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Sample records for gestational lead exposure

  1. Gestational lead exposure selectively decreases retinal dopamine amacrine cells and dopamine content in adult mice

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    Fox, Donald A., E-mail: dafox@uh.edu [College of Optometry, University of Houston, Houston, TX (United States); Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Houston, Houston, TX (United States); Department of Pharmacology and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Houston, Houston, TX (United States); Hamilton, W. Ryan [Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Houston, Houston, TX (United States); Johnson, Jerry E. [Department of Natural Sciences, University of Houston-Downtown, Houston, TX (United States); Xiao, Weimin [College of Optometry, University of Houston, Houston, TX (United States); Chaney, Shawntay; Mukherjee, Shradha [Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Houston, Houston, TX (United States); Miller, Diane B.; O' Callaghan, James P. [Toxicology and Molecular Biology Branch, Health Effects Research Laboratory, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-NIOSH, Morgantown, WV USA (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Gestational lead exposure (GLE) produces supernormal scotopic electroretinograms (ERG) in children, monkeys and rats, and a novel retinal phenotype characterized by an increased number of rod photoreceptors and bipolar cells in adult mice and rats. Since the loss of dopaminergic amacrine cells (DA ACs) in GLE monkeys and rats contributes to supernormal ERGs, the retinal DA system was analyzed in mice following GLE. C57BL/6 female mice were exposed to low (27 ppm), moderate (55 ppm) or high (109 ppm) lead throughout gestation and until postnatal day 10 (PN10). Blood [Pb] in control, low-, moderate- and high-dose GLE was {<=} 1, {<=} 10, {approx} 25 and {approx} 40 {mu}g/dL, respectively, on PN10 and by PN30 all were {<=} 1 {mu}g/dL. At PN60, confocal-stereology studies used vertical sections and wholemounts to characterize tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression and the number of DA and other ACs. GLE dose-dependently and selectively decreased the number of TH-immunoreactive (IR) DA ACs and their synaptic plexus without affecting GABAergic, glycinergic or cholinergic ACs. Immunoblots and confocal revealed dose-dependent decreases in retinal TH protein expression and content, although monoamine oxidase-A protein and gene expression were unchanged. High-pressure liquid chromatography showed that GLE dose-dependently decreased retinal DA content, its metabolites and DA utilization/release. The mechanism of DA selective vulnerability is unknown. However, a GLE-induced loss/dysfunction of DA ACs during development could increase the number of rods and bipolar cells since DA helps regulate neuronal proliferation, whereas during adulthood it could produce ERG supernormality as well as altered circadian rhythms, dark/light adaptation and spatial contrast sensitivity. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Peak [BPb] in control, low-, moderate- and high-dose newborn mice with gestational lead exposure: {<=} 1, {<=} 10, 25 and 40 {mu}g/dL Black

  2. Effect of low lead exposure on gestational age, birth weight and premature rupture of the membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirghani, Zein

    2010-12-01

    To find out the effect of prenatal exposure to low lead from cosmetics on gestational age, premature rupture of the membrane and birth weight. The study was carried out in the mountainous Aseer region, Southwest of Saudi Arabia where the air is thought to be clean and free of lead pollution due to the absence of petroleum smelting and other heavy industries. The region is famous as a holiday resort for tourists from Arabia and the gulf countries. All 176 pregnant women included in the study were of singleton pregnancies of gestational age 27 weeks or more who attended the antenatal outpatient clinic of the main maternity hospital. On the day of delivery 4 milliliters of venous blood from each singleton parturient was placed in a heparinized non-silica containing tube and stored at -20 degrees C prior to analysis. Ninety-four (70.1%) women out of 134 had maternal blood lead concentration 200 microg/L. The mean difference in gestational age was 10.5 days, showing a non significant difference (P=0.152). Ninety-three women (72.7%) out of a total of 128 who had blood lead concentration 200 microg/L gave birth to infants weighing an average of 2.99 kg. The mean difference was 0.12 kg which is non-significant (P=0.261). Regarding premature.rupture of the membrane a total of 127 women with maternal blood lead levels above 200 microg/L showed no significant differences (P=0.64). The Chi-square test of the relationship between the birth weight (kg) and the levels of blood lead below 150 microg/L was not significant while the relationship between the birth weight (kg) and the levels of blood lead above 200 microg/L resulted in very slight differences in the values of infants' birth weight. The detected low lead exposures from cosmetics does not produce statistically significant effects on the three pregnancy outcomes; gestational age, premature rupture of the membrane or birth weight. However, the importance of low lead exposure from the 100% lead sulfide eye cosmetic "kohl

  3. Effect of low lead exposure on gestational age, birth weight and premature rupture of the membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirghani, Z.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To find out the effect of prenatal exposure to low lead from cosmetics on gestational age, premature rupture of the membrane and birth weight. Methods: The study was carried out in the mountainous Aseer region, Southwest of Saudi Arabia where the air is thought to be clean and free of lead pollution due to the absence of petroleum smelting and other heavy industries. The region is famous as a holiday resort for tourists from Arabia and the gulf countries. All 176 pregnant women included in the study were of singleton pregnancies of gestational age 27 weeks or more who attended the antenatal outpatient clinic of the main maternity hospital. On the day of delivery 4 milliliters of venous blood from each singleton parturient was placed in a heparinized non-silica containing tube and stored at -20 deg. C prior to analysis. Results: Ninety-four (70.1%) women out of 134 had maternal blood lead concentration 200 mu g/L. The mean difference in gestational age was 10.5 days, showing a non significant difference (P=0.152). Ninety-three women (72.7%) out of a total of 128 who had blood lead concentration 200 mu g/L gave birth to infants weighing an average of 2.99 kg. The mean difference was 0.12 kg which is non-significant (P=0.261). Regarding premature rupture of the membrane a total of 127 women with maternal blood lead levels above 200 mu g/L showed no significant differences (P=0.64). The Chi-square test of the relationship between the birth weight (kg) and the levels of blood lead below 150 mu g/L was not significant while the relationship between the birth weight (kg) and the levels of blood lead above 200 mu g/L resulted in very slight differences in the values of infants' birth weight. Conclusion: The detected low lead exposures from cosmetics does not produce statistically significant effects on the three pregnancy outcomes; gestational age, premature rupture of the membrane or birth weight. However, the importance of low lead exposure from the 100% lead

  4. Exposure to Folate Receptor Alpha Antibodies during Gestation and Weaning Leads to Severe Behavioral Deficits in Rats: A Pilot Study.

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    Jeffrey M Sequeira

    Full Text Available The central nervous system continues to develop during gestation and after birth, and folate is an essential nutrient in this process. Folate deficiency and folate receptor alpha autoantibodies (FRα-AuAb have been associated with pregnancy-related complications and neurodevelopmental disorders. In this pilot study, we investigated the effect of exposure to FRα antibodies (Ab during gestation (GST, the pre-weaning (PRW, and the post weaning (POW periods on learning and behavior in adulthood in a rat model. In the open field test and novel object recognition task, which examine locomotor activity and anxiety-like behavior, deficits in rats exposed to Ab during gestation and pre-weaning (GST+PRW included more time spent in the periphery or corner areas, less time in the central area, frequent self-grooming akin to stereotypy, and longer time to explore a novel object compared to a control group; these are all indicative of increased levels of anxiety. In the place avoidance tasks that assess learning and spatial memory formation, only 30% of GST+PRW rats were able to learn the passive place avoidance task. None of these rats learned the active place avoidance task indicating severe learning deficits and cognitive impairment. Similar but less severe deficits were observed in rats exposed to Ab during GST alone or only during the PRW period, suggesting the extreme sensitivity of the fetal as well as the neonatal rat brain to the deleterious effects of exposure to Ab during this period. Behavioral deficits were not seen in rats exposed to antibody post weaning. These observations have implications in the pathology of FRα-AuAb associated with neural tube defect pregnancy, preterm birth and neurodevelopmental disorders including autism.

  5. Long-term changes in brain cholinergic system and behavior in rats following gestational exposure to lead: protective effect of calcium supplement

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    Basha Chand D.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Our earlier studies showed that lactational exposure to lead (Pb caused irreversible neurochemical alterations in rats. The present study was carried out to examine whether gestational exposure to Pb can cause long-term changes in the brain cholinergic system and behavior of rats. The protective effect of calcium (Ca supplementation against Pb toxicity was also examined. Pregnant rats were exposed to 0.2% Pb (Pb acetate in drinking water from gestational day (GD 6 to GD 21. The results showed decrease in body weight gain (GD 6–21 of dams, whereas no changes were observed in offspring body weight at different postnatal days following Pb exposure. Male offspring treated with Pb showed marginal alterations in developmental landmarks such as unfolding of pinnae, lower and upper incisor eruption, fur development, eye slit formation and eye opening on postnatal day (PND 1, whereas significant alterations were found in the righting reflex (PNDs 4–7, slant board behavior (PNDs 8–10 and forelimb hang performance (PNDs 12–16. Biochemical analysis showed decrease in synaptosomal acetylcholinesterase (AChE activity and an increase in acetylcholine (ACh levels in the cortex, cerebellum and hippocampus on PND 14, PND 21, PND 28 and in the four-month age group of rats following Pb exposure. Significant deficits were also observed in total locomotor activity, exploratory behavior and open field behavior in selected age groups of Pb-exposed rats. These alterations were found to be maximal on PND 28, corresponding with the greater blood lead levels observed on PND 28. Addition of 0.02% Ca to Pb reversed the Pb-induced impairments in the cholinergic system as well as in behavioral parameters of rats. In conclusion, these data suggest that gestational exposure to Pb is able to induce long-term changes in neurological functions of offspring. Maternal Ca administration reversed these neurological effects of Pb later in life, suggesting a protective effect of

  6. Pregnancy outcome following gestational exposure to azithromycin

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    Woodland C Cindy

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Azithromycin is an azalide antibiotic with an extensive range of indications and has become a common treatment option due to its convenient dosing regimen and therapeutic advantages. Human studies addressing gestational use of azithromycin have primarily focused on antibiotic efficacy rather than fetal safety. Our primary objective was to evaluate the possibility of teratogenic risk following gestational exposure to azithromycin. Methods There were 3 groups of pregnant women enrolled in our study: 1 women who took azithromycin. 2 women exposed to non-teratogenic antibiotics for similar indications, and 3 women exposed to non-teratogenic agents. They were matched for gestational age at time of call, maternal age, cigarette and alcohol consumption. Rates of major malformations and other endpoints of interest were compared among the three groups. Results Pregnancy outcome of 123 women in each group was ascertained. There were no statistically significant differences among the three groups in the rates of major malformations; 3.4% (exposed versus 2.3% (disease matched and 3.4% (non teratogen or any other endpoints that were examined. In the azithromycin group, 88 (71.6% women took the drug during the first trimester Conclusion Results suggest that gestational exposure to azithromycin is not associated with an increase in the rate of major malformations above the baseline of 1–3%. Our data adds to previous research showing that macrolide antibiotics, as a group, are generally safe in pregnancy and provides an evidence-based option for health professionals caring for populations with chlamydia.

  7. Neurophysiological effects of lead exposure

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    Rosen, I.; Wildt, K.; Gullberg, B.; Berlin, M.

    1983-10-01

    A series of neurophysiological variables was measured for men occupationally exposed to lead. The results were related to the degree of lead exposure and to the concentrations of lead and zinc protoporphyrin in blood. A small but significant correlation was observed between lead exposure and motor and sensory conduction velocities in the lower limbs, the conduction velocities of slow motor fibers in the upper limbs, and also sensory nerve action potentials. It is suggested that a neurophysiological examination should be considered in the surveillance of the health of lead workers.

  8. Effect of parents occupational exposures on risk of stillbirth, preterm delivery, and small-for-gestational-age in infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savitz, D.A.; Whelan, E.A.; Kleckner, R.C.

    1989-01-01

    Epidemiologic research on the effects of parental occupational exposures on fetal development has been limited. The National Natality and Fetal Mortality surveys obtained applicable data of probability samples of live births and fetal deaths which occurred in the US in 1980 among married women. Analyses were conducted for case groups of stillbirths (2,096 mothers, 3,170 fathers), preterm deliveries (<37 weeks completed gestation) (363 mothers, 552 fathers), and small-for gestational-age infants (218 mothers, 371 fathers) compared with controls. Occupational exposures were defined by industry of employment and by imputed exposures based on a job-exposure linkage system. For stillbirth, maternal work in the rubber, plastics, and synthetics industry and lead exposure and paternal employment in the textile industry had the largest odds ratios. Preterm birth was most strongly associated with maternal lead exposure, corroborating previous findings. Twofold increased risk of preterm delivery was found with paternal employment in the glass, clay, and stone; textile; and mining industries. Paternal exposures to x-rays and polyvinyl alcohol were associated with 1.5-fold increase in risk. The occupation of the mother was not associated with delivery of a small-for-gestational-age infant, in contrast to paternal employment in the art and textile industries. Several toxic agents were associated with risk elevation of 1.3 or greater for fathers, most notably benzene

  9. Neurobehavioural effects of occupational exposure to lead.

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    Williamson, A M; Teo, R K

    1986-06-01

    A set of neurobehavioural tests selected on the basis of information processing theory was used to study the effect of low level occupational lead exposure on 59 lead workers compared with a matched control group of the same number. Only one of the lead exposed group had a blood lead concentration above the current threshold limit value of 3.81 mumol/l at the time of testing (mean 2.36 mumol/l, range 1.19-3.92 mumol/l) and none had been detected above that level in the previous three years. Nevertheless, most neurobehavioural functions tested showed some impairment in the lead workers. Visual sensory function was affected and, perhaps as a consequence, sustained attention and psychomotor tasks were performed more slowly by the lead exposed group. Cognitive functions were also impaired, with sensory store memory, short term memory, and learning abilities all showing deficits in lead workers. Such cognitive deficits may also be partly due to initial degradation of the visual input. Long term memory performance compared equally with control levels possibly because of development of a compensatory strategy such as rehearsal by the lead exposed subjects. Multiple linear regression analysis relating to lead workers test performance and their lead exposure showed that performance on the sensory store memory test alone was significantly related to exposure. This was probably due to the homogeneity of the lead exposed group with regard to blood lead concentrations and the use of blood lead as a measure of chronic lead exposure.

  10. Neurobehavioural effects of occupational exposure to lead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williamson, A.M.; Teo, R.K.

    1986-06-01

    A set of neurobehavioural tests selected on the basis of information processing theory was used to study the effect of low level occupational lead exposure on 59 lead workers compared with a matched control group of the same number. Only one of the lead exposed group had a blood lead concentration above the current threshold limit value of 3.81 mumol/l at the time of testing (mean 2.36 mumol/l, range 1.19-3.92 mumol/l) and none had been detected above that level in the previous three years. Nevertheless, most neurobehavioural functions tested showed some impairment in the lead workers. Visual sensory function was affected and, perhaps as a consequence, sustained attention and psychomotor tasks were performed more slowly by the lead exposed group. Cognitive functions were also impaired, with sensory store memory, short term memory, and learning abilities all showing deficits in lead workers. Such cognitive deficits may also be partly due to initial degradation of the visual input. Long term memory performance compared equally with control levels possibly because of development of a compensatory strategy such as rehearsal by the lead exposed subjects. Multiple linear regression analysis relating to lead workers test performance and their lead exposure showed that performance on the sensory store memory test alone was significantly related to exposure. This was probably due to the homogeneity of the lead exposed group with regard to blood lead concentrations and the use of blood lead as a measure of chronic lead exposure.

  11. Lead exposure from aluminum cookware in Cameroon

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    Weidenhamer, Jeffrey D.; Kobunski, Peter A. [Department of Chemistry, Geology and Physics, 401 College Ave., Ashland University, Ashland, OH 44805 (United States); Kuepouo, Gilbert [Research and Education Centre for Development (CREPD), Yaounde (Cameroon); Corbin, Rebecca W. [Department of Chemistry, Geology and Physics, 401 College Ave., Ashland University, Ashland, OH 44805 (United States); Gottesfeld, Perry, E-mail: pgottesfeld@okinternational.org [Occupational Knowledge International, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Blood lead levels have decreased following the removal of lead from gasoline in most of the world. However, numerous recent studies provide evidence that elevated blood lead levels persist in many low and middle-income countries around the world at much higher prevalence than in the more developed countries. One potential source of lead exposure that has not been widely investigated is the leaching of lead from artisanal aluminum cookware, which is commonly used in the developing world. Twenty-nine samples of aluminum cookware and utensils manufactured by local artisans in Cameroon were collected and analyzed for their potential to release lead during cooking. Source materials for this cookware included scrap metal such as engine parts, radiators, cans, and construction materials. The lead content of this cookware is relatively low (< 1000 ppm by X-ray fluorescence), however significant amounts of lead, as well as aluminum and cadmium were released from many of the samples using dilute acetic acid extractions at boiling and ambient temperatures. Potential exposures to lead per serving were estimated to be as high as 260 μg, indicating that such cookware can pose a serious health hazard. We conclude that lead, aluminum and cadmium can migrate from this aluminum cookware during cooking and enter food at levels exceeding recommended public health guidelines. Our results support the need to regulate lead content of materials used to manufacture these pots. Artisanal aluminum cookware may be a major contributor to lead poisoning throughout the developing world. Testing of aluminum cookware in other developing countries is warranted. - Highlights: • Cookware is manufactured in Cameroon from scrap aluminum including car parts. • Twenty-nine cookware samples were evaluated for their potential to leach lead. • Boiling extractions to simulate the effects of cooking released significant lead. • Potential lead exposures per serving are estimated as high as 260 μg.

  12. Lead exposure from aluminum cookware in Cameroon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weidenhamer, Jeffrey D.; Kobunski, Peter A.; Kuepouo, Gilbert; Corbin, Rebecca W.; Gottesfeld, Perry

    2014-01-01

    Blood lead levels have decreased following the removal of lead from gasoline in most of the world. However, numerous recent studies provide evidence that elevated blood lead levels persist in many low and middle-income countries around the world at much higher prevalence than in the more developed countries. One potential source of lead exposure that has not been widely investigated is the leaching of lead from artisanal aluminum cookware, which is commonly used in the developing world. Twenty-nine samples of aluminum cookware and utensils manufactured by local artisans in Cameroon were collected and analyzed for their potential to release lead during cooking. Source materials for this cookware included scrap metal such as engine parts, radiators, cans, and construction materials. The lead content of this cookware is relatively low (< 1000 ppm by X-ray fluorescence), however significant amounts of lead, as well as aluminum and cadmium were released from many of the samples using dilute acetic acid extractions at boiling and ambient temperatures. Potential exposures to lead per serving were estimated to be as high as 260 μg, indicating that such cookware can pose a serious health hazard. We conclude that lead, aluminum and cadmium can migrate from this aluminum cookware during cooking and enter food at levels exceeding recommended public health guidelines. Our results support the need to regulate lead content of materials used to manufacture these pots. Artisanal aluminum cookware may be a major contributor to lead poisoning throughout the developing world. Testing of aluminum cookware in other developing countries is warranted. - Highlights: • Cookware is manufactured in Cameroon from scrap aluminum including car parts. • Twenty-nine cookware samples were evaluated for their potential to leach lead. • Boiling extractions to simulate the effects of cooking released significant lead. • Potential lead exposures per serving are estimated as high as 260 μg.

  13. Environmental lead exposure increases micronuclei in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kapka, Lucyna; Baumgartner, Adolf; Siwińska, Ewa

    2007-01-01

    age from an unexposed recreational area. Exposure to lead was assessed by determination of lead concentrations in blood (PbB) by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, whereas the level of selenium (Se) in serum was detected by using graphite furnace atomic-absorption spectrometry. The frequency of MN...... was determined by the cytokinesis-block MN assay and fluorescence in situ hybridization performed using a specific pan-centromeric probe. Environmental exposure to lead resulted in significantly increased levels of PbB (5.29 +/- 2.09 versus 3.45 +/- 1.20 microg/dl in controls), although the average level...

  14. [Children exposure to lead in contaminated sites].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Ramírez, Rogelio; Rico-Escobar, Edna; Núñez-Monreal, Jorge E; García-Nieto, Edelmira; Carrizales, Leticia; Ilizaliturri-Hernández, César; Díaz-Barriga, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    To assess the exposure to lead in children living in various types of contaminated sites. The study was conducted from June 2008 to December 2009 at four sites in Mexico: Avalos metallurgical, Chihuahua; Morales metallurgical, San Luis Potosí (SLP); Trinidad pottery area, Tlaxcala and Cedral mine site, SLP. These sites contain different sources of lead. The metal levels were quantified in outdoor dust and in peripheral blood of children. Lead dust concentrations exceed the National Guidelines for residential soils (400 mg/kg) in a range of values for the four sites from 62 to 5 187 mg/kg. Regarding biological monitoring, the studied children showed maximum lead blood levels of 22 µg/dL in Cedral, 31 µg/dL in Morales, 32 µg/dL in Avalos, and 52 µg/dL in Trinidad. It is important to mention that in all the studied sites, a significative positive correlation was found between blood lead levels and the lead concentrations in dust. These sites are an example of the health risks related to lead exposure in Mexico; therefore, there is an urgent need for a national public health program aimed at reducing lead exposure in vulnerable populations.

  15. Exposure to lead from intake of coffee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Max; Sloth, Jens Jørgen; Rasmussen, Rie Romme

    Food and beverages is one of the primary sources of intake of and exposure to lead, with beverages accounting for almost 50%. Previous studies from Denmark have estimated that the intake of lead from coffee is very high and may contribute to up to 20% of the total lead intake from food and bevera......Food and beverages is one of the primary sources of intake of and exposure to lead, with beverages accounting for almost 50%. Previous studies from Denmark have estimated that the intake of lead from coffee is very high and may contribute to up to 20% of the total lead intake from food...... and beverages. This estimate is, however, based on older, non-published data. In the current project extensive chemical analyses of coffee beans, drinking water and ready-to-drink coffee have been performed. The results hereof have been compared to calculations of the total intake of lead from food...... and beverages. The results show that the intake of lead from coffee is considerably lower than previously estimated and account for 4.2% and 3.3% of the total lead intake from food and beverages for Danish men and women, respectively. It can generally be concluded that the intake of lead from coffee is low...

  16. Gestational diabetes mellitus and exposure to ambient air pollution and road traffic noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Marie; Olsen, Sjurdur F; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I

    2017-01-01

    Background: Road traffic is a main source of air pollution and noise. Both exposures have been associated with type 2 diabetes, but associations with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) have been studied less. Objectives: We aimed to examine single and joint associations of exposure to air pollut...

  17. Peripheral blood signatures of lead exposure.

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    Heather G LaBreche

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Current evidence indicates that even low-level lead (Pb exposure can have detrimental effects, especially in children. We tested the hypothesis that Pb exposure alters gene expression patterns in peripheral blood cells and that these changes reflect dose-specific alterations in the activity of particular pathways. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: Using Affymetrix Mouse Genome 430 2.0 arrays, we examined gene expression changes in the peripheral blood of female Balb/c mice following exposure to per os lead acetate trihydrate or plain drinking water for two weeks and after a two-week recovery period. Data sets were RMA-normalized and dose-specific signatures were generated using established methods of supervised classification and binary regression. Pathway activity was analyzed using the ScoreSignatures module from GenePattern. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The low-level Pb signature was 93% sensitive and 100% specific in classifying samples a leave-one-out crossvalidation. The high-level Pb signature demonstrated 100% sensitivity and specificity in the leave-one-out crossvalidation. These two signatures exhibited dose-specificity in their ability to predict Pb exposure and had little overlap in terms of constituent genes. The signatures also seemed to reflect current levels of Pb exposure rather than past exposure. Finally, the two doses showed differential activation of cellular pathways. Low-level Pb exposure increased activity of the interferon-gamma pathway, whereas high-level Pb exposure increased activity of the E2F1 pathway.

  18. Oral lead exposure induces dysbacteriosis in rats.

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    Sadykov, Rustam; Digel, Ilya; Artmann, Aysegül Temiz; Porst, Dariusz; Linder, Peter; Kayser, Peter; Artmann, Gerhard; Savitskaya, Irina; Zhubanova, Azhar

    2009-01-01

    Lead's (Pb(II)) possible role in intestinal pathologies of microbial etiology remains mostly unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of lead on the gut microbial community and its interactions with rat intestinal epithelium. The lead-induced changes in different intestinal microbial groups (lactose-positive lac(+) and -negative lac(-) E.coli strains, lactobacilli and yeasts) were followed separately by the colony-forming unit (CFU) method. Samples were taken from outbred white rats subjected to different exposure schedules. Additionally, the impact of different lead doses on microbial adhesion to cultured intestinal cells (IEC-6) was investigated. Finally, the lead accumulation and distribution were measured by means of atomic absorption spectrometry. For the first time it was shown that oral lead exposure causes drastic changes in the gut microbial community. Proportional to the lead dose received, the relative number of lactose-negative E.coli cells increased dramatically (up to 1,000-fold) in comparison to the other microbial groups during 2 wk of exposure. Considering the number of microbes in the intestine, such a shift in intestinal microflora (dysbacteriosis) is very significant. Adhesion studies showed certain stimulating effects of lead on E. coli attachment to rat intestinal epithelium as compared to Lactobacillus attachment. The mechanisms providing the apparent competitive success of the lac(-) group are unclear but could be related to changes in surface interactions between microbial and host cells. This study may provide important clues for understanding the pathological effects of metal dietary toxins in human beings.

  19. Periconceptional and Gestational Exposure to Antibiotics and Childhood Asthma.

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    Shuyuan Chu

    Full Text Available Previous studies suggest that maternal antibiotics exposure during pregnancy may increase the risk of childhood asthma, but the results were inconsistent. Furthermore, most studies did not examine periconception period as an exposure window. We aim to assess the associations between maternal exposure to specific antibiotics before and during pregnancy and the risk of asthma in early childhood.Data from the Collaborative Perinatal Project were used. Maternal exposure to antibiotics before and during pregnancy was recorded at each prenatal visit. A total of 39,907 singleton children were followed up to 7 years of age. Multilevel multiple logistic regression models were used to control for potential confounders and account for multiple pregnancies per woman.Maternal use of penicillin or chloramphenicol was associated with an increased risk of asthma in the offspring (adjusted odds ratio = 1.21, 95% confidence interval 1.08-1.36 for penicillin; 1.72 [1.14-2.59] for chloramphenicol. The risk was significantly increased if penicillin or chloramphenicol was used in the 1st trimester (1.09 [1.04-1.13] for penicillin and 1.23 [1.01-1.51] for chloramphenicol.Maternal exposure to certain antibiotics is associated with childhood asthma by 7 years of age. Early pregnancy may be a sensitive window.

  20. Lead intoxication in gestational and lactation periods alters the development of male reproductive organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corpas, Isabel; Castillo, M; Marquina, Domingo; Benito, Maria J

    2002-10-01

    The effect of lead (Pb) intoxication during pregnancy and lactation on the male reproductive system was studied to evaluate the alterations caused by Pb in the development of pups. The investigations covered the effect of lead on the course of spermatogenesis and the development of the epididymis and reproductive glands. For this purpose, dams were intoxicated with 300 mg/L Pb during the gestational period and through lactation. Pups were sacrificed on Postnatal (PN) Days 12 and 21. Blood lead (PbB) and plasma iron concentrations were measured, and blood cells counted. Biochemical studies as well as histochemical analyses were performed on testes and accessory glands of the reproductive system. Lead intoxication resulted in a decrease in testis and seminal vesicle weights and an increase in DNA and RNA levels on PN Day 21. Total protein was significantly decreased by the toxicant, and alkaline and acid phosphatase levels of the gonads were reduced. Effects were also reflected in the reduction of the thickness of epithelium and of seminiferous tubule diameter (STD) as a consequence of the action of lead in the reduction in numbers of prospermatogonia and spermatocytes. Results indicate that the reproductive system targets of lead intoxication are not only the testes; lead intoxication results in the inhibition of testicular, epididymal, and seminal vesicle function, altering the biochemical composition of these organs, and consequently, affecting the normal development of germinal cells.

  1. Effects of noise exposure on neonatal auditory brainstem response thresholds in pregnant guinea pigs at different gestational periods.

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    Morimoto, Chihiro; Nario, Kazuhiko; Nishimura, Tadashi; Shimokura, Ryota; Hosoi, Hiroshi; Kitahara, Tadashi

    2017-01-01

    Noise exposure during pregnancy has been reported to cause fetal hearing impairment. However, little is known about the effects of noise exposure during various gestational stages on postnatal hearing. In the present study, we investigated the effects of noise exposure on auditory brainstem response (ABR) at the early, mid-, and late gestational periods in newborn guinea pigs. Pregnant guinea pigs were exposed to 4-kHz pure tone at a 120-dB sound pressure level for 4 h. We divided the animals into four groups as follows: the control, early gestational exposure, mid-gestational exposure, and late gestational exposure groups. ABR thresholds and latencies in newborns were recorded using 1-, 2-, and 4-kHz tone burst on postnatal days 1, 7, 14, and 28. Changes in ABR thresholds and latencies were measured between the 4 × 4 and 4 × 3 factorial groups mentioned above (gestational periods × postnatal days, gestational periods × frequencies). The thresholds were low in the order of control group guinea pigs. This is the first study to show that noise exposure during the early, mid-, and late gestational periods significantly elevated ABR thresholds in neonatal guinea pigs. © 2016 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  2. Effects of diethylstilbestrol exposure during gestation on both maternal and offspring behavior.

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    Kazuya eTomihara

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine disruption during gestation impairs the physical and behavioral development of offspring. However, it is unclear whether endocrine disruption also impairs maternal behavior and in turn further contributes to the developmental and behavioral dysfunction of offspring. We orally administered the synthetic non-steroidal estrogen diethylstilbestrol (DES to pregnant female C57BL/6J mice from gestation day 11–17 and then investigated the maternal behavior of mothers. In addition, we examined the direct effects of in utero DES exposure and the indirect effects of aberrant maternal behavior on offspring using the cross-fostering method. In mothers, endocrine disruption during gestation decreased maternal behavior. In addition, endocrine disruption of foster mother influenced anxiety-related behavior and passive avoidance learning of pups regardless of their exposure in utero. The influence of DES exposure in utero, irrespective of exposure to the foster mother, was also shown in female offspring. These results demonstrate the risks of endocrine disruptors on both mother as well as offspring and suggest that developmental deficits may stem from both in utero toxicity and aberrant maternal care.

  3. Gender-Specific Effects on Gestational Length and Birth Weight by Early Pregnancy BPA Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga-Lopez, Almudena; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Liao, Chunyang; Ye, Wen; Domino, Steven E; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2015-11-01

    Effects of prenatal exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) on gestational and birth outcomes are controversial. The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between prenatal exposure to BPA and birth and gestational outcomes. design, setting, participants, and outcome: Levels of unconjugated (uBPA) and BPA glucuronide in 80 matching samples of pregnant women during the first trimester of pregnancy and at delivery and matching term cord blood obtained from a prospective study conducted at the University of Michigan Hospitals were determined using a methodology validated in the National Institutes of Environmental Health Sciences funded Round Robin study and related to pregnancy outcomes. Highest levels of uBPA were found in maternal term samples followed by first trimester maternal (M1) samples and cord blood. A 2-fold increase in M1 uBPA was associated with 55-g less birth weight when male and female pregnancies were combined and 183-g less birth weight with only female pregnancies. A 2-fold increase in maternal term uBPA was associated with an increased gestational length of 0.7 days for all pregnancies and 1.1 days for only female pregnancies. Higher uBPA exposure levels during first trimester and term are associated with sex-specific reduction in birth weight and increase in gestational length, respectively. Race, parity, and employment have an effect on BPA exposure. Because low birth weight is associated with adverse health outcomes, effect of early pregnancy BPA levels on reducing birth weight highlights the risk posed by developmental exposure to BPA.

  4. Preconception and early pregnancy air pollution exposures and risk of gestational diabetes mellitus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robledo, Candace A. [Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Division of Intramural Population Health Research, Epidemiology Branch, Rockville, MD 20892 (United States); Mendola, Pauline, E-mail: pauline.mendola@mail.nih.gov [Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Division of Intramural Population Health Research, Epidemiology Branch, Rockville, MD 20892 (United States); Yeung, Edwina; Männistö, Tuija [Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Division of Intramural Population Health Research, Epidemiology Branch, Rockville, MD 20892 (United States); Sundaram, Rajeshwari; Liu, Danping [Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Division of Intramural Population Health Research, Biostatistics and Bioinformatics Branch, Rockville, MD 20892 (United States); Ying, Qi [Texas A& M University, Zachary Department of Civil Engineering, College Station, TX 77845 (United States); Sherman, Seth [The EMMES Corporation, Rockville, MD 20852 (United States); Grantz, Katherine L. [Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Division of Intramural Population Health Research, Epidemiology Branch, Rockville, MD 20892 (United States)

    2015-02-15

    Background: Air pollution has been linked to gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) but no studies have evaluated impact of preconception and early pregnancy air pollution exposures on GDM risk. Methods: Electronic medical records provided data on 219,952 singleton deliveries to mothers with (n=11,334) and without GDM (n=208,618). Average maternal exposures to particulate matter (PM) ≤ 2.5 μm (PM{sub 2.5}) and PM{sub 2.5} constituents, PM ≤ 10 μm (PM{sub 10}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and ozone (O{sub 3}) were estimated for the 3-month preconception window, first trimester, and gestational weeks 1–24 based on modified Community Multiscale Air Quality models for delivery hospital referral regions. Binary regression models with robust standard errors estimated relative risks (RR) for GDM per interquartile range (IQR) increase in pollutant concentrations adjusted for study site, maternal age and race/ethnicity. Results: Preconception maternal exposure to NO{sub X} (RR=1.09, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.13) and SO{sub 2} (RR=1.05, 1.01, 1.09) were associated with increased risk of subsequent GDM and risk estimates remained elevated for first trimester exposure. Preconception O{sub 3} was associated with lower risk of subsequent GDM (RR=0.93, 0.90, 0.96) but risks increased later in pregnancy. Conclusion: Maternal exposures to NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} preconception and during the first few weeks of pregnancy were associated with increased GDM risk. O{sub 3} appeared to increase GDM risk in association with mid-pregnancy exposure but not in earlier time windows. These common exposures merit further investigation. - Highlights: • Air pollution may be related to gestational diabetes (GDM). • No prior studies have examined preconception exposure. • Maternal exposure to NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} before conception increased subsequent GDM risk. • NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} exposure in the first seven weeks of pregnancy also increased

  5. Preconception and early pregnancy air pollution exposures and risk of gestational diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robledo, Candace A.; Mendola, Pauline; Yeung, Edwina; Männistö, Tuija; Sundaram, Rajeshwari; Liu, Danping; Ying, Qi; Sherman, Seth; Grantz, Katherine L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Air pollution has been linked to gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) but no studies have evaluated impact of preconception and early pregnancy air pollution exposures on GDM risk. Methods: Electronic medical records provided data on 219,952 singleton deliveries to mothers with (n=11,334) and without GDM (n=208,618). Average maternal exposures to particulate matter (PM) ≤ 2.5 μm (PM 2.5 ) and PM 2.5 constituents, PM ≤ 10 μm (PM 10 ), nitrogen oxides (NO x ), carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) and ozone (O 3 ) were estimated for the 3-month preconception window, first trimester, and gestational weeks 1–24 based on modified Community Multiscale Air Quality models for delivery hospital referral regions. Binary regression models with robust standard errors estimated relative risks (RR) for GDM per interquartile range (IQR) increase in pollutant concentrations adjusted for study site, maternal age and race/ethnicity. Results: Preconception maternal exposure to NO X (RR=1.09, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.13) and SO 2 (RR=1.05, 1.01, 1.09) were associated with increased risk of subsequent GDM and risk estimates remained elevated for first trimester exposure. Preconception O 3 was associated with lower risk of subsequent GDM (RR=0.93, 0.90, 0.96) but risks increased later in pregnancy. Conclusion: Maternal exposures to NO x and SO 2 preconception and during the first few weeks of pregnancy were associated with increased GDM risk. O 3 appeared to increase GDM risk in association with mid-pregnancy exposure but not in earlier time windows. These common exposures merit further investigation. - Highlights: • Air pollution may be related to gestational diabetes (GDM). • No prior studies have examined preconception exposure. • Maternal exposure to NO x and SO 2 before conception increased subsequent GDM risk. • NO x and SO 2 exposure in the first seven weeks of pregnancy also increased GDM risk. • Early exposure to O 3 reduced GDM risk but risk increased

  6. Low-dose spironolactone ameliorates insulin resistance and suppresses elevated plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 during gestational testosterone exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olatunji, Lawrence A; Usman, Taofeek O; Akinade, Aminat I; Adeyanju, Oluwaseun A; Kim, InKyeom; Soladoye, Ayodele O

    2017-12-01

    Elevated gestational circulating testosterone has been associated with pathological pregnancies that increase the risk of development of cardiometabolic disorder in later life. We hypothesised that gestational testosterone exposure, in late pregnancy, causes glucose deregulation and atherogenic dyslipidaemia that would be accompanied by high plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1). The study also hypothesise that low-dose spironolactone treatment would ameliorate these effects. Pregnant Wistar rats received vehicle, testosterone (0.5 mg/kg; sc), spironolactone (0.5 mg/kg, po) or testosterone and spironolactone daily between gestational days 15 and 19. Gestational testosterone exposure led to increased HOMA-IR, circulating insulin, testosterone, 1-h post-load glucose, atherogenic dyslipidaemia, PLR, PAI-1 and MDA. However, all these effects, except that of circulating testosterone, were ameliorated by spironolactone. These results demonstrate that low-dose spironolactone ameliorates glucose deregulation and atherogenic dyslipidaemia during elevated gestational testosterone exposure, at least in part, by suppressing elevated PAI-1.

  7. Occupational and Environmental Lead Exposure in Port Harcourt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: In spite of the high risk of lead exposure in Nigeria, there is a paucity of data on the occupational and environmental burden of lead exposure and its impact on human health especially its nephrotoxic effects. This study aims to assess the degree of occupational and environmental lead exposure in Port ...

  8. Prenatal exposure to gestational diabetes mellitus as an independent risk factor for long-term neuropsychiatric morbidity of the offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahum Sacks, Kira; Friger, Michael; Shoham-Vardi, Ilana; Abokaf, Hanaa; Spiegel, Efrat; Sergienko, Ruslan; Landau, Daniella; Sheiner, Eyal

    2016-09-01

    The reported rates of gestational diabetes mellitus are constantly escalating and little is known about long-term complications in the offspring. Evidence from the field of epigenetics strongly advocates the need for research on the neuropsychiatric complications in offspring prenatally exposed to gestational diabetes mellitus. We sought to assess whether in utero exposure to gestational diabetes mellitus increases the risk of long-term neuropsychiatric morbidity in the offspring. A population-based cohort study compared the incidence of hospitalizations due to neuropsychiatric disease between singletons exposed and unexposed to gestational diabetes mellitus. Deliveries occurred in the years 1991 through 2014 in a regional tertiary medical center. Perinatal deaths, multiple gestations, mothers with pregestational diabetes or lack of prenatal care, and children with congenital malformations were excluded from the study. A multivariate generalized estimating equation logistic regression model analysis was used to control for confounders and for maternal clusters. During the study period 231,271 deliveries met the inclusion criteria; 5.4% of the births were to mothers diagnosed with gestational diabetes mellitus (n = 12,642), of these 4.3% had gestational diabetes type A1 (n = 10,076) and 1.1% had gestational diabetes type A2 (n = 2566). During the follow-up period, a significant linear association was noted between the severity of the gestational diabetes (no gestational diabetes, gestational diabetes mellitus A1, gestational diabetes mellitus A2) and neuropsychiatric disease of the offspring (1.02% vs 1.36% vs 1.68%, respectively, P long-term neuropsychiatric disease of the offspring (gestational diabetes mellitus A1 [adjusted odds ratio, 1.83; 95% confidence interval, 1.53-2.19] and gestational diabetes mellitus A2 [adjusted odds ratio, 1.64; 95% confidence interval, 1.18-2.27]). Within the limits of our database, our findings also point to a possible

  9. Lead exposure in US worksites: A literature review and development of an occupational lead exposure database from the published literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Dong-Hee; Locke, Sarah J.; Chen, Yu-Cheng; Purdue, Mark P.; Friesen, Melissa C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Retrospective exposure assessment of occupational lead exposure in population-based studies requires historical exposure information from many occupations and industries. Methods We reviewed published US exposure monitoring studies to identify lead exposure measurement data. We developed an occupational lead exposure database from the 175 identified papers containing 1,111 sets of lead concentration summary statistics (21% area air, 47% personal air, 32% blood). We also extracted ancillary exposure-related information, including job, industry, task/location, year collected, sampling strategy, control measures in place, and sampling and analytical methods. Results Measurements were published between 1940 and 2010 and represented 27 2-digit standardized industry classification codes. The majority of the measurements were related to lead-based paint work, joining or cutting metal using heat, primary and secondary metal manufacturing, and lead acid battery manufacturing. Conclusions This database can be used in future statistical analyses to characterize differences in lead exposure across time, jobs, and industries. PMID:25968240

  10. Gestational Medication Use, Birth Conditions, and Early Postnatal Exposures for Childhood Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang-Ching Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Our aim is to explore (1 whether gestational medication use, mode of delivery, and early postnatal exposure correlate with childhood asthma, (2 the dose responsiveness of such exposure, and (3 their links to early- and late-onset asthma. We conducted a matched case-control study based on the Taiwan Children Health Study, which was a nationwide survey that recruited 12-to-14-year-old school children in 14 communities. 579 mothers of the participants were interviewed by telephone. Exclusive breastfeeding protected children from asthma. Notably, childhood asthma was significantly associated with maternal medication use during pregnancy, vacuum use during vaginal delivery, recurrent respiratory tract infections, hospitalization, main caregiver cared for other children, and early daycare attendance. Exposure to these factors led to dose responsiveness in relationships to asthma. Most of the exposures revealed a greater impact on early-onset asthma, except for vacuum use and daycare attendance.

  11. Dietary exposure to lead in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon PE; te Biesebeek JD; van Donkersgoed G; VVH; V&Z

    2017-01-01

    Uptake from the soil is the main route by which lead ends up in food. Lead in soil has its origin in both natural and anthropogenic sources. The lead concentration in food has decreased over the last decennia by the use of unleaded petrol and paint, and the replacement of lead water pipes.

  12. Lead exposure in Canada geese of the Eastern Prairie Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeStefano, S.; Brand, C.J.; Rusch, D.H.; Finley, Daniel L.; Gillespie, M.M.

    1991-01-01

    We monitored lead exposure in Eastern Prairie Population Canada geese during summer-winter, 1986-1987 and 1987-1988 at 5 areas. Blood lead concentrations in geese trapped during summer at Cape Churchill Manitoba were below levels indicative of recent lead exposure (0.18 ppm). Geese exposed to lead (≥0.18 ppm blood lead) increased to 7.6% at Oak Hammock Wildlife Management Area (WMA), southern Manitoba, where lead shot was still in use, and to 10.0% at Roseau River WMA, northern Minnesota, when fall-staging geese were close to a source of lead shot in Manitoba. Proportion of birds exposed to lead dropped to exposure to lead before the hunting season. Lead exposure rose to 10.0% after hunting ended and then decreased to 5.2% in late winter. Incidence of lead shot in gizzards and concentrations of lead in livers supported blood assay data. Soil samples indicated that lead shot continues to be available to geese at Swan Lake, even though the area was established as a non-toxic shot zone in 1978. Steel shot zones have reduced lead exposure in the Eastern Prairie Population, but lead shot persists in the environment and continues to account for lead exposure and mortality in Eastern Prairie Population Canada geese.

  13. Occupational Exposure to Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals and Birth Weight and Length of Gestation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birks, Laura; Casas, Maribel; Garcia, Ana M.

    2016-01-01

    matrix was associated with birth weight, term low birth weight (LBW), length of gestation, and preterm delivery.Methods: Using individual participant data from 133,957 mother–child pairs in 13 European cohorts spanning births from 1994 through 2011, we linked maternal job titles with exposure to 10 EDC...... women were classified as exposed to EDCs at work during pregnancy, based on job title. Classification of exposure to one or more EDC group was associated with an increased risk of term LBW [odds ratio (OR) = 1.25; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.49], as were most specific EDC groups; this association was consistent...... across cohorts. Further, the risk increased with increasing number of EDC groups (OR = 2.11; 95% CI: 1.10, 4.06 for exposure to four or more EDC groups). There were few associations (p titles classified as exposed to bisphenol A or brominated flame...

  14. Gestational Zearalenone Exposure Causes Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity in Pregnant Rats and Female Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Gao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Zearalenone (ZEN is an oestrogenic mycotoxin commonly found in food and feed products and can affect reproduction and development in both humans and animals. This study aimed to determine the toxic effects of ZEN on maternal SD rats and the F1 female offspring. Sixty-four pregnant rats were divided into 4 groups and exposed to feed contaminated with ZEN (0, 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg feed on gestational days (GDs 0–21. Compared with the controls, the groups exposed to 10 and 20 mg/kg ZEN showed significantly decreased feed intake and body weight of pregnant rats and/or female offspring. Meanwhile, 20 mg/kg ZEN significantly decreased the birth weight and viability of F1 newborn rats. Moreover, 10 and 20 mg/kg ZEN diets increased follicle-stimulating hormone concentrations but decreased oestradiol in both maternal and F1 adult rats. In the F1 generation, ZEN caused no pathological changes in ovaries and uterus in weaned rats, but significant follicular atresia and a thinning uterine layer were found in F1 female adult rats in the 20 mg/kg ZEN group. These impairments concurred with the inhibited mRNA and protein levels of oestrogen receptor-alpha (Esr1 and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD in the adult uterus and/or ovaries. Furthermore, 10 and/or 20 mg/kg ZEN exposure significantly reduced Esr1, gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (GnRHr, and ATP binding cassette transporters b1 and c1 (ABCb1 and ABCc1 in the placenta and foetal and weaned F1 brains, and also produced a dose-dependent increase in 3β-HSD in the placenta. Additionally, 20 mg/kg ZEN significantly upregulated ABCc5 expression in the placenta and ovaries of weaned rats. These results suggested that prenatal ZEN exposure in rats affected maternal and foetal development and may lead to long-term reproductive impairment in F1 adult females.

  15. Soil is an important pathway of human lead exposure.

    OpenAIRE

    Mielke, H W; Reagan, P L

    1998-01-01

    This review shows the equal or greater importance of leaded gasoline-contaminated dust compared to lead-based paint to the child lead problem, and that soil lead, resulting from leaded gasoline and pulverized lead-based paint, is at least or more important than lead-based paint (intact and not pulverized) as a pathway of human lead exposure. Because lead-based paint is a high-dose source, the biologically relevant dosage is similar to lead in soil. Both lead-based paint and soil lead are asso...

  16. Air pollution exposure during critical time periods in gestation and alterations in cord blood lymphocyte distribution: a cohort of livebirths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herr Caroline EW

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Toxic exposures have been shown to influence maturation of the immune system during gestation. This study investigates the association between cord blood lymphocyte proportions and maternal exposure to air pollution during each gestational month. Methods Cord blood was analyzed using a FACSort flow cytometer to determine proportions of T lymphocytes (CD3+ cells and their subsets, CD4+ and CD8+, B lymphocytes (CD19+ and natural killer (NK cells. Ambient air concentrations of 12 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH and particulate matter 2.5 were measured using fixed site monitors. Arithmetic means of these pollutants, calculated for each gestational month, were used as exposure metrics. Data on covariates were obtained from medical records and questionnaires. Multivariable linear regression models were fitted to estimate associations between monthly PAH or PM2.5 and cord blood lymphocytes, adjusting for year of birth and district of residence and, in further models, gestational season and number of prior live births. Results The adjusted models show significant associations between PAHs or PM2.5 during early gestation and increases in CD3+ and CD4+ lymphocytes percentages and decreases in CD19+ and NK cell percentages in cord blood. In contrast, exposures during late gestation were associated with decreases in CD3+ and CD4+ fractions and increases in CD19+ and NK cell fractions. There was no significant association between alterations in lymphocyte distribution and air pollution exposure during the mid gestation. Conclusions PAHs and PM2.5 in ambient air may influence fetal immune development via shifts in cord blood lymphocytes distributions. Associations appear to differ by exposure in early versus late gestation.

  17. Identifying and managing adverse environmental health effects: 3. Lead exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanborn, Margaret D.; Abelsohn, Alan; Campbell, Monica; Weir, Erica

    2002-01-01

    LEAD LEVELS IN NORTH AMERICAN CHILDREN AND ADULTS have declined in the past 3 decades, but lead persists in the environment in lead paint, old plumbing and contaminated soil. There are also a number of occupations and hobbies that carry a high risk of lead exposure. There is no evidence for a threshold below which lead has no adverse health effects. Blood lead levels previously considered safe are now known to cause subtle, chronic health effects. The health effects of lead exposure include developmental neurotoxicity, reproductive dysfunction and toxicity to the kidneys, blood and endocrine systems. Most lead exposures are preventable, and diagnosing lead poisoning is relatively simple compared with diagnosing health effects of exposures to other environmental toxins. Accurate assessment of lead poisoning requires specific knowledge of the sources, high-risk groups and relevant laboratory tests. In this article we review the multiple, systemic toxic effects of lead and provide current information on groups at risk, prevention, diagnosis and clinical treatment. We illustrate how the CH2OPD2 mnemonic (Community, Home, Hobbies, Occupation, Personal habits, Diet and Drugs) and specific screening questions are useful tools for physicians to quickly obtain an environmental exposure history and identify patients at high risk of lead exposure. By applying effective primary prevention, case-finding and treatment interventions for lead exposure, both the individual patient and the larger community reap the benefits of better health. PMID:12041847

  18. The association between caries and childhood lead exposure.

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, J R; Moss, M E; Raubertas, R F

    2000-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies suggest an association between lead exposure and caries. Our objective was to establish whether children with a higher lead exposure as toddlers had more caries at school age than children with a lower lead exposure. We used a retrospective cohort design. A sample of children who attended second and fifth grades in the Rochester, New York, public schools during the 1995-1996 and 1996-1997 school years were examined for caries through a dental screening program. For each ...

  19. Comparison of functional and morphological deficits in the rat after gestational exposure to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norton, S.; Kimler, B.F.

    1988-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is a precise tool for altering formation of the developing cerebral cortex of the fetal rat. Whole body exposure of the pregnant rat on gestational day 13, 15 or 17 to 1.0 Gy of gamma radiation resulted in maximum thinning of the cortex on days 15 and 17. In the preweaning period, functional tests (negative geotaxis, reflex suspension, continuous corridor and gait) were most affected by irradiation gestational day 15, as was body weight. When a lower dose of radiation (0.75 Gy) was used on gestational day 15, the damage to the cortex was much less but behavioral changes were still present. Frontal, parietal and occipital areas of the cortex were approximately equally affected. Using stepwise multiple regression analysis, the linkage of functional tests and cortical thickness was examined. Functional variables which were most commonly included as predictors of frontal and parietal cortex were negative geotaxis and continuous corridor. Occipital cortical layers were not predicted by behavioral variables. In predicting function using cortical variables, frontal cortex was better than parietal and occipital cortex was the poorest predictor

  20. Lead exposure in two pottery handicraft populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Ballesteros, G; Zuñiga-Charles, M A; García-de Alba, J E; Cárdenas-Ortega, A; Solis-Camara, P

    1980-01-01

    Lead poisoning studies were carried out in the populations of two potter towns in the State of Jalisco, Mexico. The first population in Tonalá included 198 people who use lead monoxide (PbO) in making pottery. The second population in El Rosario included 187 people who do not use any lead salt in the pottery-making process. The studies included children, adolescents and adults of both sexes. Analyses for lead in the blood (Pb-B), hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Ht), and urinary delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA U) were carried out. In the population exposed to lead, abnormally high lead concentrations in blood and urinary delta-aminolevulinic acid were found in both sexes and in all age groups studied. When compared to the control group, the differences are statistically significant. The Hb and Ht results fell within the lower normal limits in both populations. No cases of acute lead poisoning were found, but the high amount of lead absorption in the Tonalá population may be caused by the rudimentary means of manufacturing their products.

  1. Lead exposure potentiates predatory attack behavior in the cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Wenjie; Han Shenggao; Gregg, T.R.; Kemp, F.W.Francis W.; Davidow, A.L.; Louria, D.B.; Siegel, Allan; Bogden, J.D.

    2003-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that environmental lead exposure is associated with aggressive behavior in children; however, numerous confounding variables limit the ability of these studies to establish a causal relationship. The study of aggressive behavior using a validated animal model was used to test the hypothesis that there is a causal relationship between lead exposure and aggression in the absence of confounding variables. We studied the effects of lead exposure on a feline model of aggression: predatory (quiet biting) attack of an anesthetized rat. Five cats were stimulated with a precisely controlled electrical current via electrodes inserted into the lateral hypothalamus. The response measure was the predatory attack threshold current (i.e., the current required to elicit an attack response on 50% of the trials). Blocks of trials were administered in which predatory attack threshold currents were measured three times a week for a total of 6-10 weeks, including before, during, and after lead exposure. Lead was incorporated into cat food 'treats' at doses of 50-150 mg/kg/day. Two of the five cats received a second period of lead exposure. Blood lead concentrations were measured twice a week and were <1, 21-77, and <20 μg/dL prior to, during, and after lead exposure, respectively. The predatory attack threshold decreased significantly during initial lead exposure in three of five cats and increased after the cessation of lead exposure in four of the five cats (P<0.01). The predatory attack thresholds and blood lead concentrations for each cat were inversely correlated (r=-0.35 to -0.74). A random-effects mixed model demonstrated a significant (P=0.0019) negative association between threshold current and blood lead concentration. The data of this study demonstrate that lead exposure enhances predatory aggression in the cat and provide experimental support for a causal relationship between lead exposure and aggressive behavior in humans

  2. Noise exposure during the first trimester and the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Kyoung-Bok; Min, Jin-Young

    2017-07-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a form of diabetes that affects pregnant women. GDM tends to resolve after delivery, but has an impact on the health of the mother and her offspring. Considering the potential association between noise and diabetes and the susceptibility of the pregnant state to diabetogenesis, noise pollution may be associated with the risk of GDM; however, there is no evidence of the effect of noise pollution on GDM. In this study, we investigated the association between residential exposure to noise during the first trimester and incidence of GDM using the National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort (NHIS-NSC), a representative sample of South Koreans. We analyzed the National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort (2002-2013), a population-wide health insurance claim data. Study population was a total of 18 165 pregnant women. GDM was defined as ICD-10 code O244, and noise exposure levels were categorized as daytime (07:00-19:00) and nighttime (23:00-7:00). Other known risk factors for GDM were age, income, residential area, physical activity, smoking, drinking, blood sugar levels, and body mass index before getting pregnant. The study population included 18 165 pregnant women, of which 8.8% developed gestational diabetes. After adjustment, the adjusted OR (95% CI) for GDM associated with 1 dB increase in nighttime noise was 1.07 (95% CI: 1.05-1.10). Compared with the reference group (Quartile 1), the adjusted ORs for GDM in those exposed to the highest quartile of noise exposure (Quartile 4) was 1.61 (95% CI: 1.38-1.87) at nighttime noise. However, no significant association was observed between daytime noise exposure (07:00-19:00) and the incidence of GDM. We observed that the odds of gestational diabetes during the first trimester was 1.6 times higher for pregnant women exposed to elevated nighttime noise compared to similar women exposed to normal baseline noise levels in South Korea. Although this finding

  3. Effect of lead exposure in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khwaja, M.

    2005-01-01

    Increasing prosperity and population-growth in many developing countries are resulting in accelerated growth in population of vehicles and vehicle-kilometers traveled. In Pakistan also, the number of vehicles has jumped from 0.8 million to about 4.0 million within 20 years, showing an overall increase of more than 400%. Accordingly, the consumption of petrol (motor spirit) has increased from 828,670 metric tons to 1,189,042 metric tons. The high content of lead in petrol is a serious issue, as the end- product is the release of lead into the environment. In Pakistan, prior to July 2001, lead-content in petrol was reported to be as high as 0.35-0.84 gram per liter. The reported lead-levels in air (micrograms/cubic centimeter) in different cities of Pakistan are: Karachi (1980-81) 0.13-0.24; Peshawar (1994-95) 0.21-0.79; Lahore (1993-94) 0.15-8.36 and (1999-2000) 0.89-7.85 and Rawalpindi (1999-2000) 0.71-10.00, indicating the very alarming increase and high levels of lead in the ambient air, at the reported sites and time of monitoring. Children in developing countries, with dietary deficiencies, are very susceptible to lead poisoning. Special concern of lead-poisoning has been that lead is a neurotoxin and it impairs brain-development in children, even at levels that were considered safe. The overall mean BPbLs (micrograms per deciliter) among 900 (boys and girls) of three cities in Pakistan have been reported to be 22.8 +- 3.30, 19.00 +-6.48 and 2.30 +-0.19 (rural site). Details of these investigations and government national environmental action-plan (NEAP) are described and discussed in this paper, with special reference to clean air by providing clean fuel and taking other air-pollution control measures. (author)

  4. Association of Prenatal Ibuprofen Exposure with Birth Weight and Gestational Age: A Population-Based Sibling Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nezvalová-Henriksen, Kateřina; Wood, Mollie; Spigset, Olav; Nordeng, Hedvig

    2016-01-01

    Three studies so far have investigated the effect of prenatal non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) exposure on birth weight and gestational age. The aim in this study was to evaluate the association of prenatal ibuprofen with birth weight and gestational age at birth, using a sibling design in an attempt to adjust for the possibility of familial confounding. Using data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) and the Medical Birth Registry of Norway (MBRN), we identified 28 597 siblings, of whom 1080 were prenatally exposed to ibuprofen and 26 824 were not exposed to any NSAID. Random and fixed effects models with propensity score adjustment were used to evaluate the effects of ibuprofen exposure on birth weight and gestational age. Ibuprofen exposure during the first trimester was associated with a decrease in birth weight of 79 grams (95% confidence interval -133 to -25 grams). In contrast, second and/or third trimester exposure, and duration of exposure had no impact on the effect estimates. We found no association between ibuprofen exposure and gestational age at birth. Our results suggest that prenatal exposure to ibuprofen during the first trimester is associated with a slight decrease in birth weight. The association does not seem to be attributable to shared genetics and family environment, and could be explained by either exposure to ibuprofen, or to non-shared confounding between pregnancies.

  5. Environmental and occupational exposure to lead | Njoroge | East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the status of environmental and occupational lead exposure in selected areas in Nairobi, Kenya. Design: Cross sectional study. Setting: Kariobangi North, Babadogo, Waithaka and Pumwani for assessment of environmental exposure to lead (Pb) and Ziwani Jua Kali works for assessment of ...

  6. Impact of low-level gestational exposure to organophosphate pesticides on neurobehavior in early infancy: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yolton, Kimberly; Xu, Yingying; Sucharew, Heidi; Succop, Paul; Altaye, Mekibib; Popelar, Ann; Montesano, M Angela; Calafat, Antonia M; Khoury, Jane C

    2013-09-13

    National data suggest widespread gestational exposure to organophosphate pesticides (OPs) based on the detection of OP metabolites in the urine of pregnant women. Associations with early infant neurobehavior are largely understudied, with only two studies reporting abnormal reflexes in newborns in association with gestational exposure to OPs. Our objective was to utilize biological markers of OP metabolites in pregnant women and a comprehensive assessment of infant neurobehavior to determine the association of gestational exposure to OPs with neurobehavioral outcomes during early infancy. Among a cohort of 350 mother/infant pairs, we measured six common dialkylphosphate metabolites of OP pesticides in maternal urine, at two times during pregnancy (16 w & 26 w gestation), then calculated aggregate concentrations of diethylphosphate, dimethylphosphate, and total dialkyphosphate metabolites. We measured infant neurobehavior at about five weeks of age using the NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scale (NNNS), a comprehensive assessment of neurobehavior in young infants. Analyses of associations between gestational exposure to OPs and neurobehavior at five weeks included multiple linear and logistic regression. After adjustment for covariates, higher creatinine-corrected urinary concentrations of diethylphosphate metabolites were associated with improved attention and reduced lethargy and hypotonia in young infants. Higher creatinine-corrected urinary concentrations of total dialkylphosphate metabolites were associated with fewer signs of autonomic stress. Women who were white, married, had advanced education, and reported more frequent consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables had higher concentrations of OP metabolites during pregnancy. In this sample of pregnant women whose urinary concentrations of dialkylphosphate metabolites are representative of national exposure levels, we found no detrimental effects of gestational exposure to OPs on neurobehavioral outcomes among

  7. Exposure to arsenic in tap water and gestational diabetes: A French semi-ecological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie, Cécile; Léger, Stéphanie; Guttmann, Aline; Rivière, Olivier; Marchiset, Nathalie; Lémery, Didier; Vendittelli, Françoise; Sauvant-Rochat, Marie-Pierre

    2018-02-01

    The increase in the prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and its consequences for mother and children prompts research on their risk factors including environmental factors. Studies on exposure to arsenic (As) in tap water and the risk of GDM have not provided conclusive evidence, particularly when levels of exposure were low (from 10 to 50µg As/L). The main objective of this study was to assess the association between exposure to As in tap water and the risk of GDM. A semi-ecological study was conducted from births recorded at the University Hospital of Clermont-Ferrand, France, in 2003, 2006 and 2010. Individual medical/obstetric data were available. As exposure was estimated from the concentrations of As measured during sanitary control of tap water supplied in the mothers' commune of residence (aggregate data). French guidelines for As in tap water were used to identify groups potentially exposed, designated "As +" (≥ 10µg As/L) and "As -" (< 10µg As/L). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed. 5053 women (5.7% with a GDM) were included. Overall, women in the As + group had a higher risk of GDM than those in the As - group (adjusted OR = 1.62; 95%CI: 1.01-2.53). Stratified analysis of pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) showed a positive association only for obese or overweight women (adjusted OR = 2.30; 95%CI: 1.13-4.50). This French semi-ecological study provides additional arguments for an association between As exposure and the risk of GDM in particular in a context of low exposure. Further studies are needed to assess a potential interaction between As exposure and body mass index. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Pregnancy Outcome Following Gestational Exposure to Fluoroquinolones: a Multicenter Prospective Controlled Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loebstein, Ronen; Addis, Antonio; Ho, Elaine; Andreou, Roseann; Sage, Suzanne; Donnenfeld, Alan E.; Schick, Betsy; Bonati, Maurizio; Moretti, Myla; Lalkin, Arieh; Pastuszak, Anne; Koren, Gideon

    1998-01-01

    Concerns regarding the teratogenicity of fluoroquinolones have resulted in their restricted use during gestation. This is despite an increasing need for their use due to emerging bacterial resistance. The objectives of the present investigation were to evaluate pregnancy and fetal outcomes following maternal exposure to fluoroquinolones and to examine whether in utero exposure to quinolones is associated with clinically significant musculoskeletal dysfunctions. We prospectively enrolled and followed up 200 women exposed to fluoroquinolones (norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin) during gestation. Pregnancy outcome was compared with that for 200 controls matched for age and for smoking and alcohol consumption habits. Controls were exposed to nonteratogenic, nonembryotoxic antimicrobial agents matched by indication, duration of therapy (±3 days), and trimester of exposure. Rates of major congenital malformations did not differ between the group exposed to quinolones in the first trimester (2.2%) and the control group (2.6%) (relative risk, 0.85; 95% confidence interval, 0.21 to 3.49). Women treated with quinolones had a tendency for an increased rate of therapeutic abortions compared with the rate among women exposed to nonteratogens (relative risk, 4.50; 95% confidence interval, 0.98 to 20.57), resulting in lower live-birth rates (86 versus 94%; P = 0.02). The rates of spontaneous abortions, fetal distress, and prematurity and the birth weight did not differ between the groups. Gross motor developmental milestone achievements did not differ between the children of the mothers in the two groups. We concluded that the use of fluoroquinolones during embryogenesis is not associated with an increased risk of major malformations. There were no clinically significant musculoskeletal dysfunctions in children exposed to fluoroquinolones in utero. The higher rate of therapeutic abortions observed in quinolone-exposed women compared to that for their controls may be secondary

  9. Exposure to lead in South African shooting ranges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathee, Angela; Jager, Pieter de; Naidoo, Shan; Naicker, Nisha

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Lead exposure in shooting ranges has been under scrutiny for decades, but no information in this regard is available in respect of African settings, and in South Africa specifically. The aim of this study was to determine the blood lead levels in the users of randomly selected private shooting ranges in South Africa's Gauteng province. Methods: An analytical cross sectional study was conducted, with participants recruited from four randomly selected shooting ranges and three archery ranges as a comparator group. Results: A total of 118 (87 shooters and 31 archers) were included in the analysis. Shooters had significantly higher blood lead levels (BLL) compared to archers with 36/85 (42.4%) of shooters versus 2/34 (5.9%) of archers found to have a BLL ≥10 μg/dl (p<0.001). Conclusion: Shooting ranges may constitute an import site of elevated exposure to lead. Improved ventilation, low levels of awareness of lead hazards, poor housekeeping, and inadequate personal hygiene facilities and practices at South African shooting ranges need urgent attention. - Highlights: • This is the first study, to our knowledge, of lead exposure in shooting ranges in an African setting. • This study indicates highly elevated lead exposure amongst the users of certain private shooting ranges in South Africa. • Lead exposure may be a serious, yet under-studied, source of adult lead exposure in South Africa, and possibly elsewhere on the African continent.

  10. The association between caries and childhood lead exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, J R; Moss, M E; Raubertas, R F

    2000-11-01

    Epidemiologic studies suggest an association between lead exposure and caries. Our objective was to establish whether children with a higher lead exposure as toddlers had more caries at school age than children with a lower lead exposure. We used a retrospective cohort design. A sample of children who attended second and fifth grades in the Rochester, New York, public schools during the 1995-1996 and 1996-1997 school years were examined for caries through a dental screening program. For each child we assessed the number of decayed, missing, or filled surfaces on permanent teeth (DMFS), and the number of decayed or filled surfaces on deciduous teeth (dfs); the number of surfaces at risk (SAR) was also recorded. Lead exposure was defined as the mean of all blood lead levels collected between 18 and 37 months of age by fingerstick [provided the blood lead level was [less than/equal to] 10 microg/dL)] or venipuncture. A total of 248 children (197 second graders and 51 fifth graders) were examined for caries and had a record of blood lead levels to define lead exposure. The mean dfs was 3.4 (range 0-29); the mean DMFS was 0.5 (range 0-8). Logistic regression was used to examine the association between the proportion of children with DMFS [Greater/equal to] 1, and the proportion with dfs [Greater/equal to] 1, and lead exposure [lead exposure > 10 microg/dL as a toddler was a strong predictor of caries among school-age children. However, the results should be interpreted cautiously because of limitations in the assessment of lead exposure and limited statistical power.

  11. Transgenerational Transmission of the Effect of Gestational Ethanol Exposure on Ethanol Use-Related Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizhnikov, Michael E; Popoola, Daniel O; Cameron, Nicole M

    2016-03-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) enhances the risk for alcoholism by increasing the propensity to consume alcohol and altering neurophysiological response to alcohol challenge. Trans-generationally transmittable genetic alterations have been implicated in these behavioral changes. To date, transgenerational transmission of PAE-induced behavioral responses to alcohol has never been experimentally investigated. Therefore, we explored the transgenerational transmission of PAE-induced behavioral effects across 3 generations. Pregnant Sprague Dawley dams received 1 g/kg ethanol (EtOH) or water daily on gestational days 17 through 20 via gavage, or remained untreated in their home cages. To produce second filial (F2) or F3 generations, similarly treated adult F1 or F2 offspring were mated and left undisturbed through gestation. On postnatal day (PND) 14, male and female F1, F2, and F3 offspring were tested for consumption of 5% (w/v) EtOH (in water), or water. Using the loss of righting reflex (LORR) paradigm on PND 42, F1 and F2 adolescent male offspring were tested for sensitivity to acute EtOH-induced sedation-hypnosis at 3.5 or 4.5 g/kg dose. F3 male adolescents were similarly tested at 3.5 g/kg dose. Blood EtOH concentration (BEC) was measured at waking. EtOH exposure increased EtOH consumption compared to both water and untreated control groups in all generations. EtOH-treated group F1 and F2 adolescents displayed attenuated LORR duration compared to the water group. No attenuated LORR was observed in the F3 generation. BEC at waking corroborated with the significant LORR duration differences while also revealing differences between untreated control and water groups in F1 and F2 generations. Our results provide novel behavioral evidence attesting that late gestational moderate EtOH exposure increases EtOH intake across 3 generations and may alter sensitivity to EtOH-induced sedation-hypnosis across 2 generations. Copyright © 2016 by the Research Society on

  12. Site-specific lead exposure from lead pellet ingestion in sentinel mallards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocke, T.E.; Brand, C.J.; Mensik, John G.

    1997-01-01

    We monitored lead poisoning from the ingestion of spent lead pellets in sentinel mallards (Anas platyhrynchos) at the Sacramento National Wildlife Refuge (SNWR), Willows, California for 4 years (1986-89) after the conversion to steel shot for waterfowl hunting on refuges in 1986. Sentinel mallards were held in 1.6-ha enclosures in 1 hunted (P8) and 2 non-hunted (T19 and TF) wetlands. We compared site-specific rates of lead exposure, as determined by periodic measurement of blood lead concentrations, and lead poisoning mortality between wetlands with different lead pellet densities, between seasons, and between male and female sentinels. In 1986, the estimated 2-week rate of lead exposure was significantly higher (P 2,000,000 pellets/ha), than in those with lower densities of lead pellets, T19 (18.1%; 173,200 pellets/ha) and TF (0.9%; 15,750 pellets/ha). The probability of mortality from lead poisoning was also significantly higher (P exposure and the probability of lead poisoning mortality in P8 were significantly higher (P exposure or lead poisoning mortality between male and female sentinel mallards. The results of this study demonstrate that in some locations, lead exposure and lead poisoning in waterfowl will continue to occur despite the conversion to steel shot for waterfowl hunting.

  13. [Effects of gestational isoflurane exposure on postnatal memory and learning in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Fei-juan; Tang, Yu-wen; Xu, Lin-hao; Zhang, Xaio-ming; Lu, Hui-shun

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the effects of gestational isoflurane exposure on postnatal memory and learning and growth-associated protein-43 (GAP-43), neuropeptide Y(NPY) expression in the hippocampus of pups. Twelve maternal Sprague-Dawley rats at gestation d 18(E18) were randomly divided into isoflurane group (n=6) and control group (n=6). Rats in isoflurane group were exposed to 1.3 % isoflurane for 6 h. For control group, animals breathed in 30 % oxygen and air mixed gas at the same condition. Spatial learning and memory of the offspring were determined with the Morris Water Maze(MWM) after postnatal 4 weeks. The changes of GAP-43 and NPY expression in the hippocampal CA1 region of the pups were determined by immunohistochemistry. In MWM training, the escape latency to platform of the pups in isoflurane group was significantly longer, and the time spent in the third quadrant and times of original platform crossing were less than those of control animals (Plearning of their pups at a juvenile age, which may be associated with the down-regulation of GAP-43 and NPY in the hippocampus.

  14. Gestational diabetes mellitus and exposure to ambient air pollution and road traffic noise: A cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Marie; Olsen, Sjurdur F; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I; Zhang, Cuilin; Hjortebjerg, Dorrit; Ketzel, Matthias; Grandström, Charlotta; Sørensen, Mette; Damm, Peter; Langhoff-Roos, Jens; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

    2017-11-01

    Road traffic is a main source of air pollution and noise. Both exposures have been associated with type 2 diabetes, but associations with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) have been studied less. We aimed to examine single and joint associations of exposure to air pollution and road traffic noise on GDM in a prospective cohort. We identified GDM cases from self-reports and hospital records, using two different criteria, among 72,745 singleton pregnancies (1997-2002) from the Danish National Birth Cohort. We modeled nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) and noise from road traffic (L den ) exposure at all pregnancy addresses. According to the two diagnostic criteria: the Danish clinical guidelines, which was our main outcome, and the WHO standard during recruitment period, a total of 565 and 210 women, respectively, had GDM. For both exposures no risk was evident for the common Danish criterion of GDM. A 10-μg/m 3 increase in NO 2 exposure during first trimester was, however, associated with an increased risk of WHO-GDM (adjusted odds ratio (OR)=1.24; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03, 1.49). The corresponding OR associated with a 10-dB higher road traffic noise level was 1.15 (0.94 to 1.18). In mutually adjusted models the OR for NO 2 remained similar 1.22 (0.98, 1.53) whereas that for road traffic noise decreased to 1.03 (0.80, 1.32). Significant associations were also observed for exposure averaged over the 2nd and 3rd trimesters and the full pregnancy. No risk was evident for the common Danish criterion of GDM. NO 2 was associated with higher risk for GDM according to the WHO criterion, which might be due to selection bias. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Reproductive toxicity of linuron following gestational exposure in rats and underlying mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Hongwei; Zheng, Wei; Han, Hua; Hu, Xiyin; Hu, Binli; Wang, Feng; Su, Liyu; Li, Hong; Li, Yan

    2017-01-01

    Linuron is a widely used herbicide in agriculture; its endocrine disruptive toxicity has recently received public attention. This study was designed to examine the developmental toxicity of linuron on the reproductive system of male offspring following maternal exposure. Mother rats received oral gavages of linuron, once daily, at the dose of 0, 50, 100, 150 or 200 mg/kg, from gestational day (GD)13 to GD18; gonadal organs from GD20 fetuses were examined. Data indicated that exposed male offspring had a significantly shortened anogenital distance. Pathological examination further revealed a lack of fusion in the urogenital fold in treated fetuses, the damaged seminiferous tubules, and the injured Leydig cell ultrastructure. Analysis of serum testosterone concentrations at postnatal day (PND)2 showed a significant dose-related reduction (about 33.7–58.75%, r = −0.838, p in Leydig cells (p in fetal and postnatal offspring. PMID:28007637

  16. Childhood Lead Exposure from Battery Recycling in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William E. Daniell

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Battery recycling facilities in developing countries can cause community lead exposure. Objective. To evaluate child lead exposure in a Vietnam battery recycling craft village after efforts to shift home-based recycling outside the village. Methods. This cross-sectional study evaluated 109 children in Dong Mai village, using blood lead level (BLL measurement, parent interview, and household observation. Blood samples were analyzed with a LeadCare II field instrument; highest BLLs (≥45 μg/dL were retested by laboratory analysis. Surface and soil lead were measured at 11 households and a school with X-ray fluorescence analyzer. Results. All children had high BLLs; 28% had BLL ≥45 μg/dL. Younger age, family recycling, and outside brick surfaces were associated with higher BLL. Surface and soil lead levels were high at all tested homes, even with no recycling history. Laboratory BLLs were lower than LeadCare BLLs, in 24 retested children. Discussion. In spite of improvements, lead exposure was still substantial and probably associated with continued home-based recycling, legacy contamination, and workplace take-home exposure pathways. There is a need for effective strategies to manage lead exposure from battery recycling in craft villages. These reported BLL values should be interpreted cautiously, although the observed field-laboratory discordance may reflect bias in laboratory results.

  17. Childhood Lead Exposure from Battery Recycling in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniell, William E; Van Tung, Lo; Wallace, Ryan M; Havens, Deborah J; Karr, Catherine J; Bich Diep, Nguyen; Croteau, Gerry A; Beaudet, Nancy J; Duy Bao, Nguyen

    2015-01-01

    Battery recycling facilities in developing countries can cause community lead exposure. To evaluate child lead exposure in a Vietnam battery recycling craft village after efforts to shift home-based recycling outside the village. This cross-sectional study evaluated 109 children in Dong Mai village, using blood lead level (BLL) measurement, parent interview, and household observation. Blood samples were analyzed with a LeadCare II field instrument; highest BLLs (≥45 μg/dL) were retested by laboratory analysis. Surface and soil lead were measured at 11 households and a school with X-ray fluorescence analyzer. All children had high BLLs; 28% had BLL ≥45 μg/dL. Younger age, family recycling, and outside brick surfaces were associated with higher BLL. Surface and soil lead levels were high at all tested homes, even with no recycling history. Laboratory BLLs were lower than LeadCare BLLs, in 24 retested children. In spite of improvements, lead exposure was still substantial and probably associated with continued home-based recycling, legacy contamination, and workplace take-home exposure pathways. There is a need for effective strategies to manage lead exposure from battery recycling in craft villages. These reported BLL values should be interpreted cautiously, although the observed field-laboratory discordance may reflect bias in laboratory results.

  18. Gestational high-fat diet and bisphenol A exposure heightens mammary cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Yuet-Kin; Govindarajah, Vinothini; Cheong, Ana; Veevers, Jennifer; Song, Dan; Gear, Robin; Zhu, Xuegong; Ying, Jun; Kendler, Ady; Medvedovic, Mario; Belcher, Scott; Ho, Shuk-Mei

    2017-07-01

    In utero exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) increases mammary cancer susceptibility in offspring. High-fat diet is widely believed to be a risk factor of breast cancer. The objective of this study was to determine whether maternal exposure to BPA in addition to high-butterfat (HBF) intake during pregnancy further influences carcinogen-induced mammary cancer risk in offspring, and its dose-response curve. In this study, we found that gestational HBF intake in addition to a low-dose BPA (25 µg/kg BW/day) exposure increased mammary tumor incidence in a 50-day-of-age chemical carcinogen administration model and altered mammary gland morphology in offspring in a non-monotonic manner, while shortening tumor-free survival time compared with the HBF-alone group. In utero HBF and BPA exposure elicited differential effects at the gene level in PND21 mammary glands through DNA methylation, compared with HBF intake in the absence of BPA. Top HBF + BPA-dysregulated genes ( ALDH1B1 , ASTL , CA7 , CPLX4 , KCNV2 , MAGEE2 and TUBA3E ) are associated with poor overall survival in The Cancer Genomic Atlas (TCGA) human breast cancer cohort ( n  = 1082). Furthermore, the prognostic power of the identified genes was further enhanced in the survival analysis of Caucasian patients with estrogen receptor-positive tumors. In conclusion, concurrent HBF dietary and a low-dose BPA exposure during pregnancy increases mammary tumor incidence in offspring, accompanied by alterations in mammary gland development and gene expression, and possibly through epigenetic reprogramming. © 2017 The authors.

  19. Exposure to environmentally persistent free radicals during gestation lowers energy expenditure and impairs skeletal muscle mitochondrial function in adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Erin J; Ragauskas, Alyse; Jaligama, Sridhar; Redd, JeAnna R; Parvathareddy, Jyothi; Peloquin, Matthew J; Saravia, Jordy; Han, Joan C; Cormier, Stephania A; Bridges, Dave

    2016-06-01

    We have investigated the effects of in utero exposure to environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFRs) on growth, metabolism, energy utilization, and skeletal muscle mitochondria in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity. Pregnant mice were treated with laboratory-generated, combustion-derived particular matter (MCP230). The adult offspring were placed on a high-fat diet for 12 wk, after which we observed a 9.8% increase in their body weight. The increase in body size observed in the MCP230-exposed mice was not associated with increases in food intake but was associated with a reduction in physical activity and lower energy expenditure. The reduced energy expenditure in mice indirectly exposed to MCP230 was associated with reductions in skeletal muscle mitochondrial DNA copy number, lower mRNA levels of electron transport genes, and reduced citrate synthase activity. Upregulation of key genes involved in ameliorating oxidative stress was also observed in the muscle of MCP230-exposed mice. These findings suggest that gestational exposure to MCP230 leads to a reduction in energy expenditure at least in part through alterations to mitochondrial metabolism in the skeletal muscle. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  20. Lead induces similar gene expression changes in brains of gestationally exposed adult mice and in neurons differentiated from mouse embryonic stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Sánchez-Martín

    Full Text Available Exposure to environmental toxicants during embryonic life causes changes in the expression of developmental genes that may last for a lifetime and adversely affect the exposed individual. Developmental exposure to lead (Pb, an ubiquitous environmental contaminant, causes deficits in cognitive functions and IQ, behavioral effects, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Long-term effects observed after early life exposure to Pb include reduction of gray matter, alteration of myelin structure, and increment of criminal behavior in adults. Despite growing research interest, the molecular mechanisms responsible for the effects of lead in the central nervous system are still largely unknown. To study the molecular changes due to Pb exposure during neurodevelopment, we exposed mice to Pb in utero and examined the expression of neural markers, neurotrophins, transcription factors and glutamate-related genes in hippocampus, cortex, and thalamus at postnatal day 60. We found that hippocampus was the area where gene expression changes due to Pb exposure were more pronounced. To recapitulate gestational Pb exposure in vitro, we differentiated mouse embryonic stem cells (ESC into neurons and treated ESC-derived neurons with Pb for the length of the differentiation process. These neurons expressed the characteristic neuronal markers Tubb3, Syp, Gap43, Hud, Ngn1, Vglut1 (a marker of glutamatergic neurons, and all the glutamate receptor subunits, but not the glial marker Gafp. Importantly, several of the changes observed in Pb-exposed mouse brains in vivo were also observed in Pb-treated ESC-derived neurons, including those affecting expression of Ngn1, Bdnf exon IV, Grin1, Grin2D, Grik5, Gria4, and Grm6. We conclude that our ESC-derived model of toxicant exposure during neural differentiation promises to be a useful model to analyze mechanisms of neurotoxicity induced by Pb and other environmental agents.

  1. Metals exposure and risk of small-for-gestational age birth in a Canadian birth cohort: The MIREC study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Shari [Department of Public Health Sciences, Queen’s University, Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Arbuckle, Tye E., E-mail: Tye.Arbuckle@hc-sc.gc.ca [Population Studies Division, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, Ottawa (Canada); Fisher, Mandy [Population Studies Division, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, Ottawa (Canada); Fraser, William D. [Sainte Justine University Hospital Research Center, University of Montreal, Montreal (Canada); Ettinger, Adrienne [Center for Perinatal, Pediatric & Environmental Epidemiology, Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, CT (United States); King, Will [Department of Public Health Sciences, Queen’s University, Kingston, Ontario (Canada)

    2015-07-15

    Background: Lead, mercury, cadmium and arsenic are some of the most common toxic metals to which Canadians are exposed. The effect of exposure to current low levels of toxic metals on fetal growth restriction is unknown. Objective: The aim of this study was to examine relationships between exposure to lead, mercury, cadmium and arsenic during pregnancy, and risk of small for gestational age (SGA) birth. Methods: Lead, mercury, cadmium and arsenic levels were measured in blood samples from the first and third trimesters in 1835 pregnant women from across Canada. Arsenic species in first trimester urine were also assessed. Relative risks and 95% confidence intervals were estimated using log binomial multivariate regression. Important covariates including maternal age, parity, pre-pregnancy BMI, and smoking, were considered in the analysis. An exploratory analysis was performed to examine potential effect modification of these relationships by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in GSTP1 and GSTO1 genes. Results: No association was found between blood lead, cadmium or arsenic and risk for SGA. We observed an increased risk for SGA for the highest compared to the lowest tertile of exposure for mercury (>1.6 µg/L, RR=1.56.; 95% CI=1.04–2.58) and arsenobetaine (>2.25 µg/L, RR=1.65; 95% CI=1.10–2.47) after adjustment for the effects of parity and smoking. A statistically significant interaction was observed in the relationship between dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) levels in urinary arsenic and SGA between strata of GSTO1 A104A (p for interaction=0.02). A marginally significant interaction was observed in the relationship between blood lead and SGA between strata of GSTP1 A114V (p for interaction=0.06). Conclusions: These results suggest a small increase in risk for SGA in infants born to women exposed to mercury and arsenic. Given the conflicting evidence in the literature this warrants further investigation in other pregnant populations. - Highlights: • Metals

  2. Metals exposure and risk of small-for-gestational age birth in a Canadian birth cohort: The MIREC study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Shari; Arbuckle, Tye E.; Fisher, Mandy; Fraser, William D.; Ettinger, Adrienne; King, Will

    2015-01-01

    Background: Lead, mercury, cadmium and arsenic are some of the most common toxic metals to which Canadians are exposed. The effect of exposure to current low levels of toxic metals on fetal growth restriction is unknown. Objective: The aim of this study was to examine relationships between exposure to lead, mercury, cadmium and arsenic during pregnancy, and risk of small for gestational age (SGA) birth. Methods: Lead, mercury, cadmium and arsenic levels were measured in blood samples from the first and third trimesters in 1835 pregnant women from across Canada. Arsenic species in first trimester urine were also assessed. Relative risks and 95% confidence intervals were estimated using log binomial multivariate regression. Important covariates including maternal age, parity, pre-pregnancy BMI, and smoking, were considered in the analysis. An exploratory analysis was performed to examine potential effect modification of these relationships by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in GSTP1 and GSTO1 genes. Results: No association was found between blood lead, cadmium or arsenic and risk for SGA. We observed an increased risk for SGA for the highest compared to the lowest tertile of exposure for mercury (>1.6 µg/L, RR=1.56.; 95% CI=1.04–2.58) and arsenobetaine (>2.25 µg/L, RR=1.65; 95% CI=1.10–2.47) after adjustment for the effects of parity and smoking. A statistically significant interaction was observed in the relationship between dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) levels in urinary arsenic and SGA between strata of GSTO1 A104A (p for interaction=0.02). A marginally significant interaction was observed in the relationship between blood lead and SGA between strata of GSTP1 A114V (p for interaction=0.06). Conclusions: These results suggest a small increase in risk for SGA in infants born to women exposed to mercury and arsenic. Given the conflicting evidence in the literature this warrants further investigation in other pregnant populations. - Highlights: • Metals

  3. Control of excessive lead exposure in radiator repair workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-01

    In 1988, 83 automotive repair workers with blood lead levels (BLLs) greater than 25 micrograms/dL were reported to state health departments in the seven states that collaborated with CDC's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) in maintaining registries of elevated BLLs in adults. In 18 (22%) of these 83 persons, BLLs were greater than 50 micrograms/dL. Among automotive repair workers for whom a job category was specified, radiator repair work was the principal source of lead exposure. The major sources of exposure for radiator repair workers are lead fumes generated during soldering and lead dust produced during radiator cleaning. This report summarizes current BLL surveillance data for radiator repair workers and describes three control technologies that are effective in reducing lead exposures in radiator repair shops.

  4. Environmental lead exposure risks associated with children's outdoor playgrounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, Mark Patrick; Camenzuli, Danielle; Kristensen, Louise Jane; Forbes, Miriam; Zahran, Sammy

    2013-01-01

    This study examines exposure risks associated with lead smelter emissions at children's public playgrounds in Port Pirie, South Australia. Lead and other metal values were measured in air, soil, surface dust and on pre- and post-play hand wipes. Playgrounds closest to the smelter were significantly more lead contaminated compared to those further away (t(27.545) = 3.76; p = .001). Port Pirie post-play hand wipes contained significantly higher lead loadings (maximum hand lead value of 49,432 μg/m 2 ) than pre-play hand wipes (t(27) = 3.57, p = .001). A 1% increase in air lead (μg/m 3 ) was related to a 0.713% increase in lead dust on play surfaces (95% CI, 0.253–1.174), and a 0.612% increase in post-play wipe lead (95% CI, 0.257–0.970). Contaminated dust from smelter emissions is determined as the source and cause of childhood lead poisoning at a rate of approximately one child every third day. -- Highlights: •Spatial and temporal variations in lead exposure due to smelter emissions is examined. •Exposure to lead and other metals is evaluated using pre and post-play hand wipe measures. •The relationship of smelter emissions to surface and hand lead exposures is modelled. •A 1% increase in air lead (μg/m 3 ) was related to a 0.713% increase in lead dust on play surfaces. -- Playgrounds in Port Pirie are seriously contaminated by smelter emissions, with levels of surface dust and hand dust that pose a significant risk of harm to human health

  5. Small for gestational age and exposure to particulate air pollution in the early-life environment of twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijnens, Esmée M; Derom, Catherine; Gielen, Marij; Winckelmans, Ellen; Fierens, Frans; Vlietinck, Robert; Zeegers, Maurice P; Nawrot, Tim S

    2016-07-01

    Several studies in singletons have shown that maternal exposure to ambient air pollutants is associated with restricted fetal growth. About half of twins have low birth weight compared with six percent in singletons. So far, no studies have investigated maternal air pollution exposure in association with birth weight and small for gestational age in twins. We examined 4760 twins of the East Flanders Prospective Twins Survey (2002-2013), to study the association between in utero exposure to air pollution with birth weight and small for gestational age. Maternal particulate air pollution (PM10) and nitric dioxide (NO2) exposure was estimated using a spatial temporal interpolation method over various time windows during pregnancy. In the total group of twins, we observed that higher PM10 and NO2 exposure during the third trimester was significantly associated with a lower birth weight and higher risk of small for gestational age. However, the association was driven by moderate to late preterm twins (32-36 weeks of gestation). In these twins born between 32 and 36 weeks of gestation, birth weight decreased by 40.2g (95% CI: -69.0 to -11.3; p=0.006) and by 27.3g (95% CI: -52.9 to -1.7; p=0.04) in association for each 10µg/m³ increment in PM10 and NO2 concentration during the third trimester. The corresponding odds ratio for small for gestational age were 1.68 (95% CI: 1.27-2.33; p=0.0003) and 1.51 (95% CI: 1.18-1.95; p=0.001) for PM10 or NO2, respectively. No associations between air pollution and birth weight or small for gestational age were observed among term born twins. Finally, in all twins, we found that for each 10µg/m³ increase in PM10 during the last month of pregnancy the within-pair birth weight difference increased by 19.6g (95% CI: 3.7-35.4; p=0.02). Assuming causality, an achievement of a 10µg/m³ decrease of particulate air pollution may account for a reduction by 40% in small for gestational age, in twins born moderate to late preterm. Copyright

  6. Intrauterine nicotine exposure, birth weight, gestational age and the risk of infantile colic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milidou, Ioanna; Søndergaard, Charlotte; Jensen, Morten Søndergaard

    Background and aim: Infantile colic is characterised by crying bouts in a healthy infant during the first months. Smoking in pregnancy and low birth weight (BW) have been previously identified as risk factors for infantile colic. Nicotine acts as a neurotransmitter and is known to affect the intr......Background and aim: Infantile colic is characterised by crying bouts in a healthy infant during the first months. Smoking in pregnancy and low birth weight (BW) have been previously identified as risk factors for infantile colic. Nicotine acts as a neurotransmitter and is known to affect...... the intrauterine central nervous system development, while low BW and premature birth have both been related to adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. We investigated the association between intrauterine nicotine exposure, BW, gestational age (GA) and infantile colic in a large cohort study. Materials and methods......: We used data from the Danish National Birth Cohort. The study on nicotine exposure included 63,128 infants and the study on BW and GA included 62, 785 infants with complete data. Infantile colic was defined according to the modified Wessel’s criteria based on maternal interview 6 months postpartum...

  7. Lead exposure in Nunavik: from research to action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariane Couture

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. In 1999, the Government of Canada regulated the use of lead shot for hunting. Concurrently, the Nunavik Regional Board of Health and Social Services (NRBHSS was informed of the results of an isotope study that pointed to lead ammunition as a likely source of lead exposure in Nunavik. Rapidly thereafter, a coalition for the banning of lead shot was implemented by the NRBHSS as well as by regional/local partners and by Inuit hunters in order to disseminate this information to the public. Objectives. The purpose of this article is to describe the intervention conducted in the winter of 1999 by the NRBHSS and to assess the combined impact of national legislation and an awareness campaign on blood lead levels in Nunavik. Study design. Impact assessment of the intervention for the banning of lead shot conducted in 1999 in Nunavik using blood lead levels data before and after the intervention. Methods. Data on blood lead levels in Nunavik describing foetal exposure as well as during childhood and in adults published between 1992 and 2009 were compiled. Blood lead levels in Nunavik prior to and after the interventions were compared. To assess the current situation, the most recent blood lead levels were compared with those from surveys conducted during the same period in North America. Results. Analysis of blood samples collected from umbilical cord and from adults show that blood lead levels in Nunavik significantly declined between 1992 and 2004. Nevertheless, lead exposure in Nunavik still remains higher in comparison to that observed in other North American surveys. Conclusions. The current situation regarding lead exposure in Nunavik has significantly improved as a result of the implemented intervention. However, according to recent data, a gap still subsists relative to other North American populations.

  8. [Risk assessment of renal dysfunction caused by occupational lead exposure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Li-ting; Lei, Li-jian; Chang, Xiu-li; Jin, Tai-yi; Zheng, Guang; Guo, Wei-jun; Li, Hui-qi; Pan, Xiao-hai

    2010-03-01

    To assess the risk of renal dysfunction caused by occupational lead exposure through epidemiological investigation. The workers in a battery factory were selected as the subjects for the exposure and effect assessment. The occupational environmental monitoring data was collected and used to calculate the total external dose of lead. The relationship between external dose and internal dose of lead was analyzed. The external dose, blood lead (BPb) and urinary lead (UPb) were used as exposure biomarkers while the urinary N-acetyl-D-glucosaminidase (UNAG), and urinary albumin (UALB) were used as the effect biomarkers for the renal dysfunction caused by lead. Software of BMDS (BMDS 11311) was used to calculate BMD. The external and internal does of lead was positively correlated (BPb: r = 0.466, P < 0.01; UPb: r = 0.383, P < 0.01). The levels of BPb, UPb in exposure group (654.03 microg/L, 143.45 microg/g Cr) were significantly higher than those in the control group (57.12 microg/L, 7.20 microg/g Cr), so were UALB, UNAG; in addition, all of them presented significant dose-response relationship. The BPb BMD of UALB, UNAG were 607.76, 362.56 microg/L respectively and the UPb BMD of UALB, UNAG were 117.79, 78.79 microg/gCr respectively. Occupational lead exposure can cause renal dysfunction, which presents dose-response relationship; the risk assessment of renal dysfunction caused by occupational lead exposure is performed by BMD calculation of BPb and UPb.

  9. Environmental lead exposure to toll booth workers in Hong Kong

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, T.C.; Wong, L.T.L.; Lam, C.W.K. (Chinese Univ. of Hong Kong, Shatin)

    1988-01-01

    A survey of workers in the Lion Rock Tunnel toll booths was conducted, as they were regarded as a high risk group in lead exposure due to high density of vehicular traffic. The exposure of the workers to lead was determined by continuous sapling of air around the breathing zone of workers inside the booths. Blood lead concentration of 50 workers showed a mean of 0.65 {mu}mol/L and the mean urine lead concentration was 0.14 {mu}mol/L. Other tests, such as urinary amino-levulinic acid (ALA), erythrocyte zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP) and hemoglobin concentration (Hb), were also preformed. The blood lead concentrations and other biological parameters of the toll-booth workers were acceptable and may be attributed to the recent legislation to lower the lead content in petrol and to the good preventive measures taken by the management.

  10. The intersection of aggregate-level lead exposure and crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutwell, Brian B; Nelson, Erik J; Emo, Brett; Vaughn, Michael G; Schootman, Mario; Rosenfeld, Richard; Lewis, Roger

    2016-07-01

    Childhood lead exposure has been associated with criminal behavior later in life. The current study aimed to analyze the association between elevated blood lead levels (n=59,645) and crime occurrence (n=90,433) across census tracts within St. Louis, Missouri. Longitudinal ecological study. Saint Louis, Missouri. Blood lead levels. Violent, Non-violent, and total crime at the census tract level. Spatial statistical models were used to account for the spatial autocorrelation of the data. Greater lead exposure at the census-tract level was associated with increased violent, non-violent, and total crime. In addition, we examined whether non-additive effects existed in the data by testing for an interaction between lead exposure and concentrated disadvantage. Some evidence of a negative interaction emerged, however, it failed to reach traditional levels of statistical significance (supplementary models, however, revealed a similar negative interaction that was significant). More precise measurements of lead exposure in the aggregate, produced additional evidence that lead is a potent predictor of criminal outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Brainstem auditory evoked potentials in children with lead exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia de Freitas Alvarenga

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Earlier studies have demonstrated an auditory effect of lead exposure in children, but information on the effects of low chronic exposures needs to be further elucidated. Objective: To investigate the effect of low chronic exposures of the auditory system in children with a history of low blood lead levels, using an auditory electrophysiological test. Methods: Contemporary cross-sectional cohort. Study participants underwent tympanometry, pure tone and speech audiometry, transient evoked otoacoustic emissions, and brainstem auditory evoked potentials, with blood lead monitoring over a period of 35.5 months. The study included 130 children, with ages ranging from 18 months to 14 years, 5 months (mean age 6 years, 8 months ± 3 years, 2 months. Results: The mean time-integrated cumulative blood lead index was 12 µg/dL (SD ± 5.7, range:2.433. All participants had hearing thresholds equal to or below 20 dBHL and normal amplitudes of transient evoked otoacoustic emissions. No association was found between the absolute latencies of waves I, III, and V, the interpeak latencies I-III, III-V, and I-V, and the cumulative lead values. Conclusion: No evidence of toxic effects from chronic low lead exposures was observed on the auditory function of children living in a lead contaminated area.

  12. Maternal Exposure to Air Pollutants and Risk of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiu-Nien Shen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Mounting evidence has shown an increased risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM in association with elevated exposure to air pollution. However, limited evidence is available concerning the effect of specific air pollutant(s on GDM incidence. We conducted this case-control study on 6717 mothers with GDM diagnosed in 2006–2013 and 6717 age- and year of delivery-matched controls to further address the risk of GDM in relation to specific air pollutant. Both cases and controls were selected from a cohort of 1-million beneficiaries of Taiwan’s National Health Insurance program registered in 2005. Maternal exposures to mean daily air pollutant concentration, derived from 76 fixed air quality monitoring stations within the 12-week period prior to pregnancy and during the 1st and 2nd trimesters, were assessed by the spatial analyst method (i.e., ordinary kriging with the ArcGIS software. After controlling for potential confounders and other air pollutants, an increase in pre-pregnancy exposure of 1 inter-quartile range (IQR for PM2.5 and SO2 was found to associate with a significantly elevated odds ratio (OR of GDM at 1.10 (95% confidence interval (CI 1.03–1.18 and 1.37 (95% CI 1.30–1.45, respectively. Exposures to PM2.5 and SO2 during the 1st and 2nd trimesters were also associated with significantly increased ORs, which were 1.09 (95% CI 1.02–1.17 and 1.07 (95% CI 1.01–1.14 for PM2.5, and 1.37 (95% CI 1.30–1.45 and 1.38 (95% CI 1.31–1.46 for SO2. It was concluded that higher pre- and post-pregnancy exposures to PM2.5 and SO2 for mothers were associated with a significantly but modestly elevated risk of GDM.

  13. Pediatric lead exposure from imported Indian spices and cultural powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Cristiane Gurgel; Schaider, Laurel Anne; Brabander, Daniel Joseph; Woolf, Alan David

    2010-04-01

    Significant lead poisoning has been associated with imported nonpaint products. To describe cases of pediatric lead intoxication from imported Indian spices and cultural powders, determine lead concentrations in these products, and predict effects of ingestion on pediatric blood lead levels (BLLs). Cases and case-study information were obtained from patients followed by the Pediatric Environmental Health Center (Children's Hospital Boston). Imported spices (n = 86) and cultural powders (n = 71) were analyzed for lead by using x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. The simple bioaccessibility extraction test was used to estimate oral bioavailability. The integrated exposure uptake biokinetic model for lead in children was used to predict population-wide geometric mean BLLs and the probability of elevated BLLs (>10 microg/dL). Four cases of pediatric lead poisoning from Indian spices or cultural powders are described. Twenty-two of 86 spices and foodstuff products contained >1 microg/g lead (for these 22 samples, mean: 2.6 microg/g [95% confidence interval: 1.9-3.3]; maximum: 7.6 microg/g). Forty-six of 71 cultural products contained >1 microg/g lead (for 43 of these samples, mean: 8.0 microg/g [95% confidence interval: 5.2-10.8]; maximum: 41.4 microg/g). Three sindoor products contained >47% lead. With a fixed ingestion of 5 microg/day and 50% bioavailability, predicted geometric mean BLLs for children aged 0 to 4 years increased from 3.2 to 4.1 microg/dL, and predicted prevalence of children with a BLL of >10 microg/dL increased more than threefold (0.8%-2.8%). Chronic exposure to spices and cultural powders may cause elevated BLLs. A majority of cultural products contained >1 microg/g lead, and some sindoor contained extremely high bioaccessible lead levels. Clinicians should routinely screen for exposure to these products.

  14. Placenta mediates the association between maternal second-hand smoke exposure during pregnancy and small for gestational age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Z; Xie, C; Wen, X; Tian, F; Ding, P; He, Y; Lin, J; Yuan, S; Guo, X; Jia, D; Chen, W-Q

    2015-08-01

    The causal relationship between maternal second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure during pregnancy and small for gestational-age (SGA) has been affirmed, but the mechanism is still unclear. Previous studies have found that the placenta remarkably affects fetal intrauterine growth and that SHS exposure during pregnancy impairs placental growth and decreases placental weight. Therefore, the placenta may mediate the association between maternal SHS exposure during pregnancy and SGA. This study explores whether and to what extent the association between maternal SHS exposure during pregnancy and SGA is mediated by the placenta. We investigated 562 pregnant women delivering SGA newborns (cases) and 1581 delivering appropriate-for-gestational-age newborns (controls) in this case-control study. Information on maternal SHS exposure during pregnancy, socio-demographic characteristics and obstetric conditions, including placental weight, were collected at the Maternity and Child Health Care Hospitals of Shenzhen and Foshan in Guangdong, China. Linear and hierarchical logistic regression models were fitted to examine the mediation effects of placental weight on the association between maternal SHS exposure during pregnancy and SGA. After controlling for ethnicity, maternal age, educational level, family income, pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), parity, gestational age and newborn gender, maternal SHS exposure during pregnancy was associated with a higher SGA risk (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 1.26; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.03-1.55) and lower placental weight (standard deviation (SD) = -0.15, SE = 0.04). Regression models illustrated that placental weight partially mediated (49.6%; 95% CI = 35.9-63.3%) the association between SHS exposure during pregnancy and SGA. Our findings suggest that the placenta plays an intermediary role in how maternal prenatal SHS exposure affects fetal growth. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Lead toxicity on hematological parameters in workers with occupational exposure to lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dursun, N.; Koese, K.

    1998-01-01

    The effects of lead on hematological parameters were studied in lead exposed male workers occupied for 17.84+-4.22 years in a metal powder producing factory in Kayseri, Turkey and control male workers in same city. Blood lead and plasma zinc levels were measured by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS) and hematological parameters by Culture Counter S. The lead exposure workers had higher lead levels (13.81+- 9.21 mug/dl) as compared to control subjects (2.37+-0.10 mug/dl). No difference was observed in the plasma zinc levels of both groups. As indices of lead exposure, red blood cell (RBC) counts, hemoglobin (Hb), and hematocrit (Hct) values significantly decreased. Mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) significantly increased except MCV. There was also an increase in MCV, but it was not significant. (author)

  16. Aggregate-level lead exposure, gun violence, homicide, and rape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian B Boutwell

    Full Text Available An increasing body of research has linked the geographic distribution of lead with various indicators of criminal and antisocial behavior.The current study, using data from an ongoing project related to lead exposure in St. Louis City, MO, analyzed the association between aggregate blood lead levels and specific indicators violent crime within the city.Ecological study.St. Louis, Missouri.Blood lead levels.Official reports of violent crimes were categorized as 1 crimes involving a firearm (yes/no, 2 assault crimes (with or without a firearm, 3 robbery crimes (with or without a firearm, 4 homicides and 5 rape.With the exception of rape, aggregate blood-lead levels were statistically significant predictors of violent crime at the census tract level. The risk ratios for each of the outcome measures were as follows: firearm crimes 1.03 (1.03-1.04, assault crimes 1.03 (1.02-1.03, robbery crimes 1.03 (1.02-1.04, homicide 1.03 (1.01, 1.04, and rape 1.01 (0.99-1.03.Extending prior research in St. Louis, results suggest that aggregated lead exposure at the census tract level predicted crime outcomes, even after accounting for important sociological variables. Moving forward, a more developed understanding of aggregate level crime may necessitate a shift toward studying the synergy between sociological and biological risk factors such as lead exposure.

  17. Aggregate-level lead exposure, gun violence, homicide, and rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutwell, Brian B; Nelson, Erik J; Qian, Zhengmin; Vaughn, Michael G; Wright, John P; Beaver, Kevin M; Barnes, J C; Petkovsek, Melissa; Lewis, Roger; Schootman, Mario; Rosenfeld, Richard

    2017-01-01

    An increasing body of research has linked the geographic distribution of lead with various indicators of criminal and antisocial behavior. The current study, using data from an ongoing project related to lead exposure in St. Louis City, MO, analyzed the association between aggregate blood lead levels and specific indicators violent crime within the city. Ecological study. St. Louis, Missouri. Blood lead levels. Official reports of violent crimes were categorized as 1) crimes involving a firearm (yes/no), 2) assault crimes (with or without a firearm), 3) robbery crimes (with or without a firearm), 4) homicides and 5) rape. With the exception of rape, aggregate blood-lead levels were statistically significant predictors of violent crime at the census tract level. The risk ratios for each of the outcome measures were as follows: firearm crimes 1.03 (1.03-1.04), assault crimes 1.03 (1.02-1.03), robbery crimes 1.03 (1.02-1.04), homicide 1.03 (1.01, 1.04), and rape 1.01 (0.99-1.03). Extending prior research in St. Louis, results suggest that aggregated lead exposure at the census tract level predicted crime outcomes, even after accounting for important sociological variables. Moving forward, a more developed understanding of aggregate level crime may necessitate a shift toward studying the synergy between sociological and biological risk factors such as lead exposure.

  18. Neurodevelopmental consequences of gestational and lactational exposure to pyrethroids in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Farah; John, P J; Soni, Inderpal

    2016-12-01

    Indiscriminate use of pyrethroids has raised serious health related concerns, especially about their effects on children. The present study was designed to assess the developmental neurotoxicity of two pyrethroids; bifenthrin (BIF) and β-cyfluthrin (CYF) administered at 1/15 of LD 50 in rats. Pregnant females were exposed to the test compounds orally throughout gestation and lactation periods. Neonates were weighed and sexed at birth and were observed for any gross abnormality. Growth, viability and weaning indices were calculated during the lactation period. Exposure to both the compounds did not alter the physical developmental parameters viz. eye opening, pinna detachment, and fur appearance. CYF significantly impaired growth and survivability of pups. Behavioral endpoints assessed in neonates (surface righting, pivoting, and negative geotaxis reflex) as well as adults (motor activity and motor coordination) exhibited marked effect of CYF treatment. Administration of BIF to pregnant dams impaired pivoting in neonates. Decreased locomotion in the open-field and impaired rota-rod performance were also witnessed in BIF-exposed animals. Enhanced oxidative stress was seen in corpus striatum, cerebellum, and hippocampus regions of the brain; reduced catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase activities were measured in BIF and CYF treated weanlings. Acetylcholinesterase activity was also found to be lowered following administration of both compounds at PND 21. The present results suggest that exposure to pyrethroids during critical periods of growth can induce long term effects on the behavior of animals. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 1761-1770, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Gestational exposure to low dose bisphenol A alters social behavior in juvenile mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer T Wolstenholme

    Full Text Available Bisphenol A (BPA is a man-made compound used to make polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins; public health concerns have been fueled by findings that BPA exposure can reduce sex differences in brain and some behaviors. We asked if a low BPA dose, within the range measured in humans, ingested during pregnancy, would affect social behaviors in prepubertal mice. We noted sex differences in social interactions whereby females spent more time sitting side-by-side, while males engaged in more exploring and sitting alone. In addition BPA increased display of nose-to-nose contacts, play solicitations and approaches in both sexes. Interactions between sex and diet were found for self grooming, social interactions while sitting side-by-side and following the other mouse. In all these cases interactions were produced by differences between control and BPA females. We examined brains from embryos during late gestation to determine if gene expression differences might be correlated with some of the sexually dimorphic or BPA affected behaviors we observed. Because BPA treatments ended at birth we took the brains during embryogenesis to increase the probability of discovering BPA mediated effects. We also selected this embryonic age (E18.5 because it coincides with the onset of sexual differentiation of the brain. Interestingly, mRNA for the glutamate transporter, Slc1a1, was enhanced by exposure to BPA in female brains. Also we noted that BPA changed the expression of two of the three DNA methyltransferase genes, Dnmt1 and Dnmt3a. We propose that BPA affects DNA methylation of Sc1a1 during neural development. Sex differences in juvenile social interactions are affected by BPA and in particular this compound modifies behavior in females.

  20. Anemia risk in relation to lead exposure in lead-related manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Nan-Hung; Chung, Shun-Hui; Chen, Szu-Chieh; Chen, Wei-Yu; Cheng, Yi-Hsien; Lin, Yi-Jun; You, Su-Han; Liao, Chung-Min

    2017-05-05

    Lead-exposed workers may suffer adverse health effects under the currently regulated blood lead (BPb) levels. However, a probabilistic assessment about lead exposure-associated anemia risk is lacking. The goal of this study was to examine the association between lead exposure and anemia risk among factory workers in Taiwan. We first collated BPb and indicators of hematopoietic function data via health examination records that included 533 male and 218 female lead-exposed workers between 2012 and 2014. We used benchmark dose (BMD) modeling to estimate the critical effect doses for detection of abnormal indicators. A risk-based probabilistic model was used to characterize the potential hazard of lead poisoning for job-specific workers by hazard index (HI). We applied Bayesian decision analysis to determine whether BMD could be implicated as a suitable BPb standard. Our results indicated that HI for total lead-exposed workers was 0.78 (95% confidence interval: 0.50-1.26) with risk occurrence probability of 11.1%. The abnormal risk of anemia indicators for male and female workers could be reduced, respectively, by 67-77% and 86-95% by adopting the suggested BPb standards of 25 and 15 μg/dL. We conclude that cumulative exposure to lead in the workplace was significantly associated with anemia risk. This study suggests that current BPb standard needs to be better understood for the application of lead-exposed population protection in different scenarios to provide a novel standard for health management. Low-level lead exposure risk is an occupational and public health problem that should be paid more attention.

  1. CHRONIC DEVELOPMENTAL LEAD EXPOSURE REDUCES NEUROGENESIS IN ADULT HIPPOCAMPUS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHRONIC DEVELOPMENTAL LEAD EXPOSURE REDUCES NEUROGENESIS IN ADULT HIPPOCAMPUS. ME Gilbert1, ME Kelly2, S. Salant3, T Shafer1, J Goodman3 1Neurotoxicology Div, US EPA, RTP, NC, 27711, 2Children's Hospital, Philadelphia, PA, 19104, 3Helen Hayes Hospital, Haverstraw, NY, 10993. ...

  2. Exposure to lead and specific attentional problems in schoolchildren.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minder, B.; Das-Smaal, E.A.; Brand, E.F.J.M.; Orlebeke, J.F.

    1994-01-01

    A pilot study was carried out to investigate the relationship between exposure to lead and attention in children. The participants were 43 boys, 8 to 12 years of age, attending special schools for children with educational and/or learning problems (so called LOM schools). Children with probable

  3. Effects of experimental lead exposure and the therapeutic effect of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of experimental lead exposure and the therapeutic effect of defatted Moringa oleifera seed meal on serum electrolytes levels of Wistar rats. IS Idoko, IC Ugochukwu, SE Abalaka, AM Adamu, PK Columbus, YA Kwabugge, RE Edeh, S Adamu, B Muhammed ...

  4. Lead Exposure Induces Telomere Instability in Human Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Géraldine Pottier

    Full Text Available Lead (Pb is an important environmental contaminant due to its widespread use over many centuries. While it affects primarily every organ system of the body, the most pernicious effects of Pb are on the central nervous system leading to cognitive and behavioral modification. Despite decades of research, the mechanisms responsible for Pb toxicity remain poorly understood. Recent work has suggested that Pb exposure may have consequences on chromosomal integrity as it was shown that Pb exposure leads to the generation of γH2Ax foci, a well-established biomarker for DNA double stranded break (DSB formation. As the chromosomal localization of γH2Ax foci plays an important role in determining the molecular mechanism responsible for their formation, we examined the localization of Pb-induced foci with respect to telomeres. Indeed, short or dysfunctional telomeres (uncapped or damaged telomeres may be recognized as DSB by the DNA repair machinery, leading to "telomere-Induced Foci" (TIFs. In the current study, we show that while Pb exposure did not increase intra-chromosomal foci, it significantly induced TIFs, leading in some cases, to chromosomal abnormalities including telomere loss. The evidence suggests that these chromosomal abnormalities are likely due to perturbation of telomere replication, in particular on the lagging DNA strand. We propose a mechanism by which Pb exposure leads to the loss of telomere maintenance. As numerous studies have demonstrated a role for telomere maintenance in brain development and tissue homeostasis, our results suggest a possible mechanism for lead-induced neurotoxicity.

  5. Gestational exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in Northeastern British Columbia, Canada: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron-Beaudoin, Élyse; Valter, Naomi; Chevrier, Jonathan; Ayotte, Pierre; Frohlich, Katherine; Verner, Marc-André

    2018-01-01

    Northeastern British Columbia (Canada) is an area of intense hydraulic fracturing for unconventional natural gas exploitation. There have been multiple reports of air and water contamination by volatile organic compounds in the vicinity of gas wells. Although these chemicals are known developmental toxicants, no biomonitoring effort has been carried out in the region. To evaluate gestational exposure to benzene and toluene in the Peace River Valley, Northeastern British Columbia (Canada). Urine samples were collected over five consecutive days from 29 pregnant women. Metabolites of benzene (s-phenylmercapturic acid (S-PMA) and trans, trans-muconic acid (t,t-MA)) and toluene (s-benzylmercapturic acid (S-BMA)) were measured in pooled urine samples from each participant. Levels of benzene metabolites were compared to those from the general Canadian population and from a biomonitoring study of residents from an area of active gas exploitation in Pavillion, Wyoming (USA). Levels measured in participants from the two recruitment sites, and self-identifying as Indigenous or non-Indigenous, were also compared. Whereas the median S-PMA level (0.18μg/g creatinine) in our study was similar to that in the general Canadian population, the median t,t-MA level (180μg/g creatinine) was approximately 3.5 times higher. Five women had t,t-MA levels above the biological exposure index® proposed by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. The median urinary S-BMA level in our pilot study was 7.00μg/g creatinine. Urinary metabolite levels were slightly higher in self-identifying Indigenous women, but this difference was only statistically significant for S-PMA. Urinary t,t-MA levels, but not S-PMA levels, measured in our study are suggestive of a higher benzene exposure in participating pregnant women from the Peace River Valley than in the general Canadian population. Given the small sample size and limitations of t,t-MA measurements (e.g., non

  6. Letter to editor: Blood pressure, hypertension and lead exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wen-Yi; Staessen, Jan A

    2018-02-19

    A significant association of office diastolic blood pressure with low-level blood lead exposure was reported in a Brazilian adult population. However, caution should be taken to interpret these results. The multivariable-adjusted association with blood pressure was positive for diastolic blood pressure, but inverse for systolic blood pressure. The association sizes were infinitesimal without clinical relevance. The outcome measures, i.e. blood pressure and the prevalence of hypertension were analysed across categories of the blood lead distribution - not in relation to blood lead as continuous variable. Blood pressure was the average of two oscillometric office readings, whereas ambulatory monitoring is the state-of-the-art.

  7. New directions in the toxicokinetics of human lead exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushak, P

    1993-01-01

    An important determinant of body lead (Pb) burden and Pb toxicity in exposed humans is Pb metabolism, or more correctly, Pb toxicokinetics. It affects the former through the quantitative processes of uptake, distribution and retention/excretion and the latter via delivery of toxic doses to cellular/molecular sites of action. Pb toxicokinetics has useful application in understanding Pb's behavior in populations. Several of these applications have been studied and results are presented for the toxicokinetic basis of dose-neurotoxic effect relationships in selected longitudinal studies and the use of toxicokinetic modeling for estimation of body lead burden in early populations. Three well-known, ongoing longitudinal studies of developmental neurotoxicity--in Boston, Cincinnati, and Port Pirie, Australia--involve cohorts who differ markedly as to their pre- and postnatal lead exposure profiles. Toxicokinetic examination of these exposure differences helps to explain the temporal variability seen in blood Pb-toxic effect relationships and supports a causal role for lead. Toxicokinetic models of Pb uptake and in-vivo behavior are increasingly being considered for estimating Pb-B levels in lieu of direct measurement. A linear biokinetic model, using reliable input data for natural/prehistoric levels of Pb in sources, was applied to estimation of prehistoric/preindustrial children's blood lead. A range of 0.06 to 0.12 microgram/dl was estimated for two lead intakes. These estimates are still two orders of magnitude (85 to 165-fold) lower than the newly issued CDC toxicity guideline for children of 10 micrograms/dl. Lastly, the toxicokinetics of lead in bone, particularly its resorption with metabolic stimuli, is of concern, particularly for "baby boom" women who are either of childbearing age or approaching menopause and who had greatly elevated environmental lead exposures in the 1940s to 1970s.

  8. The effects of gestational and chronic atrazine exposure on motor behaviors and striatal dopamine in male Sprague-Dawley rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walters, Jennifer L.; Lansdell, Theresa A.; Lookingland, Keith J.; Baker, Lisa E.

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to investigate the effects of environmentally relevant gestational followed by continued chronic exposure to the herbicide, atrazine, on motor function, cognition, and neurochemical indices of nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) activity in male rats. Dams were treated with 100 μg/kg atrazine, 10 mg/kg atrazine, or vehicle on gestational day 1 through postnatal day 21. Upon weaning, male offspring continued daily vehicle or atrazine gavage treatments for an additional six months. Subjects were tested in a series of behavioral assays, and 24 h after the last treatment, tissue samples from the striatum were analyzed for DA and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC). At 10 mg/kg, this herbicide was found to produce modest disruptions in motor functioning, and at both dose levels it significantly lowered striatal DA and DOPAC concentrations. These results suggest that exposures to atrazine have the potential to disrupt nigrostriatal DA neurons and behaviors associated with motor functioning. - Highlights: • Male rats received gestational and chronic exposure to ATZ (10 mg/kg and 100 μg/kg). • ATZ altered locomotor activity and impaired motor coordination. • ATZ lowered striatal DA and DOPAC concentrations. • ATZ produced a potential anxiogenic effect. • ATZ did not impair performance in learning and memory assessments.

  9. Toxicogenomic profiling in maternal and fetal rodent brains following gestational exposure to chlorpyrifos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, Estefania G.; Yu Xiaozhong; Robinson, Joshua F.; Griffith, Willian; Hong, Sung Woo; Beyer, Richard P.; Bammler, Theo K.; Faustman, Elaine M.

    2010-01-01

    Considering the wide variety of effects that have been reported to occur in the developmental neurotoxicity of chlorpyrifos (CP) and the lack of consensus on their dependence of brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity inhibition, we applied microarray technology to explore dose-dependent alterations in transcriptional response in the fetal and maternal C57BL/6 mouse brain after daily gestational exposure (days 6 to 17) to CP (2, 4, 10, 12 or 15 mg/kg, sc). We identified significantly altered genes across doses and assessed for overrepresentation of Gene Ontology (GO) biological processes and KEGG pathways. We further clustered genes based on their expression profiles across doses and repeated the GO/pathways analysis for each cluster. The dose-effect relationship of CP on gene expression, both at the gene and pathway levels was non-monotonic and not necessarily related to brain AChE inhibition. The largest impact was observed in the 10 mg/kg dose group which was also the LOAEL for brain AChE inhibition. In the maternal brain, lower doses (4 mg/kg) influenced GO categories and pathways such as cell adhesion, behavior, lipid metabolism, long-term potentiation, nervous system development, neurogenesis, synaptic transmission. In the fetal brain, lower doses (2 and/or 4 mg/kg) significantly altered cell division, translation, transmission of nerve impulse, chromatin modification, long-term potentiation. In addition, some genes involved in nervous system development and signaling were shown to be specifically influenced by these lower CP doses. Our approach was sensitive and reflected the diversity of responses known to be disrupted by CP and highlighted possible additional consequences of CP neurotoxicity, such as disturbance of the ubiquitin proteasome system.

  10. Lead exposure and its relation to dental caries in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradeep, Kumar K N; Hegde, A M

    2013-01-01

    Environmental pollution is a significant health hazard and is mainly caused by commercialization. The etiology of dental caries is multifactorial and one such factor is exposure to trace element such as lead. Hence, the present study was carried out to find out the correlation between the levels of lead in the enamel, saliva and dental caries in children. 90 children aged 5 years consisting of both genders from different kindergartens along Coastal Karnataka were included in the study. The selected children were divided into 3 groups as; control group, early childhood caries (ECC) group and severe-ECC (S-ECC) group respectively. Enamel and salivary lead level was assessed by using graphite atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Mean enamel lead levels in the control, ECC and S-ECC group were 47.7, 85.45 and 90.43 ppm respectively and mean salivary lead levels were 0.23, 1.7 and 1.77 ppm respectively which was statistically very highly significant (p lead levels (p > 0.05). The enamel and the saliva of all the children had measurable amounts of lead and its levels increased with increase in severity of dental caries proving the cariogenic potential of lead. A positive correlation was seen between the enamel and the salivary lead levels.

  11. Exposure to lead and specific attentional problems in schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minder, B; Das-Smaal, E A; Brand, E F; Orlebeke, J F

    1994-01-01

    A pilot study was carried out to investigate the relationship between exposure to lead and attention in children. The participants were 43 boys, 8 to 12 years of age, attending special schools for children with educational and/or learning problems (so called LOM schools). Children with probable causes of attentional or memory problems other than lead contamination were excluded from the study. Various aspects of attention were measured using neuropsychological tests. As an assessment of body lead burden, lead concentration in the boys' hair was measured by means of the Synchrotron Radiation-Induced X-ray Fluorescence technique (SXRF). Information was collected about variables that possibly could influence attention and/or body lead burden (confounding factors). A multiple regression analysis was used to determine the contribution of lead to variance in performance, after correction for confounding factors. The results showed that children with relatively high concentrations of lead in their hair reacted significantly slower in a simple reaction-time task than did children with relatively low concentrations of lead in their hair. In addition, the former were significantly less flexible in changing their focus of attention, even after correction for the influence of their delayed reaction time.

  12. Reducing occupational lead exposures: Strengthened standards for a healthy workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Rachel M; Gilbert, Steven G

    2017-11-08

    Outdated federal and state occupational lead standards leave workers and their families vulnerable to the adverse effects of lead. Standards should be updated to reflect the best available scientific and medical evidence, which documents harm to multiple organ systems even at low levels of exposure. This commentary will review the inadequacies of existing policies, highlight susceptible populations, and briefly summarize state revision efforts to date. Federal policies must be strengthened to protect all workers and their families from this well-documented hazard. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Lead concentrations and risk exposure assessment in surface soils ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated lead concentrations in < 250 μm and < 75 μm of deposited dust and< 2000 μm, < 250 μm, and < 75 μm of surface soils at undeveloped residential lands leased to auto-mechanic artisans for a minimum of ten years and estimated exposure risk for children that will reside on the polluted lands after the ...

  14. Gestational exposure to Byrsonima verbascifolia: teratogenicity, mutagenicity and immunomodulation evaluation in female Swiss mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Caroline Amélia; Siqueira, João Máximo; Carollo, Carlos Alexandre; Mauro, Mariana de Oliveira; de Davi, Natan; Cunha-Laura, Andréa Luiza; Monreal, Antônio Carlos Duenhas; Castro, Ana Hortencia; Fernandes, Lucas; Chagas, Rafael Russo; Auharek, Sarah Alves; Oliveira, Rodrigo Juliano

    2013-12-12

    Byrsonima verbascifolia is used in folk medicine to treat diarrhea, intestinal infections, chronic wounds, Chagas disease, inflammation and as a diuretic. However there is no investigation regarding the Byrsonima verbascifolia hydrometanolic extract (BVHME) used during gestation. The pregnant females were randomly divided into 5 groups. Control group received saline plus DMSO (1%) in a volume of 0.1 mL/10 g (b.w.), via gavage, for at least 15 days prior to mating and throughout the gestational period. The Pre-treatment group received the BVHME, via gavage, at a dose of 50 mg/kg (b.w.) for at least 15 days prior to mating and up to the appearance of the vaginal plug. The Organogenesis group received the BVHME at a dose of 50 mg/kg (b.w.), via gavage, on the 5-15th gestational day. The Gestational group received the BVHME at a dose of 50 mg/kg (b.w.), via gavage, throughout the gestational period (from the 1st to the 18th day of pregnancy). The Pre+Gestational group received the BVHME at a dose of 50mg/kg (b.w.), via gavage, for at least 15 days prior to mating and up to throughout the gestational period. The clinical signals of maternal and fetuses toxicity were evaluated, as the mutagenicity and immunomodulation tests were performed. The present investigation shows, for the first time, that the use of Byrsonima verbascifolia extract in pregnant Swiss mice, did not alter the female reproductive function, mutagenicity or immunostimulation as well as not interfere with embryofetal development at least in our experimental conditions. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Lead in enamel and saliva, dental caries and the use of enamel biopsies for measuring past exposure to lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brudevold, F; Aasenden, R; Srinivasian, B N; Bakhos, Y

    1977-10-01

    Enamel biopsies taken from schoolchildren in a community where exposure to lead was a health hazard were analyzed for lead and fluoride. The children with high enamel lead had significantly higher caries scores than the children with low enamel lead, in spite of the fact that the high lead group also was higher in enamel fluoride. There was no increase in enamel lead with age. The lead in saliva was only a fraction of that in blood. Infants with lead poisoning showed higher saliva lead than a normal infant. The use of the lead in enamel biopsies and in saliva for measuring exposure to lead is discussed.

  16. Gestational Exposure to Bisphenol A Affects the Function and Proteome Profile of F1 Spermatozoa in Adult Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Saidur; Kwon, Woo-Sung; Karmakar, Polash Chandra; Yoon, Sung-Jae; Ryu, Buom-Yong; Pang, Myung-Geol

    2017-02-01

    Maternal exposure to the endocrine disruptor bisphenol A (BPA) has been linked to offspring reproductive abnormalities. However, exactly how BPA affects offspring fertility remains poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of gestational BPA exposure on sperm function, fertility, and proteome profile of F1 spermatozoa in adult mice. Pregnant CD-1 mice (F0) were gavaged with BPA at three different doses (50 μg/kg bw/day, 5 mg/kg bw/day, and 50 mg/kg bw/day) on embryonic days 7 to 14. We investigated the function, fertility, and related processes of F1 spermatozoa at postnatal day 120. We also evaluated protein profiles of F1 spermatozoa to monitor their functional affiliation to disease. BPA inhibited sperm count, motility parameters, and intracellular ATP levels in a dose-dependent manner. These effects appeared to be caused by reduced numbers of stage VIII seminiferous epithelial cells in testis and decreased protein kinase A (PKA) activity and tyrosine phosphorylation in spermatozoa. We also found that BPA compromised average litter size. Proteins differentially expressed in spermatozoa from BPA treatment groups are known to play a critical role in ATP generation, oxidative stress response, fertility, and in the pathogenesis of several diseases. Our study provides mechanistic support for the hypothesis that gestational exposure to BPA alters sperm function and fertility via down-regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation through a PKA-dependent mechanism. In addition, we anticipate that the BPA-induced changes in the sperm proteome might be partly responsible for the observed effects in spermatozoa. Citation: Rahman MS, Kwon WS, Karmakar PC, Yoon SJ, Ryu BY, Pang MG. 2017. Gestational exposure to bisphenol-A affects the function and proteome profile of F1 spermatozoa in adult mice. Environ Health Perspect 125:238-245; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP378.

  17. Maternal hair and neonatal meconium to assess gestational consumption and prenatal exposure to drugs of abuse and psychoactive drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes, Laura; Almeida, Laura; Sabra, Sally; Muniesa, Marta; Busardo, Francesco Paolo; Garcia-Algar, Oscar; Gomez-Roig, Maria Dolores

    2018-04-05

    In the last two decades, the consumption of drugs of abuse among women of childbearing age has experienced a significant increase and results from analyses of surveys concerning maternal intake of psychoactive prescription drugs during pregnancy indicate that the rates of intake are increasing each year. Analyses of biological matrices such as maternal hair and neonatal meconium have recently been used for assessment of gestational consumption and consequent prenatal exposure to drugs of abuse in high-risk groups of women METHODS: Maternal hair and neonatal meconium were analyzed by validated chromatographic mass spectrometric methodologies to disclose gestational use of drugs of abuse and psychoactive prescription drugs and consequent prenatal exposure in a cohort of 513 mother-newborn dyads at the Sant Joan de Déu Barcelona Hospital, Spain, during 2012- 2013. A total of 3.9% the women reported drugs of abuse or prescription psychoactive drug consumption at any time during pregnancy. The prevalence of gestational consumption and consequent prenatal exposure to drugs of abuse (e.g. cannabis, cocaine and MDMA) was 1.2% in maternal hair and 0.4% in meconium; that of psychoactive prescription drugs (e.g. venlafaxine, citalopram, fluoxetine, clomipramine) was 1.7% in maternal hair and 1.2% in meconium. The prevalence of drugs of abuse and prescription psychoactive drug consumption was lower in our specific cohort of Spanish pregnant women than in other cohorts such as those from U.S. or Denmark. Analysis of materno-fetal matrices provides a viable alternative to study prenatal exposure to these substances and develop specific social and health intervention recommendations. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  18. Effects of gestational and postnatal exposure to chronic intermittent hypoxia on diaphragm muscle contractile function in the rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona B Mcdonald

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Alterations to the supply of oxygen during early life presents a profound stressor to physiological systems with aberrant remodeling that is often long-lasting. Chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH is a feature of apnea of prematurity, chronic lung disease and sleep apnea. CIH affects respiratory control but there is a dearth of information concerning the effects of CIH on respiratory muscles, including the diaphragm – the major pump muscle of breathing. We investigated the effects of exposure to gestational CIH (gCIH and postnatal CIH (pCIH on diaphragm muscle function in male and female rats. CIH consisted of exposure in environmental chambers to 90s of hypoxia reaching 5% O2 at nadir, once every 5 min, 8 hrs a day. Exposure to gCIH started within 24 hours of identification of a copulation plug and continued until day 20 of gestation; animals were studied on postnatal day 22 or 42. For pCIH, pups were born in normoxia and within 24h of delivery were exposed with dams to CIH for 3 weeks; animals were studied on postnatal day 22 or 42. Sham groups were exposed to normoxia in parallel. Following gas exposures, diaphragm muscle contractile and endurance properties were examined ex vivo. Neither gCIH nor pCIH exposure had effects on diaphragm muscle force-generating capacity or endurance in either sex. Similarly, early life exposure to CIH did not affect muscle tolerance of severe hypoxic stress determined ex vivo. The findings contrast with our recent observation of upper airway dilator muscle weakness following exposure to pCIH. Thus the present study suggests a relative resilience to hypoxic stress in diaphragm muscle. Co-ordinated activity of thoracic pump and upper airway dilator muscles is required for optimal control of upper airway caliber. A mismatch in the force-generating capacity of the complementary muscle groups could have adverse consequences for the control of airway patency and respiratory homeostasis.

  19. Prohypertensive effect of gestational personal exposure to fine particulate matter. Prospective cohort study in non-smoking and non-obese pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedrychowski, Wieslaw A; Perera, Frederica P; Maugeri, Umberto; Spengler, John; Mroz, Elzbieta; Flak, Elzbieta; Stigter, Laura; Majewska, Renata; Kaim, Irena; Sowa, Agata; Jacek, Ryszard

    2012-09-01

    Exposure to fine particulate matter (PM) is a recognized risk factor for elevated blood pressure (BP) and cardiovascular disease in adults, and this prospective cohort study was undertaken to evaluate whether gestational exposure to PM(2.5) has a prohypertensive effect. We measured personal exposure to fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)) by personal air monitoring in the second trimester of pregnancy among 431 women, and BP values in the third trimester were obtained from medical records of prenatal care clinics. In the general estimating equation model, the effect of PM(2.5) on BP was adjusted for relevant covariates such as maternal age, education, parity, gestational weight gain (GWG), prepregnancy BMI, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), and blood lead level. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) increased in a linear fashion across a dosage of PM(2.5) and on average augmented by 6.1 mm Hg (95% CI, 0.6-11.6) with log unit of PM(2.5) concentration. Effects of age, maternal education, prepregnancy BMI, blood lead level, and ETS were insignificant. Women with excessive gestational weight gain (>18 kg) had higher mean SBP parameters by 5.5 mmHg (95% CI, 2.7-8.3). In contrast, multiparous women had significantly lower SBP values (coeff. = -4.2 mm Hg; 95% CI, -6.8 to -1.6). Similar analysis performed for diastolic blood pressure (DBP) has demonstrated that PM(2.5) also affected DBP parameters (coeff. = 4.1; 95% CI, -0.02 to 8.2), but at the border significance level. DBP values were positively associated with the excessive GWG (coeff. = 2.3; 95% CI, 0.3-4.4) but were inversely related to parity (coeff. = -2.7; 95% CI, -4.6 to -0.73). In the observed cohort, the exposure to fine particulate matter during pregnancy was associated with increased maternal blood pressure.

  20. Maternal self-esteem, exposure to lead, and child neurodevelopment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surkan, Pamela J; Schnaas, Lourdes; Wright, Rosalind J; Téllez-Rojo, Martha M; Lamadrid-Figueroa, Héctor; Hu, Howard; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio; Bellinger, David C; Schwartz, Joel; Perroni, Estela; Wright, Robert O

    2008-03-01

    The notion that maternal personality characteristics influence cognitive development in their children has been grounded in stress moderation theory. Maternal personality traits, such as self-esteem, may buffer maternal stressors or lead to improved maternal-child interactions that directly impact neurodevelopment. This can be extended to suggest that maternal personality may serve to attenuate or exacerbate the effects of other neurotoxicants, although this has not been studied directly. We examined whether mothers' self-esteem had a direct or main effect on their children's cognitive outcomes. We also explored the modifying effects of maternal self-esteem on the association between exposure to lead and neurodevelopment in these children. Study participants included 379 mother-child pairs from Mexico City. Data included the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Scale in mothers, children's Bayley's Scale of Infant Development (BSID) scores, and sociodemographic information. Linear regression was used to model the relationship between maternal self-esteem and the Bayley's Mental Development Index (MDI) and Psychomotor Development Index (PDI) scores at age 24 months using models stratified by levels of maternal self-esteem. In adjusted models, each point increase in maternal self-esteem was associated with children having 0.2 higher score on the Bayley's MDI (p=0.04). Similar results were observed using the PDI outcome. Moreover, there was evidence that maternal self-esteem attenuated the negative effects of lead exposure, although the interaction fell short of conventional levels of statistical significance.

  1. Transcriptome Changes in Hirschfeldia incana in Response to Lead Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auguy, Florence; Fahr, Mouna; Moulin, Patricia; El Mzibri, Mohamed; Smouni, Abdelaziz; Filali-Maltouf, Abdelkarim; Béna, Gilles; Doumas, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Hirschfeldia incana, a pseudometallophyte belonging to the Brassicaceae family and widespread in the Mediterranean region, was selected for its ability to grow on soils contaminated by lead (Pb). The global comparison of gene expression using microarrays between a plant susceptible to Pb (Arabidopsis thaliana) and a Pb tolerant plant (H. incana) enabled the identification of a set of specific genes expressed in response to lead exposure. Three groups of genes were particularly over-represented by the Pb exposure in the biological processes categorized as photosynthesis, cell wall, and metal handling. Each of these gene groups was shown to be directly involved in tolerance or in protection mechanisms to the phytotoxicity associated with Pb. Among these genes, we demonstrated that MT2b, a metallothionein gene, was involved in lead accumulation, confirming the important role of metallothioneins in the accumulation and the distribution of Pb in leaves. On the other hand, several genes involved in biosynthesis of ABA were shown to be up-regulated in the roots and shoots of H. incana treated with Pb, suggesting that ABA-mediated signaling is a possible mechanism in response to Pb treatment in H. incana. This latest finding is an important research direction for future studies. PMID:26793211

  2. Maternal administration of melatonin prevents spatial learning and memory deficits induced by developmental ethanol and lead co-exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleimani, Elham; Goudarzi, Iran; Abrari, Kataneh; Lashkarbolouki, Taghi

    2017-05-01

    Melatonin is a radical scavenger with the ability to remove reactive oxidant species. There is report that co-exposure to lead and ethanol during developmental stages induces learning and memory deficits and oxidative stress. Here, we studied the effect of melatonin, with strong antioxidant properties, on memory deficits induced by lead and ethanol co-exposure and oxidative stress in hippocampus. Pregnant rats in lead and ethanol co-exposure group received lead acetate of 0.2% in distilled drinking water and ethanol (4g/kg) by oral gavages once daily from the 5th day of gestation until weaning. Rats received 10mg/kg melatonin by oral gavages. On postnatal days (PD) 30, rats trained with six trials per day for 6 consecutive days in the water maze. On day 37, a probe test was done and oxidative stress markers in the hippocampus were evaluated. Results demonstrated lead and ethanol co-exposed rats exhibited higher escape latency during training trials and reduced time spent in target quadrant, higher escape location latency in probe trial test and had significantly higher malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, significantly lower superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities in the hippocampus. Melatonin treatment could improve memory deficits, antioxidants activity and reduced MDA levels in the hippocampus. We conclude, co-exposure to lead and ethanol impair memory and melatonin can prevent from it by oxidative stress modulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Gestational age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetal age - gestational age; Gestation; Neonatal gestational age; Newborn gestational age ... Gestational age can be determined before or after birth. Before birth, your health care provider will use ultrasound to ...

  4. An Observational Study to Evaluate Associations Between Low-Level Gestational Exposure to Organophosphate Pesticides and Cognition During Early Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donauer, Stephanie; Altaye, Mekibib; Xu, Yingying; Sucharew, Heidi; Succop, Paul; Calafat, Antonia M; Khoury, Jane C; Lanphear, Bruce; Yolton, Kimberly

    2016-09-01

    Prenatal exposure to organophosphate pesticides, which is ubiquitous, may be detrimental to neurological development. We examined 327 mother/infant pairs in Cincinnati, Ohio, between 2003 and 2006 to determine associations between prenatal exposure to organophosphate pesticides and neurodevelopment. Twice during pregnancy urinary concentrations of 6 common dialkylphosphates, nonspecific metabolites of organophosphate pesticides, were measured. Aggregate concentrations of diethylphosphates, dimethylphosphates, and total dialkylphosphates were calculated. Bayley Scales of Infant Development, Second Edition-Mental and Psychomotor Developmental indices were administered at ages 1, 2, and 3 years, the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-Preschool, Second Edition, at age 4, and the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence, Third Edition, at age 5. Mothers with higher urinary total dialkylphosphate concentrations reported higher levels of socioeconomic status and increased fresh fruit and vegetable intake. We found no associations between prenatal exposure to organophosphate pesticides and cognition at 1-5 years of age. In our cohort, exposure to organophosphate pesticides during pregnancy was not associated with cognition during early childhood. It is possible that a higher socioeconomic status and healthier diet may protect the fetus from potential adverse associations with gestational organophosphate pesticide exposure, or that dietary exposure to the metabolites is innocuous and not an ideal measure of exposure to the parent compound. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Lead exposure at firing ranges-a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laidlaw, Mark A S; Filippelli, Gabriel; Mielke, Howard; Gulson, Brian; Ball, Andrew S

    2017-04-04

    Lead (Pb) is a toxic substance with well-known, multiple, long-term, adverse health outcomes. Shooting guns at firing ranges is an occupational necessity for security personnel, police officers, members of the military, and increasingly a recreational activity by the public. In the United States alone, an estimated 16,000-18,000 firing ranges exist. Discharge of Pb dust and gases is a consequence of shooting guns. The objectives of this study are to review the literature on blood lead levels (BLLs) and potential adverse health effects associated with the shooting population. The search terms "blood lead", "lead poisoning", "lead exposure", "marksmen", "firearms", "shooting", "guns", "rifles" and "firing ranges" were used in the search engines Google Scholar, PubMed and Science Direct to identify studies that described BLLs in association with firearm use and health effects associated with shooting activities. Thirty-six articles were reviewed that included BLLs from shooters at firing ranges. In 31 studies BLLs > 10 μg/dL were reported in some shooters, 18 studies reported BLLs > 20 μg/dL, 17 studies > 30 μg/d, and 15 studies BLLs > 40 μg/dL. The literature indicates that BLLs in shooters are associated with Pb aerosol discharge from guns and air Pb at firing ranges, number of bullets discharged, and the caliber of weapon fired. Shooting at firing ranges results in the discharge of Pb dust, elevated BLLs, and exposures that are associated with a variety of adverse health outcomes. Women and children are among recreational shooters at special risk and they do not receive the same health protections as occupational users of firing ranges. Nearly all BLL measurements compiled in the reviewed studies exceed the current reference level of 5 μg/dL recommended by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (CDC/NIOSH). Thus firing ranges, regardless of type and user classification

  6. Gestational Exposure to Sidestream (Secondhand) Cigarette Smoke Promotes Transgenerational Epigenetic Transmission of Exacerbated Allergic Asthma and Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shashi P; Chand, Hitendra S; Langley, Raymond J; Mishra, Neerad; Barrett, Ted; Rudolph, Karin; Tellez, Carmen; Filipczak, Piotr T; Belinsky, Steve; Saeed, Ali I; Sheybani, Aryaz; Exil, Vernat; Agarwal, Hemant; Sidhaye, Venkataramana K; Sussan, Thomas; Biswal, Shyam; Sopori, Mohan

    2017-05-15

    Embryonic development is highly sensitive to xenobiotic toxicity and in utero exposure to environmental toxins affects physiological responses of the progeny. In the United States, the prevalence of allergic asthma (AA) is inexplicably rising and in utero exposure to cigarette smoke increases the risk of AA and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in children and animal models. We reported that gestational exposure to sidestream cigarette smoke (SS), or secondhand smoke, promoted nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-dependent exacerbation of AA and BPD in mice. Recently, perinatal nicotine injections in rats were reported to induce peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ-dependent transgenerational transmission of asthma. Herein, we show that first generation and second generation progeny from gestationally SS-exposed mice exhibit exacerbated AA and BPD that is not dependent on the decrease in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ levels. Lungs from these mice show strong eosinophilic infiltration, excessive Th2 polarization, marked airway hyperresponsiveness, alveolar simplification, decreased lung compliance, and decreased lung angiogenesis. At the molecular level, these changes are associated with increased RUNX3 expression, alveolar cell apoptosis, and the antiangiogenic factor GAX, and decreased expression of HIF-1α and proangiogenic factors NF-κB and VEGFR2 in the 7-d first generation and second generation lungs. Moreover, the lungs from these mice exhibit lower levels of microRNA (miR)-130a and increased levels of miR-16 and miR-221. These miRs regulate HIF-1α-regulated apoptotic, angiogenic, and immune pathways. Thus the intergenerational effects of gestational SS involve epigenetic regulation of HIF-1α through specific miRs contributing to increased incidence of AA and BPD in the progenies. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  7. The Feasibility of Using Lead in Hair Concentration in Monitoring Environmental Exposure in Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wibowo, A.A.E.; Brunekreef, B.; Lebret, E.; Pieters, H.

    1980-01-01

    The feasibility of lead in hair as an indicator of lead exposure has been compared to that of lead in blood and zinc protoporphyrin in blood levels in 1-3 year-old children living within 1 km of a lead smelter. Lead exposure was measured as lead in house dust, outdoor and indoor lead in air

  8. Gestational exposure to diethylstilbestrol alters cardiac structure/function, protein expression and DNA methylation in adult male mice progeny

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haddad, Rami; Kasneci, Amanda; Mepham, Kathryn; Sebag, Igal A.

    2013-01-01

    Pregnant women, and thus their fetuses, are exposed to many endocrine disruptor compounds (EDCs). Fetal cardiomyocytes express sex hormone receptors making them potentially susceptible to re-programming by estrogenizing EDCs. Diethylstilbestrol (DES) is a proto-typical, non-steroidal estrogen. We hypothesized that changes in adult cardiac structure/function after gestational exposure to the test compound DES would be a proof in principle for the possibility of estrogenizing environmental EDCs to also alter the fetal heart. Vehicle (peanut oil) or DES (0.1, 1.0 and 10.0 μg/kg/da.) was orally delivered to pregnant C57bl/6n dams on gestation days 11.5–14.5. At 3 months, male progeny were left sedentary or were swim trained for 4 weeks. Echocardiography of isoflurane anesthetized mice revealed similar cardiac structure/function in all sedentary mice, but evidence of systolic dysfunction and increased diastolic relaxation after swim training at higher DES doses. The calcium homeostasis proteins, SERCA2a, phospholamban, phospho-serine 16 phospholamban and calsequestrin 2, are important for cardiac contraction and relaxation. Immunoblot analyses of ventricle homogenates showed increased expression of SERCA2a and calsequestrin 2 in DES mice and greater molecular remodeling of these proteins and phospho-serine 16 phospholamban in swim trained DES mice. DES increased cardiac DNA methyltransferase 3a expression and DNA methylation in the CpG island within the calsequestrin 2 promoter in heart. Thus, gestational DES epigenetically altered ventricular DNA, altered cardiac function and expression, and reduced the ability of adult progeny to cardiac remodel when physically challenged. We conclude that gestational exposure to estrogenizing EDCs may impact cardiac structure/function in adult males. -- Highlights: ► Gestational DES changes cardiac SERCA2a and CASQ2 expression. ► Echocardiography identified systolic dysfunction and increased diastolic relaxation. ► DES

  9. Particulate matter exposure during pregnancy is associated with birth weight, but not gestational age, 1962-1992: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pearce Mark S

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to air pollutants is suggested to adversely affect fetal growth, but the evidence remains inconsistent in relation to specific outcomes and exposure windows. Methods Using birth records from the two major maternity hospitals in Newcastle upon Tyne in northern England between 1961 and 1992, we constructed a database of all births to mothers resident within the city. Weekly black smoke exposure levels from routine data recorded at 20 air pollution monitoring stations were obtained and individual exposures were estimated via a two-stage modeling strategy, incorporating temporally and spatially varying covariates. Regression analyses, including 88,679 births, assessed potential associations between exposure to black smoke and birth weight, gestational age and birth weight standardized for gestational age and sex. Results Significant associations were seen between black smoke and both standardized and unstandardized birth weight, but not for gestational age when adjusted for potential confounders. Not all associations were linear. For an increase in whole pregnancy black smoke exposure, from the 1st (7.4 μg/m3 to the 25th (17.2 μg/m3, 50th (33.8 μg/m3, 75th (108.3 μg/m3, and 90th (180.8 μg/m3 percentiles, the adjusted estimated decreases in birth weight were 33 g (SE 1.05, 62 g (1.63, 98 g (2.26 and 109 g (2.44 respectively. A significant interaction was observed between socio-economic deprivation and black smoke on both standardized and unstandardized birth weight with increasing effects of black smoke in reducing birth weight seen with increasing socio-economic disadvantage. Conclusions The findings of this study progress the hypothesis that the association between black smoke and birth weight may be mediated through intrauterine growth restriction. The associations between black smoke and birth weight were of the same order of magnitude as those reported for passive smoking. These findings add to the growing

  10. Developmental lead exposure causes startle response deficits in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Clinton; Ghorai, Jugal K; Zalewski, Kathryn; Weber, Daniel N

    2011-10-01

    Lead (Pb(2+)) exposure continues to be an important concern for fish populations. Research is required to assess the long-term behavioral effects of low-level concentrations of Pb(2+) and the physiological mechanisms that control those behaviors. Newly fertilized zebrafish embryos (max) and escape time. With increasing exposure concentrations, a larger number of larvae failed to respond to even the initial tap and, for those that did respond, ceased responding earlier than control larvae. These differences were more pronounced at a frequency of 4 taps/s. (2) Response to a visual stimulus: Fish, exposed as embryos (2-24 hpf) to Pb(2+) (0-10 μM) were tested as adults under low light conditions (≈ 60 μW/m(2)) for visual responses to a rotating black bar. Visual responses were significantly degraded at Pb(2+) concentrations of 30 nM. These data suggest that zebrafish are viable models for short- and long-term sensorimotor deficits induced by acute, low-level developmental Pb(2+) exposures. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Cadmium, lead and mercury exposure in non smoking pregnant women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinwood, A.L., E-mail: a.hinwood@ecu.edu.au [Centre for Ecosystem Management, Edith Cowan University, 270 Joondalup Drive, Joondalup, WA 6027 (Australia); Callan, A.C.; Ramalingam, M.; Boyce, M. [Centre for Ecosystem Management, Edith Cowan University, 270 Joondalup Drive, Joondalup, WA 6027 (Australia); Heyworth, J. [School Population Health, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); McCafferty, P. [ChemCentre, PO Box 1250, Bentley, WA 6983 (Australia); Odland, J.Ø. [Department of Community Medicine, University of Tromsø, N-9037 Tromsø (Norway)

    2013-10-15

    Recent literature suggests that exposure to low concentrations of heavy metals may affect both maternal and child health. This study aimed to determine the biological heavy metals concentrations of pregnant women as well as environmental and dietary factors that may influence exposure concentrations. One hundred and seventy three pregnant women were recruited from Western Australia, each providing a sample of blood, first morning void urine, residential soil, dust and drinking water samples. Participants also completed a questionnaire which included a food frequency component. All biological and environmental samples were analysed for heavy metals using ICP-MS. Biological and environmental concentrations of lead and mercury were generally low (Median Pb Drinking Water (DW) 0.04 µg/L; Pb soil <3.0 µg/g; Pb dust 16.5 µg/g; Pb blood 3.67 µg/L; Pb urine 0.55; µg/L Hg DW <0.03; Hg soil <1.0 µg/g; Hg dust <1.0 µg/g; Hg blood 0.46 µg/L; Hg urine <0.40 µg/L). Cadmium concentrations were low in environmental samples (Median CdDW 0.02 µg/L; Cdsoil <0.30 ug/g; Cddust <0.30) but elevated in urine samples (Median 0.55 µg/L, creatinine corrected 0.70 µg/g (range <0.2–7.06 µg/g creatinine) compared with other studies of pregnant women. Predictors of increased biological metals concentrations in regression models for blood cadmium were residing in the Great Southern region of Western Australia and not using iron/folic acid supplements and for urinary cadmium was having lower household annual income. However, these factors explained little of the variation in respective biological metals concentrations. The importance of establishing factors that influence low human exposure concentrations is becoming critical in efforts to reduce exposures and hence the potential for adverse health effects. -- Highlights: • Biological heavy metals concentrations in women in their 3rd trimester of pregnancy. • Exposure assessment including environmental, lifestyle and activity

  12. Cadmium, lead and mercury exposure in non smoking pregnant women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinwood, A.L.; Callan, A.C.; Ramalingam, M.; Boyce, M.; Heyworth, J.; McCafferty, P.; Odland, J.Ø.

    2013-01-01

    Recent literature suggests that exposure to low concentrations of heavy metals may affect both maternal and child health. This study aimed to determine the biological heavy metals concentrations of pregnant women as well as environmental and dietary factors that may influence exposure concentrations. One hundred and seventy three pregnant women were recruited from Western Australia, each providing a sample of blood, first morning void urine, residential soil, dust and drinking water samples. Participants also completed a questionnaire which included a food frequency component. All biological and environmental samples were analysed for heavy metals using ICP-MS. Biological and environmental concentrations of lead and mercury were generally low (Median Pb Drinking Water (DW) 0.04 µg/L; Pb soil <3.0 µg/g; Pb dust 16.5 µg/g; Pb blood 3.67 µg/L; Pb urine 0.55; µg/L Hg DW <0.03; Hg soil <1.0 µg/g; Hg dust <1.0 µg/g; Hg blood 0.46 µg/L; Hg urine <0.40 µg/L). Cadmium concentrations were low in environmental samples (Median CdDW 0.02 µg/L; Cdsoil <0.30 ug/g; Cddust <0.30) but elevated in urine samples (Median 0.55 µg/L, creatinine corrected 0.70 µg/g (range <0.2–7.06 µg/g creatinine) compared with other studies of pregnant women. Predictors of increased biological metals concentrations in regression models for blood cadmium were residing in the Great Southern region of Western Australia and not using iron/folic acid supplements and for urinary cadmium was having lower household annual income. However, these factors explained little of the variation in respective biological metals concentrations. The importance of establishing factors that influence low human exposure concentrations is becoming critical in efforts to reduce exposures and hence the potential for adverse health effects. -- Highlights: • Biological heavy metals concentrations in women in their 3rd trimester of pregnancy. • Exposure assessment including environmental, lifestyle and activity

  13. Comparison of gestational dating methods and implications for exposure-outcome associations: an example with PM2.5 and preterm birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    OBJECTIVES: Estimating gestational age is usually based on date of last menstrual period (LMP) or clinical estimation (CE); both approaches introduce potential bias. Differences in methods of estimation may lead to misclassificat ion and inconsistencies in risk estimates, particu...

  14. Maternal stress modifies the effect of exposure to lead during pregnancy and 24-month old children's neurodevelopment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamayo Y Ortiz, Marcela; Téllez-Rojo, Martha María; Trejo-Valdivia, Belem; Schnaas, Lourdes; Osorio-Valencia, Erika; Coull, Brent; Bellinger, David; Wright, Rosalind J; Wright, Robert O

    2017-01-01

    Lead and psychosocial stress disrupt similar but not completely overlapping mechanisms. Exposure during the prenatal period to each of these insults singularly has been found to alter normal neurodevelopment; however, longitudinal associations with stress modifying the effect of lead have not been sufficiently analyzed in epidemiologic studies. To evaluate prenatal stress as an effect modifier of gestational lead neurotoxicity. We used a structural equations modeling approach with a trivariate response to evaluate cognitive, language and motor scores of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-III in 24month-old children (n=360). Maternal blood lead levels were measured at the 2nd and 3rd trimester and psychosocial stress during pregnancy was assessed using a negative life events (NLE) scale derived from the CRYSIS questionnaire. 3rd trimester lead (mean 3.9±3.0 SDμg/dL) and stress (median=3 NLE) were negatively associated with Bayley III scores. Using the model's results we generated profiles for 0, 2, 4 and 6 NLE across lead levels (up to 10μg/dL) and observed a dose-response for the developmental scores when lead levels were below 2μg/dL. Each NLE curve had a different shape across increasing lead levels. Higher stress (NLE=6) resulted in lower cognitive scores for both sexes, in lower language scores in girls but not boys. In the absence of stress we saw a negative association with lead for all scores, however for language and motor scores, higher stress seemed to mask this association. Our work examined and confirmed prenatal stress exposure as a modifier of the well-known neurotoxic effects of prenatal lead. It adds to the existing evidence pointing at the importance of studying the co-exposure of chemical and non-chemical exposures, specifically of considering the emotional environment of children at early developmental stages of life. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Adverse health effects of lead exposure on children and exploration to internal lead indicator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Q.; Zhao, H.H. [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030 (China); Chen, J.W.; Gu, K.D.; Zhang, Y.Z.; Zhu, Y.X.; Zhou, Y.K. [Minitry of Environmental Protection Key Lab of Environment, Wuhan 430030 (China); Ye, L.X., E-mail: yelx2004@163.com [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030 (China)

    2009-11-15

    Our research on adverse effects of lead exposures on physical and neurobehavioral health of children aged 6-12 years in 4 villages, labeled as K, M, L, and X, in rural China, was reported in this article. Lead in blood (PbB), urine (PbU), hairs (PbH), and nails (PbN) were measured by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Abbreviated Symptom Questionnaire of Conner's instruments and Revised Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices were applied to evaluate childhood attention deficit/hyperactivity disorders (ADHD) and intelligences. Geometric means (SD) of PbB, PbU, PbH and PbN concentrations were 71.2 {mu}g/L (1.56), 11.7 {mu}g/g (1.75), 12.5 {mu}g/g (2.82), and 25.3 {mu}g/g (2.79), respectively. 54 (17.0%) children had PbB levels of {>=} 100 {mu}g/L. Boys, the 6-10 years old, and living in village K were 2.11, 2.48, and 9.16 times, respectively, more likely to be poisoned by lead than girls, aged 11-12 years, and residing in X. 18 (5.7%) and 37 (11.7%) subjects had ADHD and mental retardations, respectively. Inverse relationships between intelligences and natural log transformed PbU and PbH levels were observed with respective odds ratios (95%CI) of 1.79 (1.00-3.22) and 1.46 (1.06-2.03) or 1.28 (1.04-1.58) and 1.73 (1.18-2.52) by binary or ordinal logistic regression modeling. ADHD prevalence was different by gender and age of subjects. PbU, PbH, and PbN related to PbB positively with respective correlation coefficients of 0.530, 0.477, and 0.181. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves of the three measurements reveled areas under curves (AUCs) being 0.829, 0.758, and 0.687, respectively. In conclusion, children had moderate levels of lead exposures in this rural area. Intelligence declines were associated with internal lead levels among children. ROC analysis suggests PbU an internal lead indicator close to PbB.

  16. Adverse health effects of lead exposure on children and exploration to internal lead indicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Q.; Zhao, H.H.; Chen, J.W.; Gu, K.D.; Zhang, Y.Z.; Zhu, Y.X.; Zhou, Y.K.; Ye, L.X.

    2009-01-01

    Our research on adverse effects of lead exposures on physical and neurobehavioral health of children aged 6-12 years in 4 villages, labeled as K, M, L, and X, in rural China, was reported in this article. Lead in blood (PbB), urine (PbU), hairs (PbH), and nails (PbN) were measured by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Abbreviated Symptom Questionnaire of Conner's instruments and Revised Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices were applied to evaluate childhood attention deficit/hyperactivity disorders (ADHD) and intelligences. Geometric means (SD) of PbB, PbU, PbH and PbN concentrations were 71.2 μg/L (1.56), 11.7 μg/g (1.75), 12.5 μg/g (2.82), and 25.3 μg/g (2.79), respectively. 54 (17.0%) children had PbB levels of ≥ 100 μg/L. Boys, the 6-10 years old, and living in village K were 2.11, 2.48, and 9.16 times, respectively, more likely to be poisoned by lead than girls, aged 11-12 years, and residing in X. 18 (5.7%) and 37 (11.7%) subjects had ADHD and mental retardations, respectively. Inverse relationships between intelligences and natural log transformed PbU and PbH levels were observed with respective odds ratios (95%CI) of 1.79 (1.00-3.22) and 1.46 (1.06-2.03) or 1.28 (1.04-1.58) and 1.73 (1.18-2.52) by binary or ordinal logistic regression modeling. ADHD prevalence was different by gender and age of subjects. PbU, PbH, and PbN related to PbB positively with respective correlation coefficients of 0.530, 0.477, and 0.181. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves of the three measurements reveled areas under curves (AUCs) being 0.829, 0.758, and 0.687, respectively. In conclusion, children had moderate levels of lead exposures in this rural area. Intelligence declines were associated with internal lead levels among children. ROC analysis suggests PbU an internal lead indicator close to PbB.

  17. Risks of Overweight and Abdominal Obesity at Age 16 Years Associated With Prenatal Exposures to Maternal Prepregnancy Overweight and Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Pirkola, Jatta; Pouta, Anneli; Bloigu, Aini; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Laitinen, Jaana; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Vääräsmäki, Marja

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The associations of prenatal exposures to maternal prepregnancy overweight and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) with offspring overweight are controversial. Research estimating risk for offspring overweight due to these exposures, separately and concomitantly, is limited. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Prevalence of overweight and abdominal obesity at age 16 years and odds ratios (ORs) for prenatal exposures to maternal prepregnancy overweight and GDM were estimated in participants ...

  18. An Evaluation of Gestational Exposure to Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA): Effects on Body Composition and Physiological Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to environmental pollutants can be a factor for induction of metabolic disorders. This study examined if exposure to PFOA during development could alter body composition and other physiological outcomes. Study 1: Pregnant CD-1 mice were gavaged with PFOA at 0,0.001,0.01,...

  19. Prenatal stress, gestational age and secondary sex ratio: the sex-specific effects of exposure to a natural disaster in early pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torche, Florencia; Kleinhaus, Karine

    2012-02-01

    Previous research suggests that maternal exposure to acute stress has a negative impact on the duration of pregnancy, and that this effect may vary by the time of exposure. It has also been proposed that stress exposure reduces the ratio of male-to-female births. To date, no study has jointly examined both outcomes, although they may be strongly related. Using population-level data with no selectivity, we jointly study the sex-specific effect of stress on the duration of pregnancy and the observed sex ratio among pregnant women exposed to a major earthquake in Chile. In a quasi-experimental design, women exposed to the earthquake in different months of gestation were compared with women pregnant 1 year earlier. Estimates from a comparison group of pregnant women living in areas not affected by the earthquake were also examined to rule out confounding trends. Regression models were used to measure the impact of earthquake exposure on gestational age and preterm birth by sex across month of gestation. A counterfactual simulation was implemented to assess the effect of the earthquake on the secondary sex ratio accounting for the differential impact of stress on gestational age by sex. Earthquake exposure in Months 2 and 3 of gestation resulted in a significant decline in gestational age and increase in preterm delivery. Effects varied by sex, and were much larger for female than male pregnancies. Among females, the probability of preterm birth increased by 0.038 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.005, 0.072] in Month 2 and by 0.039 (95% CI: 0.002, 0.075) in Month 3. Comparable increases for males were insignificant at the conventional P < 0.05 level. After accounting for the sex-specific impact on gestational age, a decline in the male-to-female ratio in Month 3 of exposure was detected [-0.058 (95% CI: -0.113, -0.003)]. Maternal exposure to an exogenous stressor early but not late in the pregnancy affects gestational age and the probability of preterm birth. This

  20. Lead exposure in Latin America and the Caribbean. Lead Research Group of the Pan-American Health Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romieu, I; Lacasana, M; McConnell, R

    1997-04-01

    As a result of the rapid industrialization of Latin America and the Caribbean during the second half of this century, exposure to lead has become an increasingly important problem. To obtain an estimate of the magnitude of lead exposure in the region, we carried out a survey and a literature search on potential sources of lead exposure and on blood lead concentrations. Sixteen out of 18 Latin American and 2 out of 10 Caribbean countries responded to the survey. Lead in gasoline remains a major problem, although the lead content has decreased in many countries in the last few years. The impact of leaded fuel is more important in urban settings, given their high vehicular density. Seventy-five percent of the population of the region lives in urban areas, and children younger than 15 years of age, the most susceptible group, comprise 30% of the population. Other sources of lead exposure identified in the region included industrial emissions, battery recycling, paint and varnishes, and contaminated food and water. Lead is recognized as a priority problem by national authorities in 72% of the countries that responded to the survey, and in 50% of the countries some legislation exists to regulate the lead content in certain products. However, compliance is low. There is an urgent need for a broad-based coalition between policy makers, industry, workers, unions, health care providers, and the community to take actions to reduce environmental and occupational lead exposures in all the Latin American and Caribbean countries.

  1. Impact of the California lead ammunition ban on reducing lead exposure in golden eagles and turkey vultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Terra R; Bloom, Peter H; Torres, Steve G; Hernandez, Yvette Z; Poppenga, Robert H; Boyce, Walter M; Johnson, Christine K

    2011-04-06

    Predatory and scavenging birds may be exposed to high levels of lead when they ingest shot or bullet fragments embedded in the tissues of animals injured or killed with lead ammunition. Lead poisoning was a contributing factor in the decline of the endangered California condor population in the 1980s, and remains one of the primary factors threatening species recovery. In response to this threat, a ban on the use of lead ammunition for most hunting activities in the range of the condor in California was implemented in 2008. Monitoring of lead exposure in predatory and scavenging birds is essential for assessing the effectiveness of the lead ammunition ban in reducing lead exposure in these species. In this study, we assessed the effectiveness of the regulation in decreasing blood lead concentration in two avian sentinels, golden eagles and turkey vultures, within the condor range in California. We compared blood lead concentration in golden eagles and turkey vultures prior to the lead ammunition ban and one year following implementation of the ban. Lead exposure in both golden eagles and turkey vultures declined significantly post-ban. Our findings provide evidence that hunter compliance with lead ammunition regulations was sufficient to reduce lead exposure in predatory and scavenging birds at our study sites.

  2. Impact of the California lead ammunition ban on reducing lead exposure in golden eagles and turkey vultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terra R Kelly

    Full Text Available Predatory and scavenging birds may be exposed to high levels of lead when they ingest shot or bullet fragments embedded in the tissues of animals injured or killed with lead ammunition. Lead poisoning was a contributing factor in the decline of the endangered California condor population in the 1980s, and remains one of the primary factors threatening species recovery. In response to this threat, a ban on the use of lead ammunition for most hunting activities in the range of the condor in California was implemented in 2008. Monitoring of lead exposure in predatory and scavenging birds is essential for assessing the effectiveness of the lead ammunition ban in reducing lead exposure in these species. In this study, we assessed the effectiveness of the regulation in decreasing blood lead concentration in two avian sentinels, golden eagles and turkey vultures, within the condor range in California. We compared blood lead concentration in golden eagles and turkey vultures prior to the lead ammunition ban and one year following implementation of the ban. Lead exposure in both golden eagles and turkey vultures declined significantly post-ban. Our findings provide evidence that hunter compliance with lead ammunition regulations was sufficient to reduce lead exposure in predatory and scavenging birds at our study sites.

  3. Inulin Supplementation Lowered the Metabolic Defects of Prolonged Exposure to Chlorpyrifos from Gestation to Young Adult Stage in Offspring Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Reygner

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence indicates that chlorpyrifos (CPF, an organophosphorus insecticide, is involved in metabolic disorders. We assess the hypothesis whether supplementation with prebiotics from gestation to adulthood, through a modulation of microbiota composition and fermentative activity, alleviates CPF induced metabolic disorders of 60 days old offspring. 5 groups of Wistar rats, from gestation until weaning, received two doses of CPF pesticide: 1 mg/kg/day (CPF1 or 3.5 mg/kg/day (CPF3.5 with free access to inulin (10g/L in drinking water. Then male pups received the same treatment as dams. Metabolic profile, leptin sensitivity, insulin receptor (IR expression in liver, gut microbiota composition and short chain fatty acid composition (SCFAs in the colon, were analyzed at postnatal day 60 in the offspring (PND 60. CPF3.5 increased offspring's birth body weight (BW but decreased BW at PND60. Inulin supplementation restored the BW at PND 60 to control levels. Hyperinsulinemia and decrease in insulin receptor β in liver were seen in CPF1 exposed rats. In contrast, hyperglycemia and decrease in insulin level were found in CPF3.5 rats. Inulin restored the levels of some metabolic parameters in CPF groups to ranges comparable with the controls. The total bacterial population, short chain fatty acid (SCFA production and butyrate levels were enhanced in CPF groups receiving inulin. Our data indicate that developmental exposure to CPF interferes with metabolism with dose related effects evident at adulthood. By modulating microbiota population and fermentative activity, inulin corrected adult metabolic disorders of rats exposed to CPF during development. Prebiotics supply may be thus considered as a novel nutritional strategy to counteract insulin resistance and diabetes induced by a continuous pesticide exposure.

  4. Inulin Supplementation Lowered the Metabolic Defects of Prolonged Exposure to Chlorpyrifos from Gestation to Young Adult Stage in Offspring Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reygner, Julie; Lichtenberger, Lydia; Elmhiri, Ghada; Dou, Samir; Bahi-Jaber, Narges; Rhazi, Larbi; Depeint, Flore; Bach, Veronique; Khorsi-Cauet, Hafida; Abdennebi-Najar, Latifa

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that chlorpyrifos (CPF), an organophosphorus insecticide, is involved in metabolic disorders. We assess the hypothesis whether supplementation with prebiotics from gestation to adulthood, through a modulation of microbiota composition and fermentative activity, alleviates CPF induced metabolic disorders of 60 days old offspring. 5 groups of Wistar rats, from gestation until weaning, received two doses of CPF pesticide: 1 mg/kg/day (CPF1) or 3.5 mg/kg/day (CPF3.5) with free access to inulin (10g/L in drinking water). Then male pups received the same treatment as dams. Metabolic profile, leptin sensitivity, insulin receptor (IR) expression in liver, gut microbiota composition and short chain fatty acid composition (SCFAs) in the colon, were analyzed at postnatal day 60 in the offspring (PND 60). CPF3.5 increased offspring's birth body weight (BW) but decreased BW at PND60. Inulin supplementation restored the BW at PND 60 to control levels. Hyperinsulinemia and decrease in insulin receptor β in liver were seen in CPF1 exposed rats. In contrast, hyperglycemia and decrease in insulin level were found in CPF3.5 rats. Inulin restored the levels of some metabolic parameters in CPF groups to ranges comparable with the controls. The total bacterial population, short chain fatty acid (SCFA) production and butyrate levels were enhanced in CPF groups receiving inulin. Our data indicate that developmental exposure to CPF interferes with metabolism with dose related effects evident at adulthood. By modulating microbiota population and fermentative activity, inulin corrected adult metabolic disorders of rats exposed to CPF during development. Prebiotics supply may be thus considered as a novel nutritional strategy to counteract insulin resistance and diabetes induced by a continuous pesticide exposure.

  5. Exposure to butyl paraben during gestation and lactation in Hsd:Sprague dawley SD rats via dosed feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgia K. Roberts

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Butyl paraben (BPB is an antimicrobial used in a variety of consumer products. Due to widespread human exposure and reported estrogenic activity, the National Toxicology Program quantified internal exposure during critical periods of development. Time-mated female Hsd:Sprague Dawley SD rats were administered 0, 1500, 5000 or 15,000 ppm BPB via NIH-07 feed, ad libitum, from gestation day (GD 6 to postnatal day (PND 28. Dam plasma, amniotic fluid and fetuses were collected on GD18 and pup and dam plasma were collected on PNDs 4, 10, 14, 21 and 28 and analyzed for free (unconjugated and total (unconjugated and conjugated BPB using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Free BPB was below the limit of quantitation in fetuses (LOQ 1.91 ng BPB/g fetus and amniotic fluid (LOQ 0.17 ng BPB/mL amniotic fluid at 1500 ppm. Analyte levels in amniotic fluid were less than 1% of maternal plasma, suggesting limited placental transfer. Total BPB in PND4 pup plasma was less than 5% of dam plasma in all exposure groups, suggesting low lactational transfer. However, at nearly all time points and exposure groups, there were higher levels of free BPB in pup versus dam plasma, suggesting limited conjugation in pups. Pup conjugation of BPB was age-dependent, not reaching the percent-conjugation in dams (>99% until PNDs 21 to 28. These data illustrate low placental and lactational transfer of dietary BPB and that poor conjugation in pups during early lactation results in higher exposure to free BPB in pups compared to dams.

  6. Reduction of in utero lead exposures in South African populations: Positive impact of unleaded petrol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina B Röllin

    Full Text Available Prenatal exposure to lead (Pb has been shown to have negative and irreversible health impacts on foetal and early childhood development, affecting morbidity and mortality in adulthood. This study aimed to assess in utero Pb exposure, examine birth outcomes, and identify confounding factors in the large cohort of South African population, following the legislated removal of Pb from petrol.Lead was measured in the maternal blood, urine and cord blood using Inductive Coupled Plasma Mass spectrometry (ICP-MS. The statistical analyses included Spearman's correlation, Wilcoxon rank sum (Mann Whitney, Kruskal-Wallis rank tests and multivariate linear regression.Overall, the geometric mean (GM of Pb in maternal blood (PbB was 1.32 μg/dL (n = 640; 95% CI, 1.24-1.40. In the subset cohort, the GM of paired maternal PbB and cord blood (PbC was 1.73 μg/dL (n = 350; 95% CI, 1.60-1.86 and 1.26 μg/dL (n = 317; 95% CI, 1.18-1.35, respectively with a positive correlation between the log PbB and the log PbC (rho = 0.65, p = <0.001. Birth outcomes showed geographical differences in the gestational age (p<0.001, birth length (p = 0.028 and head circumference (p<0.001, Apgar score at 5 min (p<0.001 and parity (p<0.002. In female neonates, a positive association was found between PbC and head circumference (rho = 0.243; p<0.016. The maternal PbB levels were positively correlated with race, educational status, water sources, cooking fuels and use of pesticides at home.This study has demonstrated not only the positive impact that the introduction of unleaded petrol and lead-free paint has had on in utero exposure to Pb in South Africa, but has also contributed new data on the topic, in a region where such data and scientific investigations in this field are lacking. Future research should evaluate if similar effects can be detected in young children and the adult population.

  7. Lead exposure biomarkers and mini-mental status exam scores in older men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wright, RO; Tsaih, SW; Schwartz, J; Spiro, A; McDonald, K; Weiss, ST; Hu, H

    2003-01-01

    Background: Lead is neurotoxic; yet, whether cognitive decline in older persons is associated with lead exposure is unknown. We studied whether lead exposure biomarkers are associated with cognitive test scores, as well as the modifying effects of age on the lead-cognition relationship. Methods:

  8. Comparison of meconium and neonatal hair analysis for detection of gestational exposure to drugs of abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Oz, B; Klein, J; Karaskov, T; Koren, G

    2003-03-01

    Meconium and hair are two biological markers of in utero exposure to illicit drugs. To compare the sensitivity of the two tests for different drugs. Motherisk laboratory which tests in utero drug exposure in Toronto. Cocaine, benzoylecgonine, opiates, cannabis, benzodiazepines, methadone, and barbiturates were measured in pairs of hair and meconium samples from the same neonates. Meconium was marginally more sensitive than neonatal hair for detection of cocaine and cannabis, possibly because it may detect second trimester exposure whereas hair grows only during the third trimester of pregnancy. There was a significant correlation between hair and meconium concentrations of cocaine, cannabis, and opiates. In cases of clinical suspicion and a negative neonatal urine test, both meconium and hair are effective biological markers of in utero illicit drug exposure. Meconium may be more sensitive, but neonatal hair is available for three months whereas meconium is available for only one or two days. In contrast, the use of meconium, being a discarded material, is more acceptable to some parents than hair testing, which entails cutting scalp hair from the newborn.

  9. Toxic exposure of songbirds to lead in the Southeast Missouri Lead Mining District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, W Nelson; Franson, J Christian; French, John B; May, Thomas; Rattner, Barnett A; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie I; Warner, Sarah E; Weber, John; Mosby, David

    2013-10-01

    Mining and smelting in the Southeast Missouri Lead Mining District has caused widespread contamination of soils with lead (Pb) and other metals. Soils from three study sites sampled in the district contained from approximately 1,000-3,200 mg Pb/kg. Analyses of earthworms [33-4,600 mg Pb/kg dry weight (dw)] collected in the district showed likely high Pb exposure of songbirds preying on soil organisms. Mean tissue Pb concentrations in songbirds collected from the contaminated sites were greater (p < 0.05) than those in songbirds from reference sites by factors of 8 in blood, 13 in liver, and 23 in kidney. Ranges of Pb concentrations in livers (mg Pb/kg dw) were as follows: northern cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis) = 0.11-3.0 (reference) and 1.3-30 (contaminated) and American robin (Turdus migratorius) = 0.43-8.5 (reference) and 7.6-72 (contaminated). Of 34 adult and juvenile songbirds collected from contaminated sites, 11 (32%) had hepatic Pb concentrations that were consistent with adverse physiological effects, 3 (9%) with systemic toxic effects, and 4 (12%) with life-threatening toxic effects. Acid-fast renal intranuclear inclusion bodies, which are indicative of Pb poisoning, were detected in kidneys of two robins that had the greatest renal Pb concentrations (952 and 1,030 mg/kg dw). Mean activity of the enzyme delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) in red blood cells, a well-established bioindicator of Pb poisoning in birds, was decreased by 58-82% in songbirds from the mining sites. We conclude that habitats within the mining district with soil Pb concentrations of ≥1,000 mg Pb/kg are contaminated to the extent that they are exposing ground-feeding songbirds to toxic concentrations of Pb.

  10. Toxic exposure of songbirds to lead in the Southeast Missouri Lead Mining District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, W. Nelson; Franson, J. Christian; French, John B.; May, Thomas; Rattner, Barnett A.; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie I.; Warner, Sarah E.; Weber, John; Mosby, David

    2013-01-01

    Mining and smelting in the Southeast Missouri Lead Mining District has caused widespread contamination of soils with lead (Pb) and other metals. Soils from three study sites sampled in the district contained from approximately 1,000–3,200 mg Pb/kg. Analyses of earthworms [33–4,600 mg Pb/kg dry weight (dw)] collected in the district showed likely high Pb exposure of songbirds preying on soil organisms. Mean tissue Pb concentrations in songbirds collected from the contaminated sites were greater (p of 8 in blood, 13 in liver, and 23 in kidney. Ranges of Pb concentrations in livers (mg Pb/kg dw) were as follows: northern cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis) = 0.11–3.0 (reference) and 1.3–30 (contaminated) and American robin (Turdus migratorius) = 0.43–8.5 (reference) and 7.6–72 (contaminated). Of 34 adult and juvenile songbirds collected from contaminated sites, 11 (32 %) had hepatic Pb concentrations that were consistent with adverse physiological effects, 3 (9 %) with systemic toxic effects, and 4 (12 %) with life-threatening toxic effects. Acid-fast renal intranuclear inclusion bodies, which are indicative of Pb poisoning, were detected in kidneys of two robins that had the greatest renal Pb concentrations (952 and 1,030 mg/kg dw). Mean activity of the enzyme delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) in red blood cells, a well-established bioindicator of Pb poisoning in birds, was decreased by 58–82 % in songbirds from the mining sites. We conclude that habitats within the mining district with soil Pb concentrations of ≥1,000 mg Pb/kg are contaminated to the extent that they are exposing ground-feeding songbirds to toxic concentrations of Pb.

  11. Gestational exposure to titanium dioxide nanoparticles impairs the placentation through dysregulation of vascularization, proliferation and apoptosis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu; Xie, Xingxing; Zhou, Yigang; Yu, Dainan; Deng, Yu; Ouyang, Jiexiu; Yang, Bei; Luo, Dan; Zhang, Dalei; Kuang, Haibin

    2018-01-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO 2 NPs) have recently found applications in a wide variety of consumer goods. TiO 2 NPs exposure significantly increases fetal deformities and mortality. However, the potential toxicity of TiO 2 NPs on the growth and development of placenta has been rarely studied during mice pregnancy. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of maternal exposure of TiO 2 NPs on the placentation. Mice were administered TiO 2 NPs by gavage at 0, 1 and 10 mg/kg/day from gestational day (GD) 1 to GD 13. Uteri and placentas from these mice were collected and counted the numbers of implanted and resorbed embryo and measured the placental weight on GD 13. Placental morphometry was observed by hematoxylin and eosin staining. The levels of Hand1, Esx1 , Eomes , Hand2 , Ascl2 and Fra1 mRNA were assessed by qRT-PCR. Uterine NK (uNK) cells were detected by using DBA lectin. Laminin immunohistochemical staining was to identify fetal vessels. Western blotting and transmission electron micrograph (TEM) were used to assess the apoptosis of placenta. No treatment-related difference was observed in the numbers of implanted and resorbed embryos and weight of placenta between the groups. However, 1 mg/kg/day TiO 2 NPs treatment significantly reduced the ratio of placenta/body weight on GD 13. The proportion of spongiotrophoblast in the 10 mg/kg/day dose group became higher than that in the control group, yet that of labyrinth was significantly lower in 10 mg/kg/day mice. The expression levels of Hand1 , Esx1 , Eomes , Hand2 , Ascl2 and Fra1 mRNA markedly decreased in TiO 2 NP treated placentas. Furthermore, TiO 2 NPs treatment impaired the formation of intricate networks of fetal vessels and reduced the number of uNK cells, and inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis of placenta by nuclear pyknosis, the activation of caspase-3 and upregulation of Bax protein and downregulation of Bcl-2 protein on GD 13. Gestational exposure to TiO 2 NPs

  12. Risk of preeclampsia after gestational exposure to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and other antidepressants: A study from The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Lupattelli, Angela; Wood, Mollie; Lapane, Kate L; Spigset, Olav; Nordeng, Hedvig Marie Egeland

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To describe the risk of early- and late-onset preeclampsia across pregnancies exposed to antidepressants and to evaluate the impact of timing and length of gestational exposure to antidepressants, particularly selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), on preeclampsia. Methods The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort, a prospective population-based study, and the Medical Birth Registry of Norway provided information on antidepressant exposure, depression, and anxiety sym...

  13. Mission-Area Guide to Lead-Exposure Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-03-01

    material being worked contains lead or if lead solder is used. Soldiers cleaning lead-acid battery terminals may be at risk, especially if they use wire ...dentistry, orthodontics , and dental techniques because of their chemical and physical properties such as hardness, strength, stiffness, toughness

  14. Gestational diabetes and offspring birth size at elevated environmental pollutant exposures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valvi, Damaskini; Oulhote, Youssef; Weihe, Pal

    2017-01-01

    examined whether GDM may mediate or modify the associations between maternal environmental pollutant exposures and offspring birth size measures. METHODS: We analyzed 604 Faroese pregnant women and their offsprings born in 1997-2000. Maternal pregnancy serum concentrations of organochlorine compounds (OCs...... circumference in boys, and positive or null associations in girls. None of the environmental pollutants was associated with offspring length. GDM neither modified nor mediated the associations with birth size measures. CONCLUSIONS: We found associations with GDM and offspring birth size to be specific...... to the environmental pollutant or pollutant group. Associations with birth size measures appear to be independent of GDM occurrence....

  15. Prenatal low-level lead exposure and developmental delay of infants at age 6 months (Krakow inner city study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedrychowski, Wieslaw; Perera, Frederica; Jankowski, Jeffery; Rauh, Virginia; Flak, Elzbieta; Caldwell, Kathleen L; Jones, Robert L; Pac, Agnieszka; Lisowska-Miszczyk, Ilona

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the neurocognitive status of 6-month-old infants whose mothers were exposed to low but varying amounts of lead during pregnancy. Lead levels in the cord blood were used to assess environmental exposure and the Fagan Test of Infant Intelligence (FTII) assessed visual recognition memory (VRM). The cohort consisted of 452 infants of mothers who gave birth to babies at 33-42 weeks of gestation between January 2001 and March 2003. The overall mean lead level in the cord blood was 1.42 microg/dl (95% CI: 1.35-1.48). We found that VRM scores in 6 month olds were inversely related to lead cord blood levels (Spearman correlation coefficient -0.16, p=0.007). The infants scored lower by 1.5 points with an increase by one unit (1 microg/dl) of lead concentration in cord blood. In the lower exposed infants (1.67 microg/dl) the mean Fagan score was 61.0 (95% CI: 60.3-61.7) and that in the higher exposed group (>1.67 microg/dl) was 58.4 (95% CI: 57.3-59.7). The difference of 2.5 points was significant at the p=0.0005 level. The estimated risk of scoring the high-risk group of developmental delay (FTII classification 3) due to higher lead blood levels was two-fold greater (OR=2.33, 95% CI: 1.32-4.11) than for lower lead blood levels after adjusting for potential confounders (gestational age, gender of the child and maternal education). As the risk of the deficit in VRM score (Fagan group 3) in exposed infants attributable to Pb prenatal exposure was about 50%, a large portion of cases with developmental delay could be prevented by reducing maternal blood lead level below 1.67 microg/dl. Although the negative predictive value of the chosen screening criterion (above 1.67 microg/dl) was relatively high (89%) its positive predictive value was too low (22%), so that the screening program based on the chosen cord blood lead criterion was recommended.

  16. Thyroid hormone levels and hepatic enzyme activity in lactating dams after gestational exposure to low dose PBDE 47

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuriyama, S.N.; Grande, S.W.; Akkoc, Z.; Souza, C.A.M. de; Chahoud, I. [Charite Univ. Medical School Berlin (Germany). Inst. of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, Dept. Toxicology, Campus Benjamin Franklin; Fidalgo-Neto, A.A. [Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Lab. of Environmental Toxicology

    2004-09-15

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), a class of widely used flame retardants, are found extensively in the environment (shown by several studies on sentinel animal species), as well as in humans. In rodents, technical commercial PBDE mixtures and individual congeners have shown to interfere with thyroid hormone homeostasis, produce a mix-type induction of hepatic microsomal enzymes, disrupt spontaneous behaviour, impair learning and memory and alter the cholinergic transmitter system. In rat and mice, some technical PBDE commercial mixtures such as DE-71 and Bromkal 70 and the congener PBDE 47 have shown to decrease circulating thyroid hormone levels. PBDEs are also able to induce both hepatic phase I and phase II detoxification enzymes, demonstrated by several investigations in laboratory animals. For example, induction of ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD), pentoxyresorufin-Odespenthylase (PROD) and uridinediphospho-glucuronosyltransferase (UDPGT) has been shown in rodents and cell lines after exposure to technical mixtures or individual congeners. However, these studies deal with doses much higher than that found in human tissues, highlighting the importance of assessing the adverse effects of doses close to human exposure levels. PBDE 47 is the most predominant congener found in environmental and human samples (including human milk) and, therefore, hazard identification is extremely important for human risk assessment. We administered a single dose to gravid dams on gestation day 6 of either 140 {mu}g/kg BW or 700 {mu}g/kg BW of the congener, 2,2'4,4'-tetrabromo diphenyl ether (PBDE 47). These doses are pertinent to human exposure levels because a study by She et al. found a mean level of 33.3 {mu}g PBDE 47 /kg fat in human breast adipose tissue with a range from 7.01 to 196 {mu}g PBDE 47 /kg fat. In this study, thyroid hormone levels and hepatic enzyme activity were evaluated in lactating dams after in utero administration of low dose PBDE 47.

  17. Effect Of Chronic Exposure To Low Levels Of Lead On Renal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chronic exposure to lead is associated with adverse effects on renal function in laboratory animals and man. There is controversy concerning the direction of change of renal function parameters following chronic lead intoxication. The renal effects of low-dose lead exposure, as opposed to acute and pharmacological doses, ...

  18. Estimating individual-level exposure to airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons throughout the gestational period based on personal, indoor, and outdoor monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, H.; Perera, F.; Pac, A.; Wang, L.; Flak, E.; Mroz, E.; Jacek, R.; Chai-Onn, T.; Jedrychowski, W.; Masters, E.; Camann, D.; Spengler, J. [Columbia University, New York, NY (United States)

    2008-11-15

    Current understanding on health effects of long-term polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure is limited by lack of data on time-varying nature of the pollutants at an individual level. In a cohort of pregnant women in Krakow, Poland, we examined the contribution of temporal, spatial, and behavioral factors to prenatal exposure to airborne PAHs within each trimester and developed a predictive model of PAH exposure over the entire gestational period. The observed personal, indoor, and outdoor B(a)P levels we observed in Krakow far exceed the recommended Swedish guideline value for B(a)P of 0.1 ng/m{sup 3}. Based on simultaneously monitored levels, the outdoor PAH level alone accounts for 93% of total variability in personal exposure during the heating season. Living near the Krakow bus depot, a crossroad, and the city, center and time spent outdoors or commuting were not associated with higher personal exposure. During the nonheating season only, a 1-hr increase in environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure was associated with a 10-16% increase in personal exposure to the nine measured PAHs. A 1{degree}C decrease in ambient temperature was associated with a 3-5% increase in exposure to benz(a)anthracene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, and dibenz(a,h)anthracene, after accounting for the outdoor concentration. A random effects model demonstrated that mean personal exposure at a given gestational period depends on the season, residence location, and ETS. Considering that most women reported spending < 3 hr/day outdoors, most women in the study were exposed to outdoor-originating PAHs within the indoor setting. Cross-sectional, longitudinal monitoring supplemented with questionnaire data allowed development of a gestation-length model of individual-level exposure with high precision and validity.

  19. Maternal exposure to cadmium during gestation perturbs the vascular system of the adult rat offspring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronco, Ana Maria; Montenegro, Marcela; Castillo, Paula; Urrutia, Manuel; Saez, Daniel; Hirsch, Sandra; Zepeda, Ramiro; Llanos, Miguel N.

    2011-01-01

    Several cardiovascular diseases (CVD) observed in adulthood have been associated with environmental influences during fetal growth. Here, we show that maternal exposure to cadmium, a ubiquitously distributed heavy metal and main component of cigarette smoke is able to induce cardiovascular morpho-functional changes in the offspring at adult age. Heart morphology and vascular reactivity were evaluated in the adult offspring of rats exposed to 30 ppm of cadmium during pregnancy. Echocardiographic examination shows altered heart morphology characterized by a concentric left ventricular hypertrophy. Also, we observed a reduced endothelium-dependent reactivity in isolated aortic rings of adult offspring, while endothelium-independent reactivity remained unaltered. These effects were associated with an increase of hem-oxygenase 1 (HO-1) expression in the aortas of adult offspring. The expression of HO-1 was higher in females than males, a finding likely related to the sex-dependent expression of the vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1), which was lower in the adult female. All these long-term consequences were observed along with normal birth weights and absence of detectable levels of cadmium in fetal and adult tissues of the offspring. In placental tissues however, cadmium levels were detected and correlated with increased NF-κB expression - a transcription factor sensitive to inflammation and oxidative stress - suggesting a placentary mechanism that affect genes related to the development of the cardiovascular system. Our results provide, for the first time, direct experimental evidence supporting that exposure to cadmium during pregnancy reprograms cardiovascular development of the offspring which in turn may conduce to a long term increased risk of CVD.

  20. Lead exposure in Laysan albatross adults and chicks in Hawaii: prevalence, risk factors, and biochemical effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, T M; Smith, M R

    1996-07-01

    Prevalence of lead exposure and elevated tissue lead was determined in Laysan albatross (Diomedea immutabilis) in Hawaii. The relationship between lead exposure and proximity to buildings, between elevated blood lead and droopwing status, and elevated liver lead and presence of lead-containing paint chips in the proventriculus in albatross chicks was also examined. Finally, the effects of lead on the enzyme delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) was determined. There was a significant association between lead exposure or elevated tissue lead and proximity to buildings in albatross chicks and presence of lead paint chips in the proventriculus and elevated liver lead in carcasses. Although there was a significant association between elevated blood lead and droopwing chicks, there were notable exceptions. Prevalence of elevated tissue lead in albatross chicks was highest on Sand Island Midway and much less so on Kauai and virtually nonexistent in other areas. Prevalence of lead exposure decreased as numbers of buildings to which chicks were exposed on a given island decreased. Laysan albatross adults had minimal to no lead exposure. There was a significant negative correlation between blood lead concentration and ALAD activity in chicks. Based on ALAD activity, 0.03-0.05 microg/ml was the no effect range for blood lead in albatross chicks.

  1. Lead Exposure and Behavior: Effects on Antisocial and Risky Behavior among Children and Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Jessica Wolpaw Reyes

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that exposure to lead has numerous adverse effects on behavior and development. Using data on two cohorts of children from the NLSY, this paper investigates the effect of early childhood lead exposure on behavior problems from childhood through early adulthood. I find large negative consequences of early childhood lead exposure, in the form of an unfolding series of adverse behavioral outcomes: behavior problems as a child, pregnancy and aggression as a teen, and criminal beh...

  2. Increased tau phosphorylation and beta amyloid in the hipocampus of mouse pups by early life lead exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, N; Yu, Z L; Wang, L; Zheng, Y T; Jia, J X; Wang, Q; Zhu, M J; Liu, X L; Xia, X; Li, W J

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of maternal lead exposure on the learning and memory ability and expression of tau protein phosphorylation (P-tau) and beta amyloid protein (Abeta) in hippocampus of mice offspring. Pb exposure initiated from beginning of gestation to weaning. Pb acetate administered in drinking solutions was dissolved in distilled deionized water at the concentrations of 0.1%, 0.5% and 1% groups. On the 21 th of postnatal day, the learning and memory ability of the mouse pups was tested by Water Maze test and the Pb levels in blood and hippocampus of the offspring were also determined. The expression of P-tau and Abeta in hippocampus was measured by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. The Pb levels in blood and hippocampus of all exposure groups were significantly higher than that of the control group ( P < 0.05). In Water Maze test, the performances of 0.5% and 1% groups were worse than that of the control group ( P < 0.05). The expression of P-tau and Abeta was increased in Pb exposed groups than that of the control group ( P < 0.05). Tau hyper-phosphorylation and Abeta increase in the hippocampus of pups may contribute to the impairment of learning and memory associated with maternal Pb exposure.

  3. Multimedia Lead Exposure Modeling, and Water Monitoring Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinking water and other sources for lead are the subject of public health concern following the Flint, Michigan drinking water and East Chicago, Indiana lead in soil crises. In 2015, the U.S. EPA’s National Drinking Water Advisory Council recommended establishing a “...

  4. Childhood lead exposure in an enslaved African community in Barbados

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroeder, Hannes; Shuler, Kristrina A.; Chenery, Simon R.

    2013-01-01

    Lead was ubiquitous on Caribbean sugar plantations, where it was used extensively in the production of sugar and rum. Previous studies suggest that skeletal lead contents can be used to identify African-born individuals (as opposed to Creoles) among slave burials found in the New World. To test t...

  5. Lead Concentrations and Risk Exposure Assessment in Surface ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    µm, < 250 µm, and < 75 µm of surface soils at undeveloped residential lands leased to auto-mechanic artisans for a minimum of ten years and estimated exposure risk for children that will reside on the polluted lands after the lease periods. Soil-Pb levels ranges obtained were ... Other factors considered were closeness to.

  6. EPA Leads the Way on Lead Exposure Science and Risk Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA researchers have developed a modeling approach that improves our understanding of the relationship between lead concentrations of various sources (drinking water, soil and dust, food, and air) and children’s blood-lead levels.

  7. Perinatal Lead Exposure Alters Gut Microbiota Composition and Results in Sex-specific Bodyweight Increases in Adult Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jianfeng; Wen, Xiaoquan William; Faulk, Christopher; Boehnke, Kevin; Zhang, Huapeng; Dolinoy, Dana C; Xi, Chuanwu

    2016-06-01

    Heavy metal pollution is a principle source of environmental contamination. Epidemiological and animal data suggest that early life lead (Pb) exposure results in critical effects on epigenetic gene regulation and child and adult weight trajectories. Using a mouse model of human-relevant exposure, we investigated the effects of perinatal Pb exposure on gut microbiota in adult mice, and the link between gut microbiota and bodyweight changes. Following Pb exposure during gestation and lactation via maternal drinking water, bodyweight in A(vy) strain wild-type non-agouti (a/a) offspring was tracked through adulthood. Gut microbiota of adult mice were characterized by deep DNA sequencing of bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA genes. Data analyses were stratified by sex and adjusted for litter effects. A Bayesian variable selection algorithm was used to analyze associations between bacterial operational taxonomic units and offspring adult bodyweight. Perinatal Pb exposure was associated with increased adult bodyweight in male (P compositions were significantly different (analysis of molecular variance, P gut microbiota were highly associated with adult bodyweight (P = .028; effect size = 2.59). Thus, perinatal Pb exposure results in altered adult gut microbiota regardless of sex, and these changes are highly correlated with increased bodyweight in males. Adult gut microbiota can be shaped by early exposures and may contribute to disease risks in a sex-specific manner. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Reducing lead in air and preventing childhood exposure near lead smelters: learning from the U.S. experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Marianne

    2015-05-01

    Childhood lead exposure and poisoning near primary lead smelters continues in developed and developing countries. In the United States, the problem of lead poisoning in children caused by smelter emissions was first documented in the early 1970s. In 1978, Environmental Protection Agency set National Ambient Air Quality Standards for lead. Attainment of this lead standard in areas near operating lead smelters took twenty to thirty years. Childhood lead exposure and poisoning continued to occur after the lead National Ambient Air Quality Standards were set and before compliance was achieved. This article analyzes and discusses the factors that led to the eventual achievement of the 1978 lead National Ambient Air Quality Standards near primary smelters and the reduction of children's blood lead levels in surrounding communities. Factors such as federal and state regulation, monitoring of emissions, public health activities such as blood lead surveillance and health education, relocation of children, environmental group and community advocacy, and litigation all played a role. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  9. Gestational 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126) exposure disrupts fetoplacental unit: Fetal thyroid-cytokines dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, R G; El-Gareib, A W; Shaker, H M

    2018-01-01

    Exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is related to several endocrine disorders. This study examined the effect of maternal exposure of 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126) on the fetoplacental unit and fetal thyroid-cytokine axis during the pregnancy. Pregnant albino rats received PCB 126 (20 or 40μg/kgb.wt.) by oral gavage from gestation day (GD) 1 to 20. Potential effects of PCB 126 were evaluated by following the histopathological changes in the placenta by Haematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) stain and measuring the maternofetal thyroid axis (ELIZA), maternofetal body weight, and fetal growth markers (ELIZA), and cytokines (ELIZA) at embryonic day (ED) 20. Placental tissues of both treated groups showed hyperemia, hemorrhage, degeneration and apoptosis in labyrinth layer and spiral artery at GD 20. Both administrations of PCB 126 elevated serum thyrotropin (TSH) concentration, and decreased free thyroxine (FT4) and free triiodothyronine (FT3) concentrations, resulting in a maternofetal hypothyroidism. The presence of hypothyroidism increased fetal serum concentration of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), leptin (LEP), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and decreased the fetal serum insulin growth factor-I (IGF-I), IGF-II, insulin, adiponectin (ADP), and growth hormone (GH) in both treated groups at ED 20. However, the increase in resistin (RETN) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) was non-significant in low-dose group and highly significant in high-dose group. Simultaneously, the reduction in body weight of the dams and fetuses was observed in both PCB 126 groups of examined day with respect to the control group. The maternal PCB 126 distorted the fetoplacental unit might disrupt the fetal thyroid-cytokines axis and prenatal development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The philosophy and assumptions underlying exposure limits for ionising radiation, inorganic lead, asbestos and noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akber, R.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: A review of the literature relating to exposure to, and exposure limits for, ionising radiation, inorganic lead, asbestos and noise was undertaken. The four hazards were chosen because they were insidious and ubiquitous, were potential hazards in both occupational and environmental settings and had early and late effects depending on dose and dose rate. For all four hazards, the effect of the hazard was enhanced by other exposures such as smoking or organic solvents. In the cases of inorganic lead and noise, there were documented health effects which affected a significant percentage of the exposed populations at or below the [effective] exposure limits. This was not the case for ionising radiation and asbestos. None of the exposure limits considered exposure to multiple mutagens/carcinogens in the calculation of risk. Ionising radiation was the only one of the hazards to have a model of all likely exposures, occupational, environmental and medical, as the basis for the exposure limits. The other three considered occupational exposure in isolation from environmental exposure. Inorganic lead and noise had economic considerations underlying the exposure limits and the exposure limits for asbestos were based on the current limit of detection. All four hazards had many variables associated with exposure, including idiosyncratic factors, that made modelling the risk very complex. The scientific idea of a time weighted average based on an eight hour day, and forty hour week on which the exposure limits for lead, asbestos and noise were based was underpinned by neither empirical evidence or scientific hypothesis. The methodology of the ACGIH in the setting of limits later brought into law, may have been unduly influenced by the industries most closely affected by those limits. Measuring exposure over part of an eight hour day and extrapolating to model exposure over the longer term is not the most effective way to model exposure. The statistical techniques used

  11. Can realtor education reduce lead exposures for vulnerable populations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phoenix, Janet A; Green, Rodney D; Thompson, Aisha M

    2013-01-01

    Lead is known for its devastating effects on people, particularly children under the age of six. Disturbed lead paint in homes is the most common source of lead poisoning of children. Preventive approaches including consumer education on the demand side of the housing market (purchasers and renters of housing units) and disclosure regulations on supply side of the housing market (landlords, homeowners, developers, and licensed realtors) have had mixed outcomes. The study described in this article considered whether a novel supply-side intervention that educates licensed real estate agents about the specific dangers of lead poisoning would result in better knowledge of lead hazards and improved behavior with respect to the information they convey to potential home buyers. Ninety-one licensed realtors were trained for four hours on lead hazards and their health impacts. Pre- and postsurveys and a six-month follow-up interview were conducted to assess the impact of the intervention on their knowledge and self-reported behaviors with clients. The findings suggest that supply-side education could have a salutary impact on realtor knowledge and behavior.

  12. Partial recovery of suppressed reproduction by Withania somnifera Dunal. in female rats following perinatal lead exposure

    OpenAIRE

    S Saritha; P Sreenivasulu Reddy; G Rajarami Reddy

    2011-01-01

    Lead (Pb) is a non-biodegradable, ubiquitous, environmental contaminant, and is well known for neurotoxicity. Recent studies indicate that Pb poisoning also affects male reproduction in rats. However, little information is available on the effect of Pb in female reproduction. The present study is aimed at determining the changes in female reproduction in rats exposed to Pb during the perinatal period. Pregnant rats were exposed to 0.05 and 0.15% Pb through drinking water from gestation day 1....

  13. [Lead exposure markers and related susceptibility genes based on different people].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hanyi; Liu, Li; Cao, Zhaojin; Qu, Weidong

    2010-09-01

    Lead (Pb) is a toxic heavy metal which exists widely in the environment. Children, pregnant women, the elderly, and other populations, have diverse ways of lead exposure and different toxicokinetics. Moreover, the exposure and effect of lead involve multiple metabolic pathways and mechanisms. Besides ALAD, VDR, HFE genes, the polymorphisms of TF gene and oxidative-stress related genes (Rac2, GPx1, XDH) have been discovered recently to affect lead internal exposure level as well. This review comprehensively describes the characteristics of lead exposure, metabolic characteristics and the lead exposure sensitive markers, of different people groups, and looks forward to the future of the application of Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) in this field.

  14. Impact of robotics and a suspended lead suit on physician radiation exposure during percutaneous coronary intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madder, Ryan D; VanOosterhout, Stacie; Mulder, Abbey; Elmore, Matthew; Campbell, Jessica; Borgman, Andrew; Parker, Jessica; Wohns, David

    Reports of left-sided brain malignancies among interventional cardiologists have heightened concerns regarding physician radiation exposure. This study evaluated the impact of a suspended lead suit and robotic system on physician radiation exposure during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Real-time radiation exposure data were prospectively collected from dosimeters worn by operating physicians at the head- and chest-level during consecutive PCI cases. Exposures were compared in three study groups: 1) manual PCI performed with traditional lead apparel; 2) manual PCI performed using suspended lead; and 3) robotic PCI performed in combination with suspended lead. Among 336 cases (86.6% manual, 13.4% robotic) performed over 30weeks, use of suspended lead during manual PCI was associated with significantly less radiation exposure to the chest and head of operating physicians than traditional lead apparel (chest: 0.0 [0.1] μSv vs 0.4 [4.0] μSv, probotic PCI performed in combination with suspended lead was 0.0 [0.0] μSv, which was significantly less chest exposure than manual PCI performed with traditional lead (probotic PCI the median head-level exposure was 0.1 [0.2] μSv, which was 99.3% less than manual PCI performed with traditional lead (probotics were observed to result in significantly less radiation exposure to the chest and head of operating physicians during PCI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Neurodevelopment for the first three years following prenatal mobile phone use, radio frequency radiation and lead exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kyung-Hwa; Ha, Mina; Ha, Eun-Hee; Park, Hyesook; Kim, Yangho; Hong, Yun-Chul; Lee, Ae-Kyoung; Hwa Kwon, Jong; Choi, Hyung-Do; Kim, Nam; Kim, Suejin; Park, Choonghee

    2017-07-01

    Studies examining prenatal exposure to mobile phone use and its effect on child neurodevelopment show different results, according to child's developmental stages. To examine neurodevelopment in children up to 36 months of age, following prenatal mobile phone use and radiofrequency radiation (RFR) exposure, in relation to prenatal lead exposure. We analyzed 1198 mother-child pairs from a prospective cohort study (the Mothers and Children's Environmental Health Study). Questionnaires were provided to pregnant women at ≤20 weeks of gestation to assess mobile phone call frequency and duration. A personal exposure meter (PEM) was used to measure RFR exposure for 24h in 210 pregnant women. Maternal blood lead level (BLL) was measured during pregnancy. Child neurodevelopment was assessed using the Korean version of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-Revised at 6, 12, 24, and 36 months of age. Logistic regression analysis applied to groups classified by trajectory analysis showing neurodevelopmental patterns over time. The psychomotor development index (PDI) and the mental development index (MDI) at 6, 12, 24, and 36 months of age were not significantly associated with maternal mobile phone use during pregnancy. However, among children exposed to high maternal BLL in utero, there was a significantly increased risk of having a low PDI up to 36 months of age, in relation to an increasing average calling time (p-trend=0.008). There was also a risk of having decreasing MDI up to 36 months of age, in relation to an increasing average calling time or frequency during pregnancy (p-trend=0.05 and 0.007 for time and frequency, respectively). There was no significant association between child neurodevelopment and prenatal RFR exposure measured by PEM in all subjects or in groups stratified by maternal BLL during pregnancy. We found no association between prenatal exposure to RFR and child neurodevelopment during the first three years of life; however, a potential combined

  16. Environmental lead exposure among preschool children in Shanghai, China: blood lead levels and risk factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Cao

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine blood lead levels and to identify related risk factors among children in Shanghai; to explore the lead change trend of children after industrial transformation and to provide data for policy development to control environmental lead pollution in Shanghai. METHODS: A stratified-clustered-random sampling method was used. A tungsten atomizer absorption spectrophotometer was employed to determine blood lead levels. RESULTS: The arithmetic mean, geometric mean and median of blood lead levels of 0- to 6-year-old children from Shanghai were 22.49 µg/L, 19.65 µg/L and 19.5 µg/L, including 0.26% (6/2291 with concentrations ≥100 µg/L and 2.7% (61/2291 with concentrations ≥50 µg/L. Boys' levels (23.57 µg/L were greater than those of girls (21.2 µg/L. The blood lead levels increased with age. This survey showed that the Chongming district was the highest and Yangpu district was the lowest, this result is completely opposite with the earlier survey in Shanghai. Risk factors for lead contamination included housing environment, parents' education levels, social status, hobbies, and children's nutritional status. CONCLUSIONS: The blood lead levels of children in Shanghai were lower than the earlier data of Shanghai and those of published studies in China, but higher than the blood lead levels of developed countries. The blood lead levels of urban districts are higher than the central districts with the industrial transformation. Society and the government should take an active interest in childhood lead poisoning of urban areas.

  17. Estimating individual-level exposure to airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons throughout the gestational period based on personal, indoor, and outdoor monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyunok; Perera, Frederica; Pac, Agnieszka; Wang, Lu; Flak, Elzbieta; Mroz, Elzbieta; Jacek, Ryszard; Chai-Onn, Tricia; Jedrychowski, Wieslaw; Masters, Elizabeth; Camann, David; Spengler, John

    2008-11-01

    Current understanding on health effects of long-term polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure is limited by lack of data on time-varying nature of the pollutants at an individual level. In a cohort of pregnant women in Krakow, Poland, we examined the contribution of temporal, spatial, and behavioral factors to prenatal exposure to airborne PAHs within each trimester and developed a predictive model of PAH exposure over the entire gestational period. We monitored nonsmoking pregnant women (n = 341) for their personal exposure to pyrene and eight carcinogenic PAHs-benz[a]anthracene, chrysene/isochrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[a]pyrene [B(a)P], indeno[1,2,3-c,d]pyrene, dibenz[a,h]anthracene, and benzo[g,h,i]perylene-during their second trimester for a consecutive 48-hr period. In a subset (n = 78), we monitored indoor and outdoor levels simultaneously with the personal monitoring during the second trimester with an identical monitor. The subset of women was also monitored for personal exposure for a 48-hr period during each trimester. We repeatedly administered a questionnaire on health history, lifestyle, and home environment. The observed personal, indoor, and outdoor B(a)P levels we observed in Krakow far exceed the recommended Swedish guideline value for B(a)P of 0.1 ng/m(3). Based on simultaneously monitored levels, the outdoor PAH level alone accounts for 93% of total variability in personal exposure during the heating season. Living near the Krakow bus depot, a crossroad, and the city center and time spent outdoors or commuting were not associated with higher personal exposure. During the nonheating season only, a 1-hr increase in environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure was associated with a 10-16% increase in personal exposure to the nine measured PAHs. A 1 degrees C decrease in ambient temperature was associated with a 3-5% increase in exposure to benz[a]anthracene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, and dibenz[a,h]anthracene, after

  18. Individual exposures to drinking water trihalomethanes, low birth weight and small for gestational age risk: a prospective Kaunas cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Evidence for an association between exposure during pregnancy to trihalomethanes (THMs) in drinking water and impaired fetal growth is still inconsistent and inconclusive, in particular, for various exposure routes. We examined the relationship of individual exposures to THMs in drinking water on low birth weight (LBW), small for gestational age (SGA), and birth weight (BW) in singleton births. Methods We conducted a cohort study of 4,161 pregnant women in Kaunas (Lithuania), using individual information on drinking water, ingestion, showering and bathing, and uptake factors of THMs in blood, to estimate an internal dose of THM. We used regression analysis to evaluate the relationship between internal THM dose and birth outcomes, adjusting for family status, education, smoking, alcohol consumption, body mass index, blood pressure, ethnic group, previous preterm, infant gender, and birth year. Results The estimated internal dose of THMs ranged from 0.0025 to 2.40 mg/d. We found dose-response relationships for the entire pregnancy and trimester-specific THM and chloroform internal dose and risk for LBW and a reduction in BW. The adjusted odds ratio for third tertile vs. first tertile chloroform internal dose of entire pregnancy was 2.17, 95% CI 1.19-3.98 for LBW; the OR per every 0.1 μg/d increase in chloroform internal dose was 1.10, 95% CI 1.01-1.19. Chloroform internal dose was associated with a slightly increased risk of SGA (OR 1.19, 95% CI 0.87-1.63 and OR 1.22, 95% CI 0.89-1.68, respectively, for second and third tertile of third trimester); the risk increased by 4% per every 0.1 μg/d increase in chloroform internal dose (OR 1.04, 95% CI 1.00-1.09). Conclusions THM internal dose in pregnancy varies substantially across individuals, and depends on both water THM levels and water use habits. Increased internal dose may affect fetal growth. PMID:21501533

  19. Blood Lead Levels And Potental Environmental Exposures Among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p = 0.439). Low risk parental occupation (p = 0.001) and. Kales sourced from the market/kiosks (p = 0.001) were significantly associated with BLL ≥ 10ug/dl. Soil lead levels (Soil Pb) ranged from 3,000 to 90,000ug/kg, which was very high ...

  20. Long-term human exposure to lead from different media and intake pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pizzol, Massimo; Thomsen, Marianne; Andersen, Mikael Skou

    2010-01-01

    Lead (Pb) is well known as an environmental pollutant: it can accumulate in various media, so actual lead exposure reflects both historical and present contaminations. Two main challenges then emerge: obtaining updated information to gain an overall picture of the sources of exposure...

  1. Prenatal lead exposure and relationship with maternal exposure determinants in a public maternity hospital of La Plata, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Enrique; Varea, Ana; Apezteguía, María; González, Horacio F; Girardelli, Ana; Caro, Laura Sanchez; Lobisuto, Mario; Delgado, Griselda; Disalvo, Liliana

    2014-03-01

    Prenatal lead exposure is a health hazard that may cause cognitive development impairments and other adverse effects in children. We conducted a cross sectional study analyzing cord blood lead levels (CBLL) of newborns and their relationship with maternal determinants of lead exposure. Mothers answered a questionnaire about socio-demographic, lifestyle habits and environmental characteristics. We used Mann-Whitney's test to compare CBLL geometrical means (GM) corresponding to the presence or absence of each lead exposure determinant, and Chi square test to study the relationship between CBLL and maternal lead exposure determinants. A total of 159 newborns participated in the study. CBLL GM was 2.1 μg/dL; and 25% of the participants had a measurable CBLL (LOQ=3.3 μg/dl). Although the participants had several determinants of lead exposure, we only found a significant relationship with inside household determinants, such as presence of lead piping (p=0.026), unplastered walls (p=0.046) and peeling paint (p=0.048). Our results show that CBLL GM was similar to that reported in several studies conducted around the world. However, 25% of the participants might have some degree of risk for lead poisoning. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Consequences of lead exposure, and it's emerging role as an epigenetic modifier in the aging brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eid, Aseel; Zawia, Nasser

    2016-09-01

    Lead exposure has primarily been a concern during development in young children and little attention has been paid to exposure outcomes as these children age, or even to exposures in adulthood. Childhood exposures have long term consequences, and adults who have been exposed to lead as children show a host of cognitive deficits. Lead has also been shown to induce latent changes in the aging brain, and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, particularly Alzheimer's Disease, and Parkinson's. Recent research has shown that lead has the ability to alter DNA methylation, histone modifications, and miRNA expression in experimental models, and in humans. These findings implicate epigenetics in lead induced toxicity, and long term changes in individuals. Epigenetic modification could potentially provide us a mechanism by which the environment, and toxic exposures contribute to the increased susceptibility of adult neurodegenerative disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Implications of new data on lead toxicity for managing and preventing exposure.

    OpenAIRE

    Silbergeld, E K

    1990-01-01

    Recent advances in research on low-level lead poisoning point to the need to increase efforts to prevent exposure. Current biomedical consensus accepts that blood lead levels as low as 5 to 15 mcg/dL are risky to fetuses, young children, and adults. Lead at low dose is associated with increased blood pressure in adults, and chronic exposure has been associated in cohort studies with kidney disease and cancer. Data on lead toxicokinetics also points to the hazards of low-level, chronic exposur...

  4. Persistent Organic Pollutant Exposure Leads to Insulin Resistance Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruzzin, Jérôme; Petersen, Rasmus; Meugnier, Emmanuelle

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The incidence of the insulin resistance syndrome has increased at an alarming rate worldwide creating a serious challenge to public health care in the 21st century. Recently, epidemiological studies have associated the prevalence of type 2 diabetes with elevated body burdens...... of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). However, experimental evidence demonstrating a causal link between POPs and the development of insulin resistance is lacking. OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether exposure to POPs contributes to insulin resistance and metabolic disorders. METHODS: Wistar rats were exposed...... salmon oil. We measured body weight, whole-body insulin sensitivity, POP accumulation, lipid and glucose homeostasis, gene expression and performed microarray analysis. RESULTS: Adult male rats exposed to crude, but not refined, salmon oil developed insulin resistance, abdominal obesity...

  5. E-Waste Informal Recycling: An Emerging Source of Lead Exposure in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascale, Antonio; Sosa, Adriana; Bares, Cristina; Battocletti, Alejandra; Moll, María José; Pose, Darío; Laborde, Amalia; González, Hugo; Feola, Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    Primitive electronic waste (e-waste) recycling creates exposures to several hazardous substances including lead. In Uruguay, primitive recycling procedures are a significant source of lead exposure. The aim of this study was to examine lead exposure in blood lead levels (BLLs) in low-income children exposed to lead through burning cables. A sample of children and adolescents exposed to lead through burning cable activities were assessed at the Department of Toxicology in Montevideo, Uruguay, between 2010 and 2014. Soil lead levels of residences were taken shortly after their assessment. The final sample included 69 children and adolescents (mean age 7.89 years). More than 66% of participants had an additional source of lead exposure-manual gathering of metals-and based paint (r = 0.23; P source of lead exposure was the manual gathering of metals. The average BLL among children and adolescents in this study is higher than the BLLs currently suggested in medical intervention. Future research should focus on exploring effective interventions to reduce lead exposure among this vulnerable group. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Multi-Omics Reveals that Lead Exposure Disturbs Gut Microbiome Development, Key Metabolites, and Metabolic Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Bei; Chi, Liang; Mahbub, Ridwan; Bian, Xiaoming; Tu, Pengcheng; Ru, Hongyu; Lu, Kun

    2017-04-17

    Lead exposure remains a global public health issue, and the recent Flint water crisis has renewed public concern about lead toxicity. The toxicity of lead has been well established in a variety of systems and organs. The gut microbiome has been shown to be highly involved in many critical physiological processes, including food digestion, immune system development, and metabolic homeostasis. However, despite the key role of the gut microbiome in human health, the functional impact of lead exposure on the gut microbiome has not been studied. The aim of this study is to define gut microbiome toxicity induced by lead exposure in C57BL/6 mice using multiomics approaches, including 16S rRNA sequencing, whole genome metagenomics sequencing, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) metabolomics. 16S rRNA sequencing revealed that lead exposure altered the gut microbiome trajectory and phylogenetic diversity. Metagenomics sequencing and metabolomics profiling showed that numerous metabolic pathways, including vitamin E, bile acids, nitrogen metabolism, energy metabolism, oxidative stress, and the defense/detoxification mechanism, were significantly disturbed by lead exposure. These perturbed molecules and pathways may have important implications for lead toxicity in the host. Taken together, these results demonstrated that lead exposure not only altered the gut microbiome community structures/diversity but also greatly affected metabolic functions, leading to gut microbiome toxicity.

  7. Lead-Related Genetic Loci, Cumulative Lead Exposure and Incident Coronary Heart Disease: The Normative Aging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ning; Wang, Xin; Weisskopf, Marc G; Sparrow, David; Schwartz, Joel; Hu, Howard; Park, Sung Kyun

    2016-01-01

    Cumulative exposure to lead is associated with cardiovascular outcomes. Polymorphisms in the δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), hemochromatosis (HFE), heme oxygenase-1 (HMOX1), vitamin D receptor (VDR), glutathione S-transferase (GST) supergene family (GSTP1, GSTT1, GSTM1), apolipoprotein E (APOE),angiotensin II receptor-1 (AGTR1) and angiotensinogen (AGT) genes, are believed to alter toxicokinetics and/or toxicodynamics of lead. We assessed possible effect modification by genetic polymorphisms in ALAD, HFE, HMOX1, VDR, GSTP1, GSTT1, GSTM1, APOE, AGTR1 and AGT individually and as the genetic risk score (GRS) on the association between cumulative lead exposure and incident coronary heart disease (CHD) events. We used K-shell-X-ray fluorescence to measure bone lead levels. GRS was calculated on the basis of 22 lead-related loci. We constructed Cox proportional hazard models to compute adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for incident CHD. We applied inverse probability weighting to account for potential selection bias due to recruitment into the bone lead sub-study. Significant effect modification was found by VDR, HMOX1, GSTP1, APOE, and AGT genetic polymorphisms when evaluated individually. Further, the bone lead-CHD associations became larger as GRS increases. After adjusting for potential confounders, a HR of CHD was 2.27 (95%CI: 1.50-3.42) with 2-fold increase in patella lead levels, among participants in the top tertile of GRS. We also detected an increasing trend in HRs across tertiles of GRS (p-trend = 0.0063). Our findings suggest that lead-related loci as a whole may play an important role in susceptibility to lead-related CHD risk. These findings need to be validated in a separate cohort containing bone lead, lead-related genetic loci and incident CHD data.

  8. Lead-Related Genetic Loci, Cumulative Lead Exposure and Incident Coronary Heart Disease: The Normative Aging Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Ding

    Full Text Available Cumulative exposure to lead is associated with cardiovascular outcomes. Polymorphisms in the δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD, hemochromatosis (HFE, heme oxygenase-1 (HMOX1, vitamin D receptor (VDR, glutathione S-transferase (GST supergene family (GSTP1, GSTT1, GSTM1, apolipoprotein E (APOE,angiotensin II receptor-1 (AGTR1 and angiotensinogen (AGT genes, are believed to alter toxicokinetics and/or toxicodynamics of lead.We assessed possible effect modification by genetic polymorphisms in ALAD, HFE, HMOX1, VDR, GSTP1, GSTT1, GSTM1, APOE, AGTR1 and AGT individually and as the genetic risk score (GRS on the association between cumulative lead exposure and incident coronary heart disease (CHD events.We used K-shell-X-ray fluorescence to measure bone lead levels. GRS was calculated on the basis of 22 lead-related loci. We constructed Cox proportional hazard models to compute adjusted hazard ratios (HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs for incident CHD. We applied inverse probability weighting to account for potential selection bias due to recruitment into the bone lead sub-study.Significant effect modification was found by VDR, HMOX1, GSTP1, APOE, and AGT genetic polymorphisms when evaluated individually. Further, the bone lead-CHD associations became larger as GRS increases. After adjusting for potential confounders, a HR of CHD was 2.27 (95%CI: 1.50-3.42 with 2-fold increase in patella lead levels, among participants in the top tertile of GRS. We also detected an increasing trend in HRs across tertiles of GRS (p-trend = 0.0063.Our findings suggest that lead-related loci as a whole may play an important role in susceptibility to lead-related CHD risk. These findings need to be validated in a separate cohort containing bone lead, lead-related genetic loci and incident CHD data.

  9. Lead-Related Genetic Loci, Cumulative Lead Exposure and Incident Coronary Heart Disease: The Normative Aging Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisskopf, Marc G.; Sparrow, David; Schwartz, Joel; Hu, Howard; Park, Sung Kyun

    2016-01-01

    Background Cumulative exposure to lead is associated with cardiovascular outcomes. Polymorphisms in the δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), hemochromatosis (HFE), heme oxygenase-1 (HMOX1), vitamin D receptor (VDR), glutathione S-transferase (GST) supergene family (GSTP1, GSTT1, GSTM1), apolipoprotein E (APOE),angiotensin II receptor-1 (AGTR1) and angiotensinogen (AGT) genes, are believed to alter toxicokinetics and/or toxicodynamics of lead. Objectives We assessed possible effect modification by genetic polymorphisms in ALAD, HFE, HMOX1, VDR, GSTP1, GSTT1, GSTM1, APOE, AGTR1 and AGT individually and as the genetic risk score (GRS) on the association between cumulative lead exposure and incident coronary heart disease (CHD) events. Methods We used K-shell-X-ray fluorescence to measure bone lead levels. GRS was calculated on the basis of 22 lead-related loci. We constructed Cox proportional hazard models to compute adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for incident CHD. We applied inverse probability weighting to account for potential selection bias due to recruitment into the bone lead sub-study. Results Significant effect modification was found by VDR, HMOX1, GSTP1, APOE, and AGT genetic polymorphisms when evaluated individually. Further, the bone lead-CHD associations became larger as GRS increases. After adjusting for potential confounders, a HR of CHD was 2.27 (95%CI: 1.50–3.42) with 2-fold increase in patella lead levels, among participants in the top tertile of GRS. We also detected an increasing trend in HRs across tertiles of GRS (p-trend = 0.0063). Conclusions Our findings suggest that lead-related loci as a whole may play an important role in susceptibility to lead-related CHD risk. These findings need to be validated in a separate cohort containing bone lead, lead-related genetic loci and incident CHD data. PMID:27584680

  10. The combined effects of developmental lead and ethanol exposure on hippocampus dependent spatial learning and memory in rats: Role of oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleimani, Elham; Goudarzi, Iran; Abrari, Kataneh; Lashkarbolouki, Taghi

    2016-10-01

    Either developmental lead or ethanol exposure can impair learning and memory via induction of oxidative stress, which results in neuronal damage. we examined the effect of combined exposure with lead and ethanol on spatial learning and memory in offspring and oxidative stress in hippocampus. Rats were exposed to lead (0.2% in drinking water) or ethanol (4 g/kg) either individually or in combination in 5th day gestation through weaning. On postnatal days (PD) 30, rats were trained with six trials per day for 6 consecutive days in the water maze. On day 37, a probe test was done. Also, oxidative stress markers in the hippocampus were also evaluated. Results demonstrated that lead + ethanol co-exposed rats exhibited higher escape latency during training trials and reduced time spent in target quadrant, higher escape location latency and average proximity in probe trial test. There was significant decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities and increase of malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in hippocampus of animals co-exposed to lead and ethanol compared with their individual exposures. We suggest that maternal consumption of ethanol during lead exposure has pronounced detrimental effects on memory, which may be mediated by oxidative stress. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Associations of gestational and early life exposures to ambient air pollution with childhood respiratory diseases in Shanghai, China: A retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Huang, Chen; Hu, Yu; Fu, Qingyan; Zou, Zhijun; Sun, Chanjuan; Shen, Li; Wang, Xueying; Cai, Jiao; Pan, Jun; Huang, Yanmin; Chang, Jing; Sun, Yuexia; Sundell, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Associations of ambient air pollutants with respiratory health are inconsistent. We analyzed the associations of gestational and early life exposures to air pollutants with doctor-diagnosed asthma, allergic rhinitis, and pneumonia in children. We selected 3358 preschool children who did not alter residences after birth from a cross-sectional study in 2011-2012 in Shanghai, China. Parents reported children's respiratory health history, home environment, and family lifestyle behaviors. We collected daily concentrations of sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤10μm (PM10) during the child's total lifetime (2006-2012) for each district where the children lived. We analyzed the associations using logistic regression models. After adjusting for covariates and the other studied pollutants, we found that exposure to NO2 (increment of 20μg/m(3)) during the first year of life was significantly associated with asthma [odds ratio (OR)=1.77; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.29-2.43] and allergic rhinitis (OR=1.67; 95% CI: 1.07-2.61). Exposure to NO2 during gestation, the first two and three years, and over total lifetimewas all consistently associated with increased odds of allergic rhinitis. Quartiles of NO2 concentration during different exposure periods showed a slight dose-response relationship with the studied diseases. These diseases had significant associations with pollutant mixtures that included NO2, but had no significant association with exposures to SO2 and PM10 individually or in mixtures. Gestational and early life exposures to ambient NO2 are risk factors for childhood respiratory diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Sex-specific effects of low-dose gestational estradiol-17β exposure on bone development in porcine offspring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flöter, Veronika L.; Galateanu, Gabriela; Fürst, Rainer W.; Seidlová-Wuttke, Dana; Wuttke, Wolfgang; Möstl, Erich; Hildebrandt, Thomas B.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Sex-specific effects and non-monotonic dose responses were demonstrated after low-dose in utero E2 treatment in offspring. • Alterations in bone parameters were found in prepubertal male but not female offspring. • In postpubertal female offspring, cortical and total cross-sectional area were higher at the femoral midpoint. • In utero E2 treatment did neither significantly affect hormone concentrations nor puberty onset in offspring. • The results substantiate the high sensitivity of developing organisms to exogenous estrogens. - Abstract: Estrogens are important for the bone development and health. Exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals during the early development has been shown to affect the bone phenotype later in life. Several studies have been performed in rodents, while in larger animals that are important to bridge the gap to humans there is a paucity of data. To this end, the pig as large animal model was used in the present study to assess the influence of gestational estradiol-17β (E2) exposure on the bone development of the prepubertal and adult offspring. Two low doses (0.05 and 10 μg E2/kg body weight) referring to the ‘acceptable daily intake’ (ADI) and the ‘no observed effect level’ (NOEL) as stated for humans, and a high-dose (1000 μg E2/kg body weight), respectively, were fed to the sows every day from insemination until delivery. In the male prepubertal offspring, the ADI dose group had a lower strength strain index (p = 0.002) at the proximal tibia compared to controls, which was determined by peripheral quantitative computed tomography. Prepubertal females were not significantly affected. However, there was a higher cortical cross-sectional area (CSA) (p = 0.03) and total CSA (p = 0.02) at the femur midpoint in the adult female offspring of the NOEL dose group as measured by computed tomography. These effects were independent from plasma hormone concentrations (leptin, IGF1, estrogens), which remained

  13. Inulin Supplementation Lowered the Metabolic Defects of Prolonged Exposure to Chlorpyrifos from Gestation to Young Adult Stage in Offspring Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Reygner, Julie; Lichtenberger, Lydia; Elmhiri, Ghada; Dou, Samir; Bahi-Jaber, Narges; Rhazi, Larbi; Depeint, Flore; Bach, Veronique; Khorsi-Cauet, Hafida; Abdennebi-Najar, Latifa

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that chlorpyrifos (CPF), an organophosphorus insecticide, is involved in metabolic disorders. We assess the hypothesis whether supplementation with prebiotics from gestation to adulthood, through a modulation of microbiota composition and fermentative activity, alleviates CPF induced metabolic disorders of 60 days old offspring. 5 groups of Wistar rats, from gestation until weaning, received two doses of CPF pesticide: 1 mg/kg/day (CPF1) or 3.5 mg/kg/day (CPF3.5)...

  14. Lead exposure in adult males in urban Transvaal Province, South Africa during the apartheid era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Catherine A; Cooper, Matthew J; Smith, Martin J; Trueman, Clive N; Schutkowski, Holger

    2013-01-01

    Human exposure to lead is a substantial public health hazard worldwide and is particularly problematic in the Republic of South Africa given the country's late cessation of leaded petrol. Lead exposure is associated with a number of serious health issues and diseases including developmental and cognitive deficiency, hypertension and heart disease. Understanding the distribution of lifetime lead burden within a given population is critical for reducing exposure rates. Femoral bone from 101 deceased adult males living in urban Transvaal Province (now Gauteng Province), South Africa between 1960 and 1998 were analyzed for lead concentration by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Of the 72 black and 29 white individuals sampled, chronic lead exposure was apparent in nearly all individuals. White males showed significantly higher median bone lead concentration (ME = 10.04 µg·g(-1)), than black males (ME = 3.80 µg·g(-1)) despite higher socioeconomic status. Bone lead concentration covaries significantly, though weakly, with individual age. There was no significant temporal trend in bone lead concentration. These results indicate that long-term low to moderate lead exposure is the historical norm among South African males. Unexpectedly, this research indicates that white males in the sample population were more highly exposed to lead.

  15. Urban gardens: Lead exposure, recontamination mechanisms, and implications for remediation design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, Heather F.; Hausladen, Debra M.; Brabander, Daniel J.

    2008-01-01

    Environmental lead contamination is prevalent in urban areas where soil represents a significant sink and pathway of exposure. This study characterizes the speciation of lead that is relevant to local recontamination and to human exposure in the backyard gardens of Roxbury and Dorchester, MA, USA. One hundred forty-one backyard gardens were tested by X-ray fluorescence, and 81% of gardens have lead levels above the US EPA action limit of 400 μg/g. Raised gardening beds are the in situ exposure reduction method used in the communities to promote urban gardening. Raised beds were tested for lead and the results showed that the lead concentration increased from an initial range of 150±40 μg/g to an average of 336 μg/g over 4 years. The percent distribution of lead in the fine grain soil (<100 μm) and the trace metal signature of the raised beds support the conclusion that the mechanism of recontamination is wind-transported particles. Scanning electron microscopy and sequential extraction were used to characterize the speciation of lead, and the trace metal signature of the fine grain soil in both gardens and raised gardening beds is characteristic of lead-based paint. This study demonstrates that raised beds are a limited exposure reduction method and require maintenance to achieve exposure reduction goals. An exposure model was developed based on a suite of parameters that combine relevant values from the literature with site-specific quantification of exposure pathways. This model suggests that consumption of homegrown produce accounts for only 3% of children's daily exposure of lead while ingestion of fine grained soil (<100 μm) accounts for 82% of the daily exposure. This study indicates that urban lead remediation on a yard-by-yard scale requires constant maintenance and that remediation may need to occur on a neighborhood-wide scale

  16. Mapping the spatio-temporal risk of lead exposure in apex species for more effective mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateo-Tomás, Patricia; Olea, Pedro P.; Jiménez-Moreno, María; Camarero, Pablo R.; Sánchez-Barbudo, Inés S.; Rodríguez Martín-Doimeadios, Rosa C.; Mateo, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Effective mitigation of the risks posed by environmental contaminants for ecosystem integrity and human health requires knowing their sources and spatio-temporal distribution. We analysed the exposure to lead (Pb) in griffon vulture Gyps fulvus—an apex species valuable as biomonitoring sentinel. We determined vultures' lead exposure and its main sources by combining isotope signatures and modelling analyses of 691 bird blood samples collected over 5 years. We made yearlong spatially explicit predictions of the species risk of lead exposure. Our results highlight elevated lead exposure of griffon vultures (i.e. 44.9% of the studied population, approximately 15% of the European, showed lead blood levels more than 200 ng ml−1) partly owing to environmental lead (e.g. geological sources). These exposures to environmental lead of geological sources increased in those vultures exposed to point sources (e.g. lead-based ammunition). These spatial models and pollutant risk maps are powerful tools that identify areas of wildlife exposure to potentially harmful sources of lead that could affect ecosystem and human health. PMID:27466455

  17. Impact of developmental lead exposure on splenic factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasten-Jolly, Jane; Heo, Yong; Lawrence, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Lead (Pb) is known to alter the functions of numerous organ systems, including the hematopoietic and immune systems. Pb can induce anemia and can lower host resistance to bacterial and viral infections. The anemia is due to Pb's inhibition of hemoglobin synthesis and Pb's induction of membrane changes, leading to early erythrocyte senescence. Pb also increases B-cell activation/proliferation and skews T-cell help (Th) toward Th2 subset generation. The specific mechanisms for many of the Pb effects are, as yet, not completely understood. Therefore, we performed gene expression analysis, via microarray, on RNA from the spleens of developmentally Pb-exposed mice, in order to gain further insight into these Pb effects. Splenic RNA microarray analysis indicated strong up-regulation of genes coding for proteolytic enzymes, lipases, amylase, and RNaseA. The data also showed that Pb affected the expression of many genes associated with innate immunity. Analysis of the microarray results via GeneSifter software indicated that Pb increased apoptosis, B-cell differentiation, and Th2 development. Direct up-regulation by Pb of expression of the gene encoding the heme-regulated inhibitor (HRI) suggested that Pb can decrease erythropoiesis by blocking globin mRNA translation. Pb's high elevation of digestive/catabolizing enzymes could generate immunogenic self peptides. With Pb's potential to induce new self-peptides and to enhance the expression of caspases, cytokines, and other immunomodulators, further evaluation of Pb's involvement in autoimmune phenomena, especially Th2-mediated autoantibody production, and alteration of organ system activities is warranted.

  18. Full-gestational exposure to nicotine and ethanol augments nicotine self-administration by altering ventral tegmental dopaminergic function due to NMDA receptors in adolescent rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roguski, Emily E; Sharp, Burt M; Chen, Hao; Matta, Shannon G

    2014-03-01

    In adult rats, we have shown full-gestational exposure to nicotine and ethanol (Nic + EtOH) augmented nicotine self-administration (SA) (increased nicotine intake) compared to pair-fed (PF) offspring. Therefore, we hypothesized that full-gestational exposure to Nic + EtOH disrupts control of dopaminergic (DA) circuitry by ventral tegmental area (VTA) NMDA receptors, augmenting nicotine SA and DA release in nucleus accumbens (NAcc) of adolescents. Both NAcc DA and VTA glutamate release were hyper-responsive to intra-VTA NMDA in Nic + EtOH offspring versus PF (p = 0.03 and 0.02, respectively). Similarly, DA release was more responsive to i.v. nicotine in Nic + EtOH offspring (p = 0.02). Local DL-2-Amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid sodium salt (AP5) (NMDA receptor antagonist) infusion into the VTA inhibited nicotine-stimulated DA release in Nic + EtOH and PF offspring. Nicotine SA was augmented in adolescent Nic + EtOH versus PF offspring (p = 0.000001). Daily VTA microinjections of AP5 reduced nicotine SA by Nic + EtOH offspring, without affecting PF (p = 0.000032). Indeed, nicotine SA in Nic + EtOH offspring receiving AP5 was not different from PF offspring. Both VTA mRNA transcripts and NMDA receptor subunit proteins were not altered in Nic + EtOH offspring. In summary, adolescent offspring exposed to gestational Nic + EtOH show markedly increased vulnerability to become dependent on nicotine. This reflects the enhanced function of a subpopulation of VTA NMDA receptors that confer greater nicotine-induced DA release in NAcc. We hypothesized that concurrent gestational exposure to nicotine and ethanol would disrupt the control of VTA dopaminergic circuitry by NMDA receptors. Resulting in the augmented nicotine self-administration (SA) in adolescent offspring. © 2013 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  19. Lead exposure among automobile radiator repair workers and their children in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez, C M; Klitzman, S; Goodman, A

    1993-05-01

    Despite a comprehensive Occupational Safety and Health Administration lead standard, exposure to lead continues in many industries. This paper describes a blood lead screening and education program for automobile radiator repair workers and their families in New York City. Results showed that 67% of automobile radiator repair workers (n = 62) in 89% of the shops tested (n = 24) had blood lead levels in excess of 25 micrograms/dl. The vast majority of workers had never been tested previously, and none had received health and safety training regarding occupational lead exposure. Although none of the workers' children's blood lead levels were in excess of then-current guidelines, several had levels which may be associated with subclinical toxicity and in excess of the revised Centers for Disease Control guidelines of 10 micrograms/dl. This project demonstrates that lead exposure in the automotive radiator repair industry continues to be widespread and that local health departments can assist in hazard identification and remediation.

  20. E-Waste Informal Recycling: An Emerging Source of Lead Exposure in South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascale, Antonio; Sosa, Adriana; Bares, Cristina; Battocletti, Alejandra; Moll, María José; Pose, Darío; Laborde, Amalia; González, Hugo; Feola, Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Primitive electronic waste (e-waste) recycling creates exposures to several hazardous substances including lead. In Uruguay, primitive recycling procedures are a significant source of lead exposure. OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was to examine lead exposure in blood lead levels (BLLs) in low-income children exposed to lead through burning cables. METHODS A sample of children and adolescents exposed to lead through burning cable activities were assessed at the Department of Toxicology in Montevideo, Uruguay, between 2010 and 2014. Soil lead levels of residences were taken shortly after their assessment. FINDINGS The final sample included 69 children and adolescents (mean age 7.89 years). More than 66% of participants had an additional source of lead exposure—manual gathering of metals—and e-waste recycling, the most common additional source of lead exposure was the manual gathering of metals. The average BLL among children and adolescents in this study is higher than the BLLs currently suggested in medical intervention. Future research should focus on exploring effective interventions to reduce lead exposure among this vulnerable group. PMID:27325077

  1. Prenatal exposure to ethanol during late gestation facilitates operant self-administration of the drug in 5-day-old rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda-Morales, Roberto Sebastián; Nizhnikov, Michael E; Spear, Norman E

    2014-02-01

    Prenatal ethanol exposure modifies postnatal affinity to the drug, increasing the probability of ethanol use and abuse. The present study tested developing rats (5-day-old) in a novel operant technique to assess the degree of ethanol self-administration as a result of prenatal exposure to low ethanol doses during late gestation. On a single occasion during each of gestational days 17-20, pregnant rats were intragastrically administered ethanol 1 g/kg, or water (vehicle). On postnatal day 5, pups were tested on a novel operant conditioning procedure in which they learned to touch a sensor to obtain 0.1% saccharin, 3% ethanol, or 5% ethanol. Immediately after a 15-min training session, a 6-min extinction session was given in which operant behavior had no consequence. Pups were positioned on a smooth surface and had access to a touch-sensitive sensor. Physical contact with the sensor activated an infusion pump, which served to deliver an intraoral solution as reinforcement (Paired group). A Yoked control animal evaluated at the same time received the reinforcer when its corresponding Paired pup touched the sensor. Operant behavior to gain access to 3% ethanol was facilitated by prenatal exposure to ethanol during late gestation. In contrast, operant learning reflecting ethanol reinforcement did not occur in control animals prenatally exposed to water only. Similarly, saccharin reinforcement was not affected by prenatal ethanol exposure. These results suggest that in 5-day-old rats, prenatal exposure to a low ethanol dose facilitates operant learning reinforced by intraoral administration of a low-concentration ethanol solution. This emphasizes the importance of intrauterine experiences with ethanol in later susceptibility to drug reinforcement. The present operant conditioning technique represents an alternative tool to assess self-administration and seeking behavior during early stages of development. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Sublethal Lead Exposure Alters Movement Behavior in Free-Ranging Golden Eagles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecke, Frauke; Singh, Navinder J; Arnemo, Jon M; Bignert, Anders; Helander, Björn; Berglund, Åsa M M; Borg, Hans; Bröjer, Caroline; Holm, Karin; Lanzone, Michael; Miller, Tricia; Nordström, Åke; Räikkönen, Jannikke; Rodushkin, Ilia; Ågren, Erik; Hörnfeldt, Birger

    2017-05-16

    Lead poisoning of animals due to ingestion of fragments from lead-based ammunition in carcasses and offal of shot wildlife is acknowledged globally and raises great concerns about potential behavioral effects leading to increased mortality risks. Lead levels in blood were correlated with progress of the moose hunting season. Based on analyses of tracking data, we found that even sublethal lead concentrations in blood (25 ppb, wet weight), can likely negatively affect movement behavior (flight height and movement rate) of free-ranging scavenging Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos). Lead levels in liver of recovered post-mortem analyzed eagles suggested that sublethal exposure increases the risk of mortality in eagles. Such adverse effects on animals are probably common worldwide and across species, where game hunting with lead-based ammunition is widespread. Our study highlights lead exposure as a considerably more serious threat to wildlife conservation than previously realized and suggests implementation of bans of lead ammunition for hunting.

  3. Prenatal Lead Exposure Modifies the Impact of Maternal Self-Esteem on Children's Inattention Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian; Hu, Howard; Wright, Rosalind; Sánchez, Brisa N; Schnaas, Lourdes; Bellinger, David C; Park, Sung Kyun; Martínez, Sandra; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio; Téllez-Rojo, Martha Maria; Wright, Robert O

    2015-08-01

    To prospectively evaluate the association of maternal self-esteem measured when their offspring were toddlers with the subsequent development of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-like behavior in their school-age offspring and the potential modifying effects of prenatal lead exposure. We evaluated a subsample of 192 mother-child pairs from a long-running birth-cohort project that enrolled mothers in Mexico from 1994-2011. Prenatal lead exposure was assessed using cord blood lead and maternal bone lead around delivery (tibia and patella lead, measured by K-x-ray-fluorescence). When children were 2 years old, maternal self-esteem was measured using the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory. When children were 7-15 years old, children's blood lead levels and ADHD symptoms were assessed, and Conners' Parent Rating Scale-Revised and Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Parent Form were used as measures of ADHD-like behavior. Adjusting for family economic status, marital status, maternal education and age, child's age and sex, and children's current blood lead levels, increased maternal self-esteem was associated with reduced child inattention behavior. Compared with those among high prenatal lead exposure (P25-P100), this association was stronger among low prenatal lead exposure groups (P1-P25, P values for the interaction effects between prenatal lead exposure and maternal self-esteem levels of self-esteem scores was associated with 0.6- to 1.3-point decrease in Conners' Parent Rating Scale-Revised and Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Parent Form T-scores among groups with low cord blood lead and patella lead (P1-P25). Children experiencing high maternal self-esteem during toddlerhood were less likely to develop inattention behavior at school age. Prenatal lead exposure may play a role in attenuating this protective effect. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Chronic occupational exposure to lead and its impact on oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Said, Khaled F; El-Ghamry, Amina M; Mahdy, Nehad H; El-Bestawy, Nagwa A

    2008-01-01

    Chronic Lead exposure favours the formation of cheilitis, fissures, ulcers and epithelial desquamation of the tongue, palate and other parts of the oral mucous membranes. The tissues of oral cavity may be affected by toxic agents either by direct action as in exposure to sulfuric acid fumes or through systemic exposure as in poisoning with heavy metals e.g. lead.. The Present study aimed to investigate the oral health condition of industrial workers exposed to lead in Alexandria governorate. The samples included all workers chronically exposed to lead fumes or dust in a storage battery plant (400 workers) and working in seven departments where lead exposure was present. These departments were evaluated environmentally for lead in air and their workers for lead in blood. Oral medical examinations were carried out according to the items of WHO sheet designed for oral health survey with some modifications. Results of the present study revealed that chronic exposure to lead significantly affects oral health condition among exposed workers and strongly correlates with increasing level of blood lead among them. It can be concluded that the most common adverse effects of lead on dental health of exposed workers were the significant increase in the prevalence of periodontal diseases (gingivitis and periodontitis expressed as PI) and in the prevalence of decay (caries), missed and filled teeth (expressed as DMFT index) and dental abrasions. Moreover,these findings were found to be related to lead concentration in air in the studied departments and to blood lead level. On the other hand, exposure to lead was found to have insignificant effect on calculus formation (expressed as CI-S) or oral debris (expressed as (DI-S)or both together expressed as (OHI-S).

  5. Effect of occupational lead-exposure on blood pressure, serum aldosterone level and plasma renin activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shouman, A E; El-Safty, I A

    2000-01-01

    Numerous observations have indicated a relationship between lead exposure and elevated blood pressure. The present study aims to investigate the association between occupational lead-exposure and elevated blood pressure as well as serum aldosterone level and plasma renin activity as parameters affecting blood pressure. Fifty occupationally lead-exposed (16 males and 34 females) and 50 non-exposed (15 males and 34 females) workers were selected after application of certain exclusion criteria. All workers were admitted to complete clinical examination, including standard blood pressure measurement. Also, blood lead level, serum aldosterone concentration and plasma renin activity were estimated. The results of both occupationally lead-exposed males and females demonstrated no significant differences regarding age, work duration, systolic and diastolic blood pressures when compared to occupationally non-exposed males and females; respectively. In addition, occupationally lead-exposed males and females revealed a significant increase in blood lead level and serum aldosterone concentration in comparison to their controls. Moreover, plasma renin activity is significantly decreased among the lead-exposed male workers while it is significantly increased among the lead-exposed female workers in comparison to their controls. It is concluded that serum aldosterone level and plasma renin activity are affected by occupationally low-level of lead exposure, and the present study provide further support for the association between blood lead exposure and blood pressure related hormones.

  6. Unintentional and Sequential Lead Exposure from a Ceramic Mug and Maca (Lepidium meyenii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Arbor, Kelly; Vo, Kathy; Wong, Flavia; Gajek, Ryszard

    2018-01-08

    Although the incidence of lead poisoning has decreased in the USA over the last 30 years, human exposures to lead-containing products are still reported. We present a case of unintentional lead exposure from a store-bought ceramic mug and a nutritional supplement. A 32-year-old female was found to have a whole blood lead concentration of 44 μg/dL. Evaluation of her home, occupation, and hobbies initially did not identify a source of lead exposure. Further investigation revealed that the likely etiology of the exposure was lead leaching from a ceramic mug used by the patient to drink hot lemon water while she was pregnant. She stopped drinking from the mug and her blood lead levels decreased, but increased a year later after she began to ingest a maca root powder supplement. Upon discontinuation of maca root powder ingestion, her blood lead levels decreased further. Over time, the acidity and heat of the hot lemon water used in the ceramic mug enhanced the breakdown of its leaded glaze. Maca powder, which is available as a nutritional supplement and is used to treat fatigue and enhance fertility, may contain lead and other minerals. Consumers, particularly women of childbearing age, and their physicians should be aware that imported products available from commercial retailers and internet vendors may contain significant amounts of lead.

  7. Impact of robotics and a suspended lead suit on physician radiation exposure during percutaneous coronary intervention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madder, Ryan D., E-mail: ryan.madder@spectrumhealth.org; VanOosterhout, Stacie; Mulder, Abbey; Elmore, Matthew; Campbell, Jessica; Borgman, Andrew; Parker, Jessica; Wohns, David

    2017-04-15

    Background: Reports of left-sided brain malignancies among interventional cardiologists have heightened concerns regarding physician radiation exposure. This study evaluated the impact of a suspended lead suit and robotic system on physician radiation exposure during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Methods: Real-time radiation exposure data were prospectively collected from dosimeters worn by operating physicians at the head- and chest-level during consecutive PCI cases. Exposures were compared in three study groups: 1) manual PCI performed with traditional lead apparel; 2) manual PCI performed using suspended lead; and 3) robotic PCI performed in combination with suspended lead. Results: Among 336 cases (86.6% manual, 13.4% robotic) performed over 30 weeks, use of suspended lead during manual PCI was associated with significantly less radiation exposure to the chest and head of operating physicians than traditional lead apparel (chest: 0.0 [0.1] μSv vs 0.4 [4.0] μSv, p < 0.001; head: 0.5 [1.9] μSv vs 14.9 [51.5] μSv, p < 0.001). Chest-level radiation exposure during robotic PCI performed in combination with suspended lead was 0.0 [0.0] μSv, which was significantly less chest exposure than manual PCI performed with traditional lead (p < 0.001) or suspended lead (p = 0.046). In robotic PCI the median head-level exposure was 0.1 [0.2] μSv, which was 99.3% less than manual PCI performed with traditional lead (p < 0.001) and 80.0% less than manual PCI performed with suspended lead (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Utilization of suspended lead and robotics were observed to result in significantly less radiation exposure to the chest and head of operating physicians during PCI. - Highlights: • Use of suspended lead during manual PCI reduced cranial radiation among operators by 97%. • Robotic PCI reduced cranial radiation among operators by 99%. • Suspended lead and robotics together achieved the lowest levels of radiation exposure.

  8. Cadmium but not lead exposure affects Xenopus laevis fertilization and embryo cleavage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slaby, Sylvain [Univ. Lille Nord de France, EA 4515 – LGCgE – Laboratoire Génie Civil et géo-Environnement, Université de Lille 1, Cité scientifique, SN3, F-59655 Villeneuve d’Ascq (France); Univ. Lille, CNRS, INRA, UMR 8576 – UGSF – Unité de Glycobiologie Structurale et Fonctionnelle, F-59000 Lille (France); Lemière, Sébastien [Univ. Lille Nord de France, EA 4515 – LGCgE – Laboratoire Génie Civil et géo-Environnement, Université de Lille 1, Cité scientifique, SN3, F-59655 Villeneuve d’Ascq (France); Hanotel, Julie; Lescuyer, Arlette [Univ. Lille, CNRS, INRA, UMR 8576 – UGSF – Unité de Glycobiologie Structurale et Fonctionnelle, F-59000 Lille (France); Demuynck, Sylvain [Univ. Lille Nord de France, EA 4515 – LGCgE – Laboratoire Génie Civil et géo-Environnement, Université de Lille 1, Cité scientifique, SN3, F-59655 Villeneuve d’Ascq (France); Bodart, Jean-François [Univ. Lille, CNRS, INRA, UMR 8576 – UGSF – Unité de Glycobiologie Structurale et Fonctionnelle, F-59000 Lille (France); and others

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • First embryonic steps were studied. • Fertilization success was impacted by cadmium exposures. • Oocytes were most affected instead of spermatozoa by cadmium exposures. • First embryonic cleavages were slown down or stopped by cadmium exposures. • Lead exposures did not affected fertilization and segmentation. - Abstract: Among the toxicological and ecotoxicological studies, few have investigated the effects on germ cells, gametes or embryos, while an impact at these stages will result in serious damage at a population level. Thus, it appeared essential to characterize consequences of environmental contaminant exposures at these stages. Therefore, we proposed to assess the effects of exposure to cadmium and lead ions, alone or in a binary mixture, on early stages of Xenopus laevis life cycle. Fertilization and cell division during segmentation were the studied endpoints. Cadmium ion exposures decreased in the fertilization rates in a concentration-dependent manner, targeting mainly the oocytes. Exposure to this metal ions induced also delays or blockages in the embryonic development. For lead ion exposure, no such effect was observed. For the exposure to the mixture of the two metal ions, concerning the fertilization success, we observed results similar to those obtained with the highest cadmium ion concentration.

  9. Evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment of lead poisoning in a patient with occupational lead exposure: a case presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatesh Thuppil

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Amongst toxic heavy metals, lead ranks as one of the most serious environmental poisons all over the world. Exposure to lead in the home and the workplace results in health hazards to many adults and children causing economic damage, which is due to the lack of awareness of the ill effects of lead. We report the case of a 22 year old man working in an unorganized lead acid battery manufacturing unit, complaining about a longer history of general body ache, lethargy, fatigue, shoulder joint pain, shaking of hands and wrist drop. Patient had blue line at gingivodental junction. Central nervous system (CNS examination showed having grade 0 power of extensors of right wrist & fingers. Reflexes: Supinator- absent, Triceps- weak and other deep tendon reflexes- normal. Investigations carried out during the admission showed hemoglobin levels of 8.3 g/dl and blood lead level of 128.3 μg/dl. The patient was subjected to chelation therapy, which was accompanied by aggressive environmental intervention and was advised not to return to the same environmental exposure situation. After repeated course of chelation therapy he has shown the signs of improvement and is on follow up presently.

  10. Early Childhood Lead Exposure and Academic Achievement: Evidence From Detroit Public Schools, 2008–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Harolyn W.; Tufts, Margaret; Raymond, Randall E.; Salihu, Hamisu; Elliott, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed the long-term effect of early childhood lead exposure on academic achievement in mathematics, science, and reading among elementary and junior high school children. Methods. We linked early childhood blood lead testing surveillance data from the Detroit Department of Health and Wellness Promotion to educational testing data from the Detroit, Michigan, public schools. We used the linked data to investigate the effect of early childhood lead exposure on academic achievement among school-aged children, both marginally and adjusted for grade level, gender, race, language, maternal education, and socioeconomic status. Results. High blood lead levels before age 6 years were strongly associated with poor academic achievement in grades 3, 5, and 8. The odds of scoring less than proficient for those whose blood lead levels were greater than 10 micrograms per deciliter were more than twice the odds for those whose blood lead levels were less than 1 micrograms per deciliter after adjustment for potential confounders. Conclusions. Early childhood lead exposure was negatively associated with academic achievement in elementary and junior high school, after adjusting for key potential confounders. The control of lead poisoning should focus on primary prevention of lead exposure in children and development of special education programs for students with lead poisoning. PMID:23327265

  11. Differential proteomic expression of human placenta and fetal development following e-waste lead and cadmium exposure in utero

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Long; Ge, Jingjing; Huo, Xia; Zhang, Yuling; Lau, Andy T.Y.; Xu, Xijin

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Prenatal exposure to lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) has been associated with a series of physiological problems resulting in fetal growth restriction. We aimed to investigate the effects of Pb and Cd exposure on placental function and the potential mechanisms involved in fetal development. Placental specimens and questionnaires were collected from an e-waste area and a reference area in China. Two-dimensional electrophoresis combined with MALDI-TOF-MS/MS and molecular network relationship were performed to analyze differentially expressed proteins using a compositing sample pool. Compared with the reference group, the exposed group exhibited significantly higher levels of placental Pb and Cd (p < 0.01), shorter body length and higher gestational age (p < 0.01). After bivariate adjustment in a linear regression model, decreases of 205.05 g in weight and 0.44 cm in body length were associated with a 10 ng/g wt increase in placental Cd. Pb showed a negative trend but lacked statistical significance. Proteomic analysis showed 32 differentially-expressed proteins and were predominantly involved in protein translocation, cytoskeletal structure, and energy metabolism. Fumarate hydratase was down-regulated in the exposed placenta tissues and validated by ELISA. Alterations in placental proteome suggest that imbalances in placental mitochondria respiration might be a vital pathway targeting fetal growth restriction induced by exposure to Cd. - Highlights: • The placental Pb and Cd levels were higher in the e-waste polluted area. • Proteome in placenta tissues was performed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. • Cd exposure in the placenta was associated with the reduced fetal development. • 32 proteins covered in translocation, energy metabolism and cytoskeletal structure. • Dysregulated mitochondrial respiration may act in the Cd-reduced fetal development.

  12. Differential proteomic expression of human placenta and fetal development following e-waste lead and cadmium exposure in utero

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Long; Ge, Jingjing; Huo, Xia; Zhang, Yuling [Laboratory of Environmental Medicine and Developmental Toxicology, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041 (China); Lau, Andy T.Y. [Laboratory of Cancer Biology and Epigenetics, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041 (China); Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041 (China); Xu, Xijin, E-mail: xuxj@stu.edu.cn [Laboratory of Environmental Medicine and Developmental Toxicology, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041 (China); Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041 (China)

    2016-04-15

    ABSTRACT: Prenatal exposure to lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) has been associated with a series of physiological problems resulting in fetal growth restriction. We aimed to investigate the effects of Pb and Cd exposure on placental function and the potential mechanisms involved in fetal development. Placental specimens and questionnaires were collected from an e-waste area and a reference area in China. Two-dimensional electrophoresis combined with MALDI-TOF-MS/MS and molecular network relationship were performed to analyze differentially expressed proteins using a compositing sample pool. Compared with the reference group, the exposed group exhibited significantly higher levels of placental Pb and Cd (p < 0.01), shorter body length and higher gestational age (p < 0.01). After bivariate adjustment in a linear regression model, decreases of 205.05 g in weight and 0.44 cm in body length were associated with a 10 ng/g wt increase in placental Cd. Pb showed a negative trend but lacked statistical significance. Proteomic analysis showed 32 differentially-expressed proteins and were predominantly involved in protein translocation, cytoskeletal structure, and energy metabolism. Fumarate hydratase was down-regulated in the exposed placenta tissues and validated by ELISA. Alterations in placental proteome suggest that imbalances in placental mitochondria respiration might be a vital pathway targeting fetal growth restriction induced by exposure to Cd. - Highlights: • The placental Pb and Cd levels were higher in the e-waste polluted area. • Proteome in placenta tissues was performed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. • Cd exposure in the placenta was associated with the reduced fetal development. • 32 proteins covered in translocation, energy metabolism and cytoskeletal structure. • Dysregulated mitochondrial respiration may act in the Cd-reduced fetal development.

  13. Lead Exposure Risk from Trash Ingestion by the Endangered California Condor (Gymnogyps californianus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Myra E; Brandt, Joseph; Sandhaus, Estelle; Grantham, Jesse; Mee, Allan; Schuppert, Patricia Jill; Smith, Donald R

    2015-10-01

    Lead poisoning from ingestion of spent lead ammunition is one of the greatest threats to the recovery of California Condors (Gymnogyps californianus) in the wild. Trash ingestion by condors is well documented, yet the extent that trash presents a lead exposure risk is unknown. We evaluated 1,413 trash items collected from condor nest areas and nestlings in the Transverse Range of Ventura County, California, US, from 2002 to 2008, for their potential as a lead exposure risk to condors. We visually identified 71 items suspected to contain sufficient lead to be of toxicologic concern. These items were leached with weak acid and analyzed for lead. Twenty-seven of the 71 leached items (~2% of the 1,413 items) were "lead containing" based on criteria of a leachate lead concentration >1 μg/mL, with the majority of these items (22; 81% of the 27 lead items) being ammunition related (e.g., spent bullet casings and jacketed bullets). Only three of the 1,413 items collected were lead containing but were clearly not ammunition related; the other two lead-containing items were unidentified. Our results suggest that trash ingestion of nonammunition items does not pose a significant lead exposure risk to the California Condor population in California.

  14. Lack of observed movement response to lead exposure of California condors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poessel, Sharon; Brandt, Joseph; Uyeda, Linda; Astell, Molly; Katzner, Todd E.

    2018-01-01

    Lead poisoning is an important conservation concern for wildlife, and scavenging birds are especially at risk from consumption of carcasses of animals killed with lead ammunition. Because current methods to identify lead exposure require animal capture and blood collection, management would benefit from the development of a less costly and noninvasive behavioral test for illness in wild animals. We attempted to design such a test to identify lead exposure in California condors (Gymnogyps californianus) that we tracked with global positioning system (GPS) telemetry in southern California, USA, 2013–2016. We measured blood-lead concentrations in tracked birds and expected that flight behavior would be influenced by lead exposure; thus, we measured the effect of blood-lead concentrations on 2 different types of movement rates and on the proportion of time condors spent in flight. We found no effect of lead exposure on any of these 3 behavioral metrics. Our work suggests that the measurements we took of flight behaviors were not a useful tool in predicting lead exposure in the mildly to moderately exposed birds we studied. Wild birds are effective at hiding illness, especially condors who have a strong social hierarchy in which showing weakness is a disadvantage. However, focusing on behaviors other than flight, expanding the sample studied to include birds with a wider range of lead concentration values, or analyzing tissues such as feathers (rather than, or in addition to, blood) may be more useful for identification of lead exposure and other diseases that may limit wildlife populations. © 2017 This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  15. Formal recycling of e-waste leads to increased exposure to toxic metals: an occupational exposure study from Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julander, Anneli; Lundgren, Lennart; Skare, Lizbet; Grandér, Margaretha; Palm, Brita; Vahter, Marie; Lidén, Carola

    2014-12-01

    Electrical and electronic waste (e-waste) contains multiple toxic metals. However, there is currently a lack of exposure data for metals on workers in formal recycling plants. The objective of this study was to evaluate workers' exposure to metals, using biomarkers of exposure in combination with monitoring of personal air exposure. We assessed exposure to 20 potentially toxic metals among 55 recycling workers and 10 office workers at three formal e-waste recycling plants in Sweden. Workers at two of the plants were followed-up after 6 months. We collected the inhalable fraction and OFC (37-mm) fraction of particles, using personal samplers, as well as spot samples of blood and urine. We measured metal concentrations in whole blood, plasma, urine, and air filters using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry following acid digestion. The air sampling indicated greater airborne exposure, 10 to 30 times higher, to most metals among the recycling workers handling e-waste than among the office workers. The exposure biomarkers showed significantly higher concentrations of chromium, cobalt, indium, lead, and mercury in blood, urine, and/or plasma of the recycling workers, compared with the office workers. Concentrations of antimony, indium, lead, mercury, and vanadium showed close to linear associations between the inhalable particle fraction and blood, plasma, or urine. In conclusion, our study of formal e-waste recycling shows that workers performing recycling tasks are exposed to multiple toxic metals. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. [Changes in peripheral hemogram among workers with short-term lead exposure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiao-na; Tan, Xia-you; Wu, Lin; Chen, Pei-xian

    2013-08-01

    To examine the effect of short-term occupational lead exposure on the inflammatory response system in blood among workers. A total of 255 lead-exposed workers (length of service ≤1 year) at an electronics factory in Dongguan, China (exposure group), as well as 205 managers without any occupational exposure at another factory (control group), were included in the study. Occupational physical examination was done to get peripheral blood counts. The blood lead levels of workers were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. The relationship between blood lead and peripheral hemogram was analyzed using SPSS software. The exposure group had blood lead levels of 0.07∼1.70 µmol/L, falling within the normal range. The leukocyte count, percentage of granulocytes, and absolute value of granulocytes were significantly higher in the exposure group than in the control group, and the results remained unchanged after adjustment for age and sex (P 0.05). Short-term occupational lead exposure may increase the counts of inflammatory cells in blood, but it has little effect on red blood cells and hemoglobin.

  17. Gestational and Early Infancy Exposure to Margarine Fortified with Vitamin D through a National Danish Programme and the Risk of Type 1 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Ramune; Hypponen, Elina; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2015-01-01

    exposure groups. We further modelled birth cohort effects in children developing T1D as a linear spline, and compared the slopes between the birth cohorts with various prenatal and infancy exposures to vitamin D fortification. In total, 886 (0.26%) individuals developed T1D before the age of 15 years......The objective of the study was to assess whether gestational and early infancy exposure to low dose vitamin D from a mandatory margarine fortification programme in Denmark influenced the risk of developing type 1 diabetes (T1D) before age of 15 years. The study population included all individuals...... born in Denmark from 1983 to 1988 and consisted of 331,623 individuals. The 1st of June 1985, which was the date of issue of the new ministerial order cancelling mandatory fortification of margarine with vitamin D in Denmark, served as a reference point separating the studied population into various...

  18. Gestational Exposure to Air Pollution Alters Cortical Volume, Microglial Morphology, and Microglia-Neuron Interactions in a Sex-Specific Manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L. Bolton

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Microglia are the resident immune cells of the brain, important for normal neural development in addition to host defense in response to inflammatory stimuli. Air pollution is one of the most pervasive and harmful environmental toxicants in the modern world, and several large scale epidemiological studies have recently linked prenatal air pollution exposure with an increased risk of neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD. Diesel exhaust particles (DEP are a primary toxic component of air pollution, and markedly activate microglia in vitro and in vivo in adult rodents. We have demonstrated that prenatal exposure to DEP in mice, i.e., to the pregnant dams throughout gestation, results in a persistent vulnerability to behavioral deficits in adult offspring, especially in males, which is intriguing given the greater incidence of ASD in males to females (∼4:1. Moreover, there is a striking upregulation of toll-like receptor (TLR 4 gene expression within the brains of the same mice, and this expression is primarily in microglia. Here we explored the impact of gestational exposure to DEP or vehicle on microglial morphology in the developing brains of male and female mice. DEP exposure increased inflammatory cytokine protein and altered the morphology of microglia, consistent with activation or a delay in maturation, only within the embryonic brains of male mice; and these effects were dependent on TLR4. DEP exposure also increased cortical volume at embryonic day (E18, which switched to decreased volume by post-natal day (P30 in males, suggesting an impact on the developing neural stem cell niche. Consistent with this hypothesis, we found increased microglial-neuronal interactions in male offspring that received DEP compared to all other groups. Taken together, these data suggest a mechanism by which prenatal exposure to environmental toxins may affect microglial development and long-term function, and thereby contribute

  19. Children's Lead Exposure: A Multimedia Modeling Analysis to Guide Public Health Decision-Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zartarian, Valerie; Xue, Jianping; Tornero-Velez, Rogelio; Brown, James

    2017-09-12

    Drinking water and other sources for lead are the subject of public health concerns around the Flint, Michigan, drinking water and East Chicago, Indiana, lead in soil crises. In 2015, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)'s National Drinking Water Advisory Council (NDWAC) recommended establishment of a "health-based, household action level" for lead in drinking water based on children's exposure. The primary objective was to develop a coupled exposure-dose modeling approach that can be used to determine what drinking water lead concentrations keep children's blood lead levels (BLLs) below specified values, considering exposures from water, soil, dust, food, and air. Related objectives were to evaluate the coupled model estimates using real-world blood lead data, to quantify relative contributions by the various media, and to identify key model inputs. A modeling approach using the EPA's Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation (SHEDS)-Multimedia and Integrated Exposure Uptake and Biokinetic (IEUBK) models was developed using available data. This analysis for the U.S. population of young children probabilistically simulated multimedia exposures and estimated relative contributions of media to BLLs across all population percentiles for several age groups. Modeled BLLs compared well with nationally representative BLLs (0-23% relative error). Analyses revealed relative importance of soil and dust ingestion exposure pathways and associated Pb intake rates; water ingestion was also a main pathway, especially for infants. This methodology advances scientific understanding of the relationship between lead concentrations in drinking water and BLLs in children. It can guide national health-based benchmarks for lead and related community public health decisions. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP1605.

  20. Transient gestational exposure to drinking water containing excess hexavalent chromium modifies insulin signaling in liver and skeletal muscle of rat progeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shobana, Navaneethabalakrishnan; Aruldhas, Mariajoseph Michael; Tochhawng, Lalmuankimi; Loganathan, Ayyalu; Balaji, Sadhasivam; Kumar, Mani Kathiresh; Banu, Liaquat Alikhan Sheerin; Navin, Ajit Kumar; Mayilvanan, Chinnaiyan; Ilangovan, Ramachandran; Balasubramanian, Karundevi

    2017-11-01

    Chromium (Cr), an essential micronutrient potentiates insulin action, whereas excess hexavalent Cr (CrVI) acts as an endocrine disruptor. Pregnant mothers living in areas abutting industries using the metal and chromite ore dumps are exposed to ground water contaminated with Cr. Nevertheless, the impact of prenatal exposure to excess CrVI on insulin signaling in the progeny remains obscure. We tested the hypothesis "transient gestational exposure to drinking water containing excess CrVI may modify insulin signaling during postnatal life". Pregnant Wistar rats were given drinking water containing 50, 100 and 200 ppm CrVI (K 2 Cr 2 O 7 ) from gestational day 9-14 encompassing the period of organogenesis; the male progenies were tested at postnatal day 60. Neither fasting blood glucose nor oral glucose tolerance was altered in CrVI treated progeny. Nevertheless, western blot detection pointed out attenuated expression level of insulin receptor (IR), its downstream signaling molecules (IRS-1, pIRS-1 Tyr632 , Akt and pAkt Ser473 ) and organ specific glucose transporters (GLUT2 in liver and GLUT4 in gastrocnemius muscle), along with a significant increase in serum insulin level in male progenies exposed to CrVI. While 14 C-2-deoxy glucose uptake increased in the liver, the same decreased in the skeletal muscle whereas, 14 C-glucose oxidation recorded a consistent decrease in both tissues of CrVI exposed rats. These findings support our hypothesis and suggest that transient gestational exposure to excess CrVI may affect insulin signaling and glucose oxidation in the progeny, predictably rendering them vulnerable to insulin resistance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Influence of minerals on lead-induced alterations in liver function in rats exposed to long-term lead exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herman, D'souza Sunil; Geraldine, Menezes; T, Venkatesh

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of minerals on lead-induced effect on the liver. Differentiation of minerals and heavy metals pose an inherent problem due to certain common properties shared by them. With this approach to the problem of heavy metal toxicity, in the present study two groups of male Wistar albino rats, one group (well-nourished) fed on mineral rich diet and other group (undernourished) fed on diet without mineral supplements were used. Both the groups of rats were subjected to long-term lead exposure. The diet of well-nourished group was supplemented with calcium (Ca); 1.2%, phosphorous (P); 0.6%, iron (Fe); 90 mg/kg, zinc (Zn); 50 mg/kg, magnesium (Mg); 0.08%, manganese (Mn); 70 mg/kg, selenium (Se); 0.2 mg/kg, copper (Cu); 5 mg/kg, molybdenum (Mo); 0.8 mg/kg, iodine (I); 0.6 mg/kg, cobalt (Co); 3.0 mg/kg. Their blood lead and parameters of liver function were monitored periodically. Results of the study showed a very high statistically significant increase (p < 0.001) in the blood lead (PbB) levels and liver function test parameters in the undernourished subjects compared to the well-nourished subjects. Nutritional management of lead poisoning is of importance since essential elements and toxic heavy metals may interact to minimize the absorption of lead.

  2. Sex-based differences in gene expression in hippocampus following postnatal lead exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, J.S.; Anderson, D.W.; Sonnenahalli, H.; Vadigepalli, R.

    2011-01-01

    The influence of sex as an effect modifier of childhood lead poisoning has received little systematic attention. Considering the paucity of information available concerning the interactive effects of lead and sex on the brain, the current study examined the interactive effects of lead and sex on gene expression patterns in the hippocampus, a structure involved in learning and memory. Male or female rats were fed either 1500 ppm lead-containing chow or control chow for 30 days beginning at weaning.Blood lead levels were 26.7 ± 2.1 μg/dl and 27.1 ± 1.7 μg/dl for females and males, respectively. The expression of 175 unique genes was differentially regulated between control male and female rats. A total of 167 unique genes were differentially expressed in response to lead in either males or females. Lead exposure had a significant effect without a significant difference between male and female responses in 77 of these genes. In another set of 71 genes, there were significant differences in male vs. female response. A third set of 30 genes was differentially expressed in opposite directions in males vs. females, with the majority of genes expressed at a lower level in females than in males. Highly differentially expressed genes in males and females following lead exposure were associated with diverse biological pathways and functions. These results show that a brief exposure to lead produced significant changes in expression of a variety of genes in the hippocampus and that the response of the brain to a given lead exposure may vary depending on sex. - Highlights: → Postnatal lead exposure has a significant effect on hippocampal gene expression patterns. → At least one set of genes was affected in opposite directions in males and females. → Differentially expressed genes were associated with diverse biological pathways.

  3. Cognition in children does not suffer from very low lead exposure.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minder, B.; Das-Smaal, E.A.; Orlebeke, J.F.

    1998-01-01

    We studied the relationship between exposure to lead and memory' and attention in children. Participants were 313 boys aged 9 to 12 years who attended special education schools in the Netherlands. Children whose possible attentional or memory problerns were obviously due to causes other than lead

  4. Our children in day care: reducing exposure to environmental lead at day care centres

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    John, J

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available in air, lead concentrations in surface soil and dust, and risk factors associated with inhalation exposure to the metal were determined by means of questionnaires, time- activity diaries, and lead concentrations in air, soil and surface dust. Pre...

  5. Fetal exposure to lead during pregnancy and the risk of preterm and early-term deliveries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Lu; Zhang, Bin; Huo, Wenqian; Cao, Zhongqiang; Liu, Wenyu; Liao, Jiaqiang; Xia, Wei; Xu, Shunqing; Li, Yuanyuan

    2017-08-01

    Studies have reported the association between lead exposure during pregnancy and preterm birth. However, findings are still inconsistent. This prospective birth cohort study evaluated the risks of preterm and early-term births and its association with prenatal lead exposure in Hubei, China. A total of 7299 pregnant women were selected from the Healthy Baby Cohort. Maternal urinary lead levels were measured by the Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry. The associations between tertiles of urinary lead levels and the risks of preterm and early-term deliveries were assessed using multiple logistic regression models. The geometric mean of creatinine-adjusted urinary lead concentrations among all participating mothers, preterm birth, and early-term birth were 3.19, 3.68, and 3.17μg/g creatinine, respectively. A significant increase in the risk of preterm births was associated with the highest urinary lead tertile after adjusting for confounders with odds ratio (OR) of 1.96. The association was more pronounced among 25-36 years old mothers with OR of 2.03. Though significant p trends were observed between lead exposure (medium and high tertiles) and the risk of early-term births, their ORs were not significant. Our findings indicate that the risk of preterm birth might increase with higher fetal lead exposure, particularly among women between the age of 25 and 36 years. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Relevancy of human exposure via house dust to the contaminants lead and asbestos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oomen AG; Lijzen JPA; SIR; LER

    2004-01-01

    The present report addresses the issues whether house dust is likely to contribute substantially to the exposure of humans, in particular for the contaminants lead and asbestos. House dust consists for 30-70% of soil material, indicating that contaminated soil can lead to contaminated house dust. It

  7. Repeated gestational exposure of mice to chlorpyrifos oxon is associated with paraoxonase 1 (PON1) modulated effects in maternal and fetal tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Toby B; Li, Wan-Fen; Co, Aila L; Hay, Ariel M; MacDonald, James W; Bammler, Theo K; Farin, Federico M; Costa, Lucio G; Furlong, Clement E

    2014-10-01

    Chlorpyrifos oxon (CPO), the toxic metabolite of the organophosphorus (OP) insecticide chlorpyrifos, causes developmental neurotoxicity in humans and rodents. CPO is hydrolyzed by paraoxonase-1 (PON1), with protection determined by PON1 levels and the human Q192R polymorphism. To examine how the Q192R polymorphism influences fetal toxicity associated with gestational CPO exposure, we measured enzyme inhibition and fetal-brain gene expression in wild-type (PON1(+/+)), PON1-knockout (PON1(-/-)), and tgHuPON1R192 and tgHuPON1Q192 transgenic mice. Pregnant mice exposed dermally to 0, 0.50, 0.75, or 0.85 mg/kg/d CPO from gestational day (GD) 6 through 17 were sacrificed on GD18. Biomarkers of CPO exposure inhibited in maternal tissues included brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE), red blood cell acylpeptide hydrolase (APH), and plasma butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) and carboxylesterase (CES). Fetal plasma BChE was inhibited in PON1(-/-) and tgHuPON1Q192, but not PON1(+/+) or tgHuPON1R192 mice. Fetal brain AChE and plasma CES were inhibited in PON1(-/-) mice, but not in other genotypes. Weighted gene co-expression network analysis identified five gene modules based on clustering of the correlations among their fetal-brain expression values, allowing for correlation of module membership with the phenotypic data on enzyme inhibition. One module that correlated highly with maternal brain AChE activity had a large representation of homeobox genes. Gene set enrichment analysis revealed multiple gene sets affected by gestational CPO exposure in tgHuPON1Q192 but not tgHuPON1R192 mice, including gene sets involved in protein export, lipid metabolism, and neurotransmission. These data indicate that maternal PON1 status modulates the effects of repeated gestational CPO exposure on fetal-brain gene expression and on inhibition of both maternal and fetal biomarker enzymes. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved

  8. Lead exposure affects health indices in free-ranging ducks in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreyra, Hebe; Beldomenico, Pablo M; Marchese, Krysten; Romano, Marcelo; Caselli, Andrea; Correa, Ana I; Uhart, Marcela

    2015-05-01

    Numerous experiments under controlled conditions and extensive investigation of waterfowl die-offs have demonstrated that exposure to lead from spent gunshot is highly detrimental to the health of waterfowl. However, few studies have focused on examining the more subtle sub-lethal effects of lead toxicity on ducks in non-experimental settings. In our study, the health of ducks exposed to varying amounts of lead under natural conditions was assessed by correlating individual lead exposure with relevant indices of health. Based on hunter-killed wild ducks in Argentina, we measured spleen mass, body condition, examined bone marrow smears, and determined Ca and P in bone tissue. In free-ranging live-trapped ducks we determined basic hematology and aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity. Using multivariate analyses, we found that, when controlling for the potential confounding effect of site type, year, duck species, body mass and age, lead levels in the liver were negatively associated with body condition and spleen mass. Spleen mass was also lower in ducks with higher lead levels in their bones. In live ducks, high blood lead levels were associated with low packed cell volume and red cell morphologic abnormalities. These findings suggest that, despite the lack of recorded lead-induced mortality in the region, lead exposure results in less conspicuous but still significant impacts on the health of ducks, which could have serious implications for their conservation. Moreover, this evidence further supports the need for urgently banning lead shot in the region.

  9. Gestational diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Dragoš, Andreja

    2014-01-01

    Gestational diabetes is diabetes that occurs for the first time during pregnancy. In Slovenia, between 2.8 and 4.5 percent of pregnant women are affected by this disease. The number of women with gestational diabetes is increasing due to unhealthy lifestyle and most of all due to increasing occurrence of obesity. Gestational diabetes is a growing problem in Slovenia, as well as in the world. The purpose of the thesis is to establish the main risk factors for gestational diabetes and determ...

  10. Psychological dysfunctions in lead-exposed workers. Relation to biological parameters of exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grandjean, P.; Arnvig, E.; Beckmann, J.

    1978-12-01

    Insidious neurotoxic effects of lead have been studied in a population of 42 lead-exposed workers and a reference group of 22 comparable workers with no lead exposure. The age of the individuals ranged from 18 to 50 years. The complete Wechler Adult Intelligence Scale, as well as psychomotor and memory tests, was included in the test battery. The exposure was assessed by means of the lead concentration in blood and hair and the ratio between zinc protoporphyrin and hemoglobin in the blood. Significant differences were found between the two groups of workers, especially concerning long-term memory, verbal and visuospatial abstraction, and psychomotor speed. Blood lead and zinc protoporphyrin appeared to correlate better with the intellectual impairment than did hair lead.

  11. Lead exposure in bald eagles from big game hunting, the continental implications and successful mitigation efforts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan Bedrosian

    Full Text Available Studies suggest hunter discarded viscera of big game animals (i.e., offal is a source of lead available to scavengers. We investigated the incidence of lead exposure in bald eagles in Wyoming during the big game hunting season, the influx of eagles into our study area during the hunt, the geographic origins of eagles exposed to lead, and the efficacy of using non-lead rifle ammunition to reduce lead in eagles. We tested 81 blood samples from bald eagles before, during and after the big game hunting seasons in 2005-2010, excluding 2008, and found eagles had significantly higher lead levels during the hunt. We found 24% of eagles tested had levels indicating at least clinical exposure (>60 ug/dL during the hunt while no birds did during the non-hunting seasons. We performed driving surveys from 2009-2010 to measure eagle abundance and found evidence to suggest that eagles are attracted to the study area during the hunt. We fitted 10 eagles with satellite transmitters captured during the hunt and all migrated south after the cessation of the hunt. One returned to our study area while the remaining nine traveled north to summer/breed in Canada. The following fall, 80% returned to our study area for the hunting season, indicating that offal provides a seasonal attractant for eagles. We fitted three local breeding eagles with satellite transmitters and none left their breeding territories to feed on offal during the hunt, indicating that lead ingestion may be affecting migrants to a greater degree. During the 2009 and 2010 hunting seasons we provided non-lead rifle ammunition to local hunters and recorded that 24% and 31% of successful hunters used non-lead ammunition, respectively. We found the use of non-lead ammunition significantly reduced lead exposure in eagles, suggesting this is a viable solution to reduce lead exposure in eagles.

  12. Lead exposure in bald eagles from big game hunting, the continental implications and successful mitigation efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedrosian, Bryan; Craighead, Derek; Crandall, Ross

    2012-01-01

    Studies suggest hunter discarded viscera of big game animals (i.e., offal) is a source of lead available to scavengers. We investigated the incidence of lead exposure in bald eagles in Wyoming during the big game hunting season, the influx of eagles into our study area during the hunt, the geographic origins of eagles exposed to lead, and the efficacy of using non-lead rifle ammunition to reduce lead in eagles. We tested 81 blood samples from bald eagles before, during and after the big game hunting seasons in 2005-2010, excluding 2008, and found eagles had significantly higher lead levels during the hunt. We found 24% of eagles tested had levels indicating at least clinical exposure (>60 ug/dL) during the hunt while no birds did during the non-hunting seasons. We performed driving surveys from 2009-2010 to measure eagle abundance and found evidence to suggest that eagles are attracted to the study area during the hunt. We fitted 10 eagles with satellite transmitters captured during the hunt and all migrated south after the cessation of the hunt. One returned to our study area while the remaining nine traveled north to summer/breed in Canada. The following fall, 80% returned to our study area for the hunting season, indicating that offal provides a seasonal attractant for eagles. We fitted three local breeding eagles with satellite transmitters and none left their breeding territories to feed on offal during the hunt, indicating that lead ingestion may be affecting migrants to a greater degree. During the 2009 and 2010 hunting seasons we provided non-lead rifle ammunition to local hunters and recorded that 24% and 31% of successful hunters used non-lead ammunition, respectively. We found the use of non-lead ammunition significantly reduced lead exposure in eagles, suggesting this is a viable solution to reduce lead exposure in eagles.

  13. [Effects of lead exposure on 18 elements in blood and excretions in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Duo-jian; Wu, Jing; Liu, Ya-qiong; Ouyang, Li; Wang, Jing-yu

    2014-04-18

    To investigate the effects of lead exposure on lead and other metal elements contents in rats. SD rats were randomly divided into control group and several experiment groups of different doses. The rats were exposed to lead acetate through intragastric administration every other day for 5 times. The whole blood, urine and feces of all the rats were collected. The concentrations of lead and 18 metal elements in these samples were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and inductively coupled plasma atom emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). No significant difference among the groups was found for body weight and organ-body ratios of the rats after lead exposure (P>0.05). With the increase of exposure dose, lead content in blood, total lead in urine and feces tended to increase, while the total lead in urine no longer increased in the high dose group. Significant differences among the groups (Pthallium and bismuth contents in the whole blood, the potassium, iron and antimony contents in the urine, and the calcium, iron, zinc, copper, thallium, bismuth and rare earth elements contents in the feces. The effect of lead on the metabolism of divalent metal ions, namely calcium, magnesium, iron, zinc, copper and strontium ion, may be due to the competition of lead with the ions for common delivery carrier. Lead exposure induces the excretion of light rare earth elements and toxic elements (thallium and bismuth), and changes the antimony, sodium and potassium contents in rats. But there is no effect of lead on molybdenum and cadmium in rats.

  14. Gestational exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin alters retinoid homeostasis in maternal and perinatal tissues of the Holtzman rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kransler, Kevin M.; Tonucci, David A.; McGarrigle, Barbara P.; Napoli, Joseph L.; Olson, James R.

    2007-01-01

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), one of the most widely studied environmental contaminants, causes a variety of adverse health effects including teratogenesis and altered development which may be related to disruptions in retinoid homeostasis. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect that gestational administration of TCDD has on retinoid homeostasis in both pregnant Holtzman rats and developing fetuses and neonates. A single oral dose of TCDD (0, 1.5, 3, or 6 μg/kg) was administered to pregnant rats on gestation day 10, with fetuses analyzed on gestation days 17 and 20, and neonates analyzed on post natal day 7. Exposure to TCDD generally produced decreases in the concentrations of retinyl esters, such as retinyl palmitate, and retinol in maternal and perinatal liver and lung, while increasing levels in the maternal kidney. Additionally, perinatal hepatic retinol binding protein 1-dependent retinyl ester hydrolysis was also decrease by TCDD. Sensitivity of the developing perinates to TCDD appeared to have an age-related component demonstrated by an increased rate of mortality and significant alterations to body weight and length on post natal day 7 relative to that observed at gestation day 20. A unique observation made in this study was a significant decrease in lung weight observed in the perinates exposed to TCDD. Taken together, these data demonstrate that TCDD significantly alters retinoid homeostasis in tissues of the developing fetus and neonate, suggesting that their unique sensitivity to TCDD may at least be in part the result of altered retinoid homeostasis

  15. Effect of lead exposure on the immune response of some occupationally exposed individuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, Kamla Prasad; Singh, Vijay Kumar; Rani, Reena; Yadav, Virendra Singh; Chandran, Vinod; Srivastava, Satya Prakash; Seth, Prahlad Kishore

    2003-01-01

    Lead is a ubiquitous pollutant in the industrial environment, which poses serious threats to human health. In the past 20 years increasing attention has been paid to the effects of lead exposure on health. This toxic metal alters the immune response of animals as well as humans. To study the immunological effects of occupational exposure to lead, we examined lymphocyte proliferation, natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity and interferon-γ production with peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of individuals occupationally exposed to lead. We selected three different groups of individuals exposed to lead: three-wheeler drivers (30), battery workers (34) and silver jewelery makers (20); and unexposed healthy volunteers (30) as control for comparison. Our results indicate that though lymphocyte proliferation to phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) is inhibited in lead exposed individuals as compared with unexposed volunteers, there is no correlation between inhibition of lymphocyte proliferation and blood lead level. NK cell cytotoxicity remains unaffected in individuals exposed to lead as compared with controls. On the other hand, we observed that interferon-γ (IFN-γ) was significantly elevated in T cell mitogen, PHA, stimulated PBMCs culture supernatant of lead exposed individuals. We found significant positive correlation between blood lead levels and IFN-γ produced in culture supernatant on stimulation with PHA. In brief, this study demonstrates that lead can affect the immune response of the occupationally exposed individuals such as three-wheeler drivers, battery reconditioning workers and silver jewelery makers

  16. Comparison of gestational dating methods and implications ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    OBJECTIVES: Estimating gestational age is usually based on date of last menstrual period (LMP) or clinical estimation (CE); both approaches introduce potential bias. Differences in methods of estimation may lead to misclassificat ion and inconsistencies in risk estimates, particularly if exposure assignment is also gestation-dependent. This paper examines a'what-if' scenario in which alternative methods are used and attempts to elucidate how method choice affects observed results.METHODS: We constructed two 20-week gestational age cohorts of pregnancies between 2000 and 2005 (New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Ohio, USA) using live birth certificates : one defined preterm birth (PTB) status using CE and one using LMP. Within these, we estimated risk for 4 categories of preterm birth (PTBs per 106 pregnancies) and risk differences (RD (95% Cl s)) associated with exposure to particulate matter (PM2. 5).RESULTS: More births were classified preterm using LMP (16%) compared with CE (8%). RD divergences increased between cohorts as exposure period approached delivery. Among births between 28 and 31 weeks, week 7 PM2.5 exposure conveyed RDs of 44 (21 to 67) for CE and 50 (18 to 82) for LMP populations, while week 24 exposure conveyed RDs of 33 (11 to 56) and -20 (-50 to 10), respectively.CONCLUSIONS: Different results from analyses restricted to births with both CE and LMP are most likely due to differences in dating methods rather than selection issues. Results are sensitive t

  17. EnvironmEntal and occupational ExposurE to lEad

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-06-06

    Jun 6, 2008 ... residence, occupation and health status of participating individuals. very sick patients, those with chronic illness, renal failure or conditions predisposing to renal insufficiency were excluded from the study. Blood lead levels were determined in a total of 308 study subjects. Children and adolescents (ages ...

  18. Impaired brain development in the rat following prenatal exposure to methylazoxymethanol acetate at gestational day 17 and neurotrophin distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fiore, M; Grace, AA; Korf, J; Stampachiacchiere, B; Aloe, L

    2004-01-01

    Several neuropsychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, are the consequence of a disrupted development of the CNS. Accordingly, intrauterine exposure to toxins may increase the risk for psychopathology. We investigated whether prenatal exposure of rats to the neurotoxin methylaxoxymethanol

  19. Prenatal exposure to lead in Spain: cord blood levels and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llop, Sabrina; Aguinagalde, Xabier; Vioque, Jesus; Ibarluzea, Jesús; Guxens, Mònica; Casas, Maribel; Murcia, Mario; Ruiz, María; Amurrio, Ascensión; Rebagliato, Marisa; Marina, Loreto Santa; Fernandez-Somoano, Ana; Tardon, Adonina; Ballester, Ferran

    2011-05-01

    Lead is a known neurotoxic. Fetuses and infants are very vulnerable to lead exposure, since their blood-brain barrier is not completely formed. Hence, there is an importance for monitoring of blood lead levels prenatally and during early infancy. The aim of this study is to evaluate the prenatal exposure to lead and its association with maternal factors in four population based mother-child cohorts in Spain. The present research was carried out within the framework of the INMA project INfancia y Medio Ambiente (Environment and Childhood). A total of 1462 pregnant women were recruited between 2004 and 2008. Lead was analyzed in a sample of cord blood by thermal decomposition, amalgation, and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. Maternal sociodemographic, lifestyle and dietary factors were obtained by questionnaires during pregnancy. A multivariate logistic regression model was constructed. The dependent variable was a dichotomous lead level variable (detected vs no detected, i.e. ≥ vs < 2μg/dL). A low percentage of cord blood samples with lead levels ≥ 2μg/dL were found (5.9%). Geometric mean and maximum were 1.06μg/dL and 19μg/dL, respectively. Smoking at the beginning of pregnancy, age, social class, weight gain during pregnancy, gravidity, and place of residence were the maternal factors associated with detectable cord blood lead levels. Mother's diet does not appear to be a determining factor of lead exposure. Nevertheless, daily intake of iron and zinc may act as a protective factor against having cord blood lead levels ≥ 2μg/dL. In the different regions of Spain taking part in this study, lead levels to which newborns are exposed are low. Mobilization of lead from bones may be the main contributor to the cord blood levels. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Prenatal cigarette smoke exposure: Pregnancy outcome and gestational changes in plasma nicotine concentration, hematocrit, and carboxyhemoglobin in a newly standardized rat model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkas, Svetlana; Hussein, Jabeen; Ariano, Robert E.; Sitar, Daniel S.; Hasan, Shabih U.

    2006-01-01

    Epidemiological studies support an association between perinatal cigarette smoke (CS) exposure and a number of severe pre- and postnatal complications. However, the mechanisms through which CS enhances such risks largely remain unknown. One of the reasons for our inability to discover such mechanisms has been the unavailability of a clinically relevant and physiologically concordant animal model. A number of studies have previously used nicotine (Nic) as surrogate for CS. We sought to (1) establish the amount of CS exposure to achieve plasma Nic concentrations observed among moderate to heavy smokers (20-60 ng/ml) (2) investigate the temporal changes in plasma Nic concentrations, carboxyhemoglobin, and hematocrit with advancing pregnancy, and (3) elucidate the effects of CS exposure on pregnancy outcome. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to various doses of CS or room air (Sham) from days 6 to 21 of gestation. Exposure to 6000 ml/day of CS led to very high plasma Nic concentrations and increased maternal and fetal mortality (P < 0.001). The plasma Nic concentrations remained higher than those observed in moderate smokers until the CS dose was reduced to 1000 ml/day and showed dose-dependent temporal changes with advancing gestational age. Significant increases in carboxyhemoglobin and hematocrit were observed in the CS group as compared with the Sham group (P < 0.001). In addition, prenatally CS exposed fetuses had lower birth weight as compared with the Sham group (P = 0.04). Our current study establishes a newly standardized and physiologically relevant model to investigate the mechanisms of CS-mediated adverse effects during the critical period of fetal development

  1. Risk of preeclampsia after gestational exposure to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and other antidepressants: A study from The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupattelli, Angela; Wood, Mollie; Lapane, Kate; Spigset, Olav; Nordeng, Hedvig

    2017-10-01

    To describe the risk of early- and late-onset preeclampsia across pregnancies exposed to antidepressants and to evaluate the impact of timing and length of gestational exposure to antidepressants, particularly selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), on preeclampsia. The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort, a prospective population-based study, and the Medical Birth Registry of Norway provided information on antidepressant exposure, depression, and anxiety symptoms in pregnancy, preeclampsia diagnoses, and important covariates. Within a pregnancy cohort of depressed women, we compared the risk of late-onset preeclampsia between SSRI-exposed and nonmedicated pregnancies using marginal structural models (weighted) and modified Poisson regression models. Of the 5887 pregnancies included, 11.1% were exposed at any time before week 34 to SSRIs, 1.3% to serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, 0.4% to tricyclic antidepressants, and 0.5% to other antidepressants. The risks of early- and late-onset preeclampsia by exposure status in pregnancy were 0.3% and 3.6% (nonmedicated), 0.4% and 3.7% (SSRIs), 1.5% and 4.1% (serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors), and 7.1% and 10.0% (tricyclic antidepressants). Compared with nonmedicated pregnancies, SSRI-exposed in mid and late gestation had adjusted relative risks for late-onset mild preeclampsia of 0.76 (95% confidence interval, 0.38-1.53) and 1.56 (0.71-3.44) (weighted models), respectively. There was no association between SSRI exposure in pregnancy and severe late-onset preeclampsia. We have provided evidence that SSRI use in early and midpregnancy does not substantially increase the risk of late-onset preeclampsia. © 2017 The Authors. Pharmacoepidemiology & Drug Safety published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Exposure to sublethal levels of waterborne lead alters reproductive behavior patterns in fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, D N

    1993-01-01

    Lead (Pb) caused multiple effects on reproductive behavior and overall reproductive success. Adult fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) were acclimated at a 16L:8D photoperiod to stimulate reproductive development. Reproductively mature adults were separated as male-female pairs and maintained for 4 weeks in either 0.0 or 0.5 ppm Pb. High lead accumulations occurred in testes and ovaries of treated fish; lead concentrations in control fish gonads were not detectable. Lead suppressed spermatocyte production and retarded ovarian development, although no lead-induced gonadosomatic index changes for either sex were noted. Lead decreased the number of eggs oviposited, increased interspawn periods and suppressed embryo development. Control males displayed maximum secondary sex characteristic development (banding, tubercle formation, head and eye darkening); lead-exposed fish displayed less. Control males spent more time in ceiling-directed behaviors associated with nest preparation and maintenance than lead-exposed. These variables were affected differentially with respect to stage of reproductive maturity at time of lead exposure, i.e., fish displaying greater secondary sex characteristic development before exposure were less affected by lead than those fish that showed less development.

  3. The astonishingly holistic role of urban soil in the exposure of children to lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielke, Howard; Gonzales, Christopher; Powell, Eric

    2017-04-01

    The long-term resilience and sustainability of urban communities is associated with its environmental quality. One major impediment to community welfare is children's exposure to lead because it is a root cause of disparity and chronic conditions including health, learning, and behavioral differences. There is no safe level of lead exposure and this revelation is confounded by the lack of an effective intervention after exposure takes place. In August, 2005, Hurricane Katrina flooded 80% of New Orleans. This report explores the natural experiment of the dynamic changes of soil and children's blood lead in New Orleans before and ten years after the flood. Matched pre- and post-Hurricane soil lead and children's blood lead results were stratified by 172 communities of New Orleans. GIS methods were used to organize, describe, and map the pre- and post-Katrina data. Comparing pre- and post-Katrina results, simultaneous decreases occurred in soil lead and children's blood lead response. Health and welfare disparities continue to exist between environments and children's exposure living in interior compared with outer communities of the city. At the scale of a city this investigation demonstrates that declining soil lead effectively reduces children's blood lead. The astonishingly holistic role of soil relates to its position as a lead dust deposition reservoir and, at the same time, as an open source of ingestible and inhalable lead dust. Decreasing the soil lead on play areas of urban communities is beneficial and economical as a method for effective lead intervention and primary prevention. References Mielke, H.W.; Gonzales, C.R.; Powell, E.T.; Mielke, P.W. Jr. Spatiotemporal dynamic transformations of soil lead and children's blood lead ten years after Hurricane Katrina: New grounds for primary prevention. Environ. Int. 2016, DOI: 10.1016/j.envint.2016.06.017. Mielke, H.W.; Gonzales, C.R.; Powell, E.T. In review. The dynamic lead exposome and children's health in New

  4. Lead, arsenic and manganese metal mixture exposures: focus on biomarkers of effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, VL; Mateus, ML; Batoréu, MC; Aschner, M; Marreilha dos Santos, AP

    2015-01-01

    Summary The increasing exposure of human populations to excessive levels of metals continues to represent a matter of public health concern. Several biomarkers have been studied and proposed for the detection of adverse health effects induced by lead (Pb), arsenic (As) and manganese (Mn); however, these studies have relied on exposures to each single metal, which fails to replicate real-life exposure scenarios. These 3 metals are commonly detected in different environmental, occupational and food contexts and they share common neurotoxic effects, which are progressive and once clinically apparent may be irreversible. Thus, chronic exposure to low levels of a mixture of these metals represents an additive risk of toxicity. Building upon their shared mechanisms of toxicity, such as oxidative stress, interference with neurotransmitters and effects on hematopoietic system, we address putative biomarkers, which may be assist in assessing onset of neurological diseases associated with exposure to this metal mixture. PMID:25693681

  5. Exposure of Spectacled Eiders and other diving ducks to lead in western Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Paul L.; Petersen, Margaret R.; Grand, James B.

    1997-01-01

    Lead poisoning, resulting from ingestion of spent shot, has been identified as a cause of mortality in Spectacled Eiders (Somateria fischeri) on the Yukon–Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska. We examined lead-exposure rates of adult and juvenile Spectacled Eiders and other diving ducks, using atomic absorption spectrophotometry of blood samples. Additionally, we X-rayed birds in the field to identify ingested shot. We detected shot in the gizzards of 11.6% of Spectacled Eiders X-rayed. During the period from arrival through incubation, 13.0% of adult females and 6.6% of adult males had elevated blood lead levels when captured. During the brood-rearing period, 35.8% of adult females and 12.2% of ducklings were exposed to lead when captured. There was an increase in the probability of exposure of adult females with date sampled. We predict that 50% of the successfully breeding hens were likely exposed to lead, and 25–37% of the Spectacled Eider breeding population was exposed to lead. The long-term effects of sublethal doses on Spectacled Eiders are unknown; however, exposure of nesting females and young birds to lead may result in reduced over-winter survival and (or) reduced fecundity.

  6. Gestational Exposure to a Viral Mimetic Poly(I:C Results in Long-Lasting Changes in Mitochondrial Function by Leucocytes in the Adult Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Giulivi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Maternal immune activation (MIA is a potential risk factor for autism spectrum disorder (ASD and schizophrenia (SZ. In rodents, MIA results in changes in cytokine profiles and abnormal behaviors in the offspring that model these neuropsychiatric conditions. Given the central role that mitochondria have in immunity and other metabolic pathways, we hypothesized that MIA will result in a fetal imprinting that leads to postnatal deficits in the bioenergetics of immune cells. To this end, splenocytes from adult offspring exposed gestationally to the viral mimic poly(I:C were evaluated for mitochondrial outcomes. A significant decrease in mitochondrial ATP production was observed in poly(I:C-treated mice (45% of controls mainly attributed to a lower complex I activity. No differences were observed between the two groups in the coupling of electron transport to ATP synthesis, or the oxygen uptake under uncoupling conditions. Concanavalin A- (ConA- stimulated splenocytes from poly(I:C animals showed no statistically significant changes in cytokine levels compared to controls. The present study reports for the first time that MIA activation by poly(I:C at early gestation, which can lead to behavioral impairments in the offspring similar to SZ and ASD, leads to long-lasting effects in the bioenergetics of splenocytes of adult offspring.

  7. [Effect of lead exposure on brain iron in aged rats based on the MRI].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanshu; Chen, Ying; Jiao, Huan; Zhou, Fankun; Du, Guihua; Feng, Chang; Yan, Ji; Liu, Zhenghua; Xiao, Xinlan; Fan, Guangqin

    2013-01-01

    To explore the effect of long-term lead exposure on brain iron in aged rats. SPF female and male Sprague-Dawley rats were respectively randomly divided into three groups: control, low lead-exposed, high lead-exposed. Lead-exposed female rats drank 0.8g/L or 1.5g/L lead acetate solutions through pregnancy until weaning and then the pups received 0.3g/L or 0.9g/L lead acetate solution depending on their group. Control group rats drank deionized water throughout the experiment. At the postnatal 18 months, one pup for per group was given an ultra structural detection of hippocampus, and the other male pups were measured the lead and iron concentration of blood and brain by GE MR 3.0T MR scanner and ICP-AES. In comparing with control group, the lead concentrations of blood and brain in lead-exposed groups were significantly higher, and the iron contents of brain and cortex, hippocampus, thalamus were significantly higher in 0.9g/L lead-exposed group. Also, it was highly positively correlated between blood lead and iron of blood, cortex, hippocampus, thalamus, respectively. With the dose of lead-exposed increased, cytoplasm, nucleus, mitochondrial structure and synaptic structure had suffered vary degrees of damage from ultra structural detection of hippocampus, it could be observed early neuronal apoptosis. Lead induced neurodegenerative diseases might be related to iron overload which caused by lead exposure.

  8. Characterizing Golden Eagle risk to lead and anticoagulant rodenticide exposure: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Garth; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Buck, Jeremy A.

    2017-01-01

    Contaminant exposure is among the many threats to Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) populations throughout North America, particularly lead poisoning and anticoagulant rodenticides (AR). These threats may act in concert with others (e.g., lead poisoning and trauma associated with striking objects) to exacerbate risk. Golden Eagles are skilled hunters but also exploit scavenging opportunities, making them particularly susceptible to contaminant exposure from ingesting tissues of poisoned or shot animals. Lead poisoning has long been recognized as an important source of mortality for Golden Eagles throughout North America. More recently, ARs have been associated with both sublethal and lethal effects in raptor species worldwide. In this review, we examine the current state of knowledge for lead and AR exposure in Golden Eagles, drawing from the broader raptor contaminant ecology literature. We examine lead and AR sources within Golden Eagle habitats, exposure routes and toxicity, effects on individuals and populations, synergistic effects, and data and information needs. Continued research addressing data needs and information gaps will help with Golden Eagle conservation planning.

  9. Can in vivo surface dental enamelmicrobiopsies be used to measure remote lead exposure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olympio, Kelly Polido Kaneshiro; Huila, Manuel Fernando Gonzalez; de Almeida Baldini Cardoso, Cristiane; da Silva Ferreira, Ana Paula Sacone; Ortiz, Adrielly Garcia; Toma, Henrique Eisi; da Silva, Ricardo Henrique Alves; Luz, Maciel Santos; Cardoso, Maria Regina Alves; Kelmer, Gislayne Aparecida Rodrigues; de Oliveira, Pedro Vitoriano; Bechara, Etelvino José Henriques; Günhter, Wanda Maria Risso; Buzalaf, Marília Afonso Rabelo

    2017-12-20

    Measuring lead in the surface dental enamel (SDE) using biopsies is a rapid, safe, and painless procedure. The dental enamel lead levels (DELLs) decrease from the outermost superficial layer to the inner layer of dental enamel, which becomes crucial for the biopsy depth (BD) measurement. However, whether the origin of lead found in SDE is fully endogenous is not yet established. There is also controversy about the biopsy protocol. The aims of this study were to investigate if DELLs are altered by extrinsic contamination (A) and to evaluate the real geometric figure formed by the erosion provoked by biopsy procedure and the respective BD in SDE (B). To accomplish the aim A, lead from 90 bovine incisor crowns lead was determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer as a function of exposure time and lead concentration. Two biopsies were performed in each tooth, before and after lead exposure. Six 15-tooth groups differed by exposure time (1 or 30 min) and lead concentrations (A. 0 mg/L-placebo, B. 0.01 mg/L-standard for drinking water, or C. 0.06 mg/L-concentration found in contaminated groundwater). Phosphorus was determined by an inductively coupled plasm optical emission spectrometer to quantify the enamel removed. To compare intakes/losses of lead in SDE among the groups, values of DELL differences between before and after lead exposure were compared by ANOVA (p bottom surface area, analyzed by microscopy, showed an irregular area, with regions of peaks and valleys, where areas with depth ranging from 0.2 (peaks) to 1.8 μm (valleys) (± 0.1 μm) could be found. BD carried out in vivo is commonly calculated using the cylinder height formula. The real BD was shown to be very similar to already published data. In conclusion, the SDE of erupted teeth does not seem to be susceptible to environmental lead intake, being thus reliable to measure remote exposures to lead.

  10. Chronic exposure to low-levels of lead in the rat: biochemical and behavioural changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossouw, J.

    1987-01-01

    The prevalence of lead in the environment is a cause of continuing toxicology concern and there have been numerous human and animal studies to examine more thoroughly the possible consequences of exposure to this ecotoxicant. Because lead is highly toxic to the developing central nervous system, increasing concern over the rise in the lead content in the environment has been expressed. These concerns seem appropriate since more recent clinical studies have shown that prolonged exposure of children to so called 'subclinical' concentrations of lead may be associated with behavioural disorders, learning disabilities and mental retardation. Moreover, animal studies have shown that chronic perinatal low-level lead exposure elicits alterations in both learned and spontaneous behavioural patterns in the absence of typical outward signs of lead-induced neurological toxicity. No study however could relate behavioural changes to specific alterations in neurochemisty. The aim of this study was therefore to expose rats, in different stages of their development, to low-levels of lead in order to induce behavioural disorders and correlate latter with possible neurochemical changes. In accordance with the general aims of the study, the structuring of the thesis is as follows: (a) a discussion of the neurotransmitters in the brain in order to describe the different systems which have been investigated; (b) a review of appropriate literature regarding the kinetics, toxodynamics and neurotoxicity of lead and (c) a summary of the methods employed in the study. The following results are presented: (d) the effects of lead treatment on physical development of the rats; (e) the induction of behavioural supersensitivity and (f) the effects lead has on central receptors

  11. Biological and environmental monitoring of lead and exposure in the automobile industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.J Shah Taheri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Soldering is one of the most common activities in metal industries. Lead is used in soldering process and has considerable toxic effects. The aim of this study, therefore, was biological and environmental monitoring and investigating the effects of exposure to lead in soldering unit workers at an automobile industry.     Methods: In order to evaluate biological and environmental exposure to lead, a case-control study was accomplished on 60 workers in soldering unit (case group and 60 workers in official unit (control group. Demographical and medical information were gained by a questionnaire. Blood samples were collected and analyzed using the NIOSH 8003 method and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS respectively and air samples were collected and analyzed using the NIOSH 7300 method and Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES respectively.     Results: The obtained results shown that, with the increasing of age and work experience, the blood lead level is also increased.(p=0.033(p=0.003 In exposed group, the blood lead mean value was significantly higher than the control group (p-value<0.001. Prevalence of digestive, nervous, respiratory, dermal, kidney disorders, anemia diseases, and disorder in bone metabolism in exposed group were higher than the control group. The amount of lead level was negatively correlated with hemoglobin (r=-0.287;p=0.026 and hematocrit (r=-0.336;p=0.009 but There was no significant correlation between air and blood lead level.     Conclusion: The blood lead level may be increased in lead exposure due absence of personal protective equipment and poor personal hygiene. Increased lead level in blood can be resulted to various diseases and decrease in hemoglobin and hematocrit levels in blood.

  12. Effects of continuous bisphenol A exposure from early gestation on 90 day old rat testes function and sperm molecular profiles: A CLARITY-BPA consortium study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dere, Edward; Anderson, Linnea M; Huse, Susan M; Spade, Daniel J; McDonnell-Clark, Elizabeth; Madnick, Samantha J; Hall, Susan J; Camacho, Luísa; Lewis, Sherry M; Vanlandingham, Michelle M; Boekelheide, Kim

    2018-03-26

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a ubiquitous industrial chemical that has been identified as an endocrine disrupting compound (EDC). There is growing concern that early life exposures to EDCs, such as BPA, can adversely affect the male reproductive tract and function. This study was conducted as part of the Consortium Linking Academic and Regulatory Insights on BPA Toxicity (CLARITY-BPA) to further delineate the toxicities associated with continuous exposure to BPA from early gestation, and to comprehensively examine the elicited effects on testes and sperm. NCTR Sprague Dawley rat dams were gavaged from gestational day (GD) 6 until parturition, and their pups were directly gavaged daily from postnatal day (PND) 1 to 90 with BPA (2.5, 25, 250, 2500, 25,000, 250,000 μg/kg/d) or vehicle control. At PND 90, the testes and sperm were collected for evaluation. The testes were histologically evaluated for altered germ cell apoptosis, sperm production, and altered spermiation. RNA and DNA isolated from sperm were assessed for elicited changes in global mRNA transcript abundance and altered DNA methylation. Effects of BPA were observed in changes in body, testis and epididymis weights only at the highest administered dose of BPA of 250,000 μg/kg/d. Genome-wide transcriptomic and epigenomic analyses failed to detect robust alterations in sperm mRNA and DNA methylation levels. These data indicate that prolonged exposure starting in utero to BPA over a wide range of levels has little, if any, impact on the testes and sperm molecular profiles of 90 day old rats as assessed by the histopathologic, morphometric, and molecular endpoints evaluated. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Gestational diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... right for you. Low-impact exercises, such as swimming, brisk walking, or using an elliptical machine are ... chap 45. Moyer VA; US Preventive Services Task Force. Screening for gestational diabetes mellitus: US Preventive Services ...

  14. Does a concomitant exposure to lead influence unfavorably the naphthalene subchronic toxicity and toxicokinetics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsnelson, Boris A; Minigaliyeva, Ilzira A; Degtyareva, Tamara D; Privalova, Larisa I; Beresneva, Tatyana A

    2014-01-01

    Rats were given 20 times during 40 d either naphthalene per gavage or the same and lead acetate intraperitoneally in single doses corresponding to 5% of the respective 50% lethal doses. The concomitant exposure to lead not only added some typical indicators of lead toxicity to the moderate naphthalene intoxication picture but also exaggerated some less specific indices for intoxication. However, a number of such indices testified to attenuation of naphthalene's adverse effects under the impact of lead. Lead also lowered urinary excretion of both total and conjugated naphthalene, while the free- to total naphthalene ratio in urine sharply increased. These results corroborate implicitly the initial hypothesis that lead, being an inhibitor of cytochrome P450, hinders phase I of the naphthalene biotransformation and, thus, the formation of derivates which can be more toxic but are capable of entering into reactions of conjugation with resulting detoxication and elimination of naphthalene from the body. © 2013 SETAC.

  15. Prenatal cigarette smoke exposure: pregnancy outcome and gestational changes in plasma nicotine concentration, hematocrit, and carboxyhemoglobin in a newly standardized rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, Svetlana; Hussein, Jabeen; Ariano, Robert E; Sitar, Daniel S; Hasan, Shabih U

    2006-07-15

    Epidemiological studies support an association between perinatal cigarette smoke (CS) exposure and a number of severe pre- and postnatal complications. However, the mechanisms through which CS enhances such risks largely remain unknown. One of the reasons for our inability to discover such mechanisms has been the unavailability of a clinically relevant and physiologically concordant animal model. A number of studies have previously used nicotine (Nic) as surrogate for CS. We sought to (1) establish the amount of CS exposure to achieve plasma Nic concentrations observed among moderate to heavy smokers (20-60 ng/ml), (2) investigate the temporal changes in plasma Nic concentrations, carboxyhemoglobin, and hematocrit with advancing pregnancy, and (3) elucidate the effects of CS exposure on pregnancy outcome. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to various doses of CS or room air (Sham) from days 6 to 21 of gestation. Exposure to 6000 ml/day of CS led to very high plasma Nic concentrations and increased maternal and fetal mortality (P hematocrit were observed in the CS group as compared with the Sham group (P < 0.001). In addition, prenatally CS exposed fetuses had lower birth weight as compared with the Sham group (P = 0.04). Our current study establishes a newly standardized and physiologically relevant model to investigate the mechanisms of CS-mediated adverse effects during the critical period of fetal development.

  16. Developmental exposure to lead and late life abnormalities of nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basha, Riyaz; Reddy, G Rajarami

    2010-07-01

    Role of developmental exposure to environmental agents in altering the disease process is well known. Exposure to chemical agents at critical periods of development may cause some permanent changes in the functioning of various vital systems including the nervous system in the organisms. It is not surprising to see an extensive response due to exposure to chemical agents early in life as the organ systems are more vulnerable to chemical insults during developmental stages. In some cases the response to low level environmental insults may not be obvious until adult or old age. Results from several studies have shown such latency in response to the nervous system leading to neurodegeneration in old age. Studies conducted in murine and primate models provided ample evidence for the association of developmental exposure to low levels of heavy metal lead (Pb) and Alzheimer's disease-like pathology during senescence. It is not clear about the reasons behind such response; however, the contribution of epigenetic mechanisms could explain the role of early events in life in inducing the late life abnormalities of nervous system. It is possible that environmental agents epigenetically modulate the gene regulation to persist the response silent for a long period of time and to result pathological outcomes significantly later in life. This article will summarize the association of early life exposure to environmental agents and late-life abnormalities with an emphasis on developmental exposure to Pb and neurodegeneration in old age.

  17. Association of dental enamel lead levels with risk factors for environmental exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Polido Kaneshiro Olympio

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze household risk factors associated with high lead levels in surface dental enamel. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 160 Brazilian adolescents aged 14-18 years living in poor neighborhoods in the city of Bauru, southeastern Brazil, from August to December 2008. Body lead concentrations were assessed in surface dental enamel acid-etch microbiopsies. Dental enamel lead levels were measured by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry and phosphorus levels were measured by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. The parents answered a questionnaire about their children's potential early (05 years old exposure to well-known lead sources. Logistic regression was used to identify associations between dental enamel lead levels and each environmental risk factor studied. Social and familial covariables were included in the models. RESULTS: The results suggest that the adolescents studied were exposed to lead sources during their first years of life. Risk factors associated with high dental enamel lead levels were living in or close to a contaminated area (OR = 4.49; 95% CI: 1.69;11.97; and member of the household worked in the manufacturing of paints, paint pigments, ceramics or batteries (OR = 3.43; 95% CI: 1.31;9.00. Home-based use of lead-glazed ceramics, low-quality pirated toys, anticorrosive paint on gates and/or sale of used car batteries (OR = 1.31; 95% CI: 0.56;3.03 and smoking (OR = 1.66; 95% CI: 0.52;5.28 were not found to be associated with high dental enamel lead levels. CONCLUSIONS: Surface dental enamel can be used as a marker of past environmental exposure to lead and lead concentrations detected are associated to well-known sources of lead contamination.

  18. Quantile regression in environmental health: Early life lead exposure and end-of-grade exams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magzamen, Sheryl; Amato, Michael S; Imm, Pamela; Havlena, Jeffrey A; Coons, Marjorie J; Anderson, Henry A; Kanarek, Marty S; Moore, Colleen F

    2015-02-01

    Conditional means regression, including ordinary least squares (OLS), provides an incomplete picture of exposure-response relationships particularly if the primary interest resides in the tail ends of the distribution of the outcome. Quantile regression (QR) offers an alternative methodological approach in which the influence of independent covariates on the outcome can be specified at any location along the distribution of the outcome. We implemented QR to examine heterogeneity in the influence of early childhood lead exposure on reading and math standardized fourth grade tests. In children from two urban school districts (n=1,076), lead exposure was associated with an 18.00 point decrease (95% CI: -48.72, -3.32) at the 10th quantile of reading scores, and a 7.50 point decrease (95% CI: -15.58, 2.07) at the 90th quantile. Wald tests indicated significant heterogeneity of the coefficients across the distribution of quantiles. Math scores did not show heterogeneity of coefficients, but there was a significant difference in the lead effect at the 10th (β=-17.00, 95% CI: -32.13, -3.27) versus 90th (β=-4.50, 95% CI: -10.55, 4.50) quantiles. Our results indicate that lead exposure has a greater effect for children in the lower tail of exam scores, a result that is masked by conditional means approaches. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Neural Circuits via Which Single Prolonged Stress Exposure Leads to Fear Extinction Retention Deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Dayan; Stanfield, Briana R.; Staib, Jennifer M.; David, Nina P.; Keller, Samantha M.; DePietro, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Single prolonged stress (SPS) has been used to examine mechanisms via which stress exposure leads to post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms. SPS induces fear extinction retention deficits, but neural circuits critical for mediating these deficits are unknown. To address this gap, we examined the effect of SPS on neural activity in brain regions…

  20. Effects of dietary lead exposure and graded levels of ascorbic acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of dietary lead acetate (LA) exposure on growth performance and haematological characteristics of broiler chickens and possible ameliorative effect of ascorb ic acid (AA) were investigated. One hundred and twenty day-old broiler chicks were randomly divided into six treatment groups of 20 birds with two ...

  1. Letter from Administrator Pruitt on Meeting to Reduce Childhood Lead Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Administrator Pruitt has formally invited members of the President’s Task Force on Environmental Health Risks and Safety Risks to Children to participate in a meeting to discuss next steps in developing a federal strategy to reduce childhood lead exposure.

  2. Cognition in children does not suffer from very low lead exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minder, B; Das-Smaal, E A; Orlebeke, J F

    1998-01-01

    We studied the relationship between exposure to lead and memory and attention in children. Participants were 313 boys aged 9 to 12 years who attended special education schools in the Netherlands. Children whose possible attentional or memory problems were obviously due to causes other than lead contamination were excluded from the study. Cognition was assessed by extensive theory- based testing. Blood lead concentration was measured to assess body lead burden. Possible confounding factors that might affect blood lead level and/or cognitive functioning were assessed. Blood lead levels were higher in children with lower socioeconomic status and in children with more hand-to-mouth behavior, and varied seasonally, with higher values in spring and summer. The mean blood lead level was 44.4 microgram lead per liter blood, which is considered low. Only 2% of the children showed a slightly higher blood lead level than the American safety standard. To obtain robust measures of cognitive aspects, we performed a factor analysis. The results showed that blood lead level did not influence any of the cognitive factors. Therefore this study, despite being designed to maximize the chance of finding an effect in asymptomatic children, does not support a relationship between lead at very low doses (below 100 micrograms/liter blood) and cognition in schoolchildren.

  3. Environmental Lead Exposure among Primary School Children in Shebin El-Kom District, Menoufiya Governorate, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GM Abdel Rasoul

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lead still remains an important problem for poor, inner-city, ethnic minority children, with a particular emphasis on lead paint and dust. In Egypt, there is no national survey about the prevalence of elevated blood lead level among children. Objective: To assess the environmental lead level as well as to determine blood lead level among primary school children and find out its relationship with their intelligent quotient (IQ, hemoglobin level, hearing impairment and school performance. Methods: 190 primary school children from rural and urban areas were selected and their blood lead levels (BLL, hemoglobin concentrations, IQ, hearing threshold and school performance were measured. Also, environmental lead level was measured in the school and home. Results: The mean value of environmental lead (μg/m3 in urban schools air was significantly higher than that in rural areas. BLL had a significant negative correlation with hemoglobin level and IQ; it was positively correlated with the hearing threshold. With increasing BLL, the school performance of children decreased significantly. Conclusion: Exposure to lead would deteriorate IQ, school performance and hearing level of school children. Even in the absence of overt clinical manifestations of lead toxicity, lead intoxication should be among differential diagnosis in children presenting anemia, intellectual impairment, poor academic performance and hearing impairment.

  4. Environmental lead exposure among primary school children in Shebin El-Kom District, Menoufiya Governorate, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Rasoul, G M; Al-Batanony, M A; Mahrous, O A; Abo-Salem, M E; Gabr, H M

    2012-10-01

    Lead still remains an important problem for poor, inner-city, ethnic minority children, with a particular emphasis on lead paint and dust. In Egypt, there is no national survey about the prevalence of elevated blood lead level among children. To assess the environmental lead level as well as to determine blood lead level among primary school children and find out its relationship with their intelligent quotient (IQ), hemoglobin level, hearing impairment and school performance. 190 primary school children from rural and urban areas were selected and their blood lead levels (BLL), hemoglobin concentrations, IQ, hearing threshold and school performance were measured. Also, environmental lead level was measured in the school and home. The mean value of environmental lead (μg/m3) in urban schools air was significantly higher than that in rural areas. BLL had a significant negative correlation with hemoglobin level and IQ; it was positively correlated with the hearing threshold. With increasing BLL, the school performance of children decreased significantly. Exposure to lead would deteriorate IQ, school performance and hearing level of school children. Even in the absence of overt clinical manifestations of lead toxicity, lead intoxication should be among differential diagnosis in children presenting anemia, intellectual impairment, poor academic performance and hearing impairment.

  5. Sex-Dependent Effects of Developmental Lead Exposure on the Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Garima; Singh, Vikrant; Sobolewski, Marissa; Cory-Slechta, Deborah A.; Schneider, Jay S.

    2018-01-01

    The role of sex as an effect modifier of developmental lead (Pb) exposure has until recently received little attention. Lead exposure in early life can affect brain development with persisting influences on cognitive and behavioral functioning, as well as, elevated risks for developing a variety of diseases and disorders in later life. Although both sexes are affected by Pb exposure, the incidence, manifestation, and severity of outcomes appears to differ in males and females. Results from epidemiologic and animal studies indicate significant effect modification by sex, however, the results are not consistent across studies. Unfortunately, only a limited number of human epidemiological studies have included both sexes in independent outcome analyses limiting our ability to draw definitive conclusions regarding sex-differentiated outcomes. Additionally, due to various methodological differences across studies, there is still not a good mechanistic understanding of the molecular effects of lead on the brain and the factors that influence differential responses to Pb based on sex. In this review, focused on prenatal and postnatal Pb exposures in humans and animal models, we discuss current literature supporting sex differences in outcomes in response to Pb exposure and explore some of the ideas regarding potential molecular mechanisms that may contribute to sex-related differences in outcomes from developmental Pb exposure. The sex-dependent variability in outcomes from developmental Pb exposure may arise from a combination of complex factors, including, but not limited to, intrinsic sex-specific molecular/genetic mechanisms and external risk factors including sex-specific responses to environmental stressors which may act through shared epigenetic pathways to influence the genome and behavioral output. PMID:29662502

  6. Developmental Ethanol Exposure Leads to Dysregulation of Lipid Metabolism and Oxidative Stress in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan-Garbisch, Theresa; Bortolazzo, Anthony; Luu, Peter; Ford, Audrey; Do, David; Khodabakhshi, Payam; French, Rachael L.

    2014-01-01

    Ethanol exposure during development causes an array of developmental abnormalities, both physiological and behavioral. In mammals, these abnormalities are collectively known as fetal alcohol effects (FAE) or fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). We have established a Drosophila melanogaster model of FASD and have previously shown that developmental ethanol exposure in flies leads to reduced expression of insulin-like peptides (dILPs) and their receptor. In this work, we link that observation to dysregulation of fatty acid metabolism and lipid accumulation. Further, we show that developmental ethanol exposure in Drosophila causes oxidative stress, that this stress is a primary cause of the developmental lethality and delay associated with ethanol exposure, and, finally, that one of the mechanisms by which ethanol increases oxidative stress is through abnormal fatty acid metabolism. These data suggest a previously uncharacterized mechanism by which ethanol causes the symptoms associated with FASD. PMID:25387828

  7. Exposure of pregnant sows to deoxynivalenol during 35-70 days of gestation does not affect pathomorphological and immunohistochemical properties of fetal organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wippermann, Wolf; Heckmann, Anne; Jäger, Kathrin; Dänicke, Sven; Schoon, Heinz-Adolf

    2017-12-29

    In order to evaluate the influence of deoxynivalenol (DON) on histomorphological and immunohistochemical parameters in the development of porcine fetuses, five pregnant sows were fed a control diet (0.15 mg DON/kg diet) and seven sows a contaminated diet (4.42 mg DON/kg diet) between days 35 and 70 of gestation. On day 70, fetuses were delivered by caesarean section and sows and fetuses were euthanized. Tissue samples of three fetuses from each sow were collected, fixed in formalin, and processed routinely for light microscopy and immunohistochemistry. At necropsy, no macroscopic lesions were observed in any organ of the fetuses. Histomorphological, immunohistochemical, and morphometrical parameters of the immune system, liver, and intestinal tract were examined. The following antibodies were used in the liver, spleen, lymph nodes, thymus, gut, and bone marrow to compare control- and DON-treated animals: (I) CD3 and CD79a (T and B lymphocytes differentiation); (II) myeloid/histiocyte antigen 387 (MAC) (identification of macrophages); (III) Ki-67 Antigen (Ki-67) (proliferation marker); (IV) p-p-38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (p-p38 MAPK) as well as caspase-3 (cas3) and caspase-9 (cas9) (enzymes of apoptosis cascade); (V) tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) (immune-related protein). The results of the study show that exposure of pregnant sows with DON between gestation days 35 and 70 causes no pathomorphologically or immunohistochemically detectable alterations in all fetal organs examined.

  8. Cumulative Lead Exposure and Tooth Loss in Men: The Normative Aging Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Manish; Weuve, Jennifer; Weisskopf, Marc G.; Sparrow, David; Nie, Huiling; Garcia, Raul I.; Hu, Howard

    2009-01-01

    Background Individuals previously exposed to lead remain at risk because of endogenous release of lead stored in their skeletal compartments. However, it is not known if long-term cumulative lead exposure is a risk factor for tooth loss. Objectives We examined the association of bone lead concentrations with loss of natural teeth. Methods We examined 333 men enrolled in the Veterans Affairs Normative Aging Study. We used a validated K-shell X-ray fluorescence (KXRF) method to measure lead concentrations in the tibial midshaft and patella. A dentist recorded the number of teeth remaining, and tooth loss was categorized as 0, 1–8 or ≥ 9 missing teeth. We used proportional odds models to estimate the association of bone lead biomarkers with tooth loss, adjusting for age, smoking, diabetes, and other putative confounders. Results Participants with ≥ 9 missing teeth had significantly higher bone lead concentrations than those who had not experienced tooth loss. In multivariable-adjusted analyses, men in the highest tertile of tibia lead (> 23 μg/g) and patella lead (> 36 μg/g) had approximately three times the odds of having experienced an elevated degree of tooth loss (≥ 9 vs. 0–8 missing teeth or ≥ 1 vs. 0 missing teeth) as those in the lowest tertile [prevalence odds ratio (OR) = 3.03; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.60–5.76 and OR = 2.41; 95% CI, 1.30–4.49, respectively]. Associations between bone lead biomarkers and tooth loss were similar in magnitude to the increased odds observed in participants who were current smokers. Conclusion Long-term cumulative lead exposure is associated with increased odds of tooth loss. PMID:20019902

  9. Exposure to lead induces hypoxia-like responses in bullfrog larvae (Rana catesbeiana)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rice, T.M.; Blackstone, B.J.; Nixdorf, W.L.; Taylor, D.H.

    1999-10-01

    Amphibians collected around mining sites, areas with extensive automobile traffic, and shooting ranges have been documented to contain high levels of lead. Lead-exposed amphibians might respond as if in hypoxic conditions because exposure is known to decrease hemoglobin levels, damage erythrocytes, and alter respiratory surfaces. Therefore, the authors exposed bullfrog larvae to either 0 or 780 {micro}g/L Pb and either 3.50 or 7.85 mg/L oxygen for 7 d and monitored activity, trips to the surface, and buccal ventilation rates. Activity was significantly decreased in larvae exposed to low oxygen, Pb, or both compared to activity of larvae in high oxygen with no Pb. Larvae exposed to both Pb and low oxygen displayed higher buccal ventilation rates than larvae exposed to either treatment separately. Lead-exposed larvae surfaced significantly more often than unexposed larvae even under high-oxygen conditions. Lead-exposed larvae decreased in mass during the exposure period, whereas unexposed larvae increased in mass. Lead exposure could decrease survival of larvae in the field not only because of physiological problems due to decreased oxygen uptake but also because of greater predation pressure due to increased presence at the surface and reduced growth rates.

  10. Lead Exposure: A Summary of Global Studies and the Need for New Studies from Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Shaik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lead poisoning (plumbism can cause irreversible genetic and reproductive toxicity, hematological effects, neurological damage, and cardiovascular effects. Despite many efforts to minimize lead poisoning, it continues to be a major health concern in many developing and developed countries. Despite efforts to control lead exposure and toxicity, serious cases of lead poisoning increasingly occur as a result of higher vehicular traffic and industrialization. The biomarkers for identification of genetic susceptibility to a particular disease are useful to identify individuals who are at risk for lead poisoning. Although many such studies have been taken up elsewhere, very few studies were performed in Saudi Arabia to assess susceptibility to lead poisoning. This indicates an urgent need for testing of susceptible individuals. The present paper was planned to understand the genetic susceptibility to lead toxicity in the various population studies conducted worldwide and also to correlate it with the current scenario in Saudi Arabia. Such studies are necessary for appropriate precautions in terms of diet and avoiding exposure to be used in order to prevent adverse health effects.

  11. Perinatal exposure to lead and cadmium affects anxiety-like behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leret, M.Luisa; Millan, Jose Antonio San; Antonio, M.Teresa

    2003-01-01

    The present study examines the effects of early simultaneous exposure to low level of lead and cadmium on anxiety-like behaviour in the rat, and on monoamine levels in the hypothalamus and hippocampus at weaning and adult animals. Rats were intoxicated with cadmium acetate (10 mg/l) and lead acetate (300 mg/l) in drinking water from the beginning of pregnancy until weaning. Maternal co-exposure to lead and cadmium produced mainly alterations in dopaminergic and serotoninergic systems of hippocampus in both age studied, while noradrenaline content in hypothalamus and hippocampus remained unchanged at 75 days of age. The intoxicated rats showed an increased on indices of anxiety on the elevated plus-maze. These long-term changes in anxiety-like behaviour can be related to dopaminergic and serotoninergic alterations detected in hippocampus

  12. Association between hemochromatosis genotype and lead exposure among elderly men: the normative aging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Robert O; Silverman, Edwin K; Schwartz, Joel; Tsaih, Shring-Wern; Senter, Jody; Sparrow, David; Weiss, Scott T; Aro, Antonio; Hu, Howard

    2004-05-01

    Because body iron burden is inversely associated with lead absorption, genes associated with hemochromatosis may modify body lead burden. Our objective was to determine whether the C282Y and/or H63D hemochromatosis gene (HFE) is associated with body lead burden. Patella and tibia lead levels were measured by K X-ray fluorescence in subjects from the Normative Aging Study. DNA samples were genotyped for C282Y and H63D using polymerase chain reaction/restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR/RFLP). A series of multivariate linear regression models were constructed with bone or blood lead as dependent variables; age, smoking, and education as independent variables; and C282Y or H63D as independent risk factors and/or effect modifiers. Of 730 subjects, 94 (13%) carried the C282Y variant and 183 (25%) carried the H63D variant. In the crude analysis, mean tibia, patella, and blood lead levels were consistently lower in carriers of either HFE variant compared with levels in subjects with wild-type genotypes. In multivariate analyses that adjusted for age, smoking, and education, having an HFE variant allele was an independent predictor of significantly lower patella lead levels (p lead accumulation after exposure. Among elderly men, subjects with HFE variants had lower patella lead levels. These effects may be mediated by alterations in lead toxicokinetics via iron metabolic pathways regulated by the HFE gene product and body iron stores.

  13. Lead bioaccumulation in Opuntia ficus-indica following foliar or root exposure to lead-bearing apatite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hayek, Eliane; El Samrani, Antoine; Lartiges, Bruno; Kazpard, Veronique; Aigouy, Thierry

    2017-01-01

    The contamination of edible leafy vegetables by atmospheric heavy metal-bearing particles is a major issue in environmental toxicology. In this study, the uptake of lead by cladodes of Opuntia ficus-indica (Ofi), traditionally used in Mexican cuisine and in livestock fodder, is investigated after a 4-months exposure of either cladodes or roots to synthetic Pb-fluorapatite particles. Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) for the quantitative analysis of Pb levels, Scanning Electron Microscopy coupled with Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) for the examination of the cladode surface and fate of particles, and Micro-X-ray fluorescence (μXRF) measurements for elemental mapping of Pb in cladodes, were used. The results evidence that foliar contamination may be a major pathway for the transfer of Pb within Ofi cladodes. The stomata, areoles, and cuticle of cladode surface, play an obvious role in the retention and the incorporation of lead-bearing apatite, thus revealing the hazard of eating contaminated cladodes. The possibility of using series of successive cladodes for biomonitoring the atmospheric pollution in arid and semi-arid regions is also rapidly discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Altered miRNA expression in the cervix during pregnancy associated with lead and mercury exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Alison P; Burris, Heather H; Just, Allan C; Motta, Valeria; Amarasiriwardena, Chitra; Svensson, Katherine; Oken, Emily; Solano-Gonzalez, Maritsa; Mercado-Garcia, Adriana; Pantic, Ivan; Schwartz, Joel; Tellez-Rojo, Martha M; Baccarelli, Andrea A; Wright, Robert O

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Toxic metals including lead and mercury are associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. This study aimed to assess the association between miRNA expression in the cervix during pregnancy with lead and mercury levels. Materials & methods: We obtained cervical swabs from pregnant women (n = 60) and quantified cervical miRNA expression. Women's blood lead, bone lead and toenail mercury levels were analyzed. We performed linear regression to examine the association between metal levels and expression of 74 miRNAs adjusting for covariates. Results: Seventeen miRNAs were negatively associated with toenail mercury levels, and tibial bone lead levels were associated with decreased expression of miR-575 and miR-4286. Conclusion: The findings highlight miRNAs in the human cervix as novel responders to maternal chemical exposure during pregnancy. PMID:26418635

  15. Disposition of lead (Pb in blood of rats following oral exposure to lipstick

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashemi-Moghaddam H.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Information about the health risks that might be associated with lipstick consumption effects is scarce in the literature. The present work investigated the bioaccumulation of lead (Pb in blood of rats originated from lipstick sample. First, Lead contents were determined in 12 different brands of lipsticks. Lead was detected in all the studied samples. The average lead content in 14 lipsticks samples was 12.2 PPM wet wt. Then, one brand was selected for feeding to the rats and amount of oral exposing in the three doses was calculated. Sixty rats were used for the experiment. Animals were divided into 4 groups of 15 animals each. While 1group served as control group, the remaining 3 groups were exposed to lipstick through oral gavage for 12 weeks. Results show that, exposure to the lipstick cause significantly disposition of lead in the blood of rats.

  16. Effects of in Utero Exposure to Arsenic during the Second Half of Gestation on Reproductive End Points and Metabolic Parameters in Female CD-1 Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Karina F.; Ungewitter, Erica K.; Crespo-Mejias, Yasmin; Liu, Chang; Nicol, Barbara; Kissling, Grace E.; Yao, Humphrey Hung-Chang

    2015-01-01

    Background Mice exposed to high levels of arsenic in utero have increased susceptibility to tumors such as hepatic and pulmonary carcinomas when they reach adulthood. However, the effects of in utero arsenic exposure on general physiological functions such as reproduction and metabolism remain unclear. Objectives We evaluated the effects of in utero exposure to inorganic arsenic at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) drinking water standard (10 ppb) and at tumor-inducing levels (42.5 ppm) on reproductive end points and metabolic parameters when the exposed females reached adulthood. Methods Pregnant CD-1 mice were exposed to sodium arsenite [none (control), 10 ppb, or 42.5 ppm] in drinking water from gestational day 10 to birth, the window of organ formation. At birth, exposed offspring were fostered to unexposed dams. We examined reproductive end points (age at vaginal opening, reproductive hormone levels, estrous cyclicity, and fertility) and metabolic parameters (body weight changes, hormone levels, body fat content, and glucose tolerance) in the exposed females when they reached adulthood. Results Arsenic-exposed females (10 ppb and 42.5 ppm) exhibited early onset of vaginal opening. Fertility was not affected when females were exposed to the 10-ppb dose. However, the number of litters per female was decreased in females exposed to 42.5 ppm of arsenic in utero. In both 10-ppb and 42.5-ppm groups, arsenic-exposed females had significantly greater body weight gain, body fat content, and glucose intolerance. Conclusion Our findings revealed unexpected effects of in utero exposure to arsenic: exposure to both a human-relevant low dose and a tumor-inducing level led to early onset of vaginal opening and to obesity in female CD-1 mice. Citation Rodriguez KF, Ungewitter EK, Crespo-Mejias Y, Liu C, Nicol B, Kissling GE, Yao HH. 2016. Effects of in utero exposure to arsenic during the second half of gestation on reproductive end points and metabolic

  17. Association of lead and cadmium exposure with frailty in US older adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Esquinas, Esther; Navas-Acien, Ana; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Artalejo, Fernando Rodríguez

    2015-01-01

    Background: Environmental lead and cadmium exposure is associated with higher risk of several age-related chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease and osteoporosis. These diseases may lead to frailty, a geriatric syndrome characterized by diminished physiologic reserve in multiple systems with decreased ability to cope with acute stressors. However, no previous study has evaluated the association between lead or cadmium exposure and frailty. Methods: Cross-sectional study among individuals aged ≥60 years who participated in the third U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and had either blood lead (N=5272) or urine cadmium (N=4887) determinations. Frailty was ascertained with a slight modification of the Fried criteria, so that individuals meeting ≥3 of 5 pre-defined criteria (exhaustion, low body weight, low physical activity, weakness and slow walking speed), were considered as frail. The association between lead and cadmium with frailty was evaluated using logistic regression with adjustment for relevant confounders. Results: Median (intertertile range) concentrations of blood lead and urine cadmium were 3.9 µg/dl (2.9–4.9) and 0.62 µg/l (0.41–0.91), respectively. The prevalence of frailty was 7.1%. The adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of frailty comparing the second and third to the lowest tertile of blood lead were, respectively, 1.40 (0.96–2.04) and 1.75 (1.33–2.31). Lead concentrations were also associated with the frequency of exhaustion, weakness and slowness. The corresponding odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for cadmium were, respectively, 0.97 (0.68–1.39) and 1.55 (1.03–2.32), but this association did not hold after excluding participants with reduced glomerular filtration rate: 0.70 (0.43–1.14) and 1.09 (0.56–2.11), respectively. Conclusions: In the US older adult population, blood lead but not urine cadmium concentrations showed a direct dose

  18. Association of lead and cadmium exposure with frailty in US older adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Esquinas, Esther, E-mail: esthergge@gmail.com [Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, School of Medicine, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid/ IdiPAZ, Madrid (Spain); CIBER of Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain); Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD (United States); Navas-Acien, Ana [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD (United States); Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD (United States); Welch Center for Prevention, Epidemiology, and Clinical Research, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD (United States); Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz [CIBER of Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain); Environmental Epidemiology and Cancer Unit, National Center for Epidemiology, Carlos III Institute of Health, Madrid (Spain); Artalejo, Fernando Rodríguez [Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, School of Medicine, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid/ IdiPAZ, Madrid (Spain); CIBER of Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain)

    2015-02-15

    Background: Environmental lead and cadmium exposure is associated with higher risk of several age-related chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease and osteoporosis. These diseases may lead to frailty, a geriatric syndrome characterized by diminished physiologic reserve in multiple systems with decreased ability to cope with acute stressors. However, no previous study has evaluated the association between lead or cadmium exposure and frailty. Methods: Cross-sectional study among individuals aged ≥60 years who participated in the third U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and had either blood lead (N=5272) or urine cadmium (N=4887) determinations. Frailty was ascertained with a slight modification of the Fried criteria, so that individuals meeting ≥3 of 5 pre-defined criteria (exhaustion, low body weight, low physical activity, weakness and slow walking speed), were considered as frail. The association between lead and cadmium with frailty was evaluated using logistic regression with adjustment for relevant confounders. Results: Median (intertertile range) concentrations of blood lead and urine cadmium were 3.9 µg/dl (2.9–4.9) and 0.62 µg/l (0.41–0.91), respectively. The prevalence of frailty was 7.1%. The adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of frailty comparing the second and third to the lowest tertile of blood lead were, respectively, 1.40 (0.96–2.04) and 1.75 (1.33–2.31). Lead concentrations were also associated with the frequency of exhaustion, weakness and slowness. The corresponding odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for cadmium were, respectively, 0.97 (0.68–1.39) and 1.55 (1.03–2.32), but this association did not hold after excluding participants with reduced glomerular filtration rate: 0.70 (0.43–1.14) and 1.09 (0.56–2.11), respectively. Conclusions: In the US older adult population, blood lead but not urine cadmium concentrations showed a direct dose

  19. Maternal blood, plasma, and breast milk lead: lactational transfer and contribution to infant exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettinger, Adrienne S; Roy, Ananya; Amarasiriwardena, Chitra J; Smith, Donald; Lupoli, Nicola; Mercado-García, Adriana; Lamadrid-Figueroa, Hector; Tellez-Rojo, Martha Maria; Hu, Howard; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio

    2014-01-01

    Human milk is a potential source of lead exposure. Yet lactational transfer of lead from maternal blood into breast milk and its contribution to infant lead burden remains poorly understood. We explored the dose-response relationships between maternal blood, plasma, and breast milk to better understand lactational transfer of lead from blood and plasma into milk and, ultimately, to the breastfeeding infant. We measured lead in 81 maternal blood, plasma, and breast milk samples at 1 month postpartum and in 60 infant blood samples at 3 months of age. Milk-to-plasma (M/P) lead ratios were calculated. Multivariate linear, piecewise, and generalized additive models were used to examine dose-response relationships between blood, plasma, and milk lead levels. Maternal lead levels (mean±SD) were as follows: blood: 7.7±4.0 μg/dL; plasma: 0.1±0.1 μg/L; milk: 0.8±0.7 μg/L. The average M/P lead ratio was 7.7 (range, 0.6-39.8) with 97% of the ratios being >1. The dose-response relationship between plasma lead and M/P ratio was nonlinear (empirical distribution function=6.5, p=0.0006) with the M/P ratio decreasing by 16.6 and 0.6 per 0.1 μg/L of plasma lead, respectively, below and above 0.1 μg/L plasma lead. Infant blood lead level (3.4±2.2 μg/dL) increased by 1.8 μg/dL per 1 μg/L milk lead (pbreastfeeding infants.

  20. Dietary exposure to cadmium, lead and nickel among students from south-east Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzec, Zbigniew; Koch, Wojciech; Marzec, Agnieszka; Żukiewicz-Sobczak, Wioletta

    2014-01-01

    The dietary intake of cadmium, lead and nickel was determined among students from three universities in the city of Lublin in south-east Poland to assess the levels of exposure to these contaminants, compared to PTWI and TDI values. The study was performed in 2006–2010 and involved 850 daily food rations of students. The technique of 24-hour dietary recall and diet duplicates was used. Cadmium, lead and nickel complexes with ammonium-pyrrolidindithiocarbamate were formed and extracted to the organic phase with 4-methylpentan-2-one–MIBK, in which their content was measured by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The highest intake of the elements studied was observed in 2008. The data show that in none of the cases, the level of intake reached 70% of PTWI/TDI values, and thus the risk of developing diseases related to high exposure to these toxic metals absorbed from foodstuffs was low. The parameters of methods were checked during determinations by adding standard solutions to the samples before mineralization and by using two reference materials: Total diet ARC/CL HDP and Bovine muscle RM NIST 8414. The dietary exposure to lead and cadmium has significantly decreased in recent years, whereas the exposures to nickel remains on a stable level.

  1. An exposure and health risk assessment of lead (Pb) in lipstick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnot, Andrew D; Christian, Whitney V; Abramson, Matthew M; Follansbee, Mark H

    2015-06-01

    Lead (Pb) content in lipstick and other consumer products has become an increasing concern. In 2010, the United States Food and Drug Administration tested 400 lipstick samples and found a maximum Pb concentration of 7.19 ppm. To assess the safety of lipstick in adults that chronically apply lipstick as well as instances where children might incidentally ingest lipstick products, the United States Environmental Protection Agency's (US EPA) Adult Lead Model and Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic Model for Lead in Children were used to determine the blood Pb concentrations of adults and children ingesting varying amounts of lipstick of different Pb concentrations. Modeled blood Pb concentrations were compared with oral ingestion guidelines and to the Centers for Disease Control and the US EPA's actionable blood Pb levels of 5 and 10 µg/dL. Background Pb exposure was the primary contributor to estimated blood Pb levels (BLLs) in children and adults, and Pb exposure from lipstick did not significantly increase estimated BLLs. These results suggest that the safety of consumer products and cosmetics should be assessed not only by the presence and amounts of hazardous contents, but also in conjunction with an assessment of estimated background exposures and comparison to health-based standards. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. GESTATIONAL PFOA EXPOSURE OF MICE IS ASSOCIATED WITH ALTERED MAMMARY GLAND DEVELOPMENT IN DAMS AND FEMALE OFFSPRING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), with diverse and widespread commercial and industrial applications, has been detected in human and wildlife sera. Previous mouse studies linked prenatal PFOA exposure to decreased neonatal body weights (BWs) and survival in a dose-dependent manner. ...

  3. Lead, mercury, and cadmium exposure and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Stephani; Arora, Monica; Fernandez, Cristina; Landero, Julio; Caruso, Joseph; Chen, Aimin

    2013-01-01

    Background: There is limited research examining the relationship between lead (Pb) exposure and medically diagnosed attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children. The role of mercury (Hg) and cadmium (Cd) exposures in ADHD development is even less clear. Objectives: To examine the relationship between Pb, Hg, and Cd and ADHD in children living inside and outside a Lead Investigation Area (LIA) of a former lead refinery in Omaha, NE. Methods: We carried out a case-control study with 71 currently medically diagnosed ADHD cases and 58 controls from a psychiatric clinic and a pediatric clinic inside and outside of the LIA. The participants were matched on age group (5–8, 9–12 years), sex, race (African American or Caucasians and others), and location (inside or outside LIA). We measured whole blood Pb, total Hg, and Cd using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Results: Inside the LIA, the 27 cases had blood Pb geometric mean (GM) 1.89 µg/dL and the 41 controls had 1.51 µg/dL. Outside the LIA, the 44 cases had blood Pb GM 1.02 µg/dL while the 17 controls had 0.97 µg/dL. After adjustment for matching variables and maternal smoking, socioeconomic status, and environmental tobacco exposure, each natural log unit blood Pb had an odds ratio of 2.52 with 95% confidence interval of 1.07–5.92. Stratification by the LIA indicated similar point estimate but wider CIs. No associations were observed for Hg or Cd. Conclusions: Postnatal Pb exposure may be associated with higher risk of clinical ADHD, but not the postnatal exposure to Hg or Cd. -- Highlights: • Blood Pb levels are associated with ADHD diagnosis in children. • No association was found between blood Cd or Hg levels and ADHD. • Children living close to hazardous waste site need to reduce metal exposure

  4. Lead, mercury, and cadmium exposure and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Stephani [Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Arora, Monica [Department of Psychiatry, Creighton University School of Medicine, Omaha, NE 68131 (United States); Fernandez, Cristina [Department of Pediatrics, Creighton University School of Medicine, Omaha, NE 68131 (United States); Landero, Julio; Caruso, Joseph [Metallomics Center, Department of Chemistry, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221 (United States); Chen, Aimin, E-mail: aimin.chen@uc.edu [Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States)

    2013-10-15

    Background: There is limited research examining the relationship between lead (Pb) exposure and medically diagnosed attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children. The role of mercury (Hg) and cadmium (Cd) exposures in ADHD development is even less clear. Objectives: To examine the relationship between Pb, Hg, and Cd and ADHD in children living inside and outside a Lead Investigation Area (LIA) of a former lead refinery in Omaha, NE. Methods: We carried out a case-control study with 71 currently medically diagnosed ADHD cases and 58 controls from a psychiatric clinic and a pediatric clinic inside and outside of the LIA. The participants were matched on age group (5–8, 9–12 years), sex, race (African American or Caucasians and others), and location (inside or outside LIA). We measured whole blood Pb, total Hg, and Cd using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Results: Inside the LIA, the 27 cases had blood Pb geometric mean (GM) 1.89 µg/dL and the 41 controls had 1.51 µg/dL. Outside the LIA, the 44 cases had blood Pb GM 1.02 µg/dL while the 17 controls had 0.97 µg/dL. After adjustment for matching variables and maternal smoking, socioeconomic status, and environmental tobacco exposure, each natural log unit blood Pb had an odds ratio of 2.52 with 95% confidence interval of 1.07–5.92. Stratification by the LIA indicated similar point estimate but wider CIs. No associations were observed for Hg or Cd. Conclusions: Postnatal Pb exposure may be associated with higher risk of clinical ADHD, but not the postnatal exposure to Hg or Cd. -- Highlights: • Blood Pb levels are associated with ADHD diagnosis in children. • No association was found between blood Cd or Hg levels and ADHD. • Children living close to hazardous waste site need to reduce metal exposure.

  5. Burden of higher lead exposure in African-Americans starts in utero and persists into childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy-Bushrow, Andrea E; Sitarik, Alexandra R; Havstad, Suzanne; Park, Sung Kyun; Bielak, Lawrence F; Austin, Christine; Johnson, Christine Cole; Arora, Manish

    2017-11-01

    Recent public health lead crises in urban areas emphasize the need to better understand exposure to environmental toxicants, particularly in higher risk groups. Although African-American children have the highest prevalence of elevated blood lead levels in the United States, little is known about when this trajectory of disproportionate burden of lead exposure first emerges. Using tooth-matrix biomarkers that directly measure fetal and early childhood metal levels, the primary goal of this study was to determine if there were racial disparities in lead levels during fetal development and early childhood. Manganese, an essential nutrient that modifies the neurotoxic effects of lead, was also measured. Pregnant women served by the Henry Ford Health System and living in a predefined geographic area in and around Detroit, Michigan, were recruited during the second trimester or later into the Wayne County Health, Environment, Allergy and Asthma Longitudinal Study (WHEALS), a population-based birth cohort. Offspring born between September 2003 and December 2007 were studied in childhood. Child race was parent-reported. Lead and manganese during the second and third trimesters, early postnatal life (birth through age 1year) and early childhood (age 1 through time of tooth shedding, which ranges from 6 to 12years) were measured via high-resolution microspatial mapping of dentin growth rings, a validated biomarker for prenatal and childhood metal exposure. African-American children (N=71) had 2.2 times higher lead levels in the second and third trimesters (both plead levels postnatally in the first year of life (p=0.003) compared to white children (N=51). Lead levels in African-American children were also higher during childhood, but this effect was only marginally significant (p=0.066) and was attenuated after covariate adjustment. Additionally, we observed that African-American children had lower tooth‑manganese levels during the third trimester (p=0.063) and

  6. In utero and early-life exposure of rats to a Wi-Fi signal: screening of immune markers in sera and gestational outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aït-Aïssa, Saliha; Billaudel, Bernard; Poulletier de Gannes, Florence; Ruffié, Gilles; Duleu, Sébastien; Hurtier, Annabelle; Haro, Emmanuelle; Taxile, Murielle; Athané, Axel; Geffard, Michel; Wu, Tongning; Wiart, Joe; Bodet, Dominique; Veyret, Bernard; Lagroye, Isabelle

    2012-07-01

    An experimental approach was used to assess immunological biomarkers in the sera of young rats exposed in utero and postnatal to non-ionizing radiofrequency fields. Pregnant rats were exposed free-running, 2 h/day and 5 days/week to a 2.45 GHz Wi-Fi signal in a reverberation chamber at whole-body specific absorption rates (SAR) of 0, 0.08, 0.4, and 4 W/kg (with 10, 10, 12, and 9 rats, respectively), while cage control rats were kept in the animal facility (11 rats). Dams were exposed from days 6 to 21 of gestation and then three newborns per litter were further exposed from birth to day 35 postnatal. On day 35 after birth, all pups were sacrificed and sera collected. The screening of sera for antibodies directed against 15 different antigens related to damage and/or pathological markers was conducted using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). No change in humoral response of young pups was observed, regardless of the types of biomarker and SAR levels. This study also provided some data on gestational outcome following in utero exposure to Wi-Fi signals. Mass evaluation of dams and pups and the number of pups per litter was monitored, and the genital tracts of young rats were observed for abnormalities by measuring anogenital distance. Under these experimental conditions, our observations suggest a lack of adverse effects of Wi-Fi exposure on delivery and general condition of the animals. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Task-based lead exposures and work site characteristics of bridge surface preparation and painting contractors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virji, M Abbas; Woskie, Susan R; Pepper, Lewis D

    2009-02-01

    This study of bridge painters working for small contractors in Massachusetts investigated the causes of elevated blood lead levels and assessed their exposure to lead. Bridge work sites were evaluated for a 2-week period during which personal and area air samples and information on work site characteristics and lead abatement methods were gathered. Short-duration personal inhalable samples collected from 18 tasks had geometric means (GM) of 3 microg/m(3) to 7286 microg/m(3). Full-shift, time-weighted average (TWA) inhalable samples (>or=6 hours) collected from selected workers and work sites had GMs of 2 microg/m(3) to 15,704 microg/m(3); 80% of samples exceeded the permissible exposure limit (PEL) of 50 microg/m(3), on average by a factor of 30. Area inhalable samples collected from three locations ranged from 2 microg/m(3) to 40,866 microg/m(3) from inside the containment, 2 microg/m(3) to 471 microug/m(3) from a distance of 6 meters from the containment. Seventy nine percent of the area samples from inside the containment exceeded the PEL on average by a factor of 140. Through observations of work site characteristics, opportunities for improving work methods were identified, particularly the institution of engineering controls (which were only occasionally present) and improvement in the design and construction of the containment structure. The high levels of airborne lead exposures indicate a potential for serious exposure hazard for workers and environmental contamination, which can be mitigated through administrative and engineering controls. Although these data were collected over 10 years ago, a 2005 regulatory review by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) of its lead in construction standard reported that elevated lead exposures and blood lead levels, high occurrence of noncompliance with the lead standard, and nonimplementation of newer technology especially among small painting firms employing <10 workers are still widespread. As a

  8. Get the Lead Out: Facts about Childhood Lead Poisoning [and] Housekeeping Tips To Reduce Lead Exposure [and] Nutrition and Lead Poisoning [and] The Medical Consequences of Lead Poisoning [and] Lead Poisoning for Health Care Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois State Dept. of Public Health, Springfield.

    This document is comprised of five fact sheets from the Illinois Department of Public Health regarding childhood lead poisoning. Recent studies claim that childhood lead poisoning can contribute to problems later in life, such as academic failure, juvenile delinquency, and high blood pressure. Directed to parents, caregivers, and health care…

  9. Lead

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... about the health effects of lead in drinking water The law mandates no-lead products for drinking water after ... Waste, and Cleanup Lead Mold Pesticides Radon Science Water A-Z Index Laws & Regulations By Business Sector By Topic Compliance Enforcement ...

  10. Health and medical aspects of an accident leading to a radiological exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-02-01

    Ionising radiation damages on health depend on the amount of energy deposited by radiations inside each organ or tissue cells of the human body (irradiation dose). For a given amount of absorbed energy, damages can vary with the type of radiation, the mode of exposure and the affected organ. The effects are of two type: acute and delayed. This paper describes exposure situations leading to both types of effects, the radiation-induced congenital anomalies, and the indirect effects of radiations as well. (J.S.)

  11. Elevated Blood Lead Levels in Infants and Mothers in Benin and Potential Sources of Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodeau-Livinec, Florence; Glorennec, Philippe; Cot, Michel; Dumas, Pierre; Durand, Séverine; Massougbodji, Achille; Ayotte, Pierre; Le Bot, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Lead in childhood is well known to be associated with poor neurodevelopment. As part of a study on maternal anemia and offspring neurodevelopment, we analyzed blood lead level (BLL) with no prior knowledge of lead exposure in 225 mothers and 685 offspring 1 to 2 years old from Allada, a semi-rural area in Benin, sub-Saharan Africa, between May 2011 and May 2013. Blood samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Environmental assessments in households and isotopic ratio measurements were performed for eight children with BLL > 100 µg/L. High lead levels (BLL > 50 µg/L) were found in 44% of mothers and 58% of children. The median BLL was 55.1 (interquartile range 39.2–85.0) and 46.6 (36.5–60.1) µg/L, respectively. Maternal BLL was associated with offspring’s consumption of piped water and animals killed by ammunition. Children’s BLL was associated with presence of paint chips in the house and consumption of animals killed by ammunition. In this population, with 98% of children still breastfed, children’s BLL was highly associated with maternal BLL on multivariate analyses. Environmental measures and isotopic ratios supported these findings. Offspring may be highly exposed to lead in utero and probably via breastfeeding in addition to lead paint exposure. PMID:26978384

  12. Elevated Blood Lead Levels in Infants and Mothers in Benin and Potential Sources of Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence Bodeau-Livinec

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Lead in childhood is well known to be associated with poor neurodevelopment. As part of a study on maternal anemia and offspring neurodevelopment, we analyzed blood lead level (BLL with no prior knowledge of lead exposure in 225 mothers and 685 offspring 1 to 2 years old from Allada, a semi-rural area in Benin, sub-Saharan Africa, between May 2011 and May 2013. Blood samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Environmental assessments in households and isotopic ratio measurements were performed for eight children with BLL > 100 µg/L. High lead levels (BLL > 50 µg/L were found in 44% of mothers and 58% of children. The median BLL was 55.1 (interquartile range 39.2–85.0 and 46.6 (36.5–60.1 µg/L, respectively. Maternal BLL was associated with offspring’s consumption of piped water and animals killed by ammunition. Children’s BLL was associated with presence of paint chips in the house and consumption of animals killed by ammunition. In this population, with 98% of children still breastfed, children’s BLL was highly associated with maternal BLL on multivariate analyses. Environmental measures and isotopic ratios supported these findings. Offspring may be highly exposed to lead in utero and probably via breastfeeding in addition to lead paint exposure.

  13. Prenatal exposure to lead in Spain: Cord blood levels and associated factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llop, Sabrina, E-mail: llop_sab@gva.es [Centre of Public Health Research (CSISP), Av Catalunya 21, 46020, Valencia (Spain); Carlos III Health Institute (ISCIII), 20220 Majadahonda, Madrid (Spain); CIBER de Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Aguinagalde, Xabier [Public Health Laboratory of Alava, Direccion de Salud Publica, Gobierno Vasco, Santiago 11, 01002, Vitoria-Gasteiz, Basque Country (Spain); Vioque, Jesus [CIBER de Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Universidad Miguel Hernandez, Av de Alicante KM 87, 03550, Sant Joan d' Alacant (Spain); Ibarluzea, Jesus [CIBER de Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Departamento de Sanidad Gobierno Vasco, Subdireccion de Salud Publica de Gipuzkoa, Avenida de Navarra 4, 20013 San Sebastian (Spain); Biodonostia, Instituto de Investigacion Biomedica, San Sebastian (Spain); Guxens, Monica [CIBER de Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Centre for Research of Environmental Epidemiology (CREAL), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Municipal Institute of Medical Research (IMIM-Hospital del Mar), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Casas, Maribel [Centre for Research of Environmental Epidemiology (CREAL), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Municipal Institute of Medical Research (IMIM-Hospital del Mar), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Murcia, Mario [Centre of Public Health Research (CSISP), Av Catalunya 21, 46020, Valencia (Spain); CIBER de Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Ruiz, Maria [Centre for Research of Environmental Epidemiology (CREAL), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Municipal Institute of Medical Research (IMIM-Hospital del Mar), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); and others

    2011-05-01

    Introduction and Objective: Lead is a known neurotoxic. Fetuses and infants are very vulnerable to lead exposure, since their blood-brain barrier is not completely formed. Hence, there is an importance for monitoring of blood lead levels prenatally and during early infancy. The aim of this study is to evaluate the prenatal exposure to lead and its association with maternal factors in four population based mother-child cohorts in Spain. The present research was carried out within the framework of the INMA project INfancia y Medio Ambiente (Environment and Childhood). Methods: A total of 1462 pregnant women were recruited between 2004 and 2008. Lead was analyzed in a sample of cord blood by thermal decomposition, amalgation, and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. Maternal sociodemographic, lifestyle and dietary factors were obtained by questionnaires during pregnancy. A multivariate logistic regression model was constructed. The dependent variable was a dichotomous lead level variable (detected vs no detected, i.e. {>=} vs < 2 {mu}g/dL). Results: A low percentage of cord blood samples with lead levels {>=} 2 {mu}g/dL were found (5.9%). Geometric mean and maximum were 1.06 {mu}g/dL and 19 {mu}g/dL, respectively. Smoking at the beginning of pregnancy, age, social class, weight gain during pregnancy, gravidity, and place of residence were the maternal factors associated with detectable cord blood lead levels. Mother's diet does not appear to be a determining factor of lead exposure. Nevertheless, daily intake of iron and zinc may act as a protective factor against having cord blood lead levels {>=} 2 {mu}g/dL. Conclusion: In the different regions of Spain taking part in this study, lead levels to which newborns are exposed are low. Mobilization of lead from bones may be the main contributor to the cord blood levels. - Research Highlights: {yields} Pb is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant with harmful effects on neurodevelopment. {yields} Cord blood Pb levels in

  14. Prenatal exposure to lead in Spain: Cord blood levels and associated factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llop, Sabrina; Aguinagalde, Xabier; Vioque, Jesus; Ibarluzea, Jesus; Guxens, Monica; Casas, Maribel; Murcia, Mario; Ruiz, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Introduction and Objective: Lead is a known neurotoxic. Fetuses and infants are very vulnerable to lead exposure, since their blood-brain barrier is not completely formed. Hence, there is an importance for monitoring of blood lead levels prenatally and during early infancy. The aim of this study is to evaluate the prenatal exposure to lead and its association with maternal factors in four population based mother-child cohorts in Spain. The present research was carried out within the framework of the INMA project INfancia y Medio Ambiente (Environment and Childhood). Methods: A total of 1462 pregnant women were recruited between 2004 and 2008. Lead was analyzed in a sample of cord blood by thermal decomposition, amalgation, and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. Maternal sociodemographic, lifestyle and dietary factors were obtained by questionnaires during pregnancy. A multivariate logistic regression model was constructed. The dependent variable was a dichotomous lead level variable (detected vs no detected, i.e. ≥ vs < 2 μg/dL). Results: A low percentage of cord blood samples with lead levels ≥ 2 μg/dL were found (5.9%). Geometric mean and maximum were 1.06 μg/dL and 19 μg/dL, respectively. Smoking at the beginning of pregnancy, age, social class, weight gain during pregnancy, gravidity, and place of residence were the maternal factors associated with detectable cord blood lead levels. Mother's diet does not appear to be a determining factor of lead exposure. Nevertheless, daily intake of iron and zinc may act as a protective factor against having cord blood lead levels ≥ 2 μg/dL. Conclusion: In the different regions of Spain taking part in this study, lead levels to which newborns are exposed are low. Mobilization of lead from bones may be the main contributor to the cord blood levels. - Research Highlights: → Pb is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant with harmful effects on neurodevelopment. → Cord blood Pb levels in Spanish newborn are low in

  15. Assessment of lead exposure in Spanish imperial eagle (Aquila adalberti) from spent ammunition in central Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Ramos Fernandez, Julia; Höfle, Ursula; Mateo, Rafael; Nicolas de Francisco, Olga; Abbott, Rachel; Acevedo, Pelayo; Blanco, Juan Manuel

    2011-06-01

    The Spanish imperial eagle (Aquila adalberti) is found only in the Iberian Peninsula and is considered one of the most threatened birds of prey in Europe. Here we analyze lead concentrations in bones (n = 84), livers (n = 15), primary feathers (n = 69), secondary feathers (n = 71) and blood feathers (n = 14) of 85 individuals collected between 1997 and 2008 in central Spain. Three birds (3.6%) had bone lead concentration > 20 μg/g and all livers were within background lead concentration. Bone lead concentrations increased with the age of the birds and were correlated with lead concentration in rachis of secondary feathers. Spatial aggregation of elevated bone lead concentration was found in some areas of Montes de Toledo. Lead concentrations in feathers were positively associated with the density of large game animals in the area where birds were found dead or injured. Discontinuous lead exposure in eagles was evidenced by differences in lead concentration in longitudinal portions of the rachis of feathers.

  16. Assessment of lead exposure in Spanish imperial eagle (Aquila adalberti) from spent ammunition in central Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Julia Rodriguez-Ramos; Hofle, Ursula; Mateo, Rafael; de Francisco, Olga Nicolas; Abbott, Rachel; Acevedo, Pelayo; Blanco, Juan-Manuel

    2011-01-01

    The Spanish imperial eagle (Aquila adalberti) is found only in the Iberian Peninsula and is considered one of the most threatened birds of prey in Europe. Here we analyze lead concentrations in bones (n = 84), livers (n = 15), primary feathers (n = 69), secondary feathers (n = 71) and blood feathers (n = 14) of 85 individuals collected between 1997 and 2008 in central Spain. Three birds (3.6%) had bone lead concentration > 20 (mu or u)g/g and all livers were within background lead concentration. Bone lead concentrations increased with the age of the birds and were correlated with lead concentration in rachis of secondary feathers. Spatial aggregation of elevated bone lead concentration was found in some areas of Montes de Toledo. Lead concentrations in feathers were positively associated with the density of large game animals in the area where birds were found dead or injured. Discontinuous lead exposure in eagles was evidenced by differences in lead concentration in longitudinal portions of the rachis of feathers.

  17. From Lead Exposure in Early Childhood to Adolescent Health: A Chicago Birth Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Alix S; Sampson, Robert J

    2017-09-01

    To assess the relationships between childhood lead exposure and 3 domains of later adolescent health: mental, physical, and behavioral. We followed a random sample of birth cohort members from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods, recruited in 1995 to 1997, to age 17 years and matched to childhood blood test results from the Department of Public Health. We used ordinary least squares regression, coarsened exact matching, and instrumental variables to assess the relationship between average blood lead levels in childhood and impulsivity, anxiety or depression, and body mass index in adolescence. All models adjusted for relevant individual, household, and neighborhood characteristics. After adjustment, a 1 microgram per deciliter increase in average childhood blood lead level significantly predicts 0.06 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.01, 0.12) and 0.09 (95% CI = 0.03, 0.16) SD increases and a 0.37 (95% CI = 0.11, 0.64) point increase in adolescent impulsivity, anxiety or depression, and body mass index, respectively, following ordinary least squares regression. Results following matching and instrumental variable strategies are very similar. Childhood lead exposure undermines adolescent well-being, with implications for the persistence of racial and class inequalities, considering structural patterns of initial exposure.

  18. A summary of two meta-analyses on neurobehavioural effects due to occupational lead exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seeber, Andreas; Meyer-Baron, Monika; Schaeper, Michael [Institut fuer Arbeitsphysiologie, Universitaet Dortmund (Germany)

    2002-04-01

    The conclusions from published results about neurotoxic effects of inorganic lead exposures <700 {mu}g lead/l blood are contradictory at present. Effects measured by neurobehavioural methods are evaluated differently as far as recommendations for a Biological Exposure Index (BEI) of occupational lead exposure are concerned. Arguments against the German BEI of 400 {mu}g/l were put forward in new publications, and discussion of the issues is the aim of this article. It summarizes two different meta-analytical reviews on neurobehavioural effects in order to show the main tendencies of 24 selected publications on the matter. Calculations on effect sizes are compiled for 12 tests analysed in two meta-analyses and of ten tests analysed in one of the meta-analyses. The survey of six tests of learning and memory gives hints on impairments measured with two tests, covering Logical Memory and Visual Reproduction. The survey of seven tests of attention and visuospatial information processing describes impairments in four tests, namely Simple Reaction, Attention Test d2, Block Design, and Picture Completion. The survey of four tests for psychomotor functions shows impairments for three tests, namely Santa Ana, Grooved Pegboard, and Eye-hand Coordination. These test results provide evidence for subtle deficits being associated with average blood lead levels between 370 and 520 {mu}g/l. In evaluating the adversity of such effects it is concluded that the results of both meta-analytical reviews support the recommendation for the German BEI. (orig.)

  19. Lead Exposure Assessment among Pregnant Women, Newborns, and Children: Case Study from Karachi, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatmi, Zafar; Sahito, Ambreen; Ikegami, Akihiko; Mizuno, Atsuko; Cui, Xiaoyi; Mise, Nathan; Takagi, Mai; Kobayashi, Yayoi; Kayama, Fujio

    2017-04-13

    Lead (Pb) in petrol has been banned in developed countries. Despite the control of Pb in petrol since 2001, high levels were reported in the blood of pregnant women and children in Pakistan. However, the identification of sources of Pb has been elusive due to its pervasiveness. In this study, we assessed the lead intake of pregnant women and one- to three-year-old children from food, water, house dust, respirable dust, and soil. In addition, we completed the fingerprinting of the Pb isotopic ratios (LIR) of petrol and secondary sources (food, house-dust, respirable dust, soil, surma (eye cosmetics)) of exposure within the blood of pregnant women, newborns, and children. Eight families, with high (~50 μg/dL), medium (~20 μg/dL), and low blood levels (~10 μg/dL), were selected from 60 families. The main sources of exposure to lead for children were food and house-dust, and those for pregnant women were soil, respirable dust, and food. LIR was determined by inductively coupled plasma quadrupole mass spectrometry (ICP-QMS) with a two sigma uncertainty of ±0.03%. The LIR of mothers and newborns was similar. In contrast, surma , and to a larger extent petrol, exhibited a negligible contribution to both the child's and mother's blood Pb. Household wet-mopping could be effective in reducing Pb exposure. This intake assessment could be replicated for other developing countries to identify sources of lead and the burden of lead exposure in the population.

  20. Lead and cadmium exposure in children living around a coal-mining area in Yataan, Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulcin Yapici; Gunay Can; Ali Riza Kiziler (and others) [Mersin University, Mersin (Turkey). Department of Public Health

    2006-09-15

    The study was designed to determine asymptomatic lead poisoning prevalence and cadmium exposure of preschool children living in a coal-mining area in Yataan, Mugla, Turkey. The research was conducted between May and June 2002. The study included 236 healthy children (53.4% female and 46.6% male) between the ages of 6 months and 6 years. Assessments of the levels of blood lead and cadmium were performed by an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Themean blood lead level of the males was higher than the females.There was a negative correlation between blood lead level and age in both sex groups. The blood lead level was found to be > 10 {mu}g/dL in 95.7% and > 20 {mu}g/dL in 87.6% of all children. The mean blood cadmium level of all children was 1.31{+-}0.72 mg/dL. The blood cadmium level was found to be > 0.5 {mu}g/dL, which is considered to be toxic, in 85% of all children. The difference in blood cadmium levels between sexes was not significant. A negative correlation was found between blood cadmium level and age of all children. Although it is not possible to understand from this study what proportion of the biological lead and cadmium burden results from mining waste and what proportion comes from other sources, these results indicate that asymptomatic lead poisoning and cadmium exposure are significant problems in children living in the Yataan area. Environmental lead measurements must be performed, the results must be compared with the normal limits, and precautions must be taken if necessary in the Yataan area. Public health research efforts should focus on reducing the excessive levels of lead and cadmium in the environment.

  1. [Effects of lead exposure on the human body and health implications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Fátima Ramos; Moreira, Josino Costa

    2004-02-01

    To review the literature concerning the risks associated with exposure to lead and lead compounds, especially in children and in populations that are occupationally exposed. Using "chumbo" [lead] and "efeitos" [effects] as search terms, two large databases, namely PubMed (United States National Library of Medicine) and LILACS (Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde [Latin American and Caribbean Literature in the Health Sciences]), were searched for studies on lead toxicity from 1988 to 2002. Other sources used to conduct the search include the web page of the United States Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, in Atlanta, Georgia, and the library of the Toxicology Laboratory of the Center for Workers' Health and Human Ecology at the National School of Public Health [Centro de Estudos da Saúde de Trabalhador e Ecologia Humana, Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública], Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The toxic effects of lead and lead compounds have been extensively studied for over a century. In recent years, epidemiologic studies have focused primarily on the neurotoxic effects of lead on children, particularly in terms of impaired intellectual ability and behavioral problems. However, there is still insufficient information on the mechanisms of action that account for such toxicity. More in-depth studies are also needed on the effects of lead exposure on bone, the central nervous system, the cardiovascular system, the kidneys, the liver, the male and female reproductive systems, and the endocrine system. The potential teratogenicity and carcinogenicity of lead, as well as its effect on pregnancy outcomes and neonatal growth and development, also require further study.

  2. Soil intervention as a strategy for lead exposure prevention: The New Orleans lead-safe childcare playground project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mielke, Howard W., E-mail: howard.mielke@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA 70118 (United States); Center for Bioenvironmental Research at Tulane and Xavier Universities, 1430 Tulane Avenue SL-3, New Orleans, LA 70112 (United States); Covington, Tina P. [Charity School of Nursing, Delgado Community College, New Orleans, LA 70112-1397 (United States); College of Nursing, University of South Alabama, Doctor of Nursing Practice Program (student), Mobile AL 36688-0002 (United States); Mielke, Paul W. [Department of Statistics, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523-1877 (United States); Wolman, Fredericka J. [Director of Pediatrics, Department of Children and Families, State of Connecticut, Hartford, CT 06473 (United States); Powell, Eric T.; Gonzales, Chris R. [Lead Lab, Inc., New Orleans, LA 70179-1125 (United States)

    2011-08-15

    The feasibility of reducing children's exposure to lead (Pb) polluted soil in New Orleans is tested. Childcare centers (median = 48 children) are often located in former residences. The extent of soil Pb was determined by selecting centers in both the core and outlying areas. The initial 558 mg/kg median soil Pb (range 14-3692 mg/kg) decreased to median 4.1 mg/kg (range 2.2-26.1 mg/kg) after intervention with geotextile covered by 15 cm of river alluvium. Pb loading decreased from a median of 4887 {mu}g/m{sup 2} (454 {mu}g/ft{sup 2}) range 603-56650 {mu}g/m{sup 2} (56-5263 {mu}g/ft{sup 2}) to a median of 398 {mu}g/m{sup 2} (37 {mu}g/ft{sup 2}) range 86-980 {mu}g/m{sup 2} (8-91 {mu}g/ft{sup 2}). Multi-Response Permutation Procedures indicate similar (P-values = 0.160-0.231) soil Pb at childcare centers compared to soil Pb of nearby residential communities. At {approx}$100 per child, soil Pb and surface loading were reduced within hours, advancing an upstream intervention conceptualization about Pb exposure prevention. - Highlights: > Upstream thinking refers to attending to causative agents that affect outcomes. > New Orleans has a high density soil Pb map of all residential communities. > Many childcare centers are located in Pb polluted residential communities. > Evaluation of childcare center playground soils substantiated severe Pb pollution. > Pursuing upstream thinking, low Pb soil was put on playgrounds to protect children. - Within hours, at a cost of about U.S. $100 (2010) per child, it is feasible to transform exterior play areas at childcare centers from Pb contaminated to Pb-safe with a large margin of safety.

  3. Soil intervention as a strategy for lead exposure prevention: The New Orleans lead-safe childcare playground project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mielke, Howard W.; Covington, Tina P.; Mielke, Paul W.; Wolman, Fredericka J.; Powell, Eric T.; Gonzales, Chris R.

    2011-01-01

    The feasibility of reducing children's exposure to lead (Pb) polluted soil in New Orleans is tested. Childcare centers (median = 48 children) are often located in former residences. The extent of soil Pb was determined by selecting centers in both the core and outlying areas. The initial 558 mg/kg median soil Pb (range 14-3692 mg/kg) decreased to median 4.1 mg/kg (range 2.2-26.1 mg/kg) after intervention with geotextile covered by 15 cm of river alluvium. Pb loading decreased from a median of 4887 μg/m 2 (454 μg/ft 2 ) range 603-56650 μg/m 2 (56-5263 μg/ft 2 ) to a median of 398 μg/m 2 (37 μg/ft 2 ) range 86-980 μg/m 2 (8-91 μg/ft 2 ). Multi-Response Permutation Procedures indicate similar (P-values = 0.160-0.231) soil Pb at childcare centers compared to soil Pb of nearby residential communities. At ∼$100 per child, soil Pb and surface loading were reduced within hours, advancing an upstream intervention conceptualization about Pb exposure prevention. - Highlights: → Upstream thinking refers to attending to causative agents that affect outcomes. → New Orleans has a high density soil Pb map of all residential communities. → Many childcare centers are located in Pb polluted residential communities. → Evaluation of childcare center playground soils substantiated severe Pb pollution. → Pursuing upstream thinking, low Pb soil was put on playgrounds to protect children. - Within hours, at a cost of about U.S. $100 (2010) per child, it is feasible to transform exterior play areas at childcare centers from Pb contaminated to Pb-safe with a large margin of safety.

  4. Lead bullet fragments in venison from rifle-killed deer: potential for human dietary exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Grainger Hunt

    Full Text Available Human consumers of wildlife killed with lead ammunition may be exposed to health risks associated with lead ingestion. This hypothesis is based on published studies showing elevated blood lead concentrations in subsistence hunter populations, retention of ammunition residues in the tissues of hunter-killed animals, and systemic, cognitive, and behavioral disorders associated with human lead body burdens once considered safe. Our objective was to determine the incidence and bioavailability of lead bullet fragments in hunter-killed venison, a widely-eaten food among hunters and their families. We radiographed 30 eviscerated carcasses of White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus shot by hunters with standard lead-core, copper-jacketed bullets under normal hunting conditions. All carcasses showed metal fragments (geometric mean = 136 fragments, range = 15-409 and widespread fragment dispersion. We took each carcass to a separate meat processor and fluoroscopically scanned the resulting meat packages; fluoroscopy revealed metal fragments in the ground meat packages of 24 (80% of the 30 deer; 32% of 234 ground meat packages contained at least one fragment. Fragments were identified as lead by ICP in 93% of 27 samples. Isotope ratios of lead in meat matched the ratios of bullets, and differed from background lead in bone. We fed fragment-containing venison to four pigs to test bioavailability; four controls received venison without fragments from the same deer. Mean blood lead concentrations in pigs peaked at 2.29 microg/dL (maximum 3.8 microg/dL 2 days following ingestion of fragment-containing venison, significantly higher than the 0.63 microg/dL averaged by controls. We conclude that people risk exposure to bioavailable lead from bullet fragments when they eat venison from deer killed with standard lead-based rifle bullets and processed under normal procedures. At risk in the U.S. are some ten million hunters, their families, and low

  5. [Effects of prenatal exposure to low level lead on learning and memory of rats' offspring].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Bo; Han, Chang-cheng; Sun, Xia; Peng, Liang; Niu, Yu-jie

    2006-07-01

    To explore the effects of prenatal exposure to low level lead on learning and memory of rat's offspring. The pregnant rats were randomizedly divided into 4 groups and provided with doubly evaporated water in the control group and 125, 250 and 500 mg/L lead acetate solution via drinking water in three exposed groups respectively during the pregnancy. The learning and memory ability of 21-day old and 60-day old offsprings were tested by the Morris water maze and the shuttling and avoiding dark box respectively. The blood and hippocampus lead concentrations of 1-day old and 21-day old offspring in the 3 lead-exposed groups were significantly increased compared with the control group (P memory ability of offsprings of the rats, and this kind of influence will continue till the offspring's maturity.

  6. Lead, mercury, and cadmium exposure and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Stephani; Arora, Monica; Fernandez, Cristina; Landero, Julio; Caruso, Joseph; Chen, Aimin

    2013-10-01

    There is limited research examining the relationship between lead (Pb) exposure and medically diagnosed attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children. The role of mercury (Hg) and cadmium (Cd) exposures in ADHD development is even less clear. To examine the relationship between Pb, Hg, and Cd and ADHD in children living inside and outside a Lead Investigation Area (LIA) of a former lead refinery in Omaha, NE. We carried out a case-control study with 71 currently medically diagnosed ADHD cases and 58 controls from a psychiatric clinic and a pediatric clinic inside and outside of the LIA. The participants were matched on age group (5-8, 9-12 years), sex, race (African American or Caucasians and others), and location (inside or outside LIA). We measured whole blood Pb, total Hg, and Cd using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Inside the LIA, the 27 cases had blood Pb geometric mean (GM) 1.89 µg/dL and the 41 controls had 1.51 µg/dL. Outside the LIA, the 44 cases had blood Pb GM 1.02 µg/dL while the 17 controls had 0.97 µg/dL. After adjustment for matching variables and maternal smoking, socioeconomic status, and environmental tobacco exposure, each natural log unit blood Pb had an odds ratio of 2.52 with 95% confidence interval of 1.07-5.92. Stratification by the LIA indicated similar point estimate but wider CIs. No associations were observed for Hg or Cd. Postnatal Pb exposure may be associated with higher risk of clinical ADHD, but not the postnatal exposure to Hg or Cd. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Exposure rate constants and lead shielding values for over 1,100 radionuclides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David S; Stabin, Michael G

    2012-03-01

    The authors have assembled a compilation of exposure rate constants, ƒ-factors, and lead shielding thicknesses for more than 1,100 radionuclides described in ICRP Publication 107. Physical data were taken from well established reference sources for mass-energy absorption coefficients in air, attenuation coefficients, and buildup factors in lead and other variables.The data agreed favorably for the most part with those of other investigators; thus this compilation provides an up-to-date and sizeable database of these data, which are of interest to many for routine calculations. Emissions were also segregated by emitting nuclide, and decay product emissions were emitted from the calculated coefficients, thus for the first time providing for the calculation of exposure rates from arbitrary mixtures of nuclides in arbitrary equilibrium states.

  8. Low-level lead exposure and autistic behaviors in school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung-Nam; Kwon, Ho-Jang; Hong, Yun-Chul

    2016-03-01

    The association between lead exposure and autism spectrum disorder is inconclusive. We hypothesized an association between higher blood lead concentrations and more autistic behaviors, including impaired social interactions and communication, stereotypical behaviors, and restricted interests, among school-age children. Data from 2473 Korean children aged 7-8years who had no prior history of developmental disorders were analyzed. Two follow-up surveys were conducted biennially until the children reached 11-12years of age. Blood lead concentrations were measured at every survey, and autistic behaviors were evaluated at 11-12years of age using the Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire (ASSQ) and Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS). The associations of blood lead concentration with ASSQ and SRS scores were analyzed using negative binomial, logistic, and linear regression models. Blood lead concentrations at 7-8years of age (geometric mean: 1.64μg/dL), but not at 9-10 and 11-12years of age, were associated with more autistic behaviors at 11-12years of age, according to the ASSQ (β=0.151; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.061, 0.242) and SRS (β=2.489; 95% CI: 1.378, 3.600). SRS subscale analysis also revealed associations between blood lead concentrations and social awareness, cognition, communication, motivation, and mannerisms. Even low blood lead concentrations at 7-8years of age are associated with more autistic behaviors at 11-12years of age, underscoring the need for continued efforts to reduce lead exposure. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Acute exposure to lead increases myocardial contractility independent of hypertension development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fioresi, M. [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Fisiológicas, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Vitória, ES (Brazil); Departamento de Enfermagem, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Vitória, ES (Brazil); Furieri, L.B.; Simões, M.R.; Ribeiro, R.F. Junior; Meira, E.F.; Fernandes, A.A.; Stefanon, I. [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Fisiológicas, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Vitória, ES (Brazil); Vassallo, D.V. [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Fisiológicas, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Vitória, ES (Brazil); Centro de Ciências da Saúde de Vitória, Escola Superior de Ciências da Santa Casa de Misericórdia de Vitória, Vitória, ES (Brazil)

    2013-02-01

    We studied the effects of the acute administration of small doses of lead over time on hemodynamic parameters in anesthetized rats to determine if myocardial contractility changes are dependent or not on the development of hypertension. Male Wistar rats received 320 µg/kg lead acetate iv once, and their hemodynamic parameters were measured for 2 h. Cardiac contractility was evaluated in vitro using left ventricular papillary muscles as were Na{sup +},K{sup +}-ATPase and myosin Ca{sup 2+}-ATPase activities. Lead increased left- (control: 112 ± 3.7 vs lead: 129 ± 3.2 mmHg) and right-ventricular systolic pressures (control: 28 ± 1.2 vs lead: 34 ± 1.2 mmHg) significantly without modifying heart rate. Papillary muscles were exposed to 8 µM lead acetate and evaluated 60 min later. Isometric contractions increased (control: 0.546 ± 0.07 vs lead: 0.608 ± 0.06 g/mg) and time to peak tension decreased (control: 268 ± 13 vs lead: 227 ± 5.58 ms), but relaxation time was unchanged. Post-pause potentiation was similar between groups (n = 6 per group), suggesting no change in sarcoplasmic reticulum activity, evaluated indirectly by this protocol. After 1-h exposure to lead acetate, the papillary muscles became hyperactive in response to a β-adrenergic agonist (10 µM isoproterenol). In addition, post-rest contractions decreased, suggesting a reduction in sarcolemmal calcium influx. The heart samples treated with 8 µM lead acetate presented increased Na{sup +},K{sup +}-ATPase (approximately 140%, P < 0.05 for control vs lead) and myosin ATPase (approximately 30%, P < 0.05 for control vs lead) activity. Our results indicated that acute exposure to low lead concentrations produces direct positive inotropic and lusitropic effects on myocardial contractility and increases the right and left ventricular systolic pressure, thus potentially contributing to the early development of hypertension.

  10. Exposure of unwounded plants to chemical cues associated with herbivores leads to exposure-dependent changes in subsequent herbivore attack.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John L Orrock

    Full Text Available Although chemical predator cues often lead to changes in the anti-predator behavior of animal prey, it is not clear whether non-volatile herbivore kairomones (i.e. incidental chemical cues produced by herbivore movement or metabolism but not produced by an attack trigger the induction of defense in plants prior to attack. I found that unwounded plants (Brassica nigra that were regularly exposed to kairomones from snails (mucus and feces produced during movement of Helix aspersa subsequently experienced reduced rates of attack by snails, unlike unwounded plants that received only one initial early exposure to snail kairomones. A follow-up experiment found that mucus alone did not affect snail feeding on previously harvested B. oleracea leaves, suggesting that changes in herbivory on B. nigra were due to changes in plant quality. The finding that chemicals associated with herbivores leads to changes in palatability of unwounded plants suggests that plants eavesdrop on components of non-volatile kairomones of their snail herbivores. Moreover, this work shows that the nature of plant exposure matters, supporting the conclusion that plants that have not been attacked or wounded nonetheless tailor their use of defenses based on incidental chemical information associated with herbivores and the timing with which cues of potential attack are encountered.

  11. Exposure of unwounded plants to chemical cues associated with herbivores leads to exposure-dependent changes in subsequent herbivore attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orrock, John L

    2013-01-01

    Although chemical predator cues often lead to changes in the anti-predator behavior of animal prey, it is not clear whether non-volatile herbivore kairomones (i.e. incidental chemical cues produced by herbivore movement or metabolism but not produced by an attack) trigger the induction of defense in plants prior to attack. I found that unwounded plants (Brassica nigra) that were regularly exposed to kairomones from snails (mucus and feces produced during movement of Helix aspersa) subsequently experienced reduced rates of attack by snails, unlike unwounded plants that received only one initial early exposure to snail kairomones. A follow-up experiment found that mucus alone did not affect snail feeding on previously harvested B. oleracea leaves, suggesting that changes in herbivory on B. nigra were due to changes in plant quality. The finding that chemicals associated with herbivores leads to changes in palatability of unwounded plants suggests that plants eavesdrop on components of non-volatile kairomones of their snail herbivores. Moreover, this work shows that the nature of plant exposure matters, supporting the conclusion that plants that have not been attacked or wounded nonetheless tailor their use of defenses based on incidental chemical information associated with herbivores and the timing with which cues of potential attack are encountered.

  12. Tracing fetal and childhood exposure to lead using isotope analysis of deciduous teeth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepherd, Thomas J.; Dirks, Wendy; Roberts, Nick M.W.; Patel, Jaiminkumar G.; Hodgson, Susan; Pless-Mulloli, Tanja; Walton, Pamela; Parrish, Randall R.

    2016-01-01

    We report progress in using the isotopic composition and concentration of Pb in the dentine and enamel of deciduous teeth to provide a high resolution time frame of exposure to Pb during fetal development and early childhood. Isotope measurements (total Pb and 208 Pb/ 206 Pb, 207 Pb/ 206 Pb ratios) were acquired by laser ablation inductively coupled mass spectrometry at contiguous 100 micron intervals across thin sections of the teeth; from the outer enamel surface to the pulp cavity. Teeth samples (n=10) were selected from two cohorts of children, aged 5–8 years, living in NE England. By integrating the isotope data with histological analysis of the teeth, using the daily incremental lines in dentine, we were able to assign true estimated ages to each ablation point (first 2–3 years for molars, first 1–2 years for incisors+pre-natal growth). Significant differences were observed in the isotope composition and concentration of Pb between children, reflecting differences in the timing and sources of exposure during early childhood. Those born in 2000, after the withdrawal of leaded petrol in 1999, have the lowest dentine Pb levels (<0.2 µg Pb/g) with 208 Pb/ 206 Pb (mean ±2σ: 2.126–2.079) 208 Pb/ 206 Pb (mean ±2σ: 0.879–0.856) ratios that correlate very closely with modern day Western European industrial aerosols (PM 10 , PM 2.5 ) suggesting that diffuse airborne pollution was probably the primary source and exposure pathway. Legacy lead, if present, is insignificant. For those born in 1997, dentine lead levels are typically higher (>0.4 µgPb/g) with 208 Pb/ 206 Pb (mean ±2σ: 2.145–2.117) 208 Pb/ 206 Pb (mean ±2σ: 0.898–0.882) ratios that can be modelled as a binary mix between industrial aerosols and leaded petrol emissions. Short duration, high intensity exposure events (1–2 months) were readily identified, together with evidence that dentine provides a good proxy for childhood changes in the isotope composition of blood Pb. Our pilot

  13. Gestational diabetes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ::wercome the pregnancy-related decline in insulin sensitivity. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as impaired glucose tolerance presenting during pregnancy; it is usual for GDM to abate after delivery.7 A number of diagnostic criteria have been used to define GDM since its recognrtion by Bennewitz and its fuller ...

  14. Long-term dietary exposure to lead in young European children: Comparing a pan-European approach with a national exposure assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boon, P.E.; Te Biesebeek, J.D.; van Klaveren, J.D.

    2012-01-01

    the national exposure calculations. For both assessments cereals contributed most to the exposure. The lower dietary exposure in the national study was due to the use of lower lead concentrations and a more optimal linkage of food consumption and concentration data. When a pan-European approach, using......Long-term dietary exposures to lead in young children were calculated by combining food consumption data of 11 European countries categorised using harmonised broad food categories with occurrence data on lead from different Member States (pan-European approach). The results of the assessment...... in children living in the Netherlands were compared with a long-term lead intake assessment in the same group using Dutch lead concentration data and linking the consumption and concentration data at the highest possible level of detail. Exposures obtained with the pan-European approach were higher than...

  15. Gestational Exposure to the Synthetic Cathinone Methylenedioxypyrovalerone Results in Reduced Maternal Care and Behavioral Alterations in Mouse Pups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    László I. Gerecsei

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The member of synthetic cathinone family, methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV, is a frequently used psychoactive drug of abuse. The objective of our study was to determine the effect of MDPV (administered from the 8th to the 14th day of gestation on the behavior of neonatal and adolescent mice, as well as its effect on maternal care. We measured maternal care (pup retrieval test, nest building, locomotor activity (open field test, and motor coordination (grip strength test of dams, whereas on pups we examined locomotor activity at postnatal day 7 and day 21 (open field test and motor coordination on day 21 (grip strength test. On fresh-frozen brain samples of the dams we examined the expression of two important peptides implicated in the regulation of maternal behavior and lactation: tuberoinfundibular peptide 39 (TIP39 mRNA in the thalamic posterior intralaminar complex, and amylin mRNA in the medial preoptic nucleus. We detected decreased birth rate and survival of offspring, and reduced maternal care in the drug-treated animals, whereas there was no difference between the motility of treated and control mothers. Locomotor activity of the pups was increased in the MDPV treated group both at 7 and 21 days of age, while motor coordination was unaffected by MDPV treatment. TIP39 and amylin were detected in their typical location but failed to show a significant difference of expression between the drug-treated and control groups. The results suggest that chronic systemic administration of the cathinone agent MDPV to pregnant mice can reduce birth rate and maternal care, and it also enhances motility (without impairment of motor coordination of the offspring.

  16. GESTATIONAL AND LACTATIONAL EXPOSURE TO PROPYLTHIOURACIL INDUCES HYPOTHYROIDISM AND IMPAIRS SYNAPTIC TRANSMISSION AND PLASTICITY IN AREA CA1 OF HIPPOCAMPUS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although severe developmental hypothyroidism leads to stunted growth, alterations in hippocampal structure, and impaired performance on a variety of behavioral learning tasks, the impact of milder forms of hypothyroidism has not been adequately assessed. Preliminary reports of ...

  17. Effect of maternal nicotine/thiocyanate exposure during gestational period upon pituitary, thyroid and parathyroid function/morphology of 1-month-old rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelhafez, A M; Eltony, S A; Abdelhameed, S Y; Elgayar, S A

    2014-05-01

    Impact of in utero exposure to nicotine, on the structure of the thyroid-pituitary axis and the parathyroid glands have been examined in 1-month-old rats and compared with that of thiocyanate. Three pregnant female groups were used; control, nicotine and thiocyanate. Treatment started from gestation day (4-20) and the specimens were harvested from the male offspring of all groups at the age of 1 month and processed for light, electronmicroscopic and immunohistochemical examination. Total triiodothyronine (tT3), total thyroxine (tT4) and total thyrotropin (TSH) were quantitatively determined in serum. Both nicotine and thiocyanate activated the thyroid follicular cells, with an increase in height (about 30 %) and a negative feedback on the pituitary thyrotrophs which revealed a reduction in the number of cytoplasmic secretory granules, particularly the thiocyanate group. However, in thiocyanate group there was signs of impaired secretory activity of the thyroid gland. The arbitrary area of parathyroid chief cells, increased (about 45 %) particularly in nicotine group, with signs of reduced activity and a positive feedback on the parafollicular cells which revealed hypertrophy, proliferation (25 %) and increased intensity of positive immunohistochemical reaction for calcitonin. Nicotine impaired chief parathyroid cells activity and consequently activated parafollicular cells. Thiocyanate reduced pituitary thyrotrophs activity, whereas both nicotine and thiocyanate increased thyroid follicular cells activity. This impact of in utero exposure persisted for 1-month postnatal.

  18. Lead exposure and the 2010 achievement test scores of children in New York counties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strayhorn, Jillian C; Strayhorn, Joseph M

    2012-01-23

    Lead is toxic to cognitive and behavioral functioning in children even at levels well below those producing physical symptoms. Continuing efforts in the U.S. since about the 1970s to reduce lead exposure in children have dramatically reduced the incidence of elevated blood lead levels (with elevated levels defined by the current U.S. Centers for Disease Control threshold of 10 μg/dl). The current study examines how much lead toxicity continues to impair the academic achievement of children of New York State, using 2010 test data. This study relies on three sets of data published for the 57 New York counties outside New York City: school achievement data from the New York State Department of Education, data on incidence of elevated blood lead levels from the New York State Department of Health, and data on income from the U.S. Census Bureau. We studied third grade and eighth grade test scores in English Language Arts and mathematics. Using the county as the unit of analysis, we computed bivariate correlations and regression coefficients, with percent of children achieving at the lowest reported level as the dependent variable and the percent of preschoolers in the county with elevated blood lead levels as the independent variable. Then we repeated those analyses using partial correlations to control for possible confounding effects of family income, and using multiple regressions with income included. The bivariate correlations between incidence of elevated lead and number of children in the lowest achievement group ranged between 0.38 and 0.47. The partial correlations ranged from 0.29 to 0.40. The regression coefficients, both bivariate and partial (both estimating the increase in percent of children in the lowest achievement group for every percent increase in the children with elevated blood lead levels), ranged from 0.52 to 1.31. All regression coefficients, when rounded to the nearest integer, were approximately 1. Thus, when the percent of children showing

  19. Lead exposure and the 2010 achievement test scores of children in New York counties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strayhorn Jillian C

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lead is toxic to cognitive and behavioral functioning in children even at levels well below those producing physical symptoms. Continuing efforts in the U.S. since about the 1970s to reduce lead exposure in children have dramatically reduced the incidence of elevated blood lead levels (with elevated levels defined by the current U.S. Centers for Disease Control threshold of 10 μg/dl. The current study examines how much lead toxicity continues to impair the academic achievement of children of New York State, using 2010 test data. Methods This study relies on three sets of data published for the 57 New York counties outside New York City: school achievement data from the New York State Department of Education, data on incidence of elevated blood lead levels from the New York State Department of Health, and data on income from the U.S. Census Bureau. We studied third grade and eighth grade test scores in English Language Arts and mathematics. Using the county as the unit of analysis, we computed bivariate correlations and regression coefficients, with percent of children achieving at the lowest reported level as the dependent variable and the percent of preschoolers in the county with elevated blood lead levels as the independent variable. Then we repeated those analyses using partial correlations to control for possible confounding effects of family income, and using multiple regressions with income included. Results The bivariate correlations between incidence of elevated lead and number of children in the lowest achievement group ranged between 0.38 and 0.47. The partial correlations ranged from 0.29 to 0.40. The regression coefficients, both bivariate and partial (both estimating the increase in percent of children in the lowest achievement group for every percent increase in the children with elevated blood lead levels, ranged from 0.52 to 1.31. All regression coefficients, when rounded to the nearest integer, were

  20. Exposure to PM2.5 and Blood Lead Level in Two Populations in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enkhbat, Undarmaa; Rule, Ana M; Resnick, Carol; Ochir, Chimedsuren; Olkhanud, Purevdorj; Williams, D'Ann L

    2016-02-15

    Approximately 60% of the households in Ulaanbaatar live in gers (a traditional Mongolian dwelling) in districts outside the legal limits of the city, without access to basic infrastructure, such as water, sewage systems, central heating, and paved roads, in contrast to apartment residents. This stark difference in living conditions creates different public health challenges for Ulaanbaatar residents. Through this research study we aim to test our hypothesis that women living in gers burning coal in traditional stoves for cooking and heating during the winter are exposed to higher concentrations of airborne PM2.5 than women living in apartments in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, and this exposure may include exposures to lead in coal with effects on blood lead levels. This cross-sectional study recruited a total of 50 women, 40-60 years of age, from these two settings. Air sampling was carried out during peak cooking and heating times, 5:00 p.m.-11:00 p.m., using a direct-reading instrument (TSI SidePak™) and integrated polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) filters using the SKC Personal Environmental Monitor. Blood lead level (BLL) was measured using a LeadCare II rapid field test method. In our study population, measured PM2.5 geometric mean (GM) concentrations using the SidePak™ in the apartment group was 31.5 (95% CI:17-99) μg/m³, and 100 (95% CI: 67-187) μg/m³ in ger households (p Mongolia.

  1. Cadmium, lead, and mercury exposure assessment among croatian consumers of free-living game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, Maja; Prevendar Crnić, Andreja; Bilandžić, Nina; Kusak, Josip; Reljić, Slaven

    2014-09-29

    Free-living game can be an important source of dietary cadmium and lead; the question is whether exposure to these two elements is such that it might cause adverse health effects in the consumers. The aim of this study was to estimate dietary exposure to cadmium, lead, and mercury from free-living big game (fallow deer, roe deer, red deer, wild boar, and brown bear), and to mercury from small game (pheasant and hare), hunted in Croatia from 1990 to 2012. The exposure assessment was based on available literature data and our own measurements of metal levels in the tissues of the game, by taking into account different consumption frequencies (four times a year, once a month and once a week). Exposure was expressed as percentage of (provisional) tolerable weekly intake [(P)TWI] values set by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Consumption of game meat (0.002-0.5 % PTWI) and liver (0.005-6 % PTWI) assumed for the general population (four times a year) does not pose a health risk to consumers from the general population, nor does monthly (0.02-6 % PTWI) and weekly (0.1-24 % PTWI) consumption of game meat. However, because of the high percentage of free-living game liver and kidney samples exceeding the legislative limits for cadmium (2-99 %) and lead (1-82 %), people should keep the consumption of certain game species' offal as low as possible. Children and pregnant and lactating women should avoid eating game offal altogether. Free-living game liver could be an important source of cadmium if consumed on a monthly basis (3-74 % TWI), and if consumed weekly (11-297 % TWI), it could even give rise to toxicological concern.

  2. Low-level lead exposure and mortality in US adults: a population-based cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce P Lanphear, ProfMD

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Background: Lead exposure is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease mortality, but the number of deaths in the USA attributable to lead exposure is poorly defined. We aimed to quantify the relative contribution of environmental lead exposure to all-cause mortality, cardiovascular disease mortality, and ischaemic heart disease mortality. Methods: Our study population comprised a nationally representative sample of adults aged 20 years or older who were enrolled in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES-III between 1988 and 1994 and followed up to Dec 31, 2011. Participants had completed a medical examination and home interview and had results for concentrations of lead in blood, cadmium in urine, and other relevant covariates. Individuals were linked with the National Death Index. This study presents extended follow-up of an earlier analysis. Findings: We included 14 289 adults in our study. The geometric mean concentration of lead in blood was 2·71 μg/dL (geometric SE 1·31. 3632 (20% participants had a concentration of lead in blood of at least 5 μg/dL (≥0·24 μmol/L. During median follow-up of 19·3 years (IQR 17·6–21·0, 4422 people died, 1801 (38% from cardiovascular disease and 988 (22% from ischaemic heart disease. An increase in the concentration of lead in blood from 1·0 μg/dL to 6·7 μg/dL (0·048 μmol/L to 0·324 μmol/L, which represents the tenth to 90th percentiles, was associated with all-cause mortality (hazard ratio 1·37, 95% CI 1·17–1·60, cardiovascular disease mortality (1·70, 1·30–2·22, and ischaemic heart disease mortality (2·08, 1·52–2·85. The population attributable fraction of the concentration of lead in blood for all-cause mortality was 18·0% (95% CI 10·9–26·1, which is equivalent to 412 000 deaths annually. Respective fractions were 28·7% (15·5–39·5 for cardiovascular disease mortality and 37·4% (23·4–48·6 for ischaemic heart disease

  3. Lead exposure is related to hypercortisolemic profiles and allostatic load in Brazilian older adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza-Talarico, Juliana N.; Suchecki, Deborah; Juster, Robert-Paul; Plusquellec, Pierrich; Barbosa Junior, Fernando; Bunscheit, Vinícius; Marcourakis, Tania; Martins de Matos, Tatiane; Lupien, Sonia J.

    2017-01-01

    Lead levels (Pb) have been linked to both hyper- and hypo-reactivity of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) axis to acute stress in animals and humans. Similarly, allostatic load (AL), the ‘wear and tear’ of chronic stress, is associated with inadequate HPA axis activity. We examined whether Pb levels would be associated with altered diurnal cortisol profile, as a primary mediator of AL, during aging. Pb levels were measured from blood samples (BPb) of 126 Brazilian individuals (105 women), between 50 and 82 years old. Six neuroendocrine, metabolic, and anthropometric biomarkers were analyzed and values were transformed into an AL index using clinical reference cut-offs. Salivary samples were collected at home over 2 days at awakening, 30-min after waking, afternoon, and evening periods to determine cortisol levels. A multiple linear regression model showed a positive association between BPb as the independent continuous variable and cortisol awakening response (R 2 =0.128; B=0.791; p=0.005) and overall cortisol concentration (R 2 =0.266; B=0.889; p<0.001) as the outcomes. Repeated measures ANOVA showed that individuals with high BPb levels showed higher cortisol at 30 min after awakening (p=0.003), and in the afternoon (p=0.002) than those with low BPb values. Regarding AL, regression model showed that BPb was positively associated with AL index (R 2 =0.100; B=0.204; p=0.032). Correlation analyzes with individual biomarkers showed that BPb was positively correlated with HDL cholesterol (p=0.02) and negatively correlated with DHEA-S (p=0.049). These findings suggest that Pb exposure, even at levels below the reference blood lead level for adults recommended by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health and by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention, may contribute to AL and dysregulated cortisol functioning in older adults. Considering these findings were based on cross-sectional data future research is needed to confirm our

  4. Exposure to PM2.5 and Blood Lead Level in Two Populations in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Undarmaa Enkhbat

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 60% of the households in Ulaanbaatar live in gers (a traditional Mongolian dwelling in districts outside the legal limits of the city, without access to basic infrastructure, such as water, sewage systems, central heating, and paved roads, in contrast to apartment residents. This stark difference in living conditions creates different public health challenges for Ulaanbaatar residents. Through this research study we aim to test our hypothesis that women living in gers burning coal in traditional stoves for cooking and heating during the winter are exposed to higher concentrations of airborne PM2.5 than women living in apartments in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, and this exposure may include exposures to lead in coal with effects on blood lead levels. This cross-sectional study recruited a total of 50 women, 40–60 years of age, from these two settings. Air sampling was carried out during peak cooking and heating times, 5:00 p.m.–11:00 p.m., using a direct-reading instrument (TSI SidePak™ and integrated polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE filters using the SKC Personal Environmental Monitor. Blood lead level (BLL was measured using a LeadCare II rapid field test method. In our study population, measured PM2.5 geometric mean (GM concentrations using the SidePak™ in the apartment group was 31.5 (95% CI:17–99 μg/m3, and 100 (95% CI: 67–187 μg/m3 in ger households (p < 0.001. The GM integrated gravimetric PM2.5 concentrations in the apartment group were 52.8 (95% CI: 39–297 μg/m3 and 127.8 (95% CI: 86–190 μg/m3 in ger households (p = 0.004. The correlation coefficient for the SidePak™ PM2.5 concentrations and filter based PM2.5 concentrations was r = 0.72 (p < 0.001. Blood Lead Levels were not statistically significant different between apartment residents and ger residents (p = 0.15. The BLL is statistically significant different (p = 0.01 when stratified by length of exposures outside of the home. This statistically

  5. Pre-Pregnancy Maternal Exposure to Persistent Organic Pollutants and Gestational Weight Gain: A Prospective Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay M. Jaacks

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Persistent organic pollutants (POPs have been implicated in the development of obesity in non-pregnant adults. However, few studies have explored the association of POPs with gestational weight gain (GWG, an important predictor of future risk of obesity in both the mother and offspring. We estimated the association of maternal pre-pregnancy levels of 63 POPs with GWG. Data are from women (18–40 years; n = 218 participating in a prospective cohort study. POPs were assessed using established protocols in pre-pregnancy, non-fasting blood samples. GWG was assessed using three techniques: (1 total GWG (difference between measured pre-pregnancy weight and final self-reported pre-delivery weight; (2 category based on pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI-specific Institute of Medicine (IOM recommendations; and (3 area under the GWG curve (AUC. In an exploratory analysis, effects were estimated separately for women with BMI < 25 kg/m2 versus BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2. Multivariable polytomous logistic regression and linear regression were used to estimate the association between each chemical or congener and the three GWG outcomes. p,p’-dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (p,p’-DDT was significantly inversely associated with AUC after adjustment for lipids and pre-pregnancy BMI: beta {95% confidence interval (CI}, −378.03 (−724.02, −32.05. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS was significantly positively associated with AUC after adjustment for lipids among women with a BMI < 25 kg/m2 {beta (95% CI, 280.29 (13.71, 546.86}, but not among women with a BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 {beta (95% CI, 56.99 (−328.36, 442.34}. In summary, pre-pregnancy levels of select POPs, namely, p,p’-DDT and PFOS, were moderately associated with GWG. The association between POPs and weight gain during pregnancy may be more complex than previously thought, and adiposity prior to pregnancy may be an important effect modifier.

  6. Sub-chronic lead exposure produces β1-adrenoceptor downregulation decreasing arterial pressure reactivity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toscano, Cindy Medici; Simões, Maylla Ronacher; Alonso, Maria Jesus; Salaices, Mercedes; Vassallo, Dalton Valentim; Fioresi, Mirian

    2017-07-01

    Lead is considered a causative factor for hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases. To investigate the effects of sub-chronic lead exposure on blood pressure reactivity and cardiac β 1 -adrenoceptor activity and to evaluate whether the effects found in vitro are similar to those found in vivo. Male Wistar rats were randomly distributed into two groups: control rats (Ct) and rats administered drinking water containing 100ppm lead (Pb) for 30days. Blood pressure in the Pb rats increased starting from the first week of treatment until the end of the study [systolic blood pressure, Ct: 122±4 vs. Pb: 143±3mmHg; diastolic blood pressure, Ct: 63±4 vs. Pb: 84±4mmHg]. The heart rate was also increased (Ct: 299±11 vs. Pb: 365±11bpm), but the pressure reactivity to phenylephrine was decreased. Losartan and hexamethonium exhibited a greater reduction in blood pressure of Pb rats than in the Ct rats. Isoproterenol increased the left ventricular systolic and end-diastolic pressure, and heart rate only in Ct rats, suggesting that lead induced β 1 -adrenoceptor downregulation. Indomethacin reduced the blood pressure and heart rate in the Pb rats, suggesting the involvement of cyclooxygenase-derived products (which are associated with reduced nitric oxide bioavailability) in this process. These findings offer further evidence that the effects of sub-chronic lead exposure in vitro can be reproduced in vivo-even at low concentrations-thus triggering mechanisms for the development of hypertension. Therefore, lead should be considered an environmental risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of sublethal exposure to lead on levels of energetic compounds in Procambarus clarkii (Girard, 1852)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, M.; Torreblanca, A.; Del Ramo, J.; Diaz-Mayans, J. (Univ. of Valencia (Spain))

    1994-05-01

    Lead is neither essential nor beneficial to living organisms; all existing data show that its metabolic effects are adverse. Lead is toxic to all phyla of aquatic biota. Most of the lead discharged into surface water is rapidly incorporated into suspended and bottom sediments. The American red crayfish, Procambarus clarkii, lives in a wide range of environmental conditions that include highly polluted waters. Lead present in take sediments can be available to aquatic animals such as P. clarkii because it is a detritivor and burrow into the sediment. In fact, we found remarkable levels of lead in tissues of P. clarkii caught in Albufera Lake and kept 15 days in clean water (e. g. 223 [mu]g/g dry weight in gills). Furthermore, P. clarkii has a high capacity for lead accumulation from water, and gills were the most important tissue of lead accumulation. Among effects that contaminants have on the physiology of the organisms, energetic state variables are important, since they will alter both survival and reproduction. Hepatopancreas is a major site for the energetic reserve in crayfish and is a site of lead accumulation, although metal concentration in this organ is not as high as gills. The purpose of this study was to examine changes in energy reserves in hepatopancreas and gills of the crayfish P. clarkii, in response to sublethal exposure to lead. Gills are directly exposed to contaminants in the environment, and they are the first organ showing alterations by the action of the contaminants. Hepatopancreas was also chosen due to both, its relevance in the energetic metabolism and its role in heavy metal detoxification mechanisms.

  8. Effect of lead exposure on serum estradiol and certain haematological indices in female rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El-Moneim, A.E.; El-Abiad, N.M.

    1996-01-01

    In this study, graded dosages of lead acetate (Pb Ac) 0,100,200 and 500 mg/liter were dissolved in tap water and offered freely to four groups of female rats to show the effect of lead (Pb) ingestion on serum estradiol (E 2 ) concentration. Changes in body weight (B.wt), relative liver, kidney, spleen weights were recorded. Blood lead content, red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC) counts, blood hemoglobin (Hb) content and hematocrit values were measured as indicators of elevated Pb exposure. After three months of treatment, as compared to control animals, all lead-treated rats showed a significant decrease in B.wt and significant increase in relative weights of liver and spleen. Kidney relative weight did not indicate significant differences between rats given tap water with or without Pb Ac. Blood Pb content and WBC count were higher and RBC count was lower in rats given leaded water. Both Hb and Hct values were insignificantly reduced in lead exposed rats. The treatment with 500 mg Pb Ac/liter of drinking water resulted in significant fall of serum E 2 to reach about half its value control group at end of the experiment, while, the decrease in serum E 2 was less significant in the group received 200 mg Pb Ac/liter tap water. 2 tabs

  9. Purification and concentration of lead samples in biological monitoring of occupational exposures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Rahimi-Froushani

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims:Lead is an important environmental constituent widely used in industrialprocesses for production of synthetic materials and therefore can be released in the environmentcausing public exposure especially around the industrial residence area. For evaluation of humanexposure to trace toxic metal of Pb (II, environmental and biological monitoring are essentialprocesses, in which, preparation of such samples is one of the most time-consuming and errorproneaspects prior to analysis. The use of solid-phase extraction (SPE has grown and is a fertiletechnique of sample preparation as it provides better results than those produced by liquid-liquidextraction (LLE. The aim of this study was to investigate factors influencing sample pretreatmentfor trace analysis of lead in biological samples for evaluation of occupational exposure.Method :To evaluate factors influencing quantitative analysis scheme of lead, solid phaseextraction using mini columns filled with XAD-4 resin was optimized with regard to sample pH,ligand concentration, loading flow rate, elution solvent, sample volume (up to 500 ml, elutionvolume, amount of resins, and sample matrix interferences.Results :Lead was retained on solid sorbent and eluted followed by simple determination ofanalytes by using flame atomic absorption spectrometery. Obtained recoveries of the metal ionwere more than 92%. The amount of the analyte detected after simultaneous pre-concentrationwas basically in agreement with the added amounts. The optimized procedure was also validatedwith three different pools of spiked urine samples and showed a good reproducibility over sixconsecutive days as well as six within-day experiments. The developed method promised to beapplicable for evaluation of other metal ions present in different environmental and occupationalsamples as suitable results were obtained for relative standard deviation (less than 10%.Conclusion:This optimized method can be considered to be

  10. Lead exposures and biological responses in military weapons systems: Aerosol characteristics and acute lead effects among US Army artillerymen: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharyya, M.H.; Stebbings, J.H.; Peterson, D.P.; Johnson, S.A.; Kumar, R.; Goun, B.D.; Janssen, I.; Trier, J.E.

    1993-03-01

    This study was to determine the concentration and chemical nature of lead (Pb) aerosols produced during the firing of artillery and to determine the exposures and biological responses of crew members exposed to lead aerosols during such firing. The concentrations of lead-containing aerosols at crew positions depended on wind conditions, with higher concentrations when firing into a head wind. Aerosol concentrations were highest in the muzzle blast zone. Concentrations of lead in the blood of crew members rose during the first 12 days of exposure to elevated airborne lead concentrations and then leveled off. There was no rapid decrease in blood lead concentrations after completion of firing. Small decreases in hematocrit and small increases in free erythrocyte porphyrin were correlated with increasing exposure to airborne lead. These changes were reversed by seven weeks after firing. Changes in nerve conduction velocity had borderline statistical significance to airborne lead exposure. In measuring nerve conduction velocity, differences in skin temperature must be taken into account.

  11. Hearing loss in children with e-waste lead and cadmium exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Huo, Xia; Xu, Long; Wei, Xiaoqin; Wu, Wengli; Wu, Xianguang; Xu, Xijin

    2018-05-15

    Environmental chemical exposure can cause neurotoxicity and has been recently linked to hearing loss in general population, but data are limited in early life exposure to lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) especially for children. We aimed to evaluate the association of their exposure with pediatric hearing ability. Blood Pb and urinary Cd were collected form 234 preschool children in 3-7years of age from an electronic waste (e-waste) recycling area and a reference area matched in Shantou of southern China. Pure-tone air conduction (PTA) was used to test child hearing thresholds at frequencies of 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4 and 8kHz. A PTA≥25dB was defined as hearing loss. A higher median blood Pb level was found in the exposed group (4.94±0.20 vs 3.85±1.81μg/dL, phearing loss (28.8% vs 13.6%, phearing thresholds at average low and high frequency, and single frequency of 0.5, 1 and 2kHz were all increased in the exposed group. Positive correlations of child age and nail biting habit with Pb, and negative correlations of parent education level and child washing hands before dinner with Pb and Cd exposure were observed. Logistic regression analyses showed the adjusted OR of hearing loss for Pb exposure was 1.24 (95% CI: 1.029, 1.486). Our data suggest that early childhood exposure to Pb may be an important risk factor for hearing loss, and the developmental auditory system might be affected in e-waste polluted areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Early lead exposure increases the leakage of the blood–cerebrospinal fluid barrier, in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lewis Zhichang; Zheng, Wei

    2014-01-01

    The cell type blood–brain barrier (BBB) and blood–cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCB) is entirely different, ie, endothelia in BBB and epithelia in BCB. Nonetheless, both barriers share a common character – the tight junctions (TJ) between adjacent cells. This study investigated the consequence of lead (Pb) exposure on the tightness of BCB. In an in vitro BCB transwell model, using immortalized choroidal epithelial Z310 cells, we found that early exposure to Pb (prior to the formation of tight barrier) at 5 and 10 μM, significantly reduced the tightness of BCB, as evidenced by a 20% reduction in transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) values (P 20% increase in the paracellular permeability of [14C]sucrose (P < 0.05). Exposure to Pb after the formation of tight barrier, however, did not cause any detectable barrier dysfunction. RT-PCR and Western blot analyses on typical TJ proteins revealed that Pb exposure decreased both the mRNA and protein levels of claudin-1, with the membrane-bound claudin-1 more profoundly affected than cytosolic claudin-1. Pb exposure, however, had no significant effect on ZO1 and occludin. These data suggest that Pb exposure selectively alters the cellular level of claudin-1, which, in turn, reduces the tightness and augments the permeability of tight blood–CSF barrier. The immature barrier appears to be more vulnerable to Pb toxicity than the mature, well-developed, brain barrier, the fact possibly contributing to Pb-induced neurotoxicity among young children. PMID:17439918

  13. Comparison of secondhand smoke exposure measures during pregnancy in the development of a clinical prediction model for small-for-gestational-age among non-smoking Chinese pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Chuanbo; Wen, Xiaozhong; Niu, Zhongzheng; Ding, Peng; Liu, Tao; He, Yanhui; Lin, Jianmiao; Yuan, Shixin; Guo, Xiaoling; Jia, Deqin; Chen, Weiqing

    2015-10-01

    To compare predictive values of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) by different measures for secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure during pregnancy and to develop and validate a prediction model for SGA using SHS exposure along with sociodemographic and pregnancy factors. We compared the predictability of different measures of SHS exposure during pregnancy for SGA among 545 Chinese pregnant women, and then used the optimal SHS measure along with other clinically available factors to develop and validate a prediction model for SGA. We fit logistic regression models to predict SGA by single measures of SHS exposure (self-report, serum cotinine and CYP2A6*4) and different combinations (self-report+cotinine, cotinine+CYP2A6*4, self-report+CYP2A6*4 and self-report+cotinine+CYP2A6*4). We found that self-reported SHS exposure alone predicted SGA (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve or area under the receiver operating curve (AUROC), 0.578) better than the other two single measures (cotinine, 0.547; CYP2A6*4, 0.529) or as accurately as combined SHS measures (0.545-0.584). The final prediction model that contained self-reported SHS exposure, prepregnancy body mass index, gestational weight gain velocity during the second and third trimesters, gestational diabetes, gestational hypertension and the third-trimester biparietal diameter Z-score could predict SGA fairly accurately (AUROC, 0.698). Self-reported SHS exposure at peribirth performs better in predicting SGA than a single measure of serum cotinine at the same time, although repeated biochemical cotinine assessments throughout pregnancy may be optimal. Our simple prediction model is fairly accurate and can be potentially used in routine prenatal care. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  14. Maternal exposure to environmental enrichment before and during gestation influences behaviour of rat offspring in a sex-specific manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuena, Anna Rita; Zinni, Manuela; Giuli, Chiara; Cinque, Carlo; Alemà, Giovanni Sebastiano; Giuliani, Alessandro; Catalani, Assia; Casolini, Paola; Cozzolino, Roberto

    2016-09-01

    The beneficial effects of Environmental Enrichment (EE) applied immediately after weaning or even in adulthood have been widely demonstrated. Less is known about the possible changes in behaviour and brain development of the progeny following the exposure of dams to EE. In order to further investigate this matter, female rats were reared in EE for 12weeks, from weaning until delivery. After having confirmed the presence of relevant behavioural effects of EE, both control and EE females underwent mating. Maternal behaviour was observed and male and female offspring were then administered a battery of behavioural test at different ages. EE mothers showed a decreased frequency of total nursing and, during the first 2days of lactation, an increase in licking/grooming behaviour. Maternal exposure to EE affected offspring behaviour in a sex-specific manner: social play behaviour and anxiety-like behaviour were increased in males but not in females and learning ability was improved only in females. As a general trend, maternal EE had a marked influence on motility in male and female offspring in both locomotor activity and swimming speed. Overall, this study highlights the importance of environmental stimulation, not only in the animals directly experiencing EE, but for their progeny too, opening the way to new hypothesis on the heritability mechanisms of behavioural traits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Chronic lead exposure decreases the vascular reactivity of rat aortas: the role of hydrogen peroxide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolini Zuqui Nunes

    Full Text Available We investigated whether exposure to small concentrations of lead alters blood pressure and vascular reactivity. Male Wistar rats were sorted randomly into the following two groups: control (Ct and treatment with 100 ppm of lead (Pb, which was added to drinking water, for 30 days. Systolic blood pressure (BP was measured weekly. Following treatment, aortic ring vascular reactivity was assessed. Tissue samples were properly stored for further biochemical investigation. The lead concentration in the blood reached approximately 8 μg/dL. Treatment increased blood pressure and decreased the contractile responses of the aortic rings to phenylephrine (1 nM-100 mM. Following N-nitro-L arginine methyl ester (L-NAME administration, contractile responses increased in both groups but did not differ significantly between them. Lead effects on Rmax were decreased compared to control subjects following superoxide dismutase (SOD administration. Catalase, diethyldithiocarbamic acid (DETCA, and apocynin increased the vasoconstrictor response induced by phenylephrine in the aortas of lead-treated rats but did not increase the vasoconstrictor response in the aortas of untreated rats. Tetraethylammonium (TEA potentiated the vasoconstrictor response induced by phenylephrine in aortic segments in both groups, but these effects were greater in lead-treated rats. The co-incubation of TEA and catalase abolished the vasodilatory effect noted in the lead group. The present study is the first to demonstrate that blood lead concentrations well below the values established by international legislation increased blood pressure and decreased phenylephrine-induced vascular reactivity. The latter effect was associated with oxidative stress, specifically oxidative stress induced via increases in hydrogen peroxide levels and the subsequent effects of hydrogen peroxide on potassium channels.

  16. Integrated stress response activation by sleep fragmentation during late gestation in mice leads to emergence of adverse metabolic phenotype in offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trzepizur, Wojciech; Khalyfa, Abdelnaby; Qiao, Zhuanhong; Popko, Brian; Gozal, David

    2017-04-01

    Late gestational sleep fragmentation (SF) is highly prevalent particularly in obese women, and induces metabolic dysfunction in adult offspring mice. SF induces activation of the integrated stress response (ISR), which might be involved in metabolic disorders. We hypothesized that adult offspring of double mutant mice (DM) involving the critical ISR genes CHOP and GADD34 would be protected from developing obesity and insulin resistance following SF. Time-pregnant CHOP/GADD34 DM and wild type (WT) mice were randomly assigned to sleep control (SC) or SF conditions during the last 5days of gestation. At 24-weeks of age, body weight, fat mass, and HOMA-IR were assessed in the offspring. Tregs lymphocytes, Lyc6c high , M1 and M2 macrophages were examined in visceral white adipose tissues (vWAT) using flow cytometry. The effects of plasma exosomes on adipocyte cell line proliferation, differentiation and insulin sensitivity were also evaluated. SF-WT male showed significant increases in body weight, vWAT mass and HOMA-IR compared to SC-WT mice, while SF had no effect in SF-DM mice. Inflammatory macrophages (Ly-6c high ) and the ratio of M1/M2 macrophages were increased while FoxP3+ Tregs counts were decreased in SF-WT but not in SF-DM mice. Exosomes from SF-WT, but not from the SF-DM offspring increased pre-adipocyte proliferation and differentiation, and decreased in vitro adipocyte insulin sensitivity. Activation of the ISR during late gestation, as induced by late gestational SF, appears to underlie some of the transgenerational modifications in metabolic genes ultimately contributing to a metabolic syndrome phenotype in adult offspring. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of subacute exposure to lead and estrogen on immature pre-weaning rat leukocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villagra, R.; Tchernitchin, N.N.; Tchernitchin, A.N. [Univ. of Chile Medical School, Santiago (Chile)

    1997-02-01

    Lead is an environmental pollutant known to cause damage to human health, affecting specially the central nervous system, reproductive organs, the immune system and kidney. From the perspective or reproduction, lead affects both men and women. Reported effects in women include infertility, miscarriage, pre-eclampsia, pregnancy hypertension and premature delivery. In experimental animals, lead affects female reproductive organs through different mechanisms. The heavy metal may interact at the enzyme level. It may interfere with the action of reproductive hormones at the target organ, modifying the activity of estrogen receptors in the pregnant uterus and inhibiting responses where estrogens play a role. Lead may induce imprinting mechanism, causing persistent changes in uterine estrogen receptors and ovary LH receptors following perinatal exposure. Finally, it may interfere at the level of hypothalamus-pituitary, decreasing pituitary response to growth hormone releasing factor, affecting levels of FSH and LH and increasing blood levels of glucocorticoids, which modify the action of estrogens in the uterus. This study examines the mechanisms of lead-induced interference with female reproductive and immune functions. 33 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Blood lead exposure concentrations in mottled ducks (Anas fulvigula) on the upper Texas coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Stephen K.; Conway, Warren C.; Haukos, David A.; Moon, Jena A.; Comer, Christopher E.; Hung, I-Kuai

    2015-01-01

    The mottled duck (Anas fulvigula) is a non-migratory waterfowl species dependent upon coastal marsh systems, including those on the Texas Chenier Plain National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) Complex, and considered a regional indicator species of marsh habitat quality. Research from the early 1970s, 1990s, and early-2000s indicated that mottled ducks continued to exhibit elevated wing-bone lead (Pb) concentrations, decades after implementation of non-toxic shot regulations. However, wing-bone concentrations reflect lifetime accumulation of Pb, whereas blood Pb concentrations reflect more recent exposure. To identify current potentially relevant temporal windows of Pb exposure, we collected 260 blood samples from mottled ducks during summer (n=124) and winter (n=136) from 2010–2012 on the Texas Chenier Plain NWR Complex. We quantified baseline blood Pb concentrations for all ages of mottled ducks, and hypothesized that blood lead concentrations would remain elevated above background levels (200 µg L–1) despite the 1983 and 1991 lead shot bans. Blood Pb concentrations ranged from below detection limits to >12,000 µg L–1, where >200 µg L–1 was associated with exposure levels above background concentrations. Male mottled ducks had the greatest blood Pb concentrations (30 times greater than females) with concentrations greater during winter than summer. Likewise, the proportion of exposed (>200 µg L–1) females increased from 14%–47% from summer to winter, respectively. Regardless of sex, adult mottled duck blood Pb concentrations were five times greater than juveniles, particularly during winter. We identified five plausible models that influenced blood Pb levels where year, site, and interactions among age*sex*season and between age*season were included in the top-ranked models. Frequency of exposure was greatest during winter, increasing from 12% in summer to 55% in winter, indicating that a temporal exposure window to environmental Pb exists between nesting

  19. Exposure Evaluation for Benzene, Lead and Noise in Vehicle and Equipment Repair Shops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweeney, Lynn C. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States)

    2013-04-01

    An exposure assessment was performed at the equipment and vehicle maintenance repair shops operating at the U. S. Department of Energy Hanford site, in Richland, Washington. The maintenance shops repair and maintain vehicles and equipment used in support of the Hanford cleanup mission. There are three general mechanic shops and one auto body repair shop. The mechanics work on heavy equipment used in construction, cranes, commercial motor vehicles, passenger-type vehicles in addition to air compressors, generators, and farm equipment. Services include part fabrication, installation of equipment, repair and maintenance work in the engine compartment, and tire and brake services. Work performed at the auto body shop includes painting and surface preparation which involves applying body filler and sanding. 8-hour time-weighted-average samples were collected for benzene and noise exposure and task-based samples were collected for lead dust work activities involving painted metal surfaces. Benzene samples were obtained using 3M™ 3520 sampling badges and were analyzed for additional volatile organic compounds. These compounds were selected based on material safety data sheet information for the aerosol products used by the mechanics for each day of sampling. The compounds included acetone, ethyl ether, toluene, xylene, VM&P naphtha, methyl ethyl ketone, and trichloroethylene. Laboratory data for benzene, VM&P naphtha, methyl ethyl ketone and trichloroethylene were all below the reporting detection limit. Airborne concentrations for acetone, ethyl ether, toluene and xylene were all less than 10% of their occupational exposure limit. The task-based samples obtained for lead dusts were submitted for a metal scan analysis to identify other metals that might be present. Laboratory results for lead dusts were all below the reporting detection limit and airborne concentration for the other metals observed in the samples were less than 10% of the occupational exposure limit

  20. Sources of potential lead exposure among pregnant women in New Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhireva, Ludmila N; Rowland, Andrew S; Young, Bonnie N; Cano, Sandra; Phelan, Sharon T; Artyushkova, Kateryna; Rayburn, William F; Lewis, Johnnye

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to ascertain the prevalence and potential sources of lead exposure among pregnant women residing in a socially-disadvantaged immigrant community in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Pregnant women (n = 140) receiving prenatal care through a community clinic participated in a structured interview and screening to measure their blood lead levels (BLLs). Potential sources of lead exposure were ascertained by the CDC and New Mexico Department of Health questionnaires. Self-reported risk factors were examined as predictors of BLLs using multiple linear regression and partial least squares discriminant analysis. Most patients were Spanish-speaking (88.6%), Latina (95%), foreign-born (87.1%), lacked health insurance (86.4%), and had a high school education or lower (84.3%). While risk factors were prevalent in this population, only three women (2.1%) had BLLs ≥3 μg/dL. Results of multivariate analyses demonstrated that pica symptoms in pregnancy, history of elevated BLLs before pregnancy, use of non-commercial pottery, and living in older houses were important predictors of elevated BLLs. Although the prevalence of other risk factors relevant to immigrant communities (i.e., use of traditional/folk remedies and cosmetics, seasonings and food products from Mexico) was high, they were not predictive of elevated BLLs. Clinics providing prenatal care to immigrant Hispanic communities should carefully assess patients' pica symptoms, use of non-commercial pottery, and a history of elevated BLLs. Moreover, additional efforts need to focus on the development of screening questionnaires which better reflect exposures of concern in this population.

  1. Cadmium, mercury, and lead in kidney cortex of living kidney donors: Impact of different exposure sources,

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barregard, Lars, E-mail: lars.barregard@amm.gu.se [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital and University of Gothenburg, P.O. Box 414, SE 405 30 Gothenburg (Sweden); Fabricius-Lagging, Elisabeth [Department of Nephrology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital and Boras Hospital (Sweden); Lundh, Thomas [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University Hospital and Lund University (Sweden); Moelne, Johan [Department of Clinical Pathology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital and University of Gothenburg (Sweden); Wallin, Maria [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital and University of Gothenburg, P.O. Box 414, SE 405 30 Gothenburg (Sweden); Olausson, Michael [Department of Transplantation and Liver Surgery, Sahlgrenska University Hospital and University of Gothenburg (Sweden); Modigh, Cecilia; Sallsten, Gerd [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital and University of Gothenburg, P.O. Box 414, SE 405 30 Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2010-01-15

    Background: Most current knowledge on kidney concentrations of nephrotoxic metals like cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), or lead (Pb) comes from autopsy studies. Assessment of metal concentrations in kidney biopsies from living subjects can be combined with information about exposure sources like smoking, diet, and occupation supplied by the biopsied subjects themselves. Objectives: To determine kidney concentrations of Cd, Hg, and Pb in living kidney donors, and assess associations with common exposure sources and background factors. Methods: Metal concentrations were determined in 109 living kidney donors aged 24-70 years (median 51), using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (Cd and Pb) and cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry (Hg). Smoking habits, occupation, dental amalgam, fish consumption, and iron stores were evaluated. Results: The median kidney concentrations were 12.9 {mu}g/g (wet weight) for cadmium, 0.21 {mu}g/g for mercury, and 0.08 {mu}g/g for lead. Kidney Cd increased by 3.9 {mu}g/g for a 10 year increase in age, and by 3.7 {mu}g/g for an extra 10 pack-years of smoking. Levels in non-smokers were similar to those found in the 1970s. Low iron stores (low serum ferritin) in women increased kidney Cd by 4.5 {mu}g/g. Kidney Hg increased by 6% for every additional amalgam surface, but was not associated with fish consumption. Lead was unaffected by the background factors surveyed. Conclusions: In Sweden, kidney Cd levels have decreased due to less smoking, while the impact of diet seems unchanged. Dental amalgam is the main determinant of kidney Hg. Kidney Pb levels are very low due to decreased exposure.

  2. Characteristics of transplacental lead transfer in rat dams and fetuses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopfler, F.C.; Miller, R.G.; Kowal, N.E.; Kelty, K.C.; Doerger, J.U.; Mills, T.

    1987-01-01

    This study was designed to quantitate the dose resulting from lead exposure during the critical periods of brain development during gestation by determining: (1) if blood lead concentration in rat dams is affected by pregnancy status or duration of lead exposure, (2) if lead concentration in fetuses is associated with the duration of dam exposure, (3) the rates of lead absorption and elimination in pregnant and nonpregnant dams; and (4) the effect that prebreeding exposure on lead kinetics in the dam and upon fetus blood lead concentrations. The results of experiments in which the dams' drinking water contained 50 mg/L lead indicate blood lead levels (after normalizing by water consumption on a body weight basis) of pregnant rats are significantly higher than blood lead levels of non-pregnant rats. Statistical differences in blood lead levels were observed by day 15 of gestation and continue through day 20 of gestation. These blood lead differences are not due to lead treatment prior to breeding as seen when comparing Figure 1 and Figure 2. The blood lead levels of the fetuses at day 20 of gestation were 50-60% higher than that of the corresponding dams. The results from the latter two phases were ambiguous, due to large variability in individual animal absorption and elimination rates. However, the following observations can be made. Preexposure to lead does not affect the percent of lead transferred from the dams' blood to the fetuses. The rate of elimination of lead from the dams' blood does not appear to be affected by prebreeding exposure to lead or by the status of pregnancy. The fraction of the 203 Pb dose transferred to the fetus increases dramatically toward the end of gestation. The data suggest that lead absorption from the gut of pregnant rats is higher than that for nonpregnant rats

  3. Rat Testis Damage Caused by Lead Sulfide Nanoparticles After Oral Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yanhua; Wang, Dong; Li, Qingzhao; Deng, Hongliang; Shen, Jian; Zheng, Guoying; Sun, Miao

    2016-03-01

    Lead sulfide nanoparticals (PbS NPs) is an important semiconductor material due to its unique physical and chemical properties, but its potential health hazard to reproductive system is not clear. In the current study, we systematically explored the reproductive toxicity of PbS NPs in rats by measuring the body weight and testicular coefficient, testing serum testosterone levels, and studying the sperm survival rate and sperm abnormality rate. Furthermore, in order to study the toxic mechanism we performed lead contents measurements in testis, and investigated the pathology in testis. Our results confirmed that PbS NPs showed high reproductive toxicity due to PbS NPs in rats' testicular tissue by the establishment of PbS NPs chronic exposure model.

  4. α-Tocopherol supplementation and the oxidative stress, homocysteine, and antioxidants in lead exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasperczyk, Sławomir; Dobrakowski, Michał; Kasperczyk, Aleksandra; Nogaj, Ewa; Boroń, Marta; Szlacheta, Zbigniew; Birkner, Ewa

    2017-05-04

    To investigate whether α-tocopherol supplementation in workers exposed to lead would reduce the oxidative stress intensity and decrease homocysteine level, the examined population was randomly divided into two groups. Workers in the first group (n = 49, reference group) were not administered any drugs. Workers in the second group (n = 34) were administered orally α-tocopherol, 200 mg per day for 12 weeks. The level of α-tocopherol significantly increased compared to the baseline and the reference group. The level of thiol groups significantly increased compared to the reference group. However, the levels of malondialdehyde and homocysteine did not significantly change. Animal studies suggest the ability of α-tocopherol administration to reverse adverse health effects of lead exposure, such as oxidative stress; however, the results of this study on humans do not confirm these protective effects.

  5. Lead exposure and biological effects in pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca) before and after the closure of a lead mine in northern Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berglund, A M M; Ingvarsson, P K; Danielsson, H; Nyholm, N E I

    2010-05-01

    Mining activities affect the surrounding environment by increasing exposure to metals. In this study, metal accumulation and its effects on reproduction and health of pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca) nestlings were monitored before and up to five years after a lead mine and enrichment plant closed down. The lead concentration in moss, nestling blood, liver and feces all indicated decreased lead exposure by at least 31% after closure, although only blood lead decreased significantly. Although the birds responded fairly well to the changed atmospheric deposition (based on moss samples), concentrations were still higher compared with birds in a reference area, and breeding was affected at the mine (smaller clutches and higher mortality). Surviving nestlings suffered from lower hemoglobin levels, mean cell hemoglobin concentrations and inhibited delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity. Lead poisoning contributed to poor health and adverse reproductive effects, but other factors (e.g. increased parasitic load) probably also affected the birds. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. [Blood lead levels in children from the city of La Plata, Argentina. Relationship with iron deficiency and lead exposure risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disalvo, Liliana; Aab, Claudia; Pereyras, Silvia; Pattín, Jorgelina; Apezteguía, María; Iannicelli, Juan Carlos; Girardelli, Ana; Varea, Ana

    2009-08-01

    Environmental exposure to lead and the subsequent poisoning are a main public health concern worldwide. Children have a higher vulnerability to lead toxic effects, and many reports have shown the association between iron deficiency and lead poisoning. In Argentina, reports about lead levels in children are scarce. Our aims were to assess blood lead levels in children and determining their relationship with iron deficiency and known lead exposure risk factors. We performed a cross-sectional study in a sample of 93 children (age range, 6 months to 5 years) receiving care at La Plata Children s Hospital. A social and environmental survey was done, and blood lead, hemoglobin and ferritin levels were assessed. Geometric mean blood lead level was 4.26 microg/dl (95% CI, 3.60-5.03); prevalence of blood lead levels >or=10 microg/dl was 10.8%. Higher blood lead levels were found in children living in households with lead-handling contaminating activities (6.74 vs. 3.78 microg/dl; p= 0.005) and in very low-income households (5.68 vs. 3.71 microg/ dl; p= 0.020). The presence of blood lead levels >or=10 microg/dl was strongly associated with iron deficiency (OR 5.7; 95% CI: 1.34-23.41) and with lead-handling activities at home (OR 4.8; 95% CI: 1.12-20.16). The prevalence of blood lead levels >or=10 microg/dl is a matter of concern in the population studied. Iron deficiency and development of lead-handling activities at home were the risk factors associated with high blood lead levels.

  7. Fetal programming of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and IGF-binding protein-3: evidence for an altered response to undernutrition in late gestation following exposure to periconceptual undernutrition in the sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallaher, B W; Breier, B H; Keven, C L; Harding, J E; Gluckman, P D

    1998-12-01

    It has been demonstrated in several animal models that undernutrition in utero has significant long lasting effects on subsequent fetal and postnatal development. To address the hypothesis that the insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) may mediate such effects, our study examined whether a period of periconceptual maternal undernutrition could have a lasting influence on the IGF axis in the fetal sheep. Ewes were either allowed to feed ad libitum or kept undernourished from day 60 prior to mating until day 30 after conception, and then both groups were allowed to feed ad libitum. These groups were further divided at day 105 of gestation, either being fed ad libitum or undernourished until day 115 of gestation. Fetal and maternal blood samples were obtained at both day 105 and 115 of gestation. We describe the development of a specific homologous RIA to measure ovine IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) in fetal and maternal sheep plasma. Fetal plasma IGFBP-3 and IGF-I concentrations were significantly (Pfetal plasma IGFBP-2 levels were unchanged. The degree of reduction in fetal plasma IGFBP-3 and IGF-I between day 105 and 115 of gestation as a response to acute maternal undernutrition was significantly greater (Pfetal plasma IGFBP-3 concentrations were not the result of increased proteolytic activity. These results suggest that exposure to maternal periconceptual undernutrition reprograms IGFBP-3 and IGF-I regulation in the developing sheep fetus, altering its response to undernutrition in late gestation.

  8. Are Lead Exposures a Risk in European Fresh Waters? A Regulatory Assessment Accounting for Bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Adam; Wilson, Iain; Merrington, Graham; Chowdhury, M Jasim

    2018-01-01

    An indicative compliance assessment of the Europe-wide bioavailable lead Environmental Quality Standard of 1.2 µg L -1 (EQS) was undertaken against regulatory freshwater monitoring data from six European member states and FOREGS database. Bio-met, a user-friendly tool based upon Biotic Ligand Models (BLMs) was used to account for bioavailability, along with the current European Water Framework Directive lead dissolved organic carbon correction approach. The outputs from both approaches were compared to the BLM. Of the 9054 freshwater samples assessed only 0.6% exceeded the EQS of 1.2 µg L -1 after accounting for bioavailability. The data showed that ambient background concentrations of lead across Europe are unlikely to influence general compliance with the EQS, although there may be isolated local issues. The waters showing the greatest sensitivity to potential lead exposures are characterized by relatively low DOC (< 0.5 mg L -1 ), regardless of the pH and calcium concentrations.

  9. Estimated lead (Pb) exposures for a population of urban community gardeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spliethoff, Henry M; Mitchell, Rebecca G; Shayler, Hannah; Marquez-Bravo, Lydia G; Russell-Anelli, Jonathan; Ferenz, Gretchen; McBride, Murray

    2016-08-01

    Urban community gardens provide affordable, locally grown, healthy foods and many other benefits. However, urban garden soils can contain lead (Pb) that may pose risks to human health. To help evaluate these risks, we measured Pb concentrations in soil, vegetables, and chicken eggs from New York City community gardens, and we asked gardeners about vegetable consumption and time spent in the garden. We then estimated Pb intakes deterministically and probabilistically for adult gardeners, children who spend time in the garden, and adult (non-gardener) household members. Most central tendency Pb intakes were below provisional total tolerable intake (PTTI) levels. High contact intakes generally exceeded PTTIs. Probabilistic estimates showed approximately 40 % of children and 10 % of gardeners exceeding PTTIs. Children's exposure came primarily from dust ingestion and exposure to higher Pb soil between beds. Gardeners' Pb intakes were comparable to children's (in µg/day) but were dominated by vegetable consumption. Adult household members ate less garden-grown produce than gardeners and had the lowest Pb intakes. Our results suggest that healthy gardening practices to reduce Pb exposure in urban community gardens should focus on encouraging cultivation of lower Pb vegetables (i.e., fruits) for adult gardeners and on covering higher Pb non-bed soils accessible to young children. However, the common practice of replacement of root-zone bed soil with clean soil (e.g., in raised beds) has many benefits and should also continue to be encouraged.

  10. Modulation of Ethanol-Metabolizing Enzymes by Developmental Lead Exposure: Effects in Voluntary Ethanol Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam B. Virgolini

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This review article provides evidence of the impact of the environmental contaminant lead (Pb on the pattern of the motivational effects of ethanol (EtOH. To find a mechanism that explains this interaction, the focus of this review article is on central EtOH metabolism and the participating enzymes, as key factors in the modulation of brain acetaldehyde (ACD accumulation and resulting effect on EtOH intake. Catalase (CAT seems a good candidate for the shared mechanism between Pb and EtOH due to both its antioxidant and its brain EtOH-metabolizing properties. CAT overactivation was reported to increase EtOH consumption, while CAT blockade reduced it, and both scenarios were modified by Pb exposure, probably as the result of elevated brain and blood CAT activity. Likewise, the motivational effects of EtOH were enhanced when brain ACD metabolism was prevented by ALDH2 inhibition, even in the Pb animals that evidenced reduced brain ALDH2 activity after chronic EtOH intake. Overall, these results suggest that brain EtOH metabolizing enzymes are modulated by Pb exposure with resultant central ACD accumulation and a prevalence of the reinforcing effects of the metabolite in brain against the aversive peripheral ACD accumulation. They also support the idea that early exposure to an environmental contaminant, even at low doses, predisposes at a later age to differential reactivity to challenging events, increasing, in this case, vulnerability to acquiring addictive behaviors, including excessive EtOH intake.

  11. Early Postnatal Lipopolysaccharide Exposure Leads to Enhanced Neurogenesis and Impaired Communicative Functions in Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Pang

    Full Text Available Perinatal infection is a well-identified risk factor for a number of neurodevelopmental disorders, including brain white matter injury (WMI and Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD. The underlying mechanisms by which early life inflammatory events cause aberrant neural, cytoarchitectural, and network organization, remain elusive. This study is aimed to investigate how systemic lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced neuroinflammation affects microglia phenotypes and early neural developmental events in rats. We show here that LPS exposure at early postnatal day 3 leads to a robust microglia activation which is characterized with mixed microglial proinflammatory (M1 and anti-inflammatory (M2 phenotypes. More specifically, we found that microglial M1 markers iNOS and MHC-II were induced at relatively low levels in a regionally restricted manner, whereas M2 markers CD206 and TGFβ were strongly upregulated in a sub-set of activated microglia in multiple white and gray matter structures. This unique microglial response was associated with a marked decrease in naturally occurring apoptosis, but an increase in cell proliferation in the subventricular zone (SVZ and the dentate gyrus (DG of hippocampus. LPS exposure also leads to a significant increase in oligodendrocyte lineage population without causing discernible hypermyelination. Moreover, LPS-exposed rats exhibited significant impairments in communicative and cognitive functions. These findings suggest a possible role of M2-like microglial activation in abnormal neural development that may underlie ASD-like behavioral impairments.

  12. Association between lead exposure from electronic waste recycling and child temperament alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junxiao; Xu, Xijin; Wu, Kusheng; Piao, Zhongxian; Huang, Jinrong; Guo, Yongyong; Li, Weiqiu; Zhang, Yuling; Chen, Aimin; Huo, Xia

    2011-08-01

    We aimed to evaluate the dose-dependent effects of lead exposure on temperament alterations in children from a primitive e-waste (obsolete electrical and electronic devices) recycling area in Guiyu of China and a control area (Chendian, China). Blood lead levels (BLL) might be correlated with temperament, health, and relevant factors that were evaluated through Parent Temperament Questionnaire (PTQ), physical examination, and residential questionnaires. We collected venipuncture blood samples from 303 children (aged 3-7 years old) between January and February 2008. Child BLL were higher in Guiyu than in Chendian (median 13.2 μg/dL, range 4.0-48.5 μg/dL vs. 8.2 μg/dL, 0-21.3 μg/dL) (Pchildren (all Pchildren with low BLL (BLLchildren by increasing BLL and altering children temperament, although the exposure to other toxicants needs to be examined in future studies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The effect of occupational lead exposure on blood levels of zinc, iron, copper, selenium and related proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasperczyk, Aleksandra; Prokopowicz, Adam; Dobrakowski, Michał; Pawlas, Natalia; Kasperczyk, Sławomir

    2012-12-01

    The study objective was to evaluate the effect of occupational lead exposure on blood concentrations of zinc, iron, copper, selenium and proteins related to them, such as transferrin, caeruloplasmin and haptoglobin. The examined group consisted of 192 healthy male employees of zinc-lead works. By the degree of lead exposure, the exposed group was subdivided into three subgroups. The control group was composed of 73 healthy male administrative workers. The markers of lead exposure (blood levels of lead and zinc protoporphyrin) were significantly elevated in the exposed group compared with the control group. Additionally, concentrations of copper and caeruloplasmin were raised. The significant increase in haptoglobin level was observed only in the low exposure group. Selenium levels were significantly decreased, whereas iron, zinc and transferrin levels were unchanged in the exposed group compared with the control group. There were positive correlations between the lead toxicity parameters and the copper and caeruloplasmin levels. In conclusion, the effect of occupational exposure to lead on the metabolism of trace metals appears to be limited. However, significant associations between lead exposure and levels of copper and selenium were shown. Changed levels of positive acute-phase proteins, such as caeruloplasmin and haptoglobin, were also observed.

  14. Upregulation of zinc transporter 2 in the blood-CSF barrier following lead exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xue; Zeng, Andrew; Zheng, Wei; Du, Yansheng

    2014-02-01

    Zinc (Zn) is an essential element for normal brain function; an abnormal Zn homeostasis in brain and the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has been implied in the etiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the mechanisms that regulate Zn transport in the blood-brain interface remain unknown. This study was designed to investigate Zn transport by the blood-CSF barrier (BCB) in the choroid plexus, with a particular focus on Zn transporter-2 (ZnT2), and to understand if lead (Pb) accumulation in the choroid plexus disturbed the Zn regulatory function in the BCB. Confocal microscopy, quantitative PCR and western blot demonstrated the presence of ZnT2 in the choroidal epithelia; ZnT2 was primarily in cytosol in freshly isolated plexus tissues but more toward the peripheral membrane in established choroidal Z310 cells. Exposure of rats to Pb (single ip injection of 50 mg Pb acetate/kg) for 24 h increased ZnT2 fluorescent signals in plexus tissues by confocal imaging and protein expression by western blot. Similar results were obtained by in vitro experiments using Z310 cells. Further studies using cultured cells and a two-chamber Transwell device showed that Pb treatment significantly reduced the cellular Zn concentration and led to an increased transport of Zn across the BCB, the effect that may be due to the increased ZnT2 by Pb exposure. Taken together, these results indicate that ZnT2 is present in the BCB; Pb exposure increases the ZnT2 expression in choroidal epithelial cells by a yet unknown mechanism and as a result, more Zn ions may be deposited into the intracellular Zn pool, leading to a relative Zn deficiency state in the cytoplasm at the BCB.

  15. Exposure to lead and other metals in children from Katowice district, Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, K; Zejda, J E; Schütz, A; Mielzynska, D; Elinder, C G; Vahter, M

    1998-05-01

    To assess the exposure to toxic metals and to evaluate its possible association with essential elements and socioeconomic status in children from the town of Bytom in the Katowice area; this area is one of the most polluted industrialized regions in Poland. Concentrations of lead, cadmium, mercury, selenium, magnesium, copper, and zinc were determined in whole blood of 211 children aged 9 years. The samples were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Information on socioeconomic factors was collected using questionnaires. Concentrations of trace elements in the blood of 24 Swedish children aged 9-10 years were used for comparisons. The concentrations of lead detected in the blood of the Polish children ranged from 0.09 to 1.9 mumol/l, with the median value being 0.27 mumol/l. Statistically significant associations were found between lead and such socioeconomic factors as the number of siblings, trips outside the region, maternal smoking, playing outdoors, and apartment standard. The average blood lead level was about 3 times higher in the Polish children than in the Swedish group. The median blood concentration of cadmium found in the Polish children was 3.4 nmol/l (range 1.1-41 nmol/l; almost 3 times higher than that detected in the Swedish children), and that of mercury was 3 nmol/l (range 0.5-11 nmol/l). The median blood levels and ranges of the essential elements were 1.1 (0.7-2.0) mumol/l for selenium, 1.5 (1.2-1.9) mmol/l for magnesium, 17 (13-22) mumol/l for copper, and 78 (54-104) mumol/l for zinc, respectively. The concentrations of selenium and magnesium were significantly lower in the Polish group as compared with the Swedish children. In all, 7% of the Polish children had blood lead levels exceeding 0.5 mumol/l, the concentration above which negative effects on mental development have been reported. However, the findings indicate a decrease in lead exposure during recent years among the Bytom children.

  16. Exposure to lead in water and cysteine non-oxidative metabolism in Pelophylax ridibundus tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaczor, Marta [Jagiellonian University Medical College, Kopernika 7, 31-034 Krakow (Poland); Sura, Piotr [Department of Human Developmental Biology, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Kopernika 7, 31-034 Krakow (Poland); Bronowicka-Adamska, Patrycja [Jagiellonian University Medical College, Kopernika 7, 31-034 Krakow (Poland); Wrobel, Maria, E-mail: mbwrobel@cyf-kr.edu.pl [Jagiellonian University Medical College, Kopernika 7, 31-034 Krakow (Poland)

    2013-02-15

    Chronic, low-level exposure to metals is an increasing global problem. Lead is an environmentally persistent toxin that causes many lead-related pathologies, directly affects tissues and cellular components or exerts an effect of the generation of reactive oxygen species causing a diminished level of available sulfhydryl antioxidant reserves. Cysteine is one of substrates in the synthesis of glutathione - the most important cellular antioxidant, and it may also undergo non-oxidative desulfuration that produces compounds containing sulfane sulfur atoms. The aim of the experiment was to examine changes of the non-oxidative metabolism of cysteine and the levels of cysteine and glutathione in the kidneys, heart, brain, liver and muscle of Marsh frogs (Pelophylax ridibundus) exposed to 28 mg/L Pb(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} for 10 days. The activities of sulfurtransferases, enzymes related to the sulfane sulfur metabolism - 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransfearse, {gamma}-cystathionase and rhodanese - were detected in tissue homogenates. The activity of sulfurtransferases was much higher in the kidneys of frogs exposed to lead in comparison to control frogs, not exposed to lead. The level of sulfane sulfur remained unchanged. Similarly, the total level of cysteine did not change significantly. The total levels of glutathione and the cysteine/cystine and GSH/GSSG ratios were elevated. Thus, it seems that the exposure to lead intensified the metabolism of sulfane sulfur and glutathione synthesis in the kidneys. The results presented in this work not only confirm the participation of GSH in the detoxification of lead ions and/or products appearing in response to their presence, such as reactive oxygen species, but also indicate the involvement of sulfane sulfur and rhodanese in this process (e.g. brain). As long as the expression of enzymatic proteins (rhodanese, MPST and CST) is not examined, no answer will be provided to the question whether changes in their activity are due to

  17. [Evaluation of the potential risk of perinatal exposure to lead in the Valle de Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenberg, S J; Schnaas-arrieta, L; Perez-guerrero, I A; Fernandez-alba, J; Karchmer, S

    1989-01-01

    Lead exposure even at low levels has adverse effects for the central nervous system (CNS), but pregnant women, neonates, lactating infants, and preschool and school age children are most susceptible to it. In rats anatomical alterations included swelling in the mitochondria of renal duct cells (at 26 mcg/dl); biochemical effects involved marked reduction of cytochrome content in the cerebral cortex (36 mcg/dl); and physiological effects were induced at the level of 30-50 mcg/dl. Central nervous system effects entailed persistent decrease of visual acuity (65 mcg/dl at birth and 7 mcg/dl 90 days later), the increase of the latency of primary and secondary components of evoked visual responses during the prenatal and adult period (65 mcg/dl and 7 mcg/dl on days 21 and 90 after birth, respectively). 30 and even 20 mcg/dl of lead in the blood produced nerve conductivity deficits. A study of 425 children with lead poisoning showed a 39% rate of mental retardation and convulsions impervious to treatment. Lead levels within a range of 10-25 mcg/dl reduced the score on the mental development inventory by 4-8 points. The population of the Valley of Mexico numbers 15-20 million with 50% of Mexico's industry. A who investigation indicated blood levels of an average of 22.5 mcg/dl in a group of school teachers, the highest in 10 major population centers in the world. Blood levels in 405 pregnant women in Mexico City averaged 20.3 mcg/dl, and the sample from the umbilical cord of fetuses showed 13.6 mcg/dl. Another study disclosed blood levels of 16 mcg/dl in mothers and 13 mcg/dl in their offspring. The most probable sources of lead are: leaded gasoline, secondary recapture of lead for making batteries, use of paints, ceramics used for storing and cooking food, lead seal of milk containers, and consumption of food contaminated with lead.

  18. Effects of Zinc and N-Acetylcysteine in Damage Caused by Lead Exposure in Young Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedroso, Taíse F; Oliveira, Cláudia S; Fonseca, Mariana M; Oliveira, Vitor A; Pereira, Maria Ester

    2017-12-01

    This study investigated the toxicity of rats exposed to lead acetate (AcPb) during the second phase of brain development (8-12 days postnatal) in hematological and cerebral parameters. Moreover, the preventive effect of zinc chloride (ZnCl 2 ) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) was investigated. Pups were injected subcutaneously with saline (0.9% NaCl solution), ZnCl 2 (27 mg/kg/day), NAC (5 mg/kg/day) or ZnCl 2 plus NAC for 5 days (3rd-7th postnatal days), and with saline (0.9% NaCl solution) or AcPb (7 mg/kg/day) in the five subsequent days (8th-12th postnatal days). Animals were sacrificed 21 days after the last AcPb exposure. Pups exposed to AcPb presented inhibition of blood porphobilinogen-synthase (PBG-synthase) activity without changes in hemoglobin content. ZnCl 2 pre-exposure partially prevented PBG-synthase inhibition. Regarding neurotoxicity biomarkers, animals exposed to AcPb presented a decrease in cerebrum acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and an increase in Pb accumulation in blood and cerebrum. These changes were prevented by pre-treatment with ZnCl 2 , NAC, and ZnCl 2 plus NAC. AcPb exposure caused no alteration in behavioral tasks. In short, results show that AcPb inhibited the activity of two important enzymatic biomarkers up to 21 days after the end of the exposure. Moreover, ZnCl 2 and NAC prevented the alterations induced by AcPb.

  19. Foliar or root exposures to smelter particles: Consequences for lead compartmentalization and speciation in plant leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreck, Eva [Université de Toulouse, INP, UPS, EcoLab (Laboratoire Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Environnement), ENSAT, Avenue de l' Agrobiopole, 31326 Castanet-Tolosan (France); CNRS, EcoLab, 31326 Castanet-Tolosan (France); Géosciences Environnement Toulouse (GET), Observatoire Midi Pyrénées, Université de Toulouse, CNRS, IRD, 14 Avenue E. Belin, F-31400 Toulouse (France); Dappe, Vincent [LASIR (UMR CNRS 8516), Université de Lille 1, Bât. C5, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Sarret, Géraldine [ISTerre, UMR 5275, Université Grenoble I, CNRS, F-38041 Grenoble (France); Sobanska, Sophie [LASIR (UMR CNRS 8516), Université de Lille 1, Bât. C5, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Nowak, Dorota; Nowak, Jakub; Stefaniak, Elżbieta Anna [Department of Chemistry, John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin, Al. Kraśnicka 102, 20-718 Lublin (Poland); Magnin, Valérie [ISTerre, UMR 5275, Université Grenoble I, CNRS, F-38041 Grenoble (France); Ranieri, Vincent [CEA-INAC, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Dumat, Camille, E-mail: camille.dumat@ensat.fr [Université de Toulouse, INP, UPS, EcoLab (Laboratoire Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Environnement), ENSAT, Avenue de l' Agrobiopole, 31326 Castanet-Tolosan (France); CNRS, EcoLab, 31326 Castanet-Tolosan (France)

    2014-04-01

    In urban areas with high fallout of airborne particles, metal uptake by plants mainly occurs by foliar pathways and can strongly impact crop quality. However, there is a lack of knowledge on metal localization and speciation in plants after pollution exposure, especially in the case of foliar uptake. In this study, two contrasting crops, lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and rye-grass (Lolium perenne L.), were exposed to Pb-rich particles emitted by a Pb-recycling factory via either atmospheric or soil application. Pb accumulation in plant leaves was observed for both ways of exposure. The mechanisms involved in Pb uptake were investigated using a combination of microscopic and spectroscopic techniques (electron microscopy, laser ablation, Raman microspectroscopy, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy). The results show that Pb localization and speciation are strongly influenced by the type of exposure (root or shoot pathway) and the plant species. Foliar exposure is the main pathway of uptake, involving the highest concentrations in plant tissues. Under atmospheric fallouts, Pb-rich particles were strongly adsorbed on the leaf surface of both plant species. In lettuce, stomata contained Pb-rich particles in their apertures, with some deformations of guard cells. In addition to PbO and PbSO{sub 4}, chemical forms that were also observed in pristine particles, new species were identified: organic compounds (minimum 20%) and hexagonal platy crystals of PbCO{sub 3}. In rye-grass, the changes in Pb speciation were even more egregious: Pb–cell wall and Pb–organic acid complexes were the major species observed. For root exposure, identified here as a minor pathway of Pb transfer compared to foliar uptake, another secondary species, pyromorphite, was identified in rye-grass leaves. Finally, combining bulk and spatially resolved spectroscopic techniques permitted both the overall speciation and the minor but possibly highly reactive lead species to be determined in order to

  20. Biogeochemical characterization of municipal compost to support urban agriculture and limit childhood lead exposure from resuspended urban soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maia G. Fitzstevens

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Chronic low-level lead exposure among low-income minority children is an urgent environmental justice issue. Addressing this ubiquitous urban public health crisis requires a new transdisciplinary paradigm. The primary goals of this work are to inform best practices for urban gardeners working in lead contaminated soils and to reimagine urban organic waste management schemes to produce compost, which when covering or mixed with urban soil, could minimize lead exposure. We investigate bulk and bioaccessible lead from five types of compost used in urban gardens in Boston, MA. We categorized them by feedstock and measured bulk elemental concentrations and physical characteristics. Our results show that different feedstocks exhibit unique geochemical fingerprints. While bulk lead concentrations in compost are a fraction of what is typical for urban soils, the bioaccessible lead fraction in compost is greater than the default parameters for the Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic (IEUBK model. The lack of geochemical differences across feedstocks for lead sorption to carbon indicates a similar sorption mechanism for all compost. This suggests that municipal compost would be suitable for capping lead contaminated urban soils. Risk assessment models should consider lead bioaccessibility, to prevent the underprediction of exposure risk, and should include compost along with soils as urban matrices. Based on the observed bioaccessibility in our compost samples, 170 mg/kg total lead in compost will yield the same bioaccessible lead as the IEUBK model predicts for the 400 mg/kg EPA soil lead benchmark. Local logistical challenges remain for interdisciplinary teams of city planners, exposure scientists, and urban agricultural communities to design organic waste collection practices to produce compost that will support urban agriculture and primary lead exposure prevention.

  1. Gestational Diabetes and Women

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-05-12

    This women's health podcast focuses on gestational diabetes (GDM) to help educate women who may have been diagnosed with GDM now or in the past. GDM is a condition that can lead to pregnancy complications.  Created: 5/12/2009 by Office of Women’s Health (OWH) and National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 5/12/2009.

  2. Lactational Lead Exposure Perturbates Androgenesis in Juvenile and Pubertal Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odukoya SOA

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: High to low lead (Pb concentrations in breast milk has been found to perturb some biological events in the postnatal life. While postnatal Pb exposure has been reported to impair some andrological parameters in mammals, the age-dependent andrological signature of lactational Pb poisoning is not clear. Aims and Objectives: This study investigated the effects of Pb exposure during lactational period on the testicular andrological profiles of rats at certain postlactational ages using varying doses of Pb. Material and Methods: Lactating mothers and their pups were randomly divided into 4 groups comprising 24 pups each. The treatment groups received 10mg/dL, 30mg/dL, and 70mg/dLof lead acetate in their drinking water from postnatal day one (P1 to P21 of the lactational period. The control rats received distilled water. At P22, P60, P90 and P120, the pups from each group were euthanized, testes were collected, homogenized and the supernatant was used to assay for testosterone and oestrogen using standard methods. Results: Lactational lead poisoning was associated with depressed testicular testosterone productions (P<0.05 compared with controls and abnormally high levels of testicular oestrogen. These statistically significant differences (P<0.05 in androgens levels were corrected to near normal with increasing postnatal ages at low doses. Conclusion: These results show that lactational Pb intoxication causes reversible androgenic perturbations at low doses but irreversible damage at high doses during postnatal life. Conclusively, high lactational Pb is associated with post-lactational irreversible impairment of androgenic profiles.

  3. Cadmium and lead exposure and risk of cataract surgery in U.S. adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weiye; Schaumberg, Debra A; Park, Sung Kyun

    2016-11-01

    Cataract is a major cause of visual dysfunction and the leading cause of blindness. Elevated levels of cadmium and lead have been found in the lenses of cataract patients, suggesting these metals may play a role in cataract risk. This study aimed to examine the associations of blood lead, blood cadmium and urinary cadmium with cataract risk. We identified 9763 individuals aged 50 years and older with blood lead and cadmium levels, and a randomly selected subgroup of 3175 individuals with available urinary cadmium levels, from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) from 1999 to 2008 (mean age=63years). Participants were considered to have cataract if they self-reported prior cataract surgery in NHANES's vision examination. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed using survey logistic regression models. We identified 1737 cataract surgery cases (the weighted prevalence=14.1%). With adjustment for age, race/ethnicity, gender, education, diabetes mellitus, body mass index, cigarette smoking (serum cotinine and pack-years) and urine hydration, every 2-fold increase in urinary cadmium was associated with a 23% higher risk of cataract surgery (OR=1.23, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.46, p=0.021). We found no associations of cataract surgery with blood cadmium (OR=0.97, 95% CI: 0.89, 1.07) and blood lead (OR=0.97, 95% CI: 0.88, 1.06). Mediation analysis showed that for the smoking-cadmium-cataract pathway, the ratio of smoking's indirect effect to the total effect through cadmium was more than 50%. These results suggest that cumulative cadmium exposure may be an important under-recognized risk factor for cataract. However, these findings should be interpreted with a caution because of inconsistent results between urinary cadmium and blood cadmium. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Lead exposure from soil in Peruvian mining towns: a national assessment supported by two contrasting examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Geen, Alexander; Bravo, Carolina; Gil, Vladimir; Sherpa, Shaky; Jack, Darby

    2012-12-01

    To estimate the population of Peru living in the vicinity of active or former mining operations that could be exposed to lead from contaminated soil. Geographic coordinates were compiled for 113 active mines, 138 ore processing plants and 3 smelters, as well as 7743 former mining sites. The population living within 5 km of these sites was calculated from census data for 2000. In addition, the lead content of soil in the historic mining town of Cerro de Pasco and around a recent mine and ore processing plant near the city of Huaral was mapped in 2009 using a hand-held X-ray fluorescence analyser. Spatial analysis indicated that 1.6 million people in Peru could be living within 5 km of an active or former mining operation. Two thirds of the population potentially exposed was accounted for by 29 clusters of mining operations, each with a population of over 10 000 each. These clusters included 112 active and 3438 former mining operations. Soil lead levels exceeded 1200 mg/kg, a reference standard for residential soil, in 35 of 74 sites tested in Cerro de Pasco but in only 4 of 47 sites tested around the newer operations near Huaral. Soil contamination with lead is likely to be extensive in Peruvian mining towns but the level of contamination is spatially far from uniform. Childhood exposure by soil ingestion could be substantially reduced by mapping soil lead levels, making this information public and encouraging local communities to isolate contaminated areas from children.

  5. Very low prenatal exposure to lead and mental development of children in infancy and early childhood: Krakow prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedrychowski, Wieslaw; Perera, Frederica P; Jankowski, Jeffery; Mrozek-Budzyn, Dorota; Mroz, Elzbieta; Flak, Elzbieta; Edwards, Susan; Skarupa, Anita; Lisowska-Miszczyk, Ilona

    2009-01-01

    The primary purpose of the study was to establish a possible association between very low levels of prenatal exposure to lead and mental development of children at 12, 24 and 36 months of age. The study sample consisted of 444 children born to mothers who attended ambulatory prenatal clinics in Krakow inner city in the first and second trimesters of pregnancy. We assessed exposure to lead by the cord blood lead measurements, and mental development in infancy and early childhood using the Bayley Mental Development Index (MDI). The relationship between prenatal lead exposure and MDI scores at each follow-up period was evaluated with linear multivariate regression. To test the overall effect of maternal exposure to lead during pregnancy on the Bayley test scores at 12, 24 and 36 months of age, we used the generalized estimating equations (GEE) longitudinal panel model as well. The median lead level in cord blood was 1.23 microg/dl, in the range of 0.44-6.90 microg/dl. An adverse effect of prenatal lead exposure (log-transformed lead concentrations) on MDI scores at 12 months of age was of border significance (beta = -5.42, 95% CI: -11.19 to 0.35). Subsequent testing of children at 24 months of age showed a significant inverse association of mental function and lead exposure (beta = -7.65, 95% CI: -14.68 to -0.62). A significant deficit in cognitive function due to prenatal lead exposure was also confirmed at 36 months of age (beta = -6.72, 95% CI: -12.5 to -0.89). The GEE panel model showed that the average deficit in the cognitive development attributable to lead exposure over 3 years was also significant (beta = -6.62, 95% CI: -1.52 to -1.72). Mental function scores of girls were better than boys, and the effect of maternal education remained strongly significant in relation to mental function of 3-year-olds. The results of the study demonstrate that the neurotoxic impact of very low levels of prenatal lead exposure (below 5 microg/dl) may occur in infants and very

  6. Blood morphology and the levels of selected cytokines related to hematopoiesis in occupational short-term exposure to lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrakowski, Michał; Boroń, Marta; Czuba, Zenon P.; Birkner, Ewa; Chwalba, Artur; Hudziec, Edyta; Kasperczyk, Sławomir

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of a short-term exposure to lead on the blood morphology and the levels of selected cytokines related to hematopoiesis in occupationally exposed workers. The study population included 37 males occupationally exposed to lead for 36 to 44 days. Their blood lead level raised from 10.7 ± 7.67 μg/dl at baseline to the level of 49.1 ± 14.1 μg/dl at the end of the study. The level of hemoglobin and values of MCH and MCHC were decreased due to a short-term exposure to lead by 2%, 2%, and 1%, respectively. The counts of WBC, LYM, and MXD increased significantly by 5%, 7%, and 35%. Similarly, the count of PLT increased by 7%, while PDW, MPV, and P-LCR decreased by 6%, 3%, and 9%, respectively. The levels of IL-7, G-CSF, HGF, PDGF AB/BB, SCF, and PECAM-1, decreased significantly by 30%, 33%, 8%, 30%, 25%, and 20%, respectively. A short-term occupational exposure to lead results in a decreased hemoglobin level and increased counts of WBC and PLT. Changes in counts and proportions of different types of leukocytes and decreased values of PLT indices, such as PDW, MPV, and P-LCR, due to the subacute lead-exposure may be associated with lead-induced decreased levels of cytokines related to hematopoiesis, including SCF, G-CSF, IL-7, and PDGF. - Highlights: • Subacute exposure to lead results in a decreased hemoglobin level. • Subacute exposure to lead results in increased counts of WBC and PLT. • Subacute exposure to lead decreases the levels of SCF, G-CSF, IL-7, and PDGF.

  7. Ahr and Cyp1a2 genotypes both affect susceptibility to motor deficits following gestational and lactational exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colter, Breann T; Garber, Helen Frances; Fleming, Sheila M; Fowler, Jocelyn Phillips; Harding, Gregory D; Hooven, Molly Kromme; Howes, Amy Ashworth; Infante, Smitha Krishnan; Lang, Anna L; MacDougall, Melinda Curran; Stegman, Melinda; Taylor, Kelsey Rae; Curran, Christine Perdan

    2018-03-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants known to cause adverse health effects and linked to neurological deficits in both human and animal studies. Children born to exposed mothers are at highest risk of learning and memory and motor deficits. We developed a mouse model that mimics human variation in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor and cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) to determine if genetic variation increases susceptibility to developmental PCB exposure. In our previous studies, we found that high-affinity Ahr b Cyp1a2(-/-) and poor-affinity Ahr d Cyp1a2(-/-) knockout mice were most susceptible to learning and memory deficits following developmental PCB exposure compared with Ahr b Cyp1a2(+/+) wild type mice (C57BL/6J strain). Our follow-up studies focused on motor deficits, because human studies have identified PCBs as a potential risk factor for Parkinson's disease. Dams were treated with an environmentally relevant PCB mixture at gestational day 10 and postnatal day 5. We used a motor battery that included tests of nigrostriatal function as well as cerebellar function, because PCBs deplete thyroid hormone, which is essential to normal cerebellar development. There was a significant effect of PCB treatment in the rotarod test with impaired performance in all three genotypes, but decreased motor learning as well in the two Cyp1a2(-/-) knockout lines. Interestingly, we found a main effect of genotype with corn oil-treated control Cyp1a2(-/-) mice performing significantly worse than Cyp1a2(+/+) wild type mice. In contrast, we found that PCB-treated high-affinity Ahr b mice were most susceptible to disruption of nigrostriatal function with the greatest deficits in Ahr b Cyp1a2(-/-) mice. We conclude that differences in AHR affinity combined with the absence of CYP1A2 protein affect susceptibility to motor deficits following developmental PCB exposure. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. MAPK pathway activation by chronic lead-exposure increases vascular reactivity through oxidative stress/cyclooxygenase-2-dependent pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simões, Maylla Ronacher, E-mail: yllars@hotmail.com [Dept. of Physiological Sciences, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitória, ES CEP 29040-091 (Brazil); Department of Pharmacology, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Instituto de Investigación Hospital Universitario La Paz (IdiPAZ), Madrid (Spain); Aguado, Andrea [Department of Pharmacology, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Instituto de Investigación Hospital Universitario La Paz (IdiPAZ), Madrid (Spain); Fiorim, Jonaína; Silveira, Edna Aparecida; Azevedo, Bruna Fernandes; Toscano, Cindy Medice [Dept. of Physiological Sciences, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitória, ES CEP 29040-091 (Brazil); Zhenyukh, Olha; Briones, Ana María [Department of Pharmacology, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Instituto de Investigación Hospital Universitario La Paz (IdiPAZ), Madrid (Spain); Alonso, María Jesús [Dept. of Biochemistry, Physiology and Molecular Genetics, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Alcorcón (Spain); Vassallo, Dalton Valentim [Dept. of Physiological Sciences, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitória, ES CEP 29040-091 (Brazil); Health Science Center of Vitória-EMESCAM, Vitória, ES CEP 29045-402 (Brazil); Salaices, Mercedes, E-mail: mercedes.salaices@uam.es [Department of Pharmacology, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Instituto de Investigación Hospital Universitario La Paz (IdiPAZ), Madrid (Spain)

    2015-03-01

    Chronic exposure to low lead concentration produces hypertension; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We analyzed the role of oxidative stress, cyclooxygenase-2-dependent pathways and MAPK in the vascular alterations induced by chronic lead exposure. Aortas from lead-treated Wistar rats (1st dose: 10 μg/100 g; subsequent doses: 0.125 μg/100 g, intramuscular, 30 days) and cultured aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) from Sprague Dawley rats stimulated with lead (20 μg/dL) were used. Lead blood levels of treated rats attained 21.7 ± 2.38 μg/dL. Lead exposure increased systolic blood pressure and aortic ring contractile response to phenylephrine, reduced acetylcholine-induced relaxation and did not affect sodium nitroprusside relaxation. Endothelium removal and L-NAME left-shifted the response to phenylephrine more in untreated than in lead-treated rats. Apocynin and indomethacin decreased more the response to phenylephrine in treated than in untreated rats. Aortic protein expression of gp91(phox), Cu/Zn-SOD, Mn-SOD and COX-2 increased after lead exposure. In cultured VSMCs lead 1) increased superoxide anion production, NADPH oxidase activity and gene and/or protein levels of NOX-1, NOX-4, Mn-SOD, EC-SOD and COX-2 and 2) activated ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK. Both antioxidants and COX-2 inhibitors normalized superoxide anion production, NADPH oxidase activity and mRNA levels of NOX-1, NOX-4 and COX-2. Blockade of the ERK1/2 and p38 signaling pathways abolished lead-induced NOX-1, NOX-4 and COX-2 expression. Results show that lead activation of the MAPK signaling pathways activates inflammatory proteins such as NADPH oxidase and COX-2, suggesting a reciprocal interplay and contribution to vascular dysfunction as an underlying mechanisms for lead-induced hypertension. - Highlights: • Lead-exposure increases oxidative stress, COX-2 expression and vascular reactivity. • Lead exposure activates MAPK signaling pathway. • ROS and COX-2 activation by

  9. Occupational lead exposure among automotive garage workers – a case study for Jimma town, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela Yalemsew

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Ethiopia, although there are numerous small-scale and medium industries which use lead-based raw materials that may pose health risks to workers, there are no workplace regulations for lead exposure. Moreover, there are no studies carried out on the blood lead levels (BLLs of workers or on the contribution of common workplace practices to lead poisoning. Method A cross-sectional study on the BLLs of 45 automotive garage workers and 40 non-garage workers was carried out in the town of Jimma, Ethiopia. In addition to BLL analysis, data on some risk factors such as smoking, and chewing ‘khat’ (the leaves of Catha adulis were gathered through structured questionnaires and interviews and data analysis was performed using SPSS (version 16. The t-test was used to compare mean BLLs of study groups. The analysis of variance (ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis, Pearson chi-square and odds ratio tests were used to investigate the associations between specific job type, smoking and/or ‘khat’ chewing, service years and occurrence of non-specific symptoms with BLLs. Results The mean BLL of the automotive-garage workers was found to be significantly greater than that of the controls. The BLLs of all the lead-exposed individuals were found to be over 10 μg/dL, and 53% of them had BLLs ranging 12 – 20 μg/dL, with the remaining 47% having over 20 μg/dL. The BLL of the workers increased with the duration of working in an automotive garage. Individuals involved in manual car painting comprise a larger percentage (58% of those with the highest BLLs (≥ 20 μg/dL. Lead accumulation in individuals who chew ‘khat’ in the work place was found to be faster than in those who are not used to chewing ‘khat’. ‘Khat’ is an evergreen shrub native to tropical East Africa, with dark green opposite leaves which are chewed when fresh for their stimulating effects. Conclusion The findings of the study have clearly demonstrated that the

  10. Exposure to a Highly Caloric Palatable Diet During Pregestational and Gestational Periods Affects Hypothalamic and Hippocampal Endocannabinoid Levels at Birth and Induces Adiposity and Anxiety-Like Behaviors in Male Rat Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-López, María Teresa; Vázquez, Mariam; Bindila, Laura; Lomazzo, Ermelinda; Hofmann, Clementine; Blanco, Rosario Noemí; Alén, Francisco; Antón, María; Decara, Juan; Ouro, Daniel; Orio, Laura; Suarez, Juan; Lutz, Beat; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Gómez de Heras, Raquel

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to unbalanced diets during pre-gestational and gestational periods may result in long-term alterations in metabolism and behavior. The contribution of the endocannabinoid system to these long-term adaptive responses is unknown. In the present study, we investigated the impact of female rat exposure to a hypercaloric-hypoproteic palatable diet during pre-gestational, gestational and lactational periods on the development of male offspring. In addition, the hypothalamic and hippocampal endocannabinoid contents at birth and the behavioral performance in adulthood were investigated. Exposure to a palatable diet resulted in low weight offspring who exhibited low hypothalamic contents of arachidonic acid and the two major endocannabinoids (anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol) at birth. Palmitoylethanolamide, but not oleoylethanolamide, also decreased. Additionally, pups from palatable diet-fed dams displayed lower levels of anandamide and palmitoylethanolamide in the hippocampus. The low-weight male offspring, born from palatable diet exposed mothers, gained less weight during lactation and although they recovered weight during the post-weaning period, they developed abdominal adiposity in adulthood. These animals exhibited anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus-maze and open field test and a low preference for a chocolate diet in a food preference test, indicating that maternal exposure to a hypercaloric diet induces long-term behavioral alterations in male offspring. These results suggest that maternal diet alterations in the function of the endogenous cannabinoid system can mediate the observed phenotype of the offspring, since both hypothalamic and hippocampal endocannabinoids regulate feeding, metabolic adaptions to caloric diets, learning, memory, and emotions.

  11. Exposure to a highly caloric palatable diet during pregestational and gestational periods affects hypothalamic and hippocampal endocannabinoid levels at birth and induces adiposity and anxiety-like behaviors in male rat offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa eRamírez-López

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to unbalanced diets during pre-gestational and gestational periods may result in long-term alterations in metabolism and behavior. The contribution of the endocannabinoid system to these long-term adaptive responses is unknown. In the present study, we investigated the impact of female rat exposure to a hypercaloric-hypoproteic palatable diet during pre-gestational, gestational and lactational periods on the development of male offspring. In addition, the hypothalamic and hippocampal endocannabinoid contents at birth and the behavioral performance in adulthood were investigated. Exposure to a palatable diet resulted in low weight offspring who exhibited low hypothalamic contents of arachidonic acid and the two major endocannabinoids (anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol at birth. Palmitoylethanolamide, but not oleoylethanolamide, also decreased. Additionally, pups from palatable diet-fed dams displayed lower levels of anandamide and palmitoylethanolamide in the hippocampus. The low-weight male offspring, born from palatable diet exposed mothers, gained less weight during lactation and, although they recovered weight during the post-weaning period, they developed abdominal adiposity in adulthood. These animals exhibited anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus-maze and open field test and a low preference for a chocolate diet in a food preference test, indicating that maternal exposure to a hypercaloric diet induces long-term behavioral alterations in male offspring. These results suggest that maternal diet alterations in the function of the endogenous cannabinoid system can mediate the observed phenotype of the offspring, since both hypothalamic and hippocampal endocannabinoids regulate feeding, metabolic adaptions to caloric diets, learning, memory and emotions.

  12. Lead exposure, IQ, and behavior in urban 5- to 7-year-olds: does lead affect behavior only by lowering IQ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Aimin; Cai, Bo; Dietrich, Kim N; Radcliffe, Jerilynn; Rogan, Walter J

    2007-03-01

    Lead exposure in childhood lowers IQ scores, but its effect on children's behavior is less clear. Because IQ, per se, affects behavior, measuring the direct effect of lead requires measuring and then adjusting for IQ. In addition, either peak blood lead concentration, usually at 2 years old, or the lower blood lead level measured at school age may be the most relevant. Few studies have all of this information. The purpose of this work was to differentiate the direct effect of lead on behavior and the indirect effect through IQ and to examine the strength of the association for peak and concurrent blood lead concentration. Data come from a clinical trial of the chelating drug succimer to prevent cognitive impairment in 780 urban 12- to 33-month-olds with blood lead concentrations of 20 to 44 microg/dL. The children were followed from ages 2 to 7 years. The trial data were analyzed as a prospective observational study. Blood lead concentration at 2 years old was not associated with Conners' Parent Rating Scale-Revised scores at 5 years of age or Behavioral Assessment Systems for Children scores at 7 years of age. Blood lead level at 7 years of age had direct effects on the Behavioral Assessment Systems for Children behavioral symptoms index, externalizing, and school problems at age 7. Concurrent blood lead concentration was associated with externalizing and school problems scales at 7 years of age, and the effect was not entirely mediated through the effect of lead on IQ.

  13. Effects of dietary lead exposure on vitamin levels in great tit nestlings - An experimental manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Sandra; Espín, Silvia; Rainio, Miia; Ruuskanen, Suvi; Salminen, Juha-Pekka; Lilley, Thomas M; Eeva, Tapio

    2016-06-01

    Exposure to metal pollution negatively affects animal physiology, including nutrient metabolism, but in the wild an effect can seldom be attributed to a single metal. Moreover, little is known about how the metabolism of vitamins, essential micronutrients for developing juveniles, is affected by toxic metals. Therefore we experimentally investigated the effects of lead (Pb), a widespread toxic metal, on four fat-soluble vitamins A (total and retinol), D3, E (total and α-tocopherol) and K and carotenoids (lutein, zeaxanthin and unidentified) in great tit (Parus major) nestlings. In addition to a control group where no Pb was provided, two Pb-dosed groups were compared to a metal exposed group in the vicinity of a Ni-Cu smelter. We examined whether Pb treatment affects vitamin homeostasis and how the response of Pb-treated birds relates to that of a population under industrial exposure of Pb and other metals. For this purpose, vitamin and carotenoid levels were quantified with UPLC-MS from plasma of 7 days-old nestlings. All metal exposed groups showed increased vitamin A and retinol levels. However, vitamin levels were not directly associated with fecal Pb levels, with the exception of retinol, which was positively correlated with fecal Pb. Alpha-tocopherol, lutein and zeaxanthin levels were positively associated with body mass and wing growth rate. To conclude, Pb exposure increased plasma vitamin A and retinol levels while the levels of other vitamins and carotenoids rather reflected secondary pollution effects via differences in habitat and diet quality at the smelter site. Our findings suggest Pb exposed nestlings may allocate the vitamins needed for growth and development to fight the physiological stress thus compromising their fitness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Exposure to Sexual Stimuli Induces Greater Discounting Leading to Increased Involvement in Cyber Delinquency Among Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Wen; Chiou, Wen-Bin

    2018-02-01

    People frequently encounter sexual stimuli during Internet use. Research has shown that stimuli inducing sexual motivation can lead to greater impulsivity in men, as manifested in greater temporal discounting (i.e., a tendency to prefer smaller, immediate gains to larger, future ones). Extant findings in crime research suggest that delinquents tend to focus on short-term gains while failing to adequately think through the longer-term consequences of delinquent behavior. We experimentally tested the possibility that exposure to sexual stimuli is associated with the tendency to engage in cyber delinquency among men, as a result of their overly discounting remote consequences. In Experiment 1, participants exposed to pictures of "sexy" women were more likely to discount the future and were more inclined to make cyber-delinquent choices (e.g., cyberbullying, cyber fraud, cyber theft, and illegal downloading), compared with male participants who rated the sex appeal of less sexy opposite-sex pictures. However, these relationships were not observed in female participants exposed to either highly or less sexy pictures of men. In Experiment 2, male participants exposed to sexual primes showed a greater willingness to purchase a wide range of counterfeit rather than authentic products online and experienced a higher likelihood of logging into the other person's Facebook webpage (i.e., invading online privacy). The discounting tendency mediated the link between exposure to sexual primes and the inclination to engage in cyber-delinquent behavior. These findings provide insight into a strategy for reducing men's involvement in cyber delinquency; that is, through less exposure to sexual stimuli and promotion of delayed gratification. The current results suggest that the high availability of sexual stimuli in cyberspace may be more closely associated with men's cyber-delinquent behavior than previously thought.

  15. Coxsackie Virus A16 Infection of Placenta with Massive Perivillous Fibrin Deposition Leading to Intrauterine Fetal Demise at 36 Weeks Gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Weiming; Tellier, Raymond; Wright, James R

    2015-01-01

    Massive perivillous fibrin deposition (MPFD) is an uncommon placental disorder, associated with significant fetal morbidity, mortality, and recurrence; its etiology is unknown. We describe a 31-year-old mother, diagnosed with Coxsackievirus infection and hand-foot-and-mouth disease at 35 weeks gestation. Ultrasound at 35 weeks revealed a normal fetus and placenta. One week later, the mother experienced decreased fetal movement and ultrasound demonstrated intrauterine demise. The autopsy showed mild, acute pericarditis and hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Placenta examination showed MPFD involving 80% of the parenchyma. Molecular viral analysis and serotyping showed Coxsackie A16 virus. The mother had an uneventful pregnancy 15 months later. Coxsackievirus infections in pregnant mothers are often asymptomatic. Transplacental Coxsackievirus infection is very rare but is associated with spontaneous abortion, intrauterine demise, or serious neonatal morbidity. Mild, nonspecific histologic changes have been reported in the placenta. To our knowledge, this is the first report of MPFD associated with Coxsackievirus infection.

  16. Lead exposure in raptors from Japan and source identification using Pb stable isotope ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Chihiro; Nakayama, Shouta M M; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Nakata, Hokuto; Saito, Keisuke; Watanabe, Yukiko; Mizukawa, Hazuki; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Nomiyama, Kei; Hayashi, Terutake; Ishizuka, Mayumi

    2017-11-01

    Lead (Pb) poisoning is widespread among raptors and water birds. In Japan, fragments of Pb ammunition are still found in endangered eagles although more than 10 years have passed since legislation regarding use of Pb ammunition was introduced. This study was performed to investigate Pb exposure in raptors from various locations in Japan. We measured hepatic and renal Pb concentrations and hepatic Pb isotope ratios of Steller's sea eagles (Haliaeetus pelagicus), white-tailed sea eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla), golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos), and 13 other species (total 177 individuals) that were found dead, as well as blood samples from three eagles found in a weakened state during 1993-2015 from Hokkaido (northern part), Honshu (the main island), and Shikoku (a southern island) of Japan. In the present study in Hokkaido, one quarter of the sea eagles showed a high Pb concentration, suggesting exposure to abnormally high Pb levels and Pb poisoning. Pb isotope ratios indicated that endangered Steller's sea eagle and white-tailed sea eagle were poisoned by Pb ammunition that was used illegally in Hokkaido. In other areas of Japan, both surveillance and regulations were less extensive than in Hokkaido, but Pb poisoning in raptors was also noted. Therefore, Pb poisoning is still a serious problem in raptors in various areas of Japan due to accidental ingestion of materials containing Pb, especially Pb ammunition. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Effects of Chronic Exposure to Lead Acetate on the Reactions to Painful Stimuli in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MK Koohi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Influences of lead on functions of many organ systems are known, but less experimental studies has been done on influences over the behavior, including pain sensation. This study was carried out to reveal possible changes in the onset and intensity of reactions to painful stimuli in mice, after long-term exposure to lead acetate. Methods: In this experimental study, 24 adult male albino mice were divided randomly into 3 groups of 8 each. Control group received fresh water ad lib and 2 treated groups received drinking water contaminated by either 5 ppm or 500 ppm of LA for 90 consecutive days. On the day of 91, nociceptive were performed using a hot plate and formalin, to evaluate onset and intensity of  reaction in response to the thermal and chemical pain, respectively. At the end, the animals were euthanized and blood samples were collected for determination of cortisol levels using an ELISA assay. Results: The animals exposed to LA showed a delay in reaction to painful stimuli induced by thermal stimulus by 52% and 59% with low and high doses, respectively. Thermal pain intensity of reactions to was declined by 63% with LA 5 ppm and by 82% with LA 500 ppm (P<0.05. Delayed reaction to chemical stimulus was also prominent in treated groups up to 68% and the pain intensity was declined by 80%, but they were not statistically significant. Blood cortisol levels remained almost unchanged. Conclusion: Delayed reaction to painful stimuli after chronic LA exposure may be considered as a complication which weaken the alarming role of the pain. Further studies regarding the mechanism of action and the extent of the importance of these effects are warranted.

  18. Blood Lead Levels and Risk Factors for Lead Exposure in a Pediatric Population in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Havens

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Although lead recycling activities are a known risk factor for elevated blood levels in South East Asia, little is known regarding the prevalence of and risk factors for elevated blood lead levels (BLL among the general pediatric population in Vietnam. This study is a cross-sectional evaluation of 311 children from Children’s Hospital #2 in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Capillary blood lead testing was performed using the LeadCare II. Mean BLLs were 4.97 μg/dL (Standard Deviation (SD 5.50, with 7% of the participants having levels greater than 10 μg/dL. Living in Bing Duong province (OR 2.7, 95% CI 1.4–5.6.1 or the Dong Nai province (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.0–5.1 and having an age greater than 12 months (OR 6.0, 95% CI 3.1–11.8 were associated with higher BLLs. The prevalence of elevated BLLs in Vietnam is consistent with other SE Asian countries. Mean BLLs in Ho Chi Minh City are markedly less than those seen in a separate study of children living near lead recycling activities. Additional evaluation is necessary to better detail potential risk factors if screening is to be implemented within Vietnam.

  19. Environmental lead exposure is associated with visit-to-visit systolic blood pressure variability in the US adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faramawi, Mohammed F; Delongchamp, Robert; Lin, Yu-Sheng; Liu, Youcheng; Abouelenien, Saly; Fischbach, Lori; Jadhav, Supriya

    2015-04-01

    The association between environmental lead exposure and blood pressure variability, an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease, is unexplored and unknown. The objective of the study was to test the hypothesis that lead exposure is associated with blood pressure variability. American participants 17 years of age or older from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III were included in the analysis. Participants' blood lead concentrations expressed as micrograms per deciliter were determined. The standard deviations of visit-to-visit systolic and diastolic blood pressure were calculated to determine blood pressure variability. Multivariable regression analyses adjusted for age, gender, race, smoking and socioeconomic status were employed. The participants' mean age and mean blood lead concentration were 42.72 years and 3.44 mcg/dl, respectively. Systolic blood pressure variability was significantly associated with environmental lead exposure after adjusting for the effect of the confounders. The unadjusted and adjusted means of visit-to-visit systolic blood pressure variability and the β coefficient of lead exposure were 3.44, 3.33 mcg/dl, β coefficient = 0.07, P variability. Screening adults with fluctuating blood pressure for lead exposure could be warranted.

  20. Calculating the interindividual geometric standard deviation for use in the integrated exposure uptake biokinetic model for lead in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, S; Marcus, A; Schulz, T; Walker, S

    1999-06-01

    The integrated exposure uptake biokinetic (IEUBK) model, recommended for use by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency at residential Superfund sites to predict potential risks to children from lead exposure and to establish lead remediation levels, requires an interindividual geometric standard deviation (GSDi) as an essential input parameter. The GSDi quantifies the variability of blood lead concentrations for children exposed to similar environmental concentrations of lead. Estimates of potential risks are directly related to the GSDi, and therefore the GSDi directly impacts the scope of remediation at Superfund sites. Site-specific GSDi can be calculated for sites where blood lead and environmental lead have been measured. This paper uses data from blood and environmental lead studies conducted at the Bingham Creek and Sandy, Utah, Superfund sites to calculate GSDi using regression modeling, box modeling, and structural equation modeling. GSDis were calculated using various methods for treating values below the analytical method detection and quantitation limits. Treatment of nonquantifiable blood lead concentrations affected the GSDi more than the statistical method used to calculate the GSDi. For any given treatment, the different statistical methods produced similar GSDis. Because of the uncertainties associated with data in the blood lead studies, we recommend that a range of GSDis be used when analyzing site-specific risks associated with exposure to environmental lead instead of a single estimate. Because the different statistical methods produce similar GSDis, we recommend a simple procedure to calculate site-specific GSDi from a scientifically sound blood and environmental lead study.

  1. Combination Therapy for the Cardiovascular Effects of Perinatal Lead Exposure in Young and Adult Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaspar, Andréia Fresneda; Cordellini, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Combination therapy can play a significant role in the amelioration of several toxic effects of lead (Pb) and recovery from associated cardiovascular changes. To investigate the effects of combination therapy on the cardiovascular effects of perinatal lead exposure in young and adult rats Female Wistar rats received drinking water with or without 500 ppm of Pb during pregnancy and lactation. Twenty-two- and 70-day-old rat offspring who were or were not exposed to Pb in the perinatal period received meso-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), L-arginine, or enalapril and a combination of these compounds for 30 additional days. Noradrenaline response curves were plotted for intact and denuded aortas from 23-, 52-, 70-, and 100-day-old rats stratified by perinatal Pb exposure (exposed/unexposed) and treatment received (treated/untreated). Systolic blood pressure was evaluated and shown to be higher in the 23-, 52-, 70-, and 100-day age groups with Pb exposure than in the corresponding control age groups: 117.8 ± 3.9*, 135.2 ± 1.3*, 139.6 ± 1.6*, and 131.7 ± 2.8*, respectively and 107.1 ± 1.8, 118.8 ± 2.1, 126.1 ± 1.1, and 120.5 ± 2.2, respectively (p < 0.05). Increased reactivity to noradrenaline was observed in intact, but not denuded, aortas from 52-, 70-, and 100-day-old exposed rats, and the maximum responses (g of tension) in the respective Pb-exposed and control age groups were as follows: 3.43 ± 0.16*, 4.32 ± 0.18*, and 4.21 ± 0.23*, respectively and 2.38 ± 0.33, 3.37 ± 0.13, and 3.22 ± 0.21, respectively (p < 0.05). All treatments reversed the changes in vascular reactivity to noradrenaline in rats perinatally exposed to Pb. The combination therapy resulted in an earlier restoration of blood pressure in Pb-exposed rats compared with the monotherapies, except for enalapril therapy in young rats. These findings represent a new approach to the development of therapeutic protocols for the treatment of Pb-induced hypertension

  2. Combination Therapy for the Cardiovascular Effects of Perinatal Lead Exposure in Young and Adult Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Fresneda Gaspar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Combination therapy can play a significant role in the amelioration of several toxic effects of lead (Pb and recovery from associated cardiovascular changes. Objective: To investigate the effects of combination therapy on the cardiovascular effects of perinatal lead exposure in young and adult rats Methods: Female Wistar rats received drinking water with or without 500 ppm of Pb during pregnancy and lactation. Twenty-two- and 70-day-old rat offspring who were or were not exposed to Pb in the perinatal period received meso-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA, L-arginine, or enalapril and a combination of these compounds for 30 additional days. Noradrenaline response curves were plotted for intact and denuded aortas from 23-, 52-, 70-, and 100-day-old rats stratified by perinatal Pb exposure (exposed/unexposed and treatment received (treated/untreated. Results: Systolic blood pressure was evaluated and shown to be higher in the 23-, 52-, 70-, and 100-day age groups with Pb exposure than in the corresponding control age groups: 117.8 ± 3.9*, 135.2 ± 1.3*, 139.6 ± 1.6*, and 131.7 ± 2.8*, respectively and 107.1 ± 1.8, 118.8 ± 2.1, 126.1 ± 1.1, and 120.5 ± 2.2, respectively (p < 0.05. Increased reactivity to noradrenaline was observed in intact, but not denuded, aortas from 52-, 70-, and 100-day-old exposed rats, and the maximum responses (g of tension in the respective Pb-exposed and control age groups were as follows: 3.43 ± 0.16*, 4.32 ± 0.18*, and 4.21 ± 0.23*, respectively and 2.38 ± 0.33, 3.37 ± 0.13, and 3.22 ± 0.21, respectively (p < 0.05. Conclusions: All treatments reversed the changes in vascular reactivity to noradrenaline in rats perinatally exposed to Pb. The combination therapy resulted in an earlier restoration of blood pressure in Pb-exposed rats compared with the monotherapies, except for enalapril therapy in young rats. These findings represent a new approach to the development of therapeutic protocols for the

  3. Combination Therapy for the Cardiovascular Effects of Perinatal Lead Exposure in Young and Adult Rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaspar, Andréia Fresneda [Departamento de Farmacologia, Instituto de Biociências - Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil); Faculdade da Alta Paulista (FAP), Tupã, SP (Brazil); Cordellini, Sandra, E-mail: cordelli@ibb.unesp.br [Departamento de Farmacologia, Instituto de Biociências - Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil)

    2014-09-15

    Combination therapy can play a significant role in the amelioration of several toxic effects of lead (Pb) and recovery from associated cardiovascular changes. To investigate the effects of combination therapy on the cardiovascular effects of perinatal lead exposure in young and adult rats Female Wistar rats received drinking water with or without 500 ppm of Pb during pregnancy and lactation. Twenty-two- and 70-day-old rat offspring who were or were not exposed to Pb in the perinatal period received meso-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), L-arginine, or enalapril and a combination of these compounds for 30 additional days. Noradrenaline response curves were plotted for intact and denuded aortas from 23-, 52-, 70-, and 100-day-old rats stratified by perinatal Pb exposure (exposed/unexposed) and treatment received (treated/untreated). Systolic blood pressure was evaluated and shown to be higher in the 23-, 52-, 70-, and 100-day age groups with Pb exposure than in the corresponding control age groups: 117.8 ± 3.9*, 135.2 ± 1.3*, 139.6 ± 1.6*, and 131.7 ± 2.8*, respectively and 107.1 ± 1.8, 118.8 ± 2.1, 126.1 ± 1.1, and 120.5 ± 2.2, respectively (p < 0.05). Increased reactivity to noradrenaline was observed in intact, but not denuded, aortas from 52-, 70-, and 100-day-old exposed rats, and the maximum responses (g of tension) in the respective Pb-exposed and control age groups were as follows: 3.43 ± 0.16*, 4.32 ± 0.18*, and 4.21 ± 0.23*, respectively and 2.38 ± 0.33, 3.37 ± 0.13, and 3.22 ± 0.21, respectively (p < 0.05). All treatments reversed the changes in vascular reactivity to noradrenaline in rats perinatally exposed to Pb. The combination therapy resulted in an earlier restoration of blood pressure in Pb-exposed rats compared with the monotherapies, except for enalapril therapy in young rats. These findings represent a new approach to the development of therapeutic protocols for the treatment of Pb-induced hypertension.

  4. Lead poisoning of children in Africa. Part 4. Exposure to dust lead in primary schools in south-central Durban, South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liggans, Girvin L.; Nriagu, Jerome O. [Department of Environmental and Industrial Health, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, 109 Observatory, Ann Arbor (United States)

    1998-10-08

    Twenty primary schools in three areas (Merebank, Austerville and Bluff) of south-central Durban, South Africa were studied to determine if dust lead loading ({mu}g/m{sup 2}) is high enough to constitute a risk to children. Atmospheric lead fallout rates in the schools varied from 9 to 264 {mu}g/m{sup 2} per day and are higher than the values now being reported in the developed countries. Mean outside dust lead loadings were 425 {mu}g/m{sup 2} in Merebank, 771 {mu}g/m{sup 2} in Austerville and 1174 {mu}g/m{sup 2} in Bluff areas, and 25% of the primary schools were found to have mean outside dust lead loading above 1000 {mu}g/m{sup 2}. Mean dust lead loadings inside classrooms were 2-4 times lower than the outside rates, and showed no significant difference among schools in the three areas. Dust lead loadings were correlated with lead concentrations in dust but not with distance from the highway or with atmospheric lead deposition rates. Exposure to dust lead in classrooms and in the school yard is considered to be an important contributor to blood lead levels in, and hence a potential health hazard to, children in many urban areas of the country

  5. Elevated lead levels from e-waste exposure are linked to decreased olfactory memory in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Huo, Xia; Xu, Long; Cheng, Zhiheng; Cong, Xiaowei; Lu, Xueling; Xu, Xijin

    2017-12-01

    Lead (Pb) is a developmental neurotoxicant and can cause abnormal development of the nervous system in children. Hence, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Pb exposure on child olfactory memory by correlating the blood Pb levels of children in Guiyu with olfactory memory tests. We recruited 61 preschool children, 4- to 7-years of age, from Guiyu and 57 children from Haojiang. The mean blood Pb level of Guiyu children was 9.40 μg/dL, significantly higher than the 5.04 μg/dL mean blood Pb level of Haojiang children. In addition, approximately 23% of Guiyu children had blood Pb levels exceeding 10.00 μg/dL. The correlation analysis showed that blood Pb levels in children highly correlated with e-waste contact (r s  = 0.393). Moreover, the mean concentration of serum BDNF in Guiyu children (35.91 ng/ml) was higher than for Haojiang (28.10 ng/ml) and was positively correlated with blood Pb levels. Both item and source olfactory memory tests at 15 min, 5 h and 24 h after odor exposure showed that scores were lower in Guiyu children indicative of reduced olfactory memory in Guiyu children. Olfactory memory tests scores negatively correlated with blood Pb and serum BDNF levels, but were positively associated with parental education levels. At the same time, scores of both tests on children in the high blood Pb level group (blood Pb levels > 5.00 μg/dL) were lower than those in the low blood Pb level group (blood Pb levels ≤ 5.00 μg/dL), implying that Pb exposure decreases olfactory memory in children. Our findings suggest that Pb exposure in e-waste recycling and dismantling areas could result in an increase in serum BDNF level and a decrease in child olfactory memory, in addition, BDNF might be involved in olfactory memory impairment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of Perinatal Lead Exposure on the Social Behaviour of Laboratory Mice Offspring at Adolescent Age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AbuTaweel Qasim M; Ajarem Jamaan S

    2008-01-01

    Lead ( Pb ) was given to Swiss-Webster female mice at the concentrations of 0.1 and 0.2% ( w/v ) , containing 550 and 1100 ppm of lead respectively, in their drinking water. Treatment started from day 1 of pregnancy until day 15 postnatally . Thereafter, the dams were switched to plain tap water. After the weaning period ( 21 days ), all male offspring were isolated (one animal per cage) for 14 days, and the isolated male offspring were subjected to 'Standard Opponenttest' at the age of 36 days . the results of this test showed a significant and dose-dependent increase in the non-social behaviour , whereas such results showed a significant decline in the social behaviour including naso-genital and naso-nasal contact, number of fights, rear, wall rear and displacement activities of the Pb exposed young adult male offspring. The present perinatal Pb effects in the male offspring are possibly via in utero exposure and/or via mother's milk. (author)

  7. The Pb isotopic record of historical to modern human lead exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamenov, George D.; Gulson, Brian L.

    2014-01-01

    Human teeth and bones incorporate trace amounts of lead (Pb) from the local environment during growth and remodeling. Anthropogenic activities have caused changes in the natural Pb isotopic background since historical times and this is reflected in the Pb isotopes of historical European teeth. Lead mining and use increased exponentially during the last century and the isotopic compositions of modern human teeth reflect the modern anthropogenic Pb. USA teeth show the most radiogenic Pb and Australian teeth show the least radiogenic Pb, a result of different Pb ores used in the two regions. During the last century the Australian Pb was exported to Europe, Asia, South America, and Africa, resulting in swamping of the local environmental Pb signal by the imported Pb. As a result, the modern human teeth in Europe show a significant drop to lower isotopic values compared with historical times. Similarly, modern human teeth in other regions of the world show similar Pb isotopic ratios to modern European teeth reflecting the Pb imports. The specific pattern of human Pb exposure allows us to use the Pb isotopic signal recorded in the skeleton as a geo-referencing tool. As historical European teeth show a distinct Pb signal, we can identify early European skeletal remains in the New World and likely elsewhere. In modern forensic investigations we can discriminate to some extent Eastern Europeans from Western and Northern Europeans. Australians can be identified to some extent in any region in the world, although there is some overlap with Western European individuals. Lead isotopes can be used to easily identify foreigners in the USA, as modern USA teeth are distinct from any other region of the world. By analogy, USA individuals can be identified virtually in any other region of the world. - Highlights: • We present high-precision Pb isotope data for historical and modern human teeth. • Human teeth reflect human Pb exposure since historical times. • Modern teeth show

  8. Effects of early-life lead exposure on oxidative status and phagocytosis activity in great tits (Parus major)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rainio, Miia J.; Eeva, Tapio; Lilley, Thomas; Stauffer, Janina; Ruuskanen, Suvi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Lead is a highly poisonous metal with a very long half-life, distributing throughout the body in blood and accumulating primarily in bones and kidney. We studied the short and long-term effects of early-life lead exposure on antioxidant defense and phagocytosis activity in a small passerine

  9. Genotoxic effects of occupational exposure to lead and influence of polymorphisms in genes involved in lead toxicokinetics and in DNA repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Lestón, Julia; Roma-Torres, Joana; Vilares, Maria; Pinto, Rui; Prista, João; Teixeira, João Paulo; Mayan, Olga; Conde, João; Pingarilho, Marta; Gaspar, Jorge Francisco; Pásaro, Eduardo; Méndez, Josefina; Laffon, Blanca

    2012-08-01

    Lead is still widely used in many industrial processes and is very persistent in the environment. Although toxic effects caused by occupational exposure to lead have been extensively studied, there are still conflicting results regarding its genotoxicity. In a previous pilot study we observed some genotoxic effects in a population of lead exposed workers. Thus, we extended our study analysing a larger population, increasing the number of genotoxicity endpoints, and including a set of 20 genetic polymorphisms related to lead toxicokinetics and DNA repair as susceptibility biomarkers. Our population comprised 148 workers from two Portuguese factories and 107 controls. The parameters analysed were: blood lead levels (BLL) and δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity as exposure biomarkers, and T-cell receptor (TCR) mutation assay, micronucleus (MN) test, comet assay and OGG1-modified comet assay as genotoxicity biomarkers. Lead exposed workers showed markedly higher BLL and lower ALAD activity than the controls, and significant increases of TCR mutation frequency (TCR-Mf), MN rate and DNA damage. Oxidative damage did not experience any significant alteration in the exposed population. Besides, significant influence was observed for VDR rs1544410 polymorphism on BLL; APE1 rs1130409 and LIG4 rs1805388 polymorphisms on TCR-Mf; MUTYH rs3219489, XRCC4 rs28360135 and LIG4 rs1805388 polymorphisms on comet assay parameter; and OGG1 rs1052133 and XRCC4 rs28360135 polymorphisms on oxidative damage. Our results showed genotoxic effects related to occupational lead exposure to levels under the Portuguese regulation limit of 70 μg/dl. Moreover, a significant influence of polymorphisms in genes involved in DNA repair on genotoxicity biomarkers was observed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Lead exposure and biological effects in pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca) before and after the closure of a lead mine in northern Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berglund, A.M.M.; Ingvarsson, P.K.; Danielsson, H.; Nyholm, N.E.I.

    2010-01-01

    Mining activities affect the surrounding environment by increasing exposure to metals. In this study, metal accumulation and its effects on reproduction and health of pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca) nestlings were monitored before and up to five years after a lead mine and enrichment plant closed down. The lead concentration in moss, nestling blood, liver and feces all indicated decreased lead exposure by at least 31% after closure, although only blood lead decreased significantly. Although the birds responded fairly well to the changed atmospheric deposition (based on moss samples), concentrations were still higher compared with birds in a reference area, and breeding was affected at the mine (smaller clutches and higher mortality). Surviving nestlings suffered from lower hemoglobin levels, mean cell hemoglobin concentrations and inhibited δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity. Lead poisoning contributed to poor health and adverse reproductive effects, but other factors (e.g. increased parasitic load) probably also affected the birds. - Increased mortality and lower blood values in pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca) nestlings near a closed lead mine.

  11. Disruption of Smad4 in neural crest cells leads to mid-gestation death with pharyngeal arch, craniofacial and cardiac defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Xuguang; Deng, Chu-xia; Wang, Qin; Jiao, Kai

    2008-01-01

    TGFβ/BMP signaling pathways are essential for normal development of neural crest cells (NCCs). Smad4 encodes the only common Smad protein in mammals, which is a critical nuclear mediator of TGFβ/BMP signaling. In this work, we sought to investigate the roles of Smad4 for development of NCCs. To overcome the early embryonic lethality of Smad4 null mice, we specifically disrupted Smad4 in NCCs using a Cre/loxP system. The mutant mice died at mid-gestation with defects in facial primordia, pharyngeal arches, outflow tract and cardiac ventricles. Further examination revealed that mutant embryos displayed severe molecular defects starting from E9.5. Expression of multiple genes, including Msx1, 2, Ap-2α, Pax3, and Sox9, which play critical roles for NCC development, was downregulated by NCC disruption of Smad4. Moreover, increased cell death was observed in pharyngeal arches from E10.5. However, the cell proliferation rate in these areas was not substantially altered. Taken together, these findings provide compelling genetic evidence that Smad4-mediated activities of TGFβ/BMP signals are essential for appropriate NCC development. PMID:18334251

  12. Prevalence of lead exposure among age and sex cohorts of Canada geese

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeStefano, S.; Brand, C.J.; Rusch, D.H.

    1992-01-01

    We examined the prevalence of lead exposure from ingestion of waste lead shot among age and sex cohorts of Canada geese (Branta canadensis) on the breeding, migration, and wintering grounds of the Eastern Prairie Population. Blood samples from 6963 geese were assayed for lead concentration by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. On the breeding grounds, no goslings and 1 year old) had lead concentrations greater-than-or-equal-to 0.18 ppm. Median background lead levels remained higher in adults than in immatures throughout fall and winter. We also found that more immature males than immature females had elevated lead concentrations. Higher rates of intake of food and grit (including shot) probably partially account for the higher prevalence of elevated lead concentrations in immature Canada geese.//Nous avons ??tudi?? l'importance des expositions au plomb par ingestion de plombs de chasse chez les diff??rentes cohortes (??ge et sexe) de Bernaches du Canada (Branta canadensis) dans les zones de reproduction et de migration et dans les territoires d'hiver chez la population de la Prairie de l'Est. Des ??chantillons de sang ont ??t?? pr??lev??s chez 6963 bernaches et analys??s au sphectrophotom??tre ? absorption atomique pour en d??terminer le contenu en plomb. Dans les zones de reproduction, les traces d'exposition r??cente ? des plombs (i.e. concentrations de plomb dans le sang au-dessus de la valeur seuil de 0,18 ppm) ??taient apparentes chez moins de 1% des adultes et aucun oison n'en portait. Cependant, les concentrations sanguines m??dianes de base (??chantillons de sang contenant moins de 0,18 ppm de plomb) ??taient plus ??lev??es chez les adultes que chez les oisons, ce qui signifie probablement que les adultes avaient ??t?? expos??s au plomb au cours de saisons pr??c??dentes. Les plombs perdus ??taient abondants dans les territoires de migration et les territoires d'hiver et la proportion d'??chantillons de sang contenant des concentrations a?Y 0,18 ppm ??tait

  13. Risk factors for lead exposure in adult population in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida Lopes, Ana Carolina Bertin; Navas-Acien, Ana; Zamoiski, Rachel; Silbergeld, Ellen Kovner; Carvalho, Maria de Fatima H; Buzzo, Marcia Liane; Urbano, Mariana Ragassi; Martins, Airton da Cunha; Paoliello, Monica Maria Bastos

    2015-01-01

    In Brazil there is no systematic evaluation to access blood lead levels (BLL) in the general population and few studies with adults have been published. The aim of this study was to examine the socioeconomic, environmental, and lifestyle determinants of BLL in the adult Brazilian population. In total, 959 adults, aged 40 years or more, were randomly selected in a city in southern Brazil. Information on socioeconomic, dietary, lifestyle, and occupational background was obtained by interviews. A spatial analysis was conducted to discern whether there were any identifiable sources of exposure. BLL were measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. There was an adjustment for gender, age, race, education, income class, smoking status, alcohol consumption, occupation, and red meat or cow milk consumption (Model 1), and for occupation and gender (Model 2). The geometric mean of BLL was 1.97 μg/dl (95% CI: 1.9-2.04 μg/dl). In Model 1, BLL were positively associated with male gender, older age, and drinking and smoking habits, and less frequently with milk consumption. In Model 2, data showed higher BLL in non-white than white participants, in former smokers and individuals with current or former employment in lead (Pb) industries. The participants living in the area with more Pb industries had higher BLL (3.3 μg/dl) compared with those residing in other areas with no or fewer Pb industries (1.95 μg/dl). Despite the low BLL found in adults living in an urban area, Pb industries need to be monitored and regulatory laws implemented to prevent metal contamination in urban settings.

  14. Exposure of Prague's homeless population to lead and cadmium, compared to Prague's general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrncírová, Dana; Batáriová, Andrea; Cerná, Milena; Procházka, Bohumír; Dlouhý, Pavel; Andel, Michal

    2008-10-01

    Homelessness is a growing problem in the Czech Republic where homeless people represent a specific minority group beset by many problems linked to their divergent lifestyle. It was therefore expected that the homeless population would be at greater risk of exposure to environmental pollutants than the general population. The aim of our study was to compare blood lead (B-Pb) and blood cadmium (B-Cd) levels in the homeless population (HP) with those obtained from the Human Biomonitoring Project (CZ-HBM), which used blood donors considered representative of the general population (GP). We present data obtained between 2004 and 2006 for B-Pb and B-Cd in 257 Prague homeless adults and compare them to B-Pb and B-Cd levels in 104 Prague adult blood donors from the CZ-HBM project in 2005. The mean (geometric) B-Pb levels in men were 36.5 (HP) and 35.4microg/l (GP), which is not significantly different. However, statistically significant differences were observed between men and women in the GP (Phomeless nonsmokers (geometric means 1.06 and 1.18microg/l in men and women, respectively) were more than 2.5 times higher than in the nonsmoking GP (0.36 and 0.38microg/l for men and women, respectively). B-Cd levels were significantly (Phomeless population under study might be exposed to lead and cadmium more extensively than the general population of Prague and that homeless women represent a particularly vulnerable population group.

  15. Blood lead levels in children aged between 1 and 6 years old in La Plata, Argentina. Identification of risk factors for lead exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Enrique; Varea, Ana; Hernández, Karina; Sala, Marisa; Girardelli, Ana; Fasano, Victoria; Disalvo, Liliana

    2016-12-01

    Lead has neurotoxic effects in children, even at a very low level in blood. The risk factors (RFs) for lead exposure have not been adequately identified in La Plata. The objectives of this study were to determine mean blood lead levels and identify RFs in children aged 1 to 6 years old living in La Plata and the outskirts. A cross-sectional study was conducted in children who attended primary health care centers for a health check-up. Blood lead levels were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy, and a socioenvironmental survey was administered to outline RFs. The Mann-Whitney test was used to compare measurements. A multivariate statistical analysis was done to establish the most relevant RFs. A total of 319 children participated (51% were boys); the median (interquartile range) blood lead level was 2.2 pg/dL (1.1-3.6 pg/dL). Significant mean differences in blood lead levels were observed for age≤ 3years old, anemia, pica behavior, overcrowding, dirt floors, and maternal education < 7 years. Age≤ 3years old and pica behavior were both RFs with significant odds ratios (ORs). The OR as adjusted by logistic regression was significant only for age≤ 3years old. The median blood lead level in the studied population was 2.2 pg/dL. The main RFs identified for lead exposure were age≤ 3years old and pica behavior. Other less relevant RFs included anemia, maternal education < 7 years, overcrowding, and dirt floors. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría

  16. Severe but not moderate vitamin B12 deficiency impairs lipid profile, induces adiposity and leads to adverse gestational outcome in female C57BL/6 mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shampa eGhosh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin B12 deficiency is widely prevalent in women of childbearing age especially in developing countries. In the present study, through dietary restriction, we have established mouse models of severe and moderate vitamin B12 deficiencies to elucidate the impact on body composition, biochemical parameters and reproductive performance. Female weanling C57BL/6 mice were fed for four weeks, (a control AIN-76A diet, (b vitamin B12 restricted AIN-76A diet with pectin as dietary fiber (severe deficiency group, as pectin inhibits vitamin B12 absorption or (c vitamin B12 restricted AIN-76A diet with cellulose as dietary fiber (moderate deficiency group as cellulose does not interfere with vitamin B12 absorption. After confirming deficiency, the mice were mated with male colony mice and maintained on their respective diets throughout pregnancy, lactation and thereafter till 12 weeks. Severe vitamin B12 deficiency increased body fat % significantly, induced adiposity and altered lipid profile. Pregnant dams of both the deficient groups developed anemia. Severe vitamin B12 deficiency decreased the percentage of conception and litter size, pups were small-for-gestational-age and had significantly lower body weight at birth as well as weaning. Most of the offspring born to severely deficient dams died within 24 hours of birth. Stress markers and adipocytokines were elevated in severe deficiency with concomitant decrease in antioxidant defense. The results show that severe but not moderate vitamin B12 restriction had profound impact on the physiology of C57BL/6 mice. Oxidative and corticosteroid stress, inflammation and poor antioxidant defense seem to be the probable underlying mechanisms mediating the deleterious effects.

  17. An analysis of multimodal occupational exposure leading to blood borne infections among health care workers

    OpenAIRE

    N Lakshmi Priya; K Usha Krishnan; G Jayalakshmi; S Vasanthi

    2015-01-01

    Occupational exposure poses a significant risk of transmission of blood-borne pathogens to healthcare workers (HCWs). Adherence to standard precautions, awareness about post exposure prophylaxis is poor in developing countries. This retrospective study analyzes the self-reported cases of occupational exposure in a tertiary care hospital. During the study period, 105 HCWs sustained occupational exposure to blood and body fluids. Majority of the victims 36 (34.2%) were interns and the clinical ...

  18. Arsenic, Cadmium and Lead Exposure and Immunologic Function in Workers in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Ching Wu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available There has been growing concern over the impact of environmental exposure to heavy metals and other trace elements on immunologic functions. This study investigated men’s arsenic (As, cadmium (Cd and lead (Pb contents in hair samples and their associations with immunological indicators, including white blood cell (WBC, lymphocyte and monocyte counts, and the immunoglobulin (Ig levels including IgA, IgG and IgE. We recruited 133 men from one antimony trioxide manufacturing plant, two glass manufacturing plants and two plastics manufacturing plants. The mean concentration of Cd [0.16 (SD = 0.03 ug/g] was lower than means of As [0.86 (SD = 0.16 ug/g] and Pb [0.91 (SD = 0.22 ug/g] in hair samples, exerting no relationship with immunologic functions for Cd. The Spearman’s correlation analysis showed a positive relationship between monocyte counts and hair Pb levels, but negative relations between As and IgG and between As and IgE. In conclusion, findings from these industry workers suggest that As levels in hair may have a stronger relation with immunologic function than Cd and PB have. Further research is needed to confirm the negative relationship.

  19. Longer exposure to a new refugee food ration is associated with reduced prevalence of small for gestational age: results from 2 cross-sectional surveys on the Thailand-Myanmar border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrara, Verena I; Stuetz, Wolfgang; Lee, Sue J; Sriprawat, Kanlaya; Po, Basi; Hanboonkunupakarn, Borimas; Nosten, François H; McGready, Rose

    2017-06-01

    Background: Despite the high risk of compromised nutrition, evidence of the effect of refugee rations on fetal growth is limited. A new ration containing micronutrient-fortified flour without increased caloric content of the general food basket was introduced to the Maela refugee camp in Thailand, July 2004. Objective: The effect of the length of gestational exposure of the new ration on fetal growth was compared with birth outcomes [small for gestational age (SGA), preterm birth (PTB)]. Design: In an observational study in 987 newborns from 1048 prospectively followed antenatal clinic (ANC) attendees enrolled in 2 cross-sectional surveys, exposure was categorized in 2004 according to gestation at the time of commencing the new ration and in 2006 as comprehensive (preconception and pregnancy). In both surveys, the pregnancy-specific ration and vitamin supplements were routine. Results: In 2004, the proportions of SGA decreased with longer exposure to the new ration: no exposure during pregnancy (27.7%; n = 13 of 47) and exposure in the third (27.6%; n = 37 of 134), second (18.6%; n = 35 of 188), and first (19.4%; n = 6 of 31) trimesters, respectively (adjusted P -trend = 0.046). In 2006, the new ration was available to all women and there was no significant additional impact of the pregnancy-specific ration and vitamin supplements. Between 2004 and 2006, SGA decreased from 28.9% (13 of 45) to 17.3% (69 of 398) (adjusted P = 0.050), a reduction of 40.1% (95% CI: 34.7%, 45.9%); there was also a decrease in the percentage of underweight women on admission to the ANC (38.2%; 95% CI: 31.4%, 45.5%). PTB rates were low and not significantly different with exposure to the new ration. Conclusions: In 2004, the earlier in gestation in which the new ration was available the greater the effect on fetal growth as shown by a reduced prevalence of SGA. In 2006, additional benefits to fetal growth from the pregnancy-specific ration and vitamin supplements beyond those of the

  20. Effects of Lead Exposure, Environmental Conditions, and Metapopulation Processes on Population Dynamics of Spectacled Eiders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Paul L.; Grand, James B.; Petersen, Margaret; Rockwell, Robert F.

    2016-01-01

    Spectacled eider Somateria fischeri numbers have declined and they are considered threatened in accordance with the US Endangered Species Act throughout their range. We synthesized the available information for spectacled eiders to construct deterministic, stochastic, and metapopulation models for this species that incorporated current estimates of vital rates such as nest success, adult survival, and the impact of lead poisoning on survival. Elasticities of our deterministic models suggested that the populations would respond most dramatically to changes in adult female survival and that the reductions in adult female survival related to lead poisoning were locally important. We also examined the sensitivity of the population to changes in lead exposure rates. With the knowledge that some vital rates vary with environmental conditions, we cast stochastic models that mimicked observed variation in productivity. We also used the stochastic model to examine the probability that a specific population will persist for periods of up to 50 y. Elasticity analysis of these models was consistent with that for the deterministic models, with perturbations to adult female survival having the greatest effect on population projections. When used in single population models, demographic data for some localities predicted rapid declines that were inconsistent with our observations in the field. Thus, we constructed a metapopulation model and examined the predictions for local subpopulations and the metapopulation over a wide range of dispersal rates. Using the metapopulation model, we were able to simulate the observed stability of local subpopulations as well as that of the metapopulation. Finally, we developed a global metapopulation model that simulates periodic winter habitat limitation, similar to that which might be experienced in years of heavy sea ice in the core wintering area of spectacled eiders in the central Bering Sea. Our metapopulation analyses suggested that no

  1. Expression of immunoregulatory genes and its relationship to lead exposure and lead-mediated oxidative stress in wild ungulates from an abandoned mining area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Estival, Jaime; de la Lastra, José M Pérez; Ortiz-Santaliestra, Manuel E; Vidal, Dolors; Mateo, Rafael

    2013-04-01

    Lead (Pb) is a highly toxic metal that can induce oxidative stress and affect the immune system by modifying the expression of immunomodulator-related genes. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between Pb exposure and the transcriptional profiles of some cytokines, as well as the relationship between Pb exposure and changes in oxidative stress biomarkers observed in the spleen of wild ungulates exposed to mining pollution. Red deer and wild boar from the mining area studied had higher spleen, liver, and bone Pb levels than controls, indicating a chronic exposure to Pb pollution. Such exposure caused a depletion of spleen glutathione levels in both species and disrupted the activity of antioxidant enzymes, suggesting the generation of oxidative stress conditions. Deer from the mining area also showed an induced T-helper (Th )-dependent immune response toward the Th 2 pathway, whereas boar from the mining area showed a cytokine profile suggesting an inclination of the immune response toward the Th 1 pathway. These results indicate that environmental exposure to Pb may alter immune responses in wild ungulates exposed to mining pollution. However, evidence of direct relationships between Pb-mediated oxidative stress and the changes detected in immune responses were not found. Further research is needed to evaluate the immunotoxic potential of Pb pollution, also considering the prevalence of chronic infectious diseases in wildlife in environments affected by mining activities. Copyright © 2013 SETAC.

  2. An analysis of multimodal occupational exposure leading to blood borne infections among health care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priya, N Lakshmi; Krishnan, K Usha; Jayalakshmi, G; Vasanthi, S

    2015-01-01

    Occupational exposure poses a significant risk of transmission of blood-borne pathogens to healthcare workers (HCWs). Adherence to standard precautions, awareness about post exposure prophylaxis is poor in developing countries. This retrospective study analyzes the self-reported cases of occupational exposure in a tertiary care hospital. During the study period, 105 HCWs sustained occupational exposure to blood and body fluids. Majority of the victims 36 (34.2%) were interns and the clinical practice that led to the occupational exposure was withdrawal of blood (45.7%). Good infection control practices and emphasis on appropriate disposal are needed to increase the occupational safety for HCWs.

  3. An analysis of multimodal occupational exposure leading to blood borne infections among health care workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Lakshmi Priya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Occupational exposure poses a significant risk of transmission of blood-borne pathogens to healthcare workers (HCWs. Adherence to standard precautions, awareness about post exposure prophylaxis is poor in developing countries. This retrospective study analyzes the self-reported cases of occupational exposure in a tertiary care hospital. During the study period, 105 HCWs sustained occupational exposure to blood and body fluids. Majority of the victims 36 (34.2% were interns and the clinical practice that led to the occupational exposure was withdrawal of blood (45.7%. Good infection control practices and emphasis on appropriate disposal are needed to increase the occupational safety for HCWs.

  4. Non-occupational lead and cadmium exposure of adult women in Bangkok, Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Z.-W.; Shimbo, S.; Watanabe, T.; Srianujata, S.; Banjong, O.; Chitchumroonchokchai, C.; Nakatsuka, H.; Matsuda-Inoguchi, N.; Higashikawa, K.; Ikeda, M.

    1999-01-01

    This survey was conducted to examine the extent of the exposure of Bangkok citizens to lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd), and to evaluate the role of rice as the source of these heavy metals. In practice, 52 non-smoking adult women in an institution in the vicinity of Bangkok, volunteered to offer blood, spot urine, boiled rice and 24-h total food duplicate samples. Samples were wet-ashed, and then analyzed for Pb and Cd by ICP-MS. Geometric means for the levels in blood (Pb-B and Cd-B) and urine (Pb-U and Cd-U as corrected for creatinine concentration), and also for dietary intake (Pb-F and Cd-F) were 32.3 μg/l for Pb-B, 0.41 μg/l for Cd-B, 2.06 μg/g creatinine for Pb-U, 1.40 μg/g creatinine for Cd-U, 15.1 μg/day for Pb-F and 7.1 μg/day for Cd-F. Rice contributed 30% and 4% of dietary Cd and Pb burden, respectively. When compared with the counterpart values obtained in four neighboring cities in southeast Asia (i.e. Nanning, Tainan, Manila, and Kuala Lumpur), dietary Pb burden of the women in Bangkok was middle in the order among the values for the five cities. Pb level in the blood was the lowest of the levels among the five cities and Pb in urine was also among the low group. This apparent discrepancy in the order between Pb-B (i.e. the fifth) and Pb-F (the third) might be attributable to recent reduction of Pb levels in the atmosphere in Bangkok. Regarding Cd exposure, Cd levels in blood and urine as well as dietary Cd burden of Bangkok women were either the lowest or the next lowest among those in the five cities. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  5. Ileal atresia and multiple jejunal perforations in a premature neonate with gestational alloimmune liver disease

    OpenAIRE

    McAdams, Ryan M.

    2017-01-01

    Recovery after surgical repair of an ileal atresia with or without intestinal perforation requires prolonged exposure to parenteral nutrition (PN) that may lead to PN-associated liver disease. Early liver failure and cholestasis out of proportion for PN exposure may be a harbinger for gestational alloimmune liver disease (GALD), a potentially life-threatening condition that often requires liver transplant if not treated in a timely manner. This case report presents a premature neonate with il...

  6. Developmental immunotoxicology of lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietert, Rodney R.; Lee, Ji-Eun; Hussain, Irshad; Piepenbrink, Michael

    2004-01-01

    The heavy metal, lead, is a known developmental immunotoxicant that has been shown to produce immune alterations in humans as well as other species. Unlike many compounds that exert adverse immune effects, lead exposure at low to moderate levels does not produce widespread loss of immune cells. In contrast, changes resulting from lead exposure are subtle at the immune cell population level but, nevertheless, can be functionally dramatic. A hallmark of lead-induced immunotoxicity is a pronounced shift in the balance in T helper cell function toward T helper 2 responses at the expense of T helper 1 functions. This bias alters the nature and range of immune responses that can be produced thereby influencing host susceptibility to various diseases. Immunotoxic responses to lead appear to differ across life stages not only quantitatively with regard to dose response, but also qualitatively in terms of the spectrum of immune alterations. Experimental studies in several lab animal species suggest the latter stages of gestation are a period of considerable sensitivity for lead-induced immunotoxicity. This review describes the basic characteristics of lead-induced immunotoxicity emphasizing experimental animal results. It also provides a framework for the consideration of toxicant exposure effects across life stages. The existence of and probable basis for developmental windows of immune hyper-susceptibility are presented. Finally, the potential for lead to serve as a perinatal risk factor for childhood asthma as well as other diseases is considered

  7. The effect of lead exposure on fatty acid composition in mouse brain analyzed using pseudo-catalytic derivatization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jong-Min; Lee, Jechan; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Jang, In Geon; Song, Jae Gwang; Kang, Kyeongjin; Tack, Filip M G; Oh, Jeong-Ik; Kwon, Eilhann E; Kim, Hyung-Wook

    2017-03-01

    We performed toxicological study of mice exposed to lead by quantifying fatty acids in brain of the mice. This study suggests that the introduced analytical method had an extremely high tolerance against impurities such as water and extractives; thus, it led to the enhanced resolution in visualizing the spectrum of fatty acid profiles in animal brain. Furthermore, one of the biggest technical advantages achieved in this study was the quantitation of fatty acid methyl ester profiles of mouse brain using a trace amount of sample (e.g., 100 μL mixture). Methanol was screened as the most effective extraction solvent for mouse brain. The behavioral test of the mice before and after lead exposure was conducted to see the effect of lead exposure on fatty acid composition of the mice' brain. The lead exposure led to changes in disease-related behavior of the mice. Also, the lead exposure induced significant alterations of fatty acid profile (C16:0, C 18:0, and C 18:1) in brain of the mice, implicated in pathology of psychiatric diseases. The alteration of fatty acid profile of brain of the mice suggests that the derivatizing technique can be applicable to most research fields associated with the environmental neurotoxins with better resolution in a short time, as compared to the current protocols for lipid analysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Prenatal and early postnatal NOAEL-dose clothianidin exposure leads to a reduction of germ cells in juvenile male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanai, Shogo; Hirano, Tetsushi; Omotehara, Takuya; Takada, Tadashi; Yoneda, Naoki; Kubota, Naoto; Yamamoto, Anzu; Mantani, Youhei; Yokoyama, Toshifumi; Kitagawa, Hiroshi; Hoshi, Nobuhiko

    2017-07-07

    Neonicotinoids are pesticides used worldwide. They bind to insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) with high affinity. We previously reported that clothianidin (CTD), one of the latest neonicotinoids, reduced antioxidant expression and induced germ cell death in the adult testis of vertebrates. Here, we investigated the male reproductive toxicity of prenatal and early postnatal exposure to CTD, because it is likely that developmental exposure more severely affects the testis compared to adults due to the absence of the blood-testis barrier. Pregnant C57BL/6 mice were given water gel blended with CTD (0, 10 or 50 mg/kg/day; no-observed-adverse-effect-level [NOAEL for mice]: 47.2 mg/kg/day) between gestational day 1 and 14 days post-partum. We then examined the testes of male offspring at postnatal day 14. The testis weights and the numbers of germ cells per seminiferous tubule were decreased in the CTD-50 group, and abnormal tubules containing no germ cells appeared. Nevertheless, the apoptotic cell number and proliferative activity were not significantly different between the control and CTD-exposed groups. There were no significant differences in the androgen-related parameters, such as the Leydig cell volume per testis, the Sertoli cell number and the tubule diameter. The present study is the first demonstration that in utero and lactational exposures to CTD at around the NOAEL for mice reduce the germ cell number, but our findings suggest that these exposures do not affect steroidogenesis in Leydig cells during prenatal or early postnatal life.

  9. Antioxidant responses in gills and digestive gland of oyster Crassostrea madrasensis (Preston) under lead exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenai-Tirodkar, Prachi S; Gauns, Mangesh U; Mujawar, Mohammad Wassim A; Ansari, Zakir A

    2017-08-01

    Crassostrea are ecologically and economically important bivalves and provide a good livelihood for coastal regions of many countries, including India. This study aims at evaluating the response of the antioxidant defense system in oyster Crassostrea madrasensis against lead (Pb) exposure under laboratory conditions. Antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione-s-transferase (GST) and oxidative damage parameter lipid peroxidation (LPO) were measured in the gills and digestive glands of oysters exposed to 1-50µg/l of Pb (NO 3 ) 2 over a period of 8 days. LPO index increased progressively with increase in Pb concentration (1, 10, 25 and 50µg/l) in both tissues, gills and digestive gland. Although CAT and SOD activities induced together in the initial phase (upto 6th day), their activities decreased at a later stage of the experiment. However, GST activity increased on 8th day in both the tissues at concentration 10, 25 and 50µg/l indicates the compensatory defense mechanism against oxidative stress. The induced antioxidant responses recorded at 25 and 50µg/l of Pb concentrations suggest the presence of Pb-induced oxidative stress at these concentrations. The results of this work also indicate that LPO, SOD, and GST could be used as biomarkers to assess the impact of Pb on the C. madrasensis. This study concludes that any high level of dissolved Pb concentration (>10µg/l) in surrounding seawater could be harmful to the physiology of the C. madrasensis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Exposure to Porphyromonas gingivalis LPS during macrophage polarisation leads to diminished inflammatory cytokine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belfield, Louise A; Bennett, Jon H; Abate, Wondwossen; Jackson, Simon K

    2017-09-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of concurrent LPS and cytokine priming, reflective of the in vivo milieu, on macrophage production of key periodontitis associated cytokines TNF, IL-1β and IL-6. THP-1 cells were pre-treated with combinations of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS), concurrently with polarising cytokines IFNγ and IL-4, or PMA as a non-polarised control. Production of key periodontitis associated cytokines in response to subsequent LPS challenge were measured by enzyme - linked immunosorbent assay. Compared with cells incubated with IFNγ or IL-4 alone in the "polarisation" phase, macrophages that were incubated with LPS during the first 24h displayed a down-regulation of TNF and IL-1β production upon secondary LPS treatment in the "activation" phase. In all three macrophage populations (M0, M1 and M2), pre-treatment with P. gingivalis LPS during the polarisation process led to a significant decrease in TNF production in response to subsequent activation by LPS (p=0.007, p=0.002 and p=0.004, respectively). Pre-treatment with E. coli LPS also led to a significant down-regulation in TNF production in all three macrophage populations (pLPS during polarisation also led to the down-regulation of IL-1β in the M1 population (pLPS challenge, whereby production of key periodontitis associated cytokines TNF and IL-1β is reduced after exposure to LPS during the polarisation phase, even in the presence of inflammatory polarising cytokines. This diminished cytokine response may lead to the reduced ability to clear infection and transition to chronic inflammation seen in periodontitis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Prenatal exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals and risk of being born small for gestational age: Pooled analysis of seven European birth cohorts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Govarts, Eva; Iszatt, Nina; Trnovec, Tomas; de Cock, Marijke; Eggesbø, Merete; Palkovicova Murinova, Lubica; van de Bor, Margot; Guxens, Mònica; Chevrier, Cécile; Koppen, Gudrun; Lamoree, Marja; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Lopez-Espinosa, Maria Jose; Lertxundi, Aitana; Grimalt, Joan O.; Torrent, Maties; Goñi-Irigoyen, Fernando; Vermeulen, Roel; Legler, Juliette; Schoeters, Greet

    Background and aims: There is evidence that endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) have developmental effects at environmental concentrations. We investigated whether some EDCs are associated with the adverse birth outcome Small for Gestational Age (SGA). Methods: We used PCB 153, p,p’-DDE, HCB, PFOS

  12. Alluvial and riparian soils as major sources of lead exposure in young children in the Philippines: the role of floods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrea, Enrique M; Ostrea, Angelo M; Villanueva-Uy, Ma Esterlita; Chiodo, Lisa; Janisse, James

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this paper was to determine the prevalence and sources of high lead (Pb) exposure among children in Bulacan, Philippines. A total of 150 children (6-7 years old) and their caregivers were studied. Lead was analyzed in children hair and deciduous teeth. Sources of lead exposure were determined by caregiver interview and Pb analysis of house soil, drinking faucet water, air, and water from seven Bulacan rivers. Lead was positive in 91.3% of children's hair (MC or median concentration = 8.9 μg/g; range = 0-38.29), in 46.2% of the teeth (MC = 0.000 μg/mg in positive samples; range = 0.00-0.020), in 100% of soil (MC = 27.06 mg/kg; range = 3.05-1155.80), in 21.1% of air (MC = 0 μg/Ncm; range = 0-0.10), in 4% of house, faucet water (MC = 0.0 ppm; range = 0-40). There was a significant correlation (Spearman's rho) between Pb in children's hair and soil (r = 0.195; p = 0.017) and between Pb in house water and outdoor air (r = 0.616; p = 0.005). There is no significant correlation between Pb in children's hair and teeth. None of the potential sources of Pb from interview were related to lead exposure in the children. Water from seven Bulacan rivers was 100% positive for lead (MC = 70.00 ppb; range = 30-90). Widespread flooding with river overflow occurred in Bulacan in 2009 which likely caused lead contamination of the soil. There was no significant difference in the lead concentration of the soil whether near or far from the river (p = 0.205, Mann-Whitney U test). High lead exposure in children in Bulacan is likely from soil contaminated by lead-polluted rivers during flooding. In areas where flooding is common, alluvial and riparian soils from polluted rivers are important sources of lead exposure in children.

  13. Effect of co-exposure to lead and cadmium on antioxidant status in rat ovarian granulose cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nampoothiri, Laxmipriya P. [Indian Institute of Sciences, Department of Biochemistry, Bangalore (India); Agarwal, Avnika; Gupta, Sarita [M.S. University of Baroda, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Vadodara, Gujarat (India)

    2007-03-15

    The effects of combined exposure to lead and cadmium on granulose cells were studied. Adult female rats were treated i.p. with either lead acetate (LA) or cadmium acetate (CA) both, alone, or in combination at a dose of 0.05 mg/kg body weight on a daily basis for 15 days. Both metals were accumulated in the ovary after metal exposure. Metal exposure caused a decrease in reduced glutathione content along with elevated lipid peroxidation in all groups. Granulose cells of both cadmium as well as combination group demonstrated a maximum increase in lipid peroxides and catalase activity, along with decreased glutathione status and superoxide dismutase activities. Combined treated animals exhibited an intermediate effect in antioxidant status. However, ''in vitro'' exposure showed no significant change in antioxidant enzymes in all metal exposed cells. Data from the present study indicates that lead and cadmium in isolation and in combination cause oxidative stress. Lead and cadmium in combination do not show additive or synergistic effect indicating the competition between them due to similarity in electronic affinities. Present study highlights the effects of toxic metals that disturb membrane integrity of cells via ROS and thereby classifying mechanism for altered receptor binding, steroidogenesis, and hormone production. (orig.)

  14. Gestational diabetes insipidus. Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejmocka-Ambroziak, Anna; Grzechocińska, Barbara; Jastrzebska, Helena; Kochman, Magdalena; Cyganek, Anna; Wielgoś, Mirosław; Zgliczyński, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    Gestational diabetes insipidus is a very rare complication. However, undiagnosed and untreated may lead to serious complications in both mother and fetus. In this study, a case of 34-year-old female patient with diabetes insipidus associated with pregnancy was reported. We discussed process of diagnosis and treatment with particular emphasis on the monitoring of water-electrolyte imbalance during labor.

  15. Implications for wildlife and humans of dietary exposure to lead from fragments of lead rifle bullets in deer shot in the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knott, Jeff, E-mail: jeff.knott@rspb.org.uk [Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, The Lodge, Sandy, Bedfordshire SG19 2DL (United Kingdom); Gilbert, Jo; Hoccom, David G. [Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, The Lodge, Sandy, Bedfordshire SG19 2DL (United Kingdom); Green, Rhys E. [Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, The Lodge, Sandy, Bedfordshire SG19 2DL (United Kingdom); Conservation Science Group, Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EJ (United Kingdom)

    2010-12-01

    Lead poisoning caused by ingested spent lead shotgun pellets has long been known to be a cause of unnecessary mortality in waterfowl and has led to legislation limiting its use in many countries. Recent evidence has shown that the problem extends to terrestrial ecosystems and to fragmented rifle bullets eaten by scavengers as well as shotgun pellets. Dietary exposure of human consumers to lead from spent ammunition in game meat also poses potential risks to human health. To assess the degree of fragmentation of lead bullets used to kill wild deer, twelve deer were shot in the thorax using copper-jacketed lead-cored bullets, as part of planned deer management operations. The thoracic region of the eviscerated carcasses and the abdominal viscera of each deer were X-rayed. An average of 356 metal fragments was visible on radiographs of the carcass and 180 fragments in the viscera. The weight of fragments was estimated by reference to an X-rayed scale of fragments of known weight. The average total weight of metal fragments, likely to be mostly lead, was estimated to be 1.2 g for the carcass and 0.2 g for the viscera. The total estimated weight of fragments in the entire carcass was estimated to be 17% of the weight of the bullet. Most fragments were small in size, with those in the viscera being smaller than those in the carcass. Metal fragments in the viscera were sufficiently small that at least 80% of the metallic bullet-derived lead in the viscera would be expected to be ingested by scavenging birds, such as buzzards and eagles, which feed on them.

  16. Disposition of lead (Pb) in blood of rats following oral exposure to lipstick

    OpenAIRE

    Hashemi-Moghaddam H.; Shiravi A.; Shadab-Shamsabad F.; Torabi M.

    2013-01-01

    Information about the health risks that might be associated with lipstick consumption effects is scarce in the literature. The present work investigated the bioaccumulation of lead (Pb) in blood of rats originated from lipstick sample. First, Lead contents were determined in 12 different brands of lipsticks. Lead was detected in all the studied samples. The average lead content in 14 lipsticks samples was 12.2 PPM wet wt. Then, one brand was selected for feeding to the rats and amount of oral...

  17. The Relationship between Occupational Exposure to Lead and Hearing Loss in a Cross-Sectional Survey of Iranian Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiasvand, Masoumeh; Mohammadi, Saber; Roth, Brett; Ranjbar, Mostafa

    2016-01-01

    Ototoxic effect of exposure to lead has been reported by many researchers. This study was undertaken with a view to investigate the relationship between blood lead level (BLL) and hearing loss in workers in a lead-acid battery manufacturing plant in Tehran, Iran. In a cross-sectional study, 609 male workers were recruited from different locations in the factory. Association between BLL and hearing loss in different frequencies were measured. Relationships were analyzed by logistic regressions. Statistical significance was defined as p-value workers with mean age 40 ± 7 years and mean noise exposure level of 80 (75-85) dB were evaluated. BLLs were categorized into four quartiles, and hearing loss in each quartile was compared to the first one. In our regression models, BLL was associated significantly with high frequency hearing loss, adjusted odds ratios for the comparison of the fourth, third, and second quartiles to the first one are respectively: 3.98 (95% CI: 1.63-9.71, p hearing loss, after adjusting for potential confounders (age, body mass index, work duration, smoking, and occupational noise exposure) in logistic regressions. It is concluded that periodic hearing assessment by pure tone audiometry in workers exposed to lead should be recommended. However, additional studies are required to clarify the mechanisms of lead ototoxicity.

  18. Potential hazard to human health from exposure to fragments of lead bullets and shot in the tissues of game animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah J Pain

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lead is highly toxic to animals. Humans eating game killed using lead ammunition generally avoid swallowing shot or bullets and dietary lead exposure from this source has been considered low. Recent evidence illustrates that lead bullets fragment on impact, leaving small lead particles widely distributed in game tissues. Our paper asks whether lead gunshot pellets also fragment upon impact, and whether lead derived from spent gunshot and bullets in the tissues of game animals could pose a threat to human health. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Wild-shot gamebirds (6 species obtained in the UK were X-rayed to determine the number of shot and shot fragments present, and cooked using typical methods. Shot were then removed to simulate realistic practice before consumption, and lead concentrations determined. Data from the Veterinary Medicines Directorate Statutory Surveillance Programme documenting lead levels in raw tissues of wild gamebirds and deer, without shot being removed, are also presented. Gamebirds containing > or =5 shot had high tissue lead concentrations, but some with fewer or no shot also had high lead concentrations, confirming X-ray results indicating that small lead fragments remain in the flesh of birds even when the shot exits the body. A high proportion of samples from both surveys had lead concentrations exceeding the European Union Maximum Level of 100 ppb w.w. (0.1 mg kg(-1 w.w. for meat from bovine animals, sheep, pigs and poultry (no level is set for game meat, some by several orders of magnitude. High, but feasible, levels of consumption of some species could result in the current FAO/WHO Provisional Weekly Tolerable Intake of lead being exceeded. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The potential health hazard from lead ingested in the meat of game animals may be larger than previous risk assessments indicated, especially for vulnerable groups, such as children, and those consuming large amounts of game.

  19. Evidence of undue lead exposure in Cape Town before the advent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    constructed of cast iron while lead pipes linked each household to these. Many homes were equipped with wooden storage tanks, which were lead-lined and had lead-soldered joints in order to render them watertight. Such domestic water supply systems remained in use for over a century, until the Cape. Town municipality ...

  20. Toxicological analysis of the risk of lead exposure in metal processing

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate toxicological risks for workers who are exposed to lead in their work environment. Methods: Since it is an important indicator of toxicological risk, a statistical analysis of lead concentration and biological lead toxicity markers in blood and urine were performed for both exposed and control groups.

  1. The influence of chronic and subacute exposure to lead on the levels of prolactin, leptin, osteopontin, and follistatin in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrakowski, M; Kasperczyk, A; Czuba, Z P; Machoń-Grecka, A; Szlacheta, Z; Kasperczyk, S

    2017-06-01

    This study was designed to determine the levels of prolactin, leptin, osteopontin, and follistatin in workers chronically and subacutely exposed to lead compounds. The examined population consisted of three groups. The first group was composed of 56 male workers who were chronically exposed to lead for 13.38 ± 10.38 years. The second group served as a control group and consisted of 24 male administrative workers, while the third group included 32 male workers exposed to lead for 40 ± 3 days. The levels of leptin, osteopontin, and prolactin were significantly lower in the group of workers chronically exposed to lead than in the control group by 42%, 26%, and 41%, respectively. The levels of follistatin did not differ between those groups. The levels of all measured hormones did not change after a short-term exposure to lead compared to baseline. Chronic lead exposure is associated with significantly decreased level of prolactin, leptin, and osteopontin. Lead-induced changes in the levels of these hormones may disturb many functions of the human body, including the immune response, metabolism, reproduction, and bone turnover.

  2. Effects of acute and chronic exposure to lead on the behavior of the pond snail Helisoma trivolvis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, V.T.; Copeland, J. [Georgia Southern Univ., Statesboro, GA (United States)

    1997-09-01

    The behavior of aquatic invertebrates may be useful as an indicator for the presence of toxicants in both freshwater and marine environments. The pond snail Helisoma trivolvis, the red ram`s horn, was exposed to low levels of lead (0.05 ppm). Chronic exposure significantly reduced the number of head movements but had no affect on radula movement or antenna twitches. Acute exposure resulted in curling of the foot that lasted 0.5 to 14.0 minutes. Electrochemical analysis of lead levels within treated snails indicated a higher concentration of lead in the tissue than that in the treated environment. Organ analysis of the digestive gland, 1 salivary gland, reproductive organs and the cerebral ganglion is currently being studied.

  3. Exposure to lead and cadmium released from ceramics and glassware intended to come into contact with food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebeniak, Małgorzata; Wojciechowska-Mazurek, Maria; Mania, Monika; Szynal, Tomasz; Strzelecka, Agnieszka; Starska, Krystyna

    2014-01-01

    The dietary intake of harmful elements, particularly lead and cadmium constitutes a health threat and essential measures should be undertaken to reduce consumer exposure. The latest risk assessments by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) and Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) have indicated that the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI) for lead and cadmium do not ensure health safety and their review had to be undertaken. Migration from ceramics and glassware intended for food contact is an important source of lead and cadmium intake. To study the release of lead and cadmium from ceramics and glassware (including decorated products) intended for food contact that are available on the Polish market and to assess the resulting health risk to the consumer. Ceramics and glassware (mainly decorated) were sampled from the Polish market during 2010- 2012 throughout the country by staff of the Sanitary-Epidemiological Stations in accordance with monitoring procedures and guidelines designed by the National Institute of Public Health-National Institute of Hygiene. Migration of lead and cadmium was measured by incubating the samples with 4% acetic acid for 24 hours at a temperature of 22±2ºC in the dark. Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (FAAS) was used to measure these elements in food simulant according to a validated and accredited method (PN-EN ISO/IEC 17025). 1273 samples of ceramics and glass wares were analysed in 2010-2012. Lead and cadmium release were usually found to be below analytical detection limits. Permissible migration limits (as prescribed by the legislation) of these metals were rarely exceeded and were reported mainly in articles imported from outside the EU. Two imported and decorated ceramic flat plates released lead at 0.9 and 11.9 mg/dm2 (limit 0.8 mg/dm2) and 5 imported deep plates gave migration values of 4.7 mg/L, 4.9 mg/L, 5.6 mg/L, 6.1 mg/L, 8.6 mg/L (limit 4.0 mg/L). Lead migrations from ceramic ware rims

  4. Fetal alcohol exposure leads to abnormal olfactory bulb development and impaired odor discrimination in adult mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.G. Akers (Katherine); S.A. Kushner (Steven); A.T. Leslie (Ana); L. Clarke (Laura); D. van der Kooy (Derek); J.P. Lerch (Jason); P.W. Frankland (Paul)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Children whose mothers consumed alcohol during pregnancy exhibit widespread brain abnormalities and a complex array of behavioral disturbances. Here, we used a mouse model of fetal alcohol exposure to investigate relationships between brain abnormalities and specific

  5. [Use of lead-glazed ceramic as a source of exposure in children of marginalized indigenous zones of Oaxaca, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrazas-Meraz, María Alejandra; Hernández-Cadena, Leticia; Rueda-Hernández, Gabriela E; Romano-Riquer, Sonia Patricia; Shamah-Levy, Teresa; Villalpando-Hernández, Salvador; Téllez-Rojo Solís, Martha Ma; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio

    2015-01-01

    To find out whether the use of lead-glazed ceramic (LGC) is associated with blood lead levels in indigenous schoolchildren from Oaxaca, México. We evaluated LGC use at home as a primary source of lead exposure in 387 indigenous schoolchildren in Oaxaca in May 2001. We found an adjusted difference of 3.9μg/dl (p<0.01) in blood lead levels (BLL) among children reporting to use (82%) LGC at home vs those who didn't. BL levels greater or equal than 10 and 20 μg/dl were observed in 60 and 27% of children, respectively. Lead poisoning from LGC use could remain a concern for public health in Mexico, where there is a need to provide care and further study to verify its effect on BLL.

  6. Evaluation of Pharmacokinetic Models for the Disposition of Lead (Pb) in Humans, in Support of Application to Occupational Exposure Limit Derivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-09

    Evaluation of Pharmacokinetic Models for the Disposition of Lead (Pb) in Humans, in Support of Application to Occupational Exposure Limit...Derivation Naval Medical Research Unit Dayton EVALUATION OF PHARMACOKINETIC MODELS FOR THE DISPOSITION OF LEAD (PB) IN HUMANS, IN SUPPORT OF... pharmacokinetic models for the disposition of lead (Pb) in humans, in support of application to occupational exposure limit derivation 5a. Contract

  7. SHORT-TERM EXPOSURE OF FRESHWATER ALGAE TO LEAD ORGANIC COMPOUNDS STUDIED WITH NON-INVASIVE ELECTRICAL AND LUMINESCENT METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Borc

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the non-invasive biophysical methods were applied to assess the organic lead compounds absorption by freshwater algae Nitellopsis obtusa. Two biophysical techniques were used: the electrical method AC bridge with four external electrodes and the luminescent with the registration of ultraweak photon radiation emitted by plants. They allow to study the electrical and luminescent cell membrane properties. Research was performed with the lead acetate and trimethyl-lead chloride to verify whether algae cells were able to absorb Pb ions from water medium contaminated by these compounds. When the concentration of lead acetate solution increased up to 25 -100 µM the membrane resting potential changed from -140 mV to -175 mV. On the other hand, the electrical resistance of cell membrane (for 12-50 µM increased with exposure time exceeding its starting value up to 1.5 times. In contrast to these electrical changes, the intensity of ultraweak luminescence was constant at concentrations below 1 µM lead acetate. These results with comparison of literature data can suggest that there was no lipid peroxidation in cell membranes for such organic lead compound concentrations. Chemiluminescent responses of algae were observed in the first 5 hours of experiments for lead concentration higher than 1 µM. The luminescence intensity increased immediately for both reagents, but no more than 4 times for concentrations of 1-10 µM lead acetate. For tetramethyl-lead chloride, the luminescence intensity started to increase slowly about 40 minutes after injection. These results with comparison of literature data may suggest lipid peroxidation in cell membrane for higher, toxic lead concentrations. It means that higher concentrations of lead can trigger lethal processes in the living cells. We conclude that the return of the electrical and chemiluminescent plant parameters to the starting values (before the action of lead ions can indicate whether living

  8. Dietary exposure to cadmium, lead and nickel among students from the south-east region of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Marzec

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Dietary intake of cadmium, lead and nickel was determined among students from three universities in Lublin to assess the levels of exposure to these contaminants compared to PTWI and TDI values. The study was performed in 2006–2010 and involved 850 daily food rations of students from the south–east region of Poland. The technique of 24-hour dietary recall and diet duplicates was used. Cadmium, lead and nickel complexes with ammonium-pyrrolidindithiocarbamate were formed and extracted to the organic phase with 4-methylpentan-2-one – MIBK in which their content was measured by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The highest intake of the elements studied was observed in 2008. The data show that in none of the cases, the level of intake reached 70 % of PTWI/TDI values and thus the risk of developing diseases related to high exposure to these toxic metals absorbed from foodstuffs was low. The parameters of methods were checked during determinations by adding standard solutions to the samples before mineralization and by using two reference materials: Total diet ARC/CL HDP and Bovine muscle RM NIST 8414. The dietary exposure to lead and cadmium has significantly decreased in recent years whereas the exposures to nickel remain on stable levels.

  9. What do we know of childhood exposures to metals (arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury) in emerging market countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Lindsey M; Mortensen, Mary E; Iossifova, Yulia; Wald, Marlena M; Burgess, Paula

    2013-01-01

    Arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury present potential health risks to children who are exposed through inhalation or ingestion. Emerging Market countries experience rapid industrial development that may coincide with the increased release of these metals into the environment. A literature review was conducted for English language articles from the 21st century on pediatric exposures to arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury in the International Monetary Fund's (IMF) top 10 Emerging Market countries: Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Poland, Russia, South Korea, Taiwan, and Turkey. Seventy-six peer-reviewed, published studies on pediatric exposure to metals met the inclusion criteria. The reported concentrations of metals in blood and urine from these studies were generally higher than US reference values, and many studies identified adverse health effects associated with metals exposure. Evidence of exposure to metals in the pediatric population of these Emerging Market countries demonstrates a need for interventions to reduce exposure and efforts to establish country-specific reference values through surveillance or biomonitoring. The findings from review of these 10 countries also suggest the need for country-specific public health policies and clinician education in Emerging Markets.

  10. What Do We Know of Childhood Exposures to Metals (Arsenic, Cadmium, Lead, and Mercury in Emerging Market Countries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsey M. Horton

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury present potential health risks to children who are exposed through inhalation or ingestion. Emerging Market countries experience rapid industrial development that may coincide with the increased release of these metals into the environment. A literature review was conducted for English language articles from the 21st century on pediatric exposures to arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury in the International Monetary Fund's (IMF top 10 Emerging Market countries: Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Poland, Russia, South Korea, Taiwan, and Turkey. Seventy-six peer-reviewed, published studies on pediatric exposure to metals met the inclusion criteria. The reported concentrations of metals in blood and urine from these studies were generally higher than US reference values, and many studies identified adverse health effects associated with metals exposure. Evidence of exposure to metals in the pediatric population of these Emerging Market countries demonstrates a need for interventions to reduce exposure and efforts to establish country-specific reference values through surveillance or biomonitoring. The findings from review of these 10 countries also suggest the need for country-specific public health policies and clinician education in Emerging Markets.

  11. Effect of prenatal lead exposure on nigrostriatal neurotransmission and hydroxyl radical formation in rat neostriatum: Dopaminergic-nitrergic interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowak, Przemyslaw; Szczerbak, Grazyna; Nitka, Dariusz; Kostrzewa, Richard M.; Sitkiewicz, Tomasz; Brus, Ryszard

    2008-01-01

    The present study was designed to explore the role of ontogenetic lead (Pb 2+ ) exposure on a putative dopaminergic-nitrergic interaction in the nigrostriatal pathway. Pregnant Wistar rats were given tap water containing 250-ppm lead acetate, for the duration of pregnancy, with regular tap water (without Pb 2+ ) being substituted at birth. Control rats were derived from dams that consumed tap water throughout pregnancy, and had no exposure to Pb 2+ afterwards. At 12 weeks after birth in vivo microdialysis of the neostriatum was employed to demonstrate that maternal Pb 2+ exposure was without effect on the baseline dopamine (DA) microdialysate concentration as well as amphetamine (AMPH, 1.0 mg/kg i.p.)-evoked release of striatal DA. Also, prenatal Pb 2+ exposure did not enhance AMPH- and 7-nitroindazole (neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitor) (7-NI, 20 mg/kg i.p.)-induced hydroxyl radical (HO·) formation in the striatum, as indicated by analysis of the salicylate spin-trap product 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid. However, in rats exposed prenatally to Pb 2+ , the facilitatory effect of 7-NI on DA exocytosis was attenuated. On the basis of the current study we conclude that maternal Pb 2+ exposure distorts the dopaminergic-nitrergic interaction in the nigrostriatal pathway, but without involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS)

  12. INTRAUTERINE EXPOSURE TO LEAD MAY ENHANCE SENSITIZATION TO COMMON INHALANT ALLERGENS IN EARLY CHILDHOOD. A PROSPECTIVE PREBIRTH COHORT STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedrychowski, Wieslaw; Perera, Frederica; Maugeri, Umberto; Miller, Rachel L.; Rembiasz, Maria; Flak, Elzbieta; Mroz, Elzbieta; Majewska, Renata; Zembala, Marek

    2010-01-01

    Background Several in vivo and in vitro studies have shown that metal-rich particles may enhance allergic responses to house dust mites and induce an increased release of allergy-related cytokines. Objectives The main goal of this analysis is to define the possible association of intrauterine exposure to lead and mercury with the occurrence of skin sensitization to common aeroallergens in early childhood. Material and Methods The present study refers to a sample of 224 women in the second trimester of pregnancy recruited from Krakow inner city area who had full term pregnancies and whose children underwent skin prick testing (SPT) at the age of 5. Lead and mercury levels were assessed in cord blood and retested in children at age of 5 years. Aeroallergen concentrations in house dust were measured at the age of 3 years. The main health outcome (atopic status) was defined as the positive SPT to at least one common aeroallergen (Der f1, Der p1, Can f1 and Fel d1) at the age of 5 years. In the statistical analysis of the association between atopic status of children and exposure to metals, the study considered a set of covariates such as maternal characteristics (age, education, atopy), child’s gender, number of older siblings, prenatal (measured via cord blood cotinine) and postnatal environmental tobacco smoke together with exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) as measured by PAH-DNA adducts. Results and conclusion In the binary regression analysis, which controlled for the confounders, the risk ratio (RR) estimate for atopic sensitization was significantly associated with the lead exposure (RR =2.25, 95%CI: 1.21–4.19). In conclusion, the data suggest that even very low-level of prenatal lead exposure may be implicated in enhancing sensitization to common aeroallergens in early childhood. PMID:21094490

  13. Contrasting effects of age on the plasma/whole blood lead ratio in men and women with a history of lead exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbosa, Fernando; Ramires, Irene; Rodrigues, Maria Heloisa C.; Saint' Pierre, Tatiana D.; Curtius, Adilson J.; Buzalaf, Marilia R.; Gerlach, Raquel F.; Tanus-Santos, Jose E.

    2006-01-01

    We examined the effect of age and sex on the relationship between the concentrations of Pb in blood (Pb-B) and in plasma (Pb-P) in an adult population with a history of lead exposure. Pb-P was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and Pb-B by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF AAS). We studied 154 adults (56 men and 98 women) from 18 to 60-year old. Pb-B levels varied from 10.0 to 428.0 μg/L, with a mean of 76 μg/L. Blood lead levels varied from 10.0 to 428.0 μg/L in men (mean, 98.3 μg/L) and from 10.0 to 263.0 μg/L (mean, 62.8 μg/L) in women. Corresponding Pb-Ps were 0.02-2.9 μg/L (mean, 0.66 μg/L) and 0.02-1.5 μg/L (mean, 0.42 μg/L) in men and women, respectively. The relationship between Pb-B and Pb-P was found to be curvilinear (r=0.757, P 1492 (y=Pb-P, and x=Pb-B). The %Pb-P/Pb-B ratio ranged from 0.03% to 1.85%. A positive association was found between %Pb-P/Pb-B ratio and Pb-B levels. When data were separated by sex, this association was also relevant for men (y=0.0184x 0.702 ) and women (y=0.0534x 0.5209 ) (y=%Pb-P/Pb-B and x=Pb-B). Moreover, we found an interesting positive correlation between Log (Pb-P/Pb-B) and age for women (r=0.31, P<0.0001) and a negative correlation for men (r=-0.164, P=0.07). Taken together, these results suggest contrasting effects of age on the plasma/whole blood lead ratio in men and women with a history of lead exposure. Moreover, sex might play an important role in the metabolism of lead, implying further consideration on the kinetic models constructed of lead toxicity

  14. Drinking water: a major source of lead exposure in Karachi, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ul-Haq, N; Arain, M A; Badar, N; Rasheed, M; Haque, Z

    2011-11-01

    Excess lead in drinking water is a neglected source of lead toxicity in Pakistan. A cross-sectional survey in 2007/08 was made of water samples from drinking water sources in Karachi, a large industrial city. This study aimed to compare lead levels between untreated ground water and treated surface (tap) water in 18 different districts. Of 216 ground and surface water samples collected, 86% had lead levels higher than the World Health Organization maximum acceptable concentration of l0 ppb. Mean lead concentration in ground water [146 (SD 119) ppb] was significantly higher than in surface water [77.1 (SD 54) ppb]. None of the 18 districts had a mean lead level of ground or surface water below the WHO cut-off and ground water sources in 9 districts had a severe level of contamination (>150 ppb). Urgent action is needed to eliminate sources of contamination.

  15. Occupational exposure and biological evaluation of lead in Iranian workers-a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kourosh Sayehmiri

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lead exposure is considered as a global health problem. The irreparable harmful effects of this heavy metal on human have been proven in various studies. Comparing to general population, workers in related industries are more exposed to lead. Several studies have investigated lead occupational exposure and its biological evaluation in Iran; however there is no overall estimate. Thus, the present study was conducted to determine the occupational exposure to lead and its biological evaluation in Iranian workers, using systematic review and meta-analysis. Material and Method: This study was carried out based on information obtained from databases including Magiran, Iranmedex, SID, Medlib, Trials Register, Scopus, Pubmed, Science Direct, Cochran, Embase, Medline, Web of Science, Springer, Online Library Wiley, and Google Scholar from 1991 to 2016, using standard key words. All of the reviewed papers which met the inclusion criteria have been evaluated. Data combination was performed according to Random Effects Model using Stata software version 11.1. Result: In the 34 qualified studies, the mean blood lead level (BLL concentration in Iranian workers was estimated 42.8µg/dl (95% CI: 35.15-50.49. The minimum and maximum BLL were belonged to west (28.348µg/dl and center (45.928µg/dl regions of Iran, respectively. Considering different occupations, the lowest mean value was reported in textile industry workers (12.3 µg/dl, while the highest value was for zinc-lead mine workers (72.6 µg/dl. Mean breathing air lead level of Iranian workers reported in 4 studies was estimated 0.23 mg/m3 (95% CI: 0.14-0.33. Conclusion: According to the high concentration of BLL and breathing air, it is recommended to increase protective measures and frequent screening. Scheduled clinical and paraclinical examination should also be performed for workers.

  16. Single and Combined Exposure to Zinc- and Copper-Containing Welding Fumes Lead to Asymptomatic Systemic Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markert, Agnieszka; Baumann, Ralf; Gerhards, Benjamin; Gube, Monika; Kossack, Veronika; Kraus, Thomas; Brand, Peter

    2016-02-01

    Recently, it has been shown that exposure to welding fumes containing both zinc and copper leads to asymptomatic systemic inflammation in humans as shown by an increase of blood C-reactive protein. In the present study, it was investigated which metal is responsible for this effect. Fifteen healthy male subjects were exposed under controlled conditions to welding fumes containing either zinc, or copper, or copper and zinc. For each exposure blood C-reactive protein increased. Copper- and zinc-containing welding fumes are able to induce systemic inflammation.

  17. Contribution of diet to lead exposure among children aged 1 to 7 years in La Plata, Buenos Aires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Enrique; Malpeli, Agustina; Asens, Daniel; Telese, Luis; Fasano, Victoria; Vargas, Vania; Tavella, Marina; Colman Lerner, Jorge E

    2018-02-01

    Lead is a toxic metal which, even at low blood levels, can alter normal neurodevelopment in children, so no blood lead level is acceptable. Lead absorption from diet accounts for the highest contribution to blood lead levels in the population who is not exposed to contaminated environments or because of their occupation. The objective of this study was to determine the contribution of diet to lead exposure among children aged 1 to 7 years who attended Hospital de Niños de La Plata for health check-ups. The study was conducted between June 2015 and May 2016. A questionnaire on the frequency of food intake was administered to 91 children whose average age ± standard deviation was 3.0 ± 1.7 years, and foods included in the analysis were selected based on this questionnaire. Selected foods were purchased from different regional stores. Composite samples were made up of different food groups. Lead levels corresponding to each food group were determined and, finally, the daily intake of lead was estimated for the studied population. The daily intake of lead was 138 µg/day. The food groups with the higher intake rates were processed meat products (15.4%), bakery products (14.8%), milk (12.5%), and meat (11.7%). Children aged 1 to 7 years attending a public hospital in La Plata have a lead burden from dietary intake of 138 µg/day. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría

  18. Exposure to Fine Particulate Matter Leads to Rapid Heart Rate Variability Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Riediker

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Heart Rate Variability (HRV reflects the adaptability of the heart to internal and external stimuli. Reduced HRV is a predictor of post-infarction mortality. We previously found in road maintenance workers HRV-increases several hours after exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5. This seemed to conflict with studies where PM-exposure acutely reduced HRV. We therefore assessed whether time from exposure to HRV-assessment could explain the differences observed.Methods: On five non-consecutive days, workers carried nephelometers providing 1-min-interval PM2.5-exposure. Five-min HRV-intervals of SDNN (Standard Deviation of Normal to Normal beat intervals and pNN50 (Percentage of the interval differences exceeding 50 ms were extracted from 24-h electrocardiograms (ECGs. Following 60 min PM2.5-exposure, changes in HRV-parameters were assessed during 120-min visually and by regression analysis with control for time at work, at home, and during the night using autoregressive integrating moving average (ARIMA models to account for autocorrelation of the time-series. Additional controls included changing the time windows and including body mass index (BMI and age in the models.Result: Pattern analysis of 12,669 data points showed high modulation of mean, standard deviation (SD, and time trend of HRV (SDNN and pNN50 at low, and much reduced modulation at high PM2.5-exposures. The time trend following exposure was highly symmetrical, resembling a funnel plot. Regression analysis showed significant associations of decreasing SDNN and pNN50 (average, SD, and absolute value of time trend with increasing PM2.5-exposure, which remained significant when controlling for activity phases. Changing time windows did not change the pattern of response. Including BMI and age did not change the results.Conclusions: The reduced modulation of HRV following PM2.5-exposure is striking. It suggests strong interference with homeostatic controls. Such an

  19. Gestational Diabetes and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pregnant Avoiding Pregnancy Zika and Pregnancy Articles Gestational Diabetes and Pregnancy Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend ... diabetes must also take insulin. Problems of Gestational Diabetes in Pregnancy Blood sugar that is not well ...

  20. Influence of exposure to environmental lead on serum immunoglobulin in preschool children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Li; Hu Jian; Zhao Zhenyia; Li Lon; Cheng Hanyun

    2003-01-01

    Serum immunoglobulin (IgG, IgM, and IgE) concentrations of 38 preschool children with blood lead levels ≥0.48 μmol/L (10 μg/dL) were examined and compared to 35 preschool children with blood lead levels ≤0.48 μmol/L. No differences in serum concentrations of IgG, IgM, and IgE in the populations were observed, but IgG, IgM, and IgE of male and female children from the high blood lead level group were compared to those of controls and the results showed that IgG and IgM were significantly lower in the high blood lead level group of females than in the controls, while IgE was significantly higher in the high blood lead level group of females than in the controls (P<0.05). No correlation between blood lead concentration and serum immunogloblins IgG and IgM was demonstrated, but a statistically significant relationship between IgE and blood lead level was found in this population. These data indicate that the effect of lead on IgG, IgM, and IgE was stronger in females than in males and lead could play a role in this process by stimulating IgE production