Sample records for germplasm

  1. Genomics-based plant germplasm research (GPGR

    Jizeng Jia


    Full Text Available Plant germplasm underpins much of crop genetic improvement. Millions of germplasm accessions have been collected and conserved ex situ and/or in situ, and the major challenge is now how to exploit and utilize this abundant resource. Genomics-based plant germplasm research (GPGR or “Genoplasmics” is a novel cross-disciplinary research field that seeks to apply the principles and techniques of genomics to germplasm research. We describe in this paper the concept, strategy, and approach behind GPGR, and summarize current progress in the areas of the definition and construction of core collections, enhancement of germplasm with core collections, and gene discovery from core collections. GPGR is opening a new era in germplasm research. The contribution, progress and achievements of GPGR in the future are predicted.

  2. Conservation of Allium germplasm collection by cryopreservation

    Zámečník, Jiří; Grospietsch, Martin; Kotková, Renata; Faltus, Miloš


    Allium is important crop in the Czech Republic. Allium sativum L. germplasm is maintained in the field collection and this fact increases risk of accidental lost of genotype. Conservation of Allium sativum L. germplasm by means cryopreservation decreases risks of genotype lost. Allium sativum L. samples are stored at ultralow temperature that stopped all biochemical processes and the samples are stored without any changes for many years. This methodology describes procedure of material prepar...

  3. Broadening the U.S. alfalfa germplasm base

    Over 4000 alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) plant introductions (PIs) exist in the USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS). NAAIC has discussed/proposed pre-breeding efforts to utilize this germplasm for creating pre-commercial alfalfa germplasm. Funding constraints have been one impediment to th...

  4. Construction of Transgenic Crop Germplasm Effective Function and Characteristic Analysis

    DING Guangzhou; WANG Xiaowei


    Germplasm effect reflects the quantitative relation between production ability of gennplasm elements and yield (quality) of a certain crop, which can be shown by mathematic function, namely, germplasm effect function. Germplasm effect of a crop variety is an aggregation of many effective factors, and is restrained by different effective factors;constant increase of any one effect of germplasm elements would lead to law of effect decline, therefore, possible modes of transgenic crops effect function were deduced according to the law of effect decline. The possible modes of single transgenic germplasm effect function and multi-transgenic germplasm effect regression equation were discussed, and the characteristics of germplasm effect regression equation were analyzed in this paper.

  5. Public Germplasm Collections and Revolutions in Biotechnology

    Public germplasm collections provided the biological material critical for launching the three most important revolutions in modern biotechnology: (i) An isolate of Penicillium chrysogenum, NRRL 1951, the basis for industrial production of penicillan, originated from the ARS Culture Collection in Pe...

  6. Variation for seed phytosterols in sunflower germplasm

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seeds and oils are rich sources of phytosterols, which are important compounds for human nutrition. There is limited information on variability for seed phytosterols in sunflower germplasm. The objective of the present research was to evaluate kernel phytosterol cont...

  7. Maintenance of Brazilian Biodiversity by germplasm bank

    Luciana C. Machado


    Full Text Available Abstract: Currently the importance of using alternative strategies for biodiversity conservation is emphasized and since the establishment of germplasm bank is an alternative to the conservation of endangered species. This is a technique of great importance for the maintenance of Brazilian fauna. Since the early70'sthere was a growing concern about the need to preserve essential genetic resources for food and agriculture, mainly for conservation of genetic material from farm animals. Thus was created the Brasilia Zoo, in July 2010, the first Germplasm Bank of Wild Animals in Latin America, as an alternative strategy for the conservation of threatened or endangered species, using both gametes and somatic cells and stem cells. Then we argue to create new banks or research networks among different regions with aimed to tissue preservation.

  8. The value of crop germplasm and value accounting system

    WANG Xiaowei; DING Guangzhou; CHANG Ying


    The value evaluation and accounting of crop germplasm not only provides the theory and method for the price of germplasm, thus makes further lawful and fair transactions, but also ensures the benefits of crop germplasm owners and is also instructive in keeping the foodstuff safety. This paper founded a multidimensional value accounting system, which included physical accounting, value accounting and quality index accounting; individual accounting and total accounting; quantity accounting and quality accounting.

  9. Genetic diversity analysis of salinity related germplasm in cotton

    Lina Zhang; Wuwei Ye; Junjuan Wang; Baoxiang Fan; Delong Wang


    In order to study the genetic variation of salinity related cotton germplasm, 47 upland cotton accessions including 23 salinity tolerant materials and 24 salinity sensitive materials were explored using 88 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. We detected a total of 338 alleles at 88 SSR loci with an average of 3.841 alleles per locus, 333 of these alleles were detected in salinity tolerant germplasm and 312 alleles in salinity sensitive germplasm. Mean polymorphism information content (PIC),...

  10. In vitro conservation of Dendrobium germplasm.

    Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A; Zeng, Songjun; Galdiano, Renato Fernandes; Dobránszki, Judit; Cardoso, Jean Carlos; Vendrame, Wagner A


    Dendrobium is a large genus in the family Orchidaceae that exhibits vast diversity in floral characteristics, which is of considerable importance to orchid breeders, biotechnologists and collectors. Native species have high value as a result of their medicinal properties, while their hybrids are important as ornamental commodities, either as cut flowers or potted plants and are thus veritable industrial crops. Thus, preservation of Dendrobium germplasm is valuable for species conservation, breeding programs and the floriculture industry. Cryopreservation represents the only safe, efficient and cost-effective long-term storage option to facilitate the conservation of genetic resources of plant species. This review highlights 16 years of literature related to the preservation of Dendrobium germplasm and comprises the most comprehensive assessment of thorough studies performed to date, which shows reliable and reproducible results. Air-drying, encapsulation-dehydration, encapsulation-vitrification, vitrification and droplet-vitrification are the current cryopreservation methodologies that have been used to cryopreserve Dendrobium germplasm. Mature seeds, pollen, protoplasts, shoot primordia, protocorms and somatic embryos or protocorm-like bodies (PLBs) have been cryopreserved with different levels of success. Encapsulation-vitrification and encapsulation-dehydration are the most used protocol, while PLBs represent the main explant explored.

  11. Potato germplasm collecting expedition to Mexico in 1997 : taxonomy and new germplasm resources

    Spooner, D.M.; Rivera-Pena, A.; Berg, van den R.G.; Schueler, K.


    Wild potato (Solanum sect. Petota) germplasm has been collected in Mexico on nine major expeditions, as determined by 20 collections or more from each expedition currently at the United States potato genebank, the National Research Support Program-6 (NRSP-6). These have resulted in 609 accessions

  12. Identification of citrullus lanatus germplasm lines tolerant to clomazone herbicide

    Clomazone herbicide is registered for use in watermelon; however, crop tolerance is marginal and the recommended use rates (0.07 to 0.1 kg ai ha-1) are lower for watermelon than for some other crops. In a greenhouse germplasm evaluation experiment including 56 germplasm accessions and watermelon cu...

  13. Citrullus Germplasm Lines Vary in Clomazone Herbicide Tolerance

    Differences between Citrullus germplasm lines in clomazone injury were first observed when the herbicide was used for weed control in fields containing germplasm lines of watermelon breeding project at the U.S. Vegetable Laboratory, Charleston, SC. The objectives of this investigation were to asses...

  14. The World's Crop Plant Germplasm--An Endangered Resource

    Wilkes, Garrison


    Discusses the fact that many food plants derive from domesticated rather than natural strains, and that natural germplasm or genetic strains used in the plant-improvement process must be carefully preserved. (MLH)

  15. Screening of Gladiolus germplasm for agronomic performance and ...



    Oct 4, 2010 ... performance and resistance against corm rot disease. Tariq Riaz, Salik ..... varieties with long floral stalk, greater number of flowers and longer floral life are ..... Brassica juncea germplasm from Australia, China and India. Field.

  16. Methods for acquisition, storage, and evaluation of leguminous tree germplasm

    Felker, P.


    Simple methods for establishing, maintaining, and planting of a small scale tree legume (Prosopis) germplasm collection by one or two people are described. Suggestions are included for: developing an understanding of the worldwide distribution of genus; becoming acquainted with basic and applied scientists working on the taxa; devising seed cleaning, fumigation, cataloging, and storage techniques; requesting seed from international seed collections; collecting seed from native populations; and for field designs for planting the germplasm collection.

  17. Collection,Evaluation,and Utilization of Cotton Germplasm in China

    DU Xiong-ming; ZHOU Zhong-li; SUN Jun-Ling; PAN Zhao-e; JIA Yin-hua


    @@ A total of 8193 accessions,including 6822 Gossypium hirsutum,350 G.hirsutum race (sub-spe-cies),385 of G.barbadense,378 of G.arboreum,17 of G.herbaceum and 41 wild species,of cotton germplasm are now maintained in China.This germplasm is kept in Beijing National Long-term Genebank and Anyang Cotton Medium-term Genebank.Live plants of the wild species are kept in Cotton garden at Hainan Island.

  18. Molecular Characterization of Opium Poppy (Papaver somniferum Germplasm

    Hari Shanker Acharya


    Full Text Available Problem statement: The medicinal value of opium poppy (2n = 22, Papaver somniferum L. is due to presence of more than two dozen alkaloids. The genetic origin and diversity of cultivars used in the breeding collection is not fully known. To evaluate the genetic diversity of the 24 germplasm currently cultivated in the state to provide genetic information about heterogeneity, using RAPD and ISSR markers. Approach: Isolated genomic DNA was subjected to PCR amplification using either random or ISSR markers. The amplified fragments were scored and matrix was prepared. Jaccard similarity coefficients were calculated and dendogram was generated. Results: RAPD with 12 primers gave 46 scorable fragments out of which 32 bands were polymorphic (69.52% with 2.6 polymorphic band per primer, while in ISSR analysis 9 primer gave good amplification with DNA of 24 opium poppy germplasm. They gave 27 scorable polymorphic with 3.0 bends per primer. Dendrogram constructed revealed that the based on RAPD the germplasm cultivated comprised of one major group A and one minor group B, while two clusters of two germplasm each stands apart, on the basis of ISSR they fall into one major group A and one minor groups B, while one germplasm clusters of UOP-60 stands apart. Based on combined RAPD and ISSR analysis these germplasm were divided into 1 major group A and 3 minor group B, C, D whereas one genotype UOP-6 stood apart. Conclusion: These results showed that the majority of cultivated germplasm fall in one cluster and have low genetic diversity.

  19. Genomic characterization of a core set of the USDA-NPGS Ethiopian sorghum germplasm collection

    The USDA Agriculture Research Service National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) preserves the largest sorghum germplasm collection in the world, which includes 7,217 accessions from the center of diversity in Ethiopia. The characterization of this exotic germplasm at a genome-wide scale will improve co...

  20. Evaluation and characterization of sunflower germplasm accessions for quantitative characters

    Vikas Kulkarni, I.Shankegoud and M.R. Govindappa


    Full Text Available Sunflower germplasm accessions (143 were evaluated for yield and yield contributing characters to study the extentof variation for different quantitative traits. The germplasm accessions were also characterized on qualitative traits. Highest phenotypic and genotypic coefficients of variation were recorded for seed yield per plant (53.4 % and 46.9% respectively followed by head diameter, test weight, plant height,volume weight and oil content. High heritability was noticed for all the traits studied. High heritability coupled with high genetic advance over mean has been recorded for seed yield per plant (77 and 65.1 followed by head diameter, test weight and plant height. It was noticed that sunflower germplasm accessions exhibited wide range of variability for all the morphological characters studied like leaf shape, leaf color, leaf serrations, leaf hairiness, stem hairiness, indicator leaf, petiole anthocyanin, branching, leaf angle, petiole length, stem pigmentation and pollen color.

  1. Microsatellite variation in Avena sterilis oat germplasm.

    Fu, Yong-Bi; Chong, James; Fetch, Tom; Wang, Ming-Li


    The Avena sterilis L. collection in the Plant Gene Resources of Canada (PGRC) consists of 11,235 accessions originating from 27 countries and is an invaluable source of genetic variation for genetic improvement of oats, but it has been inadequately characterized, particularly using molecular techniques. More than 35 accessions have been identified with genes for resistance to oat crown and stem rusts, but little is known about their comparative genetic diversity. This study attempted to characterize a structured sample of 369 accessions representing 26 countries and two specific groups with Puccinia coronata avenae (Pc) and Puccinia graminis avenae (Pg) resistance genes using microsatellite (SSR) markers. Screening of 230 SSR primer pairs developed from other major crop species yielded 26 informative primer pairs for this characterization. These 26 primer pairs were applied to screen all the samples and 125 detected alleles were scored for each accession. Analyses of the SSR data showed the effectiveness of the stratified sampling applied in capturing country-wise SSR variation. The frequencies of polymorphic alleles ranged from 0.01 to 0.99 and averaged 0.28. More than 90% of the SSR variation resided within accessions of a country. Accessions from Greece, Liberia, and Italy were genetically most diverse, while accessions from Egypt, Georgia, Ethiopia, Gibraltar, and Kenya were most distinct. Seven major clusters were identified, each consisting of accessions from multiple countries and specific groups, and these clusters were not well congruent with geographic origins. Accessions with Pc and Pg genes had similar levels of SSR variation, did not appear to cluster together, and were not associated with the other representative accessions. These SSR patterns are significant for understanding the progenitor species of cultivated oat, managing A. sterilis germplasm, and exploring new sources of genes for oat improvement.

  2. Notice of Release of NBR-1 Germplasm Basalt Milkvetch

    Basalt milkvetch or threadstalk milkvetch (Astragalus filipes Torr. ex A. Gray) is a perennial legume that is widely distributed on rangelands in western North America and holds promise for rangeland revegetation and restoration programs. No germplasms or cultivars are commercially available for ba...

  3. Characterization of indigenous Pyrus germplasm of Azad Jammu ...



    Nov 16, 2009 ... 2University College of Agriculture, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan. ..... origin of Pyrus germplasm, it seems quite logical that. Btangi and its other kind .... classifications of East Asian pears by the principal component analysis of ... Mathematical model for studying genetic variation in terms of ...

  4. National Plant Germplasm System: Critical Role of Customer Service

    The National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) conserves plant genetic resources, not only for use by future generations, but for immediate use by scientists and educators around the world. With a great deal of interaction between genebank curators and users of plant genetic resources, customer service...

  5. Genetic diversity and germplasm resource research on tung tree ...



    Apr 17, 2008 ... Tung tree is an important woody oil-rich plant in the world. ... marker system also yielded useful strategies for germplasm collection and conservation of tung. ..... and oils. In Bailey's Industrial Oil and Fat Products. 1: 289-477.

  6. Anthracnose disease evaluation of sorghum germplasm from Honduras

    Germplasm collections are important resources for sorghum improvement and 17 accessions from Honduras were inoculated with Colletotrichum sublineolum and evaluated at the Tropical Agriculture Research Station in Isabela, Puerto Rico during the 2005 and 2006 growing seasons to identify sources of ant...

  7. Sully's Hill NGP : 2006 bison germplasm conservation plan

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Logistics for the plan to carry out germplasm conservation of bison in Region 6 and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. It starts out with an effort to move all...

  8. Registration of CA0469C025C chickpea germplasm

    Chickpea (Cicer arientinum L.) germplasm CA0469C025C (Reg. No. XXX; PI XXX), was released by the USDA-ARS in 2010. CA0469C025C was released based on its improved yield and reaction to Ascochyta blight relative to the popular commercial cultivars ‘Dwelley’, ‘Sierra’, and ‘Sawyer’. CA0490C025C is deri...

  9. Identification of Tsuga Germplasm by Morphological Characters and RAPD Markers

    ROH Mark S; DE BENEDETTI Laura; JOUNG Young Hee; LEE Nam Sook


    Germplasm collection is important to preserve and maximize genetic diversity for germplasm conservation. Tsuga dumosa (D. Don) Eichler in Engler & Prantl. and T. chinensis var. forrestii (Downie) Silba germplasm was collected from three localities in China: Mt. Yulong, Wenfeng Temple and Mt. Dishiergu, Yunnan Province. Accessions were identified based on morphological characters and RAPD markers. The shapes of the apices and margins of needles were examined, and the length and width of needles, cones and seeds from accessions of mature plants were used to compare the morphological differences and to identify the germplasm. Molecular markers generated by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) were also used to characterize the taxa. Although the clustering based on RAPD markers was inconsistent with the morphological characters of the needles, based on the overall morphological characters and on RAPD markers, the accessions from Mt. Yulong and Wenfeng Temple were identified as T. chinensis var. forrestii, and those from Mt. Dishiergu identified as T. dumosa. Taxonomic identification of the accessions was made based on morphology and by RAPD markers concurred. The results indicate that the shapes of the apices and margins of needles particularly from young plants could not be used as a possible key to identify T. dumosa and T. chinensis var. forrestii. Fig 6, Tab 3, Ref 24

  10. The Impact of US and CGIAR Germplasm on Maize Production in China

    LI Hai-ming; HU Rui-fa; ZHANG Shi-huang


    Wide adoption of a few kinds of homogeneous germplasm would reduce crop genetic diversity, increase crop vulnerability to stresses, and reduce the stability of crop production. The introduction and utilization of foreign germplasm is a sustainable solution for broadening the genetic diversity and promoting periodical replacement of varieties. The genetic contribution and economic impact of foreign germplasm, particularly those of US and CGIAR (Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research, referred to as the CG system) materials, on China's maize production are evaluated on the basis of an analysis of variety pedigree information from 20 major maize-producing provinces in China from 1982 to 1997. The results indicated that the contribution of US and CG germplasm to Chinese maize production continues to increase, particularly CG germplasm, which has shown a rapid increasing trend since the 1990s. If the genetic contribution of US germplasm is increased by 1%, maize yield will gain by 0.2% (0.01 t ha-1). If contribution of CG germplasm, which has greater production potential, is increased by 1%, maize yield will gain by 0.025 t ha-1. A policy should be implicated by the government in this direction to encourage breeders to focus more on the use and improvement of CG germplasm. The US germplasm has been utilized extensively in China so that it can offer germplasm resources for maize breeding efforts.

  11. Discrimination of Wild Tea Germplasm Resources (Camellia sp.) Using RAPD Markers

    CHEN Liang; WANG Ping-sheng; Yamaguchi Satoshi


    Discrimination of 24 wild tea germplasm resources ( Camellia sp. ) using RAPD markers was conducted. The result showed that RAPD markers were very effective tool and method in wild tea germplasm discrimination. There were 3 independent ways to discriminate tea germplasms, a) unique RAPD markers, b)specific band patterns and c) a combination of the band patterns or DNA fingerprinting provided by different primers. The presence of 16 unique RAPD markers and the absence of 3 unique markers obtained from 12 primers made it possible to discriminate 14 germplasms. Using the unique band patterns of primer OPO-13 could discriminate 10 tea germplasms. It was of much importance using minimum primers to obtain maximum discrimination capacity. All the 24 wild tea germplasms could be discriminated easily and entirely by the band patterns combination or DNA fingerprinting obtained from OPO-13, OPO-18, OPG-12 and OPA-13, including two wild tea trees of very similar morphological characteristics and chemical components.

  12. Genetic diversity of Cuban pineapple germplasm assessed by AFLP Markers

    Ermis Yanes Paz


    Full Text Available The Cuban pineapple germplasm collection represents the genetic diversity of pineapple cultivated in that country and includes other important genotypes obtained from the germplasm collections in Brazil and Martinique. The collection has previously been characterized with morphological descriptors but a molecular characterization has been lacking. With this aim, 56 six genotypes of A. comosus and one of Bromelia pinguin were analyzed with a total of 191 AFLP markers. A dendrogram that represents the genetic relationships between these samples based on the AFLP results showed a low level of diversity in the Cuban pineapple collection. All Ananas comosus accessions, being the majority obtained from farmers in different regions in Cuba, are grouped at distances lower than 0.20. Molecular characterization was in line with morphological characterization. These results are useful for breeding and conservation purposes.

  13. Molecular characterization of apricot germplasm from an old stone collection.

    Carolina Martín

    Full Text Available Increasing germplasm erosion requires the recovery and conservation of traditional cultivars before they disappear. Here we present a particular case in Spain where a thorough prospection of local fruit tree species was performed in the 1950s with detailed data of the origin of each genotype but, unfortunately, the accessions are no longer conserved in ex situ germplasm collections. However, for most of those cultivars, an old stone collection is still preserved. In order to analyze the diversity present at the time when the prospection was made and to which extent variability has been eroded, we developed a protocol in apricot (Prunus armeniaca L. to obtain DNA from maternal tissues of the stones of a sufficient quality to be amplified by PCR. The results obtained have been compared with the results from the profiles developed from apricot cultivars currently conserved in ex situ germplasm collections. The results highlight the fact that most of the old accessions are not conserved ex situ but provide a tool to prioritize the recovery of particular cultivars. The approach used in this work can also be applied to other plant species where seeds have been preserved.

  14. Indian plant germplasm on the global platter: an analysis.

    Sherry R Jacob

    Full Text Available Food security is a global concern amongst scientists, researchers and policy makers. No country is self-sufficient to address food security issues independently as almost all countries are inter-dependent for availability of plant genetic resources (PGR in their national crop improvement programmes. Consultative Group of International Agricultural Research (CGIAR; in short CG centres play an important role in conserving and distributing PGR through their genebanks. CG genebanks assembled the germplasm through collecting missions and acquisition the same from national genebanks of other countries. Using the Genesys Global Portal on Plant Genetic Resources, the World Information and Early Warning System (WIEWS on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture and other relevant databases, we analysed the conservation status of Indian-origin PGR accessions (both cultivated and wild forms possessed by India in CG genebanks and other national genebanks, including the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA genebanks, which can be considered as an indicator of Indian contribution to the global germplasm collection. A total of 28,027,770 accessions are being conserved world-wide by 446 organizations represented in Genesys; of these, 3.78% (100,607 are Indian-origin accessions. Similarly, 62,920 Indian-origin accessions (8.73% have been conserved in CG genebanks which are accessible to the global research community for utilization in their respective crop improvement programmes. A total of 60 genebanks including 11 CG genebanks have deposited 824,625 accessions of PGR in the Svalbard Global Seed Vault (SGSV as safety duplicates; the average number of accessions deposited by each genebank is 13,744, and amongst them there are 66,339 Indian-origin accessions. In principle, India has contributed 4.85 times the number of germplasm accessions to SGSV, in comparison to the mean value (13,744 of any individual genebank including CG genebanks. More

  15. Indian plant germplasm on the global platter: an analysis.

    Jacob, Sherry R; Tyagi, Vandana; Agrawal, Anuradha; Chakrabarty, Shyamal K; Tyagi, Rishi K


    Food security is a global concern amongst scientists, researchers and policy makers. No country is self-sufficient to address food security issues independently as almost all countries are inter-dependent for availability of plant genetic resources (PGR) in their national crop improvement programmes. Consultative Group of International Agricultural Research (CGIAR; in short CG) centres play an important role in conserving and distributing PGR through their genebanks. CG genebanks assembled the germplasm through collecting missions and acquisition the same from national genebanks of other countries. Using the Genesys Global Portal on Plant Genetic Resources, the World Information and Early Warning System (WIEWS) on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture and other relevant databases, we analysed the conservation status of Indian-origin PGR accessions (both cultivated and wild forms possessed by India) in CG genebanks and other national genebanks, including the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) genebanks, which can be considered as an indicator of Indian contribution to the global germplasm collection. A total of 28,027,770 accessions are being conserved world-wide by 446 organizations represented in Genesys; of these, 3.78% (100,607) are Indian-origin accessions. Similarly, 62,920 Indian-origin accessions (8.73%) have been conserved in CG genebanks which are accessible to the global research community for utilization in their respective crop improvement programmes. A total of 60 genebanks including 11 CG genebanks have deposited 824,625 accessions of PGR in the Svalbard Global Seed Vault (SGSV) as safety duplicates; the average number of accessions deposited by each genebank is 13,744, and amongst them there are 66,339 Indian-origin accessions. In principle, India has contributed 4.85 times the number of germplasm accessions to SGSV, in comparison to the mean value (13,744) of any individual genebank including CG genebanks. More importantly

  16. Spacial analysis of avocado sunblotch disease in an avocado germplasm collection

    The first visual symptoms of Avocado Sunblotch Viroid (ASBVd) were observed in a few plants of avocado (Persea americana Mill.) in the germplasm collection at the National Germplasm Repository at Miami in the early 1980s. However, the extent of the infection was unknown because infected trees can re...

  17. 509-45-1: A C. annuum Pepper germplasm containing high concentrations of capsinoids

    This publication reports the public release of pepper (Capsicum annuum) germplasm ‘509-45-1’. Pepper germplasm 509-45-1 is a small-fruited, non-pungent single plant selection from PI 645509. Fruit of ‘509-45-1’ contain high concentrations of capsinoids [capsiate ((4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzyl (E)-8...

  18. A new method to select the drought resistance azuki bean germplasm

    Chen Xin; Peerasak Srinives


    120 azuki bean germplasms from different regions of China were selected for drought-resistance. Results showed that there is a significant positive correlation between drought-resistance and photooxidation-resistance. So, the detecting technique for photooxidation-resistance should be suggested as a reference method to select the drought-resistance germplasms in azuki bean.

  19. Physiological and molecular characterization of lucerne (Medicago sativa L.) germplasm with improved seedling freezing tolerance

    We conducted greenhouse experiments to compare 14 alfalfa germplasms for their survival following freezing. Among these germplasms are collections adapted to the Grand River National Grasslands in South Dakota. Our hypothesis was that these collections developed tolerance to survive the frigid gro...

  20. Assessment of genetic diversity and anthracnose disease response among Zimbabwe sorghum germplasm.

    The USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System maintains a Zimbabwe sorghum collection of 1,235 accessions from different provinces. This germplasm has not been extensively employed in U.S. breeding programs due to the lack of phenotypic and genetic characterization. Therefore, 68 accessions from th...

  1. Determining redundancy of short-day, onion (Allium cepa L. var. cepa) accessions in a germplasm collection

    The U.S. National Plant Germplasm System is one of the world’s largest national genebank networks focusing on preserving the genetic diversity of plants by acquiring, preserving, evaluating, documenting and distributing crop-related germplasm to researchers worldwide. Maintaining viable germplasm co...

  2. The tropical germplasm repository program at the USDA-ARS, Tropical Agriculture Research Station, Mayaguez, Puerto Rico

    The USDA-ARS Tropical Agriculture Research Station is the only research entity within the National Plant Germplasm system in the insular Caribbean region. It houses germplasm collections of cultivated tropical/subtropical germplasm of bananas/plantains, cacao, mamey sapote, sapodilla, Spanish lime,...

  3. Nutritional Value Evaluation of Saccharum spontaneum L. Germplasm Resources

    Jianle LIU; Changjun BAI; Linling YAN; Shimeng CHEN; Yu ZHANG; Hubiao YANG


    The contents of dry matter, crude fat, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, crude ash, Ca and P in 43 Saccharum spontaneum L. germplasms during the vegetative period were determined. Among them, the crude protein, crude fat, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, P and Ca contents were treated as the judging indicators. The nutritional value evaluation was carried out with the analytic hierarchy process (AHP). The results showed A49 (Guangxi) had the highest nutritional value. Its dry matter, crude protein, crude fat, crude ash, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, Ca and P contents were 32.35%, 7.20%, 4.06%, 8.07%, 75.81%, 50.72%, 0.23% and 0.16% respectively. While A3 (Guangdong) had the lowest nutritional value. Its dry matter, crude protein, crude fat, crude ash, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, Ca and P contents were 32.24%, 4.62%, 0.51%, 6.38%, 46.40%, 40.02%, 0.15% and 0.09% respectively. The crude protein content differed significantly among different germplasms. A48 had the highest crude protein content (9.11%), and A14 had the lowest crude protein content (3.72%). Based on the evaluation results, the 43 Saccharum spontaneum L. germplasms were divided into 3 groups: high-nutritional value type, moderate-nutri-tional value type and low-nutritional value type. We hoped to provide a theoretical reference for the application of Saccharum spontaneum L. as a forage grass.

  4. Characterising root trait variability in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) germplasm.

    Chen, Yinglong; Ghanem, Michel Edmond; Siddique, Kadambot Hm


    Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is an important grain legume crop but its sustainable production is challenged by predicted climate changes, which are likely to increase production limitations and uncertainty in yields. Characterising the variability in root architectural traits in a core collection of chickpea germplasm will provide the basis for breeding new germplasm with suitable root traits for the efficient acquisition of soil resources and adaptation to drought and other abiotic stresses. This study used a semi-hydroponic phenotyping system for assessing root trait variability across 270 chickpea genotypes. The genotypes exhibited large variation in rooting patterns and branching manner. Thirty root-related traits were characterised, 17 of which had coefficients of variation ≥0.3 among genotypes and were selected for further examination. The Pearson correlation matrix showed a strong correlation among most of the selected traits (P≤0.05). Principal component analysis revealed three principal components with eigenvalues >1 capturing 81.5% of the total variation. An agglomerative hierarchical clustering analysis, based on root trait variation, identified three genotype homogeneous groups (rescaled distance of 15) and 16 sub-groups (rescaled distance of 5). The chickpea genotypes characterised in this study with vastly different root properties could be used for further studies in glasshouses and field trials, and for molecular marker studies, gene mapping, and modelling simulations, ultimately aimed at breeding germplasm with root traits for improved adaptation to drought and other specific environments. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  5. Diversity in global maize germplasm: Characterization and utilization

    B M Prasanna


    Maize (Zea mays L.) is not only of worldwide importance as a food, feed and as a source of diverse industrially important products, but is also a model genetic organism with immense genetic diversity. Although it was first domesticated in Mexico, maize landraces are widely found across the continents. Several studies in Mexico and other countries highlighted the genetic variability in the maize germplasm. Applications of molecular markers, particularly in the last two decades, have led to new insights into the patterns of genetic diversity in maize globally, including landraces as well as wild relatives (especially teosintes) in Latin America, helping in tracking the migration routes of maize from the centers of origin, and understanding the fate of genetic diversity during maize domestication. The genome sequencing of B73 (a highly popular US Corn Belt inbred) and Palomero (a popcorn landrace in Mexico) in the recent years are important landmarks in maize research, with significant implications to our understanding of the maize genome organization and evolution. Next-generation sequencing and high-throughput genotyping platforms promise to further revolutionize our understanding of genetic diversity and for designing strategies to utilize the genomic information for maize improvement. However, the major limiting factor to exploit the genetic diversity in crops like maize is no longer genotyping, but high-throughput and precision phenotyping. There is an urgent need to establish a global phenotyping network for comprehensive and efficient characterization of maize germplasm for an array of target traits, particularly for biotic and abiotic stress tolerance and nutritional quality. ‘Seeds of Discovery’ (SeeD), a novel initiative by CIMMYT with financial support from the Mexican Government for generating international public goods, has initiated intensive exploration of phenotypic and molecular diversity of maize germplasm conserved in the CIMMYT Gene Bank; this

  6. Genetic diversity analysis of fruit characteristics of hawthorn germplasm.

    Su, K; Guo, Y S; Wang, G; Zhao, Y H; Dong, W X


    One hundred and six accessions of hawthorn intraspecific resources, from the National Germplasm Repository at Shenyang, were subjected to genetic diversity and principal component analysis based on evaluation data of 15 fruit traits. Results showed that the genetic diversity of hawthorn fruit traits varied. Among the 15 traits, the fruit shape variable coefficient had the most obvious evaluation, followed by fruit surface state, dot color, taste, weight of single fruit, sepal posture, peduncle form, and metula traits. These are the primary traits by which hawthorn could be classified in the future. The principal component demonstrated that these traits are the most influential factors of hawthorn fruit characteristics.

  7. Single nucleotide polymorphism discovery in elite north american potato germplasm

    De Jong Walter S


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current breeding approaches in potato rely almost entirely on phenotypic evaluations; molecular markers, with the exception of a few linked to disease resistance traits, are not widely used. Large-scale sequence datasets generated primarily through Sanger Expressed Sequence Tag projects are available from a limited number of potato cultivars and access to next generation sequencing technologies permits rapid generation of sequence data for additional cultivars. When coupled with the advent of high throughput genotyping methods, an opportunity now exists for potato breeders to incorporate considerably more genotypic data into their decision-making. Results To identify a large number of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs in elite potato germplasm, we sequenced normalized cDNA prepared from three commercial potato cultivars: 'Atlantic', 'Premier Russet' and 'Snowden'. For each cultivar, we generated 2 Gb of sequence which was assembled into a representative transcriptome of ~28-29 Mb for each cultivar. Using the Maq SNP filter that filters read depth, density, and quality, 575,340 SNPs were identified within these three cultivars. In parallel, 2,358 SNPs were identified within existing Sanger sequences for three additional cultivars, 'Bintje', 'Kennebec', and 'Shepody'. Using a stringent set of filters in conjunction with the potato reference genome, we identified 69,011 high confidence SNPs from these six cultivars for use in genotyping with the Infinium platform. Ninety-six of these SNPs were used with a BeadXpress assay to assess allelic diversity in a germplasm panel of 248 lines; 82 of the SNPs proved sufficiently informative for subsequent analyses. Within diverse North American germplasm, the chip processing market class was most distinct, clearly separated from all other market classes. The round white and russet market classes both include fresh market and processing cultivars. Nevertheless, the russet and round

  8. Diversity in global maize germplasm: characterization and utilization.

    Prasanna, B M


    Maize (Zea mays L.) is not only of worldwide importance as a food, feed and as a source of diverse industrially important products, but is also a model genetic organism with immense genetic diversity. Although it was first domesticated in Mexico, maize landraces are widely found across the continents. Several studies in Mexico and other countries highlighted the genetic variability in the maize germplasm. Applications of molecular markers, particularly in the last two decades, have led to new insights into the patterns of genetic diversity in maize globally, including landraces as well as wild relatives (especially teosintes) in Latin America, helping in tracking the migration routes of maize from the centers of origin, and understanding the fate of genetic diversity during maize domestication. The genome sequencing of B73 (a highly popular US Corn Belt inbred) and Palomero (a popcorn landrace in Mexico) in the recent years are important landmarks in maize research, with significant implications to our understanding of the maize genome organization and evolution. Next-generation sequencing and high-throughput genotyping platforms promise to further revolutionize our understanding of genetic diversity and for designing strategies to utilize the genomic information for maize improvement. However, the major limiting factor to exploit the genetic diversity in crops like maize is no longer genotyping, but high-throughput and precision phenotyping. There is an urgent need to establish a global phenotyping network for comprehensive and efficient characterization of maize germplasm for an array of target traits, particularly for biotic and abiotic stress tolerance and nutritional quality. 'Seeds of Discovery' (SeeD), a novel initiative by CIMMYT with financial support from the Mexican Government for generating international public goods, has initiated intensive exploration of phenotypic and molecular diversity of maize germplasm conserved in the CIMMYT Gene Bank; this is

  9. Acquirement of a new male sterile germplasm of Chinese jujube

    WANG Jiurui; LIU Ling; LIU Mengjun; ZHOU Junyi


    A male sterile germplasm of Chinese jujube(Ziziphus jujuba Mill.),named 'male sterile No.1'(JMS1),was firstly identified from a natural population through studies of pollen amount and vitality and its anatomy.Its microspores got massed and then disaggregated after the tetrad stage during pollen development.Then its anthers became empty,or only pollen vestiges remained in the yellow buds.The pollen became abortive after the tetrad stage.Hypertrophy and hyperplasia of tapetum at the tetrad stage were related to pollen abortion.In view of its moderate could be used as a worthwhile female parent in the cross breeding of Chinese jujube.

  10. Genetic Diversity and Molecular Evolution of Chinese Waxy Maize Germplasm

    Zheng, Hongjian; Wang, Hui; Yang, Hua; Wu, Jinhong; Shi, Biao; Cai, Run; Xu, Yunbi; Wu, Aizhong; Luo, Lijun


    Waxy maize (Zea mays L. var. certaina Kulesh), with many excellent characters in terms of starch composition and economic value, has grown in China for a long history and its production has increased dramatically in recent decades. However, the evolution and origin of waxy maize still remains unclear. We studied the genetic diversity of Chinese waxy maize including typical landraces and inbred lines by SSR analysis and the results showed a wide genetic diversity in the Chinese waxy maize germplasm. We analyzed the origin and evolution of waxy maize by sequencing 108 samples, and downloading 52 sequences from GenBank for the waxy locus in a number of accessions from genus Zea. A sharp reduction of nucleotide diversity and significant neutrality tests (Tajima’s D and Fu and Li’s F*) were observed at the waxy locus in Chinese waxy maize but not in nonglutinous maize. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that Chinese waxy maize originated from the cultivated flint maize and most of the modern waxy maize inbred lines showed a distinct independent origin and evolution process compared with the germplasm from Southwest China. The results indicated that an agronomic trait can be quickly improved to meet production demand by selection. PMID:23818949


    Marijana Tucak


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate phenotypic diversity in the alfalfa germplasm collections using multivariate analysis to examine the extent of genetic diversity and contribution of selected characters to the total diversity and finally to select the most promising clusters/populations for further breeding work. Forty alfalfa populations/cultivars of different geographical origin were evaluated for 12 agro-morphological characters during two consecutive years. The populations/ cultivars were grouped into six clusters. In most cases populations/cultivars within clusters were not associated with their geographical origin. Intercluster distances were larger than the intracluster ones. This research revealed a broad phenotypic diversity within and between the alfalfa germplasm collections. The following characters contributed most to the total phenotypic diversity: dry matter yield in the first production year, plant height and length of central leaflet. Based on the mean value of the evaluated characters and determined distances between clusters, the most promising populations/cultivars belong to the clusters IV and V. Selected populations/cultivars could be considered as a valuable genetic material for the yield and quality improvement of alfalfa in our breeding programme.

  12. Evaluation of high yielding soybean germplasm under water limitation

    Silvas J. Prince; Henry T. Nguyen; Mackensie Murphy; Raymond N. Mutava; Zhengzhi Zhang; Na Nguyen; Yoon Ha Kim; Safiullah M. Pathan; Grover J. Shannon; Babu Valliyodan


    Limited information is available for soybean root traits and their plasticity under drought stress. To date, no studies have focused on examining diverse soybean germ-plasm for regulation of shoot and root response under water limited conditions across varying soil types. In this study, 17 genetically diverse soybean germplasm lines were selected to study root response to water limited conditions in clay (trial 1) and sandy soil (trial 2) in two target environments. Physiological data on shoot traits was measured at multiple crop stages ranging from early vegetative to pod filling. The phenotypic root traits, and biomass accumulation data are collected at pod filling stage. In trial 1, the number of lateral roots and forks were positively correlated with plot yield under water limitation and in trial 2, lateral root thickness was positively correlated with the hill plot yield. Plant Introduction (PI) 578477A and 088444 were found to have higher later root number and forks in clay soil with higher yield under water limitation. In sandy soil, PI458020 was found to have a thicker lateral root system and higher yield under water limitation. The genotypes identified in this study could be used to enhance drought tolerance of elite soybean cultivars through improved root traits specific to target environments.

  13. Genetic diversity and molecular evolution of Chinese waxy maize germplasm.

    Hongjian Zheng

    Full Text Available Waxy maize (Zea mays L. var. certaina Kulesh, with many excellent characters in terms of starch composition and economic value, has grown in China for a long history and its production has increased dramatically in recent decades. However, the evolution and origin of waxy maize still remains unclear. We studied the genetic diversity of Chinese waxy maize including typical landraces and inbred lines by SSR analysis and the results showed a wide genetic diversity in the Chinese waxy maize germplasm. We analyzed the origin and evolution of waxy maize by sequencing 108 samples, and downloading 52 sequences from GenBank for the waxy locus in a number of accessions from genus Zea. A sharp reduction of nucleotide diversity and significant neutrality tests (Tajima's D and Fu and Li's F* were observed at the waxy locus in Chinese waxy maize but not in nonglutinous maize. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that Chinese waxy maize originated from the cultivated flint maize and most of the modern waxy maize inbred lines showed a distinct independent origin and evolution process compared with the germplasm from Southwest China. The results indicated that an agronomic trait can be quickly improved to meet production demand by selection.


    Ivana Rukavina


    Full Text Available Morphological characteristics of ear were used for estimation of genetic diversity in 50 varieties of hexaploid winter wheat originated from Croatian breeding programs. Field trials were set at two locations in two vegetation years (2008/09 and 2009/10. Observations in field trials and laboratory were done on 13 ear characteristics used in DUS testing. Genetic diversity research of Croatian wheat germplasm according to ear morphological characteristics, showed a high level of dissimilarity (0.625 among the tested varieties. Varieties Super Žitarka and AFZG Karla are pointed out with highest coefficient of dissimilarity (0.94. Application of UPGMA method showed that all varieties in different groups had significant genetic diversity. On the basis of data analysis the most distant varieties with the best morphological characteristics of ear were determined and it will be help in the selection of new parent combinations in future breeding programs.


    Jana Žiarovská


    Full Text Available Two yacon varieties PER05 and ECU45 were used for iPBS method developing for yacon - Smallanthus sonchifolius, (Poepp. et Endl. germplasm evaluation. Because of high level of polyphenols in yacon, four DNA extraction methods were tested for the best results in the iPBS method. Using a set of universal primers that anneal to the conserved regions of retrotransposons, polymorphism of amplified fragments of DNA was analysed and for the development of iPBS protocol primers that produce PCR fragments within the whole possible range of PCR were chosen. Selected primers were subsequently used in a set of gradient PCR for finding of optimal annealing temperatures for each of them and three groups of primers according to the optimal annealing temperature were found - primers with a optimum at 53°C (1845, 1875 and 1886, at 56°C (1846 and 61 °C (1880 and 2078.

  16. Screening for Rice Germplasms with Specially-Elongated Mesocotyl

    WU Ming-guo; ZHANG Guang-heng; LIN Jian-rong; CHENG Shi-hua


    The lengths of mesocotyl in the seedlings of 84 lowland rice varieties and 12 upland rice varieties were measured following the treatments of daylight and darkness during germination. The elongation of mesocotyl in the varieties tested was inhibited under daylight condition, and the mesocotyl of all the varieties elongated variably under darkness condition. The elongated lengths of the mesocotyl in upland rice, ranging from 0.36 cm to 1.61 cm with an average of 0.81 cm, was obviously longer than those in lowland rice, ranging from 0.12 cm to 1.56 cm with an average of 0.42 cm. Among 14 rice varieties with over 1 cm of mesocotyl length, five belonged to upland rice, and nine to lowland rice. The possible utilization of the elongated-mesocotyl rice germplasm in varietal improvement, direct-seeded planting and seed purity testing were discussed.

  17. Chemical Diversity in Lippia alba (Mill.) N. E. Brown Germplasm

    Camêlo, Lídia Cristina Alves; Pinheiro, José Baldin; Andrade, Thiago Matos; Alves, Péricles Barreto


    The aim of this study was to perform chemical characterization of Lippia alba accessions from the Active Germplasm Bank of the Federal University of Sergipe. A randomized block experimental design with two replications was applied. The analysis of the chemical composition of the essential oils was conducted using a gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer. The chemical composition of the essential oils allowed the accessions to be allocated to the following six groups: group 1: linalool, 1,8-cineole, and caryophyllene oxide; group 2: linalool, geranial, neral, 1,8-cineol, and caryophyllene oxide; group 3: limonene, carvone, and sabinene; group 4: carvone, limonene, g-muurolene, and myrcene; group 5: neral, geranial, and caryophyllene oxide; and group 6: geranial, neral, o-cymene, limonene, and caryophyllene oxide. PMID:26075292

  18. Some traits of low temperature germplasm wheat under extremely unfavorable weather conditions

    张嵩午; 王长发; 冯佰利; 苗芳; 周春菊; 张荣萍


    Through a long-term observation on the canopy temperature and some traits of wheat the temperature germplasm of wheat was found to result in the wheats having either a high or a low plant temperature. Under normal weather conditions, the wheat having a low temperature germplasm (LTG) demonstrated several advantageous physiologi-cal and agronomic traits than those having a high temperature germplasm (HTG). Under the extremely unfavorableweather conditions, such as rainy weather or severe drought, LTG wheat still could maintain its superiority to HTG wheat in physiological and agronomic traits including leaf functional duration, chlorophyll content, malondialdehyde content, transpiration rate, net photosynthesis rate, root vitality and kernel plumpness. The wide adaptability of LTG wheat to awide range of meteoro-ecological conditions could provide a valuable germplasm in breeding of good strains with broad-spectrum stress resistance.

  19. Low temperature wheat germplasm and its leaf photosynthetic traits and structure characteristics

    ZHANG Songwu; MIAO Fang; WANG Changfa


    Low temperature germplasm with constant low plant temperature was found in the nature through a long-time observation on wheat canopy temperature and traits; correspondingly, high temperature germplasm with constant high plant temperature also exists. Compared with the high temperature germplasm, the chlorophyll content and the net photosynthetic rate of the three functional leaves on the top of the low temperature wheat germplasm are higher and the structure tends to be more complicated, which is characterized by smaller mesophyll cells and more closely arranged cell layers, more and denser chloroplasts with thick stroma, more granas and well developed grana lamellae, a larger vascular bundle area with smaller interspace. All these characteristics embody the consistency of structure and function and provide the theoretical bases for looking for and cultivating the new low temperature materials in agricultural practice.

  20. Genetic diversity of worldwide Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus) germplasm as revealed by RAPD markers.

    Wangsomnuk, P P; Khampa, S; Wangsomnuk, P; Jogloy, S; Mornkham, T; Ruttawat, B; Patanothai, A; Fu, Y B


    Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus) is a wild relative of the cultivated sunflower (H. annuus); it is an old tuber crop that has recently received renewed interest. We used RAPD markers to characterize 147 Jerusalem artichoke accessions from nine countries. Thirty RAPD primers were screened; 13 of them detected 357 reproducible RAPD bands, of which 337 were polymorphic. Various diversity analyses revealed several different patterns of RAPD variation. More than 93% of the RAPD variation was found within accessions of a country. Weak genetic differentiation was observed between wild and cultivated accessions. Six groups were detected in this germplasm set. Four ancestral groups were found for the Canadian germplasm. The most genetically distinct accessions were identified. These findings provide useful diversity information for understanding the Jerusalem artichoke gene pool, for conserving Jerusalem artichoke germplasm, and for choosing germplasm for genetic improvement.

  1. SNP Typing for Germplasm Identification of Amomum villosum Lour. Based on DNA Barcoding Markers

    Qionglin Huang; Zhonggang Duan; Jinfen Yang; Xinye Ma; Ruoting Zhan; Hui Xu; Weiwen Chen


    Amomum villosum Lour., produced from Yangchun, Guangdong Province, China, is a Daodi medicinal material of Amomi Fructus in traditional Chinese medicine. This herb germplasm should be accurately identified and collected to ensure its quality and safety in medication. In the present study, single nucleotide polymorphism typing method was evaluated on the basis of DNA barcoding markers to identify the germplasm of Amomi Fructus. Genomic DNA was extracted from the leaves of 29 landraces represen...

  2. A Discussion on Possible Indicators Related to Genetic Structure Changes in Plant Germplasm Conservation

    GAI Jun-yi


    The purpose of the present paper is to study and develop indicators and procedures for the evaluation of genetic structure changes in germplasm conservation due to social and natural environment reasons.Some basic concepts in germplasm study were introduced at first. Then, six kinds of indicators for genetic diversity as a measure of genetic potential of a germplasm collection were presented, i.e.,numbers of different entities at certain level, evenness of the entity distribution, genetic similarityand genetic distance, genetic variance and genetic coefficient of variation, multivariate genetic variation indices, and coefficient of parentage. It was pointed out that genetic dispersion did not provide a complete concept of genetic diversity if without any information from genetic richness. Based on the above, the indicators for genetic erosion as the genetic structure changes of germplasm conservation due to social reasons, the indicators of genetic vulnerability as the genetic structure changes of germplasm conservation due to environmental stresses, the measurement of genetic drift and genetic shift as the genetic structure changes of germplasm collection during reproduction or seed increase were reviewed and developed. Furthermore, the estimation procedures of the indicators by using molecular markers were suggested. Finally, the case studies on suitable conservation sample size of self-pollinated and open-pollinated populations were given for reference.

  3. Molecular diversity and association mapping of fiber quality traits in exotic G. hirsutum L. germplasm.

    Abdurakhmonov, I Y; Kohel, R J; Yu, J Z; Pepper, A E; Abdullaev, A A; Kushanov, F N; Salakhutdinov, I B; Buriev, Z T; Saha, S; Scheffler, B E; Jenkins, J N; Abdukarimov, A


    The narrow genetic base of cultivated cotton germplasm is hindering the cotton productivity worldwide. Although potential genetic diversity exists in Gossypium genus, it is largely 'underutilized' due to photoperiodism and the lack of innovative tools to overcome such challenges. The application of linkage disequilibrium (LD)-based association mapping is an alternative powerful molecular tool to dissect and exploit the natural genetic diversity conserved within cotton germplasm collections, greatly accelerating still 'lagging' cotton marker-assisted selection (MAS) programs. However, the extent of genome-wide linkage disequilibrium (LD) has not been determined in cotton. We report the extent of genome-wide LD and association mapping of fiber quality traits by using a 95 core set of microsatellite markers in a total of 285 exotic Gossypium hirsutum accessions, comprising of 208 landrace stocks and 77 photoperiodic variety accessions. We demonstrated the existence of useful genetic diversity within exotic cotton germplasm. In this germplasm set, 11-12% of SSR loci pairs revealed a significant LD. At the significance threshold (r(2)>/=0.1), a genome-wide average of LD declines within the genetic distance at 30 cM in variety germplasm. Genome wide LD at r(2)>/=0.2 was reduced on average to approximately 1-2 cM in the landrace stock germplasm and 6-8 cM in variety germplasm, providing evidence of the potential for association mapping of agronomically important traits in cotton. We observed significant population structure and relatedness in assayed germplasm. Consequently, the application of the mixed liner model (MLM), considering both kinship (K) and population structure (Q) detected between 6% and 13% of SSR markers associated with the main fiber quality traits in cotton. Our results highlight for the first time the feasibility and potential of association mapping, with consideration of the population structure and stratification existing in cotton germplasm

  4. Genome-wide distribution of genetic diversity and linkage disequilibrium in elite sugar beet germplasm

    Weißleder Knuth


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Characterization of population structure and genetic diversity of germplasm is essential for the efficient organization and utilization of breeding material. The objectives of this study were to (i explore the patterns of population structure in the pollen parent heterotic pool using different methods, (ii investigate the genome-wide distribution of genetic diversity, and (iii assess the extent and genome-wide distribution of linkage disequilibrium (LD in elite sugar beet germplasm. Results A total of 264 and 238 inbred lines from the yield type and sugar type inbreds of the pollen parent heterotic gene pools, respectively, which had been genotyped with 328 SNP markers, were used in this study. Two distinct subgroups were detected based on different statistical methods within the elite sugar beet germplasm set, which was in accordance with its breeding history. MCLUST based on principal components, principal coordinates, or lapvectors had high correspondence with the germplasm type information as well as the assignment by STRUCTURE, which indicated that these methods might be alternatives to STRUCTURE for population structure analysis. Gene diversity and modified Roger's distance between the examined germplasm types varied considerably across the genome, which might be due to artificial selection. This observation indicates that population genetic approaches could be used to identify candidate genes for the traits under selection. Due to the fact that r2 >0.8 is required to detect marker-phenotype association explaining less than 1% of the phenotypic variance, our observation of a low proportion of SNP loci pairs showing such levels of LD suggests that the number of markers has to be dramatically increased for powerful genome-wide association mapping. Conclusions We provided a genome-wide distribution map of genetic diversity and linkage disequilibrium for the elite sugar beet germplasm, which is useful for the application of

  5. Screening Prosopis (mesquite) germplasm for biomass production and nitrogen fixation

    Felker, P.; Cannell, G.H.; Clark, P.R.; Osborn, J.F.


    The nitrogen-fixing trees of the genus Prosopis (mesquite or algaroba) are well adapted to the semi-arid and often saline regions of the world. These trees may produce firewood or pods for livestock food, they may stabilize sand dunes and they may enrich the soil by production of leaf litter supported by nitrogen fixation. A collection of nearly 500 Prosopis accessions representing North and South American and African germplasm has been established. Seventy of these accessions representing 14 taxa are being grown under field conditions where a 30-fold range in biomass productivity among accessions has been estimated. In a greehouse experiment, 13 Prosopis taxa grew on nitrogen-free medium nodulated, and had a 10-fold difference in nitrogen fixation (acetylene reduction). When Prosopis is propagated by seed the resulting trees are extremely variable in growth rate and presence or absence of thorns. Propagation of 6 Prosopis taxa by stem cuttings has been achieved with low success (1 to 10%) in field-grown plants and with higher success (50 to 100%) with young actively growing greenhouse plants.

  6. Germplasm of breeding Pseudosciaena crocea as revealed by microsatellite markers

    CHANG Yumei; DING Lei; LI Mingyun; XUE Liangyi; LIANG Liqun; HE Jianguo; LEI Qingquan


    The germplasm of breeding large yellow croaker(Pseudosciaena crocea Richardson)was revealed using 12 microsatellite markers.The results showed that the genetic diversities were on a mediated level in the bred Daiqu and Min-Yue stocks and two hybrid groups,as represented by 4.83 of the mean number of alleles and 0.561 of the average observed heterozygosity.The value of pair-wise differentiation coefficient(Fst)was only 13.1% between Daiqu and Min-Yue stocks,demonstrating the low level of differcn-tiation and a close relationship.However,STRUCTURE simulations and phylogenetie tree based on the UPGMA method supported that they are geographically different populations of the same species with distinct genetic structures.Examinations of individual ad-mixture showed that Min-Yue stock had been contaminated by alien individuals.Moreover,the genetic structures of the two hybridgroups resembled those of their parents,especially affected more by their female parents.Finally,the values of average observed beterozygasity between parents and their ascendants were compared and tested,as a result of no detectable differences(P>0.05).

  7. Introduction and Utilization of INGER Rice Germplasm in China

    TANGSheng-xiang; WEIXing-hua; ELJavier


    The International Network for Genetic Evaluation of Rice (INGER) is a global partnership between international and national agricultural research institutions. INGER focuses on worldwide exchange, evaluation and utilization of improved varieties and elite breeding lines of rice. China has actively participated in the activities of INGER since 1980.During the pasted years, 26 500 INGER entries with diversity genetic background have been introduced and evaluated by Chinese scientists. Among of them, 37 commercial varieties directly from elite INGER entries and 27 rice hybrids using INGER lines as their restorer lines/donors have been released to farmers in China. About 1 900 INGER entries were indirectly utilized as cross parents or pest resistant donors in various national and provincial rice breeding programs. Based on the incomplete statistics, there were 14.5 million cumulated hectares planting these varieties and hybrids, from which 5.44 MT of increased rough rice has been received by farmers. INGER accelerates the transfer of adapted varieties and hybrids to farmers, and increases the diversity of rice germplasm in cultivation. Therefore, INGER cooperation has made great benefit both in economy and society in China.

  8. Introduction and Utilization of INGER Rice Germplasm in China

    TANG Sheng-xiang; WEI Xing-hua; E L Javier


    The International Network for Genetic Evaluation of Rice (INGER) is a global partnership between international and national agricultural research institutions. INGER focuses on worldwide exchange, evaluation and utilization of improved varieties and elite breeding lines of rice. China has actively participated in the activities of INGER since 1980.During the pasted years, 26 500 INGER entries with diversity genetic background have been introduced and evaluated by Chinese scientists. Among of them, 37 commercial varieties directly from elite INGER entries and 27 rice hybrids using INGER lines as their restorer lines/donors have been released to farmers in China. About 1 900 INGER entries were indirectly utilized as cross parents or pest resistant donors in various national and provincial rice breeding programs. Based on the incomplete statistics, there were 14.5million cumulated hectares planting these varieties and hybrids, from which 5.44 MT of increased rough rice has been received by farmers. INGER accelerates the transfer of adapted varieties and hybrids to farmers, and increases the diversity of rice germplasm in cultivation. Therefore, INGER cooperation has made great benefit both in economy and society in China.

  9. S-Genotype Profiles of Turkish Apricot Germplasm

    Kadir Ugurtan YILMAZ


    Full Text Available In flowering plants, gametophytic self-incompatibility, controlled by a single locus with several allelic variants, is one of the major problems preventing self-fertilization. Among fruit trees, apricots show to a high degree self-incompatibility, especially in Middle-Asian and Iranian-Caucasian eco-geographical groups. In the present study, self-(incompatibility characteristics of a total of 236 apricot genotypes (218 Turkish and 18 foreign found within the National Apricot Germplasms of Apricot Research Institute in Malatya, Turkey was studied. Analyses were carried out by using four primer pairs (SRc-F and SRc-R, EM-PC2consFD and EM-PC3consRD, AprSC8-R and PaConsI-F, AprFBC8-F and AprFBC8-R. A total of 11 S-RNase alleles (S2, S3, S6, S7, S8, S9, S11, S12, S13, S20 and Sc were determined in the 236 apricot genotypes. As Turkish and foreign apricot genotypes are determined mostly self-incompatible, the data obtained hereby might be of good use for apricot breeding programs and more practically, for apricot new plantations; thus pollinator cultivars should be considered when self-incompatible apricot cultivars are being used.

  10. Genetic diversity in a germplasm bank of Oenocarpus mapora (Arecaceae).

    Moura, E F; de Oliveira, M S P


    Oenocarpus mapora is an Amazonian palm species commonly used by native populations for food and in folk medicine. We measured genetic variability, using RAPD markers, of material kept in a germplasm bank composed of accessions sampled from the Brazilian Amazon. These included 74 individuals from 23 accessions sampled from 9 localities in three States of the Brazilian Amazon. Jaccard genetic similarities were calculated based on 137 polymorphic bands, amplified by 15 primers. Dendrograms constructed based on the genetic similarities among individuals and sample localities demonstrated genetic separation of Acre State from the States of Amazonas and Pará. Two models in three hierarchical levels were considered for AMOVA: one considering the grouping of sampling sites in each state, and the other considering sampling sites in each subgroup formed by the dendrograms. The first model showed no significant genetic variation among states. On the other hand, genetic variation among subgroups was significant. In this model, the within-sample-site genetic diversity was 47.15%, which is considered to be low, since O. mapora is allogamous. By means of Bayesian analysis, the sample sites were clustered into five groups, and their distribution was similar to what we found in the dendrograms based on genetic similarity.

  11. Metabolism of Flavonoids in Novel Banana Germplasm during Fruit Development

    Dong, Chen; Hu, Huigang; Hu, Yulin; Xie, Jianghui


    Banana is a commercially important fruit, but its flavonoid composition and characteristics has not been well studied in detail. In the present study, the metabolism of flavonoids was investigated in banana pulp during the entire developmental period of fruit. ‘Xiangfen 1,’ a novel flavonoid-rich banana germplasm, was studied with ‘Brazil’ serving as a control. In both varieties, flavonoids were found to exist mainly in free soluble form and quercetin was the predominant flavonoid. The most abundant free soluble flavonoid was cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride, and quercetin was the major conjugated soluble and bound flavonoid. Higher content of soluble flavonoids was associated with stronger antioxidant activity compared with the bound flavonoids. Strong correlation was observed between antioxidant activity and cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride content, suggesting that cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride is one of the major antioxidants in banana. In addition, compared with ‘Brazil,’ ‘Xiangfen 1’ fruit exhibited higher antioxidant activity and had more total flavonoids. These results indicate that soluble flavonoids play a key role in the antioxidant activity of banana, and ‘Xiangfen 1’ banana can be a rich source of natural antioxidants in human diets. PMID:27625665

  12. Characterization and evaluation of olive germplasm in southern Italy.

    Di Vaio, Claudio; Nocerino, Sabrina; Paduano, Antonello; Sacchi, Raffaele


    The southern Italian region of Campania has suitable pedo-climatic conditions and a large varietal heritage able to produce oils with high typicality. The aim of this study was to characterize 20 cultivars belonging to Campania's olive germplasm, evaluating their vegetative and production aspects and their oil quality characteristics. The study was conducted from 2003 to 2009, observing the following aspects in six plants per variety: entry into production, vigour, ripening and drupe oil content. The following analyses were carried out on monovarietal oils, obtained by microextractor: acid composition, polyphenol content and aromatic profile. The agronomic results showed early entry into production for the cultivars Racioppella, Ortolana, Biancolilla and Carpellese. However, entry into production was delayed for Ritonnella, Ortice, Cornia and Rotondella. As regards vegetative behaviour, Asprinia, from the province of Caserta and Pisciottana and Carpellese, from the province of Salerno, proved the most vigorous cultivars. Groups of similar cultivars emerged from chemical and sensory analysis of their oils, while other accessions were well characterized and separated from each other, showing a high level of diversity and specificity. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. The FIGS (Focused Identification of Germplasm Strategy) Approach Identifies Traits Related to Drought Adaptation in Vicia faba Genetic Resources: e63107

    Hamid Khazaei; Kenneth Street; Abdallah Bari; Michael Mackay; Frederick L Stoddard


    .... The focused identification of germplasm strategy (FIGS) is one such approach. FIGS works on the premise that germplasm is likely to reflect the selection pressures of the environment in which it developed...

  14. Evaluation of Watermelon Germplasm for Resistance to Phytophthora Blight Caused by Phytophthora capsici

    Min-Jeong Kim


    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the Phytophthora rot resistance of 514 accessions of watermelon germplasm, Citrullus lanatus var lanatus. About 46% of the 514 accessions tested were collections from Uzbekistan, Turkey, China, U.S.A., and Ukraine. Phytophthora capsici was inoculated to 45-day-old watermelon seedlings by drenching with 5 ml of sporangial suspension (10⁶ sporangia/ml. At 7 days after inoculation, 21 accessions showed no disease symptoms while 291 accessions of susceptible watermelon germplasm showed more than 60.1% disease severity. A total of 510 accessions of watermelon germplasm showed significant disease symptoms and were rated as susceptible to highly susceptible 35 days after inoculation. The highly susceptible watermelon germplasm exhibited white fungal hyphae on the lesion or damping off with water-soaked and browning symptoms. One accession (IT032840 showed moderate resistance and two accessions (IT185446 and IT187904 were resistant to P. capsici. Results suggest that these two resistant germplasm can be used as a rootstock and as a source of resistance in breeding resistant watermelon varieties against Phytophthora.


    Aleksandra Sudarić


    Full Text Available The collaboration and interchange of breeding materials between breeding programs worldwide is important and necessary to increase the amount of genetic diversity by incorporating unique exotic germplasm into existing domestic germplasm. The objective of this study was to measure and compare the agronomic performance of 15 soybean cultivars released by the Agricultural Institute Osijek (Croatia (OS-cultivars and 15 cultivars released by the University of Guelph (Canada (CA-cultivars in Croatia. Based on the comparison, parental combinations could be designed to introgress exotic germplasms from the CA-cultivars into Croatian. Agronomic performance was determined in field trials that were conducted at the experimental field of the Agricultural Institute Osijek during the period from 2002 to 2005. Quantitative traits were measured and analyzed for maturity, grain yield components, level and stability of grain yield, adaptability, lodging resistance and field tolerance to Peronospora manshurica. The results indicated higher agronomic performance of OS-cultivars compared to CA- cultivars. However, comparison of yield is only tentative because all but one OS cultivar were later maturing than the CA-cultivars. Among 15 tested CA-cultivars, five cultivars (OAC Millennium, OAC Champion, OAC Bayfield, OAC Auburn, OAC Wallace were identified as the most favorable for parental combinations in hybridization with OS-cultivars. The results of this study will enable strategic incorporation of diversity from exotic Canadian germplasm into the domestic Croatian germplasm to develop segregating populations from which new, genetically more diverse improved soybean line, could be released.




    Full Text Available The perianth DNA extraction methods were discussed as Lycoris longituba for example. By means of RAPD and ISSR, germplasmic resources of Lycoris longituba were primarily studied. The results were as follow: by RAPD, a total of 77 discernible loci were obtained using 12 primers, of which 53 loci were polymorphic (PPB = 68.8%; by ISSR, 67 discernible loci were got using 9 primers, of which 62 loci were polymorphic (PPB = 92.5%. So, genetic diversity of Lycoris longituba was abundant, whose germplasmic resources could be stored for breeding. From UPGMA dendrogram of Lycoris longituba using RAPD or ISSR method, three Lycoris longituba types were supported with molecular evidence, which were originally distinguished by flower color. Therefore, in the future use of Lycoris longituba germplasmic resources, different varieties of Lycoris longituba could be cultivated.

  17. Multivariate analysis of quantitative traits can effectively classify rapeseed germplasm

    Jankulovska Mirjana


    Full Text Available In this study, the use of different multivariate approaches to classify rapeseed genotypes based on quantitative traits has been presented. Tree regression analysis, PCA analysis and two-way cluster analysis were applied in order todescribe and understand the extent of genetic variability in spring rapeseed genotype by trait data. The traits which highly influenced seed and oil yield in rapeseed were successfully identified by the tree regression analysis. Principal predictor for both response variables was number of pods per plant (NP. NP and 1000 seed weight could help in the selection of high yielding genotypes. High values for both traits and oil content could lead to high oil yielding genotypes. These traits may serve as indirect selection criteria and can lead to improvement of seed and oil yield in rapeseed. Quantitative traits that explained most of the variability in the studied germplasm were classified using principal component analysis. In this data set, five PCs were identified, out of which the first three PCs explained 63% of the total variance. It helped in facilitating the choice of variables based on which the genotypes’ clustering could be performed. The two-way cluster analysissimultaneously clustered genotypes and quantitative traits. The final number of clusters was determined using bootstrapping technique. This approach provided clear overview on the variability of the analyzed genotypes. The genotypes that have similar performance regarding the traits included in this study can be easily detected on the heatmap. Genotypes grouped in the clusters 1 and 8 had high values for seed and oil yield, and relatively short vegetative growth duration period and those in cluster 9, combined moderate to low values for vegetative growth duration and moderate to high seed and oil yield. These genotypes should be further exploited and implemented in the rapeseed breeding program. The combined application of these multivariate methods

  18. Development of Pineapple Microsatellite Markers and Germplasm Genetic Diversity Analysis

    Suping Feng


    Full Text Available Two methods were used to develop pineapple microsatellite markers. Genomic library-based SSR development: using selectively amplified microsatellite assay, 86 sequences were generated from pineapple genomic library. 91 (96.8% of the 94 Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR loci were dinucleotide repeats (39 AC/GT repeats and 52 GA/TC repeats, accounting for 42.9% and 57.1%, resp., and the other three were mononucleotide repeats. Thirty-six pairs of SSR primers were designed; 24 of them generated clear bands of expected sizes, and 13 of them showed polymorphism. EST-based SSR development: 5659 pineapple EST sequences obtained from NCBI were analyzed; among 1397 nonredundant EST sequences, 843 were found containing 1110 SSR loci (217 of them contained more than one SSR locus. Frequency of SSRs in pineapple EST sequences is 1SSR/3.73 kb, and 44 types were found. Mononucleotide, dinucleotide, and trinucleotide repeats dominate, accounting for 95.6% in total. AG/CT and AGC/GCT were the dominant type of dinucleotide and trinucleotide repeats, accounting for 83.5% and 24.1%, respectively. Thirty pairs of primers were designed for each of randomly selected 30 sequences; 26 of them generated clear and reproducible bands, and 22 of them showed polymorphism. Eighteen pairs of primers obtained by the one or the other of the two methods above that showed polymorphism were selected to carry out germplasm genetic diversity analysis for 48 breeds of pineapple; similarity coefficients of these breeds were between 0.59 and 1.00, and they can be divided into four groups accordingly. Amplification products of five SSR markers were extracted and sequenced, corresponding repeat loci were found and locus mutations are mainly in copy number of repeats and base mutations in the flanking region.

  19. Mating system and pollen dispersal in Eugenia dysenterica (Myrtaceae) germplasm collection: tools for conservation and domestication.

    Rodrigues, Eduardo B; Collevatti, Rosane G; Chaves, Lázaro J; Moreira, Lucas R; Telles, Mariana P C


    Eugenia dysenterica DC. (Myrtaceae) is a perennial tree producing edible fruits and ornamental flowers of potential value widely distributed in Brazilian "Cerrados" (savannas), but available genetic resources and potential for future breeding programs must be evaluated. Here we evaluated the reproductive system and pollen-mediated gene flow in one generation of Eugenia dysenterica germplasm collection of Agronomy School, Federal University of Goiás (in Goiânia city, Central Brazil). We collected leaves from all adults from the germplasm collection (682 plants) and seeds (542) from 23 mother-trees. Genotypes were obtained for seven microsatellite loci. Genetic diversity was high and did not significantly differ between adults (H e = 0.777) and progeny arrays (H e = 0.617). Our results showed that E. dysenterica has an allogamous mating system in the germplasm collection (t m = 0.957), but with high and significant biparental inbreeding (t m - t s = 0.109). Because sibs are very close to each other, mating between closely related individuals is likely. Paternity correlation was also relatively high, indicating a 11.9 % probability that a randomly chosen pair of outcrossed progeny from the same array are full sibs. The maximum pollen dispersal distance (224 m), estimated using assignment test, corresponded to the boundaries of the orchard. We were able to assign the paternity to only 64 % of the 349 seeds analyzed, indicating potential pollen immigration to the germplasm collection. The variance effective population size estimated for one maternal family in the germplasm collection (N ev = 3.42) is very close to the theoretical maximum value for half-sibs (Nev = 4.0). Because E. dysenterica has a long life cycle and generation time, the maintenance of an effective population size of at least 100 in the germplasm collection is suggested, which can be achieved by maintaining a seed-trees number around 30 individuals.

  20. Evaluation of corn germplasm lines for multiple ear-colonizing insect and disease resistance.

    Ni, Xinzhi; Xu, Wenwei; Blanco, Michael H; Wilson, Jeffrey P


    Ear-colonizing insects and diseases that reduce yield and impose health threats by mycotoxin contaminations in the grain, are critical impediments for corn (Zea mays L.) production in the southern United States. Ten germplasm lines from the Germplasm Enhancement of Maize (GEM) Program in Ames, IA, and Raleigh, NC, and 10 lines (derived from GEM germplasm) from the Texas Agricultural Experiment Station in Lubbock, TX, were examined in 2007 and 2008 with local resistant and susceptible controls. Four types of insect damage and smut disease (Ustilago maydis) infection, as well as gene X environment (G X E) interaction, was assessed on corn ears under field conditions. Insect damage on corn ears was further separated as cob and kernel damage. Cob penetration rating was used to assess corn earworm [Helicoverpa zea (Boddie)] and fall armyworm [Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith)] feeding on corn cobs, whereas kernel damage was assessed using three parameters: 1) percentage of kernels discolored by stink bugs (i.e., brown stink bug [Euschistus serous (Say)], southern green stink bug [Nezara viridula (L.)], and green stink bug [Chinavia (Acrosternum) hilare (Say)]; 2) percentage of maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky)-damaged kernels; and 3) percentage of kernels damaged by sap beetle (Carpophilus spp.), "chocolate milkworm" (Moodna spp.), and pink scavenger caterpillar [Pyroderces (Anatrachyntis) rileyi (Walsingham)]. The smut infection rates on ears, tassels, and nodes also were assessed. Ear protection traits (i.e., husk tightness and extension) in relation to insect damage and smut infection also were examined. Significant differences in insect damage, smut infection, and husk protection traits were detected among the germplasm lines. Three of the 20 germplasm lines were identified as being multiple insect and smut resistant. Of the three lines, entries 5 and 7 were derived from DKXL370, which was developed using corn germplasm from Brazil, whereas entry 14 was

  1. Study on Diversity of Soybean Germplasm with Drought Resistance in Huang-Huai-Hai Region

    LU Gui-he; LIU Xue-yi; REN Xiao-jun; SHI Hong


    Fifty soybean germplasms with drought resistance selected from Huang-Huai-Hai Region were studied under field drought condition. The results showed that there was a diversity of drought resistance at different growth stages. Some varieties had drought resistance in whole growing period, but some only at one stage or several stages. Some varieties had both drought resistance and higher yield characters, some with drought resistance but lower yield. It was also found in present study that some drought resistant germplasms showed higher yield potentials under irrigation condition.

  2. Current Situation of Introduction and Use of African Crop Germplasm Resources and Recommendations

    Zili; DING; Minghua; YAO; Chunhai; JIAO


    Africa is the origin center of many crops. It is rich in original ecological resources,especially special resources which are excellent materials for breeding research. With acceleration of commercial seeds in agriculture of African countries,some original ecological resources are disappearing. Through experience of introduction of African varieties in recent years,it analyzed current situation of introduction and use of African crop germplasm resources. Finally,it came up with recommendations for rescuing and taking full advantage of excellent African resources,solving difficult problem restricting crop breeding,enriching China’s crop germplasm bank,and improving China’s and African crop breeding level and innovation ability.

  3. Results of the 2009 ASBVd survey of avocado accessions in the national germplasm collection in Florida

    The presence of Avocado Sunblotch Viroid (ASBVd) infection among the avocado (Persea americana Mill.) accessions in the National Germplasm Repository at Miami (NGR-Mia) was established in previous studies. An ASBVd specific reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) protocol was used t...

  4. Screening a diverse soybean germplasm collection for reaction to purple seed stain caused by Cercospora kikuchii

    Purple seed stain (PSS), caused by Cercospora kikuchii, is a prevalent soybean disease that causes latent seed infection, seed decay, purple seed discoloration, and overall quality deterioration. The objective of this research was to screen soybean accessions from the USDA germplasm collection for r...

  5. Initial screening of chili and sweet pepper germplasm for resistance to chili thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood.

    A preliminary evaluation for resistance to chili thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood of 41 and 194 pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) germplasms during 1987 and 1988, espectively, indicated chili accessions may be a promising source of resistance . In contrast, all sweet pepper accessions tested were highly...

  6. Germplasm Management in the Post-genomics Era-a case study with lettuce

    High-throughput genotyping platforms and next-generation sequencing technologies revolutionized our ways in germplasm characterization. In collaboration with UC Davis Genome Center, we completed a project of genotyping the entire cultivated lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) collection of 1,066 accessions ...

  7. Initial experiences utilizing exotic landrace germplasm in an upland cotton breeding program

    A critical objective of plant breeding programs is accessing new sources of genetic variation. In upland cotton, one of the relatively untapped sources of genetic variation is maintained in the USDA-ARS cotton germplasm collection and is the exotic landrace collection. Photoperiod sensitivity is a m...

  8. Diversity of the breadfruit complex (Artocarpus, Moraceae): Genetic characterization of critical germplasm

    Breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis, Moraceae) is a traditional staple starch crop in Oceania and has been introduced throughout the tropics. This study uses microsatellite markers to characterize the genetic diversity of breadfruit and its wild relatives housed in the USDA National Plant Germplasm Syste...

  9. Evaluation of tribenuron-methyl on sulfonylurea herbicide tolerant lettuce germplasm

    The gene for sulfonylurea (SU) herbicide resistance discovered in a prickly lettuce population in Idaho was transferred to domestic lettuce by University of Idaho researchers. California researchers acquired the Idaho lettuce germplasm, “IDBR-1” and transferred the SU resistance gene to five common ...

  10. Evaluation of African-bred maize germplasm lines for resistance to aflatoxin accumulation

    Aflatoxins, produced by the fungus Aspergillus flavus, contaminate maize grain and threatens human food and feed safety. Plant resistance is considered the best strategy for reducing aflatoxin accumulation. Six maize germplasm lines, TZAR101-TZAR106, were released by the IITA-SRRC maize breeding col...

  11. Rebuilding Hawaii’s Anthurium germplasm collection for cultivar and species preservation, breeding, and biotechnological research

    Anthurium is the third most important floriculture crop in Hawaii, grown mainly as a cut flower. The University of Hawaii (UH) has a well-established anthurium breeding program since 1950, with a germplasm collection assembled from backyard growers, hobbyists, researchers and collection trips from c...

  12. Microsatellite fingerprinting in the International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad: Accession and plot homogeneity information for germplasm management

    The International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad (ICG,T) is the largest public domain field gene bank collection of cacao and the correct identity of each tree is crucial for germplasm movement, evaluation and phenotypic characterization. Nine microsatellite loci were used to assess the identity of 1480 t...

  13. Genetic diversity of water use efficiency in Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) germplasm

    Genetic diversity in crop germplasm is an important resource for crop improvement, but information on genetic diversity is rare for Jerusalem artichoke, especially for traits related to water use efficiency. The objectives of this study were to investigate genetic variations for water use and water...

  14. Performance of five cooking banana accessions at the National Germplasm Repository under limestone soil conditions.

    Five varieties of cooking bananas from the National Germplasm Repository in Miami were used for evaluation under local edaphic and environmental conditions. The number of pseudostems per mat, height at fruiting, and cycling time were determined during the first fruiting cycle, and bunch number and b...

  15. Release of pea germplasm with Fusarium resistance combined with desirable yield and anti-lodging traits

    Fusarium root rot caused by Fusarium solani f. sp. pisi (Fsp) and Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. pisi (Fop) races 1, 2 and 5, negatively impact the pea industry worldwide. Limited pea germplasm with agronomically acceptable characteristics combined with resistance to these disease...

  16. Minimum number and best combinations of harvests to evaluate accessions of tomato plants from germplasm banks

    Flávia Barbosa Abreu


    Full Text Available This study presents the minimum number and the best combination of tomato harvests needed to compare tomato accessions from germplasm banks. Number and weight of fruit in tomato plants are important as auxiliary traits in the evaluation of germplasm banks and should be studied simultaneously with other desirable characteristics such as pest and disease resistance, improved flavor and early production. Brazilian tomato breeding programs should consider not only the number of fruit but also fruit size because Brazilian consumers value fruit that are homogeneous, large and heavy. Our experiment was a randomized block design with three replicates of 32 tomato accessions from the Vegetable Germplasm Bank (Banco de Germoplasma de Hortaliças at the Federal University of Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil plus two control cultivars (Debora Plus and Santa Clara. Nine harvests were evaluated for four production-related traits. The results indicate that six successive harvests are sufficient to compare tomato genotypes and germplasm bank accessions. Evaluation of genotypes according to the number of fruit requires analysis from the second to the seventh harvest. Evaluation of fruit weight by genotype requires analysis from the fourth to the ninth harvest. Evaluation of both number and weight of fruit require analysis from the second to the ninth harvest.

  17. Taxonomy and genetic differentiation among wild and cultivated germplasm of Solanum sect. Petota

    Due to their adaptation to a diverse set of habitats and stresses, wild species of cultivated crops offer new sources of genetic diversity for germplasm improvement. Using an Infinium array representing a genome-wide set of 8303 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), we evaluated phylogenetic relat...

  18. Ft. Collins Sugar Beet Germplasm Evaluated for Resistance to Rhizomania and Storability in Idaho, 2010

    Sugar beet germplasm and commercial check cultivars were evaluated in a sprinkler-irrigated sugar beet field near Kimberly, ID where sugar beet was grown in 2009. The field trial relied on natural inoculum for rhizomania development. The seed was treated with clothianidin (2.1 oz a.i. per 100,000 ...

  19. Developing maize germplasm lines with multiple insect and disease resistance and low aflatoxin contamination

    Yield and quality losses caused BY insects, diseases, and mycotoxin contaminations are the critical impediments for maize production under warm climate. In order to develop maize germplasm lines with resistance to multiple insect pests and aflatoxin accumulation, a set of 13 reciprocal breeding cro...

  20. Population structure and linkage disequilibrium in elite barley breeding germplasm from the United States



    Cultivated barley is known to have a complex population structure and extensive linkage disequilibrium (LD).To conduct robust association mapping (AM) studies of economically important traits in US barley breeding germplasm,population structure and LD decay were examined in a complete panel of US barley breeding germplasm (3840 lines) genotyped with 3072 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs).Nine subpopulations (sp1-sp9) were identified by the program STRUCTURE and subsequently confirmed by principle component analysis (PCA).Out of the nine subpopulations,seven were very similar to the respective subpopulations identified by Hamblin et al.(2010)which were based on half of the germplasm and half of the SN P markers,but two subpopulations were found to be new.One subpopulation was dominated by six-rowed spring lines from Utah State University (UT) and the other was composed of six-rowed spring lines from multiple breeding programs (USDA-ARS Aberdeen (AB),Busch Agricultural Resources Inc.(BA),UT,and Washington State University (WA)).LD was found to decay across a range from 4.0 to 19.8 cM.This result indicates that the germplasm genotyped with 3072 SNPs would be robust for mapping and possibly identifying the causal polymorphisms contributing to disease resistance and perhaps other traits.

  1. Performance and phenology of wild black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis L.) germplasm in a common garden

    A lack of genetic diversity in cultivated black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis L.) germplasm has been widely recognized as a major factor limiting progress towards breeding improved cultivars. Despite this, little effort has been made since the early twentieth century to systematically collect and ev...

  2. Evaluation of the introgressed lines and screening for elite germplasm in Gossypium

    PANG Chaoyou; DU Xiongming; MA Zhiying


    In this research, 155 cotton introgressed lines from interspecific hybridization have been collected for the purpose of evaluating the effects of enhancement of new upland cotton germplasm by interspecific hybridization, screening for elite germplasm and improving cotton breeding. Through identification of various agricultural traits, we found that different wild cotton species had different capacities in terms of fiber quality, disease resistance, tolerance of abiotic stress, pest resistance and so on. SSR molecular marker technology has been used to detect the exotic genetic elements in interspecific hybrids, and 25 SSR specific loci that can be classified into two groups were found among 15 pairs of SSR primers. Results also showed that 8 exotic germplasm (Gossypium barbadense, G. arboreum and G. thurberi, etc) had genetic transmission toward upland cotton. A strategy of screening elite germplasm with exotic genes based on the molecular marker-assisted breeding techniques was suggested, and 18 lines with high-quality fiber and 4 lines with resistance to Fusanrium wilt and Verticillium wilt have been obtained.

  3. New carrot and garlic germplasm to advance breeding and understand crop origins

    The genetic variation provided by diverse plant germplasm is the basic building material used for crop improvement that shapes the crops we grow today. Wild carrot from the U.S. provided the cytoplasm used to develop a reliable system to produce hybrid carrots that account for most of the commercial...

  4. Variability of seed oil content and fatty acid composition in the entire USDA sesame germplasm collection

    Sesame (Sesame indicum L.) is one of the oldest oilseed crops with a long history of cultivation for its edible seeds and oil. The U.S. sesame germplasm collection (containing about 1,232 accessions) is a useful genetic resource for improving seed quality and enhancing grain yield. Variability of se...

  5. Fine phenotyping of pod and seed traits in Arachis germplasm accessions using digital image analysis

    Reliable and objective phenotyping of peanut pod and seed traits is important for cultivar selection and genetic mapping of yield components. To develop useful and efficient methods to quantitatively define peanut pod and seed traits, a group of peanut germplasm with high levels of phenotypic varia...

  6. Registration of an oilseed sunflower germplasm HA-DM1 resistant to sunflower downy mildew

    HA-DM1 (Reg., PI 674793) sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) germplasm was developed and released cooperatively by the USDA-ARS, Sunflower and Plant Biology Research Unit and the North Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station in 2015. HA-DM1 is a BC2F4 derived oilseed maintainer line from the cros...

  7. Confirming resistance in bottle gourd germplasm by quantifying powdery mildew conidia using a cellometer

    Powdery mildew (PM) caused by Podosphaera xanthii, an important foliar disease affecting cucurbit crops grown in the United States, commonly occurs on foliage, petioles, and stems. We have developed two highly resistant bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) germplasm (USVL351 and USVL482) for use in o...

  8. Development of near-infrared spectroscopy calibrations to measure quality characteristics in intact Brassicaceae germplasm

    Determining seed quality parameters is an integral part of cultivar improvement and germplasm screening. However, quality tests are often time cnsuming, seed destructive, and can require large seed samples. This study describes the development of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) calibrations to mea...

  9. Comparative diversity analysis of southeastern Rubus germplasm through molecular and pedigree techniques

    The North Carolina Rubus germplasm collection contains hundreds of diverse blackberry, raspberry, and black raspberry (Rubus L.)selections, among which intra- and interspecific crosses were made to achieve breeding goals for expanding commercial production in the Southeast. For over 50 years, the b...


    M. S. Akhter


    Full Text Available The experiment was carried out to study the physico-chemical characteristics of 20 selected citrus fruits germplasm of South Western region of Bangladesh during July 2010 to January 2012. There was significant variation among the germplasms in relation to fruit characteristics and organolaptic evaluation. Better performance was found in germplasm No. 20 in respect of total fruit weight, weight of seed and skin thickness of fruits. Germplasm No.1 showed better performance in respect of percentage of edible portion and germplasm No. 6 in respect of percentage of non edible portion. The total soluble solids found higher in germplasm No. 20 (12.23 % and titratable acidity in germplasm No. 16 (49.33 %. Vitamin C and carotenoids found maximum in germplasm No. 20 (442.70 mg/100g. Germplasm No. 4 and 12 was better in respect of anthocyanin (0.10 mg/100gm and flavonoids (0.19 gm content of fruit pulp. Considering desired fruit characteristics germplasam No. 20 (pummelo was found better. Citrus fruits' squash was successfully prepared by using 60 g sugar containing treatment consisting 50-80 g of sugar with 10 g variation of sugar in three treatments without changing other ingredient. Citrus fruits jelly was successfully prepared by using 300 g sugar containing treatment consisting 250-350 g of sugar with 50 g variation of sugar in three treatments without changing other ingredient. Citrus fruits jarok was successfully prepared by using 55 g salt containing treatment consisting 50-60 g of salt with 5 g variation of salt in three treatments without changing other ingredient.

  11. Investigation and Analysis of Genetic Diversity of Diospyros Germplasms Using SCoT Molecular Markers in Guangxi.

    Libao Deng

    Full Text Available Knowledge about genetic diversity and relationships among germplasms could be an invaluable aid in diospyros improvement strategies.This study was designed to analyze the genetic diversity and relationship of local and natural varieties in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region of China using start codon targeted polymorphism (SCoT markers. The accessions of 95 diospyros germplasms belonging to four species Diospyros kaki Thunb, D. oleifera Cheng, D. kaki var. silverstris Mak, and D. lotus Linn were collected from different eco-climatic zones in Guangxi and were analyzed using SCoT markers.Results indicated that the accessions of 95 diospyros germplasms could be distinguished using SCoT markers, and were divided into three groups at similarity coefficient of 0.608; these germplasms that belong to the same species were clustered together; of these, the degree of genetic diversity of the natural D. kaki var. silverstris Mak population was richest among the four species; the geographical distance showed that the 12 natural populations of D. kaki var. silverstris Mak were divided into two groups at similarity coefficient of 0.19. Meanwhile, in order to further verify the stable and useful of SCoT markers in diospyros germplasms, SSR markers were also used in current research to analyze the genetic diversity and relationship in the same diospyros germplasms. Once again, majority of germplasms that belong to the same species were clustered together. Thus SCoT markers were stable and especially useful for analysis of the genetic diversity and relationship in diospyros germplasms.The molecular characterization and diversity assessment of diospyros were very important for conservation of diospyros germplasm resources, meanwhile for diospyros improvement.

  12. Genetic diversity of wild germplasm of "yerba mate" (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil.) from Uruguay.

    Cascales, Jimena; Bracco, Mariana; Poggio, Lidia; Gottlieb, Alexandra Marina


    The "yerba mate" tree, Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil., is a crop native to subtropical South America, marketed for the elaboration of the highly popular "mate" beverage. The Uruguayan germplasm occupies the southernmost area of the species distribution range and carries adaptations to environments that considerably differ from the current production area. We characterized the genetic variability of the germplasm from this unexplored area by jointly analyzing individuals from the diversification center (ABP, Argentina, Brazil and Paraguay) with 19 nuclear and 11 plastidic microsatellite markers. For the Uruguayan germplasm, we registered 55 alleles (18 % private), and 80 genotypes (44 % exclusive), whereas 63 alleles (28.6 % private) and 81 genotypes (42 % exclusive) were recorded for individuals from ABP. Only two plastidic haplotypes were detected. Distance-based and multilocus genotype analyses showed that individuals from ABP intermingle and that the Uruguayan germplasm is differentiated in three gene-pools. Significant positive correlations between genetic and geographic distances were detected. Our results concur in that ABP individuals harbor greater genetic variation than those from the tail of the distribution, as to the number of alleles (1.15-fold), He (1.19-fold), Rs (1.39-fold), and the between-group genetic distances (1.16-fold). Also the shape of the genetic landscape interpolation analysis suggests that the genetic variation decays southward towards the Uruguayan territory. We showed that Uruguayan germplasm hosts a combination of nuclear alleles not present in the central region, constituting a valuable breeding resource. Future conservation efforts should concentrate in collecting numerous individuals of "yerba mate" per site to gather the existent variation.

  13. Genetic diversity of pomegranate germplasm collection from Spain determined by fruit, seed, leaf and flower characteristics

    Juan J. Martinez-Nicolas


    Full Text Available Background. Miguel Hernandez University (Spain created a germplasm bank of the varieties of pomegranate from different Southeastern Spain localities in order to preserve the crop’s wide genetic diversity. Once this collection was established, the next step was to characterize the phenotype of these varieties to determine the phenotypic variability that existed among all the different pomegranate genotypes, and to understand the degree of polymorphism of the morphometric characteristics among varieties. Methods. Fifty-three pomegranate (Punica granatum L. accessions were studied in order to determine their degree of polymorphism and to detect similarities in their genotypes. Thirty-one morphometric characteristics were measured in fruits, arils, seeds, leaves and flowers, as well as juice characteristics including content, pH, titratable acidity, total soluble solids and maturity index. ANOVA, principal component analysis, and cluster analysis showed that there was a considerable phenotypic diversity (and presumably genetic. Results. The cluster analysis produced a dendrogram with four main clusters. The dissimilarity level ranged from 1 to 25, indicating that there were varieties that were either very similar or very different from each other, with varieties from the same geographical areas being more closely related. Within each varietal group, different degrees of similarity were found, although there were no accessions that were identical. These results highlight the crop’s great genetic diversity, which can be explained not only by their different geographical origins, but also to the fact that these are native plants that have not come from genetic improvement programs. The geographic origin could be, in the cases where no exchanges of plant material took place, a key criterion for cultivar clustering. Conclusions. As a result of the present study, we can conclude that among all the parameters analyzed, those related to fruit and seed

  14. Evaluation of Soybean Germplasm from Provinces in Northeast China for Resistance to Phytophthora sojae

    XU Xiu-hong; PAN Jun-bo; QU Juan-juan; YANG Qing-kai


    Soybean Phytophthora root rot (Phytophthora sojae) is a severe disease all over the world. Soybean germplasm from central and southern China for resistance has been evaluated by American researchers on a large scale. P. sojae has been found frequently in northeast of China in recent years, but not systematic evaluation of soybean germplasm for resistance has occurred there. By means of hypocotyl inoculation, 922 cultivars/lines from northeast of China were screened and evaluated for their response to race 1, and 25 of P. sojae. Generally resistance was less frequent in northeast of China than in central and southern China. Five cultivars/lines were identified that confer resistant responses to race 1, 3, 8, 25 and four additional isolates of P. sojae. These cultivars/lines may provide valuable sources of resistance for future breeding programs.

  15. 棉属的种质资源%Gossypium Germplasm Resources

    R. G. PERCY


    @@ The genetic variability residing in diploid and tetraploid species of the Gossypium genus represents a large, under-utilized resource in current cotton improvement efforts. Genetic diversity in elite germplasm is reported to be narrow. Actual diversity on the land is narrower, due to preferential mass planting of successful cultivars and breeding techniques that tend to promote an over-reliance on a few genotypes.

  16. Analysis and Optimization of Bulk DNA Sampling with Binary Scoring for Germplasm Characterization

    Reyes-Valdés, M. Humberto; Santacruz-Varela, Amalio; Martínez, Octavio; Simpson, June; Hayano-Kanashiro, Corina; Cortés-Romero, Celso


    The strategy of bulk DNA sampling has been a valuable method for studying large numbers of individuals through genetic markers. The application of this strategy for discrimination among germplasm sources was analyzed through information theory, considering the case of polymorphic alleles scored binarily for their presence or absence in DNA pools. We defined the informativeness of a set of marker loci in bulks as the mutual information between genotype and population identity, composed by two terms: diversity and noise. The first term is the entropy of bulk genotypes, whereas the noise term is measured through the conditional entropy of bulk genotypes given germplasm sources. Thus, optimizing marker information implies increasing diversity and reducing noise. Simple formulas were devised to estimate marker information per allele from a set of estimated allele frequencies across populations. As an example, they allowed optimization of bulk size for SSR genotyping in maize, from allele frequencies estimated in a sample of 56 maize populations. It was found that a sample of 30 plants from a random mating population is adequate for maize germplasm SSR characterization. We analyzed the use of divided bulks to overcome the allele dilution problem in DNA pools, and concluded that samples of 30 plants divided into three bulks of 10 plants are efficient to characterize maize germplasm sources through SSR with a good control of the dilution problem. We estimated the informativeness of 30 SSR loci from the estimated allele frequencies in maize populations, and found a wide variation of marker informativeness, which positively correlated with the number of alleles per locus. PMID:24260321

  17. Screening of soybean germplasm for high inorganic phosphorus and low phytic acid

    S. Abirami, A. Kalamani and T. Kalaimagal


    Phytic acid, is the major storage form of phosphorus in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] which comprises 75% of total seed phosphorus. It decreases the availability of some essential elements via bonding between the negatively charged phytic acid and the positively charged elements. Thus, diets high in phytate may lead to nutrient deficiencies. So, identification of lines with low phytic acid is of paramount importance. A germplasm survey was conducted among 250 soybean accessions to identify...

  18. Analysis and optimization of bulk DNA sampling with binary scoring for germplasm characterization.

    M Humberto Reyes-Valdés

    Full Text Available The strategy of bulk DNA sampling has been a valuable method for studying large numbers of individuals through genetic markers. The application of this strategy for discrimination among germplasm sources was analyzed through information theory, considering the case of polymorphic alleles scored binarily for their presence or absence in DNA pools. We defined the informativeness of a set of marker loci in bulks as the mutual information between genotype and population identity, composed by two terms: diversity and noise. The first term is the entropy of bulk genotypes, whereas the noise term is measured through the conditional entropy of bulk genotypes given germplasm sources. Thus, optimizing marker information implies increasing diversity and reducing noise. Simple formulas were devised to estimate marker information per allele from a set of estimated allele frequencies across populations. As an example, they allowed optimization of bulk size for SSR genotyping in maize, from allele frequencies estimated in a sample of 56 maize populations. It was found that a sample of 30 plants from a random mating population is adequate for maize germplasm SSR characterization. We analyzed the use of divided bulks to overcome the allele dilution problem in DNA pools, and concluded that samples of 30 plants divided into three bulks of 10 plants are efficient to characterize maize germplasm sources through SSR with a good control of the dilution problem. We estimated the informativeness of 30 SSR loci from the estimated allele frequencies in maize populations, and found a wide variation of marker informativeness, which positively correlated with the number of alleles per locus.

  19. Molecular diversity in Coffea canephora germplasm conserved and cultivated in Brazil

    Flávio de França Souza


    Full Text Available This work aimed to characterize accessions that represent the C. canephora germplasm conserved and cultivated in Brazil. A total of 130 accessions from germplasm banks of IAC (São Paulo, UFV (Minas Gerais and also collected in plantations of the State of Espírito Santo and Rondônia were evaluated with a set of 20 new microsatellite primers. Multivariate methods were used to estimate the relationship among the accessions. High level of polymorphism and two major diversity clusters were identified. First cluster was composed by the accessions conserved in the IAC and UFV collections and the second was formed by accessions collected in areas under cultivation. Accessions from Espírito Santo and Rondônia were clear separated, composing two subclusters. Despite the great polymorphism found in Brazilian plantations, the diversity may be increased, because a new threshold in the genetic gains is expected on breeding programs with the intensification of the use of conserved germplasm.

  20. Molecular Identification and Cultivar Fingerprints of Prunus persica (L.)Batsch Germplasms

    SUN Shu-xia; LI Jing; JIANG Guo-liang; CHEN Dong; XIE Hong-jiang; TU Mei-yan


    [Objective]The aim was to study the molecular identification and cultivar fingerprints of Prunus persica(L.)Batsch germplasms.[Method]Sixty peach genotypes,representing China common local cultivars and European samples were screened by microsatellites(simple sequence repeats,SSRs)and Inter-Simple Sequence Repeat(ISSR)markers.[Result]26 reproducible bands were amplified by Nine SSR primers,and 24 of which were polymorphic; 236 bands were amplified by 30 ISSR primers,and 113 of which were polymorphic.31 genotypes were discriminated with 1-3 distinct polymorphic bands generated from the primers ISSR and SSR.Seven cultivar-specific ISSR fragments and two SSR unique alleles obtained from this study were available to be converted into Sequence Characterized Amplified Region(SCAR)markers.The genetic similarity coefficient(GS)estimated from these molecular data averaged were 0.939(ranged from 0.856 to 0.983)for ISSR and0.646(ranged from 0.240 to 1.000)for SSR,respectively.The combined grouping association indicated that most local Chinese peach cultivars and exotic accessions were clustered together.This could be related to the mode of introduction and maintenance of the peach cultivars involving limited foundation germplasm,exchange of cultivars between plantations,and periodic development of new recombinant cultivars following sexual reproduction.[Conclusion]The results obtained in this work would help to improve the conservation,molecular identification and management of peach germplasm in breeding.

  1. High-Molecular-Weight Glutenin Subunit Composition of Chinese Wheat Germplasm

    ZHANG Ling-li; LI Xiu-quan; YANG Xin-ming; LI Hong-jie; WANG Hui; LI Li-hui


    The objective of the present study was to characterize the high molecular glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) composition and the presence of 1B/1R translocation in newly developed wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) germplasm, which have one or more traits that are useful in wheat improvement. Sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE)and acid polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis (A-PAGE) were used to detect HMW-GS composition and the presence of 1B/1R wheat-rye (Secale cereale L.) chromosome translocation in the wheat germplasm. Bread-making quality scores of these lines were determined. A high level of variations in HMW-GS encoded by Glu-1 locus was observed. Sixteen major HMW-GS, with 30 combinations, were detected. The percentage of cultivars with more than two desirable subunits was 38.7%. Thirteen cultivars had bread-making quality scores of 10 in combination with one or two desirable agronomical traits, such as high-yield potential, dwarfing stem, resistance to diseases, and/or tolerance to abiotic stress. Sixty-eight (36.6%) cultivars possessed 1B/1R translocation. The newly developed germplasm with HMW-GS for good quality can be promising resources for improving bread-making quality of wheat.

  2. Germplasm and breeding research of tea plant based on DNA marker approaches


    Tea is the most popular non-alcoholic and healthy beverage worldwide.Tea production contributes greatly to the economy and the job opportunities for many countries in Asia and Africa.Meanwhile,the germplasm of tea,with a huge potential for the future of the whole tea industry,is presently one of the most valuable and fundamental materials for tea breeding and tea biotechnology.DNA molecular markers have been proven to be robust and valuable approaches in the studies of genetic diversity and variation,molecular identification,molecular phylogenetics,genetic stability and integrity of tea germplasm,and the genetic linkage map for breeding of tea.In this paper,a brief prospect on the molecular marker studies of tea has been summarized.The purpose is to provide an effective way for undertaking a massive tea germplasm appraisal and evaluation,to develop new applicable and cheap DNA markers,to establish a high density genetic linkage map and analyze the agronomically important QTLs,and finally,to facilitate the marker assisted early selection and shorten breeding procedures in tea.

  3. Development and Evaluation of Glycine max Germplasm Lines with Quantitative Resistance to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.

    McCaghey, Megan; Willbur, Jaime; Ranjan, Ashish; Grau, Craig R; Chapman, Scott; Diers, Brian; Groves, Carol; Kabbage, Mehdi; Smith, Damon L


    Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, the causal agent of Sclerotinia stem rot, is a devastating fungal pathogen of soybean that can cause significant yield losses to growers when environmental conditions are favorable for the disease. The development of resistant varieties has proven difficult. However, poor resistance in commercial cultivars can be improved through additional breeding efforts and understanding the genetic basis of resistance. The objective of this project was to develop soybean germplasm lines that have a high level of Sclerotinia stem rot resistance to be used directly as cultivars or in breeding programs as a source of improved Sclerotinia stem rot resistance. Sclerotinia stem rot-resistant soybean germplasm was developed by crossing two sources of resistance, W04-1002 and AxN-1-55, with lines exhibiting resistance to Heterodera glycines and Cadophora gregata in addition to favorable agronomic traits. Following greenhouse evaluations of 1,076 inbred lines derived from these crosses, 31 lines were evaluated for resistance in field tests during the 2014 field season. Subsequently, 11 Sclerotinia stem rot resistant breeding lines were moved forward for field evaluation in 2015, and seven elite breeding lines were selected and evaluated in the 2016 field season. To better understand resistance mechanisms, a marker analysis was conducted to identify quantitative trait loci linked to resistance. Thirteen markers associated with Sclerotinia stem rot resistance were identified on chromosomes 15, 16, 17, 18, and 19. Our markers confirm previously reported chromosomal regions associated with Sclerotinia stem rot resistance as well as a novel region of chromosome 16. The seven elite germplasm lines were also re-evaluated within a greenhouse setting using a cut petiole technique with multiple S. sclerotiorum isolates to test the durability of physiological resistance of the lines in a controlled environment. This work presents a novel and comprehensive classical

  4. Establishing the Bases for Introducing the Unexplored Portuguese Common Bean Germplasm into the Breeding World.

    Leitão, Susana T; Dinis, Marco; Veloso, Maria M; Šatović, Zlatko; Vaz Patto, Maria C


    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is among the most important grain legumes for human consumption worldwide. Portugal has a potentially promising common bean germplasm, resulting from more than five centuries of natural adaptation and farmers' selection. Nevertheless, limited characterization of this resource hampers its exploitation by breeding programs. To support a more efficient conservation of the national bean germplasm and promote its use in crop improvement, we performed, for the first time, a simultaneous molecular marker (21 microsatellites and a DNA marker for phaseolin-type diversity analysis) and seed and plant morphological characterization (14 traits) of 175 accessions from Portuguese mainland and islands traditional bean-growing regions. A total of 188 different alleles were identified and an average pairwise Cavalli-Sforza and Edwards' chord genetic distance of 0.193 was estimated among accessions. To relate the Portuguese germplasm with the global common bean diversity, 17 wild relatives and representative accessions from the Andean and Mesoamerican gene pools were evaluated at the molecular level. No correlation was detected between the variability found and the geographic origin of accessions. Structure analysis divided the collection into three main clusters. Most of the Portuguese accessions grouped with the race representatives and wild relatives from the Andean region. One third of the national germplasm had admixed genetic origin and might represent putative hybrids among gene pools from the two original centers of domestication in the Andes and Mesoamerica. The molecular marker-based classification was largely congruent with the three most frequent phaseolin haplotype patterns observed in the accessions analyzed. Seed and plant morphological characterization of 150 Portuguese common bean accessions revealed a clear separation among genetic structure and phaseolin haplotype groups of accessions, with seed size and shape and the number of

  5. Concentration of Beneficial Phytochemicals in Harvested Grain of U.S. Yellow Dent Maize (Zea mays L.) Germplasm.

    Butts-Wilmsmeyer, Carrie J; Mumm, Rita H; Bohn, Martin O


    Although previous studies have examined the concentration of various nutritional compounds in maize, little focus has been devoted to the study of commercial maize hybrids or their inbred parents. In this study, a genetically and phenotypically diverse set of maize hybrids and inbreds relevant to U.S. commercial maize germplasm was evaluated for its variability in phytochemical content. Total protein, unsaturated fatty acids, tocopherols, soluble phenolics, and insoluble-bound phenolics were evaluated in this study. Of these compounds, only soluble and insoluble-bound phenolic acids exhibited means and variances that were at least as large as the means and variances reported for other sets of germplasm. This suggests that selection for high phenolic acid content is possible in current U.S. commercial germplasm. In contrast, while the total protein, unsaturated fatty acid, or tocopherol content could possibly be improved using current U.S. commercial germplasm, the results of this study indicate that the incorporation of more diverse sources of germplasm would most likely result in quicker genetic gains.

  6. An empirical assessment of the effects of the 1994 In Trust Agreements on IRRI Germplasm Acquisition and Distribution

    Elisabetta Gotor


    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to assess the possible influence of the 1994 In Trust Agreements (ITAs on acquisition and distribution of germplasm held by the International Research Rice Institute (IRRI genebank. The agreements, legally affirmed the ‘public good’ status of the collections that were placed ‘In Trust’ for the benefit of the world community under agreements with FAO. They initiated a formal system of multilateral access to CGIAR-held ex situ genetic resources. The hypothesis that the consequences of the ITAs lead to an enhancement of CGIAR germplasm utilization is tested here using a basic conceptual framework to infer on factors determining the distribution of germplasm. Subsequently a Bayesian empirical model is applied to IRRI accessions distribution’s time-series to provide formal evidence to the hypothesis. Results show that there is a discernible ‘change’ point that would support a significant drop in germplasm distribution followed by a new growing trend around the establishment of the ITAs. This had followed a period beginning around 1989 and leading up to the establishment of the ITAs of a large number of requests for restoration of germplasm back to countries of origin and a reduction in acquisitions. As a result the number of accessions held by IRRI reached a low point around 1994. The number of accessions might not have been built back up without the establishment of a stable policy environment that was provided by the ITAs.

  7. Phytophthora fruit rot-resistant watermelon germplasm lines: USVL489-PFR, USVL782-PFR, USVL203-PFR, and USVL020-PFR

    USVL489-PFR, USVL782-PFR, USVL203-PFR, and USVL020-PFR are watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai) germplasm lines that exhibit high levels of resistance to Phytophthora fruit rot caused by the plant pathogen Phytophthora capsici. Resistance in these germplasm lines is ...

  8. Identification of a Simple Sequence Repeat molecular-marker set for large-scale analyses of pear germplasm

    Gabriel Dequigiovanni


    Full Text Available Simple Sequence Repeats (SSR are molecular markers suitable to assess the genetic variation of germplasm resources; however, large-scale SSR use requires protocol optimization. The present work aimed to identify SSR markers, developed for pear and other fruit species that are effective in characterizing pear germplasm collections and in demonstrating their use in providing support for genetic breeding programs. From a total of 62 SSR markers investigated, 23 yielding reproducible and polymorphic patterns were used to genotype a sample of 42 pear accessions of the Brazilian Pear Germplasm Bank (PGB. When compared to these 23 SSR markers, a subset of eleven markers, selected based on He, PIC and PId, was used to distinguish individual accessions and perform cluster analysis with similar efficacy. Genetic diversity analysis clustered the European, Japanese and Chinese accessions in distinct groups. This markers subset constitutes a valuable tool for several applications related to pear genetic resources management and breeding.

  9. [Current status of mangrove germplasm resources and key techniques for mangrove seedling propagation in China].

    Hu, Hong-You; Chen, Shun-Yang; Wang, Wen-Qing; Dong, Ke-Zuan; Lin, Guang-Hui


    Mangrove germplasm and nursery operation are the foundations of all mangrove ecological restoration projects. Based on the existing literatures and our own experiences, and by using cluster analysis and other methods, this paper assessed the current status of the mangrove germplasm resources and the key techniques for mangrove seedlings propagation in China. In China, the mangrove communities could be divided into 4 types, including low temperature tolerant widespread type, widespread type, thermophilic widespread type, and tropical type, and the mangrove distribution sites could be divided into 5 regions, i. e., eastern Hainan coast, Beibuwan Gulf coast, Pearl River estuary and eastern Guangdong coast, southern Fujian and Taiwan coast, and eastern Fujian and southern Zhejiang coast. The mangroves in Beibuwan Gulf coast region took up 75.3% of the total mangrove germplasm resources in the country. At present, the percentage of the mangrove species applied for seedling propagation in China was estimated at 52.6%, most of which were of viviparous species. The six key steps in mangrove nursery operation included the selection of proper seedling propagation methods, the collection and storage of seeds or propagules, the ways of raising seedlings, the management of water and salinity, the control of diseases and pests, and the prevention of cold damage during winter. The structure, functions, and applieations of the present five types of mangrove nurseries, including dry land nursery, mangrove tidal nursery, mudflat nursery, Jiwei pond nursery, and Spartina mudflat nursery, were also analyzed, which could provide guidance for the integrated management of mangrove ecological restoration engineering.

  10. Breeding, introgression and inheritance of delayed gland morphogenesis trait from Gosspium bickii into upland cotton germplasm

    ZHU Shuijin; JIANG Yurong; Reddy Naganagouda; JI Daofan


    A tri-specific hybrid with delayed pigment gland morphogenesis was obtained by crossing the amphidiploid of (G. arboreum×G. bickii) F1 and an upland cotton germplasm with pigment gland genotype of Gl2Gl2gl3gl3. The tri-specific hybrid was a typical interspecific hybrid with high sterile, and the chromosome configuration at meiosis MI of PMC was 2n = 52 = 41.04Ⅰ+ 4.54Ⅱ + 0.57Ⅲ + 0.04. The crossover value of bivalent was 1.19. Two fertile plants with objective character were obtained in BC8 population by continuously backcrossing with Gl2Gl2gl3gl3 as recurrent parent to the tri-specific hybrid, and a new upland cotton germplasm, named ABH-0318, with delayed pigment gland morphogenesis trait was developed through selfing and screening. The pigment gland trait of ABH-0318 was stable, and there were almost no pigment glands observed in the dormant seeds, although there were a few pigment glands confined to cotyledon edges, and the gossypol content in the dormant seeds was 0.017% only, being a typical low gossypol cotton type. However, a large quantity of pigment glands emerged in cotyledons and other main organs of plant after seed germination, and the gossypol contents in the upper parts of the plant were similar to that of ordinary glanded cotton types. Genetic analysis demonstrated that the delayed pigment gland morphogenesis trait of this germplasm was controlled by the interaction of the genes located in two pigment gland loci, Gl2 and Gl3. Among them, the gene located in locus of Gl2, derived from G.bickii, was dominance to upland cotton pigment gland alleles, Gl2 and gl2 , but was recessive epistatic to another glanded gene Gl3, which was named Gl2b temporarily. While the gene located in the locus of Gl3 was a recessive gene come from upland cotton.

  11. Genetic Architecture of Resistance to Stripe Rust in a Global Winter Wheat Germplasm Collection

    Peter Bulli


    Full Text Available Virulence shifts in populations of Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst, the causal pathogen of wheat stripe rust, are a major challenge to resistance breeding. The majority of known resistance genes are already ineffective against current races of Pst, necessitating the identification and introgression of new sources of resistance. Germplasm core collections that reflect the range of genetic and phenotypic diversity of crop species are ideal platforms for examining the genetic architecture of complex traits such as resistance to stripe rust. We report the results of genetic characterization and genome-wide association analysis (GWAS for resistance to stripe rust in a core subset of 1175 accessions in the National Small Grains Collection (NSGC winter wheat germplasm collection, based on genotyping with the wheat 9K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP iSelect assay and phenotyping of seedling and adult plants under natural disease epidemics in four environments. High correlations among the field data translated into high heritability values within and across locations. Population structure was evident when accessions were grouped by stripe rust reaction. GWAS identified 127 resistance loci that were effective across at least two environments, including 20 with significant genome-wide adjusted P-values. Based on relative map positions of previously reported genes and QTL, five of the QTL with significant genome-wide adjusted P-values in this study represent potentially new loci. This study provides an overview of the diversity of Pst resistance in the NSGC winter wheat germplasm core collection, which can be exploited for diversification of stripe rust resistance in breeding programs.

  12. Genetic diversity analysis of Gossypium arboreum germplasm accessions using genotyping-by-sequencing.

    Li, Ruijuan; Erpelding, John E


    The diploid cotton species Gossypium arboreum possesses many favorable agronomic traits such as drought tolerance and disease resistance, which can be utilized in the development of improved upland cotton cultivars. The USDA National Plant Germplasm System maintains more than 1600 G. arboreum accessions. Little information is available on the genetic diversity of the collection thereby limiting the utilization of this cotton species. The genetic diversity and population structure of the G. arboreum germplasm collection were assessed by genotyping-by-sequencing of 375 accessions. Using genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism sequence data, two major clusters were inferred with 302 accessions in Cluster 1, 64 accessions in Cluster 2, and nine accessions unassigned due to their nearly equal membership to each cluster. These two clusters were further evaluated independently resulting in the identification of two sub-clusters for the 302 Cluster 1 accessions and three sub-clusters for the 64 Cluster 2 accessions. Low to moderate genetic diversity between clusters and sub-clusters were observed indicating a narrow genetic base. Cluster 2 accessions were more genetically diverse and the majority of the accessions in this cluster were landraces. In contrast, Cluster 1 is composed of varieties or breeding lines more recently added to the collection. The majority of the accessions had kinship values ranging from 0.6 to 0.8. Eight pairs of accessions were identified as potential redundancies due to their high kinship relatedness. The genetic diversity and genotype data from this study are essential to enhance germplasm utilization to identify genetically diverse accessions for the detection of quantitative trait loci associated with important traits that would benefit upland cotton improvement.

  13. Linkage disequilibrium based association mapping of fiber quality traits in G. hirsutum L. variety germplasm.

    Abdurakhmonov, Ibrokhim Y; Saha, Sukumar; Jenkins, Jonnie N; Buriev, Zabardast T; Shermatov, Shukhrat E; Scheffler, Brain E; Pepper, Alan E; Yu, John Z; Kohel, Russell J; Abdukarimov, Abdusattor


    Cotton is the world's leading cash crop, but it lags behind other major crops for marker-assisted breeding due to limited polymorphisms and a genetic bottleneck through historic domestication. This underlies a need for characterization, tagging, and utilization of existing natural polymorphisms in cotton germplasm collections. Here we report genetic diversity, population characteristics, the extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD), and association mapping of fiber quality traits using 202 microsatellite marker primer pairs in 335 G. hirsutum germplasm grown in two diverse environments, Uzbekistan and Mexico. At the significance threshold (r (2) >or= 0.1), a genome-wide average of LD extended up to genetic distance of 25 cM in assayed cotton variety accessions. Genome wide LD at r (2) >or= 0.2 was reduced to approximately 5-6 cM, providing evidence of the potential for association mapping of agronomically important traits in cotton. Results suggest linkage, selection, inbreeding, population stratification, and genetic drift as the potential LD-generating factors in cotton. In two environments, an average of ~20 SSR markers was associated with each main fiber quality traits using a unified mixed liner model (MLM) incorporating population structure and kinship. These MLM-derived significant associations were confirmed in general linear model and structured association test, accounting for population structure and permutation-based multiple testing. Several common markers, showing the significant associations in both Uzbekistan and Mexican environments, were determined. Between 7 and 43% of the MLM-derived significant associations were supported by a minimum Bayes factor at 'moderate to strong' and 'strong to very strong' evidence levels, suggesting their usefulness for marker-assisted breeding programs and overall effectiveness of association mapping using cotton germplasm resources.

  14. Genetic diversity and population structure assessed by SSR and SNP markers in a large germplasm collection of grape


    Background The economic importance of grapevine has driven significant efforts in genomics to accelerate the exploitation of Vitis resources for development of new cultivars. However, although a large number of clonally propagated accessions are maintained in grape germplasm collections worldwide, their use for crop improvement is limited by the scarcity of information on genetic diversity, population structure and proper phenotypic assessment. The identification of representative and manageable subset of accessions would facilitate access to the diversity available in large collections. A genome-wide germplasm characterization using molecular markers can offer reliable tools for adjusting the quality and representativeness of such core samples. Results We investigated patterns of molecular diversity at 22 common microsatellite loci and 384 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 2273 accessions of domesticated grapevine V. vinifera ssp. sativa, its wild relative V. vinifera ssp. sylvestris, interspecific hybrid cultivars and rootstocks. Despite the large number of putative duplicates and extensive clonal relationships among the accessions, we observed high level of genetic variation. In the total germplasm collection the average genetic diversity, as quantified by the expected heterozygosity, was higher for SSR loci (0.81) than for SNPs (0.34). The analysis of the genetic structure in the grape germplasm collection revealed several levels of stratification. The primary division was between accessions of V. vinifera and non-vinifera, followed by the distinction between wild and domesticated grapevine. Intra-specific subgroups were detected within cultivated grapevine representing different eco-geographic groups. The comparison of a phenological core collection and genetic core collections showed that the latter retained more genetic diversity, while maintaining a similar phenotypic variability. Conclusions The comprehensive molecular characterization of our grape

  15. Genetic Variation in Rhizome Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. ssp. nucifera) Germplasms from China Assessed by RAPD Markers

    AN Na; GUO Hong-bo; KE Wei-dong


    To estimate genetic variation in rhizome lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. ssp. nucifera) gcrmplasms in China, a total of 94 rhizome lotus germplasms collected from 18 provinces in China were assessed. The RAPD (randomly amplified polymorphic DNA) marker was employed. The selected 17 random primers detected 139 polymorphic alleles out of a total 207 (67.15%). Nei's gene diversity statistics and region differentiation parameters indicated that all germplasms had a relatively high level of genetic diversity with ne=1.3202, h=0.1937, I=0.2982 and the gene flow among all regions was Nm=5.5742. The UPGMA dendrogram clustered all 94 germplasms into two clusters: One contained eight commercial cultivars and major landraces, and the other included the wild and some special landraces from five regions, and the PCA analysis exhibited the similar result. Those germplasms from southwestern and eastern China had higher genetic diversity than those from the southern, northern and central China. Predominant proportion of genetic variation (95.61%) was found significant within rather than among (4.39%) regions, as revealed by AMOVA analysis. The data analysis also revealed that the genetic diversity of rhizome lotus germplasms among different regions is positively related to their geographic distances, though it is ambiguous to find the trend from the UPGMA dendrogram and the PCA analysis. A relatively high genetic diversity and gene flow resided in the root lotus germplasms; about 96% of the variation was found within region; accessions from southwest and eastern China have higher genetic diversity than those from the southern, northern and central China.

  16. Genetic diversity and population structure analysis to construct a core collection from a large Capsicum germplasm.

    Lee, Hea-Young; Ro, Na-Young; Jeong, Hee-Jin; Kwon, Jin-Kyung; Jo, Jinkwan; Ha, Yeaseong; Jung, Ayoung; Han, Ji-Woong; Venkatesh, Jelli; Kang, Byoung-Cheorl


    Conservation of genetic diversity is an essential prerequisite for developing new cultivars with desirable agronomic traits. Although a large number of germplasm collections have been established worldwide, many of them face major difficulties due to large size and a lack of adequate information about population structure and genetic diversity. Core collection with a minimum number of accessions and maximum genetic diversity of pepper species and its wild relatives will facilitate easy access to genetic material as well as the use of hidden genetic diversity in Capsicum. To explore genetic diversity and population structure, we investigated patterns of molecular diversity using a transcriptome-based 48 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a large germplasm collection comprising 3,821 accessions. Among the 11 species examined, Capsicum annuum showed the highest genetic diversity (HE = 0.44, I = 0.69), whereas the wild species C. galapagoense showed the lowest genetic diversity (HE = 0.06, I = 0.07). The Capsicum germplasm collection was divided into 10 clusters (cluster 1 to 10) based on population structure analysis, and five groups (group A to E) based on phylogenetic analysis. Capsicum accessions from the five distinct groups in an unrooted phylogenetic tree showed taxonomic distinctness and reflected their geographic origins. Most of the accessions from European countries are distributed in the A and B groups, whereas the accessions from Asian countries are mainly distributed in C and D groups. Five different sampling strategies with diverse genetic clustering methods were used to select the optimal method for constructing the core collection. Using a number of allelic variations based on 48 SNP markers and 32 different phenotypic/morphological traits, a core collection 'CC240' with a total of 240 accessions (5.2 %) was selected from within the entire Capsicum germplasm. Compared to the other core collections, CC240 displayed higher genetic

  17. Identification of Cold Tolerance of Rice Germplasm Resource at Germinating Stage in Cold Region

    LIU Hualong; SUN Shiche; WANG Jingguo; ZOU Detang


    Total 75 rice varieties (lines) in Heilongiiang Province (or cold region) as germplasm resources were identified for cold tolerance at germinating stage by controlling temperature in artificial incubator. The results showed that the shooting seed rate at the germinating stage could be used as the evaluation index of cold tolerance. The cold tolerance was recorded on 1-9 scale and could be identified by the criteria of five indexes such as highly tolerant (HT), tolerant (T), moderately tolerant (MT), susceptible (S), highly susceptible (HS).

  18. Assessment of genetic diversity in indigenous turmeric (Curcuma longa) germplasm from India using molecular markers.

    Verma, Sushma; Singh, Shweta; Sharma, Suresh; Tewari, S K; Roy, R K; Goel, A K; Rana, T S


    Curcuma longa L., commonly known as turmeric, is one of the economically and medicinally important plant species. It is predominantly cultivated in the tropical and sub tropical countries. India is the largest producer, and exporter of turmeric in the world, followed by China, Indonesia, Bangladesh and Thailand. In the present study, Directed Amplification of Minisatellite DNA (DAMD) and Inter Simple Sequence Repeats (ISSR), methods were used to estimate the genetic variability in indigenous turmeric germplasm. Cumulative data analysis for DAMD (15) and ISSR (13) markers resulted into 478 fragments, out of which 392 fragments were polymorphic, revealing 82 % polymorphism across the turmeric genotypes. Wide range of pairwise genetic distances (0.03-0.59) across the genotypes revealed that these genotypes are genetically quite diverse. The UPGMA dendrogram generated using cumulative data showed significant relationships amongst the genotypes. All 29 genotypes studied grouped into two clusters irrespective of their geographical affiliations with 100 % bootstrap value except few genotypes, suggesting considerable diversity amongst the genotypes. These results suggested that the current collection of turmeric genotypes preserve the vast majority of natural variations. The results further demonstrate the efficiency and reliability of DAMD and ISSR markers in determining the genetic diversity and relationships among the indigenous turmeric germplasm. DAMD and ISSR profiling have identified diverse turmeric genotypes, which could be further utilized in various genetic improvement programmes including conventional as well as marker assisted breeding towards development of new and desirable turmeric genotypes.

  19. Genetic variability in common wheat germplasm based on coefficients of parentage

    Fernanda Bered


    Full Text Available The characterization of genetic variability and an estimate of the genetic relationship among varieties are essential to any breeding program, because artificial crosses among less similar parents allow a larger segregation and the combination of different favorable alleles. Genetic variability can be evaluated in different ways, including the Coefficient of Parentage (COP, which estimates the probability of two alleles in two different individuals being identical by descent. In this study, we evaluated the degree of genetic relationship among 53 wheat genotypes, and identified the ancestor genotypes which contributed the most to the current wheat germplasm, as a prediction of the width of the genetic base of this cereal. The results revealed a mean COP of 0.07 and the formation of 22 similarity groups. The ancestor genotypes Ciano 67 and Mentana were those which contributed the most to the current wheat germplasm. According to the COP analyses, the genetic base of wheat rests on a small number of ancestral genotypes.

  20. [Identification of the wild germplasm of Prunus mume based on AFLP markers].

    Li, Qingwei; Zhang, Qixiang; Chen, Junyu


    Mei (Prunus mume Zucc.) is traditionally not only a famous special ornamental plant but also a fruit tree origined in China. In order to conserve and ultilize scientifically the germplasm resources of wild mei, we identified and analysed the germplasm of mei flower in 65 samples collected from the habitat, using AFLP makers in combination with morphological anaylsis. This study amplified clearly 1 728 polymorphic bands, using the 8- pair-primer of Mse I -EcoR I screened totally from 64 -primer combination. According to the Nei' 72 distance coefficient clustering, all of the formas and varieties used in this study, including Prunus mume var. mume, P. mume, P. mume var. goethartiana, P. mume var. pallescens, P. mume var. microcarpa, P. mume var. cenrnus-sempervirens (newly recoeding variety), P. mume var. cernua, P. mume var. pallidus, P. mume var. taomei, were identified at the point of Nei' 72=0.26. Due to the genetic difference obviously among the formas and varieties, we suggested that wild germplasmtypes of all formas and varieties in P. mume should be conserved in their habitats in the furture.

  1. Cryobanking of Korean allium germplasm collections: results from a 10 year experience.

    Kim, H H; Popova, E; Shin, D J; Yi, J Y; Kim, C H; Lee, J S; Yoon, M K; Engelmann, F


    This paper reviews a 10-year experience in establishing a cryopreserved Allium germplasm collection at the genebank of the National Agrobiodiversity Center, Republic of Korea. A systematic approach to Allium cryopreservation included: 1. revealing the most critical factors that affected regeneration after cryostorage; 2. understanding the mechanisms of cryoprotection by analyzing the thermal behavior of explants and cryoprotectant solutions using DSC and influx/efflux of cryoprotectants using HPLC; 3. assessing genetic stability of regenerants; and 4. revealing the efficiency of cryotherapy. Bulbil primordia, i.e. asexual bulbs formed on unripe inflorescences, proved to be the most suitable material for conservation of bolting varieties due to high post-cryopreservation regrowth and lower microbial infection level, followed by apical shoot apices from single bulbs and cloves. A total of 1,158 accessions of garlic as well as some Allium species have been cryopreserved during 2005-2010 using the droplet-vitrification technique with a mean regeneration percentage of 65.9 percent after cryostorage. These results open the door for large-scale implementation of cryostorage and for simplifying international exchange for clonal Allium germplasm.

  2. Semi-High Throughput Screening for Potential Drought-tolerance in Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) Germplasm Collections.

    Knepper, Caleb; Mou, Beiquan


    This protocol describes a method by which a large collection of the leafy green vegetable lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) germplasm was screened for likely drought-tolerance traits. Fresh water availability for agricultural use is a growing concern across the United States as well as many regions of the world. Short-term drought events along with regulatory intervention in the regulation of water availability coupled with the looming threat of long-term climate shifts that may lead to reduced precipitation in many important agricultural regions has increased the need to hasten the development of crops adapted for improved water use efficiency in order to maintain or expand production in the coming years. This protocol is not meant as a step-by-step guide to identifying at either the physiological or molecular level drought-tolerance traits in lettuce, but rather is a method developed and refined through the screening of thousands of different lettuce varieties. The nature of this screen is based in part on the streamlined measurements focusing on only three water-stress indicators: leaf relative water content, wilt, and differential plant growth following drought-stress. The purpose of rapidly screening a large germplasm collection is to narrow the candidate pool to a point in which more intensive physiological, molecular, and genetic methods can be applied to identify specific drought-tolerant traits in either the lab or field. Candidates can also be directly incorporated into breeding programs as a source of drought-tolerance traits.

  3. RAPD analysis of the genetic diversity of mango (Mangifera indica) germplasm in Brazil.

    Souza, I G B; Valente, S E S; Britto, F B; de Souza, V A B; Lima, P S C


    We evaluated genetic variability of mango (Mangifera indica) accessions maintained in the Active Germplasm Bank of Embrapa Meio-Norte in Teresina, Piauí, Brazil, using RAPDs. Among these accessions, 35 originated from plantings in Brazil, six from the USA and one from India. Genomic DNA, extracted from leaf material using a commercial purification kit, was subjected to PCR with the primers A01, A09, G03, G10, N05, and M16. Fifty-five polymorphic loci were identified, with mean of 9.16 ± 3.31 bands per primer and 100% polymorphism. Application of unweighted pair group method using arithmetic average cluster analysis demonstrated five genotypic groups among the accessions examined. The genotypes Rosa 41, Rosa 48 and Rosa 49 were highly similar (94% similarity), whereas genotypes Sensation and Rosa 18 were the most divergent (only 7% similarity). The mango accessions were found to have considerable genetic variability, demonstrating the importance of analyzing each genotype in a collection in order to efficiently maintain the germplasm collection.

  4. Resistance among cultivated sunflower germplasm to stem-infesting pests in the central Great Plains.

    Charlet, Laurence D; Aiken, Robert M; Miller, Jerry F; Seiler, Gerald J


    A 7-yr field study evaluated 61 oilseed sunflower, Helianthus annuus L., accessions and 31 interspecific crosses for resistance to attack by naturally occurring populations of three stem-infesting pests, the sunflower stem weevil, Cylindrocopturus adspersus (LeConte) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae); a longhorned beetle, Dectes texanus LeConte (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae); and a root boring moth, Pelochrista womonana (Kearfott) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), at two locations in the central Great Plains. Germplasm with potential sources of resistance to attack from all three stem-infesting species were revealed. Accessions PI 650558, PI 386230, and PI 431516 were consistent in averaging low densities of stem weevil larvae per stalk among lines tested, and PI 497939 exceeded 25 weevil larvae per stalk in only 1 yr of 5 yr of trials. Several interspecific crosses also had consistently low densities of C. adspersus larvae per stalk. Populations of both D. texanus and P. womonana were variable over years, but differences among the lines tested were evident in many trials, revealing potential for developing resistant germplasm. Four accessions (PI 386230, PI 431542, PI 650497, and PI 650558) had low larval densities of C. adspersus and P. womonana in addition to reduced percentage infestation by D. texanus. Results showed potential for developing resistant genotypes for these pests. The prospect of adding host plant resistance as an integrated pest management (IPM) tactic would provide another tool for reducing economic losses from stem-infesting insect pests of sunflower in the central Great Plains.

  5. Genetic diversity of a brazilian wine grape germplasm collection based on morphoagronomic traits

    Patrícia Coelho de S. Leão


    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to evaluate the performance of cultivars, to quantify the variability and to estimate the genetic distances of 66 wine grape accessions in the Grape Germplasm Bank of the EMBRAPA Semi-Arid, in Juazeiro, BA, Brazil, through the characterization of discrete and continuous phenotypic variables. Multivariate statistics, such as, principal components, Tocher's optimization procedure, and the graphic of the distance, were efficient in grouping more similar genotypes, according to their phenotypic characteristics. There was no agreement in the formation of groups between continuous and discrete morpho-agronomic traits, when Tocher's optimization procedure was used. Discrete variables allowed the separation of Vitis vinifera and hybrids in different groups. Significant positive correlations were observed between weight, length and width of bunches, and a negative correlation between titratable acidity and TSS/TTA. The major part (84.12% of the total variation present in the original data was explained by the four principal components. The results revealed little variability between wine grape accessions in the Grape Germplasm Bank of Embrapa Semi-Arid.

  6. PCR-DGGE Analysis: Unravelling Complex Mixtures of Badnavirus Sequences Present in Yam Germplasm.

    Turaki, Aliyu A; Bömer, Moritz; Silva, Gonçalo; Kumar, P Lava; Seal, Susan E


    Badnaviruses (family Caulimoviridae, genus Badnavirus) have emerged as serious pathogens especially affecting the cultivation of tropical crops. Badnavirus sequences can be integrated in host genomes, complicating the detection of episomal infections and the assessment of viral genetic diversity in samples containing a complex mixture of sequences. Yam (Dioscorea spp.) plants are hosts to a diverse range of badnavirus species, and recent findings have suggested that mixed infections occur frequently in West African yam germplasm. Historically, the determination of the diversity of badnaviruses present in yam breeding lines has been achieved by cloning and sequencing of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products. In this study, the molecular diversity of partial reverse transcriptase (RT)-ribonuclease H (RNaseH) sequences from yam badnaviruses was analysed using PCR-dependent denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). This resulted in the identification of complex 'fingerprints' composed of multiple sequences of Dioscorea bacilliform viruses (DBVs). Many of these sequences show high nucleotide identities to endogenous DBV (eDBV) sequences deposited in GenBank, and fall into six monophyletic species groups. Our findings highlight PCR-DGGE as a powerful tool in badnavirus diversity studies enabling a rapid indication of sequence diversity as well as potential candidate integrated sequences revealed by their conserved nature across germplasm.

  7. Assessment of genetic diversity among germplasm lines of horsegram (Macrotyloma uniflorum at Bijapur

    B.G. Prakash, Channayya. P. Hiremath, S.B. Devarnavdgi and P.M. Salimath


    Full Text Available In Northern dry zone of Karnataka lot of variability exists in horse gram crop as many farmers are growing local cultivarswhich are resistant to iron chlorosis and also to diseases and pest with high forage yield. In the present study, an attempt wasmade to assess the genetic divergence among the 100 germplasm lines using Mahalanobis D² statistic collected fromdifferent sources including local checks and the experiment was carried out during late Kharif season of 2009 at RARS,Bijapur. The observations were recorded on seed yield and its components. The 100 germplasm lines that were grouped intoeighteen different clusters based on D² analysis revealed that Cluster I was the largest with 19 genotypes followed by clusterIII (14 and cluster V (13. Cluster XII showed the maximum mean value for seed yield. The intra and inter clusterdivergence among the genotypes was varying in magnitude. Further it was implied that intra-cluster distance was maximumin cluster III followed by clusters XI and XIII. The widest inter cluster distance was noted between cluster XII and XVgiving scope for hybridization programme with improvement of genotypes. The distance between clusters X and V wasminimum indicating close relationship between those clusters.

  8. Quantitative Characterization of Nut Yield and Fruit Components in Indigenous Coconut Germplasm in Sri Lanka

    S. A. C. N. Perera


    Full Text Available Coconut (Cocos nucifera L. is a tropical palm offering multiple uses. Conservation of coconut germplasm has been undertaken globally in view of its economic importance. This research was designed to evaluate nine Sri Lankan indigenous coconut germplasm representing the three varieties Typica, Nana, and Aurantiaca. Total annual nut yield and the weights of fresh nut, husked nut, split nut, and fresh and dry kernel were scored and analyzed with analysis of variance. The annual average number of bunches varied from 14.9 to 16.8 which is significantly higher than the generally accepted 12–14 bunches in tall coconuts. The high potential of phenotypes Ran thembili and Gon thembili for kernel production was revealed. The high potential of Gon thembili, Sri Lanka Tall, and Ran thembili to produce fibre was also identified. Phenotypes Ran thembili and Gon thembili displayed their potential as pure cultivars and as parents in hybridization. King coconut, Red dwarf, and Bodiri were shown to be suitable as beverage coconuts due to the high production of nuts, bunches, and the quantity of nut water. This study reiterated the importance of conservation and characterization of indigenous coconut varieties globally for their effective use in the genetic improvement of the coconut palm.

  9. Variation and Correlations among European and North American Orchardgrass Germplasm for Herbage Yield and Nutritive Value

    Joseph G. Robins


    Full Text Available Efforts to improve water-soluble carbohydrate (WSC concentrations are common in perennial forage grass breeding. Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne breeding has been very successful in developing new cultivars with high WSC and high agronomic performance. Breeding efforts are ongoing to improve the WSC of other perennial forage grasses, such as orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata. The United States Department of Agriculture Forage and Range and Deutsche Saatveredelung orchardgrass breeding programs cooperated to characterize the expression and genotype by environment interaction (GEI of water-soluble carbohydrates in a collection of orchardgrass populations from both breeding programs. Additionally, the effort characterized the relationship between water-soluble carbohydrates and other agronomic and nutritive value traits in these populations. Overall, the Deutsche Saatveredelung populations had higher herbage mass (15%, rust resistance (59%, and later maturity. The Forage and Range Research populations had higher water-soluble carbohydrates (4%, nutritive value, and earlier maturity. However, results were highly dependent on GEI. Differences were very pronounced at the French and German field locations, but less pronounced at the two US locations. Combining the germplasm from the Forage and Range Research and Deutsche Saatveredelung programs may be a way to develop an improved base germplasm source that could then be used separately in the EU and US for water-soluble carbohydrate and other trait improvement.

  10. Genetic structure from the oldest Jatropha germplasm bank of Brazil and contribution for the genetic improvement


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Jatropha is a potential oilseed crop, which requires mitigating factors such as the low genetic variability of the species. The solution runs through the research of Brazilian germplasm. Attention should be given to the germplasm of jatropha the north of Minas Gerais, because this is the oldest national collection and because this region may be a regions of jatropha diversity due to selection pressure arising from environmental adversities. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the genetic diversity of 48 accessions of collection from Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuária de Minas Gerais (EPAMIG, using SSR and ISSR markers. The results showed low genetic diversity, but some individuals stood out as J. mollissima (48, J. podagrica (47, Mexican accessions (42, 43, 44 and 45 and some national accessions (28, 29, 41 and 46. Therefore, aiming to increase the genetic variability and improve the effectiveness of jatropha breeding programs, it is suggested to explore such as parental accessions to generate commercial hybrids. This fact implies the possibility to support future production of jatropha, since this culture may be an important source of income, especially for small farmers living in semiarid regions of Brazil.

  11. Nutritional and antinutritional attributes of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) germplasms growing in Bihar, India.

    Kumar, Amresh; Nidhi; Prasad, N; Sinha, Subodh Kumar


    Eleven germplasms of faba bean seeds from four agroclimatic regions of Bihar, India, have been investigated to estimate their nutritional (soluble protein, free amino acids, starch, reducing and non reducing sugar, total soluble sugar) and antinutritional (total extractable phenol and condensed tannin/proanthocyanidin) parameters. These parameters were found in varying concentration in all genotypes studied. The highest concentration of total extractable phenol and proanthocyanidin (condensed tannin) (2.56 and 1.59 % leucocyanidin equivalents respectively on dry matter basis) were found in Samastipur while the lowest from Patna (0.95 and 0.426 % leucocyanidin equivalent on dry matter basis). The different nutritional parameters were also found to be in variable concentration among different germplasms viz. total soluble protein ≈ 20-32 %, free amino acids ≈ 188-348 mg/100 g, starch ≈ 27-33 %, reducing sugars ≈ 85-188 mg/100 g, non reducing sugars ≈ 0.7-1.7 % and total soluble sugars ≈ 0.8-1.9 %.

  12. Molecular characterisation of a germplasm bank for Theobroma genus using the RAPD technique

    Yovany Moreno


    Full Text Available RAPD markers (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA were used for analysing 145 individuals (128 T. grandiflorum and 17 T. bicolor from the ex situ Theobroma genus germplasm bank at Instituto Sinchi, located at San José del Guaviare. 5 primers able to generated polymorphism were selected from an initial set of 20, generating 114 bands that enable to us to distinguish between more than 99% of individuals analysed: 57 bands for T. grandiflorum (84.2% polymorphic, 45 bands for T. bicolor (26.7% polymorphic and 12 bands shared between the two species (58.3% polymorphic. A high degree of intra-specific similarity particularly in T. bicolor was established from the similarity matrix obtained by using the Dice index and represented in a UPGMA dendrogram and the principal components analysis (PCA. The comparison of this analysis with a previous morpho-agronomic evaluation of some T. grandiflorum individuals revealed that the groups generated on the basis of its agronomic and morphological traits were heterogeneous at molecular level. The obtained information will be used as a tool in strategies regarding maintenance, enrichment and use of the germplasm bank. Key words: Theobroma grandiflorum, Theobroma bicolour, RAPD, molecular characterisation.

  13. Comparison of accessions from the UK and US national pear germplasm collections with a standardized set of microsatellite markers

    A standardized set of 12 microsatellite markers, previously agreed upon following an ECP/GR workshop in 2006, was used to screen accessions from the UK National Pear Collection at Brogdale and from the US National Pear Germplasm Repository (NCGR), Corvallis. Eight standard varieties were chosen from...

  14. Characterization of low-strigolactone germplasm in pea (Pisum sativum L.) resistant to crenate broomrape (Orobanche crenata Forsk.)

    Pavan, Stefano; Schiavulli, Adalgisa; Marcotrigiano, Angelo Raffaele; Bardaro, Nicoletta; Bracuto, Valentina; Ricciardi, Francesca; Charnikhova, Tatsiana; Lotti, Concetta; Bouwmeester, Harro; Ricciardi, Luigi


    Crenate broomrape (Orobanche crenata Forsk.) is a devastating parasitic weed threatening the cultivation of legumes around the Mediterranean and in theMiddle East. So far, only moderate levels of resistance were reported to occur in pea (Pisum sativum L.) natural germplasm, and most commercial cu

  15. Evaluation of fall armyworm resistance in maize germplasm lines using visual leaf injury rating and predator survey

    After examining ear-colonizing pest resistance, 20 maize lines from the USDA-ARS germplasm enhancement of Maize (GEM) Program were evaluated for whorl-feeding fall armyworm (FAW) (Spodoptera frugiperda) resistance using four maize inbred lines as the resistant and susceptible controls. Both FAW inju...

  16. Registration of SR98 sugar beet germplasm with resistances to Rhizoctonia seedling and crown and root rot diseases

    Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) germplasms SR98 (PI 655951) and SR98/2 (659754) are being released as potential pollinators or populations from which to select pollinators for hybrid seed production, and were developed by the USDA-ARS, at East Lansing, MI, in cooperation with the Beet Sugar Developmen...

  17. Polycross populations of the native grass Festuca roemeri as pre-varietal germplasm: their derivation, release, increase, and use

    Dale C. Darris; Barbara L. Wilson; Rob Fiegener; Randy Johnson; Matthew E. Horning


    Results of a recent common-garden study provide evidence needed to delineate appropriate seed transfer zones for the native grass Festuca roemeri (Pavlick) E. B. Alexeev (Poaceae). That information has been used to develop pre-variety germplasm releases to provide ecologically and genetically appropriate seeds for habitat restoration, erosion...

  18. Registration of DT99-16864 soybean germplasm line with moderate resistance to charcoal rot [Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid

    Charcoal rot, caused by Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goidanich, is a disease that is a world-wide problem in soybean production for which no highly resistant cultivars are currently available. Soybean germplasm line DT99-16864, a maturity group V line, was developed by the U.S. Department of Ag...

  19. Total leaf crude protein, amino acid composition and elemental content in the USDA-ARS bamboo germplasm collection

    Bamboo shoots and leaves are valuable food sources for both humans and livestock. The USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) collections hold 93 bamboo species in 20 genera. Total leaf protein, amino acid composition and elemental content for these important genetic resources had never bee...

  20. The FIGS (focused identification of germplasm strategy) approach identifies traits related to drought adaptation in Vicia faba genetic resources.

    Khazaei, Hamid; Street, Kenneth; Bari, Abdallah; Mackay, Michael; Stoddard, Frederick L


    Efficient methods to explore plant agro-biodiversity for climate change adaptive traits are urgently required. The focused identification of germplasm strategy (FIGS) is one such approach. FIGS works on the premise that germplasm is likely to reflect the selection pressures of the environment in which it developed. Environmental parameters describing plant germplasm collection sites are used as selection criteria to improve the probability of uncovering useful variation. This study was designed to test the effectiveness of FIGS to search a large faba bean (Vicia faba L.) collection for traits related to drought adaptation. Two sets of faba bean accessions were created, one from moisture-limited environments, and the other from wetter sites. The two sets were grown under well watered conditions and leaf morpho-physiological traits related to plant water use were measured. Machine-learning algorithms split the accessions into two groups based on the evaluation data and the groups created by this process were compared to the original climate-based FIGS sets. The sets defined by trait data were in almost perfect agreement to the FIGS sets, demonstrating that ecotypic differentiation driven by moisture availability has occurred within the faba bean genepool. Leaflet and canopy temperature as well as relative water content contributed more than other traits to the discrimination between sets, indicating that their utility as drought-tolerance selection criteria for faba bean germplasm. This study supports the assertion that FIGS could be an effective tool to enhance the discovery of new genes for abiotic stress adaptation.

  1. Target region amplification polymorphism (TRAP) for assessing genetic diversity and marker-trait associations in chickpea (Cicer arietinum l.) germplasm

    Utilization of crop diversity held in genebanks is dependent on knowledge of useful traits including those identified genotypically. Target region amplification polymorphism (TRAP) markers were used to evaluate the genetic diversity and relationship among a sample of 263 chickpea landrace germplasm ...

  2. The Germplasm Enhancement of Maize (GEM) project: A Public-Private Partnership (PPP) to increase genetic diversity in US maize

    The Germplasm Enhancement of Maize (GEM) Project is a mission-oriented, cooperative research effort of the United States Department of Agriculture – Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS), land grant universities, private industry, and international agricultural research centers to broaden the ger...

  3. Microsatellite Fingerprinting of the USDA-ARS Tropical Agriculture Research Station Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) Germplasm Collection.

    Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) is an important cash crop in many tropical countries. Cacao accessions must be propagated vegetatively to conserve genetic integrity due to its allogamous nature and its seed recalcitrance. Therefore, cacao germplasm is usually maintained as living trees in field collect...

  4. Ploidy level and genomic composition of the USDA-ARS Tropical Agriculture Research Station Musa sp. Germplasm Collection

    Plant germplasm collections serve as repositories for important genes. However, insufficient and inaccurate characterization of the genetic diversity in a collection slows and can prevent full utilization of these collections to maximum potential. Bananas and plantains (Musa sp., Colla) are some o...

  5. Duplication in the Domestica Apple Collection within the USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System in Geneva, New York

    The USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System maintains more than 1300 named accessions of Malus x domestica in a field collection in Geneva, NY. Seven microsatellite markers (GD12, GD15, GD96, GD103, GD142, GD147, GD162) were used to identify duplicates within a set of 1240 domestica accessions with...

  6. Identification of wild apple germplasm (Malus spp.) with resistance to the postharvest decay pathogens Penicillium expansum and Colletotrichum acutatum

    Penicillium expansum and Colletotrichum acutatum cause blue mold and bitter rot of apples during storage which results in significant economic losses. Resistance to these pathogens in commercial apple cultivars has not been documented in the literature. An apple germplasm collection, from the center...

  7. Wound response and ROS production in blue mold resistant wild apple germplasm from Kazakhstan and central Asia

    Blue mold caused by Penicillium expansum is the most destructive pathogen of stored apples in the US and worldwide. It was recently shown that resistance to blue mold exists in wild apples, Malus sieversii, from Kazakhstan and central Asia maintained in a germplasm collection in Geneva, NY. We ini...

  8. Cereal cyst nematode screening in locally adapted spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) germplasm of the Pacific Northwest, 2015

    Field screenings were performed to determine if there is resistance to Heterodera filipjevi in locally adapted wheat germplasm which could be introgressed into new WA wheat varieties. A field naturally infested with Heterodera filipjevi located in Colton, WA, was selected for this experiment. Cultiv...

  9. Registration of two confection sunflower germplasm Lines, HA-R10 and HA-R11, Resistant to sunflower rust

    Two confection sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) germplasm lines, HA-R10 (Reg., PI670043) and HA-R11 (Reg., PI670044) were developed by the USDA-ARS Sunflower and Plant Biology Research Unit in collaboration with the North Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station and released December, 20...

  10. Registration of a male fertility restorer oilseed sunflower germplasm HA-R9 resistant to sunflower rust

    The sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) germplasm HA-R9 (Reg., PI 667595) was developed by the USDA-ARS, Sunflower and Plant Biology Research Unit in collaboration with the Agricultural Experiment Station of North Dakota State University and released in January, 2013. Sunflower rust (caused by P...

  11. Registration of two double rust resistant germplasms, HA-R12 and HA-R13 for confection sunflower

    The confection sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) germplasms HA-R12 (Reg. No. ______, PI 673104) and HA-R13 (Reg. No. ______, PI 673105) were developed by the USDA-ARS, Sunflower and Plant Biology Research Unit in collaboration with the North Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station, and released in Jul...

  12. Registration of G07-6012 and G07-6029 soybean germplasm which derive 50% pedigree from wild soybean

    Two soybean germplasm lines, G07-6012 and G07-6029 were developed and released by the Univ. of Georgia Agricultural Experiment Stations. Both G07-6012 and G07-6029 are agronomic F4-derived lines from the hybridization of cultivar ‘N7103’ x Plant Introduction (PI) 366122, a wild soybean accession [G....

  13. Cryopreservation of the germplasm of animals used in biological and medical research: importance, impact, status, and future directions.

    Mazur, Peter; Leibo, S P; Seidel, George E


    Molecular genetics and developmental biology have created thousands of new strains of laboratory animals, including rodents, Drosophila, and zebrafish. This process will accelerate. A decreasing fraction can be maintained as breeding colonies; hence, the others will be lost irretrievably unless their germplasm can be cryopreserved. Because of the increasingly critical role of cryopreservation, and because of wide differences in the success with which various forms of germplasm can be cryopreserved in various species, the National Institutes of Health National Center for Research Resources held a workshop on April 10-11, 2007, titled "Achieving High-Throughput Repositories for Biomedical Germplasm Preservation." The species of concern were mouse, rat, domestic swine, rhesus monkey, and zebrafish. Our review/commentary has several purposes. The first is to summarize the status of the cryopreservation of germplasm from these species as assessed in the workshop. The second is to discuss the nature of the major underlying problems when survivals are poor or highly variable and possible ways of addressing them. Third is to emphasize the importance of a balance between fundamental and applied research in the process. Finally, we assess and comment on the factors to be considered in transferring from a base of scientific information to maximally cost-effective processes for the preservation of this germplasm in repositories. With respect to the first purpose, we discuss the three methods of preservation in use: slow equilibrium freezing, rapid nonequilibrium vitrification, and the use of intracytoplasmic sperm injection to achieve fertilization with sperm rendered nonviable by other preservation treatments. With respect to the last purpose, we comment on and concur with the workshop's recommendations that cryopreservation largely be conducted by large, centralized repositories, and that both sperm (low front-end but high rederivation costs) and embryos (high front-end but

  14. Genetic Vulnerability and the Relationship of Commercial Germplasms of Maize in Brazil with the Nested Association Mapping Parents.

    Andrade, Luciano Rogério Braatz de; Fritsche Neto, Roberto; Granato, Ítalo Stefanine Correia; Sant'Ana, Gustavo César; Morais, Pedro Patric Pinho; Borém, Aluízio


    A few breeding companies dominate the maize (Zea mays L.) hybrid market in Brazil: Monsanto® (35%), DuPont Pioneer® (30%), Dow Agrosciences® (15%), Syngenta® (10%) and Helix Sementes (4%). Therefore, it is important to monitor the genetic diversity in commercial germplasms as breeding practices, registration and marketing of new cultivars can lead to a significant reduction of the genetic diversity. Reduced genetic variation may lead to crop vulnerabilities, food insecurity and limited genetic gains following selection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genetic vulnerability risk by examining the relationship between the commercial Brazilian maize germplasms and the Nested Association Mapping (NAM) Parents. For this purpose, we used the commercial hybrids with the largest market share in Brazil and the NAM parents. The hybrids were genotyped for 768 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), using the Illumina Goldengate® platform. The NAM parent genomic data, comprising 1,536 SNPs for each line, were obtained from the Panzea data bank. The population structure, genetic diversity and the correlation between allele frequencies were analyzed. Based on the estimated effective population size and genetic variability, it was found that there is a low risk of genetic vulnerability in the commercial Brazilian maize germplasms. However, the genetic diversity is lower than those found in the NAM parents. Furthermore, the Brazilian germplasms presented no close relations with most NAM parents, except B73. This indicates that B73, or its heterotic group (Iowa Stiff Stalk Synthetic), contributed to the development of the commercial Brazilian germplasms.

  15. In Vitro Germplasm Conservation of Garcinia mangostana L. and Lansium domesticum Corr.

    Wararat KEATMETHA


    Full Text Available The in vitro germplasm conservation of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L. and longkong (Lansium domesticum Corr. was investigated by suppression of shoot growth using growth retardants and increasing the osmotic potential of culture medium. Abscisic acid (ABA at 2 mg/l affected to suppress shoot growth of mangosteen and longkong more than paclobutrazol. Although shoot growth of both plants was consequently inhibited for 12 months of conservation, the regrowth ability was successfully obtained when transferred to proliferation medium. Besides, increasing the concentration of agar up to 14 g/l was found to be more effective to suppress shoot growth of mangosteen and longkong by treatment of tissue desiccation. Severe succulence of mangosteen shoot was observed when shoots were cultured in a medium containing mannitol.

  16. Simple Sequence Repeat Polymorphisms (SSRPs for Evaluation of Molecular Diversity and Germplasm Classification of Minor Crops

    Nam-Soo Kim


    Full Text Available Evaluation of the genetic diversity among populations is an essential prerequisite for the preservation of endangered species. Thousands of new accessions are introduced into germplasm institutes each year, thereby necessitating assessment of their molecular diversity before elimination of the redundant genotypes. Of the protocols that facilitate the assessment of molecular diversity, SSRPs (simple sequence repeat polymorphisms or microsatellite variation is the preferred system since it detects a large number of DNA polymorphisms with relatively simple technical complexity. The paucity of information on DNA sequences has limited their widespread utilization in the assessment of genetic diversity of minor or neglected crop species. However, recent advancements in DNA sequencing and PCR technologies in conjunction with sophisticated computer software have facilitated the development of SSRP markers in minor crops. This review examines the development and molecular nature of SSR markers, and their utilization in many aspects of plant genetics and ecology.

  17. Protein and quality analyses of accessions from the USDA soybean germplasm collection for tofu production.

    Meng, Shi; Chang, Sam; Gillen, Anne M; Zhang, Yan


    Food-grade soybeans with large seed size, uniformity, clear hilum and a high 11S/7S ratio are favoured by the food industry for making tofu. In order to search for soybean lines with desirable characteristics for making foods, 22 soybean lines were selected from the USDA-Soybean Germplasm Collection, were grown in Stoneville, MS for biochemical analysis and tofu texture and sensory quality tests. Eight lines were identified, from 22 lines harvested in 2014, to be suitable for tofu making, as judged by chemical composition and sensory quality of pressed tofu. In the filled tofu making and texture analysis study, the correlation between A3 subunit content and filled tofu firmness was significant (N=22, r=0.77, Psoybean genotypes for improving food quality.

  18. Effect of two different germplasm of Mucuna pruriens seed extracts against some fish pathogens

    M. Marimuthu M


    Full Text Available To investigate the two different germplasm of Mucuna seeds were collected from agro geographical regions was evaluated for its antibacterial activities. Antibacterial activity of the seed extracts was studied against the fish pathogens of Aeromonas hydrophila, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Vibrio cholera and Klebsiella pneumonia using agar well diffusion method. Results showed that methanol and ethanol extracts showed more potent antibacterial activity than other solvent extracts. The results were expressed as mean ± SD. The results obtained in the study shows that velvet bean black seed extract has more antibacterial activity against fish pathogens. The antibacterial activity of all the Mucuna seed extracts are comparable ad their potential as alternative in the treatment of infectious by these microorganisms was present in the fish. Susceptibility testing is conducted on isolates using drug selected on the basis of their importance to human medicine and use I fish production.

  19. Evaluation of Germplasm Using SSR Markers of Functional Genes in Rice

    ZHAO Yong; YANG Kai; Akbar Ali Cheema; WENG Yue-jin


    16 SSR (Simple sequence repeats) primers of functional genes in rice were used to detect genetic diversity among 23 accessions of rice germplasm from 5 countries in the world. The average number of alleles per SSR locus was 5.2 with a range from 2 to 10. Genetic similarities among the 23 rice accessions ranged from 0.13 to 0.64. UPGMA cluster analysis showed that the 23 rice accessions could be classified into two distinct classes at similarities with a coefficient of 0.13. The Japonicas from Brazil, Japan and China were classified into Class I, along with upland rice from Brazil. The Indicas from Pakistan and Korea were classified into Class Ⅱ. Consequently, the function of genes SSR markers could be used as a useful tool for measuring genetic diversity, assigning rice to geographical distribution, ecotype, and pedigree relationship.

  20. Screening of soybean germplasm for high inorganic phosphorus and low phytic acid

    S. Abirami, A. Kalamani and T. Kalaimagal


    Full Text Available Phytic acid, is the major storage form of phosphorus in soybean [Glycine max (L. Merr.] which comprises 75% of total seed phosphorus. It decreases the availability of some essential elements via bonding between the negatively charged phytic acid and the positively charged elements. Thus, diets high in phytate may lead to nutrient deficiencies. So, identification of lines with low phytic acid is of paramount importance. A germplasm survey was conducted among 250 soybean accessions to identify the accessions with low phytic acid. Phytic acid content ranged between 0.84 and 7.07 mg/ g of soy flour. The genotypes with low phytic acid content viz., Williams, Williams 82, CNS – AVRDC line, RKS 52 and NRC 66 may be useful in breeding programs for the development of low phytic acid genotypes with improved nutritional value to overcome nutritional deficiency syndromes and meet the demand of biofortification.

  1. Assessment of the Genetic Diversity of Pummelo Germplasms Using AFLP and SSR Markers


    The genetic diversities of 110 pummelo germplasms and 12 of their relatives were analyzed by SSR and AFLP methods. Approximately 99.1% of the 335 SSR loci were polymorphic, and 9.85 alleles per SSR locus were identified. The gene diversity values changed from 0.1939 to 0.9073, and 46 SSR polymorphic bands were scored. 72% of the 343 AFLP loci were polymorphic, and 82 polymorphic loci per AFLP were identified. Heterozygosity changed from 0.21863 to 0.28445,and 44 AFLP polymorphic bands were scored. The UPGMA result showed that 122 pummelo genotypes and their relatives could be divided into eight groups, and the pummelo genotypes composed mainly of Shatian pummelo varieties group,Wendan pummelo vareties group and a huge hybrid pummelo varieties group. The classification result was expected to widen the genetic background of pummelos using various target varieties.

  2. Analysis of wild sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. germplasm diversity in south-east Serbia

    Mratinić Evica


    Full Text Available Ten wild growing sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. genotypes from South-East Serbia with different fruit skin color were analyzed for its phenological, morphological and chemical traits. Agronomic evaluation of germplasm accessions revealed considerable diversity among different accessions for all the characters studied. The analysis of variance revealed significant differences among all genotypes for almost all examined properties. Cluster analysis showed adequate grouping of wild sweet cherry genotypes according to pomological characterization and distinguished them into two distinct groups. The first group had two subgroups and consisted of seven genotypes, while the second one included only three accessions. Despite of the significant differences among genotypes, the total concentration of phenols made a clear separation between the clusters. The level of genetic diversity in these wild sweet cherry genotypes is very high and therefore these trees are useful sources of variability for attributes studied and can be employed in further breeding programs or conservation.

  3. Genetic divergence among Brazilian turmeric germplasm using morpho-agronomical descriptors

    Mário Sérgio Sigrist


    Full Text Available Turmeric (Curcuma longa L. is a vegetatively-propagated crop which is used as a natural dye in the food industryand also presents many biological active compounds. Turmeric conventional breeding is difficult and often limited to germplasmselection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genetic divergence among turmeric accessions available in Brazil using sevenmorpho-agronomical descriptors. Overall genetic divergence was low, although some divergent genotypes were identified. Fourmain groups of genotypes were identified and could be further used in breeding programs. Canonical variable analysis suggestedthat some descriptors were more important to discriminate accessions and also that one of the descriptors could be discarded. Theresults provided useful insights for better management of the germplasm collection, optimizing conservational and breeding efforts.

  4. A novel method for conserving cowpea germplasm and breeding stocks using solar disinfestation

    Ntoukam, G.; Kitch, L.W.; Shade, R.E.; Murdock, L.L. [Purdue Univ., Entomology Dept., Lafayette, IN (United States)


    Experiments conducted in Maroua, Cameroon, demonstrated that a large 50-kg-capacity solar heater can be used to successfully eradicate infestations of Callosobruchus maculatus from cowpea seeds kept in small, transparent Minigrip zip lock plastic bags. Temperatures produced inside the heater were sufficient to kill all developing insects living within infested cowpea seeds. Small, transparent ziplock plastic bags are useful seed storage containers for short-term cowpea germplasm collections and are easily inspected during storage following solar disinfestation. Published reports indicate that temperatures of up to 85{sup o}C do not adversely affect seed germination, germination rates, or seeding viability. These temperature and biological experiments provide evidence that the solar heater technique can serve as an effective and practical means to improve the short-term storage of cowpea seeds in developing country national agricultural research programs. (author)

  5. Sample size for collecting germplasms – a polyploid model with mixed mating system

    R L Sapra; Prem Narain; S V S Chauhan; S K Lal; B B Singh


    The present paper discusses a general expression for determining the minimum sample size (plants) for a given number of seeds or vice versa for capturing multiple allelic diversity. The model considers sampling from a large 2 k-ploid population under a broad range of mating systems. Numerous expressions/results developed for germplasm collection/regeneration for diploid populations by earlier workers can be directly deduced from our general expression by assigning appropriate values of the corresponding parameters. A seed factor which influences the plant sample size has also been isolated to aid the collectors in selecting the appropriate combination of number of plants and seeds per plant. When genotypic multiplicity of seeds is taken into consideration, a sample size of even less than 172 plants can conserve diversity of 20 alleles from 50,000 polymorphic loci with a very large probability of conservation (0.9999) in most of the cases.

  6. Exploring Potential of Pearl Millet Germplasm Association Panel for Association Mapping of Drought Tolerance Traits

    Sehgal, Deepmala; Skot, Leif; Singh, Richa; Srivastava, Rakesh Kumar; Das, Sankar Prasad; Taunk, Jyoti; Sharma, Parbodh C.; Pal, Ram; Raj, Bhasker; Hash, Charles T.; Yadav, Rattan S.


    A pearl millet inbred germplasm association panel (PMiGAP) comprising 250 inbred lines, representative of cultivated germplasm from Africa and Asia, elite improved open-pollinated cultivars, hybrid parental inbreds and inbred mapping population parents, was recently established. This study presents the first report of genetic diversity in PMiGAP and its exploitation for association mapping of drought tolerance traits. For diversity and genetic structure analysis, PMiGAP was genotyped with 37 SSR and CISP markers representing all seven linkage groups. For association analysis, it was phenotyped for yield and yield components and morpho-physiological traits under both well-watered and drought conditions, and genotyped with SNPs and InDels from seventeen genes underlying a major validated drought tolerance (DT) QTL. The average gene diversity in PMiGAP was 0.54. The STRUCTURE analysis revealed six subpopulations within PMiGAP. Significant associations were obtained for 22 SNPs and 3 InDels from 13 genes under different treatments. Seven SNPs associations from 5 genes were common under irrigated and one of the drought stress treatments. Most significantly, an important SNP in putative acetyl CoA carboxylase gene showed constitutive association with grain yield, grain harvest index and panicle yield under all treatments. An InDel in putative chlorophyll a/b binding protein gene was significantly associated with both stay-green and grain yield traits under drought stress. This can be used as a functional marker for selecting high yielding genotypes with ‘stay green’ phenotype under drought stress. The present study identified useful marker-trait associations of important agronomics traits under irrigated and drought stress conditions with genes underlying a major validated DT-QTL in pearl millet. Results suggest that PMiGAP is a useful panel for association mapping. Expression patterns of genes also shed light on some physiological mechanisms underlying pearl millet

  7. Natural variation of folate content and composition in spinach (Spinacia oleracea) germplasm.

    Shohag, M J I; Wei, Yan-yan; Yu, Ning; Zhang, Jie; Wang, Kai; Patring, Johan; He, Zhen-li; Yang, Xiao-e


    Breeding to increase folate levels in edible parts of plants, termed folate biofortification, is an economical approach to fight against folate deficiency in humans, especially in the developing world. Germplasm with elevated folates are a useful genetic source for both breeding and direct use. Spinach is one of the well-know vegetables that contains a relatively high amount of folate. Currently, little is known about how much folate, and their composition varies in different spinach accessions. The aim of this study was to investigate natural variation in the folate content and composition of spinach genotypes grown under controlled environmental conditions. The folate content and composition in 67 spinach accessions were collected from the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and Asian Vegetable Research and Development Center (AVRDC) germplasm collections according to their origin, grown under control conditions to screen for natural diversity. Folates were extracted by a monoenzyme treatment and analyzed by a validated liquid chromatography (LC) method. The total folate content ranged from 54.1 to 173.2 μg/100 g of fresh weight, with 3.2-fold variation, and was accession-dependent. Four spinach accessions (PI 499372, NSL 6095, PI 261787, and TOT7337-B) have been identified as enriched folate content over 150 μg/100 g of fresh weight. The folate forms found were H(4)-folate, 5-CH(3)-H(4)-folate, and 5-HCO-H(4)-folate, and 10-CHO-folic acid also varied among different accessions and was responsible for variation in the total folate content. The major folate vitamer was represented by 5-CH(3)-H(4)-folate, which on average accounted for up to 52% of the total folate pool. The large variation in the total folate content and composition in diverse spinach accessions demonstrates the great genetic potential of diverse genotypes to be exploited by plant breeders.

  8. Developing single nucleotide polymorphism markers for the identification of pineapple (Ananas comosus) germplasm.

    Zhou, Lin; Matsumoto, Tracie; Tan, Hua-Wei; Meinhardt, Lyndel W; Mischke, Sue; Wang, Boyi; Zhang, Dapeng


    Pineapple (Ananas comosus [L.] Merr.) is the third most important tropical fruit in the world after banana and mango. As a crop with vegetative propagation, genetic redundancy is a major challenge for efficient genebank management and in breeding. Using expressed sequence tag and nucleotide sequences from public databases, we developed 213 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers and validated 96 SNPs by genotyping the United States Department of Agriculture - Agricultural Research Service pineapple germplasm collection, maintained in Hilo, Hawaii. The validation resulted in designation of a set of 57 polymorphic SNP markers that revealed a high rate of duplicates in this pineapple collection. Twenty-four groups of duplicates were detected, encompassing 130 of the total 170 A cosmos accessions. The results show that somatic mutation has been the main source of intra-cultivar variations in pineapple. Multivariate clustering and a model-based population stratification suggest that the modern pineapple cultivars are comprised of progenies that are derived from different wild Ananas botanical varieties. Parentage analysis further revealed that both A. comosus var. bracteatus and A. comosus var. ananassoides are likely progenitors of pineapple cultivars. However, the traditional classification of cultivated pineapple into horticultural groups (e.g. 'Cayenne', 'Spanish', 'Queen') was not well supported by the present study. These SNP markers provide robust and universally comparable DNA fingerprints; thus, they can serve as an efficient genotyping tool to assist pineapple germplasm management, propagation of planting material, and pineapple cultivar protection. The high rate of genetic redundancy detected in this pineapple collection suggests the potential impact of applying this technology on other clonally propagated perennial crops.

  9. Mini core germplasm collections for infusing genetic diversity in plant breeding programs

    Hari D Upadhyaya*, Devvart Yadav, Naresh Dronavalli, CLL Gowda, and Sube Singh


    Full Text Available Plant genetic resources are essential components to meet future food security needs of world. Crop germplasm diversitycontributes to developing improved crop cultivars aimed at increasing crop productivity. The large size of germplasmcollections, coupled with unavailability of detailed data and information, has resulted in low use (<1% of germplasmleading to a narrow genetic base in many crops. The miniaturization of crop collections with almost full representation ofgenetic diversity in the form of mini core (~1% of the entire collection approach is an effective methodology to enrichand enhance crop improvement programs. The concept and process of developing mini core at The International CropsResearch Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT has been recognized worldwide as an “International PublicGood” (IPG. The mini core provides a means for accessing the larger collections for further exploration and also helps inproper assessment of genetic diversity and population structure and for association mapping and targeted gene mining.Use of mini core approach will lead to greater utilization of diverse germplasm for developing broad-based cultivars,especially in the context of climate change. Many national programs have shown immense interest in evaluating minicore as reflected by the supply of 114 sets of mini core of chickpea, groundnut, pigeonpea, sorghum, pearl millet, foxtailmillet and finger millet to researchers in 14 countries. Scientists have been able to identify new and diverse sources ofvariation for morpho-agronomic, quality, biotic, and abiotic stress resistance traits in various crops. The molecularcharacterization of the mini core will further enhance its use in plant breeding programs.

  10. SNP typing for germplasm identification of Amomum villosum Lour. Based on DNA barcoding markers.

    Qionglin Huang

    Full Text Available Amomum villosum Lour., produced from Yangchun, Guangdong Province, China, is a Daodi medicinal material of Amomi Fructus in traditional Chinese medicine. This herb germplasm should be accurately identified and collected to ensure its quality and safety in medication. In the present study, single nucleotide polymorphism typing method was evaluated on the basis of DNA barcoding markers to identify the germplasm of Amomi Fructus. Genomic DNA was extracted from the leaves of 29 landraces representing three Amomum species (A. villosum Lour., A. xanthioides Wall. ex Baker and A. longiligulare T. L. Wu by using the CTAB method. Six barcoding markers (ITS, ITS2, LSU D1-D3, matK, rbcL and trnH-psbA were PCR amplified and sequenced; SNP typing and phylogenetic analysis were performed to differentiate the landraces. Results showed that high-quality bidirectional sequences were acquired for five candidate regions (ITS, ITS2, LSU D1-D3, matK, and rbcL except trnH-psbA. Three ribosomal regions, namely, ITS, ITS2, and LSU D1-D3, contained more SNP genotypes (STs than the plastid genes rbcL and matK. In the 29 specimens, 19 STs were detected from the combination of four regions (ITS, LSU D1-D3, rbcL, and matK. Phylogenetic analysis results further revealed two clades. Minimum-spanning tree demonstrated the existence of two main groups: group I was consisting of 9 STs (ST1-8 and ST11 of A. villosum Lour., and group II was composed of 3 STs (ST16-18 of A. longiligulare T.L. Wu. Our results suggested that ITS and LSU D1-D3 should be incorporated with the core barcodes rbcL and matK. The four combined regions could be used as a multiregional DNA barcode to precisely differentiate the Amomi Fructus landraces in different producing areas.

  11. Cotton Germplasm: Resources and Tools for Characterization%棉花种质:资源和鉴定的工具

    A. Ed. PERCIVAL; Russell J. KOHEL; John Z. YU


    @@ Future improvement of cotton has met new challenges that require integrated tools to characterize existing genetic resources.Fragmentary data and information on germplasm characterization need to be coordinated into an integrated whole.

  12. 燕麦种质资源研究进展%Research Progress of Avena sativa L.Germplasm Resource

    李颖; 毛培胜


    Researches about Avena saliva L. Germplasm for over a decade at home and abroad was reviewed from aspects of germplasm collection, preservation, evaluation, utilization, and molecular genetics. The problems in the current researches were discussed and the prospect was forecasted so as to offer some reference for research of A. Saliva in China.%主要从燕麦(Avena sativa L.)种质资源的收集与保存、评价、利用、分子遗传学研究等方面对近十几年来国内外对燕麦种质资源的研究进行了简要综述,并对我国目前燕麦研究中的问题进行了探讨并作出展望,以期为我国燕麦研究提供参考.

  13. Determination of genetic structure of germplasm collections: are traditional hierarchical clustering methods appropriate for molecular marker data?

    Odong, T L; van Heerwaarden, J; Jansen, J; van Hintum, T J L; van Eeuwijk, F A


    Despite the availability of newer approaches, traditional hierarchical clustering remains very popular in genetic diversity studies in plants. However, little is known about its suitability for molecular marker data. We studied the performance of traditional hierarchical clustering techniques using real and simulated molecular marker data. Our study also compared the performance of traditional hierarchical clustering with model-based clustering (STRUCTURE). We showed that the cophenetic correlation coefficient is directly related to subgroup differentiation and can thus be used as an indicator of the presence of genetically distinct subgroups in germplasm collections. Whereas UPGMA performed well in preserving distances between accessions, Ward excelled in recovering groups. Our results also showed a close similarity between clusters obtained by Ward and by STRUCTURE. Traditional cluster analysis can provide an easy and effective way of determining structure in germplasm collections using molecular marker data, and, the output can be used for sampling core collections or for association studies.

  14. Genetic diversity, Population structure, parentage analysis, and construction of core collections in the French apple germplasm based on SSR markers

    Lassois, Ludivine; Denancé, Caroline; Ravon, Elisa; Guyader, Arnaud; Guisnel, Rémi; Hibrand-Saint-Oyan, Laurence; Poncet, Charles; Lasserre - Zuber, Pauline; Feugey, Laurence; Durel, Charles-Eric


    In-depth characterization of apple genetic resources is a prerequisite for genetic improvement and for germplasm management. In this study, we fingerprinted a very large French collection of 2163 accessions with 24 SSR markers in order to evaluate its genetic diversity, population structure and genetic relationships, to link these features with cultivar selection date or usage (old or modern, dessert or cider cultivars), and to construct core collections. Most markers were highly discriminati...

  15. The FIGS (focused identification of germplasm strategy approach identifies traits related to drought adaptation in Vicia faba genetic resources.

    Hamid Khazaei

    Full Text Available Efficient methods to explore plant agro-biodiversity for climate change adaptive traits are urgently required. The focused identification of germplasm strategy (FIGS is one such approach. FIGS works on the premise that germplasm is likely to reflect the selection pressures of the environment in which it developed. Environmental parameters describing plant germplasm collection sites are used as selection criteria to improve the probability of uncovering useful variation. This study was designed to test the effectiveness of FIGS to search a large faba bean (Vicia faba L. collection for traits related to drought adaptation. Two sets of faba bean accessions were created, one from moisture-limited environments, and the other from wetter sites. The two sets were grown under well watered conditions and leaf morpho-physiological traits related to plant water use were measured. Machine-learning algorithms split the accessions into two groups based on the evaluation data and the groups created by this process were compared to the original climate-based FIGS sets. The sets defined by trait data were in almost perfect agreement to the FIGS sets, demonstrating that ecotypic differentiation driven by moisture availability has occurred within the faba bean genepool. Leaflet and canopy temperature as well as relative water content contributed more than other traits to the discrimination between sets, indicating that their utility as drought-tolerance selection criteria for faba bean germplasm. This study supports the assertion that FIGS could be an effective tool to enhance the discovery of new genes for abiotic stress adaptation.

  16. Cotton Germplasm in China%中国棉花种质资源的研究和利用

    Kun-bo WANG; Guo-li SONG


    @@ Germplasm is the foundation of any crop improvement process. The success of research in establishing PCR-based genetic maps,developing genetic stocks and tool-materials for genomic studies, creating specially-aimed materials, and even training high level educated specialists denpends in large part on the availability of diversity of genetic resources.Cotton germplam also plays very important role in the genomic study.

  17. Characterizing diversity based on nutritional and bioactive compositions of yam germplasm (Dioscorea spp. commonly cultivated in China

    Zhi-Gang Wu


    Full Text Available Yams (Dioscorea spp. are widely cultivated as edible resources and medical materials in China. Characterizing chemical compositions in yam germplasm is crucial to determine their diversity and suitability for food and medicine applications. In this study, a core germplasm containing 25 yam landraces was used to create an effective classification of usage by characterizing their nutritive and medicinal compositions. All studied landraces exhibited high contents of starch from 60.7% to 80.6% dry weight (DW, protein (6.3–12.2% DW, minerals (especially Mg 326.8–544.7 mg/kg DW, and essential amino acids. Allantoin and dioscin varied considerably, with values of 0.62–1.49% DW and 0.032–0.092% DW, respectively. The quality variability of 25 yam landraces was clearly separated in light of UPGMA clustering and principal component analysis (PCA. Using an eigenvalue ≥1 as the cutoff, the first three principal components accounted for most of the total variability (62.33%. Classification was achieved based on the results of the measured parameters and principal component analysis scores. The results are of great help in determining appropriate application strategies for yam germplasm in China.

  18. The Puzzle of Italian Rice Origin and Evolution: Determining Genetic Divergence and Affinity of Rice Germplasm from Italy and Asia

    Jiang, Zhuxi; Basso, Barbara; Sala, Francesco; Spada, Alberto; Grassi, Fabrizio; Lu, Bao-Rong


    The characterization of genetic divergence and relationships of a set of germplasm is essential for its efficient applications in crop breeding and understanding of the origin/evolution of crop varieties from a given geographical region. As the largest rice producing country in Europe, Italy holds rice germplasm with abundant genetic diversity. Although Italian rice varieties and the traditional ones in particular have played important roles in rice production and breeding, knowledge concerning the origin and evolution of Italian traditional varieties is still limited. To solve the puzzle of Italian rice origin, we characterized genetic divergence and relationships of 348 rice varieties from Italy and Asia based on the polymorphisms of microsatellite fingerprints. We also included common wild rice O. rufipogon as a reference in the characterization. Results indicated relatively rich genetic diversity (He = 0.63-0.65) in Italian rice varieties. Further analyses revealed a close genetic relationship of the Italian traditional varieties with those from northern China, which provides strong genetic evidence for tracing the possible origin of early established rice varieties in Italy. These findings have significant implications for the rice breeding programs, in which appropriate germplasm can be selected from a given region and utilized for transferring unique genetic traits based on its genetic diversity and evolutionary relationships. PMID:24265814

  19. Comparison of Chemical Compositions in Pseudostellariae Radix from Different Cultivated Fields and Germplasms by NMR-Based Metabolomics

    Yujiao Hua


    Full Text Available Pseudostellariae Radix (PR is an important traditional Chinese medicine (TCM, which is consumed commonly for its positive health effects. However, the chemical differences of PR from different cultivated fields and germplasms are still unknown. In order to comprehensively compare the chemical compositions of PR from different cultivated fields, in this study, 1H-NMR-based metabolomics coupled with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC were used to investigate the different metabolites in PR from five germplasms (jr, zs1, zs2, sb, and xc cultivated in traditional fields (Jurong, Jiangsu, JSJR and cultivated fields (Zherong, Fujian, FJZR. A total of 34 metabolites were identified based on 1H-NMR data, and fourteen of them were found to be different in PR from JSJR and FJZR. The relative contents of alanine, lactate, lysine, taurine, sucrose, tyrosine, linolenic acid, γ-aminobutyrate, and hyperoside in PR from JSJR were higher than that in PR from FJZR, while PR from FJZR contained higher levels of glutamine, raffinose, xylose, unsaturated fatty acid, and formic acid. The contents of Heterophyllin A and Heterophyllin B were higher in PR from FJZR. This study will provide the basic information for exploring the influence law of ecological environment and germplasm genetic variation on metabolite biosynthesis of PR and its quality formation mechanism.

  20. The puzzle of Italian rice origin and evolution: determining genetic divergence and affinity of rice germplasm from Italy and Asia.

    Cai, Xingxing; Fan, Jing; Jiang, Zhuxi; Basso, Barbara; Sala, Francesco; Spada, Alberto; Grassi, Fabrizio; Lu, Bao-Rong


    The characterization of genetic divergence and relationships of a set of germplasm is essential for its efficient applications in crop breeding and understanding of the origin/evolution of crop varieties from a given geographical region. As the largest rice producing country in Europe, Italy holds rice germplasm with abundant genetic diversity. Although Italian rice varieties and the traditional ones in particular have played important roles in rice production and breeding, knowledge concerning the origin and evolution of Italian traditional varieties is still limited. To solve the puzzle of Italian rice origin, we characterized genetic divergence and relationships of 348 rice varieties from Italy and Asia based on the polymorphisms of microsatellite fingerprints. We also included common wild rice O. rufipogon as a reference in the characterization. Results indicated relatively rich genetic diversity (H(e) = 0.63-0.65) in Italian rice varieties. Further analyses revealed a close genetic relationship of the Italian traditional varieties with those from northern China, which provides strong genetic evidence for tracing the possible origin of early established rice varieties in Italy. These findings have significant implications for the rice breeding programs, in which appropriate germplasm can be selected from a given region and utilized for transferring unique genetic traits based on its genetic diversity and evolutionary relationships.

  1. The puzzle of Italian rice origin and evolution: determining genetic divergence and affinity of rice germplasm from Italy and Asia.

    Xingxing Cai

    Full Text Available The characterization of genetic divergence and relationships of a set of germplasm is essential for its efficient applications in crop breeding and understanding of the origin/evolution of crop varieties from a given geographical region. As the largest rice producing country in Europe, Italy holds rice germplasm with abundant genetic diversity. Although Italian rice varieties and the traditional ones in particular have played important roles in rice production and breeding, knowledge concerning the origin and evolution of Italian traditional varieties is still limited. To solve the puzzle of Italian rice origin, we characterized genetic divergence and relationships of 348 rice varieties from Italy and Asia based on the polymorphisms of microsatellite fingerprints. We also included common wild rice O. rufipogon as a reference in the characterization. Results indicated relatively rich genetic diversity (H(e = 0.63-0.65 in Italian rice varieties. Further analyses revealed a close genetic relationship of the Italian traditional varieties with those from northern China, which provides strong genetic evidence for tracing the possible origin of early established rice varieties in Italy. These findings have significant implications for the rice breeding programs, in which appropriate germplasm can be selected from a given region and utilized for transferring unique genetic traits based on its genetic diversity and evolutionary relationships.

  2. SNP Typing for Germplasm Identification of Amomum villosum Lour. Based on DNA Barcoding Markers

    Yang, Jinfen; Ma, Xinye; Zhan, Ruoting; Xu, Hui; Chen, Weiwen


    Amomum villosum Lour., produced from Yangchun, Guangdong Province, China, is a Daodi medicinal material of Amomi Fructus in traditional Chinese medicine. This herb germplasm should be accurately identified and collected to ensure its quality and safety in medication. In the present study, single nucleotide polymorphism typing method was evaluated on the basis of DNA barcoding markers to identify the germplasm of Amomi Fructus. Genomic DNA was extracted from the leaves of 29 landraces representing three Amomum species (A. villosum Lour., A. xanthioides Wall. ex Baker and A. longiligulare T. L. Wu) by using the CTAB method. Six barcoding markers (ITS, ITS2, LSU D1–D3, matK, rbcL and trnH-psbA) were PCR amplified and sequenced; SNP typing and phylogenetic analysis were performed to differentiate the landraces. Results showed that high-quality bidirectional sequences were acquired for five candidate regions (ITS, ITS2, LSU D1–D3, matK, and rbcL) except trnH-psbA. Three ribosomal regions, namely, ITS, ITS2, and LSU D1–D3, contained more SNP genotypes (STs) than the plastid genes rbcL and matK. In the 29 specimens, 19 STs were detected from the combination of four regions (ITS, LSU D1–D3, rbcL, and matK). Phylogenetic analysis results further revealed two clades. Minimum-spanning tree demonstrated the existence of two main groups: group I was consisting of 9 STs (ST1–8 and ST11) of A. villosum Lour., and group II was composed of 3 STs (ST16–18) of A. longiligulare T.L. Wu. Our results suggested that ITS and LSU D1–D3 should be incorporated with the core barcodes rbcL and matK. The four combined regions could be used as a multiregional DNA barcode to precisely differentiate the Amomi Fructus landraces in different producing areas. PMID:25531885

  3. Genetic diversity and population structure of a diverse set of rice germplasm for association mapping.

    Jin, Liang; Lu, Yan; Xiao, Peng; Sun, Mei; Corke, Harold; Bao, Jinsong


    Germplasm diversity is the mainstay for crop improvement and genetic dissection of complex traits. Understanding genetic diversity, population structure, and the level and distribution of linkage disequilibrium (LD) in target populations is of great importance and a prerequisite for association mapping. In this study, 100 genome-wide simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were used to assess genetic diversity, population structure, and LD of 416 rice accessions including landraces, cultivars and breeding lines collected mostly in China. A model-based population structure analysis divided the rice materials into seven subpopulations. 63% of the SSR pairs in these accessions were in LD, which was mostly due to an overall population structure, since the number of locus pairs in LD was reduced sharply within each subpopulation, with the SSR pairs in LD ranging from 5.9 to 22.9%. Among those SSR pairs showing significant LD, the intrachromosomal LD had an average of 25-50 cM in different subpopulations. Analysis of the phenotypic diversity of 25 traits showed that the population structure accounted for an average of 22.4% of phenotypic variation. An example association mapping for starch quality traits using both the candidate gene mapping and genome-wide mapping strategies based on the estimated population structure was conducted. Candidate gene mapping confirmed that the Wx and starch synthase IIa (SSIIa) genes could be identified as strongly associated with apparent amylose content (AAC) and pasting temperature (PT), respectively. More importantly, we revealed that the Wx gene was also strongly associated with PT. In addition to the major genes, we found five and seven SSRs were associated with AAC and PT, respectively, some of which have not been detected in previous linkage mapping studies. The results suggested that the population may be useful for the genome-wide marker-trait association mapping. This new association population has the potential to identify

  4. Molecular characterization of chemical mutagenesis induced diversity in elite maize germplasm

    Christov Nikolai K.


    Full Text Available Three classical breeding Iowa Super Stiff Stalk (SSS inbred lines B37, B73 and B84, one Lancaster inbred Oh43 and mutant lines obtained by chemical mutagenesis followed by mutation breeding as follows: two of B37 and four of Oh43 were selected for molecular characterization. The mutant inbred lines were chosen because in addition to the improved GCA and SCA for grain yield, proven by their predominance in the Bulgarian breeding programs, they showed shifts in the flowering time as compared to the initial inbreds. Molecular markers (micro satellites and other PCR-based DNA markers were used for characterization of maize genotypes and determination of the induced by chemical mutagenesis genetic variability in maize germplasm. The tested nine SSR markers (umc 1001, umclO14, umcl057, umcll81, umcl0lS, umc 1029. umcl003, umc 1033 and umcl035 can discriminate between the initial classical breeding inbred lines and the originating mutant inbreds. Allelic diversity was also studied by PCR amplification with specifically de-signed primers in the coding regions and flanking sequence of two genes: dwarf8 (d&: chromosome 1, 198.5 cM, and indeterminate l (id1; chromosome 1. 175.0 cM. These are considered candidate genes for variation in plant height and/or flowering time, based on mutant phenotypes and chromosomal locations near major QTLs. Single nucleotide polymorphisms and indels were detected in the region flanking the SH2 domain of dwarf8 gene in some of the mutant inbreds as a result of SSCP and sequencing analyses. However, these polymorphisms could not be associated with the observed variations in flowering time. PCR analysis of the promoter region dwarf8 showed a variant fragment of about 1 kb in the inbred line Oh43 that was not present in any other initial and mutant in-bred lines included in the study. PCR amplification of the 5' end of the Id1 coding sequence revealed polymorphic bands in the mutant lines XM535, XM521, XM250-l, XM98-8 and XM85

  5. Discovering the desirable alleles contributing to the lignocellulosic biomass traits in Saccharum germplasm collections for energy cane improvement

    Wang, Jianping [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Sandhu, Hardev [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)


    1) The success in crop improvement programs depends largely on the extent of genetic variability available. Germplasm collections assembles all the available genetic resources and are critical for long-term crop improvement. This world sugarcane germplasm collection contains enormous genetic variability for various morphological traits, biomass yield components, adaptation and many quality traits, prospectively imbeds a large number of valuable alleles for biofuel traits such as high biomass yield, quantity and quality of lignocelluloses, stress tolerance, and nutrient use efficiency. The germplasm collection is of little value unless it is characterized and utilized for crop improvement. In this project, we phenotypically and genotypically characterized the sugarcane world germplasm collection (The results were published in two papers already and another two papers are to be published). This data will be made available for public to refer to for germplasm unitization specifically in the sugarcane and energy cane breeding programs. In addition, we are identifying the alleles contributing to the biomass traits in sugarcane germplasm. This part of project is very challenging due to the large genome and highly polyploid level of this crop. We firstly established a high throughput sugarcane genotyping pipeline in the genome and bioinformatics era (a paper is published in 2016). We identified and modified a software for genome-wide association analysis of polyploid species. The results of the alleles associated to the biomass traits will be published soon, which will help the scientific community understand the genetic makeup of the biomass components of sugarcane. Molecular breeders can develop markers for marker assisted selection of biomass traits improvement. Further, the development and release of new energy cane cultivars through this project not only improved genetic diversity but also improved dry biomass yields and resistance to diseases. These new cultivars

  6. Large-Scale Evaluation of Maize Germplasm for Low-Phosphorus Tolerance

    Zhang, Hongwei; Xu, Ruineng; Xie, Chuanxiao; Huang, Changling; Liao, Hong; Xu, Yunbi; Wang, Jinxiang; Li, Wen-Xue


    Low-phosphorus (LP) stress is a global problem for maize production and has been exacerbated by breeding activities that have reduced the genetic diversity of maize. Although LP tolerance in maize has been previously evaluated, the evaluations were generally performed with only a small number of accessions or with samples collected from a limited area. In this research, 826 maize accessions (including 580 tropical/subtropical accessions and 246 temperate accessions) were evaluated for LP tolerance under field conditions in 2011 and 2012. Plant height (PH) and leaf number were measured at three growth stages. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and fresh ear weight (FEW) were also measured. Genetic correlation analysis revealed that FEW and NDVI were strongly correlated with PH, especially at later stages. LP-tolerant and -sensitive accessions were selected based on the relative trait values of all traits using principal component analysis, and all the 14 traits of the tolerant maize accessions showed less reduction than the sensitive accessions under LP conditions. LP tolerance was strongly correlated with agronomic performance under LP stress conditions, and both criteria could be used for genetic analysis and breeding of LP tolerance. Temperate accessions showed slightly better LP tolerance than tropical/subtropical ones, although more tolerant accessions were identified from tropical/subtropical accessions, which could be contributed by their larger sample size. This large-scale evaluation provides useful information, LP-tolerant germplasm resources and evaluation protocol for genetic analysis and developing maize varieties for LP tolerance. PMID:25938641

  7. Genetic diversity, population structure, and resistance to Phytophthora capsici of a worldwide collection of eggplant germplasm.

    Rachel P Naegele

    Full Text Available Eggplant (Solanum melongena L. is an important solanaceous crop with high phenotypic diversity and moderate genotypic diversity. Ninety-nine genotypes of eggplant germplasm (species (S. melongena, S. incanum, S. linnaeanum and S. gilo, landraces and heirloom cultivars from 32 countries and five continents were evaluated for genetic diversity, population structure, fruit shape, and disease resistance to Phytophthora fruit rot. Fruits from each line were measured for fruit shape and evaluated for resistance to two Phytophthora capsici isolates seven days post inoculation. Only one accession (PI 413784 was completely resistant to both isolates evaluated. Partial resistance to Phytophthora fruit rot was found in accessions from all four eggplant species evaluated in this study. Genetic diversity and population structure were assessed using 22 polymorphic simple sequence repeats (SSRs. The polymorphism information content (PIC for the population was moderate (0.49 in the population. Genetic analyses using the program STRUCTURE indicated the existence of four genetic clusters within the eggplant collection. Population structure was detected when eggplant lines were grouped by species, continent of origin, country of origin, fruit shape and disease resistance.

  8. Study on Relationship Between Cucumber Germplasm and Propa-mocarb Residue Using Subjective Rating Technique

    Wu Peng; Qin Zhi-wei; Zhou Xiu-yan; Wu Tao; Xin Ming; Guo Qian-qian


    Propamocarb (PM) residue in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) receives little attention. As is well known to all, high PM residue of cucumber could lead to increase in the violation rates of maximum residue limits and ultimately cause harm to human health. Knowledge of PM residue could help cucumber breeders in developing cultivars with low PM residue and improving cucumber quality. In this study, 32 representative cucumber accessions (26 breeding lines and six cultivars) from different regions of China were evaluated for their PM residue in fruit and leaf to provide meaning to the subjective rating, which was highly correlated with PM residual content of fruit (r=0.97) and leaf (r=0.94). In addition, PM residual content of North China ecotype was the highest and Pickling ecotype was the lowest in fruit and leaf of cucumber. The leaf had significantly higher (P<0.01) PM residual content than the fruit, and poor correlation between leaf and fruit was represented. This study verified PM residual relationship between fruit and leaf, and laid the foundation for further identification of germplasm resources and breeding of new varieties for low PM residue of cucumber.

  9. Molecular and chemical characterization of vetiver, Chrysopogon zizanioides (L.) Roberty, germplasm.

    Celestino, R S; Zucchi, M I; Pinheiro, J B; Campos, J B; Pereira, A A; Bianchini, F G; Lima, R N; Arrigoni-Blank, M F; Alves, P B; Blank, A F


    Due to the economic interests in vetiver, Chrysopogon zizanioides (L.) Roberty, molecular and chemical studies are essential to generate information for its sustainable exploitation. The aim of this study was to undertake a molecular and chemical characterization of vetiver accessions of the active germplasm bank of the Universidade Federal de Sergipe. The molecular characteristics of the accessions were studied using amplified fragment length polymorphism markers, with a total of 14 primer combinations that generated 442 loci, allowing us to observe that these accessions have similar genomes. The vetiver accessions were divided into three distinct groups, where accession UFS-VET005 was the most differentiated and accession UFS-VET004 had the lowest essential oil content (0.70%). The content of the chemical constituents of the essential oils was observed to vary, with a predominance of khusimol, which ranged from 18.97 to 25.02%. It was possible to divide the vetiver accessions into two groups based on chemical composition, and these groups do not correlate with the molecular grouping. Therefore, it is necessary to perform molecular and chemical analyses to characterize vetiver accessions.

  10. Genetic diversity of "Pimenta Longa" genotypes (Piper spp., Piperaceae of the Embrapa Acre germplasm collection

    Lúcia Helena de Oliveira Wadt


    Full Text Available The commonly known Pimenta longa is a commercially valuable natural resource found wild in Acre, Brazil. Specifically, three Piperaceae species with contested taxonomic status were studied, Piper hispidinervum, Piper aduncum, and Piper hispidum, to assesses the inter- and intra-specific genetic relationship of 49 Piper genotypes kept in the Pimenta longa germplasm collection at Embrapa Acre, using sixty six Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD markers. The DNA polymorphism level detected was high (96.97%, but the marker frequencies for each species showed polymorphism levels of 79.4% for Piper hispidinervum and 5.3% for P. aduncum. The genetic similarity clustering analysis resulted in three distinct groups corresponding to Piper hispidinervum, Piper aduncum, and Piper hispidum. Four and nine characteristic RAPD markers were identified for P. hispidinervum and P. aduncum, respectively, supporting the existence of two separate species. However, six genotypes collected in Tarauacá county formed a distinct subgroup within the P. hispidinervum group and may be considered as an ecotype of this species or an intermediate between the P. hispidinervum and P. aduncum groups. More extensive sampling of both P. hispidinervum and P. aduncum populations throughout the region are needed to further establish their relation and its implication for breeding efforts.

  11. Beyond landraces: developing improved germplasm resources for underutilized species - a case for Bambara groundnut.

    Aliyu, Siise; Massawe, Festo; Mayes, Sean


    The potential for underutilized crops (also known as minor, neglected or orphan crops) to improve food and nutrition security has been gaining prominence within the research community in recent years. This is due to their significance for diversified agricultural systems which is a necessary component of future agriculture to address food and nutritional security concerns posed by changing climate and a growing world population. Developing workable value chain systems for underutilized crop species, coupled with comparative trait studies with major crops, potentially allows us to identify suitable agricultural modalities for such species. Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea L. Verdc.), an underutilized leguminous species, is of interest for its reported high levels of drought tolerance in particular, which contributes to environmental resilience in semi-arid environments. Here, we present a synopsis of suitable strategies for the genetic improvement of Bambara groundnut as a guide to other underutilized crop species. Underutilized crops have often been adapted over thousands of years in particular regions by farmers and largely still exist as landraces with little or no genetic knowledge of key phenotypic traits. Breeding in these species is fundamentally different to breeding in major crops, where significant pedigree structures and history allow highly directed improvement. In this regard, deploying new integrated germplasm development approaches for variety development and genetic analysis, such as multi-parent advance generation inter-crosses (MAGIC), within breeding programmes of underutilized species will be important to be able to fully utilize such crops.

  12. Incorporating different proportions of exotic maize germplasm into two adapted populations

    Manoel Xavier dos Santos


    Full Text Available Maize breeders frequently wish to use exotic germplasm in their breeding programs without losing specific characteristics of their adapted material. The objective of this study was to determine the optimal proportions of exotic germplasm to incorporate into adapted populations (F2 = 50% exotic, BC1 = 25% exotic, BC2 = 12.5% exotic and BC3 = 6.25% exotic to form the initial foundation population and to determine the heterosis between adapted x exotics. We used six exotic populations of different origins and two adapted populations representing a Brazilian heterotic pattern. In 1993-94 and 1994-95, the parents, F1, F2, BC1, BC2, BC3 and four checks were evaluated in six environments in central Brazil using an 8 x 9 simple rectangular lattice design. Higher mean values for yield were obtained as the proportion of exotic germplasm decreased. Some backcrosses produced more than the adapted populations BR 105 (7.59 ton/ha and BR 106 (8.43 ton/ha. The best results were obtained when incorporating 6.25 or 12.5% of exotic genes. This trend was true for root lodging, stalk lodging and ear diseases but not for plant and ear height. The midparent heterosis for yield varied from -16.1 to 40.3%. Midparent heterosis with positive and negative values were also found for the other traits. The results indicate the potential of exotic germplasm for developing good hybrids. After choosing the best exotic source, some recurrent selection might be appropriate in order to adapt and improve the exotic populations.Os melhoristas de milho que utilizam germoplasmas exóticos nos programas de melhoramento têm a preocupação de não perder as características desejáveis dos materiais adaptados. Buscando atender esta demanda, o presente trabalho teve por objetivo determinar a proporção ideal de germoplasma exótico que deve ser incorporado em populações melhoradas (F2 = 50% exótico; RC1 = 25% exótico; RC2 = 12,5% exótico; RC3 = 6,25% exótico, para formar as popula

  13. Assessment of genetic diversity in glandless cotton germplasm resources by using agronomic traits and molecular markers

    Zhikun LI; Xingfen WANG; Yan ZHANG; Guiyin ZHANG; Liqiang WU; Jina CHI; Zhiying MA


    Seventy-one glandless cotton germplasm resources were firstly evaluated genetically by using nine agronomic traits,33 simple sequence repeat (SSR) primers and ten amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP)primer combinations.Principal component analysis (PCA) of the agronomic traits showed that the first six principal components (PCs) explained a total of 86.352% of the phenotypic variation.A total of 329 alleles were amplified for 33 SSR primers,and 232 polymorphic bands in a total of 389 bands were obtained by using ten AFLP primer combinations.The average polymorphic information content (PIC) value was 0.80 and 0.18 for SSR primers and AFLP primer combinations,respectively.The DIST (average taxonomic distance) and DICE (Nei and Li's pairwise distance) coefficients ranged from 0.373 to 3.164 and 0.786 to 0.948,respectively,for agronomic traits and SSR & AFLP data based on UPGMA analysis.This suggested that there was a higher diversity in the evaluated population for both agronomic traits and molecular markers.The Mantel's test showed that the correlation between the dendrograms based on agronomic traits and SSR & AFLP data was non-significant.

  14. In situ evaluation of the fruit and oil characteristics of the main Lebanese olive germplasm.

    Chehade, Ali; Bitar, Ahmad El; Kadri, Aline; Choueiri, Elia; Nabbout, Rania; Youssef, Hiyam; Smeha, Maha; Awada, Ali; Chami, Ziad Al; Dubla, Eustachio; Trani, Antonio; Mondelli, Donato; Famiani, Franco


    Very little information is available on the characteristics of the Lebanese olive germplasm. Therefore, the aim of this work was to evaluate the fruit and oil characteristics of the main Lebanese olive varieties (Aayrouni, Abou chawkeh, Baladi, Del and Soury) from two successive crop seasons (2010-2011). All of the genotypes had medium-high oil content in the fruit, indicating their suitability for oil production; Aayrouni had particularly high values. The variety Abou chawkeh also had a high pulp/pit ratio, which is a very desirable trait in table olives. For all the varieties the values of free fatty acids, peroxide values, absorbances in ultraviolet, fatty acid composition, sterol content and composition and erythrodiol + uvaol content of the oils were within the requirements of the International Olive Council's Trade Standard for extra virgin olive oil. The only exception was for the values of Δ-7-stigmastenol in 2011 in Soury and, especially, in Baladi, which were higher than 0.5%. In some cases, stearic and arachidic acids fluctuated around the maximum values allowed. The findings of this study provide a first picture of the main characteristics of olives and oils currently produced in Lebanon. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Genetic variability analysis of Byrsonima crassifolia germplasm collected in Pará State using ISSR markers.

    Rodrigues, S M; Moura, E F; Ramos, G K S; Oliveira, M S P


    Native of the Amazon, the nanche (Byrsonima crassifolia) is a fruit cultivated by family farmers and used in cooking; as such, it represents an opportunity for regional agribusiness. The Embrapa Eastern Amazon set up an active germplasm bank (BAG) consisting of 22 accessions sampled in 11 municipalities of Pará State. Due to its economic potential, there is an interest to advance the genetic breeding program of this species. The aim of this study was to characterize the BAG nanche collection using inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers. Accessions were genotyped using 23 pre-selected ISSR primers resulting in 109 amplified polymorphic and 51 monomorphic bands. With eight polymorphic bands each, the most polymorphic primers were UBC 809 and UBC 848. An unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic average cluster analysis based on Jaccard's coefficient indicated that the individuals clustered into two distinct groups. Accessions Igarapé Açu-2 and Augusto Corrêa-Pl 1 were most similar. The genetic dissimilarity values ranged from 0.10 to 0.59. We conclude that the ISSR markers were efficient in detecting polymorphisms in the nanche accessions, and that it is possible to infer the genetic variability among accessions of the collection. This demonstrate the importance of using molecular markers in poorly studied species and the advantages that this information can bring to the genetic improvement of such species.

  16. Potential of popcorn germplasm as a source of resistance to ear rot

    Railan do Nascimento Ferreira Kurosawa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Because of its multi-purpose nature, popcorn has sparked the interest of the World Trade Organization as regards fungal contamination by mycotoxins. However, no investigations have been conducted on popcorn for resistance of genotypes to ear rot. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of popcorn genotypes as to resistance to ear rot and rotten kernels, as an initial step for the implementation of a breeding program with the popcorn crop in Northern Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Thirty-seven accessions from different ecogeographic regions of Latin America were evaluated in 2 cultivation periods, in a randomized block design with 4 replications. We evaluated the incidence of rotten ears, incidence of rotten ears caused by Fusarium spp., severity of ears with Fusarium spp. rot, and incidence of rotten kernels. The results were subjected to analysis of variance, and means were compared by the Scott-Knott clustering test (p < 0.05. A significant effect was observed for all evaluated variables, characterizing them as efficient in the discrimination of genotypic variability for reaction to fungal injuries in popcorn. The gene pool of the tropical and temperate Germplasm Collection evaluated here has the potential to generate superior segregants and provide hybrid combinations with alleles of resistance to diseases affecting ears and stored kernels. Based on the different variables and times, the experiment was conducted, and genotypes L65, L80, and IAC 125 showed the highest levels of resistance.

  17. Development of a New Foxtail Millet Germplasm with Super Early Maturity and High Iron Content

    LIU Zheng-li; SUN Shi-xian; CHENG Ru-hong; HUANG Wen-sheng; LIU Jun-xin; QU Zhu-feng; XIA Xue-yan; SHI Zhi-gang


    Super Early Maturation No.2 is a new foxtail millet germplasm developed by using the targeted-character-gene-bankbreeding method. It has several outstanding characteristics. (1) Super early maturity. It can normally mature in Bashang,Hebei Province, China, where the altitude is around 1 400 meters, and it needs 1 650℃ of effective accumulated temperature in the growing period. (2) Millet is rich in iron. The iron content of the millet of Super Early Maturation No.2 is 54.10 mg kg-1,which is 62.0% higher than the average iron content of the foxtail millet varieties in China. (3) High crude fat content. Its crude fat content is 6.24%, which is 54.1% higher than the average content of foxtail millet varieties in China. (4) High crude protein content. The average of the crude protein content of all the foxtail millet varieties in China is 12.71%, only5% varieties surpass 14%, however, the crude protein content of Super Early Maturation No.2 is 14.36%, which is rare in improved varieties of foxtail millet in China. (5) Overall characteristics are good.

  18. Conservation of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) germplasm at sub-zero temperature.

    Sisunandar; Sopade, Peter A; Samosir, Yohannes M S; Rival, Alain; Adkins, Steve W


    Protocols are proposed for the low (-20 degree C) and ultra-low (-80 degree C) temperature storage of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) embryos. A tissue dehydration step prior to storage, and a rapid warming step upon recovery optimized the protocol. The thermal properties of water located within embryos were monitored using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). In the most efficient version of the protocol, embryos were dehydrated under a sterile air flow in a dehydration solution containing glucose (3.33 M) and glycerol (15 percent) for 16 hours. This protocol decreased the embryo water content from 77 to 29 percent FW and at the same time reduced the amount of freezable water down to 0.03 percent. The dehydrated embryos could be stored for up to 3 weeks at -20 degree C (12 percent producing normal plants upon recovery) or 26 weeks at -80 degree C (28 percent producing normal plants upon recovery). These results indicate that it is possible to store coconut germplasm on a medium term basis using an ultra-deep freezer unit. However for more efficient, long term storage, cryopreservation remains the preferred option.

  19. Molecular Scree ning of Blast Resistance Genes in Rice Germplasms Resistant to Magnaporthe oryzae

    Liang Yan


    Full Text Available Molecular screening of major rice blast resistance genes was determined with molecular markers, which showed close-set linkage to 11 major rice blast resistance genes (Pi-d2, Pi-z, Piz-t, Pi-9, Pi-36, Pi-37, Pi5, Pi-b, Pik-p, Pik-h and Pi-ta2, in a collection of 32 accessions resistant to Magnaporthe oryzae. Out of the 32 accessions, the Pi-d2 and Pi-z appeared to be omnipresent and gave positive express. As the second dominant, Pi-b and Piz-t gene frequencies were 96.9% and 87.5%. And Pik-h and Pik-p gene frequencies were 43.8% and 28.1%, respectively. The molecular marker linkage to Pi-ta2 produced positive bands in eleven accessions, while the molecular marker linkage to Pi-36 and Pi-37 in only three and four accessions, respectively. The natural field evaluation analysis showed that 30 of the 32 accessions were resistant, one was moderately resistant and one was susceptible. Infection types were negatively correlated with the genotype scores of Pi-9, Pi5, Pi-b, Pi-ta2 and Pik-p, although the correlation coefficients were very little. These results are useful in identification and incorporation of functional resistance genes from these germplasms into elite cultivars through marker-assisted selection for improved blast resistance in China and worldwide.

  20. Analysis of genetic diversity in pigeon pea germplasm using retrotransposon-based molecular markers



    Pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan), an important legume crop is predominantly cultivated in tropical and subtropical regions of Asia and Africa. It is normally considered to have a low degree of genetic diversity, an impediment in undertaking crop improvement programmes.We have analysed genetic polymorphism of domesticated pigeon pea germplasm (47 accessions) across the world using earlier characterized panzee retrotransposon-based molecularmarkers. Itwas conjectured that since retrotransposons are interspersed throughout the genome, retroelements-based markers would be able to uncover polymorphism possibly inherent in the diversity of retroelement sequences. Two PCR-based techniques, sequence-specific amplified polymorphism (SSAP) and retrotransposon microsatellite amplified polymorphism (REMAP) were utilized for the analyses.We show that a considerable degree of polymorphism could be detected using these techniques. Three primer combinations in SSAP generated 297 amplified products across 47 accessionswith an average of 99 amplicons per assay. Degree of polymorphism varied from 84–95%. In the REMAP assays, the number of amplicons was much less but up to 73% polymorphism could be detected. On the basis of similarity coefficients, dendrograms were constructed. The results demonstrate that the retrotransposon-based markers could serve as a better alternative for the assessment of genetic diversity in crops with apparent low genetic base.

  1. Molecular characterization of urdbean (Vigna mungo) germplasm related to resistance against urdbean leaf crinkle virus.

    Binyamin, R; Aslam Khan, M; Khan, A I; Azam Khan, M; Awan, F S; Khan, N A


    Urdbean (Vigna mungo) is an important pulse crop grown worldwide. Urdbean leaf crinkle virus (ULCV) is a pathogen of urdbean found in Pakistan that causes huge losses in yield. Forty urdbean varieties/lines were screened against the virus under field conditions during spring season 2009. None of the lines appeared to be highly resistant or resistant. On the basis of a 0-5 disease rating scale and disease severity index, genotypes varied significantly in their reaction to ULCV. Four lines (M-6206, IAM-382-15, IAM-133, and Mash-1) were moderately resistant, eight were rated as moderately susceptible, and 21 as susceptible; the remaining seven lines were highly susceptible. RAPD analyses revealed an extensive amount of variation, which could be used for cultivar identification. Genetic differentiation among urdbean genotypes was similar to the field screening data. The varieties 6065-3 and 6206 were highly susceptible and moderately resistant, respectively, to ULCV under field conditions, confirmed by the RAPD analysis. These varieties were the most diverse varieties in the similarity matrix (67.2%), while the varieties IAM-382-9 and 07M003 were the most similar (98.4%). This information will help in the recognition of available resistant germplasms that can resist this disease and will be utilized for urdbean improvement in Pakistan.

  2. Whole-Genome Analysis of Diversity and SNP-Major Gene Association in Peach Germplasm.

    Diego Micheletti

    Full Text Available Peach was domesticated in China more than four millennia ago and from there it spread world-wide. Since the middle of the last century, peach breeding programs have been very dynamic generating hundreds of new commercial varieties, however, in most cases such varieties derive from a limited collection of parental lines (founders. This is one reason for the observed low levels of variability of the commercial gene pool, implying that knowledge of the extent and distribution of genetic variability in peach is critical to allow the choice of adequate parents to confer enhanced productivity, adaptation and quality to improved varieties. With this aim we genotyped 1,580 peach accessions (including a few closely related Prunus species maintained and phenotyped in five germplasm collections (four European and one Chinese with the International Peach SNP Consortium 9K SNP peach array. The study of population structure revealed the subdivision of the panel in three main populations, one mainly made up of Occidental varieties from breeding programs (POP1OCB, one of Occidental landraces (POP2OCT and the third of Oriental accessions (POP3OR. Analysis of linkage disequilibrium (LD identified differential patterns of genome-wide LD blocks in each of the populations. Phenotypic data for seven monogenic traits were integrated in a genome-wide association study (GWAS. The significantly associated SNPs were always in the regions predicted by linkage analysis, forming haplotypes of markers. These diagnostic haplotypes could be used for marker-assisted selection (MAS in modern breeding programs.

  3. Polyphenolic profiles detected in the ripe berries of Vitis vinifera germplasm.

    Liang, Zhenchang; Owens, Christopher L; Zhong, Gan-Yuan; Cheng, Lailiang


    Polyphenolic profiles in the berry samples of 344 European grape (Vitis vinifera) cultivars were evaluated for two consecutive years. These cultivars represent a diverse collection of V. vinifera germplasm maintained at the USDA-Agricultural Research Service Vitis Clonal Repository in Davis of California, USA. A total of 36 polyphenolic compounds, including 16 anthocyanins, 6 flavonols, 6 flavanols, 6 hydroxycinnamic acids and 2 hydroxybenzoic acids, were identified via HPLC-MS and quantified by HPLC-DAD. The mean contents for anthocyanins, flavanols, flavonols, hydroxycinnamic acids and hydroxybenzoic acids were 0.946 (coloured cultivars), 0.147, 0.043, 0.195 and 0.016mgg(-1) FW, respectively. On average, wine grapes had higher concentrations than had table grapes for all of these compounds except hydroxycinnamic acids. Berry colours affected the total contents of anthocyanins, but not others. Positive correlations (0.151-0.535) were found among these groups of compounds. As expected, these groups of compounds were all negatively correlated with berry weight.

  4. Characterization of root architecture in an applied core collection for phosphorus efficiency of soybean germplasm

    ZHAO Jing; FU Jiabing; LIAO Hong; HE Yong; NIAN Hai; HU Yueming; QIU Linjuan; DONG Yinsan; YAN Xiaolong


    In the present study, we constructed an "applied core collection" for phosphorus (P) efficiency of soybean germplasm using a GIS-assisted approach. Systematic characterization and comparative analysis of root architecture were conducted to evaluate the relationship between mot architecture and P efficiency and its possible evolutionary pattern. Our results found that: I) root architecture was closely related to P efficiency in soybean. Shallow root architecture had better spatial configuration in the P-rich cultivated soil layer hence higher P efficiency and soybean yield;ii) there was a possible co-evolutionary pattern among shoot type, root architecture and P efficiency. The bush cultivated soybean had a shallow root architecture and high P efficiency,the climbing wild soybean had a deep root architecture and low P efficiency, while the root architecture and P efficiency of semi-wild soybean were intermediate between cultivated and wild soybean; iii) P availability regulated root architecture. Soybean roots became shallower with P addition to the topsoil, indicating that the co-evolutionary relationship between root architecture and P efficiency might be attributed to the long-term effects of topsoil fertilization. Our results could provide important theoretical basis for improving soybean root traits and P efficiency.

  5. Assessing and Broadening Genetic Diversity of Elymus sibiricus Germplasm for the Improvement of Seed Shattering

    Zongyu Zhang


    Full Text Available Siberian wild rye (Elymus sibiricus L. is an important native grass in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau of China. It is difficult to grow for commercial seed production, since seed shattering causes yield losses during harvest. Assessing the genetic diversity and relationships among germplasm from its primary distribution area contributes to evaluating the potential for its utilization as a gene pool to improve the desired agronomic traits. In the study, 40 EST-SSR primers were used to assess the genetic diversity and population structure of 36 E. sibiricus accessions with variation of seed shattering. A total of 380 bands were generated, with an average of 9.5 bands per primer. The polymorphic information content (PIC ranged from 0.23 to 0.50. The percentage of polymorphic bands (P for the species was 87.11%, suggesting a high degree of genetic diversity. Based on population structure analysis, four groups were formed, similar to results of principal coordinate analysis (PCoA. The molecular variance analysis (AMOVA revealed the majority of genetic variation occurred within geographical regions (83.40%. Two genotypes from Y1005 and ZhN06 were used to generate seven F1 hybrids. The molecular and morphological diversity analysis of F1 population revealed rich genetic variation and high level of seed shattering variation in F1 population, resulting in significant improvement of the genetic base and desired agronomic traits.

  6. Germplasm evaluation of heat tolerance in bread wheat in Tel Hadya, Syria

    Emeka C Okechukwu


    Full Text Available Breeding for heat tolerance in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. is a serious global concern due to the increasing threats of high temperature. Thus, 189 wheat genotypes coded from 1 to 189 were evaluated for heat tolerance in normal and late seasons in the International Centre for Agricultural Research in Dry Areas (ICARDA, Tel Hadya, Syria, from 2010 to 2012. The experiments were laid out in alpha lattice designs with two replicates. Data collected on the grain yield, days to heading and maturity, grain filling duration and plant height were subjected to restricted maximum likelihood (REML analysis for generation of the best linear unbiased estimates (BLUEs. Very highly significant effects (p < 0.001 of genotype, season, and genotype by season interaction on grain yield and other traits were obtained. The grain yield and other traits performance of the wheat genotypes were significantly (p < 0.05 higher in the normal season than in the late season. Genotype 148 was among the 30 top grain yielding genotypes in all the environments, while genotypes 172 and 124 were among the top yielding genotypes in all the environments except in late season 2. The relative heat tolerance of the genotypes ranged from -33.69% to -77.95% in late season 1 vs. normal season 1 and -65.28% to -95.83% in late season 2 vs. normal season 2. The high variability obtained in the germplasm underlies sufficient genetic variability for improving heat tolerance in bread wheat.

  7. Genetic evaluation of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. germplasm for resistance components of spot blotch disease

    Tejveer Singh, V. K. Mishra*, L. C. Prasad, Ankitand R. Chand


    Full Text Available Spot blotch caused by Bipolaris sorokiniana is an important fungal disease of Barley in warm humid areas of the world. In present study, 124 genotypes that includes 122 un-adapted germplasm accessions and 2 cultivars of barley were evaluated for three years, to select resistant and susceptible accessions based on five components of spot blotch resistance viz., disease severity, latent period, spore load, number of spots and incubation period. Significant differences were observed among the evaluated accessions for all of the components of resistance. A significant positive correlation was recorded between disease severity, number of spots, and spore load while a significant negative correlation of disease severity was recorded with latent period and incubation period. Multiple regression analysis revealed that number of spots contributed maximum followed by latent period, spore load and incubation period towards the variation in disease severity. Clustering of accessions based on different components identified three groups. Based on the studied components, accessions BCU422, BCU1204 and BCU5092 demonstrated good performance, while BCU711, K603 and RD2506 were the most susceptible to spot blotch pathogen. Identified accessions BCU422, BCU1204 and BCU5092 can be recommended for use in breeding programs that aim to generate barley genotypes resistant to Bipolaris sorokiniana.

  8. Genetic diversity of sweet sorghum germplasm in Mexico using AFLP and SSR markers

    Víctor Pecina‑Quintero


    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the diversity and genetic relationships between lines and varieties of the sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor germplasm bank of the National Institute for Forestry, Agriculture and Livestock Research, Mexico, using AFLP and SSR markers. The molecular markers revealed robust amplification profiles and were able to differentiate the 41 genotypes of sweet sorghum evaluated. Analysis of the frequency and distribution of polymorphic fragments allowed for the detection of unique (AFLP and rare (SSR alleles in several genotypes (RBSS‑8, RBSS‑9, RBSS‑25, RBSS‑32, and RBSS‑37, indicating that these markers may be associated with a feature that has not yet been determined or may be useful for the identification of these genotypes. The genetic relationships indicated the presence of at least two types of sweet sorghum: a group of modern genotypes used for sugar and biofuel production, and another group consisting of historic and modern genotypes used for the production of syrups. Sweet sorghum genotypes may be used to develop new varieties with higher sugar and juice contents.

  9. Genetic diversity analysis of tree peony germplasm using iPBS markers.

    Duan, Y B; Guo, D L; Guo, L L; Wei, D F; Hou, X G


    We examined the genetic diversity of 10 wild species (populations) and 55 varieties of tree peony using inter-primer binding site (iPBS) markers. From a total of 36 iPBS primers, 16 were selected based on polymorphic amplification. The number of bands amplified by each primer ranged from 9 to 19, with an average of 12.88 bands per primer. The length of bands ranged from 100 to 2000 bp, concentrated at 200 to 1800 bp. Sixteen primers amplified 206 bands in total, of which 173 bands were polymorphic with a polymorphism ratio of 83.98%. Each primer amplified 10.81 polymorphic bands on average. The data were then used to construct a phylogenetic tree using unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean methods. Clustering analysis showed that the genetic relationships among the varieties were not only related to the genetic background or geographic origin, but also to the flowering phase, flower color, and flower type. Our data also indicated that iPBS markers were useful tools for classifying tree peony germplasms and for tree peony breeding, and the specific bands were helpful for molecular identification of tree peony varieties.

  10. Genetic diversity of turmeric germplasm (Curcuma longa; Zingiberaceae) identified by microsatellite markers.

    Sigrist, M S; Pinheiro, J B; Filho, J A Azevedo; Zucchi, M I


    Turmeric (Curcuma longa) is a triploid, vegetatively propagated crop introduced early during the colonization of Brazil. Turmeric rhizomes are ground into a powder used as a natural dye in the food industry, although recent research suggests a greater potential for the development of drugs and cosmetics. In Brazil, little is known about the genetic variability available for crop improvement. We examined the genetic diversity among turmeric accessions from a Brazilian germplasm collection comprising 39 accessions collected from the States of Goiás, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, São Paulo, and Pará. For comparison, 18 additional genotypes were analyzed, including samples from India and Puerto Rico. Total DNA was extracted from lyophilized leaf tissue and genetic analysis was performed using 17 microsatellite markers (single-sequence repeats). Shannon-Weiner indexes ranged from 0.017 (Minas Gerais) to 0.316 (São Paulo). Analyses of molecular variance (AMOVA) demonstrated major differences between countries (63.4%) and that most of the genetic diversity in Brazil is found within states (75.3%). Genotypes from São Paulo State were the most divergent and potentially useful for crop improvement. Structure analysis indicated two main groups of accessions. These results can help target future collecting efforts for introduction of new materials needed to develop more productive and better adapted cultivars.

  11. Germplasm image analysis of Astragalus maritimus and A. verrucosus of Sardinia (subgen. Trimeniaeus, Fabaceae

    Mattana, Efisio


    Full Text Available The relationships between A. verrucosus Moris and A. maritimus Moris, exclusively endemics of Sardinia, are studied with a germplasm image analysis system. Morphometric and colorimetric features of the seeds and fruits of the two taxa have been studied and statistically elaborated to verify and confirm the validity of these species and to improve the performance of the correct classification of the image analysis system, previously elaborated to be a tool for taxonomic studies.Se presentan las relaciones entre A. verrucosus Moris y A. maritimus Moris, endemismos exclusivos de Cerdeña, que se han estudiado a través de un sistema de análisis de imagen del germoplasma. Para las dos especies se han tomado las medidas morfométricas y colorimétricas de las semillas y de los frutos, que luego se han analizado desde el punto de vista estadístico. Todo esto con la finalidad de averiguar y confirmar la distinción a nivel sistemático y mejorar el porcentaje de correcta clasificación del sistema de análisis de imagen elaborado con finalidades de carácter taxonómico.


    Ibrahima Z. Doumbia


    Full Text Available Cowpea improvement can be enhanced by knowledge of genetic diversity available between and within local and regional gene banks. This variability is the foundation of all cowpea improvement programs. A total of 94 accessions (47 from Ghana and 47 from Mali was used for this study. Twelve qualitative and twenty quantitative traits such as flower color, growth habit, raceme position, seed shape, day 50% flowering, day 50% maturity, plant height, seed length and seed weight were used to assess collections. Data collected from different morphological traits were analyzed using XLSTAT 2013. Principal component analysis, scatter plot matrix and clustering separated the accessions according to some qualitative and quantitative traits. Accessions were classified based on their morphological relationships using un-weighted pair-group average Cluster Analysis. Results showed a relatively low level of genetic diversity between and within both germplasm; levels of similarity ranged between 0.95 to 0.069 for combined qualitative and quantitative data. However, some morphological traits discriminated more efficiently between the accessions than others. Few groups of the accessions were different from other accessions for some important traits. Implications of the variability in cowpea improvement are discussed.

  13. New red flower germplasm lines of cotton selected from hybrid of Gossypium hirsutum × G. bickii

    梁正兰; 姜茹琴; 钟文南


    By means of dropping GA3 (50 ppm) and NAA (40 ppm) on the hybrid boll-embryo culture in vitro, one F1 plant of G. hirsutum G. bickii was obtained; when F1 branches were grafted on upland cotton and then back-crossed with upland cotton under short-day and cooler-night condition, some BC1 seeds could be harvested. The characteristic segregation was very violent in early generation. Through 3 times of back-crossing and selecting, ten stable hybrid lines with the character of both male parent (viz. red petal-purple spot and strong fibre) and female par-ent (plant type, earliness, white fibre, lint length, etc. ) were established. These lines were assigned as HB red flow-er lines (HBRL). Transference of character of G. bickii to upland cotton was proved to be successful for the first time. These new germplasms may play an important role in both the genetic research and new cotton variety breeding.

  14. Short Communication: Variation in isozymic pattern of germplasm from three ginger (Zingiber officinale varieties



    Full Text Available Setyawan AD, Wiryanto, Suranto, Bermawie N. 2014. Variation in isozymic pattern of germplasm from three of ginger (Zingiber officinale varieties. Nusantara Bioscience 6: 86-93. Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc. has long been as spices, flavoring agent and raw material for herbal medicines. In Indonesia, there were three varieties based on color and size of the rhizome, i.e. gajah (big-white ginger, merah (red ginger, and emprit (small-white ginger. This research was conducted to find out: (i isozymic pattern of three ginger varieties, and (ii phylogenetic relationship of those three varieties. The plant materials were gathered from Wonogiri, Surakarta and Kulonprogo, Yogyakarta. Two enzyme systems, namely esterase (EST and peroxidase (PER, PRX were used in this study. The relationship among ginger varieties was determined by UPGMA. The result indicated that EST showed two bands (i.e. Rf 0.04 and 0.10, and PRX showed six bands (i.e. Rf 0.04, 0.05, 0.09, 0.10, 0.11, and 0.15. Peroxidase produce more numerous and more diverse isozymic bands than esterase, resulting in a more complex relationship. The data used to compile dendrogram affect the grouping; the more data used, the more obvious clustering of accessions in a population. Dendrogam generated from esterase and peroxidase banding patterns produced distinct clusters based on varieties and location.

  15. 咖啡种质资源抗锈性初步鉴定%Resistance Identification of Coffee Germplasm Resources to Rust

    白学慧; 夏红云; 李锦红; 郭铁英; 杨积忠; 周华; 张洪波


    采用田间自然鉴定的方法,于2010~2012年在云南省瑞丽市对15个品种96份种质进行抗锈性鉴定和评价。研究结果表明:供试种质资源中,免疫型(I)26份,抗病型(R)6份,中抗型(MR)13份,中感型(MS)9份,感病型(S)43份;抗锈性强的种质资源中,卡蒂姆的抗锈性明显强于其他品种,免疫型材料占该类型抗锈材料的80%。%From 2010 to 2012, 15 varieties which included 96 coffee germplasm resources were used for the coffee germplasm resistance identification and evaluation in Ruili, Yunnan, by using the method of naturally infection by Hemileia vastatrix in coffee field. The result shows that: (1)among all the selected germplasm resources, there 26, 6,13, 9 and 43 germplasm resources were graded as I, R, MR, MS and S, respectively; (2) the Catimor variety occupied 80% germplasm resources in group I, which showed a obviously stronger resistance than other varieties than other varieties.

  16. Genetic diversity and population structure of castor (Ricinus communis L.) germplasm within the US collection assessed with EST-SSR markers.

    Wang, M L; Dzievit, M; Chen, Z; Morris, J B; Norris, J E; Barkley, N A; Tonnis, B; Pederson, G A; Yu, J


    Castor is an important oilseed crop and although its oil is inedible, it has multiple industrial and pharmaceutical applications. The entire US castor germplasm collection was previously screened for oil content and fatty acid composition, but its genetic diversity and population structure has not been determined. Based on the screening results of oil content, fatty acid composition, and country origins, 574 accessions were selected and genotyped with 22 polymorphic EST-SSR markers. The results from cluster analysis, population structure, and principal component analysis were consistent, and partitioned accessions into four subpopulations. Although there were certain levels of admixtures among groups, these clusters and subpopulations aligned with geographic origins. Both divergent and redundant accessions were identified in this study. The US castor germplasm collection encompasses a moderately high level of genetic diversity (pairwise dissimilarity coefficient = 0.53). The results obtained here will be useful for choosing accessions as parents to make crosses in breeding programs and prioritizing accessions for regeneration to improve germplasm management. A subset of 230 accessions was selected and will be planted in the field for establishing a core collection of the US castor germplasm. Further evaluation of the US castor germplasm collection is also discussed.

  17. Research on Coconut Germplasm Resource in Hainan Province%海南椰子种质资源研究综述

    毛彧; 傅国华


    综述了海南椰子种质资源研究及其工作的现状及重要性,论述了海南椰子种质资源的类别和特点及开发与利用,并对椰子种质资源研究及其工作中的问题及今后的研究方向进行了探讨.%The researches on status quo of coconut germplasm resource and its importance are reviewed in this study. And the classification,characters as well as the development and utilization of coconut germplasm resource in Hainan Province are explored. In addition, some of the problems in researches on coconut germplasm resource and the future research directions are discussed.

  18. Allelic Variation and Genetic Diversity at Glu-1 Loci in Chinese Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Germplasms

    ZHANG Xue-yong; PANG Bin-shuang; YOU Guang-xia; WANG Lan-fen; JIA Ji-zeng; DONG Yu-chen


    Wheat processing quality is greatly influenced by the seed proteins especially the high molecular weight glutenin subunit (HMW-GS) components, the low molecular weight glutenin subunit (LMW-GS) components and gliadin components. Genes encoding the HMW-GS and LMW-GS components were located on the long arms and the short arms of homoeologous group 1 chromosomes, respectively. HMW-GS components in 5 129 accessions of wheat germplasms were analyzed systematically, including 3 459 landraces and 1 670 modern varieties. These accessions were chosen as candidate core collections to represent the genetic diversity of Chinese common wheat (Triticum aestivum ) germplasms documented and conserved in the National Gene Bank. These candidate core collections covered the 10 wheat production regions in China. In the whole country, the dominating alleles at the three loci are Glu-A1b (null), Glu-B1b (7 + 8), and Glu- D1a (2 + 12), respectively. The obvious difference between the land race and the modern variety is the dramatic frequency increase of alleles Glu-A1a (1), Glu-B1c (7 + 9), Glu-B1h (14 + 15), Glu-D1d (5 + 10) and allele cording 5 + 12 subunits in the later ones. In the whole view, there is minor difference on the genetic(allelic)richness between the landrace and the modern variety at Glu-1, which is 28 and 30 respectively. However, the genetic dispersion index (Simpson index) based on allelic variation and frequencies at Glu-A1, Glu-B1 and Glu-D1 suggested that the modern varieties had much higher genetic diversity than the landraces. This revealed that various isolating mechanisms (such as auto-gamous nature, low migration because of undeveloped transposition system) limited the gene flow and exchange between populations of the landraces, which led up to some genotypes localized in very small areas. Modern breeding has strongly promoted gene exchanges and introgression between populations and previous isolated populations. In the three loci, Glu-B1 has the highest

  19. Environmental Influences on the Growing Season Duration and Ripening of Diverse Miscanthus Germplasm Grown in Six Countries

    Christopher Nunn


    Full Text Available The development of models to predict yield potential and quality of a Miscanthus crop must consider climatic limitations and the duration of growing season. As a biomass crop, yield and quality are impacted by the timing of plant developmental transitions such as flowering and senescence. Growth models are available for the commercially grown clone Miscanthus x giganteus (Mxg, but breeding programs have been working to expand the germplasm available, including development of interspecies hybrids. The aim of this study was to assess the performance of diverse germplasm beyond the range of environments considered suitable for a Miscanthus crop to be grown. To achieve this, six field sites were planted as part of the EU OPTIMISC project in 2012 in a longitudinal gradient from West to East: Wales—Aberystwyth, Netherlands—Wageningen, Stuttgart—Germany, Ukraine—Potash, Turkey—Adana, and Russia—Moscow. Each field trial contained three replicated plots of the same 15 Miscanthus germplasm types. Through the 2014 growing season, phenotypic traits were measured to determine the timing of developmental stages key to ripening; the tradeoff between growth (yield and quality (biomass ash and moisture content. The hottest site (Adana showed an accelerated growing season, with emergence, flowering and senescence occurring before the other sites. However, the highest yields were produced at Potash, where emergence was delayed by frost and the growing season was shortest. Flowering triggers varied with species and only in Mxg was strongly linked to accumulated thermal time. Our results show that a prolonged growing season is not essential to achieve high yields if climatic conditions are favorable and in regions where the growing season is bordered by frost, delaying harvest can improve quality of the harvested biomass.

  20. Molecular Insights into the Genetic Diversity of Garcinia cambogia Germplasm Accessions

    C Tharachand


    Full Text Available ABSTRACTIn this work, the genetic relationship among twelveGarcinia cambogia (Gaertn. Desr. accessions were evaluated using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA markers. The samples were part of the germplasm collected and maintained at NBPGR Regional station, Thrissur, India. Out of thirty RAPD primers used for screening, seven primers produced a total of 128 polymorphic markers in twelve accessions. The Polymorphic Information Content (PIC ranged from 0.28 (OPA18 to 0.37 (OPA9 and Marker Index (MI ranged between 3.61 (OPA12 and 5.93 (OPA3 among the primers used. Jaccard's coefficient of genetic similarity ranged between 0.07 and 0.64. The dendrogram constructed based on the similarity matrix generated from the molecular and morphological data showed the genetic relationship among the sampled accessions. Mantel matrix test showed a positive correlation (r = 0.49 between the cluster analysis of RAPD data and morphological data. The clustering pattern in the molecular dendrogram and Principle Coordinate Analysis (PCoA showed that the genotypes were diverse, which was in congruence with the similarity index values and morphological dendrogram. High frequency of similarity values in the range of 0.11 to 0.17 suggested the existence of high genetic diversity among the accessions. The high level of genetic diversity among the studied accessions ofG.cambogia was also supported by the large variation in the morphological characters observed in the flowers, leaves, fruits and seeds of these sampled accessions. This is the first report for the molecular based genetic diversity studies for these accessions.

  1. SSR mining in oil palm EST database: application in oil palm germplasm diversity studies

    Ngoot-Chin Ting; Noorhariza Mohd Zaki; Rozana Rosli; Eng-Ti Leslie Low; Maizura Ithnin; Suan-Choo Cheah; Soon-Guan Tan; Rajinder Singh


    This study reports on the detection of additional expressed sequence tags (EST) derived simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers for the oil palm. A large collection of 19243 Elaeis guineensis ESTs were assembled to give 10258 unique sequences, of which 629 ESTs were found to contain 722 SSRs with a variety of motifs. Dinucleotide repeats formed the largest group (45.6%) consisting of 66.9% AG/CT, 21.9% AT/AT, 10.9% AC/GT and 0.3% CG/CG motifs. This was followed by trinucleotide repeats, which is the second most abundant repeat types (34.5%) consisting of AAG/CTT (23.3%), AGG/CCT (13.7%), CCG/CGG (11.2%), AAT/ATT (10.8%), AGC/GCT (10.0%), ACT/AGT (8.8%), ACG/CGT (7.6%), ACC/GGT (7.2%), AAC/GTT (3.6%) and AGT/ACT (3.6%) motifs. Primer pairs were designed for 405 unique EST-SSRs and 15 of these were used to genotype 105 E. guineensis and 30 E. oleifera accessions. Fourteen SSRs were polymorphic in at least one germplasm revealing a total of 101 alleles. The high percentage (78.0%) of alleles found to be specific for either E. guineensis or E. oleifera has increased the power for discriminating the two species. The estimates of genetic differentiation detected by EST-SSRs were compared to those reported previously. The transferability across palm taxa to two Cocos nucifera and six exotic palms is also presented. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products of three primer-pairs detected in E. guineensis, E. oleifera, C. nucifera and Jessinia bataua were cloned and sequenced. Sequence alignments showed mutations within the SSR site and the flanking regions. Phenetic analysis based on the sequence data revealed that C. nucifera is closer to oil palm compared to J. bataua; consistent with the taxanomic classification.

  2. Evaluation of rice germplasm under salt stress at the seedling stage through SSR markers

    M. Al-Amin


    Full Text Available Twenty eight rice germplasms were used for identification of salt tolerant rice genotypes at the seedling stage at the experimental farm and Biotechnology laboratory of the Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture (BINA, Mymensingh during February 2009 to October 2009. Phenotyping for salinity screening of the rice genotypes was done using salinized (EC level 12 dS m-1 nutrient solution in hydroponic system. Genotypes were evaluated for salinity tolerance on 1-9 scale based on seedling growth parameters following modified Standard Evaluation Scoring (SES of IRRI. Phenotypically, on the basis of SES and % total dry matter (TDM reduction of the genotypes viz. PBSAL-614, PBSAL-613, PBSAL-730, Horkuch, S-478/3 Pokkali and PBSAL (STL-15 were found to be salt tolerant; on the other hand Iratom-24, S-653/32, S-612/32, S-604/32, S-633/32, Charnock (DA6, BINA Dhan-6 and S-608/32 were identified as salt susceptible. For genotyping, ten SSR markers were used for polymorphism, where 3 primers (RM127, RM443 and RM140 were selected for evaluation of salt tolerance. In respect of Primer RM127, 7 lines were found salt tolerant and 11 lines were moderately tolerant and 10 lines were susceptible. Nine tolerant, 9 moderately tolerant and 10 susceptible lines were found when the primer RM140 was used and primer RM443 identified 8 lines as tolerant, 9 lines as moderately tolerant and 11 lines as susceptible. Thus, the salt tolerant lines can be used in further evaluation for salinity tolerance and the SSR markers used in this study are proving valuable for identifying salt tolerant genes in marker assisted breeding.

  3. Soybean germplasms evaluation for acid tidal swamp tolerance using selection index

    I Made Jana Mejaya


    Full Text Available Availability of fertile land on the island of Java in Indonesia decreases due to the shifting from agricultural land to non-agricultural land. Hence, an extensification of soybean culture to outer Java suboptimal land areas is needed, such as tidal swamp which occupies approximately 20.192 million hectares. The main limitations in this soil are soil acidity, Fe toxicity and excess water. To develop soybean varieties tolerant to acid tidal swamp, tolerant soybean gene resources are needed. Hence, glasshouse and field experiments were carried out to identify tolerant gene resources. The glasshouse experiment has been conducted using 185 genotypes of germplasm at the Indonesian Legume and Tuber Crops Research Institute, Malang, East Java. Selection was carried out by using a selection index method. The glasshouse experiment was followed by field experiment at the Belandean research station, Banjarbaru, South Kalimantan, using the best 17 genotypes selected from the glass­house trial. Results showed that there was variability of response of each genotype to acidity and Fe toxicity. Therefore, assessment of soybean tolerance to acidity and Fe toxicity should be conducted by root growth. Based on selection index criteria, varieties of Lawit and Menyapa served as check tolerant varieties and showed lower growth than the 17 selected genotypes. In the field experiment, genotype MLGG 1087 was identified as the most tolerant and can serve as a gene resource tolerant to acid tidal swamp because it has the highest relative root growth on root dry weight, and the highest average of root and shoot dry weight.

  4. Testing of Seedborne Fungi in Wheat Germplasm Conserved in the National Crop Genebank of China

    DUAN Can-xing; WANG Xiao-ming; ZHU Zhen-dong; WU Xiao-fei


    There is a primary understanding of the dominant fungi in wheat seeds conserved in the National Crop Genebank of China (NCGB) and an evaluation of the healthy status of wheat germplasm propagated in different regions. A total of 1465 wheat accessions were detected for seedbone fungi by blotter, agar plate, and wash tests. By blotter test, 17 genera of fungi, including more than 30 species, were detected in 712 wheat accessions from Shaanxi, Hebei, and Qinghai provinces, China. Alternaria was the most frequently detected in wheat seeds from Shaanxi Province, followed by Rhizopus, Penicillium, Aspergillus, Bipolaris, Cladosporium, Gonatobotrys, Chaetomium, and others. Seedborne fungi in wheat seeds from Hebei Province, with relatively high incidence were Alternaria, Rhizopus, Penicillium, Aspergillus, Bipolaris, Cladosporium, and Fusarium. In the seeds from Qinghai Province, Alternaria, Rhizopus, Bipolaris, Cladosporium, and Trichothecium are important seed-borne fungi. The seed germination was reduced substantially when seeds were infected by Fusarium verticillioides (syn. F. moniliforme), Bipolaris nodulosa, and Cladosporium herbarum. Eighteen genera and 25 species of fungi were identified in 353 accessions from Shaanxi Province using the agar plate test. The dominant fungi were Alternaria, Aspergillus, Bipolaris, Gonatobotrys, Penicillium, and Fusarium. The smut fungi, Ustilago tritici, was detected by the wash test in 400 accessions, but it was low in incidence in 300 seed samples from Shaanxi Province (1.3%), and in 100 samples from Hebei Province (2.0%). Totally 19 genera of fungi were detected in wheat seed samples, and some seedborne fungi were saprophytic and others were biotrophic which could cause seedborne diseases in the field.

  5. Association Mapping for Fusarium Wilt Resistance in Chinese Asparagus Bean Germplasm

    Xinyi Wu


    Full Text Available Fusarium wilt (FW is an important vascular disease attacking asparagus bean [ (L. Walp. subsp. Sesquipedalis Group] in China. The level and genetic variability of FW resistance in the Chinese asparagus bean germplasm remains elusive. In the current study, FW resistance was assessed across a natural population consisting of 95 asparagus bean and four African cowpea [ (L. Walp. subsp. Unguiculata Group] accessions. The disease index (DI based on the severity of leaf damage (LFD and vascular discoloration (VD varied highly across the population and the highly resistant varieties used for vegetable are very limited. Genome-wide association study identified 11 and seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs that are associated with LFD and VD traits, respectively. These SNPs were distributed on nine linkage groups of the asparagus bean genome and each accounted for less than 5% of the phenotypic variation. Overall, the nonstandard vegetable (NSV subgene pool harbors favorable alleles in a higher frequency than the standard vegetable (SV subgene pool. Individual NSV-type accessions tend to possess a greater number of favorable alleles than the SV-type ones. A SNP marker 1_0981 was converted to a cleaved amplified polymorphic sequences (CAPS marker to facilitate future breeding. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an association mapping (AM study in asparagus bean. The results obtained suggests that resources for FW resistance is relatively limited in the SV subgene pool; hence, introducing resistant alleles from the NSV accessions into currently leading SV cultivars will be important to improve FW resistance of the latter.

  6. Assessment of Genetic Diversity and Structure of Large Garlic (Allium sativum) Germplasm Bank, by Diversity Arrays Technology "Genotyping-by-Sequencing" Platform (DArTseq).

    Egea, Leticia A; Mérida-García, Rosa; Kilian, Andrzej; Hernandez, Pilar; Dorado, Gabriel


    Garlic (Allium sativum) is used worldwide in cooking and industry, including pharmacology/medicine and cosmetics, for its interesting properties. Identifying redundancies in germplasm blanks to generate core collections is a major concern, mostly in large stocks, in order to reduce space and maintenance costs. Yet, similar appearance and phenotypic plasticity of garlic varieties hinder their morphological classification. Molecular studies are challenging, due to the large and expected complex genome of this species, with asexual reproduction. Classical molecular markers, like isozymes, RAPD, SSR, or AFLP, are not convenient to generate germplasm core-collections for this species. The recent emergence of high-throughput genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) approaches, like DArTseq, allow to overcome such limitations to characterize and protect genetic diversity. Therefore, such technology was used in this work to: (i) assess genetic diversity and structure of a large garlic-germplasm bank (417 accessions); (ii) create a core collection; (iii) relate genotype to agronomical features; and (iv) describe a cost-effective method to manage genetic diversity in garlic-germplasm banks. Hierarchical-cluster analysis, principal-coordinates analysis and STRUCTURE showed general consistency, generating three main garlic-groups, mostly determined by variety and geographical origin. In addition, high-resolution genotyping identified 286 unique and 131 redundant accessions, used to select a reduced size germplasm-bank core collection. This demonstrates that DArTseq is a cost-effective method to analyze species with large and expected complex genomes, like garlic. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of high-throughput genotyping of a large garlic germplasm. This is particularly interesting for garlic adaptation and improvement, to fight biotic and abiotic stresses, in the current context of climate change and global warming.

  7. Assessment of Genetic Diversity and Structure of Large Garlic (Allium sativum) Germplasm Bank, by Diversity Arrays Technology “Genotyping-by-Sequencing” Platform (DArTseq)

    Egea, Leticia A.; Mérida-García, Rosa; Kilian, Andrzej; Hernandez, Pilar; Dorado, Gabriel


    Garlic (Allium sativum) is used worldwide in cooking and industry, including pharmacology/medicine and cosmetics, for its interesting properties. Identifying redundancies in germplasm blanks to generate core collections is a major concern, mostly in large stocks, in order to reduce space and maintenance costs. Yet, similar appearance and phenotypic plasticity of garlic varieties hinder their morphological classification. Molecular studies are challenging, due to the large and expected complex genome of this species, with asexual reproduction. Classical molecular markers, like isozymes, RAPD, SSR, or AFLP, are not convenient to generate germplasm core-collections for this species. The recent emergence of high-throughput genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) approaches, like DArTseq, allow to overcome such limitations to characterize and protect genetic diversity. Therefore, such technology was used in this work to: (i) assess genetic diversity and structure of a large garlic-germplasm bank (417 accessions); (ii) create a core collection; (iii) relate genotype to agronomical features; and (iv) describe a cost-effective method to manage genetic diversity in garlic-germplasm banks. Hierarchical-cluster analysis, principal-coordinates analysis and STRUCTURE showed general consistency, generating three main garlic-groups, mostly determined by variety and geographical origin. In addition, high-resolution genotyping identified 286 unique and 131 redundant accessions, used to select a reduced size germplasm-bank core collection. This demonstrates that DArTseq is a cost-effective method to analyze species with large and expected complex genomes, like garlic. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of high-throughput genotyping of a large garlic germplasm. This is particularly interesting for garlic adaptation and improvement, to fight biotic and abiotic stresses, in the current context of climate change and global warming. PMID:28775737

  8. Assessment of Genetic Diversity and Structure of Large Garlic (Allium sativum Germplasm Bank, by Diversity Arrays Technology “Genotyping-by-Sequencing” Platform (DArTseq

    Leticia A. Egea


    Full Text Available Garlic (Allium sativum is used worldwide in cooking and industry, including pharmacology/medicine and cosmetics, for its interesting properties. Identifying redundancies in germplasm blanks to generate core collections is a major concern, mostly in large stocks, in order to reduce space and maintenance costs. Yet, similar appearance and phenotypic plasticity of garlic varieties hinder their morphological classification. Molecular studies are challenging, due to the large and expected complex genome of this species, with asexual reproduction. Classical molecular markers, like isozymes, RAPD, SSR, or AFLP, are not convenient to generate germplasm core-collections for this species. The recent emergence of high-throughput genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS approaches, like DArTseq, allow to overcome such limitations to characterize and protect genetic diversity. Therefore, such technology was used in this work to: (i assess genetic diversity and structure of a large garlic-germplasm bank (417 accessions; (ii create a core collection; (iii relate genotype to agronomical features; and (iv describe a cost-effective method to manage genetic diversity in garlic-germplasm banks. Hierarchical-cluster analysis, principal-coordinates analysis and STRUCTURE showed general consistency, generating three main garlic-groups, mostly determined by variety and geographical origin. In addition, high-resolution genotyping identified 286 unique and 131 redundant accessions, used to select a reduced size germplasm-bank core collection. This demonstrates that DArTseq is a cost-effective method to analyze species with large and expected complex genomes, like garlic. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of high-throughput genotyping of a large garlic germplasm. This is particularly interesting for garlic adaptation and improvement, to fight biotic and abiotic stresses, in the current context of climate change and global warming.

  9. Studies on Utilization of Yunnan Germplasm Resources in Rape%云南油菜资源利用研究

    张美华; 刘丽; 符明联


    云南省有丰富的油菜种质资源,特别是芥菜型油菜资源中蕴藏着一些多分枝、多角果、多粒、抗(耐)菌核病等病害的特异种质材料.通过甘芥油菜种间杂交、利用小孢子培养技术已创制了一批大籽粒、双主茎、抗(耐)旱、高油酸甘蓝型油菜材料,并育成油菜品种20余个应用于生产.随着劳动力转移和干旱等自然灾害的频繁发生,油菜产业向直播轻简化、机械化方向发展,要求品种具有突出的早熟性、适宜机械化生产、抗病抗逆能力强.利用包括转基因、小孢子培养等现代生物育种技术,充分挖掘资源的利用潜力,将有效促进产业的可持续发展.%There are abundant germplasm resources of rape in Yunnan Province, especially varieties of excellent germplasm materials, such as much branched, multi-pods and disease-resistant materials in Brassica juncea. And a whole host of excellent germplasm materials were created by distant hybridization and isolated microspore culture in Brassica napus, and more than 20 varieties of rape were bred from these materials. With the transfer of agricultural labor force and increase of natural calamity, the rape industry is heading for simplification and mechanization, which demand the varieties more early-ripe, more suitable for mechanization and more resistance to disease and insect pest. So, we should take full of advantage of these abundant germplasm resources and modern breeding biotechnology to achieve sustainable rape industry development in Yunnan Province.

  10. Population Structure of the Late Blight Pathogen Phytophthora infestans in a Potato Germplasm Nursery in Two Consecutive Years.

    Tian, Yuee; Yin, Junliang; Sun, Jieping; Ma, Hongmei; Ma, Yunfang; Quan, Junli; Shan, Weixing


    As the causal agent of late blight on potato, Phytophthora infestans is one of the most destructive plant pathogens worldwide and widely known as the Irish potato famine pathogen. Understanding the genetic structure of P. infestans populations is important both for breeding and deployment of resistant varieties and for development of disease control strategies. Here, we investigate the population genetic structure of P. infestans in a potato germplasm nursery in northwestern China. In total, 279 isolates were recovered from 63 potato varieties or lines in 2010 and 2011, and were genotyped by mitochondrial DNA haplotypes and a set of nine simple-sequence repeat markers. Selected isolates were further examined for virulence on a set of differential lines containing each resistance (R) gene (R1 to R11). The overall P. infestans population was characterized as having a low level of genetic diversity and resistance to metalaxyl, and containing a high percentage of individuals that virulent to all 11 R genes. Both A1 and A2 mating types as well as self-fertile P. infestans isolates were present but there was no evidence of sexual reproduction. The low level of genetic differentiation in P. infestans populations is probably due to the action of relatively high levels of migration as supported by analysis of molecular variance (P infestans population structure in the germplasm nursery. Therefore, it is important to ensure the production of pathogen-free potato seed tubers to aid sustainable production of potato in northwestern China.

  11. Growth regulator requirement for in vitro embryogenic cultures of snowdrop (Galanthus nivalis L.) suitable for germplasm preservation.

    Resetár, Anna; Demeter, Zita; Ficsor, Emese; Balázs, Andrea; Mosolygó, Agnes; Szőke, Eva; Gonda, S; Papp, L; Surányi, G; Máthé, C


    In this study, we report on the production of bulb scale-derived tissue cultures capable of efficient shoot and plant regeneration in three genotypes of snowdrop (Galanthus nivalis L., Amaryllidaceae), a protected ornamental plant. For culture line A, high auxin and low cytokinin concentration is required for callus production and plant regeneration. The type of auxin is of key importance: α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) in combination with indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) at concentrations of 2 mg L-1 or 2-10 mg L-1 NAA with 1 mg L-1 N6-benzyladenine (BA), a cytokinin on full-strength media are required for regeneration. Cultures showing regeneration were embryogenic. When lines B and C were induced and maintained with 2 mg L-1 NAA and 1 mg L-1 BA, they produced mature bulblets with shoots, without roots. Line A produced immature bulblets with shoots under the above culture condition. Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) analysis showed that (i) genetic differences between line A and its bulb explants were not significant, therefore these tissue cultures are suitable for germplasm preservation, and (ii) different morphogenetic responses of lines A, B and C originated from genetic differences. Culture line A is suitable for field-growing, cultivation and germplasm preservation of G. nivalis and for the production of Amaryllidaceae alkaloids.

  12. [Evaluation of germplasm resource of Ophiopogon japonicus in Sichuan basin based on principal component and cluster analysis].

    Liu, Jiang; Chen, Xingfu; Liu, Sha; Yang, Wenyu; Du, Gang; Liu, Weiguo


    To compare and appraise the quality of germplasm resource of Ophiopogon japonicus in Sichuan basin. According to the main contents and yield traits, 24 wild germplasm resources of O. japonicus from different areas of Sichuan basin were comprehensively compared by the SPSS 17.0 software with principal component analysis and cluster analysis. The six samples of Ziyang, Jianyang, Leshan, Yibin, Chongqing, Mianyang, their comprehensive evaluation value of quality were higher than the others, and the sample of Ziyang had the best quality, the sample of Dazhou had the least quality, the results of the cluster analysis to raw data were also shown a similar results as principal component analysis. The wild resources of O. japonicus in Sichuan basin is rich, there are much differences among their quality; the method, through principal component analysis to study the comprehensive evaluation of the O. japonicus quality, is reliability and the results of cluster analysis is also support the conclusions, it could be able to provide a reference to select high O. japonicus quality resources.

  13. Screening of the entire USDA castor germplasm collection for oil content and fatty acid composition for optimum biodiesel production.

    Wang, Ming Li; Morris, J Bradley; Tonnis, Brandon; Pinnow, David; Davis, Jerry; Raymer, Paul; Pederson, Gary A


    Castor has tremendous potential as a feedstock for biodiesel production. The oil content and fatty acid composition in castor seed are important factors determining the price for production and affecting the key fuel properties of biodiesel. There are 1033 available castor accessions collected or donated from 48 countries worldwide in the USDA germplasm collection. The entire castor collection was screened for oil content and fatty acid composition by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and gas chromatography (GC), respectively. Castor seeds on the average contain 48.2% oil with significant variability ranging from 37.2 to 60.6%. Methyl esters were prepared from castor seed by alkaline transmethylation. GC analysis of methyl esters confirmed that castor oil was composed primarily of eight fatty acids: 1.48% palmitic (C16:0), 1.58% stearic (C18:0), 4.41% oleic (C18:1), 6.42% linoleic (C18:2), 0.68% linolenic (C18:3), 0.45% gadoleic (C20:1), 84.51% ricinoleic (C18:1-1OH), and 0.47% dihydroxystearic (C18:0-2OH) acids. Significant variability in fatty acid composition was detected among castor accessions. Ricinoleic acid (RA) was positively correlated with dihydroxystearic acid (DHSA) but highly negatively correlated with the five other fatty acids except linolenic acid. The results for oil content and fatty acid composition obtained from this study will be useful for end-users to explore castor germplasm for biodiesel production.

  14. Genetic variation of a global germplasm collection of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) including Italian accessions at risk of genetic erosion.

    De Giovanni, C; Pavan, S; Taranto, F; Di Rienzo, V; Miazzi, M M; Marcotrigiano, A R; Mangini, G; Montemurro, C; Ricciardi, L; Lotti, C


    Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is one of the most important legumes worldwide. We addressed this study to the genetic characterization of a germplasm collection from main chickpea growing countries. Several Italian traditional landraces at risk of genetic erosion were included in the analysis. Twenty-two simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, widely used to explore genetic variation in plants, were selected and yielded 218 different alleles. Structure analysis and hierarchical clustering indicated that a model with three distinct subpopulations best fits the data. The composition of two subpopulations, named K1 and K2, broadly reflects the commercial classification of chickpea in the two types desi and kabuli, respectively. The third subpopulation (K3) is composed by both desi and kabuli genotypes. Italian accessions group both in K2 and K3. Interestingly, this study highlights genetic distance between desi genotypes cultivated in Asia and Ethiopia, which respectively represent the chickpea primary and the secondary centres of diversity. Moreover, European desi are closer to the Ethiopian gene pool. Overall, this study will be of importance for chickpea conservation genetics and breeding, which is limited by the poor characterization of germplasm collection.

  15. Comprehensive screening and selection of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) germplasm for salinity tolerance at the seedling stage and during plant ontogeny

    Ikram-ul-HAQ; Asif Ali KHAN; Iqrar Ahmad KHAN; Muhammad Abubakkar AZMAT


    The okra germplasm was screened for salinity tolerance at the seedling stage and during plant ontogeny.Substantial variation existed in okra for salinity tolerance at the seedling stage.An 80 mmol/L NaCI concentration was suitable for discriminating tolerant and non-tolerant okra genotypes.The pooled ranking of the genotypes,based on individual rankings for each trait (root and shoot length,germination percentage,and relative Na+ and K+) in individual NaCl concentrations,was effective for selecting tolerant genotypes.Genotypes selected at the seedling stage maintained their tolerance to NaCI during plant ontogeny,suggesting that screening of the germplasm entries and advanced breeding materials for salt tolerance at the seedling stage is effective.Among 39 okra genotypes,five were identified as the most tolerant genotypes and showed potential for use in breeding programs that focus on the development of salt-tolerant,high-yield okra cultivars.

  16. 小麦远缘杂交种质资源创新%Enhancement of wheat distant hybridization germplasm

    安调过; 许红星; 许云峰


    小麦近缘种是改良小麦的一个重要基因库,具有许多栽培小麦所不具备的优良特性.我们通过远缘杂交、染色体工程的方法创制了一大批不同类型的材料,经基因组原位杂交GISH、多色FISH和特异分子标记鉴定,抗条锈病、白粉病、叶锈病鉴定,品质、营养性状以及产量性状鉴定,共选育出10类可为育种家利用的抗病、优质、富含微量营养元素、氮高效、丰产性状优良的远缘杂交新种质和新不育系种质;开发了414对黑麦基因组专化的EST引物,31个黑麦染色体(臂)专化的EST分子标记,可应用于分子标记辅助育种,或追踪检测小麦背景中的黑麦染色体或染色体片段;进行了抗病新基因的遗传分析和分子标记定位工作.利用新种质,选育出了一批表现突出的抗病、营养高效的小麦-黑麦、小麦-冰草远缘杂交新品系.%The related species of Triticinae are important and valuable gene resources for molecular improvement of wheat (Triti-cum aestivum L.). These species have a number of distinct characteristics that common wheat varieties simply do not have. Through distant hybridization and chromosome engineering in the past years, a number of new germplasms, including wheat ("Xiaoyan 6")-rye ("German white") addition, substitution and translocation lines, have been developed and characterized. The sequential genome in situ hybridization (GISH) and multi-color fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), specific molecular markers, combining with disease resistance evaluation and nutrition, quality and yield identification had screened 10 kinds of new wide hybrid germ-plasms, including sterile lines. The screened germplasms were highly resistant to stripe rust, leaf rust and powdery mildew. Some hybrid germplasms were also of high quality, enriched Zn and Fe, high nutrient efficiency and desirable agronomic traits. These traits made the germplasms new and valuable for effective wheat

  17. Mango (Mangifera indica L.) germplasm diversity based on single nucleotide polymorphisms derived from the transcriptome.

    Sherman, Amir; Rubinstein, Mor; Eshed, Ravit; Benita, Miri; Ish-Shalom, Mazal; Sharabi-Schwager, Michal; Rozen, Ada; Saada, David; Cohen, Yuval; Ophir, Ron


    Germplasm collections are an important source for plant breeding, especially in fruit trees which have a long duration of juvenile period. Thus, efforts have been made to study the diversity of fruit tree collections. Even though mango is an economically important crop, most of the studies on diversity in mango collections have been conducted with a small number of genetic markers. We describe a de novo transcriptome assembly from mango cultivar 'Keitt'. Variation discovery was performed using Illumina resequencing of 'Keitt' and 'Tommy Atkins' cultivars identified 332,016 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 1903 simple-sequence repeats (SSRs). Most of the SSRs (70.1%) were of trinucleotide with the preponderance of motif (GGA/AAG)n and only 23.5% were di-nucleotide SSRs with the mostly of (AT/AT)n motif. Further investigation of the diversity in the Israeli mango collection was performed based on a subset of 293 SNPs. Those markers have divided the Israeli mango collection into two major groups: one group included mostly mango accessions from Southeast Asia (Malaysia, Thailand, Indonesia) and India and the other with mainly of Floridian and Israeli mango cultivars. The latter group was more polymorphic (FS=-0.1 on the average) and was more of an admixture than the former group. A slight population differentiation was detected (FST=0.03), suggesting that if the mango accessions of the western world apparently was originated from Southeast Asia, as has been previously suggested, the duration of cultivation was not long enough to develop a distinct genetic background. Whole-transcriptome reconstruction was used to significantly broaden the mango's genetic variation resources, i.e., SNPs and SSRs. The set of SNP markers described in this study is novel. A subset of SNPs was sampled to explore the Israeli mango collection and most of them were polymorphic in many mango accessions. Therefore, we believe that these SNPs will be valuable as they recapitulate and

  18. Development and application of marker-assisted reverse breeding using hybrid maize germplasm

    GUAN Yi-Xin; WANG Bao-hua; FENG Yan; LI Ping


    Humankind has been through different periods of agricultural improvement aiming at enhancing our food supply and the performance of food crops. In recent years, whole genome sequencing and deep understanding of genetic and epigenetic mechanisms have facilitated new plant breeding approaches to meet the chalenge of growing population, dwindling re-sources, and changing climate. Here we proposed a simple and fast molecular breeding method, marker-assisted reverse breeding (MARB), which wil revert any maize hybrid into inbred lines with any level of required similarity to its original parent lines. Since al the pericarp DNA of a hybrid is from the maternal parent, whereas one half of the embryo DNA is from the maternal parent and the other half from the paternal parent, so we ifrstly extract DNA from seed embryo and pericarp of a selected elite hybrid separately and then we derived the genotypes of the two parents with high-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chips. The folowing marker-assisted selection was performed based on an Ilumina low-density SNP chip designed with 192 SNPs polymorphic between the two parental genotypes, which were uniformly distributed on 10 maize chromosomes. This method has the advantages of fast speed, ifxed heterotic mode, and quick recovery of beneifcial parental genotypes compared to traditional pedigree breeding using elite hybrids. Meanwhile, MARB has the advantage of not requiring sophisticated transformation and double haploid (DH) technologies over RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated reverse breeding. In addition, MARB can also be used with feed corn harvested from big farms, which is often similar to F2 populations, and the relevant transgenes in the population can be eliminated by marker-assisted selection. As a result, the whole global commercial maize hybrids can be utilized as germplasm for breeding with MARB technology. Starting with an F2 population derived from an elite hybrid, our experiment indicates that with three

  19. Assessing the movement of Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus in susceptible and tolerant cucumber germplasms using serological and nucleic acid based methods

    Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (CYSDV) is an emerging virus causing significant yield losses in cucurbits. Simple but reliable detection and quantification methods constitute an important support to disease management. In a susceptible germplasm CYSDV was detected 5 days post-inoculation (D...

  20. 392291-VDR, a watermelon germplasm line with resistance to Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV)-caused watermelon vine decline (WVD)

    392291-VDR (vine decline resistant) is a watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) germplasm line having resistance to watermelon vine decline (WVD) caused by the whitefly transmitted Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV). The line is derived from the U.S. Plant Introduction (PI) 392291, after succ...

  1. Watermelon germplasm lines USVL246-FR2 and USVL252-FR2 tolerant to fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum race 2

    Two improved germplasm lines of wild watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) designated USVL246-FR2 and USVL252-FR2 were released in 2012 by the Agricultural Research Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (Wechter et al. 2012). These lines are each highly uniform for growth characteri...

  2. Cytogenetics and the Utilization of Gossypium Germplasm%棉属种质资源的细胞遗传学研究和利用

    David STELLY


    @@ Interspecific introgression contributes significantly to genetic improvement of cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum L. ). Cytogenetics has figured prominently in the creation of interspecific hybrids, synthetic polyploids,backcrosses, and other stocks essential to earlyand mid-stage manipulation of germplasm at genome-wide and chromosome-specific levels.

  3. 香石竹种质离体保存研究进展%Research Progress on in vitro Conservation of Carnation(Dianthus caryophyllus L.)Germplasm

    张晓宁; 陈晓玲; 卢新雄; 徐有明; 张金梅; 辛霞; 张志娥


    香石竹是世界四大切花之一,具有重要的观赏价值.其种质资源主要依靠田间种质圃和离体库进行保存.离体保存包括试管苗保存和超低温保存,这两种方法作为田间种质圃保存的补充可以分别对种质资源进行短中期和长期保存.本文对香石竹离体保存的相关研究进行了概括总结,旨在为香石竹种质资源的保存提供参考.%Carnation is one of the world's four cut flowers with important ornamental value. Its germplasm resources are mainly conserved in field genebanlcs and in vitro genebanks, which including tissue culture and cryopreser-vation. As complementary to conservation in field genebanks,ire vitro genebanks can conserve the germplasms in short, medium and long-term. In this paper,the related researches in the carnation germplasms in vitro conservation were studied summarily, aims at providing references to carnation germplasm conservation.

  4. Registration of LP1-2581, LP1-2163H, LP3-1159, and LP640-1304 low phytate spring barley germplasm lines

    The Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture (USDA-ARS) has developed and released four low-phytate spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) germplasm lines: LP1-2581 (Reg. No._____, PI 658245), LP1-2163H (Reg. No._____, PI 658248 ), LP3-1159 (Reg. No._____, PI 658247), and LP640-1304 (...

  5. Detection and classification of SPLCV isolates in the U.S. sweetpotato germplasm collection via a real-time PCR assay and phylogenetic analysis

    The USDA/ARS sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam] germplasm collection contains accessions that were initially collected from various countries worldwide. These materials have been maintained and distributed as in vitro plantlets since the 1980s. The status of viral infection by the emerging Swe...

  6. Comparative Analysis on Eight Different Germplasm Resources of Schisandra chinensis%八个北五味子种质资源的比较分析

    叶强; 张阳; 王霞; 张玉姣; 郑英杰; 卜宪娟; 赵保文


    For collection of Schisandra chinensi germplasm resources to establish the germplasm repository ,ac‐cording to the comparative analysis on eight different germplasm resources of Schisandra chinensis ,the germ‐plasm resources of Zuojia area was regarded as control .The results showed that germplasm resources of Schisandra chinensis in Huanren area had difference from the control in the proportion of male flowers and fe‐male flowers ,spike length ,grain numbers per spike ,total spikes and so on .The yield per plant was the highest . It proved that germplasm resources of Schisandra chinensis in Huanren area was suitable for promotion .%为收集北五味子种质资源以建立种质资源库,以8个不同地区的五味子种质资源为试验材料,以左家地区的五味子种质资源为对照进行比较分析,。研究结果表明:桓仁地区的五味子种质资源在雌雄花比例、穗长、穗粒数和总穗数等产量因素中均与对照组有显著差异,单株产量更是几种种质资源中最高的。证明桓仁地区的五味子种质资源适宜进行推广。

  7. Agro-Morphological, Physico-Chemical and Molecular Characterization of Rice Germplasm with Similar Names of Bangladesh

    Mir Sharf Uddin Ahmed


    Full Text Available Thirty-one duplicate and similar named rice germplasms of Bangladesh were studied to assess the genetic variation for the agro-morphological and physico-chemical traits and simple sequence repeat banding patterns during 2009–2012 at Bangladesh Rice Research Institute. The range of variations within the cultivar groups showed higher degree. The principal component analysis showed that the first five components with vector values > 1 contributed 82.90% of the total variations. The cluster analysis grouped the genotypes into four clusters, where no duplicate germplasm was found. The highest number (11 of genotypes was constellated in cluster I and the lowest (3 in cluster II. The intra- and inter-cluster distances were the maximum in cluster I (0.93 and between clusters I and IV (24.61, respectively, and the minimum in cluster IV (0.62 and between clusters I and III (5.07, respectively. The cluster mean revealed that the crosses between the genotypes of cluster I with those of clusters II and IV would exhibit high heterosis for maximum good characters. A total of 350 alleles varied from 3 (RM277 to 14 (RM21 with an average of 7.8 per locus were detected at 45 microsatellite loci across the 31 rice accessions. The gene diversity ranged from 0.48 to 0.90 with an average of 0.77, and the polymorphism information content values from 0.44 (RM133 to 0.89 (RM206 with an average of 0.74. RM206, RM21, RM55, RM258 and RM433 were considered as the best markers on the basis of their higher polymorphism information content values. The dendrogram from unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic average clustering also classified the genotypes into four groups, where group IV comprised of 20 genotypes and group III of one genotype, but no duplicate was found. Finally, similar and duplicate named rice germplasms need to be conserved in gene bank as are distinct from each other.

  8. Innovation and Utilization of Sorghum Germplasm Resources%高梁种质资源的创新和利用



    Achievements that were made in genetic improvement of sorghum variety depend to a great extend amount of sorghum germplasm resources, and their identification, innovation and utilization to major charaters. In histmy of sorghum breeding, the great advance of sorghum variety improvement was made often due to finding and using some fine genes of germplasm. At present 7 sterile lines that had different cytoplasm were selected, and their reaction of fertility were different. The hybrids that were conbined using steriklines of A~ cytoplasm were used extensively, also the hybrids of A2 cytoplasm steriklines were utilized in sorghum production. A3 cytoplasm sterilines were used in sweet sorghum hybrids. The germplasm resources of good grain quality, sweet-stalk of high sugar, low hydrofluoric acid, resistance diseases, insects, striga and drought were innovated and utilized yet.%高梁品种遗传改良取得的成果很大程度上取决于占有的高梁种质资源的数量,以及对其主要性状的鉴定、创新和利用。在高粱育种史上,品种改良的突破性进展,往往都是由于找到并利用了具有关键基因的种质。目前,已创造和选育出7种不同细胞质雄性不育系,其育性反应各不一样。除A.细胞质不育系组配的杂交种得到广泛应用外,A:细胞质不育系的杂交种在生产上应用,A,细胞质不育系在甜高粱杂交种上应用。籽粒优质、茎秆高糖、低氰氢酸、抗病虫、抗杂草、抗干旱等抗性种质资源也得到了创新利用。

  9. Genetic relationship and diversity in a sesame (Sesamum indicum L. germplasm collection using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP

    Karlovsky Petr


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sesame is an important oil crop in tropical and subtropical areas. Despite its nutritional value and historic and cultural importance, the research on sesame has been scarce, particularly as far as its genetic diversity is concerned. The aims of the present study were to clarify genetic relationships among 32 sesame accessions from the Venezuelan Germplasm Collection, which represents genotypes from five diversity centres (India, Africa, China-Korea-Japan, Central Asia and Western Asia, and to determine the association between geographical origin and genetic diversity using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP. Results Large genetic variability was found within the germplasm collection. A total of 457 AFLP markers were recorded, 93 % of them being polymorphic. The Jaccard similarity coefficient ranged from 0.38 to 0.85 between pairs of accessions. The UPGMA dendrogram grouped 25 of 32 accessions in two robust clusters, but it has not revealed any association between genotype and geographical origin. Indian, African and Chinese-Korean-Japanese accessions were distributed throughout the dendrogram. A similar pattern was obtained using principal coordinates analysis. Genetic diversity studies considering five groups of accessions according to the geographic origin detected that only 20 % of the total diversity was due to diversity among groups using Nei's coefficient of population differentiation. Similarly, only 5% of the total diversity was attributed to differences among groups by the analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA. This small but significant difference was explained by the fact that the Central Asia group had a lower genetic variation than the other diversity centres studied. Conclusion We found that our sesame collection was genetically very variable and did not show an association between geographical origin and AFLP patterns. This result suggests that there was considerable gene flow among diversity centres

  10. Alginate-encapsulation of shoot tips of jojoba [Simmondsia chinensis (Link) Schneider] for germplasm exchange and distribution.

    Kumar, Sunil; Rai, Manoj K; Singh, Narender; Mangal, Manisha


    Shoot tips excised from in vitro proliferated shoots derived from nodal explants of jojoba [Simmondsia chinensis (Link) Schneider] were encapsulated in calcium alginate beads for germplasm exchange and distribution. A gelling matrix of 3 % sodium alginate and 100 mM calcium chloride was found most suitable for formation of ideal calcium alginate beads. Best response for shoot sprouting from encapsulated shoot tips was recorded on 0.8 % agar-solidified full-strength MS medium. Rooting was induced upon transfer of sprouted shoots to 0.8 % agar-solidified MS medium containing 1 mg l(-1) IBA. About 70 % of encapsulated shoot tips were rooted and converted into plantlets. Plants regenerated from encapsulated shoot tips were acclimatized successfully. The present encapsulation approach could also be applied as an alternative method of propagation of desirable elite genotype of jojoba.

  11. Storage protein-2 as a dependable biochemical index for screening germplasm stocks of the silkworm Bombyx mori (L.

    Jingade H. Anuradha


    Full Text Available Storage protein (SP-2 variation was investigated among selected silkworm germplasm stocks representing two major potential sericulture areas of India. The expression levels of storage protein varied among them, as seen in Sodium Dodecylsulfate Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE, which correlated with their geographical origin. The storage protein variation is an inter origin variability and this differential expression of the protein is helpful to tag the robustness of the breed/race associated with parentage and their origin. Present study revealed that silkworm races/breeds viz., LMO, Kolar Gold and A4e possess higher protein content among the races studied. This may be correlated with their robustness reflecting higher survival rate in the varied environments prevailing in the tropical zone. Such identified races can be conserved as storage protein rich genetic stocks for their maximal genetic potentials and high-grade silk productivity.

  12. Analysis of Genetic Diversity and Relationships in a Tunisian Fig (Ficus carica) Germplasm Collection by Random Amplified Microsatellite Polymorphisms

    Khaled Chatti; Olfa Saddoud; Amel Salhi-Hannachi; Messaoud Mars; Mohamed Marrakchi; Mokhtar Trifi


    The random amplified mirosatellite polymorphism method was performed in a set of Tunisian fig landraces using eighteen primer combinations. Atotal of sixty three random amplified microsatellite polymorphism (RAMPO) markers were scored and used either to assess the genetic diversity in these cultivars or to detect cases of mislabeling. Opportunely, data proved that the designed procedure constitutes an attractive and fast method with low costs and prevents radio exposure. As a result, we have identified the primer combinations that are the most efficient to detect genetic polymorphism in this crop. Therefore, the derived unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic averages (UPGMA) dendrogram illustrates the genetic divergence among the landraces studied and exhibits a typically continuous variation. Moreover, no evident correlation between the sexes of trees was observed. In addition, using these markers, discrimination between landraces has been achieved. Thus, random amplified mirosatellite polymorphism is proved to be powerful for characterizing the local fig germplasm.

  13. Transmission of the Chromosome 1 R in Winter Wheat Germplasm Aimengniu and Its Derivatives Revealed by Molecular Markers

    ZHAO Chunhua; CUI Fa; ZONG Hao; WANG Yu-hai; BAO Yin-guang; HAO Yuan-feng; DU Bin; WANG Hong-gang


    In order to clarify the transmission of the rye chromosome 1R in winter wheat germplasm Aimengniu and its derivatives,17 derivatives and 7 types of Aimengniu were examined through molecular-marker technology.The results showed that the chromosome arm 1RS of Neuzucht was transmitted to 5 of the 7 types of Aimengniu,i.e.,Aimengniu II and Aimengniu Ⅳ-Aimengniu Ⅶ,no segment of 1RS was identified in Aimengniu Ⅰ or Aimengniu Ⅲ.As for the 17 derivatives,the 1RS chromosome arm of Aimengniu was transmitted to 11 derivatives,part segments of 1RS were found in 1 derivative,while no segment was found in the remaining 5 ones.The results provided the evidence that molecular-marker technology was an efficient approach and suitable for analysis of the transmission of chromosome 1R.

  14. Genome-wide association study of grain polyphenol concentrations in global sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] germplasm.

    Rhodes, Davina H; Hoffmann, Leo; Rooney, William L; Ramu, Punna; Morris, Geoffrey P; Kresovich, Stephen


    Identifying natural variation of health-promoting compounds in staple crops and characterizing its genetic basis can help improve human nutrition through crop biofortification. Some varieties of sorghum, a staple cereal crop grown worldwide, have high concentrations of proanthocyanidins and 3-deoxyanthocyanidins, polyphenols with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. We quantified total phenols, proanthocyanidins, and 3-deoxyanthocyanidins in a global sorghum diversity panel (n = 381) using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), and characterized the patterns of variation with respect to geographic origin and botanical race. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) with 404,628 SNP markers identified novel quantitative trait loci for sorghum polyphenols, some of which colocalized with homologues of flavonoid pathway genes from other plants, including an orthologue of maize (Zea mays) Pr1 and a homologue of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) TT16. This survey of grain polyphenol variation in sorghum germplasm and catalog of flavonoid pathway loci may be useful to guide future enhancement of cereal polyphenols.

  15. Evaluation of genotypic variation in leaf photosynthetic rate and its associated factors by using rice diversity research set of germplasm.

    Kanemura, Tomomi; Homma, Koki; Ohsumi, Akihiro; Shiraiwa, Tatsuhiko; Horie, Takeshi


    In order to evaluate genotypic variation, we measured leaf photosynthetic rate (Pn) and its associated factors for the rice diversity research set of germplasm (RDRS) selected from the Genebank in National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences (NIAS). Pn showed large genotypic variation from 11.9 to 32.1 micromol m(-2 )s(-1). The variation in stomatal conductance to CO2 (Gs) explained about 50% of that in Pn, while that in nitrogen concentration (N) in leaves explained about 35%. The genotype group which mainly consists of aus type indica tended to have higher Gs, and the genotype group which corresponds to japonica had a higher nitrogen concentration (N) in leaves. The relationships of Pn with Gs and N were not significantly different among genotype groups, suggesting photosynthetic efficiencies are similar among genotype groups.

  16. Heterotic patterns in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) using exotic germplasm for Chinese semi-winter hybrid breeding

    Qian Lunwen; Chen Lunlin; Mei Jiaqin; Li Maoteng; Martin Frauen; Christian Jung; Qian Wei; Meng Jinling


    Chinese semi-winter rapeseed,genetically differing from winter and spring rapeseed,has been consid-ered to possess strong potential as parent in winter and spring rapeseed hybrid breeding programs. However,no de-tailed researches have been documented whether winter and spring rapeseed lines have potential for Chinese semi-winter rapeseed hybrid breeding. The objectives of this study are to estimate the potential of winter and spring rapeseed for semi-winter rapeseed hybrid breeding,and to investigate the association of general combining ability (GCA) with adaptation of parental lines by combining with the data in our previous studies. Four winter and four spring male sterile lines were crossed with 14 Chinese semi-winter rapeseed lines to develop 112 hybrids,which were evaluated together with their parents for seed yield under three environments in China. The exotic parental lines were not adapted to local environment as demonstrated by late flowering,low seed weight and poor seed yield per se. However,the hybrids,especially derived from winter rapeseed exhibited strong heterosis for seed yield,indicating that winter rapeseed germplasm has a great potential for rapeseed hybrid breeding in China. Our data suggested a strong association of GCA with their adaptation ability of parental lines,since high to middle cor-relations were found for local parental lines and low correlations for exotic parental lines under spring,winter and semi-winter eco-growth environments. The hybrid breeding program using exotic germplasm in rapeseed was dis-cussed.

  17. Assessment of genetic diversity in Indian rice germplasm (Oryza sativa L.): use of random versus trait-linked microsatellite markers

    Sheel Yadav; Ashutosh Singh; M. R. Singh; Nitika Goel; K. K. Vinod; T. Mohapatra; A. K. Singh


    Assessment of genetic diversity in a crop germplasm is a vital part of plant breeding. DNA markers such as microsatellite or simple sequence repeat markers have been widely used to estimate the genetic diversity in rice. The present study was carried out to decipher the pattern of genetic diversity in terms of both phenotypic and genotypic variability, and to assess the efficiency of random vis-à-vis QTL linked/gene based simple sequence repeat markers in diversity estimation. A set of 88 rice accessions that included landraces, farmer’s varieties and popular Basmati lines were evaluated for agronomic traits and molecular diversity. The random set of SSR markers included 50 diversity panel markers developed under IRRI’s Generation Challenge Programme (GCP) and the trait-linked/gene based markers comprised of 50 SSR markers reportedly linked to yield and related components. For agronomic traits, significant variability was observed, ranging between the maximum for grains/panicle and the minimum for panicle length. The molecular diversity based grouping indicated that varieties from a common centre were genetically similar, with few exceptions. The trait-linked markers gave an average genetic dissimilarity of 0.45 as against that of 0.37 by random markers, along with an average polymorphic information constant value of 0.48 and 0.41 respectively. The correlation between the kinship matrix generated by trait-linked markers and the phenotype based distance matrix (0.29) was higher than that of random markers (0.19). This establishes the robustness of trait-linked markers over random markers in estimating genetic diversity of rice germplasm.

  18. Doubled haploid production from Spanish onion (Allium cepa L. germplasm: embryogenesis induction, plant regeneration and chromosome doubling

    Oreto eFayos


    Full Text Available The use of doubled haploids in onion breeding is limited due to the low gynogenesis efficiency of this species. Gynogenesis capacity from Spanish germplasm, including the sweet cultivar Fuentes de Ebro, the highly pungent landrace BGHZ1354 and the two Valenciana type commercial varieties Recas and Rita, was evaluated and optimized in this study. The OH-1 population, characterized by a high gynogenesis induction, was used as control. Growing conditions of the donor plants were tested with a one-step protocol and field plants produced a slightly higher percentage of embryogenesis induction than growth chamber plants. A one-step protocol was compared with a two-step protocol for embryogenesis induction. Spanish germplasm produced a 2 to 3 times higher percentage of embryogenesis with the two-step protocol, Recas showing the highest percentage (2.09% and Fuentes de Ebro the lowest (0.53%. These percentages were significantly lower than those from the OH-1 population, with an average of 15% independently of the protocol used. The effect of different containers on plant regeneration was tested using both protocols. The highest percentage of acclimated plants was obtained with the two-step protocol in combination with Eco2box (70%, whereas the lowest percentage was observed with glass tubes in the two protocols (20-23%. Different amiprofos-methyl (APM treatments were applied to embryos for chromosome doubling. A similar number of doubled haploid plants were recovered with 25 or 50 µM APM in liquid medium. However, the application of 25 µM in solid medium for 24 h produced the highest number of doubled haploid plants. Somatic regeneration from flower buds of haploid and mixoploid plants proved to be a successful approach for chromosome doubling, since diploid plants were obtained from the 4 regenerated lines. In this study, doubled haploid plants were produced from the four Spanish cultivars, however further improvements are needed to increase their

  19. SNP-Discovery by RAD-Sequencing in a Germplasm Collection of Wild and Cultivated Grapevines (V. vinifera L.)

    Birolo, Giovanni; Prazzoli, Maria Lucia; Lorenzi, Silvia; Valle, Giorgio; Grando, Maria Stella


    Whole-genome comparisons of Vitis vinifera subsp. sativa and V. vinifera subsp. sylvestris are expected to provide a better estimate of the valuable genetic diversity still present in grapevine, and help to reconstruct the evolutionary history of a major crop worldwide. To this aim, the increase of molecular marker density across the grapevine genome is fundamental. Here we describe the SNP discovery in a grapevine germplasm collection of 51 cultivars and 44 wild accessions through a novel protocol of restriction-site associated DNA (RAD) sequencing. By resequencing 1.1% of the grapevine genome at a high coverage, we recovered 34K BamHI unique restriction sites, of which 6.8% were absent in the ‘PN40024’ reference genome. Moreover, we identified 37,748 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 93% of which belonged to the 19 assembled chromosomes with an average of 1.8K SNPs per chromosome. Nearly half of the SNPs fell in genic regions mostly assigned to the functional categories of metabolism and regulation, whereas some nonsynonymous variants were identified in genes related with the detection and response to environmental stimuli. SNP validation was carried-out, showing the ability of RAD-seq to accurately determine genotypes in a highly heterozygous species. To test the usefulness of our SNP panel, the main diversity statistics were evaluated, highlighting how the wild grapevine retained less genetic variability than the cultivated form. Furthermore, the analysis of Linkage Disequilibrium (LD) in the two subspecies separately revealed how the LD decays faster within the domesticated grapevine compared to its wild relative. Being the first application of RAD-seq in a diverse grapevine germplasm collection, our approach holds great promise for exploiting the genetic resources available in one of the most economically important fruit crops. PMID:28125640

  20. Resistance Identification of Maize Germplasms to Corn Borer%玉米种质资源抗螟性鉴定

    李青青; 郭成; 郭满库; 魏宏玉; 郭建国


    为明确玉米不同品种(系)之间的抗螟性差异,采用田间自然感螟法,于2010~2011年在甘肃省天水市甘谷县对478份玉米种质资源进行田间抗性鉴定。结果表明:在216份农家种资源、216份自交系和46份杂交种中共筛选出高抗材料86份、抗螟材料85份、中抗材料167份,分别占供鉴材料的18.0%、17.8%和34.9%;其余140份为感螟和高感材料,占29.3%。%So as to confirm the borer-resistance differences among different corn varieties ( inbred lines ) , the study adopted the method of being naturally infected by Ostrinia furnacalis under field conditions , and identified the resistance of 478 maize germ-plasms to corn borer in Gan ’ gu county, Tianshui city, Gansu province from 2010 to 2012.The results showed that: among 478 maize germplasms (216 peasant variety resources , 216 inbred lines and 46 hybrids), 86 high-resistant materials (18.0% of all materials), 85 borer-resistant materials (17.8%), 167 middle-resistant materials (34.9%) were screened out;the other 140 materials were susceptible or highly susceptible to corn borer , accounting for 29.3%of all tested materials.

  1. Analysis of genetic diversity and population structure in a tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) germplasm collection based on single nucleotide polymorphism markers.

    Wang, T; Zou, Q D; Qi, S Y; Wang, X F; Wu, Y Y; Liu, N; Zhang, Y M; Zhang, Z J; Li, H T


    Knowledge of genetic diversity is important to assist breeders in the selection of parental materials and in the design of breeding programs. In this study, we genotyped 348 inbred tomato lines, representing vintage and contemporary fresh-market varieties, by using 52 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs); 45 of these were found to be polymorphic. The average minor allele frequency and unbiased expected heterozygosity were 0.315 and 0.356, respectively. Population structure analysis revealed that contemporary germplasm could be distinctly divided into six subpopulations representing three market classes and breeding programs (pink, green, and red). Vintage germplasm could be separated into at least two subpopulations, and more admixtures were found in vintage lines than in contemporary lines. These findings indicate that contemporary inbred lines are more diversified than vintage inbred lines. AMOVA of vintage and contemporary lines was performed. A significant difference was found (P tomato lines and to select elite inbred lines, which will accelerate the breeding process.

  2. Molecular Diversity and Population Structure of a Worldwide Collection of Cultivated Tetraploid Alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. sativa L.) Germplasm as Revealed by Microsatellite Markers.

    Qiang, Haiping; Chen, Zhihong; Zhang, Zhengli; Wang, Xuemin; Gao, Hongwen; Wang, Zan


    Information on genetic diversity and population structure of a tetraploid alfalfa collection might be valuable in effective use of the genetic resources. A set of 336 worldwide genotypes of tetraploid alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. sativa L.) was genotyped using 85 genome-wide distributed SSR markers to reveal the genetic diversity and population structure in the alfalfa. Genetic diversity analysis identified a total of 1056 alleles across 85 marker loci. The average expected heterozygosity and polymorphism information content values were 0.677 and 0.638, respectively, showing high levels of genetic diversity in the cultivated tetraploid alfalfa germplasm. Comparison of genetic characteristics across chromosomes indicated regions of chromosomes 2 and 3 had the highest genetic diversity. A higher genetic diversity was detected in alfalfa landraces than that of wild materials and cultivars. Two populations were identified by the model-based population structure, principal coordinate and neighbor-joining analyses, corresponding to China and other parts of the world. However, lack of strictly correlation between clustering and geographic origins suggested extensive germplasm exchanges of alfalfa germplasm across diverse geographic regions. The quantitative analysis of the genetic diversity and population structure in this study could be useful for genetic and genomic analysis and utilization of the genetic variation in alfalfa breeding.

  3. Germplasm-regression-combined (GRC) marker-trait association identification in plant breeding: a challenge for plant biotechnological breeding under soil water deficit conditions.

    Ruan, Cheng-Jiang; Xu, Xue-Xuan; Shao, Hong-Bo; Jaleel, Cheruth Abdul


    In the past 20 years, the major effort in plant breeding has changed from quantitative to molecular genetics with emphasis on quantitative trait loci (QTL) identification and marker assisted selection (MAS). However, results have been modest. This has been due to several factors including absence of tight linkage QTL, non-availability of mapping populations, and substantial time needed to develop such populations. To overcome these limitations, and as an alternative to planned populations, molecular marker-trait associations have been identified by the combination between germplasm and the regression technique. In the present preview, the authors (1) survey the successful applications of germplasm-regression-combined (GRC) molecular marker-trait association identification in plants; (2) describe how to do the GRC analysis and its differences from mapping QTL based on a linkage map reconstructed from the planned populations; (3) consider the factors that affect the GRC association identification, including selections of optimal germplasm and molecular markers and testing of identification efficiency of markers associated with traits; and (4) finally discuss the future prospects of GRC marker-trait association analysis used in plant MAS/QTL breeding programs, especially in long-juvenile woody plants when no other genetic information such as linkage maps and QTL are available.

  4. Molecular Diversity and Population Structure of a Worldwide Collection of Cultivated Tetraploid Alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. sativa L. Germplasm as Revealed by Microsatellite Markers.

    Haiping Qiang

    Full Text Available Information on genetic diversity and population structure of a tetraploid alfalfa collection might be valuable in effective use of the genetic resources. A set of 336 worldwide genotypes of tetraploid alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. sativa L. was genotyped using 85 genome-wide distributed SSR markers to reveal the genetic diversity and population structure in the alfalfa. Genetic diversity analysis identified a total of 1056 alleles across 85 marker loci. The average expected heterozygosity and polymorphism information content values were 0.677 and 0.638, respectively, showing high levels of genetic diversity in the cultivated tetraploid alfalfa germplasm. Comparison of genetic characteristics across chromosomes indicated regions of chromosomes 2 and 3 had the highest genetic diversity. A higher genetic diversity was detected in alfalfa landraces than that of wild materials and cultivars. Two populations were identified by the model-based population structure, principal coordinate and neighbor-joining analyses, corresponding to China and other parts of the world. However, lack of strictly correlation between clustering and geographic origins suggested extensive germplasm exchanges of alfalfa germplasm across diverse geographic regions. The quantitative analysis of the genetic diversity and population structure in this study could be useful for genetic and genomic analysis and utilization of the genetic variation in alfalfa breeding.

  5. Ontology Construction of Crop Germplasm Resources%农作物种质资源本体构建研究

    陈丽娜; 方沩; 司海平; 曹永生


    本体是一种能够有效提高农作物种质资源整合、共享和利用效率的组织方式。在分析传统本体构建方法的基础上,结合中国农作物种质资源自身的特点,提出结构化数据与非结构化数据相结合的半自动化本体构建方法。该方法首先基于面向对象的思想从关系数据库中抽取概念及其关系建立初始本体;然后从非结构化的网站数据中提取概念,并利用在线字典 WordNet 和网络百科全书 Wikipedia 丰富概念的语义,完善初始本体。使用本体构建工具Protégé构建了农作物种质资源本体模型。实验表明,该方法既充分利用了数据库中的资源,又考虑了非结构化数据的补充作用,减少了构建成本,本体更加完善。探讨了本体进化的途径,指出了本研究的优点和局限性。%Ontology is an efficient organization for improving integration, sharing and use efficiency of crop germplasm resources. On the basis of analyzing traditional ontology construction methods and characteristics of national crop germplasm resources, a semi-automated ontology construction method combining structured data and unstructured data was proposed. The method estab-lished initial ontology by extracting concepts and their relationship from relational database based on object-oriented approach, then, extracted concepts from unstructured web data, and enriched the semantic of these concepts using online dictionaries such as WordNet and online encyclopedia Wikipedia, so as to improve the initial ontology. Crop germplasm resources ontology model was constructed using Protégé, an ontology construction tool. The experimental results showed that the method made the database resources fully utilized, the complementary role of unstructured data considered, the cost of ontology construction reduced, and the ontology more perfected. The paper discussed ontology evolution way, and pointed out the advantages and

  6. Seedling Emergence and Phenotypic Response of Common Bean Germplasm to Different Temperatures under Controlled Conditions and in Open Field

    Antonio M. DE RON


    Full Text Available Rapid and uniform seed germination and seedling emergence under diverse environmental conditions is a desirable characteristic for crops. Common bean genotypes (Phaseolus vulgaris L. differ in their low temperature tolerance regarding growth and yield. Cultivars tolerant to low temperature during the germination and emergence stages and carriers of the grain quality standards demanded by consumers are needed for the success of the bean crop. The objectives of this study were i to screen the seedling emergence and the phenotypic response of bean germplasm under a range of temperatures in controlled chamber and field conditions to display stress-tolerant genotypes with good agronomic performances and yield potential, and ii to compare the emergence of bean seedlings under controlled environment and in open field conditions to assess the efficiency of genebanks standard germination tests for predicting the performance of the seeds in the field. Three trials were conducted with 28 dry bean genotypes in open field and in growth chamber under low, moderate and warm temperature. Morpho-agronomic data were used to evaluate the phenotypic performance of the different genotypes. Cool temperatures resulted in a reduction of the rate of emergence in the bean genotypes, however, emergence and early growth of bean could be under different genetic control and these processes need further research to be suitably modeled. Nine groups arose from the Principal Component Analysis (PCA representing variation in emergence time and proportion of emergence in the controlled chamber and in the open field indicating a trend to lower emergence in large and extra-large seeded genotypes. Screening of seedling emergence and phenotypic response of the bean germplasm under a range of temperatures in controlled growth chambers and under field conditions showed several genotypes, as landraces 272, 501, 593 and the cultivar Borlotto, with stress-tolerance at emergence and high

  7. 基于ISSR技术研究诺丽种质资源的亲缘关系%Genetic Relationship ofMorinda citrifolia Germplasms by ISSR

    吴田; 蓝增全


    In order to understand the genetic relationship ofMorinda citrifolia(noni), the DNA fingerprints of 13 noni germplasm resources of were studied by ISSR markers. The results showed that ten ISSR primers could amplify 183 bands, of which 159 bands were polymorphic, accounting for 86.9%. The genetic similarity coefifcients of 13 noni germplasm resources ranged from 0.464 to 0.784. Cluster analysis showed that 13 noni germplasm resources could be divided into two clads, in which Small fruit as a single group had distant relation with other germplasm resources. Although all noni germplasm resources could not completely separated according external morphological characteristics, the most with the same characteristics could be clustered into the same group or sub-group.%为探讨我国诺丽(Morinda citrifolia)种质资源的亲缘关系,采用ISSR技术对诺丽种质资源的遗传关系进行分析。结果表明,10条ISSR引物对13份诺丽种质资源共扩增出183条带,其中多态性条带有159条,占86.9%。13份诺丽种质的遗传相似系数为0.464~0.784。聚类分析将13份诺丽种质资源聚为两类,其中诺丽小黑种单独聚为一类,与其他12份诺丽种质资源的亲缘关系较远。虽然按照外部形态特征不能将所有诺丽种质完全区分,但具有相同特征的多数种质还是聚在同一类或亚类中。

  8. Status of Special Oil Crops Germplasm Conservation in the World%世界特种油料种质资源保存概况

    谭美莲; 严明芳; 汪磊; 王力军; 严兴初


    In order to strengthen the germplasm collection and conservation of special oil crops, and offer the service for breeding research and utilization expediently, the status of germplasm conservation for special oil crops in China and some important countries were illuminated in this study. 13 countries such as America, India, Europe on Union and China and so on, hold almost 90000 germplasm accessions of special oil crops including more than 30000 flax accessions,over 21800 sunflower accessions, more 15000 safflower accessions, about 5000 castor bean accessions and approximately 900 perilla accessions. Most flax resources are conserved in America, Russia, Canada and Europe on Union;sunflower germplasm accessions are mainly collected in America, Europe on Union and China;large numbers of safflower accessions are distributed in India, America, China and Russia; and most castor bean resources are kept in China,America and India. As for the accession numbers of special oil crops among those countries,America ranks first which possesses more than 22000 accessions, India ranks second, and Europe on Union,China and Russia are in the middle. 8400 accessions of special oil crops ( castor bean, sunflower, safflower and Perilla)are conserved in China,21% of which are foreign germplasms,and most of native germplasms come from Hubei Province, North China, Northeast, Northwest and Southwest. This study is valuable for China germplasm introduction, collection and preservation of special oil crops, and it not only point out the direction, but also provide the reference.%为加强特种油料种质资源的收集保存,更好地为育种研究利用提供服务,本文阐述了特种油料种质资源在我国及世界上重点国家的保存情况.美国、印度、欧盟、中国等13个国家共保存向日葵、红花、亚麻(含纤用)、蓖麻及苏子等特种油料种质资源约9万份,其中亚麻30000多份,向日葵21800多份,红花15000多份,蓖麻约5000

  9. Multigenic control of pod shattering resistance in Chinese rapeseed germplasm revealed by genome-wide association and linkage analyses

    Jia Liu


    Full Text Available Majority of rapeseed cultivars shatter seeds upon maturity especially under hot-dry and windy conditions, reducing yield and gross margin return to growers. Here, we identified quantitative trait loci (QTL for resistance to pod shatter in unstructured diverse panel of 143 rapeseed accessions, and two structured populations derived from bi-parental doubled haploid (DH and inter-mated (IF2 crosses derived from R1 (resistant to pod shattering and R2 (prone to pod shattering accessions. Genome-wide association analysis identified six significant QTL for resistance to pod shatter located on chromosomes A01, A06, A07, A09, C02 and C05. Two of the QTL, qSRI.A09 delimited with the SNP marker Bn-A09-p30171993 (A09 and qSRI.A06 delimited with the SNP marker Bn-A06-p115948 (A06 could be repeatedly detected across environments in diversity panel, DH and IF2 populations, suggesting that at least two loci on chromosomes A06 and A09 were the main contributors to pod shatter resistance in Chinese germplasm. Significant SNP markers identified in this study especially those appeared repeatedly across environments provide a cost-effective and an efficient method for introgression and pyramiding of favorable alleles for pod shatter resistance via marker-assisted selection in rapeseed improvement programs.

  10. Assessment of Genetic Stability Among In Vitro Plants of Arachis retusa Using RAPD and AFLP Markers for Germplasm Preservation

    Rachel Fatima Gagliardi; Luiz Ricardo Hanai; Georgia Pacheco; Carlos Alberto Oliveira; Leonardo Alves Carneiro; José Francisco Montenegro Valls; Elisabeth Mansur; Maria Lucia Carneiro Vieira


    Arachis retusa Krapov. et W. C. Gregory et Valls is endemic in the West-central region of Brazil, occurring in areas endangered by human actions. The establishment of in vitro preservation methods for wild species of Arachis isan alternative to seed banks for germplasm storage, multiplication and distribution. The risk of genetic changesinduced by tissue culture and the monitoring of the genetic stability of the biological material before, during andafter storage must be considered in the context of conservation. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) andamplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) fingerprinting were used to evaluate the genetic stability of invitro plants originated from cotyledons and embryo axes of A. retusa. Cotyledons originated shoots through directorganogenesis and embryo axes displayed multishoot formation induced by 110 mmol/L and 8.8 mmol/L BAP,respectively. Ninety genomlc regions (loci) generated from RAPD and 372 from AFLP analyses were evaluated. Allamplified fragments detected by both techniques in plants derived from the two explant types were monomorphic.The results indicate that the recovered shoots are genetically stable at the assessed genomic regions.

  11. Germplasm Collection from Last Remnants of Rice Landrace Genetic Diversity in High Altitude Areas of Kashmir Himalayas

    Sheikh Mohd SULTAN


    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to know about past and present cultivation and status of rice landraces in Kashmir province of Indian Himalayan state of Jammu and Kashmir. Tremendous genetic diversity has existed in past in paddy fields throughout Kashmir especially in remote high altitude areas and more than 4 dozen named landraces have been recorded in the literature. Elderly farmers in their sixties and beyond still fondly remember these landraces and often recall quality attributes in many of these genetic resources. Most of the landraces have now disappeared from the local production system and only few are presently being cultivated and that too in a very small area. The reasons as to why farmers lost interest in these genetic resources and why few landraces are still popular in farmer fields have been discussed. Our study has revealed that variability in paddy fields has now been drastically reduced to few high altitude areas where also it is seriously endangered. We argue that collection of well adapted traditional varieties from these ‘last remnants of rice genetic diversity’ in Kashmir is an important task especially under prevailing uncertain social and climatic conditions to ensure a sustainable environment. 32 germplasm accessions of some landraces have been collected during our survey in these areas. These have been deposited in National Seed Gene Bank at NBPGR, New Delhi for conservation and characterization.

  12. Greenhouse Evaluation of Selected Soybean Germplasm for Resistance to North Carolina Populations of Heterodera glycines, Rotylenchulus reniformis, and Meloidogyne Species.

    Davis, E L; Koenning, S R; Burton, J W; Barker, K R


    Selected soybean genotypes were evaluated for resistance to North Carolina populations of the soybean cyst nematode Heterodera glycines, the root-knot nematodes Meloidogyne incognita races 3 and 4, M. arenaria races 1 and 2, M. javanica, and the reniform nematode Rotylenchulus reniformis in two greenhouse tests. Populations of cyst nematode used in the first test were cultures from field samples originally classified as races 1-5, and those used in the second test included inbred cyst lines that corresponded to races 1, 3, and 4. The original race classification of some cyst populations shifted after repeated culture on susceptible 'Lee 68' soybean. Most of the cyst-resistant soybean cultivars tested were susceptible to M. arenaria and M. javanica. Exceptionally large galls were induced by M. arenaria on roots of Asgrow 5979, Hartwig, and CNS soybean. Hartwig soybean and PI 437654 were resistant to all cultured field populations of cyst nematodes in a first greenhouse test. In the second test, cyst indices of 11.3% and 19.4% were observed on roots of PI 437654 and Hartwig, respectively, when infected with an inbred line (OP50) of H. glycines corresponding to race 4. The cyst-resistant soybean germplasm tested, including Hartwig and PI 437654, supported only low numbers of reniform nematodes. The most severe soybean root necrosis observed, however, was associated with reniform nematode infection.

  13. Extractable amounts of trans-resveratrol in seed and berry skin in Vitis evaluated at the germplasm level.

    Li, Xiaodong; Wu, Benhong; Wang, Lijun; Li, Shaohua


    Extractable amounts of resveratrol in berry skins and seeds were studied in 120 grape (Vitis) germplasm cultivars during two consecutive years to determine the distribution of resveratrol among the main grape genotypes. Interspecific rootstock cultivars had much higher extractable amounts of resveratrol in skin and seed than all other grape genotypes studied in both years. Extremely high extractable amounts of resveratrol in berry skins [>100 microg g(-1) of skin fresh weight (FW)] and seeds (>20 microg g(-1) of seed FW) were observed on two rootstock cultivars obtained from hybrids of V. monticula x V. riparia. Extractable amounts of resveratrol in berries of rootstock cultivars that are the descendants of V. riparia were also very high. The cultivated European type (V. vinifera) cultivars and their hybrids with V. labrusca had relatively low levels of extractable resveratrol in berry skin and seed, and the extractable amounts of resveratrol in berry skin and seeds were, with a few exceptions, <2 microg g(-1) of skin or seed FW. Extractable amounts of resveratrol in berry skin and seeds were closely related with fruit traits or purpose of uses and climate. Significantly higher extractable amounts of resveratrol in berry skin were found in seeded cultivars than in seedless ones, in both berry skin and seeds in winemaking grapes than in table grapes, and in red grapes than in green ones. Moreover, rainfall during fruit development resulted in higher extractable amounts of resveratrol in berry skin, whereas resveratrol synthesis and accumulation in grape seeds were not related to climate change.

  14. Determination of some minerals and β-carotene contents in aromatic indica rice (Oryza sativa L.) germplasm.

    Renuka, N; Mathure, Sarika V; Zanan, Rahul L; Thengane, Ratnakar J; Nadaf, Altafhusain B


    39 aromatic indica rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars were characterized for Iron, Zinc, Calcium, Magnesium, Copper and β-carotene contents. The β-carotene contents were ranging from 1.23 to 9.9μg/g in brown and 0.08 to 1.99μg/g in milled rice. Among the mineral contents, Magnesium was found ranging from 855μg/g (Gham) to maximum of 1636μg/g (Badshahbhog) followed by Iron in 32μg/g (Jirga) to 218μg/g (Kalsal), Copper content from 2μg/g (Girga) to 1004μg/g (Gham), Zinc content from 25 (Gham) to 165μg/g (Ambemohar-157) and Calcium ranged from 14μg/g (Ambemohar pandhara) to 67μg/g (Kate chinoor). The study showed that the germplasm assessed is a good source of micronutrients and can be further exploited in breeding programme.

  15. Molecular characterization and population structure of the macaw palm, Acrocomia aculeata (Arecaceae), ex situ germplasm collection using microsatellites markers.

    Lanes, Éder C M; Motoike, Sérgio Y; Kuki, Kacilda N; Nick, Carlos; Freitas, Renata D


    The Acrocomia aculeata is one of the most promising plants for sustainable production of renewable energy. In order to understand patterns of the distribution of the allelic diversity of A. aculeata ex situ germplasm collection, the present study investigated the hypothesis that the genetic variability of the accessions may match their geographical origin. A genotypic analysis of 77 A. aculeata accessions was conducted with 6 simple sequence repeat markers. A high degree of molecular diversity among the accessions was found, with an average of 9 alleles per locus and a polymorphic information content with a mean of 0.76. A total of 4 clusters was identified by the Bayesian analysis of population structure. The highest subpopulation diversity was identified in Pop1, mainly formed by accessions from State of Mato Grosso do Sul. The populations Pop2A, Pop2B, and Pop2C, all from the State of Minas Gerais, showed high genetic variability as determined by a higher F st, and a wide genetic variance, which were identified within and among the population by analysis of molecular variance. Based on our results and on Vavilov's theory on crop origins, one possible diversity center for A. aculeata is proposed to be in a region in southeast Brazil.

  16. Assessment of Worldwide Genetic Diversity of Siberian Wild Rye (Elymus sibiricus L. Germplasm Based on Gliadin Analysis

    Changbing Zhang


    Full Text Available E. sibiricus L., the type species of the genus Elymus, is a perennial, self-pollinating and allotetraploid grass indigenous to Northern Asia, which in some countries can be cultivated as an important forage grass. In the present study, eighty-six Elymus sibiricus accessions, mostly from different parts of Asia, were assayed by gliadin markers based on Acid Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis to differentiate and explore their genetic relationships. The genetic similarity matrix was calculated by 47 polymorphic bands, which ranged from 0.108 to 0.952 with an average of 0.373. The total Shannon diversity index (Ho and the Simpson index (He was 0.460 and 0.302, respectively. Cluster analysis showed a clear demarcation between accessions from Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China and the others as separate groups. The clustering pattern was probably dependent on geographic origin and ecological adaptability of the accessions. The population structure analysis based on Shannon indices showed that the proportion of variance within and among the five geographic regions of the Northern Hemisphere was 55.9 and 44.1%, respectively, or 63.4 and 36.6% within and among six Chinese provinces. This distinct geographical divergence was perhaps depended on ecogeographical conditions such as climate difference and mountain distribution. The results of gladin analysis in this study are useful for the collection and preservation of E. sibiricus germplasm resources.

  17. Genetic Diversity Within a Jackfruit(Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.)Germplasm Collection in China Using AFLP Markers

    LI Ying-zhi; MAO Qi; FENG Feng; YE Chun-hai


    Jackfruit is cross-pollinated and mostly seed propagated,a wide range of variation exists in fruit quality.With the development of efficient vegetative propagation methods,excellent genotypes selected from these seed propagated seedlings will gradually replace other genotypes in jackfruit producing areas.In this study,genetic diversity of 50jackfruit accessions from three provinces in China was analyzed based on amplified fragment length polymorphic(AFLP)markers.A total of 320 unambiguous bands were produced by eight primer combinations,and 65(20.3%)of them were polymorphic.Genetic similarity coefficients ranged from 0 to 0.9841,with an average of 0.5000,indicating a moderate genetic diversity in this collection.The dendrogram derived by unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean algorithm(UPGMA)analysis revealed five groups,and no correlation between genetic relationship and geographical origin were found.Accessions of soft and firm flesh type were not clustered into distinct groups,neither could yearly bearing once,or twice fruit accessions.This study has provided useful information for collection and preservation of jackfruit germplasm worldwide.

  18. Effect of coconut palm proximities and Musa spp. germplasm resistance to colonization by Raoiella indica (Acari: Tenuipalpidae).

    Rodrigues, Jose Carlos Verle; Irish, Brian M


    Although coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) is the predominant host for Raoiella indica Hirst (Acari: Tenuipalpidae), false spider mite infestations do occur on bananas and plantains (Musa spp. Colla). Since its introduction, the banana and plantain industries have been negatively impacted to different degrees by R. indica infestation throughout the Caribbean. Genetic resistance in the host and the proximity of natural sources of mite infestation has been suggested as two of the main factors affecting R. indica densities in Musa spp. plantations. Greenhouse experiments were established to try to determine what effect coconut palm proximities and planting densities had on R. indica populations infesting Musa spp. plants. Trials were carried out using potted Musa spp. and coconut palms plants at two different ratios. In addition, fourteen Musa spp. hybrid accessions were evaluated for their susceptibility/resistance to colonization by R. indica populations. Differences were observed for mite population buildup for both the density and germplasm accession evaluations. These results have potential implications on how this important pest can be managed on essential agricultural commodities such as bananas and plantains.

  19. Phenotypic variation in the agronomic and morphological traits of Pisum sativum L. germplasm obtained from different parts of the world.

    Nisar, M; Ghafoor, A; Khan, M R


    A total of 286 genotypes were collected from 39 countries of the world and were evaluated to determine the phenotypic diversity for 17 quantitative traits. Higher degree of coefficient of variation were recorded for grain yield(-5) (52.46%), biomass(-5) (45.73%), fresh pod width(-10) (47.24%), dry pod weight(-1) (40.33%), plant height(-1) (35.25%), harvest index (32.70%) and number of branches(-5). Cluster-II clearly reflected that late genotypes were having lightest pods weight, shortest pod width, and pod length; low grain yield, biomass and harvest index. While genotypes in Cluster-III were in contrast to Cluster-II having heaviest pods weight, longest pods width and length, highest grain yield, biomass and harvest index. Higher PC(-1) values have been determined for days to flower initiation which consequently were contributing weighed positive to days to pods picking, days to flower completion, days to dry pod appearance, days to plant harvesting while negatively contributed to yield producing traits, indicating that late flowering pea germplasm emphasizes more on the vegetative growth and was low yielding. However, higher PC(-2) values have been obtained for number of branches(-5), grain yield and biomass while lower values for days to flowering, days to pods picking, days to flower completion, days to dry pod appearance and days to plant harvesting confirming the fact that early genotypes were high yielding.

  20. Genetic structure, linkage disequilibrium and association mapping of Verticillium wilt resistance in elite cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) germplasm population.

    Zhao, Yunlei; Wang, Hongmei; Chen, Wei; Li, Yunhai


    Understanding the population structure and linkage disequilibrium in an association panel can effectively avoid spurious associations and improve the accuracy in association mapping. In this study, one hundred and fifty eight elite cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) germplasm from all over the world, which were genotyped with 212 whole genome-wide marker loci and phenotyped with an disease nursery and greenhouse screening method, were assayed for population structure, linkage disequilibrium, and association mapping of Verticillium wilt resistance. A total of 480 alleles ranging from 2 to 4 per locus were identified from all collections. Model-based analysis identified two groups (G1 and G2) and seven subgroups (G1a-c, G2a-d), and differentiation analysis showed that subgroup having a single origin or pedigree was apt to differentiate with those having a mixed origin. Only 8.12% linked marker pairs showed significant LD (Pmapping, which widely were distributed among 15 chromosomes. Among which 10 marker loci were found to be consistent with previously identified QTLs and 32 were new unreported marker loci, and QTL clusters for Verticillium wilt resistanc on Chr.16 were also proved in our study, which was consistent with the strong linkage in this chromosome. Our results would contribute to association mapping and supply the marker candidates for marker-assisted selection of Verticillium wilt resistance in cotton.

  1. Simulation modeling of high-throughput cryopreservation of aquatic germplasm: a case study of blue catfish sperm processing.

    Hu, E; Liao, T W; Tiersch, T R


    Emerging commercial-level technology for aquatic sperm cryopreservation has not been modeled by computer simulation. Commercially available software (ARENA, Rockwell Automation, Inc. Milwaukee, WI) was applied to simulate high-throughput sperm cryopreservation of blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus) based on existing processing capabilities. The goal was to develop a simulation model suitable for production planning and decision making. The objectives were to: 1) predict the maximum output for 8-hr workday; 2) analyze the bottlenecks within the process, and 3) estimate operational costs when run for daily maximum output. High-throughput cryopreservation was divided into six major steps modeled with time, resources and logic structures. The modeled production processed 18 fish and produced 1164 ± 33 (mean ± SD) 0.5-ml straws containing one billion cryopreserved sperm. Two such production lines could support all hybrid catfish production in the US and 15 such lines could support the entire channel catfish industry if it were to adopt artificial spawning techniques. Evaluations were made to improve efficiency, such as increasing scale, optimizing resources, and eliminating underutilized equipment. This model can serve as a template for other aquatic species and assist decision making in industrial application of aquatic germplasm in aquaculture, stock enhancement, conservation, and biomedical model fishes.

  2. Quality and bioactive compounds in fruit of foreign accessions of mango conserved in an Active Germplasm Bank1

    Thalita Passos Ribeiro

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterise the quality and levels of bioactive compounds in the fruit of 22 foreign accessions of the mango belonging to the Active Germplasm Bank of Embrapa Semiárido. Sixty fruits from each of the accessions: Florigon, Haden, 65, Irwin, M 13269, Momi-K, Scuper Many, Simmonds, Tommy Atkins, Van Dyke, Winter, Zill, Amrapali, Olour, Aplle DCG 406, Mon Amon DCG 407, Black Java, Kensington, Chené, Manila, Manzanillo and Maya, were harvested upon reaching physiological maturity, one half being analysed when harvested and the other half stored at ambient temperature (25.4 ± 2.9 ºC and 41 ± 9% RH until ripe. The experimental design was completely randomised in a 22 x 2 factorial (accession x maturity stage, with three replications of ten fruits. The accessions Chene, Momi-K and Van Dyke stood out for their physical attributes: weight, length, diameter and firmness of pulp, and for their good post-harvest conservation. The accession Amrapali was different because of its high levels of soluble solids, total soluble sugars, starch, ascorbic acid and carotenoids, suggesting a high potential for insertion into a breeding program aimed at the quality of the mango.

  3. Elaeis oleifera genomic-SSR markers: exploitation in oil palm germplasm diversity and cross-amplification in arecaceae.

    Zaki, Noorhariza Mohd; Singh, Rajinder; Rosli, Rozana; Ismail, Ismanizan


    Species-specific simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers are favored for genetic studies and marker-assisted selection (MAS) breeding for oil palm genetic improvement. This report characterizes 20 SSR markers from an Elaeis oleifera genomic library (gSSR). Characterization of the repeat type in 2000 sequences revealed a high percentage of di-nucleotides (63.6%), followed by tri-nucleotides (24.2%). Primer pairs were successfully designed for 394 of the E. oleifera gSSRs. Subsequent analysis showed the ability of the 20 selected E. oleifera gSSR markers to reveal genetic diversity in the genus Elaeis. The average Polymorphism Information Content (PIC) value for the SSRs was 0.402, with the tri-repeats showing the highest average PIC (0.626). Low values of observed heterozygosity (H(o)) (0.164) and highly positive fixation indices (F(is)) in the E. oleifera germplasm collection, compared to the E. guineensis, indicated an excess of homozygosity in E. oleifera. The transferability of the markers to closely related palms, Elaeis guineensis, Cocos nucifera and ornamental palms is also reported. Sequencing the amplicons of three selected E. oleifera gSSRs across both species and palm taxa revealed variations in the repeat-units. The study showed the potential of E. oleifera gSSR markers to reveal genetic diversity in the genus Elaeis. The markers are also a valuable genetic resource for studying E. oleifera and other genus in the Arecaceae family.

  4. Elaeis oleifera Genomic-SSR Markers: Exploitation in Oil Palm Germplasm Diversity and Cross-Amplification in Arecaceae

    Ismanizan Ismail


    Full Text Available Species-specific simple sequence repeat (SSR markers are favored for genetic studies and marker-assisted selection (MAS breeding for oil palm genetic improvement. This report characterizes 20 SSR markers from an Elaeis oleifera genomic library (gSSR. Characterization of the repeat type in 2000 sequences revealed a high percentage of di-nucleotides (63.6%, followed by tri-nucleotides (24.2%. Primer pairs were successfully designed for 394 of the E. oleifera gSSRs. Subsequent analysis showed the ability of the 20 selected E. oleifera gSSR markers to reveal genetic diversity in the genus Elaeis. The average Polymorphism Information Content (PIC value for the SSRs was 0.402, with the tri-repeats showing the highest average PIC (0.626. Low values of observed heterozygosity (Ho (0.164 and highly positive fixation indices (Fis in the E. oleifera germplasm collection, compared to the E. guineensis, indicated an excess of homozygosity in E. oleifera. The transferability of the markers to closely related palms, Elaeis guineensis, Cocos nucifera and ornamental palms is also reported. Sequencing the amplicons of three selected E. oleifera gSSRs across both species and palm taxa revealed variations in the repeat-units. The study showed the potential of E. oleifera gSSR markers to reveal genetic diversity in the genus Elaeis. The markers are also a valuable genetic resource for studying E. oleifera and other genus in the Arecaceae family.

  5. Morphological Diversity and Cluster Analysis on Markers of Sorghum Germplasms%不同高粱种质资源形态多样性及其形态标记聚类分析

    王洋; 张明生; 李祥栋; 任明见; 高翔


    为高粱种质资源的创新利用及新品种选育提供依据,选择11项形态性状指标作为形态鉴定参数,对收集的94份高粱种质进行相关性状考查及鉴定,采用 DPS 软件对形态标记数据进行聚类分析。结果表明:94份高粱种质的株高、茎粗、节间长、叶面积、主穗长、千粒重、单穗粒重等形态数量性状差异较大,穗型的紧凑型占52.13%,穗形的纺锤形占77.66%,颖壳色的褐色占52.13%;在欧氏距离4.81处,可将94份种质分成3类,其中第1类88份,第2类4份,第3类仅2份。选择与高粱种质性状特性密切相关的形态指标作为鉴定参数可对高粱种质资源进行初步筛选与鉴定。%To provide a reference for creative utilization and new cultivar breeding of sorghum germplasms,the related traits of 94 sorghum germplasms from home and abroad were examined and identified by selected 11 morphological markers indices as morphological identification parameters,and DPS (a data processing software)was used for data clustering analysis.The results showed that the morphological quantitative traits of the 94 sorghum germplasms,including plant height,stem diameter, internode length,leaf area,main ear length,thousand kernel weight and grain weight per spike,varied much,compact ear type,fusiform spike shape and brown shell accounted for 52.13%,77.66% and 52. 13% respectively;94 sorghum germplasms could be divided into three categories at Euclidean distance of 4.81.The first category contained 88 germplasms,the second category contained 4 germplasms,and third category contained only 2 germplasms.It is feasible that selecting the morphological traits indicators of related closely with sorghum germplasm characteristics as identified parameters use to preliminary screen and identify sorghum germplasms.

  6. Genome-wide SNPs and re-sequencing of growth habit and inflorescence genes in barley: implications for association mapping in germplasm arrays varying in size and structure

    Muehlbauer Gary J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Considerations in applying association mapping (AM to plant breeding are population structure and size: not accounting for structure and/or using small populations can lead to elevated false-positive rates. The principal determinants of population structure in cultivated barley are growth habit and inflorescence type. Both are under complex genetic control: growth habit is controlled by the epistatic interactions of several genes. For inflorescence type, multiple loss-of-function alleles in one gene lead to the same phenotype. We used these two traits as models for assessing the effectiveness of AM. This research was initiated using the CAP Core germplasm array (n = 102 assembled at the start of the Barley Coordinated Agricultural Project (CAP. This array was genotyped with 4,608 SNPs and we re-sequenced genes involved in morphology, growth and development. Larger arrays of breeding germplasm were subsequently genotyped and phenotyped under the auspices of the CAP project. This provided sets of 247 accessions phenotyped for growth habit and 2,473 accessions phenotyped for inflorescence type. Each of the larger populations was genotyped with 3,072 SNPs derived from the original set of 4,608. Results Significant associations with SNPs located in the vicinity of the loci involved in growth habit and inflorescence type were found in the CAP Core. Differentiation of true and spurious associations was not possible without a priori knowledge of the candidate genes, based on re-sequencing. The re-sequencing data were used to define allele types of the determinant genes based on functional polymorphisms. In a second round of association mapping, these synthetic markers based on allele types gave the most significant associations. When the synthetic markers were used as anchor points for analysis of interactions, we detected other known-function genes and candidate loci involved in the control of growth habit and inflorescence type. We

  7. 我国苦茶资源主要生化成分的鉴定评价%Analysis and Evaluation of Biochemical Components in Bitter Tea Plant Germplasms

    王新超; 姚明哲; 马春雷; 陈亮


    Bitter tea is a special kind of tea germplasm in China. The major biochemical components of 24 bitter teas and other 8 Camellia sinensis var. sinensis and 8 C. sinensis var. assamica tea germplasms, which were stored in the China National Germplasm Hangzhou Tea Repository (CNGHTR), were analyzed and evaluated. The results showed that no significant differences of major biochemical components affecting the tea quality were found between bitter tea and common tea. According to the processing suitability index, bitter tea was suitable for the manufacturing of black tea; while according to evolutionary indices such as the composition and content of catechin, bitter tea was similar to C. sinensis var. assamica belonging to the relatively primitive type in evolution. The results of cluster analysis indicated that bitter tea was clustered with C. sinensis var. assamica, so it could be considered to belong to C. sinensis var. assamica.

  8. Track Monitoring on Viability of Rice Germplasm Resources and Regeneration under Low Temperature Storage%稻种资源低温贮藏生活力跟踪监测与种质更新



    53 rice germplasm resources warehoused during 1981-1984 were regarded as materials to monitor the viability at warehouse time and different years after warehoused.The results showed that seed germination rates of different rice germplasm resources assumed descending trend in storage,with annual decreasing rate between 0.12%-3.O5%;the seed germination rates of most cultivars were above 75% after stored for 26 yeats;forecasting analysis based on the germination rate of 75% as reference showed a huge difference of safe storage life for different rice gennplasm resources,ranging from 12 to 50 years,even longer time.The results suggest that track monitoring on viability and regeneration of rice cultivars is of great importance for germplasm resources conservation.

  9. 榧树种质资源调查与评价%Investigation and evaluation of Torreya grandis germplasm resource

    程晓建; 黎章矩; 戴文圣; 喻卫武; 曾燕如


    The seeds of Torreya grandis Fort. ex Lindl are a peculiar nut fruit in China. In order to effectively protect, develop and utilize the germplasm resources of this species, a systematic investigation of its germplasm resources in Zhejiang, Anhui, Jiangxi and Fujian provinces was conducted through field investigation, specimen collection, indoor seed examination and ingredient analysis. The results showed that the resources of T. grandis was unevenly distributed and only conserved well in a few regions. The single seed weight, single kernel weight, kernel rate, kernel shape index and nutrient content varied greatly among individual trees, but some superior individual trees in integrated traits and quality had discovered, which could be grouped into seven major varieties and types. Those individual trees with seeds of integrated good traits, good quality, special traits or potential utilization value should be collected and preserved, especially focusing on those of high and stable yield and special high traits. The old trees or their population should be protected.%榧树(Torreyagrandis Fort.ex Lindl)种子是我国特有的著名干果,为了对榧树种质资源进行有效保护和开发利用,采用实地调查、采集标本、室内烤种、成分分析等方法,对浙江、安徽、江西、福建等榧树分布区的种质资源进行了系统研究.结果表明.榧树资源分布不均,仅少数地方资源保存较好;榧树种内性状变异复杂,不同单株间种子的单粒质量、种核单粒质量、出核率、核形指数及营养成分等变异大,存在一些综合性状优良、品质达到或超过香榧的优株:将香榧和榧树中的优良株系、类型分归于7个主要品种和类型.在榧树中应主要收集一些种子具有综合优良性状、特殊性状和有潜在利用价值的单株;香榧则重点在于收集种子高产、稳产、优质和具特殊性状的优株,对古树及古树群也应加以保护.

  10. Pre-harvest aflatoxins and Aspergillus flavus contamination in variable germplasms of red chillies from Kunri, Pakistan.

    Akhund, Shaista; Akram, Abida; Hanif, Nafeesa Qudsia; Qureshi, Rahmatullah; Naz, Farah; Nayyar, Brian Gagosh


    Various cultivars of red chilli were collected from a small town named Kunri, located in the province Sindh, Pakistan. This town is a hub of red chilli production in Asia. A total of 69 samples belonging to 6 cultivars were obtained and analysed for the occurrence of aflatoxins and Aspergillus flavus, to explore the potential of resistant and susceptible germplasm. Aflatoxins were detected by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), while A. flavus was isolated and identified using agar plate, blotter paper, deep freezing and dilution techniques. Molecular characterization using internal transcribed spacer (ITS) 1/4 and A. flavus specific FL1-F/R primers confirmed the identity of A. flavus. The data revealed that 67 and 75% samples contaminated with aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and with A. flavus, respectively. A highly susceptible chilli cultivar was 'Nagina', showing 78.8% frequency of total aflatoxins (1.2-600 μg/kg) and a mean of 87.7 μg/kg for AFB1 and 121.9 μg/kg for total aflatoxins. A. flavus was detected with 93% frequency and 2.14 × 10(4) colony forming units. In contrast, cultivars 'Kunri' and 'Drooping Type' were found to be resistant, with low levels of aflatoxins and fungal counts. The study was conducted for the first time to explore two potential cultivars that were less susceptible towards A. flavus and aflatoxin contamination. These cultivars could be preferably cultivated and thereby boost Pakistan's chilli production.

  11. Genetic diversity and relationships in olive ( Olea europaea L.) germplasm collections as determined by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA.

    Belaj, A.; Satovic, Z.; Rallo, L.; Trujillo, I.


    Genetic diversity studies using the RAPD technique were carried out in a set of 103 olive cultivars from the World Germplasm Bank of the Centro de Investigación y Formación Agraria (CIFA) "Alameda del Obispo" in Cordoba (Spain). A total of 126 polymorphisms (6.0 polymorphic markers per primer) out of 135 reproducible products (6.4 fragments per primer) were obtained from the 21 primers used. The number of bands per primer ranged from 4 to 11, whereas the number of polymorphic bands ranged from 3 to 10, corresponding to 83% of the amplification products. The dendrogram based on unweighted pair-group cluster analysis using Jaccard's index includes three major groups according to their origin: (1) cultivars from the Eastern and Central Mediterranean areas, (2) some Italian and Spanish cultivars, and (3) cultivars from the Western Mediterranean zone. The pattern of genetic variation among olive cultivars from three different Mediterranean zones (West, Centre and East) was analysed by means of the analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA). Although most of the genetic diversity was attributable to differences of cultivars within Mediterranean zones (96.86%) significant phi-values among zones (phi(st) = 0.031; p < 0.001) suggested the existence of phenotypic differentiation. Furthermore, the AMOVA analysis was used to partition the phenotypic variation of Spain, Italy (Western region), Greece and Turkey (Eastern region) into four categories: among regions, among countries (within regions), within countries, and among and within countries of each region. Most of the genetic diversity was attributable to differences among genotypes within a country. These results are consistent with the predominantly allogamous nature of Olea europaea L. species. This paper indicates the importance of the study of the amount and distribution of genetic diversity for a better exploration of olive genetic resources and the design of plant breeding programmes.

  12. Registration of Durum Wheat Germplasm Lines with Combined Mutations in SBEIIa and SBEIIb Genes Conferring Increased Amylose and Resistant Starch.

    Hazard, Brittany; Zhang, Xiaoqin; Naemeh, Mahmoudreza; Dubcovsky, Jorge


    Durum wheat [Triticum turgidum L. subsp. durum (Desf.) Husn.], used in pasta, couscous, and flatbread production, is an important source of starch food products worldwide. The amylose portion of the starch forms resistant starch complexes that resist digestion and contribute to dietary fiber. Increasing the amount of amylose and resistant starch in wheat by mutating the STARCH BRANCHING ENZYME II (SBEII) genes has potential to provide human health benefits. Ethyl methane sulfonate mutations in the linked SBEIIa and SBEIIb paralogs were combined on chromosomes 2A (SBEIIa/b-A; Reg. No. GP-968, PI 670159), 2B (SBEIIa/b-B; Reg. No. GP-970, PI 670161), and on both chromosomes (SBEIIa/b-AB; Reg. No. GP-969, PI 670160) in the tetraploid wheat cultivar Kronos, a semidwarf durum wheat cultivar that has high yield potential and excellent pasta quality. These three double and quadruple SBEII-mutant lines were compared with a control sib line with no SBEII mutations in two field locations in California. The SBEIIa/b-AB line with four mutations showed dramatic increases in amylose (average 66%) and resistant starch (average 753%) relative to the control. However, the SBEIIa/b-AB line also showed an average 7% decrease in total starch and an 8% decrease in kernel weight. The release by the University of California-Davis of the durum wheat germplasm combining four SBEIIa and SBEIIb mutations will accelerate the deployment of these mutations in durum wheat breeding programs and the development of durum wheat varieties with increased resistant starch.

  13. Single-nucleotide polymorphism markers from de-novo assembly of the pomegranate transcriptome reveal germplasm genetic diversity.

    Ron Ophir

    Full Text Available Pomegranate is a valuable crop that is grown commercially in many parts of the world. Wild species have been reported from India, Turkmenistan and Socotra. Pomegranate fruit has a variety of health-beneficial qualities. However, despite this crop's importance, only moderate effort has been invested in studying its biochemical or physiological properties or in establishing genomic and genetic infrastructures. In this study, we reconstructed a transcriptome from two phenotypically different accessions using 454-GS-FLX Titanium technology. These data were used to explore the functional annotation of 45,187 fully annotated contigs. We further compiled a genetic-variation resource of 7,155 simple-sequence repeats (SSRs and 6,500 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. A subset of 480 SNPs was sampled to investigate the genetic structure of the broad pomegranate germplasm collection at the Agricultural Research Organization (ARO, which includes accessions from different geographical areas worldwide. This subset of SNPs was found to be polymorphic, with 10.7% loci with minor allele frequencies of (MAF<0.05. These SNPs were successfully used to classify the ARO pomegranate collection into two major groups of accessions: one from India, China and Iran, composed of mainly unknown country origin and which was more of an admixture than the other major group, composed of accessions mainly from the Mediterranean basin, Central Asia and California. This study establishes a high-throughput transcriptome and genetic-marker infrastructure. Moreover, it sheds new light on the genetic interrelations between pomegranate species worldwide and more accurately defines their genetic nature.

  14. 中药党参资源及生产现状%Survey of Codonopsis Germplasm Resource and Production Status

    张向东; 高建平; 曹铃亚; 针娴


    Objective: To understand the situation of germplasm resources and production status of Codonopsis pilosula. Methods :The relevant documents were consulted,combined with fields survey,and the obtained information was systemati-zated. Results:Codonopsis pilosula widely distributed in Shanxi,Gansu,Shaanxi,Sichuan,Hubei and other provinces. The products mainly were cultivated species with a small amount of wild. The original plant of Codonopsis pilosula included Codonopsis pilosula(Fianch. )Nannf,Codonopsis pilosula Nannf. var. modesta(Nannf. )L. T. Shen and Codonopsis tang-shen Oliv. Conclusion: Wild resources of Codonopsis pilosula is rich in China,but most of the resources quantity is reducing rapidly, and the urgent protection of wild resources of Codonopsis pilosula must be carried on.%目的:全面了解党参原植物种质资源状况及中药党参生产状况.方法:查阅相关文献,实地调查,标本采集鉴定和信息收集整理.结果:中药党参主产于山西、甘肃、陕西、四川、湖北等省,主要为栽培品,少量为野生,其原植物包括党参、素花党参、川党参.结论:我国党参种质资源丰富,但多数资源量在减少,亟待保护.

  15. Genome-wide association and genomic prediction of resistance to maize lethal necrosis disease in tropical maize germplasm.

    Gowda, Manje; Das, Biswanath; Makumbi, Dan; Babu, Raman; Semagn, Kassa; Mahuku, George; Olsen, Michael S; Bright, Jumbo M; Beyene, Yoseph; Prasanna, Boddupalli M


    Genome-wide association analysis in tropical and subtropical maize germplasm revealed that MLND resistance is influenced by multiple genomic regions with small to medium effects. The maize lethal necrosis disease (MLND) caused by synergistic interaction of Maize chlorotic mottle virus and Sugarcane mosaic virus, and has emerged as a serious threat to maize production in eastern Africa since 2011. Our objective was to gain insights into the genetic architecture underlying the resistance to MLND by genome-wide association study (GWAS) and genomic selection. We used two association mapping (AM) panels comprising a total of 615 diverse tropical/subtropical maize inbred lines. All the lines were evaluated against MLND under artificial inoculation. Both the panels were genotyped using genotyping-by-sequencing. Phenotypic variation for MLND resistance was significant and heritability was moderately high in both the panels. Few promising lines with high resistance to MLND were identified to be used as potential donors. GWAS revealed 24 SNPs that were significantly associated (P < 3 × 10(-5)) with MLND resistance. These SNPs are located within or adjacent to 20 putative candidate genes that are associated with plant disease resistance. Ridge regression best linear unbiased prediction with five-fold cross-validation revealed higher prediction accuracy for IMAS-AM panel (0.56) over DTMA-AM (0.36) panel. The prediction accuracy for both within and across panels is promising; inclusion of MLND resistance associated SNPs into the prediction model further improved the accuracy. Overall, the study revealed that resistance to MLND is controlled by multiple loci with small to medium effects and the SNPs identified by GWAS can be used as potential candidates in MLND resistance breeding program.

  16. Effect of the scale of quantitative trait data on the representativeness of a cotton germplasm sub-core collection

    Jian-cheng WANG; Jin HU; Ya-jing GUAN; Yan-fang ZHU


    A cotton germplasm collection with data for 20 quantitative traits was used to investigate the effect of the scale of quantitative trait data on the representativeness of plant sub-core collections.The relationship between the representativeness of a sub-core collection and two influencing factors,the number of traits and the sampling percentage,was studied.A mixed linear model approach was used to eliminate environmental errors and predict genotypic values of accessions.Sub-core collections were constructed using a least distance stepwise sampling(LDSS)method combining standardized Euclidean distance and an unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic means (UPGMA)cluster method.The mean difference percentage(MD),variance difference percentage(VD),coincidence rate of range(CR),and variable rate of coefficient of variation(VR)served as evaluation parameters.Monte Carlo simulation was conducted to study the relationship among the number of traits,the sampling percentage,and the four evaluation parameters.The results showed that the representativeness of a sub-core collection was affected greatly by the number of traits and the sampling percentage,and that these two influencing factors were closely connected.Increasing the number of traits improved the representativeness of a sub-core collection when the data of genotypic values were used.The change in the genetic diversity of sub-core collections with different sampling percentages showed a linear tendency when the number of traits was small,and a logarithmic tendency when the number of traits was large.However,the change in the genetic diversity of sub-core collections with different numbers of traits always showed a strong logarithmic tendency when the sampling percentage was changing.A CR threshold method based on Monte Carlo simulation is proposed to determine the rational number of traits for a relevant sampling percentage of a sub-core collection.

  17. High Throughput Sequencing of Small RNAs in the Two Cucurbita Germplasm with Different Sodium Accumulation Patterns Identifies Novel MicroRNAs Involved in Salt Stress Response.

    Junjun Xie

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs, a class of small non-coding RNAs, recognize their mRNA targets based on perfect sequence complementarity. MiRNAs lead to broader changes in gene expression after plants are exposed to stress. High-throughput sequencing is an effective method to identify and profile small RNA populations in non-model plants under salt stresses, significantly improving our knowledge regarding miRNA functions in salt tolerance. Cucurbits are sensitive to soil salinity, and the Cucurbita genus is used as the rootstock of other cucurbits to enhance salt tolerance. Several cucurbit crops have been used for miRNA sequencing but salt stress-related miRNAs in cucurbit species have not been reported. In this study, we subjected two Cucurbita germplasm, namely, N12 (Cucurbita. maxima Duch. and N15 (Cucurbita. moschata Duch., with different sodium accumulation patterns, to Illumina sequencing to determine small RNA populations in root tissues after 4 h of salt treatment and control. A total of 21,548,326 and 19,394,108 reads were generated from the control and salt-treated N12 root tissues, respectively. By contrast, 19,108,240 and 20,546,052 reads were obtained from the control and salt-treated N15 root tissues, respectively. Fifty-eight conserved miRNA families and 33 novel miRNAs were identified in the two Cucurbita germplasm. Seven miRNAs (six conserved miRNAs and one novel miRNAs were up-regulated in salt-treated N12 and N15 samples. Most target genes of differentially expressed novel miRNAs were transcription factors and salt stress-responsive proteins, including dehydration-induced protein, cation/H+ antiporter 18, and CBL-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase. The differential expression of miRNAs between the two Cucurbita germplasm under salt stress conditions and their target genes demonstrated that novel miRNAs play an important role in the response of the two Cucurbita germplasm to salt stress. The present study initially explored small

  18. High Throughput Sequencing of Small RNAs in the Two Cucurbita Germplasm with Different Sodium Accumulation Patterns Identifies Novel MicroRNAs Involved in Salt Stress Response.

    Xie, Junjun; Lei, Bo; Niu, Mengliang; Huang, Yuan; Kong, Qiusheng; Bie, Zhilong


    MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a class of small non-coding RNAs, recognize their mRNA targets based on perfect sequence complementarity. MiRNAs lead to broader changes in gene expression after plants are exposed to stress. High-throughput sequencing is an effective method to identify and profile small RNA populations in non-model plants under salt stresses, significantly improving our knowledge regarding miRNA functions in salt tolerance. Cucurbits are sensitive to soil salinity, and the Cucurbita genus is used as the rootstock of other cucurbits to enhance salt tolerance. Several cucurbit crops have been used for miRNA sequencing but salt stress-related miRNAs in cucurbit species have not been reported. In this study, we subjected two Cucurbita germplasm, namely, N12 (Cucurbita. maxima Duch.) and N15 (Cucurbita. moschata Duch.), with different sodium accumulation patterns, to Illumina sequencing to determine small RNA populations in root tissues after 4 h of salt treatment and control. A total of 21,548,326 and 19,394,108 reads were generated from the control and salt-treated N12 root tissues, respectively. By contrast, 19,108,240 and 20,546,052 reads were obtained from the control and salt-treated N15 root tissues, respectively. Fifty-eight conserved miRNA families and 33 novel miRNAs were identified in the two Cucurbita germplasm. Seven miRNAs (six conserved miRNAs and one novel miRNAs) were up-regulated in salt-treated N12 and N15 samples. Most target genes of differentially expressed novel miRNAs were transcription factors and salt stress-responsive proteins, including dehydration-induced protein, cation/H+ antiporter 18, and CBL-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase. The differential expression of miRNAs between the two Cucurbita germplasm under salt stress conditions and their target genes demonstrated that novel miRNAs play an important role in the response of the two Cucurbita germplasm to salt stress. The present study initially explored small RNAs in the

  19. Construction and prospects of parasite germplasm resources library in China%中国寄生虫种质资源库的构建与展望

    陈韶红; 周晓农; 胡薇; 沈海默; 张仪; 陈家旭; 李浩; 张永年; 周卉; 童小妹


    目的 通过对各种寄生虫种质资源的收集、整理、鉴定和保藏,构建中国寄生虫种质资源库.方法 根据各种寄生虫虫种资源的生物学特性,制定寄生虫虫种资源共性描述标准和各类寄生虫个性描述标准及技术规范,对动物、植物和人体寄生虫进行标准化分类整理、保藏,并进行数字化描述,建立统一规范的实物库和数据库.结果 建立了含有11个门23个纲1 115种/117 814件寄生虫种质资源实物库和数据库;构建了3个寄生虫种质资源活体保藏基地;实物保藏库波及全国15个地区,发现了11种新溪蟹种和1种线虫新种;构建了中国寄生虫种资源网(结论 初步建立了中国寄生虫种质资源库.%We aim to establish the parasite germplasm resources library by collecting, sorting, identifying and conserving various parasites in China. According to biological characteristics of a variety of parasite, description standards and technical specifications on both commonness and personality of parasites were established. Moreover, standardized sorting, preservation and digitized description of animal, plant and human parasites were also conducted in order to establish a unified and standardized physical library and database. The parasite germplasm resources physical library and database were established successfully, which contained 117 814 parasite germplasms covering 1 115 species in 23 classes in 11 phylum. Three preservation bases of parasite germplasm resources for living samples were constructed and the physical preservation libraries involve 15 provinces across the whole country. A total of 11 new brook crab species and one kind of worm species were founded. The website of China parasites resource network (www. psic. net. cn) has also been launched.

  20. 芒果种质资源分子标记研究进展%Research Progress on Molecular Markers of Mangifera indica Linn. Germplasm Resources

    雷新涛; 陈业渊; 张建斌; 金志强


    介绍了芒果形态标记的遗传多样性,从同工酶标记技术、RAPD标记技术和AFLP标记技术等方面总结了芒果种质资源分子标记的研究进展.%The genetic diversity of the morphological markers of Mangifera indica Linn. was introduced. The research progresses on the molecular markers of M. indica germplasm resources were summarized from the aspects of isozyme marker technology, RAPD, ALFP and so on.

  1. Detection of NAM-A1 Natural Variants in Bread Wheat Reveals Differences in Haplotype Distribution between a Worldwide Core Collection and European Elite Germplasm

    Fabien Cormier


    Full Text Available In wheat, remobilization of nitrogen absorbed before anthesis and regulation of monocarpic senescence is a major issue in breeding for nutrient use efficiency. We identified natural variants of NAM-A1, a gene having the same role as its well-characterized homoeolog NAM-B1, a NAC transcription factor associated with senescence kinetics and nutrient remobilization to the grain. Differences in haplotype frequencies between a worldwide core collection and a panel of European elite varieties were assessed and discussed. Moreover, hypotheses for the loss of function of the most common haplotype in elite European germplasm are discussed.

  2. Investigation on Lactobacillus Germplasm Resources of Chinese Pickle%中国泡菜乳杆菌种质资源调查

    代富英; 戴雨珂; 王海娟; 苏森森; 杜昕; 潘渠


    For investigation on Lactobacillus germplasm resources of Chinese pickle, 81 samples of Chinese pickle from 14 provinces were collected , and Lactobacillus strains from these samples were isolated using 16 s RNA gene sequencing and rapid-detection PCR technology for Lactobacillus which was designed by our selves. The isolating rate of Lactobacillus strains was 45.7 %, which showed there had rich Lactobacillus germplasm resources in Chinese pickle. 7 Lactobacillus sp. and 44 Lactobacillus strains were detected. 79.5%of isolated Lactobacillus strains were Lactobacillus plantarum strains which indicated the dominance Lactobacil-lus sp. in Chinese pickle was Lactobacillus plantarum.3 Lactobacillus futsaii strains were isolated in Chongqing, which was first found at Taiwan in 2012. There are regional differences in the germplasm resources of Lactobacil-lus in Chinese pickle. The isolation rate of Lactobacillus strains is more prominent in Yunnan (200 %), Chongqing(125 %), Jiangsu (133 %) and Northeast region (100 %). Hunan pickles may be lack of Lactobacillus germplasm resources.%为了进一步探索中国泡菜中乳杆菌种质资源,使用自主研发的乳杆菌快速检出方法和16s RNA基因测序鉴定技术,对采自14个省级行政区的81份泡菜样品进行了检测。乳杆菌分离率为45.7%,证明中国泡菜中有丰富的乳杆菌种质资源。共分离到7种44株乳杆菌。其中植物乳杆菌菌株占分离乳杆菌菌株总数的79.5%,表明泡菜中乳杆菌的种类以植物乳杆菌为主。在重庆分离到了2012年在台湾发现的福菜乳杆菌,再次证明了该菌种在自然界中的存在。中国泡菜中的乳杆菌种质资源存在地区差异,乳杆菌分离率较突出的地区分别是云南(200%),重庆(125%),江苏(133%)和东北(100%)。湖南泡菜中可能较为缺乏乳杆菌种质资源。

  3. Characterization of chickpea germplasm conserved in the Indian National Genebank and development of a core set using qualitative and quantitative trait data

    Sunil Archak


    Full Text Available Chickpea is the third most important pulse crop as a source of dietary protein. Ever-increasing demand in Asian countries calls for breeding superior desi-type varieties, in turn necessitating the availability of characterized germplasm to breeders. The Indian National Genebank, located at the National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources, New Delhi, conserves 14,651 accessions of chickpea. The entire set was characterized in a single large-scale experiment. High variation was observed for eight quantitative and 12 qualitative agro-morphological traits. Allelic richness procedure was employed to assemble a core set comprising 1103 accessions, 70.0% of which were of Indian origin. Comparable values of total variation explained by the first three principal components in the entire collection (51.1% and the core (52.4% together with conservation of nine pairwise r values among quantitative traits in the core collection and a coincidence rate around 99.7% indicated that the chickpea core was indeed an excellent representation of the entire chickpea collection in the National Genebank. The chickpea core exhibited greater diversity than the entire collection in agro-morphological traits, as assessed by higher variance and Shannon–Weaver diversity indices, indicating that the chickpea core maximized the phenotypic diversity available in the Indian chickpea germplasm. The chickpea core, comprising mainly indigenous desi genotypes, is expected to be an excellent resource for chickpea breeders. Information on the chickpea core can be accessed at

  4. Screening of Soybean Germplasm with High Saponins Content in Heilongjiang Province%黑龙江省高皂甙大豆种质资源筛选

    赵越; 孙岩; 胡国华; 陆芳; 曹迪


    为了筛选黑龙江省高皂甙种质资源,采用酶标仪比色法分别检测了黑龙江省15份野生大豆(Glycine soja)、55份栽培大豆(Glycine.max)的皂甙含量.结果表明:不同类型大豆皂甙含量有明显遗传差异,变幅为1156.97~3977.84 μg·g~(-1).栽培大豆的皂甙含量高于野生大豆,筛选出高皂甙含量的野生大豆种质资源1份、栽培大豆种质资源3份.%To screen the high saponins content soybean germplasms, 15 accessions of GLydne soja and 55 accessions of lycine from Heilongjiang province were determined. The results showed that there was obvious genetic variation of saponins content in different type of soybean germplasm. The mean content of saponins in cultivated soybean was higher than that in wild soybean , with the range of 1156. 97-3977. 84 μg·g~(-1) One accession of G. soja and three accessions of G. max with high content of saponins were detected.

  5. Strategic Conservation of Orchard Germplasm Based on Indigenous Knowledge and Genetic Diversity: a Case Study of Sour Orange Populations in China

    Feng Ming; Qi-Kun Liu; Jin-Lel Shi; Wei Wang; Bao-Rong Lu


    To effectively conserve sour orange (Citrus aurantium L.) germplasm on two Islands at the estuary of the Yangtze River In China, we estimated genetic variation and relationships of the known parental trees and their proposed descendents (young trees) using the fingerprinta of random amplified polymorphic DHA (RAPD). Results based on RAPD analyses showed considerable genetic diversity In the parental populations (H = 0.202). The overall populations including the parental and young trees showed slightly higher genetic diversity (H = 0.298) than the parents, with about 10% variation between populations. An unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean analysis dendrogram based on cluster analysis of the Jaccard similarity among individuals demonstrated a more complicated relationship of the parental and young trees from the two islands, although the young trees showed a clear association with parental trees. This indicates a slgnificant contribution of parental trees in establishing the sour orange populations on the two islands. According to farmers' knowledge, conservation of only one or two parental trees would be sufficient because they believed that the whole populations were generated from a single mother tree. However, this study suggests that preserving most parental trees and some selected young trees with distant genetic relationships should be an effective conservation strategy for sour orange germplasm on the two islands.

  6. Joint analysis of phenotypic and molecular diversity provides new insights on the genetic variability of the Brazilian physic nut germplasm bank.

    Alves, Alexandre Alonso; Bhering, Leonardo Lopes; Rosado, Tatiana Barbosa; Laviola, Bruno Galvêas; Formighieri, Eduardo Fernandes; Cruz, Cosme Damião


    The genetic variability of the Brazilian physic nut (Jatropha curcas) germplasm bank (117 accessions) was assessed using a combination of phenotypic and molecular data. The joint dissimilarity matrix showed moderate correlation with the original matrices of phenotypic and molecular data. However, the correlation between the phenotypic dissimilarity matrix and the genotypic dissimilarity matrix was low. This finding indicated that molecular markers (RAPD and SSR) did not adequately sample the genomic regions that were relevant for phenotypic differentiation of the accessions. The dissimilarity values of the joint dissimilarity matrix were used to measure phenotypic + molecular diversity. This diversity varied from 0 to 1.29 among the 117 accessions, with an average dissimilarity among genotypes of 0.51. Joint analysis of phenotypic and molecular diversity indicated that the genetic diversity of the physic nut germplasm was 156% and 64% higher than the diversity estimated from phenotypic and molecular data, respectively. These results show that Jatropha genetic variability in Brazil is not as limited as previously thought.

  7. Germplasm Development of Maize Inbred Line Dan9046%玉米自交系丹9046的种质创新利用

    佟圣辉; 陈得义


    Maize inbred line Dan9046 was based on multigenerational inbred breeding with Tie7922 x Shen5003 as the original material. It combined the good traits of its parents, and at the same time improved the shortcomings of parents, was typically germplasm of Reid. Improvement of innovation against Dan9046 mostly by methods of Reid x Reid, Reid × PB, Reid × Luda red cob, Reid × Tangsipingtou and Reid × other germplasm.%丹9046是以铁7922×沈5003为基础材料经多代自交选育而成的优良自交系.丹9046综合了双亲的优良性状,同时改良了双亲的缺点,属于典型的Reid种质.丹9046种质的改良创新主要是Reid种群内相互改良、通过加入PB种质的改良、与旅大红骨种质的相互改良和与塘四平头及其他种质的创新改良.

  8. Microsatellite-based molecular diversity of bread wheat germplasm and association mapping of wheat resistance to the Russian wheat aphid.

    Peng, J H; Bai, Y; Haley, S D; Lapitan, N L V


    wise utilization of the RWA-resistant germplasm in wheat breeding programs.

  9. Cluster Analysis of Tea Polyphenols Compositions in Camellia sinensis Germplasm Resources in Puer District of Yunnan Province%普洱地区茶树种质资源茶多酚组成的聚类分析

    王兴华; 杨柳霞; 郑文忠; 罗朝光; 苏红飞; 姚启萍; 张广辉


    Teapolyphenols components in shoot with two leaves and a bud of 35 tea plant (C. Sinensis var. Assamica (Masters) Kitamura) germplasm resources in Puer district, including 20 ancient tea plant germplasm resources, 7 new collected lines, 3 local groups, 4 specific germplasm resources and a control cultivar "Yunkang 10", were detected by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and their relative contents were analyzed by cluster analysis. The results showed that all germplasm resources could be divided into 2 groups according the relative contents of EGCG, one contained high content (more than 30.5%) of EGCG, and the other contained low content (less than 30.5%) of EGCG. The high EGCG group could be divided into 4 subgroups, one of them included 3 germplasm resources which contained high content EGC, low content ECG and high content of total ployphenols, could be used for producing high-quality black tea. The teapolyphenols components in another subgroups which including 6 germplasm resources were similar to teapolyphenols components in control cultivar "Yunkang 10", indicated those germplasm resources could be used for producing black tea or Pu'er tea.%高效液相色谱检测了普洱地区35个茶树(C.sinensis var.assamica (Masters) Kitamura)种质资源,包括20份古茶树资源,7个新选育品系、3个地方群体种、4个特异种质资源和对照品种(云抗10号),一芽二叶春梢中茶多酚各组分含量,并根据各组分相对含量对其进行了聚类分类.结果表明,所有种质资源可根据EGCG相对含量(EGCG占总多酚的比例)分为两大类群,即高EGCG类群(EGCG相对含量30.5%以上)和低EGCG类群(EGCG相对含量30.5%以下),高EGCG类群包括4个小群体,其中一个小群体的3个材料含有高含量EGC和高含量总多酚,可以用来选育优质红茶品种;另一小群体的6个材料茶多酚组成与云抗10号接近,可以用于选育适制红茶和普洱茶的茶树品种.

  10. 基于基因组学的作物种质资源研究:现状与展望%Genomics-Based Crop Germplasm Research: Advances and Perspectives

    黎裕; 李英慧; 杨庆文; 张锦鹏; 张金梅; 邱丽娟; 王天宇


    样性分析、新基因发掘和种质创新等方面的应用情况及其发展趋势.提出了今后的发展方向和工作重点,强调把基因组学理论和方法与作物种质资源研究紧密结合,为种质资源的有效保护和高效利用提供强有力的理论、技术、材料与信息支撑.%The scale of activities related to crop germplasm is massive, including basic work (germplasm collecting, documentation, multiplication, conservation, regeneration, distribution and information system establishment, etc.), basic research (studies on crop origin, domestication and dispersal, germplasm classification, ethnobotany, indigenous knowledge, etc.), and applied basic research (genetic diversity assessment, precise phenotypic evaluation of important traits, germplasm genotyping, gene discovery and allele mining, germplasm enhancement etc.). With the efforts in the last century, the basic work on crop germplasm has been very fruitful and the system of crop germplasm conservation and utilization has been established in the world. Because the traditional ideas and methodologies based on morphology had their innate disadvantages, however, the basic research and the applied basic research had developed along at an agonizingly slow pace before genomics appeared. With rapid development of molecular marker technology and next-generation sequencing technology, theories and techniques of genomics have extended to multi-faceted germplasm research, resulting in revolutionary changes of conception and methodology in germplasm conservation, in-depth research and utilization. The achievements made in genomics provide not only theoretical guidance to collecting and conservation of crop germplasm, but also core theories and techniques to clarify crop origin and evolution. Meanwhile, genomics has the power to promote the efficiency of gene discovery and germplasm enhancement. Especially, the rapid development of whole genome sequencing, genome re-sequencing and

  11. Evaluation of Edible Canna(Canna Edulis Ker.)Germplasms from Yunnan Province%云南芭蕉芋资源评价

    李明福; 徐宁生; 陈恩波; 徐峥嵘; 郭瑞


    The edible canna (Canna Edulis Ker) is an important tuber crop which can be used for starch production.We evaluated the edible canan germplasms from Yunnan for high starch content cultivars by yields, dry matter, and starch content at Yuxi, Yunnan, China.The result showed there was significant difference in the rate of flowering, the number of branches, yields, dry matter, and starch content among germplasms from Yunnan; the cultivars XC-1 from xichou, Yunnan, was valuable with high yield and high starch content.The valuable cultivars could be chosen from germplasms collected in Yunnan Provence, China.%芭蕉芋是重要的块根块茎作物,目前主要用于淀粉生产.对云南收集的芭蕉芋资源进行评价,以期筛选到高淀粉的资源.方法是利用田间试验、干物质和淀粉含量的测定来进行评价.实验结果表明,虽然除FY-1外的各品系外形差别不大,株高没有明显差异,但平均基部分枝数、平均开花率和块茎产量均有明显的差异,尤其是干物质含量和淀粉含量的差异比较大,而且地下块茎熟食品质也有明显的差异.来自云南西畴的品系XC-1的地下块茎产量和粗淀粉率较高,有较高的利用价值.在云南各地收集和评价芭蕉芋资源能筛选出高淀粉含量的遗传资源,有望在其中选育出高淀粉品种.

  12. Analysis of the genetic diversity and structure across a wide range of germplasm reveals prominent gene flow in apple at the European level.

    Urrestarazu, Jorge; Denancé, Caroline; Ravon, Elisa; Guyader, Arnaud; Guisnel, Rémi; Feugey, Laurence; Poncet, Charles; Lateur, Marc; Houben, Patrick; Ordidge, Matthew; Fernandez-Fernandez, Felicidad; Evans, Kate M; Paprstein, Frantisek; Sedlak, Jiri; Nybom, Hilde; Garkava-Gustavsson, Larisa; Miranda, Carlos; Gassmann, Jennifer; Kellerhals, Markus; Suprun, Ivan; Pikunova, Anna V; Krasova, Nina G; Torutaeva, Elnura; Dondini, Luca; Tartarini, Stefano; Laurens, François; Durel, Charles-Eric


    The amount and structure of genetic diversity in dessert apple germplasm conserved at a European level is mostly unknown, since all diversity studies conducted in Europe until now have been performed on regional or national collections. Here, we applied a common set of 16 SSR markers to genotype more than 2,400 accessions across 14 collections representing three broad European geographic regions (North + East, West and South) with the aim to analyze the extent, distribution and structure of variation in the apple genetic resources in Europe. A Bayesian model-based clustering approach showed that diversity was organized in three groups, although these were only moderately differentiated (FST = 0.031). A nested Bayesian clustering approach allowed identification of subgroups which revealed internal patterns of substructure within the groups, allowing a finer delineation of the variation into eight subgroups (FST = 0.044). The first level of stratification revealed an asymmetric division of the germplasm among the three groups, and a clear association was found with the geographical regions of origin of the cultivars. The substructure revealed clear partitioning of genetic groups among countries, but also interesting associations between subgroups and breeding purposes of recent cultivars or particular usage such as cider production. Additional parentage analyses allowed us to identify both putative parents of more than 40 old and/or local cultivars giving interesting insights in the pedigree of some emblematic cultivars. The variation found at group and subgroup levels may reflect a combination of historical processes of migration/selection and adaptive factors to diverse agricultural environments that, together with genetic drift, have resulted in extensive genetic variation but limited population structure. The European dessert apple germplasm represents an important source of genetic diversity with a strong historical and patrimonial value. The present

  13. SSR Analysis on Genetic Relationships of Xinjiang Malus Germplasm Resources%新疆苹果种质资源亲缘关系的SSR分析

    秦伟; 刘立强; 廖康; 耿文娟; 唐芳


    [ Objective] The aim of this thesis is to analyze the genetci relationships of 21 portions of apple germplasm resources in Xinjiang to provide the important key basis for inference of source of Xinjiang Malus. [Method] SSR techniques of molecular biology were used to provide the important basis for the diduction based on which Xinjiang Malus varieties were directly domesticated from Xinjiang Wild apple varieties, through DNA extraction, purity and concentration detection, SSR amplification procedures and composition of the system, primers selection, PCR amplification and data analysis to explore the genetic relationships between Xinjiang Malus germplasm resources. [ Result] The twenty - one portions of materials were divided three groups when the genetic similarity coefficient was 0.63 . The results of clustenng germplasm resources showed the cultivars in Xinjiang M. sieversii cross - distribution, the cultivar in Xinjiang M. sieversii had the same genetic background, the high genetic similarity and closer ggnetic relationship. [ Cociclusion] Local apple varieties in Xinjiang may be domesticated directly from Malus sieversii Roem for the long - term breeding of domesticated or cultivated hybrid genetic variation .%[目的]以21份新疆苹果种质资源为实验材料,研究新疆苹果种质资源的亲缘关系,以期为新疆地方苹果品种可能是由新疆野苹果直接驯化而来的推论提供重要证据.[方法]利用分子生物学SSR技术,通过DNA的提取、纯度与浓度检测,SSR扩增反应的程序和体系组成、引物选择、PCR扩增及数据分析等,探讨新疆苹果资源间亲缘关系.[结果]若以遗传相似系数0.63为阈值,可将新疆苹果21份地方资源聚类成3组,新疆野苹果和新疆地方苹果品种交叉分布,说明新疆地方苹果品种与新疆野苹果具有相同的遗传背景,遗传相似度高,亲缘关系很近.[结论]新疆地方苹果品种可能是由新疆野苹果直接驯化而来,或是

  14. Effects of alfalfa germplasm and stage of maturity on digestive process and productive response of dairy cows fed alfalfa hay-based diets

    Igino Andrighetto


    Full Text Available The effects on the digestive process and the productive performances of dairy cows fed diets containing alfalfa hay from  different germplasms and maturity were assessed in the present study. Three different lots of first-cut alfalfa hay were  used in the study: the improved variety “Boreal”, harvested at two consecutive maturity stages (early flowering and full  flowering and the ecotype “Vogherese”, at full flowering. Cutting the plant at an earlier stage of maturity improved hay  quality in comparison with the more mature forages (crude protein: 21.4 vs 16.5% DM; P  DM; P  er lignin content for the latter (8.6 vs 8.2% DM; P  tating cows were formulated using an equal amount of corn silage and the maximum inclusion of one of the tested hays  as forage base. The better quality of the early cut hay made it possible to increase its inclusion in the diet up to 44% of  total dietary DM, while the two more mature hays covered only 36% of total DM of the respective diets. According to a  3 x 3 Latin square design, the diets were fed to 3 Italian Brown cows (initial average days in milk 121 ± 24 and milk  yield 20 kg ± 1.3 fitted with ruminal cannula in 3 consecutive periods of 28 d each. Alfalfa stage of maturity and  germplasm did not affect dietary DM intake (average 16 kg/d. Degradability parameters of dietary DM, calculated by in  situ nylon bags technique, showed similar kinetics of rumen disappearance for all diets. No differences were noticed in  the ruminal rate of passage of the solid phase among diets, while the liquid phase showed a slower rate of passage for  the early flowering hay diet. Consistent with the degradation process, the stage of maturity or the alfalfa germplasm did  not affect the rumen fluid data or the in vivo digestibility coefficients of the diets. Milk yield did not show any change due  to either alfalfa maturity or cultivar, while milk protein was lowered when cows received the early cut hay

  15. Germplasm Innovation of Herbicide Rse istant and Col ored Summ er Millet%抗除草剂有色小米夏谷新种质创新

    郝洪波; 崔海英; 李明哲


    The most agronomic traits of colored millet is poor , and not resistant to herbicides.The herbicide resistant and colored summer millet was bred by crossing between 20 basic germplasm ( female parent) of colored millets suitable for Heilonggang region from 107 colored millets of different ecological regions and herbicide resistant cultivar Jigu 25 (male parent), radiating F2 populations with Cobalt 60 to reform the bad characters of innovation material, the new germplasm with grain color of grayish black and herbicide resistance was bred.The variety with resistant to sethoxydim,ear length spindle type , elastic medium, right height, developed root system, lodging resistance, strong resistance to disease, high yield and good palatability, which could as the cultivation of colored millet core germplasm with herbicide resistance , high quality and high yield.%有色小米植株的农艺性状大多不佳,且不抗除草剂。以从不同生态类型区搜集的107份有色谷子(米)资源中筛选出适应黑龙港地区的20份材料为基础种质(母本),与抗除草剂品种冀谷25(父本)进行有性杂交, F2代用60 Co γ射线辐射诱变改造创新材料的不良性状,后代进行系统选育,最终选育出米色灰黑、抗除草剂的新种质。该种质青谷、灰黑米,抗除草剂拿捕净,穗长纺锤型、松紧适中,株高适中,根系发达、抗倒伏,抗病性强,且高产、适口性好,可作为培育抗除草剂、优质、丰产、有色小米的核心种质。

  16. Insights into the Genetic Relationships and Breeding Patterns of the African Tea Germplasm Based on nSSR Markers and cpDNA Sequences.

    Wambulwa, Moses C; Meegahakumbura, Muditha K; Kamunya, Samson; Muchugi, Alice; Möller, Michael; Liu, Jie; Xu, Jian-Chu; Ranjitkar, Sailesh; Li, De-Zhu; Gao, Lian-Ming


    Africa is one of the key centers of global tea production. Understanding the genetic diversity and relationships of cultivars of African tea is important for future targeted breeding efforts for new crop cultivars, specialty tea processing, and to guide germplasm conservation efforts. Despite the economic importance of tea in Africa, no research work has been done so far on its genetic diversity at a continental scale. Twenty-three nSSRs and three plastid DNA regions were used to investigate the genetic diversity, relationships, and breeding patterns of tea accessions collected from eight countries of Africa. A total of 280 African tea accessions generated 297 alleles with a mean of 12.91 alleles per locus and a genetic diversity (H S) estimate of 0.652. A STRUCTURE analysis suggested two main genetic groups of African tea accessions which corresponded well with the two tea types Camellia sinensis var. sinensis and C. sinensis var. assamica, respectively, as well as an admixed "mosaic" group whose individuals were defined as hybrids of F2 and BC generation with a high proportion of C. sinensis var. assamica being maternal parents. Accessions known to be C. sinensis var. assamica further separated into two groups representing the two major tea breeding centers corresponding to southern Africa (Tea Research Foundation of Central Africa, TRFCA), and East Africa (Tea Research Foundation of Kenya, TRFK). Tea accessions were shared among countries. African tea has relatively lower genetic diversity. C. sinensis var. assamica is the main tea type under cultivation and contributes more in tea breeding improvements in Africa. International germplasm exchange and movement among countries within Africa was confirmed. The clustering into two main breeding centers, TRFCA, and TRFK, suggested that some traits of C. sinensis var. assamica and their associated genes possibly underwent selection during geographic differentiation or local breeding preferences. This study represents

  17. Evaluation on Fruit Bitterness of Cucumber Germplasms%黄瓜种质资源果实苦味评价

    李宗扬; 秦智伟; 周秀艳; 辛明


    In the paper, we adopted a new classification standard (0, 1, 3, 5) to evaluate both fruit bitterness of the calyx end and stem end at the early and middle fruit-setting periods of 63 cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) germplasms of four different ecotypes. The results showed that, the cucumber cultivars of different ecotypes possessed different fruit bitterness, of which the south China type was most bitter in general. In the early fruit-setting period, the bitterness in the calyx end had an extremely significant difference with that of the middle fruit-setting period, while the bitterness in the stem end had no significant difference. In the early fruit-setting period, the bitterness in the calyx end had no significant difference with that in the stem end, while in the middle fruit-setting period, the bitterness in the calyx end had an extremely significant difference with that in the stem end. In the paper, we screened out three cucumber cultivars with the average score of bitterness greater than one, and they were material No.1, No.2 and No.33. In addition, we screened out 20 cucumber cultivars with the average bitterness score of zero, and among them, one belonged to south China type, eight belonged to north China type, two belonged to pickled type, and nine belonged to European greenhouse type.%采用新的的苦味等级分级标准,通过分级打分法对63份不同生态类型的黄瓜种质资源结果初期与结果盛期的商品瓜头部(花萼端)与尾部(果梗端)的苦味进行评价。试验结果表明,不同生态类型的黄瓜品种间果实苦味表现不同,以华南型品种果实苦味表现最为突出;结果初期与结果盛期果实头部苦味差异极显著,果实尾部苦味差异不显著;结果初期果实头部与尾部苦味差异不显著,而结果盛期果实头部与尾部苦味差异极显著;筛选出黄瓜果实苦味平均分>1的材料3份,分别为1号、2号、33号;果实苦味为0的材料20

  18. Discovering the desirable alleles contributing to the lignocellulosic biomass traits in saccharum germplasm collections for energy cane improvement

    Todd, James [USDA ARS Sugarcane Field Station, Canal Point, FL (United States); Comstock, Jack C. [USDA ARS Sugarcane Field Station, Canal Point, FL (United States)


    of the cores and the World Collection are similar to each other genotypically and phenotypically, but the core that was selected using only genotypic data was significantly different phenotypically. This indicates that there is not enough association between the genotypic and phenotypic diversity as to select using only genotypic diversity and get the full phenotypic diversity. Core Collection: Creation and Phenotyping Methods: To evaluate this germplasm for breeding purposes, a representative diversity panel selected from the WCSRG of approximately 300 accessions was planted at Canal Point, FL in three replications. These accessions were measured for stalk height and stalk number multiple times throughout the growing season and Brix and fresh biomass during harvest in 2013 and, stalk height, stalk number, stalk diameter, internode length, Brix and fresh and dry biomass was determined in the ratoon crop harvest in 2014. Results: In correlations of multiple measurements, there were higher correlations for early measurements of stalk number and stalk height with harvest traits like Brix and fresh weight. Hybrids had higher fresh mass and Brix while Saccharum spontaneum had higher stalk number and dry mass. The heritability of hybrid mass traits was lower in the ratoon crop. According to the principal component analysis, the diversity panel was divided into two groups. One group had accessions with high stalk number and high dry biomass like S. spontaneum and the other groups contained accessions with higher Brix and fresh biomass like S. officinarum. Mass traits correlated with each other as expected but hybrids had lower correlations between fresh and dry mass. Stalk number and the mass traits correlated with each other except in S. spontaneum and hybrids in the first ratoon. There were 110 accessions not significantly different in Brix from the commercial sugarcane checks including 10 S. spontaneum accessions. There were 27 dry and 6 fresh mass accessions

  19. 芭蕉芋的种质资源及栽培技术研究进展%Research Progress in Germplasm and Cultivation Technique of Canna edulis

    欧珍贵; 周正邦; 周明强


    In order to promote the development of Canna edulis industry, systematic study on its cultivation has been taken both in China and abroad. Research progress in germplasm resource, nutrient, use, biological characteristic and cultivation technique of C. edulis were reviewed. The prospect of future research was also put forward.%为了推进芭蕉芋(Canna edulis Ker)的生产和发展,国内外学者对芭蕉芋的种植进行了深入系统的研究.在此基础上,对近年来国内外关于芭蕉芋种质资源、营养成分及用途、生理特性和栽培技术进行了综述,并针对芭蕉芋的研究进展展望了今后的研究方向.

  20. The germplasm resources and breeding of good strains on strawberry of China%中国草莓的种质资源和良种培育

    李先文; 马世民; 袁正仿


    The paper introduces the germplasm resources of the wild strawberry and cultivated strawberry of China and the study situation on breeding good strains of strawberry.The traditional method on breeding good strains of strawberry is normal interbreed,however,rising biotechnique have been bringing an attractive prospect for breeding good strains of strawberry.%介绍了我国野生和栽培草莓的种质资源。概述了我国草莓良种培育的研究现状。草莓传统的良种培育方法乃常规杂交育种,近年来,新兴的生物技术已给草莓育种带来了诱人的前景。

  1. Analysis of isoflavone, phenolic, soyasapogenol, and tocopherol compounds in soybean [ Glycine max (L.) Merrill] germplasms of different seed weights and origins.

    Kim, Eun-Hye; Ro, Hee-Myong; Kim, Sun-Lim; Kim, Hong-Sig; Chung, Ill-Min


    This study investigated the functional compounds, including isoflavones, phenolics, soyasapogenols, and tocopherols, that were detected in 204 soybean [ Glycine max (L.) Merrill] germplasms. The soybean samples were divided into three groups according to origin: America, China, and Korea. The soybean samples were also classified into three groups on the basis of 100-seed weight: small (24 g). Among the soybean germplasms, CSRV121 (Bosukkong) had the highest level of isoflavone content (4778.1 μg g(-1)), whereas CS01316 had the lowest isoflavone content (682.4 μg g(-1)). Of the soybeans from the three different countries of origin, those from Korea showed the highest average concentration of total isoflavones (2252.6 μg g(-1)). The small seeds had the highest average total isoflavone concentration (2520.0 μg g(-1)) of the three different seed sizes. Among the 204 soybean germplasms, CS01405 had the highest content of total phenolics (5219.6 μg g(-1)), and CSRV017 (Hwangkeumkong) had the lowest phenolic content (654.6 μg g(-1)). The mean concentrations of total phenolic compounds were 2729.1 μg g(-1) in American soybean seeds, 1680.4 μg g(-1) in Chinese soybean seeds, and 1977.6 μg g(-1) in Korean soybean seeds. Of the soybean seeds from the three different countries of origin, American soybean seeds had the highest average concentration of total phenolic compounds, and Korean varieties showed the second highest value. Small soybean seeds had the highest average content of total phenolic compounds (2241.7 μg g(-1)), whereas medium-sized (1926.8 μg g(-1)) and large (1949.9 μg g(-1)) soybeans had lower concentrations of phenolic compounds. In whole soybean germplasms, the level of total soyasapogenols was higher in CS01173 (1802.3 μg g(-1)) and CS01346 (1736.8 μg g(-1)) than in the other types of soybeans. The mean concentrations of total soyasapogenol were 1234.0 μg g(-1) in American, 1294.5 μg g(-1) in Chinese, and 1241.5 μg g(-1) in Korean soybean

  2. Rapid separation of seed gliadins by reversed-phase ultra performance liquid chromatography (RP-UPLC) and its application in wheat cultivar and germplasm identification.

    Han, Caixia; Lu, Xaiobing; Yu, Zitong; Li, Xiaohui; Ma, Wujun; Yan, Yueming


    To separate gliadin from wheat flour, a novel and stability-indicating reversed-phase ultra performance liquid chromatography (RP-UPLC) method is established and optimized. A comparative analysis of routine capillary electrophoresis (CE), reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), and RP-UPLC was performed and the results showed that the resolution and efficiency of RP-UPLC were significantly higher than those of CE and RP-HPLC. Characteristic RP-UPLC patterns of different bread wheat variety and related species were readily identified. These results demonstrated that our RP-UPLC procedure resulted in significant improvements in sensitivity, speed, and resolution, and thus is highly useful in wheat cultivar and germplasm identification.

  3. 紫花苜蓿耐盐种质资源的遗传多样性分析%Analysis of genetic diversity of salt tolerant alfalfa germplasms

    姜健; 杨宝灵; 夏彤; 于淑梅; 乌云娜


    利用RAPD技术分析了25个紫花苜蓿耐盐品种的遗传结构和遗传多样性.结果表明,30条引物在25个紫花苜蓿耐盐品种单株DNA间的多态性位点比率(P)为81.52%,在各品种混合DNA间的多态性位点比率为61.65%,说明采用单株DNA样品比采用混合DNA样品能更好地揭示紫花苜蓿品种内和品种间的遗传变异水平.基因分化系数(Gst)主要反应品种间变异占总变异的比例,中国18个耐盐紫花苜蓿品种和美国7个耐盐紫花苜蓿品种的基因分化系数分别为0.271和0.152,表明中国耐盐紫花苜蓿种质资源品种间基因交流机会比美国品种间交流机会多.紫花苜蓿作为典型的异交植物,其生物群体的遗传结构与其繁育体系具有直接的联系.依据遗传距离(GD)分析结果,25份材料从遗传结构上可以分为9个组群,其中图牧1号和图牧2号遗传距离最小(GD=0.148),捷达和图牧1号遗传距离最大(GD=0.786).紫花苜蓿耐盐种质遗传多样性分析为紫花苜蓿耐盐核心种质库构建和耐盐新品种选育提供了理论依据.%The genetic structure and diversity of 25 alfalfa (Medicago sativa) salt-tolerant varieties was ana lyzed by RAPD technology. Results showed that the polymorphism loci percentages (P) of 30 primers between single-plant DNA of 25 salt-tolerant alfalfa varieties were 81. 52%, and between mixed DNA of various varie ties were 61. 65%, indicating that single-plant DNA sample was a better method than mixed DNA sample, to reveal the level of genetic variation within and between alfalfa varieties. The coefficient of gene differentiation (Gst) mainly reflects the ratio of species variation to total variation, and the Gst of 18 Chinese salt-tolerant al falfa varieties and 7 American salt-tolerant alfalfa varieties were 0. 271 and 0. 152, respectively, showing that there was more interactive gene exchange between Chinese salt-tolerant alfalfa germplasm was than that of A merican germplasm

  4. Genome wide linkage disequilibrium in Chinese asparagus bean (Vigna. unguiculata ssp. sesquipedialis) germplasm: implications for domestication history and genome wide association studies.

    Xu, P; Wu, X; Wang, B; Luo, J; Liu, Y; Ehlers, J D; Close, T J; Roberts, P A; Lu, Z; Wang, S; Li, G


    Association mapping of important traits of crop plants relies on first understanding the extent and patterns of linkage disequilibrium (LD) in the particular germplasm being investigated. We characterize here the genetic diversity, population structure and genome wide LD patterns in a set of asparagus bean (Vigna. unguiculata ssp. sesquipedialis) germplasm from China. A diverse collection of 99 asparagus bean and normal cowpea accessions were genotyped with 1127 expressed sequence tag-derived single nucleotide polymorphism markers (SNPs). The proportion of polymorphic SNPs across the collection was relatively low (39%), with an average number of SNPs per locus of 1.33. Bayesian population structure analysis indicated two subdivisions within the collection sampled that generally represented the 'standard vegetable' type (subgroup SV) and the 'non-standard vegetable' type (subgroup NSV), respectively. Level of LD (r(2)) was higher and extent of LD persisted longer in subgroup SV than in subgroup NSV, whereas LD decayed rapidly (0-2 cM) in both subgroups. LD decay distance varied among chromosomes, with the longest (≈ 5 cM) five times longer than the shortest (≈ 1 cM). Partitioning of LD variance into within- and between-subgroup components coupled with comparative LD decay analysis suggested that linkage group 5, 7 and 10 may have undergone the most intensive epistatic selection toward traits favorable for vegetable use. This work provides a first population genetic insight into domestication history of asparagus bean and demonstrates the feasibility of mapping complex traits by genome wide association study in asparagus bean using a currently available cowpea SNPs marker platform.

  5. Analysis of Tomato Germplasm Phylogenetic Relationship Using SSR Markers%番茄种质资源亲缘关系的SSR分析

    丘漫宇; 张素平; 郭爽; 李伯寿; 刘玉平


    25 SSR primers were used to study the genetic diversities among 20 accesions of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) germplasm resources detected from 66 bands. There were 52 bands which had polymorphism, and the polymorphism rate was 78.8%. The results of genetic distance analysis showed that the genetic distance of 20 tomato materials were 1.489 2-9.180 6. There were 18 tomato materials which the genetic distance was more than 7, No.1 and No.15 had the largest genetic distance. That was 9.180 6. The result of cluster analysis showed that 20 tomato germplasm resources could be classified into 4 groups.%采用25对SSR特异引物对20份番茄材料进行分析,其中21对引物扩增出条带,18对引物具有多态性,扩增出的66条谱带中有52条具有多态性,多态率为78.8%.遗传距离分析结果表明:20份番茄材料两两间的遗传距离(GD)在1.489 2 ~ 9.180 6之间,遗传距离大于7的育种材料共有18份,其中No.1与No.15之间的遗传距离最大,为9.180 6.以遗传相似系数0.67为标准可将20份番茄育种材料划分为4大类.

  6. SRAP Analysis on Genetic Diversity of Chinese Kale Germplasm%芥蓝种质资源遗传多样性的SRAP分析

    李桂花; 陈汉才; 张艳; 郭凤仪; 李向阳; 刘振翔; 张桂权


    调查56份芥蓝种质的植物学性状,并利用SRAP标记分析其遗传多样性.结果表明,从312对引物中筛选出24对引物,共扩增出稳定清晰的条带747条,其中多态性条带147条,多态性位点比例为19.6%.基于SRAP扩增结果,应用NTSYSpc2.1构建聚类树状图谱,供试材料间的遗传相似系数的变化范围是0.524~0.884,在相似系数为0.66的水平上,可将56份芥蓝分为6大类.由于芥蓝原产华南地区,其遗传多样性要小于芸薹属其它蔬菜.%The morphological characteristics of 56 Chinese kale accessions were investigated and the DNA polymorphism was analyzed by sequence related amplified polymorphism(SRAP)markers. A total of 747 bands were amplified using 24 primers selected from 312 primers, of whichl47 were polymorphic, The polymorphic percentage was 19.6% . Among these germplasm the genetic similarity was ranged from 0.524 to 0.884 by software NTSYSpc2.1 based on SRAP results, Cluster analysis showed that 56 Chinese kale germplasm were divided into six groups on genetic similarity of 0.66. Because Chinese kale was from south China, the genetic diversity of Chinese kale was smaller than other Brassica vegetables.

  7. Genetic diversity of tropical-adapted onion germplasm assessed by RAPD markers Diversidade genética em germoplasma tropical de cebola estimada via marcadores RAPD

    Maria do Desterro M dos Santos


    Full Text Available Onion is a crop of significant socioeconomic importance to Brazil. Onion germplasm with adaptation to tropical and sub-tropical conditions has played an important role in the development of this crop in the country. In this context, we studied the genetic diversity in a germplasm collection potentially useful for the development of cultivars for tropical and subtropical regions. The genetic variability of 21 accessions/cultivars that have been used as germplasm and/or were developed by onion breeding programs in Brazil was evaluated via RAPD markers. The following accessions were included in the study :'Red Creole', 'Roxa IPA-3', 'Valenciana 14', 'Beta Cristal', 'Diamante', 'Composto IPA-6', 'Aurora', 'Bojuda Rio Grande', 'Alfa Tropical', 'Pêra IPA-4', 'Primavera', 'Belém IPA-9', 'Crioula Alto Vale', 'Conquista', 'Pira-Ouro', 'Vale-Ouro IPA-11', 'Franciscana IPA-10', 'Serrana', 'CNPH 6400', 'Petroline', and 'Baia Periforme'. From the 520 primers used in the initial screening only 38 displayed stable polymorphisms. They produced 624 amplicons, of which 522 (83.7% were monomorphic and 102 (16.3% were polymorphic. An average similarity coefficient of 0.72 was calculated among accessions based upon this subgroup of polymorphic amplicons. This allowed the discrimination of this germplasm collection into six groups with only one of them comprising more than one accession. The main group was formed by 16 accessions ('Diamante', 'Composto IPA-6', 'Aurora', 'Bojuda Rio Grande', 'Conquista', 'Pira-Ouro', 'Serrana', 'Vale-Ouro IPA-11', 'Baia Periforme', 'Primavera', 'Franciscana IPA-10', 'Belém IPA-9', 'Crioula Alto Vale', 'Petroline', 'Pêra IPA-4' and 'Alfa Tropical', for which the genetic origin (with few exceptions can be traced back to the variety 'Baia Periforme'. The populations 'Red Creole', 'Roxa IPA-3', 'Beta Cristal', 'CNPH 6400', and 'Valenciana 14' comprised a set of five isolated groups, showing genetic divergence among them and in

  8. Discovering the desirable alleles contributing to the lignocellulosic biomass traits in saccharum germplasm collections for energy cane improvement

    Todd, James [USDA ARS Sugarcane Field Station, Canal Point, FL (United States); Comstock, Jack C. [USDA ARS Sugarcane Field Station, Canal Point, FL (United States)


    of the cores and the World Collection are similar to each other genotypically and phenotypically, but the core that was selected using only genotypic data was significantly different phenotypically. This indicates that there is not enough association between the genotypic and phenotypic diversity as to select using only genotypic diversity and get the full phenotypic diversity. Core Collection: Creation and Phenotyping Methods: To evaluate this germplasm for breeding purposes, a representative diversity panel selected from the WCSRG of approximately 300 accessions was planted at Canal Point, FL in three replications. These accessions were measured for stalk height and stalk number multiple times throughout the growing season and Brix and fresh biomass during harvest in 2013 and, stalk height, stalk number, stalk diameter, internode length, Brix and fresh and dry biomass was determined in the ratoon crop harvest in 2014. Results: In correlations of multiple measurements, there were higher correlations for early measurements of stalk number and stalk height with harvest traits like Brix and fresh weight. Hybrids had higher fresh mass and Brix while Saccharum spontaneum had higher stalk number and dry mass. The heritability of hybrid mass traits was lower in the ratoon crop. According to the principal component analysis, the diversity panel was divided into two groups. One group had accessions with high stalk number and high dry biomass like S. spontaneum and the other groups contained accessions with higher Brix and fresh biomass like S. officinarum. Mass traits correlated with each other as expected but hybrids had lower correlations between fresh and dry mass. Stalk number and the mass traits correlated with each other except in S. spontaneum and hybrids in the first ratoon. There were 110 accessions not significantly different in Brix from the commercial sugarcane checks including 10 S. spontaneum accessions. There were 27 dry and 6 fresh mass accessions

  9. Genome Size and Variation Analysis of Mango (Mangifera indica L.) Germplasms in Yunnan by Flow Cytometry%云南芒果种质基因组大小测定与变异分析

    柳觐; 李开雄; 孔广红; 倪书邦


    为了解云南芒果(Mangifera indica L.)种质资源的基因组的变异情况,采用流式细胞术对35份云南芒果种质资源的基因组大小进行了测定和变异分析。结果表明,云南芒果种质资源的基因组大小存在一定差异,基因组的平均C值是0.445110 pg,0.4353177×109 bp,最小的是采自景洪的半栽培种YSM-44(0.434567 pg,0.4250060×109 bp),最大的是采自红河的野生种YSM-25(0.458679 pg,0.4485881×109 bp)。基因组C值变异程度最大的是野生种(CV=1.65%),其次为半野生种(CV=1.26%)、半栽培种(CV=1.21%)和栽培种(CV=0.11%)。与芒果具有相近基因组大小的多为苔藓植物,与“C值悖论”观点相一致。因此,应用流式细胞术能准确、快捷地测定芒果基因组大小,而且云南野生、半野生及半栽培芒果种质资源遗传变异类型丰富,有较大的挖掘利用潜力。%In order to understand the variation of mango (Mangifera indica L.) germplasms in Yunnan, the genome size of 35 germplasms was determined by lfow cytometry and their variation was analyzed. The results showed that the mean genome size among the 35 germplasms was 0.445110 pg and 0.4353177×109 bp, which the minimum one (0.434567 pg, 0.4250060×109 bp) was YSM-44 from Jinghong, and the maximum one (0.458679 pg, 0.44485881×109 bp) was YSM-25 from Honghe. The genome size variation of wild germplasms was the largest (CV=1.65%), followed by semi-wild germplasms (CV=1.26%), semi-cultivated germplasms (CV=1.21%) and cultivated germplasms (CV=0.11%). The bryophytes had similar genome size to mango, which is consistent with the“C-value paradox”theory. Therefore, lfow cytometry method could accurately and fastly measure genome size of mango, and the genetic variation in wild, semi-wild and semi-cultivated germplasms was rich, these could be used for mango breeding.

  10. Investigation of Flowering and Seeding Status of Taro Germplasm Resources%芋种质资源开花结实状况调查

    黄新芳; 彭静; 黄来春; 董红霞; 柯卫东; 孙亚林; 叶元英; 李双梅; 刘义满; 朱红莲; 李峰; 刘玉平


    Investigation of flowering and seeding status of taro ( Colocaia) germplasm resources which conserved in Wuhan National Germplasm Repository for Aquatic Vegetables were conducted. It indicated that; (1 ) In natural condition, all germplasm of previous C. Esculenta ( L. ) var. Antiquorum and C. Tonoimo Nakai, which now belonged to Colocasia antiquorum ( L. ) Schott(2n = 2x) , flowered. The flowering status of that of Colocasia escu-lenta(L. ) Schott presented that; All germplasm of headed-taro (2n =2x) , taro with multi-headed taro (2n =3x) , taro used with conn and cormels (2n =3x) did not flower. In Chinese taro with numerous cormels, purple-petiole-taro (2n =3x) did not flower. Red-purple-green-petiole-taro (2n = 3x) and green-petiole-taro (2n =3x) flowered partly, whose flowering varieties were uncertain. In taro with numerous cormels which came from Southeast Asia, the flowering phase and flowering rate of green-petiole-taro (2n = 2x) were high and long respectly. In addition, one accection of purple-petiole-taro (2n =3x) flower, which differed from Chinese taro with numerous cormels(2n = 3x). The flowering rate of taro with numerous cormels which came from Southeast Asia was equal to or higher than that of Chinese taro. In Chinese taro, the flowering rate of diploid was more than that of triploid. The period of flowering of green-petiole-taro (2n =2x) which came from Southeast Asia was the longest, In Chinese taro, diploid was more than that of triploid.(2) Red-purple-green-petiole-taro with numerous cormels and taro used with inflo-rescence, whose buds were red, belonged to taro with short appendage, and the others, whose buds were white, belonged to taro with long appendage. (3) In natural condition, only 2 accessions of germplasm of C. Antiquorum (L. ) Schott (2n =2x) , whose petiole was purple, seeded. But the others did not seed. (4) The comparison of first flowering date, last flowering date, flowering phase, number of inflorescence/leaf axis, number of

  11. 芋种质资源颜色性状多样性观察%Observation on Diversity of Color Characters of Taro Germplasm Resource

    黄新芳; 李峰; 朱红莲; 黄来春; 李明华; 王芸; 钟兰; 周凯; 刘正位; 匡晶; 孙亚林; 董红霞; 刘玉平; 柯卫东; 刘义满; 李双梅; 叶元英; 彭静


    为了探究芋种质资源颜色性状的变化规律,以保存在国家种质武汉水生蔬菜资源圃的300多份芋种质资源为材料,按照《农作物种质资源鉴定评价技术规范芋》对芋种质资源的颜色性状进行观察和归类,并重点对芋的叶心色斑颜色、叶柄中下部颜色及母芋芽色的相关性进行总结和探讨。根据叶柄中下部颜色将滇南芋分为绿柄野芋(白芽类型)、乌绿柄野芋(红芽类型)和紫柄野芋(白芽类型)3个类型;将芋中的多子芋分为绿柄多子芋(一般为白芽类型)、乌绿柄多子芋(一般为红芽类型)和红紫柄多子芋(白芽类型)3个基本类型,将芋中的多头芋分为绿柄多头芋(白芽类型)和乌绿柄多头芋(红芽类型)2个类型。从滇南芋和芋的整体来看,只要叶柄中下部颜色含有乌绿色成分,则母芋芽色一般为红色类型。从叶心色斑颜色来看,滇南芋中的绿色者,母芋芽色为白色类型;紫红色或紫色者,母芋芽色可能为白色类型,也可能为红色类型。芋中,多子芋叶心色斑颜色为紫红色者,母芋芽色为红色类型;黄绿色或绿色者,母芋芽色为白色类型。多头芋中,叶心色斑颜色为绿色者,母芋芽色为红色类型;紫红色者,母芋芽色为白色类型。%In order to find out the changing rule of color characters of taro germplasm resource,we observed and classified the color character diversities of taro 〔Colocasia antiquorum Schott andColocasia esculenta (L.) Schott〕 germplasm resource according to the Technical Code for Evaluating Crop Germplasm Resources-Taro 〔Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott〕,taking over 300 taro germplasm resources conserved in Wuhan National Germplasm Repository for Aquatic Vegetables. We summarized and focused on the correlation between leaf junction color,color of middle to lower part of petiole,and bud color of corm. According

  12. Research Advances in Genetic Diversity of Raphanus sativus L. Germplasm Resources in China%中国萝卜种质资源遗传多样性研究进展

    陈发波; 李先艳; 傅雪梅


    中国是萝卜起源地之一,拥有世界上最丰富的萝卜种质资源,在长期的进化和选择中形成了丰富多样的品种类型。从形态水平、细胞水平、生理生化水平及分子水平等方面综述了中国萝卜种质资源遗传多样性研究的现状,提出了我国在萝卜种质资源遗传多样性研究上的不足,并展望了其发展前景。%As the origin area of radish (Raphanus sativus L.), China contains most abundant germplasm resources of radish. The paper summarized the research status on genetic diversity of radish germplasm resources in China from the morphological level, cell level, physiological and biochemical level and molecular level, and pointed out the research deficiencies on genetic diversity of radish germplasm resources in China, in addition, put forward its development prospect.

  13. Strategies and Challenges in Plant Germplasm Conservation%种质资源保存的战略问题和面临的挑战

    李德铢; 杨湘云; Hugh W.Pritchard


    This paper discusses scientific issues, action plans and strategies for plant germplasm eonservation in general and seed banking in particular. Germplasm conservation is an insurance policy against extinction, and currently preserves tens of thousands of wild plant species. In this report, we introduce the background and current status of the Germplasm Bank of Wild Species, and compare its strategy with that of other major ex situ conservation facilities in the world, e. g. , the Millennium Seed Bank. In the context of the Global Strategy for Plant Conservation,we also discuss the estimated number of threatened species in China, which could be greater than 25% of the flora.Some scientific conservation-related techniques, such as cryopreservation, are described in brief. Seed banking is the most cost-effective approach in all ex situ conservation approaches. Cryopreservation will become increasingly important in accomplishing the ex situ conservation goal and in enabling the long-term preservation of seeds, including recalcitrant ones. This paper also highlights the necessity of increased efforts to train young scientists in taxonomy and seed biology to improve efficiency, validity of seed identification, and long-term management prospects of seed banks.%植物种质资源保存,特别是种子库保存是各种迁地保护措施中最为经济有效的方法.通过对成千上万个物种的有效保存,种子库为减缓物种的灭绝和气候变化对生物多样性的影响发挥了特别关键的作用.本文较为详细地介绍了"中国西南野生生物种质资源库"的立项背景和最新进展,同时介绍了世界上其它几个主要的植物迁地保存设施,特别是英国皇家植物园的"千年种子库".结合"全球植物保护策略"讨论了中国植物濒危状况,估计我国受威胁的物种比例达20-25%,甚至更高.本文还简要讨论了种子保存中的一些科学问题,包括超低温保存,并强调了植物分类学和种

  14. A large maize (Zea mays L. SNP genotyping array: development and germplasm genotyping, and genetic mapping to compare with the B73 reference genome.

    Martin W Ganal

    Full Text Available SNP genotyping arrays have been useful for many applications that require a large number of molecular markers such as high-density genetic mapping, genome-wide association studies (GWAS, and genomic selection. We report the establishment of a large maize SNP array and its use for diversity analysis and high density linkage mapping. The markers, taken from more than 800,000 SNPs, were selected to be preferentially located in genes and evenly distributed across the genome. The array was tested with a set of maize germplasm including North American and European inbred lines, parent/F1 combinations, and distantly related teosinte material. A total of 49,585 markers, including 33,417 within 17,520 different genes and 16,168 outside genes, were of good quality for genotyping, with an average failure rate of 4% and rates up to 8% in specific germplasm. To demonstrate this array's use in genetic mapping and for the independent validation of the B73 sequence assembly, two intermated maize recombinant inbred line populations - IBM (B73×Mo17 and LHRF (F2×F252 - were genotyped to establish two high density linkage maps with 20,913 and 14,524 markers respectively. 172 mapped markers were absent in the current B73 assembly and their placement can be used for future improvements of the B73 reference sequence. Colinearity of the genetic and physical maps was mostly conserved with some exceptions that suggest errors in the B73 assembly. Five major regions containing non-colinearities were identified on chromosomes 2, 3, 6, 7 and 9, and are supported by both independent genetic maps. Four additional non-colinear regions were found on the LHRF map only; they may be due to a lower density of IBM markers in those regions or to true structural rearrangements between lines. Given the array's high quality, it will be a valuable resource for maize genetics and many aspects of maize breeding.

  15. 湖北省辣椒种质资源的鉴定与评价%Identification and Evaluation of Hot Pepper Germplasm Resources in Hubei

    郭英; 丁自立; 姚明; 王飞; 李宁


    9 characters of 50 hot pepper germplasm resources from Hubei Province were determinated and analysed in this study. The results showed that the single fruit mass in order of fruit shape is lantern-shaped fruitconicalsheep-horn-shapedfinger-shaped. The pungency of the long conical or sheep-horn-shaped fruit is stronger. The higher the altitude, the shorter the growth period. By principal component analysis for the plant height, the number of stem nodes below the first flower and harvest dates, it was found that the contribution of the three common factors could amount to 82.15% of all information, which integrated the traits of complicated relationship into the character group of minimal correlation so as to help improve the efficiency of selection for specifical target hot pepper germplasm.%收集湖北地方辣椒资源50份,进行了株高、始花节位、采收天数、单果质量、果实VC含量、果实辣椒素含量、果形、辣味、熟性等9个生物学性状指标的测定与分析。结果表明:单果质量总的规律是灯笼形〉锥形〉羊角形〉指形;多数长圆锥形或羊角形辣椒辣味较浓;辣椒品种的生育期就海拔高度而言,海拔越高,生育期越短。通过对株高、始花节数和采收天数3个主因子的主成分分析,发现这3个主因子方差贡献可达全部信息的82.15%,从而将具有复杂关系的多个性状综合成相关性很小的性状群,有利于加大辣椒目标性状选择的针对性,提高选择效率。

  16. Evaluación del germoplasma de Ilex paraguariensis e Ilex dumosa (Aquifoliaceae Ilex paraguariensis and Ilex dumosa (Aquifoliaceae germplasm evaluation

    Alexandra Marina Gottlieb


    Full Text Available Ilex paraguariensis e I. dumosa constituyen dos especies de gran relevancia económica para nuestro país. Estas comparten muchas características de su biología, aunque se diferencian en composición fitoquímica y resistencia a factores bióticos y abióticos. El objetivo del presente trabajo es evaluar la estructura de la diversidad genética de plantas mantenidas en el Banco de Germoplasma de Yerba Mate y Té de la Estación Experimental del INTA en Cerro Azul (Misiones y de materiales comerciales de yerba mate, mediante el re-análisis de datos AFLP, así como caracterizar las secuencias nucleotídicas de bandas potencialmente diagnósticas de especie. En I. dumosa se detectó, respecto de I. paraguariensis, un nivel de variación molecular dos veces mayor, aunque una menor proporción de bandas privadas. Las secuencias caracterizadas con herramientas bioinformáticas resultan ser nuevas regiones genómicas descriptas para Ilex. Los resultados indican que los materiales estudiados de I. dumosa constituyen un reservorio de variabilidad genética apropiado para el fitomejoramiento de materiales de yerba mate potencialmente comerciales. Asimismo, nuestros resultados apoyan la renovación de estrategias de conservación tendientes a ampliar el acervo genético almacenado, particularmente de yerba mate.Ilex paraguariensis and I. dumosa are species with great economic relevance in Argentina. Both species share several features of their biology, though they differ in phytochemical composition and in their resistance to biotic and abiotic factors. The aim of the present work is to evaluate the structure of the genetic diversity of the plants kept at the Germplasm Bank of Yerba Mate (EEINTACA and also of commercial materials of yerba mate, through a re-analysis of AFLP data and a characterization of the nucleotide sequences of selected AFLP bands. For I. dumosa we have detected a molecular variation level two times higher than the value obtained

  17. 丹参种质资源的数量分类研究%Numerical Taxonomy Study of Salvia miltiorrhiza Germplasm Resources

    郭林林; 宗成; 刘甜; 刘政波; 宋振巧; 王建华


    Based on the survey of S.miltiorrhiza germplasm resources,the numerical taxonomy method was used for cluster analysis of 33 cultivars with 37 morphological characters.The results revealed that 37 characters could be divided into 8 groups and those belonging to the same group had certain correlations.Prin-cipal component analysis showed that the 37 characters could be consolidated into 9 principal components and their accumulative contribution ratio reached 72.777%.According to the results of cluster analysis and princi-pal component analysis,a classification system of S.miltiorrhiza was preliminarily proposed with leaf size as the first criterion,the branch number,flower color and leaflet number as the second,third and forth criterion respectively.By Mantel correlation detection,18 characters,which could well represent 37 characters,were chosen for germplasm clustering of S.miltiorrhiza.%选取37个形态学性状对33个丹参品系进行了数量分类学的聚类分析。结果表明:通过性状聚类分析,可将丹参37个性状划分为8类,各类内性状间具有一定相关性。主成分分析表明,37个性状可综合为9个主成分,其累积贡献率达72.777%。根据性状聚类分析和主成分分析的结果,初步提出丹参的分类体系以叶片大小为第一级分类标准,分枝数作为第二级标准,花色和复叶数分别作为第三级、第四级分类标准。通过Mantel相关性检测筛选出18个性状可较好代表37个性状进行种质聚类。

  18. Africa Germplasm Improvement and Utilization and Research in the Huang Huai Hai%非洲种质在黄淮海的改良与利用研究

    孟彦; 马磊; 闫向泉; 朱伟; 孟自力; 刘卫星; 孙民; 丁莉


    Compared with panicle traits, disease resistance, and correlation analysis of disease and yield among 16 groups from four African germplasm and four common. The results showed that the group of Tanzania germplasm ZB903 had stable yield, disease resistance, great use value in disease-resistant breeding;the group of CM 07 from Ethiopia germplasm and improved lines of Huangzaosi performs best in yield, row number per ear, 100 grain weight and high resistance to Fusarium monjliforme. Reid × (Tangsipingtou+African germplasm) is one of the best modes, so we can focus on the hybrid breeding between improved lines of Huangzaosi and African germplasm which dosen’t grow very well alone in Huanghuaihai’s region.%对4个非洲种质和4个常用种质组配的16个组合的玉米穗部性状、抗病性及病害与产量的相关性进行分析。结果表明,坦桑尼亚种质ZB903所配制的组合产量表现较稳定,综合抗病性强,在抗病育种中有较大的利用价值;埃塞俄比亚种质与黄改系种质选育的CM07组配的组合产量最高、百粒重大、穗行数多,对产量影响最严重的茎基腐病表现达高抗水平。直接利用非洲种质的效果并不理想,其与黄改系种质杂交选育的自交系可在黄淮海重点利用。瑞德×(塘四平头+非洲种质)是黄淮海利用该种质比较理想的杂种优势模式之一。

  19. Study on collection, conservation and propagation techniques of Paulownia fortunei superior trees germplasm resources%白花泡桐优树种质资源收集保存及繁殖技术研究

    邓建军; 李芳东; 乔杰; 李荣幸


    In order to save, protect and utilize comprehensively the germplasm resources of Paulownia, the investigation and collection of the germplasm resources of Paulownia in 20 provinces(municipalities) of China were conducted,and the conservation and propagation techniques were studied.The results are as follows:by the end of the year 2009, there were 388 of Paulownia germplasm resources to be collected, including 50 Paulownia fortunei superior trees germplasm resources which grew faster and had stronger resistance and good trunk form; Paulownia gene banks total area of 27.73 hm2 were built in Wenxian of Henan and Chibi of Hubei and Jiujiang of Jiangxi provinces.And the collected germplasm resources was conserved; and the experiments of grafting,cutting, tissue culture and burning root were carried, then the rejuvenation and propagation techniques of the old Paulownia fortunei superior tree material were successfully developed.%为了挽救、保护和综合利用珍贵的泡桐Paulownia种质资源,对全国20个省(直辖市)进行泡桐种质资源调查收集,并对其保存和繁殖技术进行了研究.到2009年底,共搜集到338份泡桐种质资源,其中包括50个生长量大、干形好、抗性强的白花泡桐Paulownia fortune 优良单株资源;在河南温县、湖北赤壁和江西九江共营建21.73 hm3泡桐基因库,对搜集的资源进行保存;进行了嫁接,扦插,组织培养和埋根等幼化繁殖试验,成功地探索出了白花泡桐老龄优树的幼化繁殖技术.

  20. Sterol composition of virgin olive oil of forty-three olive cultivars from the World Collection Olive Germplasm Bank of Cordoba.

    Kyçyk, Onejda; Aguilera, Maria Paz; Gaforio, José Juan; Jiménez, Antonio; Beltrán, Gabriel


    In olive oil, sterols constitute the majority of the unsaponifiable fraction. In recent years there has been increased interest in the sterols of olive oil for their health benefits and their importance to virgin olive oil (VOO) quality regulation. Forty-three olive (Olea europaea L.) cultivars from the World Olive Germplasm Bank, IFAPA Centro 'Alameda de Obispo', Cordoba, Spain were studied for their oil sterol composition and total content. The main sterols found in olive oil were β-sitosterol, Δ(5) -avenasterol, campesterol and stigmasterol, most of them showing high variability. Most cultivars showed total sterol contents within the limits established by EU regulations, although 28% of VOOs analysed were outside the limits established for total content and/or for individual sterols. Over the group of cultivars, total sterol contents ranged from 855 to 2185 mg kg(-1) . The high variability observed was due to the genetic component, since other agronomic and technological factors were similar. Because of the high variability, the sterol fraction can be considered as a useful tool to characterize and discriminate monovarietal VOOs. The results can be useful for nutritionists for VOO inclusion in nutrition studies. Furthermore, the variability observed can be applied in olive breeding projects to select the parents of new olive cultivars with an improved sterol fraction. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. 安康野桑蚕种质资源的研究与保存%Conservation of Germplasm Resources of Wild Silkworm in Ankang



    为了保存安康不同区域野桑蚕资源,收集安康各地的野桑蚕,建立饲养大棚,保存安康地区野桑蚕材料23份,其他地区野桑蚕材料3份.同时,探索了建立室外大棚饲养保存野桑蚕的方法,构建了人工保存的野桑蚕种质资源库,发现安康野桑蚕一代存在4~5个月的长蛹期.%In order to conserve wild silkworm resources in different areas of Ankang, the wild silkworm resources were collected and large nylon rearing house was build.23 wild silkworm materials in Ankang and three wild silkworm materials in other areas were conserved.Meanwhile, the method of rearing and conserving wild silkworm in wild condition was explored and the artificially conserved germplasm resources bank of wild silkworm was established.In the end, it was discovered that wild silkworm in Ankang has long pupal stage with 4~5 months within one generation.

  2. Dilemmas caused by endogenous pararetroviruses regarding the taxonomy and diagnosis of yam (Dioscorea spp.) badnaviruses: analyses to support safe germplasm movement.

    Bousalem, Mustapha; Durand, O; Scarcelli, N; Lebas, B S M; Kenyon, L; Marchand, J-L; Lefort, F; Seal, S E


    The discovery of endogenous pararetroviral sequences (EPRVs) has had a deep impact on the approaches needed for diagnosis, taxonomy, safe movement of germplasm and management of diseases caused by pararetroviruses. In this article, we illustrate this through the example of yam (Dioscorea spp.) badnaviruses. To enable progress, it is first necessary to clarify the taxonomical status of yam badnavirus sequences. Phylogeny and pairwise sequence comparison of 121 yam partial reverse transcriptase sequences provided strong support for the identification of 12 yam badnavirus species, of which ten have not been previously named. Virus prevalence data were obtained, and they support the presence of EPRVs in D. rotundata, but not in D. praehensilis, D. abyssinica, D. alata or D. trifida. Five yam badnavirus species characterised by a wide host range seem to be of African origin. Seven other yam badnavirus species with a limited host range are probably of Asian-Pacific origin. Recombination under natural circumstances appears to be rare. Average values of nucleotide intra-species genetic distances are comparable to data obtained for other RNA and DNA virus families. The dispersion scenarios proposed here, combined with the fact that host-switching events appear common for some yam badnaviruses, suggest that the risks linked to introduction via international plant material exchanges are high.

  3. Genetic Diversity of Garlic (Allium sativum L.) Germplasm by Simple Sequence Repeats%大蒜种质遗传多样性的SSR分析

    陈书霞; 常燕霞; 周静; 杜俊娜; 程智慧; 孟焕文


    为了探索中国大蒜种质个体的SSR位点的分布情况,为品种鉴定、保存及遗传改良提供分子生物学依据,利用6对SSR引物对40个大蒜(Allium sativum L.)品种进行聚类分析、主成分分析及遗传多样性评价.共检测到21个多态性位点,平均每对引物可扩增出约3.5条多态性片段,多态性百分率为56.76%;SSR引物组合平均有效等位基因数、Nei基因多样度和Shannon信息指数分别为1.5551、0.3414和0.5188.聚类分析显示,6对SSR引物可把40份大蒜种质资源从0.59相似系数水平上3个类群.第一类群包含28份种质,在相似系数为0.73的水平上进一步又被分成了3个亚类;第二亚类仅包含2份种质;第三亚类包含10份种质,在0.68的相似系数水平上分成了2个亚类.主成分分析和UPGMA的结果基本一致.不同地理来源的大蒜种质的Shannon-Weaver多样性指数的变幅为0.0576~0.4179,说明大蒜种质遗传多样性丰富.本研究利用SSR分子标记技术较准确地解析大蒜不同材料间的亲缘关系及遗传多样性,为中国大蒜SSR分子标记提供基础资料.%In order to investigate the distribution of simple sequence repeats (SSR) loci of Chinese garlic germplasm and provide the basis for the cultivars identification, germplasm conservation, and genetic improvement, t he cluster analysis, principal componet analysis and genetic diversity of 40 garlic (4 Ilium sativum L.) cultivars were analyzed using six pairs of SSR primers. A total of 21 polymorphic loci among these materials and average 3.5 polymorphic loci per SSR primer were detected. The percentage of polymorphic loci was 56.76%; the mean effective number of alleles, the mean Nei's gene diversity and the mean Shannon's information index were 1.5551, 0.3414 and 0.5188, respectively. Results showed that 40 materials could be divided into 3 groups at the similarity coefficient level of 0.59, in which the first group consisted of 28 cultivars which

  4. 朱顶红属植物种质资源及园林应用%Germplasm Resources of Hippeastrums spp. and Their Application to Landscaping

    马慧; 王琪; 袁燕波; 于晓南


    Hippeastrums spp. have beautiful flowers and splendid leaves, which can be widely applied in indoor decoration or outdoor landscaping. It is very popular abroad with high ornamental and economic value. However, there are few researches on production and application of Hippeastrums spp. in China. The article described the germplasm resources of Hippeastrums spp. and their breeding research, and analyzed how to use this genus in landscaping. Finally, the feasibility to promote its development and application in China was proposed and discussed.%朱顶红属植物花朵大而美丽,叶片荧绿如带,既可用作室内花卉装饰,又可应用于室外的园林造景。该属植物在国外很受欢迎,具有很高的观赏价值和经济价值,而在我国还没有广泛研究和应用。文中概述朱顶红属植物的种质资源和育种研究情况,分析总结其在园林应用中的形式,提出并讨论其在我国推广发展的可行性。

  5. Response of resistant breeding lines of tomato germplasm and their progenies with Seedathip3 to Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus, Thailand isolate (TYLCTHV-[2

    Ornubol Chomdej


    Full Text Available Tomato germplasm accessions; FLA456-4, FLA591-15, H24, CLN2443A, CLN2443B, CLN2443C, TLB111, TLB182-1, TLB111-F6-4-1, TLB130-F6-3-1 and TLB134-F6-8-1 from the Asian Vegetable Research Development Center (AVRDC, Taiwan, were screened for resistance to the Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus, Thailand isolate (TYLCTHV-[2]. The accessions expressing the resistant genotype were then crossed to the TYLCV-susceptible female parent, Seedathip3 (SD3, to produce F1 hybrids. Tomato parents and their F1 progenies were inoculated with TYLCTHV-[2] at 3 weeks of seedling age using viruliferous whitefly (Bemisia tabaci as the inoculation vector. Disease response of the seedling was rated according to the incidence and severity of the development of yellowing and curling symptoms. The presence of TYLCTHV-[2] in the inoculated plants was confirmed by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA. AVRDC tomato parental lines: H24, FLA591-15 and FLA456-4 expressed mild or no symptoms after one month inoculation. Progeny of crosses between the AVRDC donor parental lines and susceptible Thai cultivars showed intermediate tolerance to TYLCTHV-[2] infection. This indicated that resistance was incompletely dominant.

  6. Study of genetic variability in Vitis vinifera L. germplasm by high-throughput Vitis18kSNP array: the case of Georgian genetic resources.

    De Lorenzis, Gabriella; Chipashvili, Ramaz; Failla, Osvaldo; Maghradze, David


    Georgia, in the Caucasian region, is considered the first domestication centre of grapevine. This country is characterized by high morphological variability of cultivated (Vitis vinifera L. subsp. sativa (DC.) Hegi) and wild (Vitis vinifera L. subsp. sylvestris (Gmel.) Hegi) compartments. The main objective of this study was to investigate the level of genetic diversity obtained by the novel custom Vitis18kSNP array, in order to analyse 71 grapevine accessions representative of wild and cultivated Georgian germplasms. The number of loci successfully amplified was 15,317 out of 18,775 SNP and 79 % of loci resulted polymorphic. Sixty-eight unique profiles were identified, 42 for the sativa and 26 for the sylvestris compartment. Cluster analysis highlighted two main groups, one for cultivars and another for wild individuals, while a genetic structure according to accession taxonomic status and cultivar geographical origin was revealed by multivariate analysis, differentiating clearly the genotypes into 3 main groups, two groups including cultivars and one for wild individuals, even though a considerable overlapping area was observed. Pattern of genetic diversity structure presented an additional proof that grapevine domestication events took place in the Caucasian region contributing to the crop evolution. Our results demonstrated a moderate differentiation between sativa and sylvestris compartments, even though a connection between several samples of both subspecies may be assumed for the occurrence of cross hybridization events among native wild populations and the cultivated accessions. Nevertheless, first degree relationships have not been discovered between wild and cultivated individuals.

  7. Evidence for introduction bottleneck and extensive inter-gene pool (Mesoamerica x Andes) hybridization in the European common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) germplasm.

    Gioia, Tania; Logozzo, Giuseppina; Attene, Giovanna; Bellucci, Elisa; Benedettelli, Stefano; Negri, Valeria; Papa, Roberto; Spagnoletti Zeuli, Pierluigi


    Common bean diversity within and between Mesoamerican and Andean gene pools was compared in 89 landraces from America and 256 landraces from Europe, to elucidate the effects of bottleneck of introduction and selection for adaptation during the expansion of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Europe. Thirteen highly polymorphic nuclear microsatellite markers (nuSSRs) were used to complement chloroplast microsatellite (cpSSRs) and nuclear markers (phaseolin and Pv-shatterproof1) data from previous studies. To verify the extent of the introduction bottleneck, inter-gene pool hybrids were distinguished from "pure" accessions. Hybrids were identified on the basis of recombination of gene pool specific cpSSR, phaseolin and Pv-shatterproof1 markers with a Bayesian assignments based on nuSSRs, and with STRUCTURE admixture analysis. More hybrids were detected than previously, and their frequency was almost four times larger in Europe (40.2%) than in America (12.3%). The genetic bottleneck following the introduction into Europe was not evidenced in the analysis including all the accessions, but it was significant when estimated only with "pure" accessions, and five times larger for Mesoamerican than for Andean germplasm. The extensive inter-gene pool hybridization generated a large amount of genotypic diversity that mitigated the effects of the bottleneck that occurred when common bean was introduced in Europe. The implication for evolution and the advantages for common bean breeding are discussed.

  8. Evidence for introduction bottleneck and extensive inter-gene pool (Mesoamerica x Andes hybridization in the European common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. germplasm.

    Tania Gioia

    Full Text Available Common bean diversity within and between Mesoamerican and Andean gene pools was compared in 89 landraces from America and 256 landraces from Europe, to elucidate the effects of bottleneck of introduction and selection for adaptation during the expansion of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. in Europe. Thirteen highly polymorphic nuclear microsatellite markers (nuSSRs were used to complement chloroplast microsatellite (cpSSRs and nuclear markers (phaseolin and Pv-shatterproof1 data from previous studies. To verify the extent of the introduction bottleneck, inter-gene pool hybrids were distinguished from "pure" accessions. Hybrids were identified on the basis of recombination of gene pool specific cpSSR, phaseolin and Pv-shatterproof1 markers with a Bayesian assignments based on nuSSRs, and with STRUCTURE admixture analysis. More hybrids were detected than previously, and their frequency was almost four times larger in Europe (40.2% than in America (12.3%. The genetic bottleneck following the introduction into Europe was not evidenced in the analysis including all the accessions, but it was significant when estimated only with "pure" accessions, and five times larger for Mesoamerican than for Andean germplasm. The extensive inter-gene pool hybridization generated a large amount of genotypic diversity that mitigated the effects of the bottleneck that occurred when common bean was introduced in Europe. The implication for evolution and the advantages for common bean breeding are discussed.

  9. 家蝇种质资源描述规范及其综合评价%A description criterion and comprehensive evaluation of housefly germplasm resources

    汪延生; 唐斌; 张文庆


    Housefly, Musca domestica, is not only a health pest but also an important resource insect. According to its biological characters and economic value, a description criterion and data standards for housefly were initiated, which provided its uniform data standards and measurement methods. Fifty four housefly geographic populations were collected all over the country, afterwards, the largest domestic housefly germplasm resource base was established which can be used for selecting outstanding housefly strains. According to above criteria, more than 100 indices of each of the 54 populations were described and determined. The indices were divided into six types of information, such as passport message, label information, description information of basic characters, picture information, conservation information and ways for sharing resources. Of those, 12 indices, such as egg laying amount per female, hatching rate, mature larva weight, larva developmental time et al. , were statistically analyzed. It was shown that the indices of different geography populations were significantly different. Dynamic Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution ( DTOPSIS) method was used to evaluate housefly germplasm resources. According to results, 54 housefly populations were classified into 3 categories, 10 excellent geographic populations, 33 good geographic populations and 11 no-good geographic populations.%家蝇Musca domestica L.既是卫生害虫,又是重要的资源昆虫.根据家蝇的生物学性状特性以及利用价值,制定了家蝇种质资源描述规范和数据标准,为家蝇种质资源的评价提供了统一的标准和方法.在全国18省、市和自治区收集了54个家蝇地理种群,建立了国内最大的家蝇种质资源库,为家蝇优良品系的选育提供了资源.按照家蝇种质资源描述规范和数据标准对54个家蝇地理种群进行了标准化整理和数字化描述,描述和测定了家蝇种质资源的护

  10. Analysis on Genetic Diversity of Bougainvillea spp.Germplasm Resources Based on Isozyme%宝巾(Bougainvillea spp.)种质资源同工酶的遗传多样性分析

    陈庭; 刘伟; 谢良生; 雷江丽


    [Objective] The aim was to analyze the genetic adversity of 12 Bougainvillea spp. Germplasm resources from Shenzhen region. [Method] The esterase (EST) isozyme and peroxidase (POD) isozyme of Bougainvillea spp. Germplasm resources were determined by poly-acrylamide gel electrophoresis and the cluster analysis was used according to statistical results. [ Result ] There was great genetic adversity a-mong different germplasm resources and the resources could be divided into two groups based on 0.63 of similarity coefficient. [Conclusion] The characteristic band of isozyme was suitable for variety identification and defining the blood relationship for various varieties to some extent.%[目的]分析深圳本地12种宝巾种质资源的遗传多样性.[方法]利用聚丙烯酰胺凝胶电泳法研究宝巾种质资源过氧化物同工酶(POD)和酯酶同工酶(EST)的遗传多样性,并对统计结果进行聚类分析.[结果]各宝巾种质资源间有丰富的遗传多样性,在相似系数为0.63水平上可以聚为2大类.[结论]同工酶的特征谱带应用于品种鉴定是可行的,在一定程度上明确了各宝巾品种的亲缘关系.

  11. QTL mapping for European corn borer resistance ( Ostrinia nubilalis Hb.), agronomic and forage quality traits of testcross progenies in early-maturing European maize ( Zea mays L.) germplasm.

    Papst, C; Bohn, M; Utz, H F; Melchinger, A E; Klein, D; Eder, J


    In hybrid breeding the performance of lines in hybrid combinations is more important than their performance per se. Little information is available on the correlation between individual line and testcross (TC) performances for the resistance to European corn borer (ECB, Ostrinia nubilalis Hb.) in maize ( Zea mays L.). Marker assisted selection (MAS) will be successful only if quantitative trait loci (QTL) found in F(2) derived lines for ECB resistance are still expressed in hybrid combinations. The objectives of our study were: (1) to identify and characterize QTL for ECB resistance as well as agronomic and forage quality traits in a population of testcrossed F(2:3) families; (2) to evaluate the consistency of QTL for per se and TC performances; and (3) to determine the association between per se and TC performances of F(2:3) lines for these traits. Two hundred and four F(2:3) lines were derived from the cross between maize lines D06 (resistant) and D408 (susceptible). These lines were crossed to D171 and the TC progenies were evaluated for ECB resistance and agronomic performance in two locations in 2000 and 2001. Using these TC progenies, six QTL for stalk damage rating (SDR) were found. These QTL explained 27.4% of the genotypic variance in a simultaneous fit. Three QTL for SDR were detected consistently for per se and TC performance. Phenotypic and genotypic correlations were low for per se and TC performance for SDR. Correlations between SDR and quality traits were not significant. Based on these results, we conclude that MAS will not be an efficient method for improving SDR. However, new molecular tools might provide the opportunity to use QTL data as a first step to identify genes involved in ECB resistance. Efficient MAS procedures might then be based on markers designed to trace and to combine specific genes and their alleles in elite maize breeding germplasm.

  12. Influence of weeding regime on severity of sugarcane mosaic disease in selected improved sugarcane germplasm accessions in the Southern Guinea Savanna agroecology of Nigeria

    Taiye Hussein Aliyu


    Full Text Available Experiment was conducted during 2011 to 2012 cropping season using potted plants, to evaluate the influence of weeding regime on sugarcane mosaic disease severity in selected improved sugarcane varieties from the University of Ilorin – Nigeria sugarcane germplasm. The experiment was laid out following a split plot arrangement where the weeding regime constitutes the main plot and the sugarcane varieties were the subplot. Disease parameters such as symptom manifestation, number of diseased leaves, percentage severity were measured. Growth and yield parameters such as stalk length, number of leaves, number of tillers and yield parameters such as fresh and dry shoot weights, percentage dry matter at harvest were also measured. Analysis of variance showed that percentage severity of sugarcane mosaic disease, increased in non-weeded plots compared with weeded plots. Twice weeding (52.1% and the weed free plots (53.7% had the significantly lowest severities. Varietal influence significantly influenced severity and variety NCO-270 produced the significantly lowest severity (45.8%.The interaction of weeding regime and variety indicated that variety CB36411 in the weed free plots, produced the lowest severity (33.5%.Yield parameters showed that significantly highest shoot weight was recorded in the weed free plot, while variety NCO-270 gave the highest fresh and dry shoot weights (254.8g and 50.2g respectively. The results indicate that variety NCO-270 was the most tolerant and that weeding at least once in six months is required to mitigate the effect of sugarcane mosaic disease, as witnessed in significantly increased growth and yield attributes of plants in the weeded plots.

  13. In vitro microrhizomes induction and genetic stability of a medicinal plant Acorus calamus L. towards germplasm conservation through synthetic seed production

    Satyajit KANUNGO


    Full Text Available Germplasm conservation through in vitro multiplication is one of the important mass cloning method to protect endangered medicinal plants. Synthetic seed technology offers potential advantages by increased efficiency for in vitro propagation in terms of space, labour, time and overall experimental costs. In vitro shoot formation (3.1±0.34 shoots per in vitro raised explants with shoot length of 2.9±0.11 cm of Acorus calamus (Bach was achieved after 4 weeks of culture in Murashige & Skoog (MS media supplemented with 4 mg l-1 BAP and 1 mg l-1 IAA with 30g sucrose l-1. Highest number of shoot multiplication per explant was recorded in 8 mg l-1 BAP and 2mg l-1 IAA and successful profuse rooting was observed in 1 mg l-1 IBA (3.6±0.2 roots per explant with an average root length of 4.7±0.6 cm. Synthetic seeds of in vitro raised microrhizomes were produced in a artificial matrix containing 3% (w/v sodium alginate prepared in MS basal medium for 20 min and dropped in to 3% (w/v calcium chloride solution for 30 min for polymerization. The encapsulated microrhizomes were stored at cold (10ºC in dark condition with different storage intervals of 3 and 6 months to evaluate the effect of storage duration and germination of zygotic embryos in A. calamus. From the RAPD analysis of both in vivo and in vitro regenerated plants it was observed that there were no significant variation of DNA profiles, thus ensuring the genetic stability of the plants and regeneration of true to type plants.

  14. Conservação in vitro de germoplasma de abacaxi tratado com paclobutrazol In vitro conservation of pineapple germplasm treated with paclobutrazol

    Ana Maria Mascarenhas Eloy Canto


    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do paclobutrazol (PBZ no crescimento in vitro de plantas de abacaxi visando à conservação do germoplasma. Utilizou-se o meio MS suplementado com 30 g L-1 de sacarose e 8 g L-1 de ágar. Cada tratamento consistiu de duas doses de PBZ: a primeira aplicada no início do experimento e a segunda, noventa dias após, em combinações que envolviam a ausência, 0,5 e 1,0 mg L-1. Os melhores resultados foram obtidos na ausência do PBZ, ou com 0,5 mg L-1 aplicada apenas no início do experimento. Foi possível reduzir o número de subcultivos durante o período de conservação.The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of paclobutrazol (PBZ on in vitro growth and conservation of pineapple germplasm. Plants of the PE x SC-60 pineapple hybrid were cultivated on MS medium supplemented with 30 g L-1 of sucrose and 8 g L-1 of agar. Treatments consisted of two concentrations of PBZ, the first one applied at the beginning of the trial and the other ninety days after. The best result was obtained without PBZ or with 0.5 mg L-1 at the beginning of the trial. It was possible to reduce the number of subcultures during conservation.

  15. 芋种质资源染色体倍性鉴定%Chromosomal Ploidy Identification of Taro (Colocasia) Germplasm Resources

    黄新芳; 柯卫东; 刘义满; 叶元英; 李双梅; 彭静; 刘玉平; 李峰


    利用流式细胞术(Flow cytometry,FCM),对芋属(Colocasia)中种质资源类型最为丰富的滇南芋(C.antiquorum Schott)和芋[c.esculenta(L.)Schott]的染色体倍性进行了鉴定.结果表明:滇南芋的染色体倍性为2n=2x=28.芋中魁芋的染色体倍性表现为2n=2x=28;多头芋、魁子兼用芋为2n=3x=42;多子芋一般为2n=3x=42,但白芽乌绿柄多子芋为2n=2x=28,另外来自印度的绿柄多子芋也为2n=2x=28.%Chromosome ploidy of taro ( Colocasia ) germplasm resources, such as C. antiquorum Schott and C. esculenta ( L.) Schott, whose genotypes were the richest, were studied by flow cytometry analysis. The results showed that chromosome ploidy level of C. antiquorum Schott was diploid ( 2n= 2x=28 ). In C. esculenta ( L.) Schott, taro with large corm was diploid ( 2n=2x=28 ). The taro with multi-head and taro used for corm and cormels were triploid ( 2n=3x=42 ). Generally, taro with numerous cormels was triploid ( 2n=3x=42 ), while taro with numerous cormels, whose potile was purple-green and bud was white, was diploid ( 2n=2x=28 ). Meanwhile, there exists diploid ( 2n=2x=28 ) in taro with numerous cormels, whose petiole was green and it was introduced from India.

  16. The bean polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein 2 (PvPGIP2) is highly conserved in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) germplasm and related species.

    Farina, Anna; Rocchi, Valentina; Janni, Michela; Benedettelli, Stefano; De Lorenzo, Giulia; D'Ovidio, Renato


    Polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins (PGIPs) are extracellular plant protein inhibitors of endo-polygalacturonases (PGs) that belong to the leucine-rich repeat (LRR) protein family. In bean, PGIP is encoded by a small gene family of four members among which Pvpgip2 encodes the most wide-spectrum and efficient inhibitor of fungal PGs. In order to evaluate the sequence polymorphism of Pvpgip2 and its functional significance, we have analyzed a number of wild and cultivated bean (P. vulgaris) accessions of Andean and Mesoamerican origin, and some genotypes from the related species P. coccineus, P. acutifolius, and P. lunatus. Our analyses indicate that the protein encoded by Pvpgip2 is highly conserved in the bean germplasm. The few detected polymorphic sites correspond to synonymous substitutions and only two wild genotypes contain a Pvpgip2 with a single non-synonymous replacement. Sequence comparison showed a slightly larger variation in the related bean species P. coccineus, P. acutifolius, and P. lunatus and confirmed the known phylogenetic relationships with P. vulgaris. The majority of the replacements were within the xxLxLxx region of the leucine rich repeat (LRR) domain and none of them affected residues contributing to structural features. The variant PGIPs were expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana using PVX as vector and their inhibitory activity compared to that of PvPPGIP2. All the variants were able to fully inhibit the four fungal PGs tested with minor differences. Taken together these results support the hypothesis that the overall sequence conservation of PGIP2 and minor variation at specific sites is necessary for high-affinity recognition of different fungal PGs.

  17. Flowering and Growth Responses of Cultivated Lentil and Wild Lens Germplasm toward the Differences in Red to Far-Red Ratio and Photosynthetically Active Radiation

    Yuan, Hai Y.; Saha, Shyamali; Vandenberg, Albert; Bett, Kirstin E.


    Understanding environmental responses of pulse crop species and their wild relatives will play an important role in developing genetic strategies for crop improvement in response to changes in climate. This study examined how cultivated lentil and wild Lens germplasm responded to different light environments, specifically differences in red/far-red ratio (R/FR) and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). Three genotypes of each the seven Lens species were grown in environmentally controlled growth chambers equipped to provide light treatments consisting of different R/FR ratios and PAR values. Our results showed that overall, days to flower of Lens genotypes were mainly influenced by the R/FR induced light quality change but not by the PAR related light intensity change. The cultivated lentil (L. culinaris) showed consistent, accelerated flowering in response to the low R/FR light environment together with three wild lentil genotypes (L. orientalis IG 72611, L. tomentosus IG 72830, and L. ervoides IG 72815) while most wild lentil genotypes had reduced responses and flowering time was not significantly affected. The longest shoot length, longest internode length, and largest leaflet area were observed under the low R/FR low PAR environment for both cultivated and wild lentils. The distinctly different responses between flowering time and elongation under low R/FR conditions among wild Lens genotypes suggests discrete pathways controlling flowering and elongation, which are both components of shade avoidance responses. The yield and above-ground biomass of Lens genotypes were the highest under high R/FR high PAR conditions, intermediate under low R/FR low PAR conditions, and lowest under high R/FR low PAR light conditions. Three L. lamottei genotypes (IG 110809, IG 110810, and IG 110813) and one L. ervoides genotype (IG 72646) were less sensitive in their time to flower responses while maintaining similar yield, biomass, and harvest index across all three light

  18. Transcriptome analysis of genes related to resistance against powdery mildew in wheat-Thinopyrum alien addition disomic line germplasm SN6306.

    Li, Quanquan; Niu, Zubiao; Bao, Yinguang; Tian, Qiuju; Wang, Honggang; Kong, Lingrang; Feng, Deshun


    Wheat powdery mildew, which is mainly caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt), seriously damages wheat production. The wheat-Thinopyrum intermedium alien addition disomic line germplasm SN6306, being one of the important sources of genes for wheat resistance, is highly resistant to Bgt E09 and to many other powdery mildew physiological races. However, knowledge on the resistance mechanism of SN6306 remains limited. Our study employed high-throughput RNA sequencing based on next-generation sequencing technology (Illumina) to obtain an overview of the transcriptome characteristics of SN6306 and its parent wheat Yannong 15 (YN15) during Bgt infection. The sequencing generated 104,773 unigenes, 9909 of which showed varied expression levels. Among the 9909 unigenes, 1678 unigenes showed 0 reads in YN15. The expression levels in Bgt-inoculated SN6306 and YN15 of exactly 39 unigenes that showed 0 or considerably low reads in YN15 were validated to identify the genes involved in Bgt resistance. Among the 39 unigenes, 12 unigenes were upregulated in SN6306 by 3-45 times. These unigenes mainly encoded kinase, synthase, proteases, and signal transduction proteins, which may play an important role in the resistance against Bgt. To confirm whether the unigenes that showed 0 reads in YN15 are really unique to SN6306, 8 unigenes were cloned and sequenced. Results showed that the selected unigenes are more similar to SN6306 and Th. intermedium than to the wheat cultivar YN15. The sequencing results further confirmed that the unigenes showing 0 reads in YN15 are unique to SN6306 and are most likely derived from Th. intermedium (Host) Nevski. Thus, the genes from Th. intermedium most probably conferred the resistance of SN6306 to Bgt.

  19. Indexação biológica de genótipos de bananeira para o Banana streak virus Germplasm biological indexing for Banana streak virus

    Daniela Garcia Silveira


    Full Text Available O Banco Ativo de Germoplasma (BAG de bananeira é a base do programa de melhoramento genético da Embrapa Mandioca e Fruticultura Tropical. O objetivo deste trabalho foi indexar os acessos do BAG para o vírus das estrias da bananeira (Banana streak virus, BSV. Cada amostra foliar, coletada dos 220 acessos do BAG foi utilizada na inoculação de três plantas de bananeira 'Caipira' produzidas por micropropagação. As plantas foram inoculadas, através da cochonilha vetora Planococcus citri Risso, fornecendo-se um acesso de aquisição de 24 horas e de transmissão de 48 horas. Como controle positivo e negativo foram utilizadas plantas previamente analisadas por PCR, quanto a presença de BSV. Entre 15 e 70 dias após a inoculação, as plantas indicadoras apresentaram os primeiros sintomas. Desta forma, verificou-se que 44 dos 220 acessos estavam infectados com BSV.The Germplasm Active Bank (BAG of banana is the base of the genetic breeding program of Embrapa Cassava and Tropical Fruits. The objective of this work was to index the accessions of the BAG for Banana streak virus (BSV. Each sample collected in the 220 accessions of BAG was used to inoculate three 'Caipira' banana plants, produced by micropropagation. The plants were inoculated using the mealybug Planococcus citri Risso as vector. The vector being allowed an access of acquisition of 24 hours and 48 hours of transmission. Plants were previously analysed by PCR for the presence or absence of BSV were used as positive and negative control, respectively. Between 15 and 70 days after inoculation the test plants showed the first disease symptoms. Using this methodology, it was observed that 44 of the 220 accesses were infected with BSV.

  20. Recent advances in the cryopreservation of shoot-derived germplasm of economically important fruit trees of Actinidia, Diospyros, Malus, Olea, Prunus, Pyrus and Vitis.

    Benelli, Carla; De Carlo, Anna; Engelmann, Florent


    This paper presents the advances made over the last decade in cryopreservation of economically important vegetatively propagated fruit trees. Cryopreservation protocols have been established using both dormant buds sampled on field-grown plants and shoot tips sampled on in vitro plantlets. In the case of dormant buds, scions are partially dehydrated by storage at -5 °C, and then cooled slowly to -30 °C using low cooling rates (c.a. 1 °C/h) before immersion in liquid nitrogen. After slow rewarming and rehydration of samples, regrowth takes place either through grafting of buds on rootstocks or excision of apices and inoculation in vitro. In the case of shoot tips of in vitro plantlets, the cryopreservation techniques employed are the following: controlled rate cooling procedures involving slow prefreezing followed by immersion in liquid nitrogen or vitrification-based procedures including encapsulation-dehydration, vitrification, encapsulation-vitrification and droplet-vitrification. The current status of cryopreservation for a series of fruit tree species including Actinidia, Diospyros, Malus, Olea, Prunus, Pyrus and Vitis is presented. Routine application of cryopreservation for long-term germplasm storage in genebanks is currently limited to apple and pear, for which large cryopreserved collections have been established at NCGRP, Fort Collins (USA), using dormant buds and in vitro shoot tips, respectively. However, there are a growing number of examples of pilot scale testing experiments under way for different species in various countries. Progress in the further development and application of cryopreservation techniques will be made through a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in the induction of tolerance to dehydration and cryopreservation in frozen explants.

  1. Development of diagnostic markers for use in breeding potatoes resistant to Globodera pallida pathotype Pa2/3 using germplasm derived from Solanum tuberosum ssp. andigena CPC 2802.

    Moloney, Claire; Griffin, Denis; Jones, Peter W; Bryan, Glenn J; McLean, Karen; Bradshaw, John E; Milbourne, Dan


    Quantitative resistance to Globodera pallida pathotype Pa2/3, originally derived from Solanum tuberosum ssp. andigena Commonwealth Potato Collection (CPC) accession 2802, is present in several potato cultivars and advanced breeding lines. One genetic component of this resistance, a large effect quantitative trait locus (QTL) on linkage group IV (which we have renamed GpaIV(adg)(s)) has previously been mapped in the tetraploid breeding line 12601ab1. In this study, we show that GpaIV(adg)(s) is also present in a breeding line called C1992/31 via genetic mapping in an F(1) population produced by crossing C1992/31 with the G. pallida susceptible cultivar Record. C1992/31 is relatively divergent from 12601ab1, confirming that GpaIV(adg)(s) is an ideal target for marker-assisted selection in currently available germplasm. To generate markers exhibiting diagnostic potential for GpaIV(adg)(s), three bacterial artificial chromosome clones were isolated from the QTL region, sequenced, and used to develop 15 primer sets generating single-copy amplicons, which were examined for polymorphisms exhibiting linkage to GpaIV(adg)(s) in C1992/31. Eight such polymorphisms were found. Subsequently, one insertion/deletion polymorphism, three single nucleotide polymorphisms and a specific allele of the microsatellite marker STM3016 were shown to exhibit diagnostic potential for the QTL in a panel of 37 potato genotypes, 12 with and 25 without accession CPC2082 in their pedigrees. STM3016 and one of the SNP polymorphisms, C237(119), were assayed in 178 potato genotypes, arising from crosses between C1992/31 and 16 G. pallida susceptible genotypes, undergoing selection in a commercial breeding programme. The results suggest that the diagnostic markers would most effectively be employed in MAS-based approaches to pyramid different resistance loci to develop cultivars exhibiting strong, durable resistance to G. pallida pathotype Pa2/3.

  2. Analysis of genetic diversity and population structure within Florida coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) germplasm using microsatellite DNA, with special emphasis on the Fiji Dwarf cultivar.

    Meerow, Alan W; Wisser, Randall J; Brown, J Steven; Kuhn, David N; Schnell, Raymond J; Broschat, Timothy K


    Using 15 simple sequence repeat (SSR) microsatellite DNA loci, we analyzed genetic variation within Cocos nucifera germplasm collections at two locations in south Florida, representing eight cultivars. The loci were also used in a parentage analysis of progeny of the 'Fiji Dwarf' variety at both locations. A total of 67 alleles were detected, with eight the highest number at any one locus. These loci identified 83 of the 110 individual palms. Gene diversity of the 15 loci ranged from 0.778 to 0.223, with a mean of 0.574. 'Fiji Dwarf', 'Malayan Dwarf', 'Green Niño' and 'Red Spicata' cultivars resolve as distinct clusters in a neighbor joining tree using modified Rogers distance, while the tall varieties form two aggregates. The highest gene diversity was found in the tall cultivars (H = 0.583 cumulatively), and the lowest in the 'Malayan Dwarf' (H = 0.202). After the tall coconuts, the 'Fiji Dwarf' was most genetically diverse (H = 0.436), and had the largest number of unique alleles. Genetic identity is highest among the 'Malayan Dwarf' phenotypes, and between the tall varieties. The 'Red Malayan Dwarf' is genetically distinct from the 'Green' and 'Yellow Malayan Dwarf' phenotypes, which cannot be distinguished with the SSR loci used. Off-type 'Malayan Dwarf' phenotypes (putative hybrids with talls) can be identified genotypically. Parentage analyses of 30 'Fiji Dwarf' progeny propagated from five adults surrounded by other cultivars estimate that only 20% of the progeny were out-crossed to the other varieties, while 40-46% were possible selfs. This suggests that a seed-production orchard of the variety maintained at reasonable distance from other varieties, will likely yield only 'Fiji Dwarf' genotypes. Our data are discussed in the context of hypotheses of coconut dissemination around the world.

  3. Assessment of Freezing Tolerance of Juglans Germplasms by Using Annual Dormant Branches%核桃属植物休眠期的抗寒性鉴定

    田景花; 王红霞; 高仪; 张志华


    The test materials were annual dormant branches of 18 Juglans germplasms that belong to 4 species including J.regia L.,J.hopeiensis Hu.,J.mandshurica Maxim.,and J.nigra L.The semi-lethal temperatures (LTs0) were assessed separately by electrolyte leakage,tissue browning,and triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC) dyeing method with Logistic equation.Branch anatomical structures were observed with paraffin sections.The correlations between branch anatomical structures and freezing tolerance were analyzed.The results showed that relative electrical conductivities (REC) of walnut annual branches were rising with the temperature drop.The significant differences of LTs0 of Juglans germplasms were observed between-38 ℃ and-22 ℃.The interspecific differences were distinct,and the order of freezing tolerance was J.nigra > J.mandshurica,J.hopeiensis > J.regia.Electrolyte leakage,tissuebrowning,and TTC dyeing method all could be used for assessment of the freezing tolerance in dormant period,but LT50 assessed by electrolyte leakage was more accurate than the other methods.There was significant positive correlation (P < 0.01) between LT50 and REC at-24 ℃,which was a little higher than LT50 of the most Juglans germplasms.LT50 and REC at-24 ℃ could be used as physicochemical indexes for freezing tolerance identification of Juglans in dormant period.In addition,the tissues thickness of annual branches with roughly similar stem diameter had significant differences.The significant negative correlation (P < 0.01) was showed between LT50 and phellem layer thickness or phellem layer ratio in the branch,which provided morphological indexes to assess the freezing tolerance of Juglans in dormant period.%以核桃属(Juglans)中的普通核桃、核桃楸、河北核桃和黑核桃4个种的18份种质休眠期的1年生枝条为试验材料,采用电解质渗出率法、组织褐变法及氯化三苯基四氮唑(TTC)染色法并配合Logistic方程确定枝

  4. 利用欧榛SSR标记分析榛属亲缘关系的研究%Study on phylogenetic analysis of Corylus germplasm resouces with SSR molecular markers for Corylus avellana

    李修平; 李秀霞; 王仲; 薛春梅; 张丽敏; 郭勇


    利用54对欧榛SSR引物,对榛属12个种、平欧杂交榛及平平欧杂交榛共64份榛属资源进行了遗传多样性及亲缘关系分析.结果表明,欧椿遗传变异丰富,64份榛属资源18对SSR引物在欧榛10个样本中共检测到95个等位基因,每个位点的等位基因数2~10个,观测杂合度值(Ho)和期望杂合度值(He)的变化范围分别为0.214-0.816和0.348-0.800.聚类分析结果显示,64份榛属种质可划分为6组,平榛与欧榛亲缘关系最近.由此可知,欧榛SSR标记是榛属植物资源遗传分析的有力工具,为平榛资源的遗传改良在分子水平上提供了理论依据和基础.%Genetic diversity and cluster analysis of 64 hazelnut germplasm materials were studied with SSR molecular markers for Corylus avellana in this study. The results showed that genetic variation of Corylus avellana germplasm was abundant, 95 alleles were detected in 10 Corylus avellana materials, the number of alleles each loci changed from 2 to 10, the range of Ho and He was 0.214-0.816 and 0.348-0.800, respectively. The results of cluster analysis showed 64 hazelnut materials were divided into six groups, the genetic relationship between Corylus heterophylla and Corylus avellaha was close. The study proved that SSR molecular markers for Corylus avellana were useful tools for genetic analysis of hazelnut germplasm, and this would provide theoretical basis and useful analysis tools for Corylus heterophylla germplasm genetic improvement.

  5. Evaluation of Disease Resistance of Head Smut in Particular Corn Germplasms and Hybrids%特用玉米种质及杂交种对丝黑穗病的抗性评价

    郭建国; 郭满库; 郭成; 魏宏玉; 金社林


    The disease resistance to Sporisorium reilianum in 131 particular germplasms and 57 particular hybrids was identified when seeds were covered by 0.1% soil carried with teliospores . The results showed that the resistant and susceptible germplasms respectively were 6 antiviral or anti-resistant and 125 susceptible or highly susceptible in 131 particular germplasms, the resistant and susceptible varieties were 8 antiviral or anti-resistant and 49 susceptible or highly susceptible varities in 57 particular hybrids,respectively . The numbered of disease manifestations were 00097153 and 00231081 and moderately resistant germplasms were 00030253、00097112、00201242 and 00211465 which importantly resistant resources in sweet and waxy corn varieties breeding in the future. The diesease-resistant hybrids Gaoyou 1 and moderately resistant hybrids Baizaonuo、Jingkenuo 120、Xingnuo 918、Huatiannian 83、Duntian 2、Tiandan 22 and Gaoyou 115 were importantly commercial varieties in sweet,waxy and high oil corn in the future .%采用菌土覆盖接种法,鉴定评价了131个玉米特用种质和57个特用杂交种对丝黑穗病的抗病性。结果表明,131份特用种质中,6份表现抗病或中抗,125份表现感病或高感;57个特用杂交种中,8个品种表现抗病或中抗,49个品种表现感病或高感。表现抗病的编号为00097153、00231081的抗病种质和编号为00030253、00097112、00201242、00211465的中抗种质可作为甜糯品种选育的重要抗源;抗病杂交种高优1号和中抗杂交种白早糯、京科糯120、星糯918、华甜粘83、敦甜2号、甜单22号、高油115可作为甜糯和高油玉米的主推广品种。

  6. Preliminary Analysis on the Phenotypic Characters of 33 Cassava Germplasms under Drought Stress%干旱胁迫下33份木薯种质表型性状的初步分析

    魏云霞; 王晓庆; 黄洁


    以33份木薯种质为材料,采用盆栽方法对其进行反复干旱-复水处理,测定株高、茎径、叶片数量和主根数量,并通过方差、相关性和聚类分析,对其耐旱性进行归类。结果表明:33份木薯种质株高、茎径、叶片数量、主根数量的变幅分别为19.5~52.3 cm、3.46~5.90 mm、10.0~17.7片/株、14.0~56.0条/株,试验材料遗传背景丰富,代表性强;土壤含水量与株高、茎径、叶片数量、主根数量相关性均不显著;通过聚类分析可将33份种质分为4类,Ⅳ类仅ZM8316一份种质,其各项表型性状指标均处于较高水平;其次是Ⅲ类,包括CMR35-22-196、 A234、 SC5、 D346、 F709、 C381、 C322。%The potted experiment under repeated drying-wetting alternation condition was conducted in Tropical Crops Genetics Resources Institute, CATAS, Hainan, P. R. of China. 4 phenotypic characters were measured to classify the drought tolerance of 33 cassava germplasms through variance analysis, correlation analysis and cluster analysis. The results indicated that the plant height, stem diameter, number of leaves, number of roots of 33 cassava germplasms were 19.5~52.3 cm, 3.46~5.90 mm, 10.0~17.7 per plant, 14.0~56.0 per plant, respectively, it explained that the genetic background of the germplasms was abundant and typical. The correlation coefficient between soil water content and the 4 phenotypic characters wasn't significant. The cluster analysis showed that all germplasms could be divided into 4 types, the Ⅳ type was only ZM8316 which phenotypic character values were higher, next was the Ⅲ type that included CMR35-22-196, A234, SC5, D346, F709, C381 and C322.

  7. Collection, Preservation, Evaluation and Creative Utilization of Coffee Germplasm Resources%咖啡种质资源收集、保存、评价及创新利用研究

    周华; 张洪波; 李锦红; 李文伟; 夏红云; 郭铁英; 白学慧; 肖兵; 杨秋鸣


    The investigation, collection, introducing, preservation, evaluating and creatively utilizing of coffee germplasm resources in Dehong Tropical Agriculture Research Institute of Yunnan were reported. There are 377 accesions collected and 325 accesions attributed to 5 species are persevered in a 3.34 hm2 coffee germplasm nursery funded by the Ministry of Agriculture. The agronomic traits, diseases and insect pests resistance, drought resistance, chilling resistance and quality traits were identified and evaluated. Common and unique characteristics were described, shared and utilized. We screened 18 excellent germplasm, created 13 excellent germplasm, gained 49 hybridized combinations. One new coffee variety was audited and approved, five new coffee varieties were registered, and the seed production and cultivation technological system were established. The new varieties were planted for 30 000hm2.%概述云南省德宏热带农业科学研究所开展咖啡种质资源调查、收集、引进、保存、评价及创新利用等方面的研究现状.收集咖啡种质资源5个种377份,保存325份,建立3.34 hm2资源圃并被农业部授牌;对圃内保存的种质进行农艺性状、抗病虫、抗旱、抗寒及品质性状鉴定评价;对资源进行共性、个性描述及共享利用;筛选优异咖啡种质18份,创制优异咖啡新种质13份,获得杂交组合后代49份,审定和认定咖啡新品种各1个,注册登记新品种5个,建立配套的种苗生产和栽培技术体系,新品种累计推广近30 000 hm2,为中国咖啡产业的发展提供有力的品种和技术支撑.

  8. DNA分子标记在果树种质资源遗传多样性研究中的应用%Application of DNA Molecular Markers in Genetic Diversity Study of Fruit Tree Germplasm Resources

    周蓓蓓; 朱海军; 生静雅; 刘广勤


    简要介绍了DNA分子标记的主要类型、原理及特点,重点综述了RFLP、RAPD、AFLP、SSR、EST - SSR和SNP标记技术在果树种质资源遗传多样性研究中的应用现状.%This article briefly introduces the main type, principle and characteristics of DNA molecular marker techniques, and emphatically summarizes the application status of RFLP, RAPD, AFLP, SSR, EST -SSR and SNP marker techniques in the genetic diversity study of fruit tree germplasm resources.

  9. Evaluation and Analysis of Fruit Characters of Mango Germplasm Resources in the Nu River Valley%怒江流域杧果种质资源果实性状评价与分析

    解德宏; 龙亚芹; 张翠仙; 陈于福; 尼章光; 张发明; 张永超; 杨恩聪


    During 2005 to 2011, mango germplasm of Nu River Valley were collected and evaluated, including fruit shape, fruit weight, fruit color, flesh color, embryonic, edible rate, soluble solids, flavor, and etc. The results showed that in the 50 mango germplasm investigation, whether it is from the fruit the size, color, embryo, there are some excellent germplasm in fruit quality traits; correlation analysis showed that the correlation coefficients of mango fruit weight, fruit length, fruit width, seed length were showed a significant positive correlation, the correlation coefficient and the edible rate between seed weight was positively correlated, soluble solids removal and fruit width and fruit thickness was negatively correlated, and the correlation coefficient between the other traits were not significantly related. Mango germplasm in Nu River valley has excellent characters of rich, these excellent characters has laid a good foundation for breeding and variety improvement of mango.%2005~2011年,对怒江流域杧果种质资源进行收集及鉴定评价(主要包括果实形状、果实重量、果皮颜色、果肉颜色、胚性、可食率、可溶性固形物和风味等)。结果表明:在调查的50份杧果种质资源中,无论是从果实的大小、颜色、胚性等方面都存在着一些优良的种质资源;在杧果果实品质性状间相关性分析发现,单果重、果实长度、果实宽度、种子长度间的相关系数均呈极显著正相关,可食率和种子重量间的相关系数呈显著正相关,可溶性固形物除与果宽和果厚呈显著负相关外,与其他性状间的相关系数均未呈现显著相关。怒江流域杧果种质资源存在着丰富的优异性状,这些优异性状为杧果的品种选育及品种改良创造了良好的基础。

  10. Genetic Diversity and Similarity of Global Faba Bean(Vcia faba L.)Germplasm Revealed by ISSR Markers%世界蚕豆种质资源遗传多样性和相似性的ISSR分析

    王海飞; 关建平; 孙雪莲; 马钰; 宗绪晓


    [Objective] The purpose of this research is to analyze the genetic diversity of global faba bean germplasm, to explore their genetic similarity and population structure, and to provide essential information for germplasm evaluation and effective utilization of faba bean genetic resources. [Method] The genetic similarity of 383 faba bean accessions from 35 countries was analyzed by using ISSR marker. [Result] Eleven ISSR primers generated 229 unambiguous bands, of which 212 were polymorphic,and the rate of polymorphic bands was 0.93. Gene diversity index (H) and allelic richness (NA) of different geographic groups of germplasm ranged from 0.16 to 0.28 and from 104 to 193, respectively. Chinese spring-seeding area group showed the highest genetic diversity (H = 0.28, NA = 193), and America group showed the lowest (H = 0.16, NA = 104). The spring faba bean germplasm was clearly separated from winter faba bean germplasm of China in UPGMA clustering analysis based on ISSR molecular marker data. Germplasm from China is quite distinct to that from exotic accessions. The accessions from Europe had a closer genetic similarity with that from North Africa. While the germplasm resources from Asia, Europe and Africa are closely related to their geographical distribution. [Conclusion ] Accessions from spring-seeding area of China were most diverse. Germplasm from America showed lowest diversity. The results indicated that the genetic similarity and diversity of faba bean germplasm are closely associated with their growth habit, their geographical origin and ecological distribution.%[目的]分析国内外蚕豆种质资源的遗传多样性,探索其遗传相似性和遗传结构,为世界蚕豆资源的综合评价和优良种质资源的发掘利用提供依据.[方法]利用ISSR标记技术,对来自世界35个国家的383份蚕豆资源的遗传相似性进行分析.[结果]筛选出的11条ISSR引物共扩增出229条条带,其中多态性条带212条(占93%).不同地理

  11. Analysis of Flour Whiteness in Wheat Germplasm Conserved in Shandong Province%山东保存小麦种质资源面粉白度分析

    樊庆琦; 李玉莲; 隋新霞; 黄承彦; 刘爱峰; 高洁; 程敦公; 李根英; 楚秀生


    The flour whiteness of 2068 wheat landraces and varieties or breeding lines was investigated, and the grain hardness index of wheat germplasm with flour whiteness value over 80 was measured. The results showed that the ranges of distribution in flour whiteness values for Shandong landraces, Shandong varieties or lines, and varieties or lines collected from other provinces were 63. 9-82. 9, 63. 1-83. 8 and 67. 2-84. 2, respectively. Three hundred and forty-two varieties or lines with the flour whiteness values over 80 were identified, which included 22 landraces, 228 Shandong varieties or lines, and 92 varieties or lines from other provinces. Among them, 26 land-races and varieties or lines had flour whiteness values over 83, and 18 landraces and varieties or lines displayed high grain hardness index (≥50). These 18 high grain hardness landraces and varieties or lines are importance in developing high-flour-whiteness and strong-medium gluten wheat variety to meet people' s taste and health security.%对2068份小麦种质资源进行了面粉白度测定和高白度小麦种质子粒硬度测定.结果表明,山东小麦地方品种、山东小麦育成品种和省外引进小麦品种面粉白度值的分布范围分别为63.9~82.9、63.1~83.8和67.2~84.2.筛选出面粉白度值大于80的小麦种质342份(包括白度值大于83的种质26份),其中地方品种22份,山东育成品种(系)228份,省外引进种质92份.从南白度小麦种质资源中,筛选出子粒硬度指数≥50符合南白度强筋、中强筋或中筋的种质资源18份,对培育中筋以上高白度小麦新品种,以满足人们口味和健康保障具有重要意义.

  12. 菠萝蜜遗传多样性的ISSR分析%Analysis of genetic diversity of Jackfruit germplasm using ISSR marking method

    叶春海; 王耀辉; 李映志; 丰锋


    ISSR (inter-simple sequence repeat)markers were used to analyze genetic diversity in 76 accessions of jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lain.). Among 477 bands produced by 24 ISSR primers, 427 were polymorphic (accounted for 89.52%). The average PIC (pelymorphism information content) was 0.23. These 76 jackfruit accessions could be discriminated by the 24 ISSR primers. Genetic distance analysis revealed that, low genetic diversity existed in the jackfruit germplasm studied, and the genetic similarity coefficient ranged from 0.626 to 0.945, with an average of 0.775. Cluster analysis showed that 4 groups could be clustered at a genetic distance coefficient of 0.752. The results indicated that, 2 accessions from Tropical Plant Garden, WJ2 and GSYWJ1, were genetically different from other accessions. Accessions of soft flesh type and firm flesh type could not be discriminated. Accessions collected from different sources could form independent clusters, while accessions collected from different areas of Leizhou peninsula could not form independent clusters.%用ISSR标记方法对76份菠萝蜜(Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.)种质资源DNA的遗传多样性进行了检测.24个引物共检测到477条带,其中427条具多态性(占89052%),平均PIC为0.23,24个引物能把76份种质完全区分开来.遗传距离分析结果显示供试种质的遗传多样性较低,在DNA水平上的遗传相似系数为0.626~0.945,平均为0.775.聚类分析表明,76份菠萝蜜材料在遗传距离系数为0.752处可分为4大类,其中热带植物园的种质WJ2和GSYWJ1与其他种质的遗传距离相对较大,干胞和湿类型不能独立聚类.另外各地区的种质与雷州半岛种质明显分开聚类,而雷州半岛各地区的种质混杂聚类在一起,不能按地区单独聚类.

  13. Cryopreservation of Dianthus caryophyllus Linn Germplasm by Vitrification%玻璃化法超低温保存香石竹种质资源的研究

    周旭红; 何艳; 欧阳德爱; 桂敏; 李绅崇; 曹桦; 杨春梅; 卢珍红; 莫锡君


    Shoot tipa from Dianthus caryophyllus Linn cultivara ‘ YunLianDie ’ .were successfully cryopreserved by vitrification method. Orthogonal dasign waa used to analyze the effects of dominant parameten on survival rates of shoot tipa . including sucroae concentration of preculture medium. duration of preculture,duration of loading and duration of exposure to PVS2. The reault showed that the highest ahoot tip survival rate was: preculture 1 days,0.5 mol/L sucrose,losding time 40 minutes, PVS2 treatment in 40 minutes, liquid nitrogen treated 1d and throwing in 40 ℃ water, the survival rate was up to 44. 13 % . The regenerated plantlets Bhowed no more difference than the normal plantlets in physiological and biochemical characters. This test set up successfully a cryopresevation by vitrification system technique for Dian tlus caryophyllus Linn gennplasm, which provided an effective way for long-lasting conservation in vitro of Diaruhus caryophyllus Linn germplasm resources.%以香石竹"云恋蝶"离体茎尖为试材,研究玻璃化法对香石竹茎尖的高体超低温保存.通过正交设计试验对影响存活率的主要因素(预培养培养基中蔗糖浓度、预培养时间、装载时间和PVS2处理时间)进行分析,结果表明,预培养1 d,预培养基中蔗糖浓度为0.5 mol/L,装载40 min,PVS2液处理40 min,液氮处理1 d,在40℃水浴化冻后的香石竹茎尖,成活率达44.13%,且超低温再生苗与其常温苗的生理生化指标无显著差异.本试验成功地建立了香石竹种质资源玻璃化法超低温保存的技术,为香石竹种质资源的长期保存提供了一条有效途径.

  14. Analysis of Leaf Color and Photosynthetic Characteristics of Honeysuckle Germplasm Resources%忍冬种质资源叶色素与光合特性分析

    李建军; 任美玲; 王君; 刘保彬; 张光田


    采用分光光度计和 LI-6400XT光合仪对忍冬资源圃中不同种质资源叶片叶绿素、花青素含量与光合特性进行测定,并进行不同种质资源叶绿素、花青素含量与光合特性比较分析,结果表明:1、2、4、8、17号忍冬叶绿素含量较高,分别为3.70、3.65、3.04、3.07、3.52 mg/g,16号淡红忍冬最低,为1.49 mg/g;8、9号红白忍冬花青素含量较高,分别为1.113和1.360 mg/g,16号淡红忍冬为0.496 mg/g,介于忍冬和红白忍冬之间,忍冬类偏低,在0.100~0.248 mg/g;1、2、3、8、10号忍冬光合速率较高,分别为6.63、5.72、5.41、5.41、5.00μmol��m-2s-1;光合速率与叶绿素含量呈极显著正相关,花青素相对浓度影响光合速率,光合速率与气孔导度和蒸腾速率正相关,与胞间CO2浓度显著负相关.由此可知:1、2、3号忍冬资源叶绿素含量较高,光合速率也较高,花青素含量适中;8号较9号叶绿素含量高,光合速率也高,花青素含量较低;1、2、3、8号为优质忍冬种质资源,可在生产中推广种植.%Chlorophyll,anthocyanin content and photosynthetic characteristics were determined in leaves of different germplasm resources in honeysuckle resources garden by spectrophotometry and LI-6400XT photosynthetic instrument,and a comparative analysis was carried out among the chlorophyll, anthocyanin content and photosynthetic characteristics.The results showed that:the chlorophyll content of No.1 (3.70 mg/g),No.2 (3.65 mg/g),No.4 (3.04 mg/g),No.8 (3.07 mg/g)and No.17 (3.52 mg/g) were higher,the chlorophyll content of No.16 (1.49 mg/g)was the lowest.The anthocyanin content of No.8(1.113 mg/L)and No.9 (1.360 mg/L)which belonged to Lonicera japonic Thunb.var.chinensis (Wats.)Bak.were higher,anthocyanin content of No.16 (0.496 mg/L)which belonges to Lonicera acuminata Wall.was between Lonicera japonica Thunb.and Lonicera japonic Thunb.var.chinensis (Wats

  15. Development of corn new germplasm with transgenic phyA%转 phyA 基因玉米新种质的创制

    刘强; 张丽媛; 马红丹; 赵邯郸; 袁文娅; 刘思言; 关淑艳


    [Objective]To construct the vector of phytase gene ( phyA) specific expression in roots and to develop transgenic maize with high phosphorus efficiency .[Method] Using PCR method , the expression cassette ZmGLU1P-phyA-Nos was constructed by amplifying phyA from its expression vector pCAM-BIA3301 .The expression cassette was inserted into the transitional vector pCAMBIA 1301-BADH with salt-tolerance BADH gene, which formed pCAMBIA1301-ZmGLU1P-phyA-Nos, the expression vector of phyA specific expression in roots .The phyA was transformed into maize embryogenic callus via Agrobacte-rium tumefaciens-mediated method .The regeneration plants were detected by molecular biology tech-niques .[Result and conclusion] The transformed plants were detected by PCR and 9 transgenic lines were obtained.Through salt-resistant selection, PCR, Southern blotting and RT-PCR analysis of T1 gen-eration plants , the results showed that phyA were successfully integrated into the maize genome and 6 transgenic lines were obtained .The analysis of phytase activity in maize plant root of T 2 generation plants showed that the phytase was able to be expressed highly and secreted from roots .The phytase activity of transformed plants increased 10.9 times on average, with the highest phytase activity being 5.432U/g. The new corn germplasm with transgenic phytase was obtained .Moreover , this study could lay a founda-tion for creation of new corn germplasm with high phosphorus efficiency and high maize yield .%[目的]构建植酸酶基因( phyA)根部特异表达的重组植物表达载体,并利用其创制磷高效利用的玉米新种质.[方法]通过PCR方法从携带phyA的表达载体pCAMBIA3301中扩增出phyA表达元件ZmGLU1P-phyA-Nos,并将其插入到带有耐盐基因的中间载体pCAMBIA1301-BADH 上,获得phyA根特异表达的植物表达载体:pCAM-BIA1301-ZmGLU1P-phyA-Nos,通过农杆菌介导法转化玉米胚性愈伤组织,并对再生植株进行分子生

  16. Genetic Diversity and Relationship of Bougainvillea Germplasm Resources Based on SRAP Markers%基于SRAP的叶子花种质资源遗传多样性及遗传关系分析

    唐源江; 武晓燕; 曹雯静


    In order to understand the genetic relationship of Bougainvillea germplasms, the SRAP (sequence-related amplified polymorphism) markers were firstly applied on analysis of genetic diversity and relationship among 48 Bougainvillea cultivars. The results showed that twenty-five primer pairs screened from 208 primer pairs ampliifed a total of 773 bands, of which 750 were polymorphic bands, and the percentage of polymorphic bands was 97.02%. The genetic similar coefficient of Bougainvillea germplasms ranged from 0.4058 to 0.8568, and UPGMA (Unweighted pair-group method arithmetic average) analysis showed that 48 cultivars could clustered into 4 groups with the genetic similarity coefifcient of 0.558. However, the cultivar B. glabra‘Formosa’ and B. spectabilis‘Spectabilis’ were clustered into a separate cluster, respectively, the other cultivars were clustered into two groups. The genetic relationships of all cultivars examined would be made clear based on SRAP molecular markers. The results could provide scientific foundation for using germplasm resource appropriately and improving the efifciency of screening new cultivars.%为探讨叶子花(Bougainvillea sp.)品种间的遗传关系,应用SRAP (Sequence-related ampliifed polymorphism)标记技术对48个叶子花品种的遗传多样性及遗传关系进行了分析。结果表明,从208对引物中筛选出25对多态性较高的引物组合,共扩增出773条清晰条带,其中多态性条带750条,平均多态性条带百分率达97.02%。UPGMA聚类分析结果表明,48个叶子花品种的遗传相似性系数为0.4058~0.8568,在遗传相似性系数0.558水平上,可分为4个类群,福摩萨叶子花与毛叶紫花叶子花各自成一类,其它品种分为两大类群。SRAP标记可较好地反映叶子花种质间的遗传关系,为合理利用叶子花种质资源及提高育种效率提供了科学基础。

  17. Insights into the Genetic Relationships and Breeding Patterns of the African Tea Germplasm (Camellia sinensis (L. O. Kuntze Based on nSSR Markers and cpDNA Sequences

    Lianming Gao


    Full Text Available Africa is one of the key centres of global tea production. Understanding the genetic diversity and relationships of cultivars of African tea is important for future targeted breeding efforts for new crop cultivars, specialty tea processing and to guide germplasm conservation efforts. Despite the economic importance of tea in Africa, no research work has been done so far on its genetic diversity at a continental scale. Twenty-three nSSRs and three plastid DNA regions were used to investigate the genetic diversity, relationships and breeding patterns of tea accessions collected from eight countries in Africa. A total of 280 African tea accessions generated 297 alleles with a mean of 12.91 alleles per locus and a genetic diversity (HS estimate of 0.652. A STRUCTURE analysis suggested two main genetic groups of African tea accessions which corresponded well with the two tea types Camellia sinensis var. sinensis and C. sinensis var. assamica respectively, as well as an admixed mosaic group whose individuals were defined as hybrids of F2 and BC generation with high proportion of C. sinensis var. assamica being maternal parents. Accessions known to be C. sinensis var. assamica further separated into two groups representing the two major tea breeding centres corresponding to southern Africa (Tea Research Foundation of Central Africa, TRFCA and East Africa (Tea Research Foundation of Kenya, TRFK. Tea accessions were shared among countries. African tea has relatively lower genetic diversity. C. sinensis var. assamica is the main tea type under cultivation and contributes more in tea breeding improvements in Africa. International germplasm exchange and movement among countries within Africa was confirmed. The clustering into two main breeding centres, TRFCA and TRFK, suggested that some traits of C. sinensis var. assamica and their associated genes possibly underwent selection during geographic differentiation or local breeding preferences. This study

  18. Comprehensive evaluation of agronomic traits of castor (Ricinus communis L.) germplasm resources%蓖麻种质资源主要农艺性状的综合评价与分析

    胡学礼; 王沛琦; 胡尊红; 张锡顺; 杨谨; 严洪斌; 刘旭云


    For better utilization of castor ( Ricinus communis L.) germplasm resources,the principal component a⁃nalysis and cluster analysis were employed to analyze ten agronomic traits of fifty castor germplasm resources. Five principal components were defined with cumulative contribution of 91. 02%, representing yield component, growth potential, the number of capsules, plant height and the 100⁃kernel weight, respectively. Fifty germplasm resources were clustered into three categories. With the lowest productivity per plant, the first category could be used as a resource to breed dwarf stem and compact planting variety. The 100⁃kernel weight of the second category was the highest, and the category could be ap⁃plied to breed large⁃grain type variety. The third category showed the greatest number of main spike capsules, number of ef⁃fective spikes per plant, number of capsules per plant, and the productivity per plant, which could be used to breed high yield and middle⁃grain type variety.%为了加强蓖麻种质资源开发和利用,在对筛选出的50份优异蓖麻种质材料的10个主要农艺性状进行相关性分析的基础上进行主成分分析和聚类分析。确定了5个主成分,其累计贡献率为91�018%。5个主成分分别反映产量构成、植物长势、蒴果数、株高和百粒质量。把50份蓖麻种质聚类并划分为3大类群,第I类资源的单株生产力表现最低,可用于选育矮秆密植型品种;第II类资源百粒质量在3类材料中最高,表现较好,可用于选育大粒型品种;第III类资源的主穗蒴果数、单株有效穗数、单株蒴果数等性状都最高,单株生产力表现最好,可用于选育高产、中粒型的品种。

  19. Study of the Major Quantitative Character Difference and Theirs Correlations Among Germplasm Resources of Trifolium repens L.%白三叶种质资源主要数量性状的变异与相关性研究

    王建丽; 申忠宝; 潘多锋; 张瑞博; 李道明; 钟鹏; 邸桂俐; 高超; 李佶恺


    为了探讨白三叶(Trifolium repens L.)种质资源农艺性状变异和相关性,揭示各种质材料的特征特性和种质资源群间的遗传关系,本研究对78份白三叶种质的12个主要数量性状的变异和相关性进行了分析.结果表明:这些种质材料存在着丰富的遗传多样性,各个数量性状间均呈正相关,植株高度与小叶长度、小叶宽度、小叶大小、叶柄长度呈显著正相关;小叶长度与小叶宽度、小叶大小呈极显著正相关,与叶柄长度、叶柄直径呈显著正相关;小叶宽度与小叶大小呈极显著正相关,与叶柄长度、花柄直径呈显著正相关;小叶大小与叶柄长度、叶柄直径、花柄直径呈显著正相关.该批种质材料能为各类白三叶育种和遗传研究提供较为丰富的亲本材料.%To discuss the difference and correlation analysis on the main agronomic traits for Trifolium repens L. germplasm resources to reveal characteristics and genetic relationship among white clover germplasm resources. The difference and correlation analysis of 12 main quantitative character of 78 {Trifolium repens L.) was carried out. The results indicated that which have the abundant genetic diversity among the varieties, between to each of quantitative characters were positively correlated. The plant height was positively correlated with leaf length, width, size and petiole length; the leaf length was significantly and positively correlated with leaf width and size, which was positively correlated with petiole length and diameter; the leaf width was significantly and positively correlated with leaf size, which was positively correlated with petiole length and diameter of flower handle; the leaf size was positively correlated with petiole length, petiole diameter and diameter of flower handle. This group of white clover germplasm materials could provided rich parents materials for White clover breeding and genetics studies.

  20. Analysis of the Influencing Factors of Flesh Firmness in Loquat Germplasm Resources%枇杷种质资源果肉硬度影响因素分析

    张泽煌; 林旗华; 陈志峰; 魏秀清; 张立杰; 张小艳; 郑少泉


    对国家果树种质福州枇杷圃内枇杷种质资源的果肉硬度与果肉化渣程度、果肉质地、果实汁液、单果重、果肉厚度、可溶性固形物含量、果皮厚度、果面茸毛密度、果面茸毛长度、来源地、果肉颜色和果皮颜色等14个性状的关系进行分析.结果表明,枇杷种质果肉硬度与果肉化渣程度、果肉质地、果实汁液、果面茸毛密度、果肉颜色关系较密切,果肉不化渣、果肉质地致密、果肉汁液少、果面茸毛稀疏、果肉黄色和橙黄色和果实成熟期较早的枇杷种质果肉硬度较高.枇杷种质果肉硬度与单果重、果肉厚度、果皮厚度、来源地、可溶性同形物含量、果面茸毛长度、果皮颜色未见明显的内在联系.%In order to investigate the influencing factors on flesh firmness of loquat germplasm resources , the flesh dregs degree, flesh texture, flesh juice, fruit weight, flesh thickness, total soluble solids of juice, peel thickness, density of floss on fruit surface, length of floss on fruit surface, origin region, flesh color, peel color and flesh firmness of loquat germplasm resources in Loquat Resource Nurseries of Fuzhou National Fruit Gene-pool were studied and analyzed.The results indicated that the flesh dregs degree, flesh texture, flesh juice, flesh color and density of floss on fruit surface and fruit maturity stage had great influence on flesh firmness, and the flesh firmness of loquat germplasm resources with dreggy flesh dregs degree, tight flesh texture, few flesh juice, yellow and orange yellow flesh color, sparse density of floss on fruit surface and early fruit maturity stage were relatively higher.The fruit weight, flesh thickness, pericarp thickness, origin region, total soluble solids of juice, length of floss on fruit surface and peel color had no significant internal relations with the flesh firmness.

  1. Classification of innovation germplasm materials of Yunnan Saccharum spontaneum L. blood F1 generation based on degree of identity%基于同一度的云南甘蔗细茎野生种血缘F1代创新种质材料分类

    经艳芬; 周清明; 董立华; 桃联安; 杨李和; 安汝东; 边芯; 朱建荣; 孙有芳


    This research classified the innovation germplasm materials of Saccharum spontaneum L. blood F,, which originated from the semi-humid and semi-dry ecological environment in Yunnan Province, in order to provide scientific basis for iht: targeted use of innovation germplasm materials. [ Method ] For the innovation germplasm materials of 20 Saccharum spontaneum blood F[ generations, the tested material's 9 traits were individually investigated through the comprehensive evaluation method using set pair analysis of degree of identity. [ Result ]The 20 tested materials were classified into 10 types. Type I consisted of 8 germplasm materials with relatively good comprehensive performance, which accounted for 40% of the total number of tested materials; type II contained one germplasm material with extremely strong tillering and ratooning ability and low Brix; type Ⅲ included 2 germplasm materials with large number of millable stalks, extraordinarily high yield, and medium Brix; type Ⅳ included one germplasm material with high yield and Brix; type V included 2 germplasm materials with low tillering ability, low yield, and medium Brix; type VI included one germplasm material with thin stalk, low yield, and medium Brix; type Ⅶ included one germplasm material with extremely fine stalk, low yield, high Brix, no withered heart sprout rate, and possible drought resistance and borer resistance; type Ⅷ included 2 germplasm materials with thick stalk, high yield, and high Brix; type IX included one germplasm materials with thin stalk, high yield, and high Brix; lastly, type X has one germplasm material with thin stalk, low yield, and high Brix. [Conclusion]All germplasm materials show good tillering and ratooning ability and relatively large number of millable stalks. The use of different types of germplasm materials in moderation could possibly breed distinctive innovation parent materials, which could enormously enrich the hereditary basis of sugarcane breeding in China

  2. Selenium accumulation in lettuce germplasm

    Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient for animals and humans. Increasing Se content in food crops offers an effective approach to reduce the widespread selenium deficiency problem in many parts of the world. In this study, we evaluated thirty diverse accessions of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) f...

  3. Metabolic diversity in apple germplasm

    Khan, S.A.; Tikunov, Y.M.; Chibon, P.Y.F.R.P.; Maliepaard, C.A.; Beekwilder, M.J.; Jacobsen, E.; Schouten, H.J.


    We analysed metabolic diversity in apples from wild species, elite material and a F1 population, using liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS). The evaluated elite material appeared to have strongly reduced levels of phenolic compounds, down to 1% of the concentrations in the investigat

  4. Rice Germplasm Resources in China



    China is one of the origin countries in Asia of cultiv ated rice (O. sativaL.), and rice is one of the aged-long food crops in the country. The results of the 14C evaluation on the carbonified rice grains unearthed from Hemudu in Yuyao County and Luojiajiao in Tongxiang County of Zhejiang Province indicated that rice in these area has been planted more than 7,000 yrs and indica (hsien) and japonica (keng) rices coexisted with each other.

  5. 蓖麻种质资源创新及育种方向研究%Germplasm Resource Innovation and Breeding Direction of Castor

    张宝贤; 王光明; 刘红光; 谭德云; 刘婷婷; 孙慧博


    Castor is dicotyledonous annual or perennial herb,which is originally produced in eastern Affica,and successively introduced to Asia,America and Europe.Because of wide adaptability and high survival rate,it is widely grown in various countries,being one of the world's ten most important oil crops.Castor has very wide application range,which is recognized as the most promising plant oil in deep processing instead of oil.It has very high development and utilization value,and has been paid attention by a large number of researches.However,the current international castor seed breach is serious,so the development and utilization of castor industry is restricted.Castro breeding research in China began in early 1950s.Currently,castor breeding technology and variety yield level in China have reached international advanced level.Although great improvement has been made,there still have space in many ways.Based on long-term castor breeding practice,the paper discusses the feasibility and importance of using wild resources,native variety and imported varieties to improve and innovate germplasm resources of castor,and breed disease-resistant inbred lines and hybrids.According to regional characteristics of castor cultivation in China,the main breeding objectives including high yield and high oil,suitable for mechanized cultivation,high resistance and strong stress tolerance are put forward in the paper.%蓖麻为双子叶一年生或多年生草本植物,原产于非洲东部,先后传入亚洲、美洲和欧洲.因其适应性广、存活率高,故广泛存在于各国家,是世界十大重要油料作物之一.蓖麻油应用范围十分广泛,在替代石油的深加工方面是公认的最有前景的植物油,其综合开发利用的经济价值极高,已被众多研究者所瞩目.但是,目前国际上蓖麻籽缺口严重,使得蓖麻产业的开发利用受到较大限制.我国蓖麻育种研究工作始于上世纪50年代初,目前,我国蓖麻育种技术及品

  6. Investigation on the Germplasm Resources of Cannabis sativa L.%火麻仁种质资源调查研究

    王化东; 卫莹芳


    Cannabis saliva L. Is the main original plant of FRUCTUS CANNABIS that has a long cultivation history in China. Although numerous rare varieties have been formed, the planting area of C. Sativa is sharply reduced due to the adjustment of industrial structure in recent years, which results in the great changes of resources distribution. We find, most of the wild resources in the main producing areas have been consumed , only a small part of which are restricted to Sinkiang Province, Yunnan Province and Shandong Province. Currently, Cannabis sativa L. Is cultivated extensively in Anhui, Yunnan, Gansu, Heilongjiang, Inner Mongolia, Guangxi, Shanxi, Sichuan, Henan and other provinces of China, sporadically cultivated in Ningxia, Shaanxi, Hebei, Hubei, Hunan and Shanxi, and seldom cultivated in the east coastal regions. Therefore , it is imperative to establish the germplasm resource library and nursery garden for special purpose in order to realize the protective development and utilization of Cannabis sativa L. Furthermore, seeds of native varieties should be screened based upon the drug properties to ensure the effectiveness and safety of its medicinal material FRUCTUS CANNABIS and to guide its rational use.%大麻是药材火麻仁的主要植物基原,在我国栽培历史悠久,形成了众多珍贵的农家品种.但近年来由于产业结构调整,我国大麻种植面积锐减,资源分布状况发生了巨变,情况不明.笔者通过对全国各主要大麻产区进行资源调查发现,现今野生大麻资源已经很少,仅在新疆、云南和山东还有少量分布;种植规模较大的有安徽、云南、甘肃、黑龙江、内蒙古、广西、山西、四川、河南等省区;宁夏、陕西、河北、湖北、湖南、山东等省区有零星种植;东部沿海地区几乎没有.因此,建立药用火麻仁专用大麻种质资源库和园圃,对其进行保护性开发利用,势在必行.应对各地的大麻地方品种种子的药性

  7. 河北省常栽平菇种质资源评价%Evaluation on Germplasm of Oyster Mushroom Cultivated in Hebei Province

    李慧; 王朝江; 杨红敏; 高春燕


    In order to evaluate the germplasm of oyster mushroom cultivated in Hebei province and find high-quality strains to be used as breeding samples, eighty-three oyster mushroom strains were collected. Antagonistic test of the 83 strains were employed to identify the same strain with different names. Internal Transcribe Spacer ( ITS) of the tested strains were sequenced to identify the molecular species. Mycelial growth rate on two natural substrates and antibacterial action to Trichoderma of the vegetative incompatible strains was determined. The results showed that the 83 tested strains were divided into 31 vegetative com⁃patibility groups including 15 strains of Pleurotus ostreatus,9 strains of P.floridanus,2 strains of P.cornu⁃copiae,one strain of P.pulmonarius and 4 strains of uncertain species. Two strains were screened that were most suitable for growing on cottonseed hull and two strains on cotton stalk. Seven strains were showed ex⁃cellent resistance to Trichoderma.These strains can be used as excellent samples for future breeding study.%为了解河北省栽培平菇种质资源情况,同时发掘优异种质资源,更好的为平菇育种工作提供基础材料,本研究收集了河北省常栽的平菇品种共83株,通过拮抗试验对其“同物异名”菌株进行初步鉴定;基于ITS序列分析进行分类鉴定.并进一步对体细胞营养非亲和菌株的天然基质生长速率、抗霉力等部分生物学特性进行了测定分析.结果表明:河北省平菇栽培品种“同物异名”现象较为严重,经拮抗试验将83个平菇菌株划分为31个不同营养亲和群;经ITS序列比对分析,31个体细胞营养非亲和菌株中包括15株糙皮侧耳( Pleurotus ostreatus)、9株佛州侧耳( P. floridanus)、2株白黄侧耳( P. cornucopiae)、1株肺形侧耳( P. pulmonarius)及4株未界定种;经生物学特性分析筛选出了2株棉籽壳基质生长最适宜菌株和2

  8. Agronomical and molecular characterization of banana germplasm Caracterização agronômica e molecular de germoplasma de bananeira

    Lorenna Alves Mattos


    Full Text Available The objective of the present work was to characterize banana accessions from the Germplasm Bank at Embrapa Mandioca e Fruticultura Tropical (Brazil, using agronomical, physical and physicochemical characteristics of fruit and simple sequence repeats (SSR markers. Twenty-six accessions were analyzed, in which high genetic variability was found, especially for the agronomical characters number of fruit and weight of bunch. Accessions with high contents of carotenoids (diploid 'Jaran', polyphenols (triploid 'Caipira' and tetraploid 'Teparod' and vitamin C (diploid 'Tuugia' and an unknown triploid AAA in the fruit were identified. Thirteen microsatellite primers revealed an average of 7.23 alleles, which showed high variability. A dendrogram was prepared using the Gower algorithm for the distance matrices obtained from the agronomical, physical and physicolchemical analysis of fruit and SSR markers. Adopting the average genetic divergence as the cut-off point, three clusters were found: G1, formed by the diploids 'Jaran', 028003-01 and M-48; G2, by the diploids 'Malbut' and 'Ido 110'; and G3, by 21 tri-and tetraploid accessions, including one diploid, 'Tuugia'. The triploids with the B genome 'Thap Maeo', 'Walha', 'Pacha Nadan' and 'Champa Madras' were grouped in G2. Results from this work can be used for breeding hybrids with good agronomical traits and fruit quality.O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar acessos de bananeira do Banco de Germoplasma da Embrapa Mandioca e Fruticultura Tropical, por meio de características agronômicas, físicas e físico-químicas dos frutos e por marcadores "Simple sequence repeats" (SSR. Foram analisados 26 acessos, nos quais observou-se ampla variabilidade genética, em especial para número de frutos e peso de cacho. Foram identificados acessos com altos teores de carotenoides (diploide 'Jaran', polifenóis (tetraploide 'Teparod' e vitamina C (diploide 'Tuugia' e um triploide AAA desconhecido. Os 13

  9. Variabilidade genética do rendimento intrínseco de grãos em germoplasma de Coffea Genetic variability for bean outturn in Coffea germplasm

    Cristiana de Gaspari-Pezzopane


    Full Text Available O rendimento intrínseco do café, relação percentual entre a massa de dois grãos normais tipo chato e do respectivo fruto que os contém, foi estudado em seis grupos de germoplasma de Coffea, com o objetivo de se conhecer a variabilidade genética para essa característica. Investigou-se o rendimento intrínseco de Coffea arabica em um grupo de cinco cultivares de porte baixo, em outro contendo 22 cultivares e seleções e, ainda, em outro grupo com 79 cultivares, variedades e formas botânicas, mutantes e acessos da Etiópia. Em C. canephora, foram analisados três acessos da variedade kouilou e 10 acessos da variedade robusta. Investigaram-se ainda, outras oito espécies do gênero Coffea. Observou-se considerável variabilidade genética tanto entre representantes de C. arabica quanto de C. canephora, assim como entre as diferentes espécies do gênero Coffea. A amplitude de variação nos valores de rendimento intrínseco referente ao último grupo foi bem maior que a de qualquer outro grupo estudado. A magnitude das variações observadas e as implicações econômicas do rendimento intrínseco indicam que essa característica pode ser utilizada como um critério adicional de seleção no melhoramento de C. arabica e C. canephora.The intrinsic coffee bean outturn, percent weight ratio of two normal flat beans and the respective whole fruit, was studied in six Coffea germplasm groups in order to investigate the genetic variability for this characteristic. It was evaluated in C. arabica a group of five short stature cultivars, another group composed of 22 cultivars and selections yet a third group of 79 items comprising cultivars, botanical varieties and types, mutations and accessions from Ethiopia. In C. canephora it were studied three acessions of var. kouilou and ten of var. robusta. It were investigated also eight other species of the genus Coffea. Considerable genetic variability was detected within C. arabica and C. canephora and

  10. Study on the Germplasm Characteristic of Yunnan Daweishan Mini Chickens%云南屏边大围山微型鸡种质特性研究

    荣华; 李琦华; 贾俊静; 陈晓波; 熊保良; 万全书; 曹振辉; 陈宝定; 文生萍; 张曦; 葛长荣


    试验选用36只零日龄云南屏边大围山微型鸡进行为期14周饲养试验,对相关的种质特性进行了测定.从体形和毛色来看大围山微型鸡具有典型东南亚原鸡的外表特征.14周龄公母鸡体重分别为778.81 g和712.50 g;母鸡的胸宽、胸肌率、脂肪重和脂肪率显著地比公鸡的高(P<0.05),公鸡体尺和屠宰的其它指标均显著地比母鸡高(P<0.05).公母鸡屠宰率平均分别为88.23%及90.23%,全净膛率平均分别为66.16%及59.58%.母鸡有较高的法氏囊、胸腺重量及其指数.大围山微型鸡的生长速度比其它生态类型鸡种较慢,均属于目前所报道的我国地方鸡种中体重较轻的地方鸡种.尽管大围山微型鸡的体重较小,但从屠宰件能指标显示,该鸡具有较高的屠宰率.%Thirty-six Yunnan Pingbian Daweishan mini chickens were used to investigate the growth performance, body size, body composition and germplasm characteristic, and compared with different ecological types of other chickens.The mini chickens possess the feature with the red jungle fowl ( Gllus gallus).The weights of cock and hen were 778.81 g and 712.50 g, respectively, at the age of 14 weeks.The chest width, breast muscle and fat weigh, fat percentage in hens were significantly higher than those in the cocks ( P < 0.05) and converse observations for the other parameters of body size and carcass composition (P <0.05).The dressing percentage was 88.23% and 90.23% , respectively, for cocks and hens while eviscerated weight percentage were 66.16% and 59.58% , respectively, for cocks and hens.The hens had high bursa of fabricius weight and thymic weight.Compared with the Chinese n-ative chickens at the same age, the fowl showed the lowest growth performance, body weight and size.The body length, shank length, shank girth, chest width and depth, thoraco-bone angle and keel length of Daweishan mini chickens were the lowest, compared with the Chinese native chickens

  11. INIBAP 引进香蕉种质资源对枯萎病的抗性评价%Fusarium Wilt Resistance of Banana Germplasm Introduced from INIBAP

    冯慧敏; 张俊; 王志双; 徐小雄; 陈友; 王沛政; 武耀廷


    Banana fusarium wilt has become a devastating disease of bananas. The disease is a soil borne disease, spread fast, particularly difficult to control, which include biological control, drug control, rotation and leaching field. Therefore, the fundamental way to control banana fusarium wilt is genetic improvement, breeding disease resistant varieties. This paper selected 42 copies of banana germplasm resources which introduced from INIBAP (International Network for the Improvement of Bnana and Plantain), using method of root wound infection, treated the banana seedlings with fusarium wilt disease of No.1 and No. 4 physiological races which containing 2 ×106 spores /L respectively, to assessed the resistance to fusarium wilt disease. The results showed that: 7 accessions exhibited highly susceptible to physiological races No.1 of fusarium wilt disease, 13 accessions exhibited susceptible, 22 accessions exhibited intermediate resistance, no highly resistance. On the 0ther hand, 25 accessions exhibited highly susceptible to physiological races No.4 of fusarium wilt disease, 12 accessions exhibited susceptible, 5 accessions exhibited intermediate resistance, no highly resistance. Comprehensive analysis, M11 and M25 exhibited intermediate resistance both on fusarium wilt disease of No. 1 and No. 4 physiological races.%香蕉枯萎病己成为香蕉的毁灭性病害。该病属于土传性病害,扩散蔓延速度快,难于进行生物控制、药物防治及轮作、浸田等常用防治方法的防治。因此,防治香蕉枯萎病的最佳方法是进行香蕉遗传改良,培育抗病品种。选用从 INIBAP[(International Network for the Improvement of Bnana and Plantain,国际香(大)蕉改良网络)]引进的42份香蕉种质资源,采用伤根侵染法,用含2×106个孢子/L的香蕉枯萎病1号和4号小种菌液分别对42份香蕉幼苗进行处理,筛选抗香蕉枯萎病种质。结果表明:在侵染1号小种时,7份材料表现高感,13份感病,22

  12. Karyotype Analysis of Diploid Oat Germplasm Introduced from Canada%加拿大引进的二倍体燕麦种质的核型鉴定

    刘伟; 张宗文; 吴斌


    The chromosome karyotype of three diploid oat species was studied with squash method. The results showed that the karyotype formula of Avena strigosa was 2n = 2x = 14 = 10m +4sm(2SAT) ,with metacentric and submetacentric chromosomes, 1 pair of satellites on the short arm of the 4th chromosome and 68. 17% for the a-symmetry index. While that of Avena hispanica,was 2n =2x = 14 = 10m +4sm(2SAT) ,with metacentric and submetacentric chromosomes, 1 pair of satellites on the short arm of the 7th chromosome and 59. 31% for the asymmetry index. And that of Avena brevis was 2n = 2x = 14 = 6m + 4sm + 4st(2SAT) , with acrocentric, metacentric and submetacentric chromosomes, 1 pair of satellites on the short arm of the 6th chromosome and 63. 91% for the asymmetry index . Although the karyotypes of all three species were 2 A type, there was obvious variation in the morphologies of karyotypes of three species, which comparatively indicated that the karyotype of A. strigosa was more advanced in evolution, followed by A. a brevis and the karyotype of A. hispanica was more original. This study will be a useful reference for the karyotype analysis and evolutionary analysis of oat germplasm resources.%采用常规压片法对砂燕麦、西班牙燕麦和短燕麦3个二倍体燕麦种进行了核型研究.结果表明:砂燕麦染色体核型公式为2n =2x=14=10m +4sm(2SAT),具近中部和中部着丝点染色体,第4对染色体组的短臂上有1对随体,核不对称系数为68.17%;西班牙燕麦染色体核型公式为2n =2x=14=10m+ 4sm(2SAT),具近中部和中部着丝点染色体,第7对染色体短臂上有1对随体,核不对称系数为59.31%;短燕麦染色体核型公式为2n =2x=14 =6m +4sm+ 4st(2SAT),具近端部、近中部和中部着丝点染色体,第6对染色体组的短臂上有1对随体,核不对称系数为63.91%.虽然3个燕麦种的核型均为2A,但它们的染色体形态有明显不同,比较认为砂燕麦相对进化,短燕麦次之,西班

  13. 24份葡萄种质亲缘关系的ISSR分析%Analysis of genetic relationship of 24 Vitis germplasm resources by ISSR markers

    李琳; 魏灵珠; 程建徽; 梅军霞; 吴江


    利用ISSR标记对24份葡萄材料进行了基因组多态性分析,从50条引物中筛选出6条扩增稳定且多态性丰富的引物用于葡萄的ISSR扩增.共扩增出59条条带,其中多态性条带53条,多态性百分率为90%.根据ISSR扩增结果,利用NTSYSpc2.10e软件进行Jaccard相似性系数分析,24份葡萄材料的遗传相似系数为0.42 ~0.88,平均遗传相似系数为0.6495.在遗传相似系数为0.55处,24份葡萄材料明显分为2大类群.第1类包含10个欧美杂种、7个欧亚种、1个华欧杂种,第2类包含3个美洲杂交种、1个河岸葡萄、1个冬葡萄、1个东亚葡萄.由此可见,美洲杂交种与欧美杂种、欧亚种葡萄的亲缘关系较远,欧美杂种与欧亚种葡萄之间亲缘关系较近.此外,引物BC820与引物BC847分别在我国自主选育砧木品种华佳8号与抗砧3号中扩增出一条特异条带,可为利用ISSR标记鉴定葡萄品种或品系提供参考依据.%Twenty-four Vitis germplasm were used as materials for analyzing their genome polymorphism by ISSR markers.Six primers with stable amplification and rich polymorphism selected from 50 primers and used for ISSR amplification.A total of 59 bands were generated,of which 53 bands were polymorphic bands (90.0%).Based on ISSR amplification and analysis by NTSYSpc2.10e software,the genetic similarity coefficient varied from 0.42 to 0.88 with an average of 0.6495.The clustering dendrogram was constructed by UPGMA method.Twenty-four Vitis materials were divided into two major groups at the similarity of 0.55.The first group included 10 cultivars of Euro-American hybrids,7 cultivars of V.vinifera and 1 cultivar of China European hybrid(V.pseudoreticulat × V.vinifera).The second group included 3 culiivars of American hybrids,1 cultivar of Riverside grape,1 cultivar of V.berlandieri grape and 1 cultivar of East Asia grape.The results showed that American hybrids and Euro-American hybrids had a distant relationship

  14. Morphologic characterization of 100 Capsicum accessions from the Germplasm Bank at Nacional University of Colombia Caracterización morfológica de cien introducciones de Capsicum del Banco de Germoplasma de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Palmira

    Vallejo Cabrera Franco Alirio


    Full Text Available

    Morphologic characterization of 100 Capsicum accessions from the Germplasm Bank at Nacional University of Colombia. 100 accessions of 4 species of Capsicum from the germplasm bank at National University of Colombia, Palmira Campus, morphologically were characterized. The accessions were collected in different regions of Colombia such as Andean, Caribbean, Pacific, Amazon, and East Savannas and some ones introduced from other countries of Central and South America through the germplasm bank of USDA. 41 IPGRI´s descriptors were used to characterize the Capsicum accessions; fourteen of them were used to describe the vegetative traits, 10 to describe inflorescence traits, and 17 to describe fruit and seed traits. Frequency analysis for qualitative traits, main component analysis for quantitative traits, and multiple correspondence and discriminate analysis for both trait types were carried out. The morphologic characterization showed variability for all descriptors evaluated, specially fruit and architecture variation explained 60% of total variability found. The grouping, using Dice´s distance as evaluation criterion, permited formation of groups based in size, weight, and color of fruit. However, this criterion did not permit discriminate among species. Narrow genetic distances among species, showed that C. annuum, C frutescens, and C. chinense conform one morphologic group.

    Keywords: Capsicum, genetic germplasm, morphologic variation.

    Para la caracterización morfológica de cien introducciones de Capsicum, recolectadas en Colombia (Zonas Andina, Caribe, Pacífica, Amazónica y Llanos Orientales o introducidas de países centro y suramericanos a través del Banco de Germoplasma de USDA, se utilizaron 41 descriptores propuestos por el IPGRI (14 de caracteres vegetativos, 10 de in

  15. Melon Powdery Mildew Resistant Genes, Pathogen Differentiation Hosts and Breeding Germplasm%甜瓜白粉病的抗病基因、鉴定寄主及种质资源



    This article reviews the research of melon Powdery Mildew resistant genes, pathogen differentiation hosts,germplasm for breeding resistance to Powdery Mildew. The characteristics of 13 melon lines used for PM pathogen differentiation are described.%综合了当前有关甜瓜白粉病抗病基因、病原菌种和生理小种及其载体种质资源的研究成果,同时介绍了抗白粉病种质资源在生理小种鉴定中的应用及13份甜瓜抗病种质的性状特征、特性.

  16. Study Advance of Germplasm Characteristics and Dietary Suitable Nutritional Level in Wujin Pig%乌金猪种质特性及日粮适宜营养水平研究进展

    潘洪彬; 秦贵信; 高士争


    乌金猪是中国优良的地方猪种,具有适应性强,耐粗饲,抗病力强、繁殖性能好,脂肪沉积能力强,肉质细嫩等优点,作者就乌金猪的种质特性和日粮适宜营养水平研究进行综述,并从营养学角度对乌金猪的研究进行了展望.%Wujin pig, as one of Chinese Local breed of swine, has the excellent adaptability of anti-illness, breeding performance, fatty deposition and meat quality of delicate. This article reviews the advances in the research of germplasm characteristics and dietary suitable nutritional level in Wujin pig, and provide study direction for Wujin pig in the research field of animal nutriology.

  17. 部分蔷薇属种质资源的白粉病抗性评价%Assessing the Resistance of Several Rosa Germplasms to Powdery Mildew (Podosphaera pannosa)

    王蕴红; 王金耀; 张启翔; 罗乐; 于超; 潘会堂


    The resistance to the powdery mildew of ten wild Rosa materials and four rose cultivars were assessed. The No. 2 material of Rosa beggeriana, R. oxyacantha, the No. 3 material of R. laxa and ' Kardinal' were high resistance germ-plasms. ' Sun City' , R. iliensis and the No. 1 material of R. beggeriana were high sensitive germplasms. The process of powdery mildew pathogen infection was observed under microscope. The results showed that after inoculation the mycelium and spores of powdery mildew were successfully attached on the leave surface and the mycelium increased with the days after inoculation. The infection procedure completed in 96 h-120 h after inoculation. The development of the powdery mildew on Rosa leaves were described with latent period, disease score and rate of symptom development.%对5种10份新疆野生蔷薇种质资源和4个月季品种进行了白粉病抗性评价,结果发现了弯刺蔷薇2号、尖刺蔷薇、疏花蔷薇3号和‘红衣主教’4个高抗材料,‘太阳城’、伊犁蔷薇和弯刺蔷薇1号3个易感材料,表明野生蔷薇属资源中存在较为优良的抗白粉病种质;显微观察了月季白粉病病原菌侵染叶片的过程,发现白粉病侵染月季的过程经过96 ~ 120 h即可完成,并从白粉病的潜伏时间、病情级别、病级的发展速率3个方面描述了发病过程.

  18. Evaluation of Maize Germplasm for Resistance to Maize Dwarf Mosaic Virus Strain B%玉米矮花叶病毒抗性资源鉴定的研究

    李新海; 韩晓清; 张锦芬; 张世煌


    利用人工接毒方法对70份玉米种质资源进行了两年玉米矮花叶病毒B株系的抗性鉴定.依据病情指数(%)将抗病程度分为高抗、抗、中抗及感病4个等级.试验筛选出高抗自交系4份、高抗单交种3个、抗病毒自交系10份、抗病单交种3个;中抗自交系6份、中抗群体3个.讨论了这些种质资源在我国抗玉米矮花叶病遗传及育种研究上的应用价值.%Seventy maize germplasm inoculated twice by hand rubbing on the leaves with the infectious leaf solution plus 600 mesh of carborundum were evaluated for resistance to maize dwarf mosaic virus strain B in Tangshan Institute of Agricultural Sciences,Hebei province.The rating system was conducted on a scale of 0 to 3 and disease severity index(%) was used to distinguish resistant or susceptible genotypes which represented 0-10% high resistant;10.1%-30% resistant;30.1%-40% moderately resistant and >40% susceptible.The results showed that three domestic and one exotic maize lines and three single crosses were high resistant;seven domestic and six exotic lines,and three hybrids resistant,six lines and three CIMMYT populations moderately resistant and others susceptible.The application of these germplasm in maize breeding program was discussed.

  19. An Entropy-based Evaluation Model for Multiple Objective Decision Making on Adzuki Bean Germplasm%多目标决策在小豆种质资源评价中的应用

    刘振兴; 程须珍; 周桂梅; 侯奎华


    基于熵权的多目标决策分析模型,结合模糊数学和熵的思想,运用多属性决策分析中的双基点法,对小豆种质进行定量评价.经综合评价,8个小豆种质材料从优到劣的顺序为B00766、B01805、B00091、B00651、B01670、B00655、B00388、B00774,避免了由单一性状指标来判断参试材料优劣所造成的偏差,可为育种亲本优选提供理论依据.结果表明,多目标决策评价模型在少量小豆种质资源的评价中运算简便,易于掌握.%In order to evaluate adzuki bean germplasm resources precisely,an entropy-based evaluation model for Multiple Objective Decision Making( MODM ) was tested.Combining misty mathematics and the thought of entropy, the method of double base point in multi-property decision analysis was applied.After comprehensive evaluation,the order of eight adzuki bean entries in the test was decided from the best to the worst as following,B00766, B01805, B00091, B00651, B01670, B00655, B00388 and B00774.The MODM method can avoid the bias caused by single trait decision methods, and provide more reliable decision for parents selection in breeding programs.The MODM was an easy and precise method to handle in the evaluation procedure of adzuki bean germplasm resources based on multiple characteristics.

  20. Research Progress in Caffeine Metabolism and Low Caffeine Content Germplasm Breeding of Tea Plants ( Camellia sinenesis (L.) O.Kuntze)%茶树咖啡碱代谢及低咖啡碱茶树育种研究进展

    吴华玲; 陈栋; 李家贤


    Caffeine is one of the most important secondary metabolic products in tea plants (Camellia sinenesis (L.)0. Kuntze), which makes up 2-5% of the dry weight of fresh tea leaves broadly. Caffeine acts as a stimulant to nerves to get rid of fatigue, and to improve cardiovascular system. But high intake of caffeine can lead to adverse effects on human health. So, it is important to study the molecular mechanism of caffeine metabolism pathway in tea plants and to breed low caffeine content tea germplasm. In this study, the advances of research on tea caffeine were summarized from metabolic pathway and low caffeine content tea germplasm breeding. Finally, the problems and possible directions for these research areas were discussed.%咖啡碱是茶树中最重要的次生代谢产物之一,一般为茶叶干物质重的2%~5%.咖啡碱具有兴奋神经、祛除疲劳及增加心血管系统活动等保健功能,但摄入过高含量咖啡碱也会引起副作用,因此,研究茶树咖啡碱 代谢途径及其分子机理,培育低咖啡碱茶树品种具有非常重要的意义.本文综述了茶树咖啡碱的合成与分解代谢及其关键酶、以及近年来低咖啡碱茶树育种等方面的研究进展,并对这些研究领域目前存在的问题和今后努力的方向进行了讨论和展望.

  1. 西南地区白玉米地方种质资源分布及遗传多样性%Genetic diversity analysis and germplasm resource distribution of white maize landraces in Southwestern China

    吴元奇; 郑灵; 荣廷昭


    Characterization of genetic diversity of maize (Zea mays) germplasm is of great importance in maize breeding.The objectives of this study were to investigate genetic diversity and germplasm resource distribution of white maize landraces in Southwest China with phenotype,SSR data and population structure.These maize germplasms varied significantly in all of the measured morphological traits.Principal components cluster analysis showed the 50 accessions were divided into 7 groups,and most of the landraces were clustered into one group.However,a few varieties could be clustered into another single group.Genetic diversity of 50 white maize landraces was tested using bulk DNA samples and 51 microsatellite (SSR) loci distributed on 10 chromosomes of maize.A total of 515 alleles were detected among the landraces.At each locus,the number of alleles varied from 5 to 19,with an average of 12.Genetic similarity coefficients ranged from 0.574 to 0.840,with an average of 0.684.On the basis of the genetic similarity coefficients,clustering analysis separated the landraces into 8 groups.The landraces collected from the same region were mostly grouped together based the origin data.The population structure indicated that the germplasm resource distribution was related to the geographic information and climatic condition.The results also showed that the genetic resource of those landraces is narrow and single,the genetic diversity is low,and only a few landraces were divided into single groups.So it was important to expand the maize germplasm and the improvement and conservation of maize landrace should bemade.%通过表型性状结合的主成分分析,SSR标记分析和群体结构分析,对50个西南地区白玉米地方品种的种质资源分布及遗传多样性进行了研究.结果表明,白玉米地方品种农艺性状表现出很大差异,主成分聚类将其分为7个类群,大部分品种聚在一个群内,但也有少数品种单独成类;利用筛选出来的51对

  2. 不同种质杜仲叶中多酚和黄酮含量差异性分析%Comparison in Contents of Polyphenol and Flavonoid in Leaves of Eucommia ulmoides Germplasm

    魏艳秀; 刘攀峰; 杜庆鑫; 杜红岩


    [Objective]To compare the content difference of polyphenol and flavonoid in Eucommia ulmoides leav-es,so as to evaluate and utilize E.ulmoides germplasm reasonably.[Method]HPLC and spectrophotometric meth-ods were used to measure the contents of polyphenol,total flavonoid,isoquercitrin and quercetin of 105 E.ulmoides germplasm.[Result]The mean content of quercetin was 0.33 mg·g -1 with the highest variation coefficient of 42.42%,while the mean content of total flavonoid was 15.92 mg·g -1 with the lowest variation coefficient of 19.35%;the mean content of isoquercitrin,total polyphenol was 3.37 mg·g -1 and 42.74 mg·g -1 ,respectively, with the variation coefficient of 34.42% and 23.72%.No significant correlation was found in the contents of these four components between male and female plant leaves.There was highly significant difference in the four compo-nents among different regions (P <0.01).Hebei was the region where the mean contents of isoquercitrin,total fla-vonoid,total polyphenol were the highest contrast with the other regions.The results of correlation analysis showed that there existed significant positive correlation among the isoquercitrin,total flavonoid and total polyphenol whereas no significant correlation between quercetin and total polyphenol.E.ulmoides germplasm resources could be divided into four groups according to the content difference of the four components,in which the contents of flavonoid com-pounds and polyphenol in group Ⅲ including 13 materials were higher than that of the other groups.[Conclusion] The contents of polyphenol and flavonoid in leaves of E.ulmoides were high and abundant diversity and variation were found in different germplasms,which showed great potential for selection and improvement.Thus,it could provide basis materials for breeding Eucommia ulmoides germplasm.%[目的]比较不同种质杜仲叶中多酚及黄酮含量的差异性,合理评价与利用杜仲种质资源。[方法]利用高效液相色谱

  3. 宾川石榴品种资源调查及其果实主要品质的比较分析%Investigation of Punica granatum L. Germplasm Resources in Binchuan and Comparative Analysis of Major Fruit Qualities

    陈黎虹; 袁责华; 李品兰; 王军; 杨黎静; 徐娟萍; 张波; 张庆辉; 杨荣萍


    [Objective] This study aimed to provide a basis for enriching the Punica granatum L. germplasm resources through investigating Punica granatum L. vari- eties in Binchuan. [Method] In this study, biological traits of Punica granatum L. vari- eties in Binchuan (including two local varieties-'Binchuan Red Coat' and 'Binchuan Green Coat', 'Cyan Coat and Soft Seeds' and 'Little Red Coat' introduced from Huili, Sichuan, 'Acid Pomegranate' introduced from Shandong Province and "Ma Pomegranate" from Fengqiu, Henan) were investigated and their major fruit qualities were also analyzed. [Result] "Cyan Coat and Soft Seeds' and "Ma Pomegranate' grew well with good fruit quality, which adapted well to the climate and environment in Binchuan; "Little Red Coat' showed average performance in growth and major fruit qualities with inferior flavour; "Binchuan Red Coat' and 'Binchuan Green Coat' also showed average performance in major fruit qualities and and inferior flavour; 'Acid Pomegranate' grew while was inferior in flavour. [Conclusion] This study pro- vides references for presenting the directions for studies of P. granatum L. germplasm resources and determining the genetic relationship among germplasm resources, as well as breeding, introduction and cultivation of P. granatum L., further providing a variety basis for pomegranate production.%[目的]调查研究宾川石榴品种资源,以期为扩大石榴品种资源奠定基础。[方法]对大理宾川的红皮石榴和绿皮石榴、以及引种的四川会理青皮软籽和小红皮、山东酸石榴、河南封丘麻石榴进行了生物学性状调查和果实主要品质分析。[结果]青皮软籽和麻石榴果树长势和果实主要品质较好,对宾川的气候环境有较强的适应性;而小红皮果树长势一般,果实主要品质一般,风味差;宾川本地红皮和绿皮石榴果树和果实主要品质一般,风味差;酸石榴虽然长势好,但风味差。[结论]该研究结果为

  4. Research progresses, germplasm utilization and breeding innovation of Corylus in China%我国榛属植物种质资源的研究、利用与创新

    马庆华; 王贵禧; 梁维坚; 梁丽松; 赵天田


    The genus Corylus is a member of the Corylaceae family of the order Fagales. There are about 16 species around the world, and among these species, 8 species and 2 subspecies are originated in China. Ping hazelnut (Corylus heterophylla Fisch.) is a specific wild species native to China, distributed in the broad region in northern China. The selected Ping'ou hybrid hazelnuts (C. heterophylla Fisch. X C. avel lana L.) and the introduced European hazelnut (C avellana) are the main cultivars cultivated in China. In this review, we introduce the investigation and the selection of Ping hazelnut, the hybridization and the selection of Ping' ou hybrid hazelnuts, the utilization of the other species native to China and the introduction of the germplasm resources overseas. The research progresses on the germplasm of Corylaceae worldwide are summarized and the gap between domestic and overseas is also discussed. Finally, several personal opinions are proposed on some burning questions, such as the research and production of Ping'ou hybrid hazelnuts, the breeding strategies of the trait improvement for the first generation of Ping 'ou hybrid hazelnuts and utilization of the germplasm resources of Corylaceae. We hope to exchange opinions with experts in this field.%榛子为榛科榛属植物,全世界有16种,我国原产8个种和2个变种;我国现有榛林的95%是野生平榛,选育的平欧杂种榛和引进的欧洲榛是目前主要的栽培种.从平榛资源调查和选优、平欧杂种榛种质创新和品种选育、我国其他榛属资源的利用和国外榛属资源的引种等方面对我国榛子的育种现状进行了介绍;对我国及国外榛属植物种质资源的研究进展进行了总结,对比了我国与世界先进水平的差距;并从现有平欧杂种榛在科研和生产中亟待解决的问题、第1代平欧杂种榛的目标性状改良及今后榛属植物的育种策略等方面,对榛属育种与资源利用提出了一些见

  5. 面粉高白度小麦种质资源筛选及其品质分析%Screening of Wheat Germplasm with High Flour Whiteness and Analysis of Its Quality

    宋华东; 樊庆琦; 刘爱峰; 李玉莲; 隋新霞; 黄承彦; 李根英; 楚秀生


    为了挖掘面粉白度高、品质优的小麦种质,对1 248份小麦种质资源进行了面粉白度测定,并对面粉白度值超过80的小麦种质的籽粒硬度、淀粉RVA糊化特性以及面团揉混特性等有关品质性状进行了分析。筛选出面粉白度值≥80的小麦种质195个,其籽粒硬度指数分布范围为15~77;淀粉RVA糊化特性参数峰值黏度范围为1 030~3 407cP,稀懈值范围为629~1 522cP,回生值范围为5~1 546cP,糊化温度范围为65.3~88.2℃,最终黏度范围为755~3 870cP;面团形成时间范围为1.3~4.2min,衰落角范围为3~35度,沉降值范围为21~58.7mL。研究结果还表明,面粉中类胡萝卜素含量低,则面粉白度就高,仅靠延长面粉储存时间不会大幅度提高面粉白度。筛选出的14个高白度优异小麦种质可用于培育中强筋面粉高白度小麦新品种。%In order to find out wheat germplasm with high flour whiteness and good quality, the flour whiteness of 1248 wheat varieties or lines was investigated, and the grain and flour qualities such as grain hardness index, starch RVA (rapid viscosity analyzer) gelatinization characteristics, and dough mixing property of wheat germplasm with flour whiteness value over 80 were analyzed. One hundred and ninety five wheat varieties or lines with flour whiteness value over 80 were selected, and their grain hardness index ranged in 15-77. Starch RVA gelatinization characteristics such as peak viscosi- ty, breakdown, revive value, gelatinization temperature and final viscosity of those materials were determined and ranged in 1030-3407 cP, 629-1522 cP, 5-1546 cP, 65.3-88.2 ℃, and 755-3 870 cP, respectively. The dough development time, declination angle and sedimentation value of those materials ranges ranged in 1.3-4.2 min, 3-35 degree, and 21-58.7 mL, respectively; The study also showed that the flour whiteness becomes higher when the carotenoid content in wheat flour is less, and the flour

  6. 玉米种质资源对六种重要病虫害的抗性鉴定与评价%Screening and Evaluation of Maize Germplasm for Resistance to Five Diseases and Asian Corn Borer

    段灿星; 朱振东; 武小菲; 杨知还; 王晓鸣


    在2003-2005年间,对604份玉米种质进行了抗弯孢菌叶斑病和玉米螟鉴定,筛选出抗弯孢菌叶斑病的材料93份,抗玉米螟材料22份.2006-2009年间,对836份玉米种质进行了抗大斑病、茎腐病、穗腐病和瘤黑粉病的鉴定与评价,筛选出一批高抗和多抗的资源.在836份资源中,对大斑病1、2和N号3个生理小种具有抗性的材料均为50%左右;抗茎腐病材料为41.3%,高抗和抗性种质分别为264和81份;穗腐病高抗和抗性种质分别为5和171份,占比为21.1%;瘤黑粉病高抗和抗性种质各261和14份,占总鉴定材料的32.9%.上述结果表明抗大斑病、茎腐病和瘤黑粉病的种质资源较为丰富.通过对抗性结果进行对比分析,发现不同生态区玉米种质的抗性强弱以及抗性多样性存在明显差异,黑龙江和内蒙古的种质对病虫害的抗性强弱及多样性程度明显高于四川种质.此外,玉米自交系对病虫害的抗性强弱以及多抗性程度高于农家种.%Among 604maize accessions screened in 2003 -2005,93 were resistant to Curvularia leaf spot and 22 were resistant to Asian corn borer. From 2006 to 2009 ,836 maize accessions were identified and evaluated for resistance to northern corn leaf blight, Pythium stalk rot, Fusarium ear rot and common smut and some of them were highly resistant and multiplely resistant. Approximately 50% of maize accessions with resistance to northern corn leaf blight racel ,2 and N were screened,respectively. 41. 3% of accessions were resistant to Pythium stalk rot,including 264 highly resistant and 81 resistant. 5 and 171 accessions were highly resistant and resistant to Fusarium ear rot,respectively,accounting for 21. 1% of total accessions screened. 32. 9% of accessions with different resistance to common smut was screened,261 highly resistant and 14 resistant lines were discovered. Based on the above data, we thought there were relatively abundant maize germplasm with

  7. Salt Tolerance of Rice Variation Germplasm with Transformed Common Wild Rice (Oryza rufipogon) DNA%导入普通野生稻DNA的水稻变异种质的耐盐性鉴定

    吕学莲; 白海波; 李树华; 蔡正云; 高晓原


    The research aimed to study salt tolerance of rice variation germplasm with transformed common wild rice DNA, and screen out the materials with high salt tolerance, so as to provide germplasm for salt-tolerant rice breeding. Ten rice variation germplasms of 'Ningjing 23' were used to study germination and seedling growth. The results showed that, when treated with 170 mmol/L NaCl, the germination level and germination rate of materials D42, D5-54, D5-27, D-10, D102, DJ18 and D68 were high, and its relative salt harm rate were low. With the solution containing 120 mmol/L NaCl, the salt tolerance of D5-27, DJ18, D5-54 and D-10 were strong, and the ratio of salt treatment and non-salt treatment of ground and underground, fresh and dry weights were high. The increased soluble sugar content of materials D5-27, DJ18, D5-54 and D-10 were higher than its receptor. Materials D42, D5-54, D5-27, D-10, D102, DJ18 and D68 had high salt tolerance in germinating stage, and materials D5-27, DJ18, D5-54 and D-10 had high salt tolerance in seedling stage.%旨在研究导入普通野生稻DNA的水稻后代的耐盐性,从中筛选出耐盐性较强的材料,为水稻耐盐育种提供种质资源.以普通野生稻DNA导入到宁夏栽培水稻‘宁粳23号’中获得的10份变异后代为材料,研究各材料在盐胁迫下的发芽特性和幼苗生长情况.结果表明在170 mmol/L NaCl处理下,材料D42、D5-54、D5-27、D-10、D102、DJ18和D68的发芽势和发芽率均较高,相对盐害率较低,在盐浓度为120 mmol/L时,材料D5-27、DJ18、D5-54和D-10的耐盐性为强,地上和地下鲜、干重的盐处理与非盐处理的比值较高,材料D5-27、DJ18、D5-54和D-10的可溶性糖积累量高于其受体.材料D42、D5-54、D5-27、D-10、D102、DJ18和D68的芽期耐盐性较强,材料D5-27、DJ18、D5-54和D-10属于苗期较耐盐的材料.

  8. Novel Germplasm Creation in B rassica nap us by Crucifero us Interspecific Hybridization%利用十字花科种间杂交创造甘蓝型油菜种质资源的研究

    文雁成; 鲁丽萍; 张书芬; 王建平; 朱家成; 何俊平; 赵磊; 曹金华


    为了拓宽甘蓝型油菜种质资源的遗传基础,以甘蓝型油菜、白菜型油菜和芥菜型油菜为材料研究了十字花科种间杂交的可行性。结果表明,不同物种间油菜杂交结角率和亲和指数存在差异。在芥菜型油菜与甘蓝型油菜、白菜型油菜种间杂交中,芥菜型油菜作母本的杂交结角率(分别为95.0%、92.5%)和亲和指数(分别为6.51、12.40)高于其反交(17.5%、20.0%,0.56、1.12)。在甘蓝型油菜与白菜型油菜的种间杂交中,以甘蓝型油菜为母本的杂交结角率和亲和指数(分别为97.5%和14.66)高于以白菜型油菜作母本(分别为30.0%和2.41)。将芥菜型油菜的琴形叶性状转移到甘蓝型油菜中,发现该性状由1对隐性基因控制。育成了油酸含量高于80%的特高油酸含量新品系和亚麻酸含量低于3%(2.14%)的甘蓝型油菜品系,这些优异脂肪酸种质资源材料均是低芥酸、低硫甙品系,可以直接应用于生产。%In order to broaden the genetic basis of germplasm in Brassica napus ,the feasibility of creating novel germplasm by cruciferous interspecific hybridization was investigated in this article .Results implied that podding ratio and crossing compatibility index differed among different cruciferous species .In both interspecifichybridizationsof BrassicanapusandBrassicajuncea,BrassicarapaandBrassicajuncea,the podding ratios (95.0% and 92.5% ) and crossing compatibility indexes (6.51 and 12.40 ) w ere much higher when Brassica juncea was used as maternal parent than those in reciprocal crosses ,which were 17.5% and 20.0% ,0.56 and 1.12 .In the interspecific hybridization of Brassica napus and Brassica rapa ,the podding ratio(97.5% ) and crossing compatibility index (14.66) when Brassica napus was used as maternal parent were much higher than those of its reciprocal cross ,which were 30.0% and 2.41 , respectively .By interspecific

  9. Rare Germplasm Resources of Biology of Agriculture in Yunnan Province and Its Peripheral Area%云南及周边地区稀有农业生物种质资源

    郑殿升; 高爱农; 李立会; 刘旭


    “云南及周边地区生物资源调查”项目于2006-2011年,对云南省31个县、四川省8个县和西藏自治区2个县的农业生物资源进行了系统调查.系统调查的41个县的地形、地貌十分多样,气候类型很多,有“一山有四季,十里不同天”的说法.加之,这些县份都集居有少数民族,少数民族有各自的传统文化和生活习俗,从而赋予了农业生物资源丰富的民族文化内涵.正因为这里的多样性气候和各异的民族文化,造就了丰富的农业生物资源.通过调查获得了大量基础数据和信息,收集到5300多份农业生物种质资源,其中有一批稀有种质资源,这些稀有种质资源对相应农业生物的起源进化和系统分类研究,以及新品种选育都具有重要利用价值.%From 2006 to 2011 ,the project of "investigation of biological resources in Yunnan province and its peripheral area" has been carried out,which has conducted a systematic survey on agricultural biological resources of 31 counties in Yunnan province,8 counties in Sichuan province,and 2 counties in Tibet autonomous region. The terrains and landforms in the 41 counties investigated are plenty diverse,so does the climate,which is described as a proverb that is ' there are four seasons at the same mountains, and five miles in the different weathers'. In additions , these counties are the concentrative areas inhabited by minority peoples who possess their own traditional culture and life habitudes, which has endued the biological resources of agriculture with abundant connotations of nationality cultures. The different climates and diverse traditional cultures have resulted in abundant biological resources of agriculture. Many of basic data and information, and over 5300 accessions of biological germplasm resources of agriculture have been obtained. Some of them are rare germplasm resources, which has important value in appropriate research on origin, evolution, and

  10. 大麦种质资源苗期根腐病抗性鉴定%Assessment of Root Rot Resistance in a Collection of Barley Germplasm at the Seedling Stage

    吕二锁; 张凤英; 蔺瑞明; 包海柱; 刘志萍


    试验采用孢子悬浮液喷雾接种法,对国内外205份大麦种质资源材料进行实验室苗期根腐病抗性筛选、鉴定。结果表明,有11份材料高抗根腐病,35份材料中抗根腐病,156份材料中感或高感根腐病;以发病严重度为分析变量做品种抗病性聚类分析,取欧式距离为2.14时,品种抗病性可分为两大类,第一类抗病材料(包括高抗与中抗)总共有46份,占供试鉴定材料的22.44%;第二类感病材料(包括中感与高感)总共有156份,占供试鉴定材料的77.09%;获得的抗病材料可作为抗病育种亲本材料,为丰富和拓展我国大麦抗病育种种质资源奠定基础。%This study assessed root rot resistance in a collection of 205 samples of barley germplasm originating domestically and inter-nationally using the method of sprays for inoculating the spore suspension of the pathogen. As a result, 11 and 35 barley samples had high and medium resistance, respectively, to root rot disease, while 156 samples were moderately or highly susceptible to the disease. A clustering analysis was conducted using disease severity as the variable with Euclidean distance of 2. 14, which divided these samples into two groups based on their disease resistance. The first group was considered disease-resistant materials, which comprised 46 sam-ples with medium or high resistance to root rot disease, accounting for 22. 44% of all collected samples. The second group was consid-ered disease-susceptible materials, which consisted of 156 samples with moderate or high susceptibility to the disease, constituting 77. 09% of all samples. The samples resistant to the disease can be used as parental materials for breeding disease-resistant barley varieties. Therefore, the current study laid a foundation for enriching disease-resistant barley germplasm resources in China.

  11. Research and Utilization of Black/Prolate Pear-shaped Cherry Tomato Germplasm Resources%黑色/长梨形樱桃番茄种质的研究利用

    林涛; 李锦泉; 黄青峰; 陈朝文; 林金秀


    以樱桃番茄黑褐色圆形自交系Z1、红黑色长梨形自交系Z2、红色圆形、浅粉红色扁圆形、橙黄色长椭圆形和黄色圆形等自交系为试材,进行不完全双列杂交配制组合。通过对杂交组合后代的农艺性状、品质特性和抗病性等的调查研究,探究黑色樱桃番茄种质品质改良和长梨形果形的利用,为今后特殊果形果色番茄种质的创新利用提供参考。结果表明:樱桃番茄果色黑色性状为隐性性状;亲本为圆形果或扁圆形果×长梨形果、长椭圆形果×长梨形果时,F1果形分别是椭圆形与长指形。%Hybrid combinations of cherry tomato(Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. var.cerasiforme Alef.)were made by round black brown inbred line Z1,prolate pear-shaped reddish black inbred line Z2,the round red,oblate pale pinkish red,oval orange yellow and round yellow inbred lines. These inbred lines were taken as experimental material and formed incomplete diallel cross formulated combinations.Through studying the agronomic characters of F1,the quality characteristics and disease resistance,we explored the quality improvement of black cherry tomato germplasm,and the utilization of prolate pear-shaped fruit,in order to provide references for the innovative usage of special fruit color or shape of tomato germplasm in the future.The results showed that the black color of cherry tomato fruit is recessive trait.Parental relative traits (round fruit or oblate fruit×prolate pear-shaped fruit,long oval fruit×prolate pear-shaped fruit),their F1 fruit shape are elliptic and long finger shape,respectively.

  12. Effects of light quality and germplasm on growth and effective ingredients of Dendrobium officinale germchit%光质与种质对铁皮石斛种苗生长和有效成分的影响

    高亭亭; 斯金平; 朱玉球; 黄华宏


    为了揭示光质与种质对铁皮石斛种苗生长和有效成分的影响,采用8种光质(红光、蓝光、黄光、绿光和3个不同比例的红蓝混光),对3个家系(9×66,17×30,78×68)进行组培试验,测定农艺性状及叶绿素、总生物碱、多糖的含量.结果表明,光质和种质对铁皮石斛种苗和有效成分均有极显著的影响,红光有利于种苗根系与苗高生长,蓝光有利于种苗增粗与生物碱积累,红蓝混光有利于叶绿素与多糖含量增加.研究结果为铁皮石斛种苗优质、低碳、高效生产提供了基础,并为优质药材生产给出了有益的提示.%Effects of light quality and germplasm on the growth and effective ingredients of Dendrobium officinale germchit were studied. Under 8 light qualities (red, blue, yellow, green and three different red blue mix light) , test-tube plantlets of different families (9×66,17×30,78×68) were used in the experiment to measure economical character and determine the content of chlorophyll, polysaccharides and total alkaloids. The results showed that light quality, germplasm and their interaction had a significant effect on the growth of D. officinale germchit. The maximal root length and height of seedling were obtained under red light, under blue light, the stem diameter was thickest and the content of total alkaloids were highest, the content of chlorophyll and polysaccharides of test-tube plantlets under red blue mix light were higher than that of other treatments. This work has laid a foundation for the high quality, low carbon and efficient production of D. officinale, and gives useful tips on production of high quality ingredients.

  13. Application of Clustering-based Decision Tree in the Screening of Maize Germplasm%基于聚类的决策树在玉米种质筛选中的应用



    [Purpose] This paper aims to construct an improved fuzzy decision tree which is based on clustering, and researches into ils application in the screening of maize germplasm. [Method] A new decision tree algorithm based upon clustering is adopted in this paper, which is improved against the defect that traditional decision tree algorithm fails to handle samples of no classes. Meanwhile, the improved algorithm is also applied to the screening of maize varieties. Through the indices as leaf area, plant height, dry weight, potassium (K) utilization and others, maize seeds with strong tolerance of hypokalemic are filtered out. F Result ] The algorithm in the screening of maize germplasm has great applicability and good performance. [ Conclusion ] In the future more efforts should be made to compare improved the performance of fuzzy decision tree based upon clustering with the performance of traditional fuzzy one, and it should be applied into more realistic problems.%[目的]建立一种改进的基于聚类的模糊决策树,并研究其在玉米种质筛选中的应用.[方法]采用一种新型的基于聚类的决策树算法,该算法针对传统的决策树算法不能处理无类别样本的这一不足,进行了改进.同时,将改进算法应用在玉米品种的筛选问题中,通过对叶面积、株高、干重、钾利用率等指标的衡量,筛选出耐低钾性较强的玉米种子.[结果]该算法在玉米种质的筛选上,适用性强且性能较优.[结论]在今后工作中还需进一步验证比较改进的基于聚类的模糊决策树与传统的模糊聚类决策树的性能,并将其应用在更多的实际问题中.

  14. SCAR Marker Resistance-related to Cucumber Alternaria Leaf Spot and Resistance Identification of Cucumber Germplasm%与黄瓜抗黑斑病基因连锁的SCAR标记及抗病资源筛选

    王惠哲; 李淑菊; 杨瑞环; 管炜; 邓强; 曹明明


    In order to establish molecular marker-assisted selection system of cucumber alternaria leaf spot with F1,F2and BC1population between a susceptible parent(L 63) and a resistant parent(L 9),a co-dominant AFLP marker was successfully converted into a simple, applied and co-dominant SCAR marker. Special marker SCEM 126/122 were designed according to the sequence information of AFLP( E-CC/M-CAT) fragments. The marker was closely linked to the cucumber alternaria leaf spot resistance-related gene, and the genetic distance between the marker and the gene was 4. 4 cM. The marker could be useful in marker-assisted selection in cucumber breeding. The acquired SCAR marker had many advantages including fast,accurate,low cost,free from an environmental in-fluence et. 64 resistant germplasm were abtained from total 290. Application of the acquired marker will inhance cu-cumber alternaria leaf spot disease resistant germplasm evaluation.%为建立黄瓜抗黑斑病分子标记辅助育种体系,以黄瓜感黑斑病母本L 63和抗黑斑病父本L 9及其F1、F2分离群体为试材,将与黑斑病抗性相关基因连锁的一个共显性AFLP标记E-CC/M-CAT进行了测序,根据序列特点设计了特异的SCAR引物SCEM126/122,成功地转换成了简单实用的共显性SCAR标记,经验证该标记与黄瓜抗黑斑病相关基因连锁遗传距离为4.4 cM,可以作为黄瓜抗黑斑病辅助选择的标记。且该标记具有迅速、简便、成本低、不受环境条件限制的优点,扩增条带清晰,无杂带和拖尾现象,适合用于大量样本分析。利用引物SCEM126/122对290份材料进行抗病性检测,结果表明有64份抗病材料,为进行抗黑斑病黄瓜新品种的选育奠定了基础。

  15. 内蒙古扎兰屯地区西伯利亚杏种质资源的数量分类%Quantitative classiifcation of germplasm resources of Armeniaca sibirica at Zhalantun region of Inner Mongolia

    尹健; 董胜君; 吴智; 刘明国; 吴月亮; 于庆福; 仲维平


    In order to provide a scientific basis for germplasm bank building and fine variety breeding of Armeniaca sibirica at Zhalantun region of Inner Mongolia, germplasm resources status of A. sibirica was comprehensive investigated and analyzed in this region, by using principal component analysis and Q type cluster analysis. The results showed that, through principal component analysis of the 38 indicators of quantitative and qualitative traits of A. sibirica, 11 principal components were extracted whose cumulative contribution rate was 77.30%. Based on the scores of the principal components, the 86 sample trees were divided into 9 groups through Q type cluster analysis. Based on the cluster features, the 9 groups were small fruit and plump nutlet group, later flower group, big fruit and oblate nutlet group, multiplicate flower group, big leaf group, small leaf and small fruit group, oblate fruit and oblate nutlet group, long leaf and long fruit group, and broad flat fruit group. Each group represented some salient or comprehensive features of A. sibirica.%为给内蒙古扎兰屯地区的西伯利亚杏种质资源库构建和优良品种选育等工作提供科学依据,全面调查了该地区西伯利亚杏种质资源状况,采用主成分分析和Q型聚类分析的方法对其种质资源进行了数量分类。对西伯利亚杏数量性状和质量性状方面的38个指标进行主成分分析,共提取了累计贡献率达到77.30%的11个主成分,并利用主成分得分值对86株样木进行Q型聚类分析,将其划分为9类群。根据其聚类特征可将这9大类概括为:小果圆鼓核类、晚花类、大果扁圆核类、重瓣类、大叶类、小叶小果类、扁圆果扁圆核类、长叶长果类、扁宽果类,每一类群代表了西伯利亚杏的某些突出特征或综合特征。

  16. Diversidade genética entre acessos de cacau de fazendas e de banco de germoplasma na Bahia Genetic diversity among farm and germplasm bank accessions of cacao in Bahia, Brazil

    Jeiza Botelho Leal


    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a diversidade genética de acessos de cacau, selecionados previamente como produtivos e resistentes à vassoura-de-bruxa na Bahia, e estudar suas inter-relações com genótipos no banco de germoplasma. Amostras de DNA de folhas dos 120 acessos, coletados em 17 fazendas de sete municípios do Sul da Bahia, foram amplificadas pela técnica de RAPD ("random amplified polymorphic DNA". Os coeficientes de dissimilaridade genética, calculados pelo método de Jaccard a partir das bandas RAPD, permitiram evidenciar, pela análise de agrupamento, que a maioria das seleções das fazendas (89,2% agrupou-se com acessos do banco de germoplasma considerados representativos da diversidade de cacau (híbridos, trinitários, Scavinas, amazônicos e cacau-comum. As demais seleções distribuíram-se em outros sete grupos distintos. Há elevada diversidade genética entre as seleções das fazendas, e algumas delas devem ter-se originado de genitores não incluídos nesta análise. Esses materiais apresentam potencial para seleção de clones com maior diversidade para novos cruzamentos ou uso pelos agricultores.The objective of this work was to assess genetic diversity of farm cacao accessions, previously selected as productive and resistant to witch broom in Bahia, Brazil, and to study their interrelationship with reference genotypes on germplasm bank. DNA samples from 120 cacao accessions, collected on 17 farms in seven counties in Southern Bahia, were amplified by RAPD technique (random amplified polymorphic DNA. The coefficients of genetic dissimilarity, calculated from the RAPD bands by Jaccard method, allowed to show by cluster analysis that most farm selections (89.2% grouped with accessions from germplasm bank considered representatives of the cacao genetic diversity (hybrids, Trinitarian, Scavina, Amazon and common cacao. The other selections were distributed in seven distinct groups. There is high genetic

  17. 钼蓝比色法测定不同种质何首乌磷脂的含量%Determination of phospholipid in different germplasm ofPolygonum multiflorum by molybdenum blue colorimetry

    胡秀月; 吴庆华; 黄保成; 闫志刚; 唐小平; 董青松


    Objective: To provide the basis for variety breeding and the quality control of Polygonum multiflorum. Method: Molybdenum blue colorimetry was used in this experiment. Result: The phospholipid in 37 different germplasms of Polygonum multiflorum were determinated and analized, the results showed that they were significantly different. Conclusion: The method of the determination of phospholipid in Polygonum multiflorum that explored in the experiment was simple and sensitive.%目的:探索何首乌的品种选育和质量控制的方法。方法:用钼蓝比色法测定不同种质何首乌的磷脂含量并对结果进行分析。结果:测定的37份不同种质何首乌其磷脂含量差异显著。结论:可利用钼蓝比色法对何首乌的磷脂进行含量测定。

  18. Qualities of Arabica Coffee from Different Germplasm Resources in Pu'er City%普洱市不同品种的小粒种咖啡品质评价研究

    李学俊; 黎丹妮


    The research based on the confounded cultivated varieties that resulted from the cultivators less know about coffee breed and introduced a fine variety blindly. It's designed by random blocks, which are general Coffea arabica cultivated in Pu'er, reasearched their commodity, coffee cupping etc. The research result showed that on green coffee commodity and coffee cupping, the different germplasm resources of Arabica coffee are significantly different. Catimor series varieties are similar in coffee cupping.%针对当前咖啡种植者对咖啡品种的商品性及杯品质量认识不足、盲目引种而造成的生产中咖啡品种混乱,咖啡豆质量下降等问题,对普洱普遍种植的小粒种咖啡品种咖啡豆的商品性及杯品质量进行研究。研究表明:不同小粒种咖啡品种生咖啡的商品性及杯品质量存在较大的差异性; Catimor系列品种之间杯品质量差异不大。

  19. 生姜种质遗传多样性和亲缘关系的SRAP分析%Genetic Diversity and Phylogenetic Relationship of Ginger Germplasm Resources Revealed by SRAPs

    李秀; 徐坤; 巩彪


    [Objective]Ginger is vegetatively asexual crop that owns lots of local varieties, and its biological characteristics have been verified in many aspects caused by climate change, natural and artificial selection for thousands of years. This study was conducted to make a scientific classification of ginger germplasm, provide evidence for germplasm collection, protection and innovation of ginger by investigating the genetic diversity and relationship.[Method]Good genomic DNA was extracted from young leaves of 51 ginger accessions from different areas of the world following the CTAB method, and then were amplified by sequence-related amplified polymorphism molecular markers to analyze genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationship. Separation of the amplified fragments was performed on 6% denaturing polyacrylamide gels, The gels were stained with AgNO 3 for visualizing the SRAP fragments, and then“0, 1”matrix was obtained according to the electrophoresis results. The number of polymorphic loci, percentage of polymorphic loci, effective number of alleles, Nei’s genetic similarity coefficient, genetic distance and the indexes of Nei’s genetic diversity and Shannon information were estimated by POPGENE version1.32. The cluster analysis of 51 ginger accessions based on unweighted pair-group method and 7 ginger populations based on Nei’s genetic distance were performed on NTSYS version2.10e to classify the ginger germplasm. Meanwhile, the origin and transmission of ginger were discussed in accordance with genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationship of ginger germplasm in different ecotopes and in light of the relevant characteristics of origin center and historical records.[Result]Among the 305 bands detected by 15 selective primer pairs, 188 (61.68%) were polymorphic. On average, each primer combination amplified 20.33 loci and 12.53 polymorphic loci. This showed that genetic variation of ginger is extensive. The average indexes of Nei’s genetic diversity

  20. Comparison on Quality Compositions of Broken Black Tea between Elite Germplasm in Yunnan and Kenyan Cultivar 6/8%云南优质红碎茶资源与肯尼亚品种6/8的品质成分比较研究

    李晓霞; 杨盛美; 宋维希; 马玲; 刘本英; 汪云刚; 唐一春


    In order to promote the screen of quality broken black tea variety and the improvement of general quality of broken black tea in Yunnan, and to strengthen the international market competitiveness of it, the chemical compositions, the quality and the thealfavins content of broken black tea were analyzed and compared between 20 samples of elite germplasm in Yunnan and Kenyan cultivar 6/8. The results showed that in the samples of elite germplasm in Yunnan, the contents of tea polyphenols, caffeine, amino acid, water extracts, and ratio of tea polyphenols to amino acid were 26.00%~36.23%, 3.70%~5.75%, 1.71%~4.18%, 41.73%~49.24%, and 6.22~21.19, respectively. t-test results indicated that there were not signiifcant differences in biochemical components between 20 samples of elite germplasm in Yunnan and Kenyan cultivar 6/8, the sensory score of seven samples of elite germplasm in Yunnan exceeded that of Kenyan cultivar 6/8, the thealfavin content of nine samples of elite germplasm in Yunnan exceeded that of Kenyan cultivar 6/8. Therefore, Yunnan large-leaf tea germplasm resources have material basis for processing quality broken black tea.%为了加速优质红碎茶品种的选育,促进云南红碎茶总体品质的提升及增强国际市场竞争力,对20份云南优质红碎茶资源与肯尼亚品种6/8的化学成分、红碎茶品质、茶黄素含量进行了分析比较。结果表明,云南优质红碎茶资源的茶多酚含量为26.00%~36.23%,咖啡碱含量为3.70%~5.75%,氨基酸含量为1.71%~4.18%,水浸出物含量为41.73%~49.24%,酚氨比为6.22~21.19,测验表明,云南优质红碎茶资源与肯尼亚品种6/8的生化成分没有显著性差异,红碎茶感官审评得分超过肯尼亚品种6/8的有7份,茶黄素含量超过肯尼亚品种6/8的有9份,云南大叶茶资源具备加工优质红碎茶的物质基础。

  1. Micropropagation, seed propagation and germplasm bank of Mandevilla velutina (Mart. Woodson Micropropagação, propagação por sementes e banco de germoplasma de Mandevilla velutina (Mart. Woodson

    Ronaldo Biondo


    Full Text Available Mandevilla velutina (Mart. Woodson (Apocynaceae is a medicinal plant species with antivenom properties, native from Brazilian Savanna regions (Cerrado, which due to overexploitation and habitat deforestation is in danger of extinction. As an initiative for conserving this endangered but economically important plant species, a micropropagation protocol was developed and genotypes were stored in the Germplasm Bank "Cerrado In vitro". For the in vitro propagation of M. velutina, nodal segments were inoculated on Murashige and Skoog (MS medium supplemented with different concentrations of BA, Zeatin, 2ip, DTT and TDZ. Best multiplication ratio was achieved when to the medium 0.44 µM BA, ranging 1: 6.7, were added. Plantlets cultured on MS/2 medium supplemented with 26.85 µM NAA rooted successfully (50.5%. Although rooted and un-rooted plantlets acclimatized to soil conditions, great losses were observed within un-rooted plantlets, while the rooted presented 100 % survival. It was possible to maintain 43% of the M. velutina germplasm under healthy conditions for six months, with no subcultures, using the MS medium supplemented with 2% sucrose, 13.8 mM spermidine, 2% sorbitol and 2% dextrose.Mandevilla velutina (Mart. Woodson (Apocynaceae é uma planta medicinal de espécie nativa de regiões do Cerrado brasileiro com propriedades anti-ofídicas. Devido a alta exploração e devastação deste bioma, M. velutina está em perigo de extinção. Como uma iniciativa para a conservação desta espécie ameaçada e economicamente importante, um protocolo de micropropagação foi desenvolvido e genótipos foram colocados no Banco de Germoplasma "Cerrado In vitro". Para a propagação in vitro de M. velutina, segmentos nodais foram inoculados no meio Murashige and Skoog (MS suplementado com diferentes concentrações de BA, zeatina, 2ip, DTT e TDZ. A melhor resposta de multiplicação foi obtida em meio suplementado com 0.44 µM BA na razão 1: 6.7. Pl

  2. The Research Progress on Beet Mosaic and Resistance of Germplasm in Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.)%甜菜花叶病及种质资源抗性的研究进展

    丁广洲; 陈丽; 陈连江; 赵春雷; 王希; 张玉霜; 刘娜; 贾海伦; 郭莹莹


    甜菜花叶病是甜菜生产的世界性病害,可经多种蚜虫非持久性传播.花叶病毒侵染甜菜,嫩叶常出现脉间褪绿的明脉现象,发生皱缩;功能叶片会出现明暗相间的绿色斑驳,进而产生花叶,严重的发生坏死,给甜菜生产造成巨大损失.本研究归纳了BtMV病原及种质资源抗性的研究概况,分析了BtMV病原生物学特性、病原基因组及编码蛋白结构功能,病原介体及病毒复制模式,以及BtMV侵染甜菜植株及叶片的结构与微观变化.总结了当前用于甜菜花叶病的检测方法和甜菜种质资源的花叶病抗性与抗病反应的研究进展.提出了当前甜菜抗花叶病需要深入开展的研究论题,并对甜菜抗花叶病分子机理和基因工程育种进行了展望.为该病的深入性研究,特别是基因工程育种提供参考.%Beet mosaic is an aphid transmitted viral disease of sugar beet found worldwide, transmitted by many species of aphids in the non-persistent manner. Infected beets are sometimes stunted, young leaves often show vein-clearing; older leaves show a pronounced light and dark green mottle, and are often puckered. The author concluded the situation of pathogen of Beet Mosaic Virus (BtMV) and germplasm resistance research, analyzed biological characteristics, genome and encoding protein structure function of BtMV pathogen, and studied the pathogen mediator and the virus replication mode; and also studied the structure and microscopic changes of BtMV inflected plants and leaves of sugar beet; summarized the detection methods for beet mosaic and the research progress of beet mosaic germplasm resistance and resistance reflection. The author put forwards the thesis of further research on beet mosaic resistance, and made prospects on molecular mechanics of beet mosaic resistance and genetic engineering breeding. It could be helpful for the disease resistance investigation in agricultural production and shed some light for genetic

  3. Preliminary Study on the Genetic Diversity of Germplasm for Cyclocarya paliurus Revealed by SRAP Markers%青钱柳种质资源多样性SRAP初步分析

    周一旸; 洑香香; 尚旭岚; 杨万霞; 方升佐


    In order to assess the genetic diversity of germplasm for Cyclocarya paliurus by molecular markers,DNA extraction method and key parameters of SRAP reaction system were optimized; polymorphic primers were screened with the optimal system, and preliminary analysis of genetic diversity of 9 provenances by using a pair of primers was operated in this paper. The results showed that a SRAP reaction system for Cyclocarya paliurus was established through optimal design. 13 pairs ofpolymorphic primers were screened from 110 pairs of SRAP markers and 21 bands were amplified using primer pair Me7+Em2 with the polymorphic rate of 100% . Moreover, genetic diversity analysis showed that the mean Ne value of 9 provenances was 1.342 9: the mean Ⅰ value, the mean H value and provenance Gst was 0.368 7, 0.226 7 and 0.198 3, respectively. The UPGMA clustering analysis displayed that 9 provenances could be divided into 3 groups at the genetic distance of 0.100, which indicated a higher correlation between the genetic distance and geographic distribution among provenances. The results of this reseach showed that germplasm of Cyclocarya paliurus we collected had widely genetic diversity, and would provide a better basis of exploitation.%为了利用分子标记方法评价青钱柳种质资源的遗传多样性,本文对青钱柳DNA的提取、SRAP扩增体系重要参数进行了优化,运用优化体系筛选多态性引物,并用1对引物对青钱柳9个种源进行了遗传多样性初步分析.研究结果建立了适于青钱柳SRAP的扩增体系;从110对SRAP引物中筛选出了13对多态性引物,运用1对引物组合Me7+Em2扩增获得21个多态性位点,多态率达100%.遗传多样性分析表明有效等位基因数(Ne)为1.342 9,平均Shannon's信息指数(I)为0.368 7,Nei's基因多样性指数(H)为0.226 7,种源的遗传分化指数Gst为0.198 3;聚类分析结果表明9个种源在遗传距离0.100处聚为3类,聚类结果和地理距离之间呈现较高

  4. 浙江红山茶野生种质资源现状及保护对策%Status and conservation strategies for germplasm resources of wild Camellia chekiangoleosa

    谢云; 李纪元; 潘文英; 王业中; 李朝栋


    为了查明浙江红山荼Camellia chekiangoleosa野生种质资源的地理分布、生态环境、濒危状况和威胁因素等现状,通过实地调查以及走访专家、技术人员和老农,结合查阅文献和标本,初步掌握了浙江红山茶野生种质资源现状.野生浙江红山茶集中分布在武夷山系和怀玉山系,水平分布于25°50′~31°00′N,113°52′~121°02′E,垂直分布介于海拔360~1 600m.浙江红山荼资源处于衰老和退化状态,受到人为干扰较为严重.因山体开发和用于薪材而被砍和被烧,因园林用途而被挖以及断枝采果等因素,已致使浙江红山荼野生资源接近濒危,其分布范围和资源总量逐年锐减,必须采取原地保存、迁地保护、制定保护和奖罚政策以及加强专题研究等策略对浙江红山荼野生种质资源进行保护.%To find the geographical distribution, growing environment, endangered species status, and threatening factors of wild Camellia chekiangoleosa, and to determine the extent of its germplasm resource; experts, technicians, and farmers were visited; literature and herbariums were consulted; and fields were surveyed, the community structure was investigated and statistical analysis was conducted. Results showed that wild C. chekiangoleosa was concentrated in the Wuyi and Huaiyu Mountains from 25°50'-31°00' N and 113°52'-121° 02' E with its vertical distribution between 360-1 600 m above sea level. The resources are aging and degraded, and more serious by human interference. Wild resources were close to endangered because they were cut, burned, and dug for mountain development, firewood, and landscape utility, thereby rapidly decreasing the distribution area and number of trees. Thus, conservation strategies: such as conservation in original sites or off-site, formulating protection and punishment policies, and monographic studies, should be undertaken to protect the germplasm resources of wild C. chekiangoleosa

  5. 4个杂交种质白胡椒精油化学成分的研究%Essential Oil Composition of Four Hybrid Germplasms of White Pepper(Piper nigrum L.)

    刘红; 魏来; 郝朝运; 尹桂豪; 邬华松; 谭乐和; 谷风林; 初众; 宗迎; 朱红英


    In order to study the essential oil composition of hybrid No.2, No.6, No.7 and No.8 of white pepper, the essential oil composition of four hybrid germplasms of white pepper (Piper nigrum L.) were analysis by GC-MS method. The results showed that different hybrid germplasms had great influence on the constituents and their contents of the white pepper essential oil. The main constituents of four kinds of white pepper essential oil were 3-carene, limonene, caryophyllene, α-caryophyllene, β-pinene, β-myrcene, δ-elemene and α-pinene. (+)-cyclosativene, calarene and β-terpinene were detected only in white pepper essential oil of hybrid No.8; α-terpinene, β-thujene and α-selinene were detected only in white pepper essential oil of hybrid No.2, 6 and 7. The conclusion was that the white pepper essential oil of hybrid No.2, No.6, No.7 and No.8 had great influence on the constituents and their contents.%  为了研究‘班×印2号’、‘班×印6号’、‘班×印7号’、‘班×印8号’4个不同杂交种质白胡椒精油的化学成分。以‘印尼大叶种’和‘班尼约尔1号’为杂交亲本的4个杂交种质:‘班×印2号’、‘班×印6号’、‘班×印7号’、‘班×印8号’为原料,通过GC-MS对这4个杂交种质白胡椒精油的化学成分进行分析。结果表明:(1)胡椒品种不同对胡椒精油化学成分的种类与含量都有显著影响。(2)3-蒈烯、柠檬烯、石竹烯、α-石竹烯、β-蒎烯、β-月桂烯、δ-榄香烯和α-蒎烯8种烯类物质是这4个杂交种质白胡椒精油中含量较多的化学成分。其中,‘班×印8号’杂交种质白胡椒精油中3种特有成分是(+)-环苜蓿烯、白菖油烯和β-萜品烯;‘班×印2号’杂交种质白胡椒精油、‘班×印6号’杂交种质白胡椒精油与‘班×印7号’杂交种质白胡椒精油中单独共有的3种成分是α-萜品烯、β-侧柏烯和α-蛇床烯。不同杂交种质白胡椒

  6. Investigation on the litchi germplasm resources in the lower reach of Minjiang river of China%岷江下游四川地区荔枝资源调查

    刘忠; 廖明安; 任雅君; 夏永秀; 梁梓; 黄娇


    Litchi(Litchi chinensis Sonn.) germplasm resources of the Minjiang valley in China were investigated from 2006 to 2010.The results demonstrated that ancient litchi trees were distributed along the Minjiang river and its tributaries like Qingyijiang and Dadu river from latitude 29°05' N to 29°48' N and the elevation from 340 m to 600 m above the sea level.The ages of the all ancient litchi trees are over 100 years.According to the shapes of the exocarp,the germplasms can be identified as 6 types including the protruding and hard protuberances,the hairlike protuberances and the smooth protuberances.The average fruit mass of different types is from 9.2 g to 25.5g,The range of edible ratio is 44.3% to 72.5%.The mature time is from late June to middle July.The fruit shapes are of the round,the heart and the ellipse and so on.The color of the fruit includes red,green,pink-red and other complex colors.These ancient litchi trees with some diversity are important resources both in biology and culture.%通过对岷江下游四川成都、乐山、眉山、宜宾等地区荔枝古树的调查,结果表明,荔枝古树主要沿岷江及其支流青衣江、大渡河的河谷分布,从北纬29°05'到北纬29°48',从海拔340 m至600 m均有栽植。现存数量658株,荔枝古树为高大乔木,树龄在100 a以上。果实成熟期6月下旬到7月中旬。果实形状有圆形、心形、椭圆形等。果皮颜色有红色、粉红色和红黄、红绿等复合色。按照果实表皮特点分为6个类型包括龟裂片隆起型、龟裂片突起尖锐型和龟裂片平坦型等3个大类。荔枝古树不同类型间平均单果质量最小为9.2 g,最大为25.5 g,可食率最低44.3%,最高72.5%。这些荔枝古树具有一定的多样性。岷江下游的荔枝古树不仅是重要的生物资源,同时也是重要的文化资源,加强保护具有重要意义。

  7. Detection and Analysis of Wide Compatibility Gene S5n in M ini-core Germplasms of Wild Rice%普通野生稻(O.rufipogon)微核心种质中广亲和基因S5n的检测与分析

    姚国新; 但志武; 鲁旭东; 黄文超


    The mini-core collection germplasms of wild rice contain abundant excellent gene re-sources ,and are the important material for the improvement and basic research of rice .Using functional marker of S5n for identifying wide compatibility gene (WCG) ,107 mini-core collection germplasms of wild rice were screened .The result showed that there were three germplasms hold-ing S5n gene ,all of which came from Hainan province .This indicated that S5n maybe emerged from Hainan province .The wild rice with S5n would be helpful for creating the indica-japonica breeding material .%普通野生稻微核心种质中蕴含丰富的优异基因资源,是用于水稻品种改良和基础研究的重要材料。为了筛选携带广亲和基因 S5 n的普通野生稻种质,利用前人开发的鉴定水稻 S5 n 基因的InDel分子标记,对107份野生稻微核心种质进行了PCR扩增和读带分析。结果筛选出3份携带S5 n广亲和基因的野生稻种质,均来自海南省,该基因可能在海南完成演化。野生稻广亲和材料有助于籼粳交育种材料的创制。

  8. 甜瓜种质鉴定的高效引物(引物组合)适用性分析%Suitability Analysis on Highly Active Primers ( Primer Combinations) of Germplasm Identification in Cucumis melo L.

    王掌军; 王建设; 刘生祥; 蒋全熊; 张晓岗; 马宏玮


    以30份甜瓜种质资源为材料,采用RAPD(random amplified polymorphic DNA)、DAMD(directed amplification of minisatellite-region DNA)和SRAP(sequence-related amplified polymorphism)3 种分子标记构建各自的DNA指纹图谱.针对图谱上扩增的条带分子量大小和分布,用统计软件逐一聚类,根据不同引物(引物组合)所得聚类图鉴别的品种数目,筛选出高分辨率的4个RAPD引物、3个DAMD引物和6个SRAP引物组合.同时,利用高效引物(引物组合)评价了甜瓜遗传多样性,将30份甜瓜分为薄皮和厚皮两类,厚皮甜瓜包括网纹和无网纹两种类型.%The study constructed each DNA fingerprint map by RAPD, DAMD and SRAP molecular markers in 30 melon germplasms. Statistical software was used to cluster one by one in collection with the dimension and distribution of the molecular weight in the map amplified. Based on the cultivar numbers identified by the clustering map from different primers (primer combinations) , four RAPD primers, three DAMD primers and six SRAP primer combinations with highly distinguished rate were screened. At the same time,the genetic diversity of melons were evaluated by these high active primers (primer combinations) ,30 melons were divided to two kinds, ie,C. melo sp. cono-mom and C. melo sp. melo, C. melo sp. melo included C. melo cantalupo and C. melo reticulatus.

  9. 抗丝黑穗病玉米种质资源的SSR标记遗传多样性分析%Genetic Diversity Analysis of Maize Germplasm Resources against Sporosporium Reilianum with SSR Markers

    王艳梅; 田歌; 王陆军; 王燕; 李欣; 赵明


    采用SSR标记方法研究了40份对丝黑穗病有不同抗性玉米自交系的遗传多样性.选用57对SSR扩增稳定的引物,将自交系划分为唐四平头,旅大红骨,Lancaster,Reid,PA,PB这6个类群,结果与系谱来源一致性很高.其中,33个抗病或中抗材料分布于6个类群中,根据杂种优势利用原理,均可用于改良类群内的感病自交系和选育抗病自交系.尤其是旅大红骨群、Lancaster群和PB群中抗病自交系较多,可以构建抗病种质群体.%Simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers were adopted in heterotic parts of 40 maize inbred lines of different resistance to head smut. By 57 SSR primers giving stable amplified profiles, 40 inbred lines are classified into 6 clusters, which are completely consistent with the heterotic groups determined by their pedigree information (I .e .Sipingtou, Luda Red Cob,PA,PB, Ried and Lancaster). Cluster analysis showed that 33 head smut-resistance com inbred lines could be classified into six distinct groups. According to the principle of heterosis utilization, resistant lines could be used to improve susceptible lines in the same group and to select new lines resistant to sporisorium reilianum. Especially in Luda Red Cob, Lancaster and PB, resistant lines were more, so resistant germplasm populations could be obtained.

  10. Screening of Sweet Potato Germplasm Resources Resistant to Rot Nematode and Evaluation of Their Disease Resistance%甘薯抗茎线虫病种质资源的筛选与抗病性评价

    孙厚俊; 赵永强; 谢逸萍; 陈晓宇; 邢继英


    对81份甘薯材料进行了茎线虫病、黑斑病和根腐病抗性鉴定和评价.结果表明:同时抗这3种病害的甘薯品种(系)较少,仅郑04-4-2和徐062826时甘薯茎线虫病抗侵入和抗扩展的同时,对黑斑病和根腐病也具有较高的抗性水平;另外有部分品种(系)如泰中7号、浙紫1号、徐060407等达到抗两病水平,可作为甘薯抗病育种的双抗亲本加以利用.%In this study, the resistances of 81 sweet potato germplasm resources to sweet potato rot nematode, black rot and root rot were identified and evaluated. The results indicated that very few sweet potato varieties (lines) could simultaneously resist these three diseases, only Zheng 04-4 -2 and Xu 062826 had high resistances not only to the invasion and expansion of rot nematode, but also to black rot and root rot. In addition, some tested resources such as Taizhong No. 7, Zhezi No. 1 and Xu 060407 had the double resistances, and they can be used as the double - resistant parents in the disease - resistant breeding of sweet potato.

  11. 糯小麦种质资源宁 W0065的评价与利用%Evaluation and Utilization of the Waxy Wheat Germplasm Ning W0065

    欧俊梅; 王治斌; 陶军; 任勇; 周强; 雷加容


    Aiming at evaluating the practical utility of the waxy wheat line Ning W0065,the current research assessed its agronomic traits and disease resistance,and also determined its amylopectin content.Relative to the control,Ning W0065 showed greater plant height,smaller spike length,lower 1000 -kernel weight,later maturity,and higher susceptibility to powdery mildew.Thus this line cannot be directly used for wheat production in Sichuan Province.On the other side,Ning W0065 exhibited some good characters:greater numbers of tiller,effective spike per plant,and being purely glutinous.Hence,it could serve as an excellent germplasm re-source for wheat breeding.%为了解引进的糯小麦新品系宁 W0065的利用价值,对其农艺性状、抗病性和支链淀粉含量进行了分析鉴定。研究结果表明,宁 W0065具有株高偏高、穗长偏短、千粒重偏轻、生育期偏晚及易感白粉病等缺点,不能在四川生产上直接利用。不过,宁 W0065具有分蘖力强、成穗率高及纯糯的特点,可作为优异种质资源加以利用。

  12. Analysis of Potential Utilization and Disease-resistance of Maize Germplasm "Shen137"%玉米种质沈137抗病性及其利用潜力分析

    甄广田; 罗玉鑫; 张振平


    在P群玉米种质沈137抗病鉴定结果的基础上,系统评价了沈137高抗弯孢叶斑病、灰斑病,兼抗大斑病、小斑病、南方锈病、穗腐病、茎腐病、丝黑穗病和矮花叶病等9种病害的抗病性及其抗病基因丰富而稳定的遗传特性.沈137是国内骨干自交系中抗病种类最多的自交系之一.充分利用沈137这类多抗资源及深入挖掘其应用潜力将成为应对玉米病害突发所带来生产隐患的重要途径.%Based on systemic identification of disease resistance of "Shenl37" ,one inbred line of the P group of maize germplasm,it was found that "Shenl37" is a good multiple resistance inbred line,with high resistance to Cur-vularia leaf blight and gray leaf spot, moderate resistance to Turcicum leaf blight, Maydis leaf blight, southern corn rust,ear rot,stalk rot,head smut,and dwarf mosaic virus,suggesting that the use of "Shenl37" is important to prevent the outbreak of disease problems in maize production.

  13. 多效唑对芋种质离体保存影响的初步研究%Effects of Paclobutrazol on Conservation of Taro (Colocasia esculenta L. Schott) Germplasm Resources in Vitro

    董伟清; 闭志强; 唐军; 江文; 高美萍; 周维; 陈丽娟; 蔡炳华


    以荔浦芋无菌试管苗为材料,研究了试管苗保存过程中不同浓度多效唑(PP333)对试管苗保存效果的影响。研究结果表明,多效唑对芋种质资源的离体保存有显著影响,在光照时间14~16 h/d,光照强度1500 lx,室温(26±2)℃的培养条件下,在 MS+6-BA 2.5 mg/L+NAA 0.02 mg/L+30 g/L 蔗糖的培养基中添加0.6 mg/L PP333,试管苗可保存240 d,存活率为89.7%,且恢复生长后试管苗形态正常、长势良好,与对照株无明显差异。%In this research, we studied the conservation effects of paclobutrazol with different concentrations on taro (Colocasia esculenta L. Schott) seedlings in vitro. The results showed that, paclobutrazol affected the in vitro conservation of taro germplasm resources significantly, and the best culture medium was MS+2.5 mg/L 6-BA+0.02 mg/L NAA+30 g/L sucrose+0.6 mg/L PP333, which could conserve plantlets for 240 days with the survival rate of 89.7%, under the cultural condition with illumination time of 14-16 hours per day, illumination intensity of 1 500 lx and room temperature of (26±2)℃. Furthermore, the recovered plantlets grew well and showed no difference in morphology with those of control treatment.

  14. 小麦种质N9820抗白粉病的特异基因表达谱分析%Expression of special genes resistant to powdery mildew ( Blumeria graminis f.sp.tritici) in wheat germplasm N9820

    吴金华; 马峙英; 张西平; 吉万全


    Wheat germplasm N9820, developed by our research group, is a resistant material to powdery mildew. In order to understand the resistant mechanism of wheat germplasm N9820 to powdery mildew infection, a suppression subtraction hybridization (SSH) cDNA library was constructed with cDNA from N9820 leaf inoculated with Blumeria graminis as the tester and cDNA from N9820 healthy leaf as the driver. A total of 122 positive clones were randomly chosen from the SSH-cDNA library. After screening of repeated and redundant sequences, 61 ESTs were acquired. Nucleic acid and protein homology search were performed using the BLAST (Basic Local Alignment Search Tool) program with the default settings at NCBI website (http:// www. ncbi. nlm. nih. gov). BlastX results in nr-protein database revealed that 35 ESTs were highly homologous with known proteins involved in signal transduction, metabolism, cell structure, energy metabolism, transport, protein synthesis and processing, and disease resistance. BlastNr results showed that 47 ESTs had high identities with known ESTs, and 14 ESTs matched none in the nr-database. Compared with BlastX and BlastNr analysis, 19 ESTs were both in the nucleic acid and protein databases including 5 for energy metabolism, 2 for transport, 3 for protein synthesis and processing, and 2 for disease resistance. The most frequent sequence was ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase large subunit.

  15. Diversity of 18S rRNA Gene of 19 Wild Herbage Germplasms%19种野生牧草种质资源18S rRNA 基因的多态性

    武玉祥; 田兵; 王啸; 陈彬; 冉雪琴; 王嘉福


    为了开发牧草资源,对贵州部分野生草本植物种质资源的遗传多样性进行研究。根据模式植物拟南芥18S rRNA 基因序列设计特异性引物,对贵州大学农场试验田自然生长的19种野生草本植物的18S rRNA 基因序列进行扩增、测序、构建进化树。结果表明:将获得的1000 bp 左右的 DNA 片段测序进行同源比对,共找到2280个碱基变异位点,分布在8个区段。据各样本18S rRNA 基因的遗传距离构建进化树推测,菊科、苋科和藜科之间存在较近的遗传相似性,豆科中三叶草属与豌豆属之间有较近的遗传距离。%In order to explore forage resource,the genetic diversity of 18 S rRNA gene in 19 kinds of wild herb germplasms were investigated,which were collected from the farm of Guizhou Unversity.The results showed that about 1000 bp fragments of 18 S rRNA genes were amplificated using specific primers based on the gene of Arabidopsis thaliana.After sequencing and homologous comparison,a total of 2 280 nucleotides were found out to be polymorphim sites.Phylogenetic tree of each family were constructed by similarity of 18S rRNA gene.The molecular classification of 19 kinds of wild herbs was consistent with its category based on morphological characteristics.Furthermore,the molecular classification could be useful to distinguish those similar species in morphology, and the genetic data suggested a close genetic relationship in three families,Compositae,Amaranthaceae and Chenopodiaceae.Trifolium and Pisum might share a high genetic similarty with each other.

  16. 中国野生芒果种质资源及其AFLP分子标记%The Wild Mango Germplasm Resources in China and Their AFLP Molecular Markers

    雷新涛; 姚全胜; 徐雪荣; 王家保


    从生物学特性和AFLP标记两个方面对中国广西百色那坡县野生芒果资源进行了初步描述和研究.结果表明:那坡县野生芒果在形态学上与普通芒果较为相似;AFLP标记显示,包括部分栽培品种、林生芒果、广西百色那坡县野生芒果、泰国芒果等在内的92份芒果种质在相似系数0.63的水平上可分为14组,广西百色那坡县野生芒果虽然与林生芒果、泰国野生芒果等芒果属其它种较为接近,但仍处于栽培芒果的中间.不能与栽培芒果分开.这些证据表明分布在广西百色那坡县平盂镇的野生芒果属于普通芒果,可能是栽培芒果的野生种而不是芒果属的其它种.%The genus Mangifera contains 69 species. It is worthwhile to explore the origin of Mangifera indica. In this context the wild mango germplasm at Lapuo County, Guangxi, China were studied by using their biological characteristics and the amplified fragments length polymorphism (AFLP) molecular marker. These wild mangoes were found morphologically similar to Mangifera indica; and the AFLP markers showed that at the similarity coefficient of 0.63, 92 mangoes including cultivars, Mangifera sylvatica Roxb., wild mangoes, Mangifera. Siamensis Warbg. were divided into 14 groups and that the wild mangoes at Lapuo were close to M. sylvatica Roxb. and M. siamensis Warbg., but remained to fall in the middle of the cultivars and could not be separated from them. These evidences indicated that the wild mangoes belonged to M. indica, not other species of the genus Mangifera, and might be the wild species of the cultivar mangoes.

  17. 农牧交错带绿肥用豌豆种质资源的初步评价%Initial Evaluation of Pea Germplasm for Forage and Green Manure in Ecotone

    李振华; 段玉; 妥德宝; 曹卫东; 刘一灵; 姚俊卿


    Preliminary identification and screening pea varieties of manure used. Utilize fifty representative resources of pea as test materials, over three years of field experiment and test species, use K-means clustering analysis and correlation analysis to evaluate pea germplasm according to eleven pea traits. Range of leaf characteristics is larger than that of pod; Range of variation of leaves wide is 196. 68, which is the largest in all indicators. In the 5 groups, fresh yield of varieties of type I ≥ 4.46 kg, seed yield ≥ 2.45 kg, and growth period is 88 d. Pea fresh yield was significantly correlated with growth period, leaf length and pod number, and was significantly negatively correlated with pod length. Seed yield was significantly correlated with growth period, plant height, pod number and fresh yield. Over comprehensive identification and evaluation, selected of Baiguapi and Aza Lathyrus sativus. L as high yield varieties.%为鉴定与筛选优良绿肥用豌豆品种资源.收集我国不同地区的50份豌豆品种及品种资源作为供试材料,经过3年田间试验和室内考种试验,根据豌豆的11项性状指标,采用K-均值聚类分析和相关性分析对豌豆种质资源进行初步评价.绿肥用豌豆叶部性状变异范围大于荚部性状;各指标中,叶片宽的变异范围最大,变异系数为196.68.在划分的5个类群中,1类品种小区鲜草产量≥4.46 kg,籽实产量≥2.45 kg,生育期为88 d左右.豌豆鲜草产量与生育期、叶片长、单株荚数均呈极显著正相关,与荚长呈极显著负相关.籽实产量与生育期、株高、单株荚数、鲜草产量呈极显著正相关.通过综合鉴定与评价,筛选出优质高产品种资源白瓜皮和阿杂山藜豆.

  18. Áreas prioritarias para colectar germoplasma de Amaranthus en México con base en la diversidad y riqueza de especies Priority areas to collect Amaranthus germplasm in Mexico based on diversity and species richness

    Eduardo Espitia Rangel

    Full Text Available Esta investigación tuvo como objetivo utilizar el Sistema de Información Geográfico, para crear mapas de índices de diversidad y riqueza de especies del género Amaranthus en México, para proyectar las mejores áreas de colecta de germoplasma. La máxima riqueza de especies se encontró en el centro occidente del Estado de México incluyendo el Distrito Federal y la costa del Pacífico, entre Jalisco y Colima, así como en Sinaloa. El índice de biodiversidad de Brillouin mostró alta diversidad en la costa del Pacífico, Sinaloa, entre los estados de Jalisco y Colima, además el centro occidente de Nuevo León, la región de la Huasteca del sureste de Tamaulipas y noreste de Veracruz, así como la zona noroeste de la Península de Yucatán. Las áreas prioritarias que se proponen son: la costa central de Sinaloa, sur de la región biogeográfica de Sonora, parte centro occidente del Estado de México incluyendo el Distrito Federal, región biogeográfica del Eje Volcánico Transmexicano y la costa del pacífico centro entre los estados de Jalisco y Colima, finalmente en la región biogeográfica de la costa pacífica mexicana.This investigation had as objective to use the Geographical Information System, to create maps of indexes of diversity and wealth of species of genus Amaranthus in Mexico, to plan the best areas of germplasm collection. The maximum wealth of species was in west center of State of Mexico including Distrito Federal and the Pacific coast, between Jalisco and Colima, as well as in Sinaloa. The Brillouin index of biodiversity showed high diversity in the Pacific coast, Sinaloa, between the states of Jalisco and Colima, also the west center of Nuevo León, the region of Huasteca of southeast of Tamaulipas and northeast of Veracruz, as well as the northwest area of Yucatán Peninsula. The priority areas proposed are: the central coast of Sinaloa, south of biogeographic region of Sonora, west center section of State of Mexico

  19. Research on Genetic Polymorphism of Cassava Germplasms and ISSR Molecular Markers%木薯种质资源遗传多态性ISSR分子标记的研究

    彭靖茹; 甘志勇; 黎萍; 黄强; 杨金春; 石兰蓉; 付海天


    [目的]研究广西壮族自治区亚热带作物研究所保存的39份木薯种质资源遗传多样性.[方法]筛选出对木薯具有较好多态性和效果的ISSR引物,应用筛选出的引物对39份木薯种质资源进行PCR扩增,并对扩增条带进行统计和分析.同时根据品系间的遗传相似系数,利用UPGMA法进行聚类分析.[结果]筛选出10个ISSR引物,每个引物检测等位基因3~9个,平均为7个,获得70个扩增带形,扩增产物的片段大小范围在150~2 000 bp之间;聚类分析得到,在遗传相似系数0.67上将39个木薯品系分为2个类群,同时聚类分析结果表明,木薯之间的遗传距离基础非常狭窄,遗传相似系数大多在0.80~1.00之间.[结论]为我国优质木薯的育种奠定基础.%[Objective] This study aimed to analyze the genetic polymorphism of 39 cassava varieties (lines) saved in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region Research Institute for Subtropical Crops. [Method] ISSR primers with good polymorphisms and amplification effects in cassava were selected for PCR amplification of 39 cassava germplasms, statistics and analysis of the amplified bands were conducted. In addition, cluster analysis was conducted by using UPGMA method based on the genetic similarity among cassava varieties (lines). [Result] 10 of ISSR primers were selected. A total of 70 clear electrophoretic bands were amplified, each primer had amplified 3-9 electrophoretic bands, with an average of 7, and the length of amplified bands ranged from 150 bp to 2 000 bp; cluster analysis showed that 39 cassava varieties (lines) were clustered into two categories by the similarity coefficient of 0.67; in addition, the genetic distance among cassava was very narrow, with genetic similarity coefficients ranged between 0. 80 and 1. 00. [ Conclusion ] This study laid a foundation for breeding of high-quality cassava in China.

  20. Analysis of Germplasm Resources Diversity and Construction of Fingerprinting in Melon(Cucumis melo L.)%甜瓜种质资源多样性分析与指纹图谱的构建

    顾冉; 周金蒙; 马鸿艳; 栾非时


    The 73 melon(Cucumis melo L.)accessions were identified by 15 morphological markers and 32 CAPS markers in this experiment. Using 15 morphological markers,these melons were classified into 3 categories, when the genetic similarity coefficient was 0.82. The polymorphism rate of CAPS markers were 29.63%in molecular markers. The average polymorphism information content(PIC)was 0.34 with a range of 0.22-0.38. The result of CAPS cluster analysis showed that the genetic similarity coefficients of these 73 accessions were ranged from 0.50-0.97. Also,the test materials could be divided into 3 categories,when the genetic similarity coefficient was 0.60. The fingerprinting codes and QR codes had established unique fingerprint for the 73 melon accessions. Each accession could be distinguished from the others. Thus,the germplasm resources could be quickly identified.%采用15个形态学标记和32个CAPS(Cleaved Amplified Polymorphism Sequences,CAPS)标记鉴别73份甜瓜材料。通过15个形态学标记,在遗传相似系数为0.82时将73份甜瓜材料分为3种类型。在分子标记中,被筛选的32对CAPS引物多态性比率为29.63%,PIC值分布在0.22~0.38,平均值为0.34;经过CAPS标记聚类分析,73份甜瓜材料间的遗传相似系数在0.50~0.97之间,当相似系数在0.60时,可以将供试材料分为3种类型。通过构建指纹图谱代码与QR编码,为73份甜瓜材料建立了独特的核酸指纹图谱,每份材料可以相互区别,以便快速对种质资源进行鉴定。

  1. 糯玉米芽苗期耐盐性鉴定及相关分子标记筛选%Identification of salt tolerant germplasms and screening of related molecular markers in waxy maize at germination and seedling stages

    印志同; 杨庆华; 倪正斌; 罗标; 卞云龙; 王益军; 徐辰武; 邓德祥


    Salt stress affects the growth and development of waxy maize. The aim of the present study was to provide germplasms and molecular information of waxy maize for salt tolerance. For this purpose, a panel consisting of 85 waxy maize inbred lines was measured for five salt tolerance traits, percentage of plant survival, plant survival days, relative germination rate, relative plumule length, and relative radicle axis length, at germination and seedling stage. In addition, the pane) was genotyped by 71 pairs of genome-wide simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Linkage disequilibrium of pair- wise loci and population structure were analyzed, and the association analysis between SSR loci and the five measured traits was performed using TASSEL GLM (general linear model) program. The results were as follows. The five salt tolerance traits demonstrated significant difference and wide variation range in waxy maize inbred lines. Five elite inbred lines with better performance under salt stress were selected, among which, NA18 and NA32-2 were the best 340 specific DNA bands were detected in the panel, averagely 4.78 polymorphic fragments for each primer. The value of polymorphism information content (PIC) for each SSR locus varied from 0.249 to 0.876 with an average of 0. 479. A model-based population structure analysis divided the population into five subpopulations, three of which have been reported previously, while the other two are newly developed. A total of nine loci, located on chromosomes 1,2,5,5 and 9, were detected to be associated with the five salt tolerance traits significantly, respectively, which explained phenotypic variation ranging from 7% to 29%. The marker umc2012 on chromosome 1 was detected to be associated with the two traits, percentage of plant survival and plant survival days, simultaneously. These results suggest that the identified germ-plasms and molecular markers in the present study may be useful for the breeding of waxy maize.%为了给糯玉

  2. Evaluation and Correlation Analysis on Quantitative Traits of Cornus officinalis Germplasm Resources%山茱萸种质资源数量性状评价及相关性分析

    张龙进; 李桂双; 白成科; 文苗苗; 张志勤


    In this study ,75 germplasm resources in the primary core collection of Cornus officinalis were collected from three provinces in China. Many quantitative traits, including leaf length, leaf breadth, fruit length, fruit broad,fresh fruit 100 - fruit weight,seed 1000 - seed weight,seed moisture content,ash content of date bark,moisture content of date bark, water soluble extractives, and content of Loganin, were analyzed on coefficient of variability and correlation. The results showed that the coefficient of variability in leaf length, leaf breadth,fresh fruit 100 -fruit weight,seed 1000 - seed weight,ash content of date bark and content of Loganin were higher than 10% . This indicated that the variation of these traits was small and the phenotypic traits were stable. The coefficient of variability in fruit length,fruit broad ,seed moisture content,moisture content of date bark and water soluble extractives were less than 10% , which indicated that there was less variation and these traits were relatively stable between individual. Correlation analysis results showed that there was a relationship among these traits. The fruit length and fruit breadth had a significant correlation with fresh fruit 100 -fruit weight(0. 396 and 0. 3\\2,P <0. 01),which suggested that it was a key reason that the fruit of length and breadth affected the fresh fruit 100 - fruit weight. There was significant correlation between fruit length fruit breadth ( 0. 481 , P < 0. 01 ) , content of Loganin ( 0. 280, P <0. 05 ) ,and water-soluble extractives(0. 372 ,P <0. 01). This meant that the characteristic of water-soluble extractive contents was closely related to fruit size,fruit shape,and content of Loganin. These results will provide a parameter for screening and evaluating the germplasm resources of C. officinalis in the future.%对从全国收集的75份山茱萸种质资源,从叶长、叶宽、果实横径、果实纵径、鲜果百粒重、种子千粒重、种子含水量、枣皮

  3. Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Chinese and American Alfalfa(Medicago Sativa. L) Germplasm Assessed by SSR Markers%基于SSR标记的中美紫花苜蓿品种遗传多样性研究

    强海平; 余国辉; 刘海泉; 高洪文; 刘贵波; 赵海明; 王赞


    mtic188、bf111、afctt1、bf641851、maa660456、aw361等位点上表现较高的遗传多样性,表明这些位点可以较好地反映中美紫花苜蓿品种的遗传多样性,适用于中美紫花苜蓿品种的遗传多样性检测。就不同染色体而言,第二条和第八条染色体上分布的SSR标记揭示的遗传多样性较高,而第一条相对较低。基于混合模型的方法对紫花苜蓿全体基因型进行群体结构分析,两种不同方法均显示确定最优的群体数K值为2,中美两国16个紫花苜蓿品种共100个基因型个体基本按照来源分为两个亚群体,群体间有少量混杂的情况发生。主成分分析和聚类分析与群体结构的分析结果相一致。中国紫花苜蓿品种多样性略高于美国,但差异不显著。中美两国紫花苜蓿材料蕴含了比较丰富的遗传变异,显示了较高水平的基因多样性。中美群体间的遗传多样性水平存在一定的差异,中国紫花苜蓿种质多样性水平略高于美国。群体结构不严格按照来源国家的划分而区分,这一现象与紫花苜蓿异花授粉与广泛的基因交流有着密切的关系。%Objective Alfalfa is the most important cultivated forage across the world. However, for little improvement in forage yield and quality in recent years, conventional breeding methods are far from satisfying the practical need. On the one hand, the improvement in cultivars relies on the quantity of breeding resources, on the other hand, it relies on the understanding of the genetic basis of agronomic traits. Based on SSR markers, the study was conducted to analyze the genetic diversity and population structure of the germplasm from China and the United States and provide basic information on mining beneficial markers and alleles significantly associated with important quantitative and quality traits of alfalfa when using genome-wide association study to facilitate breeding process.[Method]In total, 40

  4. Germplasm characterization of three jabuticaba tree species

    Moeses Andrigo Danner


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to characterize cultivated genotypes of three jabuticaba species (Plinia cauliflora, P. trunciflora, and P. jaboticaba. Phenology and fruit growth, as well as leaf, flower and fruit traits were evaluated. Variability in all traits was observed among genotypes of the three jabuticaba species. The trait peduncle size is indicated for differentiation of the three species under study. The leaf and fruit sizes of the genotypes P. trunciflora 3, P. trunciflora 4, P. trunciflora 5 and P. jaboticaba 1 differ from those described in the literature for these species, indicating the formation of ecotypes. Jabuticaba fruit skin contains high anthocyanin and flavonoid concentrations, with potential use in food and pharmaceutical industries.

  5. Towards an improved European plant germplasm system

    Frese, L.; Palmé, A.; Bülow, L.; Kik, C.


    This chapter focuses on recommendations addressing the main problems of managing ex situ plant genetic resources in Europe. Information on the plant genetic resources conservation and use problems in Europe are also presented.

  6. Variation in seed lipids in Calendula germplasm

    Calendula officinalis (pot marigold) has considerable promise as an industrial crop, with a long history as an ornamental and medicinal plant. It is also marketed as an ingredient in cosmetics and a colorant. It produces unusual seed lipids, which can provide an additional market for commercial Ca...

  7. Molecular characterization of mulberry germplasm from Eastern ...



    Jan 4, 2010 ... Morus indica (Indian mulberry), Morus microphylla (Texas .... Taq DNA Polymerase (Fermentas) (5unit) 0.2 µl, water 9.4 µl sample DNA 1.3 µl (100 ng/ ..... Methods in the Conservation and Use of the Plant Genetic. Resources.

  8. Genetic Approaches to Develop Salt Tolerant Germplasm

    Tester, Mark A.


    Forty percent of the world\\'s food is produced under irrigation, and this is directly threatened by over-exploitation and changes in the global environment. One way to address this threat is to develop systems for increasing our ability to use lower quality water, in particular saline water. Low cost partial desalination of brackish water, use of saline water for cooling and increases in the salinity tolerance of crops can all contribute to the development of this new agricultural system. In this talk, the focus will be on the use of forward genetic approaches for discovery of genes related to salinity tolerance in barley and tomatoes. Rather than studying salinity tolerance as a trait in itself, we dissect salinity tolerance into a series of components that are hypothesised to contribute to overall salinity tolerance (following the paradigm of Munns & Tester, 2008). For example, one significant component of tolerance of most crop plants to moderate soil salinity is due to the ability to maintain low concentrations of Na+ in the leaves, and much analysis of this aspect has been done (e.g. Roy et al., 2013, 2014). A major site for the control of shoot Na+ accumulation is at the plasma membrane of the mature stele of the root. Alleles of HKT, a major gene underlying this transport process have been characterized and, in work led by Dr Rana Munns (CSIRO), have now been introgressed into commercial durum wheat and led to significantly increased yields in saline field conditions (Munns et al., 2012). The genotyping of mapping populations is now highly efficient. However, the ability to quantitatively phenotype these populations is now commonly limiting forward progress in plant science. The increasing power of digital imaging and computational technologies offers the opportunity to relieve this phenotyping bottleneck. The Plant Accelerator is a 4500m2 growth facility that provides non-destructive phenotyping of large populations of plants ( New genetic loci for previously under-studied components of salinity tolerance discovered using this new approach will be presented. The application of these technologies provides opportunities to significantly increase abiotic stress tolerance of crops, and thus contribute to increasing agricultural production in many regions, especially in the face of global environmental change. However, this needs to be tested in the field, such as done by Munns et al (2012) and Schilling et al. (2014). To this end, work will be described where mapping populations are grown in the field, and also grown in the Accelerator, and loci for traits are being compared with loci for tolerance in the field.

  9. Phylogenetic relationship among Kenyan sorghum germplasms ...

    Mr Kiboi

    in which 67 lines fell in three major clusters of 39, 15 and 13 lines each. ... Aluminium (Al) toxicity, Sorghum bicolor, Sorghum bicolor multi-drug, toxic extrusion compound ... Eighty nine (89) Kenyan sorghum lines were used in this study to.

  10. [Soybean allergens and hypoallergenic germplasm enhancement].

    Fang, Xu-Qian; Zhu, You-Lin; Qiu, Li-Juan


    Food allergy is a public sanitary problem which has received attention worldwide. It is becoming an increasingly interesting problem to decrease the concentration of allergens for improvement of the food security. Soybean allergens in seeds are composing of storage proteins, structure proteins, and disease-related proteins. Among them, Gly m Bd 28K, Gly m Bd 30K and Gly m Bd 60K are the major allergens located in 7S conglycinin fragments. By recognizing allergens' physicochemical property, hypersensitivity and gene structure, certain progresses had been made to reduce the concentration of allergens in soybean through food processing, traditional breeding and genetic engineering. The paper reviewed the sorts and characters of soybean allergens, the physicochemical property of the three immunodominant allergens and their gene structures. Progress in developing hypoallergenic cultivars was also discussed.

  11. Quality Evaluation and Analysis of Polygonum capitatum Based on Different Germplasm Resources%基于不同地理种源头花蓼中没食子酸的含量分析

    周涛; 艾强; 王彦君; 江维克; 金艳蕾; 魏升华


    Objective:To establish a simple, accurate method of HPLC to determine the gallic acid content of Polygonum capitatum, and to analysis 48 populations in different germplasm resources. Method: The method was developed with the condition as follows:XB-18 C18 (4. 6 mm × 250 mm, 5 μm) , acetonitrile-0. 4% phosphoric acid(4: 96) as the mobile phase with the speed of 0. 8 mL · min-1 and the detection wavelength was 220 nm. Gal lic acid was detected in 48 populations with 229 samples. Result: The linear range of gallic acid was 10. 24-102. 40 ng (r = 0. 999 9) with the average recoveries of 97. 32% , RSD 0. 52%. The gallic acid content was 0. 594 6%- 0. 147 5% in every sample, and was 0. 131 3%-0. 330 6% during 52 populations. Conclusion: The method is simple, specific, and suitable for the determination of the gallic acid content in P. capitatum. There are some differences in gallic acid contents during populations and whithin populations, especially, it was significant differ ences in some populations, such as Yunnan-tengcong, Guizhou-taijiang, Guizhou-nayong, Guizhou-yuqing, Guizhou-qinglong and Guizhou-bijie. It had higher contents of gallic acid in Taijiang-laodun, Nayong-yangchang, Yuqing-baini, Shibing-niudachang populations, Guizhou province, and they should continue to study as suitable growth areas for artificial cultivation of P. capitatum.%目的:建立HPLC测定头花蓼中没食子酸含量方法,测定评价48个不同地理种源样品.方法:反相高效液相色谱法,XB-18 C18.柱(4.6 mm×250 mm,5 μm),流动相为乙腈-0.4%磷酸溶液(4:96),流速0.8 mL·min-1,柱温30℃,检测波长220 nm,分别测定头花蓼48个不同地理种源229株样本.SPSS17.0分析结果.结果:没食子酸线性范围进样量在10.24~102.40 ng,r=0.999 9,平均回收率97.32%,RSD 0.52%.所测定样本单株没食子酸含量0.594 6%~0.147 5%,居群间含量0.131 3%~0.330 6%.结论:该方法可准确测定头花蓼中没食子酸含量.在头花蓼

  12. 野生新麦草种质醇溶蛋白遗传变异分析%Genetic variation analysis of gliadin from wild germplasm of Psathyrostachys juncea

    陈仕勇; 马啸; 张新全; 武小龙


    Acid polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (A-PAGE) was used to analyse the gliadin genetic variation among thirty-five wild accessions of Psathyrostachys juncea collected from Xinjiang in China, the Siberia region in Russia, and from Mongolia. 1)A total of 37 bands were obtained from the accessions and all were polymorphic; 2) The Dice genetic similarity coefficient of the tested materials ranged from 0 - 0. 827 6, with a mean of 0.450 9. There was rich genetic polymorphism among the tested wild materials of P. Junceat 3) The 35 wild accessions can be divided into five groups and can be clustered with the same or similar eco-geographical origins. Results also showed some relationship between the patterns of gliadin bands and geographical distribution; 4) Genetic differentiations between and within groups were estimated by Shannon's diversity index. The results showed H1 = 0. 579 6 and Hgroup=0. 483 5, which indicated that 83. 42% genetic variance existed within groups, and 16. 58% genetic variance was between the groups. This might be related to the cross-pollinated breeding system of P. Juncea. The results of the study will supply more information for germplasm resources, conservation and breeding of P. Juncea.%采用酸性聚丙烯酰胺凝胶电泳技术(A-PAGE)对来自中国新疆、俄罗斯西伯利亚及蒙古等地的35份野生新麦草种质进行醇溶蛋白的遗传变异分析,获得如下结果,1)电泳共检测到37条醇溶蛋白条带,多态性条带比率高达100%;2)种质间遗传相似系数变幅为0~0.827 6,平均值为0.450 9,表明供试材料具有丰富的醇溶蛋白遗传多样性;3)聚类分析将供试材料分成5类,相同或者相似生态地理来源的材料能够聚在一起,表明醇溶蛋白带谱与其地理分布具有一定的相关性;4)种质间的Shannon多样性指数H1=0.579 6,类群平均多样性指数Hgroup=0.483 5,其中类群内和类群间的遗传变异分别为83.42%和16.58%,这可能与新麦草

  13. Characterization of rust, early and late leaf spot resistance in wild and cultivated peanut germplasm Caracterização da resistência à ferrugem, mancha preta e mancha castanha em germoplasma silvestre e cultivado de amendoim

    Alessandra Pereira Fávero


    Full Text Available Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea has an AB genome and is one of the most important oil crops in the world. The main constraints of crop management in Brazil are fungal diseases. Several species of the genus Arachis are resistant to pests and diseases. The objective of our experiments was to identify wild species belonging to the taxonomic section Arachis with either A or B (or " non-A" genomes that are resistant to early leaf spot (Cercospora arachidicola, late leaf spot (Cercosporidium personatum and rust (Puccinia arachidis. For the identification of genotypes resistant to fungal diseases, bioassays with detached leaves were done in laboratory conditions, with artificial inoculation, a controlled temperature of 25ºC and a photoperiod of 10 h light/14 h dark, for 20-42 days, depending on the fungi species. Most of the accessions of wild species were more resistant than accessions of A. hypogaea for one, two or all three fungi species studied. Arachis monticola, considered to be a possible tetraploid ancestor or a derivative of A. hypogaea, was also more susceptible to Cercosporidium personatum and Puccinia arachidis, as compared to most of the wild species. Therefore, wild germplasm accessions of both genome types are available to be used for the introgression of resistance genes against three fungal diseases of peanut.O amendoim (Arachis hypogaea possui genoma AB e é uma das mais importantes culturas oleaginosas em todo o mundo. Os principais problemas da cultura no Brasil são as doenças fúngicas. Várias espécies do gênero Arachis são resistentes a pragas e doenças. Este trabalho visou a identificar espécies silvestres pertencentes à seção Arachis associadas aos genomas A ou B (ou " não-A" do amendoim que são resistentes à mancha castanha (Cercospora arachidicola, mancha preta (Cercosporidium personatum e ferrugem (Puccinia arachidis. Para a identificação de genótipos resistentes a doenças fúngicas, bioensaios utilizando

  14. 高咖啡碱含量的特异茶树种质资源的筛选%Screening Specific Germplasm Resources of Tea Plant with High Caffeine Content

    杨春; 罗军武; 陈涛林; 龚雪; 何萍; 王庆; 王汉超; 冉立群


    In order to screen special germplasm resources of tea plant with high caffeine content, the population of Camellia sinensis var. assamica cv. Jianghua was utilized as material to screened 100 plants with relatively great performances based on external morphological characters, and then using high-efficiency liquid chromatography (HPLC) to analyze the caffeine content in spring shoot, summer shoot and autumn shoot of the 100 tea plants. The results showed that there was a huge difference in caffeine content of tea shoots among different plants; the caffeine content in spring shoot, summer shoot and autumn shoot was 3.71%, 4.37% and 4.20%, respectively; the seasonal changes in caffeine content of Camellia sinensis var. assamica cv. Jianghua resources were relatively consistent, the caffeine content in 56% of the resources showed a order of summer shoot>autumn shoot>spring shoot; the significant difference analysis showed that the caffeine content in spring shoot was significantly different with that in summer shoot and autumn shoot, but there was no significant difference in caffeine content between summer shoot and autumn shoot. In the end, four tea plants (No.7, No.53, No.55 and No.98) of which the average value of caffeine content in spring, summer and autumn all higher than 5.00%were chosen as the specific tea tree resources with high caffeine content to improve tea variety or to extract caffeine directly.%以江华苦茶群体品种资源为试验材料,依外部形态特征初步筛选出100份表现型较优的单株。用高效液相色谱法,分析检测这100个单株的春梢、夏梢、秋梢的咖啡碱含量,并从中筛选出高咖啡碱含量的茶树特异资源。结果表明:茶树新梢咖啡碱含量在不同单株间差异很大;春梢、夏梢、秋梢咖啡碱含量平均分别为3.71%、4.37%、4.20%;江华苦茶资源咖啡碱含量季节性变化表现较为一致,100份样品中,有56%的茶树咖啡碱含量表现为夏

  15. CRISPR/Cas9系统在培育抗病毒植物新种质中的应用%Application of CRISPR/Cas9 system in breeding of new antiviral plant germplasm

    张道微; 张超凡; 董芳; 黄艳岚; 张亚; 周虹


    summarized the advantages, main problems and development tendency of CRISPR/cas9 system in breeding of new antiviral plant germplasms.

  16. 利用花药相关基因及启动子创制雄性不育种质研究进展%Research Progress on Production of Male Sterile Germplasm by Genetic Engineering with Anther Developmental Genes or Specific Promoters

    杨晓杰; 房卫平; 谢德意; 周小玲; 赵元明; 赵付安; 唐中杰; 李付广


    Heterosis is the effective way of increasing crop yield and improving quality,and diverse germplasm of crop male sterility and fertility restoration is one of the key factors in heterosis utilization. This paper reviews the recent research results of the cloning and fuctional verification of anther development genes,and the progress of creating crop male sterile and their corresponding fertility restorer germplasm by genetic transformation engeering with the key genes associated with anther development. It also discusses the technical strategy and reseach priorities of creating plant male sterile lines,and corresponding fertility restore and maintain lines by the plant trans-genic technology,as well as the current status and perspective of creating "three lines" in heterosis utilization in practice by plant genetic engineering.%杂种优势利用是大幅度提高作物产量、改良作物品质的有效途径,而作物雄性不育及优良的育性恢复种质是利用杂种优势的关键因素.为此,综述了近年来有关花药发育重要基因克隆和功能验证研究方面的重要成果,以及运用植物遗传转化工程创制植物雄性不育种质的进展.同时讨论了利用转基因技术创制作物雄性不育系、恢复系和保持系的技术策略,并对利用植物遗传转化技术创制植物杂种优势利用中“三系”种质的现状进行了分析和展望.

  17. Establishment of a resistance-identification method on asparagus stem blight and evaluation of Asparagus officinalis germplasms%芦笋茎枯病抗性鉴定方法的建立及芦笋抗病种质资源的筛选

    杨迎青; 李湘民; 孟凡; 兰波


    Asparagus stem blight is a worldwide devastating disease and the screening of resistant varieties is the most economical and effective control method. However, there hasn' t been a simple, fast and effective resistance-identification method. Four inoculation methods at the seedling stage, i. e. the mycelial pellet sticking on the base of stems, on the middle of stems, both on the bases and the middle of stems and the spore-spraying method, were firstly compared, with JK701 and TX-4/SD as the material. The result revealed that the spore-spraying method was easier for operation, faster for causing diseases symptoms and more convenient to divide the disease grades, while other three methods could only cause light symptoms. Then the spore-spraying method was optimized in two aspects, including isolate virulence and sprayed concentrations of spore suspension. The results showed that the isolate FJ2 behaved the strongest virulence and was used for resistance identification , 1 × 106 spore/mL was the best inoculation concentration. To verify the accuracy of the spore-spraying method, 5 varieties with different resistant levels were tested both at the seedling and the adult phase and the identification results of the seedling phase were almost consistent to those of the adult phase. Finally, 31 resources were carried out resistant identification using the established spore-spraying method. The results revealed that the disease indexes of the wild asparagus were 0, which was identified as a immunity germplasm resource, the disease indexes of TX4/SD、Shuofeng and UC157 were slow, which were identified as resistant germplasm resources, while others were susceptible.

  18. Morphological Characteristics and Distribution of Wild Germplasm Resources of Mangifera indica in South and North Pan River Valley%南北盘江河谷野生芒果种质资源的分布与形态特征

    樊卫国; 罗燕; 吴素芳; 葛会敏


    为了给南北盘江河谷野生芒果种质资源的保护与利用研究提供参考依据,对南北盘江河谷的野生芒果资源进行了调查,并选择代表性单株进行形态特征描述和果实性状分析测定.结果表明:在南北盘江下游海拔395~550 m的河各地区有野生芒果(Mangifera indica L.)资源分布,并有数百年生的野生古芒果树存在.这些野生芒果果皮厚,果实小,种子大,可食率低,品质差,多胚和单胚共存,未经种质改良过的野生性状特征明显.%In order to provide the reference for protection and utilization of the wild germplasm resources of Mangifera indica in South and North Pan river valley, the representative plants were selected for the description of morphological characteristics and the determination of fruit traits, according to the investigation and analysis to the wild M. indica resources in South and North Pan river valley. The results showed that some wild M. indica resources were distributed in 395 - 550 meters above sea level in the lower of the South and North Pan river, in which hundreds-year-old wild M. indica trees existed. The characteristics of the wild M. indica in the area were the thick pericarp, the small fruit, the big seed, the low edible rate and the poor quality. Meanwhile, the multiple embryos and single embryo coexisted in the same plant. The wild traits and characteristics of without germplasm improvement obviously showed.

  19. Collecting and evaluation of germplasm of spiked pepper from Brazilian Amazon Pimenta-de-macaco: coleta e avaliação de germoplasma na Amazônia Brasileira

    José Maria D Gaia


    Full Text Available Spiked pepper (Piper aduncum L. is an aromatic plant species with high essential oil production. It is a species that occurs abundantly in the Brazilian Amazon. Its essential oil has exploitable biological properties in the human health and agriculture. Aiming to study its germplasm toward future use in genetic breeding programs, collecting was carried out (inflorescences, cuttings, leaves and thin branches in ten provenances from the Brazilian Amazon. Twelve morphoagronomic traits were determined to take the data: number of leaves by branch, length of leaf, width of the leaf, circumference of the older branch, height of the plant, number of orthotropic branches, number of plageotropic branches, length of the internodes, number of spikes per branches, yielding of oil, content and production of dillapiole, as well as data on the environment and populations of spiked pepper. The inflorescences and cuttings were encoded and sent for the Federal Rural University from Pará State (UFRA, Brazil, for propagation. The leaves and thin branches were sent for the Emílio Goeldi Museum, from Pará State (MPEG for extraction of essential oil (hydrodistillation. Estimators of amplitude of variation, mean, standard deviation and coefficient of variation were utilized to study the phenotypical variability. The morphoagronomic traits of largest variability were number of orthotropic branches, number of spikes per branch, circumference of the older branch and the content and production of dillapiole. This species has adapted to many different environments of vegetation, soil, climate, relief and drainage becomming easy the domestication and cropping. There is morphoagronomic variability pleasing the selection and genetic breeding.Piper aduncum L. é uma planta que ocorre na Amazônia Brasileira com elevado teor de óleo essencial e que apresenta propriedades biológicas utilizáveis na agricultura e saúde humana. Com o objetivo de avaliar germoplasma visando ao

  20. Molecular level’s evaluation on the genetic diversity of pummelo germplasm and their relative species in hunan province based on srap markers%湖南地方柚资源及其近缘种多样性的SRAP分子评价

    李先信; 杨迎花; 邹学校; 邓子牛


    以湖南本地柚类资源为试材,应用SRAP标记对41份柚类资源及5份近缘种的遗传多样性进行分析与鉴定。结果表明:平均每个引物组合可扩增出16.6条谱带,17对SRAP引物共扩增出283条谱带,其中多态性谱带235条,多态率为83.0%,基因多样度变幅为0.4317~0.7700,平均基因多样度为0.5443;获得了21个基因型的37个SRAP特异性标记,不同引物组合可将42个基因型完全分开;柚类及近缘种等位基因平均数、平均杂合位点占比、SRAP表型杂合度(H0)分别为9.02、67.77%和0.343。聚类分析结果显示,41份柚种质及5份近缘种材料在遗传相似系数0.792处可分为6个组群:第1、2组群分别由24个和11个柚的地方品种构成;第3组群为柚的种间杂种类型,包括菠萝香柚、慈利金香柚、慈利甜柚2号和慈利水柚子;第4组群由慈利柚09–1、金瓜两杂种柚和酸橙、臭皮柑两近缘种组成;第5组群包括无核大红甜橙和温州蜜柑;第6组群为柠檬。综合SRAP标记结果与形态特征分析,认为慈利金香柚可能源于以柚类为母本、以橙类(或宽皮橘类)为父本的自然种间杂交后代。%Genetic diversity of 41 pummelo (Citrus grandis Osbeck) germplasms and 5 relative species collected from Hunan province were identified and evaluated using the markers from sequence related amplified polymorphism (SRAP). The results showed that the average number of 16.6 alleles could be amplified out from every primer combination, and total of 283 alleles were detected from 17 SRAP markers, 235 out of which presented polymorphic, accounted for 83.0%. Gene diversity value changed from 0.431 7 to 0.770 0 with an average of 0.544 3 for each primer, which showed a high level of genetic diversity among the analyzed germplasms. 37 specific SRAP polymorphic bands were scored, and 42 genotypes from the 46 germplasms were completely identified by SRAP markers. The mean

  1. 元江干热河谷牛角瓜种质资源调查及果实性状的多元统计分析%Investigation on germplasm resources and multivariate statistical analysis on fruit characters ofCalotropis gigantea in Yuanjiang dry-hot valley in Yunnan

    郑元; 高柱; 罗明灿; 刘鹏; 黄北; 唐军荣; 王连春; 马焕成; 刘惠民


    对元江干热河谷区29个牛角瓜种质资源地点进行实地调查,并对收集的不同种源牛角瓜的18个果实性状进行了相关分析、变异度分析、主成分分析、方差分析、聚类分析。结果表明:该区大量分布的野生牛角瓜种质资源具有丰富的多样性;牛角瓜果实的单果长、单果宽、单果高、单果鲜质量、果壳鲜质量这5个指标相互之间均呈极显著正相关,果实各组分的含水量与单果干质量的相关性高于单果鲜质量,果实长度、果实干质量、种子干质量是影响单果棉干质量与出棉率这2个重要棉纺指标的关键因子;果实性状指标的变异度范围在3.99%~42.84%之间,表明调查区内牛角瓜果实在不同种源之间存在广泛的遗传变异性;筛选出单果长、单果干质量、单果棉干质量、单果含水量、芯含水量、种子含水量、单果种子数、出棉率为牛角瓜的主要果实性状指标;筛选出GJ05、HH01、HH06、GJ02、GJ04、JS03为元江干热河谷区牛角瓜不同种源地点的优良单株,表现为果实品质性状与棉纺经济性状均较高,确定红河、个旧为元江干热河谷区牛角瓜不同地理分布的优良种源。%Twenty-nine germplasm resource sites ofCalotropis gigantea in Yuanjiang dry-hot valley were surveyed in theifeld, and eighteen fruit characters of collected fruits from different provenances were analyzed in multivariables, which including correlation analysis, variation analysis, principal component analysis, variance analysis, and cluster analysis. The results show that the large numbers of germplasm resources of wildC. gigantea in the distribution areas had abundant diversities; There were signiifcantly positive correlations among fruit length, fruit width, fruit height, fruit fresh weight, and shell fresh weight ofCalotropis gigantea; Fruit dry weight had higher correlation with the water content of each fruit component than

  2. Genetic Diversity Analysis and Molecular Identification Card Construction of Chinese Cymbidium Germplasms Based on SRAP Markers%基于SRAP标记的国兰种质资源遗传多样性分析及分子身份证构建

    唐源江; 曹雯静; 吴坤林


    Objective] The genetic diversity of Chinese cymbidium germplasms was studied, meanwhile, the molecular fingerprinting and ID card were established in order to provide technique support for their identification at molecular level, and to lay the root for their exploitation, conservation, utilization and innovation in the future.[Method] 139 samples of Chinese cymbidium gemplasm containing cultivated and wild species were collected from south China and its neighborhood. Their genomic DNA was extracted by the modified method of CTAB. 208 pair SRAP primers was from random combinations with 13 pieces F-primer and 16 pieces R-primer, which each pair of SRAP primers was initially screened for amplification of a specific product from genomic DNA of two cultivars, one from ‘Songmei’ and the other from ‘Daxun’. The PCR amplification products were separated on 6% nondenaturing polyacrylamidegel electrophoresis. The electrophoresis pattern was artificially analyzed, and total bands, polymorphic bands and percentage of polymorphic bands(PPB) were counted. The polymorphism information content(PIC) were counted according to Botstein’s formula. The observed number of alleles (Na), effective number of alleles (Ne), Nei’s genetic diversity diversity index (H) , and Shannon’s information index (I) all were estimated by software POPGENE32. The UPGMA clustering analysis was performed by software NTSYS-pc2.10e, and attained the genetic similarity coefficient value. The method of primer combinations was used to construct a digital fingerprinting of 139 samples of Chinese cymbidium germplasm.[Result] 17 pair polymorphic primers were screened from 208 pair SRAP primers, and a total of 489 bands were amplified by these primers, of which 484 bands were polymorphic and PPB was 98.89%, observed number of alleles (Na), the effective number of alleles (Ne), Nei’s genetic diversity diversity index (H) , and Shannon’s information index (I) were respectively 2.00, 1.49, 0.30, 0

  3. Community Structures of Macrobenthos and Biodiversity in Natural Aquatic Germplasm Resource Reserve Zone in Hailang River%海浪河水产种质资源保护区大型底栖动物群落结构及多样性

    霍堂斌; 姜作发; 张伟; 刘刚


    2011年8月,对海浪河大型底栖动物群落结构进行了调查研究。本次调查共采集到了大型底栖动物14目31科56种,其中水生昆虫43种,分属7目21科,占总数75.44%。海浪河特有鱼类国家级水产种质资源保护区境内大型底栖动物共计13目30科51种,依群落数量看,蜉蝣目、毛翅目、双翅目为优势类群。海浪河大型底栖动物平均密度为180.19 ind.m-2、生物量为3.20 g.m-2。在各功能摄食生态类群中,捕食者最多,为25种,收集者15种,撕食者10种,刮食者6种。角锥毛石蚕(Brachycentinao)、泥苞虫(Setodes)、小划蝽(Siga substraia-ta)、Epeorus uenoi和Stenpsyche griseipennis是目前海浪河大型底栖动物的优势种。采用Shannon-Weiner生物指数、BI生物指数和Simposon生物指数对海浪河水质评价表明,各生物指数水质评价结果相似,洁净度排序趋势基本一致,均表明海浪河特有鱼类水产种质资源保护区境内水质比较清洁。%A survey was conducted to investigate the community structure and biodiversity of macrozoobenthos in the Hailang River during August in 2011.A total of 56 species of macrobenthos were collected,belonging to 14 orders and 31 families,among which aquatic insects were the predominant,with 43 species(75.44% of the total) belonging to 21 families and 7 orders.A total of 51 species of macrobenthos were found in Endemic Fish Natural Aquatic Germplasm Resource Reserve Zone in Hailang River,belonging to 13 orders and 30 families,among which Ephemerida,Trichoptera and Diptera were prevalent groups in the number of community.The macrobenthos were found at annual average density of 180.19 ind·m-2 and biomass of 3.20 g·m-2.The maximum was found to be the predators with 25 species in all functional feeding groups,followed by 15 collectors,10 scrapers and 6 shredders.The prevalent macrobenthos species were of Brachycentinao,Setodes,Siga substraiata,Epeorus uenoi and Stenpsyche

  4. Estimates of genetic parameters for physic nut traits based in the germplasm two years evaluation Estimativa de parâmetros genéticos de caracteres de pinhão-manso em dois anos de avaliação do banco de germoplasma

    Bruno Galvêas Laviola


    Full Text Available In spite of increasingly widespread interest in planting physic nut, breeding efforts are still in its infancy. In that context, an important resource recently established aiming future breeding efforts was the assembly of a germplasm bank with near 200 accessions. The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters, repeatibility coefficients and genetic correlation between seven traits, measured in 110 accessions (half sib families of this germplasm bank in different stages of development. The results show that higher relative values of additive variance were only found for yield and height, and the existence of low environmental variation (either of temporary or permanent nature among plots within blocks. Given the high repeatibility values found for all traits, on average three measurements are necessary to predict, accurately and efficiently, the true breeding value of an individual. Based on the results of genetic correlations, breeding effort should initially be use track trees with increased stem diameter, elevated number of branches and canopy volume so as to increase the chances of finding an exceptionally highly productive tree.Apesar do crescente interesse no plantio do pinhão manso, os esforços de melhoramento ainda estão em seu início. Nesse contexto, um importante recurso recentemente estabelecido visando a futuros trabalhos de melhoramento foi a montagem de um banco de germoplasma com cerca de 200 acessos. O objetivo deste estudo foi estimar parâmetros genéticos, coeficientes de repetibilidade e correlações genéticas entre sete características, mensuradas em 110 acessos (famílias de meios-irmãos desse banco de germoplasma em diferentes estágios de desenvolvimento. Os resultados demonstram que valores elevados de variância genética aditiva foram encontrados apenas para produção e altura e a existência de baixa variação ambiental (tanto de natureza temporária quanto permanente entre parcelas dentro

  5. Genetic parameter and correlation estimates of processing traits in half-sib progenies of tropical-adapted carrot germplasm Parâmetros genéticos e correlações entre características para processamento em progênies de meios-irmãos de germoplasma de cenoura tropical

    Jairo V Vieira


    Full Text Available The estimate of the genetic parameters associated with processing (fresh-cut traits, including root length (RL, is crucial for carrot breeding programs in tropical areas. The cultivar Alvorada is an important germplasm due to its resistance to nematodes, leaf blight, heat-tolerance, and high carotenoid content. Seventy-four 'Alvorada' half-sib progenies were evaluated during the summer of 2005 in the Federal District, Brazil, in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Thirteen competitive plants in each block were randomly selected and evaluated and/or classified for RL and for number of leaves (NL, leaf length (LL, root tip type (RT, root mass (RW, crown shape (CS, root diameter (RD, and xylem diameter (XD. The Pearson's correlation coefficients and the heritability values were estimated for all traits. The path analysis was also used considering the RL trait as dependent variable. The heritability for RL ranged from 12 to 44%. For the other traits, the values ranged from 3% (RD to 79% (LL. Phenotypic and genotypic correlations among all traits were low to intermediate. Path analysis indicated positive direct relationship between RL and RW, whereas RD and XD displayed negative direct effect on RL. Longer roots had narrow diameter and narrow XD. Recurrent selection based upon either half-sib or S1 families would be more effective than mass phenotypic recurrent selection in increasing RL and to develop populations expressing multiple desirable processing traits in tropical-adapted carrot germplasm.A estimativa de parâmetros genéticos associados com caracteres de processamento industrial, incluindo comprimento de raiz (RL, é crucial para programas de melhoramento de cenoura para áreas tropicais. A cultivar Alvorada é um importante germoplasma devido à sua resistência a nematóides e queima-das-folhas, tolerância ao calor e alto conteúdo de carotenóides. Setenta e quatro progênies meio-irmãs derivadas de 'Alvorada

  6. 十字花科58属94种野生植物种子脂肪酸组分分析%Fatty Acid Analysis of the Seed Oil in a Germplasm Collection of 94 Species in 58 Genera of Brassicaceae

    孙小芹; 庞慧; 郭建林; 彭斌; 自明明; 杭悦宇


    Fatty acid composition and their correlation with other quality traits in a germplasm collection of 94 species in 58 genu-ses of Brassicaceae were analyzed by the gas chromatography. The results showed that there were 13 kinds of main fatty acid components in seed oil. Their average contents were ranked from high to low as linolenic, erucic, linoleic, and oleic acids. There existed 10 pairs with extremely significant positive correlation between palmitics acid, and stearic acid, 11 pairs with extremely significant negative correlation between linolenic acid and erucic acid, 6 pairs with significant positive correlation between palmitic acid and linoleic acid, 4 pairs with, significant negative correlation between oleic acid and linolenic acid. As correlation coefficients reflecting the degree of relationship between some fatty acid pairs were relatively low, in these fatty acid pairs, only part or very few species were consistent with the corresponding relationship, or even none showed consistency with the relationship among 19 species with the highest or lowest fatty acid content. Some excellent gertnplasms were found with good development potentiality and application prospect, comprehensively as high oleic acid (L fendleri (A. Gray) S. Watson, etc. ) , high linoleic acid (O. Violaceus L. 0. E. Schulz, etc. ), zero erucic acid ( M. Africana ( Linnaeus) R. Brown, etc. ) , low linolenic acid (L. Annua L. , etc. ) , high oleic acid and low linolenic acid ( C. Hispanica L. , etc. ). High oleic acid and low erucic acid (O. Violaceus L. O. E. Schulz, etc. ) germplasms meeting the standard of edible oil and high erucic acid ( H. Rapa L , etc. ), and high linolenic acid (S. Eurycarpa ( Maxim. ) Botsch. Var. Brevistipes Y. C. Lan et T. Y. Cheo, etc. ) germplasms had important industrial uses. This study also laid a theoretical foundation for further exploration.%利用气相色谱法对十字花科58属94种野生植物种子进行了脂肪酸组分及含量测定,并对

  7. 民族村落农业种质资源多样性变化及其原因分析——以云南省师宗县黑尔壮族社区为例%Change in Agricultural Germplasm Resource Diversity in Minority Villages and Analysis of Its Cause-A Case Study of Hei'er Zhuang Nationality Village in Shizong County, Yunnan Province

    王思铭; 周玖璇; 况荣平; 薛达元; 武建勇


    Hei'er Village in Shizong County of Yunnan Province was chosen as a case of study for analysis of change in agricultural germplasm resource diversity therein and its causes. And a total of 66 kinds of agricultural germplasm resources were collected and collated. Strategies for protection of the resources in those villages have been discussed. Results show that the diversity in the village was quite abundant before 1980, but it was affected by a series of factors, such as modern farming and economic development, losing a great number of indigenous varieties, and most of the preserved indigenous varieties were closely related to the local traditional life style and production, especially culture of the nationality. Take Hei'er glutinous rice as an example, causes of its preservation and the threats it is faced with were analyzed. Meanwhile, some other indigenous varieties or species, like rape, ginger, peanuts and so on, were also found of high value worthy preserving in the village. These findings suggest that community-specific strategies and policies, such as ecological compensation, stimulation of villagers' enthusiasm, utilization of the strength of traditional knowledge and culture, exploitation and development to the full extent of the indigenous agricultural germplasm resources, and village-based farmer household responsible conservation, should be taken to promote preservation and sustainable utilization of the valuable indigenous varieties.%以云南省师宗县黑尔壮族社区为例,收集整理了66种农业种质资源,分析了该社区农业种质资源多样性的变化及其原因,探讨了民族村落农业种质资源的保护策略.结果表明,1980年以前,黑尔壮族社区农业种质资源较为丰富,但由于现代农业和经济发展等因素的影响,地方品种严重丧失;被保留下来的地方品种大都与当地生产生活,尤其是与民族文化密切相关.以黑尔糯稻为例,分析了黑尔糯稻种质资源得以保

  8. 不结球白菜雄性不育新种质不育系与保持系的生理生化分析%Physiological and biochemical analysis between a new germplasm CMS and its maintainer line of nonheading Chinese cabbage

    朱红芳; 侯瑞贤; 李晓锋; 朱玉英


    The leaves,buds,and flowers of the newly-bred sterile germplasm of nonheading Chinese cabbage and its maintainer line at different stages were determined in terms of soluble protein, soluble sugar, proline, O-2·, malondialdehyde and three protective enzymes: superoxide dismutase (SOD),peroxidase(POD),catalase(CAT). The results showed that the male sterile line at vegetative growth phase was near to its maintainer line in leaves' soluble protein content,but significantly lower than its maintainer line in soluble sugar and proline contents;The male sterile line at full bloom stage was higher than its maintainer line in leaves' soluble protein,soluble sugar and proline contents. The male sterile line was lower than its maintainer line in soluble protein, soluble sugar and proline contents of buds and flowers,but higher than its maintainer line in O-2·and MDA contents.%以新选育成的不结球白菜不育新种质及其保持系为试材,对不同时期的保持系和不育系的叶片、花蕾和花朵进行可溶性蛋白质、可溶性糖、脯氨酸、O2·、丙二醛以及超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、过氧化物酶(POD)、过氧化氢酶(CAT)3种保护酶的测定.结果表明:在营养生长期,不育系叶片中可溶性蛋白质含量与其保持系相近,而可溶性糖和脯氨酸含量显著低于保持系;在盛花期,不育系叶片中的可溶性蛋白质、可溶性糖和脯氨酸含量均高于其保持系.不育系花蕾和花朵的可溶性蛋白质、可溶性糖和脯氨酸含量低于其保持系,而O2·和丙二醛含量高于其保持系.

  9. 玉米地方品种耐旱种质的苗期筛选指标研究%Study on the Main Biological Traits of Maize Landraces under Drought Stress and Screening for Drought-intolerant Germplasm at Seedling Stage

    方平; 姚启伦; 陈秘; 谭春林; 许江


    Using pot culture with 10 maize landraces, the main morphological and physiological traits at seedling stage were investigated under drought stress. The results showed that drought stress had a negative influence on seedling morphology and physiology to some degree, and the existed differences of maize landraces tolerant to drought stress. There were differences in tolerance to drought stress both among maize landraces with the same biological trait and different biological traits of a maize landrace. Based on the morphological and physiological characteristics of maize landraces under drought stress, number of lateral roots, root volume, total leaf area and plant dry weight were suggested as morphological screening standards to identify drought-intolerant germplasm in landraces, and nitratase activity and malondialdehye (MDA) content can be used as physiological one.%以10个玉米地方品种为材料,通过盆栽试验设置干旱胁迫、正常供水2个处理,研究干旱胁迫下玉米地方品种的苗期形态和生理指标.结果表明,干旱胁迫对玉米地方品种幼苗植株形态和生理有不同程度的不利影响,不同玉米地方品种的耐旱性存在明显差异.不同地方品种的同一植株性状和同一地方品种的不同植株性状的耐旱胁迫指数存在差异.侧根数、叶面积、根体积和植株干重可作为玉米地方品种耐旱种质筛选的形态指标,硝酸还原酶活性和丙二醛含量可作为耐旱种质筛选的生理指标.

  10. Caracterización mediante microsatélites de 34 accesiones de naranja Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck del Banco de Germoplasma de Corpoica-Palmira Genetic characterization using microsatellites of 34 accessions of the orange, Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck from the Germplasm bank of Corpoica-Palmira

    Yacenia Morillo Coronado


    Full Text Available Se utilizaron 19 marcadores microsatélites para caracterizar 34 accesiones de naranja Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck del Banco de Germoplasma de la Corporación Colombiana de Investigación Agropecuaria (Corpoica-Palmira. Seis marcadores fueron polimórficos, los de mayor heterocigosidad fueron CCSM- 19 (0.4097 y CCSM-3 (0.3254. Se diferenciaron 33 accesiones y al 85% de similitud, con el índice de Nei-Li y el método de agrupamiento UPGMA, se conformaron cuatro grupos. En el primero se situaron dos accesiones blancas (Lerma y Valencia Olinda 2, en el segundo la mayoría de las blancas (Indian River, Valencia Olinda, Wialua, Lima Dulce, Pera del Río, St. Michael, Enterprise, Cafetera No. 1 junto con García Valencia y Navel (Lane Late, Valle Washington, New Hall y dos sanguinas (Rudy Blood, Moro Blood, en el tercero accesiones blancas (Joppa, Salerma, Cuban Queen, Rico, Galicia, Star Calyx, Valencia Cutter, Valencia Frost, Valencia Campbell y Valencia Variegado y una sola accesión sanguina (Morocco Blood. En el cuarto grupo se situaron dos accesiones blancas, (Jaffa y Valencia 1-D-E. Finalmente, la variedad Sanguinella no hizo parte de grupos. Con los marcadores microsatélites no se encontró relación entre los grupos genéticos, formación y las características morfológicas del grupo.To characterize 34 orange accessions Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck from the Germplasm bank Corpoica- Palmira, 19 microsatellite markers were used. Six markers were polymorphic; the highest heterozygosity was obtained by CCSM-19 (0.4097 and CCSM-3 (0.3254. Thirty-three accessions were differentiated; with 85% of similarity, Nei-Li´s index and the UPGMA clustering method were formed fi ve groups. In the first one, two accessions were white (Lerma and Valencia Olinda 2, in the second one most of the white (Indian River, Valencia Olinda, Wialua, Lima Dulce, Pera del Río, St. Michael, Enterprise, Cafetera No. 1, García Valencia and Navel (Lane Late, Valle Washington


    Edson Tobias Domingues


    Full Text Available O número de variedades de tangerinas utilizadas economicamente é muito restrito, apesar da importância comercial deste grupo de citros. O Banco Ativo de Germoplasma de Citros do Centro de Citricultura Sylvio Moreira/IAC possui em torno de 383 acessos de tangerineiras e híbridos, os quais têm sido estudados sob o ponto de vista botânico, genético e agronômico. Este trabalho visa descrever por meio de 38 caracteres morfológicos, os frutos das tangerineiras Satsuma Unshiu Wase, Clementina, Mel, Portuguesa, Natsu Mikan, Dancy, Cascalho, Campeona, Mexerica-do-Pará e Mexerica-do-Rio. Foram coletados 30 frutos maduros de cada acesso, sendo 10 frutos por planta, num total de 3 plantas por acesso. As tangerineiras, enxertadas sobre tangerineira Cleópatra e espaçadas de 7,5 m entre linhas por 5,5 m entre plantas, foram estudadas com 8 anos de plantio (safra 1994. Foi observada variabilidade fenotípica acentuada entre os acessos estudados, para a maioria dos caracteres avaliados e verificou-se que muitos caracteres agronômicos desejáveis encontram-se dispersos entre os acessos analisados, podendo vir a ser aproveitados em programas de melhoramento. A análise de agrupamento dos acessos através dos caracteres avaliados quantitativamente pode fornecer indicativos sobre as distâncias filogenéticas entre os diferentes genótipos.The number of mandarin varieties economically explored is very restricted, in spite of their commercial importance. The Active Citrus Germplasm Bank, of the `Centro de Citricultura Sylvio Moreira/IAC' holds around 383 accessions of mandarins and hybrids, which are analyzed in botanical, genetic and agronomic aspects. As a part of this program, this work aims the fruit morphological description through 38 characters of the following mandarins: Satsuma Unshiu Wase, Clementina, Mel, Portuguesa, Natsu Mikan, Dancy, Cascalho, Campeona, Mexerica-do-Pará and Mexerica-do-Rio. The mandarin trees are about 8 years old spaced 7

  12. Genetic Diversity Studies of Different Medicago L.Germplasms Based on the Orthogonal Optimum Design%ISSR-PCR 正交优化设计基础上的不同苜蓿种质遗传多样性研究

    刘青松; 陈立波; 李志勇; 刘磊; 师文贵; 张雪


    以提取的苜蓿基因组DNA为模板,通过正交设计,筛选出ISSR-PCR反应体系中最适宜的各组分浓度,即20μL的反应体系中最适添加量分别为2.0 U/μL的Taq DNA聚合酶,0.3 mmol/L的dNTP,1.0 mmol/L的MgCl2,0.1μmol/L的ISSR引物以及30 ng/μL的DNA模板。在此基础上对30份不同苜蓿种质材料进行遗传多样性研究,通过聚类分析研究,将30份不同苜蓿种质材料分为四大类,第一大类为来自加拿大的4个苜蓿品种(系);第二大类为来自美国的12个苜蓿品种(系);第三大类为来自中国和荷兰的12个苜蓿品种(系);第四大类为来自澳大利亚的2个苜蓿品种(系)。%Template DNA used for ISSR was extracted from alfalfa leaf tissue .The orthogonal design was ap-plied to optimize ISSR amplification system .Anoptimal reaction system was established ,20 μL reaction system con-tained 2.0 U/μL Taq DNA polymerase,0.3 mmol/L dNTP,1.0 mmol/L MgCl2,0.1 μmol/L ISSR primers and 30 ng/μL DNA template .Genetic diversity studies of Medicago L.germplasms were based on the result of the orthogo-nal design .And by cluster analysis ,30 varieties were divied into four groups , one group was consist of four alfalfa varieties coming from Canada , the second group was composed of twelve varieties coming from America , the third group includes twelve alfalfa varieties coming from China and Netherland ,and the last group has two alfalfa varieties coming from Australia .

  13. Phenotypic Variability of White Lupine (Lupinus albus L. Germplasm

    Natalia Anastasova GEORGIEVA


    Full Text Available Collecting, exploring and using a suitable, genetically diverse source material with different ecological-geographical origin is a determining prerequisite for the breeding success. The present study was conducted during the 2014-2016 period at theInstituteofForage Crops(Pleven,Bulgaria with 23 cultivars of white lupine originatingPoland,RussiaandUkraine. It was found a significant genetic diversity among the studied cultivars, which was a good prerequisite for starting a breeding program within the crop. The most favorable combination of a high seed productivity and crude protein content had cultivars ‘Tel Keram’, ‘Pflugs Ultra’, ‘WAT’, ‘Solnechnii’ and ‘Pink Mutant’, whose plants were also characterized by a mass of 1,000 seeds between 15 and 21 g. Genetically, the most distant from each other were ‘Bezimenii 1’ and ‘Pflugs Ultra’ compared to ‘Termis Mestnii’ and ‘Solnechnii’ as well as to ‘Tel Keram’. These cultivars are suitable as genitors for the development of high-yielding white lupine cultivars. Studied traits of pod length, number of seeds in a pod and seeds per plant showed a high positive phenotypic and genotypic correlation with the seed productivity in white lupine. Regarding productivity, it can be rely upon the mass of 1,000 seeds, plant height and number of seeds per plant due to their high total effect on the seed weight per plant.

  14. USVL-360, a novel watermelon tetraploid germplasm line

    A tetraploid line “USVL-360” derived from the United States Plant Introduction (PI) 299379 that belong to Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai var. citroides (L. H. Bailey) Mansf. (CLC) was developed in this study. USVL-360 is a pure line selection from an autotetraploid plant generated by tr...

  15. Maize Diversification by Capturing Useful Alleles from Exotic Germplasm

    Archeological, carbon-14 dating of maize specimens, and microsatellite evidence has provided strong support for domestication of maize 9,000 - 10,000 years ago from Z. mays ssp. parviglumis (Doebley, 1990) in southern Mexico (Matsuoka et. al., 2002). Since then, early and modern plant breeders...

  16. Genetic diversity analysis of mustard (Brassica spp.) germplasm ...

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    African Journal of Biotechnology. Full Length Research ... industrial and culinary purposes. The oils extracted ..... Ministry of Science and Information and Communication. Technology (MOSICT), Govt. of the People Republic of. Bangladesh for ...

  17. Molecular assessment of genetic diversity in mung bean germplasm

    G. Roopa Lavanya; Jyoti Srivastava; Shirish A. Ranade


    RAPD profiles were used to identify the extent of diversity among 54 accessions of mung bean that included both improved and local land races. Out of the 40 primers screened, seven primers generated 174 amplification products with an average of 24.85 bands per primer. The RAPD profiles were analysed for Jaccard’s similarity coefficients that was found to be in the range from 0 to 0.48, indicating the presence of wide range of genetic diversity at molecular level. Cluster analysis was carried out based on distances (1-similarity coefficient) using neighbour-joining method in Free Tree package. The dendrogram resolved all the accessions into two major clusters, I (with 11 accessions) and II (with 43 accessions). However, the cluster was further divided into four subclusters (II A with six, II B with nine, II C with 15 and II D with 13 accessions). The distribution of the accessions in different clusters and subclusters appeares to be related to their performance in field conditions for 10 morphological traits that were scored. This study indicated that the RAPD profiles provide an easy and simple technique for preliminary genetic diversity assessment of mung bean accessions that may reflect morphological trait differences among them.

  18. Potential emigration of Siberian cattle germplasm on Chirikof Island, Alaska



    Feral cattle residing in Chirikof Island, Alaska, are relatively distinct from breeds used in commercial production in North America. However, preliminary evidence suggested that they exhibit substantial genetic relationship with cattle fromYakutian region of Siberia. Thus, our objective was to further elucidate quantify the origins, admixture and divergence of the Chirikof Island cattle relative to cattle from Siberia and USA. Subject animals were genotyped at 15 microsatellite loci.Compared with Turano–Mongolian and North American cattle, Chirikof Island cattle had similar variation, with slightly less observed heterozygosity, fewer alleles per locus and a positive fixation index. Analysis of the genetic distances revealed two primary clusters; one that contained the North American breeds and the Kazakh White head, and a second that contained the Yakutian and Kalmyk breeds, and the Chirikof population. Thus, it is suggested that Chirikof Island cattle may be a composite of British breeds emanating from North America and Turano–Mongolian cattle. A potential founder effect, consistent withhistorical records of the Russian–American period, may contribute to the adaptation of the Chirikof Island cattle to their harsh high-latitude environment. Further study of adaptive mechanisms manifest by these cattle is warranted.

  19. Landrace Germplasm for Improving Yield and Abiotic Stress Adaptation.

    Dwivedi, Sangam L; Ceccarelli, Salvatore; Blair, Matthew W; Upadhyaya, Hari D; Are, Ashok K; Ortiz, Rodomiro


    Plant landraces represent heterogeneous, local adaptations of domesticated species, and thereby provide genetic resources that meet current and new challenges for farming in stressful environments. These local ecotypes can show variable phenology and low-to-moderate edible yield, but are often highly nutritious. The main contributions of landraces to plant breeding have been traits for more efficient nutrient uptake and utilization, as well as useful genes for adaptation to stressful environments such as water stress, salinity, and high temperatures. We propose that a systematic landrace evaluation may define patterns of diversity, which will facilitate identifying alleles for enhancing yield and abiotic stress adaptation, thus raising the productivity and stability of staple crops in vulnerable environments.

  20. Breeding potential of the basmati rice germplasm under water stress ...



    Mar 27, 2012 ... Most of the traits showed constant gene action in both environments, but the gene action of some ... analysis, genotypes CB-17, CB-32 and Basmati-198 were found to be good general ..... This may be due to the interaction of genes with the ...... variation for drought tolerance in durum wheat. ... Ph.D. thesis.