspecies are recorded, of which 55 are Kerala endemics, 9 near endemics, 14 exotics and 10 native peregrines. These belong to 26 genera and 9 families. The checklist includes the literature citation to the original description, type locality, any significant subsequent generic placements, and the district distributional pattern for each species/ subspecies.

  9. A contribution to the bryoflora of the Western Ghats in Karnataka State, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwarz Uwe

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on fieldtrips of the authors in 2012, a list of species collected in a small area of the Western Ghats (Coorg District, state of Karnataka is presented. It includes 18 species of liverworts and hornworts as well as 76 species of mosses. 27 species of mosses are newly reported for the state of Karnataka, 6 species are new for Coorg province. Holomitrium javanicum Dozy & Molk. is reported as new to India. Campylopus sedgwickii Dix. described from Sri Lanka and so far only known from the type locality is a new synonym of C. recurvus Mitt. The list gives a rough inventory of the bryoflora in altitudes between 900 m and 1750 m and can be regarded as typical for the northern Western Ghats.

  10. Evidence of late Palaeocene-early Eocene equatorial rain forest refugia in southern Western Ghats, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, V; Farooqui, A; Tripathi, S K M; Garg, R; Thakur, B

    2009-11-01

    Equatorial rain forests that maintain a balance between speciation and extinction are hot-spots for studies of biodiversity. Western Ghats in southern India have gained attention due to high tropical biodiversity and endemism in their southern most area. We attempted to track the affinities of the pollen fl ora of the endemic plants of Western Ghat area within the fossil palynoflora of late Palaeocene-early Eocene (approximately 55-50 Ma) sedimentary deposits of western and northeastern Indian region. The study shows striking similarity of extant pollen with twenty eight most common fossil pollen taxa of the early Palaeogene. Widespread occurrences of coal and lignite deposits during early Palaeogene provide evidence of existence of well diversified rain forest community and swampy vegetation in the coastal low lying areas all along the western and northeastern margins of the Indian subcontinent. Prevalence of excessive humid climate during this period has been seen as a result of equatorial positioning of Indian subcontinent, superimposed by a long term global warming phase (PETM and EECO) during the early Palaeogene. The study presents clear evidence that highly diversifi ed equatorial rain forest vegetation once widespread in the Indian subcontinent during early Palaeogene times, are now restricted in a small area as a refugia in the southernmost part of the Western Ghat area. High precipitation and shorter periods of dry months seem to have provided suitable environment to sustain lineages of ancient tropical vegetation in this area of Western Ghats in spite of dramatic climatic changes subsequent to the post India-Asia collision and during the Quaternary and Recent times.

  11. Endophytic Fungal Diversity in Medicinal Plants of Western Ghats, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monnanda Somaiah Nalini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Endophytes constitute an important component of microbial diversity, and in the present investigation, seven plant species with rich ethnobotanical uses representing six families were analyzed for the presence of endophytic fungi from their natural habitats during monsoon (May/June and winter (November/December seasons of 2007. Fungal endophytes were isolated from healthy plant parts such as stem, root, rhizome, and inflorescence employing standard isolation methods. One thousand five hundred and twenty-nine fungal isolates were obtained from 5200 fragments. Stem fragments harbored more endophytes (80.37% than roots (19.22%. 31 fungal taxa comprised of coelomycetes (65%, hyphomycetes (32%, and ascomycetes (3%. Fusarium, Acremonium, Colletotrichum, Chaetomium, Myrothecium, Phomopsis, and Pestalotiopsis spp. were commonly isolated. Diversity indices differed significantly between the seasons (P<0.001. Species richness was greater for monsoon isolations than winter. Host specificity was observed for few fungal endophytes. UPGMA cluster analysis grouped the endophytes into distinct clusters on the basis of genetic distance. This study is the first report on the diversity and host-specificity of endophytic fungal taxa were from the semi evergreen forest type in Talacauvery subcluster of Western Ghats.

  12. Biochemical composition of two giant pill-millipedes of the Western Ghats of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambarish Cheviri N.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Many invertebrates have an unexpected nutraceutical potential and are of nutritional or ethnomedicinal significance to many tribals throughout the world. The giant pill-millipedes of the genus Arthrosphaera are traditionally used as natural medicines by tribals in the Western Ghats of India. In this study, two species of pill-millipedes (Arthrosphaera fumosa and A. magna were subjected to proximate and biochemical analysis to ascertain their nutritional potential. Bodies of A. fumosa and A. magna (after removal of their intestines had a low protein content (8-15% and high quantity of carbohydrates (40-41%. They were rich in many essential elements, especially in calcium. The essential amino acids of pillmillipedes were in high quantities. The level of glycine was the highest, followed by lysine and serine. The fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs of males and females consist of high quantities of unsaturated fatty acids. The mono-unsaturated fatty acids were more abundant than poly-unsaturated fatty acids. Palmitic and oleic acids were dominant saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, respectively. The study has revealed for the first time that pill-millipedes of the Western Ghats of India constitute a good source of essential minerals, essential fatty acids, and essential amino acids. Being valuable contributors of organic manure by processing recalcitrant plant lignocellulosic wastes, pill-millipedes become part and parcel of organic farming as well as future nutraceutical sources.

  13. Alkaline intrusion in a granulite ensemble in the Eastern Ghats belt ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    and west respectively, could be described in terms of three ... Additionally, a transition zone occurs along a sig- ..... zones; (b) Poles to S1 in khondalite of location 55 (see figure 2), depicting a great circle distribution; pole to the great ... On the collision of the Eastern Ghats ... would be expected if a plate moved over a plume.

  14. Geology and geochemistry of the Middle Proterozoic Eastern Ghat mobile belt and its comparison with the lower crust of the Southern Peninsular shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, M. V. Subba

    1988-01-01

    Two prominent rock suites constitute the lithology of the Eastern Ghat mobile belt: (1) the khondalite suite - the metapelites, and (2) the charnockite suite. Later intrusives include ultramafic sequences, anorthosites and granitic gneisses. The chief structural element in the rocks of the Eastern Ghats is a planar fabric (gneissosity), defined by the alignment of platy minerals like flattened quartz, garnet, sillimanite, graphite, etc. The parallelism between the foliation and the lithological layering is related to isoclinal folding. The major structural trend (axial plane foliation trend) observed in the belt is NE-SW. Five major tectonic events have been delineated in the belt. A boundary fault along the western margin of the Eastern Ghats, bordering the low grade terrain has been substantiated by recent gravity and the deep seismic sounding studies. Field evidence shows that the pyroxene granulites (basic granulites) post-date the khondalite suite, but are older than the charnockites as well as the granitic gneisses. Polyphase metamorphism, probably correlatable with different periods of deformation is recorded. The field relations in the Eastern Ghats point to the intense deformation of the terrain, apparently both before, during and after metamorphism.

  15. A new large trapdoor spider species of the genus Heligmomerus Simon 1892 (Araneae, Mygalomorphae, Idiopidae from Western Ghats, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh V. Sanap

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A new species of trapdoor spider, Heligmomerus maximus sp. nov. is described from southern Western Ghats of Kerala state, India. The new species differs from known species of the genus from India and Sri Lanka in possessing a band of thorn-like spinules on coxa IV. Moreover it is the largest species of the genus with adult females reaching a length up to 32 mm and the burrows are shallow compared with other species of the genus.

  16. Tree species diversity in the Eastern Ghats of northern Andhra Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tarakeswara Naidu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to analyze tree species diversity in the tropical forests of the Eastern Ghats of northern Andhra Pradesh, India.  A total of 270 species of trees (≥15cm girth at breast height pertaining to 177 genera belonging to 55 families were recorded.  Among the 270 species, 141 species were observed to be common, 78 were occasional and 51 species were rare in the study area.  Fabaceae was the dominant family with 33 species followed by Rubiaceae with 15 species and Malvaceae, Moraceae and Phyllanthaceae with 13 species each.  The genera with the highest number of species include Ficus (12 species, Diospyros (8 species, Albizia and Grewia (6 species each, Acacia and Bauhinia (5 species each.  Forty-five percent of the species were indigenous. This illustrates the diversity of the tree species in the studied area of the Eastern Ghats and also emphasizes the need for their conservation. 

  17. Crocodilian Nest in a Late Cretaceous Sauropod Hatchery from the Type Lameta Ghat Locality, Jabalpur, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Srivastava

    Full Text Available The well-known Late Cretaceous Lameta Ghat locality (Jabalpur, India provides a window of opportunity to study a large stable, near shore sandy beach, which was widely used by sauropod dinosaurs as a hatchery. In this paper, we revisit the eggs and eggshell fragments previously assigned to lizards from this locality and reassign them to crocodylomorphs. Several features point to a crocodilian affinity, including a subspherical to ellipsoidal shape, smooth, uneven external surface, discrete trapezoid shaped shell units with wide top and narrow base, basal knobs and wedge shaped crystallites showing typical inverted triangular extinction under crossed nicols. The crocodylomorph eggshell material presented in this paper adds to the skeletal data of these most probably Cretaceous-Eocene dryosaurid crocodiles.

  18. CEPF Western Ghats Special Series : Diversity and distribution of anurans in Phansad Wildlife Sanctuary (PWS, northern Western Ghats of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Katwate

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In global consequences of rapidly changing climate and increased amphibian population decline, mapping amphibian diversity in biodiversity hotspots is essential. In this study we have systematically studied anurans of Phansad Wildlife Sanctuary in terms of species diversity, population structure, threat status and distribution. We recorded a total of 22 anuran species, of which 11 species are endemic to Western Ghats biodiversity hotspot. Family Dicroglossidae was found to be more species-rich. Spatial and temporal variation in anuran diversity was observed by using Shannon diversity and evenness indices. Most of the endemic and threatened anuran species are found to be associated with evergreen undisturbed forest patches. Habitat parameters like humidity, forest type, canopy coverage, riparian canopy coverage, stream persistence and litter depth are found to be major variables governing species diversity and distribution. Major anthropogenic threats to amphibians of Phansad Wildlife Sanctuary are discussed along with future conservation objectives. With range extension of species like Fejervarya caperata and Minervarya sahyadris further north in the Western Ghats, taxonomic ambiguities recorded during study are discussed briefly.

  19. Water-borne hyphomycetes in tree canopies of Kaiga (Western Ghats, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naga M. Sudheep

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The canopy samples such as trapped leaf litter, trapped sediment (during summer, stemflow and throughfall (during monsoon from five common riparian tree species (Artocarpus heterophyllus, Cassia fistula, Ficus recemosa, Syzygium caryophyllatum and Xylia xylocarpa in Kaiga forest stand of the Western Ghats of southwest India were evaluated for the occurrence of water-borne hyphomycetes. Partially decomposed trapped leaf litter was incubated in bubble chambers followed by filtration to assess conidial output. Sediments accumulated in tree holes or junction of branches were shaken with sterile leaf disks in distilled water followed by incubation of leaf disks in bubble chamber and filtration to find out colonized fungi. Stemflow and throughfall samples were filtered directly to collect free conidia. From five canopy niches, a total of 29 water-borne hyphomycetes were recovered. The species richness was higher in stemflow and throughfall than trapped leaf litter and sediments (14-16 vs. 6-10 species. Although sediments of Syzygium caryophyllatum were acidic (5.1, the conidial output was higher than other tree species. Stemflow and throughfall of Xylea xylocarpa even though alkaline (8.5-8.7 showed higher species richness (6-12 species as well as conidial load than rest of the tree species. Flagellospora curvula and Triscelophorus acuminatus were common in trapped leaf litter and sediments respectively, while conidia of Anguillospora crassa and A. longissima were frequent in stemflow and throughfall. Diversity of water-borne hyphomycetes was highest in throughfall of Xylea xylocarpa followed by throughfall of Ficus recemosa. Our study reconfirms the occurrence and survival of diverse water-borne hyphomycetes in different niches of riparian tree canopies of the Western Ghats during wet and dry regimes and predicts their possible role in canopy as saprophytes, endophytes and alternation of life cycle between canopy and aquatic habitats.

  20. Time-related variation of volatile contents of Western Ghats volcanic formations, Deccan, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzoli, Andrea; Callegaro, Sara; Baker, Don R.; De Min, Angelo; Renne, Paul R.

    2016-04-01

    Deccan volcanism in India covered more than 1 million square km and reached a maximum thickness of about 3 km, as presently preserved in the Western Ghats volcanic lava piles. Volcanic activity started at about 66.4 Ma (Jawhar formation) and ended at about 65.5 Ma (Mahabaleshwar unit; Renne et al., 2015). Deccan volcanism straddled the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary (ca. 66.0 Ma) and possibly contributed to the end-Cretaceous mass extinction event through emission of gases such as SO2, CO2, Cl, F that may have triggered global climate changes. Severe pollution by volcanic gases is supported by the high S and Cl contents (up to 1400 and up to 900 ppm, respectively; Self et al., 2008) measured in a few olivine- and plagioclase-hosted melt inclusions from the Jawhar, Neral, and Thakurvadi Formations (early lava flows, ca. 66.3-66.4 ± 0.1 Ma; Renne et al., 2015) and by magmatic S contents (up to 1800 ppm; Callegaro et al., 2014) calculated from S measurements in clinopyroxenes from the Mahabaleshwar unit (ca. 65.5 ± 0.1; Schoene et al., 2015). Here, we present new analyses of S, Cl, and F, obtained by ion-probe and synchrotron light micro-fluorescence analyses on clinopyroxenes and plagioclase phenocrysts from ?al? lava flow units of the Western Ghats. The volatile contents of the host magmas have been calculated from recently published clinopyroxene/basalt partition coefficients. These new data will describe the time-related variation of volatile elements hosted and eventually emitted by Deccan lavas and shed light on their environmental impact. References: Callegaro S. et al. (2014). Geology 42, 895-898. Renne P.R. et al. (2015). Science 350, 76-78. Schoene B. et al. (2015). Science 347, 192-184. Self S. et al. (2008). Science 319, 1654-1657.

  1. Critical Analysis of Forest Degradation in the Southern Eastern Ghats of India: Comparison of Satellite Imagery and Soil Quality Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Andimuthu; Radhapriya, Parthasarathy; Jayakumar, Shanmuganathan; Dhanya, Praveen; Geetha, Rajadurai

    2016-01-01

    India has one of the largest assemblages of tropical biodiversity, with its unique floristic composition of endemic species. However, current forest cover assessment is performed via satellite-based forest surveys, which have many limitations. The present study, which was performed in the Eastern Ghats, analysed the satellite-based inventory provided by forest surveys and inferred from the results that this process no longer provides adequate information for quantifying forest degradation in an empirical manner. The study analysed 21 soil properties and generated a forest soil quality index of the Eastern Ghats, using principal component analysis. Using matrix modules and geospatial technology, we compared the forest degradation status calculated from satellite-based forest surveys with the degradation status calculated from the forest soil quality index. The Forest Survey of India classified about 1.8% of the Eastern Ghats' total area as degraded forests and the remainder (98.2%) as open, dense, and very dense forests, whereas the soil quality index results found that about 42.4% of the total area is degraded, with the remainder (57.6%) being non-degraded. Our ground truth verification analyses indicate that the forest soil quality index along with the forest cover density data from the Forest Survey of India are ideal tools for evaluating forest degradation.

  2. CEPF Western Ghats Special Series: Freshwater fish fauna of Krishna River at Wai, northern Western Ghats, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S. Kharat

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater fish fauna of the Krishna River at Wai, and the Dhom reservoir upstream of Wai, was studied. Fifty one species belonging to 14 families and 33 genera were recorded; 13 endemic to the Western Ghats and two to the Krishna River system. Moderate to rare populations were found for six globally threatened species: Gonoproktopterus curmuca, Labeo potail, Schismatorhynchos nukta, Tor khudree, T. mussullah and Parapsilorhynchus discophorus. Fish in this area are under threat due to two introduced species and five transplanted species, and due to other anthropogenic activities such as overfishing and organic and inorganic pollution of the river. Site based conservation action plans are needed for conservation of rare and threatened fish in this area.

  3. Ethnomedicinal assessment of Irula tribes of Walayar valley of Southern Western Ghats, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjunan Venkatachalapathi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to explore the traditional knowledge of Irula tribal people who are practicing herbal medicine in Walayar valley, the Southern Western Ghats, India. A total number of 146 species of plants distributed in 122 genera belonging to 58 families were identified as commonly used ethnomedicinal plants by them. Interestingly, 26 new claims were also made in the present study. Through the data obtained from Irula tribal healers, the herbs were mostly used for medicine (40.4% followed by trees (26.7% and climbers (18.5%. In addition leaves were highly used for medicinal purposes, collected from 55 species (38% followed by multiple parts from 18 species (12%. Acorus calamus is the species of higher use value (1.80 assessed to be prescribed most commonly for the treatment of cough. High informant consensus factor (1.0 obtained for insecticidal uses and cooling agent indicates that the usage of Canarium strictum and Melia dubia, and Mimosa pudica and Sesamum indicum respectively for that purposes had obtained high degree of agreement among the healers in using these species for the respective purposes. The most commonly used method of preparation was decoction (63% followed by raw form (23%, paste (12% and powder (2%. Therefore, it is suggested to take-up pharmacological and phytochemical studies to evaluate the species to confirm the traditional knowledge of Irulas on medicinal plants. Keywords: Ethnobotanical surveys, Irula tribes, India

  4. Belt reconditioning plant in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasturi, T.S.; Lachmann, H.P.

    1981-05-01

    The article should be seen under the aspect that mining operations in the developing countries, as e.g. India, are on the one hand equipped with the latest machinery but on the other hand, they are still in their infancy as far as handling their equipment, above all with regard to mechanical handling and the related technology. In other words, they find themselves having to run to catch up with modern technology without really having learned to walk properly. In this connection, however, it is remarkable how successfully problems can be tackled and resolved using a certain amount of improvisation in spite of the fact that the starting points we are accustomed to such as experience, trained personnel and established conditions are lacking there.

  5. Indirana chiravasi, a new species of Leaping Frog (Anura: Ranixalidae from Western Ghats of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.D. Padhye

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Indirana chiravasi, a new species of leaping frog is described from the northern Western Ghats around Amboli, Sindhudurg District, Maharashtra, India. It differs from all its congeners based on a combination of characters including presence of median single internal vocal sac, head longer than wide, distinct canthus rostralis, tympanum 2/3rd to 3/4th the diameter of eye, vomerine teeth in two oblique series at the posterior border of choanae, long midventral lingual papilla, first finger longer than or equal to second, presence of double outer palmer tubercle, thin and elongated inner metatarsal tubercle, absence of outer metatarsal tubercle, webbing moderate, dorsal skin with glandular folds but without warts, ventral skin smooth without mottling and palms and soles dark brown. Molecular analysis based on mitochondrial 12S and 16S genes and nuclear rhodopsin and rag1 genes suggests that the species is genetically distinct from other species for which genetic data is available. Preliminary observations on the development of the species are also provided. We also provide genetic data and images for Indirana gundia collected from the type locality.

  6. Tree diversity in the tropical dry forest of Bannerghatta National Park in Eastern Ghats, Southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopalakrishna S. Puttakame

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Tree species inventories, particularly of poorly known dry deciduous forests, are needed to protect and restore forests in degraded landscapes. A study of forest stand structure, and species diversity and density of trees with girth at breast height (GBH ≥10 cm was conducted in four management zones of Bannerghatta National Park (BNP in the Eastern Ghats of Southern India. We identified 128 tree species belonging to 45 families in 7.9 hectares. However, 44 species were represented by ≤ 2 individuals. Mean diversity values per site for the dry forest of BNP were: tree composition (23.8 ±7.6, plant density (100.69 ± 40.02, species diversity (2.56 ± 0.44 and species richness (10.48 ± 4.05. Tree diversity was not significantly different (P>0.05 across the four management zones in the park. However, the number of tree species identified significantly (P<0.05 increased with increasing number of sampling sites, but majority of the species were captured. Similarly, there were significant variations (p<0.05 between tree diameter class distributions. Juveniles accounted for 87% of the tree population. The structure of the forest was not homogeneous, with sections ranging from poorly structured to highly stratified configurations. The study suggests that there was moderate tree diversity in the tropical dry thorn forest of Bannerghatta National Park, but the forest was relatively young.

  7. Quantitative Structure and Composition of Tropical Forests of Mudumalai Wildlife Sanctuary, Western Ghats, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Sudhakar Reddy

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with the assessment of quantitative structure and floristic composition of tropical forests of Mudumalai Wildlife Sanctuary, Western Ghats, India. Forest structure was analyzed across girth classes and height intervals. Altogether 156 tree species were analyzed. Vegetation type-wise Importance Value Index, Shannon-Weiner index, Simpson index, Margalef’s index and Pielou Index were calculated. The tree stand density varies from 112-406.8 ha-1 with the average basal area of 26.25m2/ha-1. Shannon-Weiner Index (H' ranges from 3.94-4.90. The Simpson Index of dominance varies from 0.86-0.94. The Margalef Species Richness Index varies from 4.61-8.31.The population density of tree species across girth class intervals shows that 65.4% and 36.4% of individuals belong to 30-60 cm gbh. Tree distribution by height class intervals shows that around 28.7% of individuals are in the height class of 20-25m, followed by 24.4% in the height of 15-20m, whereas 3.37% of individuals are in the height class of >30m.

  8. Critical Analysis of Forest Degradation in the Southern Eastern Ghats of India: Comparison of Satellite Imagery and Soil Quality Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Andimuthu; Radhapriya, Parthasarathy; Jayakumar, Shanmuganathan; Dhanya, Praveen; Geetha, Rajadurai

    2016-01-01

    India has one of the largest assemblages of tropical biodiversity, with its unique floristic composition of endemic species. However, current forest cover assessment is performed via satellite-based forest surveys, which have many limitations. The present study, which was performed in the Eastern Ghats, analysed the satellite-based inventory provided by forest surveys and inferred from the results that this process no longer provides adequate information for quantifying forest degradation in an empirical manner. The study analysed 21 soil properties and generated a forest soil quality index of the Eastern Ghats, using principal component analysis. Using matrix modules and geospatial technology, we compared the forest degradation status calculated from satellite-based forest surveys with the degradation status calculated from the forest soil quality index. The Forest Survey of India classified about 1.8% of the Eastern Ghats’ total area as degraded forests and the remainder (98.2%) as open, dense, and very dense forests, whereas the soil quality index results found that about 42.4% of the total area is degraded, with the remainder (57.6%) being non-degraded. Our ground truth verification analyses indicate that the forest soil quality index along with the forest cover density data from the Forest Survey of India are ideal tools for evaluating forest degradation. PMID:26812397

  9. Habitat monitoring and conservation prioritisation of protected areas in Western Ghats, Kerala, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athira, K; Reddy, C Sudhakar; Saranya, K R L; Joseph, Shijo; Jaishanker, R

    2017-06-01

    Spatially explicit approach is essential to prioritise the ecosystems for biodiversity conservation. In the present study, the conservation status of 20 protected areas of the Western Ghats of Kerala, India, was analysed based on long-term changes in forests (1975-1985-1995-2005-2013), landscape level changes in fragmentation and forest fires (2005-2015). This study has shown that a significant forest loss occurred in protected areas before declaration. Idukki is one of the major protected areas which showed a drastic reduction (18.83%) in its forest cover. During 1985-1995, Periyar tiger reserve had lost 24.19 km 2 core 3 forest area followed by Peppara (18.54 km 2 ), Parambikulam (17.93 km 2 ), Chimmony (17.71 km 2 ), Peechi-Vazhani (12.31 km 2 ) and Neyyar (11.67 km 2 ). An area of 71.33 km 2 of the protected area was affected by fires in 2014. Overall protected area-wise decadal analysis indicates Periyar has the highest number of fire incidences followed by Wayanad, Kurinjimala, Silent Valley and Eravikulam. Disturbances in the form of fires and fragmentation still exist and may have significant conservation threat to flora and fauna. Among protected areas, many are having a probability to go under threat or dynamic stage. Chinnar, Thattekkad and Kurinjimala sanctuaries are representing high levels of vulnerability, or they are near to decline stage. Habitat level monitoring of the anthropogenic disturbances can be efficiently useful for the strategic conservation planning. The present study has provided geospatial database on spatial patterns of deforestation, fragmentation and forest fires in protected areas of Kerala. Conservation prioritization approach based on these parameters will be useful for the strategic planning in the state of Kerala.

  10. The Role of Informal Protected Areas in Maintaining Biodiversity in the Western Ghats of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shonil A. Bhagwat

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Although it is widely believed that an important function of protected areas is to conserve species that are unable to survive elsewhere, there are very few empirical studies in which a comparison is made between biodiversity of protected areas and that of the cultivated landscape surrounding them. We examined the diversity of trees, birds, and macrofungi at 58 sites in three land-use types in a tree-covered landscape in Kodagu district in the Western Ghats of India. Ten forest reserve sites in the formal protected area, and 25 sacred groves and 23 coffee plantations in the neighboring cultivated landscape were sampled. A total of 215 tree, 86 bird, and 163 macrofungus species were recorded. The forest reserve had a large number of trees that were restricted in their distribution, and the sacred groves had a large number of macrofungi. We observed that deciduous trees and non-forest-dwelling birds increased, and evergreen trees and forest-dwelling birds decreased with increasing intensity of land management. We found that trees having non-timber uses and macrofungi useful to the local people, as well as those with medicinal properties, were abundant in sacred groves. We found no significant differences in the distribution of endemic and threatened birds across the three land-use types. Although endemic trees were more abundant in the forest reserve than in sacred groves, threatened trees were more abundant in sacred groves than in the forest reserve. We attribute the high diversity in sacred groves to the native tree cover in shade coffee plantations. We conclude that informal protected areas are as important as formal ones for biodiversity conservation in Kodagu. We recommend that a conservation strategy that recognizes informal protection traditions is essential for successful biodiversity conservation in regions where formal reserves are surrounded by a matrix of cultivated land.

  11. Total polyphenolic contents and in vitro antioxidant properties of eight Sida species from Western Ghats, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanya, M D; Pai, Sandeep R; Upadhya, Vinayak; Ankad, Gireesh M; Bhagwat, Shalini S; Hegde, Harsha V

    2015-01-01

    Sida L., is a medicinally important genus, the species of which are widely used in traditional systems of medicine in India. Pharmacologically, roots are known for anti-tumor, anti-HIV, hepatoprotective, and many other properties. Phenolic antioxidants help in reducing oxidative stress occurring during treatment of such diseases. The study aimed to evaluate and compare polyphenol contents and antioxidant properties of eight selected species of Sida from Western Ghats, India. Methanolic root extracts (10% w/v) of Sida species, viz., S. acuta, S. cordata, S. cordifolia, S. indica, S. mysorensis, S. retusa, S. rhombifolia, and S. spinosa were analyzed. Sida cordifolia possessed highest total phenolic content (TPC: 1.92 ± 0.10 mg Caffeic Acid Equivalent/g and 2.13 ± 0.11 mg Tannic Acid Equivalant/g), total flavonoid content (TF: 2.60 ± 0.13 mg Quercetin Equivalent/g) and also possessed highest antioxidant activities in 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging (51.31 ± 2.57% Radical Scavenging Activity, (RSA); Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity: 566.25 ± 28.31μM; Ascorbic acid Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity: 477.80 ± 23.89 μM) and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power assays (TEAC: 590.67 ± 29.53 μM; AEAC: 600.67 ± 30.03 μM). Unlike DPPH and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) activity, 2, 2'-Azinobis (3-ethyl Benzo Thiazoline-6-Sulfonic acid) ABTS(+) antioxidant activity was highest in S. indica (TEAC: 878.44 ± 43.92 μM; AEAC 968.44 ± 48.42 μM). It was significant to note that values of AEAC (μM) for all the antioxidant activities analyzed were higher than that of TEAC. The high contents of phenolic compounds in the root extracts of selected Sida species have direct correlation with their antioxidant properties. Conclusively, roots of S. cordifolia can be considered as the potential source of polyphenols and antioxidants.

  12. Total polyphenolic contents and in vitro antioxidant properties of eight Sida species from Western Ghats, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M D Subramanya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sida L., is a medicinally important genus, the species of which are widely used in traditional systems of medicine in India. Pharmacologically, roots are known for anti-tumor, anti-HIV, hepatoprotective, and many other properties. Phenolic antioxidants help in reducing oxidative stress occurring during treatment of such diseases. Objective: The study aimed to evaluate and compare polyphenol contents and antioxidant properties of eight selected species of Sida from Western Ghats, India. Materials and Methods: Methanolic root extracts (10% w/v of Sida species, viz., S. acuta, S. cordata, S. cordifolia, S. indica, S. mysorensis, S. retusa, S. rhombifolia, and S. spinosa were analyzed. Results: Sida cordifolia possessed highest total phenolic content (TPC: 1.92 ± 0.10 mg Caffeic Acid Equivalent/g and 2.13 ± 0.11 mg Tannic Acid Equivalant/g, total flavonoid content (TF: 2.60 ± 0.13 mg Quercetin Equivalent/g and also possessed highest antioxidant activities in 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging (51.31 ± 2.57% Radical Scavenging Activity, (RSA; Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity: 566.25 ± 28.31μM; Ascorbic acid Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity: 477.80 ± 23.89 μM and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power assays (TEAC: 590.67 ± 29.53 μM; AEAC: 600.67 ± 30.03 μM. Unlike DPPH and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP activity, 2, 2Ͳ-Azinobis (3-ethyl Benzo Thiazoline-6-Sulfonic acid ABTS + antioxidant activity was highest in S. indica (TEAC: 878.44 ± 43.92 μM; AEAC 968.44 ± 48.42 μM. It was significant to note that values of AEAC (μM for all the antioxidant activities analyzed were higher than that of TEAC. Conclusion: The high contents of phenolic compounds in the root extracts of selected Sida species have direct correlation with their antioxidant properties. Conclusively, roots of S. cordifolia can be considered as the potential source of polyphenols and antioxidants.

  13. CEPF Western Ghats Special Series : Parasitoids (Hymenoptera of xylophagous beetles (Coleoptera attacking dead wood in southern Western Ghats, Kerala, India, with descriptions of two new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.M. Sureshan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available An account is given of four species of Hymenoptera parasitoids probably of the wood boring beetle Clytocera chinospila Gahan (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae from Chinnar Wildlife Sanctuary, southern Western Ghats, Kerala. Two new hymenopteran species, Eurytoma chinnarensis (Eurytomidae and Foenatopus idukkiensis (Stephanidae are described. Solenura ania Walker (Pteromalidae is reported for the first time from Kerala and Western Ghats with a new host record, and Doryctus sp. (Braconidae is reported here.

  14. Odonata (Insecta diversity of Chinnar Wildlife Sanctuary, the southern Western Ghats, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.K. Adarsh

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted at Chinnar Wildlife Sanctuary, Idukki District, Kerala, the southern Western Ghats, to assess the diversity of odonates. We report 48 species of odonates, which include 31 species of Anisoptera (dragonflies and 17 species of Zygoptera (damselflies. Among the dragonflies, the family Libellulidae dominated with 25 species, while Coenagrionidae with seven species was the dominant family among the damselflies. The odonate diversity of Chinnar WS accounted for 31.16 % of the odonates in Kerala and 27.58% of the odonates of the Western Ghats. Chinnar also recorded two species of odonates that are endemic to the Western Ghats, which are, the Pied Reed Tail Protosticta gravelyi and the Travancore Bamboo Tail Esme mudiensis.

  15. A report of an aquatic beetle Eretes griseus (Fabricius, 1781 (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae: Dytiscinae: Eretini from the Western Ghats and other parts of Maharashtra, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayali D. Sheth

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This note is the first authentic record of the dytiscid species Eretes griseus (Fabricius, 1781 from the Western Ghats of Maharashtra, India. It was found only from three localities (essentially isolated temporary pools out of 50+ localities sampled so far in the year 2013-2014. We provide light microscopic images of the habitus, SEM images of important diagnostic characteristics and also clarify the status and distribution of this species in India

  16. Phytochemicals of selected plant species of the Apocynaceae and Asclepiadaceae from Western Ghats, Tamil Nadu, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    A concern about the declining supply of petroleum products has led to a renewed interest in evaluating plant species as potential alternate sources of energy. Five species of the Apocynaceae and three species of the Asclepiadaceae from the Western Ghats were evaluated as alternative sources of energ...

  17. Effect of Anthropogenic Activities on Patterns of Genetic Diversity in Symplocos racemosa Roxb. from Western Ghats, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Banu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Western Ghats (WG in India is recognized as one of the global biodiversity hotspots which have high proportion of endemic species and the medicinally important tree species. Due to medicinal importance and being found on the forest fringes, Symplocos racemosa Roxb. is highly susceptible to anthropogenic activities. The present study was undertaken to systematically analyze the effects of anthropogenic activities on the genetic diversity and population structure of S. racemosa and to generate preliminary data for conservation purposes. We analyzed the variation in intergenic sequences of chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes from seven sites of S. racemosa sampled from protected, semiprotected, and disturbed areas of WG. Total diversity was high although within-sites diversity was low. The protected sites were highly diverse, while the disturbed areas possessed less genetic diversity indicating the effect of anthropogenic activities.

  18. CEPF Western Ghats Special Series: Moolah, misfortune or spinsterhood? The plight of Slender Loris Loris lydekkerianus in southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kanagavel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this communication, we document the local knowledge, attitudes and perceptions of slender lorises among the indigenous Kani community in the southern Western Ghats; document new records of Loris lydekkerianus lydekkerianus in the Agasthyamalai Hills; and discuss in detail a poorly known threat to these primates. Although not kept as pets due to their physical appearance, and belief that they would bring bad luck, the Kani community however captured slender lorises for wildlife photographers. Similar instances of loris abuse in various parts of south India were revealed upon analyzing photographs from a popular internet-based wildlife photography site. We recommend that strict guidelines be formulated for photographing lorises, and suggest that novel and ethical tourism initiatives be set up involving local communities to cater to wildlife photographers and tourists.

  19. Producing diversity: Agroforests Sustain Avian Richness and Abundance in India's Western Ghats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krithi K Karanth

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Globally, protected areas have long been the corner stone of biodiversity conservation efforts. In India’s Western Ghats, small and isolated protected areas are embedded in a matrix of multiple land-uses, most of which include agroforests. These agroforests are being increasingly recognized for their supplementary role in conserving wildlife. We examined bird species richness and densities in areca (Areca catechu, coffee (Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora and rubber (Hevea brasiliensis agroforests in the Western Ghats. We developed a priori hypotheses, predicting that bird species richness and guild density would be highest in coffee, followed by areca and rubber agroforests. We carried out 551 point-count surveys involving 386 hours of sampling in 187 agroforests across a 29,634 km2 area of the Ghats. We observed 204 bird species, of which 170 were residents. The average estimated richness per agroforest was higher in coffee (60.5 compared to rubber (45.4 and areca (34.1. We modeled species richness as a function of relevant biogeographic and environmental covariates. The most influential factors were tree cover, tree density and rainfall in all agroforests, but the strength of these effects varied. Coffee supported higher densities in all four habitat and three feeding guilds compared to areca and rubber. We integrated extensive field sampling with modeling that accounted for imperfect detection, while assessing bird richness and densities across multiple agroforest types. We establish that coffee agroforests are substantially richer in birds than rubber and areca, but all three agroforests play an important role in providing subsidiary habitats for birds in the Ghats. Policy decisions and markets must incorporate such biodiversity values and services provided by these agroforests to sustain and facilitate long-term biodiversity conservation.

  20. Uptake of some radionuclides by woody plants growing in the rainforest of Western Ghats in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manigandan, P.K.; Chandar Shekar, B.

    2014-01-01

    Transfer of the naturally occurring radionuclides 238 U, 232 Th, and 40 K, and the fallout radionuclide 210 Po to different wild plant species in the rainforest of Western Ghats was analyzed. A number of physiologically different plants from the top storey and understorey, such as shrubs and epiphytes, were compared. The concentrations of these radionuclides in the plants and soil were measured using a gamma ray spectrometer and an alpha counter, and were found to vary widely within plants and between species. The soil-plant ratios also varied between species while Elaeocarpus oblongus and epiphytic plants exhibited preferential uptake of these radionuclides. As a result, the dust particles trapped in the root systems of epiphytes could be used as bioindicators of fallout radionuclides in the Western Ghats. - Highlights: • Predominant plants species of the region were selected for analysis. • CR Model was employed to these plants spices. • Two plants were indicated preferential uptake of these radionuclides. • Bioindicator was identified in the Western Ghats Environment

  1. Impact of Dams on Riparian Frog Communities in the Southern Western Ghats, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit Naniwadekar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The Western Ghats is a global biodiversity hotspot and home to diverse and unique assemblages of amphibians. Several rivers originate from these mountains and hydropower is being tapped from them. The impacts of hydrological regulation of riparian ecosystems to wildlife and its habitat are poorly documented, and in particular the fate of frog populations is unknown. We examined the effects of dams on riparian frog communities in the Thamirabarani catchment in southern Western Ghats. We used nocturnal visual encounter surveys constrained for time, to document the species richness of frogs below and above the dam, and also at control sites in the same catchment. While we did not find differences in species richness below and above the dams, the frog community composition was significantly altered as a likely consequence of altered flow regime. The frog species compositions in control sites were similar to above-dam sites. Below-dam sites had a distinctly different species composition. Select endemic frog species appeared to be adversely impacted due to the dams. Below-dam sites had a greater proportion of generalist and widely distributed species. Dams in the Western Ghats appeared to adversely impact population of endemic species, particularly those belonging to the genus Nyctibatrachus that shows specialization for intact streams.

  2. Root reinforcement and its contribution to slope stability in the Western Ghats of Kerala, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukose Kuriakose, Sekhar; van Beek, L. P. H.

    2010-05-01

    The Western Ghats of Kerala, India is prone to shallow landslides and consequent debris flows. An earlier study (Kuriakose et al., DOI:10.1002/esp.1794) with limited data had already demonstrated the possible effects of vegetation on slope hydrology and stability. Spatially distributed root cohesion is one of the most important data necessary to assess the effects of anthropogenic disturbances on the probability of shallow landslide initiation, results of which are reported in sessions GM6.1 and HS13.13/NH3.16. Thus it is necessary to the know the upper limits of reinforcement that the roots are able to provide and its spatial and vertical distribution in such an anthropogenically intervened terrain. Root tensile strength and root pull out tests were conducted on nine species of plants that are commonly found in the region. They are 1) Rubber (Hevea Brasiliensis), 2) Coconut Palm (Cocos nucifera), 3) Jackfruit trees (Artocarpus heterophyllus), 4) Teak (Tectona grandis), 5) Mango trees (Mangifera indica), 6) Lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus), 7) Gambooge (Garcinia gummi-gutta), 8) Coffee (Coffea Arabica) and 9) Tea (Camellia sinensis). About 1500 samples were collected of which only 380 could be tested (in the laboratory) due to breakage of roots during the tests. In the successful tests roots failed in tension. Roots having diameters between 2 mm and 12 mm were tested. Each sample tested had a length of 15 cm. Root pull out tests were conducted in the field. Root tensile strength vs root diameter, root pull out strength vs diameter, root diameter vs root depth and root count vs root depth relationships were derived. Root cohesion was computed for nine most dominant plants in the region using the perpendicular root model of Wu et al. (1979) modified by Schimidt et al. (2001). A soil depth map was derived using regression kriging as suggested by Kuriakose et al., (doi:10.1016/j.catena.2009.05.005) and used along with the land use map of 2008 to distribute the

  3. Genetic structure and demographic history of the endangered tree species Dysoxylum malabaricum (Meliaceae) in Western Ghats, India: implications for conservation in a biodiversity hotspot

    OpenAIRE

    Bodare, Sofia; Tsuda, Yoshiaki; Ravikanth, Gudasalamani; Uma Shaanker, Ramanan; Lascoux, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The impact of fragmentation by human activities on genetic diversity of forest trees is an important concern in forest conservation, especially in tropical forests. Dysoxylum malabaricum (white cedar) is an economically important tree species, endemic to the Western Ghats, India, one of the world's eight most important biodiversity hotspots. As D. malabaricum is under pressure of disturbance and fragmentation together with overharvesting, conservation efforts are required in this species. In ...

  4. Studies on MODIS NDVI and its relation with the south west monsoon, western ghats, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmi Kumar, Tv; Barbosa, Humberto; Uma, R.; Rao, Koteswara

    2012-07-01

    Eleven years (2000 to 2010) of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data, derived from Moderate Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Terra with 250m resolution are used in the present study to discuss the changes in the trends of vegetal cover. The interannual variability of NDVI over western ghats (number of test sites are 17) showed increasing trend and the pronounced changes are resulted due to the monsoon variability in terms of its distribution (wide spread/fairly wide spread/scattered/isolated) and activity (vigorous/normal/weak) and are studied in detail. The NDVI progression is observed from June with a minimum value of 0.179 and yielded to maximum at 0.565 during September/October, on average. The study then relates the NDVI with the no of light, moderate and heavy rainfall events via statistical techniques such as correlation and regression to understand the connection in between the ground vegetation and the south west monsoon. The results of the study inferred i) NDVI, Antecedent Precipitation Index (API) are in good agreement throughout the monsoon which is evidenced by correlation as well as by Morlett Wavelet Analysis, ii) NDVI maintained good correlation with no of Light Rainy and Moderate Rainy alternatively but not with no of Heavy Rainy days, iii) Relation of NDVI with Isolated, Scattered distributions and active monsoons is substantial and iv) Phenological stages captured the Rate of Green Up during the crop season over western ghats.

  5. Aboveground tree biomass in a recovering tropical sal (Shorea robusta Gaertn. f.) forest of Eastern Ghats, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behera, Soumit K.; Misra, Malaya K. [Ecology and Floristic Laboratory, Department of Botany, Berhampur University, Berhampur 760 007, Orissa (India)

    2006-06-15

    Aboveground biomass of individual tree species by component and total biomass per unit area for four different stages of a recovering tropical dry deciduous forest stands, dominated by sal (Shorea robusta Gaertn. f.) of the Eastern Ghats, India were investigated during 2001-2002. Different periods of recovering (2, 4, 6, and 10-year) forest stands (84{sup o}13'E, 20{sup o}29'N) were selected in the Kandhamal district of Orissa, India and sample trees of all species were harvested. Tree species diversity was 23, 23, 21 and 22 in 2, 4, 6, and 10-year recovering stands, respectively. Species-wise Ixora pavetta showed the highest biomass in 2 and 4-year stands while Shorea robusta in 6 and 10-year stands. Component-wise, in all species, bole-wood contribution ranged between 22.6% and 60.9%. Aboveground tree biomass, in all the stands, was dominated by Shorea robusta, which ranged between 12.68 and 231.91Mgha{sup -1}. Total aboveground tree biomass was 30.12, 49.21, 107.54 and 261.08Mgha{sup -1} in 2, 4, 6 and 10-year stands, respectively. (author)

  6. Assessing the Ecological and Socio-Economic Impacts of Extensive Small Hydropower Development in the Western Ghats of Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumani, S.

    2016-12-01

    The growth of small hydro-power projects (SHPs) is being widely encouraged as they are believed to be environmentally sustainable and socially equitable sources of energy. Easy policies, carbon credits and government sponsored monetary incentives have led to the mushrooming of SHPs along most tropical rivers, especially in developing countries. Our field study conducted between December, 2013 and September, 2014 assessed the social and ecological impacts of a cluster of SHPs in the biodiversity hotspot of the Western Ghats in India. Ecological impacts were studied with respect to freshwater fish assemblages, river water parameters, forest fragmentation and spread of invasive species. Social surveys were conducted to understand impacts on SHPs on socio-economic activities, resource access and human-animal conflict. Ecological impacts were found to be substantial. Freshwater fish species richness was significantly higher in un-dammed sites, and this variation in richness was explained by dam-related variables. Within dammed streams, spatial sections that were particularly damaging were identified. Fish species and guilds that were particularly susceptible to be adversely impacted were identified as indicator species. Four SHPs having a cumulative capacity of 45MW led to a direct loss of 14.5ha of forest land. Resultant loss in canopy cover and spread of invasive plant species was quantified. More than 10% of the river stretch was left de-watered due to the dams. Socially, SHPs were not as beneficial as they are believed to be. Respondents claimed that human-elephant conflict began only after SHP construction began. This relationship was examined with secondary data, and found to be true. In light of our findings, we suggest that the policy regarding SHPs be revised. Given that 6474 sites have been identified for SHP development in India, all without any individual or cumulative impact assessments or public consultations, studies to understand their impacts at the

  7. Distribution and assemblages of large branchiopods (Crustacea: Branchiopoda of northern Western Ghats, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer M. Padhye

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study is a report on the distribution and assemblages of large branchiopods from the Western Ghats of Maharashtra. Different types of water bodies were sampled including pools on lateritic outcrops. Eight species of large branchiopods were found in 72 samples collected over a period of 4 years. We found 7 large branchiopod species in rock pools, while the cyclestheriid Cyclestheria hislopi was observed only in rivers and water reservoirs. In twenty-five percent of the samples multiple species co-occurred with a maximum of 4 species in a single sample. Streptocephalus dichotomus was the most commonly observed species while Streptocephalus sahyadriensis was noted only in rock pools. Altitude and aquatic vegetation were identified as important factors for the distribution of large branchiopods in the studied area. Triops granarius was the species most commonly found to be co-occurring with other species, followed by S. sahyadriensis. Cyclestheria hislopi and Eulimnadia indocylindrova always occurred alone. 

  8. A case study of butterfly road kills from Anaikatty Hills, Western Ghats, Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. K. Sony

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available  Anaikatty Hills of the Western Ghats in Tamil Nadu witness the annual spectacle of mass movement of lakhs of butterflies.  The present paper examines the impact of vehicular traffic on this ‘butterfly migration’ through a survey of butterfly mortality along a road stretch in Anaikatty Hills.  A high rate of mortality due to road traffic was observed during the mass movement of butterflies.  One-hundred-and-thirty-five butterfly road kills belonging to three families, nine genera and 12 species were recorded during the study.  The proportion of nymphalid butterflies among the road kills (70% was very high compared to their respective share in the background population (39%, indicating a higher road mortality risk for nymphalids.  The conservation significance of the road traffic impact on butterfly assemblage and management options are discussed. 

  9. Climate change and forests: Impacts and adaption. A regional assessment for the Western Ghats, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravindranath, N H; Sukumar, R [Indian Inst. of Science, Bangalore (India). Centre for Ecological Sciences; Deshingkar, P [Stockholm Environment Inst. (Sweden)

    1998-12-31

    Potential climate change over the next 50 to 100 years could have major impacts on tropical forests. Forests, particularly in the tropics, are subjected to anthropogenic pressures leading to degradation and loss of forest ecosystems. Given the significant dependence of local people and economies on forests in tropical and temperate countries, there is a need to assess the possible impacts of climate change and to develop adaption measures. The diversity of forest types in the Western Ghats ranges from wet evergreen and deciduous forest to dry thorn and montane forests with a wide range of annual rainfall regimes (from less than 65 cm to over 300 cm). The study was conducted in two regions of the Western Ghats; the Uttara Kannada district and the Nilgiris. Climate change projections for 2020 and 2050 were used in assessing the possible impacts on forests. In general, the `most likely` projections of climate change were an increase in mean temperature in the range of 0.3-1.0 deg C and an increase in precipitation of 3-8% over the study regions by the year 2050. The `worst case` scenario was an increase in temperature of 1 deg C and a decrease in precipitation by 8% by 2050. To assess the vegetational responses to climate change, a simple model based on present-day correlations between climatic (mean annual temperature and precipitation) and vegetation types for these regions was developed. Likely changes in the areas under different forest types were assessed for `moderate climate` sensitivity and central scaling factor (referred to as the `most likely scenario`) for the years 2020 and 2050, and `high climate` sensitivity and a lower scaling factor (the `worst case scenario`) for 2050 90 refs, 15 figs, 15 tabs

  10. Climate change and forests: Impacts and adaption. A regional assessment for the Western Ghats, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravindranath, N.H.; Sukumar, R. [Indian Inst. of Science, Bangalore (India). Centre for Ecological Sciences; Deshingkar, P. [Stockholm Environment Inst. (Sweden)

    1997-12-31

    Potential climate change over the next 50 to 100 years could have major impacts on tropical forests. Forests, particularly in the tropics, are subjected to anthropogenic pressures leading to degradation and loss of forest ecosystems. Given the significant dependence of local people and economies on forests in tropical and temperate countries, there is a need to assess the possible impacts of climate change and to develop adaption measures. The diversity of forest types in the Western Ghats ranges from wet evergreen and deciduous forest to dry thorn and montane forests with a wide range of annual rainfall regimes (from less than 65 cm to over 300 cm). The study was conducted in two regions of the Western Ghats; the Uttara Kannada district and the Nilgiris. Climate change projections for 2020 and 2050 were used in assessing the possible impacts on forests. In general, the `most likely` projections of climate change were an increase in mean temperature in the range of 0.3-1.0 deg C and an increase in precipitation of 3-8% over the study regions by the year 2050. The `worst case` scenario was an increase in temperature of 1 deg C and a decrease in precipitation by 8% by 2050. To assess the vegetational responses to climate change, a simple model based on present-day correlations between climatic (mean annual temperature and precipitation) and vegetation types for these regions was developed. Likely changes in the areas under different forest types were assessed for `moderate climate` sensitivity and central scaling factor (referred to as the `most likely scenario`) for the years 2020 and 2050, and `high climate` sensitivity and a lower scaling factor (the `worst case scenario`) for 2050 90 refs, 15 figs, 15 tabs

  11. Stratigraphy, composition and form of the Deccan Basalts, Western Ghats, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beane, J. E.; Turner, C. A.; Hooper, P. R.; Subbarao, K. V.; Walsh, J. N.

    1986-02-01

    In the Western Ghats between latitudes 18° 20' N and 19° 15' N, 7000 km2 of Deccan Basalt have been mapped with the primary objective of establishing a flow stratigraphy as a guide to the volcanic history of the flood basalts. Using over 70 measured vertical sections, major and trace element analyses of nearly 1200 samples, and rare-earth and87Sr/86Sr determinations for over 60 samples, we divide the basalt into three subgroups and ten formations. In this paper we describe the seven principal formations in the area and the most prominent individual flows. The Kalsubai Subgroup is formed by the lower five formations, the Jawhar, Igatpuri, Neral, Thakurvadi, and Bhimashankar formations, from botton to top. In these formations amygdaloidal compound flows predominate and have a typically high MgO content, including picrite basalt (> 10% MgO) and picrite (> 18% MgO) with phenocrysts of olivine and clinopyroxene. These flows are separated by others which contain giant plagioclase phenocrysts and have more evolved chamical compositions. The Lonavala Subgroup overlies the Kalsubai and is composed of two formations, the Khandala and the Bushe. Both are readily recognized in the field and by their chemical compositions. The Wai Subgroup includes the upper three formations, the Poladpur, the Ambenali, and the Mahabaleshwar. The whole subgroup is composed of simple flows with well-developed flow tops, small phenocrysts of plagioclase, pyroxene and olivine, and relatively evolved bulk compositions. Distribution and variation in thickness of the straitigraphic units within the Western Ghats provide a first comprehensive view of the development of the Deccan volcanic edifice. The persistent southerly dip and gentle southerly plunging anticlinal form of the flows, the lensoid shape of many of the formations, and nearly randomly oriented feeder-dike system are together interpreted as evidence of a central volcanic edifice formed as the Indian plate drifted northward over a mantle

  12. CEPF Western Ghats Special Series: Metazoan community composition in tree hole aquatic habitats of Silent Valley National Park and New Amarambalam Reserve Forest of the Western Ghats, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.A. Nishadh

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In a study of the metazoan community composition in tree hole aquatic habitat of a tropical rainforest, Silent Valley National Park, and the adjacent moist deciduous forest, New Amarambalam Reserve Forest, of the Western Ghats, 28 different species were recorded from 150 tree hole aquatic habitats with an average of 3-5 species per tree hole. Most of the recorded organisms (96.8% belong to Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies, Heteroptera (bugs, Diptera (flies, Coleoptera (beetles and Trichoptera (caddisflies. The study reports the first record of toe-winged beetle larvae (Ptilodactylidae in a tree hole aquatic habitat. The most significant observation is the prolific occurrence of trichopteran larvae as the second most abundant taxa in tree holes of Silent Valley National Park, and this stands as the first comprehensive record of the entire order in the habitat studied. The study upholds the importance of less explored microhabitats in the Western Ghats region in terms of sustaining unique community composition in the most delicate and extreme habitat conditions. It also puts forward important ecological research questions on biodiversity ecosystem functionality which could impart important lessons for managing and conserving the diminishing tropical evergreen forests which are significant for these unique habitats.

  13. Sandfly species diversity in association with human activities in the Kani tribe settlements of the Western Ghats, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasan Ranganathan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Sandfly prevalence in the Kani tribe settlements of Western Ghats in India was investigated. A total of 1,279 sandflies comprising 17 species was obtained. Sandfly abundance showed a negative correlation (r = -0.97, p = 0.003 with increase in altitudinal ranges from 0-1,000 m. When sandfly samples were grouped according to landscape characteristics of the location, the estimated Shannon-Weiner index (H and species richness index (S were high and species evenness index (J was low in settlements located at 0-300 m altitudinal range. On the contrary, the values of H and J were high, while S was low at 301-600 m altitudinal range. With further increase in altitude, species diversity, S and J were low. Though the relative abundance of sandflies decreased with increase in altitude, the influence of altitudinal variation could not be attributed to determine sandfly diversity, since the number of sampling units were not uniform at all the altitudinal gradients due to nonavailability of suitable resting shelters. Sandfly species showed great aggregation at 0-300 m altitude interval, where not only the number of settlements were maximum (n = 19, but also the environmental conditions favoured sandfly abundance due to the concentration of tribal settlements, human dwellings and his activities.

  14. Sandfly species diversity in association with human activities in the Kani tribe settlements of the Western Ghats, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganathan, Srinivasan; Swaminathan, Subramanian

    2015-04-01

    Sandfly prevalence in the Kani tribe settlements of Western Ghats in India was investigated. A total of 1,279 sandflies comprising 17 species was obtained. Sandfly abundance showed a negative correlation (r = -0.97, p = 0.003) with increase in altitudinal ranges from 0-1,000 m. When sandfly samples were grouped according to landscape characteristics of the location, the estimated Shannon-Weiner index (H) and species richness index (S) were high and species evenness index (J) was low in settlements located at 0-300 m altitudinal range. On the contrary, the values of H and J were high, while S was low at 301-600 m altitudinal range. With further increase in altitude, species diversity, S and J were low. Though the relative abundance of sandflies decreased with increase in altitude, the influence of altitudinal variation could not be attributed to determine sandfly diversity, since the number of sampling units were not uniform at all the altitudinal gradients due to nonavailability of suitable resting shelters. Sandfly species showed great aggregation at 0-300 m altitude interval, where not only the number of settlements were maximum (n = 19), but also the environmental conditions favoured sandfly abundance due to the concentration of tribal settlements, human dwellings and his activities.

  15. On the fission track dating and annealing behaviour of accessory minerals of Eastern Ghats (Andhra Pradesh, India)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koul, S.L.

    1978-01-01

    Use of the etching of fission fragment damage tracks for an estimation of the uranium content of apatite and zircon crystals is described. The etching conditions have been studied for which visible tracks are developed. Fission track determined ages of 25 samples of apatite and zircon crystals from four widely separated regions of India; the Borra mines (Vishakapatanam), Kashipatnam (Vishakapatnam), the Khamam area (Andhra Pradesh) and the Kodrama mines (Bihar) have been determined. Mean ages for these regions are 456 +- 5, 389 +- 4, 486 +- 7 and 664 +- 7 million years respectively. It is concluded that the fission track ages of the minerals date the last metamorphic event of the Eastern Ghats, known as the Indian Ocean Cycle. Annealing studies confirm that radiation damaged fossil tracks can be erased in minerals under intense metamorphic episodes, thus resetting the geological clock. Extrapolation of the experimentally determined temperatures for annealing suggest that a temperature of 170 0 C in 10 6 years will erase all the tracks in the apatite mineral. The uranium concentration has been estimated to be approximately 10 -8 gm/gm in apatite and approximately 10 -6 gm/gm in zircon. (Auth.)

  16. Role of organic aerosols in CCN activation and closure over a rural background site in Western Ghats, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singla, V.; Mukherjee, S.; Safai, P. D.; Meena, G. S.; Dani, K. K.; Pandithurai, G.

    2017-06-01

    The cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) closure study was performed to exemplify the effect of aerosol chemical composition on the CCN activity of aerosols at Mahabaleshwar, a high altitude background site in the Western Ghats, India. For this, collocated aerosol, CCN, Elemental Carbon (EC), Organic Carbon (OC), sub-micron aerosol chemical speciation for the period from 3rd June to 19th June 2015 was used. The chemical composition of non-refractory particulate matter (theory on the basis of measured aerosol particle number size distribution, size independent NR-PM1 chemical composition and calculated hygroscopicity. The CCN closure study was evaluated for 3 scenarios, B-I (all soluble inorganics), B-IO (all soluble organics and inorganics) and B-IOOA (all soluble inorganic and soluble oxygenated organic aerosol, OOA). OOA component was derived from the positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis of organic aerosol mass spectra. Considering the bulk composition as internal mixture, CCN closure study was underestimated by 16-39% for B-I and overestimated by 47-62% for B-IO. The CCN closure result was appreciably improved for B-IOOA where the knowledge of OOA fraction was introduced and uncertainty reduced to within 8-10%.

  17. Heard but not seen: Comparing bat assemblages and study methods in a mosaic landscape in the Western Ghats of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wordley, Claire F R; Sankaran, Mahesh; Mudappa, Divya; Altringham, John D

    2018-04-01

    We used capture (mist-netting) and acoustic methods to compare the species richness, abundance, and composition of a bat assemblage in different habitats in the Western Ghats of India. In the tropics, catching bats has been more commonly used as a survey method than acoustic recordings. In our study, acoustic methods based on recording echolocation calls detected greater bat activity and more species than mist-netting. However, some species were detected more frequently or exclusively by capture. Ideally, the two methods should be used together to compensate for the biases in each. Using combined capture and acoustic data, we found that protected forests, forest fragments, and shade coffee plantations hosted similar and diverse species assemblages, although some species were recorded more frequently in protected forests. Tea plantations contained very few species from the overall bat assemblage. In riparian habitats, a strip of forested habitat on the river bank improved the habitat for bats compared to rivers with tea planted up to each bank. Our results show that shade coffee plantations are better bat habitat than tea plantations in biodiversity hotspots. However, if tea is to be the dominant land use, forest fragments and riparian corridors can improve the landscape considerably for bats. We encourage coffee growers to retain traditional plantations with mature native trees, rather than reverting to sun grown coffee or coffee shaded by a few species of timber trees.

  18. Diversity of mosquitoes and larval breeding preference based on physico-chemical parameters in Western Ghats, Tamilnadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Periyasamy Senthamarai Selvan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the diversity and distribution of mosquitoes in Western Ghats of Coimbatore and Nilgiris District, Tamilnadu, India. Methods: Random collections were carried out during August-2013 to July-2014 in cesspits, animal footprints, rock holes, tree holes, drainages at study areas of Marudhamalai, Valparai, Mettupalayam in Coimbatore District and Dhottapeta, Coonoor, Gudalur in Nilgiris District of Tamilnadu, India by using suction tube and kerosene pump. Mosquitoes were identified by standard entomological procedures. Results: A total of 1 018 mosquitoes (larvae and pupae were collected from all over the study areas comprising 6 genera and 23 species. They are, Culex mimulus, Culex pseudovishnui, Culex quinquefasciatus, Culex vishnui, Culex khazani, Culex uniformis, Heizmannia chandi, Heizmannia grenii, Heizmannia indica, Oclerotatus anureostriatus, Oclerotatus albotaeniatis, Oclerotatus deccanus, Oclerotatus gubernatoris, Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, Aedes edwardsi, Aedes krombeini, Toxorhynchites minimus, Toxorhynchites splendens, Anopheles aitkenii, Anopheles barbirostris, Anopheles culiciformis and Anopheles maculatus. ShannonWeaver diversity index, Margalef’s index of richness and Simpsons dominance index was also studied. From 6 sites, the highest mosquitoes were collected from Marudhamalai (309 and the least mosquitoes were collected in Mettupalayam (68. The study determined whether physicochemical characteristics differ between habitats with high and low presence of mosquito larvae. Based on Margalef’s index of richness (Dmg, the highest values were present in Mettupalayam (5.214 study area and the lowest in Marudhamalai (3.837. It can be concluded from Shanon-Weaver index of diversity that, the highest values were present in Mettupalayam (2.947 and the least value were in Gudalur (2.410 during the study period. Conclusions: In areas with reservoirs of disease, mosquito abundance information can help to identify the

  19. Mosquito diversity in Keeriparai and Mundanthurai hill ranges of the Western Ghats, southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Munirathinam

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available After a gap of 25 years the Centre for Research in Medical Entomology (CRME surveyed the mosquito biodiversity in the tail-end hill ranges of the Western Ghats, viz., Kanyakumari (Keeriparai and Tirunelveli districts (Kalakkad-Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve (KMTR and Courtallam of Tamil Nadu between July 2010 and June 2013.  The altitude of the hills ranged from 100–950 m covered by evergreen forests.  A major emphasis was given to collect the immature stages of mosquitoes, from various breeding habitats, viz., slow flowing streams, spring pool, rocky pool, leaf axils, latex cup, tree hole, bamboo stumps, etc.  Altogether 4602 immature individuals were collected, reared individually to be identified at the adult stage.  A total of 3583 specimens belonging to 50 species classified under 21 genera and 18 subgenera were recorded.  The major vector species found in these hill ranges were Stegomyia aegypti, S. albopicta (Dengue and Chikungunya, Culex bitaeniorhynchus, C. tritaeniorhynchus (Japanese encephalitis, Downsiomyia nivea (diurnally subperiodic filariasis and Anopheles mirans (Simian malaria vectors were recorded. 

  20. Alternative energy sources from plants of Western Ghats (Tamil Nadu, India)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augustus, G.D.P.S.; Jayabalan, M. [V.H.N.S.N College, Virudhunagar (India). Research Centre in Botany; Seiler, G.J. [USDA-ARS, Northern Crop Science Lab., Fargo, ND (United States)

    2003-06-01

    Twenty-two taxa of Western Ghats plants were screened as potential alternative crops for renewable energy, oil, hydrocarbon and phytochemicals. The highest hydrocarbon yields were observed in Carissa carandas (1.7%), and Jatropha gossypifolia (1.7%). The highest polyphenol fraction was observed in Dodonaea viscosa (17.1%), Carissa carandas (7.7%), Swietenia mahagoni (6.6%), and Jatropha glandulifera (6.2%). The highest oil content was observed in Aganosma cymosa (10.3%), Carissa carandas (5.8%), and Argemone mexicana (5.0%). Swietenia mahagoni yielded the highest protein content with 8.1%. The gross heat value of 4175.0 cal/g(17.5 MJ/kg) for Lochnera rosea (pink flowered var.), and 4112.0 cal/g for Dalbergia sissoo were the highest among the species analysed. NMR spectra of the hydrocarbon fractions of Alstonia scholaris, Carissa carandas, Ichnocarpus frutescens, Plumeria rubra, Thevetia neriifolia (white flowered var.), Vallaris solanacea, Lochnera rosea (pink flowered var.), Euphorbia hirta, E. splendens, Artocarpus integrifolia and Ficus religiosa revealed the presence of cis-polyisoprene (natural rubber), whereas Argemone mexicana showed the presence of trans-polyisoprene (gutta). Several new crop species were identified with potentially useful compounds. The potential exists for growing these alternate crops in areas of under-utilized lands, subsequently stimulating industrial and economic growth. (author)

  1. Toad radiation reveals into-India dispersal as a source of endemism in the Western Ghats-Sri Lanka biodiversity hotspot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bossuyt Franky

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High taxonomic level endemism in the Western Ghats-Sri Lanka biodiversity hotspot has been typically attributed to the subcontinent's geological history of long-term isolation. Subsequent out of – and into India dispersal of species after accretion to the Eurasian mainland is therefore often seen as a biogeographic factor that 'diluted' the composition of previously isolated Indian biota. However, few molecular studies have focussed on into-India dispersal as a possible source of endemism on the subcontinent. Using c. 6000 base pairs of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA, we investigated the evolutionary history and biogeography of true toads (Bufonidae, a group that colonized the Indian Subcontinent after the Indo-Asia collision. Results Contrary to previous studies, Old World toads were recovered as a nested clade within New World Bufonidae, indicating a single colonization event. Species currently classified as Ansonia and Pedostibes were both recovered as being non-monophyletic, providing evidence for the independent origin of torrential and arboreal ecomorphs on the Indian subcontinent and in South-East Asia. Our analyses also revealed a previously unrecognized adaptive radiation of toads containing a variety of larval and adult ecomorphs. Molecular dating estimates and biogeographic analyses indicate that the early diversification of this clade happened in the Western Ghats and Sri Lanka during the Late Oligocene to Early Miocene. Conclusion Paleoclimate reconstructions have shown that the Early Neogene of India was marked by major environmental changes, with the transition from a zonal- to the current monsoon-dominated climate. After arrival in the Western Ghats-Sri Lanka hotspot, toads diversified in situ, with only one lineage able to successfully disperse out of these mountains. Consequently, higher taxonomic level endemism on the Indian Subcontinent is not only the result of Cretaceous isolation, but also of invasion

  2. Vocal behavior of the elusive purple frog of India (Nasikabatrachus sahyadrensis, a fossorial species endemic to the Western Ghats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Thomas

    Full Text Available Quantitative descriptions of animal vocalizations can inform an understanding of their evolutionary functions, the mechanisms for their production and perception, and their potential utility in taxonomy, population monitoring, and conservation. The goal of this study was to provide the first acoustical and statistical analysis of the advertisement calls of Nasikabatrachus sahyadrensis. Commonly known as the Indian purple frog, N. sahyadrensis is an endangered species endemic to the Western Ghats of India. As the only known species in its family (Nasikabatrachidae, it has ancient evolutionary ties to frogs restricted to the Seychelles archipelago (Sooglossidae. The role of vocalizations in the behavior of this unique species poses interesting questions, as the animal is fossorial and potentially earless and it breeds explosively above the soil for only about two weeks a year. In this study, we quantified 19 acoustic properties of 208 calls recorded from 10 males. Vocalizations were organized into distinct call groups typically composed of two to six short (59 ms, pulsatile calls, each consisting of about five to seven pulses produced at a rate of about 106 pulses/s. The frequency content of the call consisted of a single dominant peak between 1200-1300 Hz and there was no frequency modulation. The patterns of variation within and among individuals were typical of those seen in other frogs. Few of the properties we measured were related to temperature, body size, or condition, though there was little variation in temperature. Field observations and recordings of captive individuals indicated that males engaged in both antiphonal calling and call overlap with nearby calling neighbors. We discuss our findings in relation to previous work on vocal behavior in other fossorial frogs and in sooglossid frogs.

  3. Patterns and Determinants of Habitat Occupancy by the Asian Elephant in the Western Ghats of Karnataka, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devcharan Jathanna

    Full Text Available Understanding species distribution patterns has direct ramifications for the conservation of endangered species, such as the Asian elephant Elephas maximus. However, reliable assessment of elephant distribution is handicapped by factors such as the large spatial scales of field studies, survey expertise required, the paucity of analytical approaches that explicitly account for confounding observation processes such as imperfect and variable detectability, unequal sampling probability and spatial dependence among animal detections. We addressed these problems by carrying out 'detection--non-detection' surveys of elephant signs across a c. 38,000-km(2 landscape in the Western Ghats of Karnataka, India. We analyzed the resulting sign encounter data using a recently developed modeling approach that explicitly addresses variable detectability across space and spatially dependent non-closure of occupancy, across sampling replicates. We estimated overall occupancy, a parameter useful to monitoring elephant populations, and examined key ecological and anthropogenic drivers of elephant presence. Our results showed elephants occupied 13,483 km(2 (SE = 847 km(2 corresponding to 64% of the available 21,167 km(2 of elephant habitat in the study landscape, a useful baseline to monitor future changes. Replicate-level detection probability ranged between 0.56 and 0.88, and ignoring it would have underestimated elephant distribution by 2116 km(2 or 16%. We found that anthropogenic factors predominated over natural habitat attributes in determining elephant occupancy, underscoring the conservation need to regulate them. Human disturbances affected elephant habitat occupancy as well as site-level detectability. Rainfall is not an important limiting factor in this relatively humid bioclimate. Finally, we discuss cost-effective monitoring of Asian elephant populations and the specific spatial scales at which different population parameters can be estimated. We

  4. Root strength of tropical plants - An investigation in the Western Ghats of Kerala, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukose Kuriakose, S.; van Beek, L. P. H.; van Westen, C. J.

    2009-04-01

    Earlier research on debris flows in the Tikovil River basin of the Western Ghats concluded that root cohesion is significant in maintaining the overall stability of the region. In this paper we present the most recent results (December 2008) of root tensile strength tests conducted on nine species of plants that are commonly found in the region. They are 1) Rubber (Hevea Brasiliensis), 2) Coconut Palm (Cocos nucifera), 3) Jackfruit trees (Artocarpus heterophyllus), 4) Teak (Tectona grandis), 5) Mango trees (Mangifera indica), 6) Lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus), 7) A variety of Tamarind (Garcinia gummigutta), 8) Coffee (Coffea Arabica) and Tea (Camellia sinensis). About 1500 samples were collected of which only 380 could be tested (in the laboratory) due to breakage of roots during the tests. In the successful tests roots failed in tension. Roots having diameters between 2 mm and 12 mm were tested. Each sample tested has a length of 15 cm. Results indicate that the roots of Coffee, Tamarind, Lemon grass and Jackfruit are the strongest of the nine plant types tested whereas Tea and Teak plants had the most fragile roots. Coconut roots behaved atypical to the others, as the bark of the roots was crushed and slipped from the clamp when tested whereas its internal fiber was the strongest of all tested. Root tensile strength decreases with increasing diameters, Rubber showing more ductile behaviour than Coffee and Tamarind that behaved more brittle, root tensile strength increasing exponentially for finer roots. Teak and Tea showed almost a constant root tensile strength over the range of diameters tested and little variability. Jack fruit and mango trees showed the largest variability, which may be explained by the presence of root nodules, preventing the derivation of an unequivocal relationship between root diameters and tensile strength. This results in uncertainty of root strength estimates that are applicable. These results provide important information to

  5. The mother – child nexus. Knowledge and valuation of wild food plants in Wayanad, Western Ghats, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cruz García Gisella

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study focuses on the mother-child nexus (or process of enculturation with respect to knowledge and valuation of wild food plants in a context where accelerated processes of modernization and acculturation are leading to the erosion of knowledge and cultural values associated with wild food plant use, in Wayanad, Western Ghats, India. Wild food plants in this biodiversity hotspot form an important part of local diets and are used as famine foods and medicines. In general, the collection and consumption of these foods are increasingly stigmatized as symbols of poverty and 'tribalness' (equivalent to 'backwardness'. The study, which falls within the discipline of ethnobotany, involves three socio-cultural groups – the Paniya and Kuruma tribes and non-tribals. Further, it examines the impact in the enculturation process of an unusual educational programme sponsored by the MS Swaminathan Research Foundation that is oriented towards creating awareness among children of cultural identity and local biological resources – the study compares children having participated in the programme with those who have not, with their mothers. The process of enculturation is assessed by comparing wild food plant knowledge and values between mothers and their children, and by examining events where knowledge transmission occurs, including collection and consumption. For that, quantitative and qualitative data collection and analysis tools were used, and methods included semi-structured interviews, photo identification and informal interviews of key informants. Results ratify that women are the knowledge holders and are the primary means of knowledge transmission to their children. Nevertheless, fewer children are collecting wild food plants with mothers and learning about them, apparently because of children's lack of time. On the other hand, older people acknowledge that a "change in taste" is occurring among younger generations. In general, there is

  6. On a dhole trail: examining ecological and anthropogenic correlates of dhole habitat occupancy in the Western ghats of India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjun Srivathsa

    Full Text Available Although they play a critical role in shaping ecological communities, many threatened predator species are data-deficient. The Dhole Cuon alpinus is one such rare canid with a global population thought to be <2500 wild individuals. We assessed habitat occupancy patterns of dholes in the Western Ghats of Karnataka, India, to understand ecological and anthropogenic determinants of their distribution and habitat-use. We conducted spatially replicated detection/non-detection surveys of dhole signs along forest trails at two appropriate scales: the entire landscape and a single wildlife reserve. Landscape-scale habitat occupancy was assessed across 38,728 km(2 surveying 206 grid cells of 188-km(2 each. Finer scale habitat-use within 935 km2 Bandipur Reserve was studied surveying 92 grid cells of 13-km(2 km each. We analyzed the resulting data of dhole signs using likelihood-based habitat occupancy models. The models explicitly addressed the problematic issue of imperfect detection of dhole signs during field surveys as well as potential spatial auto-correlation between sign detections made on adjacent trail segments. We show that traditional 'presence versus absence' analyses underestimated dhole habitat occupancy by 60% or 8682 km2 [naïve = 0.27; ψL(SE  = 0.68 (0.08] in the landscape. Addressing imperfect sign detections by estimating detection probabilities [p(t(L (SE = 0.12 (0.11] was critical for reliable estimation. Similar underestimation occurred while estimating habitat-use probability at reserve-scale [naïve = 0.39; Ψs(SE = 0.71 (0.06]. At landscape scale, relative abundance of principal ungulate prey primarily influenced dhole habitat occupancy. Habitat-use within a reserve, however, was predominantly and negatively influenced by anthropogenic disturbance. Our results are the first rigorous assessment of dhole occupancy at multiple spatial scales with potential conservation value. The approach used in this study has potential

  7. Kyasanur Forest Disease Prevalence in Western Ghats Proven and Confirmed by Recent Outbreak in Maharashtra, India, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurav, Yogesh K; Yadav, Pragya D; Gokhale, Mangesh D; Chiplunkar, Tushar R; Vishwanathan, Rajlakshmi; Patil, Deepak Y; Jain, Rajlaxmi; Shete, Anita M; Patil, Savita L; Sarang, G D; Sapkal, Gajanan N; Andhare, M D; Sale, Y R; Awate, Pradeep S; Mourya, Devendra T

    2018-03-01

    Kyasanur forest disease (KFD) outbreak was confirmed in Dodamarg Taluka, Sindhudurga district (Maharashtra) in India during the year 2016. The rise in suspected KFD cases was reported in January 2016, peaked during March, and then declined gradually from April 2016. The outbreak was thoroughly investigated considering different socio-clinical parameters. Total, 488 suspected KFD cases were investigated using KFD specific real-time RT-PCR and anti-KFDV IgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Sero-epidemiological survey was carried out in the affected area using anti-KFDV IgG ELISA. Among suspected KFD cases, high age-specific attack rate (105.1 per 1000 persons) was observed in adults (aged 40-59 years). Out of 488 suspected KFD cases, 130 were laboratory confirmed. Of these, 54 cases were KFDV real-time RT-PCR positive, 66 cases were anti-KFDV IgM ELISA positive and 10 cases were positive by both the assays. Case fatality ratio among laboratory-confirmed KFD cases were 2.3% (3/130). Majority of laboratory-confirmed KFD cases (93.1%) had visited Western Ghats forest in Dodamarg for activities like working in cashew nut farms (79.8%), cashew nut fruit collection (76.6%), collection of firewood (68.5%) and dry leaves/grass (40.3%), etc., before the start of symptoms. Common clinical features included fever (100%), headache (93.1%), weakness (84.6%), and myalgia (83.1%). Hemorrhagic manifestations were observed in nearly one-third of the laboratory-confirmed KFD cases (28.5%). A seroprevalence of (9.7%, 72/745) was recorded in KFD-affected area and two neighboring villages (9.1%, 15/165). Serosurvey conducted in Ker village showed clinical to subclinical ratio of 6:1 in KFD-affected areas. This study confirms the outbreak of KFD Sindhudurg district with 130 cases. Detection of anti-KFDV IgG antibodies among the healthy population in KFD-affected area during the KFD outbreak suggested the past exposure of KFD infection. This outbreak investigation has helped

  8. Geospatial assessment and monitoring of historical forest cover changes (1920-2012) in Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve, Western Ghats, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satish, K V; Saranya, K R L; Reddy, C Sudhakar; Krishna, P Hari; Jha, C S; Rao, P V V Prasada

    2014-12-01

    Deforestation in the biosphere reserves, which are key Protected Areas has negative impacts on biodiversity, climate, carbon fluxes and livelihoods. Comprehensive study of deforestation in biosphere reserves is required to assess the impact of the management effectiveness. This article assesses the changes in forest cover in various zones and protected areas of Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve, the first declared biosphere reserve in India which forms part of Western Ghats-a global biodiversity hotspot. In this study, we have mapped the forests from earliest available topographical maps and multi-temporal satellite data spanning from 1920's to 2012 period. Mapping of spatial extent of forest cover, vegetation types and land cover was carried out using visual interpretation technique. A grid cell of 1 km × 1 km was generated for time series change analysis to understand the patterns in spatial distribution of forest cover (1920-1973-1989-1999-2006-2012). The total forest area of biosphere reserve was found to be 5,806.5 km(2) (93.8 % of total geographical area) in 1920. Overall loss of forest cover was estimated as 1,423.6 km(2) (24.5 % of the total forest) with reference to 1920. Among the six Protected Areas, annual deforestation rate of >0.5 was found in Wayanad wildlife sanctuary during 1920-1973. The deforestation in Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve is mainly attributed to conversion of forests to plantations and agriculture along with submergence due to construction of dams during 1920 to 1989. Grid wise analysis indicates that 851 grids have undergone large-scale negative changes of >75 ha of forest loss during 1920-1973 while, only 15 grids have shown >75 ha loss during 1973-1989. Annual net rate of deforestation for the period of 1920 to 1973 was calculated as 0.5 followed by 0.1 for 1973 to 1989. Our analysis shows that there was large-scale deforestation before the declaration of area as biosphere reserve in 1986; however, the deforestation has drastically

  9. The mother-child nexus. Knowledge and valuation of wild food plants in Wayanad, Western Ghats, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz García, Gisella Susana

    2006-09-12

    This study focuses on the mother-child nexus (or process of enculturation) with respect to knowledge and valuation of wild food plants in a context where accelerated processes of modernization and acculturation are leading to the erosion of knowledge and cultural values associated with wild food plant use, in Wayanad, Western Ghats, India. Wild food plants in this biodiversity hotspot form an important part of local diets and are used as famine foods and medicines. In general, the collection and consumption of these foods are increasingly stigmatized as symbols of poverty and 'tribalness' (equivalent to 'backwardness'). The study, which falls within the discipline of ethnobotany, involves three socio-cultural groups--the Paniya and Kuruma tribes and non-tribals. Further, it examines the impact in the enculturation process of an unusual educational programme sponsored by the MS Swaminathan Research Foundation that is oriented towards creating awareness among children of cultural identity and local biological resources--the study compares children having participated in the programme with those who have not, with their mothers. The process of enculturation is assessed by comparing wild food plant knowledge and values between mothers and their children, and by examining events where knowledge transmission occurs, including collection and consumption. For that, quantitative and qualitative data collection and analysis tools were used, and methods included semi-structured interviews, photo identification and informal interviews of key informants. Results ratify that women are the knowledge holders and are the primary means of knowledge transmission to their children. Nevertheless, fewer children are collecting wild food plants with mothers and learning about them, apparently because of children's lack of time. On the other hand, older people acknowledge that a "change in taste" is occurring among younger generations. In general, there is a simultaneous transmission from

  10. Efficacy of DNA barcoding for the species identification of spiders from Western Ghats of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaikwad, Swapnil; Warudkar, Ashwin; Shouche, Yogesh

    2017-09-01

    DNA barcoding has emerged as an additional tool for taxonomy and as an aid to taxonomic impediments. Due to their extensive morphological variation, spiders are taxonomically challenging. Therefore, all over the world, attempts are being made to DNA barcode species of spiders. Till now no attempts were made to DNA barcode Indian spiders despite their rich diversity. We have generated DNA barcodes for 60 species (n = 112) of spiders for the first time from India. Although only 17 species were correctly identified at the species level, DNA barcoding correctly discriminated 99% of the species studied here. We have also found high intraspecies nucleotide divergence in Plexippus paykulli suggesting cryptic diversity that needs to be studied in detail. Our study also showed non-specific amplification of the Cytochrome Oxidase I (COI) gene of endosymbiont bacteria Wolbachia. However, these cases are very rare and could be resolved by the use of modified or group specific primers.

  11. Morphological and genetic evidence for multiple evolutionary distinct lineages in the endangered and commercially exploited red lined torpedo barbs endemic to the Western Ghats of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Lijo; Philip, Siby; Dahanukar, Neelesh; Anvar Ali, Palakkaparambil Hamsa; Tharian, Josin; Raghavan, Rajeev; Antunes, Agostinho

    2013-01-01

    Red lined torpedo barbs (RLTBS) (Cyprinidae: Puntius) endemic to the Western Ghats Hotspot of India, are popular and highly priced freshwater aquarium fishes. Two decades of indiscriminate exploitation for the pet trade, restricted range, fragmented populations and continuing decline in quality of habitats has resulted in their 'Endangered' listing. Here, we tested whether the isolated RLTB populations demonstrated considerable variation qualifying to be considered as distinct conservation targets. Multivariate morphometric analysis using 24 size-adjusted characters delineated all allopatric populations. Similarly, the species-tree highlighted a phylogeny with 12 distinct RLTB lineages corresponding to each of the different riverine populations. However, coalescence-based methods using mitochondrial DNA markers identified only eight evolutionarily distinct lineages. Divergence time analysis points to recent separation of the populations, owing to the geographical isolation, more than 5 million years ago, after the lineages were split into two ancestral stocks in the Paleocene, on north and south of a major geographical gap in the Western Ghats. Our results revealing the existence of eight evolutionarily distinct RLTB lineages calls for the re-determination of conservation targets for these cryptic and endangered taxa.

  12. Evaluating Generic Pantropical Allometric Models for the Estimation of Above-Ground Biomass in the Teak Plantations of Southern Western Ghats, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sandeep

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of suitable tree biomass allometric equations is crucial for making precise and non- destructive estimation of carbon storage and biomass energy values. The aim of this research was to evaluate the accuracy of the most commonly used pantropical allometric models and site-specific models to estimate the above-ground biomass (AGB in different aged teak plantations of Southern Western Ghats of India. For this purpose, the AGB data measured for 70 trees with diameter >10 cm from different aged teak plantations in Kerala part of Southern Western Ghats following destructive procedure was used. The results show that site specific models based on a single predictor variable diameter at breast height (dbh, though simple, may grossly increase the uncertainty across sites. Hence, a generic model encompassing dbh, height and wood specific gravity with sufficient calibration taking into account different forest types is advised for the tropical forest systems. The study also suggests that the commonly used pantropical models should be evaluated for different ecosystems prior to their application at national or regional scales.

  13. Morphological and genetic evidence for multiple evolutionary distinct lineages in the endangered and commercially exploited red lined torpedo barbs endemic to the Western Ghats of India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijo John

    Full Text Available Red lined torpedo barbs (RLTBS (Cyprinidae: Puntius endemic to the Western Ghats Hotspot of India, are popular and highly priced freshwater aquarium fishes. Two decades of indiscriminate exploitation for the pet trade, restricted range, fragmented populations and continuing decline in quality of habitats has resulted in their 'Endangered' listing. Here, we tested whether the isolated RLTB populations demonstrated considerable variation qualifying to be considered as distinct conservation targets. Multivariate morphometric analysis using 24 size-adjusted characters delineated all allopatric populations. Similarly, the species-tree highlighted a phylogeny with 12 distinct RLTB lineages corresponding to each of the different riverine populations. However, coalescence-based methods using mitochondrial DNA markers identified only eight evolutionarily distinct lineages. Divergence time analysis points to recent separation of the populations, owing to the geographical isolation, more than 5 million years ago, after the lineages were split into two ancestral stocks in the Paleocene, on north and south of a major geographical gap in the Western Ghats. Our results revealing the existence of eight evolutionarily distinct RLTB lineages calls for the re-determination of conservation targets for these cryptic and endangered taxa.

  14. Prevalence of indicator and pathogenic bacteria in a tropical river of Western Ghats, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincy, M. V.; Brilliant, R.; Pradeepkumar, A. P.

    2017-05-01

    The Meenachil, the only river that flows through the heart of the Kottayam district of Kerala state, India was selected for the study. The present study has been carried out with an objective to systematically examine the prevalence of indicator and pathogenic microorganisms and to compare the microbiological quality of the river water during the pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons. Water samples from 44 different sites during pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons were collected for the analysis. During the pre-monsoon period, the faecal coliform count ranged from 230 to 110,000 MPN/100 ml while there was a variation from 200 to 4600 MPN/100 ml during the post-monsoon period. When the faecal streptococci count was analysed, it ranged from 140 to 110,000 MPN/100 ml during the pre-monsoon and 70 to 4600 MPN/100 ml during the post-monsoon seasons, respectively. All the samples collected were found to have total viable count (TVC) higher than those prescribed by Bureau of Indian Standards (ISI 1991). Total viable counts were found in the range of 1.1 × 102 to 32 × 102 cfu/ml in the pre-monsoon and 1.0 × 102 to 26 × 102 cfu/ml in the post-monsoon. The presence of faecal indicator bacteria, Escherichia coli and potentially pathogenic bacteria, Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Salmonella enterica in the Meenachil River indicates that the bacteriological quality of the Meenachil River is poor. Moreover, it sheds light to the fact that raw sewage is being dumped into the Meenachil River. Urban runoffs and effluents of rubber factories appear to be the important sources of faecal contamination in the river. From this study, we conclude that these water bodies pose significant public health hazards. Adequate sanitary infrastructure will help in preventing source water contamination. Besides this, public health education aimed at improving personal, household and community hygiene is urgent.

  15. Determination of Wolbachia Diversity in Butterflies from Western Ghats, India, by a Multigene Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salunke, Bipinchandra K.; Salunkhe, Rahul C.; Dhotre, Dhiraj P.; Walujkar, Sandeep A.; Khandagale, Avinash B.; Chaudhari, Rahul; Chandode, Rakesh K.; Ghate, Hemant V.; Patole, Milind S.; Werren, John H.

    2012-01-01

    Members of the genus Wolbachia are intracellular bacteria that are widespread in arthropods and establish diverse symbiotic associations with their hosts, ranging from mutualism to parasitism. Here we present the first detailed analyses of Wolbachia in butterflies from India with screening of 56 species. Twenty-nine species (52%) representing five families were positive for Wolbachia. This is the first report of Wolbachia infection in 27 of the 29 species; the other two were reported previously. This study also provides the first evidence of infection in the family Papilionidae. A striking diversity was observed among Wolbachia strains in butterfly hosts based on five multilocus sequence typing (MLST) genes, with 15 different sequence types (STs). Thirteen STs are new to the MLST database, whereas ST41 and ST125 were reported earlier. Some of the same host species from this study carried distinctly different Wolbachia strains, whereas the same or different butterfly hosts also harbored closely related Wolbachia strains. Butterfly-associated STs in the Indian sample originated by recombination and point mutation, further supporting the role of both processes in generating Wolbachia diversity. Recombination was detected only among the STs in this study and not in those from the MLST database. Most of the strains were remarkably similar in their wsp genotype, despite divergence in MLST. Only two wsp alleles were found among 25 individuals with complete hypervariable region (HVR) peptide profiles. Although both wsp and MLST show variability, MLST gives better separation between the strains. Completely different STs were characterized for the individuals sharing the same wsp alleles. PMID:22504801

  16. Granulite belts of Central India with special reference to the Bhopalpatnam Granulite Belt: Significance in crustal evolution and implications for Columbia supercontinent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vansutre, Sandeep; Hari, K. R.

    2010-11-01

    The Central Indian collage incorporates the following major granulite belts: (1) the Balaghat-Bhandara Granulite Belt (BBG), (2) the Ramakona-Katangi Granulite Belt (RKG), (3) the Chhatuabhavna Granulite (CBG) of Bilaspur-Raigarh Belt, (4) the Makrohar Granulite Belt (MGB) of Mahakoshal supracrustals, (5) the Kondagaon Granulite Belt (KGGB), (6) the Bhopalpatnam Granulite Belt (BGB), (7) the Konta Granulite Belt (KTGB) and (8) the Karimnagar Granulite Belt (KNGB) of the East Dharwar Craton (EDC). We briefly synthesize the general geologic, petrologic and geochronologic features of these belts and explain the Precambrian crustal evolution in Central India. On the basis of the available data, a collisional relationship between Bastar craton and the EDC during the Paleo-Mesoproterozoic is reiterated as proposed by the earlier workers. The tectonic evolution of only few of the orogenic belts (BGB in particular) of Central India is related to Columbia.

  17. Natural history of the trapdoor spider Idiops joida Gupta et al 2013 (Araneae: Idiopidae from the Western Ghats in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Gupta

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We studied the habitat preferences and burrow characteristics of trapdoor spiders, Idiops joida Gupta et al 2013, within Dandeli Wildlife Sanctuary and nearby reserve forests of Uttara Kannada district of Karnataka, Western Ghats, India, from January 2010 to April 2010. We sampled 293 plots using 5 m2 quadrats, randomly placed in six habitat types at four localities. Spiders showed patchy distribution throughout the study area. The density of I. joida was highest in uncanopied habitats having sparse vegetation or bare grounds. Steep slopes were strongly preferred by spiders. Burrow characteristics of I. joida, such as burrow diameter, depth, and lid thickness, were independent of habitat type.

  18. Description of new species of Stenaelurillus Simon, 1886 from the Western Ghats of India with the redescription of Stenaelurillus lesserti Reimoser, 1934 and notes on mating plug in the genus (Arachnida, Araneae, Salticidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pothalil A. Sebastian

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A new species of the jumping spider genus Stenaelurillus Simon, 1886, S. albus sp. n., is described from the Western Ghats of India, one of the biodiversity hotspots of the world. Detailed morphological descriptions, diagnostic features and illustrations of copulatory organs of both sexes are given. Detailed redescription, diagnosis and illustration of S. lesserti Reimoser, 1934 are provided. The occurrence of a mating plug in the genus is reported.

  19. Road kills of amphibians in different land use areas from Sharavathi river basin, central Western Ghats, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.S. Seshadri

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available A survey of amphibian mortality on roads was carried out in the Sharavathi river basin in the central Western Ghats. Road kills in three different land use areas: agricultural fields, water bodies and forests were recorded for four days along three 100m stretches in each type of area. One-hundred-and-forty-four individuals belonging to two orders, eight families, 11 genera and 13 species were recorded in the survey. Kills/km observed were: in forest 55, agricultural fields 38 and water bodies 27, for an overall average of 40 kills/km. Kill species compositions varied significantly between land use areas, but not overall kill rates.

  20. Assessing the effects of multiple stressors on the recruitment of fruit harvested trees in a tropical dry forest, Western Ghats, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Varghese

    Full Text Available The harvest of non-timber forest products (NTFPs, together with other sources of anthropogenic disturbance, impact plant populations greatly. Despite this, conservation research on NTFPs typically focuses on harvest alone, ignoring possible confounding effects of other anthropogenic and ecological factors. Disentangling anthropogenic disturbances is critical in regions such as India's Western Ghats, a biodiversity hotspot with high human density. Identifying strategies that permit both use and conservation of resources is essential to preserving biodiversity while meeting local needs. We assessed the effects of NTFP harvesting (fruit harvest from canopy and lopping of branches for fruit in combination with other common anthropogenic disturbances (cattle grazing, fire frequency and distance from village, in order to identify which stressors have greater effects on recruitment of three tropical dry forest fruit tree species. Specifically, we assessed the structure of 54 populations of Phyllanthus emblica, P. indofischeri and Terminalia chebula spread across the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve, Western Ghats to ask: (1 How are populations recruiting? and (2 What anthropogenic disturbance and environmental factors, specifically forest type and elevation, are the most important predictors of recruitment status? We combined participatory research with an information-theoretic model-averaging approach to determine which factors most affect population structure and recruitment status. Our models illustrate that for T. chebula, high fire frequency and high fruit harvest intensity decreased the proportion of saplings, while lopping branches or stems to obtain fruit increased it. For Phyllanthus spp, recruitment was significantly lower in plots with more frequent fire. Indices of recruitment of both species were significantly higher for plots in more open-canopy environments of savanna woodlands than in dry forests. Our research illustrates an approach for

  1. Assessing the effects of multiple stressors on the recruitment of fruit harvested trees in a tropical dry forest, Western Ghats, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, Anita; Ticktin, Tamara; Mandle, Lisa; Nath, Snehlata

    2015-01-01

    The harvest of non-timber forest products (NTFPs), together with other sources of anthropogenic disturbance, impact plant populations greatly. Despite this, conservation research on NTFPs typically focuses on harvest alone, ignoring possible confounding effects of other anthropogenic and ecological factors. Disentangling anthropogenic disturbances is critical in regions such as India's Western Ghats, a biodiversity hotspot with high human density. Identifying strategies that permit both use and conservation of resources is essential to preserving biodiversity while meeting local needs. We assessed the effects of NTFP harvesting (fruit harvest from canopy and lopping of branches for fruit) in combination with other common anthropogenic disturbances (cattle grazing, fire frequency and distance from village), in order to identify which stressors have greater effects on recruitment of three tropical dry forest fruit tree species. Specifically, we assessed the structure of 54 populations of Phyllanthus emblica, P. indofischeri and Terminalia chebula spread across the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve, Western Ghats to ask: (1) How are populations recruiting? and (2) What anthropogenic disturbance and environmental factors, specifically forest type and elevation, are the most important predictors of recruitment status? We combined participatory research with an information-theoretic model-averaging approach to determine which factors most affect population structure and recruitment status. Our models illustrate that for T. chebula, high fire frequency and high fruit harvest intensity decreased the proportion of saplings, while lopping branches or stems to obtain fruit increased it. For Phyllanthus spp, recruitment was significantly lower in plots with more frequent fire. Indices of recruitment of both species were significantly higher for plots in more open-canopy environments of savanna woodlands than in dry forests. Our research illustrates an approach for identifying which

  2. Light and electron microscopic observations on the organization of skin and associated glands of two caecilian amphibians from Western Ghats of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damodaran, Arun; Reston Saroja, Beyo; Kotharambath, Ramachandran; Mohammad Abdulkader, Akbarsha; Oommen, Oommen V; Lekha, Divya

    2018-03-01

    We adopted light and electron microscopy to understand the structure of the skin of two species of caecilians, Ichthyophis tricolor and Uraeotyphlus cf. oxyurus, from Western Ghats of Kerala, India. The surface of the skin of these caecilians contains an irregular pattern of microridges. Oval, round and polymorphic glandular openings are randomly distributed all over the skin surface. Most of the openings are funnel shaped. The epithelial cells along the rim of the opening descend into the tunnel of the duct. A few glandular openings protrude slightly above the epithelium of the duct. The skin is formed of epidermis and dermis. Small flat disk-like dermal scales, composed of a basal plate of several layers of unmineralized collagen fibers topped with a discontinuous layer of mineralized globular squamulae, are lodged in pouches in the transverse ridges of the skin. Each pouch contains 1-4 scales, which might differ in size. The scales are almost similar between species, yet the difference can be useful in distinguishing between the two species. Flask cells and Merkel cells are present in the epidermis. Two types of glands, mucous and granular, are present in the dermis. The mucous glands are densely packed with mucous vesicles. Darkly stained mucous producing cells are located around the periphery of the gland. Secretory mucous vesicles differ in their organization and distribution. The granular glands are located perpendicular to the skin surface. The granule producing cells of the gland are located near the periphery. There are differently stained spherical secretory granules of various sizes in the cytoplasm. Thus, the use of different microscopic techniques contributed fascinatingly to the first ever understanding of organization of the skin of two selected caecilian species from Western Ghats, revealing certain features to differ between them. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Mitigation of environmental impacts due to ghat road formation in Palamalai Hills, South India, by optimizing cut and fill volumes using GPS and GIS techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arulmozhi, R; Subramani, T; Sukumar, S

    2015-01-01

    Formation of new roads generally brings about adverse impact on the environment, and in the case of hill roads, the impact is diverse and effective measures are required to mitigate it. The common problems in hill road formation are tree cutting, destruction of canopies, change in land use pattern, soil erosion, slope instability, induced landslides, invasion of foreign species, and so on. Removal of trees and vegetations causes rapid soil erosion, landslides, and invasion of foreign species posing danger to the survival of weak native species. Dumping of surplus earth materials on the valley side poses a significant threat to the environment as it would cause induced landslides. Using the cut earth for filling in road formation and dumping, the surplus cut earth in safe locations will reduce environmental degradation considerably. Conventionally, hill road alignments are finalized using traditional survey methods using ghat tracer, compass, and leveling surveys which require enormous complicated field and office works. Any revision to reduce the quantum of earthwork is difficult in this method due to its complex nature. In the present study at Palamalai Hills, South India, an alignment for a length of 7.95 km was prepared by traditional methods using ghat tracer and total station instruments for survey works. The earthwork quantities were ascertained from the longitudinal profile of the alignment. A GPS survey was also conducted along the alignment to examine its utility in alignment modification. To modify the stretches, where the earthwork cutting and filling are above normal and unbalanced and result in surplus earth, repeated GPS surveys were conducted along different paths to optimize the earthwork. The earthwork quantities of the original alignment were analyzed, and its correlation with environmental effect and the usefulness of the GPS survey in this task are presented in this paper.

  4. Antimicrobial activity of some actinomycetes from Western Ghats of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antimicrobial activity of some actinomycetes from Western Ghats of Tamil Nadu, India. ... Alexandria Journal of Medicine ... Introduction: Microbial diseases are increasing year by year and they are becoming a big threat to public health.

  5. Patterns of species discovery in the Western Ghats, a megadiversity ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR

    Species discovery patterns have been under study since the past ... frogs, tiger beetles, grasses, asters, ferns and orchids – in the Western Ghats, a megadiversity centre in India. Our .... This analysis is an alternative to logistic regression; it.

  6. Predicting climate change impacts on the distribution of the threatened Garcinia indica in the Western Ghats, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malay Pramanik

    Full Text Available In recent years, climate change has become a major threat and has been widely documented in the geographic distribution of many plant species. However, the impacts of climate change on the distribution of ecologically vulnerable medicinal species remain largely unknown. The identification of a suitable habitat for a species under climate change scenario is a significant step towards the mitigation of biodiversity decline. The study, therefore, aims to predict the impact of current, and future climatic scenarios on the distribution of the threatened Garcinia indica across the northern Western Ghats using Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt modelling. The future projections were made for the year 2050 and 2070 with all Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs scenario (2.6, 4.5, 6.0, and 8.5 using 56 species occurrence data, and 19 bioclimatic predictors from the BCC-CSM1.1 model of the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change’s (IPCC 5th assessment. The bioclimatic variables were minimised to a smaller number of variables after a multicollinearity test, and their contributions were assessed using jackknife test. The AUC value of 0.956 ± 0.023 indicates that the model performs with excellent accuracy. The study identified that temperature seasonality (39.5 ± 3.1%, isothermality (19.2 ± 1.6%, and annual precipitation (12.7 ± 1.7% would be the major influencing variables in the current and future distribution. The model predicted 10.50% (19318.7 sq. km of the study area as moderately to very highly suitable, while 82.60% (151904 sq. km of the study area was identified as ‘unsuitable’ or ‘very low suitable’. Our predictions of Climate change impact on habitat suitability suggest that there will be a drastic reduction in the suitability by 5.29% and 5.69% under RCP 8.5 for 2050 and 2070, respectively. Objective and Significance: Primary objective of this study is to identify the potential distribution of medicinally and

  7. The Lion-tailed Macaque Macaca silenus (Primates: Cercopithecidae: conservation history and status of a flagship species of the tropical rainforests of the Western Ghats, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Singh

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The Lion-tailed Macaque (Macaca silenus is a threatened species inhabiting the rainforests of the Western Ghats mountain range in southern India. Once assessed to be less than a thousand individuals remaining in the wild habitats, the population is now estimated to be between 3000 and 3500 individuals. However, the rainforest habitats of the species are highly fragmented. During the past three decades or less, the population of this species has severely declined due to habitat degradation and illegal hunting in several areas of its occurrence. In situ conservation programs included notification of certain areas as Lion-tailed Macaque conservation regions. Several captive breeding programs have been initiated in order to have a viable captive population of the species. However, the analysis reveals that both in situ and ex situ conservation programs have not achieved the desired success and the species is even more endangered than it was a few decades ago. In this article, we discuss these conservation programs and suggest further measures for effective conservation of Lion-tailed Macaques.

  8. Analysing temporal variability of particulate matter and possible contributing factors over Mahabaleshwar, a high-altitude station in Western Ghats, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leena, P. P.; Vijayakumar, K.; Anilkumar, V.; Pandithurai, G.

    2017-11-01

    Airborne particulate matter (PM) plays a vital role on climate change as well as human health. In the present study, temporal variability associated with mass concentrations of PM10, PM2.5, and PM1.0 were analysed using ground observations from Mahabaleswar (1348 m AMSL, 17.56 0N, 73.4 0E), a high-altitude station in the Western Ghats, India from June 2012 to May 2013. Concentrations of PM10, PM2.5, and PM1.0 showed strong diurnal, monthly, seasonal and weekday-weekend trends. The seasonal variation of PM1.0 and PM2.5 has showed highest concentrations during winter season compared to monsoon and pre-monsoon, but in the case of PM10 it showed highest concentrations in pre-monsoon season. Similarly, slightly higher PM concentrations were observed during weekends compared to weekdays. In addition, possible contributing factors to this temporal variability has been analysed based on the variation of secondary pollutants such as NO2, SO2, CO and O3 and long range transport of dust.

  9. Simultaneous Quantification of Forskolin and Iso-Forskolin in Coleus forskohlii (Wild.) Briq. and Identification of Elite Chemotype, Collected from Eastern Ghats (India)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Pushpendra Kumar; Misra, Ankita; Kumar, Manish; Jaichand; Singh, Kuldeep; Akhtar, Juber; Srivastava, Sharad; Agrawal, Pawan K; Singh Rawat, Ajay K

    2017-01-01

    Background: Coleus forskohlii is a well-known industrially important medicinal plant, for its high forskolin content. Objective: A simple, selective, and sensitive high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) method was developed and validated for simultaneous quantification of forskolin and iso-forskolin in C. forskohlii germplasm collected from the Eastern Ghats, India. Materials and Methods: Chromatographic separation of the targeted marker(s) was obtained on precoated silica plates using toluene: ethyl acetate: methanol (90:30:0.5, v/v/v) as the mobile phase. Results: Densitometric quantification of forskolin and iso-forskolin was carried out at 545 nm. Forskolin and iso-forskolin were identified by comparing the ultraviolet spectra of standard and sample track at Rf of 0.64 ± 0.02 and 0.36 ± 0.01, after derivatization with anisaldehyde sulfuric acid reagent. The linearity of both the analytes was obtained in the range of 300–1200 ng/spot with the regression coefficient (R2) of 0.991 and 0.986. Recovery of analyte (s) at three levels, namely, 100, 150, and 200 ng/spot was found to be 100.46% ± 0.29%, 99.64% ± 0.33%, 100.02% ± 0.76% and 99.76% ± 0.62%, 99.56% ± 0.35%, 100.02% ± 0.22%, respectively, for forskolin and iso-forskolin. The content of forskolin and iso-forskolin varies from 0.046% to 0.187% and 0.002% to 0.077%, respectively (dry weight basis), the maximum content of both the markers was found in NBC-31, from Thakurwada, Maharashtra. Conclusion: The developed HPTLC method was linear, accurate, and reliable as per the International Council for Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use guidelines. The study aids in the identification of elite chemotype for commercial prospection of industrially viable medicinal crop. SUMMARY 12 Samples are collected from different locations of the eastern ghat regionsQuantification of two major marker forskolin and iso forskolinThe maximum content of both

  10. Simultaneous Quantification of Forskolin and Iso-Forskolin in Coleus forskohlii (Wild.) Briq. and Identification of Elite Chemotype, Collected from Eastern Ghats (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Pushpendra Kumar; Misra, Ankita; Kumar, Manish; Jaichand; Singh, Kuldeep; Akhtar, Juber; Srivastava, Sharad; Agrawal, Pawan K; Singh Rawat, Ajay K

    2018-01-01

    Coleus forskohlii is a well-known industrially important medicinal plant, for its high forskolin content. A simple, selective, and sensitive high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) method was developed and validated for simultaneous quantification of forskolin and iso-forskolin in C. forskohlii germplasm collected from the Eastern Ghats, India. Chromatographic separation of the targeted marker(s) was obtained on precoated silica plates using toluene: ethyl acetate: methanol (90:30:0.5, v/v/v) as the mobile phase. Densitometric quantification of forskolin and iso-forskolin was carried out at 545 nm. Forskolin and iso-forskolin were identified by comparing the ultraviolet spectra of standard and sample track at R f of 0.64 ± 0.02 and 0.36 ± 0.01, after derivatization with anisaldehyde sulfuric acid reagent. The linearity of both the analytes was obtained in the range of 300-1200 ng/spot with the regression coefficient ( R 2 ) of 0.991 and 0.986. Recovery of analyte (s) at three levels, namely, 100, 150, and 200 ng/spot was found to be 100.46% ± 0.29%, 99.64% ± 0.33%, 100.02% ± 0.76% and 99.76% ± 0.62%, 99.56% ± 0.35%, 100.02% ± 0.22%, respectively, for forskolin and iso-forskolin. The content of forskolin and iso-forskolin varies from 0.046% to 0.187% and 0.002% to 0.077%, respectively (dry weight basis), the maximum content of both the markers was found in NBC-31, from Thakurwada, Maharashtra. The developed HPTLC method was linear, accurate, and reliable as per the International Council for Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use guidelines. The study aids in the identification of elite chemotype for commercial prospection of industrially viable medicinal crop. 12 Samples are collected from different locations of the eastern ghat regionsQuantification of two major marker forskolin and iso forskolinThe maximum content of both the markers was found in NBC -31, from Thakurwada, Maharashtra

  11. Structural and functional diversity of rhizobacteria associated with Rauwolfia spp. across the Western Ghat regions of Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasanna Kumar, S P; Hariprasad, P; Brijesh Singh, S; Gowtham, H G; Niranjana, S R

    2014-01-01

    The present study carried out with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of DNA extracted from rhizosphere soils of Rauwolfia spp. collected from Western Ghat (WG) regions of Karnataka indicated that Pseudomonas sp. was prevalently found followed by Methylobacterium sp., Bacillus sp. and uncultured bacteria. A total of 200 rhizobacteria were isolated from 58 rhizosphere soil samples comprising of 15 different bacterial genera. The Shannon Weaver diversity index (H') and Simpson's diversity index (D) were found to be 2.57 and 0.91 for cultivable bacteria, respectively. The total species richness of cultivable rhizobacteria was high in Coorg district comprising 15 bacterial genera while in Mysore district, four bacterial genera were recorded. Rarefaction curve analysis also indicated the presence of higher species richness in samples of Shimoga and Coorg. All the rhizobacteria were screened for their multiple plant growth promotion and disease suppression traits. The results revealed that 70% of the isolates colonized tomato roots, 42% produced indole acetic acid, 55% solubilized phosphorus, while 43, 22, 27, 19, 40, 15 and 44% produced siderophore, salicylic acid, hydrogen cyanide, chitinase, phytase, cellulase and protease, respectively. Rhizobacterial isolates showing antagonistic activity against Fusarium oxysporum and Aspergillus flavus were 53 and 33%, respectively. Plant growth promotion studies revealed that most of the isolates increased percent germination with significantly higher vigour index as compared to untreated control. Most predominant rhizobacteria found in the rhizospheres of Rauwolfia spp. of WG regions are potential PGPR which can serve as biofertilizers and biopesticides.

  12. Diversity of Platygastridae in Leaf Litter and Understory Layers of Tropical Rainforests of the Western Ghats Biodiversity Hotspot, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoj, K; Rajesh, T P; Prashanth Ballullaya, U; Meharabi, K M; Shibil, V K; Rajmohana, K; Sinu, Palatty Allesh

    2017-06-01

    Platygastridae is the third largest family of parasitic Hymenoptera in the world. It includes important egg and larval parasitoids of insects and spiders. Therefore, Platygastridae is functionally important in maintaining the stability of tropical rainforests and agroecosystems. Although the diversity of Platygastridae is relatively well-known in agroecosystems, we know little about their diversity in tropical rainforests, and particularly about that of the leaf litter layer. Here, we address the importance of monitoring Platygastridae in tropical rainforests, using data from the relic primary forests of the sacred groves of the Western Ghats. First, we demonstrate that pitfall traps allow us to catch a wide array of representative diversity of Platygastridae of the tropical rainforests, and we establish an efficient collection method to study Platygastridae of leaf litter layer. Second, we demonstrate that the community structure and composition of Platygastridae of the leaf litter layer is different from that seen in the understory of the forests. This indirectly informs us that the Malaise traps capture only a minor subset of the species active in the rainforests. Third, we find that the dry and wet seasons captured dissimilar community of Platygastridae, suggesting that the season might alter the potential host species or host stages. We conclude that monitoring parasitic Hymenoptera in the leaf litter layer of tropical rainforests can provide fresh insights on the species distribution of both the parasitoids and their hosts, and allows us to examine the current state of the tropical rainforests from a functional point of view. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Genetic structure and demographic history of the endangered tree species Dysoxylum malabaricum (Meliaceae) in Western Ghats, India: implications for conservation in a biodiversity hotspot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodare, Sofia; Tsuda, Yoshiaki; Ravikanth, Gudasalamani; Uma Shaanker, Ramanan; Lascoux, Martin

    2013-09-01

    The impact of fragmentation by human activities on genetic diversity of forest trees is an important concern in forest conservation, especially in tropical forests. Dysoxylum malabaricum (white cedar) is an economically important tree species, endemic to the Western Ghats, India, one of the world's eight most important biodiversity hotspots. As D. malabaricum is under pressure of disturbance and fragmentation together with overharvesting, conservation efforts are required in this species. In this study, range-wide genetic structure of twelve D. malabaricum populations was evaluated to assess the impact of human activities on genetic diversity and infer the species' evolutionary history, using both nuclear and chloroplast (cp) DNA simple sequence repeats (SSR). As genetic diversity and population structure did not differ among seedling, juvenile and adult age classes, reproductive success among the old-growth trees and long distance seed dispersal by hornbills were suggested to contribute to maintain genetic diversity. The fixation index (F IS) was significantly correlated with latitude, with a higher level of inbreeding in the northern populations, possibly reflecting a more severe ecosystem disturbance in those populations. Both nuclear and cpSSRs revealed northern and southern genetic groups with some discordance of their distributions; however, they did not correlate with any of the two geographic gaps known as genetic barriers to animals. Approximate Bayesian computation-based inference from nuclear SSRs suggested that population divergence occurred before the last glacial maximum. Finally we discussed the implications of these results, in particular the presence of a clear pattern of historical genetic subdivision, on conservation policies.

  14. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Ocimum basilicum L. (sweet basil) from Western Ghats of North West Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Rajesh K

    2014-01-01

    Ocimum basilicum L. (Lamiaceae) commonly known as sweet basil, has been used as a traditional medicinal plant for the treatment of headaches, coughs, diarrhea, constipation, warts, worms, and kidney malfunctions. The essential oil of the flowering aerial parts of O. basilicum growing in the Western Ghats region of North West Karnataka, India, was obtained by hydro-distillation and analyzed by gas chromatography equipped with flame ionization detector and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The oil was tested against six Gram-positive, eight Gram-negative bacteria, and three fungi by the tube-dilution method at a concentration range of 5.00-0.009 mg/mL. Twenty-five constituents were identified in the essential oil of O. basilicum. The major constituents were identified as methyl eugenol (39.3%) and methyl chavicol (38.3%), accounting for 98.6% of the total oil. The oil was found to be active against Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacteria, and fungi with minimal bactericidal concentration values in the range of 0.143 ± 0.031 to 0.572 ± 0.127 mg/mL, 0.781 ± 0.382 to 1.875 ± 0.684 mg/mL, and 0.312 ± 0.171 to 0.442 ± 0.207 mg/mL, respectively. The essential oil of O. basilicum of this region contains methyl eugenol/methyl chavicol chemotype and has bactericidal properties.

  15. Physiological stress responses in wild Asian elephants Elephas maximus in a human-dominated landscape in the Western Ghats, southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakrishnan, Sreedhar; Kumar, Mavatur Ananda; Umapathy, G; Kumar, Vinod; Sinha, Anindya

    2018-05-16

    Increasing anthropogenic pressures on forests, especially in the tropical regions of the world, have restricted several large mammalian species such as the Asian elephant to fragmented habitats within human-dominated landscapes. In this study, we assessed the effects of an anthropogenic landscape and its associated conflict with humans on the physiological stress responses displayed by Asian elephants in the Anamalai Hills of the Western Ghats mountains in south India. We have quantified faecal glucocorticoid metabolite (FGM) concentrations in focal individual elephants within and across herds, inhabiting both anthropogenic and natural habitats, and evaluated their physiological responses to different socio-ecological situations between November 2013 and April 2014. Physiological stress responses varied significantly among the tested elephant age- and sex categories but not across different types of social organisation. Adults generally showed higher FGM concentrations, even in the absence of stressors, than did any other age category. Males also appeared to have higher stress responses than did females. Although there was no significant variation in mean stress levels between elephants on the plateau in the absence of human interactions and those in adjacent, relatively undisturbed forest habitats, FGM concentrations increased significantly for adult and subadult individuals as well as for calves following drives, during which elephants were driven off aggressively by people. Our study emphasises the general importance of understanding individual variation in physiology and behaviour within a population of a seriously threatened mammalian species, the Asian elephant, and specifically highlights the need for long-term monitoring of the stress physiology and behavioural responses of individual elephants across both human-dominated and natural landscapes. Such studies would not only provide comprehensive insights into the adaptive biology of elephants in changing

  16. Assessment of diversity among populations of Rauvolfia serpentina Benth. Ex. Kurtz. from Southern Western Ghats of India, based on chemical profiling, horticultural traits and RAPD analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Vadakkemuriyil Divya; Raj, Rajan Pillai Dinesh; Panneerselvam, Rajaram; Gopi, Ragupathi

    2014-01-01

    Genetic, morphological and chemical variations of ten natural populations of Rauvolfia serpentina Benth. Ex. Kurtz. from Southern Western Ghats of India were assessed using RAPD markers reserpine content and morphological traits. An estimate of genetic diversity and differentiation between genotypes of breeding germplasm is of key importance for its improvement. Populations were collected from different geographical regions. Data obtained through three different methods were compared and the correlation among them was estimated. Statistical analysis showed significant differences for all horticultural characteristics among the accessions suggesting that selection for relevant characteristics could be possible. Variation in the content of Reserpine ranges from 0.192 g/100 g (population from Tusharagiri) to 1.312 g/100 g (population from Aryankavu). A high diversity within population and high genetic differentiation among them based on RAPDs were revealed caused both by habitat fragmentation of the low size of most populations and the low level of gene flow among them. The UPGMA dendrogram and PCA analysis based on reserpine content yielded higher separation among populations indicated specific adaptation of populations into clusters each of them including populations closed to their geographical origin. Genetic, chemical and morphological data were correlated based on Mantel test. Given the high differentiation among populations conservation strategies should take into account genetic diversity and chemical variation levels in relation to bioclimatic and geographic location of populations. Our results also indicate that RAPD approach along with horticultural analysis seemed to be best suited for assessing with high accuracy the genetic relationships among distinct R. serpentina accessions. © 2013.

  17. Genetic structure and demographic history of the endangered tree species Dysoxylum malabaricum (Meliaceae) in Western Ghats, India: implications for conservation in a biodiversity hotspot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodare, Sofia; Tsuda, Yoshiaki; Ravikanth, Gudasalamani; Uma Shaanker, Ramanan; Lascoux, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The impact of fragmentation by human activities on genetic diversity of forest trees is an important concern in forest conservation, especially in tropical forests. Dysoxylum malabaricum (white cedar) is an economically important tree species, endemic to the Western Ghats, India, one of the world's eight most important biodiversity hotspots. As D. malabaricum is under pressure of disturbance and fragmentation together with overharvesting, conservation efforts are required in this species. In this study, range-wide genetic structure of twelve D. malabaricum populations was evaluated to assess the impact of human activities on genetic diversity and infer the species’ evolutionary history, using both nuclear and chloroplast (cp) DNA simple sequence repeats (SSR). As genetic diversity and population structure did not differ among seedling, juvenile and adult age classes, reproductive success among the old-growth trees and long distance seed dispersal by hornbills were suggested to contribute to maintain genetic diversity. The fixation index (FIS) was significantly correlated with latitude, with a higher level of inbreeding in the northern populations, possibly reflecting a more severe ecosystem disturbance in those populations. Both nuclear and cpSSRs revealed northern and southern genetic groups with some discordance of their distributions; however, they did not correlate with any of the two geographic gaps known as genetic barriers to animals. Approximate Bayesian computation-based inference from nuclear SSRs suggested that population divergence occurred before the last glacial maximum. Finally we discussed the implications of these results, in particular the presence of a clear pattern of historical genetic subdivision, on conservation policies. PMID:24223264

  18. Topographic and Bioclimatic Determinants of the Occurrence of Forest and Grassland in Tropical Montane Forest-Grassland Mosaics of the Western Ghats, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arundhati Das

    Full Text Available The objective of this analysis was to identify topographic and bioclimatic factors that predict occurrence of forest and grassland patches within tropical montane forest-grassland mosaics. We further investigated whether interactions between topography and bioclimate are important in determining vegetation pattern, and assessed the role of spatial scale in determining the relative importance of specific topographic features. Finally, we assessed the role of elevation in determining the relative importance of diverse explanatory factors. The study area consists of the central and southern regions of the Western Ghats of Southern India, a global biodiversity hotspot. Random forests were used to assess prediction accuracy and predictor importance. Conditional inference classification trees were used to interpret predictor effects and examine potential interactions between predictors. GLMs were used to confirm predictor importance and assess the strength of interaction terms. Overall, topographic and bioclimatic predictors classified vegetation pattern with approximately 70% accuracy. Prediction accuracy was higher for grassland than forest, and for mosaics at higher elevations. Elevation was the most important predictor, with mosaics above 2000 m dominated largely by grassland. Relative topographic position measured at a local scale (within a 300 m neighbourhood was another important predictor of vegetation pattern. In high elevation mosaics, northness and concave land surface curvature were important predictors of forest occurrence. Important bioclimatic predictors were: dry quarter precipitation, annual temperature range and the interaction between the two. The results indicate complex interactions between topography and bioclimate and among topographic variables. Elevation and topography have a strong influence on vegetation pattern in these mosaics. There were marked regional differences in the roles of various topographic and bioclimatic

  19. Topographic and Bioclimatic Determinants of the Occurrence of Forest and Grassland in Tropical Montane Forest-Grassland Mosaics of the Western Ghats, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Arundhati; Nagendra, Harini; Anand, Madhur; Bunyan, Milind

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this analysis was to identify topographic and bioclimatic factors that predict occurrence of forest and grassland patches within tropical montane forest-grassland mosaics. We further investigated whether interactions between topography and bioclimate are important in determining vegetation pattern, and assessed the role of spatial scale in determining the relative importance of specific topographic features. Finally, we assessed the role of elevation in determining the relative importance of diverse explanatory factors. The study area consists of the central and southern regions of the Western Ghats of Southern India, a global biodiversity hotspot. Random forests were used to assess prediction accuracy and predictor importance. Conditional inference classification trees were used to interpret predictor effects and examine potential interactions between predictors. GLMs were used to confirm predictor importance and assess the strength of interaction terms. Overall, topographic and bioclimatic predictors classified vegetation pattern with approximately 70% accuracy. Prediction accuracy was higher for grassland than forest, and for mosaics at higher elevations. Elevation was the most important predictor, with mosaics above 2000 m dominated largely by grassland. Relative topographic position measured at a local scale (within a 300 m neighbourhood) was another important predictor of vegetation pattern. In high elevation mosaics, northness and concave land surface curvature were important predictors of forest occurrence. Important bioclimatic predictors were: dry quarter precipitation, annual temperature range and the interaction between the two. The results indicate complex interactions between topography and bioclimate and among topographic variables. Elevation and topography have a strong influence on vegetation pattern in these mosaics. There were marked regional differences in the roles of various topographic and bioclimatic predictors across the

  20. CEPF Western Ghats Special Series: Checklist of the fishes of the Achankovil forests, Kerala, India with notes on the range extension of an endemic cyprinid Puntius chalakkudiensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Baby

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available We report the results of an ichthyofaunal inventory carried out in the Achankovil Reserve Forest in the southern Western Ghats as part of a Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund Project on lesser known freshwater fishes of Kerala . Forty-six species of freshwater fish, belonging to 17 families and 31 genera were collected from 11 sites inside the Achankovil Reserve Forest. Family Cyprinidae dominated with 21 species, followed by Bagridae, Balitoridae and Channidae (three species each. Out of the 46 species, 14 were endemic to the Western Ghats, three were endemic to Kerala region and one was exotic to the country. In this paper, we also report the range extension of an endemic cyprinid, Puntius chalakkudiensis to the Achankovil River and the Achankovil Reserve Forest. The fish diversity of this region is higher than many protected areas within southern Western Ghats, and stresses the need for immediate protection and monitoring programs.

  1. Geographical Information System based assessment of spatiotemporal characteristics of groundwater quality of upland sub-watersheds of Meenachil River, parts of Western Ghats, Kottayam District, Kerala, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijith, H.; Satheesh, R.

    2007-09-01

    Hydrogeochemistry of groundwater in upland sub-watersheds of Meenachil river, parts of Western Ghats, Kottayam, Kerala, India was used to assess the quality of groundwater for determining its suitability for drinking and agricultural purposes. The study area is dominated by rocks of Archaean age, and Charnonckite is dominated over other rocks. Rubber plantation dominated over other types of the vegetation in the area. Though the study area receives heavy rainfall, it frequently faces water scarcity as well as water quality problems. Hence, a Geographical Information System (GIS) based assessment of spatiotemporal behaviour of groundwater quality has been carried out in the region. Twenty-eight water samples were collected from different wells and analysed for major chemical constituents both in monsoon and post-monsoon seasons to determine the quality variation. Physical and chemical parameters of groundwater such as pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), total hardness (TH), chloride (Cl), nitrate (NO3) and phosphate (PO4) were determined. A surface map was prepared in the ArcGIS 8.3 (spatial analyst module) to assess the quality in terms of spatial variation, and it showed that the high and low regions of water quality varied spatially during the study period. The influence of lithology over the quality of groundwater is negligible in this region because majority of the area comes under single lithology, i.e. charnockite, and it was found that the extensive use of fertilizers and pesticides in the rubber, tea and other agricultural practices influenced the groundwater quality of the region. According to the overall assessment of the basin, all the parameters analysed are below the desirable limits of WHO and Indian standards for drinking water. Hence, considering the pH, the groundwater in the study area is not suitable for drinking but can be used for irrigation, industrial and domestic purposes. The spatial analysis of groundwater quality patterns of the study area shows

  2. Temporal distribution and behaviour of sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in a cutaneous leishmaniasis focus of the Kani Tribe settlements in the Western Ghats, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, R; Jambulingam, P; Kumar, N Pradeep; Selvakumar, M; Edwin, B; Kumar, T Dilip

    2015-08-01

    The temporal distribution of sand flies in relation to environmental factors was studied in the Kani tribe settlements located on the southernmost part of the Western Ghats, Kerala, India, between June 2012 and May 2013. This area is known for occurrence of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) cases. Employing hand-held aspirator, light trap and sticky-trap collection methods, a total of 7874 sand fly specimens, comprising 19 species was collected. Sergentomyia baghdadis was predominant species, followed by Phlebotomus argentipes. Sand fly abundance was significantly higher indoors (χ(2)=9241.8; p=0.0001) than outdoors. Mean density of P. argentipes in human dwellings, cattle sheds and outdoors was 7.2±2.9, 27.33±21.1 and 0.64±0.2 females/per man-hour (MHR), respectively. No sand fly species other than P. argentipes was obtained from cattle sheds. Although, sand fly populations were prevalent throughout the year, their abundance fluctuated with seasonal changes. Multiple regression analysis with backward elimination indicated that the increase in precipitation and relative humidity contributed to a significant positive association with the increase in sand fly abundance, while the increase in temperature showed no association. Fully engorged female sand flies tested for blood meal source showed multiple host-blood feeding. Analysis of resting populations of sand flies collected from human shelters indicated that the populations were found maximum on interior walls at 6-8 and >8 ft height, including ceiling during summer (F=83.7, df=6, p=0.001) and at the lower half of the wall at 0 and 0-2 ft height, during monsoon season (F=41.4, df=6, p=0.001). In cooler months, no preference to any height level (F=1.67, df=6, p=0.2) was observed. Proportion of females sand flies with Sella's classification of abdominal stages, namely full-fed, half-gravid and gravid females did not vary significantly (t=1.98, p=0.13827) indoors, confirming their endophilic behaviour. Risk of CL

  3. A note on the taxonomy, field status and threats to three endemic species of Syzygium (Myrtaceae from the southern Western Ghats, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ramasubbu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Taxonomy, field status and threats of three endemic species of Syzygium,  Syzygium densiflorum Wall. ex Wight & Arn., Syzygium myhendrae (Bedd. ex Brandis Gamble and Syzygium travancoricum Gamble of the southern Western Ghats were discussed.

  4. New species and new records of earthworms of the genus Drawida from Kerala part of the Western Ghats biodiversity hotspot, India (Oligochaeta, Moniligastridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, S Prasanth; Sathrumithra, S; Christopher, G; Julka, J M

    2017-01-01

    Two new species of Drawida Michaelsen, 1900, namely Drawida polydiverticulata Narayanan & Julka, sp. n. and Drawida thomasi Narayanan & Julka, sp. n. , are described from material collected from the Indian state of Kerala, which lies in the Western Ghats biodiversity hotspot. Drawida elegans Rao, 1921, Drawida kanarensis Stephenson, 1917, Drawida modesta Rao, 1921, Drawida somavarpatana Rao, 1921, and Drawida thurstoni Gates, 1945 are recorded for the first time from the state.

  5. Organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticide residues in fodder and milk samples along Musi river belt, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korrapati Kotinagu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to find the organochlorine pesticide (OCP and organophosphorus pesticide (OPP residues in fodder and milk samples along Musi river belt, India. Materials and Methods: Fodder and milk samples collected from the six zones of Musi river belt, Hyderabad India were analyzed by gas chromatography with electron capture detector for OCP residues and pulsated flame photometric detector for the presence of OPP residues. Results: The gas chromatographic analysis of fodder samples of Zone 5 of Musi river showed the residues of dicofol at concentration of 0.07±0.0007 (0.071-0.077. Among organophosphorus compounds, dimetheoate was present in milk samples collected from Zone 6 at a level of 0.13±0.006 (0.111-0.167. The residues of OCPs, OPPs and cyclodies were below the detection limit in the remaining fodder and milk samples collected from Musi river belt in the present study. Conclusion: The results indicate that the pesticide residues in fodder and milk samples were well below the maximum residue level (MRL values, whereas dicofol in fodder and dimethoate in milk were slightly above the MRL values specified by EU and CODEX.

  6. Organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticide residues in fodder and milk samples along Musi river belt, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotinagu, Korrapati; Krishnaiah, Nelapati

    2015-04-01

    The present study was conducted to find the organochlorine pesticide (OCP) and organophosphorus pesticide (OPP) residues in fodder and milk samples along Musi river belt, India. Fodder and milk samples collected from the six zones of Musi river belt, Hyderabad India were analyzed by gas chromatography with electron capture detector for OCP residues and pulsated flame photometric detector for the presence of OPP residues. The gas chromatographic analysis of fodder samples of Zone 5 of Musi river showed the residues of dicofol at concentration of 0.07±0.0007 (0.071-0.077). Among organophosphorus compounds, dimetheoate was present in milk samples collected from Zone 6 at a level of 0.13±0.006 (0.111-0.167). The residues of OCPs, OPPs and cyclodies were below the detection limit in the remaining fodder and milk samples collected from Musi river belt in the present study. The results indicate that the pesticide residues in fodder and milk samples were well below the maximum residue level (MRL) values, whereas dicofol in fodder and dimethoate in milk were slightly above the MRL values specified by EU and CODEX.

  7. Using Satellite Data to Unpack Causes of Yield Gaps in India's Wheat Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, M.; Singh, B.; Srivastava, A.; Malik, R. K.; McDonald, A.; Lobell, D. B.

    2016-12-01

    India will face significant food security challenges in the coming decades due to climate change, natural resource degradation, and population growth. Yields of wheat, one of India's staple crops, are already stagnating and will be significantly impacted by warming temperatures. Despite these challenges, wheat yields can be enhanced by implementing improved management in regions with existing yield gaps. To identify the magnitude and causes of current yield gaps, we produced 30 m resolution yield maps across India's main wheat belt, the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP), from 2000 to 2015. Yield maps were derived using a new method that translates satellite vegetation indices to yield estimates using crop model simulations, bypassing the need for ground calibration data that rarely exist in smallholder systems. We find that yields can be increased by 5% on average and up to 16% in the eastern IGP by improving management to current best practices within a given district. However, if policies and technologies are put in place to improve management to current best practices in Punjab, the highest yielding state, yields can be increased by 29% in the eastern IGP. Considering which factors most influence wheat yields, we find that later sow dates and warmer temperatures are most associated with low yields across the IGP. This suggests that strategies that reduce the negative effects of heat stress, like earlier sowing and planting heat-tolerant wheat varieties, are critical to India's current and future food security.

  8. A report of the threatened plant Decalepis hamiltonii Wight & Arn. (Asclepiadaceae from the mid elevation forests of Pachamalai Hills of the Eastern Ghats, Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Anburaja

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Pachamalai Hills are a part of the Eastern Ghats and are situated in the central region of Tamil Nadu. The vegetated area is distributed into 35 reserved forests of Pachamalai Hills. The plant Decalepis hamiltonii Wight & Arn. is one of the threatened plant found in the study area. This indicates that the Pachamalai Hills can harbour good vegetation which are the vestiges of a luxuriant vegetation cover of the past era, hence, need to be protected. The hills are most significant socio-culturally because of the diversified forest patches found there. These hills have been studied earlier mainly for floristic analysis. Before this, D. hamiltonii has not been collected from Pachamalai.

  9. 2-D traveltime and waveform inversion for improved seismic imaging: Naga Thrust and Fold Belt, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Priyank; Zelt, Colin A.; Bally, Albert W.; Dasgupta, Rahul

    2008-05-01

    Exploration along the Naga Thrust and Fold Belt in the Assam province of Northeast India encounters geological as well as logistic challenges. Drilling for hydrocarbons, traditionally guided by surface manifestations of the Naga thrust fault, faces additional challenges in the northeast where the thrust fault gradually deepens leaving subtle surface expressions. In such an area, multichannel 2-D seismic data were collected along a line perpendicular to the trend of the thrust belt. The data have a moderate signal-to-noise ratio and suffer from ground roll and other acquisition-related noise. In addition to data quality, the complex geology of the thrust belt limits the ability of conventional seismic processing to yield a reliable velocity model which in turn leads to poor subsurface image. In this paper, we demonstrate the application of traveltime and waveform inversion as supplements to conventional seismic imaging and interpretation processes. Both traveltime and waveform inversion utilize the first arrivals that are typically discarded during conventional seismic processing. As a first step, a smooth velocity model with long wavelength characteristics of the subsurface is estimated through inversion of the first-arrival traveltimes. This velocity model is then used to obtain a Kirchhoff pre-stack depth-migrated image which in turn is used for the interpretation of the fault. Waveform inversion is applied to the central part of the seismic line to a depth of ~1 km where the quality of the migrated image is poor. Waveform inversion is performed in the frequency domain over a series of iterations, proceeding from low to high frequency (11-19 Hz) using the velocity model from traveltime inversion as the starting model. In the end, the pre-stack depth-migrated image and the waveform inversion model are jointly interpreted. This study demonstrates that a combination of traveltime and waveform inversion with Kirchhoff pre-stack depth migration is a promising approach

  10. Marine magnetic anomalies as a link between the granulite belts of east coast of India and enderby land of Antarctica

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murthy, K.S.R.; Rao, M.M.M.; Venkateswarlu, K.; Subrahmanyam, A.S.; Lakshminarayana, S.; Rao, T.C.S.

    anomalies and the granulite facies on the east coast of India and their correlation with the granulite belt of Enderby Land of Antarctica supports the view that the entire region comprised of a single and stable block of granulite rocks prior...

  11. Large-scale carbon stock assessment of woody vegetation in tropical dry deciduous forest of Sathanur reserve forest, Eastern Ghats, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Durai Sanjay; Sundarapandian, Somaiah

    2017-04-01

    Tropical dry forests are one of the most widely distributed ecosystems in tropics, which remain neglected in research, especially in the Eastern Ghats. Therefore, the present study was aimed to quantify the carbon storage in woody vegetation (trees and lianas) on large scale (30, 1 ha plots) in the dry deciduous forest of Sathanur reserve forest of Eastern Ghats. Biomass of adult (≥10 cm DBH) trees was estimated by species-specific allometric equations using diameter and wood density of species whereas in juvenile tree population and lianas, their respective general allometric equations were used to estimate the biomass. The fractional value 0.4453 was used to convert dry biomass into carbon in woody vegetation of tropical dry forest. The mean aboveground biomass value of juvenile tree population was 1.86 Mg/ha. The aboveground biomass of adult trees ranged from 64.81 to 624.96 Mg/ha with a mean of 245.90 Mg/ha. The mean aboveground biomass value of lianas was 7.98 Mg/ha. The total biomass of woody vegetation (adult trees + juvenile population of trees + lianas) ranged from 85.02 to 723.46 Mg/ha, with a mean value of 295.04 Mg/ha. Total carbon accumulated in woody vegetation in tropical dry deciduous forest ranged from 37.86 to 322.16 Mg/ha with a mean value of 131.38 Mg/ha. Adult trees accumulated 94.81% of woody biomass carbon followed by lianas (3.99%) and juvenile population of trees (1.20%). Albizia amara has the greatest biomass and carbon stock (58.31%) among trees except for two plots (24 and 25) where Chloroxylon swietenia contributed more to biomass and carbon stock. Similarly, Albizia amara (52.4%) showed greater carbon storage in juvenile population of trees followed by Chloroxylon swietenia (21.9%). Pterolobium hexapetalum (38.86%) showed a greater accumulation of carbon in liana species followed by Combretum albidum (33.04%). Even though, all the study plots are located within 10 km radius, they show a significant spatial variation among

  12. Thismia (Thismiaceae): the first record of the mycoheterotrophic genus to the Flora of India with a new species revealing the phytogeographical significance of Western Ghats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sujanapal, P.; Robi, A.J.; Dantas, K.J.; Sumod, M.; Merckx, V.S.F.T.

    2017-01-01

    Thismia, a genus of mycoheterotrophic plants, is reported for the first time from mainland India, from Neryamangalam forests in Idukki district of Kerala, along with a new species, T. sahyadrica. Thismia sahyadrica, described and illustrated here, is unique within Thismia in having a mitre with a

  13. Uranium exploration in albitised rocks of North Delhi Fold Belt in Rajasthan and Haryana, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, P.; Khandelwal, M.; Bhairam, C.; Parihar, P.

    2014-01-01

    Uranium deposits in Na-metasomatised granites and metasediments are reported from several places in the world. In India, uranium mineralization associated with soda metasomatic activity has been recognized at a number of places in North Delhi Fold Belt (NDFB) in Rajasthan and adjoining Haryana. Exploration activities for uranium in Khetri Sub Basin (KSB) of North Delhi Fold Belt (NDFB) in last six decades have resulted in locating number of uranium occurrences in the albitites and albitised metasediments at Sior, Siswali, Maonda, Hurra ki Dhani, Diara, Saladipura, Khandela, Rohil, Ghateshwar, Bichun, Sakhun, Ladera and Chota Udaipur in parts of Rajasthan and Dhancholi, Raghunathpura, Rambas and Gorir, in parts of Haryana. Incidentally, the occurrences fall along a NNE-SSW trending “Albitite line”, which comprises a 170 km long, structurally weak zone/lineament and axial trace of major folds in the KSB extending from Raghunathpura in Mahendragarh district of southern Haryana to Ladera-Sakun-Bichun in Rajasthan. Lithounits of KSB comprise lower Alwar Group consisting quartzite, amphibole quartzite, subordinate phyllite and schist and upper Ajabgarh Group consisting schist, phyllite, marble, quartzite and carbon phyllite. The post-Delhi magmatic activity in NDFB is represented by alkali granites, pegmatites, aplites and albitites. The rocks of Delhi supergroup have undergone low to medium grade metamorphism (amphibolite facies) and polyphase deformation. First two deformations with N-S to NNE-SSW axial plane are coaxial while the third phase have E-W axial plane. Prominent shear zones are developed along the N-S to NNE-SSW axial planes, characterized by intense silicification, brecciation and ferruginisation. The NE-SW trending disposition of albitised granites indicate that the metasomatic fluids originated during reactivation of the NE-SW trending Khetri lineament, caused pervasive albitisation of the preexisting rocks, the deformed lithounits providing conduits

  14. Proterozoic orogenic belts and rifting of Indian cratons: Geophysical constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.C. Mishra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Aravalli–Delhi and Satpura Mobile Belts (ADMB and SMB and the Eastern Ghat Mobile Belt (EGMB in India form major Proterozoic mobile belts with adjoining cratons and contemporary basins. The most convincing features of the ADMB and the SMB have been the crustal layers dipping from both sides in opposite directions, crustal thickening (∼45 km and high density and high conductivity rocks in upper/lower crust associated with faults/thrusts. These observations indicate convergence while domal type reflectors in the lower crust suggest an extensional rifting phase. In case of the SMB, even the remnant of the subducting slab characterized by high conductive and low density slab in lithospheric mantle up to ∼120 km across the Purna–Godavari river faults has been traced which may be caused by fluids due to metamorphism. Subduction related intrusives of the SMB south of it and the ADMB west of it suggest N–S and E–W directed convergence and subduction during Meso–Neoproterozoic convergence. The simultaneous E–W convergence between the Bundelkhand craton and Marwar craton (Western Rajasthan across the ADMB and the N–S convergence between the Bundelkhand craton and the Bhandara and Dharwar cratons across the SMB suggest that the forces of convergence might have been in a NE–SW direction with E–W and N–S components in the two cases, respectively. This explains the arcuate shaped collision zone of the ADMB and the SMB which are connected in their western part. The Eastern Ghat Mobile Belt (EGMB also shows signatures of E–W directed Meso–Neoproterozoic convergence with East Antarctica similar to ADMB in north India. Foreland basins such as Vindhyan (ADMB–SMB, and Kurnool (EGMB Supergroups of rocks were formed during this convergence. Older rocks such as Aravalli (ADMB, Mahakoshal–Bijawar (SMB, and Cuddapah (EGMB Supergroups of rocks with several basic/ultrabasic intrusives along these mobile belts, plausibly formed during

  15. CEPF Western Ghats Special Series: Frugivory and seed dispersal by the Asian Elephant Elephas maximus in the tropical forests of Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve, southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Baskaran

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Seed dispersal plays a potential role in plant species demographic processes. Elephants are important seed-dispersing agents. We studied frugivory and seed dispersal by Asian Elephants in the tropical deciduous and thorn forests of the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve, southern India. We determined fruit consumption based on the presence of seeds and fruit remnants in elephant dung piles. In total, we identified seeds of eight plant species belonging to seven families in 16% out of 455 dung piles examined between 1991 and 2004. Coinciding with a peak fruiting season in the study area, seeds and other fruit parts appeared in the dung piles significantly more frequently during the dry season than in the wet seasons (southwest and northeast monsoons. Owing to differences in fruit species abundance in different habitats, there was more evidence of fruit consumption in the dry thorn than in the dry and moist deciduous forests. This corresponds with insufficient grass availability in thorn forests during the dry season and an increase in browse consumption as a supplementary diet. Seeds of Tamarindus indica and Acacia intsia were found in elephant dung more frequently than other species. Seed and fruit remnants were found in almost an equal number of dung piles of both bulls and herds.

  16. An assessment of human-elephant conflict and associated ecological and demographic factors in Nilambur, Western Ghats of Kerala, southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. K. Rohini

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Elephant conservation carries cost in the form of human-elephant conflict and affects the wellbeing of people living near ecologically important areas.  Conflicts impart serious challenges towards the survival of Asian Elephants, which are categorized as Endangered in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.  Issues of wildlife conservation are least addressed in areas with less restricted categories of protection.  Hence an attempt was made to evaluate the intensity of elephant conflict and factors associated with its occurrence in villages with forest fringes of North and South Forest Divisions of Nilambur, Kerala, southern India.  It was hypothesized that variables such as number of houses, area of village, livestock population, forest frontage, and presence of water source along the forest boundary abutting the village to be the underlying correlates of conflict.  Field studies were conducted fortnightly from June 2014 to May 2015, by visiting farms and households of 17 selected forest fringe villages.  Observational methods, questionnaire surveys and secondary data collection were employed for this purpose.  A total of 277 incidents of crop depredation, 12 incidents of property damage, three human injuries, and one human death due to conflict were recorded during this period.  Crop raiding was highest during post monsoon season and it was low during pre-monsoon and monsoon seasons.  Multiple linear regression results suggest that forest frontage and livestock population were significant predictors of conflict incidence.  Information regarding the prime causes of conflict will be helpful for planning strategies for the establishment of appropriate mitigation methods.  The present study serves as baseline information which will be helpful for formulating prospective management plans.

  17. Measurement of CSR Performance of the Corporate Located in Talegaon Industrial Belt, Pune, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukiko Hashimoto

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Being socially responsible is now a business obligation for by corporate entities. Today, about 90% of leading companies in India are involved in various CSR programmes such as working for education, health, empowerment of women and environment. Recently, CSR has evolved from philanthropy to a business related phenomenon because the new CSR concept with gaining some strategic advantage and sustainability has been widely recognized. This article examines whether corporates in India (including multinationals operating business in India are practicing strategic CSR based on the survey conducted in Talegaon Maharashtra Industrial Development Council (MIDC in Pune, India. Also, we try to measure the community impact socially and economically. The result shows that the most of the companies in Talegaon still practice a philanthropic approach but they have made improvement on community impact from 2011 to 2013. After the action research and intervention, some companies started a developmental and strategic approach for their community. It can be concluded that the quantity and area of CSR have been increased according to the community needs and community participation is very important to conduct CSR.

  18. Uranium and REE potential of the albitite-pyroxenite-microclinite belt of Rajasthan, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Govind; Sharma, D.K.; Yadav, O.P.; Jain, Rajan B.; Singh, Rajendra

    1998-01-01

    A number of radioactive albitite, pyroxenite and microclinite occurrences have been identified in north and central Rajasthan, along or in close proximity to major lineaments, from Dancholi - Mewara in the NE to Tal in the SW. With these new findings the total extent of Albitite belt of Rajasthan now stands at over 320 km. These occurrences have been evaluated on the basis of their U, Th and REE content to identify the potential areas for the second phase of uranium exploration programme. Further, based on the various characteristic features of radioactive host rocks, the Albitite Belt has been divided into five sectors. The U 3 O 8 content of albitites varies from 0.008 to 0.44% and of pyroxenites from 0.022 to 2.0% whereas ThO 2 varies from < 0.005 to 0.83% in albitites and <0.005 to 0.033% in pyroxenities. These albitites, microclinites and pyroxenites are also characterised by anomalous concentration of REEs. Uranium and REE bearing phases are represented by uraninite, brannerite, davidite, fergusonite, monazite, anatase, rutile, zircon, allanite and britholite. The data accrued so far suggest that U and REE potential of the Mewara-Maonda and Hurra Ki Dhani-Rohil sectors are very high and hence needs further detailed integrated exploration. (author)

  19. Association of the Purana basins and the middle Proterozoic mobile belts in peninsular India: implications on targeting uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kale, V.S.

    1995-01-01

    The disparate Archaean Cratonic Nuclei of the Indian peninsular shield coalesced together through late Archaean - Palaeoproterozoic accretionary tectonic events. The subsequent Mesoproterozoic and Neoproterozoic sequences are preserved either in the Purana basins or in the middle Proterozoic mobile belts (MPMB). The latter contain deformed and metamorphosed supracrustal sequences; and can be ascribed to compressive tectonic regimes. The Purana basins on the other hand represent shallow marine, epicratonic, passive-margin sequences deposited in an extensional tectonic regime. Major deformational events and metamorphism of the MPMB are known to have taken place around 1600 ±200 Ma and 900 ± 100 Ma. These two periods coincide with the ages of initiation and major intrabasinal breaks in the growth of the Purana basins. The contemporary juxtapositioning of these two dissimilar tectonic regimes in peninsular India, is examined within the framework of the available data on them and the current models of Proterozoic tectonics. Its implications on uranium mineralization and possible regions for targeting exploration activities are discussed on this basis. (author). 112 refs., 4 figs

  20. Isotopic signature of Pan-African rejuvenation in the Kerala Khondalite belt, southern India: implications for east Gondwana reassembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unnikrishnan Warrier, C.

    1997-01-01

    Sm-Nd isotope systematics on mineral separates from sillimanite-and cordierite-bearing metapelite (khondalite), and garnet-and biotite-bearing gneiss (leptynite) from the Kerala Khondalite Belt (KKB), southern India, yielded mineral isochron ages (wr-feld-bio-gar) of 537±27 Ma (MSWD=0.9) and 534±26 Ma (MSWD=1.23) respectively. Rb-Sr systematics in the same samples gave wr-feld-bio mineral isochron ages of 437±9 Ma (MSWD=0.67) and 467±9 Ma (MSWD=0.76). These results provide the first mineral isochron ages for the regional metasedimentaries in the KKB. The ε (Nd T) values at 550 Ma for khondalite and leptynite are -22.7 and -21.8 respectively. These results demonstrate a complete rejuvenation of the crust during Pan-African times. Coeval alkaline plutons emplaced along fault-lineaments in this area suggest an extensional tectonic regime. Geochronologic correlations with the Lutzow-Holm bay complexes in east Antarctica, and the highland and southwestern complex of Sri Lanka show that a similar Pan-African tectono-thermal event manifested in all the east Gondwana crustal fragments. (author)

  1. Delineation of Gold Mineralization Zone using Resistivity and Very Low Frequency Electromagnetic Methods around, North Singhbhum Mobile Belt, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, A.; Panda, K. P.; Singh, A.; Sharma, S. P.

    2017-12-01

    The results of electrical resistivity and VLF electromagnetic surveys are presented in this study to delineate the suitable geological structure associated with gold mineralization near Lawa Village (Seraikela-Kharsawan, Jharkhand), India. The area under observation lies in North Singhbhum Mobile Belt (NSMB) which is bounded by Chotanagpur Gneiss Complex in north and Archean Singhbhum Craton in the south. Shear zone of the study area, trending E-W, is mainly associated with Cu-U mineralization which is also associated with gold. Previous geological studies have revealed that this region can be a potential site for gold prospects within NSMB. A comprehensive electrical resistivity imaging and very low frequency surveys have been performed around Lawa village to outline appropriate conducting zones, with their lateral extension and depth extent, which may be associated with gold mineralization. Resistivity survey done using Dipole-Dipole multi-electrode array reveals multiple zones of mineralization separated by variable distances. The VLF data in the current study was tainted by non-stationary and non-linear noises which cannot be eliminated by standard filtering techniques. Therefore to restore signals with significant geologic information empirical mode decomposition (EMD) technique was used. The noise free data obtained was then processed using Fast Imaging technique to obtain apparent current density pseudo-sections for interpretation. Interpretation and analysis of results from each investigating survey demonstrate a steeply dipping conductor with E-W strike direction along the shear zone. These conductive zones are characterized by low resistivity and high current density values.

  2. Fission track geochronology of Eastern Ghats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Virk, H S; Koul, S L; Singh, S [Punjabi Univ., Patiala (India). Dept. of Physics

    1978-12-01

    Fission track geochronology of Eastern Ghats has been established by using fission track technique in dating micaceous and accessory minerals occurring in the region. Annealing studies confirm that radiation damage fossil tracks can be erased in minerals under intense metamorphic episodes thus resetting the geological clock. The fission track ages of the minerals range between 450 +- 5 m.y. to 622 +- 148 m.y. It is concluded that f.t. ages of the minerals date the last metamorphic event of the Eastern Ghats, known as the Indian Ocean Cycle.

  3. CEPF Western Ghats Special Series: Rediscovery of the threatened Western Ghats endemic sisorid catfish Glyptothorax poonaensis (Teleostei: Siluriformes: Sisoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Dahanukar

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Glyptothorax poonaensis Hora is an endemic sisorid catfish of the Western Ghats of India known only from its type locality in Mula-Mutha River, a tributary of Bhima River, at Pune. This fish has not been recorded from its type locality for more than 70 years and it was thought to be extinct. Here we report a recently discovered population of G. poonaensis from Indrayani River, a tributary of Bhima River. Based on 11 specimens, we have redescribed this species along with some comments on its taxonomy, length-weight relationship, feeding and breeding habits. We also performed molecular phylogeny of the fish by sequencing three mitochondrial genes encoding 16S ribosomal DNA, cytochrome b and cytochrome oxidase subunit I. Molecular analysis suggests that G. poonaensis is nested within a lineage of Glyptothorax species from northern and northeastern India and China. Further, our analysis reveals that southern Indian species of Glyptothorax do not form a monophyletic group. Molecular dating of divergence times indicates that G. poonaensis diverged from other northern Indian species 1.9 to 2.5 million years ago. Current knowledge suggests that the species could be found in two river basins with total extent of around 6100km2; however, the species is already suspected to be locally extinct from half of its known extent of occurrence. Furthermore, the habitat of the species may be threatened by increasing pollution, deforestation leading to siltation, halting of flow by damming, sandmining and introduced fish species. In the light of biodiversity conservation, especially in an important biodiversity hotspot like Western Ghats, such rare and endemic species needs prioritization.

  4. K-Ar geochronology of the Kulu-Mandi Belt, NW Himalaya, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehta, P.K.; Rex, D.C.

    1977-01-01

    The K-Ar dates of micas and whole rock amphibolites from the Kulu-Mandi Belt define two distinct groups, (1) 20 to 75 m. y., and (2) 277 to 366 m. y. Our data together with the other available K-Ar and Rb-Sr mineral and whole rock data, enable us to confirm three major events in the Himalaya, the Late Precambrian-Cambrian Assyntian (Cadomian) Orogenic cycle, the Late Palaeozoic Hercynian Magmatic-Epeirogenic cycle and the Late Cretaceous-Teritiary Himalayan Orogenic cycle. The mineral dating is significant for delineating different phases of the last i.e. the Himalayan Oregeny. The radiometric data, so far to hand, indicate that the main activity of the young, Himalayan metamorphism was probably around 50 to 70 m. y. (Late Cretaceous-Eocene) and this was followed by a major uplift during the 10 to 25 m. y. (Mid. Miocene) time, which was responsible for thrusting and formation of nappe structures in the Himalaya. (orig.) [de

  5. Using Satellite Data to Identify the Causes of and Potential Solutions for Yield Gaps in India's Wheat Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, M.; Singh, B.; Srivastava, A.; Malik, R. K.; McDonald, A.; Lobell, D. B.

    2017-12-01

    Food security will be increasingly challenged by climate change, natural resource degradation, and population growth. Wheat yields, in particular, have already stagnated in many regions and will be further affected by warming temperatures. Despite these challenges, wheat yields can be increased by improving management practices in regions with existing yield gaps. We present two studies that are using satellite data to better understand the factors contributing to yield gaps and potential interventions to close yield gaps in India's main wheat belt, the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP). To identify the magnitude and causes of current yield gaps, we produced 30 meter resolution yield maps from 2001 to 2015 using Landsat sallite data and a new method that translates satellite vegetation indices to yield estimates using crop model simulations, bypassing the need for ground calibration data. This is one of the first attempts to apply this method to a smallholder agriculture system, where ground calibration data are rarely available. We find that yields can be increased by 11% on average and up to 32% in the eastern IGP by improving management to current best practices within a given district. Additionally, if current best practices from the highest-yielding state of Punjab are implemented in the eastern IGP, yields could increase by almost 110%. Considering the factors that most influence yields, later sow dates and warmer temperatures are most associated with low yields across the IGP. This suggests that strategies to reduce the negative effects of heat stress, like earlier sowing and planting heat-tolerant wheat varieties, are critical to increasing wheat yields in this globally-important agricultural region. We also apply this method to high-resolution micro-satellite data (impacts of a new fertilizer spreader technology and identify whether satellite data can be used to appropriately target this intervention.

  6. Glaciations, gradients, and geography: multiple drivers of diversification of bush frogs in the Western Ghats Escarpment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Riya C.; Jayarajan, Aditi; Shanker, Kartik

    2016-01-01

    The historical processes underlying high diversity in tropical biodiversity hotspots like the Western Ghats of Peninsular India remain poorly understood. We sampled bush frogs on 13 massifs across the Western Ghats Escarpment and examined the relative influence of Quaternary glaciations, ecological gradients and geological processes on the spatial patterns of lineage and clade diversification. The results reveal a large in situ radiation (more than 60 lineages), exhibiting geographical structure and clade-level endemism, with two deeply divergent sister clades, North and South, highlighting the biogeographic significance of an ancient valley, the Palghat Gap. A majority of the bush frog sister lineages were isolated on adjacent massifs, and signatures of range stasis provide support for the dominance of geological processes in allopatric speciation. In situ diversification events within the montane zones (more than 1800 m) of the two highest massifs suggest a role for climate-mediated forest-grassland persistence. Independent transitions along elevational gradients among sub-clades during the Miocene point to diversification along the elevational gradient. The study highlights the evolutionary significance of massifs in the Western Ghats with the high elevations acting as centres of lineage diversification and the low- and mid-elevations of the southern regions, with deeply divergent lineages, serving as museums. PMID:27534957

  7. Species and acoustic diversity of bats in a palaeotropical wet evergreen forest in southern India

    OpenAIRE

    Raghuram, H; Jain, M; Balakrishnan, R

    2014-01-01

    The Western Ghats of India is among the top 25 biodiversity hotspots in the world. About 43% of the reported 117 bat species in India are found in this region, but few quantitative studies of bat echolocation calls and diversity have been carried out here thus far. A quantitative study of bat diversity was therefore conducted using standard techniques, including mist-netting, acoustical and roost surveys in the wet evergreen forests of Kudremukh National Park in the Western Ghats of Karnataka...

  8. The occurrence of fluor-wagnerite in UHT granulites and its implications towards understanding fluid regimes in the evolution of deep crust: a case study from the Eastern Ghats Belt, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Kaushik; Tomioka, Naotaka; Bose, Sankar; Ando, Jun-ichi; Ohnishi, Ichiro

    2017-06-01

    We report the occurrence of a rare phosphate mineral, fluor-wagnerite (Mg1.91-1.94Fe0.06-0.07Ca1000 °C, 8-9 kbar) of the studied area was retrogressed after emplacement to mid-crustal level (800-850 °C, 6-6.5 kbar) as deduced from their pressure -temperature histories. Based on mineral chemical data and micro-Raman analyses, we document an unusual high Mg-F-rich chemistry of the F-wagnerite, which occur both in peak metamorphic porphyroblastic assemblages as well as in the retrograde matrix assemblage. Therefore, in absence of other common phosphates like apatite, fluor-wagnerite can act as an indicator for the presence of F-bearing fluids for rocks with high X Mg and/or fO2. The occurrence of F-rich minerals as monitors for fluid compositions has important implications for the onset of biotite dehydration melting and hence melt production in the deep crust. We propose that fluor-wagnerite can occur as an accessory mineral associated with F-rich fluids in lower-mid crustal rocks, and F in coexisting minerals should be taken into consideration when reconciling the petrogenetic grid of biotite-dehydration melting.

  9. An index to measure depreciation in air quality in some coal mining areas of Korba industrial belt of Chhattisgarh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gurdeep

    2006-11-01

    The comparison with National Ambient Air Quality Standards does not always depict a true picture of the Air Quality Status of a study area. As an alternative an index that measures depreciation in Air Quality on more realistic terms has been proposed and applied to the ambient air monitoring data collected from some areas of Korba Coalfields in India. Results have been discussed in detail to illustrate the application of the proposed index and utility in bringing out more realistic air quality assessment.

  10. Extended distribution of endemic Travancore Murainagrass Ischaemum travancorense Stapf ex C.E.C. Fisch. (Poaceae to central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandar N. Datar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ischaemum travancorense Stapf ex C.E.C. Fisch., an endemic species, earlier known only from the Western Ghats of Kerala, Maharashtra and Goa is reported here for the first time from central India

  11. Genesis of copper-lead mineralization in the regionally zoned Agnigundala Sulfide Belt, Cuddapah Basin, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, H. N.; Bandyopadhyay, Sandip

    2018-03-01

    Shallow marine sandstone-shale-carbonate sedimentary rocks of the Paleoproterozoic northern Cuddapah basin host copper (Nallakonda deposit), copper-lead (Dhukonda deposit), and lead mineralization (Bandalamottu deposit) which together constitute the Agnigundala Sulfide Belt. The Cu sulfide mineralization in sandstone is both stratabound and disseminated, and Pb sulfide mineralization occurs as stratabound fracture filling veins and/or replacement veins within dolomite. Systematic mineralogical and sulfur, carbon, and oxygen isotope studies of the three deposits indicate a common ore-fluid that deposited copper at Nallakonda, copper-lead at Dhukonda, and lead at Bandalamottu under progressive cooling during migration through sediments. The ore-fluid was of low temperature (water sulfate produced sulfide for ore deposition. It is envisaged that basal red-bed and evaporite-bearing rift-related continental to shallow marine sediments might have acted as the source for the metals. Rift-related faults developed during sedimentation in the basin might have punctured the ore-fluid pool in the lower sedimentary succession and also acted as conduits for their upward migration. The ore-bearing horizons have participated in deformations during basin inversion without any recognizable remobilization.

  12. CEPF Western Ghats Special Series: Birds of lower Palni Hills, Western Ghats, Tamil Nadu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ramesh

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The current altitudinal distribution and breeding observations on birds of lower Palni Hills, Western Ghats were documented by conducting road transects, opportunistic surveys including trail walks and mist netting. A total of 196 species belonging to 63 families were recorded during the study. The Accipitridae family was foremost in species richness, followed by Cuculidae and Muscicapidae, Picidae, Timaliidae and other families. Altitudinal distribution of birds was higher between 600 and 900 m. The general patterns of the decreasing species richness with increasing altitude were observed in mid and upper Palnis. This could be probably because the lower Palnis have more deciduous and scrub forest which can support high food availability. Resident and migrant species made up to 87.76% and 12.24% of the community, respectively. We recorded a species that was threatened, three nearly threatened, and five endemic to the Western Ghats. Most of the endemics were confined to the higher altitudes due to the presence of moist evergreen and high altitude montane forests and grasslands. In total, 51 breeding bird observations were recorded. Interestingly, the variation in the breeding season of some birds was noticed with respect to earlier studies. Overall, our study illustrated useful information on bird community in this region which serves as a baseline for future monitoring programs.

  13. Distribution of natural radioactive and trace elements in the soils and sands from the high radiation coastal belt of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, V.V.; Pillai, T.N.V.; Ganguly, A.K.

    1974-01-01

    A brief introduction of the work, already done in connection with the radioactivity present in soils in India, is given. Thorium daughter product activity is estimated in samples collected from monazite area, using gamma spectrometry. The activity is estimated quantitatively and the external dose as well as the genetically significant dose are calculated. Labile components in field soils and beach sands are estimated and the elements are analysed. The experimental procedure adopted is also described. The physico-chemical investigations carried out are explained with reference to the base exchange capacity, loss on ignition, particle size analysis, etc. The results have been presented in the form of tables and they are discussed in detail. (K.B.)

  14. Emplacement of pillow lavas from the ~ 2.8 Ga Chitradurga Greenstone Belt, South India: A physical volcanological, morphometric and geochemical perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duraiswami, Raymond A.; Inamdar, Mustaqueem M.; Shaikh, Tahira N.

    2013-08-01

    The physical volcanology and morphometric analyses of pillowed lava flows from the Chitradurga basin of Chitradurga Greenstone Belt, South India have been undertaken. In the Chitradurga hills individual pillowed flows alternate with massive submarine sheet flows. The pillows from such flows are separated by chert and occur as spheroidal, elongated or reniform units that are devoid of vesicles, vesicle bands or pipe vesicles. The Mardihalli flow is exposed as a small elongated mound in the basin and consists of a massive core that is draped by pillows along the flow crest and flanks. The pillows from Mardihalli occur as spheroidal to elongate units with smooth, spalled or wrinkled surfaces with vesicular interiors. Repeated budding of larger pillows have produced a series of interconnected pillow units indicating fluid lava that was emplaced on steeply dipping flanks. Based on the morphological features the pillowed flows from the Chitradurga basin were emplaced at low effusion rates (≤ 5 m3/s). Pillows in these flows formed from low viscosity lavas that underwent negligible to moderate inflation due to rapid chilling. Sporadic occurrences of pillow breccias, hyaloclastite and chert breccias in the pillowed flow fields indicate disruption of pillows due to lava surges and slumping. It is envisaged that the Chitradurga basin witnessed distinct episodes of submarine tholeiite eruptions that produced pillowed lavas that variably interacted with sea water to produce geochemistries. The field and stratigraphic relationships of the volcanics and associated clastic sediments suggest that the pillow lavas were emplaced in a shallow marine marginal inter/back arc basin.

  15. Mapping of stripe rust resistance QTL in Cappelle-Desprez × PBW343 RIL population effective in northern wheat belt of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Sushma Kumari; Sharma, Davinder; Duhan, Joginder Singh; Saharan, Mahender Singh; Tiwari, Ratan; Sharma, Indu

    2016-06-01

    Stripe rust caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici is most important and devastating disease of wheat worldwide, which affects the grain yields, quality and nutrition. To elucidate, the genetic basis of resistance, a mapping population of recombinant inbred lines was developed from a cross between resistant Cappelle-Desprez and susceptible cultivar PBW343 using single-seed descent. Variety PBW343 had been one of the most popular cultivars of North Western Plains Zone, for more than a decade, before succumbing to the stripe rust. Cappelle-Desprez, a source of durable adult plant resistance, has maintained its resistance against stripe rust for a long time in Europe. Map construction and QTL analysis were completed with 1012 polymorphic (DArT and SSR) markers. Screenings for stripe rust disease were carried out in field condition for two consecutive crop seasons (2012-2013 and 2013-2014). Susceptible parent (PBW343) achieved a significant level of disease i.e., 100 % in both the years. In present investigations, resistance in Cappelle-Desprez was found stable and response to the rust ranged from 0 to 1.5 % over the years. The estimated broad-sense heritability (h 2 ) of stripe rust rAUDPC in the mapping population was 0.82. The relative area under the disease progress curve data showed continuous distributions, indicating that trait was controlled multigenically. Genomic region identified on chromosome 2D, was located within the short arm, with flanking markers (Xgwm484-Xcfd73), explained phenotypic variation (PVE) ranged from 13.9 to 31.8 %. The genomic region identified on chromosome 5B was found with the effect of maximum contribution with flanking DArT markers (1376633|F|0-1207571|F|0), PVE ranged from 24 to 27.0 %. This can, therefore, be utilized for marker assisted selection in developing much needed stripe rust resistant lines for the northern wheat belt of India.

  16. India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-05-01

    In this discussion of India attention is directed to the following: the people; geography; history; government; political conditions; the economy; foreign relations (Pakistan and Bangladesh, China, and the Soviet Union); defense; and the relations between the US and India. In 1983 India's population was estimated at 746 million with an annual growth rate of 2.24%. The infant mortality rate was estimated at 116/1000 in 1984 with a life expectancy of 54.9 years. Although India occupies only 2.4% of the world's land area, it supports nearly 15% of the world's population. 2 major ethnic strains predominate in India: the Aryan in the north and the Dravidian in the south, although the lines between them are blurred. India dominates the South Asian subcontinent geographically. The people of India have had a continuous civilization since about 2500 B.C., when the inhabitants of the Indus River Valley developed an urban culture based on commerce, trade, and, to a lesser degree, agriculture. This civilization declined about 1500 B.C. and Aryan tribes originating in central Asia absorbed parts of its culture as they spread out over the South Asian subcontinent. During the next few centuries, India flourished under several successive empires. The 1st British outpost in South Asia was established in 1619 at Surat on the northwestern coast of India. The British gradually expanded their influence until, by the 1850s, they controlled almost the entire area of present-day India. Independence was attained on August 15, 1947, and India became a dominion within the Commonwealth of Nations with Jawaharlal Nehru as prime minister. According to its constitution, India is a "sovereign socialist secular democratic republic." Like the US, India has a federal form of government, but the central government in India has greater power in relation to its states, and government is patterned after the British parliamentary system. The Congress Party has ruled India since independence with the

  17. Patterns of species discovery in the Western Ghats, a megadiversity ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR

    Ghats (Flora of Coorg, Flora of Hassan District, Flora of. Udupi, Flora of Tamil Nadu, Flora of Maharashtra, to name a few). Analysis of species discovery curves including four plant and four animal groups indicated a mixed set of patterns. For the charismatic animal species—birds and butterflies—the discovery curve was ...

  18. First report of Eutropis innovate (Blanford, 1870 (Reptilia: Scincidae from Nallamalai Hills, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.T. Rao

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the first record of Eutropis innotata (Blanford, 1870 based on a specimen collected in 2002 from Gundla Brahmeswaram Metta Wildlife Sanctuary, Andhra Pradesh, India. The habitat from where it was collected is relatively undisturbed patch of forest in the Nallamalai Hills of Eastern Ghats. This constitutes the range extension of this species from central India to Nallamalai Hills in Eastern Ghats in peninsular India. We provide details on its diagnosis, habits and habitat, and key to species belonging to the genus Eutropis Fitzinger, 1843.

  19. Enhancing biodiversity management and utilization to improve livelihoods – a case study of 'kokum' in India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruijssen, F.; Sudha, M.

    2008-01-01

    Garcinia indica, commonly known as 'kokum', is an underutilized fruit tree, native of the Western Ghats in India and Malaysia. In India it mainly grows in the western parts of Maharashtra, Karnataka, Kerala and Goa. The fruit is used as a medicinal plant against obesity; the rind as souring and food

  20. Lithosphere, crust and basement ridges across Ganga and Indus basins and seismicity along the Himalayan front, India and Western Fold Belt, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi Kumar, M.; Mishra, D. C.; Singh, B.

    2013-10-01

    Spectral analysis of the digital data of the Bouguer anomaly of North India including Ganga basin suggest a four layer model with approximate depths of 140, 38, 16 and 7 km. They apparently represent lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB), Moho, lower crust, and maximum depth to the basement in foredeeps, respectively. The Airy's root model of Moho from the topographic data and modeling of Bouguer anomaly constrained from the available seismic information suggest changes in the lithospheric and crustal thicknesses from ˜126-134 and ˜32-35 km under the Central Ganga basin to ˜132 and ˜38 km towards the south and 163 and ˜40 km towards the north, respectively. It has clearly brought out the lithospheric flexure and related crustal bulge under the Ganga basin due to the Himalaya. Airy's root model and modeling along a profile (SE-NW) across the Indus basin and the Western Fold Belt (WFB), (Sibi Syntaxis, Pakistan) also suggest similar crustal bulge related to lithospheric flexure due to the WFB with crustal thickness of 33 km in the central part and 38 and 56 km towards the SE and the NW, respectively. It has also shown the high density lower crust and Bela ophiolite along the Chamman fault. The two flexures interact along the Western Syntaxis and Hazara seismic zone where several large/great earthquakes including 2005 Kashmir earthquake was reported. The residual Bouguer anomaly maps of the Indus and the Ganga basins have delineated several basement ridges whose interaction with the Himalaya and the WFB, respectively have caused seismic activity including some large/great earthquakes. Some significant ridges across the Indus basin are (i) Delhi-Lahore-Sargodha, (ii) Jaisalmer-Sibi Syntaxis which is highly seismogenic. and (iii) Kachchh-Karachi arc-Kirthar thrust leading to Sibi Syntaxis. Most of the basement ridges of the Ganga basin are oriented NE-SW that are as follows (i) Jaisalmer-Ganganagar and Jodhpur-Chandigarh ridges across the Ganga basin intersect

  1. India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    Interest has grown recently in the issues of third tier or emerging nuclear suppliers. These are states that could export nuclear equipment, services, or technology but are outside the export control framework of the London Nuclear Supplier Group (NSG). The concern is that they may conduct nuclear trade without adequate safeguards, thus weakening the nonproliferation regime or even contributing to nuclear proliferation. The volume of nuclear sales by emerging suppliers is still minuscule, and it is unclear how far their export practices will diverge from the NSG framework. This case study of Indian nuclear supplier capability and practice is an effort to discern the type of path India is likely to adopt. This paper examines four aspects of India's nuclear activity for clues to India's potential role as an emerging nuclear supplier: foreign transactions; nuclear decision making; policy norms; and nuclear industrial capabilities

  2. A New Species of Salacia (Celastraceae from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanjiraparambil Arjunan Sujana

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A new species, Salacia wayanadica Sujana, Nagaraju, Ratheesh & Anil Kumar, from Wayanad (Western Ghats, India is described and illustrated. Its distinctive characters are discussed and comments made on differences between this and related species. Information on habitat, distribution, phenology, local uses and conservation status are provided.

  3. Redescription, distribution and status of the Karwar Large Burrowing Spider Thrigmopoeus truculent us Pocock, 1899 (Araneae: Theraphosidae, a Western Ghats endemic ground mygalomorph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Siliwal

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The genus Thrigmopoeus is endemic to the Western Ghats of India, and is so far represented by two species: Thrigmopoeus truculentus Pocock, 1899 and T. insignis Pocock, 1899. The distribution of T. truculentus was considered to be restricted to its type locality until a few populations were identified in other places. In this paper we provide detail morphometry and characters used in modern-day taxonomy to redescribe the female of T. truculentus, with additional notes on its distribution, range extension, burrow and habitat.

  4. The 1000Ma reassembly of Dharwar and Bastar cratons – Evidence ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    8

    2. General Geology. The geology of the study area comprises of the rocks of the Dharwar craton, the ...... Craton-mobile belt relations in in Southern Granulite Terrain. Geol. Soc. .... chemistry: a case study from the Eastern Ghats Belt. India.

  5. India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-10-01

    This discussion of India focuses on the following: the history of the country's demographic situation; the government's overall approach to population problems; population data systems and development planning; institutional arrangements for the integration of population with development planning; the government's view of the importance of population policy in achieving development objectives; population size, growth and natural increase; morbidity and mortality; fertility; international migration; and spatial distribution. India's government views the population problem in the country as extremely serious particularly in relation to the alleviation of poverty. It was the 1st country to introduce a family planning program at the national level. Development plans have consistently treated the population situation as a priority issue. A relatively comprehensive system of data collection for demographic purposes has existed in India for a long time. The 1st census was conducted in 1872. The government has continually worked to maintain the integration of population concerns within overall development planning. The government regards population growth as an impediment to development and views the slow growth in per capita income as being due largely to the rapid population increase which continues to outpace the increases in the gross national product. The government perceives the current rate of population growth as unsatisfactory because it is too high. Mortality levels have dropped considerably, but the government still considers the situation with regard to mortality as unacceptable. In 1980 the UN estimated the infant mortality rate was 128.9 infant deaths/1000 live births for the 1975-80 period. The total fertility rate, as estimated by the UN, is reported to have dropped from 6.3 births per woman in 1960 to 6.0 in 1970 and 5.0 in 1980. The government has continuously indicated concern with fertility levels, perceiving the situation as unsatisfactory because its

  6. Edible wild mushrooms of the Western Ghats: Data on the ethnic knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namera C. Karun

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The edible wild mushrooms are most important in food security of ethnic groups and tribals throughout the world. Various indigenous strategies are followed to trace wild mushrooms suitable for human consumption. Data presented in this article projects ethnic knowledge on 51 edible wild mushrooms (in 23 genera in the Western Ghats region of India. Information collected with support of ethnic groups/tribals pertains to habitats, substrates, mutualistic association, extent of availability, extent of edibility and method of processing of wild mushrooms. Extensive field visits and interactions with ethnic groups were performed to collect the data on each mushroom. Initially, most of these mushrooms were identified based on the indigenous methods and designated with vernacular names (Are-Gowda, Kodava and Tulu. Based on macromorphology (in field and micromorphology (in laboratory, each mushroom was identified with its systematic name. Among the 51 wild mushrooms irrespective of extent of availability, the most preferred include Astraeus hygrometricus, Clitocybe infundibuliformis, Fistulina hepatica, Lentinus sajor-caju, Pleurotus (5 spp. and Scleroderma citrinum and Termitomyces (18 spp.. This data forecasts the importance of documentation of traditional knowledge, protection of habitats, management of resources (tree species and substrates and sustainable exploitation of wild mushrooms.

  7. Host Plant and Leaf-Age Preference of Luprops tristis (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae: Lagriinae: Lupropini: A Home Invading Nuisance Pest in Rubber Plantation Belts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabu K. Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Massive seasonal invasion by the litter-dwelling beetle Luprops tristis, into residential buildings prior to monsoon rains, and their prolonged state of dormancy render them a very serious nuisance pest in rubber plantations in the Western Ghats in southern India. Feeding preferences of L. tristis towards leaf litter of seven trees co-occurring in rubber plantations, cashew (Anacardium occidentale, mango (Mangifera indica, jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus, wild jack (Artocarpus hirsutus, cocoa (Theobroma cacao, cassia (Cassia fistula, sapota (Manilkara zapota and rubber (Hevea brasiliensis were analyzed with no-choice and multiple-choice leaf disc tests. Results showed that L. tristis is a generalist feeder with a defined pattern of preference, with the leaf litter of rubber being the most preferred followed by those of jackfruit and cocoa. Tender leaves were preferred over mature leaves except for cocoa and sapota. Equal preference towards tender and mature cocoa leaves, presence of patches of cocoa plantations and the scarce distribution of other host plants in rubber plantation belts leads to the proposal that in the absence of tender and mature rubber leaves, cocoa becomes the major host plant of L. tristis.

  8. Enclosed belts in the ascendancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-03-15

    Although there will always be a place for traditional overland belt conveyors, enclosed belt systems are increasingly being specified where environmental protection assumes high priority or where there is a need to protect material from the weather. The article reports on recent conveyor projects such as: an MRC cable Belt in a 6.4 km system to carry coal in the Appalachian Mountains; a $40 m contract awarded to FL Smidth to supply an integrated coal handling system to LILIAMA in Vietnam and other contracts to handle coal for India's Coastal Gujarat Power; and a contract awarded to Bateman Engineered Technologies to supply a 7 km Japan Pipe Conveyor for a coal power station in Brazil. 3 photos.

  9. Environmental conditions of Borra Cave, Visakhapattanam, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haraprasad Bairagya

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Caving is an art which can be best experienced in the mystic Borra of Eastern Ghats and ranked as the second largest cave of India just after Belum Caves situated in the same state Andhrapradesh, India. This Cave is fast becoming a hot tourist?s destination offering great adventurous opportunity to the tourists in the Eastern Ghats. The cave is located in the Ananthagiri hills of the Eastern Ghats region near Visakhapattanam and is made of limestone. The emotion of thrill heightens after entering the cave. The entrance has a narrow vertical opening and is well lit. Due to its location in the sub-equatorial region, dripping of water from the cave roofs occurs almost throughout the year. The formation of stalactites and stalagmites create wonderful phenomena specially found in this cave. The conspicuous pillars formed due to the joining of the roof and the floors are an awe-inspiring creativity of the creator of this world. Various viruses and bacteria are in the cave interior along with different other creatures. The Borra cave helps the Govt. of Andhra Pradesh, India, to earn huge economic benefits for the sake of tourism industry. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v3i2.10526 International Journal of the Environment Vol.3(2 2014: 150-166

  10. Petrology and geochemistry of charnockites (felsic ortho-granulites) from the Kerala Khondalite Belt, Southern India: Evidence for intra-crustal melting, magmatic differentiation and episodic crustal growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindra Kumar, G. R.; Sreejith, C.

    2016-10-01

    The Kerala Khondalite Belt (KKB) of the southern India encompasses volumetrically significant magmatic components. Among these, orthopyroxene-bearing, felsic ortho-granulites, popularly known as charnockites in Indian context, constitute an important lithology. In contrast to the well-known phenomena of arrested charnockitization, the geochemical characteristics and petrogenesis of these ortho-granulite suites remain poorly studied, leaving geodynamic models envisaged for the KKB highly conjectural. In this paper, we try to bridge this gap with detailed results on orthopyroxene-bearing, felsic ortho-granulites spread over the entire KKB and propose a new petrogenetic and crustal evolution model. Based on geochemical characteristics, the orthopyroxene-bearing, felsic ortho-granulites (charnockites sensu lato) of KKB are classified into (1) tonalitic (TC), (2) granitic (GC), and (3) augen (AC) suites. Members of the TC follow sodic (characterized by decreasing CaO/Na2O), whereas those of the GC and AC follow calc-alkaline trends of differentiation. Geochemical patterns of the TC resemble those of the Archaean tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite (TTG) suites, with slightly magnesian character (average Mg# = 33), moderate LREE (average LaN = 154), low HREE (average YbN = 6) and Y (1-53 ppm; average 11 ppm). The TC is also characterized by positive to slightly negative europium anomalies (Eu/Eu* = 0.7 to 1.67). The GC and AC suites, on the other hand, resemble post-Archaean arc-related granites. The GC displays ferroan nature (average Mg# = 22), low to moderate degrees of REE fractionation (average [La/Yb]N = 34.84), high contents of Y (5-128 ppm; average 68), and low Sr/Y (1-98) ratios. Significant negative Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu* = 0.18-0.91; average 0.50) and low Sr (65-690 ppm) are also noted in the GC. Similar chemical characteristics are shown by the AC, with ferroan nature (average Mg# = 21), low to moderate degrees of REE fractionation (average [La/Yb]N = 26), high

  11. Porphyry copper assessment of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt and eastern Tethysides: China, Mongolia, Russia, Pakistan, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, and India: Chapter X in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalasky, Mark J.; Ludington, Stephen; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Alexeiev, Dmitriy V.; Frost, Thomas P.; Light, Thomas D.; Robinson, Gilpin R.; Briggs, Deborah A.; Wallis, John C.; Miller, Robert J.; Bookstrom, Arthur A.; Panteleyev, Andre; Chitalin, Andre; Seltmann, Reimar; Guangsheng, Yan; Changyun, Lian; Jingwen, Mao; Jinyi, Li; Keyan, Xiao; Ruizhao, Qiu; Jianbao, Shao; Gangyi, Shai; Yuliang, Du

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey collaborated with international colleagues to assess undiscovered resources in porphyry copper deposits in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt and eastern Tethysides. These areas host 20 known porphyry copper deposits, including the world class Oyu Tolgoi deposit in Mongolia that was discovered in the late 1990s. The study area covers major parts of the world’s largest orogenic systems. The Central Asian Orogenic Belt is a collage of amalgamated Precambrian through Mesozoic terranes that extends from the Ural Mountains in the west nearly to the Pacific Coast of Asia in the east and records the evolution and final closure of the Paleo-Asian Ocean in Permian time. The eastern Tethysides, the orogenic belt to the south of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt, records the evolution of another ancient ocean system, the Tethys Ocean. The evolution of these orogenic belts involved magmatism associated with a variety of geologic settings appropriate for formation of porphyry copper deposits, including subduction-related island arcs, continental arcs, and collisional and postconvergent settings. The original settings are difficult to trace because the arcs have been complexly deformed and dismembered by younger tectonic events. Twelve mineral resource assessment tracts were delineated to be permissive for the occurrence of porphyry copper deposits based on mapped and inferred subsurface distributions of igneous rocks of specific age ranges and compositions. These include (1) nine Paleozoic tracts in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt, which range in area from about 60,000 to 800,000 square kilometers (km2); (2) a complex area of about 400,000 km2 on the northern margin of the Tethysides, the Qinling-Dabie tract, which spans central China and areas to the west, encompassing Paleozoic through Triassic igneous rocks that formed in diverse settings; and (3) assemblages of late Paleozoic and Mesozoic rocks that define two other tracts in the Tethysides, the 100

  12. Response of coastal vegetation and the need for green belts along the Tamil Nadu coast, India: The December 2004 tsunami experience

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mascarenhas, A.

    in coastal areas as protective shield against the tsunami. An amount of Rupees 648 lakhs has been allocated in 2006. It has also been proposed to cover the remaining parts of the coast with a bio-shield in phased manner, for which a proposal costing about... of trees effectively reduces the force of devastating storm surges and waves; (d) Trees are beneficial for biodiversity and can induce habitats for wild life (Clark, 1996); (e) People inhabiting hazard prone coasts would benefit from green belts in terms...

  13. Tides in the Mandovi and Zuari estuaries, Goa, west coast of India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Indian Ocean, including the Arabian Sea. As a result, the windward side of the Ghats receives high precipitation due to the topographic effect. The rainfall along the central west coast of India is about 250 cm during June–September. The Mandovi and the Zuari are two estuaries that are located along the west coast, in Goa.

  14. Two additions to the flora of the Palni Hills, southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Soosairaj

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Hiptage parvifolia Wight & Arn. (Malpighiaceae and Kalanchoe olivacea Dalz. & Gibs. (Crassulaceae are collected and reported for the first time from the Palni hills of Western Ghats from Tamil Nadu, India. This paper provided a detailed taxonomic description, distribution, illustrations and photographs for their easy identification.

  15. U-Pb SHRIMP ages of detrital zircons from Hiriyur formation in Chitradurga Greenstone belt and its implication to the Neoarchean evolution of Dharwar craton, South India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasheeth, A.; Okudaira, T.; Horie, K.; Hokada, T.; Satish Kumar, M.

    2016-01-01

    We report newly obtained U-Pb SHRIMP ages of detrital zircons from metagreywackes in the Hiriyur Formation (Chitradurga Group, Dharwar Supergroup) from the central eastern part of the Chitradurga greenstone belt. U-Pb analyses yield three major Neoarchean age populations ranging from 2.70 - 2.54 Ga with some minor age population of Mesoarchean. The maximum age of deposition is constrained by the youngest detrital zircon population at 2546 Ma. This is the first report of the occurrence of supracrustal rocks less than 2.58 Ga in the central part of Chitradurga greenstone belt. Close evaluation of detrital ages with the published ages of surrounding igneous rocks suggest that the youngest detrital zircons might be derived from rocks of the Eastern Dharwar craton and the inferred docking of the western and eastern Dharwar cratons happened prior to the deposition of the Hiriyur Formation. The Chitradurga shear zone, dividing the Dharwar craton into western and eastern blocks, probably developed after the deposition. Furthermore, the lower intercept is interpreted as evidence for the Pan-African overprints in the study area. (author)

  16. Status and future transition of rapid urbanizing landscape in central Western Ghats - CA based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharath, S..; Rajan, K. S.; Ramachandra, T. V.

    2014-11-01

    The land use changes in forested landscape are highly complex and dynamic, affected by the natural, socio-economic, cultural, political and other factors. The remote sensing (RS) and geographical information system (GIS) techniques coupled with multi-criteria evaluation functions such as Markov-cellular automata (CA-Markov) model helps in analysing intensity, extent and future forecasting of human activities affecting the terrestrial biosphere. Karwar taluk of Central Western Ghats in Karnataka state, India has seen rapid transitions in its forest cover due to various anthropogenic activities, primarily driven by major industrial activities. A study based on Landsat and IRS derived data along with CA-Markov method has helped in characterizing the patterns and trends of land use changes over a period of 2004-2013, expected transitions was predicted for a set of scenarios through 2013-2022. The analysis reveals the loss of pristine forest cover from 75.51% to 67.36% (1973 to 2013) and increase in agriculture land as well as built-up area of 8.65% (2013), causing impact on local flora and fauna. The other factors driving these changes are the aggregated level of demand for land, local and regional effects of land use activities such as deforestation, improper practices in expansion of agriculture and infrastructure development, deteriorating natural resources availability. The spatio temporal models helped in visualizing on-going changes apart from prediction of likely changes. The CA-Markov based analysis provides us insights into the localized changes impacting these regions and can be useful in developing appropriate mitigation management approaches based on the modelled future impacts. This necessitates immediate measures for minimizing the future impacts.

  17. Seat belt reminders.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2008-01-01

    Seat belts are an effective way of reducing the number or road deaths and severe road injuries in crashes. Seat belt reminders warn car drivers and passengers if the seat belt is not fastened. This can be done by a visual signal or an acoustic signal or by a combination of the two. Seat belt

  18. Belt attachment and system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Abraham D.; Davidson, Erick M.

    2018-03-06

    Disclosed herein is a belt assembly including a flexible belt with an improved belt attachment. The belt attachment includes two crossbars spaced along the length of the belt. The crossbars retain bearings that allow predetermined movement in six degrees of freedom. The crossbars are connected by a rigid body that attaches to the bearings. Implements that are attached to the rigid body are simply supported but restrained in pitching rotation.

  19. Additional records of Cantor’s Leaf-Nosed Bat Hipposideros galeritus Cantor, 1846 (Mammalia: Chiroptera: Hipposideridae in eastern India: Odisha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subrat Debata

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Cantor’s leaf-nosed bat is distributed in the South Asian and Southeast Asian region and recorded from few localities of India including one locality record from Bihar in Eastern India. Here we report its range extension in Eastern India and first record from Odisha. We recommend that the chiropteran diversity of Odisha need to be assessed for further inventories, particularly in the Eastern Ghats range. 

  20. A checklist of the vertebrates of Kerala State, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. O. Nameer

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Following the first publication on vertebrates of India (Blanford 1888–1890, a huge wealth of information has been compiled on the vertebrate fauna of various biogeographic zones of the country, especially the Western Ghats.  The state of Kerala comprising of a land area of 38,863km2, 590km coastline, an intricate system of backwaters along the coast, tropical moist forests of the Western Ghats, the highly undulating terrain, and the tropical monsoon is a unique geographical and environmental entity rich in biodiversity.  A region-specific checklist that summarises and documents the current status of vertebrate diversity provides benchmark data for documentation and appreciation of biodiversity at regional level.  Further, with the current rate of global biodiversity loss and concordant conservation efforts, the taxonomic community has a greater responsibility to make scientific information available to scientists, policy makers, politicians, research students and all relevant stakeholders, an attempt that has been made in the present paper.  The State of Kerala has 1847 species of vertebrates in 330 families and 81 orders, of which 386 are endemic to the Western Ghats region (of the Western Ghats - Sri Lanka Hotspot, and 205 species as threatened. Six hundred and eighty species of vertebrates of Kerala have been listed in the various schedules of the Indian Wildlife (Protection Act, while 148 are listed in the different appendices of CITES.  

  1. CEPF Western Ghats Special Series: Meghamalai landscape : a biodiversity hotspot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bhupathy

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Meghamalai, also known as High Wavy Mountains, is located in the Theni Forest Division of Tamil Nadu, Western Ghats. The landscape is endowed with an array of vegetation types varying from dry (thorn forests in the eastern side to wet (evergreen forests on the western side due to wide elevation gradient (220-2000 m above sea level and varied rainfall pattern (wind ward and leeward zones. The composition and configuration of this landscape facilitates diverse species of vertebrates (18 species of fishes, 35 amphibians, 90 reptiles, 254 birds, 63 mammals. In the past, selected floral and faunal groups of Meghamalai have been sporadically surveyed by the British explorers. However, in-depth ecological studies on various biota have only been initiated in recent years by SACON and WILD, which highlighted the conservation importance of the area. It is hoped that the recently declared Meghamalai Wildlife Sanctuary encompassing a part of the landscape, and the proposal of the Srivilliputtur-Meghamalai Tiger Reserve, if realized, would help conserving the diverse biota of this landscape in the long run.

  2. Role of phosphate solubilizing Burkholderia spp. for successful colonization and growth promotion of Lycopodium cernuum L. (Lycopodiaceae) in lateritic belt of Birbhum district of West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Ranjan; Barman, Soma; Mukherjee, Rajib; Mandal, Narayan C

    2016-02-01

    Profuse growth of Lycpodium cernuum L. was found in phosphate deficient red lateritic soil of West Bengal, India. Interaction of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza (VAM) with Lycopodium rhizoids were described earlier but association of PGPR with their rhizoids were not studied. Three potent phosphate solubilizing bacterial strains (P4, P9 and P10) associated with L. cernuum rhizoids were isolated and identified by 16S rDNA homologies on Ez-Taxon database as Burkholderia tropica, Burkholderia unamae and Burkholderia cepacia respectively. Day wise kinetics of phosphate solubilization against Ca3(PO4)2 suggested P4 (580.56±13.38 μg ml(-1)) as maximum mineral phosphate solubilizer followed by P9 (517.12±17.15 μg ml(-1)) and P10 (485.18±14.23 μg ml(-1)) at 28 °C. Release of bound phosphates by isolated strains from ferric phosphate (FePO4), aluminum phosphate (AlPO4) and four different complex rock phosphates indicated their very good phosphate solubilizng efficacy. Nitrogen independent solubilizition also supports their nitrogen fixing capabilities. Inhibition of P solubilization by calcium salts and induction by EDTA suggested pH dependent chelation of metal cations by all of the isolates. Rhizoidal colonization potentials of Burkholderia spp. were confirmed by in planta experiment and also using scanning electron microscope (SEM). Increases of total phosphate content in Lycopodium plants upon soil treatment with these isolates were also recorded. In addition siderophore production on CAS agar medium, tryptophan dependent IAA production and antifungal activities against pathogenic fungi by rhizospheric isolates deep-rooted that they have definite role in nutrient mobilization for successful colonization of L. cernuum in nutrient deficient lateritic soil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Synaptic ribbon. Conveyor belt or safety belt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, T D; Sterling, P

    2003-02-06

    The synaptic ribbon in neurons that release transmitter via graded potentials has been considered as a conveyor belt that actively moves vesicles toward their release sites. But evidence has accumulated to the contrary, and it now seems plausible that the ribbon serves instead as a safety belt to tether vesicles stably in mutual contact and thus facilitate multivesicular release by compound exocytosis.

  4. Lap belts and three-point belts.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampen, L.T.B. van & Edelman, A.

    1975-01-01

    Results of the swov-accident investigation prove that if there are any differences in the effectiveness of lap belts and three-point belts, these are so small that they cannot form a basis for giving preference to one type over the other. Furthermore, in spite of the results of this investigation

  5. Geochemical Characteristics on NW of Ladakh Batholith region exposed in the Western part of Leh area around Trans- Himalayan Belt, NW (India)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, A., IV; Ilbeyli, N.

    2017-12-01

    The geochemical characteristics (major & trace elements including REE) are studied on the granitic rocks from NW of Ladakh batholith region that emplaced in the western part of Leh area around the Trans- Himalaya of Ladakh district, Jammu & Kashmir (NW India). The major element geochemistry reveals that these granitic rocks display a broad spectrum of SiO2 content (54.50 wt%- 75.80 wt%). The oxide of K2O, Al2O3, MgO & Fe2O3 shows negative correlation with SiO2 probably shows the fractionation of biotite during the process of crystallization. The oxide of CaO & TiO2 shows positive correlation that coupled with their negative correlation with SiO2 most probably reflects the fractionation of Sphene (CaTiSiO5). The fractionation of apatite is also indicated by the positive correlation with CaO & P2O5 and their negative correlation with SiO2. The classified diagram between Molar Al2O3/ (CaO+Na2O+K2O) vs Molar Al2O3/ (Na2O+K2O) shows that all samples covered peraluminous region. The total alkali diagram of (Na2O+K2O) wt% vs SiO2 (wt %) shows that all samples covered the region of granite, quartz diorite & diorite. The samples plot between K2O (wt %) vs SiO2 (wt %) shows high to medium -K (calc-alkaline) series. All these intrusive rock shows enrichment in LILE (K, Rb, Ba, & Th) and LREE (Ce) relative to the HFSE (Ta, Nb, Hf, Zr, Sm, Y, & Yb). The Chondrite- normalized REE patterns for the studied granitic rocks such as LREE & MREE and HREE's are moderately fractionated & have moderate negative Eu anomalies. In the Nb Vs Y and Rb- (Y+Nb) diagrams, all intrusive rocks fall into the VAG (volcanic- arc granite) field in order to characterize tectonic environment for the granitic rocks. The Al2O3/TiO2 vs CaO/Na2O diagram & Rb/Ba vs Rb/Sr plots are used for identifying the source of melts parental to peraluminous granites. The variations that observed in granitoid are not only by partial melting but also depend on various processes like migration of melts, magma mixing

  6. Petrography and Geochemistry (Trace, Ree and Pge of Pedda Cherlo Palle Gabbro-Diorite Pluton, Prakasam Igneous Province, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramanyam K.S.V.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Prakasam Igneous Province (PIP is an important geological domain in the Eastern Dharwar Craton (EDC, found in the junction zone between the EDC and Eastern Ghat Mobile Belt (EGMB. The Pedda Cherlo Palle (PCP gabbros are massive, leucocratic-mesocractic, and show cumulus textures with minerals plagioclase, cpx, and amphiboles. Compositionally, plagioclase is a labradorite-bytownite, cpx is diopside to augite, olivines are hyalosiderites and amphiboles are magnesiohornblendes. PCP gabbros have normal SiO2, high Al2O3, moderate to high TiO2, Na2O and medium Fe2O3, so, classified as subalkaline tholeiitic gabbros. Fractionated rare earth element (REE patterns, high abundance of large ion lithofile elements (LILE and transitional metals coupled with light REE (LREE relative enrichment over heavy REE (HREE and Nb are characteristics of partial melting of depleted mantle and melts that have undergone fractional crystalisation. These partial melts are enriched in LREE and LILE, due to the addition of slab derived sediment and fluids. PCP gabbros contain low abundance (5.1 to 24.6 ng/g of platinum group elements (PGE, and show an increase in the order Ir>Os>Pt>Ru»Pd>Rh. We propose that the subduction related intraoceanic island arc might have accreted to the southeastern margin of India to the east of Cuddapah basin in a collisional regime that took place during Ur to Rodinia amalgamations.

  7. Belt Aligning Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurchenko Vadim

    2017-01-01

    parts of the conveyor, the sides of the belt wear intensively. This results in reducing the life of the belt. The reasons for this phenomenon are well investigated, but the difficulty lies in the fact that they all act simultaneously. The belt misalignment prevention can be carried out in two ways: by minimizing the effect of causes and by aligning the belt. The construction of aligning devices and errors encountered in practice are considered in this paper. Self-aligning roller supports rotational in plan view are recommended as a means of combating the belt misalignment.

  8. Neotectonics and structure of the Himalayan deformation front in the Kashmir Himalaya, India: Implication in defining what controls a blind thrust front in an active fold-thrust belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavillot, Y. G.; Meigs, A.; Yule, J. D.; Rittenour, T. M.; Malik, M. O. A.

    2014-12-01

    Active tectonics of a deformation front constrains the kinematic evolution and structural interaction between the fold-thrust belt and most-recently accreted foreland basin. In Kashmir, the Himalayan Frontal thrust (HFT) is blind, characterized by a broad fold, the Suruin-Mastargh anticline (SMA), and displays no emergent faults cutting either limb. A lack of knowledge of the rate of shortening and structural framework of the SMA hampers quantifying the earthquake potential for the deformation front. Our study utilized the geomorphic expression of dated deformed terraces on the Ujh River in Kashmir. Six terraces are recognized, and three yield OSL ages of 53 ka, 33 ka, and 0.4 ka. Vector fold restoration of long terrace profiles indicates a deformation pattern characterized by regional uplift across the anticlinal axis and back-limb, and by fold limb rotation on the forelimb. Differential uplift across the fold trace suggests localized deformation. Dip data and stratigraphic thicknesses suggest that a duplex structure is emplaced at depth along the basal décollement, folding the overlying roof thrust and Siwalik-Muree strata into a detachment-like fold. Localized faulting at the fold axis explains the asymmetrical fold geometry. Folding of the oldest dated terrace, suggest that rock uplift rates across the SMA range between 2.0-1.8 mm/yr. Assuming a 25° dipping ramp for the blind structure on the basis of dip data constraints, the shortening rate across the SMA ranges between 4.4-3.8 mm/yr since ~53 ka. Of that rate, ~1 mm/yr is likely absorbed by minor faulting in the near field of the fold axis. Given that Himalaya-India convergence is ~18.8-11 mm/yr, internal faults north of the deformation front, such as the Riasi thrust absorbs more of the Himalayan shortening than does the HFT in Kashmir. We attribute a non-emergent thrust at the deformation front to reflect deformation controlled by pre-existing basin architecture in Kashmir, in which the thick succession

  9. Belt drive construction improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.Yu. Khomenko

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of the traction capacity increase of the belt drive TRK is examined. This was done for the purpose of air conditioning system of passenger car with double-generator system energy supplying. Belts XPC (made by the German firm «Continental ContiTech» testing were conducted. The results confirmed the possibility of their usage in order to improve belt drive TRK characteristics.

  10. A new subspecies of Celastrus (Celastraceae from the Palni hills of South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. John Britto

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Celastrus paniculatus Willd. ssp. angladeanus S.J. Britto, B. Mani and S. Thomas new subspecies from the Palni hills, Western Ghats of Tamilnadu, South India is described and illustrated. The new ssp. is similar to Celastrus paniculatus ssp. aggregatus but differs in flame-coloured branchlets, terminal, erect and stiff panicles exceeding leaves, prominent gibbous and oblique capsules, flowers polygamous but predominantly pistillate and 3-seeded capsules.

  11. Asymbiotic seed germination and in vitro conservation of Coelogyne nervosa A. Rich. an endemic orchid to Western Ghats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Sonia; Augustine, Jomy; Thomas, T Dennis

    2012-07-01

    Coelogyne nervosa is an epiphytic orchid endemic to Western Ghats, South India. The mature seeds of C. nervosa were cultured on ½ MS (Murashige and Skoog), MS, Kn (Knudson) and VW (Vacin and Went) media to evaluate the seed germination response. Of the four basal media used, MS medium supported maximum seed germination. Further experiments to enhance seed germination were done on MS medium supplemented with various concentrations (10, 20, 30 and 40 %) of coconut water (CW). Thirty percent CW gave the highest response in terms of percent seed germination (96), fresh weight (7.2 mg/seedling) and protocorm length (15.2 mm). Since CW containing medium did not support further seedling growth, each seedling was isolated and cultured on MS medium supplemented with either BA (6-benzylaminopurine) or Kin (kinetin) alone (1.0-4.0 mg/l each) or in combination with NAA (1-naphthaleneacetic acid; 0.2-1.0 mg/l). Maximum growth was observed on MS medium supplemented with BA (3.0 mg/l) and NAA (0.5 mg/l). On this medium, the seedlings reached an average length of 3.6 cm with 2.8 well expanded green leaves per seedling. Similarly optimum, healthy, white root induction (3.3 roots/seedlings) was also observed on the same medium. The rooted seedlings were successfully transplanted to pots with 91 % success. The 2-year-old tissue culture derived plants produced normal flowers and fruits.

  12. Activity concentration of radionuclides in plants in the environment of western Ghats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manigandan, P. K.

    2009-01-01

    A field study on the transfer of primordial radionuclides 238 U, 232 Th, 40 K and fallout radionuclides 210 Po in different plant species in tropical forest of western Ghats environment is presented. Material and Methods: The Top storey, Second storey, Shrubs and epiphytic plant species were chosen and concentration of these radionuclides in plant and soil were measured by employing gamma ray spectrometer and alpha counter. Results: The concentration ratio shows the variation in different species while a wild plant Elaeocarpus oblongus and epiphytic plants indicated preferential uptake of these radionuclides. Conclusion: The dust trapped in the root system of. epiphytic plants could be used as bio indicator to monitor fallout radionuclides in the Western Ghats. The concentration of 232 Th and 40 K in leaves depends on the age of the leaves.

  13. Riding the belt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potts, A

    1998-04-01

    Recent developments in conveyor systems have focused on accessories rather than the belt itself. Radio frequency identification (RFID) is a technology using transponders embedded in conveyor belts and this is the latest development at the German firm Contitech. The system described in the articles developed with Moers, features transponders for cooling, controlling and monitoring conveyor belts. Other developments mentioned include a JOKI drum motor featuring a fully integrated gearbox and electric motor enclosed in a steel shell, from Interoll; a new scraper cleaning system from Hosch, new steel cord belting from Fenner, a conveying system for Schleenhain lignite opencast mine by FAM Foerdelantigen Magdeburg; new bearings from Nadella (the sales arm of Intersoll-Rand), an anti-shock belt transfer table from Rosta and new caliper disc brakes from GE Industrial.

  14. Morphometric analysis of sub-watershed in parts of Western Ghats, South India using ASTER DEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelin Ramani Sujatha

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Morphometric analysis is a key to understand the hydrological process and hence is a prerequisite for the assessment of hydrological characteristics of surface water basin. Morphometric analysis to determine the drainage characteristics of Palar sub-watershed, a part of Shanmukha watershed in the Amaravati sub-catchment is done using Advanced Space-borne Thermal Emission and Reflection Global Digital Elevation Model (ASTER GDEM data, and is supplemented with topographical maps in geographical information systems platform. This study uses ASTER GDEM data to extract morphometric features of a mountain stream at micro-watershed level. The sub-watershed is divided into six micro-watersheds. The sub-watershed includes a sixth-order stream. Lower stream orders, in particular first-order streams, dominate the sub-watershed. Development of stream segments is controlled by slope and local relief. Drainage pattern of the sub-watershed and micro-watersheds is dendritic in general. The mean bifurcation ratio of the sub-watershed is 3.69 but its variation between the various stream orders suggests structural control in the development of stream network. The shape factors reveal the elongation of the sub-watershed and micro-watersheds.The relief ratio reveals the high discharge capability of the sub-watershed and meagre groundwater potential. This study is a useful tool for planning strategies in control of soil erosion and soil conservation.

  15. The mother - child nexus. Knowledge and valuation of wild food plants in Wayanad, Western Ghats, India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cruz Garcia, G.S.

    2006-01-01

    This study focuses on the mother-child nexus (or process of enculturation) with respect to knowledge and valuation of wild food plants in a context where accelerated processes of modernization and acculturation are leading to the erosion of knowledge and cultural values associated with wild food

  16. Phytoplankton species diversity indices in Anjanapura reservoir, Western Ghat region, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basavaraja, D; Narayana, J; Puttaiah, E T; Prakash, K

    2013-07-01

    A qualitative study on species composition and diversity of phytoplankton flora was carried out in the Anjanapura reservoir. Water samples were collected monthly at four sites from November 2005 to October 2007 for plankton analysis. A total of 152 phytoplankton species belonging to 59 genera were recorded. The species belonging to genera Crucigenia, Pediastrum, Scenedesmus, Tetraedron, Cyclotella, Gyrosigma, Melosira, Navicula, Fragillaria, pinnularia, Synedra, Closterium, Cosmarium, Euastrum, Staurastrum, Gleocapsa, Merismopedia, Microcystis, Oscillatoria, Euglena and Phacus were found dominant. Phytoplankton density was recorded in the range of 222-1467 Org l(-1) for chlorococcales, 267-1467 Org I (-1) for diatoms, 44-889 Org l(-1) for desmids, 44-889 Org l(-1) for blue-greens and 22-1667 Org l(-1) for euglenoids. Seasonal density Shannon-Weiner diversity index (1.60-1.88) indicate that reservoir exhibited rich phytoplankton and Nygaard tropic status indices for myxophycean (1.0-1.50), chlorophycean (1.62-2.16), diatoms (0.10-0.14), euglenophycean (0.18-0.19) and compound quotient(3.25-4.66) showed that reservoir was moderately polluted. From the observed data, it could be concluded that the presence of more diverse group of phytoplankton indicate the productivity of the reservoir.

  17. Antimicrobial activity of some actinomycetes from Western Ghats of Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pathalam Ganesan

    2017-06-01

    Conclusions: The present work revealed that, among 106 actinomycetes screened, Streptomyces rimosus (FMS-20 (Accession No-KT827106 showed promising antimicrobial activity against all the tested human microbial pathogens.

  18. Tick infestation on wild snakes in northern part of western Ghats of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, Pranav; Bandivdekar, Ruta; Geevarghese, G; Pande, Satish; Mandke, Omkar

    2011-05-01

    In total, 167 individuals of 30 species of snakes belonging to 22 genera and five families were examined for tick infestation from November 2008 to March 2010. Only two species of snakes, Ptyas mucosa (L., 1758) (Indian rat snake) and Naja naja (L., 1758) (spectacled cobra), were found infested by ticks. All ticks collected were identified to be Amblyomma gervaisi [previously Aponomma gervaisi (Lucas, 1847) 1. The average prevalence of these ticks on Indian rat snakes (n=48) was 29.16%, with abundance of 7.02 ticks per individual; on spectacled cobras (n=20), average prevalence was 30.00%, with abundance of 6.9 ticks per individual. The nymphs and males were predominant. All the ticks were found on the dorsal aspect of the body of the snake, and no ticks were recorded on the head, tail, or ventral body. The rate of tick infestation was highest in scrubland and was lowest in evergreen forests. Female Indian rat snakes showed higher tick infestation rates than male Indian rat snakes. Using Mann-Whitney U test, we found that longer snakes of both species had significantly higher rate of tick infestation in both the species of snakes.

  19. PERIODICIDAD DIURNA DE TRES ESPECIES ENDEMICAS DE MILIPEDOS (ARTHROSPHAERA EN LOS GHATS OCCIDENTALES, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.S. Kadamannaya

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available   Se evaluó la periodicidad diurna y conducta de tres species endémicas de milipedos pertenecientes al género Arthrosphaera (Sphaerotheriidae (Arthrosphaera dalyi, A. davisoni y A. fumosa en dos plantaciones mixtas (Kadaba y Basrikallu y en un bosque semi-perene (Madikeri durante la estación de monzon. El incremento de las temperaturas del aire (27.44 °C y suelo (26.13 °C indujeron un fase de descanso en A. dalyi en Kadaba. La fase de descanso no fue influenciada por la temperatura en A. davisoni (Basrikallu: aire, 20.5 °C, suelo 19.81 °C y en A. fumosa (Madikeri: aire, 19.69 °C, suelo 19.13 °C debido a las relativamente bajas temperaturas en su habitat. En el patron de conducta diurna, la mayoría de las actividades de Arthrosphaera estan confinadas al crepusculo o noche. Los patrones de conducta diurna de estas tres especies son predichas por diferencias entre localidades geográficas y habitat.

  20. Flood moderation by large reservoirs in the humid tropics of Western ghat region of Kerala, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, George [Centre for Water Resources Development and Management, Sub Centre, Kottayam South P.O, Kottayam-686 039, Kerala (India); James, E.J. [Water Institute and Dean (Research), Karunya University, Coimbatore-641 114, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2013-07-01

    Kerala State located in the humid tropics receives an average rainfall of 2810 mm. On an average 85% of this rainfall is received during the two monsoons spread from June to November. Midland and lowland regions of several of the river basins of Kerala experience severe flood events during the monsoons. Idamalayar hydro-electric project (1987) in Periyar River basin envisages flood control apart from power generation. This paper analyzes the flood moderation by Idamalayar reservoir considering the storage regime (inflow and outflow) which is subjected to a strong inter annual variability. The role of Idamalayar reservoir in controlling the monsoon floods is analyzed using daily data (1987-2010). The results of analysis show that the flood moderation by the reservoir is 92% when water storage is less than 50%. The reduction is 87% when reservoir storage is between 50 to 90% and moderation reduces to 62% when the reservoir storage is above 90%. Non-parametric trend analysis of fifty years of hydrologic data shows a reducing trend in inflow and storage during south-west monsoon which reduced spill and subsequent flood events during north-east monsoon.

  1. Belt conveying of minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stace, L.R.; Yardley, E.D. [University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom). School of Civil Engineering

    2008-02-15

    A discussion of the history and economics of conveyor applications sets the scene. Conveyor design is investigated in detail, covering power requirements, belt tensioning, and hardware. Principles regarding construction and joining of belts are outlined and a helpful and practical overview of relevant standards, belt test methods, and issues surrounding standardisation is given. Conveyor belt systems can represent a significant operational hazard, so the authors have set out to highlight the important area of safety, with consideration given to fire/electrical resistance, as well as the interface between personnel and conveyor systems - including nip points and operational issues such as man-riding. Selected case studies illustrate some practical aspects of installation and operation, at Selby mine in the UK and Prosper-Haniel Colliery in Germany and others. 3 apps.

  2. Earth's radiation belts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moslehi Fard, M.

    1984-01-01

    The theory of trapped particles in a magnetic field of approximated dipole is described completely in the first part. Second part contains experimental results. The mechanism of radiation belt source ''albedo neutrons'' and also types of dissipation mechanism about radiation belt is explained. The trapped protons and electrons by radiation belt is discussed and the life-time of trapped particles are presented. Finally the magnetic fields of Moon, Venus, Mars, and Saturn, measured by passengers Mariner 4,10 and pioneer 10,11 are indicated. The experimental and theoretical results for the explanation of trapped plasma around the earth which is looked like two internal and external belt have almost good correspondence

  3. Belt conveyor apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, David J.; Bogart, Rex L.

    1987-01-01

    A belt conveyor apparatus according to this invention defines a conveyance path including a first pulley and at least a second pulley. An endless belt member is adapted for continuous travel about the pulleys and comprises a lower portion which engages the pulleys and an integral upper portion adapted to receive objects therein at a first location on said conveyance path and transport the objects to a second location for discharge. The upper belt portion includes an opposed pair of longitudinally disposed crest-like members, biased towards each other in a substantially abutting relationship. The crest-like members define therebetween a continuous, normally biased closed, channel along the upper belt portion. Means are disposed at the first and second locations and operatively associated with the belt member for urging the normally biased together crest-like members apart in order to provide access to the continuous channel whereby objects can be received into, or discharged from the channel. Motors are in communication with the conveyance path for effecting the travel of the endless belt member about the conveyance path. The conveyance path can be configured to include travel through two or more elevations and one or more directional changes in order to convey objects above, below and/or around existing structures.

  4. Lichens of the Mahabaleshwar Panchgani Ecosensitive zone (MPESZ, Maharashtra, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.S. Pandit

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Mahabaleshwar Panchgani Ecosensitive Zone located in the Northern Western Ghats of India is well known for its rich biodiversity. Rocky plateaus of laterite are a prominent feature of this region along with a mosaic landscape of forest and shrub-savannah vegetation. A checklist of 129 lichen species reported from this region has been compiled based upon primary and secondary data. They are categorized as per forms and substrates. The need for further studies and protection of this rich lichen diversity is emphasized.

  5. Agricultural activities of the malayali tribal for subsistence and economic needs in the mid elevation forest of pachamalai hills, eastern ghats, Tamil nadu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Anburaja

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aimed to study the Agricultural activities of the Malayali Tribal for Subsistence and Economic needs in the mid elevation forest of Pachamalai Hills, Eastern Ghats, Tamil nadu. About 8 percent of the Indian population belongs to a category listed as “Scheduled Tribes” enumerated in the Schedule to Article 342 of the Constitution of India. Tribal people has been seen to be strongly associated with the forests, hills and remote areas, practicing a unique life style, having a unique set of cultural and religious beliefs. For millennia, tribal communities have lived in forests and survived on hunting and gathering. However, with growing population and resource pressure, it is now witnessing that a rise in livelihoods based on settled farming. In the study area, cereals are the major crop cultivated for their edible grains. The tribal people living in the hills tops of the study area were cultivated 11 major agricultural crops. They are, Eleusine coracana, Panicum miliare, Oryza sativa (verity I (Mara Nellu, Oryza sativa (verity II, Manihot esculenta, Macrotyloma uniflorum, Vigna mungo, Sesamum orientale, Paspalum sp, Pennisetum americanum and Setaria italica. Among them, Paspalum sp gives the maximum yield with 655 kg acre-1.

  6. Efficacy of Pitfall Trapping, Winkler and Berlese Extraction Methods for Measuring Ground-Dwelling Arthropods in Moist-Deciduous Forests in the Western Ghats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabu, Thomas K.; Shiju, Raj T.

    2010-01-01

    The present study provides data to decide on the most appropriate method for sampling of ground-dwelling arthropods measured in a moist-deciduous forest in the Western Ghats in South India. The abundance of ground-dwelling arthropods was compared among large numbers of samples obtained using pitfall trapping, Berlese and Winkler extraction methods. Highest abundance and frequency of most of the represented taxa indicated pitfall trapping as the ideal method for sampling of ground-dwelling arthropods. However, with possible bias towards surface-active taxa, pitfall-trapping data is inappropriate for quantitative studies, and Berlese extraction is the better alternative. Berlese extraction is the better method for quantitative measurements than the other two methods, whereas pitfall trapping would be appropriate for qualitative measurements. A comparison of the Berlese and Winkler extraction data shows that in a quantitative multigroup approach, Winkler extraction was inferior to Berlese extraction because the total number of arthropods caught was the lowest; and many of the taxa that were caught from an identical sample via Berlese extraction method were not caught. Significantly a greater frequency and higher abundance of arthropods belonging to Orthoptera, Blattaria, and Diptera occurred in pitfall-trapped samples and Psocoptera and Acariformes in Berlese-extracted samples than that were obtained in the other two methods, indicating that both methods are useful, one complementing the other, eliminating a chance for possible under-representation of taxa in quantitative studies. PMID:20673122

  7. New developments of belt conveyor systems; Inclined belt systems, vertical pipe elevators, vibration belts, oscillating tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahke, E.A. (Universitaet Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Foerdertechnik)

    1991-03-01

    Factors that have influenced the design of belt conveyor systems are discussed - these include strength and shaping. Belt conveyor systems for inclined, steep-angle and vertical conveying are described and comparison made between cable belt and steel cord belt conveyors used in coal mines. Hose-belt or tube conveyors such as are used in the PWH/Conti-Rollgurt Conveyor System for feeding boilers in German coal fired power stations are mentioned and advantages of the pipe-belt conveyor for vertical transport discussed. Design of the vibratory conveyor for transporting solids upwards by pulses is described. 29 refs., 19 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Ocean outfall off Mangalore, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mandal, S.; Chandramohan, P.; Raju, N.S.N.; Pathak, K.C.

    Various industries like refineries, petrochemicals, thermal power, iron and steel, copper smelter, nylon and resins, etc. are coming up along the coastal belt of India. They generally intend to discharge the effluent, brine and warm water from...

  9. The G-HAT Search for Advanced Extraterrestrial Civilizations: The Reddest Extended WISE Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Jessica; Povich, Matthew S.; Wright, Jason; Griffith, Roger; Sigurdsson, Steinn; Mullan, Brendan L.

    2015-01-01

    Freeman Dyson (1960) theorized how to identify possible signatures of advanced extra-terrestrial civilizations by their waste heat, an inevitable byproduct of a civilization using a significant fraction of the luminosity from their host star. If a civilizations could tap the starlight throughout their host galaxy their waste heat would be easily detectable by recent infrared surveys. The Glimpsing Heat from Alien Technologies (G-HAT) pilot project aims to place limits on the existence of extraterrestrial civilizations at pan-galactic scales. We present results from the G-HAT cleaned catalog of 563 extremely red, extended high Galactic latitude (|b| ≥ 10) sources from the WISE All-Sky Catalog. Our catalog includes sources new to the scientific literature along with well-studied objects (e.g. starburst galaxies, AGN, and planetary nebulae) that exemplify extreme WISE colors. Objects of particular interest include a supergiant Be star (48 Librae) surrounded by a resolved, mid-infrared nebula, possibly indicating dust in the stellar wind ejecta, and a curious cluster of seven extremely red WISE sources (associated with IRAS 04287+6444) that have no optical counterparts.

  10. Coal belt options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-03-15

    Whether moving coal long distances overland or short distances in-plant, belt conveyors will always be in demand. The article reports on recent systems developments and applications by Beumer, Horizon Conveyor Equipment, Conveyor Dynamics, Doppelmayr Transport Technology, Enclosed Bulk Systems, ContiTech and Bateman Engineered Technologies. 2 photos.

  11. Three new butterfly records for peninsular India: Dusky Yellow-breasted Flat Gerosis phisara (Moore (Hesperiidae, Common Gem Poritia hewitsoni Moore (Lycaenidae and Great Nawab Polyura eudamippus (Doubleday (Nymphalidae from Similipal Hills, Odisha, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.V. Nair

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Three species of butterflies hitherto known only from the Himalayan region and northeastern India, viz. Dusky Yellow-breasted Flat Gerosis phisara (Moore, Common Gem Poritia hewitsoni Moore and Great Nawab Polyura eudamippus (Doubleday were recorded from Similipal Hills, Odisha, thus constituting significant new locality records and range extensions for peninsular India. This also re-inforces the unique bio-geographic role of Similipal as a hill range harbouring representatives of north-eastern and autochthonous peninsular Indian species and supports its putative function as a possible pathway along the Eastern Ghats for species exchange between bio-geographical zones.

  12. Deconstructing the conveyor belt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozier, M Susan

    2010-06-18

    For the past several decades, oceanographers have embraced the dominant paradigm that the ocean's meridional overturning circulation operates like a conveyor belt, transporting cold waters equatorward at depth and warm waters poleward at the surface. Within this paradigm, the conveyor, driven by changes in deepwater production at high latitudes, moves deep waters and their attendant properties continuously along western boundary currents and returns surface waters unimpeded to deepwater formation sites. A number of studies conducted over the past few years have challenged this paradigm by revealing the vital role of the ocean's eddy and wind fields in establishing the structure and variability of the ocean's overturning. Here, we review those studies and discuss how they have collectively changed our view of the simple conveyor-belt model.

  13. CEPF Western Ghats Special Series: Reproductive biology of Puntius denisonii, an endemic and threatened aquarium fish of the Western Ghats and its implications for conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Solomon

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study presents fundamental information on the reproductive biology of Puntius denisonii, an endemic and threatened aquarium fish of the Western Ghats Hotspot. Results are based on the observations from three river systems, Chandragiri, Valapattannam and Chaliyar. Maximum observed total length in P. denisonii was 162mm and 132mm for males and females, respectively. Males attained sexual maturity at a lower size than females with mean size at first maturity determined as 85.33 plus or minus 1.52 mm for males and 95.66 plus or minus 1.15 mm for females. Puntius denisonii spawned from October to March with minor differences in the peak breeding months between the three river systems, which were studied. Sex ratio deviated significantly from 1:1 and was skewed in favour of males. Absolute fecundity varied from 376 (fish of 102mm total length to 1098 (fish of 106mm total length eggs. Currently, the closed seasons for P. denisonii have been put in place during June, July and October based on the (misassumption that the species breeds during these three months. However, the results of the present study have helped us to understand more about the reproductive biology of the species so as to recommend more appropriate seasonal closures. The months from October until March need to be designated as a closed season for protecting the breeding population of P. denisonii.

  14. Lap belt injuries in children.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGrath, N

    2010-07-01

    The use of adult seat belts without booster seats in young children may lead to severe abdominal, lumbar or cervical spine and head and neck injuries. We describe four characteristic cases of lap belt injuries presenting to a tertiary children\\'s hospital over the past year in addition to a review of the current literature. These four cases of spinal cord injury, resulting in significant long-term morbidity in the two survivors and death in one child, arose as a result of lap belt injury. These complex injuries are caused by rapid deceleration characteristic of high impact crashes, resulting in sudden flexion of the upper body around the fixed lap belt, and consequent compression of the abdominal viscera between the lap belt and spine. This report highlights the dangers of using lap belts only without shoulder straps. Age-appropriate child restraint in cars will prevent these injuries.

  15. Belt for picking up liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sewell, R B.H.; Nelson, S P

    1973-05-18

    This belt for picking up liquids consists of a layer of strong material, e.g., coarse cloth, sewed on at least one layer of absorbing material, e.g., sponge cloth, the stitching being disposed along chevrons with their apexes along the central axis of the belt; the edges do not contain any other marks. This arrangement facilitates the expulsion of the absorbed liquid when the belt passes between compression rollers.

  16. Dioscorea spp. (A Wild Edible Tuber): A Study on Its Ethnopharmacological Potential and Traditional Use by the Local People of Similipal Biosphere Reserve, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sanjeet; Das, Gitishree; Shin, Han-Seung; Patra, Jayanta Kumar

    2017-01-01

    A number of wild crops remain unexplored in this world and among them some have excellent medicinal and nutritional properties. India is a harbor of biodiversity in general and phytodiversity in particular. The plant diversity is distributed from the Western Ghats to Eastern Ghats, along with the North-Eastern region and from the Greater Himalayas to the plain of Ganga. Among these distributed floral regions of the country, the Eastern Ghats are important due to their rich floral diversity. The forests of Odisha form a major part of Eastern Ghats in general and the Similipal Biosphere Reserve (SBR) in particular. The SBR is inhabited by many local communities. The food and medicinal habits of these communities are not fully explored even today. They are dependent on the forests of SBR for their food and medicine. Among their collections from forests, root and tuberous plants play a significant role. The local communities of SBR use about 89 types of tuberous plants for various purposes. Dioscorea is one such tuber, having maximum use among the local of SBR. However, less documentation and no specific reports are available on the food and medicinal values of the species available in this part of the World. Dioscorea species, popularly known as Yam worldwide and as Ban Aalu in Odisha, India, is a prime staple medicinal-food substitute for the majority of rural and local people of the state of India. Of the 13 Dioscorea species available in SBR, 10 species are known to be bitter in taste and unpalatable when taken raw. Since less documentation is available on the Dioscorea species of SBR and their traditional uses, the present study was focused on the ethnobotany, nutritional and pharmacological values of these species along its nutraceutical importance.

  17. SLH Timing Belt Powertrain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Abe

    2014-04-09

    The main goal of this proposal was to develop and test a novel powertrain solution for the SLH hydroEngine, a low-cost, efficient low-head hydropower technology. Nearly two-thirds of U.S. renewable electricity is produced by hydropower (EIA 2010). According to the U.S. Department of Energy; this amount could be increased by 50% with small hydropower plants, often using already-existing dams (Hall 2004). There are more than 80,000 existing dams, and of these, less than 4% generate power (Blankinship 2009). In addition, there are over 800 irrigation districts in the U.S., many with multiple, non-power, low-head drops. These existing, non-power dams and irrigation drops could be retrofitted to produce distributed, baseload, renewable energy with appropriate technology. The problem is that most existing dams are low-head, or less than 30 feet in height (Ragon 2009). Only about 2% of the available low-head hydropower resource in the U.S. has been developed, leaving more than 70 GW of annual mean potential low-head capacity untapped (Hall 2004). Natel Energy, Inc. is developing a low-head hydropower turbine that operates efficiently at heads less than 6 meters and is cost-effective for deployment across multiple low-head structures. Because of the unique racetrack-like path taken by the prime-movers in the SLH, a flexible powertrain is required. Historically, the only viable technological solution was roller chain. Despite the having the ability to easily attach blades, roller chain is characterized by significant drawbacks, including high cost, wear, and vibration from chordal action. Advanced carbon- fiber-reinforced timing belts have been recently developed which, coupled with a novel belt attachment system developed by Natel Energy, result in a large reduction in moving parts, reduced mass and cost, and elimination of chordal action for increased fatigue life. The work done in this project affirmatively addressed each of the following 3 major uncertainties concerning

  18. Future of endemic flora of biodiversity hotspots in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishwas Sudhir Chitale

    Full Text Available India is one of the 12 mega biodiversity countries of the world, which represents 11% of world's flora in about 2.4% of global land mass. Approximately 28% of the total Indian flora and 33% of angiosperms occurring in India are endemic. Higher human population density in biodiversity hotspots in India puts undue pressure on these sensitive eco-regions. In the present study, we predict the future distribution of 637 endemic plant species from three biodiversity hotspots in India; Himalaya, Western Ghats, Indo-Burma, based on A1B scenario for year 2050 and 2080. We develop individual variable based models as well as mixed models in MaxEnt by combining ten least co-related bioclimatic variables, two disturbance variables and one physiography variable as predictor variables. The projected changes suggest that the endemic flora will be adversely impacted, even under such a moderate climate scenario. The future distribution is predicted to shift in northern and north-eastern direction in Himalaya and Indo-Burma, while in southern and south-western direction in Western Ghats, due to cooler climatic conditions in these regions. In the future distribution of endemic plants, we observe a significant shift and reduction in the distribution range compared to the present distribution. The model predicts a 23.99% range reduction and a 7.70% range expansion in future distribution by 2050, while a 41.34% range reduction and a 24.10% range expansion by 2080. Integration of disturbance and physiography variables along with bioclimatic variables in the models improved the prediction accuracy. Mixed models provide most accurate results for most of the combinations of climatic and non-climatic variables as compared to individual variable based models. We conclude that a regions with cooler climates and higher moisture availability could serve as refugia for endemic plants in future climatic conditions; b mixed models provide more accurate results, compared to single

  19. Future of endemic flora of biodiversity hotspots in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitale, Vishwas Sudhir; Behera, Mukund Dev; Roy, Partha Sarthi

    2014-01-01

    India is one of the 12 mega biodiversity countries of the world, which represents 11% of world's flora in about 2.4% of global land mass. Approximately 28% of the total Indian flora and 33% of angiosperms occurring in India are endemic. Higher human population density in biodiversity hotspots in India puts undue pressure on these sensitive eco-regions. In the present study, we predict the future distribution of 637 endemic plant species from three biodiversity hotspots in India; Himalaya, Western Ghats, Indo-Burma, based on A1B scenario for year 2050 and 2080. We develop individual variable based models as well as mixed models in MaxEnt by combining ten least co-related bioclimatic variables, two disturbance variables and one physiography variable as predictor variables. The projected changes suggest that the endemic flora will be adversely impacted, even under such a moderate climate scenario. The future distribution is predicted to shift in northern and north-eastern direction in Himalaya and Indo-Burma, while in southern and south-western direction in Western Ghats, due to cooler climatic conditions in these regions. In the future distribution of endemic plants, we observe a significant shift and reduction in the distribution range compared to the present distribution. The model predicts a 23.99% range reduction and a 7.70% range expansion in future distribution by 2050, while a 41.34% range reduction and a 24.10% range expansion by 2080. Integration of disturbance and physiography variables along with bioclimatic variables in the models improved the prediction accuracy. Mixed models provide most accurate results for most of the combinations of climatic and non-climatic variables as compared to individual variable based models. We conclude that a) regions with cooler climates and higher moisture availability could serve as refugia for endemic plants in future climatic conditions; b) mixed models provide more accurate results, compared to single variable based

  20. Belt of Yotvings. Radioecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazheika, J.; Petroshius, R.; Strzelecki, R.; Wolkovitcz, S.; Lewandowski, P.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: The map of gamma radiation dose of 'Belt of Yotvings' area displays the summarized gamma radiation coming from natural radionuclides of 238 U, 232 Th, 40 K and from cesium isotopes 137 Cs, 134 Cs, artificially supplied into the environment after the Chernobyl disaster. The average value of gamma radiation dose for 'Belt of Yotvings' area is 44.2 n Gy/h, with a distinct regional differentiation. The content of uranium varies from 0 to 4.5 g/t, with the average value of about 1.4 g/t. Thorium content varies from 0 to 10.3 g/t, with the average value of 4.3 g/t. Potassium content varies from 0.1 up to 2.5 %, with the average value of 1.2 %. The concentration of caesium radioisotopes reaches up to 11.6 kBq/m 2 , the average value being 3.8 kBq/m 2 . Radon concentration in soil air has been determined in 55 sites (83 analyses). Radon concentration has been noticed in volumes from trace amounts up to 55 kBq/m3.The radioecological mapping has documented that the highest concentrations of natural radioisotopes and, correspondingly, the highest total gamma radiation dose were observed in the northeastern part of the area studied, which is covered by clay-silty glaciolacustrine deposits. Slightly lower values are typical for the whole northwestern part of 'Belt of Yotvings'. Very low contents of radioactive elements and low total radiation doses are typical for eolian and sandur sands, occurring south-eastward from the line Augustow-Veisiejai. The Chernobyl NPP accident polluted the studied region with artificial cesium radioisotopes un significantly. The concentrations are low and they involve no radioecological hazard. The investigation of radon concentration in soil air have revealed several places affected by high radon emanation. These places should be studied in a more detailed way

  1. Grenvillian thermal event and remnant charnockite: Isotopic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R.Narasimhan(krishtel emaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    granulite-migmatite suite in the Eastern Ghats belt, India ... 1Indian Statistical Institute, 203 B.T.Road, Calcutta 700 035, India. e-mail: .... biotite on the one hand and occasional occurrence ... Additionally, one patchy charnockite inclu- sion and ...

  2. Radiation Belt Test Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, John W.

    2000-10-01

    Rice University has developed a dynamic model of the Earth's radiation belts based on real-time data driven boundary conditions and full adiabaticity. The Radiation Belt Test Model (RBTM) successfully replicates the major features of storm-time behavior of energetic electrons: sudden commencement induced main phase dropout and recovery phase enhancement. It is the only known model to accomplish the latter. The RBTM shows the extent to which new energetic electrons introduced to the magnetosphere near the geostationary orbit drift inward due to relaxation of the magnetic field. It also shows the effects of substorm related rapid motion of magnetotail field lines for which the 3rd adiabatic invariant is violated. The radial extent of this violation is seen to be sharply delineated to a region outside of 5Re, although this distance is determined by the Hilmer-Voigt magnetic field model used by the RBTM. The RBTM appears to provide an excellent platform on which to build parameterized refinements to compensate for unknown acceleration processes inside 5Re where adiabaticity is seen to hold. Moreover, built within the framework of the MSFM, it offers the prospect of an operational forecast model for MeV electrons.

  3. Geography of the asteroid belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellner, B. H.

    1978-01-01

    The CSM classification serves as the starting point on the geography of the asteroid belt. Raw data on asteroid types are corrected for observational biases (against dark objects, for instance) to derive the distribution of types throughout the belt. Recent work on family members indicates that dynamical families have a true physical relationship, presumably indicating common origin in the breakup of a parent asteroid.

  4. Deformation behavior of migmatites: insights from microstructural analysis of a garnet-sillimanite-mullite-quartz-feldspar-bearing anatectic migmatite at Rampura-Agucha, Aravalli-Delhi Fold Belt, NW India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Abhishek; Piazolo, Sandra; Saha, Lopamudra; Bhattacharya, Abhijit; Pal, Durgesh Kumar; Sarkar, Saheli

    2018-03-01

    In the present study we investigate the microstructural development in mullite, quartz and garnet in an anatectic migmatite hosted within a Grenvillian-age shear zone in the Aravalli-Delhi Fold Belt. The migmatite exhibits three main deformation structures and fabrics (S1, S2, S3). Elongated garnet porphyroblasts are aligned parallel to the metatexite S2 layers and contain crenulation hinges defined by biotite-sillimanite-mullite-quartz (with S1 axial planar foliation). Microstructural evidence and phase equilibrium relations establish the garnet as a peritectic phase of incongruent melting by breakdown of biotite, sillimanite ± mullite and quartz at peak P-T of 8 kbar, 730 °C along a tight-loop, clockwise P-T path. Monazite dating establishes that the partial melting occurred between 1000 and 870 Ma. The absence of subgrains and systematic crystal lattice distortions in these garnets despite their elongation suggests growth pseudomorphing pre-existing 3-D networks of S1 biotite aggregates rather than high-temperature crystal plastic deformation which is noted in the S1 quartz grains that exhibit strong crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO), undulatory extinction and subgrains. Mode-I fractures in these garnet porphyroblasts induced by high melt pressure during late stage of partial melt crystallization are filled by retrograde biotite-sillimanite. Weak CPO and non-systematic crystal lattice distortions in the coarse quartz grains within the S2 leucosome domains indicate these crystallized during melt solidification without later crystal plastic deformation overprint. In the later stages of deformation (D3), strain was mostly accommodated in the mullite-biotite-sillimanite-rich restite domains forming S3 which warps around garnet and leucosome domains; consequently, fine-grained S3 quartz does not exhibit strong CPOs.

  5. Odonata (Insecta diversity of Salim Ali Bird Sanctuary and its adjacent areas in Thattekkad, Kerala, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. Varghese

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Odonata diversity of Salim Ali Bird Sanctuary and its adjacent areas in Thattekkad, Kerala, India were documented from 2010 to 2012. Opportunistic observations were carried out to record species diversity. Eighty-two species of Odonata, which included 51 species of Anisoptera (dragonflies and 31 species of Zygoptera (damselflies, were recorded during the study. Of this 21 species are endemic to the Western Ghats. The presence of the IUCN categorized nearly threatened species like Megalogomphus hannyngtoni and vulnerable species like Platysticta deccanensis and Protosticta sanguinostigma is remarkable.

  6. Self-Esteem and Emotional Intelligence among B.Ed Trainees of Tsunami Affected Coastal Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu M, Sameer

    2008-01-01

    Through this study the author investigates the relationship between self-esteem and emotional intelligence among B.Ed trainees of Tsunami affected coastal belt of Alappey district of Kerala, India. Stream of study, marital status and age based comparisons were made among the B.Ed trainees. 92 B.Ed trainees were the participants in the study. It…

  7. AUTOMATION OF CONVEYOR BELT TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenad Marinović

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available Belt conveyor transport, although one of the most economical mining transport system, introduce many problems to mantain the continuity of the operation. Every stop causes economical loses. Optimal operation require correct tension of the belt, correct belt position and velocity and faultless rolls, which are together input conditions for automation. Detection and position selection of the faults are essential for safety to eliminate fire hazard and for efficient maintenance. Detection and location of idler roll faults are still open problem and up to now not solved successfully (the paper is published in Croatian.

  8. Investigation of a new type charging belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, N.L.

    1994-01-01

    There are many desirable characteristics for an electrostatic accelerator charging belt. An attempt has been made to find a belt that improves on these properties over the stock belt. Results of the search, procurement, and 1,500 hours of operational experience with a substantially different belt are reported

  9. Morphology, ecology, and behaviour of Hylarana intermedia, a Western Ghats frog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambika Kamath

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite being common in the Western Ghats-Sri Lanka biodiversity hotspot, Golden-backed frogs (Hylarana, Ranidae remain poorly studied. In this paper, we present some preliminary data on the morphology, behaviour, and habitat use of Hylarana intermedia, a member of the Hylarana aurantiaca species group. We find evidence for female biased size dimorphism, as well as potential shape differences between the sexes in this species. Additionally, we investigate the relationships between traits that may contribute to male conspicuousness (call rates, dorsal coloration, and body size in two breeding habitats, a paddy field and a trench. Our results suggest both size-dependent and environment-dependent variation in call rate and colour in this species. Specifically, we find evidence against the adoption of sneaker mating strategies by small males in H. intermedia, and instead find variation both within and between populations in traits contributing to male conspicuousness. We conclude by proposing future directions for research on this common frog species.

  10. 30 CFR 75.1731 - Maintenance of belt conveyors and belt conveyor entries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maintenance of belt conveyors and belt conveyor....1731 Maintenance of belt conveyors and belt conveyor entries. (a) Damaged rollers, or other damaged belt conveyor components, which pose a fire hazard must be immediately repaired or replaced. All other...

  11. Chaos on the conveyor belt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sándor, Bulcsú; Járai-Szabó, Ferenc; Tél, Tamás; Néda, Zoltán

    2013-04-01

    The dynamics of a spring-block train placed on a moving conveyor belt is investigated both by simple experiments and computer simulations. The first block is connected by a spring to an external static point and, due to the dragging effect of the belt, the blocks undergo complex stick-slip dynamics. A qualitative agreement with the experimental results can be achieved only by taking into account the spatial inhomogeneity of the friction force on the belt's surface, modeled as noise. As a function of the velocity of the conveyor belt and the noise strength, the system exhibits complex, self-organized critical, sometimes chaotic, dynamics and phase transition-like behavior. Noise-induced chaos and intermittency is also observed. Simulations suggest that the maximum complexity of the dynamical states is achieved for a relatively small number of blocks (around five).

  12. Mobile belt conveyor

    OpenAIRE

    Tenora, Jiří

    2017-01-01

    Cílem bakalářské práce je návrh pásového dopravníku pro přepravu drobného kameniva, zeminy a drobné stavební sutě s dopravním výkonem 60 t/h, výškovým rozdílem 3,5 m a vzdáleností mezi osami bubnů 8 m. Tato práce obsahuje také popis základních částí pásového dopravníku, funkční výpočty podle normy ČSN ISO 5048, návrh hlavních rozměrů dopravníku a pohonu. Celá práce se skládá z technické zprávy a výkresové dokumentace. The aim of this word is to design belt conveyor to transport tiny aggreg...

  13. Records of the endemic and threatened catfish, Hemibagrus punctuates from the southern Western Ghats with notes on its distribution, ecology and conservation status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ali

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Nilgiri Mystus, Hemibagrus punctatus, a rare bagrid catfish endemic to the Western Ghats, has been currently listed in the IUCN Red List, as Critically Endangered with a possibility that it could be extinct. The last validated record of H. punctatus was known to be in 1998, and several surveys since then have not been able to collect the species from its native range. In this paper, we provide information on new records of this rare catfish from the Western Ghats after a period of 14 years, and discuss its distribution, ecology and conservation. An updated conservation assessment of this species following the IUCN Red List Criteria is also provided.

  14. Belt conveyors for bulk materials. 6th ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The 16 chapters are entitled: Belt conveyor general applications economics; Design considerations; Characteristics and conveyability of bulk materials; Capacities, belt widths and speeds; Belt conveyor idlers; Belt tension and power engineering; Belt selection; Pulleys and shafts; Curves; Steep angle conveying; Belt cleaners and accessories; Transfer points; Conveyor motor drives and controls; Operation, maintenance and safety; Belt takeups; and Emerging technologies. 6 apps.

  15. Effectiveness of Ford's belt reminder system in increasing seat belt use

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, A; Wells, J; Farmer, C

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: The study investigated the effectiveness in increasing seat belt use of Ford's belt reminder system, a supplementary system that provides intermittent flashing lights and chimes for five minutes if drivers are not belted.

  16. CEPF Western Ghats Special Series: Description of tadpole stages of the Malabar Tree Toad Pedostibes tuberculosis Gunther, 1875 (Anura: Bufonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.P. Dinesh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Pedostibes tuberculosus, the Malabar tree toad, was described 137 years ago from the Malabar region (now the coastal parts of Kerala of the Western Ghats. Since the description of this arboreal toad, not much information is available on the natural history, breeding habits and life cycle except for its description, range of distribution and advertisement call details. In the present account, the tadpole stages of this toad from Gosner tadpole Stage 21 to 45 are presented and the phytotelmatic mode of life of this toad has been confirmed by locating the tadpoles within the Ochlandra reed culm.

  17. A new species of Rhabdochona Railliet, 1916 (Nematoda: Rhabdochonidae) from cyprinid fishes in the Western Ghats Region, India

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    González-Solís, David; Chavan, S. P.; Kannewad, P.; Gyananath, G.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 87, č. 3 (2014), s. 273-281 ISSN 0165-5752 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : fresh water fishes * morphology * Thailand Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 1.336, year: 2014

  18. Food resources, distribution and seasonal variations in ranging in lion-tailed macaques, Macaca silenus in the Western Ghats, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erinjery, Joseph J; Kavana, T S; Singh, Mewa

    2015-01-01

    The distribution and availability of food was examined to see how it influenced ranging patterns and sleeping site selection in a group of lion-tailed macaques. The home range and core area were 130.48 ha (95% kernel) and 26.68 ha (50% kernel) respectively. The lion-tailed macaques had a longer day range, had a greater number of sleeping sites and used more core areas in the summer as compared to the monsoon and the post-monsoon seasons. The ranging patterns and sleeping site use were influenced by the major food resources used in a particular season. The ranging was mainly influenced by Artocarpus heterophyllus in monsoon, Cullenia exarillata and Toona ciliata in post- monsoon, and Artocarpus heterophyllus and Ficus amplissima in summer. The distribution of these four plant species is, therefore, critical to ranging, and thus to conservation of the lion-tailed macaque.

  19. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Plectranthus mollis (Lamiaceae from Western Ghats region, Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh K. Joshi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Plectranthus is a large and widespread genus with a diversity of ethnobotanical uses. In traditional medicine P. mollis has been used against snakebites, respiratory stimulant and vasoconstrictor, cardiac depressant, cure for haemorrahage, treatment of mental retardation and rheumatism. P. mollis is reported to exhibit relaxant activity on smooth and skeletal muscles, and has cytotoxic and anti-tumour promoting activity, and can be used in the treatment of cancer. The aim of the present study was to identify chemical composition of the essential oil of P. mollis and to evaluate antimicrobial efficacy of the oil. The essential oil of the flowering aerial parts of P. mollis as obtained by hydro-distillation and analyzed by gas chromatography equipped with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS. Twentyseven compounds were identified, which comprised 98.6% of the total constituents. The main compound was identified as fenchone (32.3%, followed by α-humulene (17.3%, piperitenone oxide (8.5%, cis-piperitone oxide (6.0% and E-β-farnesene (5.9%. The oil was found rich in oxygenated monoterpenes type constituents (52.0%, followed by sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (40.2%, oxygenated sesquiterpenes (4.9%, and monoterpene hydrocarbons (1.5%. Antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of P. mollis was tested against six Gram-positive and eight Gram negative bacteria, and three fungi, by using the tube dilution method. The oil was active against the tested Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and fungi at a concentration range of 0.065±0.008-0.937±0.139mg/mL, 0.468±0.069-3.333±0.527 mg/mL and 0.117±0.0170.338±0.062mg/mL respectively. The present study revealed that the oil constituents somehow were qualitatively similar and quantitatively different than earlier reports from different parts of the world. The essential oil of P. mollis has found to be antimicrobial activity which can be usefulness in the treatment of various infectious diseases caused by bacteria and fungi.

  20. Hydrogeological controls of radon in a few hot springs in the Western Ghats at Ratnagiri district in Maharashtra, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansari, Md. Arzoo; Sharma, Suman; Saravana Kumar, U.; Chatterjee, Sitangshu; Diksha; Low, Upananda

    2014-01-01

    Geological structures (faults, fractures and weak zones) and high heat flow in geothermal areas allow easy passage for release of radon gas to the atmosphere. Radon is constantly transported from the Earth's interior and vented out through exhalation points at permeable fault zones. 222 Rn concentrations were measured in a few hot springs and nearby groundwater using RAD7 at Tural and Rajwadi, Ratnagiri district, Maharashtra. The 222 Rn concentrations in the hot springs vary from 1087 ± 132 to 1655 ± 177 Bq/m 3 at Tural and from 152 ± 67 to 350 ± 82 Bq/m 3 at Rajwadi. Groundwaters from wells within a radius of 200 m around the geothermal fields have radon concentration between 1087 ± 132 and 5445 ± 337 Bq/m 3 . We have assessed the radon activity in the vicinity of the hot springs to understand their hydrogeological control, origin of heat source and possible effect on the tourist and the human population residing nearby. (author)

  1. The High Deccan duricrusts of India and their significance for the `laterite' issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollier, Cliff D.; Sheth, Hetu C.

    2008-10-01

    In the Deccan region of western India ferricrete duricrusts, usually described as laterites, cap some basalt summits east of the Western Ghats escarpment, basalts of the low-lying Konkan Plain to its west, as well as some sizeable isolated basalt plateaus rising from the Plain. The duricrusts are iron-cemented saprolite with vermiform hollows, but apart from that have little in common with the common descriptions of laterite. The classical laterite profile is not present. In particular there are no pisolitic concretions, no or minimal development of concretionary crust, and the pallid zone, commonly assumed to be typical of laterites, is absent. A relatively thin, non-indurated saprolite usually lies between the duricrust and fresh basalt. The duricrust resembles the classical laterite of Angadippuram in Kerala (southwestern India), but is much harder. The High Deccan duricrusts capping the basalt summits in the Western Ghats have been interpreted as residuals from a continuous (but now largely destroyed) laterite blanket that represents in situ transformation of the uppermost lavas, and thereby as marking the original top of the lava pile. But the unusual pattern of the duricrusts on the map and other evidence suggest instead that the duricrusts formed along a palaeoriver system, and are now in inverted relief. The two interpretations lead to different tectonic histories. Duricrust formation involved lateral material input besides vertical elemental exchange. We may have reached the stage when the very concepts of laterite and lateritization are hindering progress in regolith research.

  2. A checklist of butterflies of Dakshina Kannada District, Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Naik

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In a preliminary study on the butterflies of Dakshina Kannada District, located in the southwestern part of the Karnataka along the Western Ghats in Karnataka State in India, a total of 172 species of butterflies belonging to 117 genera, from six families was prepared by visiting various landscapes during the period September 2012 to December 2015.  Of the various species recorded, Papilio clytia (Linnaeus, Papilio lio medon (Moore, Pachlio ptahector (Linnaeus, Castalius rosimon (Fabricius, Acytolepis puspa (Horsefield, Lethe europa (Fabricius, Neptis jumbah (Moore, Dophlae velina (Stoll, Hypolimnas misippus (Linnaeus and Doleschallia bisaltide (Cramer comes under the Schedule I of the Indian Wildlife Protection Act 1972.  The present study provides the baseline data of butterfly species of Dakshina Kannada. 

  3. India Emerging

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Traditionally, India has had an extremely poor collection of direct taxes, not least due to ...... Economic Impact of Mobile in Bangladesh, Malaysia, Pakistan, Serbia, ...... in India owes its origin to Gandhian principles, philosophy and practices.

  4. Lineament and Morphometric Analysis for Watershed Development of Tarali River Basin, Western India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikrant Bartakke

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Tarali river is major tributary of River Krishna, which is flowing in western India. The study area lies between latitude 17°23' to 17°38' N and longitude 73°48' to 74°7' E. The area has steep to moderate slope and elevation ranges from 584 - 1171m above mean sea level. Basin exhibits hilly and mountain terrain forming ridges and Western Ghats with deep valley, plateaus and plain. The whole area can be obtained in topographical maps i.e. 47 G/14, 47 G/15 47 K/2, 47 K/3 covering area of about 627 sq.km, acquired from Survey of India. Present study includes lineament and morphometric analysis of Tarali River basin for management and conservation of watershed.

  5. Seasonal dynamics of butterfly population in DAE Campus, Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.J. Hussain

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal population trends of butterflies inhabiting the campus of Department of Atomic Energy (DAE at Kalpakkam were recorded by setting a permanent line transect of 300m and recording all species of butterflies observed within a 5m distance. The survey yielded 2177 individuals of 56 butterfly species, belonging to the families Nymphalidae, Pieridae, Lycaenidae, Papilionidae and Hesperiidae. Nymphalidae were found to be the dominant family during all seasons. Species richness and abundance were highest during the northeast monsoon and winter periods, indicating that in the southern plains of India butterflies prefer cool seasons for breeding and emergence. The taxonomic structure of the butterflies sampled resembles that of the Western Ghats and other regions of India in two ways: (a dominance of nymphalids and (b peak abundance during wet seasons. A detailed study of ecologically important local butterfly fauna and their host plants is in progress, to construct a butterfly garden in Kalpakkam to attract and support butterflies.

  6. 30 CFR 77.1107 - Belt conveyors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Belt conveyors. 77.1107 Section 77.1107 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY... § 77.1107 Belt conveyors. Belt conveyors in locations where fire would create a hazard to personnel...

  7. Grinding Glass Disks On A Belt Sander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, James J., III

    1995-01-01

    Small machine attached to table-top belt sander makes possible to use belt sander to grind glass disk quickly to specified diameter within tolerance of about plus or minus 0.002 in. Intended to be used in place of production-shop glass grinder. Held on driveshaft by vacuum, glass disk rotated while periphery ground by continuous sanding belt.

  8. 36 CFR 4.15 - Safety belts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety belts. 4.15 Section 4... TRAFFIC SAFETY § 4.15 Safety belts. (a) Each operator and passenger occupying any seating position of a motor vehicle in a park area will have the safety belt or child restraint system properly fastened at...

  9. 14 CFR 31.63 - Safety belts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safety belts. 31.63 Section 31.63 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Design Construction § 31.63 Safety belts. (a) There must be a safety belt...

  10. 14 CFR 27.1413 - Safety belts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safety belts. 27.1413 Section 27.1413 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Safety Equipment § 27.1413 Safety belts. Each safety belt...

  11. 46 CFR 169.723 - Safety belts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Safety belts. 169.723 Section 169.723 Shipping COAST... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment § 169.723 Safety belts. Each vessel must carry a harness type safety belt conforming to Offshore Racing Council (ORC) standards for each person on watch or...

  12. Journal of Earth System Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The relation between alkaline magmatism and tectonism has been a contentious issue, particularly for the Precambrian continental regions. Alkaline complexes at the southwestern margin of Eastern Ghats belt, India, have been interpreted as rift-valley magmatism. However, those complexes occurring in granulite ...

  13. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Bhattacharji Somdev see Chatterjee Nilanjan. 533. Two- and three-dimensional gravity modeling along western continental margin and intraplate Narmada-. Tapti rifts: Its relevance to Deccan flood basalt volcanism. 771. Bhattacharya S. Alkaline intrusion in a granulite ensemble in the. Eastern Ghats belt, India: Shear zone ...

  14. WOMEN ANTI-RAPE BELT

    OpenAIRE

    Sainath B Gadhe; Ganesh Chinchansure; Amar Kumar; Mritunjay Ojha

    2015-01-01

    Rape is fourth most common and frequently happening crime against women in India. Among metro cities, has more number of rape cases and compare to developed countries like Latin America developing countries like India has less number of such incidences, where very good security facilities are provided by government and ratio of education is higher. So it proves that illiteracy or security is not major reason behind such assaults but the unawareness about self-protection and inefficient self-p...

  15. Conveyor belt nuclear weighing machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    In many industries the flow of materials on conveyor belts must be measured and controlled. Electromechanical weighing devices have high accuracy but are complicated and expensive to install and maintain. For many applications the nuclear weighing machine has sufficient accuracy but is considerably simpler, cheaper and more robust and is easier to maintain. The rating and performance of a gamma ray balance on the mar ket are detailed. (P.G.R.)

  16. Controversial report on sickle cell trait in Manipur, India

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maishnam Rustam Singh

    2012-12-28

    Dec 28, 2012 ... I read with concern the article by Shah et al. [1] entitled. 'Gene Frequency of Sickle Cell Trait among Muslim Popula- tions in a Malarial belt of India, i.e., Manipur' published in your esteemed journal. However, I found many ambiguities in it. I would like to make the following comments on this article.

  17. Vulnerability and Tradeoffs of Dairy Farmers to the Impacts of Climate Variability and Change in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, A.; Gupta, J.; R, D.

    2016-12-01

    In recent years climate variability has threatened the sustainability of dairy animals and dairy farming in India. The study aims at assessing the vulnerability and tradeoffs of Dairy Based Livelihoods to Climate Variability and Change in the Western Ghat ecosystem and for this purpose; data were aggregated to an overall Livelihood Vulnerability Index (LVI) to Climate Change underlying the principles of IPCC, using 28 indicators and trade-off between vulnerability and milk production was calculated. Data were collected through Participatory Rural Appraisal and personal interviews from 360 randomly selected dairy farmers of three states of Western Ghat region, complemented by thirty years of gridded weather data and livestock data. The index score of dairy based livelihoods of many regions were negative. Lanja taluka of Maharashtra has highest level of vulnerability with overall LVI value -4.17 with 48% farmers falling in highly vulnerable category. There is also significant tradeoff between milk production and components of LVI. Thus our research will provide an important basis for policy makers to develop appropriate adaptation strategies for alarming situation and decision making for farmers to minimize the risk of dairy sector to climate variability.

  18. Transitions in Lava Emplacement Recorded in the Deccan Traps Sequence (India)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderkluysen, L.; Self, S.; Jay, A. E.; Sheth, H. C.; Clarke, A. B.

    2015-12-01

    Transitions in the style of lava flow emplacement are recognized in the stratigraphic sequence of several mafic large igneous provinces (LIPs), including the Etendeka (Namibia), the Faeroe Islands (North Atlantic LIP), the Ethiopian Traps, and the Deccan Traps (India). These transitions, from units dominated by meter-sized pāhoehoe toes and lobes to those dominated by inflated sheet lobes tens to hundreds of meters in width and meters to tens of meters in height, seems to be a fundamental feature of LIP emplacement. In the Deccan, this volcanological transition is thought to coincide with deeper changes to the volcano-magmatic system expressed, notably, in the trace element and isotopic signature of erupted flows. We investigated this transition in the Deccan Traps by logging eight sequences along the Western Ghats, an escarpment in western India where the Deccan province is thickest and best exposed. The Deccan province, which once covered ~1 million km2 of west-central India, is subdivided in eleven chemo-stratigraphic formations in the type sections of the Western Ghats. Where the lower Deccan formations are exposed, we found that as much as 65% of the exposed thickness (below the Khandala Formation) is made up of sheet lobes, from 40% in the Bhimashankar Formation to 75% in the Thakurvadi Formation. Near the bottom of the sequence, 25% of the Neral Formation is composed of sheet lobes ≥15 m in thickness. On this basis, the traditional view that inflated sheet lobes are an exclusive feature of the upper part of the stratigraphy must be challenged. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain the development of compound flows and inflated sheet lobes, involving one or more of the following factors: underlying slope, varying effusion rate, and source geometry. Analogue experiments are currently under way to test the relative influence of each of these factors in the development of different lava flow morphologies in LIPs.

  19. Synchronous and Cogged Fan Belt Performance Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cutler, Dylan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dean, Jesse [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Acosta, Jason [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-02-01

    The GSA Regional GPG Team commissioned the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to perform monitoring of cogged V-belts and synchronous belts on both a constant volume and a variable air volume fan at the Byron G. Rodgers Federal Building and U.S. Courthouse in Denver, Colorado. These motor/fan combinations were tested with their original, standard V-belts (appropriately tensioned by an operation and maintenance professional) to obtain a baseline for standard operation. They were then switched to the cogged V-belts, and finally to synchronous belts. The power consumption by the motor was normalized for both fan speed and air density changes. This was necessary to ensure that the power readings were not influenced by a change in rotational fan speed or by the power required to push denser air. Finally, energy savings and operation and maintenance savings were compiled into an economic life-cycle cost analysis of the different belt options.

  20. Belt technology stretches conveyors' coverage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-15

    With China the leading growth engine in the conveyor market, leading belt manufacturers are establishing local manufacturing plants to boost their presence. Fenner is planning to almost triple production capacity over the next three years, with a third of its investment in China. Shanxi-Phoenix Conveyor Belt Systems is a joint venture between Phoenix Conveyor Belt Systems GmbH, now part of ContiTech Ag, and its Chinese partners Lu An Mining Group Co. Ltd. and Jingcheng Anthracite Group Co. Ltd. It manufacturers steel cable belts, PVC and multi-ply belts for coal mines and power plants. Recent belt designs by FennerEurope and Metso Minerals are reported. 2 photos.

  1. Belt Conveyor Dynamic Characteristics and Influential Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junxia Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses the Kelvin-Voigt viscoelastic model to establish the continuous dynamic equations for tail hammer tension belt conveyors. The viscoelastic continuity equations are solved using the generalized coordinate method. We analyze various factors influencing longitudinal vibration of the belt conveyor by simulation and propose a control strategy to limit the vibration. The proposed approach and control strategy were verified by several experimental researches and cases. The proposed approach provides improved accuracy for dynamic design of belt conveyors.

  2. Drive alive: teen seat belt survey program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkett, Katie M; Davidson, Steve; Cotton, Carol; Barlament, James; Loftin, Laurel; Stephens, James; Dunbar, Martin; Butterfield, Ryan

    2010-08-01

    To increase teen seat belt use among drivers at a rural high school by implementing the Drive Alive Pilot Program (DAPP), a theory-driven intervention built on highway safety best practices. The first component of the program was 20 observational teen seat belt surveys conducted by volunteer students in a high school parking lot over a 38-month period before and after the month-long intervention. The survey results were published in the newspaper. The second component was the use of incentives, such as gift cards, to promote teen seat belt use. The third component involved disincentives, such as increased police patrol and school policies. The fourth component was a programmatic intervention that focused on education and media coverage of the DAPP program. Eleven pre-intervention surveys and nine post-intervention surveys were conducted before and after the intervention. The pre- and post-intervention seat belt usage showed significant differences (p<0.0001). The average pre-intervention seat belt usage rate was 51.2%, while the average post-intervention rate was 74.5%. This represents a percentage point increase of 23.3 in seat belt use after the DAPP intervention. Based on seat belt observational surveys, the DAPP was effective in increasing seat belt use among rural high school teenagers. Utilizing a theory-based program that builds on existing best practices can increase the observed seat belt usage among rural high school students.

  3. Conveyor belt weigher using a nuclear technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magal, B.S.

    1976-01-01

    Principles of operation of different types of continuous conveyor belt weighing machines developed for use in factories for bulk weighing of material on conveyor belts without interupting the material flow, are briefly mentioned. The design of nuclear weighing scale making use of the radiation absorption property of the material used is described in detail. The radiation source, choice of the source, detector and geometry of such a weighing scale are discussed. The nucleonic belt weigher is compared with the gravimetric belt weigher system. The advantages of the nuclear system are pointed out. The assembly drawing of the electronics, calibration procedure and performance evaluation are given. (A.K.)

  4. Continuous Mass Measurement on Conveyor Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomobe, Yuki; Tasaki, Ryosuke; Yamazaki, Takanori; Ohnishi, Hideo; Kobayashi, Masaaki; Kurosu, Shigeru

    The continuous mass measurement of packages on a conveyor belt will become greatly important. In the mass measurement, the sequence of products is generally random. An interesting possibility of raising throughput of the conveyor line without increasing the conveyor belt speed is offered by the use of two or three conveyor belt scales (called a multi-stage conveyor belt scale). The multi-stage conveyor belt scale can be created which will adjust the conveyor belt length to the product length. The conveyor belt scale usually has maximum capacities of less than 80kg and 140cm, and achieves measuring rates of more than 150 packages per minute and more. The output signals from the conveyor belt scale are always contaminated with noises due to vibrations of the conveyor and the product to be measured in motion. In this paper an employed digital filter is of Finite Impulse Response (FIR) type designed under the consideration on the dynamics of the conveyor system. The experimental results on the conveyor belt scale suggest that the filtering algorithms are effective enough to practical applications to some extent.

  5. Condition-Based Conveyor Belt Replacement Strategy in Lignite Mines with Random Belt Deterioration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazej, Ryszard; Jurdziak, Leszek

    2017-12-01

    In Polish lignite surface mines, condition-based belt replacement strategies are applied in order to assure profitable refurbishment of worn out belts performed by external firms specializing in belt maintenance. In two of three lignite mines, staff asses belt condition subjectively during visual inspections. Only one mine applies specialized diagnostic device (HRDS) allowing objective magnetic evaluation of belt core condition in order to choose the most profitable moment for the dismantling of worn out belt segments from conveyors and sending them to the maintenance firm which provides their refurbishment. This article describes the advantages of a new diagnostic device called DiagBelt. It was developed at the Faculty of Geoengineering, Mining and Geology, Wroclaw University of Science and Technology. Economic gains from its application are calculated for the lignite mine and for the belt maintenance firm, taking into account random life (durability) of new and reconditioned belts (after the 1st and the 2nd refurbishment). Recursive calculations for following years allow the estimation of the length and costs of replaced, reconditioned and purchased belts on an annual basis, while the use of the Monte Carlo method allows the estimation of their variability caused by random deterioration of belts. Savings are obtained due to better selection of moments (times) for the replacement of belt segments and die to the possibility to qualify worn out belts for refurbishment without the need to remove their covers. In effect, increased belt durability and lowered share of waste belts (which were not qualified for reconditioning) create savings which can quickly cover expenditures on new diagnostic tools and regular belt inspections in the mine.

  6. Brusque belt: a monocyclic evolution ?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basei, M.A.S.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses the radiometric data for the Brusque Belt (SC) where Rb-Sr isochrons, U-Pb in zircons, K-Ar in minerals and whole rock Sm-Nd model ages are available. The analysis of these results reveals two main groups, without intermediate values. The first, 500 to 800Ma., is related to magmatic and metamorphic ages and the second, 1600-2000Ma begin with the (probably) sedimentation age. A monociclic evolution is proposed, but with uncertanties in the age of the first metamorphic phase. (author)

  7. Translating India

    CERN Document Server

    Kothari, Rita

    2014-01-01

    The cultural universe of urban, English-speaking middle class in India shows signs of growing inclusiveness as far as English is concerned. This phenomenon manifests itself in increasing forms of bilingualism (combination of English and one Indian language) in everyday forms of speech - advertisement jingles, bilingual movies, signboards, and of course conversations. It is also evident in the startling prominence of Indian Writing in English and somewhat less visibly, but steadily rising, activity of English translation from Indian languages. Since the eighties this has led to a frenetic activity around English translation in India's academic and literary circles. Kothari makes this very current phenomenon her chief concern in Translating India.   The study covers aspects such as the production, reception and marketability of English translation. Through an unusually multi-disciplinary approach, this study situates English translation in India amidst local and global debates on translation, representation an...

  8. Using haptic feedback to increase seat belt use : traffic tech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    The legacy of research on increasing seat belt use has : focused on enactment of seat belt legislation, public education, : high-visibility police enforcement, and seat belt : reminder systems. Several behavioral programs have : produced large, susta...

  9. Origin of the asteroid belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetherill, G.W.

    1989-01-01

    Earlier work and concepts relevant to the origin of the asteroid belt are reviewed and considered in the context of the more general question of solar system origin. Several aspects of asteroidal origin by accumulation of smaller bodies have been addressed by new dynamic studies. Numerical and analytical solutions of the dynamical theory of planetesimal accumulation are characterized by a bifurcation into runaway and nonrunaway solutions. The differences in time scales resulting from runaway and nonrunaway growth can be more important than conventional time scale differences determined by heliocentric distances. This introduces new possibilities, e.g., planetary accumulation may be more rapid at the distance of Jupiter than in the asteroid belt, thus permitting Jupiter to control asteroidal growth. Although alternatives must be seriously considered, the most promising approach to asteroidal origin is one in which the initial surface density of the solar nebula varied smoothly between the terrestrial and giant-planet region. In the absence of external perturbations, it is found that runaway growth of excessively large asteroids would then occur on <1 Myr, but fairly modest external perturbations by Jupiter, Saturn or other perturbers, resulting in eccentricities ∼0.01 may quench runaways, truncate asteroidal growth at their present size, and then initiate the necessary loss of asteroidal material by mutual fragmentation

  10. The JET belt limiter tiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deksnis, E.

    1988-09-01

    The belt limiter system, comprising two full toroidal rings of limiter tiles, was installed in JET in 1987. In consists of water-cooled fins with the limiter material in form of tile inbetween. The tiles are designed to absorb heat fluxes during irradiation without the surface temperature exceeding 2000 0 C and to radiate this heat between pulses to the water cooled sink whose temperature is lower than that of the vacuum vessel. An important feature of the design is to maximise the area of the radiating surface facing the water cooled fin. This leads to a tile depth much greater than the width of the tile facing the heat flux. Limiter tiles intercept particles flowing out of the plasma through the area between the two belt limiter rings and through remaining surface area of the plasma column. Power deposition to a limiter tile depends strongly on the shape of the plasma, the edge plasma properties as well as on the surface profile of the tiles. This paper will discuss the methodology that was followed in producing an optimized surface profile of the tiles. This shaped profile has the feature that the resulting power deposition profile is roughly similar for a wide range of plasma parameters. (author)

  11. Seat belt injuries and sigmoid colon trauma.

    OpenAIRE

    Eltahir, E M; Hamilton, D

    1997-01-01

    Colonic seat belt injuries are rare but carry higher mortality rates than small bowel injuries. The case of a 44 year old man is described who had severe sigmoid colon compression injury from his seat belt a few days after a road traffic accident.

  12. Intelligent Belt Conveyor Monitoring and Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pang, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Belt conveyors have been used worldwide in continuous material transport for about 250 years. Traditional inspection and monitoring of large-scale belt conveyors focus on individual critical components and response to catastrophic system failures. To prevent operational problems caused by the lack

  13. 36 CFR 1004.15 - Safety belts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety belts. 1004.15 Section 1004.15 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST VEHICLES AND TRAFFIC SAFETY § 1004.15 Safety... administered by the Presidio Trust will have the safety belt or child restraint system properly fastened at all...

  14. Feed chute geometry for minimum belt wear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, A W; Wiche, S J [University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW (Australia). Centre for Bulk Solids and Particulate Technologies

    1998-09-01

    The paper is concerned with the feeding and transfer of bulk solids in conveyor belt operation. The paper focuses on chute design where the objective is to prevent spillage and minimise both chute and belt wear. It is shown that these objectives may be met through correct dynamic design of the chute and by directing the flow of bulk solids onto the belt at an acceptable incidence angle. The aim is to match the tangential velocity component of the feed velocity as close as possible to the belt velocity. At the same time, it is necessary to limit the impact pressure due to the change in momentum of the bulk solid as it feeds onto the belt. 2 refs., 8 figs.

  15. Observed use of automatic seat belts in 1987 cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, A F; Wells, J K; Lund, A K; Teed, N

    1989-10-01

    Usage of the automatic belt systems supplied by six large-volume automobile manufacturers to meet the federal requirements for automatic restraints were observed in suburban Washington, D.C., Chicago, Los Angeles, and Philadelphia. The different belt systems studied were: Ford and Toyota (motorized, nondetachable automatic shoulder belt), Nissan (motorized, detachable shoulder belt), VW and Chrysler (nonmotorized, detachable shoulder belt), and GM (nonmotorized detachable lap and shoulder belt). Use of automatic belts was significantly greater than manual belt use in otherwise comparable late-model cars for all manufacturers except Chrysler; in Chrysler cars, automatic belt use was significantly lower than manual belt use. The automatic shoulder belts provided by Ford, Nissan, Toyota, and VW increased use rates to about 90%. Because use rates were lower in Ford cars with manual belts, their increase was greater. GM cars had the smallest increase in use rates; however, lap belt use was highest in GM cars. The other manufacturers supply knee bolsters to supplement shoulder belt protection; all--except VW--also provide manual lap belts, which were used by about half of those who used the automatic shoulder belt. The results indicate that some manufacturers have been more successful than others in providing automatic belt systems that result in high use that, in turn, will mean fewer deaths and injuries in those cars.

  16. Natural gamma radioactivity in the villages of Kanyakumari district, Tamil Nadu, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padua, J. C.; Basil Rose, M. R.

    2013-01-01

    In situ radiometric survey carried out in 81 revenue villages of Kanyakumari District, Tamil Nadu (India), using a portable radiation dosemeter/detector, revealed the existence of radiation hotspots along the coastal belt. A close observation of the coastal villages specifically revealed high background radioactivity in 14 coastal villages. A very high intrinsic anomalous radioactivity of 41.03 μSv h -1 was observed, in a famous tourist spot in the coastal belt of Kanyakumari District. This is the highest level of radiation registered in South India, which is extremely higher than the permissible world average and is suggestive of causing severe clinical problems on continuous and prolonged exposure. (authors)

  17. Natural gamma radioactivity in the villages of Kanyakumari District, Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padua, Jeni Chandar; Basil Rose, M R

    2013-01-01

    In situ radiometric survey carried out in 81 revenue villages of Kanyakumari District, Tamil Nadu, India, using a portable radiation dosemeter/detector, revealed the existence of radiation hotspots along the coastal belt. A close observation of the coastal villages specifically revealed high background radioactivity in 14 coastal villages. A very high intrinsic anomalous radioactivity of 41.03 μSv h(-1) was observed, in a famous tourist spot in the coastal belt of Kanyakumari District. This is the highest level of radiation registered in South India, which is extremely higher than the permissible world average and is suggestive of causing severe clinical problems on continuous and prolonged exposure.

  18. Drive Alive: Teen Seat Belt Survey Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loftin, Laurel

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To increase teen seat belt use among drivers at a rural high school by implementing the Drive Alive Pilot Program (DAPP, a theory-driven intervention built on highway safety best practices.Methods: The first component of the program was 20 observational teen seat belt surveys conducted by volunteer students in a high school parking lot over a 38-month period before and after the month-long intervention. The survey results were published in the newspaper. The second component was the use of incentives, such as gift cards, to promote teen seat belt use. The third component involved disincentives, such as increased police patrol and school policies. The fourth component was a programmatic intervention that focused on education and media coverage of the DAPP program.Results: Eleven pre-intervention surveys and nine post-intervention surveys were conducted before and after the intervention. The pre- and post-intervention seat belt usage showed significant differences (p<0.0001. The average pre-intervention seat belt usage rate was 51.2%, while the average post-intervention rate was 74.5%. This represents a percentage point increase of 23.3 in seat belt use after the DAPP intervention.Conclusion: Based on seat belt observational surveys, the DAPP was effective in increasing seat belt use among rural high school teenagers. Utilizing a theory-based program that builds on existing best practices can increase the observed seat belt usage among rural high school students. [West J Emerg Med. 2010; 11(3: 280-283.

  19. Belt design central to conveyor performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-15

    While a conveyor system comprises a complex range of components, it is the belt design which ultimately dictates its core performance and reliability. The complexity of modern systems can be seen by the recent contract awarded to ThyssenKrupp Foerdertechnik (TKF) to supply systems for a new steel plant (including a coking plant and a power plant) to be built in Sepetiba Bay in Brazil. Phoenix has designed the Phoenotec system to protect steel cord conveyor belts. Fenner Dunlop has developed Fenaplast belting with nylon or polyester load-bearing warp and weft yarns for good impact resistance. 2 photos.

  20. 30 CFR 57.4503 - Conveyor belt slippage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conveyor belt slippage. 57.4503 Section 57.4503... Control Installation/construction/maintenance § 57.4503 Conveyor belt slippage. (a) Surface belt conveyors...) Underground belt conveyors shall be equipped with a detection system capable of automatically stopping the...

  1. 30 CFR 56.4503 - Conveyor belt slippage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conveyor belt slippage. 56.4503 Section 56.4503... Control Installation/construction/maintenance § 56.4503 Conveyor belt slippage. Belt conveyors within... shall attend the belt at the drive pulley when it is necessary to operate the conveyor while temporarily...

  2. 30 CFR 75.1403-5 - Criteria-Belt conveyors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Criteria-Belt conveyors. 75.1403-5 Section 75... Criteria—Belt conveyors. (a) Positive-acting stop controls should be installed along all belt conveyors... can be stopped or started at any location. (b) Belt conveyors used for regularly scheduled mantrips...

  3. Compliance with Seat Belt Use in Makurdi, Nigeria: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Seat belts are designed to reduce injuries due to road crash among vehicle occupants. Aims: This study aims to determine the availability of seat belt in vehicles and compliance with seat belt use among vehicle occupants. Materials and methods: This was a 24‑h direct observational study of seat belt usage ...

  4. India Emerging

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-12-13

    Dec 13, 2017 ... It is telling that in a famous paper authored by the Nobel Prize winner, Robert ..... Examples are the steam engine, railroad, electricity, electronics, the ...... According to Gartner's Senior Research Analyst 'India's domestic IT services .... in new areas such as engineering services and product development.

  5. India Emerging

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Here Veena Jha surveys the history of philanthropic giving in India going back to the ...... claim that ICTs produced benefits go beyond those pertaining to investors and owners. ...... Anti-migration policies include restricted access to public services by below poverty ...... Which medicines and vaccinations are not available?

  6. Simulation of engine auxiliary drive V-belt slip motion. Part 1. Development of belt slip model; Engine hoki V belt slip kyodo no simulation. 1. Belt slip model no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurisu, T [Mazda Motor Corp., Hiroshima (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    V-belts are widely used for driving auxiliary components of an engine. Inadequet design of such belt system sometimes results in troubles such as belt squeak, side rubber separation and/or bottom rubber crack. However, there has been no design tools which can predict belt slip quantitatively. The author developed a motion simulation program of Auxiliary Drive V-Belt System considering belt slip. The program showed good prediction accuracy for belt slip motion. This paper describes the simulation model. 1 ref., 12 figs.

  7. Handbook Timing Belts Principles, Calculations, Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Perneder, Raimund

    2012-01-01

    Timing belts offer a broad range of innovative drivetrain solutions; they allow low-backlash operation in robot systems, they are widely used in automated processes and industrial handling involving highly dynamic start-up loads, they are low-maintenance solutions for continuous operation applications, and they can guarantee exact positioning at high operating speeds. Based on his years of professional experience, the author has developed concise guidelines for the dimensioning of timing belt drives and presents proven examples from the fields of power transmission, transport and linear transfer technology. He offers definitive support for dealing with and compensating for adverse operating conditions and belt damage, as well as advice on drive optimization and guidelines for the design of drivetrain details and supporting systems. All market-standard timing belts are listed as brand neutral. Readers will discover an extensive bibliography with information on the various manufacturers and their websites. This...

  8. Dynamics Analysis and Modeling of Rubber Belt in Large Mine Belt Conveyors

    OpenAIRE

    Gao Yang

    2014-01-01

    Rubber belt not only is one of the key components of belt conveyor, but also affects the overall performance of the core part. Research on dynamics analysis of large conveyor not only helps to improve the reliability and design level, but also can guide the rational selection of conveyor safety factor, and effectively reduce the cost of the conveyor belt. Based on unique viscoelastic properties of belt conveyor, it was simplified as one-dimensional viscoelastic rod in this study, and then a d...

  9. The Stability of the Conveyor Belt Pontoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří PODEŠVA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available To lead the conveyor belt transport cross water area the pontoon are used to support the carrying structure of the belts. The accident can happen when the pontoon turnover. For this reason the pontoon stability is investigated. The stability is described by the Reed’s diagram. This can be constructed analytically or via numerical modeling. Both methods are described in the paper.

  10. Belt Conveyor Dynamic Characteristics and Influential Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Junxia; Pang, Xiaoxu

    2018-01-01

    This paper uses the Kelvin-Voigt viscoelastic model to establish the continuous dynamic equations for tail hammer tension belt conveyors. The viscoelastic continuity equations are solved using the generalized coordinate method. We analyze various factors influencing longitudinal vibration of the belt conveyor by simulation and propose a control strategy to limit the vibration. The proposed approach and control strategy were verified by several experimental researches and cases. The proposed a...

  11. Seat-belt message and the law?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, S K; Patil, N G; Law, G

    1989-09-01

    This paper attempts to draw together available information on the use of seat belts, one of the most important safety devices for a person in a car. Considering the high rate of mortality and morbidity due to road traffic accidents in Papua New Guinea the authors strongly feel that seat-belt usage should be made compulsory. When one looks at the history of the implementation of such a successful countermeasure in other countries it seems that legislation is the only answer.

  12. Jupiter's magnetosphere and radiation belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennel, C. F.; Coroniti, F. V.

    1979-01-01

    Radioastronomy and Pioneer data reveal the Jovian magnetosphere as a rotating magnetized source of relativistic particles and radio emission, comparable to astrophysical cosmic ray and radio sources, such as pulsars. According to Pioneer data, the magnetic field in the outer magnetosphere is radially extended into a highly time variable disk-shaped configuration which differs fundamentally from the earth's magnetosphere. The outer disk region, and the energetic particles confined in it, are modulated by Jupiter's 10 hr rotation period. The entire outer magnetosphere appears to change drastically on time scales of a few days to a week. In addition to its known modulation of the Jovian decametric radio bursts, Io was found to absorb some radiation belt particles and to accelerate others, and most importantly, to be a source of neutral atoms, and by inference, a heavy ion plasma which may significantly affect the hydrodynamic flow in the magnetosphere. Another important Pioneer finding is that the Jovian outer magnetosphere generates, or permits to escape, fluxes of relativistic electrons of such intensities that Jupiter may be regarded as the dominant source of 1 to 30 MeV cosmic ray electrons in the heliosphere.

  13. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-08-06

    macroeconomic unbal - the Government. Much will depend on how far India is ances. The team will leave as soon as New Delhi concurs, prepared to tighten its belt...Dr. Singh said "commitments should be hon- justice? Mr. Singh saw no contractions. The real growth oured." of an economy could not be assessed only by...system to WEEK something to this effect: "We are not able to increase the scope of export growth . To this effect we will bring down prices because the

  14. Predicting the distribution pattern of small carnivores in response to environmental factors in the Western Ghats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalle, Riddhika; Ramesh, Tharmalingam; Qureshi, Qamar; Sankar, Kalyanasundaram

    2013-01-01

    southern India.

  15. Microfluidic magnetic bead conveyor belt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Pelt, Stijn; Frijns, Arjan; den Toonder, Jaap

    2017-11-07

    Magnetic beads play an important role in the miniaturization of clinical diagnostics systems. In lab-on-chip platforms, beads can be made to link to a target species and can then be used for the manipulation and detection of this species. Current bead actuation systems utilize complex on-chip coil systems that offer low field strengths and little versatility. We demonstrate a novel system based on an external rotating magnetic field and on-chip soft-magnetic structures to focus the field locally. These structures were designed and optimized using finite element simulations in order to create a number of local flux density maxima. These maxima, to which the magnetic beads are attracted, move over the chip surface in a continuous way together with the rotation of the external field, resulting in a mechanism similar to that of a conveyor belt. A prototype was fabricated using PDMS molding techniques mixed with iron powder for the magnetic structures. In the subsequent experiments, a quadrupole electromagnet was used to create the rotating external field. We observed that beads formed agglomerates that rolled over the chip surface, just above the magnetic structures. Field rotation frequencies between 0.1-50 Hz were tested resulting in magnetic bead speeds of over 1 mm s -1 for the highest frequency. With this, we have shown that our novel concept works, combining a simple design and simple operation with a powerful and versatile method for bead actuation. This makes it a promising method for further research and utilization in lab-on-chip systems.

  16. Analysis of stress distribution of timing belts by FEM; Yugen yosoho ni yoru timing belt oryoku kaiseki (belt code oryoku bunpu kaiseki hokoku)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furukawa, Y; Tomono, K; Takahashi, H; Uchida, T [Honda R and D Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    A model of the belt analyzed by-ABAQUS (: a general nonlinear finite element program) successfully confirmed the mechanism that generates the belt cord stress. A quite good agreement between experimental and computed results for the stress distribution of the belt cord. It is found that maximum stress of the cords occurs near the root of the tooth by calculation, where the belt cords break off. 3 refs., 9 figs.

  17. A badger in Bannerghatta: an opportunistic record of the Ratel Mellivora capensis (Schreber, 1776 (Mammalia: Carnivora: Mustelidae from Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avinash Krishnan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A single observation of a Ratel Mellivora capensis has been photo-documented in Bannerghatta National Park on 2 November 2015. This record being the first contemporary evidence of badgers in this region of Karnataka, India, the paper also presents a case study of badgers being close to a highly human-dominated landscape which could be due to some ecological factors that may be conducive as a habitat within the Park. Though a resident population and distribution within the BNP could not be ascertained, it can be proposed that the region may be an extension of range of its most recently documented distribution in the Eastern Ghats landscape. 

  18. Big concerns with small projects: Evaluating the socio-ecological impacts of small hydropower projects in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumani, Suman; Rao, Shishir; Machado, Siddarth; Prakash, Anup

    2017-05-01

    Although Small Hydropower Projects (SHPs) are encouraged as sources of clean and green energy, there is a paucity of research examining their socio-ecological impacts. We assessed the perceived socio-ecological impacts of 4 SHPs within the Western Ghats in India by conducting semi-structured interviews with local respondents. Primary interview data were sequentially validated with secondary data, and respondent perceptions were subsequently compared against the expected baseline of assured impacts. We evaluated the level of awareness about SHPs, their perceived socio-economic impacts, influence on resource access and impacts on human-elephant interactions. The general level of awareness about SHPs was low, and assurances of local electricity and employment generation remained largely unfulfilled. Additionally most respondents faced numerous unanticipated adverse impacts. We found a strong relationship between SHP construction and increasing levels of human-elephant conflict. Based on the disparity between assured and actual social impacts, we suggest that policies regarding SHPs be suitably revised.

  19. Radiometric measurement independent of profile. Belt weighers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, J.

    1986-01-01

    Radiometric measuring techniques allow contactless determination of the material carried by belt conveyors. Data defining the material is obtained via attenuation of gamma rays passing through the material on the belt. The method applies the absorption law according to Lambert-Beer, which has to be corrected by a build-up factor because of the stray radiation induced by the Compton effect. The profile-dependent error observed with conventional radiometric belt weighers is caused by the non-linearity of the absorption law in connection with the simultaneous summation of the various partial rays in a detector. The scanning method allows separate evaluation of the partial rays' attenuation and thus yields the correct data of the material carried, regardless of the profile. The scanning method is applied on a finite number of scanning sections, and a residual error has to be taken into account. The stochastics of quantum emission and absorption leads to an error whose expectation value is to be taken into account in the scanning algorithm. As the conveyor belt is in motion during the process of measurements, only part of the material conveyed is irradiated. The resulting assessment error is investigated as a function of the autocorrelation function of the material on the belt. (orig./HP) [de

  20. IDENTIFYING COLLISIONAL FAMILIES IN THE KUIPER BELT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcus, Robert A.; Ragozzine, Darin; Murray-Clay, Ruth A.; Holman, Matthew J.

    2011-01-01

    The identification and characterization of numerous collisional families-clusters of bodies with a common collisional origin-in the asteroid belt has added greatly to the understanding of asteroid belt formation and evolution. More recent study has also led to an appreciation of physical processes that had previously been neglected (e.g., the Yarkovsky effect). Collisions have certainly played an important role in the evolution of the Kuiper Belt as well, though only one collisional family has been identified in that region to date, around the dwarf planet Haumea. In this paper, we combine insights into collisional families from numerical simulations with the current observational constraints on the dynamical structure of the Kuiper Belt to investigate the ideal sizes and locations for identifying collisional families. We find that larger progenitors (r ∼ 500 km) result in more easily identifiable families, given the difficulty in identifying fragments of smaller progenitors in magnitude-limited surveys, despite their larger spread and less frequent occurrence. However, even these families do not stand out well from the background. Identifying families as statistical overdensities is much easier than characterizing families by distinguishing individual members from interlopers. Such identification seems promising, provided the background population is well known. In either case, families will also be much easier to study where the background population is small, i.e., at high inclinations. Overall, our results indicate that entirely different techniques for identifying families will be needed for the Kuiper Belt, and we provide some suggestions.

  1. Storm-time radiation belt electron dynamics: Repeatability in the outer radiation belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, K. R.; Mann, I. R.; Rae, J.; Watt, C.; Boyd, A. J.; Turner, D. L.; Claudepierre, S. G.; Baker, D. N.; Spence, H. E.; Reeves, G. D.; Blake, J. B.; Fennell, J. F.

    2017-12-01

    During intervals of enhanced solar wind driving the outer radiation belt becomes extremely dynamic leading to geomagnetic storms. During these storms the flux of energetic electrons can vary by over 4 orders of magnitude. Despite recent advances in understanding the nature of competing storm-time electron loss and acceleration processes the dynamic behavior of the outer radiation belt remains poorly understood; the outer radiation belt can exhibit either no change, an enhancement, or depletion in radiation belt electrons. Using a new analysis of the total radiation belt electron content, calculated from the Van Allen probes phase space density (PSD), we statistically analyze the time-dependent and global response of the outer radiation belt during storms. We demonstrate that by removing adiabatic effects there is a clear and repeatable sequence of events in storm-time radiation belt electron dynamics. Namely, the relativistic (μ=1000 MeV/G) and ultra-relativistic (μ=4000 MeV/G) electron populations can be separated into two phases; an initial phase dominated by loss followed by a second phase dominated by acceleration. At lower energies, the radiation belt seed population of electrons (μ=150 MeV/G) shows no evidence of loss but rather a net enhancement during storms. Further, we investigate the dependence of electron dynamics as a function of the second adiabatic invariant, K. These results demonstrate a global coherency in the dynamics of the source, relativistic and ultra-relativistic electron populations as function of the second adiabatic invariant K. This analysis demonstrates two key aspects of storm-time radiation belt electron dynamics. First, the radiation belt responds repeatably to solar wind driving during geomagnetic storms. Second, the response of the radiation belt is energy dependent, relativistic electrons behaving differently than lower energy seed electrons. These results have important implications in radiation belt research. In particular

  2. Security Belt for Wireless Implantable Medical Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulaç, Selman

    2017-09-19

    In this study, a new protective design compatible with existing non-secure systems was proposed, since it is focused on the secure communication of wireless IMD systems in all transmissions. This new protector is an external wearable device and appears to be a belt fitted around for the patients IMD implanted. However, in order to provide effective full duplex transmissions and physical layer security, some sophisticated transceiver antennas have been placed on the belt. In this approach, beam-focused multi-antennas in optimal positions on the belt are randomly switched when transmissions to the IMD are performed and multi-jammer switching with MRC combining or majority-rule based receiving techniques are applied when transmissions from the IMD are carried out. This approach can also reduce the power consumption of the IMDs and contribute to the prolongation of the IMD's battery life.

  3. Estimates Of Radiation Belt Remediation Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuszewski, M.; Hoyt, R. P.; Minor, B. M.

    2004-12-01

    A low-Earth orbit nuclear detonation could produce an intense artificial radiation belt of relativistic electrons. Many satellites would be destroyed within a few weeks. We present here simple estimates of radiation belt remediation by several different techniques, including electron absorption by gas release, pitch angle scattering by steady electric and magnetic fields from tether arrays, and pitch angle scattering by wave-particle interactions from in-situ transmitters. For each technique, the mass, size, and power requirements are estimated for a one-week remediation (e-folding) timescale, assuming that a 10 kTon blast trapped 1024 fission product electrons (1 to 8 MeV) at L = 1.5 in a dipolar belt of width dL = 0.1.

  4. SMALL MAIN-BELT ASTEROID SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY, PHASE II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains visible-wavelength (0.435-0.925 micron) spectra for 1341 main-belt asteroids observed during the second phase of the Small Main-belt Asteroid...

  5. Metallogenic epoch of the Jiapigou gold belt, Jilin Province, China

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Metallogenic epoch of the Jiapigou gold belt, Jilin Province, China: ... The Jiapigou gold belt is located on the northern margin of the North China Craton, and is one of the ... 29, Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100083, People's Republic of China.

  6. Structural appraisal of the Gadag schist belt from gravity investigations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    From qualitative analysis of the gravity data, several tectonic features are ... major types of schist belts are identified in the ... Dharwar craton; Gadag schist belt; gravity method; inversion. ..... the Research Associateship of Dr D Himabindu.

  7. FDI Climate in India

    OpenAIRE

    Khandelwal, Varun

    2007-01-01

    ABSTRACT Since 1991, after the external payment crisis in India, there has been liberalization of various policies by the Government of India. Due to this there has been rapid surge of FDI inflows in India. The current investment climate has attracted many foreign investors to India in various sectors. India is considered as one of the favorable destination of FDI. However the country also suffers from few weaknesses and constraints in terms of policy and regulatory framework, which rest...

  8. ZOOPLANKTON DIVERSITY AND ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PARAMETERS IN MANI RESERVOIR OF WESTERN GHATS, REGION, HOSANAGAR TALUK, SHIVAMOGA DISTRICT KARNATAKA, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. N. Veerendra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on relationship between zooplankton abundance and water quality parameter in Mani reservoir were made between January 2008 and December 2008. In the current investigation, impact of different physico-chemical parameters on zooplankton population was found. Ten genera of zooplankton were identified. The relationship between zooplankton and water quality parameters was varied from place to place depending upon the condition of the reservoir water.

  9. Wendlandia tinctoria (Roxb. DC. (Rubiaceae, a key nectar source for butterflies during the summer season in the southern Eastern Ghats, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.J.S. Raju

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Wendlandia tinctoria is a semi-evergreen tree species. It shows massive flowering for about a month during March-April. The floral characteristics such as the white colour of the flower, lack of odour, short-tubed corolla with deep seated nectar having 15-18% sugar concentration are well tailored for visitation by butterflies. The nectar is hexose-rich and contains the essential amino acids such as arginine and histidine and the non-essential amino acids such as alanine, aspartic acid, cysteine, glysine, hydroxyproline, tyrosine, glutamic acid and serine. The inflorescences with clusters of flowers provide an excellent platform for foraging by butterflies. The flowers are long-lived and attractive to butterflies. A variety of butterflies visit the flowers for nectar and in doing so, they pollinate them. Nymphalids are very diverse and utilize the flowers until exhausted. The flowers being small in size with a small amount of nectar compel the butterflies to do a more laborious search for nectar from a greater number of flowers. But, the clustered state of the flowers is energetically profitable for butterflies to reduce search time and also flight time to collect a good amount of nectar; such a probing behaviour is advantageous for the plant to achieve self- and cross-pollination. Therefore, the study shows that the association between W. tinctoria and butterflies is mutual and such an association is referred to as psychophilous. This plant serves as a key nectar source for butterflies at the study site where floral nectar sources are scarce during the summer season.

  10. Erratum to: Elephants also like coffee: Trends and drivers of human-elephant conflicts in coffee agroforestry landscapes of Kodagu, Western Ghats, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, P; Nath, C D; Nanaya, K M; Kushalappa, C G; Garcia, C

    2011-08-01

    Kodagu district produces 2% of the world's coffee, in complex, multistoried agroforestry systems. The forests of the district harbour a large population of the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus). The combined effects of high elephant density and major landscape changes due to the expansion of coffee cultivation are the cause of human-elephant conflicts (HEC). Mitigation strategies, including electric fences and compensation schemes implemented by the Forest Department have met with limited success. Building on previous studies in the area, we assessed current spatial and temporal trends of conflict, analysed local stakeholders' perceptions and identified factors driving elephants into the estates. Our study, initiated in May 2007, shows that the intensity of HEC has increased over the last 10 years, exhibiting new seasonal patterns. Conflict maps and the lack of correlation between physical features of the coffee plantations and elephant visits suggest elephants move along corridors between the eastern and western forests of the district, opportunistically foraging when crossing the plantations. Dung analyses indicate elephants have selectively included ripe coffee berries in their diet. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of wild elephants feeding on coffee berries. If this new behaviour spreads through the population, it will compound an already severe conflict situation. The behavioural plasticity, the multiplicity of stakeholders involved, the difficulty in defining the problem and the limits of technical solutions already proposed suggest that HEC in Kodagu has the ingredients of a "wicked" problem whose resolution will require more shared understanding and problem solving work amongst the stakeholders.

  11. Elephants also like coffee: trends and drivers of human-elephant conflicts in coffee agroforestry landscapes of Kodagu, Western Ghats, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, P; Nath, C D; Nanaya, K M; Kushalappa, C G; Garcia, C

    2011-05-01

    Kodagu district produces 2% of the world's coffee, in complex, multistoried agroforestry systems. The forests of the district harbour a large population of the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus). The combined effects of high elephant density and major landscape changes due to the expansion of coffee cultivation are the cause of human-elephant conflicts (HEC). Mitigation strategies, including electric fences and compensation schemes implemented by the Forest Department have met with limited success. Building on previous studies in the area, we assessed current spatial and temporal trends of conflict, analysed local stakeholders' perceptions and identified factors driving elephants into the estates. Our study, initiated in May 2007, shows that the intensity of HEC has increased over the last 10 years, exhibiting new seasonal patterns. Conflict maps and the lack of correlation between physical features of the coffee plantations and elephant visits suggest elephants move along corridors between the eastern and western forests of the district, opportunistically foraging when crossing the plantations. Dung analyses indicate elephants have selectively included ripe coffee berries in their diet. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of wild elephants feeding on coffee berries. If this new behaviour spreads through the population, it will compound an already severe conflict situation. The behavioural plasticity, the multiplicity of stakeholders involved, the difficulty in defining the problem and the limits of technical solutions already proposed suggest that HEC in Kodagu has the ingredients of a "wicked" problem whose resolution will require more shared understanding and problem solving work amongst the stakeholders.

  12. Biometric parameters of the Redline torpedo fish Puntius denisonii Day 1865, an endemic barb in the Western Ghats Hotspots of Southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajan Sajeevan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the biometric parameters of a species to have an important role in its population or stock management and conservation. Present study investigated the morphometric, meristic, length-weight relation (LWRs, length-length relation (LLRs and growth status (K and Kn of the Redline torpedo barb, P. denisonii collected during August 2012 to July 2013 from river Valapattanam, Kerala. The length-weight relationship was established for monthly to differentiate growth variation and also separately calculated for males, females pooled and indeterminate. Length-length relationship, morphometric and meristic characteristics were also represented by the equation: Y = a + bX. The length-weight relations established for males was: log W = -2.207 + 3.148 log L; for females: log W = -2.360 + 3.316 log L; for indeterminate: log W = -2.176 + 3.171 log L and for pooled was: log W = -2.076 + 3.030 log L.  The regression coefficients between pooled, indeterminate, males and females of P. denisonii did not show any significant variation from isometric growth (p<0.05. All morphological characters were highly correlated with total length and correlation coefficient (r was highest for standard length (0.9889 and pre anal length (0.9904 and lowest for pelvic fin length (0.6150. Based on the study fin formula can be written as D 2-9, P 17, V 9, A 1-6 and C 22-24.

  13. 30 CFR 75.1108 - Approved conveyor belts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approved conveyor belts. 75.1108 Section 75... Fire-Resistant Hydraulic Fluids on Underground Equipment § 75.1108 Approved conveyor belts. (a) Until December 31, 2009 conveyor belts placed in service in underground coal mines shall be: (1) Approved under...

  14. Green operations of belt conveyors by means of speed control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, D.; Pang, Y.; Lodewijks, G.

    2017-01-01

    Belt conveyors can be partially loaded due to the variation of bulk material flow loaded onto the conveyor. Speed control attempts to reduce the belt conveyor energy consumption and to enable the green operations of belt conveyors. Current research of speed control rarely takes the conveyor dynamics

  15. Gravity inferred subsurface structure of Gadwal Schist belt, Andhra

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Detailed gravity data collected across the Gadwal schist belt in the state of Andhra Pradesh show an 8.4 mgal residual gravity anomaly associated with meta-sediments/volcanics of the linear NNW-SSE trending schist belt that shows metamorphism from green schist to amphibolite facies. This schist belt is flanked on either ...

  16. 14 CFR 125.211 - Seat and safety belts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seat and safety belts. 125.211 Section 125... Requirements § 125.211 Seat and safety belts. (a) No person may operate an airplane unless there are available... the airplane who is at least 2 years old; and (2) An approved safety belt for separate use by each...

  17. Klippen Belt, Flysch Belt and Inner Western Carpathian Paleogene Basin Relations in the Northern Slovakia by Magnetotelluric Imaging

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Majcin, D.; Bezák, V.; Klanica, Radek; Vozár, J.; Pek, Josef; Bilčík, D.; Telecký, Josef

    (2018) ISSN 0033-4553 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : magnetotellurics * Western Carpathians * Klippen Belt * Flysch Belt * Inner Carpathian Paleogene Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography OBOR OECD: Physical geography Impact factor: 1.591, year: 2016

  18. Bayesian inference of radiation belt loss timescales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camporeale, E.; Chandorkar, M.

    2017-12-01

    Electron fluxes in the Earth's radiation belts are routinely studied using the classical quasi-linear radial diffusion model. Although this simplified linear equation has proven to be an indispensable tool in understanding the dynamics of the radiation belt, it requires specification of quantities such as the diffusion coefficient and electron loss timescales that are never directly measured. Researchers have so far assumed a-priori parameterisations for radiation belt quantities and derived the best fit using satellite data. The state of the art in this domain lacks a coherent formulation of this problem in a probabilistic framework. We present some recent progress that we have made in performing Bayesian inference of radial diffusion parameters. We achieve this by making extensive use of the theory connecting Gaussian Processes and linear partial differential equations, and performing Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling of radial diffusion parameters. These results are important for understanding the role and the propagation of uncertainties in radiation belt simulations and, eventually, for providing a probabilistic forecast of energetic electron fluxes in a Space Weather context.

  19. Composite Microdiscs with a Magnetic Belt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knaapila, Matti; Høyer, Henrik; Helgesen, Geir

    2015-01-01

    , the spontaneous aggregation of composite particles is suppressed when dispersed into liquid, which is attributed to the increased particle size, reduced magnetic susceptibility, and the shape of the magnetic domain distribution within the particles (spherical versus a belt). When the composite particles...

  20. Pregnancy: Should I Use a Seat Belt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... passenger has not been shown to affect the safety of an unborn baby in a crash. Injuries from car crashes tend to be less serious in people who are sitting in the back seat. If you are not driving, you may want to sit in the back seat. It is still important to wear a seat belt, no matter where ...

  1. The thrust belts of Western North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moulton, F.C.

    1993-08-01

    Most of the Basin and Range physiographic province of western North America is now believed to be part of the overthrust. The more obvious overthrust belt along the eastern edge of the Basin and Range Province is named the Sevier orogenic belt, where older rocks are observed thrust onto younger rocks. More detailed surface geological mapping, plus deep multiple-fold geophysical work and many oil and gas wildcat wells, have confirmed an east-vergent shortened and stacked sequence is present in many places in the Basin and Range. This western compressive deformed area in east central Nevada is now named the Elko orogenic belt by the U.S. Geological Survey. This older compressed Elko orogenic belt started forming approximately 250 m.y. ago when the North American plate started to move west as the Pangaea supercontinent started to fragment. The North American plate moved west under the sediments of the Miogeocline that were also moving west. Surface-formed highlands and oceanic island arcs on the west edge of the North American plate restricted the westward movement of the sediments in the Miogeocline, causing east-vergent ramp thrusts to form above the westward-moving North American plate. The flat, eastward-up-cutting thrust assemblages moved on the detachment surfaces.

  2. Design aspects of multiple driven belt conveyors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nuttall, A.J.G.

    2007-01-01

    Worldwide belt conveyors are used to transport a great variety of bulk solid materials. The desire to carry higher tonnages over longer distances and more diverse routes, while keeping exploitation costs as low as possible, has fuelled many technological advances. An interesting development in the

  3. Energy efficient idler for belt conveyor systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukhopadhyay, A.K.; Chattopadhyay, A. [Indian School of Mines Univ., Dhanbad (India). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Mining; Soni, R.; Bhattnagar, M.

    2009-07-01

    In today's economic and legal environment, energy efficiency has become more important than ever. This paper proposes a new design of idler rollers for belt conveyors that could help to them even more efficient by reducing their energy consumption and also their CO{sub 2} footprint. (orig.)

  4. Belts and Chains. FOS: Fundamentals of Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Deere Co., Moline, IL.

    This manual on belts and chain drives is one of a series of power mechanics texts and visual aids on theory, of operation, diagnosis, and repair of automotive and off-the-road agricultural and construction equipment. Materials provide basic information and illustrations for use by vocational students and teachers as well as shop servicemen and…

  5. Electron Radiation Belts of the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauk, Barry; Fox, Nicola

    To address the question of what factors dictate similarities and differences between radiation belts, we present comparisons between the electron radiation belt spectra of all five strongly magnetized planets within the solar system: Earth, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. We choose the highest intensity observed electron spectrum within each system (highest specifically near 1 MeV) and compare them against expectations based on the so-called Kennel-Petschek limit (KP; 1966) for each system. For evaluating the KP limit, we begin with the new relativis-tically correct formulation of Summers et al. (2009) but then add several refinements of our own. Specifically, we: 1) utilized a much more flexible analytic spectral shape that allows us to accurately fit observed radiation belt spectra; 2) adopt the point of view that the anisotropy parameter is not a free parameter but must take on a minimal value, as originally proposed by Kennel and Petschek (1966); and 3) examine the differential characteristics of the KP limit along the lines of what Schulz and Davidson (1988) performed for the non-relativistic formula-tion. We find that three factors limit the highest electron radiation belt intensities within solar system planetary magnetospheres: a) whistler mode interactions that limit spectral intensities to a differential Kennel-Petschek limit (3 planets); b) the absence of robust acceleration pro-cesses associated with injection dynamics (1 planet); and c) material interactions between the radiation particles and clouds of gas and dust (1 planet).

  6. Green Belt Europe - borders separate, nature unites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uwe Friedel

    2015-01-01

    During the period of the Cold War between 1945 and 1989, a "Green Belt" of valuable pristine landscapes developed along the border line between Eastern and Western Europe, the intensively fortified and guarded so called Iron Curtain. Due to the remoteness of the border areas, a high number of national parks and other large conservation areas can be found...

  7. Mafic magmatism in the Bakhuis Granulite Belt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaver, M.; de Roever, E.W.F.; Thijssen, A.C.D.; Bleeker, W.; Söderlund, U.; Chamberlain, K.; Ernst, R.; Berndt, J.; Zeh, A.

    2015-01-01

    The Bakhuis Granulite Belt (BGB) is a metamorphic terrain within the Guiana Shield that experienced ultrahigh-temperature (UHT) metamorphism at 2.07–2.05Ga. In the southwest of the BGB, the Kabalebo charnockites were emplaced at ca. 1.99Ga and thus postdate UHT metamorphism by at least 60Myr. Two

  8. International survey of seat belt use exemptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, H; Sirin, H; Levine, J A; Sauber, E

    2006-08-01

    Substantial evidence of seatbelt efficacy has been shown by several studies, and it is widely recommended that motor vehicle occupants use properly fitted seat belts. However, some (but a heretofore unknown number of) countries with national seat belt laws permit various exemptions which may lower use rates. The aim of this study was to survey the variety of exemptions to national seat belt laws. This investigation relied on identifying respondents from national traffic safety agencies, other governmental and non-governmental organizations, Internet searches, personal contacts, and other sources. Questionnaires were deployed through a web based survey supplemented by email and postal versions. Responses were received from 30 countries of which 28 (93.7%) had a national seat belt law. About two thirds (63.7%) of the 28 national laws applied to both front and back seat passengers. The leading exemption types included vehicles made before a certain year (n = 13), antique vehicles (n = 12), military vehicles (n = 11), buses (n = 9), and emergency vehicles (n = 8). Most responding countries reported one or more specific categories of individuals as exempt including those with medical exemptions (n = 20), taxi drivers (n = 11), police (n = 9), emergency medical personnel (n = 8), physically disabled people (n = 6), and pregnant women (n = 6). Out of 26 responses to the question regarding current level of enforcement, 42.3% felt enforcement was "very good or good" and 57.7% characterized it as "fair or poor". This study represents one of the largest international traffic law surveys reported. Most national seatbelt laws offer perilous exemptions to a broad array of vehicle types and road user groups. These findings, coupled with concern over the level of enforcement in the majority of countries surveyed, suggest that international road safety efforts have a long way to go to improve coverage and enforcement of national seat belt laws.

  9. VERO cells harbor a poly-ADP-ribose belt partnering their epithelial adhesion belt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Lafon-Hughes

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Poly-ADP-ribose (PAR is a polymer of up to 400 ADP-ribose units synthesized by poly-ADP-ribose-polymerases (PARPs and degraded by poly-ADP-ribose-glycohydrolase (PARG. Nuclear PAR modulates chromatin compaction, affecting nuclear functions (gene expression, DNA repair. Diverse defined PARP cytoplasmic allocation patterns contrast with the yet still imprecise PAR distribution and still unclear functions. Based on previous evidence from other models, we hypothesized that PAR could be present in epithelial cells where cadherin-based adherens junctions are linked with the actin cytoskeleton (constituting the adhesion belt. In the present work, we have examined through immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy, the subcellular localization of PAR in an epithelial monkey kidney cell line (VERO. PAR was distinguished colocalizing with actin and vinculin in the epithelial belt, a location that has not been previously reported. Actin filaments disruption with cytochalasin D was paralleled by PAR belt disruption. Conversely, PARP inhibitors 3-aminobenzamide, PJ34 or XAV 939, affected PAR belt synthesis, actin distribution, cell shape and adhesion. Extracellular calcium chelation displayed similar effects. Our results demonstrate the existence of PAR in a novel subcellular localization. An initial interpretation of all the available evidence points towards TNKS-1 as the most probable PAR belt architect, although TNKS-2 involvement cannot be discarded. Forthcoming research will test this hypothesis as well as explore the existence of the PAR belt in other epithelial cells and deepen into its functional implications.

  10. Dynamics Analysis and Modeling of Rubber Belt in Large Mine Belt Conveyors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Yang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Rubber belt not only is one of the key components of belt conveyor, but also affects the overall performance of the core part. Research on dynamics analysis of large conveyor not only helps to improve the reliability and design level, but also can guide the rational selection of conveyor safety factor, and effectively reduce the cost of the conveyor belt. Based on unique viscoelastic properties of belt conveyor, it was simplified as one-dimensional viscoelastic rod in this study, and then a discrete element model of conveyor systems was established. The kinetic equations of each discrete unit was derived using kinetic energy, potential energy of driving segment, bearing segment and return segment and equation of energy dissipation and Lagrange equation. Based on Wilson-q algorithm, the kinetic equation of DT1307-type ST2000's conveyor belt was solved by using Matlab to write computer programs. Research on the change rule of conveyor displacement, velocity, acceleration and dynamic tension during the boot process revealed the working mechanism of nonlinear viscoelastic, which lay the theoretical foundation for dynamic performance optimization of large belt conveyor. The calculation results were used to optimize design and analysis of conveyor system, the result showed that it could reduce the driven tension peaks about 12 %, save 5 % of overall manufacturing cost, which bring considerable profits for enterprises.

  11. Determination of relative immobile and sliding areas between carrying and tractive belts in using of belt conveyor intermediate drives

    OpenAIRE

    Goncharov K.A.

    2015-01-01

    Method of determination of relative immobile and sliding areas between carrying and tractive belts in places of mount-ing of belt conveyor intermediate drives made in the form of tractive contours is proposed. The example shows potential of this method in multidrive belt conveyor design process.

  12. Determination of relative immobile and sliding areas between carrying and tractive belts in using of belt conveyor intermediate drives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goncharov K.A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Method of determination of relative immobile and sliding areas between carrying and tractive belts in places of mount-ing of belt conveyor intermediate drives made in the form of tractive contours is proposed. The example shows potential of this method in multidrive belt conveyor design process.

  13. Method of monitoring, inspecting or testing conveyor belts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Walt, A.J.

    1985-01-01

    An invention is discussed which provides a method, installation and kit for monitoring, inspecting or testing a conveyor belt. Provision is made to transmit penetrating rays such as X-rays through a moving conveyor belt, forming a visible moving image from rays transmitted through the belt, and visually inspecting such moving image, after recording it if desired, to ascertain the condition of the interior of the belt. Typically an X-ray tube head is used to transmit the rays through the belt to a fluorescent screen which forms the image. The moving image can be recorded by means of a video camera

  14. Geology and structure of major uranium-bearing zones in India and their exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagabhushana, J.C.; Vasudeva Rao, M.; Sahasrabudhe, G.H.; Krishnamoorthy, B.; Suryanarayana Rao, C.; Rama Rao, Y.N.

    1976-01-01

    Radiogeologic, lithostratigraphic, tectonic, and crustal evolutionary considerations have enabled the recognition of three major uranium provinces in India: the Singhbhum Province in the north-east; the Rajasthan Province in the north-west; and the Madhya Pradesh Province in central India. The paper describes the salient features of the three uranium provinces, with particular emphasis on their structural set-up, magmatectonics, and the controls of uranium mineralization, and presents a few recent case histories of individual deposits (Bagjata and Turamdih in Singhbhum, and Dhabi-Dumhat in Madhya Pradesh) discovered by integrated exploration techniques. The three uranium provinces are related to major deep-seated faults: the Singhbhum Province lies at the arcuate north-east end of the deep fault of the Eastern Ghats; the Rajasthan Province parallels the great boundary fault; and the Madhya Pradesh Province aligns with the Mahanadi-Son rift system. Some of the plausible explanations for these remarkable features are: localization of uranium ore during episodes of crustal fracturing in Precambrian times; reactivation and rejuvenation of favourable basement structures; and the role of local 'hot spots' (aided by compressional and vertical tectonics) in crustal zones anomalously enriched in the heat-producing elements. Uranium exploration strategy in India during the last three decades reveals two significant trends - the application of conventional radiometric techniques during the period 1950-65; and introduction of sophisticated methodology comprising non-radiometric geophysical techniques, emanometry, aerial and car-borne gamma-ray spectrometry, geochemical surveys, and photogeological techniques as supplements to conventional radiometry, during the period 1965-75. It is concluded that extension of such integrated exploration techniques to favourable virgin terrains in India would lead to newer and richer uranium ore discoveries. (author)

  15. Persistence of Salmonella on egg conveyor belts is dependent on the belt type but not on the rdar morphotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocki, S L; Annett, C B; Sibley, C D; McLaws, M; Checkley, S L; Singh, N; Surette, M G; White, A P

    2007-11-01

    Commercial caged layer flocks in Alberta, Canada, are commonly monitored for Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE) and S. enterica serovar Typhimurium (ST) by environmental sampling. In one recent case, a SE strain isolated from the egg conveyor belt was a source of persistent infection for the flock. This study was undertaken to examine Salmonella colonization on egg conveyor belts and to determine whether the rdar morphotype, a conserved physiology associated with aggregation and long-term survival, contributed to persistence. Four woven belts constructed of natural or nonnatural fibers and a 1-piece belt made of vinyl were tested with rdar-positive ST and SE strains and a rdar-negative ST DeltaagfD reference strain. The type of egg belt was the most important factor influencing Salmonella colonization and persistence. The vinyl belt, with the least surface area available for colonization, had the fewest Salmonella remaining after washing and disinfection, whereas the hemp-plastic belt, with the greatest surface area, had the most Salmonella remaining. Real-time gene expression indicated that the rdar morphotype was involved in colonizing the egg belt pieces; however, it was not essential for persistence. In addition, rdar-positive and rdar-negative strains were equally similarly to disinfection on the egg belt pieces. The results indicate that Salmonella can persist on a variety of egg belts by mechanisms other than the rdar morphotype, and that using egg conveyer belts with reduced surface area for bacterial colonization can lessen contamination problems.

  16. Rare metal and rare earth pegmatites of Western India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maithani, P.B.; Nagar, R.K.

    1999-01-01

    Rajasthan Mica Belt in western India is one of the three major mica-producing Proterozoic pegmatite belts of India, the others being in Bihar and Andhra Pradesh. The pegmatites of these mica belts, in general, are associated with the rare metal (RM) and rare earth element (REE)-bearing minerals like columbite-tantalite, beryl, lepidolite and other multiple oxides. RM-REE pegmatites of Gujarat are devoid of commercially workable mica. These pegmatites are geologically characterised in this paper, based on their association with granite plutons geochemistry, and RM and REE potential. In addition to RM and RE-bearing pegmatites, granites of the Umedpur area, Gujarat also show anomalous concentration (0.97 wt%) of rare metals (6431 ppm Nb, 1266 ppm Ta, 454 ppm Sn, 173 ppm W), (1098 ppm Ce 1.36% Y 2 O 3 ) rare earths, and uranium (0.40% eU 3 O 8 ). Eluvial concentrations in the soil and panned concentrate (0.04-0.28 wt%) analysed up to 7.4%Nb 2 O 5 , 836 ppm Ta, and 1.31% Y. Discrete columbite-tantalite and betafite have been identified in these concentrates in addition to other minerals like zircon, rutile, sphene and xenotime. This area with discrete RM R EE mineral phases could be significant as a non-pegmatite source for rare metal and rare earths. (author)

  17. Alien Asteroid Belt Compared to our Own

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1: Band of Light Comparison This artist's concept illustrates what the night sky might look like from a hypothetical alien planet in a star system with an asteroid belt 25 times as massive as the one in our own solar system (alien system above, ours below; see Figure 1). NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope found evidence for such a belt around the nearby star called HD 69830, when its infrared eyes spotted dust, presumably from asteroids banging together. The telescope did not find any evidence for a planet in the system, but astronomers speculate one or more may be present. The movie begins at dusk on the imaginary world, when HD 69830, like our Sun, has begun to set over the horizon. Time is sped up to show the onset of night and the appearance of a brilliant band of light. This light comes from dust in a massive asteroid belt, which scatters sunlight. In our solar system, anybody observing the skies on a moonless night far from city lights can see the sunlight that is scattered by dust in our asteroid belt. Called zodiacal light and sometimes the 'false dawn,' this light appears as a dim band stretching up from the horizon when the Sun is about to rise or set. The light is faint enough that the disk of our Milky Way galaxy remains the most prominent feature in the sky. (The Milky Way disk is shown perpendicular to the zodiacal light in both pictures.) In contrast, the zodiacal light in the HD 69830 system would be 1,000 times brighter than our own, outshining even the Milky Way.

  18. Drivers' attitudes toward front or rear child passenger belt use and seat belt reminders at these seating positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, David G; McCartt, Anne T

    2014-01-01

    Passengers, especially those in rear seating positions, use seat belts less frequently than drivers. In-vehicle technology can inform drivers when their passengers are unbuckled and encourage passengers to use belts. The current study collected information about drivers' attitudes toward passenger belt use and belt reminders for front passengers and children in back seats. A national telephone survey of 1218 people 18 and older was conducted, of which 477 respondents were drivers who transport a front seat passenger at least once a week and 254 were drivers who transport an 8- to 15-year-old child in the back seat. Respondents were asked about their attitudes toward belt use by their front passengers or rear child passengers and preferences for different passenger belt reminder features. Ninety percent of drivers who regularly transport front seat passengers said that the passengers always use seat belts. Reported belt use was even higher among 8- to 15-year-old children in the back seat (97%). Among the drivers whose children do not always buckle up, about half said their child unbuckled the belt during the trip. Almost every full-time belt use driver (96%) would encourage front passengers to buckle up if not belted, compared to 57 percent of part-time belt users and nonusers. In contrast, nearly every driver who transports children in the back seat would encourage their belt use, regardless of the driver's belt use habits. Most drivers who transport front passengers wanted passenger belt reminders to encourage passengers to buckle up. Most of these drivers wanted a chime/buzzer or warning light or text display and wanted the reminder to last indefinitely. Most drivers who transport child passengers in the rear seat wanted the vehicle to indicate whether child passengers are unbuckled. A large majority of these drivers wanted notifications via a visual diagram of seating positions and belt use, a chime/buzzer, and a warning light or text display. These drivers

  19. Understanding quaternions and the Dirac belt trick

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staley, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The Dirac belt trick is often employed in physics classrooms to show that a 2π rotation is not topologically equivalent to the absence of rotation whereas a 4π rotation is, mirroring a key property of quaternions and their isomorphic cousins, spinors. The belt trick can leave the student wondering if a real understanding of quaternions and spinors has been achieved, or if the trick is just an amusing analogy. The goal of this paper is to demystify the belt trick and to show that it suggests an underlying four-dimensional parameter space for rotations that is simply connected. An investigation into the geometry of this four-dimensional space leads directly to the system of quaternions, and to an interpretation of three-dimensional vectors as the generators of rotations in this larger four-dimensional world. The paper also shows why quaternions are the natural extension of complex numbers to four dimensions. The level of the paper is suitable for undergraduate students of physics.

  20. The atmospheric implications of radiation belt remediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Rodger

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available High altitude nuclear explosions (HANEs and geomagnetic storms can produce large scale injections of relativistic particles into the inner radiation belts. It is recognised that these large increases in >1 MeV trapped electron fluxes can shorten the operational lifetime of low Earth orbiting satellites, threatening a large, valuable population. Therefore, studies are being undertaken to bring about practical human control of the radiation belts, termed "Radiation Belt Remediation" (RBR. Here we consider the upper atmospheric consequences of an RBR system operating over either 1 or 10 days. The RBR-forced neutral chemistry changes, leading to NOx enhancements and Ox depletions, are significant during the timescale of the precipitation but are generally not long-lasting. The magnitudes, time-scales, and altitudes of these changes are no more significant than those observed during large solar proton events. In contrast, RBR-operation will lead to unusually intense HF blackouts for about the first half of the operation time, producing large scale disruptions to radio communication and navigation systems. While the neutral atmosphere changes are not particularly important, HF disruptions could be an important area for policy makers to consider, particularly for the remediation of natural injections.

  1. The atmospheric implications of radiation belt remediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Rodger

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available High altitude nuclear explosions (HANEs and geomagnetic storms can produce large scale injections of relativistic particles into the inner radiation belts. It is recognised that these large increases in >1 MeV trapped electron fluxes can shorten the operational lifetime of low Earth orbiting satellites, threatening a large, valuable population. Therefore, studies are being undertaken to bring about practical human control of the radiation belts, termed "Radiation Belt Remediation" (RBR. Here we consider the upper atmospheric consequences of an RBR system operating over either 1 or 10 days. The RBR-forced neutral chemistry changes, leading to NOx enhancements and Ox depletions, are significant during the timescale of the precipitation but are generally not long-lasting. The magnitudes, time-scales, and altitudes of these changes are no more significant than those observed during large solar proton events. In contrast, RBR-operation will lead to unusually intense HF blackouts for about the first half of the operation time, producing large scale disruptions to radio communication and navigation systems. While the neutral atmosphere changes are not particularly important, HF disruptions could be an important area for policy makers to consider, particularly for the remediation of natural injections.

  2. Araguaia fold belt, new geochronological data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafon, J.M.; Macambira, J.B.; Macambira, M.J.B.; Moura, C.A.V.; Souza, A.C.C.

    1990-01-01

    The northern part of the Araguaia Fold Belt (AFB) outcrops in a N-S direction for about 400 km in the state of Tocantins. Dome-like structures occur in this fold belt also in a N-S direction. Both deformation and metamorphism increase from the West to the East. The basement of the AFB consist of Colmeia complex and Cantao gneiss, which crop out mainly in the core of the dome-like structures. The supracrustals rocks of the fold belt belongs to the Baixo Araguaia supergroup which is divided into the lower Estrondo group and the upper Tocantins group. Preliminary Sm-Nd data from the Colmeia complex (Grota Rica dome) gave Archean model ages of 2.8 Ga (TNd sub(DM)) while Rb-Sr data in the same rocks give an age of 2530 ± 200 Ma. In the others dome-like structures, the Rb-Sr systematics gave ages for the Colmeia a complex of 2239 ± 47 Ma (Colmeia structure) and 1972 ± 46 Ma (Lontra structure). These younger ages are believed to represent partial to total isotopic resetting of the Rb-Sr system during the Transamazonian Event. The Rb-Sr studies of the Cantao gneiss gave an age of 1774 ± 31 Ma. (author)

  3. India's Unfinished Telecom Tasks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    India's Telecom Story is now well known · Indian Operators become an enviable force · At the same time · India Amongst the Leaders · Unfinished Tasks as Operators · LightGSM ON: Innovation for Rural Area from Midas · Broadband Access Options for India · Broadband driven by DSL: still too slow · Is Wireless the answer?

  4. Aortic ruptures in seat belt wearers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arajärvi, E; Santavirta, S; Tolonen, J

    1989-09-01

    Several investigations have indicated that rupture of the thoracic aorta is one of the leading causes of immediate death in victims of road traffic accidents. In Finland in 1983, 92% of front-seat passengers were seat belt wearers on highways and 82% in build-up areas. The mechanisms of rupture of the aorta have been intensively investigated, but the relationship between seat belt wearing and injury mechanisms leading to aortic rupture is still largely unknown. This study comprises 4169 fatally injured victims investigated by the Boards of Traffic Accident Investigation of Insurance Companies during the period 1972 to 1985. Chest injuries were recorded as the main cause of death in 1121 (26.9%) victims, 207 (5.0%) of those victims having worn a seat belt. Aortic ruptures were found at autopsy in 98 victims and the exact information of the location of the aortic tears was available in 68. For a control group, we analyzed 72 randomly chosen unbelted victims who had a fatal aortic rupture in similar accidents. The location of the aortic rupture in unbelted victims was more often in the ascending aorta, especially in drivers, whereas in seat belt wearers the distal descending aorta was statistically more often ruptured, especially in right-front passengers (p less than 0.05). The steering wheel predominated statistically as the part of the car estimated to have caused the injury in unbelted victims (37/72), and some interior part of the car was the most common cause of fatal thoracic impacts in seat belt wearers (48/68) (p less than 0.001). The mechanism of rupture of the aorta in the classic site just distal to the subclavian artery seems to be rapid deceleration, although complex body movements are also responsible in side impact collisions. The main mechanism leading to rupture of the ascending aorta seems to be severe blow to the bony thorax. This also often causes associated thoracic injuries, such as heart rupture and sternal fracture. Injuries in the ascending

  5. Why and How the Dairy Farmers of India are Vulnerable to the Impacts of Climate Variability and Change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, A.; Gupta, J.

    2017-12-01

    Climate change and variability has added many atrociousness to India's food security challenges and the relationship between the asset components of farmers and climate change is always complex. In India, dairy farming substantially contributes towards the food security and always plays a supportive role to agriculture from the adversities. This study provides an overview of the socio economic and livelihood vulnerability of small holder dairy farmers of India to climate change and variability in three dimensions — sensitivity, exposure and adaptive capacity by combining 70 indicators and 12 major components. The livelihood and socio economic vulnerability of dairy farmers to climate change and variability is assessed at taluka level in India through detailed house hold level data of livelihoods of Western Ghats region of India collected by several levels of survey and through Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) techniques from selected farmers complemented by thirty years of gridded weather data and other secondary data sources. The index score of dairy based livelihoods of Maharashtra was highly negative compared to other states with about 50 percent of farmers having high level of vulnerability with significant tradeoff between milk productivity and health, food, natural disasters-climate variability components. It finds that ensuring food security in the scenario of climate change will be a dreadful challenge and recommends identification of different potential options depending on local contexts at grass root level, the adoption of sustainable agricultural practices, focusing on improving the adaptive capacity component, provision of livelihood security, preparing the extensionists of Krishi Vigyan Kendras (KVKs)- universities to deal with the risks through extensive training programmes, long-term relief measures in the event of natural disasters, workshops on climate science and communication and promoting farmer centric extension system.

  6. Radiation Belts of Antiparticles in Planetary Magnetospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugacheva, G. I.; Gusev, A. A.; Jayanthi, U. B.; Martin, I. M.; Spjeldvik, W. N.

    2007-05-01

    The Earth's radiation belts could be populated, besides with electrons and protons, also by antiparticles, such as positrons (Basilova et al., 1982) and antiprotons (pbar). Positrons are born in the decay of pions that are directly produced in nuclear reactions of trapped relativistic inner zone protons with the residual atmosphere at altitudes in the range of about 500 to 3000 km over the Earth's surface. Antiprotons are born by high energy (E > 6 GeV) cosmic rays in p+p - p+p+p+ pbar and in p+p - p+p+n+nbar reactions. The trapping and storage of these charged anti-particles in the magnetosphere result in radiation belts similar to the classical Van Allen belts of protons and electrons. We describe the mathematical techniques used for numerical simulation of the trapped positron and antiproton belt fluxes. The pion and antiproton yields were simulated on the basis of the Russian nuclear reaction computer code MSDM, a Multy Stage Dynamical Model, Monte Carlo code, (i.e., Dementyev and Sobolevsky, 1999). For estimates of positron flux there we have accounted for ionisation, bremsstrahlung, and synchrotron energy losses. The resulting numerical estimates show that the positron flux with energy >100 MeV trapped into the radiation belt at L=1.2 is of the order ~1000 m-2 s-1 sr-1, and that it is very sensitive to the shape of the trapped proton spectrum. This confined positron flux is found to be greater than that albedo, not trapped, mixed electron/positron flux of about 50 m-2 s-1 sr-1 produced by CR in the same region at the top of the geomagnetic field line at L=1.2. As we show in report, this albedo flux also consists mostly of positrons. The trapped antiproton fluxes produced by CR in the Earth's upper rarified atmosphere were calculated in the energy range from 10 MeV to several GeV. In the simulations we included a mathematic consideration of the radial diffusion process, both an inner and an outer antiproton source, losses of particles due to ionization process

  7. An Assessment of Vulnerability and Trade-offs of Dairy Farmers of India to Climate Variability and Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Aparna; Gupta, Jancy; Ravindran, Dileepkumar

    2017-04-01

    The study aims at assessing the vulnerability and tradeoffs of dairy based livelihoods to Climate Variability and Change (CVC) in the Western Ghats ecosystem, India. For this purpose; data were aggregated to an overall Livelihood Vulnerability Index (LVI) to CVC underlying the principles of IPCC, using 40 indicators under 7 LVI components. Fussel framework was used for the nomenclature of vulnerable situation and trade-off between vulnerability components and milk production was calculated. Data were collected through participatory rural appraisal and personal interviews from 360 randomly selected dairy farmers of nine blocks from three states of Western Ghat region, complemented by thirty years of gridded weather data and livestock data. The LVI score of dairy based livelihoods of six taluks were negative. The data were normalized and then combined into three indices of sensitivity, exposure and adaptive capacity, which were then averaged with weights given using principal component analysis, to obtain the overall vulnerability index. Mann Whitney U test was used to find the significant difference between the taluks in terms of LVI and cumulative square root frequency method was used to categorise the farmers. Even though the taluks are geographically closer, there is significant difference in the LVI values of the regions. Results indicated that the Lanja taluks of Maharashtra is the most vulnerable having an overall LVI value -4.17 with 48% farmers falling in highly vulnerable category. Panel regression analysis reveals that there is significant synergy between average milk production and livestock, social network component and trade-off between natural disasters climate variability component of LVI. Policies for incentivizing the 'climate risk adaptation' costs for small and marginal farmers and livelihood infrastructure for mitigating risks and promoting grass root level innovations are necessary to sustain dairy farming of the region. Thus the research will

  8. An Overview of Uranium Exploration Strategy in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaki, A., E-mail: director.amd@gov.in [Atomic Minerals Directorate for Exploration and Research, Hyderabad (India)

    2014-05-15

    Uranium exploration in India dates back from 1949 and the first mineralized area was located in the early 1950s in Singhbhum Shear Zone (SSZ), eastern India. Since then, a number of potential and promising uranium provinces have been established in India. The potential uranium provinces include SSZ, Dongargarh, Aravalli, Siwalik belt, Mahadek basin, south-western and northern parts of Cuddapah basin, North Delhi Fold Belt, Bhima and Kaladgi basins. The promising uranium provinces are Proterozoic Chhattisgarh, Indravati, Gwalior, Vindhyan, Shillong basins, Gondwana basins of Central India and semi-arid regions of western Rajasthan. With the establishment of large tonnage-high grade Lower-middle Proterozoic unconformity deposits in Canada and Australia, there was a paradigm shift in the exploration strategy towards the Proterozoic basins of India. The discovery of unconformity related uranium mineralisation in the northern part of Proterozoic Cuddapah basin in southern India in 1991 and discovery of few deposits in the province has opened the avenues for finding of similar deposits in Cuddapah and other 13 Proterozoic basins in India. As a sequel, Proterozoic Bhima basin in southern India has been recognized as a potential target for uranium mineralization, where a low tonnage medium grade deposit has been established and mine development works are in progress. Sustained exploration efforts in other Proterozoic basins have yielded success in a few basins such as Deshnur area in Kaladgi Basin of southern India. Considerable uranium resources have been established in Proterozoic Cuddapah and Bhima basins. Apart from northern parts of Cuddapah and Bhima basins, areas in the southwestern part of Cuddapah basin for stratabound type, where a mine is under construction; Proterozoic Kaladgi basin for vein type; Cretaceous Mahadek basin for sandstone type and the North Delhi Fold belt for vein type of mineralization have been prioritized as potential areas for exploration

  9. Water Management To Meet Challenges In Food Production ­ An Example From South India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadananan, K.

    Demands for food and water have been increasing with fast increasing population in many developing countries. Availability of water and fertile land, the two basic requirements for food production do not meet together in certain regions. In such regions, cooperation and efficient management practices can solve the problem to a good extend. The southern states of Kerala and Tamil Nadu of India are divided by the mountain chains, the Western Ghats the orography of which makes Kerala one among the heaviest rainfall region in the World itself and Tamil Nadu a scanty rainfall region. Kerala receives more than 300cm average annual rainfall, giving birth to a number of perennial rivers and other water bodies whereas Tamil Nadu receives rainfall less than100cm. Most of the rivers of Tamil Nadu are seasonal and it depends on interstate water transfer to face the permanent water shortage. Owing to the high density of population, peculiar topography and soil types, agricultural production in Kerala is quite inadequate and the State depends on neighbouring States, especially Tamil Nadu for rice and vegetables, but not willing to share water. According to the Constitution of India, control of rivers is by individual states and this often leads to transboundary water disputes that retard development activities. Around 80% of the rainfall of Kerala wastefully flows into the Sea, when there is acute water shortage in Tamil Nadu. All the rivers in Kerala originate in the Ghats and its steep slopes makes more water storage difficult. Cooperation among the States become essential for meeting the increasing needs in water and food. If some of the water from the catchments in Kerala is diverted into Tamil Nadu, and the States can do joint agriculture, it can meet the challenges due to increase in population and environmental changes and minimize unemployment problems. Water diversion to Tamil Naduwill reduce flood damage and soil erosion in Kerala. The existing socio

  10. Belt conveyor dynamics in transient operation for speed control

    OpenAIRE

    He, D.; Pang, Y.; Lodewijks, G.

    2016-01-01

    Belt conveyors play an important role in continuous dry bulk material transport, especially at the mining industry. Speed control is expected to reduce the energy consumption of belt conveyors. Transient operation is the operation of increasing or decreasing conveyor speed for speed control. According to literature review, current research rarely takes the conveyor dynamics in transient operation into account. However, in belt conveyor speed control, the conveyor dynamic behaviors are signifi...

  11. Seat Belt Use Intention among Brazilian Undergraduate Students

    OpenAIRE

    TORQUATO, RENATA; FRANCO, CLÁUDIO M. A; BIANCHI, ALESSANDRA

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to explore self-reported seat belt use and group differences in different scenarios in a Brazilian sample and research the variables related to it. 120 college students answered a questionnaire with variables from the theory of planned behavior in order to evaluate the intention of seat belt use among car occupants. Results indicated that attitude and intention were the variables that most contributed to explaining seat belt use. Intention was highly correlat...

  12. Health Monitoring for Coated Steel Belts in an Elevator System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaming Lei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method of health monitoring for coated steel belts in an elevator system by measuring the electrical resistance of the ropes embedded in the belt. A model on resistance change caused by fretting wear and stress fatigue has been established. Temperature and reciprocating cycles are also taken into consideration when determining the potential strength degradation of the belts. It is proved by experiments that the method could effectively estimate the health degradation of the most dangerous section as well as other ones along the whole belts.

  13. Colors of Inner Disk Classical Kuiper Belt Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanishin, W.; Tegler, S. C.; Consolmagno, G. J.

    2010-07-01

    We present new optical broadband colors, obtained with the Keck 1 and Vatican Advanced Technology telescopes, for six objects in the inner classical Kuiper Belt. Objects in the inner classical Kuiper Belt are of interest as they may represent the surviving members of the primordial Kuiper Belt that formed interior to the current position of the 3:2 resonance with Neptune, the current position of the plutinos, or, alternatively, they may be objects formed at a different heliocentric distance that were then moved to their present locations. The six new colors, combined with four previously published, show that the ten inner belt objects with known colors form a neutral clump and a reddish clump in B-R color. Nonparametric statistical tests show no significant difference between the B-R color distribution of the inner disk objects compared to the color distributions of Centaurs, plutinos, or scattered disk objects. However, the B-R color distribution of the inner classical Kuiper Belt Objects does differ significantly from the distribution of colors in the cold (low inclination) main classical Kuiper Belt. The cold main classical objects are predominately red, while the inner classical belt objects are a mixture of neutral and red. The color difference may reveal the existence of a gradient in the composition and/or surface processing history in the primordial Kuiper Belt, or indicate that the inner disk objects are not dynamically analogous to the cold main classical belt objects.

  14. Magnetic refrigeration apparatus with belt of ferro or paramagnetic material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, John A.; Stewart, Walter F.; Henke, Michael D.; Kalash, Kenneth E.

    1987-01-01

    A magnetic refrigerator operating in the 12 to 77K range utilizes a belt which carries ferromagnetic or paramagnetic material and which is disposed in a loop which passes through the center of a solenoidal magnet to achieve cooling. The magnetic material carried by the belt, which can be blocks in frames of a linked belt, can be a mixture of substances with different Curie temperatures arranged such that the Curie temperatures progressively increase from one edge of the belt to the other. This magnetic refrigerator can be used to cool and liquefy hydrogen or other fluids.

  15. Design of belt conveyors in bulk terminal applications. Part II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodwin, P J; Ramos, C M

    1986-04-01

    The main design parameters used for belt conveyors in harbour applications are discussed. Conveyor belting including the carcass, belt cover, belt tension and speed, and safety factors, idlers, conveyor pulleys, motors, fluid couplings and drive arrangements are considered. Technical factors are briefly outlined for the designer to consider to achieve minimum acceptable component service life. A method is discussed to reduce coal degradation investigated using a test chute designed for the purpose of minimizing sized coal degradation at transfer points in the refurbishing of the Durban Coal Terminal. 24 references.

  16. COLORS OF INNER DISK CLASSICAL KUIPER BELT OBJECTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanishin, W.; Tegler, S. C.; Consolmagno, G. J.

    2010-01-01

    We present new optical broadband colors, obtained with the Keck 1 and Vatican Advanced Technology telescopes, for six objects in the inner classical Kuiper Belt. Objects in the inner classical Kuiper Belt are of interest as they may represent the surviving members of the primordial Kuiper Belt that formed interior to the current position of the 3:2 resonance with Neptune, the current position of the plutinos, or, alternatively, they may be objects formed at a different heliocentric distance that were then moved to their present locations. The six new colors, combined with four previously published, show that the ten inner belt objects with known colors form a neutral clump and a reddish clump in B-R color. Nonparametric statistical tests show no significant difference between the B-R color distribution of the inner disk objects compared to the color distributions of Centaurs, plutinos, or scattered disk objects. However, the B-R color distribution of the inner classical Kuiper Belt Objects does differ significantly from the distribution of colors in the cold (low inclination) main classical Kuiper Belt. The cold main classical objects are predominately red, while the inner classical belt objects are a mixture of neutral and red. The color difference may reveal the existence of a gradient in the composition and/or surface processing history in the primordial Kuiper Belt, or indicate that the inner disk objects are not dynamically analogous to the cold main classical belt objects.

  17. The Tintina Gold Belt - A global perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfarb, Richard J.; Hart, Craig J.R.; Miller, Marti L.; Miller, Lance D.; Farmer, G. Lang; Groves, David I.; Tucker, Terry L.; Smith, Moira T.

    2000-01-01

    The so-called Tintina Gold Belt extends for more than 1000 km along the length of the northern North American Cordillera. Middle to Late Cretaceous Au deposits within the belt have various similar characteristics, among which are a spatial and temporal association with magmatism; Bi-W-Te signatures in deposits hosted by granitod stocks and As-Sb signatures where hosted by sedimentary rocks and dyke systems; and δ180 values consistently > 12 per mil for Au-bearing quartz. Nevertheless significant differences in structural styles, levels of deposit emplacement, ore-fluid chemistry, and Au grades suggest that the characteristics represent a broad range of deposit types. Many of these are best classified as orogenic Au deposits in the Yukon-Tanana terrane, as epithermal and porphyry-style Au deposits in the Kuskokwim region, and as Au-bearing, granite-related veins and stockworks, replacements, and skarns, as well as associated polymetallic lodes, in central Yukon. The diverse types of Au deposits and associated plutons of the Tintina Gold Belt collectively define a 45-m.y.-long period of arc magmatism that migrated northwesterly, for about 1000 km, across the active collisional margin of Cretaceous northwestern North America. The initiation of fluid flow and plutonism in Albian time seems to correlate with the onset of oblique subduction and dextral strike-slip on the Denali-Farewell, Tintina-Kaltag, and related fault systems. Initial Au-vein formation and subduction-related magmatism at about 115-110 Ma (e.g., including the Goodpaster and Fortymile districts), within the seaward side of the Yukon-Tanana terrane, correlate with the arrival of the Wrangellia superterrane off the continental margin. Dextral translation of the allochthonous Wrangellia block was associated with the migration of the thermal pulse to the northwest at about 95-90 Ma. Orogenic (or so­ called mesotherrnal) and granitoid-related Au deposits formed across the width of the Yukon

  18. Uranium occurrences and exploration experience in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaki, A.

    2010-01-01

    As per the Indian Government laws, minerals containing uranium are classified as strategic and uranium exploration and mining is an exclusive subject of the Central Government. Exploration for atomic minerals began in India in the year 1949 and, over a period of sixty years, India has created a large pool of uranium scientists and, at present, more than 500 scientists are employed by the Government of India for exploration of atomic minerals in India. In line with other countries, India's efforts in the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s were focused in the exploration for vein-type mineralization and succeeded in the discovery in three provinces, viz. Singhbhum Shear Zone (SSZ), Jharkhand; Umra, Rajasthan and Lesser Himalayas of Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh. Of these, the SSZ has emerged as a major uranium province with 17 low-grade, low- to medium-tonnage deposits. Presently, the only uranium producing mines are situated in this province. Simultaneously, many uranium occurrences and deposits of QPC, vein and metasomatite types, essentially of low grade, low tonnage, were located all over the country. In the early eighties, the Cretaceous Mahadek basin in the northeastern state of Meghalaya was recognized as a potential province for sandstone-type uranium mineralization and, within a span of fifteen years, five low- to medium-grade, low-tonnage deposits were established. The 180-km long belt of Cretaceous fluviatile felspathic sandstones along the southern fringe of Shillong plateau below a moderate cover of tertiary sediments holds potential for more resources. Ground and airborne geophysical techniques are being looked at to provide vital clues on depositional controls for future sub-surface exploration. In the mean time, a major uranium province in the southern part of Proterozoic Cuddapah basin was discovered, where uranium mineralization is hosted in dolomitic limestone. The mineralization is stratabound and occurs intermittently over a strike length of nearly 160 km

  19. Earthquake activity along the Himalayan orogenic belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, L.; Mori, J. J.

    2017-12-01

    The collision between the Indian and Eurasian plates formed the Himalayas, the largest orogenic belt on the Earth. The entire region accommodates shallow earthquakes, while intermediate-depth earthquakes are concentrated at the eastern and western Himalayan syntaxis. Here we investigate the focal depths, fault plane solutions, and source rupture process for three earthquake sequences, which are located at the western, central and eastern regions of the Himalayan orogenic belt. The Pamir-Hindu Kush region is located at the western Himalayan syntaxis and is characterized by extreme shortening of the upper crust and strong interaction of various layers of the lithosphere. Many shallow earthquakes occur on the Main Pamir Thrust at focal depths shallower than 20 km, while intermediate-deep earthquakes are mostly located below 75 km. Large intermediate-depth earthquakes occur frequently at the western Himalayan syntaxis about every 10 years on average. The 2015 Nepal earthquake is located in the central Himalayas. It is a typical megathrust earthquake that occurred on the shallow portion of the Main Himalayan Thrust (MHT). Many of the aftershocks are located above the MHT and illuminate faulting structures in the hanging wall with dip angles that are steeper than the MHT. These observations provide new constraints on the collision and uplift processes for the Himalaya orogenic belt. The Indo-Burma region is located south of the eastern Himalayan syntaxis, where the strike of the plate boundary suddenly changes from nearly east-west at the Himalayas to nearly north-south at the Burma Arc. The Burma arc subduction zone is a typical oblique plate convergence zone. The eastern boundary is the north-south striking dextral Sagaing fault, which hosts many shallow earthquakes with focal depth less than 25 km. In contrast, intermediate-depth earthquakes along the subduction zone reflect east-west trending reverse faulting.

  20. Dust bands in the asteroid belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sykes, M.V.; Greenberg, R.; Dermott, S.F.; Nicholson, P.D.; Burns, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the original IRAS observations leading to the discovery of the three dust bands in the asteroid belt and the analysis of data. Special attention is given to an analytical model of the dust band torus and to theories concerning the origin of the dust bands, with special attention given to the collisional equilibrium (asteroid family), the nonequilibrium (random collision), and the comet hypotheses of dust-band origin. It is noted that neither the equilibrium nor nonequilibrium models, as currently formulated, present a complete picture of the IRAS dust-band observations. 32 refs

  1. On a new component of radiation belts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigorov, N.L.; Kurnosova, L.V.; Razorenov, L.A.; Remizov, A.S.; Fradkin, M.I.; Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ.

    1982-01-01

    The mechanism of electron radiation belt filling with high-energy particles is discussed. Experimental data on particle fluxes in the Earth magnetosphere are presented. The experiments are carried out using the Cherenkov scintillation telescope installed on the ''Lightning-1'' satellite. Values of secondary particle flux obtained during the measurement at a height of 500 km and 30-40 th. km. coincide within the limits of errors. It is noted that secondary particle flux, equal to the albedo electron flux, is registered on large heights. This reason indicates the fact of forbidden angle filling with electrons with energies above 10 MeV

  2. Linear Motor for Drive of Belt Conveyor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Krasl

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a novel approach on the design of a linear motor for drive of belt conveyor (LMBC. The motor is a simple combination of asynchronous motor in plane. The electromagnetic forces is one of the most important parameters of electrical machines. This parameter is necessary for the checking of the design. This paper describes several variants: linear motor with slots in platens, slots in one half of platens and optimization of slots. The electromagnetic force can be found with the help of a Finite Elements Method – based program. For solution was used QuickField program.

  3. The Fort Smith radioactive belt, Northwest Territories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charbonneau, B.W.

    1980-01-01

    The Fort Smith Belt is an elongate zone, about 200 km x 50 km, extending from the East Arm of Great Slave Lake southerly into northeastern Alberta. The major feature of the belt is that it is one of the most radioactive regions so far recognized in the Canadian Shield. Potassium, uranium, and thorium are all enriched but the greatest increase is in thorium. The dominant rock type underlying the area is a foliated porphyritic granite. This rock contains an average of about 80 ppm thorium (with areas of tens of square kilometres containing up to 200 ppm) and approximately 11 ppm uranium. In places, dark elongate zones rich in biotite, apatite, and opaque minerals within the porphyritic granite may contain an order of magnitude more uranium and thorium than the porphyry. Radioactive minerals within both the porphyry and the dark zones are principally monazite (containing up to 16% ThO 2 ) and isolated grains of uraninite. This foliated porphyritic granite is interpreted as being pre- or syntectonic with respect to the Hudsonian event because its foliation parallels that of the surrounding rocks. There has been subsequent deformation. The second characteristic feature of the Fort Smith Belt is the development of a peripheral zone where eU is enriched relative to eTh correlating mainly with granitoid rocks which surround the thorium-rich area and wherein ratios of eU/eTh exceed 1:2 (compared to the crustal average of 1:4). Uranium may have moved laterally into this marginal area from the thorium-rich porphyry, possibly in a vapour phase. There is a possibility that concentrations of uranium as well as other metals such as Cu, Mo, Zn, Sn, and W could exist in the porphyry and its margin in appropriate chemical and/or structural traps. The radioactive granite rocks of the Fort Smith Belt are adjacent to uranium-thorium occurrences in the nearby Proterozoic Nonacho sediments but whether or not a genetic relationship exists between the two situations is uncertain. (auth)

  4. Belt, Road, and Circle: The Arctic and Northern Europe in China's Belt and Road Initiative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørup Sørensen, Camilla Tenna

    2018-01-01

    Sørensen offers a much-needed analysis of the how the development of the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) links to China’s growing interests and ambitions in the Arctic showing how China is using the BRI to further intensify and strengthen relations with the Nordic countries in the Arctic. Conducting...

  5. Pelvic belt effects on sacroiliac joint ligaments: a computational approach to understand therapeutic effects of pelvic belts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sichting, Freddy; Rossol, Jerome; Soisson, Odette; Klima, Stefan; Milani, Thomas; Hammer, Niels

    2014-01-01

    The sacroiliac joint is a widely described source of low back pain. Therapeutic approaches to relieve pain include the application of pelvic belts. However, the effects of pelvic belts on sacroiliac joint ligaments as potential pain generators are mostly unknown. The aim of our study was to analyze the influence of pelvic belts on ligament load by means of a computer model. Experimental computer study using a finite element method. A computer model of the human pelvis was created, comprising bones, ligaments, and cartilage. Detailed geometries, material properties of ligaments, and in-vivo pressure distribution patterns of a pelvic belt were implemented. The effects of pelvic belts on ligament strain were computed in the double-leg stance. Pelvic belts increase sacroiliac joint motion around the sagittal axis but decrease motion around the transverse axis. With pelvic belt application, most of the strained sacroiliac joint ligaments were relieved, especially the sacrospinous, sacrotuberous, and the interosseous sacroiliac ligaments. Sacroiliac joint motion and ligament strains were minute. These results agree with validation data from other studies. Assigning homogenous and linear material properties and excluding muscle forces are clear simplifications of the complex reality. Pelvic belts alter sacroiliac joint motion and provide partial relief of ligament strain that is subjectively marked, although minimal in absolute terms. These findings confirm theories that besides being mechanical stabilizers, the sacroiliac joint ligaments are likely involved in neuromuscular feedback mechanisms. The results from our computer model help with unraveling the therapeutic mechanisms of pelvic belts.

  6. HERSCHEL -RESOLVED OUTER BELTS OF TWO-BELT DEBRIS DISKS—EVIDENCE OF ICY GRAINS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales, F. Y.; Bryden, G.; Werner, M. W.; Stapelfeldt, K. R., E-mail: Farisa@jpl.nasa.gov [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2016-11-01

    We present dual-band Herschel /PACS imaging for 59 main-sequence stars with known warm dust ( T {sub warm} ∼ 200 K), characterized by Spitzer . Of 57 debris disks detected at Herschel wavelengths (70 and/or 100 and 160 μ m), about half have spectral energy distributions (SEDs) that suggest two-ring disk architectures mirroring that of the asteroid–Kuiper Belt geometry; the rest are consistent with single belts of warm, asteroidal material. Herschel observations spatially resolve the outer/cold dust component around 14 A-type and 4 solar-type stars with two-belt systems, 15 of which for the first time. Resolved disks are typically observed with radii >100 AU, larger than expected from a simple blackbody fit. Despite the absence of narrow spectral features for ice, we find that the shape of the continuum, combined with resolved outer/cold dust locations, can help constrain the grain size distribution and hint at the dust’s composition for each resolved system. Based on the combined Spitzer /IRS+Multiband Imaging Photometer (5-to-70 μ m) and Herschel /PACS (70-to-160 μ m) data set, and under the assumption of idealized spherical grains, we find that over half of resolved outer/cold belts are best fit with a mixed ice/rock composition. Minimum grain sizes are most often equal to the expected radiative blowout limit, regardless of composition. Three of four resolved systems around the solar-type stars, however, tend to have larger minimum grains compared to expectation from blowout ( f {sub MB} = a {sub min}/ a {sub BOS} ∼ 5). We also probe the disk architecture of 39 Herschel -unresolved systems by modeling their SEDs uniformly, and find them to be consistent with 31 single- and 8 two-belt debris systems.

  7. Birds of sacred groves of northern Kerala, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Jyothi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sacred groves are patches of vegetation preserved due to  religious or cultural tradition.  They are protected through spiritual beliefs.  Sacred groves provide an excellent abode to the biodiversity of the region where they are located.   Scientific exploration of fauna from sacred groves of India is few and far between.  The present study was conducted to explore the bird diversity and abundance in 15 selected sacred groves of northern Kerala, eight from Kannur District and seven from Kasargod District each.  A total of 111 bird species were observed belonging to 49 families and 16 orders.  The sacred groves of northern Kerala support many of the ‘forest-birds’ such as the Grey Junglefowl Gallus sonneratii, Asian Fairy-bluebird Irena puella, Tickell’s Blue-flycatcher Cyornis tickelliae, Malabar Trogon Harpactes fasciatus, Heart-spotted Woodpecker Hemicircus canente, Malabar Whistling-Thrush Myophonus horsfieldii, Little Spiderhunter Arachnothera longirostra, etc.  The sacred groves of northern Kerala also support two endemic bird species of the Western Ghats, such as the Malabar Grey Hornbill Ocyceros griseus and Rufous Babbler Turdoides subrufa. Five species of raptors and four owl species were reported from the sacred groves of north Kerala during the present study.  The breeding of the White-bellied Sea-Eagle has been reported at Edayilakadu Kavu, a sacred grove in Kasargod District.  The sacred groves of northern Kerala also supported 17 species of long distant migratory birds.  Thazhe Kavu, recorded the Black-headed Ibis Threskiornis melanocephalus, a Near-Threatened bird according to IUCN. 

  8. Mesin Pemindah Bahan : Studi Prestasi Belt Conveyor Hubungannya Dengan Ukuran Butiran Dan Tingkat Kelembaban Bahan Curah ( Batubara ), Panjang Belt 7,6 Meter ; Lebar 32 Centimeter

    OpenAIRE

    Nugroho, Rio

    2011-01-01

    Banyak industri yang menggunakan belt conveyor sebagai alat transportasi material, sebab punya banyak keuntungan. Sehingga, untuk meningkatkan performansi belt conveyor tersebut perlu dilakukan pengidentifikasian prestasi belt conveyor. Identifikasi dilakukan dengan material transfer batubara. Yang akan diamati adalah pengaruh ukuran butiran material dan tingkat kelembaban terhadap kapasitas transfer belt conveyor. Dari pengujian didapatkan kapasitas transfer terbesar adalah material batubar...

  9. Problems with models of the radiation belts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daly, E.J.; Lemaire, J.; Heynderickx, D.; Rodgers, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    The current standard models of the radiation-belt environment have many shortcomings, not the least of which is their extreme age. Most of the data used for them were acquired in the 1960's and early 1970's. Problems with the present models, and the ways in which data from more recent missions are being or can be used to create new models with improved functionality, are described. The phenomenology of the radiation belts, the effects on space systems, and geomagnetic coordinates and modeling are discussed. Errors found in present models, their functional limitations, and problems with their implementation and use are detailed. New modeling must address problems at low altitudes with the south Atlantic anomaly, east-west asymmetries and solar cycle variations and at high altitudes with the highly dynamic electron environment. The important issues in space environment modeling from the point of view of usability and relationship with effects evaluation are presented. New sources of data are discussed. Future requirements in the data, models, and analysis tools areas are presented

  10. Coordinates for Representing Radiation Belt Particle Flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roederer, Juan G.; Lejosne, Solène

    2018-02-01

    Fifty years have passed since the parameter "L-star" was introduced in geomagnetically trapped particle dynamics. It is thus timely to review the use of adiabatic theory in present-day studies of the radiation belts, with the intention of helping to prevent common misinterpretations and the frequent confusion between concepts like "distance to the equatorial point of a field line," McIlwain's L-value, and the trapped particle's adiabatic L* parameter. And too often do we miss in the recent literature a proper discussion of the extent to which some observed time and space signatures of particle flux could simply be due to changes in magnetospheric field, especially insofar as off-equatorial particles are concerned. We present a brief review on the history of radiation belt parameterization, some "recipes" on how to compute adiabatic parameters, and we illustrate our points with a real event in which magnetospheric disturbance is shown to adiabatically affect the particle fluxes measured onboard the Van Allen Probes.

  11. WATER ICE IN THE KUIPER BELT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, M. E.; Fraser, W. C.; Schaller, E. L.

    2012-01-01

    We examine a large collection of low-resolution near-infrared spectra of Kuiper Belt objects (KBOs) and centaurs in an attempt to understand the presence of water ice in the Kuiper Belt. We find that water ice on the surface of these objects occurs in three separate manners: (1) Haumea family members uniquely show surfaces of nearly pure water ice, presumably a consequence of the fragmentation of the icy mantle of a larger differentiated proto-Haumea; (2) large objects with absolute magnitudes of H < 3 (and a limited number to H = 4.5) have surface coverings of water ice—perhaps mixed with ammonia—that appears to be related to possibly ancient cryovolcanism on these large objects; and (3) smaller KBOs and centaurs which are neither Haumea family members nor cold-classical KBOs appear to divide into two families (which we refer to as 'neutral' and 'red'), each of which is a mixture of a common nearly neutral component and either a slightly red or very red component that also includes water ice. A model suggesting that the difference between neutral and red objects due to formation in an early compact solar system either inside or outside, respectively, of the ∼20 AU methanol evaporation line is supported by the observation that methanol is only detected on the reddest objects, which are those which would be expected to have the most of the methanol containing mixture.

  12. Nuclear India. Vol. II. [India's nuclear policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, J P

    1974-01-01

    The book contains 186 documents on India's nuclear policy covering a period from November 1948 to May 1974. It thus forms a comprehensive documentary account of India's nuclear policy. They include: texts of India's agreements for cooperation on the peaceful uses of atomic energy with the USA and Canada, the summary conclusions of India's atomic energy program for the decade 1970-80, the resolutions and amendments moved by India, the communications sent and the statements made by Indian representatives in various international forums--the conference of the IAEA statute, the Annual General Conference of the IAEA and its committees and the Board of Governors, the UN General Assembly and its First Committee, the conference of the Committee on Disarmaments etc. It also contains texts or extracts from the papers presented, statements made, and addresses and talks delivered by H. J. Bhabha, V. A. Sarabhai, H. N. Sethna and other eminent scientists at the international conferences on the peaceful uses of atomic energy, IAEA discussions on PNE, etc. Policy statements by India's Prime Ministers Nehru, Shastri and (Mrs.) Gandhi, and Foreign Ministers Chagla and Swaran Singh, made from time to time in the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha--the two houses of the Indian parliaments--are also included. The sources of these documents are listed at the end. (MCB)

  13. Energy saving for belt conveyors by speed control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, D.

    2017-01-01

    Belt conveyors are widely used in bulk solids handling and conveying systems. Considering the extensive use of belt conveyors, their operations involve a large amount of energy. Taking the relevant economic and social challenges into account, there is a strong demand for lowering the energy

  14. The physical imitation experiments of nuclear belt weight scaler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Qicun; Wang Mingqian; Sun Jinhua; Li Zhonghao

    1993-01-01

    The physical imitation experiments of the nuclear belt weight scaler (NBWS) were performed with a coal-loaded belt. The linearity, repetition and long-time stability; of the NBWS were measured. And the influence of pile shape, load bias and the composition of coal on weight calculation were studied

  15. Respiratory Belt Transducer Constructed Using a Singing Greeting Card Beeper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskar, Anand; Subramani, Selvam; Ojha, Rajdeep

    2013-01-01

    An article by Belusic and Zupancic described the construction of a finger pulse sensor using a singing greeting card beeper. These authors felt that this beeper made of piezoelectric material could be easily modified to function as a respiratory belt transducer to monitor respiratory movements. Commercially available respiratory belt transducers,…

  16. Crustal Deformation around Zhangjiakou-Bohai Seismically Active Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, H.; Fu, G.; Kato, T.

    2011-12-01

    Zhangjiakou-Bohai belt is a seismically active belt located in Northern China around Beijing, the capital of China. Near such a belt many great earthquakes occurred in the past centuries (e.g. the 1976 Tanshan Ms7.8 earthquake, the 1998 Zhangbei Ms6.2 earthquake, etc). Chinese Government established dense permanent and regional Global Positioning System (GPS) stations in and near the area. We collected and analyzed all the GPS observation data between 1999 and 2009 around Zhangjiakou-Bohai seismic belt, and obtained velocities at 143 stations. At the same time we investigated Zhangjiakou-Bohai belt slip rate for three profiles from northwest to southeast, and constructed a regional strain field on the Zhangjiakou-Bohai seismic belt region by least-square collocation. Based on the study we found that: 1) Nowadays the Zhangjiakou-Bohai seismic belt is creeping with left-lateral slip rate of 2.0mm~2.4mm/a, with coupling depth of 35~50km; 2) In total, the slip and coupling depth of the northwestern seismic belt is less than the one of southeast side; 3) The maximum shear strain is about 3×10-8 at Beijing-Tianjin-Tangshan area.

  17. A belt charging system for the Vivitron - design, early results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helleboid, J.M.; Gaudiot, G.

    1990-10-01

    A specific belt charging system has been designed, built and assembled for the 35 MV Vivitron. 100 m long belt is used. Together with main features of the design, experimental studies, tests in a pilot machine and the results of the very early tests of the real system are reviewed

  18. Performance approximation of pick-to-belt orderpicking systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.B.M. de Koster (René)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper, an approximation method is discussed for the analysis of pick-to-belt orderpicking systems. The aim of the approximation method is to provide an instrument for obtaining rapid insight in the performance of designs of pick-to-belt orderpicking systems. It can be used to

  19. Ambient Response Analysis of the Great Belt Bridge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune; Frandsen, Jeanette B.; Andersen, Palle

    2000-01-01

    In this paper an ambient response analysis of the Great Belt Bridge is presented. The Great Belt Bridge is one of the largest suspension bridges in the world, and the analysis was carried out in order to investigate the possibilities of estimating reliable damping values from the ambient response...

  20. The Social Construction of the Great Belt Fixed Link

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Birgitte

    1994-01-01

    Working paper in Technology Management. Actor Network theory (ANT) used upon the process of negotiating legislation and constructing the Great Belt fixed link.......Working paper in Technology Management. Actor Network theory (ANT) used upon the process of negotiating legislation and constructing the Great Belt fixed link....

  1. Belt conveyor dynamics in transient operation for speed control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, D.; Pang, Y.; Lodewijks, G.

    2016-01-01

    Belt conveyors play an important role in continuous dry bulk material transport, especially at the mining industry. Speed control is expected to reduce the energy consumption of belt conveyors. Transient operation is the operation of increasing or decreasing conveyor speed for speed control.

  2. Optimal control of operation efficiency of belt conveyor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Shirong; Xia, Xiaohua

    2010-01-01

    The improvement of the energy efficiency of belt conveyor systems can be achieved at equipment or operation levels. Switching control and variable speed control are proposed in literature to improve energy efficiency of belt conveyors. The current implementations mostly focus on lower level control loops or an individual belt conveyor without operational considerations at the system level. In this paper, an optimal switching control and a variable speed drive (VSD) based optimal control are proposed to improve the energy efficiency of belt conveyor systems at the operational level, where time-of-use (TOU) tariff, ramp rate of belt speed and other system constraints are considered. A coal conveying system in a coal-fired power plant is taken as a case study, where great saving of energy cost is achieved by the two optimal control strategies. Moreover, considerable energy saving resulting from VSD based optimal control is also proved by the case study.

  3. Optimal control of operation efficiency of belt conveyor systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Shirong [Department of Automation, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Xia, Xiaohua [Department of Electrical, Electronic and Computer Engineering, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002 (South Africa)

    2010-06-15

    The improvement of the energy efficiency of belt conveyor systems can be achieved at equipment or operation levels. Switching control and variable speed control are proposed in literature to improve energy efficiency of belt conveyors. The current implementations mostly focus on lower level control loops or an individual belt conveyor without operational considerations at the system level. In this paper, an optimal switching control and a variable speed drive (VSD) based optimal control are proposed to improve the energy efficiency of belt conveyor systems at the operational level, where time-of-use (TOU) tariff, ramp rate of belt speed and other system constraints are considered. A coal conveying system in a coal-fired power plant is taken as a case study, where great saving of energy cost is achieved by the two optimal control strategies. Moreover, considerable energy saving resulting from VSD based optimal control is also proved by the case study. (author)

  4. Energetic electrons in the inner belt in 1968

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, Jr, H I; Buck, R M [California Univ., Livermore (USA). Lawrence Livermore Lab.

    1976-07-01

    Pitch-angle data were obtained by the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory's scanning, magnetic electron spectrometer on OGO 5 during its traversals of the inner belt in 1968. Data from the five lowest-energy channels 79 to 822 keV, were analyzed. The inner-belt electron injection following two storm periods was observed; the first was the mild storm of 11 June and the second the more intense storms of 31 October and 1 November. Comparisons with other data indicate that only a small Starfish residual (at > 1 MeV) still remained in the heart of the inner belt; hence, the results are indicative of the normal inner belt. The data are discussed in terms of current ideas regarding the source and loss of particles in the inner belt.

  5. Wearing an abdominal belt increases diastolic blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafacz, W; McGill, S M

    1996-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of wearing an abdominal belt on blood pressure (systolic and diastolic) and heart rate during a variety of tasks. The belt was typical of the elastic type with suspenders and Velcro tabs for cinching the belt snug. The tasks performed included sitting at rest, sitting with the torso inclined forward at 45 degrees, standing with the torso inclined forward at 45 degrees (with and without holding an 11-kg weight), a trunk axial rotation task, and squat lifting. Blood pressure was monitored noninvasively with a FINAPRES blood pressure monitor. Twenty healthy men performed each task with and without the abdominal belt. Although no significant increases in mean systolic blood pressure or heart rate were found, there was a significant increase in diastolic blood pressure in all conditions. All people considering wearing an abdominal belt should also consider the risks and liability associated with the additional cardiovascular load, particularly heart attack and stroke.

  6. Transfer points of belt conveyors operating with unfavorable bulk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goehring, H [Technische Universitaet, Dresden (German Democratic Republic)

    1989-06-01

    Describes design of belt conveyor chutes that transfer bulk of surface mines from one conveyor to another. Conveyor belt velocity is a significant parameter. Unfavorable chute design may lead to bulk flow congestion, bulk velocity losses etc. The bulk flow process is analyzed, bulk flow velocities, belt inclinations and bulk feeding from 2 conveyors into one chute are taken into account. Conventional chutes have parabolic belt impact walls. An improved version with divided impact walls is proposed that maintains a relatively high bulk velocity, reduces friction at chute walls and decreases wear and dirt build-up. Design of the improved chute is explained. It is built to adapt to existing structures without major modifications. The angle between 2 belt conveyors can be up to 90 degrees, the best bulk transfer is noted at conveyor angles below 60 degrees. Various graphs and schemes are provided. 6 refs.

  7. A Review of Tectonic Models and Analytical Data from Almora-Dadeldhura Klippe, Northwest India and Far Western Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosu, S.; Robinson, D.; Saha, A.

    2017-12-01

    Tectonic models developed from the Himalayan thrust belt constitute three models- critical taper, channel flow and wedge extrusion. Their differences are manifested in predicted minimum shortening, deformation propagation style and tectonic architecture across the thrust belt. Recent studies from isolated synformal klippen composed of Greater and Tethyan Himalayan rock within the Himalayan thrust belt disagree over the tectonic history, especially in the Almora-Dadeldhura klippe, which is the largest klippe in the thrust belt. These recent studies are limited to one transect each, and two or fewer types of analytical data to justify their models. Due to the limited spatial coverage, these studies often reflect a narrow perspective in their tectonic models; thus, combining the data from these studies provides a holistic view of the regional tectonic history. This study compiled the available data across the 350 km wide Almora-Dadeldhura klippe, using petrology, stratigraphy, metamorphic history, microstructure, U-Pb ages of intrusive granite, monazite and muscovite ages of the shear zones, and exhumation ages from apatite fission track, along with original field observations, microstructure and microtexture data from 5 different transects in northwest India and far western Nepal. The review of the compiled data suggests that the Himalayan thrust belt in northwest India and far western Nepal is a forward propagating thrust system, and that the analytical data support the critical taper model.

  8. Equilibria and Free Vibration of a Two-Pulley Belt-Driven System with Belt Bending Stiffness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieyu Ding

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear equilibrium curvatures and free vibration characteristics of a two-pulley belt-driven system with belt bending stiffness and a one-way clutch are investigated. With nonlinear dynamical tension, the transverse vibrations of the translating belt spans and the rotation motions of the pulleys and the accessory shaft are coupled. Therefore, nonlinear piecewise discrete-continuous governing equations are established. Considering the bending stiffness of the translating belt spans, the belt spans are modeled as axially moving beams. The pattern of equilibria is a nontrivial solution. Furthermore, the nontrivial equilibriums of the dynamical system are numerically determined by using two different approaches. The governing equations of the vibration near the equilibrium solutions are derived by introducing a coordinate transform. The natural frequencies of the dynamical systems are studied by using the Galerkin method with various truncations and the differential and integral quadrature methods. Moreover, the convergence of the Galerkin truncation is investigated. Numerical results reveal that the study needs 16 terms after truncation in order to determine the free vibration characteristics of the pulley-belt system with the belt bending stiffness. Furthermore, the first five natural frequencies are very sensitive to the bending stiffness of the translating belt.

  9. Non-linear belt transient analysis. A hybrid model for numerical belt conveyor simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, A. [Scientific Solutions, Inc., Aurora, CO (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Frictional and rolling losses along a running conveyor are discussed due to their important influence on wave propagation during starting and stopping. Hybrid friction models allow belt rubber losses and material flexing to be included in the initial tension calculations prior to any dynamic analysis. Once running tensions are defined, a numerical integration method using non-linear stiffness gradients is used to generate transient forces during starting and stopping. A modified Euler integration technique is used to simulate the entire starting and stopping cycle in less than 0.1 seconds. The procedure enables a faster scrutiny of unforeseen conveyor design issues such as low belt tension zones and high forces at drives. (orig.)

  10. The Foundations of Radiation Belt Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, G. H.

    2008-12-01

    phenomenon. It also provided the first hint that there were two distinct radiation belts, although that conclusion was not reached until later. Although that new information was quickly announced, the results of the high altitude nuclear detonations were kept secret until well into 1959. They clearly revealed the charged particle shells created by the Argos nuclear detonations. The next major step in mapping and understanding the high-intensity radiation involved the launch of deep space probes Pioneers III and IV in December 1958 and March 1959. Although both launches fell short in their primary objective, to reach the moon, they traveled far enough from the Earth to fully meet the needs of the scientific experiment. They very clearly showed the two-radiation belt structure, and mapped its extent. They also showed the probable effect of a magnetic storm on 25 February, thus indicating the direct influence of solar activity on the outer belt. By the end of 1959, the existence of the Van Allen Radiation Belts and their general structure were solidly established, early information about the composition of the radiation was appearing in print, and energetic work was under way to understand the physics of the processes involved.

  11. Space electronics: radiation belts set new challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leray, J.L.; Barillot, C.; Boudenot, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    Telecommunications satellites have been in use since 1962 with the first satellite network (constellation) coming into operation in 1966. GPS systems have been available since the mid seventies. Until now, all these systems have avoided orbits which lie within the radiation belts. The latest constellation projects, offering much wider bandwidths, need to use orbits between 1500 and 2000 km, where the proton density is at its highest. The vulnerability of future generations of components can be predicted by extrapolating the behaviour of current devices. Screening is not a viable option due to cost and weight limitations in satellite applications. As a result, satellite and component manufacturers are seeking new methods of hardening components or making them more radiation tolerant in an environment where the radiation levels are ten times those currently experiences. (authors)

  12. Torque-transmitting mechanism of a metal CVT belt; Kinzoku CVT belt no torque dentatsu mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, D; Mabuchi, Y; Kato, Y [Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    The slip mechanism of a metal CVT belt which consisted of several hundred V-shaped elements and two sets of laminated metal rings was analyzed by focusing on the distribution of the gaps occurring between the elements, and a simulation which could predict the slip-limit torque at which the slip ratio increases sharply was developed. In this paper, the outline of the simulation is shown with some comparison between the calculated results and the experimental data. 3 refs., 13 figs.

  13. Inclination Mixing in the Classical Kuiper Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volk, Kathryn; Malhotra, Renu

    2011-07-01

    We investigate the long-term evolution of the inclinations of the known classical and resonant Kuiper Belt objects (KBOs). This is partially motivated by the observed bimodal inclination distribution and by the putative physical differences between the low- and high-inclination populations. We find that some classical KBOs undergo large changes in inclination over gigayear timescales, which means that a current member of the low-inclination population may have been in the high-inclination population in the past, and vice versa. The dynamical mechanisms responsible for the time variability of inclinations are predominantly distant encounters with Neptune and chaotic diffusion near the boundaries of mean motion resonances. We reassess the correlations between inclination and physical properties including inclination time variability. We find that the size-inclination and color-inclination correlations are less statistically significant than previously reported (mostly due to the increased size of the data set since previous works with some contribution from inclination variability). The time variability of inclinations does not change the previous finding that binary classical KBOs have lower inclinations than non-binary objects. Our study of resonant objects in the classical Kuiper Belt region includes objects in the 3:2, 7:4, 2:1, and eight higher-order mean motion resonances. We find that these objects (some of which were previously classified as non-resonant) undergo larger changes in inclination compared to the non-resonant population, indicating that their current inclinations are not generally representative of their original inclinations. They are also less stable on gigayear timescales.

  14. Oxygen and Hydrogen Isotopic Characteristics of the Kaveri River Surface Waters, Southern Peninsular India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achyuthan, Hema; Michelini, Marzia; Sengupta, Somasis D.; Kale, Vishwas S.; Stenni, Barbara; Flora, Onelio

    2010-12-01

    We present in this paper the spatial distribution of stable isotopic composition (δ 18 O and δD) of Kaveri River surface waters to understand how the evaporation and precipitation affect the isotopic signature and dynamics of surface river waters. In the southern peninsular India, Kaveri River is one of the longest tropical river. Our stable isotope data indicate that the upper Kaveri region is influenced strongly by the SW monsoon. There is a narrow range between the δ 18 O values found from the origin of the Kaveri River to its delta, and there is no significant orographic impact of the Western Ghats. A decreasing trend of d values is found along the course of the river. This is attributed to evaporation effects, which nevertheless are not very strong. This difference in deuterium excess due to evaporation is also an indication of the moisture recycling in the lower Kaveri area, which is primarily controlled by evaporation from the wetlands in the delta plain but also from the surface waters and as such from the rivers. (author)

  15. Biomass and energy dynamics in a tribal village ecosystem of Orissa, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nayak, S.P.; Nisanka, S.K.; Misra, M.K.

    1993-01-01

    Biomass energy production and consumption patterns were investigated in Bhogibandha, a small tribal village ecosystem in the Eastern Ghats of India. The land area was 116.7 ha with 0.18 forest area per capita. Human population was 76 in 21 families. The livestock population in the village was low. Annual crop yield was 19.1 t on 13.9 ha of land. Annual collection of minor forest produce was 9.74 t. Annual energy consumption in terms of food was 278.4 GJ, fodder 929.6 GJ, liquor 20.9 GJ and fuelwood 636.5 GJ (excluding camp fire). Energy expenditure for agricultural, domestic and other daily activities in the village ecosystems was 122 GJ by human and 124 GJ by draught animals. The energy-flow pattern in the ecosystem shows annual production of 2062 GJ, consumption of 1917 GJ, out-flow (export) of 97 GJ and in-flow (import) of 235 GJ. Based on the energy-flow and large dependence on forest and forest products (mainly firewood for sale along with minor products), the village Bhogibanda was concluded to be an open, forest-dependent based village ecosystem. An energy-flow model was developed for the village ecosystem. (Author)

  16. The Myths of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Frederick A.

    1988-01-01

    Stating that superficial stereotypes hinder the understanding of people and places, Day presents several well-known over-generalizations about India. Attempts to update readers about recent changes within the country while dispelling some popular myths. Discusses India's large population, poverty, economic growth, women's roles, and culture, along…

  17. African Journals Online: India

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online: India. Home > African Journals Online: India. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This Journal is Open Access. Afghanistan ...

  18. HEALTH SCENARIO IN INDIA

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. HEALTH SCENARIO IN INDIA. Health Doctor / Hospital Infant expenditure 1000 beds / 1000 mortality / % GDP 1000. India 0.8 0.47 0.8 71. World 2.6 1.5 3.3 54. Developed 6.1 2.8 7.2 6 Countries.

  19. Hydropower development in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saxena, Praveen [Govt. of India, New Delhi (India). Ministry of New and Renewable Energy], E-mail: psaxena_98@yahoo.com; Kumar, Arun [Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Uttarakhand (India). Alternate Hydro Energy Centre], E-mail: aheciitr@gmail.com

    2011-04-15

    India is posed for large deployment of hydropower in present conducive policy and investment environment. Growing energy demand and concern for carbon emission is making hydropower development more favorable. The Government of India is ensuring a good performance of the new SHP stations by linking the incentives to the SHP developers with the performance of the station. (author)

  20. AREVA in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    India is the sixth largest energy consumer in the world and its demand is rising rapidly. To support its economic growth, estimated to be 8% on average over the last three years and to ensure access to electricity for all, the country foresees massive investments in its power sector over the next five years. India is therefore an essential market for the AREVA Group, where its Transmission and Distribution division plays a leading role on the strategic grid modernization market. This document presents: 1 - the economic situation in India: Key figures, Growth, India's growing need for electricity, India's energy sources and policy: current mix, driving role of the State, the financial reorganization of the SEBs, the 'Mega-Power' projects, the electricity act, the rural electrification program, the Investments. 2 - Civil nuclear energy: a strong potential for development; 3 - India's transmission and distribution network: the power challenge of the transmission network, the efficiency challenge of the distribution network. 4 - AREVA T and D in India: AREVA T and D profile, Areva's presence in India, market share, T and D customers and flagship projects

  1. ADULT EDUCATION IN INDIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    STYLER, W.E.

    AGAINST A BACKGROUND OF MASS ILLITERACY, POOR PAY AND STATUS OF TEACHERS, AND AN ALIEN EDUCATION PATTERN, THE STATE GOVERNMENTS OF INDIA HAVE PROVIDED SOCIAL EDUCATION FOR CITIZENSHIP AS WELL AS LITERACY. INDIVIDUAL AND GROUP METHODS HAVE BEEN USED, VIDYAPEETHS (RESIDENTIAL COLLEGES) AND EDUCATIONAL CENTERS HAVE BEEN SET UP, AND ALL INDIA RADIO…

  2. An avifaunal case study of a plateau from Goa, India: an eye opener for conservation of plateau ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minal Desai

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The lateritic plateaux typical of the midlands between the Western Ghats and the coastal plains of the Arabian Sea are known to be a unique ecosystem with a sizeable endemic flora. However, there is a total lack of studies on the faunal diversity of these plateaux, which are currently experiencing enormous anthropogenic pressures. We conducted a year-long study on the avifauna of the Taleigao Plateau, Goa. The Taleigao Plateau harbours 114 species of birds, accounting for 37% of the avifaunal diversity of the state. The resident bird population did not vary significantly through the seasons. Among the migrant birds, Rosy Starling Sturnus roseus was particularly partial to the plateau. Besides, five species of larks, grassland specialists were also recorded on the plateau. However, the absence of forest birds like the Malabar Pied Hornbill and the Indian Grey Hornbill (recorded earlier and the predominance of habitat generalists like the House Crow and the Jungle Myna seemed to be the offshoot of heavy anthropogenic pressures on the plateau. It is recommended that at least some plateaux in the belt deserve to be protected from the impact of unsustainable developmental process

  3. Nuclear policy for India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaushik, B.M.

    1977-01-01

    Changes in India's nuclear policy from time to time are discussed. Though firmly wedded to the principle of peaceful uses of nuclear energy, India did not sign in 1965 the NPT as it discriminated between nuclear weapons powers and non-nuclear weapon powers as regards the safeguards. India wanted to keep open the option of conducting peaceful nuclear explosions (PNEs). In May 1974, India did conduct a PNE which, however, resulted into the stoppage of Canadian aid for India's nuclear power programme and created difficulties in obtaining enriched uranium for the Tarapur Atomic Power Station from the U.S.. The new Indian Government formed after the March 1977 general electtions has endorsed the earlier government's policy of opposing manufacture of nuclear weapons and has gone a step further by declearing 'If it (PNE) not necessary it should never be done'. (M.G.B.)

  4. Space Weather Effects in the Earth's Radiation Belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, D. N.; Erickson, P. J.; Fennell, J. F.; Foster, J. C.; Jaynes, A. N.; Verronen, P. T.

    2018-02-01

    The first major scientific discovery of the Space Age was that the Earth is enshrouded in toroids, or belts, of very high-energy magnetically trapped charged particles. Early observations of the radiation environment clearly indicated that the Van Allen belts could be delineated into an inner zone dominated by high-energy protons and an outer zone dominated by high-energy electrons. The energy distribution, spatial extent and particle species makeup of the Van Allen belts has been subsequently explored by several space missions. Recent observations by the NASA dual-spacecraft Van Allen Probes mission have revealed many novel properties of the radiation belts, especially for electrons at highly relativistic and ultra-relativistic kinetic energies. In this review we summarize the space weather impacts of the radiation belts. We demonstrate that many remarkable features of energetic particle changes are driven by strong solar and solar wind forcings. Recent comprehensive data show broadly and in many ways how high energy particles are accelerated, transported, and lost in the magnetosphere due to interplanetary shock wave interactions, coronal mass ejection impacts, and high-speed solar wind streams. We also discuss how radiation belt particles are intimately tied to other parts of the geospace system through atmosphere, ionosphere, and plasmasphere coupling. The new data have in many ways rewritten the textbooks about the radiation belts as a key space weather threat to human technological systems.

  5. Modeling of Jupiter's electron an ion radiation belts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sicard, Angelica

    2004-01-01

    In the Fifties, James Van Allen showed the existence of regions of the terrestrial magnetosphere consisted of energetic particles, trapped by the magnetic field: the radiation belts. The radiation belts of the Earth were the subject of many modeling works and are studied since several years at the Departement Environnement Spatial (DESP) of ONERA. In 1998, the DESP decided to adapt the radiation belts model of the Earth, Salammbo, to radiation environment of Jupiter. A first thesis was thus carried out on the subject and a first radiation belts model of electrons of Jupiter was developed [Santos-Costa, 2001]. The aim of this second thesis is to develop a radiation belts model for protons and heavy ions. In order to validate the developed model, the comparisons between Salammbo results and observations are essential. However, the validation is difficult in the case of protons and heavy ions because in-situ measurements of the probes are very few and most of the time contaminated by very energetic electrons. To solve this problem, a very good model of electrons radiation belts is essential to confirm or cancel the contamination of protons and heavy ions measurements. Thus, in parallel to the development of the protons and heavy ions radiation belts model, the electrons models, already existing, has been improved. Then Salammbo results have been compared to the different observations available (in-situ measurements, radio-astronomical observations). The different comparisons show a very good agreement between Salammbo results and observations. (author) [fr

  6. Speed Controlled Belt Conveyors: Drives and Mechanical Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BEBIC, M. Z.

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents variable speed belt conveyor system where the reference speed is changed in order to achieve improved energy efficiency of operation. The recorded measurements show that belt tension varies within the same limits as under constant speed operation. These results introduce a new insight of the present state of the art in variable speed belt conveyor drives. The system is realized with remote control from the control center on an open pit mine. The structure of the multi-motor drive system of a single conveyor, as well as of the network-based control system distributed among belt conveyor stations and the control center are shown. Speed control of a belt conveyor system is organized to provide better utilization of the available material cross section on the belt and reduced electrical energy consumption of the drive. The experimental results obtained on the system prove that, under existing constraints, the applied algorithm has not introduced additional stress to the belt or mechanical assemblies during acceleration and deceleration processes, while providing higher energy efficiency of operation.

  7. Timing belt in power transmission and conveying system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domek Grzegorz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the problem of phenomena occurring at the contact of a timing belt and a pulley. Depending on a belt size range these phenomena differ significantly. There is no indication as to what solutions are optimal for drive belts. The analysis of the coupling process and performance tests have shown that the drive belt should have a cord of very good mechanical properties and its raceway side should be made from the material of a low friction coefficient against the pulley material. A flat belt in power transmission and conveying systems cooperates with several elements consisting of timing pulleys, tensioners or guiding rails. In gear with timing belts they depend strongly on characteristics of the process as well as the type of friction. In recent constructions, producers of timing belts are very much concerned about achieving as much slippery surface as possible. The work describes the problem of friction on different surfaces as well as its influence on gear lifetime. Research results confirm that on many surfaces bigger coefficient of friction is expected.

  8. An Effective Belt Conveyor for Underground Ore Transportation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krol, Robert; Kawalec, Witold; Gladysiewicz, Lech

    2017-12-01

    Raw material transportation generates a substantial share of costs in the mining industry. Mining companies are therefore determined to improve the effectiveness of their transportation system, focusing on solutions that increase both its energy efficiency and reliability while keeping maintenance costs low. In the underground copper ore operations in Poland’s KGHM mines vast and complex belt conveyor systems have been used for horizontal haulage of the run-of-mine ore from mining departments to shafts. Basing upon a long-time experience in the field of analysing, testing, designing and computing of belt conveyor equipment with regard to specific operational conditions, the improvements to the standard design of an underground belt conveyor for ore transportation have been proposed. As the key elements of a belt conveyor, the energy-efficient conveyor belt and optimised carrying idlers have been developed for the new generation of underground conveyors. The proposed solutions were tested individually on the specially constructed test stands in the laboratory and in the experimental belt conveyor that was built up with the use of prototype parts and commissioned for the regular ore haulage in a mining department in the KGHM underground mine “Lubin”. Its work was monitored and the recorded operational parameters (loadings, stresses and strains, energy dissipation, belt tracking) were compared with those previously collected on a reference (standard) conveyor. These in-situ measurements have proved that the proposed solutions will return with significant energy savings and lower maintenance costs. Calculations made on the basis of measurement results in the specialized belt conveyor designing software allow to estimate the possible savings if the modernized conveyors supersede the standard ones in a large belt conveying system.

  9. Ancient geographical gaps and paleo-climate shape the phylogeography of an endemic bird in the sky islands of southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin, V V; Sinha, Anindya; Ramakrishnan, Uma

    2010-10-13

    Sky islands, formed by the highest reaches of mountain tracts physically isolated from one another, represent one of the biodiversity-rich regions of the world. Comparative studies of geographically isolated populations on such islands can provide valuable insights into the biogeography and evolution of species on these islands. The Western Ghats mountains of southern India form a sky island system, where the relationship between the island structure and the evolution of its species remains virtually unknown despite a few population genetic studies. We investigated how ancient geographic gaps and glacial cycles have partitioned genetic variation in modern populations of a threatened endemic bird, the White-bellied Shortwing Brachypteryx major, across the montane Shola forests on these islands and also inferred its evolutionary history. We used bayesian and maximum likelihood-based phylogenetic and population-genetic analyses on data from three mitochondrial markers and one nuclear marker (totally 2594 bp) obtained from 33 White-bellied Shortwing individuals across five islands. Genetic differentiation between populations of the species correlated with the locations of deep valleys in the Western Ghats but not with geographical distance between these populations. All populations revealed demographic histories consistent with population founding and expansion during the Last Glacial Maximum. Given the level of genetic differentiation north and south of the Palghat Gap, we suggest that these populations be considered two different taxonomic species. Our results show that the physiography and paleo-climate of this region historically resulted in multiple glacial refugia that may have subsequently driven the evolutionary history and current population structure of this bird. The first avian genetic study from this biodiversity hotspot, our results provide insights into processes that may have impacted the speciation and evolution of the endemic fauna of this region.

  10. Ancient geographical gaps and paleo-climate shape the phylogeography of an endemic bird in the sky islands of southern India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V V Robin

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Sky islands, formed by the highest reaches of mountain tracts physically isolated from one another, represent one of the biodiversity-rich regions of the world. Comparative studies of geographically isolated populations on such islands can provide valuable insights into the biogeography and evolution of species on these islands. The Western Ghats mountains of southern India form a sky island system, where the relationship between the island structure and the evolution of its species remains virtually unknown despite a few population genetic studies.We investigated how ancient geographic gaps and glacial cycles have partitioned genetic variation in modern populations of a threatened endemic bird, the White-bellied Shortwing Brachypteryx major, across the montane Shola forests on these islands and also inferred its evolutionary history. We used bayesian and maximum likelihood-based phylogenetic and population-genetic analyses on data from three mitochondrial markers and one nuclear marker (totally 2594 bp obtained from 33 White-bellied Shortwing individuals across five islands. Genetic differentiation between populations of the species correlated with the locations of deep valleys in the Western Ghats but not with geographical distance between these populations. All populations revealed demographic histories consistent with population founding and expansion during the Last Glacial Maximum. Given the level of genetic differentiation north and south of the Palghat Gap, we suggest that these populations be considered two different taxonomic species.Our results show that the physiography and paleo-climate of this region historically resulted in multiple glacial refugia that may have subsequently driven the evolutionary history and current population structure of this bird. The first avian genetic study from this biodiversity hotspot, our results provide insights into processes that may have impacted the speciation and evolution of the endemic fauna of

  11. Distribution of "Compound" and "Simple" Flows in the Deccan Traps (India)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderkluysen, L.; Self, S.; Jay, A. E.; Sheth, H. C.; Clarke, A. B.

    2014-12-01

    The Deccan Traps are a dominantly mafic large igneous province (LIP) that, prior to erosion, covered ~1 million km2 of west-central India with lava flows. The type sections of the Western Ghats escarpment, where the Deccan lava pile reaches a maximum reconstructed stratigraphic thickness of ~3400 m, are subdivided into eleven formations defined on chemo-stratigraphic grounds. Earlier work recognized that emplacement of Deccan basalt flows primarily occurs following two main modes: as a stack of meter-sized pāhoehoe toes and lobes, termed "compound" flows; or as inflated sheet lobes tens to hundreds of meters in width and meters to tens of meters in height, previously termed "simple" flows. Initially, the distribution of small lobes and sheet lobes in the Deccan was thought to be controlled by distance from source, but later work suggested the distribution to be mainly controlled along stratigraphic, formational boundaries, with six of the lower formations being composed exclusively of compound flows, and the upper 4-5 formations being wholly built of sheet lobes. This simple stratigraphic subdivision of lava flow morphologies has also been documented in the volcanic architecture of other LIPs, e.g., the Etendeka, the Ethiopian Traps, and in the Faeroe Islands (North Atlantic LIP). Upon examination of eight sections carefully logged along the Western Ghats, this traditional view must be challenged. Where the lower Deccan formations crop out, we found that as much as 65% of the exposed thickness (below the Khandala Formation) is made up of sheet lobes, from 40% in the Bhimashankar Formation to 75% in the Thakurvadi Formation. Near the bottom of the sequence, 25% of the Neral Formation is composed of sheet lobes ≥15 m in thickness. This distribution in lava flow morphology does not seem to be noticeably affected by the inferred distance to the source (based on the location of similar-composition dikes for each formation). Several mechanisms have been proposed to

  12. MACRO MODEL OF SEAT BELT USE BY CAR DRIVERS AND PASSENGERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazimierz JAMROZ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents some problems of seat belt use by car drivers and passengers. It looks in particular at seat belt use and effectiveness in selected countries. Next, factors of seat belt use are presented and methodology of model development. A macro model of seat belt use is presented based on data from around fifty countries from different continents.

  13. India's future: it's about jobs

    OpenAIRE

    Geoffrey N. Keim; Beth Anne Wilson

    2007-01-01

    Projections of sustained strong growth in India depend importantly on the utilization of the huge increase in India's working-age population projected over the next two decades. To date, however, India's economic growth has been concentrated in high-skill and capital-intensive sectors, and has not generated strong employment growth. In this paper, we highlight the tension between India's performance in output and employment, describe the characteristics of India's demographic dividend, and di...

  14. A checklist of mammals of Kerala, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. O. Nameer

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A checklist of mammals of Kerala State is presented in this paper. Accepted English names, scientific binomen, prevalent vernacular names in Malayalam, IUCN conservation status, endemism, Indian Wildlife (Protection Act schedules, and the appendices in the CITES, pertaining to the mammals of Kerala are also given. The State of Kerala has 118 species of mammals, 15 of which are endemic to Western Ghats, and 29 species fall under the various threatened categories of IUCN.  

  15. Continuing scearch for a new type charging belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, N.L.

    1995-01-01

    The EN Tandem accelerator at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) operates to support a varied program of atomic physics research. As such, the demands on the accelerator often require a range of operation from ∼0.38 to 7.0 MV on the terminal, with low ripple and long term steady state operation. The standard charging belts obtained from the manufacture have generally given acceptable performance, but it is reasonable that modem manufacturing techniques and materials could increase belt lifetimes and improve accelerator performance, particularly voltage ripple. A new belt of significantly different construction from that of the conventional belts was specified, purchased, and installed in 1993. After 2800 hours of use at voltages from 0.38 to 5.8 MV, it was removed from the accelerator in early August 1995

  16. A comparative policy analysis of seat belt laws : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-24

    This analysis examined data from a variety of sources to estimate the benefit of enhancing Iowas current law to require all : passengers to use seat belts. In addition to assessing Iowans opinions about changing the law, a literature review, a ...

  17. "Abomination"--life as a Bible belt gay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Bernadette

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on observation, autoethnography, and audio-taped interviews, this article explores the religious backgrounds and experiences of Bible Belt gays. In the Bible Belt, Christianity is not confined to Sunday worship. Christian crosses, messages, paraphernalia, music, news, and attitudes permeate everyday settings. Consequently, Christian fundamentalist dogma about homosexuality-that homosexuals are bad, diseased, perverse, sinful, other, and inferior-is cumulatively bolstered within a variety of other social institutions and environments in the Bible Belt. Of the 46 lesbians and gay men interviewed for this study (age 18-74 years), most describe living through spirit-crushing experiences of isolation, abuse, and self-loathing. This article argues that the geographic region of the Bible Belt intersects with religious-based homophobia. Informants explained that negative social attitudes about homosexuality caused a range of harmful consequences in their lives including the fear of going to hell, depression, low self-esteem, and feelings of worthlessness.

  18. Channel belt architecture formed by a meandering river

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lageweg, W.I. van de; Dijk, W.M. van; Kleinhans, M.G.

    2013-01-01

    Stratification in channel belts is the key to reconstructing formative channel dimensions and palaeoflow conditions; this requires an understanding of the relation between river morphodynamics and set thickness. So far, theories for reconstruction of the original morphology from preserved

  19. Gan-Hang tectonic belt and its geologic significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Jiarui; Zhang Zhiping.

    1989-01-01

    Gan-Hang tectonic belt is predominantly controlled by Gan-Hang fracture zone. It is mainly composed of Yongfeng-Zhuji downwarping zone, Gan-Hang volcanic activity structural belt and Gan-Hang red basin downfaulted zone. Gan-Hang fracture zone is derived from evolution and development of Shaoxing-Jiangshan deep fracture. It is mainly composed of three deep and large fracture and Fuzhou-Yongfeng large fracture. The fracture zone is a long active belt, but in each active period the geologic structural patterns intensity, depth and forming time were not same. Gan-Hang tectonic belt possesses obvious inheritance. It has always maintained the character of the relative depression or low land since the Caledonian movement. This specific structural environment is favourable for uranium mineralization. At any rate, the formation of this uranium minerogenetic zone has been experiencing a long and complicated processes which were closely associated with long activity of Gan-Hang fracture zone

  20. REDDY MAIN BELT ASTEROID SPECTRA V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains low-resolution (R~150) near-infrared (0.7-2.5 microns) spectra of 90 main belt asteroids observed with the SpeX instrument on the NASA...

  1. Magmatic formations in the Okhotsk--Chukotka volcanogenic belt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osipov, A.P.

    1976-05-01

    The relationship between the Okhotsk-Chukotka volcanogenic belt of Northeast USSR and the stage of evolution of magnetism and tectonic development of the region are examined. Recognizing the associations of effusive and intrusive rocks that are typical of the southern part of the volcanogenic belt and that are joined together by some characteristic features, a basic plan is presented for examination of the problem of magnetic formations. On the basis of the distinctive characteristics of epigeosynclinal tectonic development of the territory and the sequence of formation of the magmatic rocks within it, three main groups: volcanic, coleanoplutonic, and plutonic, can be distinguished; and a general scheme of development of these types in space and time within the volcanogenic belt can be developed. According to this scheme, four main stages can be recognized in the Mesozoic and Cenozoic magmatic evolution of the Okhotsk-Chukotka belt. This scheme of classification takes into consideration the factor of the structural development of this tectonomagmatic element.

  2. Clinical trials in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiti, Rituparna; M, Raghavendra

    2007-07-01

    The concept of outsourcing for the development and global studies on new drugs has become widely accepted in the pharmaceutical industry due to its cost and uncertainty. India is going to be the most preferred location for contract pharma research and development due to its huge treatment naïve population, human resources, technical skills, adoption/amendment/implementation of rules/laws by regulatory authorities, and changing economic environment. But still 'miles to go' to fulfill the pre-requisites to ensure India's success. In spite of all the pitfalls, the country is ambitious and optimist to attract multinational pharmaceutical companies to conduct their clinical trials in India.

  3. Avian frugivory and seed dispersal of Indian Sandalwood Santalum album in Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Balasubramanian

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Santalum album, a medium sized evergreen tree found in dry forest tracts of the Deccan Peninsula, India is vulnerable (IUCN and red listed species in southern India. The paper discusses the role of avian frugivores in seed dissemination of S.album in Tamil Nadu. Observations from different locations of Western and Eastern Ghats of Tamil Nadu are presented. The forest type of the study sites comprise of southern dry mixed deciduous forest. Extended watches of 3-hr duration were made on focal trees. During the extended observations, the observer noted the name of the visitor, frequency of fruit-feeding visits by different species, and fruit handling behaviour. A total of 10 species of birds and Three-striped Palm Squirrel foraged fruit crops. Birds constituted the principal seed dispersers of Santalum album. Role of Indian Grey Hornbill in regeneration of S. album was evidenced by the presence of sandalwood seedlings in hornbill’s nest middens. Although bulbuls made frequent foraging visits, they ate the fruits in piecemeal and did not move the seeds away from the parent trees. Among the avian foragers, Asian Koel, Common Myna, Brahminy Starling, Brown-headed Barbet, White-headed Babbler and Indian Grey Hornbill constituted the major seed dispersers of S.album. These birds visited the fruit crops more frequently and swallowed the fruits wholly. Conservation efforts need to focus in providing a healthy habitat for the seed dispersing birds such as koel, as the population of sandalwood tree is dwindling in the wild.

  4. Second longest conveyor belt in UK installed and fully operational

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-07-01

    A conveyor belt (which after the completion of the Selby complex will be the second longest conveyor belt in the UK) has been installed at the Prince Charles Drift Mine, Prince of Wales Colliery, United Kingdom. The 1706 m conveyor is the sole underground-to-surface conveyor at the Drift Mine, and is powered by a single 2240 kW, 3000 hp drive unit.

  5. Exploring the collisional evolution of the asteroid belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottke, W.; Broz, M.; O'Brien, D.; Campo Bagatin, A.; Morbidelli, A.

    2014-07-01

    The asteroid belt is a remnant of planet-formation processes. By modeling its collisional and dynamical history, and linking the results to constraints, we can probe how the planets and small bodies formed and evolved. Some key model constraints are: (i) The wavy shape of the main-belt size distribution (SFD), with inflection points near 100-km, 10--20-km, 1 to a few km, and ˜0.1-km diameter; (ii) The number of asteroid families created by the catastrophic breakup of large asteroid bodies over the last ˜ 4 Gy, with the number of disrupted D > 100 km bodies as small as ˜20 or as large as 60; (iii) the flux of small asteroids derived from the main belt that have struck the Moon over the last 3.5 Ga --- crater SFDs on lunar terrains with known ages suggest the D 100 km bodies have been significantly battered, but only a fraction have been catastrophically disrupted. Conversely, most small asteroids today are byproducts of fragmentation events. These results are consistent with growing evidence that most of the prominent meteorite classes were produced by young asteroid families. The big question is how to use what we know to determine the main belt's original size and state. This work is ongoing, but dynamical models hint at many possibilities, including both the late arrival and late removal of material from the main belt. In addition, no model has yet properly accounted for the bombardment of the primordial main belt by leftover planetesimals in the terrestrial planet region. It is also possible to use additional constraints, such as the apparent paucity of Vesta-like or V-type objects in the outer main belt, to argue that the primordial main belt at best only 3--4 its current mass at its start. In our talk, we will review what is known, what has been predicted, and some intriguing directions for the future.

  6. SPECIFIC RESISTANCE AND SPECIFIC INTENSITY OF BELT SANDING OF WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boleslaw Porankiewicz

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines and discusses the specific belt sanding resistance K (N·cm-2 and specific belt sanding intensity SI (g·cm-2·min-1, for wood of Pinus sylvestris L., Picea abies L., Quercus robra L., Acer pseudoplatanus L., Alnus glutinosa Gaertn., and Populus Nigra L., by different sanding pressure pS, different sanding grit NG number, and different wood grain angles Phi(v.

  7. Formation and Decay of the Inner Electron Radiation Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-09

    a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 09-01-2017 2. REPORT TYPE...radiation belt: CRAND and trapped solar protons......17 APPENDIX C - Inward diffusion and loss of radiation belt protons...transfer orbit that can be damaged by the intense charged -particle environment. Protons are the prominent hazard, often causing single event upsets in

  8. An Empirical Planetesimal Belt Radius–Stellar Luminosity Relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matrà, L.; Marino, S.; Kennedy, G. M.; Wyatt, M. C.; Öberg, K. I.; Wilner, D. J.

    2018-05-01

    Resolved observations of millimeter-sized dust, tracing larger planetesimals, have pinpointed the location of 26 Edgeworth–Kuiper Belt analogs. We report that a belt’s distance R to its host star correlates with the star’s luminosity L ⋆, following R\\propto {L}\\star 0.19 with a low intrinsic scatter of ∼17%. Remarkably, our Edgeworth–Kuiper Belt in the solar system and the two CO snow lines imaged in protoplanetary disks lie close to this R–L ⋆ relation, suggestive of an intrinsic relationship between protoplanetary disk structures and belt locations. To test the effect of bias on the relation, we use a Monte Carlo approach and simulate uncorrelated model populations of belts. We find that observational bias could produce the slope and intercept of the R–L ⋆ relation but is unable to reproduce its low scatter. We then repeat the simulation taking into account the collisional evolution of belts, following the steady-state model that fits the belt population as observed through infrared excesses. This significantly improves the fit by lowering the scatter of the simulated R–L ⋆ relation; however, this scatter remains only marginally consistent with the one observed. The inability of observational bias and collisional evolution alone to reproduce the tight relationship between belt radius and stellar luminosity could indicate that planetesimal belts form at preferential locations within protoplanetary disks. The similar trend for CO snow line locations would then indicate that the formation of planetesimals or planets in the outer regions of planetary systems is linked to the volatility of their building blocks, as postulated by planet formation models.

  9. Design of belt conveyors in bulk terminal applications. Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodwin, P J; Ramos, C M

    1985-10-01

    This paper discusses belt conveyors and their development in bulk terminal applications in South Africa. Single- and multi-product terminal philosophy is discussed, including methods of handling different products over the same system and limiting the effects of degradation at transfer points. In Part II, some aspects of belt conveyor design, as well as the results of tests on a chute designed to handle a range of products, will be covered. 23 references.

  10. Dark nebulae, dark lanes, and dust belts

    CERN Document Server

    Cooke, Antony

    2012-01-01

    As probably the only book of its type, this work is aimed at the observer who wants to spend time with something less conventional than the usual fare. Because we usually see objects in space by means of illumination of one kind or another, it has become routine to see them only in these terms. However, part of almost everything that we see is the defining dimension of dark shading, or even the complete obscuration of entire regions in space. Thus this book is focused on everything dark in space: those dark voids in the stellar fabric that mystified astronomers of old; the dark lanes reported in many star clusters; the magical dust belts or dusty regions that have given so many galaxies their identities; the great swirling 'folds' that we associate with bright nebulae; the small dark feature detectable even in some planetary nebulae; and more. Many observers pay scant attention to dark objects and details. Perhaps they are insufficiently aware of them or of the viewing potential they hold, but also it may be...

  11. Dynamical Classifications of the Kuiper Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggard, Steven; Ragozzine, Darin

    2018-04-01

    The Minor Planet Center (MPC) contains a plethora of observational data on thousands of Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs). Understanding their orbital properties refines our understanding of the formation of the solar system. My analysis pipeline, BUNSHIN, uses Bayesian methods to take the MPC observations and generate 30 statistically weighted orbital clones for each KBO that are propagated backwards along their orbits until the beginning of the solar system. These orbital integrations are saved as REBOUND SimulationArchive files (Rein & Tamayo 2017) which we will make publicly available, allowing many others to perform statistically-robust dynamical classification or complex dynamical investigations of outer solar system small bodies.This database has been used to expand the known collisional family members of the dwarf planet Haumea. Detailed orbital integrations are required to determine the dynamical distances between family members, in the form of "Delta v" as measured from conserved proper orbital elements (Ragozzine & Brown 2007). Our preliminary results have already ~tripled the number of known Haumea family members, allowing us to show that the Haumea family can be identified purely through dynamical clustering.We will discuss the methods associated with BUNSHIN and the database it generates, the refinement of the updated Haumea family, a brief search for other possible clusterings in the outer solar system, and the potential of our research to aid other dynamicists.

  12. Statistics of the outer radiation belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodgers, D.J.; Johnstone, A.D.

    1996-01-01

    The highly variable electron flux levels in the outer radiation belt come about by competition between time-dependent source and loss mechanisms. In order to identify some of the different mechanisms involved, we examine the statistics of the variability of fluxes at geostationary orbit. Data from the SEM-2 analyzer on Meteosat-3 and from GOES-7 are used. Correlation analysis is used to find time-delays between changes in flux at different energies. We see that low energy flux is added to this region during sub-storms and that higher energy fluxes appear after 2 or 3 days. Whilst the timescale for this process is brief compared to a complete cycle of the open-quote Recirculation close-quote energization process, it is consistent with the timescale of its final step endash outward radial diffusion. By isolating periods when no new injection of plasma occurs, we make an assessment of flux loss rates in a quiet magnetosphere. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  13. Two Belts, One Road? - The role of Africa in Chinas's Belt & Road initiative

    OpenAIRE

    Breuer, Julia

    2017-01-01

    In the light of the EU-Africa Summit 2017 and of the G20 Summit 2017 with Africa being one of the focus areas, China’s engagement in Africa seems more relevant than ever. China’s “One Belt, One Road” initiative (OBOR) or silk road initiative is often referred to as a Eurasian infrastructure network initiative, but it is in fact much more than that. The maritime silk road is supposed to go past the coast of East Africa, where several ports are being built and will be built. Furthermore, ports ...

  14. Scheelite distribution a long of amphibolitic belt from greenstone belt Barbacena, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, R.M.; Alexandre, C.A.

    1990-01-01

    In the middle southern portion of the Minas Gerais state a 60 Km long and 12 Km wide tungsten belt was discovered, and related to the amphibolitic rocks of the Barbacena Greenstone. Tungsten, present as scheelite, is associated with amphibolites, amphibole schists and amphibole gneisses, with chemical characteristics indicating an igneous origin. Chemical analyses on pan concentrates by I.C.P. showed high values on lead, tin, yttrium, lanthanum, cerium and zirconium, and average values for zinc and copper. The scheelite mineralization is probably strata bound and has a possible submarine exhalative origin. (author)

  15. Not seeing the grass for the trees: Timber plantations and agriculture shrink tropical montane grassland by two-thirds over four decades in the Palani Hills, a Western Ghats Sky Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arasumani, M; Khan, Danish; Das, Arundhati; Lockwood, Ian; Stewart, Robert; Kiran, Ravi A; Muthukumar, M; Bunyan, Milind; Robin, V V

    2018-01-01

    Tropical montane habitats, grasslands, in particular, merit urgent conservation attention owing to the disproportionate levels of endemic biodiversity they harbour, the ecosystem services they provide, and the fact that they are among the most threatened habitats globally. The Shola Sky Islands in the Western Ghats host a matrix of native forest-grassland matrix that has been planted over the last century, with exotic timber plantations. The popular discourse on the landscape change is that mainly forests have been lost to the timber plantations and recent court directives are to restore Shola forest trees. In this study, we examine spatiotemporal patterns of landscape change over the last 40 years in the Palani Hills, a significant part of the montane habitat in the Western Ghats. Using satellite imagery and field surveys, we find that 66% of native grasslands and 31% of native forests have been lost over the last 40 years. Grasslands have gone from being the dominant, most contiguous land cover to one of the rarest and most fragmented. They have been replaced by timber plantations and, to a lesser extent, expanding agriculture. We find that the spatial pattern of grassland loss to plantations differs from the loss to agriculture, likely driven by the invasion of plantation species into grasslands. We identify remnant grasslands that should be prioritised for conservation and make specific recommendations for conservation and restoration of grasslands in light of current management policy in the Palani Hills, which favours large-scale removal of plantations and emphasises the restoration of native forests.

  16. Selection of Belt Conveyors Drive Units Number by Technical –Economical Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Despodov, Zoran; Mijalkovski, Stojance; Adjiski, Vancho; Panov, Zoran

    2014-01-01

    In this paper is presented a methodology for selection of belt conveyor drive units number by technical - economical analysis of their parameters. Belt Conveyors with follow drive arrangement will be considered: one, two, three and four drive units. In the technical - economical analysis are including: Tension forces, Power of belt conveyor, Costs for belt, Costs for power and reducers, Total cost for belt conveyor system.

  17. Modeling and energy efficiency optimization of belt conveyors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Shirong; Xia, Xiaohua

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We take optimization approach to improve operation efficiency of belt conveyors. → An analytical energy model, originating from ISO 5048, is proposed. → Then an off-line and an on-line parameter estimation schemes are investigated. → In a case study, six optimization problems are formulated with solutions in simulation. - Abstract: The improvement of the energy efficiency of belt conveyor systems can be achieved at equipment and operation levels. Specifically, variable speed control, an equipment level intervention, is recommended to improve operation efficiency of belt conveyors. However, the current implementations mostly focus on lower level control loops without operational considerations at the system level. This paper intends to take a model based optimization approach to improve the efficiency of belt conveyors at the operational level. An analytical energy model, originating from ISO 5048, is firstly proposed, which lumps all the parameters into four coefficients. Subsequently, both an off-line and an on-line parameter estimation schemes are applied to identify the new energy model, respectively. Simulation results are presented for the estimates of the four coefficients. Finally, optimization is done to achieve the best operation efficiency of belt conveyors under various constraints. Six optimization problems of a typical belt conveyor system are formulated, respectively, with solutions in simulation for a case study.

  18. On-conveyor belt determination of ash in coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sowerby, B.; Lim, C.S.; Abernethy, D.A.; Liu, Y.; Maguire, P.A.

    1997-01-01

    A laboratory feasibility study has been carried out on new and advanced neutron and gamma-ray analysis systems for the direct on-conveyor belt analysis of ash in coal without the need for sample by-lines. Such an analysis system could deliver the combined advantages of a direct on-conveyor configuration with new and accurate analysis techniques. An industry survey of 18 coal companies carried out in early 1996 indicated that accurate on-belt ash analysis is of the highest priority. Subsequent laboratory work has focussed on the investigation of methods with the potential for improving the accuracy of ash content measurement relative to existing on-belt ash analysers, the most widely-used of which are based on dual energy gamma-ray transmission (DUET), which is sensitive to variations in ash composition. The current work indicates that on-belt neutron/gamma-ray techniques combined with advanced spectral analysis techniques show promise for development into an on-belt ash analysis system which is significantly less sensitive to composition changes than DUET and which analyses a much larger proportion of coal on the belt, thus eliminating some key sources of analysis error

  19. Compositional variations in the Mesoarchean chromites of the Nuggihalli schist belt, Western Dharwar Craton (India)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mukherjee, Ria; Mondal, Sisir Kanti; Rosing, Minik Thorleif

    2010-01-01

    in silicate-rich chromitite (similar to 50% modal chromite) and serpentinite (similar to 2% modal chromite) throughout the entire ultramafic sequence. However, the primary composition of chromite is preserved in the massive chromitites (similar to 60-75% modal chromite) from the Byrapur and the Bhaktarhalli...

  20. Rapid growth within India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, D.

    2000-01-01

    The Indian government has published (in Hydrocarbon Vision 2025) its ideas for a long term strategy for its oil industry which is currently growing at an unprecedented rate. Increasing domestic production and investment in oil exploration and production overseas figure strongly in the plan. At present, India has a refining surplus but with an annual growth of 8-10%, this will disappear in the next 2-3 years. The report recommends that India should maintain 90% self-sufficiency in refining. The report sees development of the domestic oil industry as globally competitive and helping safeguard India's assets. The capability of India's refineries, current upgrading, the newer refineries and plans for new projects are all mentioned

  1. India's nuclear program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    India made an early commitment to being as self-sufficient as possible in nuclear energy and has largely achieved that goal. The country operates eight nuclear reactors with a total capacity of 1,304 MWe, and it remains committed to an aggressive growth plan for its nuclear industry, with six reactors currently under construction, and as many as twelve more planned. India also operates several heavy water production facilities, fabrication facilities, reprocessing works, and uranium mines and mills. Due to India's decision not to sign the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), the country has had to develop nearly all of its nuclear industry and infrastructure domestically. Overall, India's nuclear power program is self-contained and well integrated, with plans to expand to provide up to ten percent of the country's electrical generating capacity

  2. Energy India 'dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cygler, C.

    2007-01-01

    India has an economic growth between 8 to 10 % by year. To become a great country of the twenty first century and to stop poverty it is necessary to keep this growth but the growth of India is dependant of its ability to supply electric power necessary to increase the industrial production. The country has to multiply by four its energy production. The electric production comes from thermal power plants for 65%, 26% from hydroelectric power plants, 6% from renewable energy sources and 3% from nuclear energy. Between solar energy ( India has three hundred solar days by years) and nuclear energy using thorium that can be increased India has to choose an energy policy to answer its energy demand and independence need. (N.C.)

  3. IDRC in India

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    challenges facing India. The Centre's past support ... are tackling some pressing problems in wireless ... policymakers improve workers' earnings and working ... since 1974. Many of the telecentre managers that IDRC helps to train are women.

  4. Women Scientists in India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    participate in large numbers not just in learning ... earlier reports and give a summary of the situation .... noting best practices and recommendations that ..... service. This certainly has helped women working in organizations. In fact India has ...

  5. PRESENT STATUS IN INDIA

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. PRESENT STATUS IN INDIA. FIXED LINES – 36 MILLION. MOBILE CONNECTIONS – 14 MILLION. TELEDENSITY APPROXIMATELY 5. INTERNET CONNECTIONS – 5 MILLION. INTERNET USERS NEARLY – 25 MILLION.

  6. IDRC in India

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    India has experienced impressive economic growth over the ... and those still living in poverty is widening. ... IDRC supports research to improve women's security, access to justice, and economic ... viction rates for offenders remain low. This.

  7. India : the new China?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nanavaty, K. [Reliance Industries Ltd., Mumbai (India). Cracker and Polymer Div.

    2006-07-01

    India is emerging as a strong force in the global economy. The population of China is 1.2 times that of India, and its gross domestic product is 2.5 times that of India. However, analyses of per capita gross domestic product (GDP) indicate that if India continues its rate of growth, its' consumption and production will reach China's current levels in less than 15 years. This represents a significant investment opportunity in basic industry, particularly since a growing middle class will ensure a boom in consumer products consumption. This presentation compared India and China, in terms of economic approaches and challenges for India. Implications for the petrochemical industry were also discussed with reference to Reliance Industries Ltd. and its full integration in the value chain with petroleum refining. Reliance Industries Ltd. claims that India's captive utilities and labour productivity provide the company with conversion costs that are among the lowest in the industry. In terms of agriculture, India is one of the largest producers of agricultural commodities in the world and is well supported by varying agro-climates and fertile land. This presentation also included an agro-commodities yield comparison for rice, wheat and cereal. The Indian manufacturing industry is also competitive, focusing on cutting cost, increasing productivity and innovation. It was noted that although China has the advantage of a well established infrastructure on a global and domestic scale as well as job opportunities and quick policy implementation, it has lax labour laws, poor pollution laws and a challenging banking system. In contrast, India has the entrepreneurial advantage as well as global scale information technology, a globally competitive manufacturing industry, an independent regulatory framework and world class capital markets and banking system. India's challenge lies in its lack of a world-class infrastructure, complicated tax structure and slow

  8. Gestational surrogacy in India

    OpenAIRE

    Rozée , Virginie; Unisa , Sayeed; De La Rochebrochard , Elise

    2016-01-01

    International audience; While gestational surrogacy is illegal in France, it is authorized in other countries, such as India. Drawing upon a study of Indian surrogates, Indian and foreign intended parents pursuing surro­gacy, as well as physicians, lawyers and Indian clinic and agency managers, Virginie Rozée, Sayeed Unisa and Elise de La Rochebrochard describe how surrogacy services are organized in India and examine the expectations and rationales of the protagonists.

  9. India's Downstream Petroleum Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This study provides a holistic examination of pricing and investment dynamics in India's downstream petroleum sector. It analyses the current pricing practices, highlights the tremendous fiscal cost of current pricing and regulatory arrangements, and examines the sectoral investment dynamics. It also looks at potential paths towards market-based reform along which the Indian government may move, while at the same time protecting energy market access for India's large poor population.

  10. A report on some macrolichens new to Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.S Vinayaka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports six new records of lichen species to Western Ghats of Karnataka. The sampling was carried out from August 2007 to April 2010 in Malnad regions of Karnataka. Lichens were identified by studying their external and internal morphology and chemical tests. Heterodermia albidiflava, H. microphylla, Ramalina cfr. taitensis, Usnea aciculifera, U. eumitrioides and U. sinensis are described as new to Western Ghats of Karnataka. The specimens are housed at the herbarium of the Department of Botany, Kuvempu University, Shankaraghatta, Shimoga, Karnataka.

  11. History of Nuclear India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Ram

    2000-04-01

    India emerged as a free and democratic country in 1947, and entered into the nuclear age in 1948 by establishing the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), with Homi Bhabha as the chairman. Later on the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) was created under the Office of the Prime Minister Jawahar Lal Nehru. Initially the AEC and DAE received international cooperation, and by 1963 India had two research reactors and four nuclear power reactors. In spite of the humiliating defeat in the border war by China in 1962 and China's nuclear testing in 1964, India continued to adhere to the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. On May 18, 1974 India performed a 15 kt Peaceful Nuclear Explosion (PNE). The western powers considered it nuclear weapons proliferation and cut off all financial and technical help, even for the production of nuclear power. However, India used existing infrastructure to build nuclear power reactors and exploded both fission and fusion devices on May 11 and 13, 1998. The international community viewed the later activity as a serious road block for the Non-Proliferation Treaty and the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty; both deemed essential to stop the spread of nuclear weapons. India considers these treaties favoring nuclear states and is prepared to sign if genuine nuclear disarmament is included as an integral part of these treaties.

  12. India's nuclear security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Raju G.C.; Gupta, Amit

    2000-01-01

    The nuclear weapons and ballistic missile tests conducted by India and Pakistan in the late 1990s substantially altered the security environment, both in the region and globally. Examining the complexities, and dynamics of this new strategic context, this timely and significant book examines the claim of many Indian strategists that stability in the region is better served under conditions of declared-rather than covertly developed-nuclear weapons. Bringing together original essays by a diverse group of scholars, this volume discusses a number of important issues such as: the political considerations that caused India and Pakistan to go nuclear; the type of nuclear doctrine that is likely to emerge and its implications for the safety of nuclear weapons, the potential for an arms race in the region, and the likelihood of war; the political and economic consequences for India after Pokhran-II and the impact of economic sanctions; the technological ramifications of the nuclear program on India's defence science scenario; the impact of these tests on the future of India's relationship with the United States, the main bulwark against nuclear weapons proliferation, also, the changed role that India sees for itself in international fora; the possible arms control measures that might succeed in stabilizing the South Asian nuclear rivalry. This insightful, comprehensive and topical volume is a must-read for all those in the fields of political science, international relations, strategic affairs, conflict/peace studies, economics, and policy studies

  13. Deformation and kinematics of the central Kirthar Fold Belt, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinsch, Ralph; Hagedorn, Peter; Asmar, Chloé; Nasim, Muhammad; Aamir Rasheed, Muhammad; Kiely, James M.

    2017-04-01

    The Kirthar Fold Belt is part of the lateral mountain belts in Pakistan linking the Himalaya orogeny with the Makran accretionary wedge. This region is deforming very oblique/nearly parallel to the regional plate motion vector. The study area is situated between the prominent Chaman strike-slip fault in the West and the un-deformed foreland (Kirthar Foredeep/Middle Indus Basin) in the East. The Kirthar Fold Belt is subdivided into several crustal blocks/units based on structural orientation and deformation style (e.g. Kallat, Khuzdar, frontal Kirthar). This study uses newly acquired and depth-migrated 2D seismic lines, surface geology observations and Google Earth assessments to construct three balanced cross sections for the frontal part of the fold belt. Further work was done in order to insure the coherency of the built cross-sections by taking a closer look at the regional context inferred from published data, simple analogue modelling, and constructed regional sketch sections. The Khuzdar area and the frontal Kirthar Fold Belt are dominated by folding. Large thrusts with major stratigraphic repetitions are not observed. Furthermore, strike-slip faults in the Khuzdar area are scarce and not observed in the frontal Kirthar Fold Belt. The regional structural elevation rises from the foreland across the Kirthar Fold Belt towards the hinterland (Khuzdar area). These observations indicate that basement-involved deformation is present at depth. The domination of folding indicates a weak decollement below the folds (soft-linked deformation). The fold pattern in the Khuzdar area is complex, whereas the large folds of the central Kirthar Fold Belt trend SSW-NNE to N-S and are best described as large detachment folds that have been slightly uplifted by basement involved transpressive deformation underneath. Towards the foreland, the deformation is apparently more hard-linked and involves fault-propagation folding and a small triangle zone in Cretaceous sediments

  14. An Assessment of the Impact of Climate Change in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, K. S.

    2009-09-01

    National economy and life of millions of poor largely related to climate sensitive natural resource base and a densely populated 7500 Km long low-lying coastline make India highly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. Significant changes in the amount, intensity and seasonality of rainfall and extremes in temperature observed in different states are serious challenges to the securities in food, water and energy. Vagaries in monsoons and associated setbacks in agriculture that represents 35% GDP affect economy and rural life, leading to social issues like migration and spread of terrorism. Impact on forest affects the biodiversity, economy and life of tribals. Water availability in certain states has been falling sharply due to the changes in the amount as well as the seasonality of rainfall. Increase in rainfall intensity erodes topsoil in the Western Ghats Mountain and reduces the streamflow and reservoir capacity. Retreat of the Himalayan glaciers may add to the severity of hydrological extremes in the entire north India in the coming years. Irregular onset of monsoon and change in seasonality have already affected the plant biodiversity in the southern state of Kerala. Some seasonal plants became extinct because of the prolonged dry season. Almost all parts of India are increasingly becoming prone to floods or droughts. Drylands are potentially threatened by desertification. Changes in the frequency, intensity and track of cyclones and rising sea level are of serious concern in the coastal zones. Decreasing trend in fish catch in the southern coasts is linked to the changes in coastal circulation, SST and upwelling patterns. Coral environments also suffer from this. Cold waves and heat waves are becoming severe, extending to new regions and resulting in casualties. New viruses and vectors spread fatal deceases, expanding geographical extent. Climate change is likely to retard the present economic growth, because of the massive investment required for

  15. On-conveyor belt analysis of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheryl Lim; David Abernethy; S. Rainey; L.K. Noack [CSIRO Minerals (Australia)

    2007-09-15

    The report describes the design and plant-testing of a prototype commercial on-belt ash analyser at the Bengalla CHPP (Muswellbrook, NSW). This analyser uses the Neutron Inelastic Scatter (NIS) and Thermal Neutron Capture (TNC) Analysis (NITA) technique, which has been investigated extensively in earlier ACARP projects C5051 (laboratory feasibility study) and the previous stage of C9042 (development and lab testing of a field prototype and evaluate the suitability of the technique for specific energy and sulphur measurement). The NITA analyser has been demonstrated to be capable of achieving an accuracy of 0.46 %ash. Specifically, a measured value for total r.m.s. error of 0.77 %ash, measured r.m.s error includes various uncertainties (estimated to be 0.61 %ash) associated with the chemical analysis and sample collection procedures used to generate the chemical laboratory data provided for calibration. In earlier laboratory work it was demonstrated that a measured r.m.s error of 0.75 %ash corresponded to an actual accuracy of 0.53 %ash after much smaller laboratory sampling errors had been excluded. Accurate measurement of ash value can be achieved in material which is expected to have significant variability in mineralogy, and in the past has not been amenable to analysis using the DUET technique. Accurate measurement of ash value is possible in the presence of significant levels of segregation and changes in mineral matter composition. CSIRO is collaborating with a commercial partner to demonstrate and complete the implementation of the NITA technology in industry. A commercial prototype analyser (NITA II) is under development and a plant installation is expected to occur in mid 2008.

  16. Meningococcal carriage in the African meningitis belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    A meningococcal serogroup A polysaccharide/tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (PsA-TT) (MenAfriVac#x2122;) is being deployed in countries of the African meningitis belt. Experience with other polysaccharide/protein conjugate vaccines has shown that an important part of their success has been their ability to prevent the acquisition of pharyngeal carriage and hence to stop transmission and induce herd immunity. If PsA-TT is to achieve the goal of preventing epidemics, it must be able to prevent the acquisition of pharyngeal carriage as well as invasive meningococcal disease and whether PsA-TT can prevent pharyngeal carriage needs to be determined. To address this issue, a consortium (the African Meningococcal Carriage (MenAfriCar) consortium) was established in 2009 to investigate the pattern of meningococcal carriage in countries of the African meningitis belt prior to and after the introduction of PsA-TT. This article describes how the consortium was established, its objectives and the standardised field and laboratory methods that were used to achieve these objectives. The experience of the MenAfriCar consortium will help in planning future studies on the epidemiology of meningococcal carriage in countries of the African meningitis belt and elsewhere. Un vaccin conjugué contenant un polysaccharide du sérogroupe A méningococcique et une anatoxine du tétanos (PsA-TT) (MenAfriVac™) est en cours de déploiement dans les pays de la ceinture africaine de la méningite. L’ expérience avec d’ autres vaccins conjugués polysaccharide/protéine a montré qu’ une partie importante de leur succès a été leur capacité à empêcher l’ acquisition du portage pharyngé et donc à arrêter la transmission et à induire une immunité de group. Si PsA-TT doit d’ atteindre l’ objectif de prévenir les épidémies, il devrait être en mesure d’ empêcher l’ acquisition du portage pharyngé ainsi que la méningococcie invasive et le fait que PsA-TT puisse emp

  17. Geological characteristics of dike-structural belt in Taoshan orefield and its relationship to uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wanliang; Zou Maoqing; Shao Fei; Nie Bin

    2009-01-01

    Taoshan uranium field is occurred in the Taoshan composite batholith in the central Jiangxi Province. The main body of the batholith was formed in Triassic-Early Cretaceous. In Late Cretaceous-Eogene, NE strike fault structure and dike belt were developed in the batholith. From the north to the south, there are successive Xiaobu-Matian dike-structural belt, Wangnitian dike- structural belt, Huangtan-Yueyuan dike-structural belt, Xibei-Shangluo dike-structural belt, Jipoling dike-structural belt, Wangce dike-structural belt and Shiyuanling dike-structural belt. These belts are controlled by the main fault, share the same space and similar time with the uranium mineralization, which is one of the important factors in positioning the uranium ore as well as the prospecting direction of exploration. (authors)

  18. Fishy Business: Response of Stream Fish Assemblages to Small Hydro-power Plant Induced Flow Alteration in the Western Ghats, Karnataka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, S. T.; Krishnaswamy, J.; Bhalla, R. S.

    2017-12-01

    Alteration of natural flow regimes is considered as a major threat to freshwater fish assemblages as it disturbs the water quality and micro-habitat features of rivers. Small hydro-power (SHP), which is being promoted as a clean and green substitute for large hydro-power generation, alters the natural flow regime of head-water streams by flow diversion and regulation. The effects of altered flow regime on tropical stream fish assemblages, driven by seasonality induced perturbations to water quality and microhabitat parameters are largely understudied. My study examined the potential consequences of flow alteration by SHPs on fish assemblages in two tributaries of the west-flowing Yettinahole River which flows through the reserved forests of Sakleshpur in the Western Ghats of Karnataka. The flow in one of the tributaries followed natural flow regime while the other comprised three regimes: a near-natural flow regime above the dam, rapidly varying discharge below the dam and a dewatered regime caused by flow diversion. The study found that the altered flow regime differed from natural flow regime in terms of water quality, microhabitat heterogeneity and fish assemblage response, each indicative of the type of flow alteration. Fish assemblage in the natural flow regime was characterized by a higher catch per site, a strong association of endemic and trophic specialist species. The flow regime above the dam was found to mimic some components of the natural flow regime, both ecological and environmental. Non endemic, generalist and pool tolerant species were associated with the dewatered regime. There was a lack of strong species-regime association and an overall low catch per site for the flow regulated regime below the dam. This study highlights the consequences of altered flows on the composition of freshwater fish assemblages and portrays the potential of freshwater fish as indicators of the degree and extent of flow alteration. The study recommends the need for

  19. PRESENTDAY STRESS STATE OF THE SHANXI TECTONIC BELT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Kaiying

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Shanxi tectonic belt is a historically earthquakeabundant area. For the majority of strong earthquakes in this area, the distribution of earthquake foci was controlled by the N–S oriented local structures on the tectonic belt. Studies of the present stress state of the Shanxi tectonic belt can contribute to the understanding of the relationship between strong earthquakes’ occurrence and their structural distribution and also facilitate assessments of regional seismic danger and determination of the regions wherein strong earthquakes may occur in future. Using the Cataclastic Analysis Method (CAM, we performed stress inversion based on the focal mechanism data of earthquakes which took place in the Shanxi tectonic belt from 1967 to 2010. Our results show that orientations of the maximum principal compressive stress axis of the Shanxi tectonic belt might have been variable before and after the 2001 Kunlun MS=8.1 strong earthquake, with two different superior trends of the NW–SE and NE–SW orientation in different periods. When the maximum principal compressive stress axis is oriented in the NE–SW direction, the pattern of the space distribution of the seismic events in the Shanxi tectonic belt shows a trend of their concentration in the N–S oriented tectonic segments. At the same time, the stress state is registered as horizontal shearing and horizontal extension in the N–S and NE–SW oriented local segments in turn. When the maximum principal compressive stress axis is NW–SE oriented, the stress state of the N–S and NE–SW oriented tectonic segments is primarily registered as horizontal shearing. Estimations of plunges of stress axes show that seismicity in the Shanxi belt  corresponds primarily to the activity of lowangle faults, and highangle stress sites are located in the NE–SW oriented extensional tectonic segments of the Shanxi belt. This indicates that the stress change of the Shanxi belt is

  20. Survey of current situation in radiation belt modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Shing F.

    2004-01-01

    The study of Earth's radiation belts is one of the oldest subjects in space physics. Despite the tremendous progress made in the last four decades, we still lack a complete understanding of the radiation belts in terms of their configurations, dynamics, and detailed physical accounts of their sources and sinks. The static nature of early empirical trapped radiation models, for examples, the NASA AP-8 and AE-8 models, renders those models inappropriate for predicting short-term radiation belt behaviors associated with geomagnetic storms and substorms. Due to incomplete data coverage, these models are also inaccurate at low altitudes (e.g., <1000 km) where many robotic and human space flights occur. The availability of radiation data from modern space missions and advancement in physical modeling and data management techniques have now allowed the development of new empirical and physical radiation belt models. In this paper, we will review the status of modern radiation belt modeling. Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of COSPAR.

  1. Angle stations in or for endless conveyor belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, Alan

    1987-04-07

    In an angle station for an endless conveyor belt, there are presented to each incoming run of the belt stationary curved guide members (18, 19) of the shape of a major segment of a right-circular cylinder and having in the part-cylindrical portion (16 or 17) thereof rectangular openings (15) arranged in parallel and helical paths and through which project small freely-rotatable rollers (14), the continuously-changing segments of the curved surfaces of which projecting through said openings (15) are in attitude to change the direction of travel of the belt (13) through 90.degree. during passage of the belt about the part-cylindrical portion (16 or 17) of the guide member (18 or 19). The rectangular openings (15) are arranged with their longer edges lengthwise of the diagonals representing the mean of the helix but with those of a plurality of the rows nearest to each end of the part-cylindrical portion (16 or 17) slightly out of axial symmetry with said diagonals, being slightly inclined in a direction about the intersections (40) of the diagonals of the main portion of the openings, to provide a "toe-in" attitude in relation to the line of run of the endless conveyor belt.

  2. Energy-saving belt conveyors installed in Polish collieries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy ANTONIAK

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An important problem of reducing energy consumption and dioxide emissions in the stage of construction and operation of mine belt conveyors is connected with their broad use in the industry. However, this notion is related to a reduction of electric energy consumption for conveyor drive and for production of conveyor components and assemblies (belts, rollers, load-bearing structure etc.. An essential role is played by an increased life of belt conveyors assemblies and components, principally belts. A reduced electric energy consumption results in a decreased CO2 emissions, e.g. hard coal – fired power station issues 0.28 kg CO2 per production of 1 kWh, in to answer production of 1 t steel accounts for 3.2 t CO2 emissions. The subject-matter presented in the paper concerning energy-saving in the horizontally and inclined mine belt conveyors installed in a Polish colliery – Anna, Jankowice and Marcel, has a big economic significance and it is important from the point of view of environmental protection.

  3. Fall Protection Characteristics of Safety Belts and Human Impact Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hino, Yasumichi; Ohdo, Katsutoshi; Takahashi, Hiroki

    2014-08-23

    Many fatal accidents due to falls from heights have occurred at construction sites not only in Japan but also in other countries. This study aims to determine the fall prevention performance of two types of safety belts: a body belt 1) , which has been used for more than 40 yr in the Japanese construction industry as a general type of safety equipment for fall accident prevention, and a full harness 2, 3) , which has been used in many other countries. To determine human tolerance for impact trauma, this study discusses features of safety belts with reference 4-9) to relevant studies in the medical science, automobile crash safety, and aircrew safety. For this purpose, simple drop tests were carried out in a virtual workplace to measure impact load, head acceleration, and posture in the experiments, the Hybrid-III pedestrian model 10) was used as a human dummy. Hybrid-III is typically employed in official automobile crash tests (New Car Assessment Program: NCAP) and is currently recognized as a model that faithfully reproduces dynamic responses. Experimental results shows that safety performance strongly depends on both the variety of safety belts used and the shock absorbers attached onto lanyards. These findings indicate that fall prevention equipment, such as safety belts, lanyards, and shock absorbers, must be improved to reduce impact injuries to the human head and body during falls.

  4. Monitoring, Analyzing and Assessing Radiation Belt Loss and Energization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daglis, I.; Balasis, G.; Bourdarie, S.; Horne, R.; Khotyaintsev, Y.; Mann, I.; Santolik, O.; Turner, D.; Anastasiadis, A.; Georgiou, M.; Giannakis, O.; Papadimitriou, C.; Ropokis, G.; Sandberg, I.; Angelopoulos, V.; Glauert, S.; Grison, B., Kersten T.; Kolmasova, I.; Lazaro, D.; Mella, M.; Ozeke, L.; Usanova, M.

    2013-09-01

    We present the concept, objectives and expected impact of the MAARBLE (Monitoring, Analyzing and Assessing Radiation Belt Loss and Energization) project, which is being implemented by a consortium of seven institutions (five European, one Canadian and one US) with support from the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme. The MAARBLE project employs multi-spacecraft monitoring of the geospace environment, complemented by ground-based monitoring, in order to analyze and assess the physical mechanisms leading to radiation belt particle energization and loss. Particular attention is paid to the role of ULF/VLF waves. A database containing properties of the waves is being created and will be made available to the scientific community. Based on the wave database, a statistical model of the wave activity dependent on the level of geomagnetic activity, solar wind forcing, and magnetospheric region will be developed. Multi-spacecraft particle measurements will be incorporated into data assimilation tools, leading to new understanding of the causal relationships between ULF/VLF waves and radiation belt dynamics. Data assimilation techniques have been proven as a valuable tool in the field of radiation belts, able to guide 'the best' estimate of the state of a complex system. The MAARBLE (Monitoring, Analyzing and Assessing Radiation Belt Energization and Loss) collaborative research project has received funding from the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP7-SPACE-2011-1) under grant agreement no. 284520.

  5. On the existence of a comet belt beyond Neptune

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    The possible existence of a comet belt in connection with the origin of the short-period comets is analysed. It is noted that the current theory - that these comets originate as near-parabolic comets captured by Jupiter and the other giant planets - implies an excessive wastage of comets lost in hyperbolic orbits, which is avoided in the present model. The following picture is predicted. Solid conglomerates up to approximately 10 18 g were formed by gravitational instabilities in the belt region (about 35 to 50 AU). A further fragmentation-accretion process led to a power-law mass distribution similar to that observed in the asteroids. Since then, close encounters between members of the belt have provoked the diffusion of some of them with the effect that they have become subject to the strong perturbations of Neptune. Of these a small number pass from one planet to the next inside and end as short-period comets. By means of a Monte Carlo method, the influence of close encounters between belt comets is then studied in relation to the diffusion of their orbits. It is concluded that if such a belt contains members with masses equal to or greater than that of Ceres, the orbital diffusion could proceed fast enough to maintain the number of observed short-period comets in a steady state. (author)

  6. SEAT BELT USE AMONG CAR USERS IN MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. KULANTHAYAN

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The car is the second (40% most common mode of transportation in Malaysia. In terms of fatal road accidents, car drivers constitute about 9.0% and passengers 13.6% of fatalities. The major cause of car occupants' fatality in such accidents is head injuries, which consist of more than half (56.4% of the fatalities. Thus restraining the head and body, the initial position is the most important injury control strategy for car users. The use of seat belts was deemed one of the most effective ways to reduce road accident fatalities in Malaysia and consequently the mandatory seat belt law was enforced in the early seventies. Therefore, a study on factors influencing the compliance behaviour of seat belt use among cars is needed as to date no such research has been undertaken in Malaysia. A questionnaire study was carried out in Selangor, Malaysia on the compliance behaviour of car occupants in relation to seat belt use. A total of 237 respondents were interviewed and the data analysed using logistic regression method. Six variables were found to be significant at 5 percent level (p<0.05: seating position, location of travel, education level, speeding, night-time driving and enforcement. Compliance with the seat belt law was higher among drivers, educated car users, in the presence of enforcement activities, travelling in city-center areas and car users with a positive attitude towards the risks of speeding and night driving.

  7. Distribution of Lygosoma guentheri (Peter, 1879 (Reptilia: Scincidae in Andhra Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M.M. Javed

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Lygosoma guentheri (Peter, 1879, hitherto a Western Ghats endemic species, has been recently recorded from the central Eastern Ghats of Andhra Pradesh based on a specimen collected in the Nallamalai Hills in 2003. Our herpetological surveys in Andhra Pradesh reveal the presence of Lygosoma guentheri (Peter, 1879 in a few more localities other than the Nallamalai Hills. This paper deals with the distribution and status of Lygosoma guentheri (Peter, 1879 in Andhra Pradesh based on recent sightings and collections.

  8. Phosphate Solubilizers from the Rhizosphere of Piper nigrum L. in Karnataka, India Solubilizadores de Fosfatos desde la Rizósfera de Piper nigrum L. en Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usha Seshachala

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Black pepper (Piper nigrum L. is a climbing vine known for its pungent fruit used as a spice worldwide. The aim of this study was to evaluate the available P content in the native soils where pepper is grown as a crop plant. The native population of phosphate solubilising microbes (PSM was studied from the rhizosphere of P. nigrum plants grown in the Western Ghats of Karnataka, India. A variety of phosphate solubilising bacteria and fungi were isolated from the rhizosphere soil samples. Phosphate solubilising capacity of different isolates was studied on Pikovskaya's medium. The isolates were tested for their phosphate solubilising capacity in vitro with three different phosphate sources, tricalcium phosphate (TCP, potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KHP, and rock phosphate (RP in the concentrations 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 g L-1. The three phosphate sources were solubilised by the isolates in varying proportions. The dominant PSM flora obtained from the samples included Bacillus and Aspergillus. The study showed that PSM utilised the three phosphate sources TCP, KHP, and RP with considerable variability. The phosphatase activity of the isolates showed that the predominant microorganisms were Bacillus subtilis (5.33 U mL-1 and Aspergillus (11.5 U mL¹. The predominant organisms were identified up to molecular level.La pimienta negra (Piper nigrum L. es una planta trepadora conocida por su fruto utilizado como especia en todo el mundo. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el contenido de P disponible en los suelos nativos donde se cultiva. La población nativa de microbios solubilizantes de fosfato (PSM fue estudiada en la rizósfera de plantas de P. nigrum cultivadas en los Ghats occidentales de Karnataka, India. Una variedad de hongos y bacterias solubilizantes de fosfato fueron aislados de muestras de suelo de la rizósfera. La capacidad solubilizadora de fosfato de diferentes aislamientos fue estudiada en medio de Pikovskaya. Los aislados fueron

  9. India's nuclear spin-off

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaul, Ravi.

    1974-01-01

    After examining world-wide reactions of the foreign governments and news media to the India's peaceful nuclear experiment (PNE) in the Rajasthan Desert on 18 May 1974, development of nuclear technology in India is assessed and its economic advantages are described. Implications of the Non-Proliferation Treaty are explained. Psychological impact of India's PNE on India's neighbours and superpowers and associated political problems in context of proliferation of nuclear weapons are discussed in detail. (M.G.B.)

  10. Technical vocational education in India

    OpenAIRE

    溝上, 智恵子

    1999-01-01

    In India, several efforts have been made for the development of skilled manpower during the last twenty years since the launch of formal technical vocational education at school. A huge education infrastructure has developed in India. However, 45~50 percent of the population of India is still illiterate. To solve the mismatch between education and employment, a revolution in education is really needed. Additionally, there is a need for a system of National Vocational Qualifications in India a...

  11. Fiscal Discipline in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanhita SUCHARITA

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study broadly attempts to analyze the role of Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management Act in restoring fiscal balance in India. It analyses the need for fiscal rules and constraints in India. The study aims at finding out the major factor behind rising fiscal imbalance in India and to examine whether there is an electoral motive towards high fiscal deficit to GDP ratio or not. It also analyzes the effectiveness of various measures undertaken at the central and state level to inculcate fiscal discipline in the fiscal management. The study also makes an attempt to do a critical in depth reviews of the Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management Act and make an attempt at examining effectiveness and suitability of FRBM Act through a quantitative analysis. It also makes an attempt to suggest improvements in the fiscal monitoring mechanism in India. We employ Ordinary Least Square (OLS method to examine the impact of Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management Act on fiscal deficit in India using the data for the period 1980-81 to 2008-09. The regression results indicates that FRBM Act does not have a significant effect on the Gross Fiscal Deficit (GFD to GDP ratio where as GDP (at factor cost growth rate has a significant negative effect on the GFD to GDP ratio.

  12. Venereology in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devinder Mohan Thappa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Venereology-the study of venereal diseases or more recently, the sexually transmitted infections (STI includes a variety of pathogens namely viruses, bacteria, fungi and protozoa for which the common factor is the mode of transmission and acquisition: Sexual relations between human beings. Medical and other historians have often suggested that well-known diseases such as syphilis, gonorrhea, chancroid and lymphogranuloma venereum have existed since earliest times. However, it is difficult to identify modern disease entities based on written historical record. Studying the origin of STIs helps us to learn the political, economic and moral conditions that led to the disease. Effective management of STI rests on three pillars of diagnosis, prevention and treatment. For most of past 50 years in India, the diagnostic pillar has been the least well-supported. Until well into present century, diagnosis of STI in India was clinical. Treatment of STIs in India followed the methods used in England. Of course in the 19th century, in many parts of the world, only a few had access to modern methods of treatment; in India, there was extensive use of Ayurvedic treatment with traditional medicines. This article thus gives just an overview and evolution of venereology in India with regard to venereal diseases (now more often known as STIs/disease, control measures, academic, association and journal development and finally future perspective.

  13. Seroprevalence of Capripoxvirus infection in sheep and goats among different agro-climatic zones of Odisha, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Hota

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study was undertaken to assess the prevalence of antibodies to Capripoxviruses among small ruminants of Odisha, India. Materials and Methods: A total of 500 random serum samples collected from 214 sheep and 286 goats across 10 agro-climatic zones of Odisha, were screened using whole virus antigen-based indirect ELISA for antibodies against Capripoxviruses. Results were analyzed by suitable statistical methods. Results: Screening of 500 serum samples showed seropositivity of 8.88% and 31.47% in sheep and goats, respectively, for Capripoxviruses. The prevalence rate according to agro-climatic zone ranged from 0% (North Eastern coastal plain zone to 48.57% (North central plateau zone for goat pox, and 0% (Western undulating zone and North central plateau to 22.22% (South Eastern ghat zone for sheep pox. The difference in prevalence rates among the various agro-climatic zones was statistically significant (p<0.05 for goats, but not for sheep. Antibody prevalence rates among various districts were recorded to be the highest in Jagatsinghpur (30% for sheep pox and Dhenkanal (80% for goat pox. Conclusion: The study revealed serological evidence of Capripoxvirus infection in sheep and goat populations in the study area, in the absence of vaccination. Systematic investigation, monitoring, and reporting of outbreaks are necessary to devise control strategies.

  14. Seroprevalence of Capripoxvirus infection in sheep and goats among different agro-climatic zones of Odisha, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hota, Abhishek; Biswal, Sangram; Sahoo, Niranjana; Venkatesan, Gnanavel; Arya, Sargam; Kumar, Amit; Ramakrishnan, Muthannan Andavar; Pandey, Awadh Bihari; Rout, Manoranjan

    2018-01-01

    The study was undertaken to assess the prevalence of antibodies to Capripoxviruses among small ruminants of Odisha, India. A total of 500 random serum samples collected from 214 sheep and 286 goats across 10 agro-climatic zones of Odisha, were screened using whole virus antigen-based indirect ELISA for antibodies against Capripoxviruses. Results were analyzed by suitable statistical methods. Screening of 500 serum samples showed seropositivity of 8.88% and 31.47% in sheep and goats, respectively, for Capripoxviruses. The prevalence rate according to agro-climatic zone ranged from 0% (North Eastern coastal plain zone) to 48.57% (North central plateau zone) for goat pox, and 0% (Western undulating zone and North central plateau) to 22.22% (South Eastern ghat zone) for sheep pox. The difference in prevalence rates among the various agro-climatic zones was statistically significant (ppox and Dhenkanal (80%) for goat pox. The study revealed serological evidence of Capripoxvirus infection in sheep and goat populations in the study area, in the absence of vaccination. Systematic investigation, monitoring, and reporting of outbreaks are necessary to devise control strategies.

  15. Renewable Energy Education in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajpai, Shrish; Kidwai, Naimur Rahman

    2017-01-01

    The issue of renewable energy sources that have great potential to give solutions to the longstanding energy problems of India has been considered. It has been stated that renewable energy sources are an important part of India's plan to increase energy security and provide new generation with ample job opportunities. India's plans to move towards…

  16. RATIONALE FOR CENTERING CAPACITY OF REDISIGNED BELT CONVEYOR DRUMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Suglobov

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In the study is necessary: 1 to justify aligning drums of a new design of belt conveyors; 2 to develop a method for calculating and determining the rational design parameters of drums depending on the technical parameters of the conveyor belt (the length of the conveyor, belt width, the performance of the conveyor, the diameter of the drive and tension drums, etc.; 3 to carry out pilot studies of efficiency conveyor belt in a production environment in order to determine the magnitude of dynamic loads and a comparative evaluation of the effectiveness of the centering ability of conventional and new designs of drums. Methodology. To substantiate the effectiveness of the centering ability of the drums of a new design by the authors developed a mathematical model of interaction of the tape with the drum. Mathematical simulation of tape reels with new design comes to drawing up a differential equation of the belt based on the dynamic component and restoring force. This model allowed us to estimate the movement of the tape in the transverse direction based on the calculated additional dynamic loads and forces on the investigated centering a conveyor belt with given specifications. For the first time the technique of calculating and determining the rational parameters of the drums, which allows determining the design parameters of the centering portions, depending on the mechanical properties and geometric parameters of the tape. Findings. With the help of mathematical modeling the scientifically substantiated effect of centering the ability of the new design of the drum, which ensures stable tape running along the longitudinal axis of the conveyor. The authors made the following conclusions: 1 the mathematical model of interaction with the new belt design of the drum, which allowed to describe the belt in the transverse direction in view of additional dynamic loads and renewable power was developed; 2 the method of calculation and

  17. Design of a nucleonic conveyor belt weighing machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magal, B.S.; Sunder Singh, V.P.

    1979-01-01

    A brief literature survey of the existing conventional units and the nucleonic belt weigher is made. The design of a 250 ton per hour coal weighing unit working in conjunction with a 24 inch wide belt, running at 350 feet per minute has been attempted and a unit has been built to the above specifications. Caseium-137 line source has been used as an isotope and a 10 litre volume argon filled ionisation chamber has been used as a detector. A line source has been preferred to a point source. The unit is under trial and the accuracy of the same is being evaluated by changing the variables like particle size profile of the material deposited on the belt and sudden changes in loading. Initial trials indicate that an accuracy of +- 1 p.c. can be achieved. (auth.)

  18. A minimalistic and optimized conveyor belt for neutral atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Ritayan; Condylis, Paul C; Prakash, Vindhiya; Sahagun, Daniel; Hessmo, Björn

    2017-10-20

    Here we report of a design and the performance of an optimized micro-fabricated conveyor belt for precise and adiabatic transportation of cold atoms. A theoretical model is presented to determine optimal currents in conductors used for the transportation. We experimentally demonstrate a fast adiabatic transportation of Rubidium ( 87 Rb) cold atoms with minimal loss and heating with as few as three conveyor belt conductors. This novel design of a multilayered conveyor belt structure is fabricated in aluminium nitride (AlN) because of its outstanding thermal and electrical properties. This demonstration would pave a way for a compact and portable quantum device required for quantum information processing and sensors, where precise positioning of cold atoms is desirable.

  19. The effects of seat belt legislation on road traffic injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinca, G W; Dooley, B J

    1977-04-01

    The compulsory wearing of seat belts, first introduced in the world in Victoria in 1970, has effectively reduced the number of deaths and injuries by approximately one-third for car occupants involved in motor vehicle crashes. Initially, the legislation did not apply to children under the age of eight years, but in 1975 a further law was introduced banning children from the front seat of any vehicle unless properly harnessed. Seat belts offer the best protection for front seat drivers and passengers involved in frontal impacts, but offer less protection to the recipient of a side impact. Ten per cent of car occupants admitted to hospital after a frontal impact show injuries, mostly minor, directly attibutable to the wearing of seat belts.

  20. Is India the Exception?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Klaus; Storm, Rasmus K.

    India is still the extreme under-achiever in international sport competitions. Whereas in China high growth rates have been accompanied by a huge improvement in its ranking in international sport events a similar impact of extraordinary growth rates is seemingly totally absent in the case of India....... Is India an exception? Several econometric studies have shown that income per capita is a significant variable explaining elite sport results such as results in the Olympic Games. From this stylized fact follows the hypothesis that 'above/below average' growth rates lead to relative improvements...... between growth in GNP per capita and growth in medal points (no. 1: five points, no. 2: three points, no.3: two points) in Olympic Summer Games. The findings show no correlation and in a few calculations a very weak correlation. Among the countries behaving in accordance with the hypothesis in the most...

  1. Nuclear power in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bose, D.K.

    1980-01-01

    India has now nine years of experience with her in nuclear power generation. The system has been acclaimed on various grounds by the authority concerned with its organization in the country. The present paper intends to examine critically the claim for economic superiority of the nuclear power over the thermal power which is asserted often by the spokesmen for the former. Information about the cost of nuclear power that is available to researchers in India is very meagre. Whatever appears in official publications is hardly adequate for working out reasonable estimates for scrutiny. One is therefore left to depend on the public statements made by dignitaries from time to time to form an idea about the economics of nuclear power. Due to gaps in information we are constrained to rely on the foreign literature and make careful guesses about possible costs applicable to India

  2. Ecosystem degradation in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, B.N.

    1990-01-01

    Environmental and ecosystem studies have assumed greater relevance in the last decade of the twentieth century than even before. The urban settlements are becoming over-crowded and industries are increasingly polluting the air, water and sound in our larger metropolises. Degradation of different types of ecosystem are discussed in this book, Ecosystem Degradation in India. The book has been divided into seven chapters: Introduction, Coastal and Delta Ecosystem, River Basin Ecosystem, Mountain Ecosystem, Forest Ecosystem, Urban Ecosystem and the last chapter deals with the Environmental Problems and Planning. In the introduction the environmental and ecosystem degradation problems in India is highlighted as a whole while in other chapters mostly case studies by experts who know their respective terrain very intimately are included. The case study papers cover most part of India and deal with local problems, stretching from east coast to west coast and from Kashmir to Kanyakumari. (author)

  3. Radiation belt seed population and its association with the relativistic electron dynamics: A statistical study: Radiation Belt Seed Population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, C. L.; Wang, Y. X.; Ni, B.; Zhang, J.-C.

    2017-01-01

    Using the Van Allen Probes data, we study the radiation belt seed population and it associated with the relativistic electron dynamics during 74 geomagnetic storm events. Based on the flux changes of 1 MeV electrons before and after the storm peak, these storm events are divided into two groups of “non-preconditioned” and “preconditioned”. The statistical study shows that the storm intensity is of significant importance for the distribution of the seed population (336 keV electrons) in the outer radiation belt. However, substorm intensity can also be important to the evolution of the seed population for some geomagnetic storm events. For non-preconditioned storm events, the correlation between the peak fluxes and their L-shell locations of the seed population and relativistic electrons (592 keV, 1.0 MeV, 1.8 MeV, and 2.1 MeV) is consistent with the energy-dependent dynamic processes in the outer radiation belt. For preconditioned storm events, the correlation between the features of the seed population and relativistic electrons is not fully consistent with the energy-dependent processes. It is suggested that the good correlation between the radiation belt seed population and ≤1.0 MeV electrons contributes to the prediction of the evolution of ≤1.0 MeV electrons in the Earth’s outer radiation belt during periods of geomagnetic storms.

  4. Geospatial analysis of forest fragmentation in Uttara Kannada District, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramachandra T V

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Landscapes consist of heterogeneous interacting dynamic elements with complex ecological, economic and cultural attributes. These complex interactions help in the sustenance of natural resources through bio-geochemical and hydrological cycling. The ecosystem functions are altered with changes in the landscape structure. Fragmentation of large contiguous forests to small and isolated forest patches either by natural phenomena or anthropogenic activities leads to drastic changes in forest patch sizes, shape, connectivity and internal heterogeneity, which restrict the movement leading to inbreeding among Meta populations with extirpation of species. Methods: Landscape dynamics are assessed through land use analysis by way of remote sensing data acquired at different time periods. Forest fragmentation is assessed at the pixel level through computation of two indicators, i.e., Pf (the ratio of pixels that are forested to the total non-water pixels in the window and Pff (the proportion of all adjacent (cardinal directions only pixel pairs that include at least one forest pixel, for which both pixels are forested. Results: Uttara Kannada District has the distinction of having the highest forest cover in Karnataka State, India. This region has been experiencing changes in its forest cover and consequent alterations in functional abilities of its ecosystem. Temporal land use analyses show the trend of deforestation, evident from the reduction of evergreen - semi evergreen forest cover from 57.31 % (1979 to 32.08 % (2013 Forest fragmentation at the landscape level shows a decline of interior forests 64.42 % (1979 to 25.62 % (2013 and transition of non-forest categories such as crop land, plantations and built-up areas, amounting now to 47.29 %. PCA prioritized geophysical and socio variables responsible for changes in the landscape structure at local levels. Conclusion: Terrestrial forest ecosystems in Uttara Kannada District of Central

  5. Geospatial analysis of forest fragmentation in Uttara Kannada District, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramachandra T V; Bharath Setturu; Subash Chandran

    2016-01-01

    Background: Landscapes consist of heterogeneous interacting dynamic elements with complex ecological,economic and cultural attributes. These complex interactions help in the sustenance of natural resources through bio-geochemical and hydrological cycling. The ecosystem functions are altered with changes in the landscape structure. Fragmentation of large contiguous forests to small and isolated forest patches either by natural phenomena or anthropogenic activities leads to drastic changes in forest patch sizes, shape, connectivity and internal heterogeneity, which restrict the movement leading to inbreeding among Meta populations with extirpation of species.Methods: Landscape dynamics are assessed through land use analysis by way of remote sensing data acquired at different time periods. Forest fragmentation is assessed at the pixel level through computation of two indicators,i.e., Pf(the ratio of pixels that are forested to the total non-water pixels in the window) and Pff(the proportion of all adjacent(cardinal directions only) pixel pairs that include at least one forest pixel, for which both pixels are forested).Results: Uttara Kannada District has the distinction of having the highest forest cover in Karnataka State, India. This region has been experiencing changes in its forest cover and consequent alterations in functional abilities of its ecosystem. Temporal land use analyses show the trend of deforestation, evident from the reduction of evergreen-semi evergreen forest cover from 57.31 %(1979) to 32.08 %(2013) Forest fragmentation at the landscape level shows a decline of interior forests 64.42 %(1979) to 25.62 %(2013) and transition of non-forest categories such as crop land, plantations and built-up areas, amounting now to 47.29 %. PCA prioritized geophysical and socio variables responsible for changes in the landscape structure at local levels.Conclusion: Terrestrial forest ecosystems in Uttara Kannada District of Central Western Ghats have been

  6. The Belt voice: Acoustical measurements and esthetic correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bounous, Barry Urban

    This dissertation explores the esthetic attributes of the Belt voice through spectral acoustical analysis. The process of understanding the nature and safe practice of Belt is just beginning, whereas the understanding of classical singing is well established. The unique nature of the Belt sound provides difficulties for voice teachers attempting to evaluate the quality and appropriateness of a particular sound or performance. This study attempts to provide answers to the question "does Belt conform to a set of measurable esthetic standards?" In answering this question, this paper expands on a previous study of the esthetic attributes of the classical baritone voice (see "Vocal Beauty", NATS Journal 51,1) which also drew some tentative conclusions about the Belt voice but which had an inadequate sample pool of subjects from which to draw. Further, this study demonstrates that it is possible to scientifically investigate the realm of musical esthetics in the singing voice. It is possible to go beyond the "a trained voice compared to an untrained voice" paradigm when evaluating quantitative vocal parameters and actually investigate what truly beautiful voices do. There are functions of sound energy (measured in dB) transference which may affect the nervous system in predictable ways and which can be measured and associated with esthetics. This study does not show consistency in measurements for absolute beauty (taste) even among belt teachers and researchers but does show some markers with varying degrees of importance which may point to a difference between our cognitive learned response to singing and our emotional, more visceral response to sounds. The markers which are significant in determining vocal beauty are: (1) Vibrancy-Characteristics of vibrato including speed, width, and consistency (low variability). (2) Spectral makeup-Ratio of partial strength above the fundamental to the fundamental. (3) Activity of the voice-The quantity of energy being produced. (4

  7. An Experimental Concept for Probing Nonlinear Physics in Radiation Belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabtree, C. E.; Ganguli, G.; Tejero, E. M.; Amatucci, B.; Siefring, C. L.

    2017-12-01

    A sounding rocket experiment, Space Measurement of Rocket-Released Turbulence (SMART), can be used to probe the nonlinear response to a known stimulus injected into the radiation belt. Release of high-speed neutral barium atoms (8- 10 km/s) generated by a shaped charge explosion in the ionosphere can be used as the source of free energy to seed weak turbulence in the ionosphere. The Ba atoms are photo-ionized forming a ring velocity distribution of heavy Ba+ that is known to generate lower hybrid waves. Induced nonlinear scattering will convert the lower hybrid waves into EM whistler/magnetosonic waves. The escape of the whistlers from the ionospheric region into the radiation belts has been studied and their observable signatures quantified. The novelty of the SMART experiment is to make coordinated measurement of the cause and effect of the turbulence in space plasmas and from that to deduce the role of nonlinear scattering in the radiation belts. Sounding rocket will carry a Ba release module and an instrumented daughter section that includes vector wave magnetic and electric field sensors, Langmuir probes and energetic particle detectors. The goal of these measurements is to determine the whistler and lower hybrid wave amplitudes and spectrum in the ionospheric source region and look for precipitated particles. The Ba release may occur at 600-700 km near apogee. Ground based cameras and radio diagnostics can be used to characterize the Ba and Ba+ release. The Van Allen Probes can be used to detect the propagation of the scattering-generated whistler waves and their effects in the radiation belts. By detecting whistlers and measuring their energy density in the radiation belts the SMART mission will confirm the nonlinear generation of whistlers through scattering of lower hybrid along with other nonlinear responses of the radiation belts and their connection to weak turbulence.

  8. High-energy outer radiation belt dynamic modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, Y.T.; Nightingale, R.W.; Rinaldi, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    Specification of the average high-energy radiation belt environment in terms of phenomenological montages of satellite measurements has been available for some time. However, for many reasons both scientific and applicational (including concerns for a better understanding of the high-energy radiatino background in space), it is desirable to model the dynamic response of the high-energy radiation belts to sources, to losses, and to geomagnetic activity. Indeed, in the outer electron belt, this is the only mode of modeling that can handle the large intensity fluctuations. Anticipating the dynamic modeling objective of the upcoming Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) program, we have undertaken to initiate the study of the various essential elements in constructing a dynamic radiation belt model based on interpretation of satellite data according to simultaneous radial and pitch-angle diffusion theory. In order to prepare for the dynamic radiation belt modeling based on a large data set spanning a relatively large segment of L-values, such as required for CRRES, it is important to study a number of test cases with data of similar characteristics but more restricted in space-time coverage. In this way, models of increasing comprehensiveness can be built up from the experience of elucidating the dynamics of more restrictive data sets. The principal objectives of this paper are to discuss issues concerning dynamic modeling in general and to summarize in particular the good results of an initial attempt at constructing the dynamics of the outer electron radiation belt based on a moderately active data period from Lockheed's SC-3 instrument flown on board the SCATHA (P78-2) spacecraft. Further, we shall discuss the issues brought out and lessons learned in this test case

  9. From Hair in India to Hair India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trüeb, Ralph M

    2017-01-01

    In all cultures, human hair and hairdo have been a powerful metaphor. Tracing back the importance and significance of human hair to the dawn of civilization on the Indian subcontinent, we find that all the Vedic gods are depicted as having uncut hair in mythological stories as well as in legendary pictures. The same is true of the Hindu avatars, and the epic heroes of the Ramayana, and the Mahabharata. Finally, there are a number of hair peculiarities in India pertinent to the creed and religious practices of the Hindu, the Jain, and the Sikh. Shiva Nataraja is a depiction of the Hindu God Shiva as the cosmic dancer who performs his divine dance as creator, preserver, and destroyer of the universe and conveys the Indian conception of the never-ending cycle of time. The same principle manifests in the hair cycle, in which perpetual cycles of growth, regression, and resting underly the growth and shedding of hair. Finally, The Hair Research Society of India was founded as a nonprofit organisation dedicated to research and education in the science of hair. Notably, the HRSI reached milestones in the journey of academic pursuit with the launch of the International Journal of Trichology, and with the establishment of the Hair India conference. Ultimately, the society aims at saving the public from being taken for a ride by quackery, and at creating the awareness that the science of hair represents a subspecialty of Dermatology. In analogy again, the dwarf on which the Nataraja dances represents the demon of egotism, and thus symbolizes Shiva's, respectively, the HRSI's victory over ignorance.

  10. Is India the Exception?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Klaus; Storm, Rasmus K.

    2013-01-01

    in international sport events a similar impact of extraordinary growth rates has been almost totally absent in the case of India. Is India an exception? Several econometric studies have shown that income per capita is a significant variable explaining elite sport results such as results in the Olympic Games. From...... in the sports of the Olympic Summer Games. The findings show only a very weak correlation, if any at all. However, a detailed analysis of country evidence shows interesting trends and details. The paper concludes with tentative explanations for the findings including the contradictory country evidence....

  11. PV opportunities in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Jack L.; Ullal, Harin S.

    1996-01-01

    The growing middle class in India, coupled with a need for electricity to provide basic services to the masses, provides an opportunity to deploy photovoltaic systems in cost-effective applications ranging from grid-connected to isolated location requirements. This need is being satisfied by aggressive government programs, the availability of funds from agencies such as the World Bank, and the desire of Indian industries to form joint ventures for in-country manufacturing. The relaxed restrictions on doing business in India makes today's opportunities timely indeed.

  12. Energies in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gama, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Based on information gathered during a mission in India, and also from reports and local newspapers and magazines, the author gives an overview of the energy issue in India: population, energy consumption, greenhouse gas emissions, electricity consumption, economic activities and life conditions, biomass production, potential for solar energy production, hydraulic energy production and operators, situation regarding coal, oil and natural gas as primary energies, situation of the nuclear industry and sector (international agreements and cooperation, reactor fleet, research centres). A table indicates the level and percentage of the different produced and imported consumed primary and final energies

  13. India's African Engagement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund, Peter

    was addressed. This kicked off a quest among donor agencies, think tanks and researchers alike to identify and establish the doings of these ‘emerging’ donors. To date, however, China has received most attention while the doings of other donors like India, Brazil and South Africa have remained virtually......The exceptionally fast growth of big economies like China and India has resulted in a new-found interest in the economic and political consequences of this growth for the developed economies. Recently, traditional donors’ concern that ‘emerging’ donors were re-emerging on the development scene...

  14. Urology in ancient India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakti Das

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The practice of medical and surgical measures in the management of urological ailments prevailed in ancient India from the Vedic era around 3000 BC. Subsequently in the Samhita period, the two stalwarts - Charaka in medicine and Susruta in surgery elevated the art of medicine in India to unprecedented heights. Their elaboration of the etiopathological hypothesis and the medical and surgical treatments of various urological disorders of unparalleled ingenuity still remain valid to some extent in our contemporary understanding. The new generation of accomplished Indian urologists should humbly venerate the legacy of the illustrious pioneers in urology of our motherland.

  15. India's energy needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, N. B.

    1980-03-15

    Only a small portion (15%) of India's commerical energy requirements is imported, but this import accounts for nearly 75% of total imports. Noncommercial energy (firewood, agricultural waste, cow dung) will still have an important role in the future. The major thrust of India's energy policy should be to ensure that energy will not be a constraint to economic growth, and to increase the per capita energy consumption. In the future, hydroelectric and nuclear power will become increasingly important. Solar energy will also be utilized. (DLC)

  16. COMPREHENSIVE CHECK MEASUREMENT OF KEY PARAMETERS ON MODEL BELT CONVEYOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlastimil MONI

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Complex measurements of characteristic parameters realised on a long distance model belt conveyor are described. The main objective was to complete and combine the regular measurements of electric power on drives of belt conveyors operated in Czech opencast mines with measurements of other physical quantities and to gain by this way an image of their mutual relations and relations of quantities derived from them. The paper includes a short description and results of the measurements on an experimental model conveyor with a closed material transport way.

  17. ALT-II toroidal belt limiter biasing experiments on TEXTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doerner, R.; Boedo, J.A.; Gray, D.S.

    1991-01-01

    Edge electric fields have been related to H-mode-like behaviour. The experiments reported here are an attempt to control the SOL profiles by electrostatic biasing of the full toroidal-belt limiter ALT-II. The specific goals are: influencing the edge particle flows, particle removal, power deposition and the global confinement. The ALT-II pump limiter is a full toroidal belt located at 45 o below the outer midplane and consisting of eight graphite covered blades which can be independently biased. Particle scoops located behind the limiter neutralize and direct the incoming plasma into the pumping ducts. (author) 5 refs., 3 figs

  18. Type QH-200 conveyor-belt nuclear scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shuming; Dong Shiyuan; Li Furong; Wan Zemin

    1991-01-01

    Type QH-200 conveyor-belt nuclear scale is a reliable and on-line device that weighs solids mass flow continuously by γ-ray absorption and scattering. The operation principle and measuring method are described. And some factors influencing the accuracy are discussed. The full scale total weight of type QH-200 nuclear scale is 10 6 t. The result of calibration in the industrial field shows that the accuracy of QH-200 is better than ±1.0% for typical belt loading

  19. Realization methodology for optimal design of steel structures conveyors with hanging belt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boslovyak P.V.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Presents the results of optimum design of metal structures of the fixed conveyor with hanging belt. The analysis results optimum design of steel structures of stationary conveyor with hanging belt.

  20. The 3.1 Ga Nuggihalli chromite deposits, Western Dhawar craton (India)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mukherjee, Ria; Mondal, Sisir K.; Frei, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The Nuggihalli greenstone belt is part of the older greenstone belts (3.4 - 3.0 Ga) in the Western Dharwar Craton, southern India. This greenstone sequence consists of conformable metavolcanic and metasedimentary supracrustal rock assemblages that belong to the Sargur Group. Sill-like ultramafic......-mafic plutonic bodies are present within these supracrustal rocks (schist rocks) which are in turn enclosed by tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite gneiss (TTG). The sill-like ultramafic-mafic rocks are cumulates derived from a high-Mg parental magma that are represented by chromitite-hosted serpentinite...... and tremolite-chlorite-actinolite- schist (altered peridotite), anorthosite, pyroxenite, and gabbro hosting magnetite bands. The first whole-rock Sm-Nd data for the peridotite anorthosite- pyroxenite-gabbro unit has been obtained yielding an age of 3125 ± 120 Ma (MSWD = 1.3) which is similar to reported ages...