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Sample records for german power utility

  1. Project GeoPower: Basic subsurface information for the utilization of geothermal energy in the Danish-German border region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirsch, Reinhard; Balling, Niels; Fuchs, Sven

    and require reliable cross-border management and planning tools. In the framework of the Interreg4a GeoPower project, fundamental geological and geophysical information of importance for the planning of geothermal energy utilization in the Danish-German border region was compiled and analyzed. A 3D geological......Information on both hydraulic and thermal conditions of the subsurface is fundamental for the planning and use of hydrothermal energy. This is paramount in particular for densely populated international border regions, where different subsurface applications may introduce conflicts of use...... on potential geothermal reservoirs, and a new 3D structural geological model was developed. The interpretation of petrophysical data (core data and well logs) allows to evaluate the hydraulic and thermal rock properties of geothermal formations and to develop a parameterized 3D thermal conductive subsurface...

  2. Delays help German utilities maintain self-financing ratios. [Financing nuclear power projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radtke, G [Dresden Bank, AG (Germany, F.R.)

    1979-05-01

    Estimates of electricity consumption have been substantially reduced and nuclear plant is now expected to be 22% of total generating capacity in 1985 instead of the earlier forecast of 36%. The decline in the ordering of new plant has benefited the financial position of the electricity utilities and the expected fall in self-financing ratios has not occurred.

  3. Basic criteria and application examples of German utility PLIM concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sgarz, G.; Metzner, K.J.

    2002-01-01

    As a consequence of the consensus negotiations between the present Federal German Government and the German utilities the new Atomic Energy Law was set into force in April 2002. The main issues are: 1. Phase out of NPP-operation after a maximum lifetime of 32 years without any claims for compensation. 2. Termination of spent fuel reprocessing and switching over to direct final storage. Stop of spent fuel casks shipment in 2005. 3. Intermediate storage facilities are to be provided on each power plant site. 4. The promotion clause for nuclear energy is cancelled, the construction of new NPP's is prohibited. 5. The NPP safety status has to be kept on a high level standard. A periodic safety assessment must be performed 'according to the state of the art' based on up-to-date codes and standards in a 10-year interval. As a consequence, the future German policies and strategies are based on this law

  4. German power options: Lack of clarity will be costly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuelke, Christian

    2010-01-01

    The German environment minister Norbert Roettgen (CDU) revived the German debate about the future of nuclear power in February when he argued for a limited lifetime extension of Germany's nuclear plants. His statements created much dissent in his own party and with the coalition partner FDP. The government will not take a formal decision before the autumn, but the contradicting messages from inside the government send highly ambiguous signals to electricity utilities with investment plans in Germany. What does the German government want the companies to do?

  5. Topical problems of the German electric power industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boeck, H [Stadtwerke Hannover A.G. (Germany, F.R.); Worm, N [Hannover-Braunschweigische Stromversorgungs-A.G., Hannover (Germany, F.R.); Brohmeyer, M [Schleswig-Holsteinische Stromversorgungs A.G., Rendsburg (Germany, F.R.). Abt. Anwendungstechnik und Beratung; Deuster, G [Energieversorgung Oberhausen A.G. (Germany, F.R.); Heitzer, H; Holzer, J [Bayernwerk A.G., Muenchen (Germany, F.R.); Deparade, K [Verband der Energie-Abnehmer e.V., Hannover (Germany, F.R.); Marnet, C [Stadtwerke Duesseldorf A.G. (Germany, F.R.); Oberlack, H W [Hamburgische Electricitaets-Werke A.G. (Germany, F.R.); Segatz, U [Preussische Elektrizitaets-A.G. (Preussenelektra), Hannover (Germany, F.R.)

    1978-06-01

    On the occasion of the general meeting of the VDE high-ranking personalities of the German Power Supply Industry were interviewed on current affairs. The following subjects were discussed: (1) problems involved in energy policy; (2) energy problems due to newly formed regions; (3) utilization of electric power in agriculture; (4) development prospects of district heating; (5) problems of power generation far from coal districts; (6) rationalization in the commercial sector; (7) opportunities and limits of industrial combined heat and power generation; (8) environmental protection and electric power supply; (9) possible utilization of imported coal; and (10). assuring the primary energy basis for electric power supply.

  6. Radioactive waste management for German nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weh, R.; Methling, D.; Sappok, M.

    1996-01-01

    In Germany, back-end fuel cycle provisions must be made for the twenty nuclear power plants currently run by utilities with an aggregate installed power of 23.4 GWe, and the four nuclear power plants already shut down. In addition, there are the shut down nuclear power plants of the former German Democratic Republic, and a variety of decommissioned prototype nuclear power plants built with the participation of the federal government and by firms other than utilities. The nuclear power plants operated by utilities contribute roughly one third of the total electricity generation in public power plants, thus greatly ensuring a stable energy supply in Germany. The public debate in Germany, however, focuses less on the good economic performance of these plants, and the positive acceptance at their respective sites, but rather on their spent fuel and waste management which, allegedly, is not safe enough. The spent fuel and waste management of German nuclear power plants is planned on a long-term basis, and executed in a responsible way by proven technical means, in the light of the provisions of the Atomic Act. Each of the necessary steps of the back end of the fuel cycle is planned and licensed in accordance with German nuclear law provisions. The respective facilities are built, commissioned, and monitored in operation with the dedicated assistance of expert consultants and licensing authorities. Stable boundary conditions are a prerequisite in ensuring the necessary stability in planning and running waste management schemes. As producers of waste, nuclear power plants are responsible for safe waste management and remain the owners of that waste until it has been accepted by a federal repository. (orig./DG) [de

  7. On the spatial hedging effectiveness of German wind power futures for wind power generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Troels Sønderby; Pircalabu, Anca

    2018-01-01

    The wind power futures recently introduced on the German market fill the gap of a standardized product that addresses directly the volume risk in wind power trading. While the German wind power futures entail risk-reducing benefits for wind power generators generally speaking, it remains unclear...... the extent of these benefits across wind farms with different geographical locations. In this paper, we consider the wind utilization at 31 different locations in Germany, and for each site, we propose a copula model for the joint behavior of the site-specific wind index and the overall German wind index....... Our results indicate that static mixture copulas are preferred to the stand-alone copula models usually employed in the economic literature. Further, we find evidence of asymmetric dependence and upper tail dependence. To quantify the benefits of wind power futures at each wind site, we perform...

  8. Radiation exposure in German nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, W.

    1981-01-01

    The individual and collective doses in German nuclear power stations have decreased remarkably since the beginning of the commercial nuclear power production. The paper discusses the influencing factors, that have caused this development and points out areas where improvements are possible in the future. Moreover the interaction between radiation protection practice and the relevant legal regulations is considered. Usually the recording of job related doses is regarded as the most direct access to possible improvements. Concluding, it is therefore demonstrated by some examples how the evaluation of such information has taken effect in practice. (orig.) [de

  9. West German Jewry: Guilt, Power and Pluralism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony d. Kauders

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The essay will address the history of West German Jewry using the concept of guilt as its guiding theme. Jews in West Germany had a bad conscience on account of living in the “land of the murderers.” This bad conscience not only distinguished them from other Jewish communities, it also explains much of what characterized West German Jewry from 1945 to 1989: its particular economic structure; its especially close ties to Israel; its preoccupation with democratization; its power arrangements; and its communal life. The essay will address these issues, and trace a development that led from a close-knit, ideologically homogeneous group to one that became ever more pluralistic in the 1970s and 1980s.

  10. Life extension for German nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, W.

    2005-01-01

    The Federation of German Industries (BDI) commissioned a study of the ''Economic Effects of Alternative Lifetimes of Nuclear Power Plants in Germany.'' The expert organizations invited as authors were the Power Economy Institute of the University of Cologne (EWI) and Energy Environment Forecast Analysis GmbH (EEFA), Berlin. The reasons for commissioning the Study include the changed framework conditions (deregulation, CO 2 emission certificate trading, worldwide competition for resources), which have altered the energy supply situation in Europe. The findings of the Study were presented to the public by the BDI on October 26, 2005. The study deals with two scenarios of extended lifetimes for German nuclear power plants of 40 and 60 years as against the existing regulations with plant lifetimes limited to approx. 32 years. The longer service lives of plants are reflected in reduced electricity generation costs and thus may have a positive influence on electricity prices. Moreover, there would be additional growth of production together with additional jobs, all of which would add up to nearly 42,000 persons for all sectors of the economy as compared to the basic scenario. Also, CO 2 emissions could be curbed by up to 50 million tons of carbon dioxide. The Study offers ample and valid reasons in favor of extending the lifetimes of nuclear power plants. In the interest of general welfare, politics would be well advised to relax the restrictions on plant life in the course of this legislative term. (orig.)

  11. Availability Improvement of German Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhelm, Oliver

    2008-01-01

    High availability is important for the safety and economical performance of Nuclear Power Plants (NPP). The strategy for availability improvement in a typical German PWR shall be discussed here. Key parameters for strategy development are plant design, availability of safety systems, component reliability, preventive maintenance and outage organization. Plant design, availability of safety systems and component reliability are to a greater extent given parameters that can hardly be influenced after the construction of the plant. But they set the frame for maintenance and outage organisation which have shown to have a large influence on the availability of the plant. (author)

  12. Ageing management in German nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, D.E.; Reiner, M.

    1998-01-01

    In Germany, the term 'ageing management' comprises several aspects. A demand for a special ageing monitoring programme is not explicitly contained in the regulations. However, from the Atomic Energy Act and its regulations results the operator's obligation to perform extensive measures to maintain the quality of the plant and the operating personnel working in the plant. From this point of view, comprehensive ageing management in German nuclear power plants has taken place right from the start under the generic term of quality assurance. (author)

  13. The German Navy: From World Power to Alliance Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    national policy and naval strategy in the case of a non- Anglo - Saxon continental power with world standing. An analysis of such phenomena has great...conjunction, a naval strategy more fitting to the geo-strategic realities of this central-European non- Anglo - Saxon power—a course that proved hardly...38   2.   The Anglo -German Naval Agreement ............................................ 41   D

  14. Wind Power Utilization Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    The expres- sions for the rotor torque for a Darrieus machine can be found in Reference 4.16. The Darrieus wind turbine offers the following... turbine generators, wind -driven turbines , power conditioning, wind power, energy conservation, windmills, economic ana \\sis. 20 ABS 1"ACT (Conti,on... turbines , power conditioning requirements, siting requirements, and the economics of wind power under different conditions. Three examples are given to

  15. The German-German history of the nuclear power plant Greifswald. Nuclear power between east and west. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoegselius, Per

    2015-01-01

    The historical study covers the chapters The nuclear power plant Greifswald; Lubmin shortly before the ''Wende'' 1989; the German ''Wende''; from the last vote for the ''Volkskammer (parliament of the German Democratic Republic) to the German reunification; Lubmin in reunified Germany; conclusions and perspectives. In the attachment technical data about the reactors WWER-440/W-230 are summarized, including a list of WWERs in the former eastern bloc countries.

  16. Business model innovation for sustainable energy: German utilities and renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, Mario

    2013-01-01

    The electric power sector stands at the beginning of a fundamental transformation process towards a more sustainable production based on renewable energies. Consequently, electric utilities as incumbent actors face a massive challenge to find new ways of creating, delivering, and capturing value from renewable energy technologies. This study investigates utilities' business models for renewable energies by analyzing two generic business models based on a series of in-depth interviews with German utility managers. It is found that utilities have developed viable business models for large-scale utility-side renewable energy generation. At the same time, utilities lack adequate business models to commercialize small-scale customer-side renewable energy technologies. By combining the business model concept with innovation and organization theory practical recommendations for utility mangers and policy makers are derived. - Highlights: • The energy transition creates a fundamental business model challenge for utilities. • German utilities succeed in large-scale and fail in small-scale renewable generation. • Experiences from other industries are available to inform utility managers. • Business model innovation capabilities will be crucial to master the energy transition

  17. The availability of German nuclear power plants in an international comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fehndrich, W.; Kutsch, W.

    1975-01-01

    The availability of German nuclear power stations is discussed in comparison with European and American light-water nuclear power stations. Furthermore, the availability or utilization is shown as a function of the year of operation and of the unit size (the latter only for the USA), and the trends observed during the last 4 years are made evident. The unscheduled shutdowns of light-water nuclear power stations during the past 4 years are analysed on the basis of publications of the IAEA in Vienna and the ABE-Committees of the German Atomforum with special emphasis on the affected systems. (orig.) [de

  18. Ownership unbundling in the electric power industry. Reconcilability with German constitutional law and with EU law relating to German vertically integrated utilities; Ownership unbundling in der Energiewirtschaft. Vereinbarkeit einer eigentumsrechtlichen Entflechtung in der Energiewirtschaft mit den Grundrechten des Grundgesetzes und des Gemeinschaftsrechts deutscher vertikal integrierter Energieversorgungsunternehmen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wachovius, Martin

    2008-07-01

    The publication investigates legal problems relating to ownership unbundling of vertically integrated utilities according to new EU law, especially the draft directive of the EU Commission of 19 September 2007. After a definition of the term and its historical development, the problem of law giving competence of the EU is discussed. Another issue is the problem if a new structure of European and German energy law is compatible with the basic laws defined in EU law and German constitutional law, namely with the principle of guarantee of ownership, professional freedom, and general freedom of action.

  19. Control rooms in German nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, E.

    1999-01-01

    The paper explains and illustrates the dissimilarity in design and equipment of control rooms in German NPPs, as well as a historical survey of the general principles and approaches applied in the evolution of control room technology, including backfitting activities. Experience obtained from daily operation as well training at the simulators is taken as a basis to formulate fundamental requirements for modification or novel design approaches. (orig./CB) [de

  20. Power from biomass: the power utility perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serafimova, K.; Angele, H.-C.

    2008-01-01

    This article takes a look at possible strategies that electricity utilities in Switzerland could follow in order to be able to make use of biomass as a source of energy. Increasing interest in damp biomass as a relatively cheap, renewable and climate-friendly source of energy is commented on. Strategic choices that energy utilities have to make when they decide to enter into the biomass market are examined. The potentials involved are examined, including biogenic materials from domestic wastes and from agriculture. Figures on potential waste tonnage are quoted. Questions on subsidies and the free market are examined. The setting up of 'virtual power stations' - networks of installations using photovoltaic, wind and biomass - is discussed, as are various strategies that utilities can follow in this area. Examples of such 'virtual power stations' are listed.

  1. Strategy for utilizing nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martens, E.J.

    1977-01-01

    One of the national goals is to achieve independence in the area of energy supplies in the next few years. It is believed that attaining this goal will require extensive utilization of nuclear power in conventional fission reactors. It is proposed that the best way to develop the nuclear resource is through government ownership of the reactors. It is argued that this will minimize the risks associated with the nuclear-power option and clear the way for its exploitation

  2. Utility requirements for fusion power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeBellis, R.J.

    1977-03-01

    A four-man month study was undertaken to identify utility requirements of fusion power and define a role for the utilities in the fusion development process during the 1980s. This report, preliminary in nature, serves mainly as a planning document for future requirements analyses. A requirements organization was defined to consist of three major chronological phases: research and development, plant installation, and plant operation. Thirty-seven requirements were identified, covering all categories. In addition, training, environment, safety, licensing, and utility model were identified as five matrix-type requirements. As the requirement definition process continued during the study period, comments received from utility representatives revealed a consistency of key issues in the fusion development process. These issues form the basis for the eventual establishment of definitive roles for the utilities during the 1980s. The issues are not meant to reflect a negative view of fusion, but are items that must be solved before fusion can be introduced commercially as an electrical power source. As a result of this requirements study, preliminary candidate roles for the utilities in the fusion development process during the 1980s were identified as public education, commercialization studies, industry investment analyses, training plan implementation, alternate reactor concept development, ERDA concept design review, and requirements refinement

  3. Utility requirements for fusion power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeBellis, R.J.

    1977-03-01

    A four-man-month study, jointly funded by EPRI and McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Company-EAST, was undertaken to identify the utility requirements of fusion power and define a role for the utilities in the fusion development process during the 1980's. This report, preliminary in nature, serves mainly as a planning document for future requirements analyses. A requirements organization was defined to consist of three major chronological phases: research and development, plant installation, and plant operation. Thirty-seven requirements were identified, covering all categories. In addition, training, environment, safety, licensing, and utility model were identified as five matrix-type requirements. As the requirement definition process continued during the study period, comments received from utility representatives revealed a consistency of key issues in the fusion development process. These issues form the basis for the eventual establishment of definitive roles for the utilities during the 1980's. The issues are not meant to reflect a negative view of fusion, but are items which must be solved before fusion can be introduced commercially as an electrical power source. As a result of this requirements study, preliminary candidate roles for the utilities in the fusion development process during the 1980's were identified as public education, commercialization studies, industry investment analyses, training plan implementation, alternate reactor concept development, ERDA concept design review, and requirements refinement

  4. Purchasing non-utility power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brackeen, L.G.

    1990-01-01

    The author discusses Houston Lighting and Power Company's procedure for purchasing power from cogenerators. By way of introduction, HL and P is the eighth largest electric utility in the United States in terms of kilowatt-hour sales and the second largest purchaser of natural gas in the nation. HL and P is also the principal utility providing electric service to the massive petrochemical industry in Southeast Texas. Of the 4,800 MW of cogeneration available, HL and P buys 945 MW under firm contracts, wheel 1,600 MW to other utilities, buy 400 MW under non-firm contracts and the balance is self-generation used to displace power which would otherwise be purchased from HL and P. With all this cogeneration capacity available, the problem until recently has been managing the surplus. HL and P now is finding itself in the unaccustomed position of needing to buy additional power or build plants to meet the modest growth it forecasts for Houston. The need for additional capacity coincides with the expiration of cogeneration contracts in 1993 and 1994. To meet this capacity need, they are determined to avoid buying cogeneration at a very high price and on delivery terms which do not reflect realistic benefits to their electric customers. The paper gives information on the background on PUC regulations and legislation, then briefly reviews the procedure for purchase of cogenerated power in Texas

  5. Cost reduction potentials in the German market for balancing power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flinkerbusch, Kai; Heuterkes, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This article examines potential cost reductions in the market for balancing power by pooling all four German control areas. In a united control area both the procurement and the production of balancing power may be more efficient than in four separated control areas. Our data contain bids on energy procurement as well as balancing power flows in the period from December 2007 to November 2008. A reference scenario simulates the market results for secondary and tertiary balancing power. Subsequently, we simulate a united control area. We show that in the period under review the total costs of balancing power are reduced by 17%. (author)

  6. Utility experience in reactor noise analysis in German LWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuette, A.; Weingarten, J.; Wach, D.

    1988-01-01

    Reactor noise analysis has a long history in Fed. Rep. of Germany. Since the early 60ies it was directed to early fault, malfunction and anomaly detection in nuclear power plants. When successful diagnoses showed the high potential and benefits including economic and safety aspects, also the utilities began to have a vivid concern in application of the developed methods and systems. The know-how transfer from specialized teams to the onsite personnel as well as the development of more ''intelligent'' online systems are important present and future tasks for further improvement of their efficiency. The diagnostic group of GRS is active in both fields and has close cooperation with several utilities to achieve these objectives. Modern signal processing equipment and access to a comprehensive knowledge base stored in data banks are provided by the data analysis center of GRS. The available capabilities are described and examples of analysis results within the cooperation utilities/GRS are given. (author)

  7. Power Sales to Electric Utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1989-02-01

    The Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA) of 1979 requires that electrical utilities interconnect with qualifying facilities and purchase electricity at a rate based upon their full avoided costs (i.e., costs of providing both capacity and energy). Qualifying facilities (QF) include solar or geothermal electric units, hydropower, municipal solid waste or biomass-fired power plants, and cogeneration projects that satisfy maximum size, fuel use, ownership, location, and/or efficiency criteria. In Washington State, neither standard power purchase prices based upon a proxy ''avoided plant'', standard contracts, or a standard offer process have been used. Instead, a variety of power purchase contracts have been negotiated by developers of qualifying facilities with investor-owned utilities, public utility districts, and municipally-owned and operated utilities. With a hydro-based system, benefits associated with resource acquisition are determined in large part by how compatible the resource is with a utility's existing generation mix. Power purchase rates are negotiated and vary according to firm energy production, guarantees, ability to schedule maintenance or downtime, rights of refusal, power plant purchase options, project start date and length of contract; front-loading or levelization provisions; and the ability of the project to provide ''demonstrated'' capacity. Legislation was also enacted which allows PURPA to work effectively. Initial laws established ownership rights and provided irrigation districts, PUDs, and municipalities with expanded enabling powers. Financial processes were streamlined and, in some cases, simplified. Finally, laws were passed which are designed to ensure that development proceeds in an environmentally acceptable manner. In retrospect, PURPA has worked well within Washington. In the state of Washington, 20 small-scale hydroelectric projects with a combined generating capacity of

  8. Losses in German nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abinger, R.

    1982-01-01

    The author illustrates the special features of engineering insurance for nuclear power plants. The shares of the Allianz Versicherungs-AG in the insurance of construction and erection work and in machinery insurance are dealt with. Risk estimation is usually based on statistical analysis of losses. Loss analysis in the conventional sector of nuclear power plants shows typical characteristics of traditional erection and machinery losses. In the nuclear field, however, costs are greatly increased by added safety measures. For this reason, additional cover is allocated and incorporated in premium assessment. Examples from erection and machinery reveal the greater costs involved in handling losses. (orig.) [de

  9. The German nuclear power plant safety study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    With this study a new approach has been chosen, taking nuclear power plants as an example to assess and to describe the risks arising from the use of modern technology, including those hazards emanating from the rather hypothetical possibility of occurrence of very serious accidents. Following the definition of basic concepts and methods to be applied in risk assessment studied, as well as a brief account of the design and operating mode of nuclear power plants with PWRs', accidents and failures to be considered in a safety study are described. Using the course-of-event and fault tree analysis, the probability of fission product release as a consequence of failures in safety systems or of core meltdown is evaluated. Subsequently, the theoretical model for assessment of reactor accident consequences is presented, discussing such aspects as the dispersion of radioactivity in the atmosphere, the radiation dose model, safety and countermeasures, the model for the evaluation of health hazards as well as methods and calculations for estimating the reliability of risk assessments together with the remaining uncertainties. In an appendix to this study, the analyses presented in the study are discussed in the light of the TMI-2 event. This safety study showing the possibilities of detecting, keeping in check and minimizing harmful effects, can be regarded as a contribution to a better understanding of our modern, highly industrialised society, and eventually to an improvement of the quality of life. (GL) 891 GL/GL 892 MB [de

  10. German "Soft power" Policies in the Muslim World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leili R. Rustamova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, a number of foreign policy concepts declared the importance of using the instruments of "soft power" to promote the national interests of a country. Soft power is the ability through political values, culture and foreign policy to influence others by forming attractiveness [18]. Germany is generally recognized as the leader in the resources of "soft power." The article discusses what kind of resources are deployed by Germany to increase its "soft power" in the Muslim direction of foreign policy. The Muslim world has its own specifics, which complicate the use of instruments of "soft power." Countries with large Muslim population are difficult to influence, as they differ from Europe in the civilizational respect, have their own customs and traditions which they strictly follow because of the nature of Muslim religion. The author notes that in the Muslim direction of foreign policy the problem for Germany lies in the fact that the formation of its attractiveness resulted in a significant flow of immigration of Muslims in the country. A part of immigrant Muslims tries to live isolated from European society, professes radical currents ofIslam and participates in military conflicts abroad, participation in which in the role of active player is ruled out by Germany. Failure to integrate them into German society and the lack of progress in the formation of its positive image in the Muslim countries resulted, on the one hand, in the split of German society, on the other hand, in the threat of absorption by foreign civilization, as it is observed now in Germany the presence of "soft power" of Muslim countries, which use its former and current citizens to influence German political course. The article was written within the constructivist methodology, which consider the "soft power" as a way of construction of social reality with the use of tangible and intangible resources for the formation of an attractive image of Germany in world

  11. The German risk study for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkhofer, A.

    1980-01-01

    In August 1979 results of the ''German Risk Study for Nuclear Power Plants'' were published. The Main Report, in which approach and results of the study are documented, has been available since the end of 1979. It was the charter of the study - which was performed on behalf of the Minister of Research and Technology of the Federal Republic of Germany - to apply as far as possible the methods of the US Reactor Safety Study (WASH-1400) to German plant and site conditions. A direct transfer of the results was not deemed justified, mainly for the following reasons: There is quite a number of differences between the design of the reference plants of WASH-1400 (Surry-1, Peach Bottom-2) and German nuclear power plants. The mean population density in the Federal Republic of Germany is more than ten times of the United States. In the vicinity of nuclear power plants the ratio is about 3:1. To calculate the collective risk resulting from reactor accidents, a total of 25 plants at 19 different sites in the Federal Republic of Germany were considered. This included all plants with 600 MW or more electrical output, which were in operation, under construction or in licensing process by July 1, 1977. As an approximation to the real situation, it has been assumed that all 25 plants are technically identical to the reference plant

  12. On-site storage of spent nuclear fuel assemblies in German nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banck, J.

    1999-01-01

    The selection of back-end strategies for spent fuel assemblies is influenced by a number of different factors depending on the given situation in any specific country. In Germany, the back-end strategy implemented in the past was almost exclusively reprocessing. This strategy was required by the German Atomic Energy Act. Since 1994, when the Atomic Energy Act was amended, the option of direct final disposal has been granted the equivalent status by law to that afforded to reprocessing (and reuse of valuable materials). As a result, German utilities may now choose between these two alternatives. Another important condition for optimizing the back-end policy is the fact that fuel cycle costs in Germany are directly dependent on spent fuel volumes (in contrast to the US, for example, such costs are related to the amount of power generated). Another boundary condition for German utilities with respect to spent fuel management is posed by the problems with militant opponents of nuclear energy during transportation of spent fuel to interim storage sites. These facts have given rise to a reconsideration of the fuel cycle back-end, which has resulted in a change in strategy by most German utilities in favour of the following: Preference for long-term storage and maximized use of on-site storage capacity; Reduction in the amount of spent fuel by increasing burnup as much as possible. These decisions have also been driven by the deregulation of energy markets in Europe, where utilities are now permitted to sell electric power to consumers beyond their original supply network and must therefore offer electric power on a very cost competitive basis. (author)

  13. Pressurized thermal shock analysis in German nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fricke, Stefan; Braun, Michael [TUEV NORD Nuclear, Hannover (Germany)

    2015-03-15

    For more than 30 years TUeV NORD is a competent consultant in nuclear safety is-sues giving expert third party opinion to our clients. According to the German regulations the safety against brittle fracture has to be proved for the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) and with a new level of knowledge the proof has to be continuously updated with the development in international codes and standards like ASME, BS and RCC-M. The load of the RPV is a very complex transient pressure and temperature situation. Today these loading conditions can be modeled by thermal hydraulic calculations and new experimental results much more detailed than in the construction phase of German Nuclear Power Plants in the 1980s. Therefore, the proof against brittle fracture from the construction phase had to be updated for all German Nuclear Power Plants with the new findings of the loading conditions especially for a postulated small leakage in the main coolant line. The RPV consists of ferritic base material (about 250 mm) and austenitic cladding (about 6 mm) at the inner side. The base material and the cladding have different physical properties which have to be considered temperature dependently in the cal-culations. Radiation-embrittlement effects on the material are to be respected in the fracture mechanics assessment. The regions of the RPV of special interest are the core weld, the inlet and outlet nozzle region and the flange connecting weld zone. The fracture mechanics assessment is performed for normal and abnormal operating conditions and for accidents like LOCA (Loss of Coolant Accident). In this paper the German approach to fracture mechanics assessment to brittle fracture will be discussed from the point of view of a third party organization.

  14. German risk study 'nuclear power plants, phase B'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuser, F.W.

    1989-01-01

    The results of the German risk study 'Nuclear power plants, phase B' indicate that an accident in a nuclear power plant which cannot be managed by the safety systems according to design, is extremely improbable: Its probability is at about 3 to 100,000 per year and plant. Even if the safety systems fail, emergency measures can be effected in a nuclear power plant to prevent an accident. These in-plant emergency measures diminish the probability of a core meltdown to about 4 to 1,000,000 per year and plant. Hence, the accident risk is greatly reduced. The information given by the author are to smooth the emotional edge in the discussion about the safety of nuclear power plants. (orig.) [de

  15. Competition on the weg: Product strategies of German utilities; Wettbewerb per Internet. Produktstrategien deutscher Stromversorger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franke-Ewald, Andreas [Ernst und Young AG, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2009-01-15

    Deregulation and regulation of the energy markets pose enormous challenges to German utilities. Further, consumer consultants and internet portals make it easier for consumers to find the best buy, which in turn enhances competition. An attractive online representation makes it possible for utilities to acquire new customers and satisfy regular ones. A current study analysed the web pages of German utilities with the intention to get a picture of the innovative capacity of the product range on offer to private customers. It was found that there is still vast room for improvement. (orig.)

  16. The German power market. Data collection for model analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munksgaard, J.; Alsted Pedersen, K.; Ramskov, J.

    2000-09-01

    In the present project the market scenario for analysing market imperfections has been the Northern European power market, i.e. a market including Germany as well. Consequently, one of the tasks in the project has been to collect data for Germany in order to develop the empirical basis of the ELEPHANT model. In that perspective the aim of this report is to document the data collected for Gemany, to specify the data sources used and further to lay stress on the assumptions which have been made when data have not been available. By doing so, transparency in model results is improved. Further, a basis for discussing the quality of data as well as a framework for future revisions and updating of data have been established. The data collected for Germany have been given by the exogenous variables defined by the ELEPHANT model. In that way data collection is a priori given by the specification of the model. The model includes more than 30 exogenous variables specified at a very detailed level. These variables include among others data on energy demand, detailed power production data and data on energy taxes and CO{sub 2} emission targets. This points to the fact that many kinds of data sources have been used. However, due to lack of data sources not all relevant data have been collected. One area in which lack of data has been significant is demand reactions to changes in energy prices, i.e. the different kinds of demand elasticities used in the production and consumer utility functions in the model. Concerning elasticities for German demand reactions no data sources have been available at all. Another area of data problems is combined heat and power production (so-called CHP production), in which only very aggregated data have been available. Lack of data or poor quality of data (e.g., data not up to date or data not detailed enough) has led to the use of appropriate assumptions and short cuts in order to establish the entire data basis for the model. We describe the

  17. The German power market. Data collection for model analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munksgaard, J.; Alsted Pedersen, K.; Ramskov, J.

    2000-09-01

    In the present project the market scenario for analysing market imperfections has been the Northern European power market, i.e. a market including Germany as well. Consequently, one of the tasks in the project has been to collect data for Germany in order to develop the empirical basis of the ELEPHANT model. In that perspective the aim of this report is to document the data collected for Gemany, to specify the data sources used and further to lay stress on the assumptions which have been made when data have not been available. By doing so, transparency in model results is improved. Further, a basis for discussing the quality of data as well as a framework for future revisions and updating of data have been established. The data collected for Germany have been given by the exogenous variables defined by the ELEPHANT model. In that way data collection is a priori given by the specification of the model. The model includes more than 30 exogenous variables specified at a very detailed level. These variables include among others data on energy demand, detailed power production data and data on energy taxes and CO 2 emission targets. This points to the fact that many kinds of data sources have been used. However, due to lack of data sources not all relevant data have been collected. One area in which lack of data has been significant is demand reactions to changes in energy prices, i.e. the different kinds of demand elasticities used in the production and consumer utility functions in the model. Concerning elasticities for German demand reactions no data sources have been available at all. Another area of data problems is combined heat and power production (so-called CHP production), in which only very aggregated data have been available. Lack of data or poor quality of data (e.g., data not up to date or data not detailed enough) has led to the use of appropriate assumptions and short cuts in order to establish the entire data basis for the model. We describe the

  18. 1997: Nuclear power in the German power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wnuk, A.

    1998-01-01

    Also in 1997, nuclear power contributed the largest share among all sources of energy to the supply of electricity in Germany, generating 170,3 TWh. This marks a considerable increase by almost 5% over the previous year's level. Nuclear power held a 31.0% share in the supply of electricity in Germany, and a 34.7% share in public supply. Hard coal, producing 143.1 TWh, contributed a share of 26.0%. Electricity generation from lignite decreased by 1.8%, reaching 141.7 TWh; its share is now 25.8%. Hydrocarbons hold a share in gross electricity generation of nearly 12% (to which oil merely contributes 1%), which is a low level by international standards. Hydroelectricity generation decreased by 3.6% down to 3.8%. The upward trend of the economy raised the electricity requirement in industry by 2.2%. Net consumption by private households decreased by 2.5%. For the year under review, the foreign trade balance in electricity showed an excess of exports over imports of 2.4 TWh. (orig.) [de

  19. 1996: nuclear power in the German power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wnuk, A.

    1997-01-01

    Also in 1996, nuclear power contributed the largest share among all sources of energy to the supply of electricity in Germany, generating 161,1 TWh. This marks a considerable increase by almost 5% over the previous year's level. Nuclear power held a 29.4% share in the supply of electricity in Germany, and a 33% share in public supply. Hard coal, producing 152.7 TWh, contributed a share of 27.7%. Electricity generation from lignite rose slightly by 1.2%, reaching 144.3 TWh; its share is now 26.2%. Hydrocarbons hold an 11.5% share in gross electricity generation (to which oil merely contributes 1.3%), which is a low level by international standards. After a continuous rise over the past few years, hydroelectricity generation for the first time showed a decrease by 10.5% because of adverse water conditions. The upward trend of the economy raised the electricity requirement in industry by 1.5%. As a consequence of the long spell of cold weather, net consumption by private households rose by 5.5%. For the year under review, the foreign trade balance in electricity for the first time after 1992 again showed an excess of exports over imports of 5.3 TWh. (orig.) [de

  20. Delays help German utilities maintain self-financing ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radtke, G.

    1979-01-01

    Estimates of electricity consumption have been substantially reduced and nuclear plant is now expected to be 22% of total generating capacity in 1985 instead of the earlier forecast of 36%. The decline in the ordering of new plant has benefited the financial position of the electricity utilities and the expected fall in self-financing ratios has not occurred. (U.K.)

  1. Development of the on-site power supply in German nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, M. [Gesellschaft fuer Reaktorsicherheit - GRS mbH, Schwertnergasse 1, D-5000 Koeln 1, Cologne (Germany)

    1986-02-15

    The design of the on-site power supply is different in German Nuclear Power Plants, depending on age and size of the plant. The cause for this is the evolution of the safety requirements. The general development of the design of safety Systems, which resulted in a strict separation of redundant trains is also reflected in the design of the emergency power system and even the complete on-site power supply System. This will be demonstrated by different examples. The advantages of this design with respect to the availability of on-site power will be explained and verified by means of operating experience. (author)

  2. German risk study on nuclear power stations. Phase B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-11-01

    The German Risk Study on Nuclear Power Stations is concerned with investigations of accidents in nuclear facilities and their associated risks. These investigations are undertaken on behalf of the federal Minister of Research and Technology. They have been broken down into two phases (Phase A and Phase B). The results of Phase A were published in 1979 (GRS 79). This report contains a summary of the investigations relating to Phase B. After an introduction setting out the basic principles and aim of the study, a general review will be given of the most important results. The course of the investigations and the results have already been published in a Technical Report (GRS 89). (author)

  3. Disposal of spent fuel from German nuclear power plants - 16028

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graf, Reinhold; Brammer, Klaus-Juergen; Filbert, Wolfgang; Bollingerfehr, Wilhelm

    2009-01-01

    The 'direct disposal of spent fuel' as a part of the current German reference concept was developed as an alternative to spent fuel reprocessing and vitrified HLW disposal. The technical facilities necessary for the implementation of this part of the reference concept, the so called POLLUX R concept, i.e. interim storage buildings for casks containing spent fuel, a pilot conditioning facility, and a special cask 'POLLUX' for final disposal have been built. With view to a geological salt formation all handling procedures for the direct disposal of spent fuel were tested aboveground in full-scale test facilities. To optimise the reference concept, all operational steps have been reviewed for possible improvements. The two additional concepts for the direct disposal of SF are the BSK 3 concept and the DIREGT concept. Both concepts rely on borehole emplacement technology, vertical boreholes for the BSK 3 concept und horizontal boreholes for the DIREGT concept. Supported by the EU and the German Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology (BMWi), DBE TECHNOLOGY built an aboveground full-scale test facility to simulate all relevant handling procedures for the BSK 3 disposal concept. GNS (Company for Nuclear Service), representing the German utilities, provided the main components and its know-how concerning cask design and manufacturing. The test program was concluded recently after more than 1.000 emplacement operations had been performed successfully. The BSK 3 emplacement system in total comprises an emplacement device, a borehole lock, a transport cart, a transfer cask which will shuttle between the aboveground conditioning facility and the underground repository, and the BSK 3 canister itself, designed to contain the fuel rods of three PWR-fuel assemblies with a total of about 1.6 tHM. The BSK 3 concept simplifies the operation of the repository because the handling procedures and techniques can also be applied for the disposal of reprocessing residues. In addition

  4. Thorium utilization in power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saraceno; Marcos.

    1978-10-01

    In this work the recent (prior to Aug, 1976) literature on thorium utilization is reviewed briefly and the available information is updated. After reviewing the nuclear properties relevant to the thorium fuel cycle we describe briefly the reactor systems that have been proposed using thorium as a fertile material. (author) [es

  5. The German simulator center for the training of nuclear power plant operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, E.

    1996-01-01

    Simulator training for nuclear power plant operators in Germany is conducted in The Simulator Center in Essen. The companies operating The Center are KSG/GfS. KSG provides simulators, GfS performs the training. The German Simulator Center is equipped with five simulators in training, nine simulators are under construction and will be ready for training until the beginning of 1997. This institution serves 22 nuclear power plants units in Germany, Switzerland (NPP Goesgen-Daeniken) and the Netherlands (NPP Borssele) and trains 1,800 persons every year. As a common enterprise the company is owned by 12 utilities, which leads to the necessity to prepare common rules and guidelines for simulator specification, training of instructors, assessment of trainees, training material and preparation and methodical running of simulator courses

  6. The German R&D Program for CO2 Utilization-Innovations for a Green Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennicken, Lothar; Janz, Alexander; Roth, Stefanie

    2016-06-01

    Carbon capture and utilization (CCU) is a field of key emerging technologies. CCU can support the economy to decrease the dependency on fossil carbon raw materials, to stabilize electricity grids and markets with respect to a growing share of fluctuating renewable energy. Furthermore, it can contribute to mitigate anthropogenic CO2 emissions. The German Federal Ministry of Education and Research has provided substantial financial support for research and development projects, stimulating research, development, and innovations in the field of CO2 utilization. This review provides an overview over the most relevant funding measures in this field. Examples of successful projects demonstrate that CCU technologies are already economically viable or technologically ready for industrial application. CCU technologies as elements of a future "green economy" can contribute to reach the ambitious German sustainability targets with regard to climate protection as well as raw material productivity.

  7. Advanced energy utilization MHD power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The 'Technical Committee on Advanced Energy Utilization MHD Power Generation' was started to establish advanced energy utilization technologies in Japan, and has been working for three years from June 2004 to May 2007. This committee investigated closed cycle MHD, open cycle MHD, and liquid metal MHD power generation as high-efficiency power generation systems on the earth. Then, aero-space application and deep space exploration technologies were investigated as applications of MHD technology. The spin-off from research and development on MHD power generation such as acceleration and deceleration of supersonic flows was expected to solve unstart phenomena in scramjet engine and also to solve abnormal heating of aircrafts by shock wave. In addition, this committee investigated researches on fuel cells, on secondary batteries, on connection of wind power system to power grid, and on direct energy conversion system from nuclear fusion reactor for future. The present technical report described results of investigations by the committee. (author)

  8. Longer operating times of nuclear power plants. Options for compensating public utility advantages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bode, Sven; Kondziella, Hendrik; Bruckner, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The current German government of CDU/CSU and FDP intends to prolong the operating time of existing nuclear power plants in Germany. The advantages resulting for public utilities are to be compensated. The authors discuss how compensation may be achieved and outline the available instruments. (orig.)

  9. Main results of the German nuclear power plant risk study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danzmann, H.J.

    1981-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: introduction; purpose and task of the German risk study; approach; results of investigations (analyses of engineered plant features; determination of accident consequences); emergency response model; protective actions and countermeasures; evaluation. (U.K.)

  10. State of nuclear waste management of German nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The waste management of nuclear power plants in the Federal Republic of Germany is today prevailing in the public discussion. Objections raised in this connection, e.g. that the nuclear waste management has been omitted from the development of peaceful utilization of nuclear energy or remained insolved, are frequently accepted without examination, and partly spread as facts. This is, however, not the truth: From the outset in 1955 the development of nuclear technology in the Federal Republic of Germany has included investigations of the problems of reprocessing and non-detrimental disposal of radioactive products, and the results have been compiled in a national nuclear waste management concept. (orig.) [de

  11. Citizen utilities: The emerging power paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, Jemma; Newman, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The emergence of citizen-based power systems in an integrated grid has been anticipated for decades. We can reveal how this is emerging in practice due to the significant uptake of solar photovoltaics (solar PV) and now battery storage in Perth, Australia. The high cost of electricity, high radiant energy levels and easy access to cheap Chinese technology, has led to dramatic buying during Perth's recent boomtown years. The traditional uni-directional power system is rapidly disrupting and this paper assesses where this may lead and what it means for the grid. Results of detailed monitoring in a solar powered house along with the impact of a battery storage system show the impact on the traditional grid is substantial but it will still be needed and must therefore adapt to the new distributed, bi-directional energy system. Surveys and price trajectories reveal how the trends to solar power storage will continue and how a citizen utility paradigm will emerge as the future grid building block using new blockchain support systems. Responses from utilities are then see to be fight, flight or innovate. - Highlights: • Citizen based power systems are emerging in Perth, Western Australia. • Solar power and battery storage systems are disrupting traditional utilities. • The grid will still have a role in the new, distributed power system. • The new system will lead to economic localism and the democratisation of power.

  12. Custom power - the utility solution to distribution power quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodley, N H [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The design of custom power products for electric power distribution system was discussed. Problems with power quality that result in loss of production to critical processes are costly and create a problem for the customer as well as the electric utility. Westinghouse has developed power quality improvement equipment for customers and utilities, using new technologies based on power electronics concepts. The Distribution Static Compensator (DSTATCOM) is a fast response, solid-state power controller that provides flexible voltage control for improving power quality at the point of connection to the utility`s 4.16 to 69 kV distribution feeder. STATCOM is a larger version of the DSTATCOM that can be used to solve voltage flicker problems caused by electric arc furnaces. Westinghouse has also developed a Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR) which protects a critical customer plant load from power system voltage disturbances. Solid-State Breakers (SSB) have also been developed which offer a solution to many of the distribution system problems that result in voltage sags, swells, and power outages. 6 refs., 8 figs.

  13. German risk study on nuclear power plants. Vol. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albertz, V.; Gueldner, W.; Hoemke, P.; Hoertner, H.; Lindauer, E.; Linden, J. von; Preischl, W.; Reichart, G.; Roehrs, W.

    1980-01-01

    This appendix discusses those studies which were carried out in phase A of the German Risk Study on the following problems: occurrence frequencies of initiating events, evaluation of the reactor pressure vessel, failure rates and failure probabilities for components, probabilities for human error. The appendix describes the general procedure used in determining these parameters. In addition, it gives the individual values used and the sources employed to determine these values. (orig.) [de

  14. The German DEMO working group. Perspectives of a fusion power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hesch, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Fusion development has many different challenges in the areas of plasma physics, fusion technologies, materials development and plasma wall interaction. For making fusion power a reality, a coherent approach is necessary, interlinking the different areas of work. To this end, the German fusion program started in 2010 the German DEMO Working Group, bringing together high-level experts from all the different fields, from the 3 German fusion centers Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik (IPP), Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT) and Forschungszentrum Juelich (FZJ). An encompassing view of what will be needed with high priority, in plasma physics, in fusion technology and in the interrelation of the fields, to make fusion energy real, has been elaborated, and is presented here in a condensed way. On this basis, the 3 German fusion centers now are composing their work program, towards a fusion demonstration reactor DEMO. (orig.)

  15. Utilization of agricultural waste in power production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clausen, J.C. [ELSAMPROJEKT A/S, Fredericia (Denmark); Rasmussen, I. [MIDTKRAFT Power Co., Aarhus (Denmark)

    1993-12-31

    It is a goal of the Danish energy policy for the last decade to reduce energy consumption and to introduce fuels for power production with less CO{sub 2} emission than coal. This measure has caused a considerable effort by the Danish utilities to develop technologies that reduce CO{sub 2} emissions without causing heavy cost increases of power. Agricultural waste in the form of surplus straw is available in an amount equivalent to 20% of the annual coal imports to Denmark. Straw firing is difficult due to its significant contents of alkaline components. Consequently, its utilization presupposes the development of new technologies. The biomass development program is concentrated on two ways which are (1) co-firing of existing coal fired power station with a modest amount of straw and (2) development of CFB technology that allows a high share of biomass as well as coal only. These options were tested in a coal fired 70 MW spreader stoker unit and a 125 MW PF unit. Approx. 4000 t of straw were burned. Additional tests will be launched this autumn, burning 35,000 t of straw at rates up to 20% straw. The CFB option is pursued from the platform of a 80 MWth unit, operational early `92. This plant burns a mix of 50% straw and 50% coal and consumes annually 70.000 t of straw. Future development is aiming towards CFBs of 250 MW(e), burning in excess of 50% biomass.

  16. Expected returns from a tax on nuclear fuel elements in the context of longer service lives of German nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondziella, Hendrik; Bruckner, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    To what extent will the fuel element tax introduced by the German government in combination with the longer service life of nuclear power stations reduce the profits of public utilities? A qualitative assessment suggests that the tax will not equal the full profits. Using an electricity market model, various scenarios can be calculated for an eight-year prolongation of the residual service life of existing nuclear power plants. (orig.)

  17. German study on the risks of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wollny, V.

    1987-01-01

    The 'Deutsche Risikostudie Kernkraftwerke', DRS, (German study on the risks of nuclear plants) calculates a frequency of 1/10000 years (i.e. once in 10000 years of reactor operation) for the event of insufficient cooling of the reactor core occurring. The resulting collective risk is put at approximately 10 deaths per year for 25 plants. As the explanations show, the error margin of such a risk statement is enormous. Moreover, much seems to indicate that the risk was underrated. Apart from this, risk analyses are of doubtful value in the decision process for or against the introduction of large-scale technologies. They cannot replace the individual decision of all concerned. (orig./HSCH) [de

  18. Utility challenges in a competitive power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, J.

    2001-01-01

    Allete, formerly Minnesota Power, is no longer an electric utility, but a broadly-diversified company operating in 39 states and 8 Canadian provinces. Allete provides retail services in their water and energy business. In addition, they provide wholesale services in their automotive service business, they sell land to developers and have entered into the telecommunications and paper making industry. Diversification has been successful for Allete, and has resulted in a strong balance sheet and cash flow. Graphs depicting the company's business earnings, assets and growth rates were included in this power point presentation. Allete plans to triple its size and continue to maintain its annual growth of 10 per cent or better. tabs., figs

  19. Chemistry of water and steam in power plants and related technologies. Glossary of terms and definitions English - German; German - English

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitz, H.P.; Teutenberg, U.

    2006-07-01

    This new edition of a technical dictionary is an evaluation of the technical terms found in the domestic and foreign literature and in information brochures of specialist firms, directives, guidelines, standards, etc. This dictionary contains more than 3,000 terms mainly with definitions with respect to the chemistry of water and steam in power plants along with the related types of water (untreated water, feedwater and boiler water, make-up water, waste water) and the water treatment processes (ion exchange, membrane process, etc.), water conditioning and chemical analysis, internal cleaning of steam generating plants (e.g. flushing, boiling-out, pre-operational and operational acid cleaning, steam blowing) as well as fundamentals of water chemistry. The technical knowledge of the authors, Heinz-Peter Schmitz, FDBR, with more than 25 years professional experience as translator/official in charge of documentation and Ulrich Teutenberg, Babcock/Hitachi with more than 30 years professional experience as senior consultant for water chemistry and commissioning is reflected in this dictionary. Part 1 contains the English-German version, Part 2 the German-English version. (orig.)

  20. Lessons from American-German nuclear power plant construction. Quality, safety and costs of an attempt to integrate American and German nuclear power plant technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchwald, K.

    1979-05-01

    The 1300 MW nuclear power plant at Muelheim-Kaerlich has been under construction since the beginning of 1975. It is being equipped with a pressurised water reactor which has been adapted to the German client's requirements and German licensing practice, based on a license held by Babcock and Wilcox USA (B and W). The problems which have arisen in making this adaptation are the result of different requirements in the USA and the Federal Republic of Germany which make it very difficult to integrate the two technologies. Full integration will almost certainly be impossible, but integration to the widest possible extent is important because it might mean both greater safety and reduced costs. In this article it is intended to show where the problems of integration lie and how they might perhaps be overcome. (author)

  1. The current situation of waste management at German nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hottenrott, G.; Mirschinka, V.

    2002-01-01

    An overview is given about the main points of the agreement between the four utility companies and the German government on June 11, 2001, concerning waste management and disposal. The current waste management situation is compared with the effects of the agreement on the future development of the German waste management concept. Major innovations are the discontinuation of reprocessing, the establishment of local intermediate storage facilities for fuel elements and the suspension of the exploration works conducted on the salt dome at Gorleben. (orig.)

  2. Plant life extensions for German nuclear power plants? Controversial discussion on potential electricity price effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthes, Felix C.; Hermann, Hauke

    2009-06-01

    The discussions on electricity price effects in case of the plant life extension of German nuclear power plants covers the following topics: (1) Introduction and methodology. (2) Electricity generation in nuclear power plants and electricity price based on an empirical view: electricity generation in nuclear power plants and final consumption price for households and industry in the European Union; electricity generation in nuclear power plants and electricity wholesale price in case of low availability of nuclear power plants in Germany; comparison of electricity wholesale prices in Germany and France. (3) Model considerations in relation to electricity prices and nuclear phase-out. (4) Concluding considerations.

  3. German risk study for nuclear power plants. Vol. 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bracht, K.F.; Javeri, V.; Keusenhoff, J.; Meier, S.; Roehrs, W.; Scharfe, A.; Tiltmann, M.; Mayinger, F.

    1980-01-01

    This appendix contains the analyses on core melt accidents carried out for the German risk study. These accidents constitute a major portion of the event sequences relevant to the risk. It deals, in particular, with the processes involved in the reactor core melt, the behaviour of the containment vessel including the possible types of failures, and the consequences of possible steam explosions. The investigations were performed for limiting cases for which a complete failure of the emergency core cooling and residual heat removal system is anticipated. Under these conditions, the reactor core melts down and penetrates the reactor pressure vessel bottom. In the course of the following interaction between core melt and concrete foundation, the melt is assumed to come into contact with the sump water. The evaporation of the sump water leads to an overpressure failure of the containment vessel within approximately one day after accident initiation. A destruction of the containment as a consequence of a steam explosion is considered highly unprobable. (orig.) [de

  4. The power of mass media in the German civil society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia‑Georgiana Zalupca

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Mass media is playing a significant role in influencing people’s mind and determining the vote’s preference of each single individual. Nowadays, mass media has become an essential part in setting up the public’s agenda. We are living in a social media era that is being governed by Facebook and Twitter. Facebook had played a key role in Germany’s society in the last year, since September 2015, by helping to increase public awareness or to collect opinions and information, and also to influence the attitude of the people towards electing the Eurosceptic political party, Alternative for Germany (AfD. The results of the regional elections in Germany from March 2016 had been strongly influenced by the party’s intense activities on Facebook. It may be said that the electoral campaign of AfD had completely taken place on Facebook, a social media channel where people and the party itself dare to speak up their mind without being afraid that their opinion could be censorship. This article is about to describe the role that the social media channel, Facebook, had had in choosing AfD as main winner of the German regional elections.

  5. Telecommunications: international opportunities for power utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, A. [Teleglobe Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    1996-08-01

    International telecommunications services markets and trends were reviewed in an effort to identify business opportunities for Canadian power utilities. With increasing deregulation in the U.S. and Canada, and other countries around the globe, market opportunities are beginning to open up. In monopoly markets opportunities exist in providing dual infrastructures to upgrade both the power delivery services (frequently poor), and telecommunications. Billing, collection and customer service expertise might be other marketable commodities, perhaps packaged as part of a network provision project as a service to existing power and telecommunications service providers. In countries with directed competition markets local partnerships may be the only vehicle for entering the market. In managed competition markets opportunities were said to exist in cellular radio technology, as well as in switched telephone service, local, long distance, or international. In general, opportunities outside telecommunications-rich North America were considered to have better potential, due to rapid deregulation and higher current growth rates in telecommunications. Careful examination and research of the political and business environment prior to entering any of the potentially fertile areas was advised.

  6. Possibilities of utilizing power plant fly ashes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mezencevová Andrea

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The burning of fossil fuels in industrial power stations plays a significant role in the production of thermal and electrical energy. Modern thermal power plants are producing large amounts of solid waste, mainly fly ashes. The disposal of power plant waste is a large environmental problem at the present time. In this paper, possibilities of utilization of power plant fly ashes in industry, especially in civil engineering, are presented. The fly ash is a heterogeneous material with various physical, chemical and mineralogical properties, depending on the mineralogical composition of burned coal and on the used combustion technology. The utilization of fly ashes is determined of their properties. The fineness, specific surface area, particle shape, density, hardness, freeze-thaw resistance, etc. are decisive. The building trade is a branch of industry, which employs fly ash in large quantities for several decades.The best utilization of fluid fly ashes is mainly in the production of cement and concrete, due to the excellent pozzolanic and cementitious properties of this waste. In the concrete processing, the fly ash is utilized as a replacement of the fine aggregate (fine filler or a partial replacement for cement (active admixture. In addition to economic and ecological benefits, the use of fly ash in concrete improves its workability and durability, increases compressive and flexural strength, reduces segregation, bleeding, shrinkage, heat evolution and permeability and enhances sulfate resistance of concrete.The aim of current research is to search for new technologies for the fly ash utilization. The very interesting are biotechnological methods to recovery useful components of fly ashes and unconventional methods of modification of fly ash properties such as hydrothermal zeolitization and mechanochemical modification of its properties. Mechanochemistry deals with physico - chemical transformations and chemical reactions of solids induced by

  7. Loss of preferred power events in German BWRs and PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frisch, W.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter examines the variety of courses which the loss of auxiliary power case may take in different plants, depending on the initiation of the event, the switching to the alternate auxiliary power supply and the automatic start-up sequences of auxiliaries (e.g. feedwater pumps, condensate pumps) after a short term interruption of auxiliary power. Topics considered include main station transformer failure in a boiling water reactor (BWR), main plant features, event description, evaluation of the event, deviations from expected behavior, operator actions, a comparison with start-up tests and other events, a comparison with postcalculations, and auxiliary transformer failure in a pressurized water reactor (PWR). Loss of preferred (or auxiliary) power events are standard design cases taken into account in the design of many reactor and plant systems

  8. Analytic advanced development in the German Risk Study on Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The study carried out by the Ecological Institute (Oeko-Institut) deals with the difficulties encountered with the decision-making models and statistical models and methods of the German Risk Study on Nuclear Power Plants for the determination of care meltdown frequency and for the estimation of the behaviour of components in the event of a failure. Related deficiencies of the German Risk Study and the absence of completeness and lading representiveness of the course and causes of incidents considered are pointed out. The accident consequences model and the climatological-meteorological data base are considered non-representative. (RF) [de

  9. Thermal power sludge – properties, treatment, utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Sisol

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a knowledge about properties of thermal power sludge from coal combustion in smelting boilers is presented. The physical and technological properties of slag – granularity, density, specific, volume and pouring weight, hardness and decoupling – together with chemical properties influence its exploitation. The possibility of concentrating the Fe component by the mineral processing technologies (wet low-intenzity magnetic separation is verified. An industrial use of the slag in civil engineering, e.g. road construction, was realised. The slag-fly ashes are directly utilized in the cement production as a substitute of a part of natural raw materials. For the use of slag as the stoneware in the road construction, all the criteria are fulfilled.

  10. The German-German history of the nuclear power plant Greifswald. Nuclear power between east and west. 2. ed.; Die deutsch-deutsche Geschichte des Kernkraftwerkes Greifswald. Atomenergie zwischen Ost und West

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoegselius, Per [Technische Hochschule Stockholm (Sweden). Bereich Gesellschaft, Wissenschaft und Technik

    2015-07-01

    The historical study covers the chapters The nuclear power plant Greifswald; Lubmin shortly before the ''Wende'' 1989; the German ''Wende''; from the last vote for the ''Volkskammer (parliament of the German Democratic Republic) to the German reunification; Lubmin in reunified Germany; conclusions and perspectives. In the attachment technical data about the reactors WWER-440/W-230 are summarized, including a list of WWERs in the former eastern bloc countries.

  11. A municipal utility seeks IPP power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitney, D.D.

    1990-01-01

    The Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD), primarily located in Sacramento County, one of the ten highest growth areas in the U.S. today, serves a 900 square mile area with over 450,000 customers and has seen peak loads of about 2200 MW. In June of 1989, the customer-owners of SMUD, voted to shutdown the 913 MW Rancho Seco Nuclear Generating Station which constituted nearly one-half of the district's power resources. The need to immediately replace the lost capacity was somewhat tempered as a consequence of previously signed contracts with the Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG and E) for 550 MW and with the Southern California Edison Company (SCE) for 300 MW. Both contracts provide power for only ten years, ending in 1999, and while being competitively priced in the early years, include significant escalation in capacity charges beginning in 1995, and always price energy at local natural gas market prices while including other arduous conditions. When combined with their hydroelectric and other resources these contracts allow SMUD to remain competitive. However, there remains the incentive, and ultimately necessity, of replacing the contracts with alternative resources. This paper describes an aggressive program to obtain replacement resources which will diversify SMUD's resource mix and protect their customer-owners from the uncertainties of the future while retaining the benefits of tax exempt financing and being their own stockholders

  12. Environmentalism and nuclear power: Anglo-German comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehmer-Christiansen, Sonja

    1992-01-01

    The paper deals with impacts of emission reduction targets on fuel policy for electricity, and vice versa. It does so by comparing policy responses in two different institutional contexts. Supportive links were created, in Germany, between the reduction of acid emissions from power stations and the protection of nuclear power. This higher cost option was justified to an 'aware' public on environmental grounds. Politically this required a tacit alliance between coal-based and nuclear industries realising that the well-being of both depended on public support, the common challenge being fossil fuel suppliers in world markets. Cooperation with the State was therefore desirable and, in Germany, available. The British story is very different and not without irony. Similarities between the energy politics of acid rain and the global warming/climate change debate are explored. It is concluded that institutions and linkages between them matter very much. (author)

  13. The local power supply in the German Federal Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tettinger, P.J.

    1992-01-01

    The article first examines the contours of the foundations of the communes' competence to act autonomously, which have been laid by constitutional jurisdiction and jurisprudence. Next, the limits that constitutional law sets to the communes' competence in the field of energy politics are scrutinized. These limits firstly result from the confinement of the communal administrative unions' competence to a local sphere, and secondly from the additional constraints of Federal law, particularly the Law Concerning the Power Economy, and of the law of the Laender, here primarily communal commercial law. It is concluded that the limits to the communal administrative unions' competence must be strictly observed and the constraints imposed by power law and communal commercial law respected. Under the present constitutional law the guarantee of communal autonomy at least provides no legal means of defying decisions and directives under the laws of the Federation or the Laender that apply supraregionally. (orig./HSCH) [de

  14. Organization of radiation protection in German nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Using the operating handbooks of the nuclear power stations in West Germany, an examination was carried out of how far the existing organisational structure for radiation protection fulfils the requirements for protection and whether a standardisation of the organisation would provide improvements for the protection of the personnel and for the practicability of the radiation protection organisation. In particular, the parts 'Personnel operating organisation', 'Radiation protection order' and 'Maintenance order' of the operating handbook were evaluated and an audit was made of the radiation protection organisation. In general, the result of the assessment is that the organisation of radiation protection does not contradict the orders, guidelines and regulations in any of the nuclear power stations examined. Corresponding to the possibilities of regulating details of the radiation protection organisation within the undertaking, the target of 'protection of the personnel against radioactive irradiation' is achieved by the various organisation structures which are largely equal to the given example. (orig./HP) [de

  15. Quality assurance at a German power station company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czychon, K.H.

    1992-01-01

    The Integrated Operational Management System of the Emsland nuclear power station is described, together with its aims and system architecture as well as the structure and modus operandi of the Integrated Operational Management System Manager. The completion of repair work and the processing of modification and maintenance reports are explained as examples. Experience gained in the introduction and use of the system is presented. figs., 6 refs

  16. Notifiable events in German nuclear power plants in 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    In 1992, there were 223 notifiable nuclear power plant incidents in the Federal Republic of Germany. 221 incidents belong to the category N (normal notification, INES 0), 2 incidents belong to the category E (immediate notification, INES 2). The report comprehensively lists all the incidents. No releases of radioactive materials above the, lincenced levels occupied and there were no hazards to persons and to the environment. (HP) [de

  17. Five years of partnership programme between German and East European nuclear power plant operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraemer, P.

    1995-01-01

    In a jointly adopted communique in August 1992 the regulations governing the partnerships were laid down. The following principles are given priority: bilateral exchange of operating experience on the basis of equal partnership; the knowledge gained from the exchange of experience is used to improve the operation and safety of the respective partner plant; the partnership programme is free from commercial interests and does not include transfer of funds. Since the establishment of the first partnership relations (Biblis) with an east european nuclear power plant (Balakowo) late in April 1990, a total of 126 reciprocal visits was paid, 82 of which to German nuclear power plants. The balance of the efforts made by German nuclear power plant operators to integrate east european nuclear plant operators can be considered positive. (orig./HP) [de

  18. The 2002 amendment to the German atomic energy act concerning the phase-out of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorwerk, A.

    2002-01-01

    The phase-out of the use of nuclear power for electricity production has now been legally regulated by the 2002 Atomic Energy Act, based on the Agreement between the German Government and the energy utilities. The provisions of this Act comply with constitutional and European law, and take account of Germany's international commitments. The new 2002 Atomic Energy Act is supplemented by additional steps towards the phase-out, in particular in the area of nuclear disposal. These steps are being taken primarily within the framework of a planned national disposal plan and a procedure to be enveloped for the selection of a location for a final disposal site for radioactive wastes. The key task for the Laender authorities and the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety continues to be to ensure that operators of nuclear power plants comply with a high standard of safety during the residual operating periods of their plants. (author)

  19. Supplier-independent fuel management from the viewpoint of a large German utility - Objectives and experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallmeyer, D.H.; Petersen, K.

    1986-01-01

    Internationally, many nuclear power operating utilities tend to have alternative fuel supplies and as a consequence also have to build up a supplier-independent fuel management. The main reasons are competition within the fuel assembly market as a price-regulating mechanism; quality comparison and corresponding improvements in fuel technology, documentation system and licensing support activities; improved necessity on the part of the manufacturer to be open for innovations; improved supply reliability by redundant manufacturer qualification; and gain of know-how for the utility by collection and comparison of the state of the art of the different suppliers in the important technical and physical disciplines

  20. Utilization of psychiatric services by female military personnel changes since admission of women to all German Armed Forces military careers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Peter; Ströhle, Andreas; Langner, Franziska; Lanczik, Mario

    2010-07-01

    In 2001, women were admitted to all military careers in the German Armed Forces. This study examines whether the utilization of psychiatric services of female military personnel has changed since then. The central medical database of German military personnel for the years 2000 and 2006 was analyzed. Between 2000 and 2006, the percentage (based on the average totals of male and female military personnel) of consultations of primary care unit surgeons for psychiatric problems increased significantly for both male and female military personnel, this increase being more apparent for women than for men. Stress-related disorders showed the greatest rise. In 2006, as opposed to 2000, the total proportion of both outpatient and inpatient mental health treatment provided to female military personnel was significantly higher than for males, particularly regarding stress-related, affective and personality disorders. Gender-specific aspects should be considered more intensely in preventive and therapeutic psychiatric supply in the German Armed Forces.

  1. Remunicipalisation and Foundation of Municipal Utilities in the German Energy Sector: Details about Newly Established Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Wagner

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Since the majority of network concession contracts in Germany were set to expire some time between 2005 and 2016, a window of opportunity arose in which to rebuild and remunicipalise the local energy supply. As a result, 72 new local power companies were established in Germany within the space of just seven years (between early 2005 and late 2012. This paper provides an introduction to the topic of establishing municipal utilities in Germany. The findings were identified on the basis of the comprehensive screening of all newly established municipal utilities in Germany. Our analysis provides information about regional concentration, the size of municipalities, the legal forms of the newly founded municipal public utilities and the role of strategic partnerships. The key findings are that remunicipalisation is not a question of size and that knowledge gaps may be closed by entering into close strategic partnerships.

  2. Operating experiences with passive systems and components in German nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maqua, M.

    1996-01-01

    Operating experience with passive systems and components is limited to the equipment installed in existing NPPs. In German power plants, this experience is available for equipment of the IAEA categories A, C and D. The presentation is focused on typical examples out of these three categories. An overview is given on the number of reported events and typical failure modes. Selected failures are discussed in detail. 1 ref., 6 figs, 7 tabs

  3. Operating experiences with passive systems and components in German nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maqua, M [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH (GRS), Koeln (Germany)

    1996-12-01

    Operating experience with passive systems and components is limited to the equipment installed in existing NPPs. In German power plants, this experience is available for equipment of the IAEA categories A, C and D. The presentation is focused on typical examples out of these three categories. An overview is given on the number of reported events and typical failure modes. Selected failures are discussed in detail. 1 ref., 6 figs, 7 tabs.

  4. Nuclear power in the energy economics of the German Democratic Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hildebrand, H.J.

    1977-01-01

    The present structure of the energy economy in the German Democratic Republic (East Germany) is described and the need of nuclear power stations for the future supply of energy is demonstrated. The selection of the type of nuclear reactor, the existing operating experience with nuclear equipment and the collaboration in this field with the U.S.S.R. is described. The training of personnel in nuclear techniques is noted. (H.E.G.)

  5. Electric utility companies and geothermal power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivirotto, D. S.

    1976-01-01

    The requirements of the electric utility industry as the primary potential market for geothermal energy are analyzed, based on a series of structured interviews with utility companies and financial institution executives. The interviews were designed to determine what information and technologies would be required before utilities would make investment decisions in favor of geothermal energy, the time frame in which the information and technologies would have to be available, and the influence of the governmental politics. The paper describes the geothermal resources, electric utility industry, its structure, the forces influencing utility companies, and their relationship to geothermal energy. A strategy for federal stimulation of utility investment in geothermal energy is suggested. Possibilities are discussed for stimulating utility investment through financial incentives, amelioration of institutional barriers, and technological improvements.

  6. Imagined Modernity. Nuclear Power and West German Society in the 1960s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metzler, G.

    2012-01-01

    In 1969 the first commercial nuclear power plant went into operation in West Germany, making the country a latecomer (compared to other Western countries) in the civilian use of nuclear energy. Yet, in the late 1950s and 1960s, nuclear energy played a major part in public debates on energy supply, on science and technology policy, and the relationship between state and the economy. The civilian use of atomic energy also served as a source of national identity and a projection of modernity. The paper seeks to connect analyses of technical, economic, political, and cultural developments, in order to assess the overall impact of nuclear power on West German society. (author)

  7. Test report light duty utility arm power distribution system (PDS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, D.A.

    1996-01-01

    The Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) Power Distribution System has completed vendor and post-delivery acceptance testing. The Power Distribution System has been found to be acceptable and is now ready for integration with the overall LDUA system

  8. Analysis and planning of the utilization of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skvarka, P.

    1985-01-01

    The utilization coefficient as one of the characteristics of availability of nuclear power plants and the operation results (like maximum power, block number, and electric energy generation) are investigated by different statistic methods for several nuclear power plants with PWR type reactors and compared with those of WWER 440-type reactors. By means of linear many-parameter regression analysis the utilization coefficient is studied in dependence on block power and time after reactor commissioning. Forecastings of mean utilization coefficients are presented for the power of WWER 1000-type reactors

  9. Breeders: operational experience with fast power reactors in five states - more intensive German-French breeder cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hueper, R.

    1978-01-01

    In the past year contracts have been signed and implemented for German-French cooperation in LMFBR development and commercialization. - The first German nuclear power station with a sodium cooled fast reactor, KNK II in Karlsruhe, is going into operation. - Construction of the prototype SNR 300 at Kalkar (Lower Rhine) is slowing down awaiting a decision of the German Federal Constitutional Court. - On the international level, remarkable experience in the operation of fast power reactors has accumulated. - Possible fuel cycle alternatives are being evaluated by an international committee. (orig.) [de

  10. Reliability data of fire protection equipment and features in German nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roewekamp, M.; Riekert, T.; Sehrbrock, W.

    1997-01-01

    In order to perform probabilistic fire safety analyses, a comprehensive data base is needed including physical characteristics of fire compartments and their inventory, fire occurrence frequencies, technical reliability data for all fire-related equipment, human actions and human error probabilities, etc. In order to provide updated and realistic reliability data, the operational behaviour of different fire protection features in two German nuclear power plants was analysed in the framework of the study presented here. The analyses are based on the examination of reported results of the regular inspection and maintenance programs for nuclear power plants. Besides a plant specific assessment of the reliability data a generic assessment for an application as input data for fault tree analyses in the framework of probabilistic risk studies for other German plants was carried out. The analyses of failures and unavailabilities gave the impression that most of them are single failures without relevance for the plant safety. The data gained from NPPs were compared to reliability data of the German insurance companies for the same protection features installed in non-nuclear installations and to older nuclear specific reliability data. This comparison showed up a higher reliability. (orig.) [de

  11. Power situation in German and lessons for Japan. Expanding renewable energy and fluctuating FIT system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Kazuya

    2016-01-01

    In Germany, energy shift has now caused that a quarter of the total consumed power is obtained from renewable energy sources. There, a shift from nuclear energy has been achieved, and the dissemination of renewable energy as industrial creation has been demanded. However, the Renewable Energy Act, which was the promoter of the above process, was revised drastically in August 2014. Although evaluation on the revised Renewable Energy Act is a future work, it is said that this revision is quite severe for the parties who have promoted the renewable energy business in local regions and enjoyed the profiles locally. Regarding electricity, the German government has a strong industrial protection policy. This paper summarized the basic stance of the German government, by taking up the specific examples of actual electricity fee and the reduction/exemption system of levies on power consumption type companies. The German government clearly shows its willingness to adhere to be an industrial nation. In Germany, the wholesaling spot price of electricity declined due to the spread of renewable energy. This also comes from the mechanism of the FIT system. Unlike Germany where FIT system started in 2000, levies are still small affecting less in Japan where the FIT system has just begun. However, in Germany, it is a big problem. In order to discuss the ideal way of FIT system in Japan, it is necessary to know as accurately as possible what the reality is, including about overseas precedents. (A.O.)

  12. Price formation and market power in the German wholesale electricity market in 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weigt, Hannes; Hirschhausen, Christian von

    2008-01-01

    From 2002 to 2006, German wholesale electricity prices more than doubled. The purpose of this paper is to estimate the price components in 2006 in order to identify the factors responsible for the increase. We develop a competitive benchmark model, taking into account power plant characteristics, fuel and CO 2 -allowance prices, wind generation, cross-border flows, unit commitment, and startup conditions, to estimate the difference between generation costs and observed market prices for every hour in 2006. We find that prices at the German wholesale market (European Energy Exchange - EEX) are above competitive levels for a large fraction of the observations. We verify the robustness of the results by carrying out sensitivity analyses. We also address the issue of revenue adequacy. (author)

  13. The impact of carbon capture and storage on a decarbonized German power market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiecker, S.; Eickholt, V.; Weber, C.

    2014-01-01

    The European energy policy is substantially driven by the target to reduce the CO 2 -emissions significantly and to mitigate climate change. Nevertheless European power generation is still widely based on fossil fuels. The carbon capture and storage technology (CCS) could be part of an approach to achieve ambitious CO 2 reduction targets without large scale transformations of the existing energy system. In this context the paper investigates on how far the CCS-technology could play a role in the European and most notably in the German electricity generation sector. To account for all the interdependencies with the European neighboring countries, the embedding of the German electricity system is modeled using a stochastic European electricity market model (E2M2s). After modeling the European side constraints, the German electricity system is considered in detail with the stochastic German Electricity market model (GEM2s). The focus is thereby on the location of CCS plant sites, the structure of the CO 2 -pipeline network and the regional distribution of storage sites. Results for three different European energy market scenarios are presented up to the year 2050. Additionally, the use of CCS with use of onshore and offshore sites is investigated. - Highlights: • We present a model framework for the evaluation of carbon capture and storage (CCS). • Different scenarios to analyze regional differences within Germany. • Interdependencies between CO 2 bound and demand are the main influencing factors. • A comprehensive investment in CCS power plants is not likely in the next decades. • Storage sites are no restricting factor but public acceptance is a crucial point

  14. Utilization of a full-scope simulation for training the operating personel of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathias, S.G.

    1987-01-01

    A full-scope simulator of the Angra-2 Nuclear Power Plant has been installed at the NUCLEBRAS Training Center in Mambucaba - close to the site where that Plant is being built -, the goal of providing training for the operating personnel of the KWU-design nuclear power plants to be installed in Brazil. Due to the delays which occurred in the construction of Angra-2, NUCLEBRAS has established an extensive program for the utilization of the simulator for the training of operators for German nuclear power plants and for Spain's Trillo Plant. Besides yielding profits to NUCLEBRAS, that program is resulting in considerable experience in the area of nuclear power plant operators' training generating international recognition to the NUCLEBRAS Training Center. (Author) [pt

  15. The future of nuclear power: An IAEA perspective. Address at the German atomic forum, Berlin, 27 January 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElBaradei, M.

    2000-01-01

    In his address at the German Atomic Forum (Berlin, 27 January 2000), the Director General of the IAEA presented a survey of the prospects for nuclear power as seen from the perspective of the IAEA. The speech focussed on the following aspects: nuclear power and world energy requirements, nuclear and radiation safety, competitiveness of nuclear power, and public support

  16. 2008 annual nuclear technology conference: opting out of the use of nuclear power. German special approach leads into a dead end of energy policy. Conference report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    The President of the Deutsches Atomforum, Dr. Walter Hohlefelder, emphasized in his opening address at the 2008 Annual Nuclear Technology Conference in Hamburg that the German special approach to nuclear power utilization led straight into a dead end of energy policy. ''The outcome is foreseeable: The ambitious German goals of carbon dioxide reduction are missed, the competitiveness of the country is jeopardized, dependency on foreign energy imports rises,'' Dr. Hohlefelder stated. In view of the growing challenges in energy policy Germany had no alternative but to reassess nuclear power. The only outcome of this reappraisal could be extension of the life of nuclear power plants currently in operation. This was necessary also in order to avoid an impending gap in German electricity supply, Dr. Hohlefelder added. He invited all stakeholders to join in an open, unbiased dialog. Dr. Hohlefelder openly criticized the continued ban on research into the development of new reactors. ''A policy of this kind, a policy which bans thinking, is unacceptable in a technology-oriented, industrialized nation such as Germany.'' Nuclear power technology as a high-tech area was a unique achievement which had contributed to the prosperity of the country. The Annual Nuclear Technology Conference, which was held for the 39th time this year, is one of the biggest specialized conferences in the nuclear field with an attendance, this year, of approximately 1300 participants from more than twenty nations. (orig.)

  17. MIT research reactor. Power uprate and utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Lin-Wen [Nuclear Reactor Laboratory, Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2012-03-15

    The MIT Research Reactor (MITR) is a university research reactor located on MIT campus. and has a long history in supporting research and education. Recent accomplishments include a 20% power rate to 6 MW and expanding advanced materials fuel testing program. Another important ongoing initiative is the conversion to high density low enrichment uranium (LEU) monolithic U-Mo fuel, which will consist of a new fuel element design and power increase to 7 MW. (author)

  18. Data communication standards for power utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nortoft, P.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper the development of electric utility communication technology during the next decade is addressed. Two main factors are identified: the European Single Market, and the environmental tasks of the nineties. The standardization efforts in Europe are seen as the crank centering this development. some of the standardization efforts reflecting this trend are described

  19. Present status and perspectives of Co-combustion in German power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richers, U.; Seifert, H. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany). Inst. fuer Technische Chemie]|[Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany). Programm Nachhaltigkeit, Energie- und Umwelttechnik; Scheurer, W.; Hein, K.R.G. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Verfahrenstechnik und Dampfkesselwesen

    2002-05-01

    Various approaches to the future waste management policy in Germany are currently under discussion. One problem arising in this connection is the suitability of existing furnaces for the co-combustion of waste. The use of sewage treatment sludge in power plants is already being practiced on a technical scale. Co-combustion in power plants is of interest also because of the CO{sub 2} problem, as renewable resources can also be used for this purpose. This article documents the technical status of co-combustion in Germany and the available quantities of selected supplementary fuels. Moreover, experience accumulated in German coal fired power plants in using supplementary fuels is compiled. Future possibilities are assessed. (orig.) [German] Fuer die zukuenftige Ausrichtung der Abfallentsorgung gibt es verschiedene Moeglichkeiten, die in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland diskutiert werden. Eine Fragestellung in diesem Zusammenhang ist die Eignung bestehender Feuerungsanlagen fuer die Mitverbrennung von Abfallstoffen. Der Einsatz von Klaerschlamm in Kraftwerken wird bereits grosstechnisch praktiziert. Die Mitverbrennung in Kraftwerken ist zusaetzlich aufgrund der CO{sub 2}-Problematik von Interesse, denn nachwachsende Rohstoffe eignen sich ebenfalls zur Mitverbrennung. In dieser Arbeit werden der technische Stand der Mitverbrennung in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland und die dort zur Verfuegung stehenden Mengen ausgewaehlter Zusatzbrennstoffe dokumentiert. Ausserdem werden die Erfahrungen aus deutschen Kraftwerken beim Einsatz von Zusatzbrennstoffen zusammengestellt. Die zukuenftigen Moeglichkeiten werden abgeschaetzt. (orig.)

  20. Case studies on the feasibility of the transient analysis system STAR in German nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buettner, W.E.; Felkel, L.; Zapp, A.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of distubances which actually have occurred in German nuclear power plants a case-study has been performed to evaluate the feasibility of the computer-based disturbance analysis system STAR. By means of a compact plant simulator the disturbances collected have been remodelled and anlysed, on-line, with the disturbance analysis system STAR. In the last phase of the project experiments have been performed with reactor operators to get their reaction to, and opinion on, computerbased-operator aids. (orig.) [de

  1. www.kernenergie.de - nuclear power has a German Internet address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    www.kernenergie.de is the address on the worldwide web under which the German nuclear organizations, Deutsches Atomforum (DAtF), Informationskreis Kernenergie (IK), and Kerntechnische Gesellschaft (KTG) as well as atw - internationale Zeitschrift fuer Kernenergie, and INFORUM can be reached. Extensive sources of information, discussions, on-line dictionaries, computer codes, dynamic web pages, digital documents and multimedia offerings can be called up via the portal under the individual web sites. In this way, www.kernenergie.de provides a comprehensive and up-to-date background of information about nuclear power and adjacent topics in the digital worldwide web. (orig.) [de

  2. Blown by the wind. Replacing nuclear power in German electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lechtenböhmer, Stefan; Samadi, Sascha

    2013-01-01

    Only three days after the beginning of the nuclear catastrophe in Fukushima, Japan, on 11 March 2011, the German government ordered 8 of the country's 17 existing nuclear power plants (NPPs) to stop operating within a few days. In summer 2011 the government put forward a law – passed in parliament by a large majority – that calls for a complete nuclear phase-out by the end of 2022. These government actions were in contrast to its initial plans, laid out in fall 2010, to expand the lifetimes of the country's NPPs. The immediate closure of 8 NPPs and the plans for a complete nuclear phase-out within little more than a decade, raised concerns about Germany's ability to secure a stable supply of electricity. Some observers feared power supply shortages, increasing CO 2 -emissions and a need for Germany to become a net importer of electricity. Now – a little more than a year after the phase-out law entered into force – this paper examines these concerns using (a) recent statistical data on electricity production and demand in the first 15 months after the German government's immediate reaction to the Fukushima accident and (b) reviews the most recent projections and scenarios by different stakeholders on how the German electricity system may develop until 2025, when NPPs will no longer be in operation. The paper finds that Germany has a realistic chance of fully replacing nuclear power with additional renewable electricity generation on an annual basis by 2025 or earlier, provided that several related challenges, e.g. expansion of the grids and provision of balancing power, can be solved successfully. Already in 2012 additional electricity generation from renewable energy sources in combination with a reduced domestic demand for electricity will likely fully compensate for the reduced power generation from the NPPs shut down in March 2011. If current political targets will be realised, Germany neither has to become a net electricity importer, nor will be unable

  3. Nuclear new-build - Status and Outlook from a German utility perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, Ruediger; Lefhalm, Cord-H.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: As one of the Top 5 utilities in Europe, Rheinisch-Westfaelisches Elektrizitaetswerk AG, FWB: RW, RWE, operates a diversified generating capacity of about 45 GW; RWE Power alone generates over 30 GW. Besides a share of approximately 20% nuclear power, a large proportion of the generating base is in lignite and hard coal. RWE has an ambitious, Euro10 bn newbuild program of about 10 GW modern fossil fired plants and further expansion plans across Europe. By 2012, RWE intends to invest between Euro 15 and 20 bn outside Germany.The European Union has a challenging policy to increase the share of renewables, improve energy efficiency, and reduce greenhouse gases by 2020. At the same time, ageing power plants need to be replaced. This requires an enormous investment program across Europe. Nuclear power therefore, as a proven technology with low lifecycle carbon emissions and reasonable lifecycle cost, is a crucial contributor to achieve Europe's 2020 goals. Accordingly, most European countries have started or are planning to expand their nuclear generating base by lifetime extension, capacity upgrades, and newbuild projects. Germany is one of the few countries where the Government has not yet adopted a pro-nuclear policy. Instead, the law of the land still forces early plant closures. Against this background, RWE is determined to reduce its CO 2 exposure and grow internationally; work towards preserving nuclear energy in Germany; expand its nuclear energy-based generation portfolio in other markets, especially UK and CSEE. As a pioneer in the civilian nuclear industry, RWE can build on a wealth of experience for engaging in new nuclear projects. We have established a set of strict guidelines with which we evaluate project opportunities, starting with the fundamental requirement that, beyond any regulatory requirements, safety must be guaranteed according to RWE's high standards. On this basis, RWE has been successfully able to engage in two of the first

  4. Biomass utilization at Northern States Power Company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, R.P.

    1994-01-01

    Northern States Power Company (open-quotes NSPclose quotes) generates, transmits and distributes electricity and distributes natural gas to customers in Minnesota, Wisconsin, North Dakota, South Dakota and Michigan. An important and growing component of the fuel needed to generate steam for electrical production is biomass. This paper describes NSP's historical use of biomass, current biomass resources and an overview of how NSP plans to expand its use of biomass in the future

  5. Power generating system and method utilizing hydropyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolman, R.

    1986-12-30

    A vapor transmission cycle is described which burns a slurry of coal and water with some of the air from the gas turbine compressor, cools and cleans the resulting low-Btu fuel gas, burns the clean fuel gas with the remaining air from the compressor, and extracts the available energy in the gas turbine. The cycle lends itself to combined-cycle cogeneration for the production of steam, absorption cooling, and electric power.

  6. Experience in commissioning and scientific support of nuclear power plant operation in the German Democratic Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackermann, G.; Endler, A.; Loth, K.H.

    1983-01-01

    In the German Democratic Republic two nuclear power plants equipped with four pressurized-water WWER-440-type reactors were commissioned in the years 1973-1979 and have since been in routine operation. The nuclear power plants (NPPs) in the GDR were constructed on the basis of projects developed and tested in the Soviet Union. Their main equipment was also supplied by the USSR. Under the technical supervision of USSR scientific institutions and design organizations, the construction, commissioning and operation of NPPs had to be prepared and organized by the design organizations, scientific institutions and the prospective user in the German Democratic Republic. To this effect, and to ensure nuclear safety, availability and maximum exploitation of nuclear fuel, it was necessary to develop national scientific capacities. The organizations of the USSR supply basic and supplementary documents prescribing the required extent of investigations to prove that the equipment and systems will meet the projected and operational conditions from loading to commercial operation. Concrete test programmes for commissioning and operational instructions are elaborated by national organizations. Pre-operational and initial startup tests are performed by the personnel of the plant, of enterprises and scientific institutions under the technical supervision of the design organizations of the USSR and the German Democratic Republic. Proceeding from experience gained for more than 15 years in the scientific support of commissioning and operation, the required training and disciplines of personnel are reported. The tasks to be met by the various disciplines are described. Furthermore, information is given on the main stages of commissioning and on a number of results. Finally, selected results of work in connection with operational assistance are reported

  7. Hydroelectric power utilization of the River Crna Reka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanova-Davidovikj, Jasna

    2001-01-01

    In the paper several feasibility studies for rational use of the Macedonian River Crna Reka, developed by foreign companies are analysed. The utilization of the hydro-power potential of the River Crna Reka is predicted to be by realization of two hydroelectric power plants with total capacity of 450 MW, as well as annual electric power generation of 600 GWh. This two HPPs will facilitate the development of the Macedonian electric power system

  8. Power plant engineering dictionary. Vol. 2. English-German. Pt. 1: Dictionary. Pt. 2: Abbreviations. 4. rev. and enlarged ed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    The dictionary is a compilation of 6000 German and English technical terms of power plant engineering as far as power plants, turbine-generators and assembly engineering are concerned. It is meant to form a basis for uniform terminology on technical documents. The dictionary is the result of a joint effort of KWU and UPC.

  9. Childhood cancer in the surroundings of German nuclear power plants: report of an ongoing epidemiological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulze-Rath, R.; Kaatsch, P.; Schmiedel, S.; Spix, C.; Blettner, M.

    2006-01-01

    Epidemiological studies could not show an association between ionising radiation of nuclear power stations in routine operation and the incidence of childhood cancer, yet. The following report presents a case control study conducted by the German Childhood Cancer Registry since autumn 2003. All children in the study region, who were diagnosed with cancer between 1980 and 2003 at an age below five are included. In the first part of the study we investigate whether children with cancer (cases) lived closer to the respective nuclear power stations compared to random children without cancer (controls). In the second part, for a subgroup of cases and controls we conduct computer assisted telephone interviews regarding confounders possibly associated with the exposure of ionising radiation and childhood cancer. Results are expected by the end of 2006. (orig.)

  10. The Franko-German aproach for a nuclear power plant in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruess, F.

    1994-01-01

    Nuclear Power International (N P1) has been established as a joint subsidiary of Siemens and Framatome in 1989, thereby combining the experience accumulated in both parent companies with more than 100,000 MW capacity installed or on order in nuclear field. We intend to compete in a potential nuclear power project in Turkey on the basis of the German Pressurized Water Reactor Technology. We intend to establish a Consortium which on the foreign suppliers side will include Siemens, Framatome and GEC-Alsthom. In addition to the foreign partners in the Consortium we will include the Turkish industry in our proposal in order to achieve a maximum possible local content, which in our previous proposal was in the range of 30 % of the contract-value

  11. Utilities' view on the fuel management of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Held, C.; Moraw, G.; Schneeberger, M.; Szeless, A.

    1977-01-01

    Utilities engagement in nuclear power requires an increasing amount of fuel management activities by the utilities in order to meet all tasks involved. These activities comprise essentially two main areas: - activities to secure the procurement of all steps of the fuel cycle from the head to the back end; - activities related to the incore fuel managment. A general survey of the different steps of the nuclear fuel cycle is presented together with the related activities and responsibilities which have to be realized by the utilities. Starting in the past, today's increasing utility involvement in the nuclear fuel management is shown, as well as future fuel management trends. The scope of utilities' fuel management activities is analyzed with respect to organizational aspects, technical aspects, safeguarding aspects, and financial aspects. Utilities taking active part in the fuel management serves to achieve high availability and flexibility of the nuclear power plant during the whole plant life as well as safe waste isolation. This can be assured by continuous optimization of all fuel management aspects of the power plant or on a larger scale of a power plant system, i.e., utility activities to minimize the effects of fuel cycle on the environment, which includes optimization of fuel behaviour, radiation exposure to public and personnel, and utility technical and economic evaluations of out- and incore fuel management. These activities of nuclear power producing utilities in the field of nuclear fuel cycle are together with a close cooperation with fuel industry as well as national and international authorities a necessary basis for the further utilization of nuclear power

  12. Issues related to gas use by European power utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonchere, J.P.

    1992-01-01

    Gas-fired combined cycle frequently appears as a least-cost option for newly built power plants. Moreover, this option also brings obvious environmental benefits. But, power utilities, facing unavoidable long term uncertainties about electricity demand are not at ease with long term commitments such a a take-or-pay formula or a price indexation not reflecting the market place in the power generation industry. Due to the flexibilities in the management of existing power plants (deferred closures, etc...) or even on the demand side (load shifting, peak clipping, etc...), early decision making is not compulsory. Therefore, a gas breakthrough in the power sector interfuel competition will require a mutual understanding of constraints and flexibilities faced by partners: gas sellers and power utilities. A fair rent sharing between them would certainly be a prerequisite to a large but possibly temporary access of natural gas to the European power sector. 4 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  13. Deregulation of the electric utility industry - implications for nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fern, A.Rose

    2000-01-01

    The deregulation movement sweeping the international electric utility community represents a dramatic shift om the traditional business model of utilities. This paper will focus on deregulation in thc United States and the new challenges for nuclear power plant operators. An overview of the new operating models being implemented in the US will lead into a discussion on new economic and operating concerns for nuclear power plant operators. (author)

  14. Deregulation of the electric utility industry - implications for nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fern, A.R.

    2001-01-01

    The deregulation movement sweeping the international electric utility community represents a dramatic shift from the traditional utility business model. This paper will focus on deregulation in the United States and the new challenges for nuclear power plant operators. An overview of the new operating models being implemented in the US will lead into a discussion on new economic and operating concerns for nuclear power plant operators. (author)

  15. Plant life extensions for German nuclear power plants? Controversial discussion profit taking of nuclear power plant operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthes, Felix C.

    2009-10-01

    The discussion on the plant life extensions for German nuclear power plants beyond the residual quantity of electricity particularly focus on three aspects: Effects for the emission of carbon dioxide as a greenhouse gas; Development of the electricity price for which a reduction or attenuation is postulated due to a plant life extension; Skimming of additional profits at operating companies and their use in the safeguarding of the future (development of renewable energies, support of energy efficiency, promotion of the research, consolidation of the public budget, and so on). Under this aspect, the author of the contribution under consideration reports on the profit taking of nuclear power plant operators. The presented analysis considers three aspects: (a) Specification of the quantity structures for the investigated model of plant life extension; (b) The decisive parameter is the revenue situation and thus the price development for electricity at wholesale markets; (c) Determination and evaluation of the course in time of the profit taking.

  16. Long term trend analysis of emergency power diesel generator reliability in german nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotthoff, K.; Maqua, M.

    1990-01-01

    The paper deals with a long-term investigation on the availability of diesel generators. This investigation has been performed in two steps in 1980/81 and 1988/89. It is based on the operating experiences of a total of 110 diesel generators in 20 German NPP's. The overall probability of diesel failure during start and short-time operation amounts to about 5E-3/demand. Compared to the result of the first part of the investigation (8E-3/demand) there has been some further improvement of diesel generator performance in recent years. The upper limit calculated for the probability of common mode failures (about 6E-4/demand) is approximately one order of magnitude smaller. The influence of various parameters on the failure probability has been discussed. A statistically significant dependence could not be identified

  17. Power Dependence in Individual Bargaining: The Expected Utility of Influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, Edward J.; Bacharach, Samuel B.

    1979-01-01

    This study uses power-dependence theory as a framework for examining whether and how parties use information on each other's dependence to estimate the utility of an influence attempt. The effect of dependence in expected utilities is investigated (by role playing) in bargaining between employer and employee for a pay raise. (MF)

  18. Utilization of excess wind power in electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennings, Wilfried; Mischinger, Stefan; Linssen, Jochen

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the assessment of future wind power utilization for charging electric vehicles (EVs) in Germany. The potential wind power production in the model years 2020 and 2030 is derived by extrapolating onshore wind power generation and offshore wind speeds measured in 2007 and 2010 to the installed onshore and offshore wind turbine capacities assumed for 2020 and 2030. The energy consumption of an assumed fleet of 1 million EVs in 2020 and 6 million in 2030 is assessed using detailed models of electric vehicles, real world driving cycles and car usage. It is shown that a substantial part of the charging demand of EVs can be met by otherwise unused wind power, depending on the amount of conventional power required for stabilizing the grid. The utilization of wind power is limited by the charging demand of the cars and the bottlenecks in the transmission grid. -- Highlights: •Wind power available for charging depends on minimum required conventional power (must-run). •With 20 GW must-run power, 50% of charging can be met by excess wind power. •Grid bottlenecks decrease charging met by wind power from 50 % to 30 %. •With zero must-run power, only very little wind power is available for charging

  19. DEWEK '98: 4. German wind power conference; DEWEK '98: 4. Deutsche Windenergie-Konferenz. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerdes, B [ed.

    1999-07-01

    The conference report comprises 90 papers and posters on the following subjects: 1. Technological developments (e.g. use of adaptive structures systems, active stalle wind power systems, systems for early detection of errors); 2. Design and optimisation; 3. Wind forecasts; 4. Operation analyses (e.g. active and passive stall, collective loads, wind power systems in cold climates); 5. Wind power systems and the environment; 6. Offshore wind power generation; 7. Electric characteristics (e.g. modelling of flicker, energy conditioning in distribution systems with a high wind power share); 8. Economic efficiency (e.g. economic efficiency of offshore wind parks on the North Sea coast); 9. Network quality; 10. Rotor development (e.g. noise reduction); 11. Certification and methods of measurement. [German] Der Tagungsband enhaelt 90 Fach- und Posterbeitraege, die sich mit den folgenden Schwerpunkten befassen: 1. Technologische Entwicklungen (z.B. Einsatz von adaptiven Struktursystemen; Active-Stall-WKA; Fehlerfrueherkennungssystemen). 2. Auslegung und Optimierung. 3. Windprognosen. 4. Betriebsanalysen (z.B. Aktive Stall/Passive Stall im Vergleich; Lastkollektive von WKA; WKA in kaltem Klima). 5. Windenergieanlagen und Umwelt. 6. Offshore-Windenergienutzung. 7. Elektrische Eigenschaften (z.B. Modellierung des 'Flickerverhaltens' von WKA; Energiekonditionierung in Verteilnetzen mit hohem Windenergieanteil). 8. Wirtschaftlichkeit (z.B. Wirtschaftlichkeit von Offshore-Windparks der Norddeutschen Kuestenlinie). 9. Netzqualitaet. 10. Rotorentwicklung (z.B. Reduzierung der Schallabstrahlung von WKAs). 11. Zertifizierung von Messmethoden. (AKF)

  20. Electrolysis: Information and Opportunities for Electric Power Utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroposki, B.; Levene, J.; Harrison, K.; Sen, P.K.; Novachek, F.

    2006-09-01

    Recent advancements in hydrogen technologies and renewable energy applications show promise for economical near- to mid-term conversion to a hydrogen-based economy. As the use of hydrogen for the electric utility and transportation sectors of the U.S. economy unfolds, electric power utilities need to understand the potential benefits and impacts. This report provides a historical perspective of hydrogen, discusses the process of electrolysis for hydrogen production (especially from solar and wind technologies), and describes the opportunities for electric power utilities.

  1. Impact of power purchases from non-utilities on the utility cost of capital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahn, E.; Stoft, S.; Belden, T.

    1995-01-01

    The bond rating agencies in the USA have asserted that long-term power purchase contracts between non-utility generators and utilities are the equivalent of debt to the utilities, and therefore raise the cost of capital to the purchaser. Non-Utility generators claim that these contracts reduce risk to the utilities. This debate is reflected in the 1992 Energy Policy Act. This paper investigates this controversy from the perspective of the equity markets. Using a CAPM framework, various specifications of the cost of equity capital are estimated, to shed light on this question. No evidence is found for the hypothesis that non-utility generation contracts raise the cost of capital. There does appear to be a slight increase in this cost for those utilities seeking to build their own generation capacity as opposed to purchasing it from non-utility suppliers. (author)

  2. An analysis of electric utility embedded power supply costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahal, M.; Brown, D.

    1998-01-01

    There is little doubt that for the vast majority of electric utilities the embedded costs of power supply exceed market prices, giving rise to the stranded cost problem. Beyond that simple generalization, there are a number of crucial questions, which this study attempts to answer. What are the regional patterns of embedded cost differences? To what extent is the cost problem attributable to nuclear power? How does the cost of purchased power compare to the cost of utility self-generation? What is the breakdown of utility embedded generation costs between operating costs - which are potentially avoidable--and ownership costs, which by definition are ''sunk'' and therefore not avoidable? How will embedded generation costs and market prices compare over time? These are the crucial questions for states as they address retail-restructuring proposal. This study presents an analysis of generation costs, which addresses these key questions. A computerized costing model was developed and applied using FERC Form 1 data for 1995. The model analyzed embedded power supply costs (i.e.; self-generation plus purchased power) for two groups of investor-owned utilities, 49 non-nuclear vs. 63 nuclear. These two subsamples represent substantially the entire US investor-owned electric utility industry. For each utility, embedded cost is estimated both at busbar and at meter

  3. Viewpoint of utilities regarding fuel management of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Held, C.; Moraw, G.; Schneeberger, M.; Szeless, A.

    1977-01-01

    The engagement of utilities in nuclear power requires them to engage in an increasing amount of fuel management activities in order to carry out all the tasks involved. Essentially, these activities involve two main areas: The procurement of all steps of the fuel cycle from the head to the back end; and in-core fuel management. A general survey of the different steps of the nuclear fuel cycle is presented together with the related activities and responsibilities which have to be borne by the utilities. Today's increasing utility involvement in the nuclear fuel management is shown, as well as future fuel management trends. The fuel management activities of the utilities are analysed with respect to organizational, technical, safeguarding, and financial aspects. The active participation of the utilities in fuel management helps to achieve high availability and flexibility of the nuclear power plant during its whole life as well as safe waste isolation. This can be ensured by continuous optimization of all fuel management aspects of the power plant or, on a larger scale, of a power plant system, i.e. activities by utilities to minimize fuel-cycle effects on the environment, which include optimization of fuel behaviour, and radiation exposure to the public and personnel; and technical and economic evaluations by utilities of out- and in-core fuel management. (author)

  4. The history of the construction und operation of the KNK II German Fast Breeder Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marth, W.

    1993-08-01

    This report describes the German KNK fast breeder project from its beginnings in 1957 until permanent shutdown in 1991. The initial design provided for a sodium-cooled, but thermal reactor. Already during the commissioning of KNK I on the premises of the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center modification into a fast nuclear power plant was decided. Considerable difficulties in licensing had to be overcome. KNK II reached high burnup values in the fuel elements and closing of the fuel cycle was achieved. A number of technical problems concerning individual components are described in detail. After the politically motivated discontinuation of the SNR 300 fast breeder project at Kalkar, KNK II was shut down for good in August 1991. (orig.) [de

  5. The History of the Construction and Operation of the German KNK II Fast Breeder Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marth, W.

    1994-11-01

    The report gives a historical review of the German KNK fast breeder project, from its beginnings in 1957 up to permanent plant shutdown in 1991. The original design was for the sodium cooled thermal reactor KNK I, which was commissioned on the premises of the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center. The conversion into a fast nuclear power plant however was a process, which had to overcome considerable licensing difficulties. KNK II attained high fuel element burnups, and the completion of the fuel cycle was achieved. Various technical problems encountered in specific components are described in detail. After the termination of the SNR 300 fast breeder project in Kalkar for political reasons, KNK II was shutdown in August 1991

  6. The power supply in the new German Laender (formerly East Germany). Die Stromversorgung in den neuen Bundeslaendern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindwedel, E [Preussische Elektrizitaets-AG (Preussenelektra), Hannover (Germany, F.R.); Radtke, H [Verbundnetz Elektroenergie AG, Berlin (Germany, F.R.)

    1991-02-01

    Due to the division lasting over 40 years between the two German States, there was not only a political but also an electrical border. The 380 kV line from Helmstedt to Berlin planned in 1988 and the tee-off into what was then East Germany, made it possible, after completion of the section from Helmstedt to Wolmirstedt in 1989, to operate power station control; but the political and economic changes on re-unification opened up the possibility of a rapid joint German combined operation in the context of the UCPTE. However, for the electrical connection of the eastern supply areas, a knowledge of the structure of the electrical power supply in the new German Laender is important. (orig.).

  7. Renewables in the grid. Modeling the German power market of the year 2030

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boldt, Jenny; Hankel, Lisa; Laurisch, Lilian Charlotte; Lutterbeck, Felix; Oei, Pao-Yu; Sander, Aram; Schroeder, Andreas; Schweter, Helena; Sommer, Philipp; Sulerz, Jasmin

    2012-01-01

    Renewable energy in Germany is on the rise. Recent changes in legislature, following the nuclear disaster in Fukushima, have accelerated the shift towards a renewable and sustainable energy supply. Offshore wind from the North and Baltic Sea is expected to reach nearly 30 GW by 2030, while the adequacy of the electricity grid to withstand this impact is already threatened today. Since the bulk of renewable energy comes from the North and East of Germany, while demand is far greater in the South and West, transmission infrastructure is poised to become the bottleneck of the German power market transformation. This study investigates where congestion is likely to occur along the grid, and proposes different approaches to meeting the requirements of an increasing share of renewable energy generation. A considerable amount of data for the year 2030, including, but not limited to, conventional generation, renewable generation, transmission and demand serves as the input for the welfare-maximizing DC load flow model. It consists of 40 nodes (18 within Germany, as well as 22 European countries, each modeled by a single node), 232 AC lines and 35 DC lines. The model is solved with the General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS) for four representative weeks in 2030, one for each season of the year. We investigate three different scenarios: the Reference Scenario, the Strategic South Scenario and the Direct Current (DC) Highway Scenario. - The Reference Scenario is based on the assumption that 63 percent of renewable energy power will be generated in Northern and Eastern Germany by 2030, while 62 percent of load will be located in Southern and Western Germany. This situation requires a substantial expansion of transmission infrastructure from north to south. - In the Strategic South Scenario, we explore the possibility of strategically placing renewable and conventional generation capacities to Southern and Western regions in order to make major transmission upgrades redundant

  8. Renewables in the grid. Modeling the German power market of the year 2030

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boldt, Jenny; Hankel, Lisa; Laurisch, Lilian Charlotte; Lutterbeck, Felix; Oei, Pao-Yu; Sander, Aram; Schroeder, Andreas; Schweter, Helena; Sommer, Philipp; Sulerz, Jasmin

    2012-02-15

    Renewable energy in Germany is on the rise. Recent changes in legislature, following the nuclear disaster in Fukushima, have accelerated the shift towards a renewable and sustainable energy supply. Offshore wind from the North and Baltic Sea is expected to reach nearly 30 GW by 2030, while the adequacy of the electricity grid to withstand this impact is already threatened today. Since the bulk of renewable energy comes from the North and East of Germany, while demand is far greater in the South and West, transmission infrastructure is poised to become the bottleneck of the German power market transformation. This study investigates where congestion is likely to occur along the grid, and proposes different approaches to meeting the requirements of an increasing share of renewable energy generation. A considerable amount of data for the year 2030, including, but not limited to, conventional generation, renewable generation, transmission and demand serves as the input for the welfare-maximizing DC load flow model. It consists of 40 nodes (18 within Germany, as well as 22 European countries, each modeled by a single node), 232 AC lines and 35 DC lines. The model is solved with the General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS) for four representative weeks in 2030, one for each season of the year. We investigate three different scenarios: the Reference Scenario, the Strategic South Scenario and the Direct Current (DC) Highway Scenario. - The Reference Scenario is based on the assumption that 63 percent of renewable energy power will be generated in Northern and Eastern Germany by 2030, while 62 percent of load will be located in Southern and Western Germany. This situation requires a substantial expansion of transmission infrastructure from north to south. - In the Strategic South Scenario, we explore the possibility of strategically placing renewable and conventional generation capacities to Southern and Western regions in order to make major transmission upgrades redundant

  9. Optimal pricing of non-utility generated electric power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqi, S.N.; Baughman, M.L.

    1994-01-01

    The importance of an optimal pricing policy for pricing non-utility generated power is pointed out in this paper. An optimal pricing policy leads to benefits for all concerned: the utility, industry, and the utility's other customers. In this paper, it is shown that reliability differentiated real-time pricing provides an optimal non-utility generated power pricing policy, from a societal welfare point of view. Firm capacity purchase, and hence an optimal price for purchasing firm capacity, are an integral part of this pricing policy. A case study shows that real-time pricing without firm capacity purchase results in improper investment decisions and higher costs for the system as a whole. Without explicit firm capacity purchase, the utility makes greater investment in capacity addition in order to meet its reliability criteria than is socially optimal. It is concluded that the non-utility generated power pricing policy presented in this paper and implied by reliability differentiated pricing policy results in social welfare-maximizing investment and operation decisions

  10. Gained experiences concerning the treatment of radioactive metal scrap from German NPP'S in Studsvik - Gained experience concerning the treatment of radioactive metal scrap from German nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westerwinter, Boris; Buckanie, Niemma

    2014-01-01

    The company Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service mbH, Essen/Germany (GNS), operates on behalf of the utilities E.ON, RWE, EnBW and VENE since the nineteen-nineties - amongst its other duties - on the waste management of metal scrap which originates from German nuclear power plants. The main objective within this responsibility is to maximize the value of recyclable fractions for re-use while minimizing the resulting radioactive waste. To achieve the aforementioned objective, melting of metallic scrap proved to be an outstanding choice. The use of this technique combined with all accompanying processes and regulations is accepted by the competent authorities and independent experts as a qualified treatment method over the entire time period. The motivation of this paper is to reflect on the experiences gained concerning the planning, implementation and results, acquired by GNS by using the Studsvik service. The focus will be on characteristics within processing of such campaigns. (authors)

  11. Evaluation of the Geothermal Public Power Utility Workshops in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farhar, B. C.

    2004-10-01

    The federal government devotes significant resources to educating consumers and businesses about geothermal energy. Yet little evidence exists for defining the kinds of information needed by the various audiences with specialized needs. This paper presents the results of an evaluation of the Geothermal Municipal Utility Workshops that presented information on geothermal energy to utility resource planners at customer-owned utilities in California. The workshops were sponsored by the Western Area Power Administration and the U.S. Department of Energy's GeoPowering the West Program and were intended to qualitatively assess the information needs of municipal utilities relative to geothermal energy and get feedback for future workshops. The utility workshop participants found the geothermal workshops to be useful and effective for their purposes. An important insight from the workshops is that utilities need considerable lead-time to plan a geothermal project. They need to know whether it is better to own a project or to purchase geothermal electricity from another nonutility owner. California customer-owned utilities say they do not need to generate more electricity to meet demand, but they do need to provide more electricity from renewable resources to meet the requirements of the state's Renewable Portfolio Standard.

  12. A French-German Energy Transition Alliance in Europe. The Case of the Power and Transport Sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pescia, Dimitri; Buck, Matthias; Berghmans, Nicolas; Meyer, Kerstin

    2017-01-01

    Both France and Germany have ratified the Paris Agreement on Climate Change and are pursuing broad, long-term strategies to deeply decarbonize their economies by 2050. (France aims to reduce GHG emissions by 75% and Germany by 80 to 95% relative to their 1990 levels.) This strong political commitment to fighting climate change is deeply rooted in values and beliefs of German and French citizens and enjoys broad public support in both countries. The French Transition Energetique and the German Energiewende form the backbones of their respective decarbonization strategies. Both envisage step-by-step changes in the energy system, encompassing the power, transport and heating and cooling sectors

  13. Basic plan for nuclear power development and utilization in 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This report presents specific measures to be carried out in 1987 to promote research, development and application of nuclear power. The first part deals with the strengthening of safety measures, centering on the improvement in regulation and administration for nuclear power safety; promotion of safety studies; improvement and strengthening of disaster prevention measures; improvement and strengthening of environmental activity surveys; improvement in exposure control measures for nuclear power operation workers; and establishment of the nuclear fuel cycle and safety in such activities as development of new reactors. The second part of the report addresses the promotion of nuclear power generation. Measures for this will be focused on the promotion of location of nuclear power plants and the development of advanced technology for light water reactors. The third part describes measures for establishing the nuclear fuel cycle, which cover the procurement of uranium resources; enrichment of uranium; reprocessing of spent fuel and utilization of plutonium and recovered uranium; and disposal of radioactive waste. Other parts presents measures to be carried out for the development of new power reactors; research on nuclear fusion; development of nuclear powered vessels; application of radiations; improvement in the infrastructure for nuclear power development and utilization; etc. (Nogami, K.)

  14. REDUCING POWER PRODUCTION COSTS BY UTILIZING PETROLEUM COKE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin C. Galbreath; Donald L. Toman; Christopher J. Zygarlicke

    1999-09-01

    Petroleum coke, a byproduct of the petroleum-refining process, is an attractive primary or supplemental fuel for power production primarily because of a progressive and predictable increase in the production volumes of petroleum coke (1, 2). Petroleum coke is most commonly blended with coal in proportions suitable to meet sulfur emission compliance. Petroleum coke is generally less reactive than coal; therefore, the cofiring of petroleum coke with coal typically improves ignition, flame stability, and carbon loss relative to the combustion of petroleum coke alone. Although petroleum coke is a desirable fuel for producing relatively inexpensive electrical power, concerns about the effects of petroleum coke blending on combustion and pollution control processes exist in the coal-fired utility industry (3). The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) completed a 2-year technical assessment of petroleum coke as a supplemental fuel. A survey questionnaire was sent to seven electric utility companies that are currently cofiring coal and petroleum coke in an effort to solicit specific suggestions on research needs and fuel selections. An example of the letter and survey questionnaire is presented in Appendix A. Interest was expressed by most utilities in evaluating the effects of petroleum coke blending on grindability, combustion reactivity, fouling, slagging, and fly ash emissions control. Unexpectedly, concern over corrosion was not expressed by the utilities contacted. Although all seven utilities responded to the question, only two utilities, Northern States Power Company (NSP) and Ameren, sent fuels to the EERC for evaluation. Both utilities sent subbituminous coals from the Power River Basin and petroleum shot coke samples. Petroleum shot coke is produced unintentionally during operational upsets in the petroleum refining process. This report evaluates the effects of petroleum shot coke blending on grindability, fuel reactivity, fouling/slagging, and

  15. Statistical inquiry on the reliability of emergency diesel stations in German nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This statistic inquiry is based on 692 occurrances in 40 diesel stations of 10 German nuclear power plants. Various parameters influencing the failure behaviour of diesel stations were investigated on only significant plant-specific influences and the impact of diesel station circuitry on failure behaviour were established. According to the results of this inquiry, running time, start-up number and increasing operational experience do not apparently influence the failure behaviour of diesel stations. The expected failure probability of diesel stations varies with the different nuclear power plants. Taking into account both start-up and operational failures, (with monthly inspections and running times of up to 2 h), this value is in the range of 1.6 x 10 -2 to 1.7 x 10 -3 per application. Considering failure data of all diesel stations, the failure probability (start-up and operational failures) is 8.1 x 10 -3 per application. On account of the two common-mode failures registered, a common-mode failure probability of 10 -3 was established. The inquiry also showed that non-availability of diesel stations is essentially determined by maintenance intervals. (orig.) [de

  16. The availability of German nuclear power plants and possible further improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennies, H.H.

    1985-01-01

    West Germany's 19 nuclear power plants with a capacity of 17,000 MW are actually producing about 30% of the public electricity generation. In 1984 they produced 93 billion kWh; three plants produced more than 10 billion kWh each. Most of the plants are Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR), some are Boiling Water reactors (BWR), of which the largest units went into operation recently. Considering the availability of German nuclear power plants meanwhile achieved no major systems modifications or changes in materials used are required for the time being. Instead, plant standardization is the target to be pursued. This paper discusses that the standardization of the plants allows to set up a spare part pool not just for one unit but for a parc of units. With experience of operation, maintenance and repair accumulating it is possible to have tool and repair procedures prepared well in advance for all foreseeable incidents. More optimized and automated equipment for refueling is under development to reduce even further the present annual refueling time of 30 days

  17. German energy turnaround and Poland's start in nuclear power? A survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knopp, Lothar; Gorski, Marek

    2015-01-01

    The book includes contributions from two meetings: 1. Meeting in Berlin, October 8,2014: Energy transition in Poland - historical background, development and actual situation; legal boundary conditions of the entry into nuclear power in Poland; ecologic and economic causes motivation for the atomic energy entry in Poland; promotion systems for renewable energy in Poland, current status and political background; construction of a nuclear power plant in Northern Poland site specific impacts and social assessment. Meeting in Stettin on November 5, 2014: Energy turnaround in Germany -German nuclear phaseout under consideration of EU legislation; ecologic and economic motivation for the energy turnaround in Germany; energy turnaround in Germany - new legal boundary conditions, especially the amendment to tue renewable energy law; contribution of the industry to the energy turnaround - taking the example waste management and waste incineration plants; fracking as a factor of the energy turnaround? - legal boundary conditions and ecologic risks; ecological, ethical and sociopolitical aspects of the energy turnaround in Germany and Poland.

  18. Using management of aging in German nuclear power plants - aspects of KTA 1403 pertaining to residual power operation, post-shutdown operation and residual operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barreiro, Pablo; Bever, Thomas; Brast, Gerhard; Elsche, Bjoern; Reese, Sven H.; Grossmann, Patrick; Widera, Martin; Huettner, Frank; Linnemann, Thomas; Smit, Swen-Olaf; Zander, Ralf-Michael

    2013-01-01

    Management of aging in nuclear power plants originated in the United States of America and became a topic of debate in Germany from the late 1990s onward. On the basis of the existing plant-specific measures practiced comprehensively, KTA 1403, ''Management of Aging in Nuclear Power Plants'', was drafted and finalized in 2010. This publication first presents the context of AM with regard to German nuclear power plants, including references to national and international historical developments. Against this backdrop, the difference between management of aging and lifetime management is discussed next. This is followed by a description of the status of the AM process in nuclear power plants currently in operation, especially organizational plant-specific implementation. As a consequence of the decision by the German federal government to discontinue the peaceful use of nuclear power in Germany and the associated 13th amendment to the Atomic Energy Act of July 31, 2011, a considerable part of the German nuclear power plant park already lost its right of power operation. In this situation, aspects of AM are discussed for plants in the no-power, post-operation and residual operation phases. Finally, experience accumulated in plant-specific execution of the AM process on the basis of KTA 1403 is considered and summarized.

  19. Utilization of nuclear energy for generating electric power in the FRG, with special regard to LWR-type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vollradt, J.

    1977-01-01

    Comments on interdependencies in energy industry and energy generation as seen by energy supply utilities, stating that the generation of electric power in Germany can only be based on coal and nuclear energy in the long run, are followed by the most important, fundamental, nuclear-physical, technological and in part political interdependencies prevailing in the starting situation of 1955/58 when the construction of nuclear power plant reactors began. Then the development ranging to the 28000 MW nuclear power output to be expected in 1985 is outlined, totalling in 115000 MW electric power in the FRG. Finally, using the respectively latest order, the technical set up of each of the reactor types with 1300 MWe unit power offered by German manufacturers are described: BBC/BBR PWR-type reactor Neupotz, KWU-PWR-type reactor Hamm and KWU PWR-type reactor double unit B+C Gundremmingen. (orig.) [de

  20. Renewable energy and CCS in German and European power sector decarbonization scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludig, Sylvie

    2013-11-06

    system costs are lower when transmission and storage are available. Restrictions on transmission expansion induce high amounts of storage since high local shares of solar PV lead to large output variations. In contrast, a highly interconnected European power grid allows for optimized renewable power generation siting in regions with highest potentials, which requires large-scale transmission expansions but limits total power system costs. Results from a detailed study for Germany show that the level of power demand is strongly relevant for the realization of high renewable shares and ambitious decarbonization targets. A broad technology portfolio allows to hedge against the failure to meet efficiency goals for electricity demand. CCS is necessary to reach ambitious government targets if power demand is not sufficiently decreased by efficiency measures, as is offshore wind energy. Even in case of decreasing demand, at least one of both technologies needs to be available. The choice of transmission expansion corridors is strongly influenced by technology availability: in scenarios without offshore wind energy, north-south interconnections, which are crucial in all other scenarios, only play a minor role. The studies in this thesis show that a large-scale decarbonization of the German and European power sectors is achievable through large shares of renewable energy technologies for electricity generation. CCS is not a prerequisite for successful CO{sub 2} emission strategies, but allows reaching mitigation targets at a lower cost. A portfolio of renewable energy integration options is essential to manage temporal and spatial fluctuations; the optimal technology mix is determined by the underlying power system.

  1. Advanced handbook for accident analyses of German nuclear power plants; Weiterentwicklung eines Handbuches fuer Stoerfallanalysen deutscher Kernkraftwerke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerner, Alexander; Broecker, Annette; Hartung, Juergen; Mayer, Gerhard; Pallas Moner, Guim

    2014-09-15

    The advanced handbook of safety analyses (HSA) comprises a comprehensive electronic collection of knowledge for the compilation and conduction of safety analyses in the area of reactor, plant and containment behaviour as well as results of existing safety analyses (performed by GRS in the past) with characteristic specifications and further background information. In addition, know-how from the analysis software development and validation process is presented and relevant rules and regulations with regard to safety demonstration are provided. The HSA comprehensively covers the topic thermo-hydraulic safety analyses (except natural hazards, man-made hazards and malicious acts) for German pressurized and boiling water reactors for power and non-power operational states. In principle, the structure of the HSA-content represents the analytical approach utilized by safety analyses and applying the knowledge from safety analyses to technical support services. On the basis of a multilevel preparation of information to the topics ''compilation of safety analyses'', ''compilation of data bases'', ''assessment of safety analyses'', ''performed safety analyses'', ''rules and regulation'' and ''ATHLET-validation'' the HSA addresses users with different background, allowing them to enter the HSA at different levels. Moreover, the HSA serves as a reference book, which is designed future-oriented, freely configurable related to the content, completely integrated into the GRS internal portal and prepared to be used by a growing user group.

  2. Nuclear power and the opting-out policy of the German Government. A matter of responsibility and controversy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grawe, J.; Voss, A.

    2000-01-01

    The article critically reviews the energy policy of the German Government and the plans for winding down nuclear power generation and instead pursue a policy for a ''green reshufflement'' of generation technologies, providing for incentives to switch to options for decentralized power generation with enhanced use of renewable energy sources. The article explains arguments against the Government's opting-out policy which were laid down in a memorandum presented to the Government by a group of five university professors, among them the authors of this article who, as experts in this domain, are aware of their responsibility as scientists and members of society and therefore explain their view of the policy issues, also referring to a recent expert opinion of the German Wissenschaftsrat (science council), which recommended to continue nuclear energy research programmes and nuclear power generation. (orig./CB) [de

  3. Efficiency Analysis of German Electricity Distribution Utilities : Non-Parametric and Parametric Tests

    OpenAIRE

    von Hirschhausen, Christian R.; Cullmann, Astrid

    2005-01-01

    Abstract This paper applies parametric and non-parametric and parametric tests to assess the efficiency of electricity distribution companies in Germany. We address traditional issues in electricity sector benchmarking, such as the role of scale effects and optimal utility size, as well as new evidence specific to the situation in Germany. We use labour, capital, and peak load capacity as inputs, and units sold and the number of customers as output. The data cover 307 (out of 553) ...

  4. Plant specific safety inspection of German nuclear power plants taking into account the Fukushima-I (Japan) events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The German Parliament requested (17 March 2011) a comprehensive inspection of German nuclear power plants. For this purpose independent expert commissions should perform a new risk analysis of all German NPPS and nuclear installations with respect to the lessons learned from the Fukushima (Japan) events and other extraordinary damage scenarios. The Reactor safety commission (RSK) was assigned by the German Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz to develop a catalogue of requirements for this safety inspection. The contribution summarizes the required inspection volume (status 30.03.2011) including the following events: natural events like earth quakes, floods, weather-based consequences and possible superposition. Additionally the following assumptions have to be considered: event independent postulated common failures or systematic faults, station blackout larger than 2 hours, long-term failure of the auxiliary cooling water supply; aggravating boundary conditions for the performance of emergency measures (non-availability of power supply), hydrogen generation and detonation hazard, restricted personnel availability, non-accessibility due to high radiation levels, impeded technical support from outside. (orig.)

  5. Using benchmarking for the primary allocation of EU allowances. An application to the German power sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleich, J.; Cremer, C.

    2007-07-01

    Basing allocation of allowances for existing installations under the EU Emissions Trading Scheme on specific emission values (benchmarks) rather than on historic emissions may have several advantages. Benchmarking may recognize early ac-tion, provide higher incentives for replacing old installations and result in fewer distortions in case of updating, facilitate EU-wide harmonization of allocation rules or allow for simplified and more efficient closure rules. Applying an optimization model for the German power sector, we analyze the distributional effects of vari-ous allocation regimes across and within different generation technologies. Re-sults illustrate that regimes with a single uniform benchmark for all fuels or with a single benchmark for coal- and lignite-fired plants imply substantial distributional effects. In particular, lignite- and old coal-fired plants would be made worse off. Under a regime with fuel-specific benchmarks for gas, coal, and lignite 50 % of the gas-fired plants and 4 % of the lignite and coal-fired plants would face an allow-ance deficit of at least 10 %, while primarily modern lignite-fired plants would benefit. Capping the surplus and shortage of allowances would further moderate the distributional effects, but may tarnish incentives for efficiency improvements and recognition of early action. (orig.)

  6. Enduring Power of Attorney (EPoA – comparison between Austrian and German Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Ganner

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available ENGLISH: With the establishment of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD the treatment of people with disabilities is changing from a protective perspective to a rights - based approach. The Enduring Power of Attorney (EPoA is an important instrument, which helps with the implementation of the CRPD into national law. As an instrument of self - determined substituted decision - making it is recognised as the best practice model to safeguard the autonomy of people suffering the deprivations of age and other disabilities. This article touches briefly on general supported and substituted decision - making instruments and then goes on to examine the differences and similarities, advantages and disadvantages b e- tween Austrian and German laws concerning EPoAs. DEUTSCH: Mit der Umsetzung der UN-Behindertenrechtskonvention findet ein Paradigmenwechsel und Umdenken im Umgang mit Personen mit Behinderungen statt. Der Primat der Fürsorge weicht einem liberalen, auf Menschenrechten basierenden Ansatz. In diesem Kontext ist die Vorsorgevollmacht ein effektives Mittel, das die Implementation der UN-Behindertenrechtskonvention in nationales Recht vorantreibt und die Selbstbestimmung und Eigenständigkeit altersbedingt eingeschränkter Menschen und von Menschen mit Behinderungen gewährleistet. Dieser Artikel beschäftigt sich einleitend mit allgemeinen Rechtsinstrumenten der (unterstützten Entscheidungsfindung bei nicht selbst entscheidungsfähigen Personen und analysiert in weiterer Folge Gemeinsamkeiten und Unterschiede sowie Vor- und Nachteile der Vorsorgevollmacht nach österreichischem und deutschem Recht.

  7. National Maglev initiative: California line electric utility power system requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Save, Phil

    1994-01-01

    The electrical utility power system requirements were determined for a Maglev line from San Diego to San Francisco and Sacramento with a maximum capacity of 12,000 passengers an hour in each direction at a speed of 300 miles per hour, or one train every 30 seconds in each direction. Basically the Maglev line requires one 50-MVA substation every 12.5 miles. The need for new power lines to serve these substations and their voltage levels are based not only on equipment loading criteria but also on limitations due to voltage flicker and harmonics created by the Maglev system. The resulting power system requirements and their costs depend mostly on the geographical area, urban or suburban with 'strong' power systems, or mountains and rural areas with 'weak' power systems. A reliability evaluation indicated that emergency power sources, such as a 10-MW battery at each substation, were not justified if sufficient redundancy is provided in the design of the substations and the power lines serving them. With a cost of $5.6 M per mile, the power system requirements, including the 12-kV DC cables and the inverters along the Maglev line, were found to be the second largest cost component of the Maglev system, after the cost of the guideway system ($9.1 M per mile), out of a total cost of $23 M per mile.

  8. Electric utility power plant construction costs, 1st Edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    New UDI report combines historical construction costs for more than 1,000 coal, oil, gas, nuclear and geothermal units that have entered commercial operation since 1966 and projected power plant construction costs for about 400 utility-owned generating units scheduled to enter commercial operation during the next 20 years. Key design characteristics and equipment suppliers, A/E, constructor and original installed cost data. Direct construction costs without AFUDC are provided where known. Historical construction cost data are also provided for about 130 utility-owned hydroelectric, gas turbine, combined-cycle and diesel units (these data are generally for units entering service after 1980)

  9. Financing the electric power utilities, especially the nuclear power in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajima, T.

    1975-04-01

    Electric power demands in Japan have shown a remarkable growth at an annual rate of 12% since 1965. Nine electric power companies have invested large amounts of money so far, amounting to over 1 trillion yen every year since 1972. A survey of the electric power supply system and an estimation of the electric power demands in 1980 and in 1985 are given. It is expected that the main portion of electric power in the future will gradually be generated by nuclear plants. Financial features of the electrical power utilities, the credit risk of the electric power utilities, and the raising of funds by electric power utilities are discussed. It is concluded that it will be necessary (1) to expand the capital market, (2) to enable the electric power companies to issue a sufficient amount of bonds, (3) to make the Government financing institutions, such as the Japan Development Bank, provide the electric power companies with larger funds on a long-term and low-interest rate basis, and (4) even to take such drastic steps as subsidizing interest on private loans to the electric power companies. (B.P.)

  10. Th-utilization in PWRs: status of work in the cooperative Brazilian/German program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peehs, M.; Schlosser, G.J.; Pinheiro, R.B.; Maly, V.; Hrovat, M.

    1986-03-01

    The major results of the program 'Th-Utilization in PWR's' are presented and discussed. The investigations show that the standard KWU-PWR can accomodate (Th,U)O 2 and (Th,Pu)O 2 fuels without changes in the fuel element design, in 3 and 4-batch operation scheme, without penalties in the reactor performance. An advanced fuel fabrication scheme using direct pelletizing methods out of ex-gel microspheres has been developed on laboratory scale. The (Th,U)O 2 test fuel produced satisfies PWR-specification and is currently undergoing irradiation testing. Thermal and mechanical design of fuel pins with thorium based fuel is validated by the current instrumented single rod irradiation test. Cold laboratory investigations indicate that the (Th,UO 2 PWR-fuel can be reprocessed using presently known technology, including the chopleach technique and modified THOREX extraction process. (Author) [pt

  11. Utilizing Solar Power Technologies for On-Orbit Propellant Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fikes, John C.; Howell, Joe T.; Henley, Mark W.

    2006-01-01

    The cost of access to space beyond low Earth orbit may be reduced if vehicles can refuel in orbit. The cost of access to low Earth orbit may also be reduced by launching oxygen and hydrogen propellants in the form of water. To achieve this reduction in costs of access to low Earth orbit and beyond, a propellant depot is considered that electrolyzes water in orbit, then condenses and stores cryogenic oxygen and hydrogen. Power requirements for such a depot require Solar Power Satellite technologies. A propellant depot utilizing solar power technologies is discussed in this paper. The depot will be deployed in a 400 km circular equatorial orbit. It receives tanks of water launched into a lower orbit from Earth, converts the water to liquid hydrogen and oxygen, and stores up to 500 metric tons of cryogenic propellants. This requires a power system that is comparable to a large Solar Power Satellite capable of several 100 kW of energy. Power is supplied by a pair of solar arrays mounted perpendicular to the orbital plane, which rotates once per orbit to track the Sun. The majority of the power is used to run the electrolysis system. Thermal control is maintained by body-mounted radiators; these also provide some shielding against orbital debris. The propellant stored in the depot can support transportation from low Earth orbit to geostationary Earth orbit, the Moon, LaGrange points, Mars, etc. Emphasis is placed on the Water-Ice to Cryogen propellant production facility. A very high power system is required for cracking (electrolyzing) the water and condensing and refrigerating the resulting oxygen and hydrogen. For a propellant production rate of 500 metric tons (1,100,000 pounds) per year, an average electrical power supply of 100 s of kW is required. To make the most efficient use of space solar power, electrolysis is performed only during the portion of the orbit that the Depot is in sunlight, so roughly twice this power level is needed for operations in sunlight

  12. Technical dictionary power plant engineering. Vol. 1. German - English. - Pt. 1: Dictionary. Pt. 2: Abbreviations. 4. rev. and enlarged ed. Technisches Woerterbuch Kraftwerkstechnik. Bd. 1. Deutsch - Englisch. - T. 1: Woerterbuch. T. 2: Abkuerzungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    This dictionary is a compilation of German and English technical terms of power plant engineering as far as power plants, turbine-generators and assembly engineering are concerned. It is the result of a joint effort by the Kraftwerk Union AG (KWU) and Utility Power Corp. (UPC). The entire content has been revised and approx. 6000 new terms have been added. The dictionary is meant to form a basis for uniform terminology on technical documents as well as correspondence between KWU, UPC and licensees. This computer aided dictionary is printed in capital/low case letters. Only nouns, terms with an article and proper names are capitalized in German. Some terms are written differently in American and British English and are marked with (US) or (GB).

  13. How EPRI [Electric Power Research Institute] helps utilities save money

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    A number of case studies are presented which illustrate how the work of the Electric Power Research Institute in the USA has enabled nuclear utilities to save money. The areas covered by the examples are: steam generator tube repair; streamlining of reliability centred maintenance; cost effective instrumentation and control maintenance; reducing the frequency of instrument calibration; optimising the engineering change process; detecting and reducing fuel failure; extending the qualified life of equipment. (U.K.)

  14. Utilities Power Change: Engaging Commercial Customers in Workplace Charging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lommele, S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dafoe, W. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-05-31

    Using electricity to power vehicles can help advance energy security and reduce emissions, and also presents a new market opportunity for utilities looking to diversify and offer an added benefit to commercial customers. By providing plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) charging stations for their employees, commercial customers can help attract and retain a cutting-edge workforce. These employers also signal a commitment to sustainability and demonstrate progressive leadership and a willingness to adopt advanced technology.

  15. Bulk power system performance issues affecting utility peaking capacity additions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrity, T.F. [GE Power Sytems, Schenectady, NY (United States)

    1994-12-31

    This paper presents a discussion of transmission system constraints and problems that affect the siting and rating of peaking capacity additions. Techniques for addressing and modifying these concerns are presented. Particular attention is paid to techniques that have been successfully used by utilities to improve power transfer and system loadability, while avoiding the construction of additional transmission lines. Proven techniques for dealing with thermal, short-circuit level and stability issues are presented.

  16. Analysis of human factor aspects in connection with available incident reports obligatorily reported by German nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilpert, B.; Freitag, M.; Miller, R.

    1993-01-01

    Goal of the present study is the analysis of human factor aspects in connection with available incident reports obligatorily reported by German nuclear power plants. Based on psychological theories and empirical studies this study develops a classification scheme which permits the identification of foci of erroneous human actions. This classification scheme is applied to a selection of human factor relevant incidents by calculating frequencies of the occurrence of human error categories. The results allow insights into human factor related problem areas. (orig.) [de

  17. Study of factors governing US utility nuclear power decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-05-01

    Under DOE contract No. DE-AC02-79ET34009, The S.M. Stoller Corporation has conducted a study of US utility attitudes toward nuclear power. In the course of this study SMSC carried out a utility survey the objectives of which were: (1) to identify and rank in importance the governing considerations in actions taken in the past three years to cancel or defer nuclear projects, and (2) to gain insight into the circumstances and attitudes likely to govern new base-load commitments over the next several years. During the survey, contacts were made at the senior management level with utilities representing approximately half of the country's total electric capacity and two-thirds of its present nuclear commitment. Analysis of the responses led to the conclusion that most, if not all, of the decisions reached by the respondent utilities in the past several years to cancel or defer nuclear projects were triggered by one or a combination of the following four considerations: financial constraints; reduction in expected system load growth; schedule delay in licensing and construction and/or unpredictability; and adverse state government policies or attitudes regarding nuclear power

  18. Unit commitment and investment valuation of flexible biogas plants in German power markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hochloff, Patrick

    2017-07-01

    Biogas plants contribute a significant share of renewable energy sources (RES) to the electricity system. Most of them are designed to supply constant power generation. In the future biogas plants will most likely become more flexible, scheduling their power generation with respect to market prices. For this purpose power units need extended electrical capacity to convert the continuously produced gas as well as the gas held in storage. When constructing extended capacity at biogas plants, the flexibility premium is the main focus for about 8000 plants which were constructed before August 2014. Additional incomes as a result of selling at higher market prices have been considered, too. However, their relationship to the electrical capacity and storage size of biogas plants was unknown as was the impact on investment valuation. This work has shown how biogas plants with extended capacity can be analyzed when they are operated in power markets, in particular the power spot market and the control reserve markets. Models on the basis of unit commitment have been developed in order to obtain optimized schedules and financial parameters, such as gross income and net present value (NPV), when biogas plants with extended capacity capitalize on prices in each market. The models developed consider several use cases that describe possible ways of participating in German power markets, switching between static and variable gas supply, providing secondary and tertiary control reserve, and claiming the market and flexibility premium. Mixed integer linear programs (MILP) have been developed for the unit commitment of each use case. The model for the unit commitment of providing control reserve with biogas plants made significant progress compared to the state of the art and has been published in (Hochloff, Braun 2014). There are two ways to make use of this model. First of all, the model could be applied to plan daily schedules for the operation of gas plants located at a gas

  19. Unit commitment and investment valuation of flexible biogas plants in German power markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hochloff, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Biogas plants contribute a significant share of renewable energy sources (RES) to the electricity system. Most of them are designed to supply constant power generation. In the future biogas plants will most likely become more flexible, scheduling their power generation with respect to market prices. For this purpose power units need extended electrical capacity to convert the continuously produced gas as well as the gas held in storage. When constructing extended capacity at biogas plants, the flexibility premium is the main focus for about 8000 plants which were constructed before August 2014. Additional incomes as a result of selling at higher market prices have been considered, too. However, their relationship to the electrical capacity and storage size of biogas plants was unknown as was the impact on investment valuation. This work has shown how biogas plants with extended capacity can be analyzed when they are operated in power markets, in particular the power spot market and the control reserve markets. Models on the basis of unit commitment have been developed in order to obtain optimized schedules and financial parameters, such as gross income and net present value (NPV), when biogas plants with extended capacity capitalize on prices in each market. The models developed consider several use cases that describe possible ways of participating in German power markets, switching between static and variable gas supply, providing secondary and tertiary control reserve, and claiming the market and flexibility premium. Mixed integer linear programs (MILP) have been developed for the unit commitment of each use case. The model for the unit commitment of providing control reserve with biogas plants made significant progress compared to the state of the art and has been published in (Hochloff, Braun 2014). There are two ways to make use of this model. First of all, the model could be applied to plan daily schedules for the operation of gas plants located at a gas

  20. Plant life management optimized utilization of existing nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watzinger, H.; Erve, M.

    1999-01-01

    For safe, reliable and economical nuclear power generation it is of central importance to understand, analyze and manage aging-related phenomena and to apply this information in the systematic utilization and as-necessary extension of the service life of components and systems. An operator's overall approach to aging and plant life management which also improves performance characteristics can help to optimize plant operating economy. In view of the deregulation of the power generation industry with its increased competition, nuclear power plants must today also increasingly provide for or maintain a high level of plant availability and low power generating costs. This is a difficult challenge even for the newest, most modern plants, and as plants age they can only remain competitive if a plant operator adopts a strategic approach which takes into account the various aging-related effects on a plant-wide basis. The significance of aging and plant life management for nuclear power plants becomes apparent when looking at their age: By the year 2000 roughly fifty of the world's 434 commercial nuclear power plants will have been in operation for thirty years or more. According to the International Atomic Energy Agency, as many as 110 plants will have reached the thirty-year service mark by the year 2005. In many countries human society does not push the construction of new nuclear power plants and presumably will not change mind within the next ten years. New construction licenses cannot be expected so that for economical and ecological reasons existing plants have to be operated unchallengeably. On the other hand the deregulation of the power production market is asking just now for analysis of plant life time to operate the plants at a high technical and economical level until new nuclear power plants can be licensed and constructed. (author)

  1. Regulating technological change - The strategic reactions of utility companies towards subsidy policies in the German, Spanish and UK electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenzel, Till; Frenzel, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on how incumbent electric utilities strategically react to subsidy schemes supporting renewable energy technologies in the UK, Germany, and Spain. Firms coordinate the development of their technological capabilities and their political activities to shape their regulatory environment. Analysing the diffusion of wind power in these countries, we show that the different ways, in which firms coordinate their technological and political strategies, lead to very different market outcomes, both for the firms' market share and the size of the overall market. Although incumbents are usually seen as being resistant to change in energy systems, we show that Spanish utilities proactively drive the diffusion of wind power. We speculate about the relation between the ownership structure of the energy system and its inertia with respect to the integration of new technologies. We derive novel policy implications that explicitly take into account the strategic actions of incumbent firms shaping the technological and regulatory system

  2. The licensing procedure for the construction of power utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sturm, C.

    1987-01-01

    The requirement to obtain licences for plants constitutes a form of state control over the construction of power utilities. Under the Federal Pollution Law and the Atomic Energy Law, only the environmental compatibility of the planned plant is verified. Verifications according to the Law on the Fuel and Electricity Industries and the Federal Pollution Law, respectively the Atomic Energy Law and the Law on Power Generation from Coal are effected independently of one another by the different authorities. The granting of licences for the individual power plants may be subject to different laws in each instance. This paper covers only the licensing procedure under the Federal Pollution Law and the Atomic Energy Law. (orig./HSCH) [de

  3. Electric power bidding model for practical utility system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Prabavathi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A competitive open market environment has been created due to the restructuring in the electricity market. In the new competitive market, mostly a centrally operated pool with a power exchange has been introduced to meet the offers from the competing suppliers with the bids of the customers. In such an open access environment, the formation of bidding strategy is one of the most challenging and important tasks for electricity participants to maximize their profit. To build bidding strategies for power suppliers and consumers in the restructured electricity market, a new mathematical framework is proposed in this paper. It is assumed that each participant submits several blocks of real power quantities along with their bidding prices. The effectiveness of the proposed method is tested on Indian Utility-62 bus system and IEEE-118 bus system. Keywords: Bidding strategy, Day ahead electricity market, Market clearing price, Market clearing volume, Block bid, Intermediate value theorem

  4. Outlook for gas turbine plant utilization in htgr power facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beknev, V.S.; Leont'ev, A.I.; Shmidt, K.L.; Surovtsev, I.G.

    1983-01-01

    The nuclear reactor power plants that have found greatest favor in the nuclear power industry worldwide are pressurized water reactors, boiling-water reactors, and uranium-graphite channel reactors with saturated-steam steam turbine units (PTU). The efficiency of power generating stations built around reactors such as these does not exceed 30 to 32%, and furthermore they are ''tied down'' to water reservoirs, with the entailed severe thermal effects on the environmental surroundings. The low efficiency range cited is evidence of inefficacious utilization of the nuclear fuel, reserves of which have their limits just as there are limits to available reserves of fossil fuels. Forecasts are being floated of a possible uranium crisis (profitable mining of uranium) in the mid-1990's, even with the expected development of breeder reactors to bridge the gap

  5. The economic value of accurate wind power forecasting to utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, S J [Rutherford Appleton Lab., Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Giebel, G; Joensen, A [Risoe National Lab., Dept. of Wind Energy and Atmospheric Physics, Roskilde (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    With increasing penetrations of wind power, the need for accurate forecasting is becoming ever more important. Wind power is by its very nature intermittent. For utility schedulers this presents its own problems particularly when the penetration of wind power capacity in a grid reaches a significant level (>20%). However, using accurate forecasts of wind power at wind farm sites, schedulers are able to plan the operation of conventional power capacity to accommodate the fluctuating demands of consumers and wind farm output. The results of a study to assess the value of forecasting at several potential wind farm sites in the UK and in the US state of Iowa using the Reading University/Rutherford Appleton Laboratory National Grid Model (NGM) are presented. The results are assessed for different types of wind power forecasting, namely: persistence, optimised numerical weather prediction or perfect forecasting. In particular, it will shown how the NGM has been used to assess the value of numerical weather prediction forecasts from the Danish Meteorological Institute model, HIRLAM, and the US Nested Grid Model, which have been `site tailored` by the use of the linearized flow model WA{sup s}P and by various Model output Statistics (MOS) and autoregressive techniques. (au)

  6. Power Oscillation Damping Controller for Wind Power Plant Utilizing Wind Turbine Inertia as Energy Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knüppel, Thyge; Nielsen, Jørgen Nygård; Jensen, Kim Høj

    2011-01-01

    For a wind power plant (WPP) the upper limit for active power output is bounded by the instantaneous wind conditions and therefore a WPP must curtail its power output when system services with active power are delivered. Here, a power oscillation damping controller (POD) for WPPs is presented...... that utilizes the stored kinetic energy in the wind turbine (WT) mechanical system as energy storage from which damping power can be exchanged. This eliminates the need for curtailed active power production. Results are presented using modal analysis and induced torque coefficients (ITC) to depict the torques...... induced on the synchronous generators from the POD. These are supplemented with nonlinear time domain simulations with and without an auxiliary POD for the WPP. The work is based on a nonlinear, dynamic model of the 3.6 MW Siemens Wind Power wind turbine....

  7. Power exchanges in the German market: an initial assessment; Bourses d'electricite sur le marche Allemand - premieres evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinko, Raytchev [Universite de Montesquieu Bordeaux-4, Lab. d' Analyse et de Recherche en Economie-Economie et Finance Internationales LAREefi, 33 (France)

    2002-11-01

    The emergence of power exchanges is one of the key phenomena accompanying the liberation of the electricity industry. Apart from the Nordic countries, this is a recent event, especially for the countries of continental Europe. In this study, we will be focusing on the German electricity market for several reasons. Firstly, Germany has the largest market for electrical power in Europe. As the electricity sector is in the process of opening up to competition, this country is one of the 'good pupils' in the field of electrical deregulation. Next, it is a good idea to draw up an initial overview of the German experience following the launch on 27.11.2001 of an organised market in France (the PowerNext exchange). Currently, there are three exchanges able to negotiate contracts in the German hub: the Amsterdam Power Exchange (APX), the European Energy (EEX) and the Leipzig Power Exchange (LPX). The exchanges were created between May 1999 (APX) and August 2000 (EEX). They are in a situation of direct competition in the German market. This competition is particularly keen since the three players are well aware of the challenge at stake: becoming the leading exchange for the German market and (possibly) in a future integrated European market. The announcement of a merger between LPX and EEX in 2002 (published on 26.10.2001 on the sites of both exchanges) underlines the importance of these strategic issues. The purpose of this work is to carry out an assessment of the three exchanges during their first months in existence. Using an econometric analysis, we offer conclusions concerning the capacity of these exchanges to supply a reference price. The opportunities for arbitration are also examined. Despite the difficulties of the market launches, the exchanges have successfully maintained a certain degree of coherence in their prices and may now sit back a little and plan their expansion. It is difficult at this stage to see who the eventual 'winner' will

  8. Survey of thorium utilization in power reactor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, M.H.; Schleifer, P.; Dahlberg, R.C.

    1976-01-01

    It is clear that thorium-fueled thermal power reactor systems based on current technology can play a vital role in serving present and long-term energy needs. Advanced thorium converters and thermal breeders can provide an expanded resource base from which the world's growing energy demands can be met. Utilization of a symbiotic system of fast breeders and thorium-fueled thermal reactors can be particularly effective in providing low cost power while conserving uranium resources. Breeder reactors are characterized by high capital costs and very low fuel costs since they produce more fuel than they consume. This excess fuel can be used to fuel thermal converter reactors whose capital costs are low. This symbiosis is optimized when 233 U is bred in the fast breeders and then used to fuel high-conversion-ratio thermal converter reactors operating on the thorium-uranium fuel cycle. The thorium-cycle HTGR, after undergoing more than fifteen years of development in both the United States and Europe, provides for the optimum utilization of our limited uranium resources. Other thermal reactor systems, previously operating on the uranium cycle, also show potential in their capability to utilize the thorium cycle effectively

  9. Regional power supply in 1998-1999. Progress report of the association of regional utilities - Arbeitsgemeinschaft regionaler Energieversorgungs-Unternehmen - ARE e.V.; Regionale Energieversorgung 1998-1999. Taetigkeitsbericht der Arbeitsgemeinschaft regionaler Energieversorgungs-Unternehmen - ARE - e.V.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-04-01

    The ARE progress report discusses the following issues: Economic development and its effects on power supply; Deregulation of the electricity and gas market; Competition between regional utilities; Energy policy of the new German government; European regulations; Legislation on energy supply; Energy supply and cartel law; Regional supply in the East German states. [German] Der Taetigkeitsbericht der ARE befasst sich mit folgenden Themen: Gesamtwirtschaftliche Entwicklung und ihre Auswirkung auf die Energiewirtschaft, Oeffnung des Monopoles fuer Strom und Gas, Wettbewerb der regionalen Energieversorger, Energiepolitik der neuen Bundesregierung, Europaeische Richtlininen, energiewirtschaftsrecht, Versorgungswirtschaft und Kartellrecht und der Regionalversorgung in den neuen Bundeslaendern.

  10. Efficient energy utilization and environmental issues applied to power planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, Hector; Montero, Gisela; Perez, Carlos; Lambert, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    This document shows the importance of policies for electric energy savings and efficient energy utilization in power planning. The contributions of economic, social, and environmental items were evaluated according to their financial effects in the delay of investments, reduction of production costs and decrement of environmental emissions. The case study is Baja California, Mexico; this system has a unique primary source: geothermal energy. Whether analyzing the planning as usual or planning from the supply side, the forecast for 2005-2025 indicates that 4500 MW additional installed capacity will be required (3-times current capacity), representing an investment that will emit 12.7 Mton per year of CO 2 to the atmosphere and will cost US$2.8 billion. Systemic planning that incorporates polices of energy savings and efficiency allows the reduction of investments and pollutant emissions. For example, a reduction of 20% in the growth trend of the electricity consumption in the industrial customers would save US$10.4 billion over the next 20 years, with a potential reduction of 1.6 Mton/year of CO 2 . The increase in geothermal power generation is also attractive, and it can be combined with the reduction of use and energy losses of utilities, which would save US$13.5 billion and prevent the discharge of 8.5 Mton/year of CO 2 . - Highlights: → We contrast power planning methods for supply electricity for economy development. → Importance of policies for electricity savings and efficient use in power planning. → Systemic planning facilitates decision-making process for electricity optimization. → Supply-side planning will cause climb in prices and loss of energy self-sufficiency. → Power planning should be immersed in an environment of appropriate energy policies.

  11. Utilization of waste heat from nuclear power plants in agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horacek, P.

    1981-01-01

    The development of nuclear power will result in the relative and absolute increase in the amount of waste heat which can be used in agriculture for heating greenhouses, open spaces, for fish breeding in heated water, for growing edible mushrooms, growing algae, for frost protection of orchards, air conditioning of buildings for breeding livestock and poultry, and for other purposes. In addition of the positive effect of waste heat, the danger increases of disease, weeds and pests. Pilot plant installations should be build in Czechoslovakia for testing the development of waste heat utilization. (Ha)

  12. Threats and opportunities facing the power utility industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Read, W.S.

    1996-01-01

    This address describes how, throughout the world, technological, ideological, and economic forces are reshaping the way one works and does business. The electric power industry, one of the last bastions of conservatism, has awakened to the fact that it, too, is not immune to the pressure for change. It realizes that it cannot afford to bury its head in the sand when confronted with this challenge. This awakening will provide utilities with the stimulus needed to be innovative and cooperative, in partnership with their customers, in their response to this new business opportunity

  13. Coping with nuclear power risks: the electric utility incentives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starr, C.; Whipple, C.

    1982-01-01

    The financial risks associated with nuclear power accidents are estimated by interpolating between frequency-vs.-severity data from routine outages and the frequency-vs.-severity estimates from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) Reactor Safety Study (WASH-1400). This analysis indicates that the expected costs of plant damage and lost power production are large compared to the public risks estimated in WASH-1400, using values from An Approach to Quantitative Safety Goals for Nuclear Power Plants (NUREG-0739), prepared by the NRC Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards. Analyses of the cost-effectiveness of accident-prevention investments that include only anticipated public safety benefits will underestimate the value of such investments if reductions in power plant damage risk are not included. The analysis also suggests that utility self-interest and the public interest in safety are generally coincident. It is argued that greater use could be made of this self-interest in regulation if the relationship between the NRC and the industry were more cooperative, less adversary in nature

  14. The relationship among CPU utilization, temperature, and thermal power for waste heat utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haywood, Anna M.; Sherbeck, Jon; Phelan, Patrick; Varsamopoulos, Georgios; Gupta, Sandeep K.S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • This work graphs a triad relationship among CPU utilization, temperature and power. • Using a custom-built cold plate, we were able capture CPU-generated high quality heat. • The work undertakes a radical approach using mineral oil to directly cool CPUs. • We found that it is possible to use CPU waste energy to power an absorption chiller. - Abstract: This work addresses significant datacenter issues of growth in numbers of computer servers and subsequent electricity expenditure by proposing, analyzing and testing a unique idea of recycling the highest quality waste heat generated by datacenter servers. The aim was to provide a renewable and sustainable energy source for use in cooling the datacenter. The work incorporates novel approaches in waste heat usage, graphing CPU temperature, power and utilization simultaneously, and a mineral oil experimental design and implementation. The work presented investigates and illustrates the quantity and quality of heat that can be captured from a variably tasked liquid-cooled microprocessor on a datacenter server blade. It undertakes a radical approach using mineral oil. The trials examine the feasibility of using the thermal energy from a CPU to drive a cooling process. Results indicate that 123 servers encapsulated in mineral oil can power a 10-ton chiller with a design point of 50.2 kW th . Compared with water-cooling experiments, the mineral oil experiment mitigated the temperature drop between the heat source and discharge line by up to 81%. In addition, due to this reduction in temperature drop, the heat quality in the oil discharge line was up to 12.3 °C higher on average than for water-cooled experiments. Furthermore, mineral oil cooling holds the potential to eliminate the 50% cooling expenditure which initially motivated this project

  15. The Municipal Electrical Utilities' role in buying and selling power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crocker, D.I.

    1999-01-01

    Ontario's Municipal Electrical Utilities (MEUs) are the front-line providers of electricity services for most of the consumers in Ontario. MEUs serve 2.8 million customers (about 70 per cent of all power sold in Ontario). The new regulatory regime resulting from Ontario's Energy Competition Act (1998) will significantly impact MEUs. The changes aim to consolidate and rationalize the point of sale provision of power to Ontario customers and increase the efficiency of the sector. The Energy Competition Act (1998) creates a competitive electricity marketplace and provides mechanisms for its operation, but it is the MEUs which will bear the risk of market failures. Some of the changes which will be most important to MEUs are: (1) incorporation, (2) default supplier, and (3) oversight by the OEB. It is the author's view that the move towards open markets in electricity is unlikely to enlarge the decision making power of MEUs. On the contrary, the legislative scheme creates a complex regulatory environment wherein the distribution corporation must strictly comply with the OEB's requirements and public policy concerns in exercising its functions. As the MEUs essentially serve as a buffer in the newly opened retail markets, they must find ways to minimize their risk of market failures or spread the cost so as to remain viable commercial entities. They must also devise new information systems prior to the opening of the new market to deal with customer and default consumer pricing, billing and transfer of customers to and from retailers. Municipal utilities will also have to consider restructuring of their own operations, including determining which businesses should be pursued through competitive affiliates

  16. Harmonization of French and German calculation procedures for atmospheric dispersion following accidental releases from nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crabol, B.; Romeo, E.; Nester, K.

    1992-01-01

    In case of an accident in a nuclear power plant near the French-German border different schemes for dispersion calculations in both countries will currently be applied. An intercomparison of these schemes initiated from the German-French Commission for the safety of nuclear installations (DFK) revealed in some meteorological situations large differences in the resulting concentrations for radionuclides. An ad hoc working group was installed by the DFK with the mandate to analyse the reasons for the different model results and also to consider new theoretical concepts. The working group has agreed to apply a Gaussian puff model for emergency response calculations. The results of the model based on turbulence parameterization via similarity approach or spectral theory - have been compared with tracer experiments for different emission heights and atmospheric stability regimes. As a reference the old modelling approaches have been included in the study. The simulations with the similarity approach and the spectral theory show a slightly better agreement to the measured concentration data than the schemes used in the past. Instead of diffusion categories both new approaches allow a continuous characterization of the atmospheric dispersion conditions. Because the spectral approach incorporates the sampling time of the meteorological data as an adjustable parameter thereby offering the possibility to adjust the dispersion model to different emission scenarios this turbulence parameterization scheme will be foreseen as the basis for a joint French-German puff model

  17. Utilization of brown coal in FRG power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotler, V.R.

    1985-07-01

    FRG methods are studied for utilizing brown coal in view of the development of Kansk-Achinsk brown coal deposits. The use of brown coal in FRG power plants has increased from 15% in 1950- 1960 to 85% (total output) in 1982, providing 79.4 TWh of electrical energy. The remainder was used for briquetting, pulverization and breeze coke. In 1982 nearly 100 million tons of brown coal were burned by six large power stations (rated capacity 11,400 MW) to produce nearly 80 billion kWh of energy. Measures are discussed taken to reduce slagging and to remove excessive moisture content. Problems are analyzed associated with increased contamination of the atmosphere in areas with high population density (412/km/sup 2/) and cost of suppression is reviewed. According to available data, the cost of preventive measures taken by FRG, USA, Japan and the Netherlands is equal to 30% of the total cost of the energy. The most critical problem is suppression of sulfur dioxide, either by dry or wet scrubbers or by the addition of dry dolomite or lime to the furnace (75% of all SO/sub 2/ emissions in FRG comes from power stations). A method is described developed by RWE based on a series of distribution headers in the upper part of combustion chambers. At best, 70-80% reduction can be achieved. 14 references.

  18. The future of utility-scale wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hock, S.; Thresher, R.; Williams, T.

    1992-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) estimates that by 2030, wind power could potentially displace between 3 and 4 quadrillion (10 15 ) Btus (quads) of primary energy, with an installed electrical generation capacity of 120,000 to 160,000 MW. This forecast is based upon economic analyses indicating that the costs of wind-generated electricity could be cost competitive with conventional fossil-fuel-based generation by early next century. The key to realizing this objective is overcoming technical challenges to the development of a next-generation of advanced wind turbines. These challenges include the detailed characterization of wind inflow to turbines at wind-power-plant sites, an understanding of unsteady aerodynamics, the development of sophisticated computer models of all aspects of turbine operation, and the application of a better understanding of component and system fatigue to new designs. Advanced wind systems will include such new technologies as blade designs incorporating advanced airfoils and new materials, variable-speed operation, advanced power electronics, rotor-hub enhancements, tall towers, aerodynamic controls, advanced drive trains, and expert control systems. A larger market share for wind energy will also require the resolution of issues surrounding transmission, storage, and the integration of an intermittent energy source into the utility grid

  19. 9 %-chromium steel P91 and P92 in German power plants. From 1991 to the present day

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bader, Mirko; Thuemer, Joerg Rainer; Glasenapp, Klaus [E.ON Anlagenservice GmbH, Gelsenkirchen (Germany)

    2013-09-01

    P91 and P92 are the top players in the field of high-pressure piping in modern coal-fired and CCGT power plants. A long-term testing phase and a step-by-step introductory phase since the nineties had preceded current application. For this reason, a review and overview of the first installation in German power plants and the experience acquired from almost 20 years' operating time of USC boilers in medium-load operation mode will be presented. With a view to the newly built power plants, the focal point changes to P92 for high-temperature pressure tubing. In this context the technical experiences were used in the material qualification process and the design of new component. (orig.)

  20. Impacts of Western Area Power Administration's power marketing alternatives on electric utility systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veselka, T.D.; Portante, E.C.; Koritarov, V.

    1995-03-01

    This technical memorandum estimates the effects of alternative contractual commitments that may be initiated by the Western Area Power Administration's Salt Lake City Area Office. It also studies hydropower operational restrictions at the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects in combination with these alternatives. Power marketing and hydropower operational effects are estimated in support of Western's Electric Power Marketing Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). Electricity production and capacity expansion for utility systems that will be directly affected by alternatives specified in the EIS are simulated. Cost estimates are presented by utility type and for various activities such as capacity expansion, generation, long-term firm purchases and sales, fixed operation and maintenance expenses, and spot market activities. Operational changes at hydropower facilities are also investigated

  1. Power quality enhancement at distribution level utilizing the unified power quality conditioner (UPQC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadkikar, Vinod

    The present doctoral work is based on the philosophy of optimal utilization of the available resources in a most effective and efficient way to improve the product efficiency and to reduce the overall cost. This work proposes a novel control philosophy termed as power angle control (PAC), in which both the series and shunt inverters share the load reactive power in co-ordination with each other without affecting the basic UPQC compensation capabilities. This eventually results in a better utilization of the series inverter, reduction in the shunt inverter rating to some extent and ultimately in the reduction of the overall cost of UPQC. Moreover, in this thesis work several other control approaches are also proposed, such as, unit vector template generation, quadrature voltage injection, generalized single-phase p-q theory and novel current unbalance compensation approach. All the developed concepts are successfully validated through digital simulation as well as extensive experimental investigations. Keywords. power quality, active power filter, unified power quality conditioner, reactive power compensation, harmonics compensation.

  2. Evaluation of results of Phase B of the German Risk Study for Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, B.; Hahn, L.; Sailer, M.

    1989-01-01

    The expert opinion summarizes and discusses the intermediate and the final results of Phase B of the German Risk Study. Emphasis is placed on systems analyses and event scenarios, core melt-down scenarios and effects on the containment, failure of the containment and resulting source terms, radioactivity transport and consequences of accidents, multi-system emergencies and external disturbances, accident management and means of mitigation of damage. (DG) [de

  3. Overview of German R and D activities relevant to life management of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillot, R.

    1998-01-01

    Life management issues of German NPPs include measures for qualifying continuous operation of NPPs and research activities related to materials behaviour under operating conditions. Plant management for life extension demand use of on-line monitoring systems for load (mechanical and thermal); vibration; leakage; water chemistry; neutron irradiation as well as replacement of systems, structures and components. The main goals to be achieved under international cooperation are increased safety, increased plant availability, extension of operating lifetime and improvement of plant economics

  4. Conferring of contracts by utilities in the Single European Market. Transposition of the sectoral directive where it concerns construction and delivery orders into German law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pick, H.; Wetzel, U.

    1994-01-01

    After the enactment of the Second Law Amending the Law on Budgetary Principles, the Ordinance on the Confering of Contracts, and the Ordinance on Verification; and the amendment of the ordinances on the placing of construction and delivery orders (VOB and VOL) the European Directives on so-called ''public'' tendering can be said to be transposed into German law as far as they concern construction and delivery orders. This means that as of 1 March 1994 besides the ''classical'' public contractors utilities, too, must invite bids Europe-wide. According to European law this also applies to service orders as of 1 July 1994, but this provision still awaits transposition into German law. (orig.) [de

  5. Compiling Utility Requirements For New Nuclear Power Plant Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patrakka, Eero

    2002-01-01

    Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO) submitted in November 2000 to the Finnish Government an application for a Decision-in-Principle concerning the construction of a new nuclear power plant in Finland. The actual investment decision can be made first after a positive decision has been made by the Government and the Parliament. Parallel to the licensing process, technical preparedness has been upheld so that the procurement process can be commenced without delay, when needed. This includes the definition of requirements for the plant and preliminary preparation of bid inquiry specifications. The core of the technical requirements corresponds to the specifications presented in the European Utility Requirement (EUR) document, compiled by major European electricity producers. Quite naturally, an amount of modifications to the EUR document are needed that take into account the country- and site-specific conditions as well as the experiences gained in the operation of the existing NPP units. Along with the EUR-related requirements concerning the nuclear island and power generation plant, requirements are specified for scope of supply as well as for a variety of issues related to project implementation. (author)

  6. SOFT POWER: TRAINING OF VET TEACHERS AND TRAINERS (RESULTS OF THE RUSSIAN-GERMAN COOPERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Yu. Esenina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Nowadays, in Russia the system of interaction between educational institutions and enterprises-employers in training of specialists is being built again after more than a twenty-year period of dissociation. Sharing experiences with other countries on networking and strengthening of education relations with production is very useful for establishing this process. The aim of the publication is to present the results of the Russian-German cooperation in the field of preparation of the qualified pedagogical staff for the system of vocational education as one of the key conditions for ensuring the proper quality of vocational education. Methodology and research methods. The methods involve the methodology of comparative research; methods of collecting empirical information; conceptual and terminological analysis, interpretation, modeling, and problem method. Results. The approaches to preparation of pedagogical staff of the VET system in Germany and Russia are revealed and compared. Specifics of the German model are shown: existence of several skill levels of teachers of vocational education, distribution of zones of their responsibility, variability of providers of additional education, its market nature and minimum participation in its regulation of the state. Features of the modern Russian theory and training experience of instructors of vocational training are described. Despite the existing distinctions of systems of professional education of two countries, the similarity of the Russian and German methods of vocational education is observed. The conclusion is drawn on a community of requirements imposed in Germany and Russia to category of the workers who are carrying out staff training for manufacturing sectors. It is confirmed by the German experts on the basis of the analysis of the standard «Teacher of Vocational Education, Professional Education and Additional Professional Education». Also, the standard was checked and

  7. Structure of the German electricity industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The German integrated association is a union of those electric power supply utilities in the Federal Republic of Germany which cooperate in the integrated operation of 220 kV and 380 kV. The German integrated association (DVG) was founded in 1948. Its main task is to create the technical, operational and legal conditions for the cooperation in the national and international integrated system. The inclusion of the new Federal States has been practiced for the first time with the 320 MW power station in Offleben. (DG) [de

  8. Utilization of Mental Health Care, Treatment Patterns, and Course of Psychosocial Functioning in Northern German Coronary Artery Disease Patients with Depressive and/or Anxiety Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westermair, Anna Lisa; Schaich, Anja; Willenborg, Bastian; Willenborg, Christina; Nitsche, Stefan; Schunkert, Heribert; Erdmann, Jeanette; Schweiger, Ulrich

    2018-01-01

    Comorbid mental disorders in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) are common and associated with adverse somatic outcomes. However, data on utilization rates of mental health care and treatment efficiency are scarce and inconsistent, which we tried to remedy with the present preliminary study on Northern German CAD patients. A total of 514 German CAD patients, as diagnosed by cardiac catheterization, were assessed using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview and the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) scale. Global utilization of mental health care since onset of CAD was 21.0%. Depressive disorders, younger age, and lower GAF at onset of CAD were associated with higher utilization rates, while anxiety disorders and gender were not. Lower GAF at onset of CAD, female gender, and psychotherapy was positively associated with higher gains in GAF, while younger age and anxiety disorders were negatively associated. The majority of CAD patients with comorbid depression reported to have received mental health treatment and seemed to have benefited from it. However, we found preliminary evidence of insufficiencies in the diagnosis and treatment of anxiety disorders in CAD patients. Further studies, preferably prospective and with representative samples, are needed to corroborate or falsify these findings and explore possible further mediators of health-care utilization by CAD patients such as race, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status.

  9. Dynamic Power Management for Portable Hybrid Power-Supply Systems Utilizing Approximate Dynamic Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jooyoung Park

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the optimization of power flows in portable hybrid power-supply systems (HPSSs has become an important issue with the advent of a variety of mobile systems and hybrid energy technologies. In this paper, a control strategy is considered for dynamically managing power flows in portable HPSSs employing batteries and supercapacitors. Our dynamic power management strategy utilizes the concept of approximate dynamic programming (ADP. ADP methods are important tools in the fields of stochastic control and machine learning, and the utilization of these tools for practical engineering problems is now an active and promising research field. We propose an ADP-based procedure based on optimization under constraints including the iterated Bellman inequalities, which can be solved by convex optimization carried out offline, to find the optimal power management rules for portable HPSSs. The effectiveness of the proposed procedure is tested through dynamic simulations for smartphone workload scenarios, and simulation results show that the proposed strategy can successfully cope with uncertain workload demands.

  10. Optimizing the Utility Power of a Geothermal Power Plant using Variable Frequency Drive (VFD) (Case Study: Sibayak Geothermal Power Plant)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinaga, R. H. M.; Manik, Y.

    2018-03-01

    Sibayak Geothermal Power Plant (SGPP) is one of the plants being developed by Pertamina Geothermal Energy (PGE) at the upstream phase. At the downstream phase, State - owned Electricity Company (PLN) through PT. Dizamatra Powerindo is the developer. The gross capacity of the power plant is 13.3 MW, consisting 1 unit of Monoblock (2 MW) developed by PGE and 2 units (2×5.65 MW) operated through Energy Sales Contract by PLN. During the development phase of a geothermal power plant, there is a chance to reduce the utility power in order to increase the overall plant efficiency. Reducing the utility power can be attempted by utilizing the wet bulb temperature fluctuation. In this study, a modeling process is developed by using Engineering Equation Solver (EES) software version 9.430. The possibility of energy saving is indicated by condenser pressure changes as a result of wet bulb temperature fluctuation. The result of this study indicates that the change of condenser pressure is about 50.8% on the constant liquid/gas (L/G) condition of the wet bulb temperature of 15°C to 25°C. Further result indicates that in this power plant, Cooling Tower Fan (CTF) is the facility that has the greatest utility load, followed by Hot Well Pump (HWP). The saving of the greatest utility load is applied trough Variable Frequency Drive (VFD) instrumentation. The result of this modeling has been validated by actual operations data (log sheet). The developed model has also been reviewed trough Specific Steam Consumption (SSC), resulting that constant L/G condition allows the optimum condition on of the wet bulb temperature of 15°C to 25°C.

  11. Pakistan's rise to nuclear power and the contribution of German companies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricke, Klaus-Peter

    2013-09-01

    The amendment of the Foreign Trade and Payments Act (Aussenwirtschaftsgesetz) has prompted the preparation of this paper because of concerns over potential setbacks in advances achieved over the past twenty years in regulating German exports to non-EU countries and shipments to member states of the EU and the watering down of export restrictions to correspond to the low standards in place at the EU level (with the objective of streamlining the Foreign Trade and Payments Act and nullifying special German requirements which place German exporters at a disadvantage compared with their European competitors, according to a spokesperson of the German Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology). This would send the wrong signal on combating proliferation. From the 1970s to 1990s the Federal Republic of Germany played an extremely negative role because it opened the doors wide to the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction through lax legislation and even more slipshod enforcement. Alarmed by several scandals, in recent years the German government has taken the lead regarding this issue and it would be appropriate for it to continue to fulfill this role. The attitude of the German governments in the 1970s to 1990s as well as the attitude of the key government authorities responsible for controlling exports becomes clear through the example of the cases of illegal exports of nuclear technology to Pakistan. Until the early 1990s the legal situation was such that some acts of proliferation could not even be prosecuted because the licensing regime included only goods listed in Part 1 of the Export Control List (Ausfuhrliste Teil I). The relevant authorities - the Bundesamt fuer Wirtschaft (Federal Office of Economics, BAW) and customs authorities - were neither in terms of personnel nor due to the deficiency of their computer equipment - in a position to carry out their legally prescribed duties. The maximum sentence for even the most serious proliferation violations

  12. Pakistan's rise to nuclear power and the contribution of German companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricke, Klaus-Peter

    2013-01-01

    The amendment of the Foreign Trade and Payments Act (Aussenwirtschaftsgesetz) has prompted the preparation of this paper because of concerns over potential setbacks in advances achieved over the past twenty years in regulating German exports to non-EU countries and shipments to member states of the EU and the watering down of export restrictions to correspond to the low standards in place at the EU level (with the objective of streamlining the Foreign Trade and Payments Act and nullifying special German requirements which place German exporters at a disadvantage compared with their European competitors, according to a spokesperson of the German Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology). This would send the wrong signal on combating proliferation. From the 1970s to 1990s the Federal Republic of Germany played an extremely negative role because it opened the doors wide to the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction through lax legislation and even more slipshod enforcement. Alarmed by several scandals, in recent years the German government has taken the lead regarding this issue and it would be appropriate for it to continue to fulfill this role. The attitude of the German governments in the 1970s to 1990s as well as the attitude of the key government authorities responsible for controlling exports becomes clear through the example of the cases of illegal exports of nuclear technology to Pakistan. Until the early 1990s the legal situation was such that some acts of proliferation could not even be prosecuted because the licensing regime included only goods listed in Part 1 of the Export Control List (Ausfuhrliste Teil I). The relevant authorities - the Bundesamt fuer Wirtschaft (Federal Office of Economics, BAW) and customs authorities - were neither in terms of personnel nor due to the deficiency of their computer equipment - in a position to carry out their legally prescribed duties. The maximum sentence for even the most serious proliferation violations

  13. Procedures and applications to enlarge the level 1+ PSA to internal fires in German nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, H.P.; Breiling, G.; Hoffmann, H.H.

    1997-01-01

    Investigations have shown that the consequences from fires in nuclear power plants can be significant. Methodologies considering fire in probabilistic safety analyses have been evolving in the last few years. In order to provide a basis for further discussions on benefits and limits of such an analysis in Germany, current methods are investigated. As a result a qualitative screening process is proposed to identify critical fire zones followed by a quantitative event tree analysis in which the fire caused frequency of initiating events and different core damage states will be determined. The models and data proposed for a probabilistic fire risk analysis have been successfully applied in complete and partial fire risk assessments in German nuclear power plants

  14. Studies on the effectiveness of measures to maintain the integrity of pressurized components in German nuclear power plants. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmas, M.; Jendrich, U.; Michel, F.; Reck, H.; Schimpfke, T.; Walter, M.; Wenke, R.

    2013-03-01

    The overall objective of the project was to investigate the effectiveness of measures to maintain the as-built quality of the pressure-retaining components in German nuclear power plants. In particular, investigations were performed on the application of the break preclusion concept, existing monitoring systems and the significance of the pressure test as part of the inspection concept. Moreover, the KompInt knowledge base has been updated. Break preclusion for pipes was applied in all German plants already during planning or after commissioning to a varying extent. The basic features of the required assessments were considered in the German nuclear regulations for the first time by inclusion in the safety requirements for nuclear power plants of 2012. The requirements for assessments, differing in their degree of detail, in the interpretations of these safety requirements and in the safety standard KTA 3206 are still in the draft stage. For the first time, the vessels as well as housings of valves and pumps are also included in the concept. Through the use of advanced monitoring systems it was possible in German plants at an early stage to establish modes of operation that minimise the load on components, to carry out appropriate technical backfitting measures, and to identify damages. In plant areas where local water chemistry parameters may result that deviate from the specification, the effectiveness of water chemistry monitoring is limited. In this case, other operational measures must be taken. The results of the simulations performed with the help of the GRS-developed PROST computer code to determine the significance of pressure tests lead - in accordance with the results of operating experience evaluation - to the conclusion that pressure tests carried out within the pressure-retaining boundary contribute to safeguarding the integrity. The user-friendliness of the KompInt knowledge base has been increased by changing over to a new hardware, a software

  15. The relative cueing power of F0 and duration in German prominence perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niebuhr, Oliver; Winkler, Jana

    2017-01-01

    hierarchy further by putting numbers on the interplay of duration and F0. German listeners indirectly judged through lexical identification the relative prominence levels of two neighboring syllables. Results show that an increase in F0 of between 0.49 and 0.76 st is required to outweigh the prominence...... effect of a 30% increase in duration of a neighboring syllable. These numbers are fairly stable across a large range of absolute F0 and duration levels and hence useful in speech technology....

  16. Voltage and reactive power in the 380/220 kV power network of the new German Laender - state and prospects. Spannung und Blindleistung im 380/220-kV-Verbundnetz der neuen Bundeslaender - Stand und Ausblick

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behnke, M; Luettig, K; Radtke, H [Verbundnetz Elektroenergie AG, Berlin (Germany)

    1991-01-01

    With the preparation for restoring a German power network after nearly 40 years of separate development of the EES of the former DDR, the voltage/reactive power regulation must be examined and evaluated in the conditions of: - parting the connections to the present VES partners Poland and Czechoslovakia with the option of rectification - taking up parallel operation with the adjacent network undertakings of the old West German Laender (Preussen Elektra AG and Bayernwerke AG), ie: combined operation with DVG (superregional network of old West German Laender) and UCPTE (European electrical energy union). The aim is to configure this in the 380/220 kV network of the new German Laender, so that with a regionally compensated reactive power system, the voltage can be kept steady much better at times of heavy and light load, and the network losses can be reduced. (orig./GL).

  17. DEWEK '98: 4. German wind power conference; DEWEK '98: 4. Deutsche Windenergie-Konferenz. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerdes, B. [ed.

    1999-07-01

    The conference report comprises 90 papers and posters on the following subjects: 1. Technological developments (e.g. use of adaptive structures systems, active stalle wind power systems, systems for early detection of errors); 2. Design and optimisation; 3. Wind forecasts; 4. Operation analyses (e.g. active and passive stall, collective loads, wind power systems in cold climates); 5. Wind power systems and the environment; 6. Offshore wind power generation; 7. Electric characteristics (e.g. modelling of flicker, energy conditioning in distribution systems with a high wind power share); 8. Economic efficiency (e.g. economic efficiency of offshore wind parks on the North Sea coast); 9. Network quality; 10. Rotor development (e.g. noise reduction); 11. Certification and methods of measurement. [German] Der Tagungsband enhaelt 90 Fach- und Posterbeitraege, die sich mit den folgenden Schwerpunkten befassen: 1. Technologische Entwicklungen (z.B. Einsatz von adaptiven Struktursystemen; Active-Stall-WKA; Fehlerfrueherkennungssystemen). 2. Auslegung und Optimierung. 3. Windprognosen. 4. Betriebsanalysen (z.B. Aktive Stall/Passive Stall im Vergleich; Lastkollektive von WKA; WKA in kaltem Klima). 5. Windenergieanlagen und Umwelt. 6. Offshore-Windenergienutzung. 7. Elektrische Eigenschaften (z.B. Modellierung des 'Flickerverhaltens' von WKA; Energiekonditionierung in Verteilnetzen mit hohem Windenergieanteil). 8. Wirtschaftlichkeit (z.B. Wirtschaftlichkeit von Offshore-Windparks der Norddeutschen Kuestenlinie). 9. Netzqualitaet. 10. Rotorentwicklung (z.B. Reduzierung der Schallabstrahlung von WKAs). 11. Zertifizierung von Messmethoden. (AKF)

  18. National Peer Reviews. Self-assessment programs of German nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grauf, E.

    2000-01-01

    Preliminary experience seems to indicate that the concept of national peer reviews is a useful tool capable of improving and harmonizing the standards of operation in German plants. However, a final evaluation is possible only after completion of the program, i.e. probably by the end 2000. The internal national peer reviews do not replace existing reviews, such as the WANO peer reviews or the IAEA OSART missions, but rather supplement them. As a major element of self-assessment, they mainly serve to exchange effectively among German plants know-how and experience, to harmonize standards of plant operation, eliminate any weak spots identified, and generally counteract blindness to one's own faults. Whether the envisaged objective of standardized plant operations will be achieved in the end depends very much on the way in which the results of the reviews will be handled. In particular, it will be interesting to see to what extent there is willingness to take on board any recommendations and proposals made and/or introduce what is called good operating practice. (orig.) [de

  19. The potential of decentralized power-to-heat as a flexibility option for the german electricity system: A microeconomic perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrlich, Lars G.; Klamka, Jonas; Wolf, André

    2015-01-01

    One fundamental challenge of the German energy transition for the electricity market is the growing imbalance between inflexible generation and generally inelastic load. Against this background, we investigate the future potential of decentralized Power-to-Heat (P2H) as an additional demand-side flexibility option for the German electricity system. Precisely, we analyze the case of hybrid systems, where conventional gas and oil condensing boiler systems are equipped with an electric heating rod. In contrast to previous approaches, we set our focus on the economic incentives at household level: only if the switch to a P2H-hybrid system can reduce individual heating expenses significantly, a considerable number of these systems will be installed. For this purpose, we implemented an integrated approach combining three distinct simulation modules. First, a stochastic simulation of the electricity spot market prices in 2020 was conducted. Second, average heat load profiles were generated based on a standard bottom-up analysis. Both results were then fed into an optimization model calculating the cost-minimizing paths of heat generation at household level during the year 2020. The simulated annual savings prove modest as long as household electricity prices are not heavily reduced through political influence. - Highlights: • We investigate the future potential of decentralized Power-to-Heat. • Focus lies on hybrid Power-to-Heat systems with condensing gas or oil boiler. • We analyze the economic incentives at household level. • Simulation of heat load profiles and spot prices in 2020. • Savings prove modest as long as household electricity prices are not heavily reduced.

  20. Twenty years of experience in spent fuel shipment from German nuclear power plants - a view of the competent authority

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fasten, Ch.; Mueller, U.; Alter, U.

    1994-01-01

    A survey of the transport of spent fuel in and from Germany during the last 20 years is presented. The spent fuel is now transported from the German nuclear power facilities to the reprocessing plants in France and the United Kingdom. In the past, there were also shipments to the former reprocessing plant WAK Karlsruhe (Germany), to the long-term storage facility CLAB (Sweden) and also from the former German Democratic Republic to the USSR. The transport of the spent fuel is carried out in specially built flasks requiring an extensive quality assurance programme. Due to the heavy weight of these packages, the shipments are mostly carried out by rail, but also by road and sea. An overview is given of the following matters: (i) quantities of spent fuel transport, (ii) organisation of transport (iii) licensing matters, and (iv) reported incidents. In addition, an analysis is included of the radiation exposure for normal conditions of transport, especially of the transport workers. Difficulties and hindrances during transport are also reported. (author)

  1. Uranium from German nuclear power projects of the 1940s - a nuclear forensic investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, Klaus; Wallenius, Maria; Luetzenkirchen, Klaus; Horta, Joan; Nicholl, Adrian; Rasmussen, Gert; Belle, Pieter van; Varga, Zsolt [European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC), Institute for Transuranium Elements (ITU), Karlsruhe (Germany); Buda, Razvan; Erdmann, Nicole [European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC), Institute for Transuranium Elements (ITU), Karlsruhe (Germany); Institut fuer Kernchemie, Universitaet Mainz (Germany); Kratz, Jens-Volker; Trautmann, Norbert [Institut fuer Kernchemie, Universitaet Mainz (Germany); Fifield, L. Keith; Tims, Stephen G. [Department of Nuclear Physics, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT (Australia); Froehlich, Michaela B. [Department of Nuclear Physics, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT (Australia); Universitaet Wien, Fakultaet fuer Chemie, Institut fuer Anorganische Chemie, Vienna (Austria); Steier, Peter [Universitaet Wien, Fakultaet fuer Physik, Isotopenforschung und Kernphysik, Vienna (Austria)

    2015-11-02

    Here we present a nuclear forensic study of uranium from German nuclear projects which used different geometries of metallic uranium fuel. Through measurement of the {sup 230}Th/{sup 234}U ratio, we could determine that the material had been produced in the period from 1940 to 1943. To determine the geographical origin of the uranium, the rare-earth-element content and the {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratio were measured. The results provide evidence that the uranium was mined in the Czech Republic. Trace amounts of {sup 236}U and {sup 239}Pu were detected at the level of their natural abundance, which indicates that the uranium fuel was not exposed to any major neutron fluence. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  2. Uranium from German nuclear power projects of the 1940s - a nuclear forensic investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, Klaus; Wallenius, Maria; Luetzenkirchen, Klaus; Horta, Joan; Nicholl, Adrian; Rasmussen, Gert; Belle, Pieter van; Varga, Zsolt; Buda, Razvan; Erdmann, Nicole; Kratz, Jens-Volker; Trautmann, Norbert; Fifield, L. Keith; Tims, Stephen G.; Froehlich, Michaela B.; Steier, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Here we present a nuclear forensic study of uranium from German nuclear projects which used different geometries of metallic uranium fuel. Through measurement of the 230 Th/ 234 U ratio, we could determine that the material had been produced in the period from 1940 to 1943. To determine the geographical origin of the uranium, the rare-earth-element content and the 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio were measured. The results provide evidence that the uranium was mined in the Czech Republic. Trace amounts of 236 U and 239 Pu were detected at the level of their natural abundance, which indicates that the uranium fuel was not exposed to any major neutron fluence. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. Mortality monitoring design for utility-scale solar power facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huso, Manuela; Dietsch, Thomas; Nicolai, Chris

    2016-05-27

    unique conditions encountered at solar facilities. In particular, unlike at wind-power facilities, the unimpeded access to almost all areas within the facilities, the typically flat terrain, and general absence of thick vegetation allow distance-sampling techniques (Buckland and others, 2001, 2004) to be exploited to advantage at industrial solar sites. These protocols build on the work of Nicolai and others (2011), and as our understanding and techniques for monitoring improve, the methods may be further modified to incorporate improvements in the future. We present case studies based on monitoring methods currently implemented at different utility-scale solar facilities to illustrate how distance-sampling techniques may improve overall detectability without substantially increasing costs. Every facility is unique, and the protocols presented may be adapted based on specific monitoring objectives and conditions at each site.We provide guidance for designing monitoring programs whose objective it is to estimate the total number of bird and bat fatalities occurring at a facility over an extended period of time. We address spatial variation in causes of mortality, as well as potential sources of imperfect detection, for example, animals falling in or moving to unsearched areas, carcasses removed by predators, and carcasses missed by searchers. We suggest methods to estimate and account for each source of imperfect detection. This document focuses on monitoring design only and does not discuss approaches for estimating mortality from collected data. The development of statistically sound estimators relevant to the solar context is a current topic of research, although there are already strong foundations for estimation with distance-sampling methods in similar open, arid environments (Anderson and others, 2001; Freilich and others, 2005). Nonetheless, if protocols described in this document are followed, the resulting data will be adequate and sufficient for estimating

  4. Enhancing power generation of floating wave power generators by utilization of nonlinear roll-pitch coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerrapragada, Karthik; Ansari, M. H.; Karami, M. Amin

    2017-09-01

    We propose utilization of the nonlinear coupling between the roll and pitch motions of wave energy harvesting vessels to increase their power generation by orders of magnitude. Unlike linear vessels that exhibit unidirectional motion, our vessel undergoes both pitch and roll motions in response to frontal waves. This significantly magnifies the motion of the vessel and thus improves the power production by several orders of magnitude. The ocean waves result in roll and pitch motions of the vessel, which in turn causes rotation of an onboard pendulum. The pendulum is connected to an electric generator to produce power. The coupled electro-mechanical system is modeled using energy methods. This paper investigates the power generation of the vessel when the ratio between pitch and roll natural frequencies is about 2 to 1. In that case, a nonlinear energy transfer occurs between the roll and pitch motions, causing the vessel to perform coupled pitch and roll motion even though it is only excited in the pitch direction. It is shown that co-existence of pitch and roll motions significantly enhances the pendulum rotation and power generation. A method for tuning the natural frequencies of the vessel is proposed to make the energy generator robust to variations of the frequency of the incident waves. It is shown that the proposed method enhances the power output of the floating wave power generators by multiple orders of magnitude. A small-scale prototype is developed for the proof of concept. The nonlinear energy transfer and the full rotation of the pendulum in the prototype are observed in the experimental tests.

  5. LWR safety studies. Analyses and further assessments relating to the German Risk Assessment Study on Nuclear Power Plants. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This documentation of the activities of the Oeko-Institut is intended to show errors made and limits encountered in the experimental approaches and in results obtained by the work performed under phase A of the German Risk Assessment Study on Nuclear Power Plants (DRS). Concern is expressed and explained relating to the risk definition used in the Study, and the results of other studies relied on; specific problems of methodology are discussed with regard to the value of fault-tree/accident analyses for describing the course of safety-related events, and to the evaluations presented in the DRS. The Markov model is explained as an approach offering alternative solutions. The identification and quantification of common-mode failures is discussed. Origin, quality and methods of assessing the reliability characteristics used in the DRS as well as the statistical models for describing failure scenarios of reactor components and systems are critically reviewed. (RF) [de

  6. LWR safety studies. Analyses and further assessments relating to the German Risk Assessment Study on Nuclear Power Plants. Vol. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    Critical review of the analyses of the German Risk Assessment Study on Nuclear Power Plants (DRS) concerning the reliability of the containment under accident conditions and the conditions of fission product release (transport and distribution in the environment). Main point of interest in this context is an explosion in the steam section and its impact on the containment. Critical comments are given on the models used in the DRS for determining the accident consequences. The analyses made deal with the mathematical models and database for propagation calculations, the methods of dose computation and assessment of health hazards, and the modelling of protective and safety measures. Social impacts of reactor accidents are also considered. (RF) [de

  7. Economic opportunities resulting from a global deployment of concentrated solar power (CSP) technologies-The example of German technology providers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallentin, Daniel; Viebahn, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Several energy scenario studies consider concentrated solar power (CSP) plants as an important technology option to reduce the world's CO 2 emissions to a level required for not letting the global average temperature exceed a threshold of 2-2.4 o C. A global ramp up of CSP technologies offers great economic opportunities for technology providers as CSP technologies include highly specialised components. This paper analyses possible value creation effects resulting from a global deployment of CSP until 2050 as projected in scenarios of the International Energy Agency (IEA) and Greenpeace International. The analysis focuses on the economic opportunities of German technology providers since companies such as Schott Solar, Flabeg or Solar Millennium are among the leading suppliers of CSP technologies on the global market.

  8. Organization of the German nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Corporate ownership within the German nuclear industry has evolved constantly during the last decade, and recent acquisitions and mergers, reunification of the country, as well as preparation for a unified European power market, have led to many significant changes during the past two years. The country's nuclear industry continues to struggle under an increasingly anti-nuclear political environment, yet nuclear power provided more than one-third of Germany's total electricity generation in 1991. As in many countries, particularly in western Europe, many German companies involved in different facets of the nuclear industry are interrelated. Usually as a means of horizontal or vertical integration, the country's nuclear utilities own, directly or indirectly, shares in uranium mining projects; conversion, enrichment, and fabrication companies; or other utilities' nuclear power plants. The utilities own partial interests in companies in supporting industries as well, including transportation firms, waste management companies, uranium broker/traders, and nuclear equipment manufacturers. While the majority of the companies owned are German, numerous investments are made in non-German firms also

  9. An illustrative note on the system price effect of wind and solar power. The German case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaegemann, Cosima

    2014-01-01

    Exposing wind and solar power to the market price signal allows for cost-efficient investment decisions, as it incentivizes investors to account for the marginal value (MV el ) of renewable energy technologies. As shown by Lamont (2008), the MV el of wind and solar power units depends on their penetration level. More specifically, the MV el of wind and solar power units is a function of the respective unit's capacity factor and the covariance between its generation profile and the system marginal costs. The latter component of the MV el (i.e., the covariance) is found to decline as the wind and solar power penetration increases, displacing dispatchable power plants with higher short-run marginal costs of power production and thus reducing the system marginal costs in all generation hours. This so called 'system price effect' is analyzed in more detail in this paper. The analysis complements the work Lamont (2008) in two regards. First of all, an alternative expression for the MV el of wind and solar power units is derived, which shows that the MV el of fluctuating renewable energy technologies depends not only on their own penetration level but also on a variety of other parameters that are specific to the electricity system. Second, based on historical wholesale prices and wind and solar power generation data for Germany, a numerical 'ceteris paribus' example for Germany is presented which illustrates that the system price effect is already highly relevant for both wind and solar power generation in Germany.

  10. Utilization of space technology for terrestrial solar power applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, R. K.; Patterson, R. E.

    1974-01-01

    A description is given of the evolution of photovoltaic power systems designed and built for terrestrial applications, giving attention to problem areas which are currently impeding the further development of such systems. The rooftop testing of surplus solar panels is considered along with solar powered seismic observatories, solar powered portable radio sets, and design considerations identified from past experience. Present activities discussed are related to a solar powered on-shore beacon flasher system, a solar powered buoy, and a solar powered beacon flasher buoy.

  11. Owners of nuclear power plants: Percentage ownership of commercial nuclear power plants by utility companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, R.S.

    1987-08-01

    The following list indicates percentage ownership of commercial nuclear power plants by utility companies as of June 1, 1987. The list includes all plants licensed to operate, under construction, docked for NRC safety and environmental reviews, or under NRC antitrust review. It does not include those plants announced but not yet under review or those plants formally canceled. In many cases, ownership may be in the process of changing as a result of altered financial conditions, changed power needs, and other reasons. However, this list reflects only those ownership percentages of which the NRC has been formally notified. Part I lists plants alphabetically with their associated applicants/licensees and percentage ownership. Part II lists applicants/licensees alphabetically with their associated plants and percentage ownership. Part I also indicates which plants have received operating licenses (OL's). Footnotes for both parts appear at the end of this document

  12. Utilities Power Change: Engaging Commercial Customers in Workplace Charging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lommele, Stephen; Dafoe, Wendy

    2016-06-01

    As stewards of an electric grid that is available almost anywhere people park, utilities that support workplace charging are uniquely positioned to help their commercial customers be a part of the rapidly expanding network of charging infrastructure. Utilities understand the distinctive challenges of their customers, have access to technical information about electrical infrastructure, and have deep experience modeling and managing demand for electricity. This case study highlights the experiences of two utilities with workplace charging programs.

  13. Low Power Microrobotics Utilizing Biologically Inspired Energy Generation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this Phase I study, the study team will investigate the usability of a microbial fuel cell to power a small microrover, design low-power electronics for effective...

  14. Electric Utility Generating Units: Repealing the Clean Power Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Clean Power Plan established emission guidelines for states to follow in limiting carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from existing power plants. EPA is proposing to repeal the CPP and rescind the accompanying legal memorandum.

  15. Factor Structure, Reliability and Measurement Invariance of the Alberta Context Tool and the Conceptual Research Utilization Scale, for German Residential Long Term Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoben, Matthias; Estabrooks, Carole A.; Squires, Janet E.; Behrens, Johann

    2016-01-01

    We translated the Canadian residential long term care versions of the Alberta Context Tool (ACT) and the Conceptual Research Utilization (CRU) Scale into German, to study the association between organizational context factors and research utilization in German nursing homes. The rigorous translation process was based on best practice guidelines for tool translation, and we previously published methods and results of this process in two papers. Both instruments are self-report questionnaires used with care providers working in nursing homes. The aim of this study was to assess the factor structure, reliability, and measurement invariance (MI) between care provider groups responding to these instruments. In a stratified random sample of 38 nursing homes in one German region (Metropolregion Rhein-Neckar), we collected questionnaires from 273 care aides, 196 regulated nurses, 152 allied health providers, 6 quality improvement specialists, 129 clinical leaders, and 65 nursing students. The factor structure was assessed using confirmatory factor models. The first model included all 10 ACT concepts. We also decided a priori to run two separate models for the scale-based and the count-based ACT concepts as suggested by the instrument developers. The fourth model included the five CRU Scale items. Reliability scores were calculated based on the parameters of the best-fitting factor models. Multiple-group confirmatory factor models were used to assess MI between provider groups. Rather than the hypothesized ten-factor structure of the ACT, confirmatory factor models suggested 13 factors. The one-factor solution of the CRU Scale was confirmed. The reliability was acceptable (>0.7 in the entire sample and in all provider groups) for 10 of 13 ACT concepts, and high (0.90–0.96) for the CRU Scale. We could demonstrate partial strong MI for both ACT models and partial strict MI for the CRU Scale. Our results suggest that the scores of the German ACT and the CRU Scale for nursing

  16. Training of nuclear power plant personnel in the German simulator centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, E.

    1999-01-01

    The paper describes the German simulator scene. The simulator training is mainly being performed in a centre. The simulators used are nothing but fullscope simulators and were specified and built in accordance to a common design requirements philosophy. The simulators also support theoretical training by means of data processing devices in the classrooms, being connected to the simulators. As the quality of simulator training depends at least as much upon the instructors qualification as upon the simulators, the centre makes every effort to qualify and train their instructors including a final license and the obligation for maintaining competence. All simulator courses are prepared individually according to a common quality standard. The outcome of the course preparation are training materials for the instructors, the trainees and as well for the assessing course observers. The used assessment system is based on an observation of the trainees. Instructors and plant representatives evaluate the trainees performance against a detailed set of predefined training goals. It is the Simulator Centre's continuous effort to optimize all elements of simulator training, the simulators, the instructors and the didactical methods. (author)

  17. Application of the accident consequences model of the German risk study to assessments of accident risks in different types of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrhardt, J.; Bayer, A.

    1982-01-01

    Within the scope of the 'German Risk Study for Nuclear Power Plants' (Phase A) the accident consequence model UFOMOD was developed in the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center. This model originally developed for pressurized water reactors has now been extended in order to obtain results about accidental releases of activity from fast breeder and high-temperature reactors, too. (RW) [de

  18. An illustrative note on the system price effect of wind and solar power. The German case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaegemann, Cosima

    2014-07-15

    Exposing wind and solar power to the market price signal allows for cost-efficient investment decisions, as it incentivizes investors to account for the marginal value (MV{sup el}) of renewable energy technologies. As shown by Lamont (2008), the MV{sup el} of wind and solar power units depends on their penetration level. More specifically, the MV el of wind and solar power units is a function of the respective unit's capacity factor and the covariance between its generation profile and the system marginal costs. The latter component of the MV{sup el} (i.e., the covariance) is found to decline as the wind and solar power penetration increases, displacing dispatchable power plants with higher short-run marginal costs of power production and thus reducing the system marginal costs in all generation hours. This so called 'system price effect' is analyzed in more detail in this paper. The analysis complements the work Lamont (2008) in two regards. First of all, an alternative expression for the MV{sup el} of wind and solar power units is derived, which shows that the MV{sup el} of fluctuating renewable energy technologies depends not only on their own penetration level but also on a variety of other parameters that are specific to the electricity system. Second, based on historical wholesale prices and wind and solar power generation data for Germany, a numerical 'ceteris paribus' example for Germany is presented which illustrates that the system price effect is already highly relevant for both wind and solar power generation in Germany.

  19. On the state of the art and some trends in industrial utilization of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rockstroh, R.

    1980-01-01

    The status achieved in nuclear power utilization in the world and the prospects of further development are presented. Concerning the technological maturity as well as the economy and the environmental aspects the experience hitherto obtained enables the conclusion that nuclear plants have not to fear any comparison with conventional power stations. The social difficulties in the industrially developed capitalist countries in managing the complex problems of utilizing nuclear power are described and commented. Some political aspects of further nuclear power development are also indicated. Information is given about the measures and some objectives for acceleration of nuclear power utilization in the CMEA member states. (author)

  20. Hydro power in the German system of energy supply; Wasserkraft im Energiesystem Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaltschmitt, M. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Abt. Neue Energietechnologie und Technikanalyse

    1997-12-31

    The technical potentials of electric power generation from hydro power in Germany, the current harnessing of hydro power, its costs, and certain characteristic quantities reflecting its effects on the environment are described. These diverse characteristic quantities are compared with those of other renewable and fossil energy sources used to generate electricity. On this basis, opportunities for extending the use of hydro power in Germany and its limits are discussed. (orig.) [Deutsch] Das Ziel der folgenden Ausfuehrungen ist, die technischen Potentiale und deren derzeitige Nutzung, die Kosten und bestimmte die Umwelteffekte beschreibende Kenngroessen einer Stromerzeugung aus Wasserkraft in Deutschland darzustellen. Diese unterschiedlichen Kenngroessen werden anschliessend mit denen anderer regenerativer Energien und fossiler Energietraeger zur Stromerzeugung verglichen. Ausgehend davon werden die Moeglichkeiten und Grenzen einer weitergehenden Wasserkraftnutzung im Energiesystem Deutschland diskutiert. (orig.)

  1. Utilization and storage problems in wind power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molly, J P

    1977-01-01

    The energy yield of a power plant consisting of wind energy converter and storer is considerably influenced by the choice of specific characteristic values of both components. Boundary conditions of the optimization process are site, consumer behavior and a minimum demand of supply safety. If the costs of the power plant components are known, then one may determine the cheapest wind power plant taking account of the boundary conditions. The preconditions and way of calculation for optimum rotary number, the best specific rotor disk power and the necessary storage capacity for a certain supply safety are given.

  2. Webtechnology and internet services at power rail systems of German Railway DB AG; Nutzung von Webtechnologien und Internet-Diensten bei der Energieversorgung der Deutschen Bahn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walther, J.T. [DB Energie, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Internet services and the technologies of the World Wide Web are used at power rail systems of German Railway in some processes. Important applications are systems support, service and parametering of substation control- and protection equipment and the monitoring of switches and power transformers. The performance of the security claims of the asset management and the IT-Department are a condition for implementation these technologies. (orig.)

  3. About Economy of Fuel at Thermal Power Stations due to Optimization of Utilization Diagram of Power-Generating Equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Svechko

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Problems of rational fuel utilization becomes more and more significant especially for thermal power stations (TPS. Thermal power stations have complicated starting-up diagrams and utilization modes of their technological equipment. Method of diagram optimization of TPS equipment utilization modes has been developed. The method is based on computer analytical model with application of spline-approximation of power equipment characteristics. The method allows to economize fuel consumption at a rate of 15-20 % with accuracy of the predicted calculation not more than 0.25 %.

  4. The innovation impact of the EU Emission Trading System. Findings of company case studies in the German power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogge, Karoline S.; Schneider, Malte; Hoffmann, Volker H.

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides a detailed analysis of how the European Emission Trading System (EU ETS) as the core climate policy instrument of the European Union has impacted innovation. Towards this end, we investigate the impact of the EU ETS on research, development and demonstration (RD and D), adoption, and organizational change. In doing so, we pay particular attention to the relative influences of context factors (policy mix, market factors and public acceptance) and firm characteristics (value chain position, technology portfolio, size and vision). Empirically, our qualitative analysis is based on multiple case studies with 19 power generators, technology providers and project developers in the German power sector which were conducted in 2008/09. We find that the innovation impact of the EU ETS has remained limited so far because of the scheme's initial lack of stringency and predictability and the relatively greater importance of context factors. Additionally, the impact varies significantly across technologies, firms, and innovation dimensions and is most pronounced for RD and D on carbon capture technologies and organizational changes. Our analysis suggests that the EU ETS on its own may not provide sufficient incentives for fundamental changes in corporate innovation activities at a level which ensures political long-term targets can be achieved. (author)

  5. The innovation impact of EU emission trading. Findings of company case studies in the German power sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogge, Karoline S. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Systemtechnik und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany); Swiss Federal Inst. of Technology Zurich (ETH Zurich) (Switzerland). Dept. of Management, Technology, and Economics; Schneider, Malte; Hoffmann, Volker H. [Swiss Federal Inst. of Technology Zurich (ETH Zurich) (Switzerland). Dept. of Management, Technology, and Economics

    2010-05-01

    This paper provides a comprehensive analysis of how the European Emission Trading System (EU ETS) as the core climate policy instrument of the European Union has impacted innovation. Towards this end, we investigate the impact of the EU ETS on research, development, and demonstration (RD and D), adoption, and organizational change. In doing so, we pay particular attention to the rela-tive influences of context factors (policy mix, market factors, public acceptance) as well as firm characteristics (value chain position, technology portfolio, size, vision). Empirically, our analysis is based on multiple case studies with 19 power generators, technology providers, and project developers in the German power sector which we conducted from June 2008 until June 2009. We find that the innovation impact of the EU ETS has remained limited so far because of the scheme's initial lack in stringency and predictability and the relatively greater importance of context factors. Additionally, the impact varies tremendously across technologies, firms, and innovation dimensions, and is most pronounced for RD and D on carbon capture technologies and corporate procedural change. Our analysis suggests that the EU ETS by itself may not provide sufficient incentives for fundamental changes in corporate climate innovation activities at a level adequate for reaching political long-term targets. Based on the study's findings, we derive a set of policy and research recommendations. (orig.)

  6. Occupational radiation exposure of personnel in German light-water type nuclear power plant in the year 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbahn, H.; Mueller, W.; Marx, H.

    1988-01-01

    1985 was a good year with regard to radiation protection for the German nuclear power stations with BWR and PWR. There were favourable values for the collective dose. There was an increase in the collective dose only in some power plants because of dose-intensive repair, replacement and retrofit work. The average personal doses of the internal staff as well as of the external staff showed quite favourable values also in comparison to the previous years. The increased average personal doses occurred generally in the older plants. This is caused, on the one hand, by dose-intensive repair, replacement and retrofit work, on the other hand, it reflects the different deployment of labour. The dose values for the job doses of the inspection and maintenance work were within the range of the empirical and expected values. High dose values occurred in general only in retrofit measures, which were carried out namely because of obligations by the regulatory authority. Only a small proportion of the collective dose was due to repair work. In the case of the BWR, the dose values for the job doses of fuel element replacement, maintenance and inspection work were within the range of the empirical and expected values. Retrofit and repair work did not contribute much to the collective dose. (orig./HP) [de

  7. Utilization of graph theory in security analysis of power grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalibor Válek

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes way how to use graph theory in security analysis. As an environment is used network of power lines and devices which are included here. Power grid is considered as a system of nodes which make together graph (network. On the simple example is applied Fiedler´s theory which is able to select the most important power lines of whole network. Components related to these lines are logicly ordered and considered by author´s modified analysis. This method has been improved and optimalized for risks related with illegal acts. Each power grid component has been connected with possible kind of attack and every of this device was gradually evaluated by five coefficients which takes values from 1 to 10. On the coefficient basis was assessed the level of risk. In the last phase the most risky power grid components have been selected. On the selected devices have been proposed security measures.

  8. Utilities get more involved in Inpo [Institute of Nuclear Power Operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varley, J.

    1984-01-01

    The Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) was established four years ago in a bid to foster self improvement and self regulation among the American nuclear power utilities. A significant increase in utility commitment and involvement in many of its programmes appears to have made 1983 a very good year for INPO. (U.K.)

  9. Argument about the climatological-meteorological data base of the German Risk Study on Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumm, H.

    1984-01-01

    The Ecological Institute's doubts about the representativeness of the climatological-meteorological data base of the German Risk Study concludes that this data base with its 115 'weather sequences' combined with 36 'wind directions' has no defined reference period. The complementary frequency distributions of the German Risk Study do not, therefore, represent statistically secured occurence frequencies for damage caused by accidents. Furthermore, incorrect values for the height of mixing layers used in the German Risk Study were found. (RF) [de

  10. Measures of radiation protection in the operation of nuclear power plants in the German Democratic Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, D.; Schreiter, W.

    1975-11-01

    A survey is given on the provisions concerning (a) radiation protection at nuclear power plants in the GDR including the instructions applying within the plant, (b) the organization of radiation protection services, and (c) the measures of radiation protection surveillance inside and outside the plant during operation. (author)

  11. Green power programs in Canada : 2003 : overview of Government green power policies, utility green power implementation initiatives, green power and certificate marketing programs, and their benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitmore, J.; Bramley, M.; Holmes, R.

    2004-09-01

    Green power is defined as electricity produced from renewable sources, and whose production has low adverse impacts on the environment, human health and communities. Green power has near-zero greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and includes sources such as wind, hydro, and solar power. It offers several environmental benefits, as well as the enhancement of energy security, regional development, economic diversification and the creation of skilled jobs. There are four categories of programs related to green power development in Canada: government green power policies, utility green power development programs, green power marketing initiatives, and green power certificate marketing initiatives. Most of the activities in Canada associated with these four categories in 2003 were discussed in this report. However, difficulties with quantification prevented the inclusion of some green power activities such as (1) the generation of green power not certified or identified by the generator as green power, (2) industry or residential self-generation, (3) net metering, and (4) small government programs. Green power generation facilities in 2003 totaled 775 MW of capacity compared to 539 MW in 2002. Hydro capacity represented 41 per cent, followed by wind capacity at 40 per cent and wood waste at 17 per cent. Most of the green power generation facilities in 2003 were located in Alberta, followed by British Columbia, Ontario and Quebec. 230 refs., 8 tabs., 1 fig

  12. Utilizing the building envelope for power generation and conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, M.C.; Kuo, C.H.; Wang, F.J.

    2016-01-01

    Heat loading of the building envelope is caused by strong solar radiation and incorrect material selection. As a result of the heat loading of the building envelope, the indoor air temperature is increased, resulting in high energy consumption by air conditioners to maintain a comfortable indoor thermal environment. This study explores the use of a hybrid wall integrated with heat collectors (water piping system) and solar thermal power generators, which absorbs solar radiation through water to reduce heat transmission thereby saving energy and generating power. Power generation is achieved by an OD (oscillator device) that installed between a water tank (hot side) and building interior (cold side). The device acts by temperature differences between hot air (expansion) and cold air (contraction). CFD (computational dynamic simulation) was used to assess the effects of the hybrid wall on the interior environment. The results show that exterior heat is absorbed by cool water thereby reducing the heat transmission into the building, resulting in less energy consumption by air conditioners and power generation by use of temperature differences. - Highlights: • This study explores a hybrid building wall to save energy and generate power. • Power generators operated by air pressure change via hot tank and cool interior. • Less energy consumption by air conditioners and heating water. • Performance of CFD simulated results and experiment results are similar. • The energy saving efficiency is around 15 kWh/day via hybrid wall in west façade.

  13. Collection and evalution of abnormal occurrences in German nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmeister

    1976-01-01

    The systematic consideration of operating experiences which must be recorded, collected and evaluated, is important for the realisation of the aim of greater safety in nuclear power stations. Since commissioning of the first nuclear power stations in West Germany all significant events were communicated to the 'Laender' authorities responsible for controlling compliance with the licensing requirements. The evaluation of these events assured that the necessary consequences were carried out to prevent any recurrence. A systematic consideration of the operating experiences, however, was missing; therefore our institute was made responsible by the Federal Ministry of the Interior with the agreement of the 'Laender' authorities to record, collect and evaluate in accordance with reporting criteria and a classification system related to safety relevance. (orig./RW) [de

  14. The system of legal regulations and supervisory powers in the German Atomic Energy Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, K.H.

    1984-01-01

    The first part of the book deals with the practical implementation of the legal provisions governing examination and subsequent licensing and judicial restraint, and the effects of actual practice on the energy industry, for the purpose of showing the chain of cause and effect of the frequently lamented delays in the further utilisation of nuclear energy, and of analysing the role of the administrative courts in the process, pointing to the explosiveness in terms of economics of this issue. The second part analyses the risk assessments from the legal and technical point of view in order to ascertain whether the findings of risk assessments are suitable to serve as scale models for decisions to be taken by the courts. The third part is a critical evaluation of the numerous attempts to incorporate the general doctrine of discretionary power into the system of atomic energy law in a way conformable with the existing system. This analysis resulting in the statement that the attempts have failed so far, the fourth part of the book discusses the necessity to look for other solutions, among other things by critically screening the dogma of discretionary power. The author comes to the conclusion that judicial restraint is to be cut back in the licensing procedure, however not to the extent that control over the authorities is abandoned altogether, but rather in such a way that the power of administrative courts does not develop into judgments executing the law. It is to be avoided that licensing procedures for nuclear power plants degenerate into 'administrative procedures preceded by administrative procedures'. This may not be confounded with giving up all possibilities of legal protection. (orig./HSCH) [de

  15. Technology of power plants - change in duties and problems. [German Federal Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knizia, K [Vereinigte Elektrizitaetswerke Westfalen A.G. (VEW), Dortmund (Germany, F.R.); VGB Technische Vereinigung der Grosskraftwerksbetreiber e.V., Essen (Germany, F.R.))

    1977-11-01

    The article shows that only the combined use of coal and nuclear energy can warrant the FRG's energy supply. The demand for nuclear power plants in the world and in the FRG is dealt with. The long-term objective must be an economical electricity-gas system on the basis of coal and nuclear energy. Briefly discussed is the question of the energy sources needed and the problem of environmental impacts.

  16. Renewable energy and decentralized power generation in Russia: an opportunity for German-Russian energy cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Chukanov, Denis; Opitz, Petra; Pastukhova, Maria; Piani, Gianguido; Westphal, Kirsten

    2017-01-01

    Renewable and decentralized power generation are a centerpiece of Germany's domestic energy transition (Energiewende) and a major element of its international efforts to promote this goal. Recently, the renewables sector has also been advancing in Russia, albeit from a lower level. Thus, it is time to explore the status quo and analyze the potential for sustainable energy cooperation. In the context of the current deterioration in EURussian (energy) relations, crafting a sustainable energy pa...

  17. Green power programs in Canada : 2002 : Overview of Government green power policies, utility green power development programs, green power and certificate marketing initiatives, and their benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bramley, M.; Boustie, S.; Vadgama, J.; Wieler, C.; Pape-Salmon, A.; Holmes, R.

    2003-11-01

    Green power is generally defined as electricity produced from renewable sources, and whose production has low adverse impacts on the environment, human health and communities. Green power has near-zero greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and includes sources such as wind, hydro, and solar power. Green power offers several environmental benefits, as well as the enhancement of energy security, regional development, economic diversification and the creation of skilled jobs. There are four categories of programs related to green power development in Canada: government green power policies, utility green power development programs, green power marketing initiatives, and green power certificate marketing initiatives. Most of the activities associated with these four categories in 2002 were discussed in this report. However, difficulties with quantification prevented the inclusion of some green power activities in the report, such as (1) the generation of green power not certified or identified by the generator as green power, (2) industry or residential self-generation, (3) net metering, and (4) small government programs. Each category was presented in detail. The information included in the report was based on surveys sent to each program proponent. Follow-up communications and other publicly available information was also included. New programs operating in 2003 or currently under development were listed. refs., 8 tabs

  18. Experimental study of power generation utilizing human excreta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mudasar, Roshaan; Kim, Man-Hoe

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Power generation from human excreta has been studied under ambient conditions. • Biogas increases with solid wastes and continuous feeding at mesophilic conditions. • Understand the potential of human excreta for domestic power generating systems. • 26.8 kW h power is generated using biogas of 0.35 m 3 /kg from waste of 35 kg. • Continuous feeding produces 0.7 m 3 /kg biogas and generates 60 kW h power. - Abstract: This study presents the energetic performance of the biomass to produce power for micro scale domestic usage. Human excreta are chosen as the subject of the study to investigate their potential to produce biogas under ambient conditions. Furthermore, the research examines the approaches by which biogas production can be enhanced and purified, leading to a high-power generation system. The experimental work focuses on the design and fabrication of a biogas digester with a reverse solar reflector, water scrubbing tower, and a dryer. Anaerobic digestion has been considered as the decomposition method using solar energy which is a heat providing source. Specifically, two types of experiments have been performed, namely, feces to water weight proportion and continuous feeding experiments, each involving a set of six samples. The effect of parameters such as pH, ambient temperature, and biogas upgradation reveals that volume of biogas and power generation can be best obtained when an 8:2 feces to water weight sample is employed and when the feeding is applied every fifth day. In addition, this study discusses the environmental prospects of the biogas technology, which is achieved by using the water purification method to improve the methane percentage to 85% and remove undesired gases. The motivation behind this work is to understand the potential of human excreta for the development of domestic power generating systems. The results obtained reveal that 0.35 m 3 /kg of biogas is produced with 8:2 weight proportion sample, which

  19. Grid-connected solar power generation a utility's view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiner, D.; Meron, G.; Fisher, D.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze these new means of production from the electric utility point of view. This analysis will take into account the experience gained by Israel Electric Corporation while operating three demonstration plants. In addition, a techno-economic evaluation photovoltaic and thermal systems is presented and compared to that of conventional generation

  20. A survey of thorium utilization in thermal power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oosterkamp, W.J.

    1974-01-01

    The present status of thorium utilization in thermal reactors HTGR's, HWR's and LWR's has been reviewed. Physics considerations are made to obtain the optimum use of thorium. Existing information on reprocessing and refabrication is given together with the properties of thorium metal and thoria

  1. Utilization of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) among children from a German birth cohort (GINIplus): patterns, costs, and trends of use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Italia, Salvatore; Brand, Helmut; Heinrich, Joachim; Berdel, Dietrich; von Berg, Andrea; Wolfenstetter, Silke Britta

    2015-03-10

    The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is widespread among children in Germany and other European countries. Only a few studies are available on trends in pediatric CAM use over time. The study's objective was to present updated results for prevalence, predictors, and costs of CAM use among German children and a comparison with findings from a previous follow-up of the same birth cohort. Data were collected for 3013 children on their utilization of medicinal products (during the last 4 weeks) and consultation with CAM providers (in the preceding year) from a German birth cohort study (GINIplus, 15-year follow-up) using a self-administered questionnaire. The reported medicinal CAMs were classified into six categories (homeopathy, herbal drugs, nutritionals, minerals and trace elements, microorganisms, further CAM). Drug prices were traced using pharmaceutical identification numbers (PZNs), or otherwise conservatively estimated. Finally, the results were compared with data obtained from the 10-year follow-up of the same birth cohort study by adopting the identical methodology. In all, 26% of the reported 2489 drugs were medicinal CAM. The 4-week prevalence for homeopathy and herbal drug use was 7.5% and 5.6%, respectively. Some 13.9% of the children used at least one type of medicinal CAM in the preceding 4 weeks. The 1-year prevalence for consultation with CAM providers was 10.8%. From the drugs identified as CAM, 53.7% were homeopathic remedies, and 30.8% were herbal drugs. Factors associated with higher medicinal CAM use were female gender, residing in Munich, and higher maternal education. A homeopathy user utilized on average homeopathic remedies worth EUR 15.28. The corresponding figure for herbal drug users was EUR 16.02, and EUR 18.72 for overall medicinal CAM users. Compared with the 10-year follow-up, the prevalence of homeopathy use was more than halved (-52%) and dropped substantially for herbal drug use (-36%) and overall CAM use (-38

  2. The German version of the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5): psychometric properties and diagnostic utility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger-Gottschalk, Antje; Knaevelsrud, Christine; Rau, Heinrich; Dyer, Anne; Schäfer, Ingo; Schellong, Julia; Ehring, Thomas

    2017-11-28

    The Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Checklist (PCL, now PCL-5) has recently been revised to reflect the new diagnostic criteria of the disorder. A clinical sample of trauma-exposed individuals (N = 352) was assessed with the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale for DSM-5 (CAPS-5) and the PCL-5. Internal consistencies and test-retest reliability were computed. To investigate diagnostic accuracy, we calculated receiver operating curves. Confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) were performed to analyze the structural validity. Results showed high internal consistency (α = .95), high test-retest reliability (r = .91) and a high correlation with the total severity score of the CAPS-5, r = .77. In addition, the recommended cutoff of 33 on the PCL-5 showed high diagnostic accuracy when compared to the diagnosis established by the CAPS-5. CFAs comparing the DSM-5 model with alternative models (the three-factor solution, the dysphoria, anhedonia, externalizing behavior and hybrid model) to account for the structural validity of the PCL-5 remained inconclusive. Overall, the findings show that the German PCL-5 is a reliable instrument with good diagnostic accuracy. However, more research evaluating the underlying factor structure is needed.

  3. The availability of German nuclear power plants in an international comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fehndrich, W.; Kutsch, W.

    1976-01-01

    Due to unprecise definitions, incomplete reports and the small number of plants in operation, an analysis of the availability of nuclear power stations by international standards meets some difficulties. Especially in the classification of causes of accidents, isolated cases gain too much importance due to the statistically small number of unscheduled shutdowns and thus often distort the picture. Still, the present comparison based on statements made by the ABE committee and the IAEA presents a good picture of availability tendencies and main types of failures and gives rise to the assumption that the initial difficulties with which every new technology has to cope will soon be overcome. (orig./AK) [de

  4. Europe after Fukushima. German perspectives on the future of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temple, Samuel; Uekoetter, Frank; Kersten, Jens; Vogt, Markus

    2012-01-01

    One year after the reactor meltdown at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, this volume of RCC Perspectives takes stock of its impact and possible legacy in Europe as part of the Rachel Carson Center's research focus on natural disasters and cultures of risk. While Europe may have been spared radioactive fallout, political and cultural fallout has been significant. Are we witnessing the beginning of the end of the nuclear era? Or beginning of a new one, glimpsed in the shade of authoritarian regimes?

  5. Europe after Fukushima. German perspectives on the future of nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Temple, Samuel (ed.); Uekoetter, Frank [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Rachel Carson Center for Environment and Society; Kersten, Jens [Munich Univ. (Germany). Chair of Public Law and Governance; Vogt, Markus [Munich Univ. (Germany). Chair in Christian Social Ehtics

    2012-07-01

    One year after the reactor meltdown at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, this volume of RCC Perspectives takes stock of its impact and possible legacy in Europe as part of the Rachel Carson Center's research focus on natural disasters and cultures of risk. While Europe may have been spared radioactive fallout, political and cultural fallout has been significant. Are we witnessing the beginning of the end of the nuclear era? Or beginning of a new one, glimpsed in the shade of authoritarian regimes?.

  6. Proposed advanced satellite applications utilizing space nuclear power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, P.G.; Isenberg, L.

    1990-01-01

    A review of the status of space nuclear reactor systems and their possible applications is presented. Such systems have been developed over the past twenty years and are capable of use in various military and civilian applications in the 5-1000 kWe power range. The capabilities and limitations of the currently proposed nuclear reactor systems are summarized. Safety issues are shown to be identified, and if properly addressed should not pose a hindrance. Applications are summarized for the federal and civilian community. These applications include both low and high altitude satellite surveillance missions, communications satellites, planetary probes, low and high power lunar and planetary base power systems, broad-band global telecommunications, air traffic control, and high-definition television

  7. Economic evaluation of nuclear reactor operation utilizing power effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budinsky, M.; Mydliar, J.

    1988-01-01

    The operation of a reactor at the so-called power effect may substantially increase the burnup of fuel to be removed. The aim of the evaluation of such reactor operation is the optimal determination of the time over which the yield of the higher use of fuel exceeds economic losses resulting from the increased share of constant expenditure of the price of generated kWh of electric power which ensues from such operation. A mathematical model is presented for such evaluation of reactor operation with regard to benefits for the national economy which is the basis of the ESTER 2 computer program. The calculations show that the prices of generated and delivered kWh are minimally 2% less than the prices of generated power without the power effect use. The minimum ranges in the interval of 30 to 50 days. The dependence of the price of generated and delivered kWh from the point of view of the operator of the power plant as well as the component of fuel price of generated kWh will not reach the minimum even after 50 days of operation. From the operating and physical points of view the duration of power effect is not expected to exceed 20 to 30 days which means that from the point of view of the national economy the price of generated and delivered kWh will be 1.6 to 2% less and the fuel component of the price of the generated kWh will be 3 to 4.5% lower. (Z.M.). 5 figs., 3 refs

  8. Decarbonization of the German energy system due to falling or rising power consumption?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guminski, Andrej; Roon, Serafin von

    2016-01-01

    Since the publication of the draft ''Climate Protection Plan 2050'' and the ''Green Paper on Energy Efficiency'', it is clear that the Federal Government is focusing on the electrification of the heat and transport sector in order to increase the share of renewable energies in these sectors. This step is not uncontroversial, and represents a paradigm shift in science and politics, because the reduction of the cross electricity consumption move into the background. It is now necessary to clearly distinguish between the conventional power consumption, which must continue to be tested for energy savings and efficiency potential, and the new power consumption, here referred to as the coupling current, which is accepted in order to achieve the objectives of the energy transition. Since the consideration of the energy transition as a purely national project is too short, possible positive and negative effects of the European Union Emission Trading System (EU ETS) deserve particular attention with regard to this reorientation. [de

  9. Utility-Marketing Partnerships: An Effective Strategy for Marketing Green Power?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, L. A.; Brown, E. S.

    2006-04-01

    This paper explores whether partnerships between utilities and independent marketers are an effective strategy for marketing green power. We present case studies of voluntary and mandatory partnerships covering green power program design and implementation in both regulated and restructured electricity markets. We also include perspectives (based on interviews) from utilities, marketers, and regulators involved in developing and implementing these partnerships. From these case studies and interviews, we describe lessons learned about developing effective partnerships, including such issues as respective roles in marketing and administration, product branding, and contract and incentive structures. Based on experience to date, strategic partnerships between utilities and marketers can be an effective approach to marketing green power. Partnerships leverage the sales and resource procurement experience of marketers and the utility?s reputation and access to customers. Further, partnerships can create greater incentives for success because marketers have a vested financial interest in maximizing customer participation and green power sales.

  10. Smart Heat and Power : Utilizing the Flexibility of Micro Cogeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwing, M.

    2010-01-01

    Distributed generation (DG) contributes to a more sustainable electricity supply. Large-scale adoption of DG will bring radical changes to the traditional model of generation and supply as well as to the business model of the power industry. Furthermore, with innovations in information and

  11. Life extension of German nuclear power plants only with the consent of the Federal Council? The importance and extent of the need for consent to an amendment to the German Atomic Energy Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Horst

    2010-01-01

    In its coalition agreement of October 26, 2009, the new German federal government plans ''to extend the service life of German nuclear power plants while, at the same time, complying with the strict German and international safety standards.'' This has triggered a debate not only about (nuclear) energy, as in the past election campaign in the summer of 2009, but also about the constitutional law issue whether an amendment to the Atomic Energy Act resulting in longer operating life of nuclear power plants required the consent of the Federal Council (the ''Bundesrat,'' the second chamber of parliament). After the election to the state parliament in North Rhine-Westphalia on May 9, 2010, majority in the Federal Council changed. As a consequence, no consent to an amendment to the Atomic Energy Act must be expected. In view of the large number of recent statements about constitutional law in opinions for various federal and ministerial accounts as well as firms and associations, the outline by R. Scholz in the May issue of atw 2010 will be followed in this issue by the key points of examination of the need for consent, under aspects of constitutional law, and an attempt will be made to explain the evaluations underlying the generation of a legal concept about these items. The decision by the German Federal Constitutional Court of May 4, 2010, published on June 11, 2010, plays a major role in this respect because it established clarity in some important aspects of a legal subject matter in the field of state admini-stration on behalf of the federation, albeit in the field of air traffic law, not nuclear law. However, the structures of the norms in the German Basic Law (Art. 87c and Art. 87d, para.2) to be applied are almost identical. The energy policy and energy economy aspects of a plant life extension are considered along with the option of an appeal to the Federal Constitutional Court against any plant life extension. Finally, the key findings are summarized briefly

  12. 4th extension building of the German National Library in Leipzig. Geothermal power for the German legacy of literature; 4. Erweiterungsbau der Deutschen Nationalbibliothek in Leipzig. Geothermie fuer Deutsches Literaturerbe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waurick, Thomas [Gebaeudetechnik Dresden GmbH (Germany). Technische Gebaeudeausruestung; Richter, Marcus [HGC Hydro-Geo-Consult, Freiberg (Germany). Bereich Geothermie

    2009-07-01

    The future heating and air conditioning of the fourth extension building and the book towers of the German National Library (Leipzig, Federal Republic of Germany) almost are performed by terrestrial heat exclusively. In the contribution under consideration, the authors report on the energetic supply of the house-technical plants of the German National Library. For this, long-distance heating, geothermal power as well as compression coldness are available. The long-distance heating should be used for heating, while the geothermal power should enable the sensitive cooling of the magazine surfaces. Compression coldness should compensate the latent cooling performance. On the basis of the determined load profiles, a plant concept was developed for the energy production. This concept consists of a combination of heat pump and refrigerator using geothermal power. An advantage of this concept is the parallel use of the cold water as climatic cold water in the operation of the heat pump. The same is valid for the waste heat in the operation of refrigerators.

  13. Competition effects of mergers: An event study of the German electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the competition effects of the entry of Vattenfall into the German electricity market. While the competition authorities supported the entry by approving Vattenfall's acquisition of three regional utilities, other market participants raised concerns over the emergence of an upcoming oligopoly in the German market for power generation. We contrast the efficiency hypothesis postulating pro-competitive effects of mergers with the market power hypothesis postulating anti-competitive effects. For the analysis of the two opposing hypotheses, we use an event study approach to the stock prices of Vattenfall's competitors in the German market. While we find no empirical evidence for increased market power in the German electricity market due to Vattenfall's mergers, there is some indication for efficiency increases. We therefore cannot oppose the view of the competition authorities predicting an overall positive effect for consumers as a result of Vattenfall's entry into the German electricity market.

  14. A ''New Generation'' of Nuclear Power Plants- Electric Utility Aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marouani, D.; Reznik, L.; Tavron, B.

    1999-01-01

    A 50% increase in worldwide energy consumption in the next 20 years is anticipated, due to the global population growth and to higher standards of living. Meeting these energy demands with the fossil energy sources such as coal. gas and oil may lead to atmospheric accumulation of greenhouse gases, resulting in global warming of several degrees with catastrophic climatic consequences. Implementation of various energy conservation measures may bring only insignificant reduction in demand levels. Hopes that the renewable energy sources (such as hydroelectric, solar, wind power, biomass and geothermal) may supply the growth in the demand - are unrealistic. Only nuclear power (providing already 16% of world electricity) may meet all the energy demand growth with negligible greenhouse emission

  15. Optimal utilization of electric power in the Nordic countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnusson, G.; Gjelsvik, E.

    1992-01-01

    It is attempted to address the questions of which advantages the equilibrium solution would have for the energy market under free trade conditions, how Nordic electric power can be used optimally and what the trading pattern looks like, which kind of competition the transmission of electricity via cables to Iceland and other Nordic countries will meet in the United Kingdom (UK) and the Continent, how high the option values are of trading with electric power via cables from, for example, Iceland to the UK and how great the profit could be from a more effective use of electricity for aluminium production in Norway and Iceland. Data are given on consumer prices for 1990 in Scandinavia, Germany and the UK, and a few graphs and a map illustrate the text. (AB)

  16. Prospects for utilization of nuclear power in Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polliart, A -J; Goodman, E [International Atomic Energy Agency, Division of Nuclear Power and Reactors, Vienna (Austria)

    1976-02-15

    Electric energy plays a key role in developing the infrastructure of countries all over the world, and increase in consumption of electricity is a definite indicator of economic development. Although there is no nuclear power plant in Africa yet, it is not too early for long-term planning of the role of nuclear energy in fulfilling the electricity demands of the future economies of African countries. A realistic assessment of the future role of nuclear power in a given electric system requires much more than the determination of an economically optimal plant mix. It calls for optimization under a series of constraints. Among these are licensing and regulatory factors, public attitudes and the degree of commitment to nuclear power by national governments. For many developing countries, the problems of financing additional foreign exchange expenditures are so acute as to force them to defer otherwise highly profitable ventures. In the case of nations with large low-cost fossil fuel and hydro resources a great degree of flexibility has been and is likely to be maintained in establishing medium and long-term objectives for nuclear energy. (author)

  17. Utilization of nuclear power in oceans and its perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaji, Akio

    2000-01-01

    Since 1959, Russia retains many nuclear icebreakers and has a plan to construct two new types of nuclear icebreakers. In Japan, research for advanced marine reactors and its fundamental studies are being conducted by the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), the Ship Research Institute (SRI) and universities. The advanced marine reactor MRX designed by JAERI is a lightweight and compact integral PWR with a passive decay heat removal system. The Shipbuilding Research Association of Japan (JSRA) and the Japan Atomic Industrial Forum (JAIF) took a survey of the future nuclear ships and conducted an investigation of the total system related to the operation of nuclear ships, respectively, commissioned by JAERI. The committee of JSRA has recommended the displacement type of a large high-speed container ship promises to act as the next generation nuclear merchant ship. In the committee of JAIF, the cost evaluation has been made for a high-speed, large container ship equipped with two MRXs sailing the Pacific Ocean, and it is found that it could have an advantage economically over the diesel in some future conditions. The committee of JSRA has also recommended the deep-sea research vessel has been identified as a promising form for the next generation nuclear special-purpose ship, since the deep-sea represents a vast frontier in terms of basic scientific understanding of the earth. Many countries including Russia, Japan and U.S.A. are conducting a research of reactors for deep-sea vessels. The U.S. Navy made available nuclear powered submarines for civilian oceanographic research and the submarines were used in the Scientific Ice Expedition (SCICEX) program from 1995 to 1999. For floating nuclear power plant, the design of nuclear co-generation plant Pevek' for remote regions of Russia is completed using KLT-40C, based on a marine reactor. In Japan, fundamental studies of floating plants are being performed by private companies and JAERI. The designs of floating

  18. Utilization of nuclear power in oceans and its perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaji, Akio [Ship Research Institute, Ministry of Transport, Mitaka, Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-03-01

    Since 1959, Russia retains many nuclear icebreakers and has a plan to construct two new types of nuclear icebreakers. In Japan, research for advanced marine reactors and its fundamental studies are being conducted by the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), the Ship Research Institute (SRI) and universities. The advanced marine reactor MRX designed by JAERI is a lightweight and compact integral PWR with a passive decay heat removal system. The Shipbuilding Research Association of Japan (JSRA) and the Japan Atomic Industrial Forum (JAIF) took a survey of the future nuclear ships and conducted an investigation of the total system related to the operation of nuclear ships, respectively, commissioned by JAERI. The committee of JSRA has recommended the displacement type of a large high-speed container ship promises to act as the next generation nuclear merchant ship. In the committee of JAIF, the cost evaluation has been made for a high-speed, large container ship equipped with two MRXs sailing the Pacific Ocean, and it is found that it could have an advantage economically over the diesel in some future conditions. The committee of JSRA has also recommended the deep-sea research vessel has been identified as a promising form for the next generation nuclear special-purpose ship, since the deep-sea represents a vast frontier in terms of basic scientific understanding of the earth. Many countries including Russia, Japan and U.S.A. are conducting a research of reactors for deep-sea vessels. The U.S. Navy made available nuclear powered submarines for civilian oceanographic research and the submarines were used in the Scientific Ice Expedition (SCICEX) program from 1995 to 1999. For floating nuclear power plant, the design of nuclear co-generation plant Pevek' for remote regions of Russia is completed using KLT-40C, based on a marine reactor. In Japan, fundamental studies of floating plants are being performed by private companies and JAERI. The designs of

  19. Electric power generation and LNG evaporation with the aid of gas turbines within a closed-cycle process. [In German

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, D

    1978-01-01

    LNG, after being pumped to customary pipeline pressure, has a high working potential which can be technically utilized. Thus, in a modern large-size terminal, a power potential in the order of magnitude of several hundred MW is available. In the course of rising power prices the question becomes important if this potential continues to be wasted or if conversion to electric power is economical. In the proposed process the working fluid of a gas turbine plant with a closed circuit is cooled to -140/sup 0/C with LNG before entering the compressor and heated to +720/sup 0/C before entering the turbine by means of external heat gained by burning natural gas. With a 1 million m/sup 3//h throughput of LNG in its normal state, 237 MW of electric power can be generated with 53% efficiency with this simple circuit, which can be further developed. In a combination of closed gas turbine and diesel generator, almost 289 MW of electric power can be produced per 1 million m/sup 3//h LNG with an efficiency of 60%.

  20. Prospects for utilization of superconductors in the power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernolepkov, N.A.

    1993-01-01

    Utilization of superconducting technology is greatly influenced by the discovery of the so-called high-temperature superconductors (HTS). The present report considers to what extent there is a need for HTS in up-to-date engineering and how much they are prepared for practical applications. The work on the practical use of superconductors was started about 30 years ago. As a results, two fields of the high-current superconductivity have emerged. The first category is the field in which other alternatives were inconceivable from techno-economic points of view (magnets of thermo-nuclear installations, MHD generators, inductive energy storage systems, etc.). The second category involves areas where superconductors must demonstrate the ability to compete with existing technologies (electrical devices, magnetic separators, etc.). The present overview discusses developments of various low temperature superconducting devices, estimate their potential and evaluates future applications of HTS based on the experience accumulated in the USSR and other countries. (author)

  1. UWTOR-M, a stellarator power reactor utilizing modular coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sviatoslavsky, I.N.; Van Sciver, S.W.; Kulcinski, G.L.

    1981-10-01

    We briefly describe the parametric considerations which led to the UWTOR-M reference design point. The design has 18 twisted coils utilizing a multipolarity of 3, a major radius of 24 m, a coil radius of 4.77 m and a plasma aspect ratio of 14. An assumed β of 5% was used. This configuration leads to a rotational transform on the edge of 1.125 giving favorable plasma physics conditions. The natural stellarator divertor is used for impurity control in conjunction with innovative high performance divertor targets. A unique blanket design is proposed which minimizes tritium inventory in the reactor. Finally, since maintainability is a prime consideration, we describe a scheme for servicing the first wall/blanket and other reactor components

  2. Efforts to utilize risk assessment at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narumiya, Yoshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    Risk assessment means the use of the outputs that have been obtained through risk identification and risk analysis (risk information), followed by the determination of the response policy by comparing these outputs with the risk of judgement standards. This paper discusses the use of risk information with multifaceted nature and its significance, and the challenges to the further penetration of these items. As the lessons and risk assessment learnt from the past accidents, this paper takes up the cases of the severe accidents of Three Mile Island, Chernobyl, and Fukushima Daiichi power stations, and discusses their causes and expansion factors. In particular, at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, important lessons were shortage in measures against the superimposition of earthquake and tsunami, and the insufficient use of risk assessment. This paper classified risk assessment from the viewpoint of risk information, and showed the contents and index for each item of risk reduction trends, risk increase trends, and measures according to the importance of risk. As the benefits of activities due to risk assessment, this paper referred to the application cases of the probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) of IAEA, and summarized the application activities of 10 items of risk indexes by classifying them to safety benefits and operational benefits. For example, in the item of flexible Allowed Outage Time (AOT), the avoidance of plant shutdown and the flexibility improvement of maintenance scheduling at a plant are corresponding to the above-mentioned benefits, respectively. (A.O.)

  3. East German power plants: New concepts for the power and energy supply; Ostdeutscher Kraftwerkspark: Neugestaltung der Kraft- und Waermeversorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bald, A [Fossil Befeuerte Kraftwerke Inland, Bereich Energieerzeugung (KWU), Siemens AG (Germany)

    1994-10-01

    The enhancement of the energy economy plays the key role for the economic and ecological sanitation of the New Laender. Due to the bad condition sanitation mostly means new construction. The energy economy, the manufacturing industry and the public administration have successfully met this challenge. The programme has been launched, nearly all key projects have been given to contractors, the majority has already been realised and the first plants have already been connected to the network. Due to the performance that has been achieved so far, the following statement can already be made today. At the end of the decade the New Laender will have the most modern power and thermal energy supply in the world. Hence the industrial site eastern Germany gains an attractiveness that does not have to fear the international competition. Apart from strong impetus for economic growth and employment the environmentally friendly energy supply will lead to a considerable improvement of the life quality of approx. 16 million people. (orig.) [Deutsch] Bei der oekonomischen und oekologischen Gesundung der neuen Bundeslaender faellt der Sanierung der Energiewirtschaft eine Schluesselrolle zu. Wegen der schlechten Substanz kann Sanierung zumeist nur Neubau heissen. Dieser Herausforderung haben sich Energiewirtschaft, Herstellerindustrie und oeffentliche Verwaltung erfolgreich gestellt. Das Ausbauprogramm ist auf den Weg gebracht, fast alle Schluesselprojekte sind vergeben, die meisten mittlerweile in der Realisierung, und die ersten Anlagen sind sogar schon am Netz. Angesichts des bisher Geleisteten laesst sich bereits heute feststellen: Ende des Jahrzehnts werden die neuen Bundeslaender ueber die modernste Strom- und Waermeversorgung der Welt verfuegen. Der Wirtschaftsstandort Ostdeutschland gewinnt damit eine Attraktivitaet, die international keinen Vergleich zu scheuen braucht. Neben kraeftigen Wachstums- und Beschaeftigungsimpulsen wird der umweltfreundliche Neuaufbau der

  4. Solar thermal energy utilization. German studies on technology and application. Vol. 1. General investigations on energy availability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, M. (Deutsche Forschungs- und Versuchsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DFVLR), Koeln (Germany, F.R.). Hauptabteilung Energietechnik) (ed.)

    1987-01-01

    The first volume of a three-volume series titled 'Solar thermal energy utilization' comprises three papers dealing with general investigations into energy availability. Their titles are: Yearly yield of solar CRS-process heat and temperature of reaction; - literature survey in the field of primary and secondary concentrating solar energy systems concerning the choice and manufacturing process of suitable materials; - considerations and proposals for future research and development of high temperature solar processes. Each of the three chapters was abstracted for entry into the database. (HWJ).

  5. Material stock in German datacenters. An inventory to determine the utilization of ressources and energy; Materialbestand der Rechenzentren in Deutschland. Eine Bestandsaufnahme zur Ermittlung von Ressourcen- und Energieeinsatz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hintemann, Ralph; Fichter, Klaus [Borderstep Institut fuer Innovation und Nachhaltigkeit gemeinnuetzige GmbH, Berlin (Germany)

    2010-11-15

    The study ascertains the equipment and material resources of German data centres for the reference year 2008 and predicts its development until the year 2015 in two scenarios (''business as usual'' and ''Green IT''). Similar studies for other countries or regions are not known so far. In the study a methodology is developed, which allows to calculate the number of data centres in different size classes and their average equipment with IT components and infrastructure elements such as air conditioning systems and power supplies. Reference products are defined and on this basis a detailed determination of the material composition of data centre components is made. This allows to make detailed statements on the material equipment of approximately 53,000 data centres in Germany. In the year 2008 in German Data centres approx.12.000 tonnes of electronics, 17,000 tonnes of copper, 7,000 tonnes of aluminium, 11,000 tonnes of plastics and 58 000 tonnes of iron were used. The electronic material contains 1.8 tonnes of gold, 7.5 tonnes of silver and 0.8 tonnes of palladium. Nearly 30% of the materials are bound in almost 50 major data centres. In the scenario ''business as usual'' the amount of electronics in the German data centres increases from 2008 to 2015 by about 60% up to 20,000 tonnes. This includes almost 3 tonnes of gold, 21 tonnes of silver and 1.8 tonnes of palladium. The amounts of copper, aluminium and iron will increase by over 50%. Even in the scenario ''Green IT'' when the energy needs of data centres in Germany decreases by 40%, the material stock in the data centres would not reduce, especially the electronic material will increase significantly by more than 20%. The study points to significant further research. In particular there is a need to ascertain detailed data on the material composition of IT products (servers, etc.). The study stresses that in the future in addition

  6. Guidance for DoD Utilization of Host Nation Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-28

    data)  The Honduran electric company,  Empresa  Nacional  de  Energia Electrica (ENEE) generates power and  operates the national transmission and...CDF  Cumulative Distribution Function  DoD  Department of Defense  ENEE  Empresa  Nacional  de  Energia Electrica  EUPW  Escalating Uniform Present Worth...generators with the fuel either purchased from the local  population or  transported  from remote fuel depots.  This incurs a significant cost for the

  7. Enhancing the utilization of photovoltaic power generation by superconductive magnetic energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tam, K.S.; Kumar, P.; Foreman, M.

    1989-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that a superconductive magnetic energy storage (SMES) system can enhance large scale utilization of PV generation. With SMES support, power generated from PV arrays van be fully utilized under different weather conditions and PV penetrations can be increased to significant levels without causing adverse effects to the power system. Coupled with PV generation, a SMES system is even more effective in performing diurnal load leveling. A coordinated PV/SMES operation scheme is proposed and demonstrated under different weather conditions

  8. Financing of nuclear power plant decommissioning. A study from the point of view of German and European economic law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jasper, M.

    2008-01-01

    The contribution outlines legal problems from the view of national and European law. It presents alternative funding models and investigates their legal applicability. For example, funds may be established with obligatory contributions by nuclear power plant operators. A model of this type was proposed by the EU Commission. The authors discuss whether the EU Commission has the right at all to make this proposal, and what legal problems may arise in Germany, e.g. the right of property of public utilities. Other funding models are presented and investigated as well. (orig.)

  9. Concept of electric power output control system for atomic power generation plant utilizing cool energy of stored snow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamimura, Seiji; Toita, Takayuki

    2003-01-01

    A concept of the SEAGUL system (Snow Enhancing Atomic-power Generation UtiLity) is proposed in this paper. Lowering the temperature of sea water for cooling of atomic-power plant will make a efficiency of power generation better and bring several ten MW additional electric power for 1356 MW class plant. The system concept stands an idea to use huge amount of seasonal storage snow for cooling water temperature control. In a case study for the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Station, it is estimated to cool down the sea water of 29degC to 20degC by 80 kt snow for 3 hours in a day would brought 60 MWh electric power per a day. Annually 38.4 Mt of stored snow will bring 1800 MWh electric power. (author)

  10. Large-scale utilization of wind power in China: Obstacles of conflict between market and planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Xiaoli; Wang Feng; Wang Mei

    2012-01-01

    The traditional strict planning system that regulates China's power market dominates power industry operations. However, a series of market-oriented reforms since 1997 call for more decentralized decision-making by individual market participants. Moreover, with the rapid growth of wind power in China, the strict planning system has become one of the significant factors that has curtailed the generation of wind power, which contradicts with the original purpose of using the government's strong control abilities to promote wind power development. In this paper, we first present the reasons why market mechanisms are important for large-scale utilization of wind power by using a case analysis of the Northeast Grid, and then we illustrate the impact of conflicts between strict planning and market mechanisms on large-scale wind power utilization. Last, we explore how to promote coordination between markets and planning to realize large-scale wind power utilization in China. We argue that important measures include implementing flexible power pricing mechanisms instead of the current fixed pricing approach, formulating a more reasonable mechanism for distributing benefits and costs, and designing an appropriate market structure for large-scale wind power utilization to promote market liquidity and to send clear market equilibrium signals. - Highlights: ► We present the reasons why market is important for utilization of wind power. ► We discuss the current situation of the conflict between planning and market. ► We study the impact of conflict between planning and market on wind power output. ► We argue how to promote coordination between market and planning.

  11. Innovative online faculty development utilizing the power of social media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Melissa; Niebuhr, Virginia; D'Alessandro, Donna

    2013-01-01

    Faculty development (FD) is important for continued professional development, but expense and distance remain challenging. These challenges could be minimized by the free and asynchronous nature of social media (SM). We sought to determine the utility and effectiveness of conducting a national online FD activity on Facebook by assessing participants' perceptions and use and facilitators' challenges. An educational activity of a national FD program was managed on a closed Facebook group. Activities included postings of educational technology goals, abstracting an article, and commenting on peers' postings. Sources of quantitative data included the Facebook postings and the survey responses. Surveys before, after, and 6 months after the activity assessed knowledge, attitudes and self-reported behaviors. Sources of qualitative data were the open-ended survey questions and the content of the Facebook postings. All participants completed the FD activity and evaluations, yielding 38 postings and 115 comments. Before the activity, 88% had a personal Facebook account, 64% were somewhat/very confident using Facebook, 77% thought SM would be useful for professional networking, and 12% had used it professionally. Six months after the activity, professional usage had increased to 35%. Continued use of Facebook for future presentations of this FD activity was recommended by 76%. Qualitative analysis yielded 12 types of Facebook postings and 7 themes related to using SM for FD. Conducting a national FD activity on Facebook yielded excellent participation rates and positive participant impressions, and it affected professional usage. Facebook may become an additional tool in the educator's toolbox for FD as a result of its acceptability and accessibility. Copyright © 2013 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Utilization of municipal wastewater for cooling in thermoelectric power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safari, Iman [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Walker, Michael E. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Hsieh, Ming-Kai [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Dzombak, David A. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Liu, Wenshi [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Vidic, Radisav D. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Miller, David C. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States); Abbasian, Javad [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2013-09-01

    A process simulation model has been developed using Aspen Plus® with the OLI (OLI System, Inc.) water chemistry model to predict water quality in the recirculating cooling loop utilizing secondary- and tertiary-treated municipal wastewater as the source of makeup water. Simulation results were compared with pilot-scale experimental data on makeup water alkalinity, loop pH, and ammonia evaporation. The effects of various parameters including makeup water quality, salt formation, NH3 and CO2 evaporation mass transfer coefficients, heat load, and operating temperatures were investigated. The results indicate that, although the simulation model can capture the general trends in the loop pH, experimental data on the rates of salt precipitation in the system are needed for more accurate prediction of the loop pH. It was also found that stripping of ammonia and carbon dioxide in the cooling tower can influence the cooling loop pH significantly. The effects of the NH3 mass transfer coefficient on cooling loop pH appear to be more significant at lower values (e.g., kNH3 < 4×10-3 m/s) when the makeup water alkalinity is low (e.g., <90 mg/L as CaCO3). The effect of the CO2 mass transfer coefficient was found to be significant only at lower alkalinity values (e.g., kCO2<4×10-6 m/s).

  13. Report of Committee F. Industrial utilization and power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brouwer, T. [comp.

    1997-11-01

    During the 1994-1997 triennium Committee F had overall responsibility for the organization and coordination of investigations in the field of Industrial Gas Utilisation and Power Generation. This report comprises the work of four Subcommittees: F1 - natural gas in the brick industry; oxy-fuel firing in glass melting processes and gas infrared surface combustion techniques in industrial and commercial processes. F2 - treatment of wastes; natural gas for process cooling; potential for the use of natural gas in the food industry and NO{sub x} regulations; incentives for NO{sub x} reduction. F3 - evaluation of sulfur recovery processes; natural gas sweetening and potential dehydration by N-Formyl Morpholine (NFM); natural gas separation; conversion of natural gas; small-scale reformers for fuel cell plants; Haldor Topsoee Acetic Acid process; market for Shell Middle Distillate Synthesis (SMDS) products; use of Dimethyl Ether (DME) as diesel substitute. F4 - studies on the advantages of cogeneration technology and market sturcture and market requirements. (au)

  14. Utilization of nuclear power - a sustainable error of history?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gugerli, D.

    2004-01-01

    The history of atomic energy has been producing major surprises for at least half a century. A wave of atomic enthusiasm - which grew to a veritable atomic euphoria - was triggered by the famous atoms-for-peace speech by US president Eisenhower in 1953. Despite their inherent technocratic pacifism, Eisenhower's atoms led to critical conflicts within those societies that subscribed to the nuclear development scheme. A critical revision of these conflicts reveals a dramatic falling apart of the historic horizon of expectations and the historic development path. Notwithstanding, both the apologists of nuclear energy use and their antagonists have erred in many ways without truly losing their capacity to act. They misjudged the planning security, the safety of the installations, and the stability of the price relations on the energy and capital equipment markets. Moreover, both sides erred in their predictions concerning the political conditions and the social consequences of nuclear power plants. This observation is not historically insightful in the sense of learning from one's mistakes. It is insightful rather for the relationship between experience, expectation and decision on the one hand and socio-technical change on the other hand. (orig.)

  15. BIPV-powered smart windows utilizing photovoltaic and electrochromic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Rong-Hua; Chen, Yu-Chia

    2012-01-01

    A BIPV-powered smart window comprising a building-integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) panel and an all-solid-state electrochromic (EC) stack is proposed. In the proposed device, the output voltage of the BIPV panel varies in accordance with the intensity of the incident light and is modulated in such a way as to generate the EC stack voltage required to maintain the indoor illuminance within a specified range. Two different EC stacks are fabricated and characterized, namely one stack comprising ITO/WO(3)/Ta(2)O(5)/ITO and one stack comprising ITO/WO(3)/lithium-polymer electrolyte/ITO. It is shown that of the two stacks, the ITO/WO(3)/lithium-polymer electrolyte/ITO stack has a larger absorptance (i.e., approximately 99% at a driving voltage of 3.5 V). The experimental results show that the smart window incorporating an ITO/WO(3)/lithium-polymer electrolyte/ITO stack with an electrolyte thickness of 1.0 μm provides an indoor illuminance range of 750-1,500 Lux under typical summertime conditions in Taiwan.

  16. BIPV-Powered Smart Windows Utilizing Photovoltaic and Electrochromic Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chia Chen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A BIPV-powered smart window comprising a building-integrated photovoltaic (BIPV panel and an all-solid-state electrochromic (EC stack is proposed. In the proposed device, the output voltage of the BIPV panel varies in accordance with the intensity of the incident light and is modulated in such a way as to generate the EC stack voltage required to maintain the indoor illuminance within a specified range. Two different EC stacks are fabricated and characterized, namely one stack comprising ITO/WO3/Ta2O5/ITO and one stack comprising ITO/WO3/lithium-polymer electrolyte/ITO. It is shown that of the two stacks, the ITO/WO3/lithium-polymer electrolyte/ITO stack has a larger absorptance (i.e., approximately 99% at a driving voltage of 3.5 V. The experimental results show that the smart window incorporating an ITO/WO3/lithium-polymer electrolyte/ITO stack with an electrolyte thickness of 1.0 μm provides an indoor illuminance range of 750–1,500 Lux under typical summertime conditions in Taiwan.

  17. Utilities objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cousin, Y.; Fabian, H.U.

    1996-01-01

    The policy of French and german utilities is to make use of nuclear energy as a long term, competitive and environmentally friendly power supply. The world electricity generation is due to double within the next 30 years. In the next 20 to 30 years the necessity of nuclear energy will be broadly recognized. More than for most industries, to deal properly with nuclear energy requires the combination of a consistent political will, of a proper institutional framework, of strong and legitimate control authorities, of a sophisticated industry and of operators with skilled management and human resources. One of the major risk facing nuclear energy is the loss of competitiveness. This can be achieved only through the combination of an optimized design, a consistent standardization, a proper industrial partnership and a stable long term strategy. Although the existing plants in Western Europe are already very safe, the policy is clearly to enhance the safety of the next generation of nuclear plants which are designing today. The French and German utilities have chosen an evolutionary approach based on experience and proven technologies, with an enhanced defense in depth and an objective of easier operation and maintenance. The cost objective is to maintain and improve what has been achieved in the best existing power plants in both countries. This calls for rational choices and optimized design to meet the safety objectives, a strong standardization policy, short construction times, high availability and enough flexibility to enable optimization of the fuel cycle throughout the lifetime of the plants. The conceptual design phase has proven that the French and German teams from industry and from the utilities are able to pursue both the safety and the cost objectives, basing their decision on a rational approach which could be accepted by the safety authorities. (J.S.)

  18. Does the expansion of German high voltage power supply system imply health risks?; Geht vom Ausbau elektrischer Hochspannungsleitungen eine Gefahr fuer die menschliche Gesundheit aus?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kappos, Andreas D.

    2016-07-01

    The decision of the German parliament to gradually close down nuclear power plants mainly located in the south of Germany and to support wind farms in the North Sea mud flats as the dominant regenerative energy source requires the strengthening and enlargement of the power supply system with the installation of new long distance high voltage power lines. The legally fixed dimension and formality of the actual planning process are discussed as well as the legal regulations for the protection of human health. Guided by the assessment of IARC a ''possible'' carcinogenic effect of low frequency electromagnetic fields on people living in the vicinity of high voltage power lines has to be considered. Therefore from a preventive viewpoint the minimal distance of 400 m between newly planned high voltage power lines and human settlements required by law seem justified.

  19. Preservation of competence and cooperation with universities. Initiatives of German nuclear power plant operators to further know-how and competence preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidel, Andre; Mohrbach, Ludger

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear power plants and nuclear technology offer graduates of technical and scientific university disciplines ambitious challenges in an attractive working environment. Irrespective of the politically motivated opt-out of the peaceful use of nuclear power in Germany, nuclear industry will continue to need motivated and committed young scientists and engineers for the next few decades. They contribute to the success of nuclear power plant operators, manufacturers, and consulting institutions. German nuclear power plant operators promote institutions of learning and research focusing on nuclear topics by means of a coordinated initiative. In this way, they contribute to preserving competence, attracting young scientists and engineers, and expanding research and development in Germany beyond the confines of specific topics. VGB PowerTech e.V. (VGB) supports operators in organizing these activities also by establishing subject-related working parties as a platform for exchanging information and harmonizing specific measures. (orig.)

  20. Safety Performance Improvement for Nuclear Power Plants Utilizing THOMAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Won June; Ryu, Jung Uk; Suh, Kune Y.

    2005-01-01

    THOMAS (Thermal Hydraulics Online Monitoring Advisory System) is equipped with a couple of salient features compared with existing monitoring systems. The first has to do with the three-dimensional (3D) visualization technique to support the nuclear power plant (NPP) operators and personnel using the virtual reality (VR) technology. VR depicts an environment simulated by a computer. Most of the VR environments primarily include visual experiences, displayed either on a monitor or though special stereoscopic goggles. Users can often interactively manipulate a VR environment, either through standard input devices like a keyboard, or through specially designed devices like a cybergloves. Additional devices were not applied the in THOMAS. The visualized model file is brought to the VR space from the computer-aided design (CAD) tool. In the VR space, using mapping, the component color is changed with linked value of the safety variables. Operators thus can easily recognize the plant condition. This is related with the human factor engineering. The second is the function of decision making using the influence diagram logic. The influence diagram logic is based on the total probability and Bayesian theory. The accident modeling is rooted in the emergency operating procedure (EOP). The final goal of this system is, in the accident situation, to present a success path to the operator for the recovery of the NPP system. At the current developing level, the database signals THOMAS. In other words, a spectrum of system analysis codes provides the safety parameter values to the database, which are subsequently supplied to THOMAS through the network

  1. Analysis and evaluation for social acceptability for utilizing nuclear power in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Ting; Wakabayashi, Toshio

    2011-01-01

    This study is about the acceptability of the society of utilizing nuclear power in China. There are different interactions and opinions has been raised that leads conflict between the society and the nuclear technology people. Many emotions and views have mixed up: people have image of environment friendly, also have image of explosion, fright and danger. The purpose of this study is to make clear the social consciousness for utilizing nuclear power in China and to improve social acceptability. A survey by the questionnaire was conducted for investigation of the features of the social consciousness for necessity and safety for utilizing nuclear power in China. The questionnaire has been sent to 10000 citizens of Zhejiang province in south China from June to August 2010 (Zhejiang province is one of the earliest city for utilizing nuclear power plants in China). There were 4255 available respondents (42.6%) with 1851 men and 2404 women of adult who answered the questionnaire. The survey was including 37 items about energy problem, social consciousness for utilizing nuclear power, safety, the reliability of government and information sources. As a result, it was found that some 57.5% of adults are in favor of nuclear power plants. There are differences of sense between men and women. The reliability for safety of men for nuclear power is higher than that of women. Some 59.6% of men respondents are in favor of nuclear power plants, and about 10% respondents of women are in favor of nuclear power plants. Social acceptance is still one of the major barriers for further development of nuclear power, although recent technological and institutional innovation is clearly reduced its risk and enhanced its relative and absolute benefit compared to other energy resources. Consequently, this result indicates that women with maternal instinct may not be favor of nuclear power plants compared with men in China. (author)

  2. UTILIZATION OF SECONDARY COMBUSTIBLE POWER RESOURCES FOR PRODUCTION OF MUNICIPAL AND HOUSEHOLD FUEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Berezovsky

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows an advantage to utilize secondary power resources (lignin, wastes of fine coal with its dressing, sawdust in mixture with local types of fuel (peat in order to fulfill power supply purpose, namely: obtaining hot water in boilers of small capacity and obtaining household fuel.

  3. The effect of the Fukushima nuclear accident on stock prices of electric power utilities in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawashima, Shingo; Takeda, Fumiko

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station, which is owned by Tokyo Electric Power Co. (TEPCO), on the stock prices of the other electric power utilities in Japan. Because the other utilities were not directly damaged by the Fukushima nuclear accident, their stock price responses should reflect the change in investor perceptions on risk and return associated with nuclear power generation. Our first finding is that the stock prices of utilities that own nuclear power plants declined more sharply after the accident than did the stock prices of other electric power utilities. In contrast, investors did not seem to care about the risk that may arise from the use of the same type of nuclear power reactors as those at the Fukushima Daiichi station. We also observe an increase of both systematic and total risks in the post-Fukushima period, indicating that negative market reactions are not merely caused by one-time losses but by structural changes in society and regulation that could increase the costs of operating a nuclear power plant.

  4. The rise of smart customers. How consumer power will change the global power and utilities business. What the sector thinks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-09-15

    This report is the second in a two-part study, geared to helping power and utilities companies adapt their business strategies and customer handling in a new smart world. It explores the views of power and utilities leaders across 12 countries on how smart might change consumers' needs and behaviors, what new services they plan to offer and where they see the strongest new opportunities and competitors. We also compare these results with those of the first study, which examined the views of consumers and their appetite for new smart services.

  5. Utilization of Flexible Demand in a Virtual Power Plant Set-Up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thavlov, Anders; Bindner, Henrik W.

    2014-01-01

    High penetration levels from renewable energy sources in large-scale power systems demand a high degree of flexibility in the transmission and distribution system. This paper presents a method for utilization of flexible demand in the low-voltage distribution system using the thermal mass...... of a building to defer power consumption from electric space heating. The power consumption for heating is controlled by an operational virtual power plant, which is sending a set point for requested power consumption to the building management system. An optimization problem is formulated...

  6. A strategy for improving the profitability of utility power plants in a deregulated industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinhart, E.R.

    1996-01-01

    When deregulation of the utility industry becomes a reality in the near future, power plant managers and engineers will face a completely changed business climate. Surviving in a competitive business world will require a dramatic alteration in the way most utility power plants are maintained and upgraded, and in their budget planning. Strategies will have to be developed and implemented that follow the guidelines of good business practices in competitive industries. Some utilities have already started to reduce overhead maintenance costs. Key aspects of their programs can serve as examples to other utilities who want to develop a strategy to improve their operating cost effectiveness. Cost-cutting measures have included development of procedures and data bases that allowed utilities to become independent of original equipment manufacturer (OEM) support and to keep their costs for maintenance, repairs, and replacement of power plant components to a minimum. Also, scheduled power plant outages based on the concepts of reliability-centered maintenance (Smith, 1993), remaining life assessment, and advanced integrity monitors instead of a fixed calendar (Swanekamp, 1996), have allowed utilities to extend the time between some outages by several years. These and other innovative approaches will become critical to power plants operating in the new, deregulated business climate. Examples of actual cost savings are presented here

  7. German energy policy in deregulated Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhnt, D.

    2000-01-01

    The author argues in favor of a more fact-oriented German energy policy: Firstly, German energy policy must accept the new European framework of a market economy. This means that German utilities must no longer be burdened with the implementation of political objectives. The German power industry needs a level playing field for competition on a European scale. Consequently, also the European partner countries should not limit themselves to the minimum conditions of the Single Market Directive in opening their markets. Secondly, German energy policy must develop new forms of cooperation with the power industry so as to maintain domestic employment and the addition of value despite considerably stronger competitive pressure. Also the conflicting targets of sustainability, continuity of supply, and economic viability must not only be discussed, but must be turned into productive approaches. Thirdly, this means that there must be no inadmissible solution in matters nuclear. If the German power industry is to remain strong, in the interest of domestic jobs and opportunities for the future, it must not lose any more domestic market share to other European companies. Fourthly, we need a new energy policy which takes cognizance of the results of market development in a more rational, less emotional way. In this respect, it should be limited henceforth to supporting renewable energies and technologies so as to enhance energy efficiency in line with market requirements. Fifthly, German energy policy must not commit the mistake of enforcing deregulation and, at the same time, exempting large segments of the market from competition. Thus, the planned expansion of renewable energies, and the increase in cogeneration to more than thirty percent of the German electricty generation, by way of quotas and revenues for electricity from these sources fed into the public grid, are incompatible with competition in Europe. The electricity tax within the framework of the eco tax, the

  8. Possible ways and aspects of conversions for the German low power research reactors BER II, FRM, and FMRB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roegler, H.-J.

    1983-01-01

    Based on the overall agreement about methods and principal results on core conversions from HEU to MEU within the work done for the IAEA Guidebook, investigations were started of the three specific cases, that means the conversions of the German Research Reactors within the German AF-Program. The first step of this work was done for the three low power MTR-reactors: the Ber II in Berlin operating at KW, FMRB in Brunswick operating at 1 MW, and FRM near Munich operating at 4 W. The simplest core from the point of view of conversion calculations was the BER II reactor. The core is made up out of 33 fuel elements and 5 control elements, it is built up on a 8 x 8 grid plate. On three sides the core is surrounded by reflector elements partially made of graphite and partially of beryllium. The main purpose of the core is to provide high neutron fluxes for the 12 beam tubes on all reflector sides. A little bit more complicated - from the conversion point of view - was the status of the Munich FRM. This is on one hand due to the two different cores they operate: a so-called normal core and a smaller beryllium core and on the other other hand due to the different uranium-loadings of fuel elements partially 230 g 235-U per element and partially 180 g 235-U per element with control elements of both plate loadings as well. The third reactor investigated was the Brunswick FMRB, which has specific design features that cause specific problems. The core is split into two parts, the so-called north core and the south core interacting via a heavy water reflector in between. Calculations with LEU-fuel - in these three cases no MEU-fuel was used - were done looking at different criteria for the conversion. The first group we call cycle length criteria and they are split into two versions, the same cycle length for LEU-fuel as for the existing HEU-fuel measured in MWd with the same excess reactivity at EOL as it exists at present; the same criterion as the previous except the cycle

  9. Suggestions for an adequate risk communication - experiences based on German epidemiological studies on childhood cancer and neighbourhood to nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaatsch, P.

    2006-01-01

    From the example of the German studies on childhood cancer in the vicinity of nuclear power plants general principles for adequate risk communication could be derived. It is particularly important to explain the complexity of the issue to the public in an adequate way, when dealing with topics of such an emotionally loaded nature. Some rules are required, when explaining the nature of risk to the layman, the press, politicians, or scientists from other fields. The main principle is to create a basis of trustfulness, whereupon results can be presented. In this contribution we derive general and proven specific recommendations for adequate risk communication on the basis of experiences made at the German Childhood Cancer Registry. (orig.)

  10. Utility-Marketer Partnerships. An Effective Strategy for Marketing Green Power?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, L. A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brown, E. S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2006-04-01

    This paper explores whether partnerships between utilities and independent marketers are an effective strategy for marketing green power. We present case studies of voluntary and mandatory partnerships covering green power program design and implementation in both regulated and restructured electricity markets. We also include perspectives (based on interviews) from utilities, marketers, and regulators involved in developing and implementing these partnerships. From these case studies and interviews, we describe lessons learned about developing effective partnerships, including such issues as respective roles in marketing and administration, product branding, and contract and incentive structures. Based on experience to date, strategic partnerships between utilities and marketers can be an effective approach to marketing green power. Partnerships leverage the sales and resource procurement experience of marketers and the utility’s reputation and access to customers. Further, partnerships can create greater incentives for success because marketers have a vested financial interest in maximizing customer participation and green power sales.

  11. APPLICATION OF MODIFIED POWER FLOW TRACING METHOD FOR REACTIVE POWER PRICING IN PRACTICAL UTILITY SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. SUSITHRA

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Competitive trend towards restructuring and unbundling of transmission services has resulted in the need to discover the impact of a particular generator to load. This paper initially presents the analysis of three different reactive power valuation methods namely, Modified Ybus , Virtual flow approach and modified power flow tracing to compute the reactive power output from a particular generator to particular load. Among these methods, the modified power flow electricity tracing method is identified as the best method to trace the reactive power contribution from various reactive power sources to loads, transmission line, etc. Also this proposed method breakdown the total reactive power loss in a transmission line into components to be allocated to individual loads. Secondly, based on this Method a novel allocation method for reactive power service for practical system is proposed. Hence, this method can be useful in providing additional insight into power system operation and can be used to modify existing tariffs of charging for reactive power transmission loss and reactive power transmission services. Simulation and comparison results are shown by taking WSCC 9 and IEEE 30 bus system as test system.

  12. Evaluation of actual costs of power sources and effects on balance sheets of electric utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Yuji; Yamaguchi, Yuji; Murakami, Tomoko

    2013-01-01

    After the Fukushima nuclear accident, almost all nuclear power stations continued to stop operation and sharp increase of purchase costs of fossil fuels forced some electric utilities to suffer a deficit. This article presented quantitative analysis of effects of present state on power costs and balance sheets of electric utilities. Levelized costs of electricity increased from 8.6 ¥/kWh (2010) to 11.6 ¥/kWh (2011) and 12.6 ¥/kWh (2012). Total power costs increased from 7.5 Trillion¥(2010) to 9.5 Trillion¥(2011). Due to increase of cost of fossil fuel compensated for nuclear power, electric utilities suffered a net loss of 0.8 Trillion¥ and decreased surplus to 2.5 Trillion¥ in 2011. Net loss of 1.3 Trillion¥ and surplus of 1.2 Trillion¥ was estimated for 2012. This state was beyond the limit of utilities' efforts to reduce costs and uncertain share of power sources became a great risk. Future share of power sources should be judged appropriately from various standpoints (costs, stable supply, energy security and national economic growth) and early public dissemination of new philosophy on share of power sources was highly required. (T. Tanaka)

  13. Integration of renewable energies into the German power system and their influence on investments in new power plants. Integrated consideration of effects on power plant investment and operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harthan, Ralph Oliver

    2015-01-14

    The increasing share of renewable energies in the power sector influences the economic viability of investments in new conventional power plants. Many studies have investigated these issues by considering power plant operation or the long-term development of the power plant fleet. However, power plant decommissioning, investment and operation are intrinsically linked. This doctoral thesis therefore presents a modelling framework for an integrated consideration of power plant decommissioning, investment and operation. In a case study focusing on Germany, the effects of the integration of renewable energies on power plant decommissioning, investment and operation are evaluated in the context of different assumptions regarding the remaining lifetime of nuclear power plants. With regard to the use of nuclear power, a phase-out scenario and a scenario with lifetime extension of nuclear power plants (by on average 12 years) are considered. The results show that static decommissioning (i.e. considering fixed technical lifetimes) underestimates the capacity available in the power sector in the scenario without lifetime extension since retrofit measures (versus decommissioning) are not taken into account. In contrast, capacity available in the case of nuclear lifetime extension is overestimated since mothballing (versus regular operation) is not considered. If the impact on decommissioning decisions of profit margins accrued during power plant operation are considered (''dynamic decommissioning''), the electricity price reduction effect due to a lifetime extension is reduced by more than half in comparison to static decommissioning. Scarcity situations do not differ significantly between the scenarios with and without lifetime extension with dynamic decommissioning; in contrast, there is a significantly higher need for imports without lifetime extension with static decommissioning. The case study demonstrates that further system flexibility is needed for

  14. Integration of renewable energies into the German power system and their influence on investments in new power plants. Integrated consideration of effects on power plant investment and operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harthan, Ralph Oliver

    2015-01-01

    The increasing share of renewable energies in the power sector influences the economic viability of investments in new conventional power plants. Many studies have investigated these issues by considering power plant operation or the long-term development of the power plant fleet. However, power plant decommissioning, investment and operation are intrinsically linked. This doctoral thesis therefore presents a modelling framework for an integrated consideration of power plant decommissioning, investment and operation. In a case study focusing on Germany, the effects of the integration of renewable energies on power plant decommissioning, investment and operation are evaluated in the context of different assumptions regarding the remaining lifetime of nuclear power plants. With regard to the use of nuclear power, a phase-out scenario and a scenario with lifetime extension of nuclear power plants (by on average 12 years) are considered. The results show that static decommissioning (i.e. considering fixed technical lifetimes) underestimates the capacity available in the power sector in the scenario without lifetime extension since retrofit measures (versus decommissioning) are not taken into account. In contrast, capacity available in the case of nuclear lifetime extension is overestimated since mothballing (versus regular operation) is not considered. If the impact on decommissioning decisions of profit margins accrued during power plant operation are considered (''dynamic decommissioning''), the electricity price reduction effect due to a lifetime extension is reduced by more than half in comparison to static decommissioning. Scarcity situations do not differ significantly between the scenarios with and without lifetime extension with dynamic decommissioning; in contrast, there is a significantly higher need for imports without lifetime extension with static decommissioning. The case study demonstrates that further system flexibility is needed for

  15. SUPPLIER SELECTION CRITERIA IN A POWER UTILITY IN MALAYSIA: ENGINEERS’ PERCEPTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivadass Thiruchelvam

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Supplier selection of electricity generating, transmitting and distributing systems is part of the problem-solving environment in a power utility because it is a long-term investment for the organisation. Therefore, the decision over supplier selection directly influences the operational and financial position of a power utility. In addition, the supplier selection of a power-related system is a complex multi-criteria decision problem. While some criteria may be common across different industries, there are some criteria unique to the power industry. This research aims to understand what constitutes the suitable supplier selection criteria for a power utility. This study reveals some interesting findings of how engineers perceive the importance of each criterion and suggests strongly that product quality, price and delivery are key determinants in the supplier evaluation process. The eighteen criteria considered for this study were mapped onto their respective cluster, namely: supplier’s organisational system and technology, buyer-supplier relationship and economic value. The findings of this study should assist various groups of stakeholders (e.g., suppliers, buyers and end users to gain a better understanding of social behaviour in making purchase decisions, particularly with regard to power utilities.

  16. Decommissioning of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vollradt, J.

    1977-01-01

    A survey of the main questions of decommissioning of nuclear power plants will be given in the sight of German utilities (VDEW-Working group 'Stillegung'). The main topics are: 1) Definitions of decommissioning, entombment, removal and combinations of such alternatives; 2) Radioactive inventory (build up and decay); 3) Experience up to now; 4) Possibilities to dismantle are given by possibility to repair nuclear power plants; 5) Estimated costs, waste, occupational radiation dose; 6) German concept of decommissioning. (orig./HK) [de

  17. Utilization of artificial intelligence techniques for the Space Station power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evatt, Thomas C.; Gholdston, Edward W.

    1988-01-01

    Due to the complexity of the Space Station Electrical Power System (EPS) as currently envisioned, artificial intelligence/expert system techniques are being investigated to automate operations, maintenance, and diagnostic functions. A study was conducted to investigate this technology as it applies to failure detection, isolation, and reconfiguration (FDIR) and health monitoring of power system components and of the total system. Control system utilization of expert systems for load scheduling and shedding operations was also researched. A discussion of the utilization of artificial intelligence/expert systems for Initial Operating Capability (IOC) for the Space Station effort is presented along with future plans at Rocketdyne for the utilization of this technology for enhanced Space Station power capability.

  18. Applications of supercomputing and the utility industry: Calculation of power transfer capabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, D.D.; Behling, S.R.; Betancourt, R.

    1990-01-01

    Numerical models and iterative simulation using supercomputers can furnish cost-effective answers to utility industry problems that are all but intractable using conventional computing equipment. An example of the use of supercomputers by the utility industry is the determination of power transfer capability limits for power transmission systems. This work has the goal of markedly reducing the run time of transient stability codes used to determine power distributions following major system disturbances. To date, run times of several hours on a conventional computer have been reduced to several minutes on state-of-the-art supercomputers, with further improvements anticipated to reduce run times to less than a minute. In spite of the potential advantages of supercomputers, few utilities have sufficient need for a dedicated in-house supercomputing capability. This problem is resolved using a supercomputer center serving a geographically distributed user base coupled via high speed communication networks

  19. Offshore wind power system in the Exclusive Economic Zone. Applicability of German property law; Offshore-Windenergieanlagen in der AWZ. Anwendbarkeit des deutschen Sachenrechts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, Thomas; Glaesner, Michael [Linklaters LLP, Berlin (Germany)

    2013-04-15

    The present article shows how a lack of regulation has led to a certain degree of legal uncertainty as to whether offshore wind power plants located in the German Exclusive Economic Zone are amenable to German property law. For practical purposes this has made it necessary to negotiate project contracts such that the transfer of ownership of individual components is effected while these are still on shore, even if the purchase price has yet to be fully paid. The financing banks have a policy in place of demanding the establishment of a subsidiary which is to receive ownership of the assets. This makes the structure of such contracts a great deal more complicated in terms of corporations law and tax law. The present article summarises the experiences gained by lawyers in these matters, giving an overview of the different legal positions taken on them to date. It shows that the applicability of German property law follows from the law now in force. Aside from this the authors advocate amendments to the relevant IPR norm as a means of reinforcing legal certainty in practice and make a concrete proposal for a clause to this end.

  20. Incentive regulation of nuclear power plants by state Public Utility Commissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, R.L.; Olson, J.; Hendrickson, P.

    1989-12-01

    Economic performance incentives established by state Public Utility Commissions (PUCs) currently are applicable to the construction or operation of approximately 73 nuclear power reactors owned by 27 utilities with investment greater than 10% in 18 states. The NRC staff monitors development of the incentives and periodically provides an updated report on all nuclear plant incentives to its headquarters and regional offices. The staff maintains contact with the PUCs and the utilities responsible for implementing the incentives in order to obtain the updated information and to consider potential safety effects of the incentives. This report on incentive regulation of nuclear power plants by state PUCs presents the NRC staff's concerns on potential safety effects of economic performance incentives. It also includes a plant-by-plant survey that describes the mechanics of each incentive and discusses the financial effects of the incentive on the utility-owner(s) of the plant

  1. Incentive regulation of nuclear power plants by state public utility commissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, J.C.

    1987-12-01

    This report on incentive regulation of nuclear power plants by state public utility commissions (PUCs). Economic performance incentives established by state PUCs are applicable to the construction or operation of about 45 nuclear power reactors owned by 30 utilities in 17 states. The NRC staff monitors development of the incentives and periodically provides an updated report on all nuclear plant incentives to its regional offices. The staff maintains contact with the PUCs and the utilities responsible for implementing the incentives in order to obtain the updated information and to consider potential safety effects of the incentives. This report presents the NRC staff's concerns on potential safety effects of economic performance incentives. It also includes a plant-by-plant survey that describes the mechanics of each incentive and discusses the financial effects of the incentive on the utility-owner(s) of the plant

  2. Economic assessment of the engineering basis for wind power: Perspective of a vertically integrated utility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Sanjoy

    2009-01-01

    If wind park configurations are globally coordinated across the service area of a power utility, then electricity can be generated for the grid with substantial cost advantages. Based on this premise, the paper introduces a model by which large scale assessment of grid connected wind based power generation may be undertaken for a utility service area. The model can be useful to the policy maker for decisions regarding suitable wind portfolio standards (WPS) definition. The utility, on the other hand, may use the model to study its service area for prospective wind based generation. Aspects of the problem modelled include cost-of-energy from individual generating units, daily load variations for the utility with emphasis on limited penetration, features of wind at prospective installation sites, makes of wind energy conversion systems (WECS) available, and recovery of expenditure through revenue. Application of the model to an assessment exercise for the state of Andhra Pradesh (India) is presented as an example. (author)

  3. Advanced Grid-Friendly Controls Demonstration Project for Utility-Scale PV Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gevorgian, Vahan; O' Neill, Barbara

    2016-01-21

    A typical photovoltaic (PV) power plant consists of multiple power electronic inverters and can contribute to grid stability and reliability through sophisticated 'grid-friendly' controls. The availability and dissemination of actual test data showing the viability of advanced utility-scale PV controls among all industry stakeholders can leverage PV's value from being simply an energy resource to providing additional ancillary services that range from variability smoothing and frequency regulation to power quality. Strategically partnering with a selected utility and/or PV power plant operator is a key condition for a successful demonstration project. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Solar Energy Technologies Office selected the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to be a principal investigator in a two-year project with goals to (1) identify a potential partner(s), (2) develop a detailed scope of work and test plan for a field project to demonstrate the gird-friendly capabilities of utility-scale PV power plants, (3) facilitate conducting actual demonstration tests, and (4) disseminate test results among industry stakeholders via a joint NREL/DOE publication and participation in relevant technical conferences. The project implementation took place in FY 2014 and FY 2015. In FY14, NREL established collaborations with AES and First Solar Electric, LLC, to conduct demonstration testing on their utility-scale PV power plants in Puerto Rico and Texas, respectively, and developed test plans for each partner. Both Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority and the Electric Reliability Council of Texas expressed interest in this project because of the importance of such advanced controls for the reliable operation of their power systems under high penetration levels of variable renewable generation. During FY15, testing was completed on both plants, and a large amount of test data was produced and analyzed that demonstrates the ability of

  4. Real power regulation for the utility power grid via responsive loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Timothy J [Knoxville, TN; Kirby, Brendan J [Knoxville, TN; Kisner, Roger A

    2009-05-19

    A system for dynamically managing an electrical power system that determines measures of performance and control criteria for the electric power system, collects at least one automatic generation control (AGC) input parameter to at least one AGC module and at least one automatic load control (ALC) input parameter to at least one ALC module, calculates AGC control signals and loads as resources (LAR) control signals in response to said measures of performance and control criteria, propagates AGC control signals to power generating units in response to control logic in AGC modules, and propagates LAR control signals to at least one LAR in response to control logic in ALC modules.

  5. Space power system utilizing Fresnel lenses for solar power and also thermal energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, R. H.

    1983-01-01

    A solar power plant suitable for earth orbits passing through Van Allen radiation belts is described. The solar-to-electricity conversion efficiency is estimated to be around 9 percent, and the expected power-to-weight ratio is competitive with photovoltaic arrays. The system is designed to be self-contained, to be indifferent to radiation belt exposures, store energy for periods when the orbiting system is in earth shadow (so that power generation is contant), have no moving parts and no working fluids, and be robust against micrometeorite attack. No electrical batteries are required.

  6. Statistical utility theory for comparison of nuclear versus fossil power plant alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garribba, S.; Ovi, A.

    1977-01-01

    A statistical formulation of utility theory is developed for decision problems concerned with the choice among alternative strategies in electric energy production. Four alternatives are considered: nuclear power, fossil power, solar energy, and conservation policy. Attention is focused on a public electric utility thought of as a rational decision-maker. A framework for decisions is then suggested where the admissible strategies and their possible consequences represent the information available to the decision-maker. Once the objectives of the decision process are assessed, consequences can be quantified in terms of measures of effectiveness. Maximum expected utility is the criterion of choice among alternatives. Steps toward expected values are the evaluation of the multidimensional utility function and the assessment of subjective probabilities for consequences. In this respect, the multiplicative form of the utility function seems less restrictive than the additive form and almost as manageable to implement. Probabilities are expressed through subjective marginal probability density functions given at a discrete number of points. The final stage of the decision model is to establish the value of each strategy. To this scope, expected utilities are computed and scaled. The result is that nuclear power offers the best alternative. 8 figures, 9 tables, 32 references

  7. The rise of smart customers. How consumer power will change the global power and utilities business. What consumers think

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-08-15

    Smart technology puts unprecedented power in the hands of consumers to manage and control their energy use. In time, this will fundamentally shift the balance of customer relations. It seems the era of a one-way relationship - where a utility delivers energy to domestic consumers, end of story - is over. Most power and utility businesses are currently treating the smart transition as an infrastructure upgrade, focusing chiefly on the technology and on fulfilling regulatory obligations. So far, the customer perspective and need for consumer education have not figured prominently in smart implementation programs. But following customer resistance to implementations in the US and Australia, the sector has been alerted to further challenges. Consumers' newfound power to say 'no' is one that the industry is not used to dealing with. Power and utility businesses must learn from the mistakes made so far. They need customer buy-in before they can exploit the host of new business opportunities that smart technology could provide. To explore the sector's readiness to respond to the present cycle of change, we asked domestic energy consumers how they viewed their relationship with energy providers. We wanted to know if they understood the benefits of smart metering, as well as their appetite for smart energy services.

  8. Generative Adversarial Networks Based Heterogeneous Data Integration and Its Application for Intelligent Power Distribution and Utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanpeng Tan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Heterogeneous characteristics of a big data system for intelligent power distribution and utilization have already become more and more prominent, which brings new challenges for the traditional data analysis technologies and restricts the comprehensive management of distribution network assets. In order to solve the problem that heterogeneous data resources of power distribution systems are difficult to be effectively utilized, a novel generative adversarial networks (GANs based heterogeneous data integration method for intelligent power distribution and utilization is proposed. In the proposed method, GANs theory is introduced to expand the distribution of completed data samples. Then, a so-called peak clustering algorithm is proposed to realize the finite open coverage of the expanded sample space, and repair those incomplete samples to eliminate the heterogeneous characteristics. Finally, in order to realize the integration of the heterogeneous data for intelligent power distribution and utilization, the well-trained discriminator model of GANs is employed to check the restored data samples. The simulation experiments verified the validity and stability of the proposed heterogeneous data integration method, which provides a novel perspective for the further data quality management of power distribution systems.

  9. Proceedings of international workshop on utilization of nuclear power in oceans (N'ocean 2000)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaji, A.; Nariyama, N.; Sawada, K.

    2000-03-01

    Human beings and the ocean have maintained close relations for a long time. The ocean produced the life at very old time and human beings have been benefited by ocean, particularly in Japan that is surrounded by the ocean. In the utilization of nuclear power in ocean, Japan has been very active from the beginning of the development of nuclear power. The nuclear powered ship MUTSU has been developed and completed the experimental voyage. Besides the nuclear powered ship, we are using the ocean for the transportation of radioactive materials. This International Workshop aimed at offering further information about nuclear utilization in oceans such as icebreakers, deep-sea submarines, high speed carriers, floating plant, desalination and heating plants, radioactive materials transport ships, and so on. The discussions on the economical, environmental and scientific effects are included. The 36 of the present papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  10. QoS-Guaranteed Power Control Mechanism Based on the Frame Utilization for Femtocells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mach Pavel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on a power control mechanism and proposes a novel approach for dynamic adaptation of femtocells' transmitting power. The basic idea is to adapt the transmitting power of femtocells according to current traffic load and signal quality between user equipments and the femtocell in order to fully utilize radio resources allocated to the femtocell. The advantage of the proposed scheme is in provisioning of high quality of service level to the femtocell users, while interference to users attached to macrobase station is minimized. The paper proposes the power adaptation algorithm and evaluates its performance in terms of mobility events, achieved throughput, and FAPs transmitting power. Performed simulations show that the proposed scheme can significantly reduce the number of mobility events caused by passerby users and thus to minimize signaling overhead generated in the network. In addition, our proposal enhances overall throughput for most of the investigated scenarios in comparison to other power control schemes.

  11. Analysis of oxy-fuel combustion power cycle utilizing a pressurized coal combustor

    OpenAIRE

    Gazzino, Marco; Hong, Jongsup; Chaudhry, Gunaranjan; Brisson II, John G; Field, Randall; Ghoniem, Ahmed F

    2009-01-01

    Growing concerns over greenhouse gas emissions have driven extensive research into new power generation cycles that enable carbon dioxide capture and sequestration. In this regard, oxy-fuel combustion is a promising new technology in which fuels are burned in an environment of oxygen and recycled combustion gases. In this paper, an oxy-fuel combustion power cycle that utilizes a pressurized coal combustor is analyzed. We show that this approach recovers more thermal energy from the flue gases...

  12. Anticipatory opt-out of nuclear power at German universities and research centers? Employment and education opportunities in the nuclear field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritz, P.; Closs, K.D.; Kuczera, B.; Erlenwein, P.; Langetepe, G.; Weiss, F.P.; Wolfert, K.

    2001-01-01

    The energy policy objectives of the present German federal government include the regulated, not-to-be-indemnified termination of the use of nuclear power for electricity generation in Germany. This objective was initialed in an agreement between the federal government and the operators of nuclear power plants in June 2000. The criterion it contains for the residual life of existing nuclear power plants are the 'residual electricity volumes' to be generated by existing plants. According to present data, the first nuclear power plant would be decommissioned in late 2002, the last one, in early 2021. A report by an evaluating committee established by the competent German Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology published in January 2000 indicates that, even in the light of this medium-term perspective for the use of nuclear power for electricity generation, sufficient competence in terms of manpower in this field must be maintained and promoted in all areas of research, industry, expert consultant organizations, and regulatory authorities far beyond 2021. This makes government support indispensable in the light of the political criteria requiring the preservation of competence in this sector. The 'Kompetenzverbund Kerntechnik' (Association for Nuclear Technology Competence) was established within the framework of the Energy Research Division of the Hermann von Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft Deutscher Forschungszentren. Its mandate outlines its objectives as follows: 'Irrespective of political decisions establishing criteria for terminating the use of nuclear power in Germany, it is necessary that competence in nuclear safety be preserved for the next few decades. Only this will ensure that the government's provident duties can be fulfilled, and the safety of nuclear installations and waste and spent fuel management pathways can be ensured in accordance with the international state of the art'. (orig.) [de

  13. Efficient utilization of wind power: Long-distance transmission or local consumption?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yuanzhang; Ma, Xiyuan; Xu, Jian; Bao, Yi; Liao, Siyang

    2017-09-01

    Excess wind power produced in wind-intensive areas is normally delivered to remote load centers via long-distance transmission lines. This paper presents a comparison between long-distance transmission, which has gained popularity, and local energy consumption, in which a fraction of the generated wind power can be locally consumed by energy-intensive industries. First, the challenges and solutions to the long-distance transmission and local consumption of wind power are presented. Then, the two approaches to the utilization of wind power are compared in terms of system security, reliability, cost, and capability to utilize wind energy. Finally, the economic feasibility and technical feasibility of the local consumption of wind power are demonstrated by a large and isolated industrial power system, or supermicrogrid, in China. The coal-fired generators together with the short-term interruptible electrolytic aluminum load in the supermicrogrid are able to compensate for the intermittency of wind power. In the long term, the transfer of high-energy-consumption industries to wind-rich areas and their local consumption of the available wind power are beneficial.

  14. Efficient utilization of wind power: Long-distance transmission or local consumption?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuanzhang SUN; Xiyuan MA; Jian XU; Yi BAO; Siyang LIAO

    2017-01-01

    Excess wind power produced in wind-intensive areas is normally delivered to remote load centers via long-distance transmission lines.This paper presents a comparison between long-distance transmission,which has gained popularity,and local energy consumption,in which a fraction of the generated wind power can be locally consumed by energy-intensive industries.First,the challenges and solutions to the long-distance transmission and local consumption of wind power are presented.Then,the two approaches to the utilization of wind power are compared in terms of system security,reliability,cost,and capability to utilize wind energy.Finally,the economic feasibility and technical feasibility of the local consumption of wind power are demonstrated by a large and isolated industrial power system,or supermicrogrid,in China.The coal-fired generators together with the shortterm interruptible electrolytic aluminum load in the supermicrogrid are able to compensate for the intermittency of wind power.In the long term,the transfer of highenergy-consumption industries to wind-rich areas and their local consumption of the available wind power are beneficial.

  15. Optimization Strategy for Economic Power Dispatch Utilizing Retired EV Batteries as Flexible Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shubo Hu

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing penetration of new and renewable energy, incorporating variable adjustable power elements on the demand side is of particular interest. The utilization of batteries as flexible loads is a hot research topic. Lithium-ion batteries are key components in electric vehicles (EVs in terms of capital cost, mass and size. They are retired after around 5 years of service, but still retain up to 80% of their nominal capacity. Disposal of waste batteries will become a significant issue for the automotive industry in the years to come. This work proposes the use of the second life of these batteries as flexible loads to participate in the economic power dispatch. The characteristics of second life batteries (SLBs are varied and diverse, requiring a new optimization strategy for power dispatch at the system level. In this work, SLBs are characterized and their operating curves are obtained analytically for developing an economic power dispatch model involving wind farms and second life batteries. In addition, a dispatch strategy is developed to reduce the dispatch complex brought by the disperse spatial and time distribution of EVs and decrease the system operating cost by introducing incentive and penalty costs in regulating the EV performance. In theory, SLBs are utilized to reduce the peak-valley difference of power loads and to stabilize the power system. Test results based on a ten-unit power system have verified the effectiveness of the proposed dispatch model and the economic benefit of utilizing SLBs as flexible loads in power systems. This work may provide a viable solution to the disposal of waste batteries from EVs and to the stable operation of fluctuating power systems incorporating stochastic renewable energy.

  16. German Vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, Virginia M.

    This article discusses in general terms derivational aspects of English vocabulary. Citing examples of Anglo-Saxon origin, the author provides a glimpse into the nature of the interrelatedness of English, German, and French vocabulary. (RL)

  17. Some possibilities for improvement of fuel utilization in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocic, A.; Marinkovic, N.

    1983-01-01

    Methods for improving the nuclear fuel utilization with the emphasis on LWRs are being dealt with in this paper. Some basic results concerning tubular fuel pellets of the Krsko nuclear power plants are presented, showing promising possibilities for uranium saving from the neutronics point of view. (author)

  18. Utility-Scale Concentrating Solar Power and Photovoltaic Projects: A Technology and Market Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendelsohn, M.; Lowder, T.; Canavan, B.

    2012-04-01

    Over the last several years, solar energy technologies have been, or are in the process of being, deployed at unprecedented levels. A critical recent development, resulting from the massive scale of projects in progress or recently completed, is having the power sold directly to electric utilities. Such 'utility-scale' systems offer the opportunity to deploy solar technologies far faster than the traditional 'behind-the-meter' projects designed to offset retail load. Moreover, these systems have employed significant economies of scale during construction and operation, attracting financial capital, which in turn can reduce the delivered cost of power. This report is a summary of the current U.S. utility-scale solar state-of-the-market and development pipeline. Utility-scale solar energy systems are generally categorized as one of two basic designs: concentrating solar power (CSP) and photovoltaic (PV). CSP systems can be further delineated into four commercially available technologies: parabolic trough, central receiver (CR), parabolic dish, and linear Fresnel reflector. CSP systems can also be categorized as hybrid, which combine a solar-based system (generally parabolic trough, CR, or linear Fresnel) and a fossil fuel energy system to produce electric power or steam.

  19. Northeast Utilities' participation in the Kaman/NASA wind power program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotker, M.

    1975-01-01

    The role of Northeast Utilities in the Kaman/NASA large wind generator study is reviewed. The participation falls into four principal areas: (1) technical assistance; (2) economic analysis; (3) applications; and (4) institutional and legal. A model for the economic viability of wind power is presented.

  20. Utilizing PowerPoint Presentation to Promote Fall Prevention among Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrary-Quarles, Audrey R.

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated a PowerPoint home safety (PPHS) presentation in enhancing awareness, knowledge and behavior change among senior center attendees in southern Illinois. Twelve centers were utilized as data collection sites in a pretest-posttest control group design. Through stratified randomization, centers were placed into categories (high,…

  1. A relative rate utility based distributed power allocation algorithm for Cognitive Radio Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmood, Nurul Huda; Øien, G.E.; Lundheim, L.

    2012-01-01

    In an underlay Cognitive Radio Network, multiple secondary users coexist geographically and spectrally with multiple primary users under a constraint on the maximum received interference power at the primary receivers. Given such a setting, one may ask "how to achieve maximum utility benefit...

  2. German Orientalism

    OpenAIRE

    Margaret Olin

    2011-01-01

    Review of: Suzanne L. Marchand, German Orientalism in the Age of Empire: Religion, Race and Scholarship, Cambridge and Washington, D.C.: Cambridge University Press, 2009. This analysis of Suzanne L. Marchand’s German Orientalism in the Age of Empire: Religion, Race and Scholarship reads her contribution in part against the background of Edward Said’s path breaking book Orientalism. Differences lie in her more expansive understanding of the term ‘Oriental’ to include the Far East and her conce...

  3. Probability of islanding in utility networks due to grid connected photovoltaic power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verhoeven, B.

    2002-09-15

    This report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) made by Task 5 of the Photovoltaic Power Systems (PVPS) programme takes a look at the probability of islanding in utility networks due to grid-connected photovoltaic power systems. The mission of the Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme is to enhance the international collaboration efforts which accelerate the development and deployment of photovoltaic solar energy. Task 5 deals with issues concerning grid-interconnection and distributed PV power systems. This report summarises the results on a study on the probability of islanding in power networks with a high penetration level of grid connected PV-systems. The results are based on measurements performed during one year in a Dutch utility network. The measurements of active and reactive power were taken every second for two years and stored in a computer for off-line analysis. The area examined and its characteristics are described, as are the test set-up and the equipment used. The ratios between load and PV-power are discussed. The general conclusion is that the probability of islanding is virtually zero for low, medium and high penetration levels of PV-systems.

  4. Commercialization of PV-powered pumping systems for use in utility PV service programs. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The project described in this report was a commercialization effort focused on cost-effective remote water pumping systems for use in utility-based photovoltaic (PV) service programs. The project combined a commercialization strategy tailored specifically for electric utilities with the development of a PV-powered pumping system that operates conventional ac pumps rather than relying on the more expensive and less reliable PV pumps on the market. By combining these two attributes, a project goal was established of creating sustained utility purchases of 250 PV-powered water pumping systems per year. The results of each of these tasks are presented in two parts contained in this Final Summary Report. The first part summarizes the results of the Photovoltaic Services Network (PSN) as a new business venture, while the second part summarizes the results of the Golden Photon system installations. Specifically, results and photographs from each of the system installations are presented in this latter part.

  5. Utility-cogenerator game for pricing power sales and wheeling fees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuwahata, Akeo; Asano, Hiroshi

    1994-01-01

    The authors studied an extensive game model of an electricity market where a cogenerator sells excess electricity to an electric utility or to an end user. They found that a buy-back system (the utility purchases cogenerated power) is as efficient as a cogenerator-customer wheeling system and that these two systems are more desirable than a monopoly system for the regulator. The buy-back rate should be equal to (LP bargaining solution) or less than (Nash bargaining solution) the marginal cost of the electric utility. They also conducted an analysis of a two-period electricity market in which they found that the cogenerator that can supply excess power during peak period obtains the market advantage

  6. Expected Power-Utility Maximization Under Incomplete Information and with Cox-Process Observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, Kazufumi; Nagai, Hideo; Runggaldier, Wolfgang J.

    2013-01-01

    We consider the problem of maximization of expected terminal power utility (risk sensitive criterion). The underlying market model is a regime-switching diffusion model where the regime is determined by an unobservable factor process forming a finite state Markov process. The main novelty is due to the fact that prices are observed and the portfolio is rebalanced only at random times corresponding to a Cox process where the intensity is driven by the unobserved Markovian factor process as well. This leads to a more realistic modeling for many practical situations, like in markets with liquidity restrictions; on the other hand it considerably complicates the problem to the point that traditional methodologies cannot be directly applied. The approach presented here is specific to the power-utility. For log-utilities a different approach is presented in Fujimoto et al. (Preprint, 2012).

  7. Simulation analysis of emissions trading impact on a non-utility power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imran, Kashif; Ahmad, Intesar; Hassan, Tehzeebul; Aslam, Muhammad Farooq; Ngan, Hon-Wing

    2009-01-01

    Non-utility power plants can competitively participate in open electricity market to reduce operational costs but in the absence of pollution charges or emissions trading such generators are tempted to cause greater pollution for profit maximization. This paper presents a solution that incorporates pollution charges for nitrogen oxides and sulphur dioxide emissions in line with existing national environmental quality standards and a new carbon dioxide emissions trading mechanism. A novel approach has been used for allocation of allowable emissions that favors efficiently fuelled and environmentally friendly operation for maximizing profit. Impact of proposed carbon trading on economical utilization of enormous indigenous coal reserves has been analyzed and determined to be acceptable. Software developed in this paper, harnessing Sequential Quadratic Programming capabilities of Matlab, is shown to be adequate simulation tool for various emissions trading schemes and an useful operational decision making tool for constrained non-linear optimization problem of a non-utility power plant. (author)

  8. Simulation analysis of emissions trading impact on a non-utility power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imran, Kashif; Ahmad, Intesar [Department of Electrical Engineering, COMSATS Institute of IT, Lahore (Pakistan); Hassan, Tehzeebul [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology (UET), Lahore (Pakistan); Aslam, Muhammad Farooq [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Management and Technology (UMT), Lahore (Pakistan); Ngan, Hon-Wing [Department of Electrical Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University (China)

    2009-12-15

    Non-utility power plants can competitively participate in open electricity market to reduce operational costs but in the absence of pollution charges or emissions trading such generators are tempted to cause greater pollution for profit maximization. This paper presents a solution that incorporates pollution charges for nitrogen oxides and sulphur dioxide emissions in line with existing national environmental quality standards and a new carbon dioxide emissions trading mechanism. A novel approach has been used for allocation of allowable emissions that favors efficiently fuelled and environmentally friendly operation for maximizing profit. Impact of proposed carbon trading on economical utilization of enormous indigenous coal reserves has been analyzed and determined to be acceptable. Software developed in this paper, harnessing Sequential Quadratic Programming capabilities of Matlab, is shown to be adequate simulation tool for various emissions trading schemes and an useful operational decision making tool for constrained non-linear optimization problem of a non-utility power plant. (author)

  9. Expected Power-Utility Maximization Under Incomplete Information and with Cox-Process Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimoto, Kazufumi, E-mail: m_fuji@kvj.biglobe.ne.jp [Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi UFJ, Ltd., Corporate Risk Management Division (Japan); Nagai, Hideo, E-mail: nagai@sigmath.es.osaka-u.ac.jp [Osaka University, Division of Mathematical Science for Social Systems, Graduate School of Engineering Science (Japan); Runggaldier, Wolfgang J., E-mail: runggal@math.unipd.it [Universita di Padova, Dipartimento di Matematica Pura ed Applicata (Italy)

    2013-02-15

    We consider the problem of maximization of expected terminal power utility (risk sensitive criterion). The underlying market model is a regime-switching diffusion model where the regime is determined by an unobservable factor process forming a finite state Markov process. The main novelty is due to the fact that prices are observed and the portfolio is rebalanced only at random times corresponding to a Cox process where the intensity is driven by the unobserved Markovian factor process as well. This leads to a more realistic modeling for many practical situations, like in markets with liquidity restrictions; on the other hand it considerably complicates the problem to the point that traditional methodologies cannot be directly applied. The approach presented here is specific to the power-utility. For log-utilities a different approach is presented in Fujimoto et al. (Preprint, 2012).

  10. Utilizing a vanadium redox flow battery to avoid wind power deviation penalties in an electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turker, Burak; Arroyo Klein, Sebastian; Komsiyska, Lidiya; Trujillo, Juan José; Bremen, Lueder von; Kühn, Martin; Busse, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Vanadium redox flow battery utilized for wind power grid integration was studied. • Technical and financial analyses at single wind farm level were performed. • 2 MW/6 MW h VRFB is suitable for mitigating power deviations for a 10 MW wind farm. • Economic incentives might be required in the short-term until the VRFB prices drop. - Abstract: Utilizing a vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) for better market integration of wind power at a single wind farm level was evaluated. A model which combines a VRFB unit and a medium sized (10 MW) wind farm was developed and the battery was utilized to compensate for the deviations resulting from the forecast errors in an electricity market bidding structure. VRFB software model which was introduced in our previous paper was integrated with real wind power data, power forecasts and market data based on the Spanish electricity market. Economy of the system was evaluated by financial assessments which were done by considering the VRFB costs and the amount of deviation penalty payments resulting from forecast inaccuracies

  11. Comparison of candidate solar array maximum power utilization approaches. [for spacecraft propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costogue, E. N.; Lindena, S.

    1976-01-01

    A study was made of five potential approaches that can be utilized to detect the maximum power point of a solar array while sustaining operations at or near maximum power and without endangering stability or causing array voltage collapse. The approaches studied included: (1) dynamic impedance comparator, (2) reference array measurement, (3) onset of solar array voltage collapse detection, (4) parallel tracker, and (5) direct measurement. The study analyzed the feasibility and adaptability of these approaches to a future solar electric propulsion (SEP) mission, and, specifically, to a comet rendezvous mission. Such missions presented the most challenging requirements to a spacecraft power subsystem in terms of power management over large solar intensity ranges of 1.0 to 3.5 AU. The dynamic impedance approach was found to have the highest figure of merit, and the reference array approach followed closely behind. The results are applicable to terrestrial solar power systems as well as to other than SEP space missions.

  12. Study of the possibility of thermal utilization of contaminated water in low-power boilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roslyakov, P. V.; Proskurin, Y. V.; Zaichenko, M. N.

    2017-09-01

    The utilization of water contaminated with oil products is a topical problem for thermal power plants and boiler houses. It is reasonable to use special water treatment equipment only for large power engineering and industry facilities. Thermal utilization of contaminated water in boiler furnaces is proposed as an alternative version of its utilization. Since there are hot-water fire-tube boilers at many enterprises, it is necessary to study the possibility of thermal utilization of water contaminated with oil products in their furnaces. The object of this study is a KV-GM-2.0 boiler with a heating power of 2 MW. The pressurized burner developed at the Moscow Power Engineering Institute, National Research University, was used as a burner device for supplying liquid fuel. The computational investigations were performed on the basis of the computer simulation of processes of liquid fuel atomization, mixing, ignition, and burnout; in addition, the formation of nitrogen oxides was simulated on the basis of ANSYS Fluent computational dynamics software packages, taking into account radiative and convective heat transfer. Analysis of the results of numerical experiments on the combined supply of crude oil and water contaminated with oil products has shown that the thermal utilization of contaminated water in fire-tube boilers cannot be recommended. The main causes here are the impingement of oil droplets on the walls of the flame tube, as well as the delay in combustion and increased emissions of nitrogen oxides. The thermal utilization of contaminated water combined with diesel fuel can be arranged provided that the water consumption is not more than 3%; however, this increases the emission of nitrogen oxides. The further increase in contaminated water consumption will lead to the reduction of the reliability of the combustion process.

  13. Study of the Utilization BWR Type Nuclear Power Reactor for Desalination Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itjeu Karliana; Sumijanto; Dhandhang Purwadi, M.

    2008-01-01

    The needs of fresh water increased by rapid population growth and industrials expansion, but these demands can not be prepared naturally. Following this case, seawater desalination becomes the primer option which can fulfill the need through the nuclear desalination technology. The coupled nuclear power reactor enables to supply thermal energy for auxiliary equipment and pumps operation. The utilization study of power reactor type BWR coupled with desalination process has been performed. The goal of study is to obtain characteristic data of desalted water specification which desalination system coupling with nuclear power plant produced energy for desalination process. The study is carried out by browsing data and information, and comprehensive review of thermal energy correlation between NPP with desalination process installation. According to reviewing are found that the thermal energy and electric power utilization from the nuclear power reactor are enable to remove the seawater to produce desalted water and also to operate auxiliary equipments. The assessment results is VK-300 reactor prototype, BWR type 250 MW(e) power are cogeneration unit can supplied hot steam temperature 285 °C to the extraction turbine to empower 150 MW electric power, and a part of hot steam 130 °C is use to operate desalination process and remind heat is distribute to the municipal and offices at that region. The coupled of VK-300 reactor power type BWR with desalination installation of MED type enable to produce desalted water with high quality distillate. Based on the economic calculation that the VK-300 reactor power of BWR type produced water distillate capacity is 300.000 m 3 /hour with cost US$ 0.58/m 3 . The coupling VK-300 reactor power type BWR with MED desalination plant is competitive economically. (author)

  14. An integrated GIS environment enhancing the operation and planning of power utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yared, George Antoine

    1996-05-01

    The evolution of electrical power systems was tightly geared by the development of two fields: power engineering, with the advanced technology of physical elements comprising all parts of a power system, and information processing tools to manage the performance of electric power utilities. Compared to power engineering that has gone through tremendous developments, information technology applications for electrical power systems are relatively young. The possible improvements of these applications are in their graphical, mapping an data analysis capabilities. State-of-the art information technology such as Geographic Information Systems provides these facilities. The objective of this thesis is to devise a technique that combines power system software tools with the Geographic Information Systems software to enhance the operation, control and planning of electrical transmission systems. The load flow, voltage control and fault analysis models for the transmission system will be re-engineered in a Geographic Information System environment.The research is generic, special attention is given to its application to the Lebanese electrical power system, which is recovering from an infrastructure devastating war. The research entails integrating power systems analysis and control package, or PSACP developed at the AUB within a Geographic Information Systems environment. This will enhance the power modeling capabilities by the use of powerful thematic mapping, geographic and data analysis and user interface techniques that come with Geographic Information Systems. An overview of the two technologies involved is presented, followed by a detailed description of the integration technique before describing the integrated system. Moving to a higher level, the features of the system are presented, followed by sample applications of the integrated system on the Lebanese electrical power system. The thesis contributes to the research arena by developing a software re

  15. Long-Term Reliability of a Hard-Switched Boost Power Processing Unit Utilizing SiC Power MOSFETs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikpe, Stanley A.; Lauenstein, Jean-Marie; Carr, Gregory A.; Hunter, Don; Ludwig, Lawrence L.; Wood, William; Iannello, Christopher J.; Del Castillo, Linda Y.; Fitzpatrick, Fred D.; Mojarradi, Mohammad M.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) power devices have demonstrated many performance advantages over their silicon (Si) counterparts. As the inherent material limitations of Si devices are being swiftly realized, wide-band-gap (WBG) materials such as SiC have become increasingly attractive for high power applications. In particular, SiC power metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors' (MOSFETs) high breakdown field tolerance, superior thermal conductivity and low-resistivity drift regions make these devices an excellent candidate for power dense, low loss, high frequency switching applications in extreme environment conditions. In this paper, a novel power processing unit (PPU) architecture is proposed utilizing commercially available 4H-SiC power MOSFETs from CREE Inc. A multiphase straight boost converter topology is implemented to supply up to 10 kilowatts full-scale. High Temperature Gate Bias (HTGB) and High Temperature Reverse Bias (HTRB) characterization is performed to evaluate the long-term reliability of both the gate oxide and the body diode of the SiC components. Finally, susceptibility of the CREE SiC MOSFETs to damaging effects from heavy-ion radiation representative of the on-orbit galactic cosmic ray environment are explored. The results provide the baseline performance metrics of operation as well as demonstrate the feasibility of a hard-switched PPU in harsh environments.

  16. Reactor safety in industrial nuclear power plants. Developments in a political and technical environment as it prevails in the German Federal Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laufs, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The present book describes the development of reactor safety in German light-water nuclear power plants from the beginnings with its multifarious links to model solutions seen in other countries, national and international research projects and accidents in conventional and nuclear power plants. It contains detailed, richly illustrated articles on specific safety techniques such as rupture safety of the pressurised envelope, safeguarding of emergency cooling in the event of accidents involving coolant loss, control technology and protection of the surroundings through containment. The results of national and international risk studies are discussed. It is shown how efforts on the part of industry, government and science to enhance safety resources and improve safety culture have been driven by a civic environment in which the use of nuclear energy has become a central issue of political debate. The book is written in readily comprehensible language and offers a wealth of material for further study.

  17. Utilization of water soluble plastics for radiological control within nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.J.; Deltete, C.P.; Homyk, W.A.; Kasprzak, L.; Robinson, P.J.

    1989-01-01

    The utilization of plastic products for radioactive contamination control within nuclear power facilities currently results in relatively large volumes of waste requiring disposal as low-level radioactive waste. The utilization of a polymer resin product that possesses comparable physical attributes to currently utilized plastic materials, but which is water soluble, has significant potential to reduce the volume of plastic waste requiring disposal as radwaste. Such a volume reduction will reduce overall plant )ampersand M costs, reduce the overall waste volume allocation utilization, and improve the regulatory perception of any plant realizing a volume reduction through plastic source minimization. This potential reduction in waste volume (and associated availability of the Low-level Waste Policy Amendments Act disposal allocation for other purposes), combined with potential economic benefits summarized above, has led to the undertaking of a detailed evaluation, presented in this paper

  18. Environment, Oil and Energy - an Overview or a Peculiarly German Perspective on Power, Money and the Black Gold?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Christian Hoerber

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Three books are reviewed, each centred around the topics of environment, oil and energy and published by the German government-funded Bundeszentrale für Politische Bildung (BPB, The Federal Centre for Political Education. The BPB’s remit has for a long time been to publish books and articles on pertinent topics which would not necessarily find a commercial publisher. In this case, however, the three books are very topical in dealing with major and popular issues of our time.

  19. Where U.S. utilities seek fuel to power reactors after 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    How utilities try to assure uranium supplies emerged Feb. 25 at a press conference in Canberra with four representatives of utilities that supply 20% of the operating nuclear capacity in the United States. Earlier, the speakers indicated that American import requirements would far exceed Australian estimates of the potential export market for Australian uranium. Australia, with the world's largest uncommitted uranium reserves, is wary of exporting because the opposition Labor Party adamantly opposes uranium development. If Labor returns to power, it could decide not to honor contracts by the present government. Participants included: Bernard Cherry, fuel manager at General Public Utilities; Colin Campbell of the Yankee Atomic Service Co., which provides engineering and fuel-supply service for seven New England nuclear plants; Jack Gilleland, assistant manager of power at the Tennessee Valley Authority; and Ralph Bostian, manager for systems results and fuel management at the Duke Power Co. When asked about available uranium supplies from Africa, the participants were dubious about those supplies; this led to a discussion on why the utilities are seeking their own sources. The answers are obvious. ERDA has indicated that about one-half of the operating reactors have fuel coverage beyond six reloads and about one-half of the reactors under construction have fuel coverage beyond two reloads

  20. Contracts on electric power supply set up between communities (communal associations, countries) and public electricity utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedrich, B

    1976-01-01

    There is not any original communal right to energy supply for the population. The affiliation of local power supply to the local administration cannot be justified either by the public purpose of service or by the term provision of existence. The utilities do not get a communal license when getting the so-called licensing contract. According to its legal nature, the licensing contract is a mixture of legal positions composed of elements of the civil law and the public law. (Administrative lawsuit). The so-called power supply contract is a mutual legal relationship under civil law on the utilization of electric power, made to last. (Permanent obligation for utilization). When concluding both contracts, it is a matter of economic activities undertaken by the communities. Fiscal considerations are in the foreground. Legal regulations concerning roads and distances and serving as starting points for concluding a licensing contract are alien to the system and are to be abolished. Communities should only be responsible for local energy supply on a basis under public law. In lieu of it a stronger obligation to be met by large utilities ought to be ensured by ties under public law.

  1. Financial impacts of nonutility power purchases on investor-owned electric utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    To assist in its these responsibilities in the area of electric power, EIA has prepared this report, Financial Impacts of Nonutility Power Purchases on Investor-Owned Electric Utilities. The primary purpose of this report is to provide an overview of the issues surrounding the financial impacts of nonutility generation contracts (since the passage of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978) on investor-owned utilities. The existing concern in this area is manifest in the provisions of Section 712 of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, which required State regulatory commissions to evaluate various aspects of long-term power purchase contracts, including their impact on investor-owned utilities` cost of capital and rates charged to customers. The EIA does not take positions on policy questions. The EIA`s responsibility is to provide timely, high quality information and to perform objective, credible analyses in support of the deliberations by both public and private decision-makers. Accordingly, this report does not purport to represent the policy positions of the US Department of Energy or the Administration.

  2. Financial impacts of nonutility power purchases on investor-owned electric utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    To assist in its these responsibilities in the area of electric power, EIA has prepared this report, Financial Impacts of Nonutility Power Purchases on Investor-Owned Electric Utilities. The primary purpose of this report is to provide an overview of the issues surrounding the financial impacts of nonutility generation contracts (since the passage of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978) on investor-owned utilities. The existing concern in this area is manifest in the provisions of Section 712 of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, which required State regulatory commissions to evaluate various aspects of long-term power purchase contracts, including their impact on investor-owned utilities' cost of capital and rates charged to customers. The EIA does not take positions on policy questions. The EIA's responsibility is to provide timely, high quality information and to perform objective, credible analyses in support of the deliberations by both public and private decision-makers. Accordingly, this report does not purport to represent the policy positions of the US Department of Energy or the Administration

  3. A study on electric power management for power producer-suppliers utilizing output of megawatt-solar power plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirotaka Takano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The growth in penetration of photovoltaic generation units (PVs has brought new power management ideas, which achieve more profitable operation, to Power Producer-Suppliers (PPSs. The expected profit for the PPSs will improve if they appropriately operate their controllable generators and sell the generated electricity to contracted customers and Power Exchanges together with the output of Megawatt-Solar Power Plants (MSPPs. Moreover, we can expect that the profitable cooperation between the PPSs and the MSPPs decreases difficulties in the supply-demand balancing operation for the main power grids. However, it is necessary that the PPSs treat the uncertainty in output prediction of PVs carefully. This is because there is a risk for them to pay a heavy imbalance penalty. This paper presents a problem framework and its solution to make the optimal power management plan for the PPSs in consideration with the electricity procurement from the MSPPs. The validity of the authors’ proposal is verified through numerical simulations and discussions of their results.

  4. The Integration of Renewable Energy Sources into Electric Power Distribution Systems, Vol. II Utility Case Assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaininger, H.W.

    1994-01-01

    following utility- and site-specific conditions that may affect the economic viability of distributed renewable energy sources were considered: distribution system characteristics, and design standards, and voltage levels; load density, reliability, and power quality; solar insolation and wind resource levels; utility generation characteristics and load profiles; and investor-owned and publicly owned utilities, size, and financial assumptions.

  5. Descriptive statistics of occupational employment in nuclear power utilities. Final working paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, J.R.; Johnson, R.C.

    1982-10-01

    The Institute of Nuclear Power Operations conducted a survey of its 58 member utilities during the Spring of 1982. This was the second such survey performed to identify employment trends and to project needs for trained personnel in the industry to 1991. The first was performed in 1981. The 1982 employment survey consisted of four questionnaires, asking for information on: (1) on-site employment; (2) on-site turnover; (3) off-site employment; and (4) off-site turnover. The survey instruments were designed to reflect approaches used by the utilities to meet the labor requirements for operation of nuclear power plants through off-site support personnel, contractors, and holding company personnel, as well as utility employees working at the plant site. On-site information was received from all 83 plants at the 58 utilities. However, employment information from Surry of VEPCO arrived too late to be included in the analysis. Therefore, their numbers are reflected in the adjusted totals. Responses to requests for off-site employment information were received from 55 of the 58 utilities

  6. Exergy and exergoeconomic analysis of a petroleum refinery utilities plant using the condensing to power method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes da Silva, Julio Augusto; Pellegrini, Luiz Felipe; Oliveira Junior, Silvio [Polytechnic School of the University of Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mails: jams@usp.br, luiz.pellegrini@usp.br, soj@usp.br; Plaza, Claudio; Rucker, Claudio [Petrobras - Petroleo Brasileiro S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mails: claudioplaza@petrobras.com.br, rucker@petrobras.com.br

    2010-07-01

    In this paper a brief description of the main processes present in a modern high capacity refinery is done. The methodology used to evaluate, through exergy analysis, the performance of the refinery's utilities plant since it is responsible for a very considerable amount of the total exergy destruction in a refinery is presented. The utilities plant products: steam, electricity, shaft power and high pressure water had their exergy unit cost determined using exergoeconomic approach. A simple and effective method called condensing to power was used to define the product of the condensers in exergy basis. Using this method it is possible to define the product of the condenser without the use of negentropy concept nor the aggregation of condensers to the steam turbines. By using this new approach, the costs obtained for the plant's products are exactly the same costs obtained when the condenser is aggregated to the steam turbine but with the advantage that the information about the stream between condenser and the steam turbine is not lost and the condenser can be evaluated singly. The analysis shows that the equipment where attention and resources should be focused are the boilers followed by the gas turbine, that together, are responsible for 80% of total exergy destruction in the utilities plant. The total exergy efficiency found for the utilities plant studied is 35% while more than 280 MW of exergy is destroyed in the utilities processes. (author)

  7. Incentive regulation of investor-owned nuclear power plants by public utility regulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinney, M.D.; Elliot, D.B.

    1993-01-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) periodically surveys the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) and state regulatory commissions that regulate utility owners of nuclear power plants. The NRC is interested in identifying states that have established economic or performance incentive programs applicable to nuclear power plants, including states with new programs, how the programs are being implemented, and in determining the financial impact of the programs on the utilities. The NRC interest stems from the fact that such programs have the potential to adversely affect the safety of nuclear power plants. The information in this report was obtained from interviews conducted with each state regulatory agency that administers an incentive program and each utility that owns at least 10% of an affected nuclear power plant. The agreements, orders, and settlements that form the basis for each incentive program were reviewed as required. The interviews and supporting documentation form the basis for the individual state reports describing the structure and financial impact of each incentive program

  8. A comparison of the structure and organisation of the West German and the U. S. gas industries. Consequences for the status of gas utility companies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dirrheimer, M J; Teece, D J

    1989-03-01

    When comparing the West German gas industry to the United States one finds some striking differences in their structure and organisation. The German industry is small but growing, vertically integrated, efficient and scarcely regulated. The US-industry is big, hardly integrated and just recovering from years of frictions caused by successive waves of misguided regulations which were interrupted only by short periods of deregulation. Violation of contracts, price rises, price dumps, 'evasions', law suits are characteristic of today's American gas industry. The history of regulations in the U.S. gas industry is a nightmare other countries have fortunately been able to avoid. (orig.).

  9. CEZ utility's coal-fired power plants: towards a higher environmental friendliness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kindl, V.; Spilkova, T.; Vanousek, I.; Stehlik, J.

    1996-01-01

    Environmental efforts of the major Czech utility, CEZ a.s., are aimed at reducing air pollution arising from electricity and heat generating facilities. There are 3 main kinds of activity in this respect: phasing out of coal fired power plants; technological provisions to reduce emissions of particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen oxides from those coal fired units that are to remain in operation after 1998; and completion of the Temelin nuclear power plant. In 1995, emissions of particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and carbon monoxide from CEZ's coal fired power plants were 19%, 79%, 59%, and 60%, respectively, with respect to the situation in 1992. The break-down of electricity generation by CEZ facilities (in GWh) was as follows in 1995: hydroelectric power plants 1673, nuclear power plants 12230, coal fired power plants without desulfurization equipment 30181, and coal fired power plants with desulfurization equipment 2277. Provisions implemented to improve the environmental friendliness of the individual CEZ's coal fired power plants are described in detail. (P.A.). 5 tabs., 1 fig

  10. Project risk management for development of non-utility power generators (NUGs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, T.

    1990-01-01

    The growing Non-Utility Generation (NUG) industry has brought new opportunities and challenges for the insurance industry. There can be unique engineering and financial risks involved in the development of Non-Utility Power Generation projects. The use of new technologies to meet stringent environmental regulations and to improve project performance and efficiency presents new challenges to the project developers and designers. The lack of funding, resources and experience of some of these projects may create unusual risks that could result in failure or deficiency in the performance of the projects

  11. Generic results and conclusions of re-evaluating the flooding protection in French and German nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattei, J.M.; Vial, E.; Rebour, V.

    2001-01-01

    Although the event which occurred at the Blayais site on December 27, 1999 did not lead to a dangerous situation for the local population or the environment, it clearly demonstrated the possible occurrence of modes of degradation of the safety level affecting all the units at a site. As a result, a number of projects were established by the French and German operators that were designed to extract useful lessons concerning the flooding risks at the Blayais site, as well as to upgrade all sites equipped with pressurized water reactors, both in France and Germany. This report presents, on the basis of the circumstances observed at the Blayais site during the course of the flood event of December 27, 1999 (which was the subject of a presentation by IPSN at the Eurosafe 2000 Conference), an evaluation of the initiatives aimed at improving the safety of both the French and the German units from an external flooding risk perspective. The safety approaches used in both countries have not been compared. (authors)

  12. Generic results and conclusions of re-evaluating the flooding protection in French and German nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattei, J.M.; Vial, E.; Rebour, V. [CEA Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire; Liemersdorf, H.; Tuerschmann, M. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, Garching (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    Although the event which occurred at the Blayais site on December 27, 1999 did not lead to a dangerous situation for the local population or the environment, it clearly demonstrated the possible occurrence of modes of degradation of the safety level affecting all the units at a site. As a result, a number of projects were established by the French and German operators that were designed to extract useful lessons concerning the flooding risks at the Blayais site, as well as to upgrade all sites equipped with pressurized water reactors, both in France and Germany. This report presents, on the basis of the circumstances observed at the Blayais site during the course of the flood event of December 27, 1999 (which was the subject of a presentation by IPSN at the Eurosafe 2000 Conference), an evaluation of the initiatives aimed at improving the safety of both the French and the German units from an external flooding risk perspective. The safety approaches used in both countries have not been compared. (authors)

  13. Utilization of Model Predictive Control to Balance Power Absorption Against Load Accumulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbas, Nikhar [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tom, Nathan M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-06-03

    Wave energy converter (WEC) control strategies have been primarily focused on maximizing power absorption. The use of model predictive control strategies allows for a finite-horizon, multiterm objective function to be solved. This work utilizes a multiterm objective function to maximize power absorption while minimizing the structural loads on the WEC system. Furthermore, a Kalman filter and autoregressive model were used to estimate and forecast the wave exciting force and predict the future dynamics of the WEC. The WEC's power-take-off time-averaged power and structural loads under a perfect forecast assumption in irregular waves were compared against results obtained from the Kalman filter and autoregressive model to evaluate model predictive control performance.

  14. Utilization of Model Predictive Control to Balance Power Absorption Against Load Accumulation: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbas, Nikhar; Tom, Nathan

    2017-09-01

    Wave energy converter (WEC) control strategies have been primarily focused on maximizing power absorption. The use of model predictive control strategies allows for a finite-horizon, multiterm objective function to be solved. This work utilizes a multiterm objective function to maximize power absorption while minimizing the structural loads on the WEC system. Furthermore, a Kalman filter and autoregressive model were used to estimate and forecast the wave exciting force and predict the future dynamics of the WEC. The WEC's power-take-off time-averaged power and structural loads under a perfect forecast assumption in irregular waves were compared against results obtained from the Kalman filter and autoregressive model to evaluate model predictive control performance.

  15. Demonstration of Active Power Controls by Utility-Scale PV Power Plant in an Island Grid: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gevorgian, Vahan; O' Neill, Barbara

    2017-02-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), AES, and the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority conducted a demonstration project on a utility-scale photovoltaic (PV) plant to test the viability of providing important ancillary services from this facility. As solar generation increases globally, there is a need for innovation and increased operational flexibility. A typical PV power plant consists of multiple power electronic inverters and can contribute to grid stability and reliability through sophisticated 'grid-friendly' controls. In this way, it may mitigate the impact of its variability on the grid and contribute to important system requirements more like traditional generators. In 2015, testing was completed on a 20-MW AES plant in Puerto Rico, and a large amount of test data was produced and analyzed that demonstrates the ability of PV power plants to provide various types of new grid-friendly controls. This data showed how active power controls can leverage PV's value from being simply an intermittent energy resource to providing additional ancillary services for an isolated island grid. Specifically, the tests conducted included PV plant participation in automatic generation control, provision of droop response, and fast frequency response.

  16. Power Electronics for Distributed Energy Systems and Transmission and Distribution Applications: Assessing the Technical Needs for Utility Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolbert, L.M.

    2005-12-21

    Power electronics can provide utilities the ability to more effectively deliver power to their customers while providing increased reliability to the bulk power system. In general, power electronics is the process of using semiconductor switching devices to control and convert electrical power flow from one form to another to meet a specific need. These conversion techniques have revolutionized modern life by streamlining manufacturing processes, increasing product efficiencies, and increasing the quality of life by enhancing many modern conveniences such as computers, and they can help to improve the delivery of reliable power from utilities. This report summarizes the technical challenges associated with utilizing power electronics devices across the entire spectrum from applications to manufacturing and materials development, and it provides recommendations for research and development (R&D) needs for power electronics systems in which the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) could make a substantial impact toward improving the reliability of the bulk power system.

  17. An innovative integrated system utilizing solar energy as power for the treatment of decentralized wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Changfu; Liu, Junxin; Liang, Hanwen; Guo, Xuesong; Li, Lin

    2013-02-01

    This article reports an innovative integrated system utilizing solar energy as power for decentralized wastewater treatment, which consists of an oxidation ditch with double channels and a photovoltaic (PV) system without a storage battery. Because the system operates without a storage battery, which can reduce the cost of the PV system, the solar radiation intensity affects the amount of power output from the PV system. To ensure that the power output is sufficient in all different weather conditions, the solar radiation intensity of 78 W/m2 with 95% confidence interval was defined as a threshold of power output for the PV system according to the monitoring results in this study, and a step power output mode was used to utilize the solar energy as well as possible. The oxidation ditch driven by the PV system without storage battery ran during the day and stopped at night. Therefore, anaerobic, anoxic and aerobic conditions could periodically appear in the oxidation ditch, which was favorable to nitrogen and phosphate removal from the wastewater. The experimental results showed that the system was efficient, achieving average removal efficiencies of 88% COD, 98% NH4+-N, 70% TN and 83% TP, under the loading rates of 140 mg COD/(g MLSS x day), 32 mg NH4+-N/(g MLSS x day), 44 mg TN/(g MLSS x day) and 5 mg TP/(g MLSS x day).

  18. Enhanced Recovery Utilizing Variable Frequency Drives and a Distributed Power System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randy Peden; Sanjiv Shah

    2005-07-26

    This report describes complete results of the project entitled ''Enhanced Recovery Utilizing Variable Frequency Drives and a Distributed Power System''. This demonstration project was initiated in July 2003 and completed in March 2005. The objective of the project was to develop an integrated power production/variable frequency drive system that could easily be deployed in the oil field that would increase production and decrease operating costs. This report describes all the activities occurred and documents results of the demonstration.

  19. Utilization of uranium cost/benefit study for nuclear powered merchant ships. Special study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, E.R.

    1977-05-01

    This study presents a cost/benefit analysis for the utilization of uranium in merchant ships versus the use of uranium for the generation of electricity in central power stations. The study concludes that an alternative naval fuel to oil must be developed for the merchant marine to reduce U.S. dependency upon foreign supplies of a critical fuel. The study further indicates that use of uranium for ship propulsion results in transport of large quantities of needed import/exports while the residual oil saved will generate the same quantity of electricity in a central power station as the uranium used for ship propulsion

  20. Ionic Liquids for Utilization of Waste Heat from Distributed Power Generation Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joan F. Brennecke; Mihir Sen; Edward J. Maginn; Samuel Paolucci; Mark A. Stadtherr; Peter T. Disser; Mike Zdyb

    2009-01-11

    The objective of this research project was the development of ionic liquids to capture and utilize waste heat from distributed power generation systems. Ionic Liquids (ILs) are organic salts that are liquid at room temperature and they have the potential to make fundamental and far-reaching changes in the way we use energy. In particular, the focus of this project was fundamental research on the potential use of IL/CO2 mixtures in absorption-refrigeration systems. Such systems can provide cooling by utilizing waste heat from various sources, including distributed power generation. The basic objectives of the research were to design and synthesize ILs appropriate for the task, to measure and model thermophysical properties and phase behavior of ILs and IL/CO2 mixtures, and to model the performance of IL/CO2 absorption-refrigeration systems.

  1. Utility Test Results of a 2-Megawatt, 10-Second Reserve-Power System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BALL,GREG J.; NORRIS,BENJAMIN L.

    1999-10-01

    This report documents the 1996 evaluation by Pacific Gas and Electric Company of an advanced reserve-power system capable of supporting 2 MW of load for 10 seconds. The system, developed under a DOE Cooperative Agreement with AC Battery Corporation of East Troy, Wisconsin, contains battery storage that enables industrial facilities to ''ride through'' momentary outages. The evaluation consisted of tests of system performance using a wide variety of load types and operating conditions. The tests, which included simulated utility outages and voltage sags, demonstrated that the system could provide continuous power during utility outages and other disturbances and that it was compatible with a variety of load types found at industrial customer sites.

  2. Utility survey on nuclear power plant siting and nuclear energy centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cope, D.F.; Bauman, H.F.

    1977-01-01

    Most of the large U.S. utilities were surveyed by telephone and mail on questions concerning nuclear power plant siting and nuclear energy centers (NECs). The main purpose of the survey was for guidance of ERDA's NEC program. The questions covered the following topics: availability of sites; impact of environmental and other restraints; plans for development of multi-unit sites; interest in NEC development; interest in including fuel-cycle facilities in NECs; and opinions on the roles desired for the state and Federal governments in power plant siting. The main conclusion of the survey was that, while many utilities were considering multiple-unit sites of 2 to 5 units, none were planning larger energy centers at the present time. However, several expressed interest in NECs as a long-range future development

  3. Environmental impact of fossil fuel utilization in the thermal power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghasem D Najafpour; Seyed Jafar Mehdizadeh; Abdul Rahman Mohamed

    2000-01-01

    Carbon dioxide causes green house effect, has been considered as a pollutant source of our safe environment. Since combustion of fossil fuel may create tremendous amount of carbon dioxide, detecting any pollutant sources would be important to eliminate the pollution sources. Evaluation of smoke dispersion that has been generated by a power plant utilizing fossil fuel is the objective of this paper. The concentration of NO, and SO, in the soil, have been analyzed from a distance of 3 to 4 km far from power plant. The experimental results shown. that the concentration of toxic gases was a little above the international standards. Replacement of fossil fuel by natural gas caused NO, concentration to be developed in the atmosphere, therefore usage of natural gas is limited by environmental protection agencies. Beside the nuclear power plant, the power generated by other sources. are limited. Electric power generated by water dam is not a major contribution of electric power demand. Therefore generation of electricity by any other energy sources, which are friendly to the environment, is recommended. Other sources of energy, such as wind power, solar energy, geothermal, ocean thennal and renewable source of energy can be considered safe for the environment. The goal of environmental management system would be to meet the minimum requirements were established and demanded by the local environmental protection agency or international standard organization (ISO-14000). (Author)

  4. Numerical approach to optimal portfolio in a power utility regime-switching model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyulov, Tihomir B.; Koleva, Miglena N.; Vulkov, Lubin G.

    2017-12-01

    We consider a system of weakly coupled degenerate semi-linear parabolic equations of optimal portfolio in a regime-switching with power utility function, derived by A.R. Valdez and T. Vargiolu [14]. First, we discuss some basic properties of the solution of this system. Then, we develop and analyze implicit-explicit, flux limited finite difference schemes for the differential problem. Numerical experiments are discussed.

  5. EUR, an European utility requirements documents for future LWR power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berbey, Pierre; Lienard, Michel; Redon, Ramon; Essmann, Juergen; Taylor, David T.

    2004-01-01

    A group of the major European utilities are developing a common requirement document which will be used for the LWR nuclear power plants to be built in Europe from the beginning of the next century. This document provides harmonised policies and technical requirements that will allow the implementation of a design developed in one country into another one. The objectives and contents of the document, the organisation set up for its production and the main requirements are summarised in the paper. (author)

  6. Sacramento Municipal Utility District Geothermal Power Plant, SMUDGEO No. 1. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-02-01

    The proposed construction of 72-MW geothermal power plant is discussed. The following aspects are covered: the project as proposed by the utility; the environmental setting; the adverse consequences of the project, any significant environmental effects which cannot be avoided, and any mitigation measures to minimize significant effects; the potential feasible alternatives to the proposed project; the significant unavoidable, irreversible, and long-term environmental impacts; and the Growth Inducing Impacts. (MHR)

  7. Franco-German nuclear cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leny, J.C.; Huettl, A.

    1996-01-01

    Nuclear energy is the number one power source in the European Union. However, the first generation units would be replaced from the year 2010 onwards. In this prospect, Siemens and Framatome have drawn together in designing and commercializing a common product initially destined for the export market which has become the EPR (European Pressurized water Reactor) project. The two companies have floated with equal participation the NPI (Nuclear Power International) sub-company to manage this project. The French and German utilities participate to the financing of the project, at present at the basic stage, and the safety authorities of both countries have carried out a joint evaluation of EPR safety. With a 1500 Mwe capacity, EPR will be equipped with advanced safety systems more performing than the existing systems. Conceivers want to maintain the economic competitiveness of EPR with respect to coal power plants. EPR will take over the oldest power plants by producing a safer and cheaper energy to provide for the needs of the developed countries and then of the developing countries with no risk for the environment. An enormous effort of communication must be carried out to reduce the public anxiety and to calm down the nuclear debate and show up its merits, in particular in Europe, where its contribution is vital. (J.S.)

  8. High degree utilization of computers for design of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masui, Takao; Sawada, Takashi

    1992-01-01

    Nuclear power plants are the huge technology in which various technologies are compounded, and the high safety is demanded. Therefore, in the design of nuclear power plants, it is necessary to carry out the design by sufficiently grasping the behavior of the plants, and to confirm the safety by carrying out the accurate design evaluation supposing the various operational conditions, and as the indispensable tool for these analysis and evaluation, the most advanced computers in that age have been utilized. As to the utilization for the design, there are the fields of design, analysis and evaluation and another fields of the application to the support of design. Also in the field of the application to operation control, computers are utilized. The utilization of computers for the core design, hydrothermal design, core structure design, safety analysis and structural analysis of PWR plants, and for the nuclear design, safety analysis and heat flow analysis of FBR plants, the application to the support of design and the application to operation control are explained. (K.I.)

  9. Helping utilities harness the power of the web for substation automation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finney, D.

    2000-11-01

    The significance of the Internet to the deregulated electric power industry and the ability to tap into the benefits of Web-enabled substation monitoring and control are reviewed. It is this author's contention that the convergence of Internet access from PCs, servers and Internet-ready intelligent electronic devices make it possible to have full-scale substation automation and control without the high price tag associated with SCADA systems. Whereas in the past automation solutions were thought to be appropriate only for big utilities, the potential of the Internet such as the GE-hosted enerVista.com service, which is made up of a number of modules which can provide many of the services of a complex enterprise management system at a fraction of the cost, make it possible for smaller utilities to overcome substation automation problems at an affordable cost. By having the communications link over the web, and data acquisition hosted by an outside vendor, even the smallest municipal utility can have the most up-to-date equipment at their disposal, and expand their control to SCADA-level functionality without having to incur the usual programming and technology costs. The example of Whitby Hydro to automate their three substation system with GE Power Management's Universal Relay (UR) intelligent electronic device system by installing a modem as an Internet appliance for 24/7 monitoring, optional protection and control, is cited. Utilities in Oshawa and Thunder Bay, Ontario, and others in New York State and Tennessee, are some of the other utilities currently involved in developing web-based applications that address their unique requirements. At present, there appears to be no limit to the role that the Internet can play in substation automation and control for utilities competing in a global market.

  10. Utilization of water power in the Hochsauerland District. Possibilities of utilizing water power plants while deriving profits for tourism. Wasserkraftnutzung im Hochsauerlandkreis. Moeglichkeiten zur Inwertsetzung der Wasserkraftanlagen im Rahmen einer touristischen Route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peyrer, U.

    1994-01-01

    The idea of utilizing water power plants while driving profits for tourism intends to promote regional tourism and support the district at the same time. Since both precipitation and discharge conditions and the Hochsauerland relief provide favorable conditions for water power utilization, one finds various water wheel uses, i.e. corn mills or saw mills, water wheels for the metal-working industry, and hammer mills. This volume contains a comprehensive documentation of the water power plants in the Hochsauerland District. (BWI)

  11. POWER-GEN '90 conference papers: Volume 3 (Environmental trends and issues) and Volume 4 (Case histories - Non-utility power generation)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    This is book 2 of a collection of papers presented at the Third International Power Generation Industries Conference on December 4-6, 1990. The book contains Volume 3, Environmental Trends and Issues, and Volume 4, Case Histories - Non-utility Power Generation. The topics of the papers include environmental legislative and regulatory trends, acid rain compliance strategies and technologies, other global environmental concerns, gas fired systems, solid and waste fuels, despatching and wheeling, and strategies for purchasing non-utility power

  12. New EC Directive on the limitation of emissions from large combustion plants. Implications for German power plants; Neue EG-Richtlinie ueber nationale Emissionshoechstmengen. Folgerung fuer deutsche Kraftwerke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hildebrand, M. [VDEW - e.V., Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Bereich Recht und Umwelt

    2002-03-25

    The Directive 2001/80/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council, on the limitation of emissions of certain pollutants into the air from large combustion plants uses a regulatory instrument for limiting emissions at the national levels of EU member states. This approach is completely new and the author of this article therefore expects problems to arise in the context of transfer of this EC Directive into national law. Another aspect discussed is the assessment of implications for the operating power plants in Germany. (orig./CB) [German] Mit der im Herbst 2001 durch das Europaeische Parlament und durch den Umweltministerrat verabschiedeten Richtlinie ueber nationale Emissionshoechstmengen wurde vom europaeischen Vorschriftengeber ein in Deutschland bislang systemfremdes Regelungsinstrument geschaffen, dessen Umsetzung in nationales Recht und dessen anlagenspezifische Konsequenzen - zumindest hierzulande -bislang noch reichlich unklar sind. (orig.)

  13. Real-Time Monitoring System for a Utility-Scale Photovoltaic Power Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Garcia, Isabel M.; Palacios-Garcia, Emilio J.; Pallares-Lopez, Victor; Santiago, Isabel; Gonzalez-Redondo, Miguel J.; Varo-Martinez, Marta; Real-Calvo, Rafael J.

    2016-01-01

    There is, at present, considerable interest in the storage and dispatchability of photovoltaic (PV) energy, together with the need to manage power flows in real-time. This paper presents a new system, PV-on time, which has been developed to supervise the operating mode of a Grid-Connected Utility-Scale PV Power Plant in order to ensure the reliability and continuity of its supply. This system presents an architecture of acquisition devices, including wireless sensors distributed around the plant, which measure the required information. It is also equipped with a high-precision protocol for synchronizing all data acquisition equipment, something that is necessary for correctly establishing relationships among events in the plant. Moreover, a system for monitoring and supervising all of the distributed devices, as well as for the real-time treatment of all the registered information, is presented. Performances were analyzed in a 400 kW transformation center belonging to a 6.1 MW Utility-Scale PV Power Plant. In addition to monitoring the performance of all of the PV plant’s components and detecting any failures or deviations in production, this system enables users to control the power quality of the signal injected and the influence of the installation on the distribution grid. PMID:27240365

  14. Real-Time Monitoring System for a Utility-Scale Photovoltaic Power Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Garcia, Isabel M; Palacios-Garcia, Emilio J; Pallares-Lopez, Victor; Santiago, Isabel; Gonzalez-Redondo, Miguel J; Varo-Martinez, Marta; Real-Calvo, Rafael J

    2016-05-26

    There is, at present, considerable interest in the storage and dispatchability of photovoltaic (PV) energy, together with the need to manage power flows in real-time. This paper presents a new system, PV-on time, which has been developed to supervise the operating mode of a Grid-Connected Utility-Scale PV Power Plant in order to ensure the reliability and continuity of its supply. This system presents an architecture of acquisition devices, including wireless sensors distributed around the plant, which measure the required information. It is also equipped with a high-precision protocol for synchronizing all data acquisition equipment, something that is necessary for correctly establishing relationships among events in the plant. Moreover, a system for monitoring and supervising all of the distributed devices, as well as for the real-time treatment of all the registered information, is presented. Performances were analyzed in a 400 kW transformation center belonging to a 6.1 MW Utility-Scale PV Power Plant. In addition to monitoring the performance of all of the PV plant's components and detecting any failures or deviations in production, this system enables users to control the power quality of the signal injected and the influence of the installation on the distribution grid.

  15. Utilization of tidal power in Russia in overcoming the global energy and ecological crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernshtein, L.B.; Usachev, I.N.

    1997-01-01

    The 30 years of the exploitation of the TPP Rance in France and Kyslogubskaya TPP in Russia had proved the energy expedience economical and ecological effectiveness and a high performance of the tidal energy. The possibility of such utilizing could be proved thanks to the application of the theoretical cycles of Gibrat, of the bulb units and the russian model of the tidal utilizing and application of the floating methods of creating the TPP. The investigations at TPP Kislaya Guba helped to solve the row of problems of marine power building with the high exploitation performance and ecological safety. Thus the TPP of Mezen with a capacity of 17 million kW can transfer to the united power system of Europe 50 TWh/year and the Tugur TPP with a capacity 8 million kW can produce 20 TWh/year of energy for the power system of seaside of Russian and Japan. Penzinskaya TPP with the capacity of 87 million kW can be promoted in 21. century in connection to the advanced in USA proposition of construction of the combining transport-power tunnel across the Bering Strait. (authors)

  16. Joint Utility-Based Power Control and Receive Beamforming in Decentralized Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Feistel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the problem of joint resource allocation in general wireless networks and its practical implementation aspects. The objective is to allocate transmit powers and receive beamformers to the users in order to maximize a network-wide utility that represents the attained QoS and is a function of the signal-to-interference ratios. This problem is much more intricate than the corresponding QoS-based power control problem. In particular, it is not known which class of utility functions allows for a convex formulation of this problem. In case of perfect synchronization, the joint power and receiver control problem can be reformulated as a power control problem under optimal receivers. Standard gradient projection methods can be applied to solve this problem. However, these algorithms are not applicable in decentralized wireless networks. Therefore, we decompose the problem and propose a convergent alternate optimization that is amenable to distributed implementation. In addition, in real-world networks noisy measurements and estimations occur. Thus, the proposed algorithm has to be investigated in the framework of stochastic approximation. We discuss practical implementation aspects of the proposed stochastic algorithm and investigate its convergence properties by simulations.

  17. Decision analysis for the siting of nuclear power plants: the relevance of multiattribute utility theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keeney, R.L; Nair, K.

    1975-01-01

    The necessity for improved decision making concerning the siting and licensing of major power facilities has been accelerated in the past decade by the increased environmental consciousness of the public and by the energy crisis. These problems are exceedingly complex due to their multiple objective nature, the many interest groups, the long-range time horizons, and the inherent uncertainties of the potential impacts of any decision. Along with the relatively objective economic and engineering concerns, clearly the more subjective factors involving safety, environmental, and social issues are crucial to the problem. Hence, the professional judgments and knowledge of experts in these areas should be utilized in analyses of siting decisions. Likewise, the preferences of the general public, as consumers, the utility companies, as builders and operators of power plant facilities, and environmentalists and the government must be accounted for in analyzing power plant siting and licensing issues. We advocate an approach for formally articulating the experts' judgments and the decision makers' preferences, both of which are clearly subjective, and processing these along with the more objective considerations in a logical manner to acquire the implications for decision making. The appropriateness and application of decision analysis for power plant location decisions is discussed and illustrated. Emphasis is placed on the assessment of the decision maker's preferences and tradeoffs concerning multiple objectives. (U.S.)

  18. Real-Time Monitoring System for a Utility-Scale Photovoltaic Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel M. Moreno-Garcia

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available There is, at present, considerable interest in the storage and dispatchability of photovoltaic (PV energy, together with the need to manage power flows in real-time. This paper presents a new system, PV-on time, which has been developed to supervise the operating mode of a Grid-Connected Utility-Scale PV Power Plant in order to ensure the reliability and continuity of its supply. This system presents an architecture of acquisition devices, including wireless sensors distributed around the plant, which measure the required information. It is also equipped with a high-precision protocol for synchronizing all data acquisition equipment, something that is necessary for correctly establishing relationships among events in the plant. Moreover, a system for monitoring and supervising all of the distributed devices, as well as for the real-time treatment of all the registered information, is presented. Performances were analyzed in a 400 kW transformation center belonging to a 6.1 MW Utility-Scale PV Power Plant. In addition to monitoring the performance of all of the PV plant’s components and detecting any failures or deviations in production, this system enables users to control the power quality of the signal injected and the influence of the installation on the distribution grid.

  19. Organizational analysis and safety for utilities with nuclear power plants: perspectives for organizational assessment. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osborn, R.N.; Olson, J.; Sommers, P.E.

    1983-08-01

    This two-volume report presents the results of initial research on the feasibility of applying organizational factors in nuclear power plant (NPP) safety assessment. Volume 1 of this report contains an overview of the literature, a discussion of available safety indicators, and a series of recommendations for more systematically incorporating organizational analysis into investigations of nuclear power plant safety. The six chapters of this volume discuss the major elements in our general approach to safety in the nuclear industry. The chapters include information on organizational design and safety; organizational governance; utility environment and safety related outcomes; assessments by selected federal agencies; review of data sources in the nuclear power industry; and existing safety indicators

  20. Photovoltaic rural electrification and the electric power utility. Workshop. [Selected Papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huacuz, J. M.; Villasenor, F.; Urrutia, M. [eds.] [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1995-12-31

    This document contains the national and international programs about photovoltaic systems for rural electrification and the electric power utility experiences about PV programs. The IERE Workshop was hold from May 8 to 12, 1995 in Cocoyoc, Mexico. It was organized by the Electrical Research Institute of Mexico (Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE)) and the U.S. Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The Workshop was attended by 38 delegates from 13 countries [Espanol] Este documento contiene los programas nacionales e internacionales sobre electrificacion fotovoltaica rural y las experiencias en programas fotovoltaicos de empresas electricas. El taller de trabajo IERE fue realizado los dias del 8 al 12 de mayo de 1995 en Cocoyoc, Mexico. Fue organizado por el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) y el U.S. Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) (Instituto de Investigaciones de Energia Electrica de Estados Unidos). A este taller de trabajo asistieron 38 delegados de 13 paises

  1. Photovoltaic rural electrification and the electric power utility. Workshop. [Selected Papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huacuz, J M; Villasenor, F; Urrutia, M [eds.; Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    This document contains the national and international programs about photovoltaic systems for rural electrification and the electric power utility experiences about PV programs. The IERE Workshop was hold from May 8 to 12, 1995 in Cocoyoc, Mexico. It was organized by the Electrical Research Institute of Mexico (Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE)) and the U.S. Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The Workshop was attended by 38 delegates from 13 countries [Espanol] Este documento contiene los programas nacionales e internacionales sobre electrificacion fotovoltaica rural y las experiencias en programas fotovoltaicos de empresas electricas. El taller de trabajo IERE fue realizado los dias del 8 al 12 de mayo de 1995 en Cocoyoc, Mexico. Fue organizado por el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) y el U.S. Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) (Instituto de Investigaciones de Energia Electrica de Estados Unidos). A este taller de trabajo asistieron 38 delegados de 13 paises

  2. A technology-assessment methodology for electric utility planning: With application to nuclear power plant decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lough, W.T.

    1987-01-01

    Electric utilities and public service commissions have not taken full advantage of the many proven methodologies and techniques available for evaluating complex technological issues. In addition, evaluations performed are deficient in their use of (1) methods for evaluating public attitudes and (2) formal methods of analysis for decision making. These oversight are substantiated through an examination of the literature relevant to electric utility planning. The assessment process known as technology assessment or TA is proposed, and a TA model is developed for route in use in utility planning by electric utilities and state regulatory commissions. Techniques to facilitate public participation and techniques to aid decision making are integral to the proposed model and are described in detail. Criteria are provided for selecting an appropriate technique on a case-by-case basis. The TA model proved to be an effective methodology for evaluating technological issues associated with electric utility planning such as decommissioning nuclear power plants. Through the use of the nominal group technique, the attitudes of a group of residential ratepayers were successfully identified and included in the decision-making process

  3. The Research of Utilization Hours of Coal-Fired Power Generation Units Based on Electric Energy Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junhui; Yang, Jianlian; Wang, Jiangbo; Yang, Meng; Tian, Chunzheng; He, Xinhui

    2018-01-01

    With grid-connected scale of clean energy such as wind power and photovoltaic power expanding rapidly and cross-province transmission scale being bigger, utilization hours of coal-fired power generation units become lower and lower in the context of the current slowdown in electricity demand. This paper analyzes the influencing factors from the three aspects of demand, supply and supply and demand balance, and the mathematical model has been constructed based on the electric energy balance. The utilization hours of coal-fired power generation units have been solved considering the relationship among proportion of various types of power installed capacity, the output rate and utilization hours. By carrying out empirical research in Henan Province, the utilization hours of coal-fired units of Henan Province in 2020 has been achieved. The example validates the practicability and the rationality of the model, which can provide a basis for the decision-making for coal-fired power generation enterprises.

  4. Simulation and comparison of stream power in-channel and on the floodplain in a German lowland area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Song

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Extensive lowland floodplains cover substantial parts of the glacially formed landscape of Northern Germany. Stream power is recognized as a force of formation and development of the river morphology and an interaction system between channel and floodplain. In order to understand the effects of the river power and flood power, HEC-RAS models were set up for ten river sections in the Upper Stör catchment, based on a 1 m digital elevation model and field data, sampled during a moderate water level period (September, 2011, flood season (January, 2012 and dry season (April, 2012. The models were proven to be highly efficient and accurate through the seasonal roughness modification. The coefficients of determination (R2 of the calibrated models were 0.90, 0.90, 0.93 and 0.95 respectively. Combined with the continuous and long-term data support from SWAT model, the stream power both in-channel and on the floodplain was analysed. Results show that the 10-year-averaged discharge and unit stream power were around 1/3 of bankfull discharge and unit power, and the 10-year-peak discharge and unit stream power were nearly 1.6 times the bankfull conditions. Unit stream power was proportional to the increase of stream discharge, while the increase rate of unit in-channel stream power was 3 times higher than that of unit stream power on the floodplain. Finally, the distribution of the hydraulic parameters under 10-years-peak discharge conditions was shown, indicating that only 1-10% of flow stream was generated by floodplain flow, but 40-75% volume of water was located on the floodplain. The variation of the increasing rate of the stream power was dominated by the local roughness height, while the stream power distributed on the floodplain mainly depended on the local slope of the sub-catchment.

  5. Optical Frequency Optimization of a High Intensity Laser Power Beaming System Utilizing VMJ Photovoltaic Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raible, Daniel E.; Dinca, Dragos; Nayfeh, Taysir H.

    2012-01-01

    An effective form of wireless power transmission (WPT) has been developed to enable extended mission durations, increased coverage and added capabilities for both space and terrestrial applications that may benefit from optically delivered electrical energy. The high intensity laser power beaming (HILPB) system enables long range optical 'refueling" of electric platforms such as micro unmanned aerial vehicles (MUAV), airships, robotic exploration missions and spacecraft platforms. To further advance the HILPB technology, the focus of this investigation is to determine the optimal laser wavelength to be used with the HILPB receiver, which utilizes vertical multi-junction (VMJ) photovoltaic cells. Frequency optimization of the laser system is necessary in order to maximize the conversion efficiency at continuous high intensities, and thus increase the delivered power density of the HILPB system. Initial spectral characterizations of the device performed at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) indicate the approximate range of peak optical-to-electrical conversion efficiencies, but these data sets represent transient conditions under lower levels of illumination. Extending these results to high levels of steady state illumination, with attention given to the compatibility of available commercial off-the-shelf semiconductor laser sources and atmospheric transmission constraints is the primary focus of this paper. Experimental hardware results utilizing high power continuous wave (CW) semiconductor lasers at four different operational frequencies near the indicated band gap of the photovoltaic VMJ cells are presented and discussed. In addition, the highest receiver power density achieved to date is demonstrated using a single photovoltaic VMJ cell, which provided an exceptionally high electrical output of 13.6 W/sq cm at an optical-to-electrical conversion efficiency of 24 percent. These results are very promising and scalable, as a potential 1.0 sq m HILPB receiver of

  6. The electricity outlook in the former German Democrat Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringeis, Wilhelm

    1991-01-01

    A reliable and low-price electricity supply is an essential part of the economic reconstruction now underway in the five new federal states (lander) of unified Germany, which were created from the former German Democratic Republic (GDR). Acting on the request of the last government of the GDR (which was freely elected), the West German utilities RWE Energie, PreussenElektra and Bayernwerk had already investigated suitable means to ensure the power supply of the five new states after unification. On 22 August 1990, after intensive negotiations with the government of the former GDR and the Treuhand privatisation agency, a set of agreements concerning the takeover and modernisation of the energy industry in eastern Germany was signed. The other German inter-connected utilities are also parties to the agreements. The essential task now for the West German utilities is to develop a reliable, low-priced, electricity supply capacity in the new federal states, which means taking long-term investment decisions. The extremely high environmental impact of the existing facilities must also be reduced considerably. (author)

  7. Validity and reliability of the "German Utilization Questionnaire-Dissemination and Use of Research" to measure attitude, availability, and support toward implementation of research in nursing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslinger-Baumann, Elisabeth; Lang, Gert; Müller, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    In nursing practice, research results have to undergo a systematic process of transformation. Currently in Austria, there is no empirical data available concerning the actual implementation of research results. An English validated questionnaire was translated into German and tested for validity and reliability. A survey of 178 registered nurses (n = 178) was conducted in a multicenter, quantitative, cross-sectional study in Austria in 2011. Cronbach's alpha values (.82-.92) were calculated for 4 variables ("use," "attitude," "availability," "support") after the reduction of 7 irrelevant items. Exploratory factor analysis was calculated with Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) ranging from .78 to .92; the total variance ranged from 46% to 56%. A validated German questionnaire concerning the implementation of research results is now available for the nursing practice.

  8. CO2 burden and climatic risk. Strategies of action of the German electricity supply companies. 2. rev. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    According to indications of the working group for questions on the climate of the association of German electric utilities (VDEW), energy application of power generation contributes to the German CO 2 -emission with about 30%. A reduction of CO 2 -emissions in electro-economics can be achieved especially with a decrease of the application of fossil energy sources parallel to a better energy utilization (increase of the efficiency, enlargement of cogeneration) and through the expansion of power generation free from CO 2 (nuclear energy, renewable energy sources). (orig.) [de

  9. A Study on Guidelines for the Utilization of Unproven MMIS Technology In Nuclear Power Plant Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Sung Kon; Shin, Yeong Cheol; Bae, Byoung Hwan

    2007-01-01

    New MMIS (Man Machine Interface System) technology is rapidly advanced as digital technology provides opportunity for more functionality and better cost effectiveness and NPP (Nuclear Power Plant) operators are inclined to use the new technology for the construction of new plant and for the upgrade of existing plants. However, this new technology poses risks to the NPP operators at the same time. These risks are mainly due to the poor reliability of newly developed technology. KHNP's past experiences with the new MMIS equipment shows many cases of reliability problem. And their consequences include unintended plant trips, lowered acceptance of the new digital technology by the plant I and C maintenance crew, and increased licensing burden in answering for questions from the nuclear regulatory body. Considering the fact that the risk of these failures in the nuclear plant operation is far greater than those in other industry, utilities require proven technology for the MMIS in nuclear power plants. So that new MMIS technology might be testified as proven technology, guidelines for the utilization of unproven MMIS technology in nuclear power plant application is required for applying new advanced MMIS technology which is apparently needed to obtain a definite gain in simplicity or performance

  10. Power Struggle: Changing Momentum in the Restructured American Electric Utility System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirsh, Richard F.

    2004-01-01

    Since the 1970's, producing and distributing electricity were considered as a natural monopoly. They were subjected to state regulation meant to defend the consumers' interest but which in reality enhanced the power of utility managers. The changes that happened since questioned the managers' control over the system. Following the technological stasis that occurred in the production of electricity, the oil crisis, and the awakening of the environmental movement, the Government adopted the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act in 1978, favoring the coming of cogeneration technologies benefiting the small producers. Market economy tended to replace natural monopoly. Deregulation became a valuable option and was stimulated by the 1992 Energy Policy Act. However, the electrical crisis in California and the recent blackout over part of the continent slowed down the pace of the change

  11. Examination of incentive mechanisms for innovative technologies applicable to utility and nonutility power generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDermott, K.A. [Illinois Commerce Commission, Springfield, IL (United States); Bailey, K.A.; South, D.W. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Assessment and Information Sciences Div.

    1993-08-01

    Innovative technologies, built by either utility or nonutility power generators, have the potential to lower costs with less environmental emissions than conventional technologies. However, the public-good nature of information, along with uncertain costs, performance, and reliability, discourages rapid adoption of these technologies. The effect of regulation of electricity production may also have an adverse impact on motivation to innovate. Slower penetration of cleaner, more efficient technologies could result in greater levels of pollution, higher electricity prices, and a reduction in international competitiveness. Regulatory incentives could encourage adoption and deployment of innovative technologies of all kinds, inducting clean coal technologies. Such incentives must be designed to offset risks inherent in innovative technology and encourage cost-effective behavior. To evaluate innovative and conventional technologies equally, the incremental cost of risk (ICR) of adopting the innovative technology must be determined. Through the ICR, the magnitude of incentive required to make a utility (or nonutility) power generator equally motivated to use either conventional or innovative technologies can be derived. Two technology risks are examined: A construction risk, represented by a 15% cost overrun, and an operating risk, represented by a increased forced outage rate (decreased capacity factor). Different incentive mechanisms and measurement criteria are used to assess the effects of these risks on ratepayers and shareholders. In most cases, a regulatory incentive could offset the perceived risks while encouraging cost-effective behavior by both utility and nonutility power generators. Not only would the required incentive be recouped, but the revenue requirements would be less for the innovative technology; also, less environmental pollution would be generated. In the long term, ratepayers and society would benefit from innovative technologies.

  12. Next-Generation Performance-Based Regulation: Emphasizing Utility Performance to Unleash Power Sector Innovation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logan, Jeffrey S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zinaman, Owen R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Littell, David [Regulatory Assistance Project (RAP), Montpelier, VT (United States); Kadoch, Camille [Regulatory Assistance Project (RAP), Montpelier, VT (United States); Baker, Phil [Regulatory Assistance Project (RAP), Montpelier, VT (United States); Bharvirkar, Ranjit [Regulatory Assistance Project (RAP), Montpelier, VT (United States); Dupuy, Max [Regulatory Assistance Project (RAP), Montpelier, VT (United States); Hausauer, Brenda [Regulatory Assistance Project (RAP), Montpelier, VT (United States); Linvill, Carl [Regulatory Assistance Project (RAP), Montpelier, VT (United States); Migden-Ostrander, Janine [Regulatory Assistance Project (RAP), Montpelier, VT (United States); Rosenow, Jan [Regulatory Assistance Project; Xuan, Wang [Regulatory Assistance Project

    2017-09-12

    Performance-based regulation (PBR) enables regulators to reform hundred-year-old regulatory structures to unleash innovations within 21st century power systems. An old regulatory paradigm built to ensure safe and reliable electricity at reasonable prices from capital-intensive electricity monopolies is now adjusting to a new century of disruptive technological advances that change the way utilities make money and what value customers expect from their own electricity company. Advanced technologies are driving change in power sectors around the globe. Innovative technologies are transforming the way electricity is generated, delivered, and consumed. These emerging technology drivers include renewable generation, distributed energy resources such as distributed generation and energy storage, demand-side management measures such as demand-response, electric vehicles, and smart grid technologies and energy efficiency (EE). PBR enables regulators to recognize the value that electric utilities bring to customers by enabling these advanced technologies and integrating smart solutions into the utility grid and utility operations. These changes in the electric energy system and customer capacities means that there is an increasing interest in motivating regulated entities in other areas beyond traditional cost-of-service performance regulation. This report addresses best practices gleaned from more than two decades of PBR in practice, and analyzes how those best practices and lessons can be used to design innovative PBR programs. Readers looking for an introduction to PBR may want to focus on Chapters 1-5. Chapters 6 and 7 contain more detail for those interested in the intricate workings of PBR or particularly innovative PBR.

  13. Modelling a reliable wind/PV/storage power system for remote radio base station sites without utility power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bitterlin, Ian F [Emerson Network Power Ltd., Globe Park, Marlow, SL7 1YG (United Kingdom)

    2006-11-22

    The development of photovoltaic (PV) cells has made steady progress from the early days, when only the USA space program could afford to deploy them, to now, seeing them applied to roadside applications even in our Northern European climes. The manufacturing cost per watt has fallen and the daylight-to-power conversion efficiency increased. At the same time, the perception that the sun has to be directly shining on it for a PV array to work has faded. On some of those roadside applications, particularly for remote emergency telephones or for temporary roadwork signage where a utility electrical power connection is not practical, the keen observer will spot, usually in addition to a PV array, a small wind-turbine and an electrical cabinet quite obviously (by virtue of its volume) containing a storage battery. In the UK, we have the lions share (>40%) of Europe's entire wind power resource although, despite press coverage of the 'anti-wind' lobby to the contrary, we have hardly started to harvest this clean and free energy source. Taking this (established and proven) roadside solution one step further, we will consider higher power applications. A cellular phone system is one where a multitude of remote radio base stations (RBS) are required to provide geographical coverage. With networks developing into the so called '3G' technologies the need for base stations has tripled, as each 3G cell covers only 1/3 the geographical area of its '2G' counterpart. To cover >90% of the UK's topology (>97% population coverage) with 3G cellular technology will requires in excess of 12,000 radio base stations per operator network. In 2001, there were around 25,000 established sites and, with an anticipated degree of collocation by necessity, that figure is forecast to rise to >47,000. Of course, the vast majority of these sites have a convenient grid connection. However, it is easy to see that the combination of wind and PV power generation and an energy storage system may be an

  14. Plant life extensions for German nuclear power plants? Controversial discussion profit taking of nuclear power plant operators; Laufzeitverlaengerungen fuer die deutschen Kernkaftwerke? Kurzanalyse zu den Gewinnmitnahmen der KKW-Betreiber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthes, Felix C.

    2009-10-15

    The discussion on the plant life extensions for German nuclear power plants beyond the residual quantity of electricity particularly focus on three aspects: Effects for the emission of carbon dioxide as a greenhouse gas; Development of the electricity price for which a reduction or attenuation is postulated due to a plant life extension; Skimming of additional profits at operating companies and their use in the safeguarding of the future (development of renewable energies, support of energy efficiency, promotion of the research, consolidation of the public budget, and so on). Under this aspect, the author of the contribution under consideration reports on the profit taking of nuclear power plant operators. The presented analysis considers three aspects: (a) Specification of the quantity structures for the investigated model of plant life extension; (b) The decisive parameter is the revenue situation and thus the price development for electricity at wholesale markets; (c) Determination and evaluation of the course in time of the profit taking.

  15. A study on utilization improvement of cogeneration potential in a complex industrial steam and power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mierka, O.; Variny, M.

    2012-01-01

    Efficient cogeneration is widely acknowledged as one of measures reducing primary energy use and emissions of greenhouse gases and other pollutants. This contribution bears on analyses of complex industrial power plants, incorporating the concept of exergetic and exergoecomic balances-a concept that has been rarely utilized in Slovakia up to day. Emphasis is laid on synergic use of marginal and exergoecomic analysis, thus assessing the economics of various complex cogeneration units' operational modes. The whole study, together with resulting recommendations for cogeneration efficiency improvement of the given unit is an excerpt of corresponding author's doctoral thesis. (Authors)

  16. A study on utilization improvement of cogeneration potential in a complex industrial steam and power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mierka, O.; Variny, M.

    2012-01-01

    Efficient cogeneration is widely acknowledged as one of measures reducing primary energy use and emissions of greenhouse gases and other pollutants. This contribution bears on analyses of complex industrial power plants, incorporating the concept of exergetic and exergoeconomic balances-a concept that has been rarely utilized in Slovakia up to day. Emphasis is laid on synergic use of marginal and exergoeconomic analysis, thus assessing the economics of various complex cogeneration units' operational modes. The whole study, together with resulting recommendations for cogeneration efficiency improvement of the given unit is an excerpt of corresponding author's doctoral thesis. (Authors)

  17. Prospects and strategy for large scale utility applications of photovoltaic power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigotti, R.; Lysen, E.; Cole, A.

    1996-01-01

    The status and prospects of photovoltaic (PV) power systems are reviewed. The market diffusion strategy for the application of PV systems by utilities is described, and the mission, objectives and thoughts of the collaboration programme launched among 18 industrialized countries under the framework of the International Energy Agency are highly with particular reference to technology transfer to developing countries. Future sales of PV systems are expected to grow in the short and medium term mainly in the sector of isolated systems. (R.P.)

  18. Soil warming for utilization and dissipation of waste heat from power generation in Pennsylvania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeWalle, D.R.

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the Penn State research project, which studies the soil warming by circulation of heated power plant discharge water through a buried pipe network. Waste heat can be utilized by soil warming for increased crop growth in open fields with proper selection of crops and cropping systems. Dissipation of waste heat from a buried pipe network can be predicted using either of two steady-state conduction equations tested. Accurate predictions are dependent upon estimates of the pipe outer-surface temperatures, soil surface temperatures in heated soil and soil thermal conductivity. The effect of economic optimization on soil-warming land area requirements for a 1500 MWe power plant in Pennsylvania is presented. (M.S.)

  19. The comparative costs of nuclear and fossil fuelled power plants in an American electricity utility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corey, G.R.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter compares the current and historic operating performances of twelve large nuclear and coal-fired units now operated by Commonwealth Edison Company, and provides specific comparison of bus-bar costs of electricity generated by those units in recent years. It also provides cost comparisons for future nuclear and coal-fired units and attempts to deal realistically with the effect of future inflation upon these comparisons. The chapter attempts to deal responsibly with the problem of uncertainty - how present-day comparisons may be affected by future developments and how my own published comparisons have varied over the past four or five years. The conclusion is reached that, given the uncertain world in which we live, no electric power supplier can afford to put all its eggs in one basket. Utility managers have a strong incentive to diversify their sources of power generation, and society as a whole would do well to encourage such diversification. (author)

  20. Modern combined cycle power plant utilizing the GT11N2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodwin, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    The requirement imposed on modern power plants are increasingly demanding. The limits of: efficiency; environmental sensitivity; reliability and availability; are constantly being pushed. Today's state of the art combined cycle power plants are positioned well to meet these challenges. This paper reports that these objectives can be achieved through the selection of the proper gas turbine generator in an optimized cycle concept. A balanced approach to the plant design is required. It must not sacrifice any one of these requirements, in order to achieve the others. They achieve their fullest potential when firing a clean fuel, natural gas. However, fuel oil, both light (No. 2) and heavy (No. 6), can be utilized but some efficiency and environmental impact will have to be sacrificed

  1. The safety of nuclear power plants under the shareholder value orientation - example Northeast Utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luhmann, H.J.

    2006-01-01

    Usually the safety of nuclear power plants is regarded as a technical question. Thereby humans only as a part of the man-machine system play a safety-relevant role usually. On this picture, the national regulation of this safety, the 'nuclear supervision' is designed. An innovative investigation of the Yale School of Management has concerned with the incidents around the so-called Millstone reactors in Waterford, Connecticut, and the economic collapse of the regional supplier Northeast Utilities (NU). The change of the corporate culture of the operator of the nuclear power station to a shareholder value orientation has released this 'enterprise disaster'. This investigation permits a first insight into the changed requirements on supervision, which goes beyond the nuclear supervision and which includes the price control in view of this change of the corporate culture

  2. Device for district heating with utilization of waste heat from power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korek, J.

    1976-01-01

    In order to utilize the waste heat developing in power plants - especially in nuclear power plants - the author suggests to lead the waste heat of the coolers for oil (which the bearings are lubricated with), hydrogen (which serves for the stator rotor-cooling), and the stator cooling water to the circulating district heating water and to arrange these heat exchangers one behind another or parallel to each other in the water circuit of the district heating system. The oil cooler of the engine transformer is also connected with the circulation of the district heating water. The runback water of the district heating network could thus be heated from approx. 40 0 C up to 65 0 C. (UA) [de

  3. Utilization of power plant bottom ash as aggregates in fiber-reinforced cellular concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H K; Kim, H K; Hwang, E A

    2010-02-01

    Recently, millions tons of bottom ash wastes from thermoelectric power plants have been disposed of in landfills and coastal areas, regardless of its recycling possibility in construction fields. Fiber-reinforced cellular concrete (FRCC) of low density and of high strength may be attainable through the addition of bottom ash due to its relatively high strength. This paper focuses on evaluating the feasibility of utilizing bottom ash of thermoelectric power plant wastes as aggregates in FRCC. The flow characteristics of cement mortar with bottom ash aggregates and the effect of aggregate type and size on concrete density and compressive strength were investigated. In addition, the effects of adding steel and polypropylene fibers for improving the strength of concrete were also investigated. The results from this study suggest that bottom ash can be applied as a construction material which may not only improve the compressive strength of FRCC significantly but also reduce problems related to bottom ash waste.

  4. Integrated assessment of carbon capture and storage (CCS) in the German power sector and comparison with the deployment of renewable energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viebahn, Peter; Daniel, Vallentin; Samuel, Höller

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► In this study an integrated approach is chosen for the assessment of CCS in Germany. ► Five different assessment dimensions are covered. ► A Conservative storage capacity assessment for Germany is done. ► There might be no need to focus on CCS in the power plant sector in Germany. ► We see a potential field of CCS for industrial processes and biomass applications. -- Abstract: If the current energy policy priorities are retained, there may be no need to focus additionally on carbon capture and storage (CCS) in the power plant sector of Germany. This applies even in the case of ambitious climate protection targets, according to the results of the presented integrated assessment study. These cover a variety of aspects: Firstly, the technology is not expected to become available on a large scale in Germany before 2025. Secondly, if renewable energies and combined heat and power are expanded further and energy productivity is enhanced, there is likely to be only a limited demand for CCS power plants, as a scenario analysis of CCS deployment in Germany shows. Thirdly, cost analysis using the learning curve approach shows that the electricity generation costs of renewable electricity approach those of CCS power plants. This leads to the consequence that, from 2020, several renewable technologies may well be in a position to offer electricity at a cheaper rate than CCS power plants. In addition, a review of new life cycle assessments for CO 2 separation in the power plant sector indicates that the greenhouse gas emissions from 1 kW h of electricity generated by first-generation CCS power plants could only be reduced by 68% to 87% (95% in individual cases). Finally, a cautious, conservative estimate of the effective German CO 2 storage capacity of approximately 5 billion tonnes of CO 2 is calculated, including a fluctuation range yielding values between 4 and 15 billion tonnes of CO 2 . Therefore, the total CO 2 emissions caused by large point

  5. A combined power cycle utilizing low-temperature waste heat and LNG cold energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Xiaojun; Che Defu

    2009-01-01

    This paper has proposed a combined power system, in which low-temperature waste heat can be efficiently recovered and cold energy of liquefied natural gas (LNG) can be fully utilized as well. This system consists of an ammonia-water mixture Rankine cycle and an LNG power generation cycle, and it is modelled by considering mass, energy and species balances for every component and thermodynamic analyses are conducted. The results show that the proposed combined cycle has good performance, with net electrical efficiency and exergy efficiency of 33% and 48%, respectively, for a typical operating condition. The power output is equal to 1.25 MWh per kg of ammonia-water mixture. About 0.2 MW of electrical power for operating sea water pumps can be saved. Parametric analyses are performed for the proposed combined cycle to evaluate the effects of key factors on the performance of the proposed combined cycle through simulation calculations. Results show that a maximum net electrical efficiency can be obtained as the inlet pressure of ammonia turbine increases and the peak value increases as the ammonia mass fraction increases. Exergy efficiency goes up with the increased ammonia turbine inlet pressure. With the ammonia mass fraction increases, the net electrical efficiency increases, whereas exergy efficiency decreases. For increasing LNG turbine inlet pressure or heat source temperature, there is also a peak of net electrical efficiency and exergy efficiency. With the increase of LNG gas turbine outlet pressure, exergy efficiency increases while net electrical efficiency drops

  6. Passive residual energy utilization system in thermal cycles on water-cooled power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Placco, Guilherme M.; Guimaraes, Lamartine N.F.; Santos, Rubens S. dos

    2013-01-01

    This work presents a concept of a residual energy utilization in nuclear plants thermal cycles. After taking notice of the causes of the Fukushima nuclear plant accident, an idea arose to adapt a passive thermal circuit as part of the ECCS (Emergency Core Cooling System). One of the research topics of IEAv (Institute for Advanced Studies), as part of the heat conversion of a space nuclear power system is a passive multi fluid turbine. One of the main characteristics of this device is its passive capability of staying inert and be brought to power at moments notice. During the first experiments and testing of this passive device, it became clear that any small amount of gas flow would generate power. Given that in the first stages of the Fukushima accident and even during the whole event there was plenty availability of steam flow that would be the proper condition to make the proposed system to work. This system starts in case of failure of the ECCS, including loss of site power, loss of diesel generators and loss of the battery power. This system does not requires electricity to run and will work with bleed steam. It will generate enough power to supply the plant safety system avoiding overheating of the reactor core produced by the decay heat. This passive system uses a modified Tesla type turbine. With the tests conducted until now, it is possible to ensure that the operation of this new turbine in a thermal cycle is very satisfactory and it performs as expected. (author)

  7. German energy turnaround and Poland's start in nuclear power? A survey; Deutschlands Energiewende und Polens Einstieg in die Kernenergie? Eine Bestandsaufnahme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knopp, Lothar; Gorski, Marek (eds.)

    2015-07-01

    The book includes contributions from two meetings: 1. Meeting in Berlin, October 8,2014: Energy transition in Poland - historical background, development and actual situation; legal boundary conditions of the entry into nuclear power in Poland; ecologic and economic causes motivation for the atomic energy entry in Poland; promotion systems for renewable energy in Poland, current status and political background; construction of a nuclear power plant in Northern Poland site specific impacts and social assessment. Meeting in Stettin on November 5, 2014: Energy turnaround in Germany -German nuclear phaseout under consideration of EU legislation; ecologic and economic motivation for the energy turnaround in Germany; energy turnaround in Germany - new legal boundary conditions, especially the amendment to tue renewable energy law; contribution of the industry to the energy turnaround - taking the example waste management and waste incineration plants; fracking as a factor of the energy turnaround? - legal boundary conditions and ecologic risks; ecological, ethical and sociopolitical aspects of the energy turnaround in Germany and Poland.

  8. Utilization of oil shale in power plants and environmental protection; Polevkivienergeetika ja keskkonna saastumine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ots, A [Tallinn Technical Univ. (Estonia)

    1994-04-01

    Estonia n oil shale was first used as a power fuel in 1924 at the Tallinn Power Plant. The first pulverized oil-shale-fired steam boilers were used in the end of forties. A new period in the utilization of the Estonia n oil shale began in the years of 1959-1960, when the first power units were applied at the Baltic Thermal Power Plant. The project capacity of the plant was 1600 MW. In the 1973 the Estonia n thermal Power Plant was put into operation with the capacity of 1610 MW. The output of the electric power generated by oil.shale power plants in 1989, was 17.4 TWh; the maximum output was achieved in 1979 - 19.1 TWh. In 1989, the amount of the Estonia n oil shale consumed to generate electric power was equal to 22.3{center_dot}10{sup 6}t. On burning oil shale the main atmospheric pollutants are the following: nitrogen oxides, sulphur oxides, and fly ash. The concentration of nitrogen oxide in the oil-shale flue gas leaving the chimney, expressed as nitrogen dioxide by an excess air factor 1.5, is in the range of 0.15-0.20 g/m{sup 3.} The total emission of nitrogen oxide into the atmosphere is approximately 15-20 thousand ton per year. the concentration of sulphur dioxide in the oil-shale flue gas leaving the boiler by an excess air factor 1.5 in the range of 1.0-1.8 g/m{sup 3.} the total emission of sulphur dioxide into atmosphere is in range of 140-160 thousand per year. As the oil-shale ash contains a large amount of the components capable of combining with sulphur in furnace and in boiler gas passes, the sulphur binding effect from ash is high, and it is in the range of 0.75-0.85. The boilers in oil-shale power plants are equipped with two-stage ash separation systems: cyclone and electrostatic al precipitators. The fly ash concentration in oil shale flue gas after electrostatic al precipitators by excess air factor 1.5 is 1-2 g/m{sup 3.} (author).

  9. Power plant investment cycles in liberalised markets. A model of the German electricity generation market; Zyklen bei Kraftwerksinvestitionen in liberalisierten Maerkten. Ein Modell des deutschen Stromerzeugungsmarktes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaidosch, Lars

    2008-07-01

    In the course of the next ten to fifteen years almost half of Germany's installed power plant capacity will need to be replaced by the construction of new facilities. The power plant investments required for this will be made in an environment marked by liberalisation and competition. This is the context of the present article, which analyses the causes behind the cyclical behaviour of power plant investment and identifies factors that influence it. Cycles in this connection are defined as recurring oscillations in power plant capacity and electricity prices. The authors also propose measures that could dampen the cyclical course of power plant investment over time. One of the major outcomes of the present model calculations is that the power production market, similarly to other capital-intensive branches of industry, is expected to experience strong price fluctuations in the future as well. As it has been framed up to now, the German electricity wholesale market will not be able to prevent the occurrence investment cycles in power plant construction. One way to counteract investment cycles would be to greatly expand the time horizon of the liquid spot market through greater activity on the part of trading firms. [German] In den naechsten 10 bis 15 Jahren sind in Deutschland und Europa sowie weltweit knapp die Haelfte der installierten Kraftwerksleistung zu ersetzen bzw. neu zu errichten. Die hierfuer erforderlichen Kraftwerksinvestitionen finden heute unter den veraenderten Rahmenbedingungen der Liberalisierung und des Wettbewerbs statt. In diesem Zusammenhang werden Ursachen von Zyklen bei Kraftwerksinvestitionen analysiert und deren Einflussfaktoren aufgezeigt. Zyklen werden als wiederkehrende Schwankungen der Kraftwerkskapazitaeten und Strompreise definiert. Zusaetzlich werden Massnahmen vorgeschlagen, die eine Zyklenbildung bei Kraftwerksinvestitionen abschwaechen koennen. Zunaechst erfolgt eine Untersuchung unter welchen Bedingungen

  10. Decentralised combined heat and power in the German Ruhr Valley; assessment of factors blocking uptake and integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vietor, Birte; Hoppe, Thomas; Clancy, Joy S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: In Germany, the energy system is undergoing reorganisation from a centralised system based on fossil fuels and nuclear power to a sustainable system based on decentralised production and consumption of energy, the so-called Energiewende. Recently, there has been more attention to

  11. Research on technology utilizing data freeway for base nuclear power materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Mitsutane; Kurihara, Yutaka; Noda, Tetsuji; Shiraishi, Haruki; Kitajima, Masahiro; Nagakawa, Josei; Yamamoto, Norikazu

    1997-01-01

    In order to carry out the selection of the nuclear power materials which are used in radiation, from high temperature to very low temperature, and in corrosive environment, and the development of the materials effectively, the construction of huge material data base is indispensable. The development of the distributed type material data base called 'freeway' is advanced jointly by National Research Institute for Metals, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation and Japan Science and Technology Corporation. It has been aimed at that the results obtained in each research institute are made into a data base by that institute, and those data bases can be utilized mutually through network. In fiscal year 1996, the transfer to the system, by which the function showing the contents of system data and the function of data retrieval can be utilized from internet, was begun jointly. The present state of the data freeway, the operation environment of World Wide Web, and the trial making of the computation program for forecasting the change of the chemical composition of materials by neutron irradiation are reported. (K.I.)

  12. Making the grid the backup: Utility applications for fuel cell power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eklof, S.L. [Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD), Sacramento, CA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Fuel cells are recognized as a versatile power generation option and accepted component of SMUD`s ART Program. SMUD has received wide support and recognition for promoting and implementing fuel cell power plants, as well as other innovative generation, based primarily on technological factors. Current economic and technical realities in the electric generation market highlight other important factors, such as the cost involved to develop a slate of such resources. The goal now is to develop only those select quality resources most likely to become commercially viable in the near future. The challenge becomes the identification of candidate technologies with the greatest potential, and then matching the technologies with the applications that will help to make them successful. Utility participation in this development is critical so as to provide the industry with case examples of advanced technologies that can be applied in a way beneficial to both the utility and its customers. The ART resource acquisitions provide the experience base upon which to guide this selection process, and should bring about the cost reductions and reliability improvements sought.

  13. Survey on the trends of atomic power development and utilization in 1973 fiscal year

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    Japanese activities in the atomic power development and utilization during 1973 (FY) were investigated and compared with the previous year. The investigation was done for each type of organization; medical, educational, research institute, private company, and others. The results of the investigation can be summarized as follows. The total number of personnel being engaged in the field of atomic industry increased by 1.2%. About 52.8% of them belong to private companies. The number of trainees during 1973 increased by 7.9%. About 92.3% of them were trained in domestic organizations. The expenditure for research and development was 100 billion yen which is 12.1% larger than that in the previous year. About 73.4% was used by public research institutes including JAERI and PNC. Investment in equipments was 235.2 billion yen which was increase of 20%. Most of this money (215.4 billion yen) was invested for the construction of power plants by electric utilities. Total amount of production was 73 billion yen which was increase of 45.9%. (Aoki, K.)

  14. Modular-multiplex or single large power plants-advantages and disadvantages for utility systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endicott, R.D.

    1986-01-01

    The question of growing interest in the fusion community is what size and type configuration fusion reactor(s) will lead to the most economical and attractive fusion power plant? There are two sides to this question. One involves how to build the most economical and attractive fusion reactor. This question which requires evaluation of reactor components within the reactor system is being examined at the Fusion Engineering Design Center (FEDC) and elsewhere. The other side involves examining the issues associated with the most economical size and configuration reactor to use. This question requires the evaluation of the changes in cost of service due to different size and configuration reactors on a utility system. The authors objective was to explore the advantages and disadvantages of using modular-multiplex power plants and to illustrate a means of quantifying the tradeoffs. The effort resulted in the identification of the key parameters involved in selecting the optimum size plant for a utility system and a better understanding of the tradeoffs that are possible. This paper discusses this effort in detail

  15. Initial Outcomes from a Multicenter Study Utilizing the Indego Powered Exoskeleton in Spinal Cord Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tefertiller, Candy; Hays, Kaitlin; Jones, Janell; Jayaraman, Arun; Hartigan, Clare; Bushnik, Tamara; Forrest, Gail F

    2018-01-01

    Objective: To assess safety and mobility outcomes utilizing the Indego powered exoskeleton in indoor and outdoor walking conditions with individuals previously diagnosed with a spinal cord injury (SCI). Methods: We conducted a multicenter prospective observational cohort study in outpatient clinics associated with 5 rehabilitation hospitals. A convenience sample of nonambulatory individuals with SCI ( N = 32) completed an 8-week training protocol consisting of walking training 3 times per week utilizing the Indego powered exoskeleton in indoor and outdoor conditions. Participants were also trained in donning/doffing the exoskeleton during each session. Safety measures such as adverse events (AEs) were monitored and reported. Time and independence with donning/doffing the exoskeleton as well as walking outcomes to include the 10-meter walk test (10MWT), 6-minute walk test (6MWT), Timed Up & Go test (TUG), and 600-meter walk test were evaluated from midpoint to final evaluations. Results: All 32 participants completed the training protocol with limited device-related AEs, which resulted in no interruption in training. The majority of participants in this trial were able to don and doff the Indego independently. Final walking speed ranged from 0.19 to 0.55 m/s. Final average indoor and outdoor walking speeds among all participants were 0.37 m/s ( SD = 0.08, 0.09, respectively), after 8 weeks of training. Significant ( p exoskeleton.

  16. Powering-up Wireless Sensor Nodes Utilizing Rechargeable Batteries and an Electromagnetic Vibration Energy Harvesting System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salar Chamanian

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a wireless sensor node (WSN system where an electromagnetic (EM energy harvester is utilized for charging its rechargeable batteries while the system is operational. The capability and the performance of an in-house low-frequency EM energy harvester for charging rechargeable NiMH batteries were experimentally verified in comparison to a regular battery charger. Furthermore, the power consumption of MicaZ motes, used as the WSN, was evaluated in detail for different operation conditions. The battery voltage and current were experimentally monitored during the operation of the MicaZ sensor node equipped with the EM vibration energy harvester. A compact (24.5 cm3 in-house EM energy harvester provides approximately 65 µA charging current to the batteries when excited by 0.4 g acceleration at 7.4 Hz. It has been shown that the current demand of the MicaZ mote can be compensated for by the energy harvester for a specific low-power operation scenario, with more than a 10-fold increase in the battery lifetime. The presented results demonstrate the autonomous operation of the WSN, with the utilization of a vibration-based energy harvester.

  17. PVMaT - OMNION Series 3000: Photovoltaic Power Conversion System for Utility Interconnected Application; Annual Report, May 1997 - February 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, D.

    2000-09-13

    This report details the work performed which was geared towards making advancements in three major areas (cost, reliability and performance) of three-phase, utility interconnected and photovoltaic power conversion.

  18. Business case for implementing two ergonomic interventions at an electric power utility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeley, Patricia A; Marklin, Richard W

    2003-09-01

    Ergonomics analysis of line workers in the electric power industry who work overhead on utility poles revealed some tasks for which less than 1% of the general population had sufficient strength to perform. During a 2-year study, a large Midwestern US electric utility provided a university with a team of represented workers and management. They evaluated, recommended, and monitored interventions for 32 common line worker tasks that were rated at medium to high magnitude of risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). Two of the recommended ergonomic interventions-the battery-operated press and cutter-were selected by the team as having the greatest potential for reducing risk factors of MSDs. Only overhead distribution line worker tasks were evaluated. A business case was formulated that took into account medical injury and illness statistics, workers' compensation, replacement worker and retraining costs. An outline of a business case formulation and a sample intervention payback calculation is shown. Based on the business case, the utility committed over US dollars 300000 to purchase battery-operated presses and cutters for their overhead distribution line crews.

  19. Characterization of coal blends for effective utilization in thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santhosh Raaj, S.; Arumugam, S.; Muthukrishnan, M.; Krishnamoorthy, S.; Anantharaman, N.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • This work will assist utilities to decide on the choice of coals for blending. • Conventional and advanced analytical techniques were used for characterization. • Fuel ratio, burnout profile, ash chemistry and carbon burnout are key factors. • Basic properties were additive while carbon burnout was non additive for the blends. - Abstract: This paper deals with the characterization of coal blends using various conventional and advanced analytical techniques. There has been an increasing trend in utilizing imported coals for power generation in India and utilities are resorting to blended coal firing for various reasons, both financially as well as technically. Characterization studies were carried out on 2 combinations of Indian and imported coal blends. Conventional characterization such as proximate and ultimate analysis and determination of calorific value were carried out for the raw coals and blends as per ASTM standards. Following this thermal and mineral analysis of the samples were carried out using thermo gravimetric analyzer (TGA), X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (XRF) and computer controlled scanning electron microscope (CCSEM). Combustion experiments were also conducted using drop tube furnace (DTF) to determine the burnout of the raw coals and blends. The selection of technically suitable coal combination for blending, based on these characterization studies, has been detailed.

  20. Decentralised combined heat and power in the German Ruhr Valley; assessment of factors blocking uptake and integration

    OpenAIRE

    Vietor, Birte; Hoppe, Thomas; Clancy, Joy S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: In Germany, the energy system is undergoing reorganisation from a centralised system based on fossil fuels and nuclear power to a sustainable system based on decentralised production and consumption of energy, the so-called Energiewende. Recently, there has been more attention to improving energy efficiency in those regions where conventional energy production activities and energy-intensive industries are located, such as the Ruhr area. Although the potential for decentralised co...

  1. Integrated high voltage power supply utilizing burst mode control and its performance impact on dielectric electro active polymer actuators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas; Rødgaard, Martin Schøler; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    Through resent years new high performing Dielectric Electro Active Polymers (DEAP) have emerged. To fully utilize the potential of DEAPs a driver with high voltage output is needed. In this paper a piezoelectric transformer based power supply for driving DEAP actuators is developed, utilizing...

  2. A novel GUI modeled fuzzy logic controller for a solar powered energy utilization scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altas, I. H.; Sharaf, A. M.

    2007-01-01

    Photovoltaic PVA-solar powered electrical systems comprise different components and subsystems to be controlled separately. Since the generated solar power is dependant on uncontrollable environmental conditions, it requires extra caution to design controllers that handle unpredictable events and maintain efficient load matching power. In this study, a photovoltaic (PV) solar array model is developed for Matlab/Simulink GUI environment and controlled using a fuzzy logic controller (FLC), which is also developed for GUI environment. The FLC is also used to control the DC load bus voltage at constant value as well as controlling the speed of a PMDC motor as one of the loads being fed. The FLC controller designed using the Matlab/Simuling GUI environment has flexible design criteria's so that it can easily be modified and extended for controlling different systems. The proposed FLC is used in three different parts of the PVA stand alone utilization scheme here. One of these parts is the speed control of the PMDC load, one of the other parts is controlling the DC load bus voltage, and the third part is the maximum power point (MPPT) tracking control, which is used to operate the PVA at its available maximum power as the solar insolation and ambient temperature change. This paper presents a study of a standalone Photovoltaic energy utilization system feeding a DC and AC hybrid electric load and is fully controlled by a novel and simple on-line fuzzy logic based dynamic search, detection and tracking controller that ensures maximum power point operation under excursions in Solar Insolation, Ambient temperature and electric load variations. The maximum power point MPP-Search and Detection algorithm is fully dynamic in nature and operates without any required direct measurement or forecasted PV array information about the irradiation and temperature. An added Search sensitivity measure is defined and also used in the MPP search algorithm to sense and dynamic response for

  3. Development of thermoelectric power generation system utilizing heat of combustible solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajikawa, T.; Ito, M.; Katsube, I.; Shibuya, E.

    1994-01-01

    The paper presents the development of thermoelectric power generation system utilizing heat of municipal solid waste. The systematic classification and design guideline are proposed in consideration of the characteristics of solid waste processing system. The conceptual design of thermoelectric power generation system is carried out for a typical middle scale incinerator system (200 ton/day) by the local model. Totally the recovered electricity is 926.5 kWe by 445 units (569,600 couples). In order to achieve detailed design, one dimensional steady state model taking account of temperature dependency of the heat transfer performance and thermoelectric properties is developed. Moreover, small scale on-site experiment on 60 W class module installed in the real incinerator is carried out to extract various levels of technological problems. In parallel with the system development, high temperature thermoelectric elements such as Mn-Si and so on are developed aiming the optimization of ternary compound and high performance due to controlled fine-grain boundary effect. The manganese silicide made by shrinking-rate controlled sintering method performs 5 (μW/cm K2) in power factor at 800 K. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  4. A Wind Power Plant with Thermal Energy Storage for Improving the Utilization of Wind Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Liu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of the wind energy industry is seriously restricted by grid connection issues and wind energy generation rejections introduced by the intermittent nature of wind energy sources. As a solution of these problems, a wind power system integrating with a thermal energy storage (TES system for district heating (DH is designed to make best use of the wind power in the present work. The operation and control of the system are described in detail. A one-dimensional system model of the system is developed based on a generic model library using the object-oriented language Modelica for system modeling. Validations of the main components of the TES module are conducted against experimental results and indicate that the models can be used to simulate the operation of the system. The daily performance of the integrated system is analyzed based on a seven-day operation. And the influences of system configurations on the performance of the integrated system are analyzed. The numerical results show that the integrated system can effectively improve the utilization of total wind energy under great wind power rejection.

  5. Utilization of logistic computer programs in the power plant piping industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motzel, E.

    1982-01-01

    Starting from the general situation of the power plant piping industry, the utilization of computer programs as well as the specific magnitude of complexity connected with the project realisation, the necessity for using logistic computer programs especially in case of nuclear power plants is explained. The logistic term as well as the logistic data are described. At the example of the nuclear power plant KRB II, Gundremmingen, Block B/C the practical use of such programs is shown. The planning, scheduling and supervision is carried out computer-aided by means of network-technique. The material management, prefabrication, installation including management of certificates for welding and testing activities is planned and controlled by computer programs as well. With the piping systems installed a complete erection work documentation is available which also serves as base for the billing versus the client. The budgeted costs are continuously controlled by means of a cost control program. Summing-up the further development in controlling piping contracts computer-supported is described with regard to software, hardware and the organisation structure. Furthermore the concept of a self-supporting field computer is introduced for the first time. (orig.) [de

  6. Power Quality Improvement Utilizing Photovoltaic Generation Connected to a Weak Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muljadi, Eduard [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tumbelaka, Hanny H. [Petra Christian University; Gao, Wenzhong [UNiversity of Denver

    2017-11-07

    Microgrid research and development in the past decades have been one of the most popular topics. Similarly, the photovoltaic generation has been surging among renewable generation in the past few years, thanks to the availability, affordability, technology maturity of the PV panels and the PV inverter in the general market. Unfortunately, quite often, the PV installations are connected to weak grids and may have been considered as the culprit of poor power quality affecting other loads in particular sensitive loads connected to the same point of common coupling (PCC). This paper is intended to demystify the renewable generation, and turns the negative perception into positive revelation of the superiority of PV generation to the power quality improvement in a microgrid system. The main objective of this work is to develop a control method for the PV inverter so that the power quality at the PCC will be improved under various disturbances. The method is to control the reactive current based on utilizing the grid current to counteract the negative impact of the disturbances. The proposed control method is verified in PSIM platform. Promising results have been obtained.

  7. Utilizing the Double-Precision Floating-Point Computing Power of GPUs for RSA Acceleration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiankuo Dong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Asymmetric cryptographic algorithm (e.g., RSA and Elliptic Curve Cryptography implementations on Graphics Processing Units (GPUs have been researched for over a decade. The basic idea of most previous contributions is exploiting the highly parallel GPU architecture and porting the integer-based algorithms from general-purpose CPUs to GPUs, to offer high performance. However, the great potential cryptographic computing power of GPUs, especially by the more powerful floating-point instructions, has not been comprehensively investigated in fact. In this paper, we fully exploit the floating-point computing power of GPUs, by various designs, including the floating-point-based Montgomery multiplication/exponentiation algorithm and Chinese Remainder Theorem (CRT implementation in GPU. And for practical usage of the proposed algorithm, a new method is performed to convert the input/output between octet strings and floating-point numbers, fully utilizing GPUs and further promoting the overall performance by about 5%. The performance of RSA-2048/3072/4096 decryption on NVIDIA GeForce GTX TITAN reaches 42,211/12,151/5,790 operations per second, respectively, which achieves 13 times the performance of the previous fastest floating-point-based implementation (published in Eurocrypt 2009. The RSA-4096 decryption precedes the existing fastest integer-based result by 23%.

  8. Pluto/Charon exploration utilizing a bi-modal PBR nuclear propulsion/power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venetoklis, Peter S.

    1995-01-01

    The paper describes a Pluto/Charon orbiter utilizing a bi-modal nuclear propulsion and power system based on the Particle Bed Reactor. The orbiter is sized for launch to Nuclear-Safe orbit atop a Titan IV or equivalent launch veicle. The bi-modal system provides thermal propulsion for Earth orbital departure and Pluto orbital capture, and 10 kWe of electric power for payload functions and for in-system maneuvering with ion thrusters. Ion thrusters are used to perform inclination changes about Pluto, a transfer from low Pluto orbit to low Charon orbit, and inclination changes about charon. A nominal payload can be deliverd in as little as 15 years, 1000 kg in 17 years, and close to 2000 kg in 20 years. Scientific return is enormously aided by the availability of up to 10 kWe, due to greater data transfer rates and more/better instruments. The bi-modal system can provide power at Pluto/Charon for 10 or more years, enabling an extremely robust, scientifically rewarding, and cost-effective exploration mission.

  9. Soft power geopolitics: how does the diminishing utility of military power affect the Russia – West confrontation over the “Common Neighbourhood”

    OpenAIRE

    Vasif HUSEYNOV

    2016-01-01

    This paper is based on the fact that a number of factors, but particularly the restricting utility of military force between great powers, increase the significance of soft power as a tool both for legitimization and expansion in international relations in general, and in the West – Russia confrontation over the “common (or shared) neighbourhood” in particular. It explores how this fact affects the policies of the Western powers and Russia within the frame of the confrontation they are in. Th...

  10. Proceedings of the 14th International Meeting NUSIM 2006. Joint Slovak, Czech and German Seminar on Nuclear Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    During April 26-28, 2006 was carried out The 14 th Annual Nuclear Safety Information Meeting, NUSIM 2006. Scientific conference deals with problems of reactor safety upgrading, mainly of two blocks of the NPP V-1 Bohunice as well as decommissioning of the NPP A-1 Bohunice. Other problems of the nuclear engineering were discussed. The Conference proceeded in the following sessions: (I) Survey on the Situation of Nuclear Power in the Partner Countries; (II) Experiences with WWER operation. Almost 100 participants from the Slovak Republic, Austria, Serbia and Montenegro, Czech Republic and Germany took part in the conference. Thirty-three scientific lectures and three papers were presented.

  11. Description of the tasks of control room operators in German nuclear power plants and support possibilities by advanced computer systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buettner, W.E.

    1984-01-01

    In course of the development of nuclear power plants the instrumentation and control systems and the information in the control room have been increasing substantially. With this background it is described which operator tasks might be supported by advanced computer aid systems with main emphasis to safety related information and diagnose facilities. Nevertheless, some of this systems under development may be helpful for normal operation modes too. As far as possible recommendations for the realization and test of such systems are made. (orig.) [de

  12. Safe and economic performance of nuclear power plant. Operation through meticulous Q/A programmes - a german example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schenk, H.J.

    1989-01-01

    Safe and reliable operation of a nuclear power plant over its life time of 40 to 60 years is the essential condition for an economic performance. This goal can be achieved by a qualified responsible staff realizing a high quality of operation and by maintaining high quality and technical standards in the plant in accordance with the status of science and technology. Quality assurance procedures have to verify this in detail, in close contact with the work to be performed. In this presentation I would like to describe our approach in Philippsburg to cope with this task

  13. Affairs of power: Restructuring California's electric utility industry, 1968-1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, William Allan

    This dissertation studies the process of change in the political economy of electric utilities. Following two decades of continual growth during the nation's post-World War Two economic and population boom, the electric power industry confronted increasing challenges to its traditional operating practices and cultural values, nowhere with greater intensity than in California. Pressure for change came from outside forces who opposed utilities' business practices, assailed their traditional vertically-integrated structure, questioned the political assumptions that sustained their monopoly status, and ultimately wrested away access to the once tightly controlled technology of electric generation and transmission. Because managers of both investor-owned and publicly-owned utilities continued to rely upon long-standing economic and technical assumptions derived from deeply held cultural values sustained by decades of business success, they were rendered unable to comprehend and unwilling to accommodate change. Persistent mistrust between the publicly-owned and privately-owned sectors further weakened the industry's ability to work cooperatively in the face of crucial challenges. Thus encumbered by endemic structural jealousy, technological path dependency, and organizational stasis, the industry did not respond with sufficient innovation to new social values and altering economic conditions, ultimately resulting in the discarding of the old political economy of regulated monopolism. Five precepts of economic history are identified as crucial elements of the process of change. First, the tension between protection and entry, and the related issue of access to technology, contributes to creation and modification of the political economy in which economic institutions function. Second, submission to governmental regulatory powers allows certain industries to control entry, restrict access, and protect themselves from the dynamics of competitive change. Third, an

  14. Best practices in the utilization and dissemination of operating experience at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-03-01

    IAEA Safety Standards Series No. SF-1 entitled Fundamental Safety Principles: Safety Fundamentals states the need for operating organizations to establish a programme for the collection and analysis of operating experience in nuclear power plants. Such a programme ensures that operating experience is analysed, events important to safety are reviewed in depth, lessons learned are disseminated to the staff of the organization and to relevant national and international organizations, operating experience is utilized and corrective actions are effectively implemented. This publication has been developed to provide advice and assistance to nuclear installations and related institutions, including contractors and support organizations, to strengthen and enhance their own feedback process through the implementation of best practices in the utilization and dissemination of operating experience and to assess their effectiveness. Dissemination and utilization of internal and external operating experience is essential in supporting a proactive safety management approach of preventing events from occurring. Few new events reveal a completely new cause or failure mechanism. Although not recognized prior to the event, most subsequent investigations identify internal or external industry operating experience that, if applied effectively, would have prevented the event. Therefore, the establishment of an effective utilization and dissemination process is very beneficial in raising awareness of the organization and individuals of available operating experience, and focussing effort in the implementation of the lessons learnt. This leads to improved safety and reliability. The present publication is the outcome of a coordinated effort involving the participation of experts of nuclear organizations in several Member States. It was written to complement the publication IAEA Services Series No. 10 entitled PROSPER Guidelines - Guidelines for Peer Review and for Plant Self-assessment of

  15. New technology for improved utilization of the interconnected power system; Ny teknologi for bedre utnyttelse av overfoerings-systemet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enger, A.K.

    1996-12-31

    The present paper deals with methods used for improving the utilization of interconnected power systems. The author discusses new technologies for improvement and safety of power transmission. Main themes covered in this paper are HVDC (High Voltage DC) systems in Norway, possibilities of load management control, other possible/necessary measures in the grid system, and the development and trends. 21 figs.

  16. Teaching German-Americana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolzmann, Don Heinrich

    1976-01-01

    A university course entitled "The German-Americans" attempted to study and evaluate German culture in the U. S. Lecture topics and term paper theses are listed and a selected annotated bibliography of German-American culture is included. (CHK)

  17. Emissions from the utility power industry in Poland - limitations and trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badyda, K.; Uzunov, N.

    1999-01-01

    According to the modified legislation in 1998 the detailed limitations concern three categories power generation enterprises by site and type using solid organic fuels mainly: electric energy generation based in 99 % and heat generation - in 75 % on coal. For the first category consists of about 100 utility electric power enterprises combined heat and power and heating stations of about 10000 MW total capacity the modernization programme was realized to reduce the basic pollutant emissions like nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide during the period 1989-1997. Tendency of burning low-sulfur and low-ash coals with much calorific value is shown in a table. The average calorific value of the hard coals burned increased from 18280 kJ/kg in 1989 to 21423 in 1997 and sulfur content decreased from 1.148 % to 0.851 % due also to building of desulfurization installations. Decreasing of the nitrogen oxides emission took part in the last years. The new limitations on emission and concentration of harmful substances in the atmosphere related to standard oxygen contents in the flue gases. Table data for comparison of the permissible emissions for high capacity plants (500 MW and above) on solid fuels in Austria, France, Netherlands, Germany,Poland, Turkey, USA, UK and Italy. Table data for Polish pollutant concentration standards, compared to the values in the E U and USA, in μg/m 3 . Table data about the charges for air pollutant emissions in Poland in 1999. Despite of significant improvement of new legislation treating harmful substances emissions to the atmosphere, there are still some practical shortcomings: decisions without technological considerations; changes without a transition period; the emissions from engines and gas turbines are out of the regulating decree or there is no uniform regulations and lack of uniform method for emission measurement at power installations. The programme for regulation of the Polish environment protection is estimated to about 35 billion

  18. Electrical and I and C systems in German nuclear power plants. Safe and highly available until the end of operating life time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bresler, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Electrical and I and C components of German nuclear power plants are often more than 30 years in operation with high availability. This also has to be achieved for the remaining operating time of the plants according to the 13 th amendment of the atomic law. The resulting challenges are extensive: plant availability is more important than ever, facing the end of nuclear energy production in 2022. The support by vendors consequently declined drastically. Plant operators take the challenge having a solid fundament: The accumulated operating experience is seldom recognized in other branches. The experts are communicating in a professional network, relevant data are available and the quality is continuously checked by authorities and consultants. Based on this, current measures are taken: analysis of degradation mechanisms, allocation to components and documentation in a central data base, appraisal of functional capability for the whole range of input and environmental conditions, definition of upgrades and rebuilds, analysis of stored components and components in decommissioning plants, and punctual modernisation measures. (orig.)

  19. Fuzzy logic utilization for the diagnosis of metallic loose part impact in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Y.-G.; Hong, H.-P.; Han, S.-J.; Chun, C.S.; Kim, B.-K.

    1996-01-01

    In consideration of the fuzzy nature of impact signals detected from the complex mechanical structures in a nuclear power plant under operation. Loose Part Monitoring System with a signal processing technique utilizing fuzzy logic is proposed. In the proposed Fuzzy Loose Part Monitoring System design, comprehensive relations among the impact signal features are taken into account in the fuzzy rule bases for the alarm discrimination and impact event diagnosis. Through the performance test with a mock-up facility, the proposed approach for the loose parts monitoring and diagnosis has been revealed to be effective not only in suppressing the false alarm generation but also in characterizing the metallic loose-part impact event, from the points of Possible Impacted-Area and Degree of Impact Magnitude

  20. Power station fly ash. A review of value-added utilization outside of the construction industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyer, R.S.; Scott, J.A.

    2001-01-01

    The disposal of fly ash from coal-fired power stations causes significant economic and environmental problems. A relatively small percentage of the material finds application as an ingredient in cement and other construction products, but the vast majority of material generated each year is held in ash dams or similar dumps. This unproductive use of land and the associated long-term financial burden of maintenance has led to realization that alternative uses for fly ash as a value-added product beyond incorporation in construction materials are needed. Utilization of fly ash in such areas as novel materials, waste management, recovery of metals and agriculture is reviewed in this article with the aim of looking at new areas that will expand the positive reuse of fly ash, thereby helping to reduce the environmental and economic impacts of disposal

  1. Nuclear power and the market value of the shares of electric utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Joseph T.

    The most basic principle of security valuation is that market prices are determined by investors' expectations of the firm's performance in the future. These expectations are generally understood to be related to the risk that investors will bear by holding the firm's equity. There is considerable evidence that financial statements prepared in accordance with accrual-based accounting standards consistent with Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) have information content relevant to the establishment of market prices. In 2001, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) issued Statement of Financial Accounting Standard No. 143, "Accounting for Asset Retirement Obligations," changing the accounting standards that must be used to prepare financial statements. This paper investigates the effect that investment in nuclear power has on the market value of electric utilities and the impact on the securities markets of the significant changes in financial statement presentation mandated by this new standard.

  2. German power market in Europe. Between competition and climate protection; Der deutsche Strommarkt in Europa. Zwischen Wettbewerb und Klimaschutz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krisp, A.

    2007-07-01

    In order to attain the targets of climatic protection and in order to guarantee a safe supply of energy, a committed climatic program and energy program have to be submitted. The Federal Republic of Germany can attain this without rehabilitating the atomic energy. In addition, the development of the technologies has to be supported for the promotion of renewable energies. The national policy must strengthen their commitment and start initiatives for energy conservation. For this, the following aspects are suggested: (a) Enhancement of the energy standards of electrical appliances; (b) Minimization of the losses of energy due to the ''Stand By '' function of electrical appliances; (c) Promotion of investments in clean coal technologies and in technologies of combined heat and power generation; (d) Further avoidance of losses with the use of fossil sources of energy; (e) Auction of the free of charge certificates; (f) reduction the network charges; (g) coordinated energy policy on European level.

  3. Proceedings of the 9th NUSIM 2000 Conference. Joint Slovak, Czech and German Seminar on Nuclear Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Scientific conference deals with problems of reactor safety upgrading, mainly of two blocks of the NPP V-1 Bohunice as well as decomissioning of the NPP A-1 Bohunice. Other problems of the nuclear engineering were discussed. Totally, 201 participants from the Slovak Republic, Czech Republic and Germany and from other countries took part in the conference. The Conference included the following sessions: (i): Survey on the situation of nuclear power in the partner countries; (ii) Mochovce design safety enhacement and operational experience; (iii) Bohunice V-1 safety upgrading and operational experience; (iv) Decomissioning, spent fuel and radwaste management; (v) Young Generation Presentation. Proceedings contains thirty one papers dealing with the scope of INIS

  4. The eGo grid model: An open source approach towards a model of German high and extra-high voltage power grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Ulf Philipp; Wienholt, Lukas; Kleinhans, David; Cussmann, Ilka; Bunke, Wolf-Dieter; Pleßmann, Guido; Wendiggensen, Jochen

    2018-02-01

    There are several power grid modelling approaches suitable for simulations in the field of power grid planning. The restrictive policies of grid operators, regulators and research institutes concerning their original data and models lead to an increased interest in open source approaches of grid models based on open data. By including all voltage levels between 60 kV (high voltage) and 380kV (extra high voltage), we dissolve the common distinction between transmission and distribution grid in energy system models and utilize a single, integrated model instead. An open data set for primarily Germany, which can be used for non-linear, linear and linear-optimal power flow methods, was developed. This data set consists of an electrically parameterised grid topology as well as allocated generation and demand characteristics for present and future scenarios at high spatial and temporal resolution. The usability of the grid model was demonstrated by the performance of exemplary power flow optimizations. Based on a marginal cost driven power plant dispatch, being subject to grid restrictions, congested power lines were identified. Continuous validation of the model is nescessary in order to reliably model storage and grid expansion in progressing research.

  5. Utilization of lignite power generation residues for the production of lightweight aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostopoulos, Iason M; Stivanakis, Victor E

    2009-04-15

    A novel process is proposed for the utilization of lignite combustion solid residues in the production of inflammable lightweight aggregates (LWA). The process consists of two stages, pelletization and sintering, and carbon contained in BA was used as the process fuel. The main residues bottom ash (BA) and fly ash (FA) from Megalopolis power plant were characterized, mixed in different proportions and treated through pelletization and sintering process. Sintering benefits from combustion of BA carbon content and the product is a hardened porous cake. The energy required for achievement of high temperatures, in the range of 1250 degrees C, was offered by carbon combustion and CO(2) evolution is responsible for porous structure formation. Selected physical properties of sintered material relevant to use as lightweight aggregates were determined, including bulk density, porosity and water absorption. Bulk density varies from 0.83 to 0.91 g/cm(3), porosity varies from 60% to 64% and water absorption varies from 66% to 80%. LWA formed is used for the production of lightweight aggregate concrete (LWAC). Thermal conductivity coefficient varies from 0.25 to 0.37 W/mK (lower than maximum limit 0.43 W/mK) and compressive strength varies from 19 to 23 MPa (higher than minimum limit 17 MPa). The results indicate that sintering of lignite combustion residues is an efficient method of utilization of carbon containing BA and production of LWA for structural and insulating purposes. Carbon content of BA is a key factor in LWA production. Finally, this research work comprises the first proposed application for utilization of BA in Greece.

  6. Decarbonization of the German energy system due to falling or rising power consumption?; Dekarbonisierung des deutschen Energiesystems durch sinkenden oder steigenden Stromverbrauch?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guminski, Andrej; Roon, Serafin von [Forschungsgesellschaft fuer Energiewirtschaft mbH, Muenchen (Germany)

    2016-10-15

    Since the publication of the draft ''Climate Protection Plan 2050'' and the ''Green Paper on Energy Efficiency'', it is clear that the Federal Government is focusing on the electrification of the heat and transport sector in order to increase the share of renewable energies in these sectors. This step is not uncontroversial, and represents a paradigm shift in science and politics, because the reduction of the cross electricity consumption move into the background. It is now necessary to clearly distinguish between the conventional power consumption, which must continue to be tested for energy savings and efficiency potential, and the new power consumption, here referred to as the coupling current, which is accepted in order to achieve the objectives of the energy transition. Since the consideration of the energy transition as a purely national project is too short, possible positive and negative effects of the European Union Emission Trading System (EU ETS) deserve particular attention with regard to this reorientation. [German] Spaetestens seit der Veroeffentlichung des Entwurfs zum ''Klimaschutzplan 2050'' und des ''Gruenbuch Energieeffizienz'' ist klar, dass die Bundesregierung auf die Elektrifizierung des Waerme- und Verkehrssektors setzt, um den Anteil der erneuerbaren Energien in diesen Sektoren zu steigern. Dieser Schritt ist nicht unumstritten und stellt einen Paradigmenwechsel in Wissenschaft und Politik dar, denn auf einmal rueckt die Senkung des Bruttostromverbrauchs in den Hintergrund. Es gilt jetzt, klar zu trennen zwischen dem herkoemmlichen Stromverbrauch, der weiterhin auf Energieeinspar- und -effizienzpotenziale hin untersucht werden muss, und dem neuen, hier Koppelstrom genannten Stromverbrauch, welcher in Kauf genommen wird, um die Ziele der Energiewende zu erreichen. Da die Betrachtung der Energiewende als rein nationales Projekt zu kurz greift, verdienen moegliche

  7. German Studies in America. German Studies Notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Volkmar; Osterle, Heinz D.

    This volume contains two papers, "German Studies in America," by Volkmar Sander, and "Historicism, Marxism, Structuralism: Ideas for German Culture Courses," by Heinz D. Osterle. The first paper discusses the position of German studies in the United States today. The greatest challenge comes from low enrollments; therefore,…

  8. Utilization of power plant bottom-ash particles as stabilizer in aluminum foams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asavavisithchai, Seksak; Prapajaraswong, Attanadol [Chulalongkorn Univ., Bangkok (Thailand). Dept. of Metallurgical Engineering

    2013-07-01

    Aluminum foams, produced via powder metallurgical (PM) process, normally require the addition of ceramic particles in compaction stage, in order to increase both foamability of precursors and mechanical properties of the final foam products. Bottom ash particles are a by-product waste obtained from thermoelectric power plants which are commonly found to be used in landfill facilities. The major chemical constituent, approximately between 30 wt.-% and 60 wt.-%, of bottom ash particles is SiO{sub 2}, depending on chemical composition in coal, sintering condition and environment, and other process parameters. In this study, we explore the feasibility of utilizing bottom ash particles of thermoelectric power plant wastes as stabilizer in aluminum foams. A small amount of two-size bottom ash particles (mean size of 78 {mu}m and 186 {mu}m), between 1 wt.-% and 5 wt.-%, have been added to aluminum foams. Foam expansion, macro- and microstructures as well as mechanical properties, such as compressive strength and microhardness, were investigated. The results from the present study suggest that bottom ash particles can be used as a stabilizing material which can improve both cellular structure and mechanical properties of aluminum foams. (orig.)

  9. City/industry/utility partnership leads to innovative combined heat and power project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savage, J. [Savage and Associates, Quesnel, BC (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This presentation discussed a combined heat and power (CHP) project that was launched in Quesnel, British Columbia. The CHP is being developed in phases in which new components will enter the system, providing added benefits. Hot oil from a sawmill bioenergy system will be used to heat lumber kilns, generate electricity at an Organic Rankine Cycle co-generation plant, and heat water for a District Energy Loop (DEL) to heat up to 22 existing buildings in the city as well as sawmill and planer buildings. The DEL piping would comprise a 5 kilometre loop. The energy would come from recovered sawmill space heating, recovered stack energy, and additional biomass energy. All of the district heating and 41 per cent of the power would be from heat recovered from the existing industrial operation. This bio-economy vision ultimately involves incorporating a biogas digester into the system to process food, regional organic waste, and pulp mill residuals, relying on bio-solids and heat from the mill. The fertilizer from the digester would then be used in a biomass plantation, which would provide materials to industry for many products, including bio-refining. This project evolved in response to concerns about the ecological effects and long-term economics of aggressive utilization of forest biomass. 15 figs.

  10. Development and utilization of the NRC policy statement on the regulation of advanced nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, P.M.; King, T.L.

    1988-06-01

    On March 26, 1985, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission issued for public comment a ''Proposed Policy for Regulation of Advanced Nuclear Power Plants'' (50 FR 11884). This report presents and discusses the Commission's final version of that policy as titled and published on July 8, 1986 ''Regulation of Advanced Nuclear Power Plants, Statement of Policy'' (51 FR 24643). It provides an overview of comments received from the public, of the significant changes from the proposed Policy Statement to the final Policy Statement, and of the Commission's response to six questions contained in the proposed Policy Statement. The report also discusses the definition for advanced reactors, the establishment of an Advanced Reactors Group, the staff review approach and information needs, and the utilization of the Policy Statement in relation to other NRC programs, including the policies for safety goals, severe accidents and standardization. In addition, guidance for advanced reactors with respect to operating experience, technology development, foreign information and data, and prototype testing is provided. Finally, a discussion on the use of less prescriptive and nonprescriptive design criteria for advanced reactors, which the Policy Statement encourages, is presented

  11. Analysis of oxy-fuel combustion power cycle utilizing a pressurized coal combustor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Jongsup; Chaudhry, Gunaranjan; Brisson, J.G.; Field, Randall; Gazzino, Marco; Ghoniem, Ahmed F.

    2009-01-01

    Growing concerns over greenhouse gas emissions have driven extensive research into new power generation cycles that enable carbon dioxide capture and sequestration. In this regard, oxy-fuel combustion is a promising new technology in which fuels are burned in an environment of oxygen and recycled combustion gases. In this paper, an oxy-fuel combustion power cycle that utilizes a pressurized coal combustor is analyzed. We show that this approach recovers more thermal energy from the flue gases because the elevated flue gas pressure raises the dew point and the available latent enthalpy in the flue gases. The high-pressure water-condensing flue gas thermal energy recovery system reduces steam bleeding which is typically used in conventional steam cycles and enables the cycle to achieve higher efficiency. The pressurized combustion process provides the purification and compression unit with a concentrated carbon dioxide stream. For the purpose of our analysis, a flue gas purification and compression process including de-SO x , de-NO x , and low temperature flash unit is examined. We compare a case in which the combustor operates at 1.1 bars with a base case in which the combustor operates at 10 bars. Results show nearly 3% point increase in the net efficiency for the latter case.

  12. Utilizing Yagi antennas in Lightning Mapping Array to detect low-power VHF signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilles, J.; Thomas, R. J.; Edens, H. E.; Krehbiel, P. R.; Rison, W.

    2013-12-01

    The New Mexico Tech VHF Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) being operated at Langmuir Laboratory in central New Mexico is comprised of 22 time-of-arrival stations spanning an area approximately 60 km north-south and 45 km east-west. Nine stations are at high altitude (3.1-3.3 km GPS) over a 3 x 4 km area around the mountain-top Laboratory, and 13 are on the surrounding plains and the Rio Grande valley, at altitudes between 1.4 and 2.2 km. Each station utilizes a vertical half-wave dipole antenna having about 2 dBi gain at horizontal incidence and providing omnidirectional azimuthal coverage. In 2012, four additional stations utilizing higher gain (11 dBi) Yagi antennas were co-located at four of the surrounding sites within 10-15 km of the laboratory, each pointed over the laboratory area. The purpose was to test if directional antennas would improve detection of low-power sources in the laboratory vicinity, such as those associated with positive breakdown or weak precursor events. The test involved comparing the number and quality of radiation sources obtained by processing data from two sets of stations: first for a 17-station network in which all stations were omnidirectional, and then for the same network with Yagi-based measurements substituted in place of the omni measurements at the four co-located stations. For radiation events located in both datasets, the indicated source power values from Yagi stations were typically 5-10 dB greater than their omnidirectional counterpart for sources over or near the laboratory, consistent with the 9 dB difference in on-axis gain values. The difference decreased through zero and to negative values with increasing distance from the laboratory, confirming that it was due to the directionality of the Yagi antennas. It was expected that a network having Yagi antennas at all outlying stations would improve the network's detection of lower power sources in its central region. Rather, preliminary results show that there is no

  13. The German energy industry in the 21. century dawn of a new era?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasper, K.J.

    2000-01-01

    Having crossed the threshold into the new millennium the power utilities business finds itself confronted by new challenges. In worldwide terms the uppermost objective is, while taking due account of climatic factors and of the obligations resulting from the various World Climate Conferences held so far, to ensure a sufficient and reliable supply of energy for the world's growing population. The gap between the supply of energy and the demand for energy must be closed. In European terms the situation looks a little different. The supply structure is excellent - characterized more by over-capacity than energy shortage. As a result of the liberalization process that has started, the European power utilities have undergone vital changes. Market influences on the power utilities corporations are massive. Fusions and takeovers are the order of the day. The German power business, like others in Europe, is feeling the effects of these two aspects. Also, at national level in Germany, there is the attempt to reach a new energy consensus. An agreement was reached on the 14. of June 2000 between the German federal government and the power utilities. This laid down regulations on the future operation of German nuclear power plants and the disposal of spent fuel elements - to apply up until the government's planned withdrawal from nuclear power. However, the politicians have yet to answer the question of how, in the long term, a sensibly balanced German energy mix might look. There is not as yet - nor in the foreseeable future is there likely to be - an energy consensus in Germany supported by all social and political groups. The respective approaches and ideas differ too widely. The failure, in the so-called 'Energy dialog 2000', of political parties, environmental organizations, and representatives from industry to achieve any results that might point the way forward and tell us where we are heading shows this all too clearly. (author)

  14. Catalogue of requirements for a plant-specific safety inspection of German nuclear power plants taking into account the Fukushima-I (Japan) events; Anforderungskatalog fuer anlagenbezogene Ueberpruefungen deutscher Kernkraftwerke unter Beruecksichtigung der Ereignisse in Fukushima-I (Japan)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-03-30

    The catalogue of requirements for a plant-specific safety inspection of German nuclear power plants taking into account the Fukushima-I (Japan) events worked out by the German RSK (reactor safety commission) includes the following inspection topics: natural events like earth quakes, floods, weather-based consequences and possible superposition; civilization-based events like airplane crash, gas release, reactor accident consequences for neighboring units, terroristic impacts, external attacks on computer-based control systems. Further event-independent assumptions have to be considered: station blackout, long-term emergency power supply requirement, failure of auxiliary cooling water supply, efficacy of preventive measures, aggravating boundary conditions for the performance of emergency measures.

  15. Health technology assessment of utilization, practice and ethical issues of self-pay services in the German ambulatory health care setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunger, Theresa; Schnell-Inderst, Petra; Hintringer, Katharina; Schwarzer, Ruth; Seifert-Klauss, Vanadin; Gothe, Holger; Wasem, Jürgen; Siebert, Uwe

    2014-02-01

    The provision of self-pay medical services is common across health care systems, but understudied. According to the German Medical Association, such services should be medically necessary, recommended or at least justifiable, and requested by the patient. We investigated the empirical evidence regarding frequency and practice of self-pay services as well as related ethical, social, and legal issues (ELSI). A systematic literature search in electronic databases and a structured internet search on stakeholder websites with qualitative and quantitative information synthesis. Of 1,345 references, we included 64 articles. Between 19 and 53 % of insured persons received self-pay service offers from their physician; 16-19 % actively requested such services. Intraocular pressure measurement was the most common service, followed by ultrasound investigations. There is a major discussion about ELSI in the context of individual health services. Self-pay services are common medical procedures in Germany. However, the empirical evidence is limited in quality and extent, even for the most frequently provided services. Transparency of their provision should be increased and independent evidence-based patient information should be supplied.

  16. A performance comparison of urban utility vehicles powered with IC engine and solid polymer fuel cell technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teachman, M.E.; Scott, D.S.

    1993-01-01

    Utility vehicles provide ground transportation for crew and electric power at work sites that lack grid supply. The performances of utility vehicles designed with conventional architectures (spark ignition engine for propulsion and a motor generator for electric power) and with a fuel cell/battery architectures, are compared over a range of vehicle missions. Results indicate that fuel cell/battery hybrid systems are lighter than conventional systems for missions requiring short driving distances and work site power levels exceeding 10 kW. Conventional spark ignition engine/gen-set power systems are lighter for missions requiring more than 1 hour of driving and less than 10 kW of work site power. Fuel cell/battery systems are more efficient than spark ignition engine/gen-set systems for all missions. 7 figs., 3 tabs., 20 refs

  17. Integrated Simulation Development and Decision Support Tool-Set for Utility Market and Distributed Solar Power Generation Electricore, Inc.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daye, Tony [Green Power Labs (GPL), San Diego, CA (United States)

    2013-09-30

    This project will enable utilities to develop long-term strategic plans that integrate high levels of renewable energy generation, and to better plan power system operations under high renewable penetration. The program developed forecast data streams for decision support and effective integration of centralized and distributed solar power generation in utility operations. This toolset focused on real time simulation of distributed power generation within utility grids with the emphasis on potential applications in day ahead (market) and real time (reliability) utility operations. The project team developed and demonstrated methodologies for quantifying the impact of distributed solar generation on core utility operations, identified protocols for internal data communication requirements, and worked with utility personnel to adapt the new distributed generation (DG) forecasts seamlessly within existing Load and Generation procedures through a sophisticated DMS. This project supported the objectives of the SunShot Initiative and SUNRISE by enabling core utility operations to enhance their simulation capability to analyze and prepare for the impacts of high penetrations of solar on the power grid. The impact of high penetration solar PV on utility operations is not only limited to control centers, but across many core operations. Benefits of an enhanced DMS using state-of-the-art solar forecast data were demonstrated within this project and have had an immediate direct operational cost savings for Energy Marketing for Day Ahead generation commitments, Real Time Operations, Load Forecasting (at an aggregate system level for Day Ahead), Demand Response, Long term Planning (asset management), Distribution Operations, and core ancillary services as required for balancing and reliability. This provided power system operators with the necessary tools and processes to operate the grid in a reliable manner under high renewable penetration.

  18. Reliability analysis and computation of computer-based safety instrumentation and control used in German nuclear power plant. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Yongjian; Krause, Ulrich; Gu, Chunlei

    2014-01-01

    The trend of technological advancement in the field of safety instrumentation and control (I and C) leads to increasingly frequent use of computer-based (digital) control systems which consisting of distributed, connected bus communications computers and their functionalities are freely programmable by qualified software. The advantages of the new I and C system over the old I and C system with hard-wired technology are e.g. in the higher flexibility, cost-effective procurement of spare parts, higher hardware reliability (through higher integration density, intelligent self-monitoring mechanisms, etc.). On the other hand, skeptics see the new technology with the computer-based I and C a higher potential by influences of common cause failures (CCF), and the easier manipulation by sabotage (IT Security). In this joint research project funded by the Federal Ministry for Economical Affaires and Energy (BMWi) (2011-2014, FJZ 1501405) the Otto-von-Guericke-University Magdeburg and Magdeburg-Stendal University of Applied Sciences are therefore trying to develop suitable methods for the demonstration of the reliability of the new instrumentation and control systems with the focus on the investigation of CCF. This expertise of both houses shall be extended to this area and a scientific contribution to the sound reliability judgments of the digital safety I and C in domestic and foreign nuclear power plants. First, the state of science and technology will be worked out through the study of national and international standards in the field of functional safety of electrical and I and C systems and accompanying literature. On the basis of the existing nuclear Standards the deterministic requirements on the structure of the new digital I and C system will be determined. The possible methods of reliability modeling will be analyzed and compared. A suitable method called multi class binomial failure rate (MCFBR) which was successfully used in safety valve applications will be

  19. Planning your first wind power project. A primer for utilities: Everything you need to know to bring your first wind power plant on-line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conover, K.; Davis, E.

    1994-12-01

    This primer has been prepared to help utility personnel become familiar with some or the details relative to wind power technology and project development. It is written as a series of relatively independent chapters to address specific topics or phases of wind power evaluation and development as they might occur within a utility. The topics include: wind prospecting and the first pass analysis, resource validation, project feasibility, resource planning and evaluation, resource acquisition, project development, equipment selection, project design and construction, and plant operation and maintenance

  20. Hydrogen and energy utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hustadt, Daniel [Vattenfall Europe Innovation GmbH (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Renewable electricity generation plays one major role with the biggest share being wind energy. At the end of the year 2009 a wind power plant capacity of around 26 GW was installed in Germany. Several outlooks come to the conclusion that this capacity can be doubled in ten years (compare Figure 1). Additionally the German government has set a target of 26 GW installed off-shore capacity in North and Baltic Sea until 2030. At Vattenfall only a minor percentage of the electricity production comes from wind power today. This share will be increased up to 12% until 2030 following Vattenfall's strategy 'Making Electricity Clean'. This rapid development of wind power offers several opportunities but also means some challenges to Utilities. (orig.)

  1. 15 N utilization in nitride nuclear fuels for advanced nuclear power reactors and accelerator - driven systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axente, D.

    2005-01-01

    15 N utilization for nitride nuclear fuels production for nuclear power reactors and accelerator - driven systems is presented. Nitride nuclear fuel is the obvious choice for advanced nuclear reactors and ADS because of its favorable properties: a high melting point, excellent thermal conductivity, high fissile density, lower fission gas release and good radiation tolerance. The application of nitride fuels in nuclear reactors and ADS requires use of 15 N enriched nitrogen to suppress 14 C production due to (n,p) reaction on 14 N. Accelerator - driven system is a recent development merging of accelerator and fission reactor technologies to generate electricity and transmute long - lived radioactive wastes as minor actinides: Np, Am, Cm. A high-energy proton beam hitting a heavy metal target produces neutrons by spallation. The neutrons cause fission in the fuel, but unlike in conventional reactors, the fuel is sub-critical and fission ceases when the accelerator is turned off. Nitride fuel is a promising candidate for transmutation in ADS of minor actinides, which are converted into nitrides with 15 N for that purpose. Tacking into account that the world wide market is about 20 to 40 Kg 15 N annually, the supply of that isotope for nitride fuel production for nuclear power reactors and ADS would therefore demand an increase in production capacity by a factor of 1000. For an industrial plant producing 100 t/y 15 N, using present technology of isotopic exchange in NITROX system, the first separation stage of the cascade would be fed with 10M HNO 3 solution of 600 mc/h flow - rate. If conversion of HNO 3 into NO, NO 2 , at the enriching end of the columns, would be done with gaseous SO 2 , for a production plant of 100 t/y 15 N a consumption of 4 million t SO 2 /y and a production of 70 % H 2 SO 4 waste solution of 4.5 million mc/y are estimated. The reconversion of H 2 SO 4 into SO 2 in order to recycle of SO 2 is a problem to be solved to compensate the cost of SO 2

  2. Utilization of ash fractions from alternative biofuels used in power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolaisen, L.; Hinge, J.; Christensen, I. (Danish Technological Inst., Aarhus (Denmark)); Dahl, J. (Force Technology, Broendby (Denmark)); Arendt Jensen, P. (DTU-CHEC, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)); Soendergaard Birkmose, T. (Dansk Landbrugsraadgivning, Landscentret, Aarhus (Denmark)); Sander, B. (DONG Energy, Fredericia (Denmark)); Kristensen, O. (Kommunekemi A/S, Nyborg (Denmark))

    2008-07-15

    It is expected, that demand for the traditional biomass resources wood and straw will increase over the next years. In other projects a number of agro industrial waste products has been tested and characterized as fuels for power plants. The annual production in Denmark of these fuels is estimated at roughly 400.000 tons of Dry Matter per year, so the potential is substantial. The agro industrial biomass products include: Grain screening waste, pea shells, soy waste, cocoa waste, sugar beet waste, sunflower waste, shea waste, coffee waste, olive waste, rice shell waste, potato waste, pectin waste, carrageen waste, tobacco waste, rape seed waste and mash from breweries. In the PSO project 5075, 5 different types of fuel pellets was produced, which were rendered suitable for combustion in power plants. In this project, ash is produced from the above mentioned 5 mixtures together with another 2 mixtures produced especially for this project. From the 5 mixtures from PSO 5075, ash is produced at Danish Technological Institute's slag analyzer. These ash products are rendered comparable to ash from grate fired boilers at power plants. The ash/slag from the combustion in the slag analyzer was then grinded - thus resulting in a total of 5 ash products. At DTU CHEC's Entrained Flow Reactor, ash products from the 5+2 mixtures were produced. These ash products are rendered comparable to ash produced form suspension fired boilers at power plants. For each of the 7 mixtures, bottom-, cyclone and filter ash was taken out separately resulting in a total of 21 ash samples. The produced ashes have been evaluated for their properties as directly applied fertilizer. Furthermore, scenarios have been set up to assess the feasibility in producing artificial fertilizer from the ash products, based on known processes. In the main components the content of Na, S, Cl and K is significantly higher in filter ashes, whereas the content of Mg, Al, Si and Ca is significantly lower. The

  3. Group-decoupled multi-group pin power reconstruction utilizing nodal solution 1D flux profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Lulin; Lu, Dong; Zhang, Shaohong; Wang, Dezhong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A direct fitting multi-group pin power reconstruction method is developed. • The 1D nodal solution flux profiles are used as the condition. • The least square fit problem is analytically solved. • A slowing down source improvement method is applied. • The method shows good accuracy for even challenging problems. - Abstract: A group-decoupled direct fitting method is developed for multi-group pin power reconstruction, which avoids both the complication of obtaining 2D analytic multi-group flux solution and any group-coupled iteration. A unique feature of the method is that in addition to nodal volume and surface average fluxes and corner fluxes, transversely-integrated 1D nodal solution flux profiles are also used as the condition to determine the 2D intra-nodal flux distribution. For each energy group, a two-dimensional expansion with a nine-term polynomial and eight hyperbolic functions is used to perform a constrained least square fit to the 1D intra-nodal flux solution profiles. The constraints are on the conservation of nodal volume and surface average fluxes and corner fluxes. Instead of solving the constrained least square fit problem numerically, we solve it analytically by fully utilizing the symmetry property of the expansion functions. Each of the 17 unknown expansion coefficients is expressed in terms of nodal volume and surface average fluxes, corner fluxes and transversely-integrated flux values. To determine the unknown corner fluxes, a set of linear algebraic equations involving corner fluxes is established via using the current conservation condition on all corners. Moreover, an optional slowing down source improvement method is also developed to further enhance the accuracy of the reconstructed flux distribution if needed. Two test examples are shown with very good results. One is a four-group BWR mini-core problem with all control blades inserted and the other is the seven-group OECD NEA MOX benchmark, C5G7

  4. NRC review of Electric Power Research Institute's Advanced Light Reactor Utility Requirements Document - Program summary, Project No. 669

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    The staff of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has prepared Volume 1 of a safety evaluation report (SER), ''NRC Review of Electric Power Research Institute's Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document -- Program Summary,'' to document the results of its review of the Electric Power Research Institute's ''Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document.'' This SER provides a discussion of the overall purpose and scope of the Requirements Document, the background of the staff's review, the review approach used by the staff, and a summary of the policy and technical issues raised by the staff during its review

  5. NPPCI - topics in the German Democratic Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziegenbein, D.

    1986-01-01

    This paper summarizes research and development activities in the field of computerized operator support systems, self-powered detectors, boiling diagnostic and loose part detection systems in the German Democratic Republic

  6. Locations and attributes of utility-scale solar power facilities in Colorado and New Mexico, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignizio, Drew A.; Carr, Natasha B.

    2012-01-01

    The data series consists of polygonal boundaries for utility-scale solar power facilities (both photovoltaic and concentrating solar power) located within Colorado and New Mexico as of December 2011. Attributes captured for each facility include the following: facility name, size/production capacity (in MW), type of solar technology employed, location, state, operational status, year the facility came online, and source identification information. Facility locations and perimeters were derived from 1-meter true-color aerial photographs (2011) produced by the National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP); the photographs have a positional accuracy of about ±5 meters (accessed from the NAIP GIS service: http://gis.apfo.usda.gov/arcgis/services). Solar facility perimeters represent the full extent of each solar facility site, unless otherwise noted. When visible, linear features such as fences or road lines were used to delineate the full extent of the solar facility. All related equipment including buildings, power substations, and other associated infrastructure were included within the solar facility. If solar infrastructure was indistinguishable from adjacent infrastructure, or if solar panels were installed on existing building tops, only the solar collecting equipment was digitized. The "Polygon" field indicates whether the "equipment footprint" or the full "site outline" was digitized. The spatial accuracy of features that represent site perimeters or an equipment footprint is estimated at +/- 10 meters. Facilities under construction or not fully visible in the NAIP imagery at the time of digitization (December 2011) are represented by an approximate site outline based on the best available information and documenting materials. The spatial accuracy of these facilities cannot be estimated without more up-to-date imagery – users are advised to consult more recent imagery as it becomes available. The "Status" field provides information about the operational

  7. Evaluation of utility monitoring and preoperational hydrothermal modeling at three nuclear power plant sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marmer, G.J.; Policastro, A.J.

    1977-01-01

    This paper evaluates the preoperational hydrothermal modeling and operational monitoring carried out by utilities as three nuclear-power-plant sites using once-through cooling. Our work was part of a larger study to assess the environmental impact of operating plants for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the suitability of the NRC Environmental Technical Specifications (Tech Specs) as set up for these plants. The study revealed that the plume mappings at the Kewaunee, Zion, and Quad Cities sites were generally satisfactory in terms of delineating plume size and other characteristics. Unfortunately, monitoring was not carried out during the most critical periods when largest plume size would be expected. At Kewaunee and Zion, preoperational predictions using analytical models were found to be rather poor. At Kewaunee (surface discharge), the Pritchard Model underestimated plume size in the near field, but grossly overestimated the plume's far-field extent. Moreover, lake-level variations affected plume dispersion, yet were not considered in preoperational predictions. At Zion (submerged discharge) the Pritchard Model was successful only in special, simple cases (single-unit operation, no stratification, no reversing currents, no recirculation). Due to neglect of the above-mentioned phenomena, the model underpredicted plume size. At Quad Cities (submerged discharge), the undistorted laboratory model predicted plume dispersion for low river flows. These low flow predictions appear to be reasonable extrapolations of the field data acquired at higher flows

  8. Highly efficient power system based on direct fission fragment energy conversion utilizing magnetic collimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsvetkov, Pavel V.; Hart, Ron R.; Parish, Theodore A.

    2003-01-01

    The present study was focused on developing a technologically feasible power system that is based on direct fission fragment energy conversion utilizing magnetic collimation. The new concept is an attempt to combine several advantageous design solutions, which have been proposed for application in both fission and fusion reactors, into one innovative system that can offer exceptional energy conversion efficiency. The analysis takes into consideration a wide range of operational aspects including fission fragment escape from the fuel, collimation, collection, criticality, long-term performance, energy conversion efficiency, heat removal, and safety characteristics. Specific characteristics of the individual system components and the entire system are evaluated. Consistent analysis and evaluation of the technological feasibility of the concept were achieved using state-of-the-art computer codes that allowed realistic and consistent modeling. The calculated energy conversion efficiencies for the presented designs without a thermodynamic cycle and with the heavy water cycle are 52% and 62%, respectively. The analysis indicates that efficiencies up to 90% are potentially achievable. (author)

  9. The German Market for photovoltaic (solar-produced electricity)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-06-01

    In preparation for reducing the CO2 emission and in so living up to the Kyoto-protocol with the succeeding changes, renewable energy has - including photovoltaic - got an increasing importance in the world over - especially in Germany. If the technical potentials in Germany are utilized optimally, then 75% of the total German electricity production with photovoltaic are covered. At the moment it is only about 1 per thousand. There is a political will to promote photovoltaic in Germany, which results in high account prices and different plant supporting programmes. In the coming 6 years the official aim is that a minimum of 100.000 photovoltaic power plants are installed with an average capacitate for 3 kWp. The competition for the market is hard. There are many national and international suppliers, so the co-operations between the large German producers seem to be obvious. (EHS)

  10. Balance of natural radionuclides in the brown coal based power generation and harmlessness of the residues and side product utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, Hartmut; Kunze, Christian; Hummrich, Holger

    2017-01-01

    During brown coal combustion a partial enrichment of natural radionuclides occurs in different residues. Residues and side product from brown coal based power generation are used in different ways, for example filter ashes and gypsum from flue gas desulfurization facilities are used in the construction materials fabrication and slags for road construction. Detailed measurement and accounting of radionuclides in the mass throughputs in coal combustion power plants have shown that the utilized gypsum and filter ashes are harmless in radiologic aspects.

  11. Region-specific study of the electric utility industry: financial history and future power requirements for the VACAR region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pochan, M.J.

    1985-07-01

    Financial data for the period 1966 to 1981 are presented for the four investor-owned electric utilities in the VACAR (Virginia-Carolinas) region. This region was selected as representative for the purpose of assessing the availability, reliability, and cost of electric power for the future in the United States. The estimated demand for power and planned additions to generating capacity for the region through the year 2000 are also given

  12. Wind power goes offshore. European workshop, exhibition and technical tour within the frame of the EU funded project 'German-Polish cross border OPET'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    Along with hydroelectric, wind power is today's major and expanding producer of electricity from renewable sources. So far mainly coastal locations have been used around Europe, and potential for expansion lies especially in places which until now have been used little or not at all. The European Commission White Paper states: ''In particular, there is enormous potential for offshore wind farms [..] In order to achieve large-scale penetration of wind energy in the European Union these areas have also to be used.'' However, other location factors and technical challenges on the open sea demand very careful and thorough planning. As early as 1991, 11 450-kW wind turbine generators came into operation in the Vindeby offshore wind park in Denmark. The Tun diameter Knob park followed in 1995 with 10 500-kW units. By contrast, no wind park is expected to be operating off the coast of Germany until 2005. All around the North Sea and the Baltic Ring, plans are being laid to erect offshore wind power facilities - but in many places the legal and technical framework conditions are the subject of scrutiny on criteria of nature conservation and suitability for the location. The 'Wind Power goes Offshore' seminar presents current planning in Denmark, Sweden, Poland and Germany. There will be reports on experiences with running existing plants, and on procedures for setting up new projects. The seminar and concurrent exhibition were intended to stimulate wide exchanges of information and networking between practitioners at European level. The seminar was for manufacturers, planners and operators of wind power plants, environmental and nature conservation organisations, local authorities, and energy supply companies around the North Sea and the Baltic Ring. (orig.) [German] Windenergie leistet heute neben der Wasserkraft den groessten Beitrag zur Stromerzeugung aus erneuerbaren Energietraegern - Tendenz steigend. Nachdem bisher europaweit

  13. The Strategic Challenge of Capacity for German Decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomauske, Bruno; Moloney, Barry; Charlier, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Experience of decommissioning across the world has allowed the nuclear industry to develop and enhance most of the technologies required for safe and efficient dismantling of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). One strategic challenge confronting the industry now is how to scale up implementation to address the burgeoning demand for dismantling of full size NPPs during the period 2016-2040. The German decommissioning programme will provide early evidence of whether the European industry can rise to this strategic challenge. It is widely reported in the media that German utilities will spend some Euro 30-40 Bn decommissioning NPPs during the next 25 years. In total, 22 NPPs will progress through the typical three stage programme encompassing post operations, dismantling and site clearance, with a peak occurring in the 2020's. Politically, immediate dismantling is strongly preferred as the strategy for the NPPs, so there will be a surge in decommissioning expenditure starting as soon as 2017. A critical issue is whether the German nuclear industry has sufficient capacity to deliver the programme, and where utilities may seek participation by other European companies. Innovation may be required, perhaps at a non-technical level. The circumstances of the German market require a thorough understanding. While the market is apparently open and receptive to international participation, three factors make it hard for foreign companies to penetrate. The political and regulatory environment is tough and for many foreign companies difficult to understand quickly. Utilities are mostly pursuing self-perform decommissioning strategies to preserve employment for their skilled workforce, limiting scope for some contractors. Finally, an innovative and highly experienced German nuclear industry can present formidable competition. Yet, this industry does not possess all the capacity needed for the utilities' programmes. Risks for new entrants can

  14. Status of the technical project design phase of the German Waste Management Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mischke, J.

    1978-01-01

    Under the waste management concept of the German Federal Government the utilities are to assume responsibility for waste management of the German nuclear power plants within the framework of the polluter pays principle, the ultimate storage of radioactive waste remaining a responsibility of the government. The duties of industry chiefly include planning, construction and operation of the facilities for fuel element storage, reprocessing and waste treatment and for processing the recovered nuclear fuel. The German utilities operating and planning nuclear power plants have set up the Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Wiederaufarbeitung von Kernbrennstoffen mbH (DWK), which is to build the Waste Management Center and also works on the interim solutions planned for continuous waste management up to the completion of the planned Waste Management Center. For this purpose, DWK plans to construct temporary fuel storage facilities and has entered into agreements to secure reprocessing abroad of fuel elements from German nuclear power plants. In discharging its obligations DWK has acquired the extensive know-how available in the Federal Republic in the field of reprocessing spent fuel elements. (orig.) [de

  15. Stochastic simulation of power systems with integrated renewable and utility-scale storage resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degeilh, Yannick

    The push for a more sustainable electric supply has led various countries to adopt policies advocating the integration of renewable yet variable energy resources, such as wind and solar, into the grid. The challenges of integrating such time-varying, intermittent resources has in turn sparked a growing interest in the implementation of utility-scale energy storage resources ( ESRs), with MWweek storage capability. Indeed, storage devices provide flexibility to facilitate the management of power system operations in the presence of uncertain, highly time-varying and intermittent renewable resources. The ability to exploit the potential synergies between renewable and ESRs hinges on developing appropriate models, methodologies, tools and policy initiatives. We report on the development of a comprehensive simulation methodology that provides the capability to quantify the impacts of integrated renewable and ESRs on the economics, reliability and emission variable effects of power systems operating in a market environment. We model the uncertainty in the demands, the available capacity of conventional generation resources and the time-varying, intermittent renewable resources, with their temporal and spatial correlations, as discrete-time random processes. We deploy models of the ESRs to emulate their scheduling and operations in the transmission-constrained hourly day-ahead markets. To this end, we formulate a scheduling optimization problem (SOP) whose solutions determine the operational schedule of the controllable ESRs in coordination with the demands and the conventional/renewable resources. As such, the SOP serves the dual purpose of emulating the clearing of the transmission-constrained day-ahead markets (DAMs ) and scheduling the energy storage resource operations. We also represent the need for system operators to impose stricter ramping requirements on the conventional generating units so as to maintain the system capability to perform "load following'', i

  16. Renewable Energy Price-Stability Benefits in Utility Green Power Programs. 36 pp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, Lori A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cory, Karlynn S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Swezey, Blair G. [Applied Materials, Santa Clara, CA (United States)

    2008-08-01

    This paper examines utility experiences when offering the fixed-price benefits of renewable energy in green pricing programs, including the methods utilized and the impact on program participation. It focuses primarily on utility green pricing programs in states that have not undergone electric industry restructuring.

  17. Renewable Energy Price-Stability Benefits in Utility Green Power Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, L. A.; Cory, K. S.; Swezey, B. G.

    2008-08-01

    This paper examines utility experiences when offering the fixed-price benefits of renewable energy in green pricing programs, including the methods utilized and the impact on program participation. It focuses primarily on utility green pricing programs in states that have not undergone electric industry restructuring.

  18. Cost structure analysis of commercial nuclear power plants in Japan based on corporate financial statements of electric utility companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunitake, Norifumi; Nagano, Koji; Suzuki, Tatsujiro

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze past and current cost structure of commercial nuclear power plants in Japan based on annual corporate financial statements published by the Japanese electric utility companies, instead of employing the conventional methodology of evaluating the generation cost for a newly constructed model plant. The result of our study on existing commercial nuclear plants reveals the increasing significance of O and M and fuel cycle costs in total generation cost. Thus, it is suggested that electric power companies should take more efforts to reduce these costs in order to maintain the competitiveness of nuclear power in Japan. (author)

  19. Vector and parallel computing on the IBM ES/3090, a powerful approach to solving problems in the utility industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellucci, V.J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes IBM's approach to parallel computing using the IBM ES/3090 computer. Parallel processing concepts were discussed including its advantages, potential performance improvements and limitations. Particular applications and capabilities for the IBM ES/3090 were presented along with preliminary results from some utilities in the application of parallel processing to simulation of system reliability, air pollution models, and power network dynamics

  20. Energy Saving Performance Analysis of An Inverter-based Regenerative Power Re-utilization Device for Urban Rail Transit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin; Qiu, Zhiling; Hu, Leilei

    2018-04-01

    The inverter-based regenerative braking power utilization devices can re-utilize the regenerative energy, thus reduce the energy consumption of urban rail transit. In this paper the power absorption principle of the inverter-based device is introduced, then the key influencing factors of energy saving performance are analyzed based on the absorption model. The field operation data verified that the control DC voltage plays an important role and lower control DC voltage yields more energy saving. Also, the one year energy saving performance data of an inverter-based re-utilization device located in NanJing S8 line is provided, and more than 1.2 million kWh energy is recovered in the one year operation.

  1. Energy Research Advisory Board, Civilian Nuclear Power Panel: Subpanel 1 report, Light water reactor utilization and improvement: Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-10-01

    The Secretary of Energy requested that the Office of Nuclear Energy prepare a strategic national plan that outlines the Department's role in the future development of civilian nuclear power and that the Energy Research Advisory Board establish an ad hoc panel to review and comment on this plan. The Energy Research Advisory Board formed a panel for this review and three subpanels were formed. One subpanel was formed to address the institutional issues surrounding nuclear power, one on research and development for advanced nuclear power plants and a third subpanel on light water reactor utilization and improvement. The subpanel on light water reactors held two meetings at which representatives of the DOE, the NRC, EPRI, industry and academic groups made presentations. This is the report of the subpanel on light water reactor utilization and improvement. This report presents the subpanel's assessment of initiatives which the Department of Energy should undertake in the national interest, to develop and support light water reactor technologies

  2. dena grid study II. Integration of renewable energy sources into the German power supply system until 2020; dena - Netzstudie II. Integration erneuerbarer Energien in die deutsche Stromversorgung bis 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agricola, Annegret C.; Seidl, Hannes; Zoch, Immo (comps.)

    2010-12-15

    With its broad system approach, dena Grid Study II describes new ways of developing Germany's integrated grid with regard to the expansion of renewable energy sources and taking not only an economically optimised conventional power generation system but also European power trading into account. Basis for detailed grid planning. Having investigated many different transmission technologies, grid management measures and options for increasing flexibility on both the supply and demand side, the study does much more than simply identify grid expansion requirements, it shows the path towards overall optimisation of the energy supply system. In addition to robustly identifying grid expansion requirements, dena Grid Study II provides a very sound basis for further detailed grid planning and the identification of specific power routes in the German power transmission grid. Increasing grid expansion requirements. dena Grid Study II investigates the expansion of electricity generation from renewable energy sources to 39 percent by 2020. However, this is just an interim goal. By as soon as 2030, the German Federal Government is planning to raise the proportion of renewable electricity generation to 50 percent. This shows that even after 2020, further adaptation of grid infrastructure will still be necessary. Practical action required. If the grid expansion required to integrate renewable energy sources is to be achieved rapidly, there is an urgent need to back up the grid expansion scenarios presented in dena Grid Study II with practical action. (orig.)

  3. Rational power utilization and generation without nuclear energy: Potentials and assessment of effects on the power industry, ecology, and economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuhr, K.P.; Eckerle, K.; Hofer, P.; Meckel, H.; Wolff, H.; Frey, B.; Schilling, K.; Brand, M.; Jochem, E.

    1987-10-01

    The unabridged version of the investigation gives the reader interested in details the relevant information on the individual analyses. The development of the investigation describes the analysis of the demographical and economical framework data, the long-term development of the energy price and the long-term energy demand development in a reference scenario. As most important status-quo condition it is defined that the development lines to be expected of the expected fuel and power demand and the supply of the power demand are indicated under the condition of further development of the nuclear power generation being borne by a political consensus. A contrast scenario examines if replacement of the nuclear energy would be possible by power cuts, development of the local heat supply and long-distance heat supply by cogeneration systems and development of the industrial cogeneration systems. (DG) [de

  4. Utilizing Maximum Power Point Trackers in Parallel to Maximize the Power Output of a Solar (Photovoltaic) Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    completing the academic workload at NPS. Taking care of two toddlers all day, every day, is not an easy task. You make xxviii it seem effortless and...for the development of numerous thin-cell applications that meet the military’s requirements for ruggedness and power output. For example, the...2012, September 5). PV microinverters and power optimizers set for significant growth [PV Magazine Online]. Available: http://www.pv- magazine.com

  5. Trends in Japan's power generation costs after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident and their influence on finance of electric utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Yuhji; Yamaguchi, Yuhji; Murakami, Tomoko

    2013-01-01

    Following the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident, the nuclear reactors that were suspended for periodic inspections after the Fukushima accident were not permitted to resume operation, and nuclear power generation in Japan continued to decline. In this article, the authors quantitatively evaluated the effects on power generation costs of Japan's situation, using electric utilities financial reports up to FY 2011. We also analyzed the profitability of the Japanese electric industry, using the financial statements included in the reports, and quantitatively evaluated the effects of changes in power generation costs. The total cost of power generation has increased from 7.5 trillion yen in FY 2010 before the Fukushima accident to 9.6 trillion yen in FY 2011 and to 10.6 trillion yen in FY 2012. In particular, the fuel cost for thermal power generation rose sharply from 3.7 trillion yen in FY 2010 to 6.1 trillion yen in FY 2011 and 7.3 trillion yen in FY 2012, almost doubling in the two years from FY 2010 to 2012. The unit cost of power generation rose sharply from 8.6 yen/kWh in FY 2010 to 11.8 yen/kWh in FY 2011 and 13.5 yen/kWh in FY 2012. The unit cost is expected to rise even further in FY 2013 due to the weak yen. As the result not only Tokyo Electric Power Company, but also the other general electric utilities registered huge net losses. Their retained earnings (total of eight utilities) dropped by 2 trillion yen between FY 2010 and 2012. With increased thermal power generation, the risk of rising costs associated with changes in primary energy prices and exchange rates has increased drastically. For the stability of the electricity industry and the development of the Japanese economy, the government should clearly formulate a basic policy regarding the composition of power sources, and an effective plan both at home and abroad, and should develop a system that will be also to handle sudden changes in the composition of power sources. (author)

  6. Power utility generation portfolio optimization as function of specific RES and decarbonisation targets – EPBiH case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazagic, Anes; Merzic, Ajla; Redzic, Elma; Music, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Guidelines for power utilities to reach specific decarbonisation targets offered. • Optimization model of RES share to be introduced into power system is proposed. • Single criteria analysis and multicriteria sustainability assessment are applied. • The optimization method has been demonstrated on a real power system. • In the considered case, HIGH RES scenario showed to be the preferable one. - Abstract: This paper provides guidelines and principles for power utilities to reach specific energy and decarbonisation targets. Method of power generation portfolio optimization, as function of sustainability and decarbonisation, along with appropriate criteria, has been proposed. Application of this optimization method has been demonstrated on a real power system – power utility JP Elektroprivreda BiH d.d. – Sarajevo (EPBiH), a typical example of South East European power system. The software tool WASP IV has been employed in the analysis, in order to define the dynamics and an optimized expansion of generation portfolio of the power system under consideration for the next period. The mid-term generation portfolio development plan for the EPBiH power system until year 2030 has been made during this research, taking into account the shutdown dynamics of existing power units and commissioning new ones, in order to provide safe supply of electric and heat energy for local consumers. Three basic scenario of renewable energy sources (RES) expansion have been analysed to reach specific RES and decarbonisation targets set for 2030, including RES share increase from the current level of 18% up to 35% (LOW RES), 45% (MID RES) and 55% (HIGH RES). Effects to the sustainability are considered through environmental, economic and social indicators. Multicriteria sustainability assessment gave an advantage to the HIGH RES, under assumption of equal weighting factors of economic and environment groups of indicators. Also, single criteria analysis has been

  7. Novel Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Power Cycle Utilizing Pressured Oxy-combustion in Conjunction with Cryogenic Compression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brun, Klaus; McClung, Aaron; Davis, John

    2014-03-31

    The team of Southwest Research Institute® (SwRI) and Thar Energy LLC (Thar) applied technology engineering and economic analysis to evaluate two advanced oxy-combustion power cycles, the Cryogenic Pressurized Oxy-combustion Cycle (CPOC), and the Supercritical Oxy-combustion Cycle. This assessment evaluated the performance and economic cost of the two proposed cycles with carbon capture, and included a technology gap analysis of the proposed technologies to determine the technology readiness level of the cycle and the cycle components. The results of the engineering and economic analysis and the technology gap analysis were used to identify the next steps along the technology development roadmap for the selected cycle. The project objectives, as outlined in the FOA, were 90% CO{sub 2} removal at no more than a 35% increase in cost of electricity (COE) as compared to a Supercritical Pulverized Coal Plant without CO{sub 2} capture. The supercritical oxy-combustion power cycle with 99% carbon capture achieves a COE of $121/MWe. This revised COE represents a 21% reduction in cost as compared to supercritical steam with 90% carbon capture ($137/MWe). However, this represents a 49% increase in the COE over supercritical steam without carbon capture ($80.95/MWe), exceeding the 35% target. The supercritical oxy-combustion cycle with 99% carbon capture achieved a 37.9% HHV plant efficiency (39.3% LHV plant efficiency), when coupling a supercritical oxy-combustion thermal loop to an indirect supercritical CO{sub 2} (sCO{sub 2}) power block. In this configuration, the power block achieved 48% thermal efficiency for turbine inlet conditions of 650°C and 290 atm. Power block efficiencies near 60% are feasible with higher turbine inlet temperatures, however a design tradeoff to limit firing temperature to 650°C was made in order to use austenitic stainless steels for the high temperature pressure vessels and piping and to minimize the need for advanced turbomachinery features

  8. Power Flow Distribution Strategy for Improved Power Electronics Energy Efficiency in Battery Storage Systems: Development and Implementation in a Utility-Scale System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Schimpe

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Utility-scale battery storage systems typically consist of multiple smaller units contributing to the overall power dispatch of the system. Herein, the power distribution among these units is analyzed and optimized to operate the system with increased energy efficiency. To improve the real-life storage operation, a holistic system model for battery storage systems has been developed that enables a calculation of the energy efficiency. A utility-scale Second-Life battery storage system with a capacity of 3.3 MWh/3 MW is operated and evaluated in this work. The system is in operation for the provision of primary control reserve in combination with intraday trading for controlling the battery state of charge. The simulation model is parameterized with the system data. Results show that losses in power electronics dominate. An operational strategy improving the energy efficiency through an optimized power flow distribution within the storage system is developed. The power flow distribution strategy is based on the reduction of the power electronics losses at no-load/partial-load by minimizing their in-operation time. The simulation derived power flow distribution strategy is implemented in the real-life storage system. Field-test measurements and analysis prove the functionality of the power flow distribution strategy and reveal the reduction of the energy throughput of the units by 7%, as well as a significant reduction of energy losses in the units by 24%. The cost savings for electricity over the system’s lifetime are approximated to 4.4% of its investment cost.

  9. Analysis of technologies and economics for geothermal energy utilization of electric power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haijie, C.

    1993-01-01

    Geothermal energy -- it is a kind of heat energy which pertains to the internal heat of the earth. It carries the heat of the earth outward by the underground water of the rock section of the earth. Normally, the temperature of the thermal water is 50 degrees-140 degrees. During the 20th century, the rapid development of industry and agriculture quickly increased the need for large amounts of electric power. Now, although there are coal power plants, oil and nature gas power plants, hydroelectric power and nuclear power plants, all countries of the world attach importance to the prospect of geothermal power plants. It is the most economic (no consumption fuel) and safe (no pollution) power plant. (Present author considered that the chlorofluorocarbon refrigerants such as RII, R12, and etc. are not used). In 1904, Italy established the first geothermal power plant in the world. Soon afterwards, the U.S.A., Iceland, Japan, Russia, and New Zealand also established geothermal power plants. In 1970, China, North China, Jiang province and Guangdong province also established geothermal power plants. In 1975, the U.S.A. geothermal power plant capacity of 522mw was the first in the world

  10. Low-cost space fission power systems utilizing US and former Soviet Union experience and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetch, J.R.; Britt, E.J.; Koester, J.K.; Gunther, N.; Ponomarev-Stepnoi, N.N.; Nikolaev, Y.V.; Nikitin, V.

    1997-01-01

    This report summarizes the author close-quote s approach to space power total economics. In the past 40 years of U.S. government sponsored space nuclear power developments, total economics has received only token consideration. In the real world, nuclear power has had limited acceptance where it provided the enabling capability i.e. isotopes for low power, long life, deep space missions, or reactor power for underwater nuclear submarines. It was also accepted where it was perceived to be more economic. Examples are nuclear reactor powered aircraft carriers, escort vessels and central station power stations. In any case, real and perceived public and environmental safety must always be included into the economic equation. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  11. Northwest power gamble: Washington utilities go for broke on nuclear; region's citizens make conservation bid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brummer, J.

    1981-01-01

    The Washington Public Power Supply System (WPPSS) is asking for a reactor construction moratorium in an effort to get fast relief from the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), which is authorized to guarantee power purchases from new power plants. Supporters of nuclear power plants as well as those of the soft energy path are watching to see how BPA will handle its mandate against acquiring new thermal plants until conservation and renewable energy potentials are exhausted. BPA can subvert the Pacific Northwest Power Act with 20-year contracts based on conventional forecasts despite evidence that new plants are unneeded. There is also evidence that the public rejects the idea of a moral obligation to bail out nuclear power cost overruns at taxpayer expense. The negotiations involve not only WPPSS and BPA, but Moody's Investor Service and environmental groups

  12. Impact of power purchases from nonutilities on the utility cost of capital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahn, E.; Stoft, S.; Belden, T.

    1994-03-01

    This report studies the debt-equivalence debate empirically. The topics of the study include a review of the literature on the cost of equity capital for regulated utilities, a formulation of the debate on NUGs and the utility's cost of capital, a review of variable definitions and data sources, and a discussion of statistical issues and results

  13. 21st Century Power Partnership Fellowship Program: Supporting Next-generation Planning Modeling Practices at South Africa's Power Utility Eskom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinaman, Owen

    2016-10-01

    This presentation details the 21st Century Power Partnership's fellowship program accomplishments from 2016. This fellowship brought two fellows from South Africa's power utility, Eskom, to the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The fellows spent two weeks working to improve the fidelity of Eskom's PLEXOS long-term and short-term models, which are used in long-term generation planning exercises and capacity adequacy assessments. The fellows returned to Eksom equipped with a new suite of tools and skills to enhance Eksom's PLEXOS modeling capabilities.

  14. Pipe-anchor discontinuity analysis utilizing power series solutions, Bessel functions, and Fourier series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, Dennis K.; Ranson, William F.

    2003-01-01

    One of the paradigmatic classes of problems that frequently arise in piping stress analysis discipline is the effect of local stresses created by supports and restraints attachments. Over the past 20 years, concerns have been identified by both regulatory agencies in the nuclear power industry and others in the process and chemicals industries concerning the effect of various stiff clamping arrangements on the expected life of the pipe and its various piping components. In many of the commonly utilized geometries and arrangements of pipe clamps, the elasticity problem becomes the axisymmetric stress and deformation determination in a hollow cylinder (pipe) subjected to the appropriate boundary conditions and respective loads per se. One of the geometries that serve as a pipe anchor is comprised of two pipe clamps that are bolted tightly to the pipe and affixed to a modified shoe-type arrangement. The shoe is employed for the purpose of providing an immovable base that can be easily attached either by bolting or welding to a structural steel pipe rack. Over the past 50 years, the computational tools available to the piping analyst have changed dramatically and thereby have caused the implementation of solutions to the basic problems of elasticity to change likewise. The need to obtain closed form elasticity solutions, however, has always been a driving force in engineering. The employment of symbolic calculus that is currently available through numerous software packages makes closed form solutions very economical. This paper briefly traces the solutions over the past 50 years to a variety of axisymmetric stress problems involving hollow circular cylinders employing a Fourier series representation. In the present example, a properly chosen Fourier series represent the mathematical simulation of the imposed axial displacements on the outside diametrical surface. A general solution technique is introduced for the axisymmetric discontinuity stresses resulting from an

  15. [The boycott against German scientists and the German language after World War I].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinbothe, R

    2013-12-01

    After the First World War, the Allied academies of sciences staged a boycott against German scientists and the German language. The objective of the boycott was to prevent the re-establishment of the prewar dominance of German scientists, the German language and German publications in the area of international scientific cooperation. Therefore the Allies excluded German scientists and the German language from international associations, congresses and publications, while they created new international scientific organizations under their leadership. Medical associations and congresses were also affected, e. g. congresses on surgery, ophthalmology and tuberculosis. Allied physicians replaced the "International Anti-Tuberculosis Association" founded in Berlin in 1902 with the "Union Internationale contre la Tuberculose"/"International Union against Tuberculosis", founded in Paris in 1920. Only French and English were used as the official languages of the new scientific organizations, just as in the League of Nations. The boycott was based on the fact that the German scientists had denied German war guilt and war crimes and glorified German militarism in a manifesto "To The Civilized World!" in 1914. The boycott first started in 1919 and had to be abolished in 1926, when Germany became a member of the League of Nations. Many German and foreign physicians as well as other scientists protested against the boycott. Some German scientists and institutions even staged a counter-boycott impeding the resumption of international collaboration. The boycott entailed an enduring decline of German as an international scientific language. After the Second World War scientists of the victorious Western Powers implemented a complete reorganization of the international scientific arena, based on the same organizational structures and language restrictions they had built up in 1919/1920. At the same time scientists from the U.S.A. staged an active language and publication policy, in

  16. Power Flow Simulations of a More Renewable California Grid Utilizing Wind and Solar Insolation Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, E. K.; Jacobson, M. Z.; Dvorak, M. J.

    2008-12-01

    Time series power flow analyses of the California electricity grid are performed with extensive addition of intermittent renewable power. The study focuses on the effects of replacing non-renewable and imported (out-of-state) electricity with wind and solar power on the reliability of the transmission grid. Simulations are performed for specific days chosen throughout the year to capture seasonal fluctuations in load, wind, and insolation. Wind farm expansions and new wind farms are proposed based on regional wind resources and time-dependent wind power output is calculated using a meteorological model and the power curves of specific wind turbines. Solar power is incorporated both as centralized and distributed generation. Concentrating solar thermal plants are modeled using local insolation data and the efficiencies of pre-existing plants. Distributed generation from rooftop PV systems is included using regional insolation data, efficiencies of common PV systems, and census data. The additional power output of these technologies offsets power from large natural gas plants and is balanced for the purposes of load matching largely with hydroelectric power and by curtailment when necessary. A quantitative analysis of the effects of this significant shift in the electricity portfolio of the state of California on power availability and transmission line congestion, using a transmission load-flow model, is presented. A sensitivity analysis is also performed to determine the effects of forecasting errors in wind and insolation on load-matching and transmission line congestion.

  17. Soft power geopolitics: how does the diminishing utility of military power affect the Russia – West confrontation over the “Common Neighbourhood”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasif HUSEYNOV

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on the fact that a number of factors, but particularly the restricting utility of military force between great powers, increase the significance of soft power as a tool both for legitimization and expansion in international relations in general, and in the West – Russia confrontation over the “common (or shared neighbourhood” in particular. It explores how this fact affects the policies of the Western powers and Russia within the frame of the confrontation they are in. The paper narrows down its analytical focus on the efforts of the Kremlin to affect the public opinion in its neighbourhood and to counter Western soft power. It is argued that the Ukraine crisis has affected Russia’s perception of soft power, re-constructed its counter-revolutionary agenda, and increased the profile of propaganda in its foreign policy. The paper concludes that the soft power competition between Russia and West and the policies of the two powers to win over the hearts and minds of people in the shared neighbourhood re-define the character of geopolitical games in the Former Soviet Union.

  18. Study on public awareness of utilizing nuclear power in China. Changes in public awareness after the accident of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Ting; Wakabayashi, Toshio

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to clarify public awareness of utilizing nuclear power in China and to determine the effects of the accident of Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plants. Web online surveys were carried out before and after the accident of Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plants. The online survey before the accident of Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plants had 4,255 adult respondents consisting of 1,851 males and 2,404 females. The online survey after the accident had 721 respondents consisting of 406 males and 315 females. The two online surveys about the attitude toward nuclear power plants consisted of 37 items, such as the necessity of nuclear power plants, the reliability of safety, and government confidence. As a result, respondents of the online surveys in China consider that nuclear energy is more important than the anxiety of accident. On the other hand, women have sensation of fear for the accident of Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plants and radiation. (author)

  19. On the Dynamics and Statics of Power System Operation : Optimal Utilization of FACTS Devices and Management of Wind Power Uncertainty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nasri, A.

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, power systems are dealing with some new challenges raised by the major changes that have been taken place since 80’s, e.g., deregulation in electricity markets, significant increase of electricity demands and more recently large-scale integration of renewable energy resources such as wind

  20. UMCP-BG and E collaboration in nuclear power engineering in the framework of DOE-Utility Nuclear Power Engineering Education Matching Grant Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, Lothar PhD

    2000-03-01

    The DOE-Utility Nuclear Power Engineering Education Matching Grant Program has been established to support the education of students in Nuclear Engineering Programs to maintain a knowledgeable workforce in the United States in order to keep nuclear power as a viable component in a mix of energy sources for the country. The involvement of the utility industry ensures that this grant program satisfies the needs and requirements of local nuclear energy producers and at the same time establishes a strong linkage between education and day-to-day nuclear power generation. As of 1997, seventeen pairs of university-utility partners existed. UMCP was never a member of that group of universities, but applied for the first time with a proposal to Baltimore Gas and Electric Company in January 1999 [1]. This proposal was generously granted by BG&E [2,3] in the form of a gift in the amount of $25,000 from BG&E's Corporate Contribution Program. Upon the arrival of a newly appointed Director of Administration in the Department of Materials and Nuclear Engineering, the BG&E check was deposited into the University's Maryland Foundation Fund. The receipt of the letter and the check enabled UMCP to apply for DOE's matching funds in the same amount by a proposal.