WorldWideScience

Sample records for german community survey

  1. Sexual desire and sexual activity of men and women across their lifespans: results from a representative German community survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beutel, Manfred E; Stöbel-Richter, Yve; Brähler, Elmar

    2008-01-01

    To present data on sexual desire and sexual activity from a representative survey of men and women covering the total age range of the adult German population, as previous studies have usually been based on samples selected for gender (either men or women) and age (ageing populations). A representative sample of 2341 men and women aged 18-93 years were surveyed to determine frequency and intensity of sexual desire and sexual activity, and their social, individual and interpersonal characteristics. Sexual desire declined with advancing age; overall, men reported more frequent and stronger sexual desire than women. However, there were important interactions between gender and age indicating an earlier decline among women. For both men and women, sexual activity in older participants was mostly an issue of the presence of a partnership. There were additional social and personality determinants of a lack of sexual desire and sexual inactivity: in men, sexual desire was compromised by social factors (unemployment, low income), while in women these were previous sexual traumas (childhood sexual abuse, rape). Community surveys elucidate the trajectory of sexual desire and activity across the lifespan. Further research on the determinants and risk factors for a lack of sexual desire and sexual inactivity is recommendable taking gender and age composition of the samples into account.

  2. Making sense of the German Wikipedia community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rikke Frank Jørgensen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the findings from a qualitative study of the German Wikipedia community, focusing on how people engaged with Wikipedia make sense of norms, collaborative practices and means of regulation within the community. The study highlights the strong focus on the quality of the end-product (the encyclopedia in the German community, stressing that article quality is seen as more important than the wiki-process as such. As the community has grown, an increasing number of rules and mechanisms have been deployed to resolve various issues and conflicts, however the interviewees do not perceive Wikipedia as being bureaucratic, but rather describe it as a “rule-governed anarchy”. The findings suggest that people contribute for a variety of reasons, yet point to reactions from and interactions with fellow Wikipedians as one of the strongest motivational drivers for participation.

  3. "We call it Springbok-German!": language contact in the German communities in South Africa.

    OpenAIRE

    Franke, Katharina

    2017-01-01

    Varieties of German are spoken all over the world, some of which have been maintained for prolonged periods of time. As a result, these transplanted varieties often show traces of the ongoing language contact as specific to their particular context. This thesis explores one such transplanted German language variety – Springbok- German – as spoken by a small subset of German Lutherans in South Africa. Specifically, this study takes as its focus eight rural German communities acr...

  4. Crossing the Lexicon: Anglicisms in the German Hip Hop Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garley, Matthew E.

    2012-01-01

    The influence of English on German has been an ongoing subject of intense popular and academic interest in the German sphere. In order to better understand this language contact situation, this research project investigates anglicisms--instances of English language material in a German language context--in the German hip hop community, where the…

  5. 2015 Community Survey Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — These are the answers to the 2015 Community Survey.A comprehensive summary of the survey results can be found here.The survey asked town members to address their...

  6. IT User Community Survey

    CERN Multimedia

    Peter Jones (IT-CDA-WF)

    2016-01-01

    IT-CDA is gathering information to more accurately form a snapshot of the CERN IT user community and we would appreciate you taking time to complete the following survey.   We want to use this survey to better understand how the user community uses their devices and our services, and how the delivery of those services could be improved. You will need to authenticate to complete the survey. However please note that your responses are confidential and will be compiled together and analysed as a group. You can also volunteer to offer additional information if you so wish. This survey should take no longer than 5 minutes. Thanks in advance for your collaboration.

  7. Effective Outpatient Care in the Community: One German Way ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: The simple sum core (PRS) allows calculating the risk of LSH on the basis of a small number of characteristics drawn from usually registered psychiatric base data and can help psychiatric services to concentrate on high risk patients. Key Words: Community Psychiatry, German Model, Effectiveness. Journal of ...

  8. Brazilian Portuguese and German in contact in two virtual communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Layla Cristina Iapechino Souto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of code-switching between Brazilian Portuguese and German language in two virtual communities on Facebook: Brasileiros em Berlim and Brasileiros e Brasileiras em Berlim. We have adopted the concepts of durability, permeability and liminality traced by Zinkhahn-Rhobodes (2015 to observe the permeability of the linguistic border between these two languages. 

  9. The German energy policy: between national requirements and community exigencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notz, K.

    2007-01-01

    Taking into account the strategic and economic stakes that are associated with the security of energy supplies, the German federal government has made of this question one of the priorities of its european presidency. In this note, the author observes a radical change in the German energy policy with the future phaseout of nuclear energy and the perspectives of Russian gas supply. The author also reviews the challenges of the elaboration of a European energy policy, with certain member States refusing to transfer their sovereignty in the energy domain, and the large split between national requirements and community exigencies in this field

  10. Management of chronic orofacial pain: a survey of general dentists in german university hospitals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wirz, Stefan; Ellerkmann, Richard K.; Buecheler, Marcus; Putensen, Christian; Nadstawek, Joachim; Wartenberg, Hans-Christian

    2010-01-01

    AIM: This survey assessed procedures performed by general dentists in German university hospitals treating patients with chronic orofacial pain (COP). METHODS: A standardized questionnaire was sent to dentists at all 42 German universities. Doctors were asked to describe demographics, diagnoses,

  11. The German version of the Perceived Stress Scale - psychometric characteristics in a representative German community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Eva M; Brähler, Elmar; Dreier, Michael; Reinecke, Leonard; Müller, Kai W; Schmutzer, Gabriele; Wölfling, Klaus; Beutel, Manfred E

    2016-05-23

    The Perceived Stress Scale Cohen (J Health Soc Behav 24:385-96, 1983) is a widely and well-established self-report scale measuring perceived stress. However, the German version of the PSS-10 has not yet been validated. Thus, the purposes of this representative study were to psychometrically evaluate the PSS-10, and to provide norm values for the German population. The PSS-10 and standardized scales of depression, anxiety, fatigue, procrastination and life satisfaction were administered to a representative, randomly selected German community sample consisting of 1315 females and 1148 male participants in the age range from 14 to 90 years. The results demonstrated a good internal consistency and construct validity. Perceived stress was consistently associated with depression, anxiety, fatigue, procrastination and reduced life satisfaction. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed a bi-dimensional structure with two related latent factors. Regarding demographic variables, women reported a higher level of stress than men. Perceived stress decreased with higher education, income and employment status. Older and married participants felt less stressed than younger and unmarried participants. The PSS-10 is a reliable, valid and economic instrument for assessing perceived stress. As psychological stress is associated with an increased risk of diseases, identifying subpopulations with higher levels of stress is essential. Due to the dependency of the perceived stress level on demographic variables, particularly age and sex, differentiated norm values are needed, which are provided in this paper.

  12. [Carotenoid intake in the German National Food Consumption Survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelz, R; Schmidt-Faber, B; Heseker, H

    1998-12-01

    In nutritional epidemiological studies high consumption of fruits and vegetables was shown to be an important preventive measure to reduce the risk of cancer, coronary heart disease, and cataracts. These effects cannot be explained completely and in a sufficient way by the intake of beta-carotene and vitamin C. Other carotenoids differing in their antioxidative and biological properties are also provided with fruits and vegetables in significant amounts. Because data for other carotenoids than beta-carotene are not considered in computerized German food database and food composition tables, representative carotenoid intake calculations for the German population are missing. Therefore a carotenoid database, containing alpha- and beta-carotene, lycopene, lutein/zeaxanthin, and cryptoxanthin values for different fruits, vegetables, and other carotenoid-containing foods, was developed. With this database the carotenoid intake of the German population--stratified by sex and age--was evaluated on the basis of the German National Food Consumption Survey (NVS). The mean total carotenoid intake amounts to 5.33 mg/day. The average intake lutein was 1.91 mg/day, beta-carotene intake amounts to 1.81 mg/day, lycopene intake was 1.28 mg/day, alpha-carotene intake was 0.29 mg/day, and cryptoxanthin intake was 0.05 mg/day. Tomatoes and tomato products provide most of the lycopene. Green salads and vegetables are the most important contributors of lutein in Germany. Zeaxanthin is mainly consumed with maize but also with spinach and other vegetables like cabbage; alpha- and beta-carotene are mainly consumed with carrots. Peppers, oranges, and orange-juice are the most important cryptoxanthin sources.

  13. National total survey of German adolescent suicide in prison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radeloff, D; Lempp, T; Herrmann, E; Kettner, M; Bennefeld-Kersten, K; Freitag, C M

    2015-02-01

    Incarcerated adolescents are a high-risk group for suicidal behaviour, but data on completed suicide are scarce in this population. The present study aimed at calculating relative risks (RR) of suicide in detention and identifying age-related risk factors. We compared data of a German national total survey of completed suicide of young detainees (14 to suicide deaths in non-incarcerated adolescents (N = 3,484) and incarcerated adults (N = 781). Prison suicide accounted for 2.3% of all suicide deaths in adolescents, but only 0.1% of this age group was detained. The RR = 23.0 for adolescent suicide in detention exceeded the RR = 7.7 of adults by far. In adults, suicide rates in pre-trial detention was fivefold higher than in criminal detention; suicide rates were more balanced in adolescent detainees. Our results underline the need for age-specific suicide prevention strategies in detention.

  14. Survey of work processes on German dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, A; Bertulat, S; Heuwieser, W

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this study was to conduct a survey to gain insight into the organization of work processes on commercial German dairy farms analyzing the use of standard operating procedures (SOP). Practices and routines were surveyed regarding the existence, creation, and use of SOP. A total of 250 survey forms were returned, and 248 could be used for final analysis. The existence of SOP was indicated by 82% of all respondents, but only 54% stated that these SOP were written down. Existence of SOP correlated with farm size such that larger farms were more likely to implement SOP than smaller farms. However, many farmers lacked the time (41%) or ability (42%) to create SOP to provide the employees with detailed instructions on how to perform a specific task. The majority of respondents (59%) were interested in using ready-made SOP that could be adjusted to their farm. An obvious discrepancy exists between the motivation of the farmers to improve the performance on their farm and their expertise in attaining these goals and intentions. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Strengthening German Programs through Community Engagement and Partnerships with Saturday Morning Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellebrandt, Josef

    2014-01-01

    German university programs can increase enrollments and diversify their curricula through academic community partnerships with surrounding schools. This article informs about two community-supported initiatives between the German Studies Program at Santa Clara University and the South Bay Deutscher Schulverein, a Saturday Morning School in…

  16. Child sex tourism - prevalence of and risk factors for its use in a German community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koops, Thula; Turner, Daniel; Neutze, Janina; Briken, Peer

    2017-04-20

    To investigate the prevalence of child sex tourism (CST) in a large German community sample, and to compare those who made use of CST with other child sexual abusers regarding established characteristics and risk factors for child sexual abuse. Adult German men were recruited through a German market research panel and questioned by means of an anonymous online survey. Group assignment was accomplished based on information on previous sexual contacts with children and previous use of CST. Characteristics and risk factors were compared between the groups using t- and Chi-square tests. Binary logistic regression analysis was performed to predict CST. Data collection was conducted in 2013, data analysis in January 2015. Out of 8718 men, 36 (0.4%) reported CST use. The CST group differed from the nonCST group (n = 96; 1.1%) with regard to pedophilic sexual and antisocial behaviors as well as own experiences of sexual abuse. Social difficulties, pedophilic sexual interests, and hypersexuality were not distinct features in the CST group. Own experiences of sexual abuse, child prostitution use, and previous conviction for a violent offense predicted CST in a logistic regression model. This study is a first step to gain insight into the prevalence and characteristics of men using CST. Findings could help to augment prevention strategies against commercial forms of sexual abuse in developed as well as in developing countries by fostering the knowledge about the characteristics of perpetrators.

  17. German crowd-investing platforms: Literature review and survey

    OpenAIRE

    Grundy, David; Ohmer, Carolina

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a comprehensive overview of the current German crowd-investing market drawing on a data-set of 31 crowd-investing platforms including the analysis of 265 completed projects. While crowd-investing market still only represents a niche in the German venture capital market, there is potential for an increase in both market volume and in average project investment. The market share is distributed among a few crowd-investing platforms with high entry barriers for new platforms...

  18. German crowd-investing platforms: Literature review and survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Grundy

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a comprehensive overview of the current German crowd-investing market drawing on a data-set of 31 crowd-investing platforms including the analysis of 265 completed projects. While crowd-investing market still only represents a niche in the German venture capital market, there is potential for an increase in both market volume and in average project investment. The market share is distributed among a few crowd-investing platforms with high entry barriers for new platforms although platforms that specialise in certain sectors have managed to successfully enter the market. German crowd-investing platforms are found to promote mainly internet-based enterprises (36% followed by projects in real estate (24% and green projects (19%, with the median money raised 100,000 euro.

  19. THE INSTITUTIONAL BASIS OF GERMAN-BRAZILIAN COMMUNITIES (PICADAS: THE COMMONS AND SOCIAL CAPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Relly

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The historiography of German immigration to Brazil knows just a little about the structures that animated social life in Germany before the process of immigration. Therefore, the americanização of the German-Brazilian settlers is considered solely from the perspective of the host society, creating a gap that needs to be filled in order to understand another dimension of German immigration, the European side and influence over it. In this sense, it is possible to perceive that generally the social origins of German-Brazilian settlers is linked to a village context experience, especially those who came from Western and Southwestern Germany. Historically these villages were social organizations able to control natural and economic resources under their jurisdictions with a great political and economic autonomy. The so called commons were a feature of the German agrarian history, and its institutions of participatory, mutual, protectionist, communal management had the effect to generate social capital, one social attribute that supported the formation of the German-Brazilian communities in Southern Brazil. Thus, the German-Brazilian communities were forged under a solid institutional tradition and under a substrate of social capital, facilitating the emergence of autonomous and cooperative behaviors that resulted on the communitarian structures and on the associativism phenomenon. The method was the analytical descriptive based on research in primary sources in Brazilian and German Archives.

  20. Predictors of BMI Vary along the BMI Range of German Adults – Results of the German National Nutrition Survey II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Kilson; Krems, Carolin; Heuer, Thorsten; Roth, Alexander; Hoffmann, Ingrid

    2017-01-01

    Objective The objective of the study was to identify predictors of BMI in German adults by considering the BMI distribution and to determine whether the association between BMI and its predictors varies along the BMI distribution. Methods The sample included 9,214 adults aged 18–80 years from the German National Nutrition Survey II (NVS II). Quantile regression analyses were conducted to examine the association between BMI and the following predictors: age, sports activities, socio-economic status (SES), healthy eating index-NVS II (HEI-NVS II), dietary knowledge, sleeping duration and energy intake as well as status of smoking, partner relationship and self-reported health. Results Age, SES, self-reported health status, sports activities and energy intake were the strongest predictors of BMI. The important outcome of this study is that the association between BMI and its predictors varies along the BMI distribution. Especially, energy intake, health status and SES were marginally associated with BMI in normal-weight subjects; this relationships became stronger in the range of overweight, and were strongest in the range of obesity. Conclusions Predictors of BMI and the strength of these associations vary across the BMI distribution in German adults. Consequently, to identify predictors of BMI, the entire BMI distribution should be considered. PMID:28219069

  1. Historical Survey: German Research on Hydrogen Peroxide/Alcohol Explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parmeter, John E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Discussion of HP/fuel explosives in the scientific literature dates back to at least 1927. A paper was published that year in a German journal entitled On Hydrogen Peroxide Explosives [Bamberger and Nussbaum 1927]. The paper dealt with HP/cotton/Vaseline formulations, specifically HP89/cotton/Vaseline (76/15/9) and (70/8.5/12.5). The authors performed experiments with charge masses of 250-750 g and charge diameters of 35-45 mm. This short paper provides brief discussion on the observed qualitative effects of detonations but does not report detonation velocities.

  2. The Validity of a German Version of the Career Exploration Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowold, Jens; Staufenbiel, Kathrin

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports psychometric properties of a German version of the Career Exploration Survey (CES-G). The instrument's 16 scales allow for a detailed description of career exploration. Based on data from two studies (N[subscript 1] = 1023; N[subscript 2] = 816), confirmatory factor analyses supported the 16-factor model. With regard to…

  3. The German Environmental Survey for Children (GerES IV): Reference values and distributions for time-location patterns of German children

    OpenAIRE

    Conrad, André; Seiwert, Margarete; Hünken, Andreas; Quarcoo, David; Schlaud, Martin; Groneberg, David

    2012-01-01

    Children's time-location patterns are important determinants of environmental exposure and other health-relevant factors. Building on data of the German Environmental Survey for Children (GerES IV), our study aimed at deriving reference values and distributions for time-location patterns of 3–14-year-old German children. We also investigated if GerES IV data are appropriate for evaluating associations with children's health determinants by linking them to data of the National Health Interview...

  4. The German hydrogen and fuel cell community. Successes and failures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canzler, Weert; Marz, Lutz [Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin fuer Sozialforschung gGmbH (WZB), Berlin (Germany); Galich, Ante [Luxembourg Univ. (Luxembourg). Faculty of Languages and Literature, Humanities, Arts and Education

    2013-11-01

    Recently, the German Federal Government made the consequential decision to change its energy program. This not only as a result of the decision to shut down the existing nuclear power plants within the next few years, but also due to vital challenges like climate change and security of energy supply. The shift in the energy-technology paradigm from fossil fuel technologies to regenerative energies constitutes a major technical process but also new economic and social constellations. This paper focuses on hydrogen and fuel cell technologies in Germany. The institutional set up in this field is analysed and the new organizational actors are identified who have actively lobbied towards a political consensus. However, the experts in this field could not attain the required leadership in the public discourse on these technologies. It seems that an attractive guiding vision of a post-fossil energy future and a broad acceptance in daily use would have been major prerequisites for such leadership. (orig.)

  5. Psychometric Properties and Norms of the German ABC-Community and PAS-ADD Checklist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeilinger, Elisabeth L.; Weber, Germain; Haveman, Meindert J.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the present study was to standardize and generate psychometric evidence of the German language versions of two well-established English language mental health instruments: the "Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community" (ABC-C) and the "Psychiatric Assessment Schedule for Adults with Developmental Disabilities" (PAS-ADD) Checklist. New…

  6. High alcohol consumption in Germany: results of the German National Health Interview and Examination Survey 1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Martina; Mensink, Gert B M

    2004-10-01

    To analyse the alcohol consumption behaviour of the German adult population, with a focus on the characteristics of persons drinking more than the tolerable upper alcohol intake level (TUAL) of 10-12 g day(-1) for healthy adult women and 20-24 g day(-1) for healthy adult men. For the German National Health Interview and Examination Survey 1998, a representative sample of free-living adults was drawn. A total of 7124 participants were interviewed comprehensively about their sociodemographic background, lifestyle and eating habits including alcohol consumption. A sub-sample of 4030 women and men, 18-79 years old, who were involved in the integrated German Nutrition Survey. About 16% of women and 31% of men had mean alcohol consumption above the TUAL. Among other factors, the inclination to exceed the TUAL was related to middle-age, high socio-economic status, smoking and use of soft drugs. Among both women and men, a high proportion of persons drinking above the TUAL was observed among those consuming low amounts of soft drinks, fruit, poultry, milk products, bread and cake/biscuits. Women preferred to drink wine, whereas men preferred to drink beer. Many Germans have an alcohol consumption level above the TUAL and thus are supposed to be at increased risk for alcohol-associated diseases.

  7. Survey of the state of the German safety study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuser, F.W.; Kotthoff, K.

    1977-01-01

    In spring 1976 the Federal Ministry of Research and Technology has ordered a safety study to assess the risk for a nuclear power plant with a PWR. Giving first a survey on the main subtasks of the study the present state of work and some first results are discussed. Assuming a failure of safety systems a core melt event and a subsequent failure of the containment could occur. Corresponding accident sequences are discussed in some detail. Related hereto the results of some calculations for fission product release with respect to different containment failure modes are given. According to the results obtained so far the consequences of a core melt event can essentially be restricted by the retention function of the containment. (orig.) [de

  8. Child sex tourism – prevalence of and risk factors for its use in a German community sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thula Koops

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To investigate the prevalence of child sex tourism (CST in a large German community sample, and to compare those who made use of CST with other child sexual abusers regarding established characteristics and risk factors for child sexual abuse. Methods Adult German men were recruited through a German market research panel and questioned by means of an anonymous online survey. Group assignment was accomplished based on information on previous sexual contacts with children and previous use of CST. Characteristics and risk factors were compared between the groups using t- and Chi-square tests. Binary logistic regression analysis was performed to predict CST. Data collection was conducted in 2013, data analysis in January 2015. Results Out of 8718 men, 36 (0.4% reported CST use. The CST group differed from the nonCST group (n = 96; 1.1% with regard to pedophilic sexual and antisocial behaviors as well as own experiences of sexual abuse. Social difficulties, pedophilic sexual interests, and hypersexuality were not distinct features in the CST group. Own experiences of sexual abuse, child prostitution use, and previous conviction for a violent offense predicted CST in a logistic regression model. Conclusions This study is a first step to gain insight into the prevalence and characteristics of men using CST. Findings could help to augment prevention strategies against commercial forms of sexual abuse in developed as well as in developing countries by fostering the knowledge about the characteristics of perpetrators.

  9. Hydromorphological assessment as a tool for river basin management: The German field survey method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Meir

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Physical habitat characteristics are of great importance for the ecological integrity of rivers and creeks. The assessment of these hydromorphological qualities is a fundamental component of sustainable river basin management and ecologically oriented river development.This paper describes the German field survey method for hydromorphological assessement of streams and points at its potential as a tool for river basin management. We present examples for the application of the method at different management scales: analyzing the overall hydromorphological state at the river basin scale, describing specific hydromorphological characteristics at the river reach scale and monitoring the success of restoration projects at the river segment scale.We show that the German field survey method proved to be an easy-to-apply and efficient tool for river basin management since its introduction in the year 2000. Beside the method’s potentials also several drawbacks have to be considered regarding its application in other regions of the world.

  10. Public Attitudes Toward Fiscal Consolidation: Evidence from a Representative German Population Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Bernd Hayo; Florian Neumeier

    2013-01-01

    The poor state of public finances in many countries has led to calls for fiscal consolidation. In practice, implementing concrete consolidation measures appears to meet with public resistance, suggesting that the success of consolidation efforts strongly depends on the popularity of the chosen measures. To identify public attitudes toward fiscal consolidation and alternative consolidation measures, we conducted a survey among 2,000 German citizens. Applying ordered and multinominal logit mode...

  11. Empowerment for healthy nutrition in German communities: a study framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandstetter, Susanne; Curbach, Janina; Lindacher, Verena; Rueter, Jana; Warrelmann, Berit; Loss, Julika

    2017-06-01

    Empowerment is seen as a key strategy for sustainable health promotion efforts. However, there is only limited research on how to link the empowerment approach to the promotion of healthy eating, which is a major current public health issue. The article presents the development of a study framework for implementing and evaluating an empowerment intervention for healthy nutrition. This framework was created for a community intervention study meaning to involve elderly citizens in Bavaria, Germany. The study protocol was developed in an iterative process basing on (i) literature reviews on the topics empowerment in relation to healthy nutrition and mixed-methods evaluation, (ii) workshops with empowerment and public health experts and (iii) consultations with local community representatives. Through these measures we identified good practice criteria as well as specific challenges of integrating empowerment and healthy nutrition, e.g. engaging people in healthy nutrition, reconciling participants' nutrition preferences with public health nutrition priorities and evaluating bottom-up activities in the community. Consequences for the study design were deducted from the literature and the consultations, e.g. practical recommendations as to how power could be gradually assigned to group members. A qualitative mixed-method evaluation design was chosen to capture emergent empowerment processes. The study framework presented here is the first on empowerment and nutrition to provide explicit guidance on how empowerment may be applied to healthy nutrition and implemented and evaluated in the community context. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Public Awareness and Use of German Physician Ratings Websites: Cross-Sectional Survey of Four North German Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLennan, Stuart; Strech, Daniel; Meyer, Andrea; Kahrass, Hannes

    2017-11-09

    Physician rating websites (PRWs) allow patients to rate, comment, and discuss physicians' quality. The ability of PRWs to influence patient decision making and health care quality is dependent, in part, on sufficient awareness and usage of PRWs. However, previous studies have found relatively low levels of awareness and usage of PRWs, which has raised concerns about the representativeness and validity of information on PRWs. The objectives of this study were to examine (1) participants' awareness, use, and contribution of ratings on PRWs and how this compares with other rating websites; (2) factors that predict awareness, use, and contribution of ratings on PRWs; and (3) participants' attitudes toward PRWs in relation to selecting a physician. A mailed cross-sectional survey was sent to a random sample (N=1542) from four North German cities (Nordhorn, Hildesheim, Bremen, and Hamburg) between April and July 2016. Survey questions explored respondents' awareness, use, and contribution of ratings on rating websites for service (physicians, hospitals, and hotels and restaurants) and products (media and technical) in general and the role of PRWs when searching for a new physician. A total of 280 completed surveys were returned (280/1542, 18.16% response rate), with the following findings: (1) Overall, 72.5% (200/276) of respondents were aware of PRWs. Of the respondents who were aware of PRWs, 43.6% (86/197) had used PRWs. Of the respondents who had used PRWs, 23% (19/83) had rated physicians at least once. Awareness, use, and contribution of ratings on PRWs were significantly lower in comparison with all other rating websites, except for hospital rating websites. (2) Except for the impact of responders' gender and marital status on the awareness of PRWs and responders' age on the use of PRWs, no other predictors had a relevant impact. (3) Whereas 31.8% (85/267) of the respondents reported that PRWs were a very important or somewhat important information source when

  13. Discrepancies on Medication Plans detected in German Community Pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waltering, Isabel; Schwalbe, Oliver; Hempel, Georg

    2015-10-01

    A current medication plan was identified as important patient safety factor. Information is needed on how many patients possess such a plan and what problems can be identified with its use. This study tried to define factors that influence accuracy of medication plans and to detect discrepancies from planned and actually administered medication in polypharmacy patients. Participants of the 'Apo-AMTS' course in Germany evaluated medication plans from their patients during performing medication reviews in community pharmacies. Discrepancies were defined as additional or missing drugs and deviations in dosage and drug names for Rx drugs and missing or additional self-medication. Eighty per cent of the patients possessed a medication plan mainly written by general practitioners. Only 6.5% of the plans showed no discrepancies. Most discrepancies were seen on medication plans written by medical specialists and general practitioners, mainly name aberrations (41%) followed by additional drugs taken (30%) and prescribed drugs no longer taken (18%). Dosage variance was seen in 11% of all discrepancies. Deviations from the plan were observed frequently with antihypertensives (31.4%), analgesics (11.3%) and antidepressants/hypnotics as well as lipid-lowering drugs (6.7%). Four hundred thirty-three OTC drugs were not listed, mainly analgesics, mineral supplements and laxatives. Many patients possess a medication plan but most of these plans showed discrepancies which limits the use as patient safety indicator. Community pharmacies offering medication reviews have an essential position to use the medication plan as a central link between patients and their prescribers, and therefore improve patient safety. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. German Environmental Survey for Children (GerES IV)--first results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolossa-Gehring, Marike; Becker, Kerstin; Conrad, André; Lüdecke, Anja; Riedel, Stefan; Seiwert, Margarete; Schulz, Christine; Szewzyk, Regine

    2007-10-01

    German Environmental Surveys (GerESs) are large scale population studies which have been carried out on adults in 1985/86, 1990/92 and 1998 and on children aged 6-14 years in 1990/92. GerES IV is the first survey focussing exclusively on children [Becker, K., Schulz, C., Babisch, W., Dürkop, J., Roskamp, E., Seiwert, M., Szewzyk, R., Ullrich, D., Seifert, B., 2005. German Environmental Survey for Children (GerES IV) 2003-2006. Pullut. Atmos. 188, 475-479]. GerES IV included a representative sample of 1790 children aged 3-14 of the participants of the National Health Interview and Examination Survey on Children and Adolescents. The primary goal of GerES IV is not only to analyse and document the extent, distribution and determinants of German children's exposure to environmental pollutants but to discover links between environmental exposure and health. Results will help develop preventive measures and advance further research. They might provide the basis for environmental and public health policy decisions. Precondition to achieve this task is a description of the data on exposures and the data on health outcomes. This work is currently performed at the Federal Environment Agency. First results show a remarkable decrease of the blood lead level of German children aged 6-14 years from 32.3 microg/l in 1990/92 (GerES II) to 16.3 microg/l in GerES IV which is the lowest mean lead concentration determined in German studies so far. None of the children had a value exceeding 100 microg/l. In GerES IV, the following health-related issues will be primarily examined: the relationship between sensitisation against mould spores and the occurrence of mould in households, irritation of eyes and respiratory system caused by formaldehyde, other aldehydes, or total volatile organic compounds (TVOC); the impact of non-occupational noise on hearing loss, stress and sleep disturbances, and the connection between contact allergies, nickel and scents. 9.5% of the children showed a

  15. Tidewater Community College 2000 Graduate Survey Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiman, Lisa S.

    The 2000 Tidewater Community College (TCC) Graduate Survey Study is a measure of student satisfaction with the college educational experience. The study gives demographic data pertaining to all 2000 graduates, as well as enrollment, attendance, employment, educational, and attitudinal data generated from survey respondents. Highlights of the…

  16. California Community Colleges Parking Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Chuck

    In 1990, a representative sample of 25 California community colleges was contacted by telephone to determine their parking policies and practices. The colleges were sampled on the basis of location and size. Study findings included the following: (1) 17 of the colleges reported that they had insufficient numbers of on-campus parking spaces; (2)…

  17. Radiation surveys in contaminated communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, G.B.

    1977-01-01

    Radiation surveys of uranium contamination in Uranium City and Port Hope, Canada, are described. Samples of soil, water, and crops grown in contaminated soil and air in homes were analyzed for radon content. Following decontamination, measurements were made of γ exposure rates both inside and outside of buildings

  18. [Loneliness trends in the second half of life: results from the German Ageing Survey (DEAS)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesch-Römer, C; Wiest, M; Wurm, S; Huxhold, O

    2013-04-01

    BACKGROUND AND RESEARCH QUESTIONS: In the current paper, it is analyzed whether the extent of loneliness of adults in the second half of their lives has changed between 1996 and 2008 in Germany. Because patterns of objective social integration have evolved differently in different birth cohorts (familial integration in earlier birth cohorts more fragile, more solid in later birth cohorts), we expected different trends in the extent of loneliness in different birth cohorts. The three waves of the German Ageing Survey (DEAS) constitute the database for the analysis: 1996 (n = 3,979), 2002 (n = 2,766) and 2008 (n = 4,392). Loneliness was measured with the de Jong Gierveld Loneliness Scale. The German Ageing Survey (DEAS) is a nationwide representative survey of the German population aged 40-85 years. Only a minority of people report being very lonely in the second part of life. Between 1996 and 2008, there is a positive trend in the extent of loneliness in the second half of life, i.e., the prevalence of loneliness decreased during this period of time. From 1996 to 2008, the youngest respondents (40-54 years of age) and the middle aged respondents (55-69 years) demonstrated a decline from 1996 to 2002 followed by an increase in loneliness between 2002 and 2008. The oldest respondents (70-85 years of age) experienced a steady decline in loneliness. Gender differences (men are somewhat lonelier than women) remain stable between 1996 and 2008. While people who are currently old are socially well integrated and, hence, experience loneliness only to a small degree, there is a higher risk for persons who are currently in middle adulthood because their social networks have become increasingly more fragile. Further changes have to be observed.

  19. What are community energy companies trying to accomplish? An empirical investigation of investment motives in the German case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holstenkamp, Lars; Kahla, Franziska

    2016-01-01

    Community energy has become an increasingly important issue in academia and in energy policy circles worldwide. Citizens jointly investing in and operating renewable energy installations have played an essential role in countries such as Germany or Denmark. Building on and extending previous studies, we collect survey data on investment motives for a stratified random sample of German community energy companies. Structural variables are selected using a socio-ecological-technical systems framework. This study aims to identify differences within the community energy sector to better understand investment behaviour and the effects of policy changes. Despite the small sample coverage at the individual member level, the preliminary results of this study suggest that, first, community energy forms a specific type of social investment and that, second, there are significant differences between community energy companies, especially regarding the assessment of the return motive. This motive plays a more prominent role in limited partnerships than in cooperatives and for community wind than for companies focusing on solar or biomass. While these and other factors are highly interrelated, our data indicate that the social setting and geographical and climatic conditions are the critical ones here. These findings may guide further research. - Highlights: • Community energy companies form a specific part of the impact investment sector. • Differences in the valuation of investments exist mainly regarding the return motive. • There are significant differences between North vs South and cooperatives vs LPs. • The return motive plays a higher role for community energy founded 2009–2011. • These differences have to be taken into account when assessing policy changes.

  20. German version of the Community Balance and Mobility Scale : Translation and evaluation of measurement properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordt, Katharina; Mikolaizak, A Stefanie; Nerz, Corinna; Barz, Carolin; Gerhardy, Thomas; Weber, Michaela; Becker, Clemens; Schwenk, Michael

    2018-02-12

    Tools to detect subtle balance deficits in high-functioning community-dwelling older adults are lacking. The Community Balance and Mobility Scale (CBM) is a valuable tool to measure balance deficits in this group; however, it is not yet available in the German language. The aim was 1) to translate and cross-culturally adapt the CBM into the German language and 2) to investigate the measurement properties of the German CBM (G-CBM). The original CBM was translated into the German language according to established guidelines. A total of 51 older adults (mean age 69.9 ± 7.1 years) were recruited to measure construct validity by comparing the G‑CBM against standardized balance and/or mobility assessments including the Fullerton Advanced Balance Scale (FAB), Berg Balance Scale (BBS), 3 m Tandem Walk (3MTW), 8 Level Balance Scale (8LBS), 30 s Chair Stand Test (30CST), Timed Up and Go (TUG) test, gait speed, and the Falls Efficacy Scale International (FES-I). Intrarater and interrater reliability and internal consistency reliability were estimated using intraclass correlations (ICC) and Cronbach's alpha, respectively. Ceiling effects were calculated as the percentage of the sample scoring the maximum score. The G‑CBM correlated excellently with FAB and BBS (ρ = 0.78-0.85; P balance deficits in older high-functioning adults. The absence of ceiling effects emphasizes the use of this scale in this cohort. The G‑CBM can now be utilized in clinical practice.

  1. Self-efficacy moderates the relationship between health comparisons and social exclusion: results of the German ageing survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajek, André; König, Hans-Helmut

    2017-12-29

    Little is known about the consequences of health comparisons. Negative health comparisons might, for example, result in emotions such as anger or frustration. These negative emotions might intensify feelings of social exclusion. Thus, the objective of the current study was to investigate whether health comparisons are associated with social exclusion. Moreover, it was examined whether the relation between health comparisons and social exclusion is moderated by self-efficacy. We analyzed cross-sectional data of N = 7838 individuals from the German Ageing Survey. The German Ageing Survey is a representative sample of community-residing individuals aged 40 and over. An established social exclusion scale was used. The degree of self-efficacy was measured according to Schwarzer and Jerusalem. Health comparisons were measured with the question "How would you rate your health compared with other people your age" (Much better; somewhat better; the same; somewhat worse, much worse). Multiple linear regressions revealed that negative health comparisons were associated with feelings of social exclusion in men, but not women. Furthermore, positive health comparisons were weakly associated with decreased feelings of social exclusion in men. The association between negative as well as positive health comparisons and social exclusion in men was significantly moderated by self-efficacy. The findings of the present study suggests that negative health comparisons are associated with feelings of social exclusion in men. In conclusion, comparison effects are not symmetric and predominantly upwards among men in the second half of life. Strengthening self-efficacy might be fruitful for attenuating this relationship.

  2. [Reality of treatment in psychotherapy: Results of a survey of German psychiatric hospitals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laux, G; Sander, K; Artmann, S; Dreher, J; Lenz, J; Hauth, I

    2015-05-01

    Since the introduction of the qualification as specialist for psychiatry and psychotherapy, in addition to psychopharmacotherapy psychotherapy is an integral component of the treatment of mentally ill people. A survey was carried out to evaluate the reality of clinical routine use of psychotherapy in German psychiatric hospitals. Between October 2011 and March 2012 German hospitals of psychiatry and psychotherapy were contacted by the head organization, the conference of national directors (Bundesdirektorenkonferenz), to participate in a survey regarding the application of psychotherapy in the real clinical world of daily treatment. With an anonymous questionnaire, data were requested as either a printed form or online version. Data from 25 psychiatric hospitals in the year 2010 could be analysed (average number of beds 300 of which 53 were for psychosomatic/psychotherapeutic patients) and a total of 87,000 inpatients were treated whereby 34 % were diagnosed as F1 addictive disorders and 24 % as F3 affective disorders. More than 80 % of the hospitals applied group therapies of relaxation, cognitive behavior therapy, social competence training and specific techniques, such as dialectic-behavior therapy. As individual treatment methods, patients with depressive disorders were treated with cognitive behavior therapy, interpersonal psychotherapy or psychodynamic therapy in more than 50 % of the cases. Relaxation techniques were offered in most cases by the nursing staff, behavior therapy by psychologists and physicians and psychodynamic therapy mainly by psychiatrists.

  3. [Physical activity: results of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krug, S; Jordan, S; Mensink, G B M; Müters, S; Finger, J; Lampert, T

    2013-05-01

    Regular physical activity can have a positive effect on health at any age. Today's lifestyles, however, can often be characterised as sedentary. Therefore, the promotion of physical activity and sports has become an integral part of public health measures. The representative data of adults aged 18 to 79 years in Germany obtained from the "German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults" (DEGS1) provide an overview of self-estimated current physical activity behaviour. The results show that one third of the adult population claims to pay close attention to reaching a sufficient level of physical activity and one fourth participates in sports for at least 2 h/week on a regular basis. Thus, the percentage of adults regularly engaged in sports has increased compared to the previous "German National Health Interview and Examination Survey 1998". Still, four out of five adults do not achieve at least 2.5 h/week of moderate-intensity physical activity as recommended by the World Health Organisation. Consequently, future individual-level and population-level interventions should focus on target group-specific measures while continuing to promote regular physical activity in all segments of the population. An English full-text version of this article is available at SpringerLink as supplemental.

  4. ARCHAEOLOGICAL SURVEYS ON THE GERMAN NORTH SEA COAST USING HIGH-RESOLUTION SYNTHETIC APERTURE RADAR DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gade

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We show that high-resolution space-borne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR imagery with pixel sizes well below 1 m2 can be used to complement archaeological surveys in areas that are difficult to access. After major storm surges in the 14th and 17th centuries, vast areas on the German North Sea coast were lost to the sea. Areas of former settlements and historical land use were buried under sediments for centuries, but when the surface layer is driven away under the permanent action of wind, currents, and waves, they appear again on the Wadden Sea surface. However, the frequent flooding and erosion of the intertidal flats make any archaeological monitoring a difficult task, so that remote sensing techniques appear to be an efficient and cost-effective instrument for any archaeological surveillance of that area. Space-borne SAR images clearly show remnants of farmhouse foundations and of former systems of ditches, dating back to the 14th and to the 16th/17th centuries. In particular, the very high-resolution acquisition (staring spotlight mode of the German TerraSAR/ TanDEM-X satellites allows for the detection of various kinds of residuals of historical land use with high precision. In addition, we also investigate the capability of SARs working at lower microwave frequencies (on Radarsat-2 to complement our archaeological survey of historical cultural traces, some of which have been unknown so far.

  5. Legal issues for German-speaking cannabis growers. Results from an online survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werse, Bernd

    2016-02-01

    Cannabis prohibition can generally be regarded as the main driver for home growing of marijuana. In this paper, I discuss the impact of drug prohibition on cannabis cultivators from the three German-speaking countries: Germany, Austria and Switzerland. In particular, this refers to the questions; how illicitness influences motivations for growing; which precautionary measures are taken against the risk of discovery; how penal consequences differ in the three countries and how these aspects are linked to each other. The results come from a sample of 1578 respondents from the German-language online survey conducted following the International Cannabis Cultivation Questionnaire (ICCQ). The survey was carried out in late 2012 and early 2013. While most of the reasons for growing cannabis relate to avoiding negative consequences of prohibition, the illicitness of cannabis also plays a major role for concern about the cultivation activities as well as measures to avoid negative consequences. Swiss growers are less worried about their activity compared to respondents from Germany or Austria. The results confirm the notion that the illicitness of cannabis is the main drive for the private cultivation of the plant. At the same time, prohibition is the principal reason for concern regarding the growing activity. The severity of possible sentences seems to be linked to the degree of concern and precautionary measures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Survey about the knowledge of the HIV infection amongst recruits of the German military.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistorius, A; Gergen, G; Willershausen, B

    2003-04-30

    In the complex organizational unit of the German military (Bundeswehr), certain social conflicts and tensions may occur because of potential extreme situations and specific areas of conflict. The aim of this study was to obtain information from German military recruits regarding their knowledge of and behavioral patterns on the subject of HIV/AIDS. 219 Soldiers in the military barracks in the state of Rhineland-Palatinate (Germany) were surveyed by means of a questionnaire (return rate 96.8%). The questionnaire comprised the following subjects: level of and requirements for information, fear of infection, behavioral pattern when in contact with HIV-infected persons as well as attitude towards governmental regulations. 4% of the surveyed soldiers considered their own knowledge about the subject of HIV/AIDS to be very good, 44% as good, 41% as sufficient and 7% as insufficient. 74% considered education to be necessary, and 26% felt it was not necessary. 68% of the surveyed subjects indicated that their protection of choice against infection was fidelity in partnership. 25% were of the opinion that an HIV-infected soldier should be discharged from military services and almost 20% supported that the entire barracks should be informed of such a case. 61% of those who were in favor of an obligatory registration by name (36%) also supported continued observation of the person infected with HIV. According to the surveyed soldiers, certain groups such as blood donors (86%), medical personnel (71%) as well as enlisted soldiers (28%) should receive mandatory testing. The relatively broad spectrum of opinions indicated the necessity to offer sound information and raised the question of an official regulation.

  7. Meander reconnection method determines restoration success for macroinvertebrate communities in a German lowland river

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenz, Stefan; Leszinski, Marc; Graeber, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Re-meandering of degraded rivers is a frequently implemented measure in river restoration. A simple solution is reconnection of old meanders; however, its success likely depends on the reconnection method. We conducted a field study to analyze the benefits of a fully reconnected (fully opened...... meander, blocked main channel) and a partially reconnected meander (opened downstream, pipe bypass from main channel upstream, still open main channel) for macroinvertebrate communities in a German lowland river. Immediately upon reconnection of the two meanders, habitat diversity and macroinvertebrates...

  8. Tidewater Community College 1998 Employer Survey Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiman, Lisa

    This report presents the results of Tidewater Community College's (Virginia) 1998 employer survey study, which provides useful insights into graduates' skills, professional behaviors, and overall job performance. Employer comments also provide valuable feedback relating to currency and comprehensiveness of the college's programs. The study found…

  9. Tidewater Community College 1998 Graduate Survey Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiman, Lisa

    This report presents Tidewater Community College's (TCC's) (Virginia) 1998 graduate survey study. Approximately half of the graduates attended another college or university prior to enrolling at TCC. A small portion enrolled directly from high school. Almost three-fourths of the graduates were working either full- or part-time while enrolled, and…

  10. Psychological correlates of fear of falling: Findings from the German Aging Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajek, André; Bock, Jens-Oliver; König, Hans-Helmut

    2018-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify general psychological factors related to fear of falling. Data drawn from national probability sampling of the German population aged ≥40 years were used (German Aging Survey; n = 7779). The fear of falling and the psychological factors of loneliness, life satisfaction, positive affect, negative affect, optimism, self-efficacy, self-esteem, self-regulation and perceived stress were collected in self-administered questionnaires. Multiple logistic regression models controlling for sociodemographic, lifestyle and health-related variables were used to determine the psychological correlates of fear of falling. The prevalence of fear of falling was 18% for all individuals. All psychological factors showed strong bivariate associations with fear of falling. In the multiple regression analyses, higher levels of loneliness, lower life satisfaction, lower positive affect and higher negative affect, as well as lower levels of optimism, self-efficacy, self-esteem, self-regulation and more perceived stress, were associated with increased fear of falling after controlling for sociodemographic factors, various lifestyle factors and morbidity. The psychological factors considered in the present study are important for characterizing people with fear of falling. Because effective interventions to treat the fear of falling are available, our study might help to address this target group more accurately. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2018; 18: 396-406. © 2017 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  11. Pre-operative fasting: a nationwide survey of German anaesthesia departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breuer, J-P; Bosse, G; Seifert, S; Prochnow, L; Martin, J; Schleppers, A; Geldner, G; Soreide, E; Spies, C

    2010-03-01

    Shorter pre-operative fasting improves clinical outcome without an increased risk. Since October 2004, German Anaesthesiology Societies have officially recommended a fast of 2 h for clear fluids and 6 h for solid food before elective surgery. We conducted a nationwide survey to evaluate the current clinical practice in Germany. Between July 2006 and January 2007, standardized questionnaires were mailed to 3751 Anaesthesiology Society members in leading positions requesting anonymous response. The overall response rate was 66% (n=2418). Of those, 2148 (92%) claimed familiarity with the new guidelines. About a third (n=806, 34%) reported full adherence to the new recommendations, whereas 1043 (45%) reported an eased fasting practice. Traditional Nil per os after midnight was still recommended by 157 (7%). Commonest reasons reported for adopting the new guidelines were: 'improved pre-operative comfort' (84%), and 'increased patient satisfaction' (83%); reasons against were: 'low flexibility in operation room management' (19%), and 'increased risk of aspiration' (13%). Despite the apparent understanding of the benefits from reduced pre-operative fasting, full implementation of the guidelines remains poor in German anaesthesiology departments.

  12. Implementation of the European health interview survey (EHIS) into the German health update (GEDA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, C; Finger, J D; Allen, J; Born, S; Hoebel, J; Kuhnert, R; Müters, S; Thelen, J; Schmich, P; Varga, M; von der Lippe, E; Wetzstein, M; Ziese, T

    2017-01-01

    This methodological paper describes the integration of the 'European Health Interview Survey wave 2' (EHIS 2) into the 'German Health Update' 2014/2015 (GEDA 2014/2015-EHIS). GEDA 2014/2015-EHIS is a cross-sectional health survey. A two-stage stratified cluster sampling approach was used to recruit persons aged 15 years and older with permanent residence in Germany. Two different modes of data collection were used, self-administered web questionnaire and self-administered paper questionnaire. The survey instrument implemented the EHIS 2 modules on health status, health care use, health determinants and social background variables and additional national questions. Data processing was conducted according to the quality and validation rules specified by Eurostat. In total, 24,824 questionnaires were completed. The response rate was 27.6%. The two-stage cluster sample method seems to have been successful in achieving a sample with high representativeness. The final micro data file was inspected, approved and certified by Eurostat. Access to micro data of the EHIS 2 can be provided by Eurostat via research contract and to the GEDA 2014/2015-EHIS public use file by the Research Data Centre of the Robert Koch Institute. First EHIS 2 results are available at the Eurostat website. Integrating a multinational health survey into an existing national health monitoring system was a challenge in Germany. The national survey methodology for conducting the survey had to be further developed in order to meet the overarching goal of harmonizing the health information from national statistical offices and public health research institutes across the European Union. The harmonized EHIS 2 data source will profoundly impact international public health research in the near future. The next EHIS wave 3 will be conducted around 2019.

  13. RNA-Based Assessment of Diversity and Composition of Active Archaeal Communities in the German Bight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Wemheuer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Archaea play an important role in various biogeochemical cycles. They are known extremophiles inhabiting environments such as thermal springs or hydrothermal vents. Recent studies have revealed a significant abundance of Archaea in moderate environments, for example, temperate sea water. Nevertheless, the composition and ecosystem function of these marine archaeal communities is largely unknown. To assess diversity and composition of active archaeal communities in the German Bight, seven marine water samples were taken and studied by RNA-based analysis of ribosomal 16S rRNA. For this purpose, total RNA was extracted from the samples and converted to cDNA. Archaeal community structures were investigated by pyrosequencing-based analysis of 16S rRNA amplicons generated from cDNA. To our knowledge, this is the first study combining next-generation sequencing and metatranscriptomics to study archaeal communities in marine habitats. The pyrosequencing-derived dataset comprised 62,045 archaeal 16S rRNA sequences. We identified Halobacteria as the predominant archaeal group across all samples with increased abundance in algal blooms. Thermoplasmatales (Euryarchaeota and the Marine Group I (Thaumarchaeota were identified in minor abundances. It is indicated that archaeal community patterns were influenced by environmental conditions.

  14. Asthma management practices in adults--findings from the German Health Update (GEDA) 2010 and the German National Health Interview and Examination Survey (DEGS1) 2008-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steppuhn, Henriette; Langen, Ute; Mueters, Stephan; Dahm, Stefan; Knopf, Hildtraud; Keil, Thomas; Scheidt-Nave, Christa

    2016-01-01

    In Germany, population-wide data on adherence to national asthma management guidelines are lacking, and performance measures (PM) for quality assurance in asthma care are systematically monitored for patients with German national asthma disease management program (DMP) enrollment only. We used national health survey data to assess variation in asthma care PM with respect to patient characteristics and care context, including DMP enrollment. Among adults 18-79 years with self-reported physician-diagnosed asthma in the past 12 months identified from a recent German National Health Interview Survey (GEDA 2010: N = 1096) and the German National Health interview and Examination Survey 2008-2011 (DEGS1: N = 333), variation in asthma care PM was analyzed using logistic regression analysis. Overall, 38.4% (95% confidence interval: 32.5-44.6%) of adults with asthma were on current inhaled corticosteroid therapy. Regarding non-drug asthma management, low coverage was observed for inhaler technique monitoring (35.2%; 31.2-39.3%) and for provision of an asthma management plan (27.3%; 24.2-30.7%), particularly among those with low education. Specific PM were more complete among persons with than without asthma DMP enrollment (adjusted odds ratios ranging up to 10.19; 5.23-19.86), even if asthma patients were regularly followed in a different care context. Guideline adherence appears to be suboptimal, particularly with respect to PM related to patient counseling. Barriers to the translation of recommendations into practice need to be identified and continuous monitoring of asthma care PM at the population level needs to be established.

  15. [Psychotherapy research in the German-speaking community--a bibliometric analysis of three journals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petermann, Franz; Schüssler, Gerhard

    2010-01-01

    Psychotherapy research has often been considered a neglected topic in clinical psychology, psychosomatic medicine, and psychiatry because of its massive organizational and financial demands. However, it is unclear whether this assumption actually reflects the research activities in the field. We conducted a bibliometric analysis of the annual volumes for 2008 and 2009 of three clinical journals published in German. All publications referring to facets of psychotherapy research were analysed. About 30% of the publications dealt with issues of psychotherapy research. Outcome and process studies were about equally distributed. Process research frequently focused on patient variables as outcome predictors. Outcome studies most often presented effectiveness studies with rather small sample sizes. Psychotherapy research is a well-represented and multifaceted field in the German speaking research community. However, the traditional distinction between efficacy and process research among the various schools of psychotherapy research may be hampering further developments in this branch. The government-funded research networks may turn out to be promising approaches to overcoming some of the obstacles of classic psychotherapy research.

  16. German ambulatory care physicians' perspectives on clinical guidelines – a national survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Böcken Jan

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been little systematic research about the extent to which German physicians accept or reject the concept and practice of a clinical practice guidelines (CPG and b evidence based medicine (EBM The aim of this study was to investigate German office-based physicians' perspective on CPGs and EBM and their application in medical practice. Methods Structured national telephone survey of ambulatory care physicians, four thematic blocks with 21 questions (5 point Likert scale. 511 office-based general practitioners and specialists. Main outcome measures were the application of Clinical Practice Guidelines in daily practice, preference for sources of guidelines and degree of knowledge and acceptance of EBM. In the data analysis Pearson's correlation coefficient was used for explorative analysis of correlations. The comparison of groups was performed by Student's t-test. Chi2 test was used to investigate distribution of two or more categorical variables. Results Of the total study population 55.3% of physicians reported already using guidelines in the treatment of patients. Physicians in group practices (GrP as well as general practitioners (GP agreed significantly more with the usefulness of guidelines as a basis for patient care than doctors in single practices (SP or specialists (S (Student's t-test mean GP 2.57, S 2.84, p Conclusion Despite a majority of physicians accepting and applying CPGs a large group remains that is critical and opposed to the utilization of CPGs in daily practice and to the concept of EBM in general. Doctors in single practice and specialists appear to be more critical than physicians in group practices and GPs. Future research is needed to evaluate the willingness to acquire necessary knowledge and skills for the promotion and routine application of CPGs.

  17. Changes in depression stigma after the Germanwings crash - Findings from German population surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von dem Knesebeck, Olaf; Mnich, Eva; Angermeyer, Matthias C; Kofahl, Christopher; Makowski, Anna

    2015-11-01

    Media coverage of the Germanwings plane crash intensely focused on the co-pilot's mental illness and was criticized for potentially increasing depression stigma. We explored whether stigma beliefs towards persons with depression changed in April 2015 (about one month after the crash) compared to 2014. Telephone surveys among the adult population were conducted in Munich, Germany (N=650 in 2014 and N=601 in 2015). In both surveys, four components of stigma were assessed: (1) characteristics ascribed to persons with a depression, (2) belief in a continuum of symptoms from mental health to mental illness, (3) emotional reactions to people afflicted by depression (fear, anger, and pro-social reactions), and (4) desire for social distance. Some stigmatizing attitudes have increased after the crash. More specifically, we found more pronounced changes in the attributes ascribed (stereotypes) and in the perceived separation from persons afflicted (continuum beliefs) than in the emotional reactions and the desire for social distance. However, overall increase in depression stigma was smaller than expected as changes were not statistically significant in the majority of the analyzed items. Due to the study design no causal interpretation of results is possible. Moreover, evidence presented is confined to a regional German sample. A single devastating event and related media coverage seem to have a limited impact on public stigmatizing attitudes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Fertility Decisions in the FRG and GDR: An Analysis with Data from the German Fertility and Family Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to compare family policies and fertility patterns in the former German Democratic Republic (GDR and the German Federal Republic (FRG. Among other aspects, both societies particularly differed in the integration of women into the labor market. By contrasting the fertility development in these two societies, this paper aims to illuminate how women's education and employment relates to fertility decisions in societal contexts that support (in the case of the GDR and hamper (in the case of the FRG the compatibility between work and family life. Data for this analysis comes from the German Fertility and Family Survey (of the year 1992. We provide descriptive statistics for all birth parities, but we limit the multivariate event history analysis to first births only.

  19. The German Environmental Survey for Children (GerES IV): reference values and distributions for time-location patterns of German children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, André; Seiwert, Margarete; Hünken, Andreas; Quarcoo, David; Schlaud, Martin; Groneberg, David

    2013-01-01

    Children's time-location patterns are important determinants of environmental exposure and other health-relevant factors. Building on data of the German Environmental Survey for Children (GerES IV), our study aimed at deriving reference values and distributions for time-location patterns of 3-14-year-old German children. We also investigated if GerES IV data are appropriate for evaluating associations with children's health determinants by linking them to data of the National Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS). Parents reported on the time their children usually spend at home, in other indoor environments, and outdoors. This information was characterized by statistical parameters, which were also calculated for different strata concerning socio-demography and the residential environment. Consequently, group differences were evaluated by t-tests and univariate ANOVA. Reference distributions were fitted to the time-location data by a Maximum Likelihood approach to make them also useable in probabilistic exposure modeling. Finally, associations between data on the children's physical activity as well as body weight and their outdoor time were investigated by bivariate correlation analysis and cross tabulation. On daily average, German children spend 15 h and 31 min at home, 4 h and 46 min in other indoor environments, and 3 h and 43 min outdoors. Time spent at home and outdoors decreases with age while time spent in other indoor environments increases. Differences in time-location patterns were also observed for the socio-economic status (SES) and immigration status. E.g., children with a high SES spend 24 min less outdoors than low SES children. Immigrants spend on daily average 20 min more at home and 15 min less outdoors than non-immigrant children. Outdoor time was associated with parameters of the residential environment like the building development. Children living in 1- or 2-family houses spend more time outdoors than

  20. Job satisfaction and the work situation of physicians: a survey at a German university hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laubach, Wilfried; Fischbeck, Sabine

    2007-01-01

    Job demands and workload of hospital physicians are increasing. The object of this survey was to examine the factors that constitute job satisfaction and to analyse physicians' work situation in the area of in-patient care. 447 physicians at a German University Hospital received questionnaires with regard to work situation, job satisfaction and personal health. Data were analysed by MANOVA and multiple regression models. A first regression model explained 53% of the variance in satisfaction with "work and profession". Among the explanatory variables "superiors and hierarchy" showed the highest beta-weight (beta = -0.49). "Personal health" also determined job satisfaction, for female physicians stronger (beta = -0.31) than for male physicians (beta = -0.11). In a second regression model on satisfaction with "Financial situation" only 18% of the variance was explained, whereby "work condition on the ward", "personal health" and "collaboration between occupational groups" showed the highest beta-weights. Among resident physicians, work conditions, superiors, hierarchy, transparency and participation in decisions are very important variables for job satisfaction. Improvements in these aspects may improve job satisfaction and help to reduce physician shortage in hospitals.

  1. Cancer Patients and the Internet: a Survey Among German Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebel, Marie-Desiree; Stellamanns, Jan; Keinki, Christian; Rudolph, Ivonne; Huebner, Jutta

    2017-09-01

    An increasing number of patients and relatives use the Internet to get additional or initial information about their disease. The aim of the study was to reevaluate the Internet usage among German cancer patients. Using a standardized questionnaire, we did an anonymous survey on patients attending a series of lectures on complementary medicine in 2014. We received 255 questionnaires. Nearly 80 % of the participants stated that they used the Internet to read up information about health or medicine issues. There was no significant difference regarding gender, age, or status (patient, current treatment/former treatment; relatives). Most users use the Internet in order to get additional information after a consultation with a physician (82.2 %). Important qualities from the view of the patient are a trustable source (65.3 %), information from experts (59.6 %), and actual information (52.8 %). There is an increasing number of patients in Germany looking for information in the Internet mostly in the intention of getting additional information. Yet, as the quality of information is heterogeneous, false information may lead to distrust in the doctor or wrong decision-making. Accordingly, organizations working on improving quality of cancer care should engage in conveying comprehensive and actual information adapted to the needs of patients. Physicians should know trustful websites for referral of patients.

  2. Teaching and assessment of communication skills in undergraduate dental education - a survey in German-speaking countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüttermann, S; Sobotta, A; Hahn, P; Kiessling, C; Härtl, A

    2017-08-01

    Teaching communication is perceived to be of importance in dental education. Several reports have been published worldwide in the educational literature describing modifications of the dental curriculum by implementing the teaching of communication skills. Surveys which evaluate the current state of training and assessment of communication skills in dental education in different countries exist already in some countries, but little information is available about German-speaking countries. In a cross-sectional study with the aim of a census, all 36 dental schools in Germany (30), Austria (3), and Switzerland (3) were surveyed. The present survey revealed that at 26 of the 34 dental schools (76%), communication skills training has been implemented. Training of communication skills mainly takes place between the 6th and the 9th semester. Ten schools were able to implement a partly longitudinal curriculum, while the other sites only offer stand-alone courses. Of the 34 dental schools, six assess communication skills in a summative way. Three of those schools also use formative assessments for their students. Another seven sites only use formative assessment. From the various formats of assessment, OSCE is mentioned most frequently. The necessity to train and assess communication skills has reached German-speaking dental schools. The present survey allows an overview of the training and assessment of communication skills in undergraduate dental education in German-speaking Europe. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. The German clinical risk management survey for hospitals: Implementation levels and areas for improvement in 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manser, Tanja; Frings, Janina; Heuser, Gregory; Mc Dermott, Fiona

    2016-01-01

    Despite the growing recognition of the need to implement systematic approaches for managing the risks associated with healthcare, few studies have investigated the level of implementation for clinical risk management (CRM) at a national level. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the current level of CRM implementation in German hospitals and to explore differences across hospital types. From March to June 2015, persons responsible for CRM in 2,617 hospitals and rehabilitation clinics in Germany were invited to participate in a voluntary online survey assessing the level of implementation for various aspects of CRM: CRM strategy, structures and processes; risk assessment (risk identification, risk analysis, risk evaluation) with a focus on incident reporting systems; risk mitigation measures; and risk monitoring and reporting. 572 hospitals participated in the survey (response rate 22 %). Most of these hospitals had a formalised, binding CRM strategy (72 %). 66 % had a centralised and 34 % a decentralised CRM structure. We also found that, despite a broad range of risk assessment methods being applied, there was a lack of integration of risk information from different data sources. Hospitals also reported a high level of implementation of critical incident reporting systems with a strong preference for local (74 %) over transorganisational systems. This study provides relevant data to inform targeted interventions concerning CRM implementation at a national level and to consider the specific context of different types of hospitals more carefully in this process. The approach to CRM assessment illustrated in this article could be the basis of a system for monitoring CRM over time and, thus, for evaluating the impact of strategy decisions at the policy level on CRM development. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  4. Yield Stability in Winter Wheat Production: A Survey on German Farmers’ and Advisors’ Views

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janna Macholdt

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Most of the available research studies have focused on the production of high grain yields of wheat and have neglected yield stability. However, yield stability is a relevant factor in agronomic practice and, therefore, is the focus of this comprehensive survey. The aim was to first describe the importance of yield stability as well as currently used practical management strategies that ensure yield stability in wheat production and secondly, to obtain potential research areas supporting yield stability in the complex system of agronomy. The target groups were German farmers with experience in wheat production and advisors with expertise in the field of wheat cultivation or research. A sample size of 615 completed questionnaires formed the data basis of this study. The study itself provides evidence that the yield stability of winter wheat is even more important than the amount of yield for a large proportion of farmers (48% and advisors (47%. Furthermore, in the view of the majority of the surveyed farmers and advisors, yield stability is gaining importance in climate change. Data analysis showed that site adapted cultivar choice, favorable crop rotations and integrated plant protection are ranked as three of the most important agronomic management practices to achieve high yield stability of wheat. Soil tillage and fertilization occupied a middle position, whereas sowing date and sowing density were estimated with lower importance. However, yield stability is affected by many environmental, genetic and agronomic factors, which subsequently makes it a complex matter. Hence, yield stability in farming practice must be analyzed and improved in a systems approach.

  5. Ecotoxicological sediment survey of large German rivers; Oekotoxikologische Sedimentkartierung der grossen Fluesse Deutschlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duft, M.; Tillmann, M. [Internationales Hochschulinstitut Zittau (Germany); Oehlmann, J. [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Zoologisches Inst., Abt. Oekologie und Evolution

    2003-05-01

    In this project, a nation-wide, ecotoxicologically-based sediment survey was carried out. For this purpose, a total of about 200 sediment samples from 12 selected large German rivers (Danube, Elbe, Ems, Main, Mosel, Neckar, Neisse, Odra, Rhine, Ruhr, Saar and Weser) were analysed with regard to abiotic parameters (heavy metals, PAH, organic carbon content, particle size) and also by means of two biological test systems with benthic invertebrates (nematode test with the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans and chironomid test with the non-biting midge Chironomus riparius). Subsequently, this comprehensive data set was analysed statistically. By means of an iterative method, a five-stage, statistically-derived assessment concept which is founded on the results of the biological tests, was developed following the EU water framework directive. In general, the classification with the nematode test turned out to be the more sensitive method. A principal component analysis and correlations showed that the parameters of both biotests provide different information which suggests a combined use of both tests. Correlations also indicate a connection of biotest results and abiotic parameters (organic carbon content, particle size and heavy metal contamination). (orig.) [German] Im Projekt wurde eine bundesweite oekotoxikologische Sedimentkartierung grosser Fliessgewaesser durchgefuehrt. Dazu wurden insgesamt etwa 200 Sedimentproben aus 12 ausgewaehlten grossen Fluessen Deutschlands (Donau, Elbe, Ems, Main, Mosel, Neckar, Neisse, Oder, Rhein, Ruhr, Saar und Weser) auf ihre abiotischen Parameter (Schwermetalle, PAK, organischer Kohlenstoffgehalt, Korngroesse) hin analysiert sowie mit zwei biologischen Testverfahren mit benthischen Invertebraten (Nematodentest mit dem Fadenwurm Caenorhabditis elegans und Chironomidentest mit der Zuckmuecke Chironomus riparius) untersucht. Dieses umfangreiche Datenmaterial wurde anschliessend statistisch ausgewertet und mit Hilfe eines iterativen

  6. Dietary counselling for cardiovascular disease prevention in primary care settings: results from a German physician survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görig, Tatiana; Mayer, Manfred; Bock, Christina; Diehl, Katharina; Hilger, Jennifer; Herr, Raphael M; Schneider, Sven

    2014-06-01

    Primary care physicians (PCPs) play an important role in the promotion of healthy dietary behaviour. However, little is known about the practice of and factors associated with the provision of dietary counselling in primary health care in Germany. To explore the attitudes towards and factors associated with the routine provision of dietary counselling in Germany using data from the nationwide, representative sample of the Physician Survey on Cardiovascular Disease Prevention. A total of 4074 randomly selected PCPs (response rate: 33.9%) provided data on dietary counselling for prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) based on the 5 A's (Assess, Advise, Agree, Assist, Arrange), attitudes towards dietary counselling and patients' and practice characteristics. While the majority of PCPs (86%) reported having high levels of competence in providing dietary advice, only 49% felt they had been successful in counselling their patients on nutrition. PCPs routinely asked (68%) and advised patients to change their dietary habits more frequently (77%) compared to other counselling techniques based on the 5 A's. Female physicians and those with a higher percentage of privately insured patients and patients at higher risk of CVD were more likely to use the 5 A's to routinely counsel their patients on nutrition. The data showed high levels of involvement by German PCPs in CVD prevention and dietary counselling. The rather low perceived success of dietary intervention and differences with respect to patients' health insurance status indicate a need to address both communication skills in medical training and appropriate reimbursement of preventive services. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Can CMB Surveys Help the AGN Community?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Partridge

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary projects to measure anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background (CMB are now detecting hundreds to thousands of extragalactic radio sources, most of them blazars. As a member of a group of CMB scientists involved in the construction of catalogues of such sources and their analysis, I wish to point out the potential value of CMB surveys to studies of AGN jets and their polarization. Current CMB projects, for instance, reach mJy sensitivity, offer wide sky coverage, are “blind” and generally of uniform sensitivity across the sky (hence useful statistically, make essentially simultaneous multi-frequency observations at frequencies from 30 to 857 GHz, routinely offer repeated observations of sources with interesting cadences and now generally provide polarization measurements. The aim here is not to analyze in any depth the AGN science already derived from such projects, but rather to heighten awareness of their promise for the AGN community.

  8. Procrastination, Distress and Life Satisfaction across the Age Range – A German Representative Community Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Addressing the lack of population-based data the purpose of this representative study was to assess procrastination and its associations with distress and life satisfaction across the life span. A representative German community sample (1,350 women; 1,177 men) between the ages of 14 and 95 years was examined by the short form of the General Procrastination Scale (GPS-K; 1) and standardized scales of perceived stress, depression, anxiety, fatigue and life satisfaction. As hypothesized, procrastination was highest in the youngest cohort (14–29 years). Only in the youngest and most procrastinating cohort (aged 14 to 29 years), men procrastinated more than women. As we had further hypothesized, procrastination was consistently associated with higher stress, more depression, anxiety, fatigue and reduced satisfaction across life domains, especially regarding work and income. Associations were also found with lack of a partnership and unemployment. Findings are discussed with regard to potential developmental and cohort effects. While procrastination appears to be a pervasive indicator for maladjustment, longitudinal analyses in high-risk samples (e.g. late adolescence, unemployment) are needed to identify means and mechanisms of procrastinating. PMID:26871572

  9. Procrastination, Distress and Life Satisfaction across the Age Range - A German Representative Community Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beutel, Manfred E; Klein, Eva M; Aufenanger, Stefan; Brähler, Elmar; Dreier, Michael; Müller, Kai W; Quiring, Oliver; Reinecke, Leonard; Schmutzer, Gabriele; Stark, Birgit; Wölfling, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Addressing the lack of population-based data the purpose of this representative study was to assess procrastination and its associations with distress and life satisfaction across the life span. A representative German community sample (1,350 women; 1,177 men) between the ages of 14 and 95 years was examined by the short form of the General Procrastination Scale (GPS-K; 1) and standardized scales of perceived stress, depression, anxiety, fatigue and life satisfaction. As hypothesized, procrastination was highest in the youngest cohort (14-29 years). Only in the youngest and most procrastinating cohort (aged 14 to 29 years), men procrastinated more than women. As we had further hypothesized, procrastination was consistently associated with higher stress, more depression, anxiety, fatigue and reduced satisfaction across life domains, especially regarding work and income. Associations were also found with lack of a partnership and unemployment. Findings are discussed with regard to potential developmental and cohort effects. While procrastination appears to be a pervasive indicator for maladjustment, longitudinal analyses in high-risk samples (e.g. late adolescence, unemployment) are needed to identify means and mechanisms of procrastinating.

  10. Bilingual Experience in the Hungarian and German Immigrant Communities of the San Francisco Bay Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gergely Tóth

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the interaction of languages are gaining importance in today’s world, characterized by accelerated migration and increasing cultural exchange. Unlike most research in this field, which concentrate on one embedded language against a matrix language, this fieldwork-based study examines the linguistic life in two immigrant populations, Hungarian and German, against the background of English. The primary focus of this article is the description of the bilingual and bicultural experience of the two groups. The discussion of language and identity will take a central place in the paper, and diglossia, bilingualism, loyalty, and language as social behavior will also be touched upon (section 4. This is complemented by a socio-historical portrayal of these speech communities of San Francisco, set forth in the preceding section 3. Section 5 provides an outline of the informant sets, spanning three generations in each linguistic cohort, and illustrates the subjects’ attitude towards maintenance. The final, sixth section offers qualitative and quantitative comparative statements about the results of linguistic interference and the ongoing attrition process, thus contributing to our understanding of contact linguistic mechanisms, and shedding light on specific grammatical and lexical features that are most prone to attritional forces.

  11. Procrastination, Distress and Life Satisfaction across the Age Range - A German Representative Community Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfred E Beutel

    Full Text Available Addressing the lack of population-based data the purpose of this representative study was to assess procrastination and its associations with distress and life satisfaction across the life span. A representative German community sample (1,350 women; 1,177 men between the ages of 14 and 95 years was examined by the short form of the General Procrastination Scale (GPS-K; 1 and standardized scales of perceived stress, depression, anxiety, fatigue and life satisfaction. As hypothesized, procrastination was highest in the youngest cohort (14-29 years. Only in the youngest and most procrastinating cohort (aged 14 to 29 years, men procrastinated more than women. As we had further hypothesized, procrastination was consistently associated with higher stress, more depression, anxiety, fatigue and reduced satisfaction across life domains, especially regarding work and income. Associations were also found with lack of a partnership and unemployment. Findings are discussed with regard to potential developmental and cohort effects. While procrastination appears to be a pervasive indicator for maladjustment, longitudinal analyses in high-risk samples (e.g. late adolescence, unemployment are needed to identify means and mechanisms of procrastinating.

  12. Community Based Survey on Psychiatric Morbidity in Eastern Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramod Mohan Shyangwa

    2014-12-01

    Conclusions: Community prevalence rate of some common psychiatric disorders is high which calls for special attention to address depressive and alcohol related disorder from all quarters of society particularly from government. Keywords: community survey; mental illness; psychiatric morbidity.

  13. American Community Survey (ACS) 5-Year Estimates for Coastal Geographies

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The American Community Survey (ACS) is an ongoing statistical survey that samples a small percentage of the population every year. These data have been apportioned...

  14. Attitudes Concerning Postmortem Organ Donation: A Multicenter Survey in Various German Cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlig, Constantin E; Böhringer, Daniel; Hirschfeld, Gerrit; Seitz, Berthold; Schmidt, Hartmut

    2015-10-13

    The aim of this study was to characterize postmortem organ donation attitudes in various German cohorts. Employees of 2 German cities and 2 German university hospitals, employees of a German automobile enterprise, and members of a German Medical Society were administered a questionnaire about postmortem organ and tissue donation attitudes. Demographic data and general attitudes were questioned and focused on: I) willingness to donate organs, II) holding a donor card, and III) having discussed the topic with the family. Of 5291 participants, 65.2% reported favoring postmortem organ donation. Missing negative experiences, the idea that donation is helpful, a non-medical professional environment, excellent general health, gender, agreement with the brain-death paradigm, and age significantly influenced the participants' attitudes. Participants were more likely to possess donor cards and had discussed more often with family members if they agreed with the brain-death paradigm and considered donation to be helpful. Males and older participants were the most likely to neglect donor cards, and Catholics, Protestants, and participants with poor health were the least likely to donate organs. Interest in receiving more information was expressed by 38.1% and 50.6% of participants refusing donation of all or of specific organs, respectively, and suggested the internet (60.0%) and family doctors (35.0%) as preferred sources of information. Public campaigns in Germany should focus on males and older people as regards donor cards, and females, younger, and religiously affiliated persons as regards the general willingness to donate organs postmortem.

  15. The Place of "Zertifikat Deutsch als Fremdsprache" in the German Curriculum. A Report of a Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Gerd K.

    The "Zertifikat Deutsch als Fremdsprache," an examination developed by the Adult Education Centers in West Germany and the Goethe Institute to measure a student's proficiency in German as a foreign language, consists of two main parts, group testing and individual testing. The group testing section covers listening and reading…

  16. Present situation and prospect of medical knowledge based systems in German-speaking countries: results of an online survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spreckelsen, Cord; Spitzer, K; Honekamp, W

    2012-01-01

    After a decrease of interest in classical medical expert systems, the publication activity concerning the medical application of Artificial Intelligence and the interest in medical decision support have markedly increased. Nonetheless, no systematic exploratory study has yet been carried out, which directly considers the actual fields of applications, exemplary approaches, obstacles, challenges, and future prospect as seen by pioneering users and developers in a given region. This paper reports the results of an online survey designed to fill this gap with the "Knowledge Based Systems" working group of the German Society for Medical Informatics, Biometry and Epidemiology (GMDS) in 2010. The survey was based on an online questionnaire (5 single and multiple choice questions, 8 Likert-scaled items, 7 free text questions) consented to by the working group. The answers were analyzed by descriptive statistics and a qualitative analysis (bottom-up coding). All academic institutions of Medical Informatics in the German-speaking countries and contributors reporting KBS-related projects at the relevant scientific conferences and in a journal specialized in the field were invited to participate. The survey reached a response rate of 33.4%. The results show a gap between the reported obstacles of medical KBS (mainly low acceptance and rare use in clinical practice) and their future prospect as stated by the participants. Problems previously discussed in the literature like low acceptance, integration, and sustainability of KBS projects were confirmed. The current situation was characterized by naming exemplary existing systems and specifying promising fields of application. The field of KBS in medicine is more diversified and has evolved beyond expectations in the German-speaking countries.

  17. 'Transition energetique' vs 'Energiewende'. A meeting of French and German local communities. Synthesis of exchanges and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schilken, Peter; Maurer, Christiane; Dupas, Stephane; Wyssling, Julia; Vasseur, Claire; Kersting, Jenny-Claire

    2013-03-01

    Even though they are different in size, number and skills, French and German local communities are essential for the implementation of a new energy policy. After a presentation of this context, this report outlines the objective of this meeting between French and German local communities: energy at the local level is a proactive issue of the Franco-German rapprochement. It also outlines the similarities of the challenges faced by both countries. It addresses the role, motivations and expectations of French and German local communities in the field of energy and in energy transition. Some examples are presented, and perspectives of cooperation between both countries through partnerships, common approaches, building thermal rehabilitation, financing, and citizen commitment are addressed

  18. Assessing community resilience: A CART survey application in an impoverished urban community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfefferbaum, Rose L; Pfefferbaum, Betty; Zhao, Yan D; Van Horn, Richard L; McCarter, Grady S Mack; Leonard, Michael B

    2016-01-01

    This article describes an application of the Communities Advancing Resilience Toolkit (CART) Assessment Survey which has been recognized as an important community tool to assist communities in their resilience-building efforts. Developed to assist communities in assessing their resilience to disasters and other adversities, the CART survey can be used to obtain baseline information about a community, to identify relative community strengths and challenges, and to re-examine a community after a disaster or post intervention. This article, which describes an application of the survey in a community of 5 poverty neighborhoods, illustrates the use of the instrument, explicates aspects of community resilience, and provides possible explanations for the results. The paper also demonstrates how a community agency that serves many of the functions of a broker organization can enhance community resilience. Survey results suggest various dimensions of community resilience (as represented by core CART community resilience items and CART domains) and potential predictors. Correlates included homeownership, engagement with local entities/activities, prior experience with a personal emergency or crisis while living in the neighborhood, and involvement with a community organization that focuses on building safe and caring communities through personal relationships. In addition to influencing residents' perceptions of their community, it is likely that the community organization, which served as a sponsor for this application, contributes directly to community resilience through programs and initiatives that enhance social capital and resource acquisition and mobilization.

  19. [Assessment of balance in community dwelling older adults: reliability and validity of the German version of the Fullerton Advanced Balance Scale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schott, N

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to validate the German translation of the originally English Fullerton Advanced Balance Scale (FAB-D). The 10-item test battery is a performance-based measure that addresses the multiple dimensions of balance. The German FAB-D using a forward-backward procedure was examined by a sample of n = 96 community dwelling older adults (71,6 ± 7,5 years of age) who had reported no history of a fall in the previous 6 months (non-fallers) and 66 older adults (age 75,3 ± 7,3 years of age) who reported falling one or more times (recurrent fallers). The following internationally accepted instruments were used for validation: The Berg-Balance-Scale (BBS), the Activities-Specific Balance Confidence (ABC-D) scale, the Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE), the Trail-Making-Test (TMT), and motor tests (balance, strength, mobility). Explorative and confirmative factor analysis showed the best fit for a one dimensional solution. Cronbach's alpha of the German version of the FAB-D was 0.988. Test-retest reliability for the total score was 0.965 and ranged from 0.86-0.88 for individual items. The scales correlate with convergent measures assessing postural control and falls-related confidence (BBS, r = 0.685; Timed-Up-and-Go-Test, r = -0.632; ABC-D, r = 0.561). Criterion validity of the FAB-D was established by statistically significant correlations between the total scale, and the subdimensions of the SF-36 (physical 0.52, mental 0.38), the PASE (0.29), the TMT A (-0.30) and B (-0.41), the Chair Rising Test (0.59) and the 10 m walk (normal velocity -0.49; fast velocity -0.56). Significant differences in the FAB-D scores were found in older adults with (30,3 ± 8,6) and without falls (36,1 ± 4,2). Older adults with a recent fall history scored lower on the FAB-D than older adults without a recent fall history. To conclude, the German version of the FAB-D has properties analogous to the original English

  20. Practice variation across consent templates for biobank research. A survey of German biobanks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene eHirschberg

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Informed, voluntary, and valid consent from biomaterial donors is a precondi-tion for biobank research. Valid consent protects donors’ rights and helps maintain public trust in biobank research. Harmonisation of consent procedures in biobank research is needed, because of the widely shared vision on national and international networking of biobanks in-cluding data and sample sharing. So far, no study has assessed and compared the content of current consent forms for biobank research. The objective of this study was to perform a con-tent analysis of consent forms in German biobanks. Methods: Based on 10 guidelines for biomedical research, we developed an assessment ma-trix with 41 content issues that are potentially relevant for consent forms in biobank research. This assessment matrix was applied in a thematic text analysis to 30 consent documents of German biobanks identified via the German Biobank Registry in July 2012. Results: Coverage of the 41 items in the assessed consent forms varied widely. For example, the items Right to withdraw consent (without disadvantage, Policy for genetic infor-mation / consent to genetic analyses and International cooperation / transborder use were addressed in 97%, 40% and 23% of all 30 consent forms respectively. The number of items covered by a single consent form ranged from 9 to 36 (22% to 88% out of 41 items.Discussion: Our findings serve as a starting point to reflect upon the spectrum of consent is-sues that must be addressed in biobank research. The findings show that the majority of con-sent forms for German biobanks, if not all, should be improved and harmonised to better sup-port an informed and balanced choice of potential donors and to facilitate networking of bi-obanks. Best practice models for consent forms in biobank research should be developed and biobank operators need to be more aware of relevant consent issues.

  1. Practice variation across consent templates for biobank research. a survey of German biobanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschberg, Irene; Knüppel, Hannes; Strech, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Informed, voluntary, and valid consent from biomaterial donors is a precondition for biobank research. Valid consent protects donors' rights and helps maintain public trust in biobank research. Harmonization of consent procedures in biobank research is needed, because of the widely shared vision on national and international networking of biobanks including data and sample sharing. So far, no study has assessed and compared the content of current consent forms especially for biobank research. The objective of this study was to perform a content analysis of consent forms in German biobanks. Based on ten guidelines for biomedical research, we developed an assessment matrix with 41 content issues that are potentially relevant for consent forms in biobank research. This assessment matrix was applied in a thematic text analysis to 30 consent documents of German biobanks identified via the German Biobank Registry in July 2012. Coverage of the 41 items in the assessed consent forms varied widely. For example, the items "Right to withdraw consent (without disadvantage)," "Policy for genetic information/consent to genetic analyzes" and "International cooperation/transborder use" were addressed in 97, 40, and 23% of all 30 consent forms respectively. The number of items covered by a single consent form ranged from 9 to 36 (22-88% out of 41 items). Our findings serve as a starting point to reflect upon the spectrum of consent issues that must be addressed in biobank research. The findings show that the majority of consent forms for German biobanks, if not all, should be improved and harmonized to better support an informed and balanced choice of potential donors and to facilitate networking of biobanks. Best practice models for consent forms in biobank research should be developed and biobank operators need to be more aware of relevant consent issues.

  2. Compliance with antimalarial chemoprophylaxis in German soldiers: a 6-year survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frickmann, H; Schwarz, N G; Holtherm, H-U; Maassen, W; Vorderwülbecke, F; Erkens, K; Fischer, M; Morwinsky, T; Hagen, R M

    2013-04-01

    Since 1992, German soldiers have been deployed in areas where malaria is endemic. Antimalarial chemoprophylaxis (CP) is directed according to the assessed risk and is provided free of charge. Compliance is crucial if its effect is to be reliable. This study analysed compliance with directed CP in German soldiers as well as its determinants. Between 2003 and 2009, standardized questionnaire-based interviews were performed with 2,149 out of approximately 100,000 German soldiers who were deployed during this period in areas where malaria is endemic. The questionnaires dealt with information that the soldiers had received about malaria prior to their missions, with their adherence to mosquito-protective and antimalarial chemoprophylactic procedures, and their estimations of their individual level of exposure. About 1,308 out of 2,149 interviewed soldiers had been ordered to take CP, allowing for an assessment of the outcome parameter "CP-compliance". About 76.9 % out of 1,308 soldiers to whom regular CP was directed took it regularly. The exposure variables "age", "satisfaction with malaria counselling", "perceived threat due to insects or mosquitoes" and "use of insect repellents" were positively associated with compliance with directed antimalarial CP. The study confirms the findings of the French and US armies that even free-of-charge access to antimalarial medication will not lead to 100 % acceptance. The compliance problem is aggravated by the generally low age of deployed soldiers. Adequate counselling is crucial to increase adherence to antimalarial CP.

  3. EQ-5D-5L in the General German Population: Comparison and Evaluation of Three Yearly Cross-Section Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel B. Huber

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Health-related quality of life (HRQoL is a key measure for evaluating health status in populations. Using the recent EQ-5D-5L for measurement, this study analyzed quality of life results and their stability over consecutive population surveys. Three cross-section surveys for representative samples of the general German population from 2012, 2013, and 2014 were evaluated using the EQ-5D-5L descriptive system and valuation by the Visual Analog Scale (VAS. Aggregated sample size reached 6074. The dimension with the highest prevalence of problems was pain/discomfort (31.7%. Compared with 2012 (59.3%, the percentage of participants in the best health state increased slightly in 2013 (63.4% and 2014 (62%. Over the 3-year period, diabetes and heart disease had the strongest negative influence on mean VAS result. The number of reported chronic diseases cumulatively reduced mean VAS. Extreme problems in one or more dimensions were stated by only 0.1%–0.2% of patients. Of the potential 247 health states with a problem score ≥20, only six were observed in the aggregated sample. HRQoL results were fairly stable over the 3 years, but the share of the population with no problems was not. Results from the aggregated sample may serve as updated reference values for the general German population.

  4. [Determinants of workplace health promotion in the insurance sector: results of a complete survey of German insurance companies in 2006].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, T; Janssen, C; Plath, S-C; Steinhausen, S; Pfaff, H

    2009-11-01

    The present study is aimed to assess the current level of workplace health promotion (WHP) within the German insurance sector and to examine whether and to what extent internal and external factors play a role in implementing non-statutory health promotion measures. Firstly, a telephone survey was conducted of German insurance companies fulfilling the inclusion criteria for the survey (n=258). It was enquired whether these companies wish to participate in a written survey on workplace health promotion. A written questionnaire was then sent to those companies meeting the criteria (n=140). The questionnaire contained questions on the company, number and type of workplace health promotion measures as well as the internal and external framework for workplace health promotion measures. In total, 68 questionnaires were filled in and returned. Linear regression analysis was applied to investigate how external and internal variables influence workplace health promotion. The response rate was 48.57%. Workplace health promotion measures undertaken by those insurance companies taking part in the written survey were largely dominated by behavioural and relational prevention measures. Also on offer were measures from areas such as further education and prevention that seek to improve communication and team work. By contrast, diagnostic activities were only of minor importance. Incorporation into workplace health management (beta=0.469; pmanagement measures with regard to personnel development, organisational development and quality control (beta=0.243; pcompanies should increasingly incorporate such measures into specific health management programmes as well as general management measures with regard to personnel development, organisational development and quality control. Moreover, workplace health promotion measures should always be evaluated in terms of health and economic indicators. It should also be noted that small and medium-sized companies have the largest potential

  5. [Attitudes and experiences regarding physician assisted suicide : A survey among members of the German Association for Palliative Medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansky, Maximiliane; Jaspers, Birgit; Radbruch, Lukas; Nauck, Friedemann

    2017-01-01

    The need to regulate physician-assisted suicide (PAS) and organizations offering assisted suicide has been controversially debated in Germany. Before the German parliament voted on various drafts in November 2015, the German Association for Palliative Medicine surveyed its members on their attitudes and experiences regarding PAS. Items for the survey were derived from the literature and consented in a focus group. 2005-2015 - PubMed: PAS [Title/Abstract] UND survey (all countries), grey literature. We invited 5152 members of the DGP to participate in the online/paper survey. Descriptive quantitative and content analytic qualitative analysis of data using SPSS and MaxQDA. We obtained 1811 valid data sets (response rate 36.9%). 33.7% of the participants were male, 43.6% were female, and 0.4% identifed as other. Physicians accounted for 48.5% of the respondents, 17.8% nurses, other professions 14.3%, and about 20% of the data was missing socio-demographic information. More than 90% agreed that "wishes for PAS may be ambivalent" and "are rather a wish to end an unbearable situation". Of the 833 participating physicians, 56% refused participating in PAS and 74.2% had been asked to perform PAS. PAS was actually performed by 3%. Of all participating members, 56% approved of a legal ban of organizations offering assisted suicide. More than 60% of all professions agreed that PAS is not a part of palliative care. The respondents show a broad spectrum of attitudes, only partly supporting statements of relevant bodies, such as DGP. Because many are confronted with the issue, PAS is relevant to professionals in palliative care.

  6. COMMUNITY DENTAL HEALTH SURVEY TRAINING TO DENTAL HEALTH PERSONNEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Fikawati

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Dentist and dental nurse as dental health personnel in community health center are spearheads in community dental health service. The effectiveness and efficacy of community dental health service needs updated adequate dental health knowledge and skill. One effort to assure the fulfillment of those needs is by providing community dental health survey training. This training aims at improving the skill and capability of dental health personnel to conduct dental health survey. The training consisted of materials on community dental health survey, principles of survey implementation, and field survey activity as an integral part of the training. Survey was conducted among third grade students of Madrasah Ibtidaiyah (MI in Tangerang city. Targeting and sampling part of the survey was implemented by city health office. There were 224 students, 182 parents, and 16 teachers who were successfully examined and/or interviewed. The survey showed that the participant’s knowledge was significantly (p<0.05 improved. The survey also showed that only 34% of the students had good oral hygiene score. There were 46.9% of students who suffered M1 caries and 47.3% had caries on their permanent teeth. Parents’ knowledge and attitude regarding child dental health was quite good and teachers had implemented students dental care effort. In conclusion, the survey-training model was proved to be useful to refresh the community dental health science while simultaneously obtained important data through survey. This model had never been conducted before and new breakthrough in the community dental health science refreshing activity targeted to local dental health personnel.

  7. Psychometric evaluation of the German version of the Intuitive Eating Scale-2 in a community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzanska, Ulrike Alexandra; Warschburger, Petra

    2017-10-01

    Intuitive eating is based on a strong physical connection with the body, aligned to internal cues of hunger and satiety, and a low preoccupation with food. The aim of this study was to provide a German version of the Intuitive Eating Scale-2 (IES-2) and to examine its psychometric properties with data collected from 532 participants aged 18-91 years. The IES-2 was translated into German following the World Health Organization guidelines (2016). Cronbach's alpha as a measure of internal consistency was 0.89 for the IES-2 total score, as well as 0.73 - 0.92 for the IES-2 subscale scores. For group differences, the results were as hypothesized: men had higher IES-2 scores than women, and participants with under- and average weight showed higher IES-2 scores than participants with overweight and obesity. Participants without a dieting history had higher IES-2 scores than former or current dieters. In line with our hypotheses regarding construct validity, the IES-2 score had negative associations with emotional eating, restraint eating, external eating, binge eating and eating disorder symptomatology, as well as positive associations with self-efficacy and mental health-related quality of life. Second-order confirmatory factor analysis replicated the four-factor solution, with intuitive eating as a higher-order factor. These findings demonstrate that the German version of the IES-2 is a useful tool to assess intuitive eating in the general German population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. [Physical and psychological violence perpetration and violent victimisation in the German adult population: results of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlack, R; Rüdel, J; Karger, A; Hölling, H

    2013-05-01

    Violence is of considerable relevance to Public Health. It was the aim of the violence screening implemented as part of the"German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults" (DEGS1) to assess data on physical and psychological violence in various social environments (partnership, family, workplace, public space). For the first time as part of a nationally representative health survey, the data was collected from the perspective of victim and perpetrator both among women and men. The study population was comprised of 5939 participants aged between 18 and 64 years. Approximately every 20th participant reported being the victim of physical violence in the preceding 12 months, men significantly more frequently than women. With regard to the frequency of being the perpetrator of physical violence (overall prevalence 3.7 %) there were no significant differences between the sexes. Psychological victimisation was reported by every fifth participant and overall perpetrating psychological violence was reported by every tenth. Women tended to be more frequent the victims but they were also significantly more frequently the perpetrators of both physical and psychological violence in the domestic area (partnership, family). In contrast, men more frequently report being both the perpetrator and the victim of violence in the workplace and in the public space. Young adults between 18 and 29 years as well as persons of low socioeconomic status were consistently more frequently affected by violence although there were exceptions with regard to psychological violent victimisation. More than three-quarters of the victims of physical violence reported being greatly or extremely affected in their well-being by the violence and in the case of psychological violence the rate was about approximately 60%. Overall, the traumatic experience as a consequence of experiencing physical and psychological violence was considerably higher, especially in the case of domestic violence

  9. Study protocol of the German Study on Tobacco Use (DEBRA: a national household survey of smoking behaviour and cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Kastaun

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of tobacco smoking in Germany is high (~27%. Monitoring of national patterns of smoking behaviour and data on the “real-world” effectiveness of cessation methods are needed to inform policies and develop campaigns aimed at reducing tobacco-related harm. In England, the Smoking Toolkit Study (STS has been tracking such indicators since 2006, resulting in the adaptation of tobacco control policies. However, findings cannot be directly transferred into the German health policy context. The German Study on Tobacco Use (DEBRA: “Deutsche Befragung zum Rauchverhalten” aims to provide such nationally representative data. Methods/Design In June 2016, the study started collecting data from computer-assisted, face-to-face household interviews in people aged 14 years and older. Over a period of 3 years, a total of ~36,000 respondents will complete the survey with a new sample of ~2000 respondents every 2 months (=18 waves. This sample will report data on demographics and the use of tobacco and electronic (e-cigarettes. Per wave, about 500–600 people are expected to be current or recent ex-smokers (<12 months since quitting. This sample will answer detailed questions about smoking behaviour, quit attempts, exposure to health professionals’ advice on quitting, and use of cessation aids. Six-month follow-up data will be collected by telephone. Discussion The DEBRA study will be an important source of data for tobacco control policies, health strategies, and future research. The methodology is closely aligned to the STS, which will allow comparisons with data from England, a country with one of the lowest smoking prevalence rates in Europe (18%. Trial registration This study has been registered at the German Clinical Trials Register ( DRKS00011322 on 25th November 2016.

  10. Study protocol of the German Study on Tobacco Use (DEBRA): a national household survey of smoking behaviour and cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastaun, Sabrina; Brown, Jamie; Brose, Leonie S; Ratschen, Elena; Raupach, Tobias; Nowak, Dennis; Cholmakow-Bodechtel, Constanze; Shahab, Lion; West, Robert; Kotz, Daniel

    2017-05-02

    The prevalence of tobacco smoking in Germany is high (~27%). Monitoring of national patterns of smoking behaviour and data on the "real-world" effectiveness of cessation methods are needed to inform policies and develop campaigns aimed at reducing tobacco-related harm. In England, the Smoking Toolkit Study (STS) has been tracking such indicators since 2006, resulting in the adaptation of tobacco control policies. However, findings cannot be directly transferred into the German health policy context. The German Study on Tobacco Use (DEBRA: "Deutsche Befragung zum Rauchverhalten") aims to provide such nationally representative data. In June 2016, the study started collecting data from computer-assisted, face-to-face household interviews in people aged 14 years and older. Over a period of 3 years, a total of ~36,000 respondents will complete the survey with a new sample of ~2000 respondents every 2 months (=18 waves). This sample will report data on demographics and the use of tobacco and electronic (e-)cigarettes. Per wave, about 500-600 people are expected to be current or recent ex-smokers (smoking behaviour, quit attempts, exposure to health professionals' advice on quitting, and use of cessation aids. Six-month follow-up data will be collected by telephone. The DEBRA study will be an important source of data for tobacco control policies, health strategies, and future research. The methodology is closely aligned to the STS, which will allow comparisons with data from England, a country with one of the lowest smoking prevalence rates in Europe (18%). This study has been registered at the German Clinical Trials Register ( DRKS00011322 ) on 25th November 2016.

  11. Dr. med.--obsolete? A cross sectional survey to investigate the perception and acceptance of the German medical degree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heun, Xenia; Eisenlöffel, Christian; Barann, Bastian; Müller-Hilke, Brigitte

    2014-01-01

    To obtain the German Medical Degree "Dr.med." candidates are required to write a scientific thesis which is usually accomplished during Medical school education. This extra work load for the students amongst a lack of standardization and an M.D. awarded upon graduation in other European and Anglo-Saxon countries leads repeatedly to criticism of the German system. However, a systematic survey on the perception and acceptance of the German doctoral thesis among those affected is overdue. Using an online questionnaire, medical students as well as licensed doctors were asked for the status of their medical degree, their motivation, personal benefit, time and effort, scientific output, its meaningfulness and alternatives concerning their thesis. Patients were asked, how important they value their general practitioner's title "Dr. med.". The resulting data were evaluated performing basic statistic analyses. The title "Dr. med." does not seem to be obsolete, but there is room for improvement. The scientific output is good and only a mere 15.1% of the candidates do not publish their results at all. Moreover, while at an early stage motivation, appreciation and recognition of personal benefits from the medical degree are considered as independent aspects, they merge to a general view at later stages. The current practice is considered most meaningful by the ones who have already finished their thesis. However, there are discrepancies between the expected and the actual length as well as the type of the thesis indicating that mentoring and educational advertising need improvement. As for the patients, their educational level seems to correlate with the significance attributed to the title "Dr. med." held by their physician.

  12. The relationship between transformational leadership and social capital in hospitals--a survey of medical directors of all German hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Antje; Ommen, Oliver; Röttger, Julia; Pfaff, Holger

    2012-01-01

    The German hospital market has been undergoing major changes in recent years. Success in this new market is determined by a multitude of factors. One is the quality of the social relationships between staff and the presence of shared values and rules. This factor can be considered an organization's "social capital." This study investigates the relationship between social capital and leadership style in German hospitals using a written survey of medical directors. In 2008, a cross-sectional representative study was conducted with 1224 medical directors from every hospital in Germany with at least 1 internal medicine unit and 1 surgery unit. Among the scales included in the standardized questionnaire were scales used to assess the medical directors' evaluation of social capital and transformational leadership in the hospital. We used a multiple linear regression model to examine the relationship between social capital and internal coordination. We controlled for hospital ownership, teaching status, and number of beds. In total, we received questionnaires from 551 medical directors, resulting in a response rate of 45.2%. The participating hospitals had an average of 345 beds. The sample included public (41.3%), not-for-profit (46.9%), and for-profit (11.7%) hospitals. The data, which exclusively represent the perceptions of the medical directors, indicate a significant correlation between a transformational leadership style of the executive management and the social capital as perceived by medical directors. A transformational leadership style of the executive management accounted for 36% of variance of the perceived social capital. The perceived social capital in German hospitals is closely related to the leadership style of the executive management. A transformational leadership style of the executive management appears to successfully strengthen the hospital's social capital.

  13. Community Survey Q7: Nature of police interactions with respondents

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — This question is from the 2015 Chapel Hill Community Survey.Have you interacted with the Town’s Police Department in any of the following ways within the past 2...

  14. Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity - American Community Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset includes select data from the U.S. Census Bureau's American Community Survey (ACS) on the percent of adults who bike or walk to work. This data is used...

  15. Pittsburgh American Community Survey Data 2015 - Household Types

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The data on relationship to householder were derived from answers to Question 2 in the 2015 American Community Survey (ACS), which was asked of all people in...

  16. Community Survey Q2: What to emphasize in Q1

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — This question is from the 2015 Chapel Hill Community Survey.Which THREE of these items do you think should receive the most emphasis from Town leaders over the next...

  17. Attitudes of the German general population toward early diagnosis of dementia--results of a representative telephone survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Luck

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Early detection of dementia has clearly improved. Even though none of the currently available treatments for the most common form of dementia, Alzheimer's dementia, promises a cure, early diagnosis provides several benefits for patients, caregivers, and health care systems. This study aimed to describe attitudes toward early diagnosis of dementia in the German general population. METHODS: A representative telephone survey of the German population aged 18+ years (n = 1,002 was conducted in 2011. RESULTS: The majority of respondents (69% would be willing to be examined for early diagnosis of dementia. Almost two thirds reported that they would prefer their general practitioner (GP as the first source of professional help. More than half of the respondents (55% stated their belief that dementia could be prevented. Respondents mostly indicated psychosocial prevention options. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that the general population in Germany is very open to early diagnosis of dementia; however, this seems connected with large expectations on the effectiveness of prevention options. Dementia awareness campaigns may be employed to carefully inform the public about the prevention options currently available and their efficacy. To exploit GPs' potential as a gatekeeper for early detection of dementia, their ability to identify patients with antecedent and mild stages of the disease must be improved.

  18. A Survey of Job Loss in Selected Communities around ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Survey of Job Loss in Selected Communities around Johannesburg, South Africa. ... They experienced a feeling of lowered self-esteem. However, although seriously afflicted by the ravages of job loss within their communities, the majority of the respondents did not express a desire to relocate to other places.

  19. Community composition of the rocky intertidal at Helgoland (German Bight, North Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, Katharina; Buchholz, Friedrich; Giménez, Luis

    2008-12-01

    At the rocky island of Helgoland (North Sea), the distribution and abundances of intertidal communities were assessed and the effects of wave exposure and tidal height on the spatial distribution patterns of the communities were evaluated. Macroalgae and invertebrates were sampled quantitatively along line transects in three intertidal locations, a semi-exposed, an exposed and a sheltered one. The semi-exposed location was characterised by (1) Ulva spp. at the high intertidal ( Ulva-community), (2) mussels and periwinkles at the mid intertidal ( Mytilus-community) and (3) Corallina officinalis and mainly the large brown alga Fucus serratus at the low intertidal ( Fucus-community). The exposed location encompassed the mid and low intertidal; at both zones the Fucus-community occurred. The sheltered location was characterised by (1) barnacles ( Balanus-community) and (2) bryozoans, hydrozoans and mainly the large brown alga Ascophyllum nodosum ( Ascophyllum-community). At the semi-exposed, but not at the exposed location the communities changed with the intertidal position. A relationship between wave exposure and the occurrence of specific communities was shown for the sheltered location; in contrast, communities of the semi-exposed and the exposed location appear to be little influenced by wave exposure directly. The community concept and the potential causes of distribution patterns of the defined communities are discussed and suggestions for a future monitoring are given. Variations in the communities at different spatial scales speak in favour of a multiple scale sampling design to monitor changes in the intertidal communities at Helgoland.

  20. The German Radiation Protection Ordinance of 2000: a survey and comparison with the former regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, H.

    2000-01-01

    The radiation protection standards defined by the European Union in May 1996, as well as the EU directive for the protection of patients, effective since June 1997, have to be incorporated into the law and administrative regulations of the Federal Republic of Germany by the 13th of May 2000. The German BMU, the ministry responsible for nuclear safety and radiation protection, presented the draft law for departmental consultation about the amendment of the StlSchV in December 1999. This draft law is the basis of the expert discussions of the meeting. One major change for instance is that for the first time, a broad classification system has been applied, which facilitates orientation. (orig./CB) [de

  1. Exploring the association between social capital and depressive symptoms: results of a survey in German information and communication technology companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Julia; Ernstmann, Nicole; Nitzsche, Anika; Driller, Elke; Kowalski, Christoph; Lehner, Birgit; Stieler-Lorenz, Brigitte; Friepörtner, Katharina; Schmidt, Anna; Pfaff, Holger

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the association between social capital at work and depressive symptoms in employees. Data for this cross-sectional study were collected through an online survey with the full population of employees from six companies in the German information and communication technology sector (response rate: 58.4%). A multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed. Results of data from a total of 328 employees suggest that, after controlling for sociodemographic factors, health awareness, and job strain, lower levels of perceived social capital at work are associated with the experience of depressive symptoms (OR = 0.76; 95% CI: 0.64-0.90). Our findings suggest that characteristics of high social capital at work, such as an established environment of trust and a sense of common values and convictions, could be an essential resource for preventing depressive disorders.

  2. [External quality assurance of the first wave of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelz, I; Pohlabeln, H; Reineke, A; Ahrens, W

    2013-05-01

    The quality management concept for the first wave of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1) included in addition to conducting internal quality assurance (QS) also the supervision by an external independent institute. After a restricted tendering procedure, the Leibniz Institute for Prevention Research and Epidemiology-BIPS was commissioned to conduct the external quality assurance. The external quality control included the review of the operation manuals, the training of the field staff, the execution of field work (including measurements), and the monitoring of sampling, response and data management. For the realization of the controls in these areas, test criteria were developed to reveal shortcomings early and to give recommendations for the internal quality assurance. This paper briefly describes the concept and the execution of the accompanying external quality assurance with regard to the above mentioned areas. An English full-text version of this article is available at SpringerLink as supplemental.

  3. The challenge of comprehensively mapping children's health in a nation-wide health survey: Design of the German KiGGS-Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schlack Robert

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background From May 2003 to May 2006, the Robert Koch Institute conducted the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS. Aim of this first nationwide interview and examination survey was to collect comprehensive data on the health status of children and adolescents aged 0 to 17 years. Methods/Design Participants were enrolled in two steps: first, 167 study locations (sample points were chosen; second, subjects were randomly selected from the official registers of local residents. The survey involved questionnaires filled in by parents and parallel questionnaires for children aged 11 years and older, physical examinations and tests, and a computer assisted personal interview performed by study physicians. A wide range of blood and urine testing was carried out at central laboratories. A total of 17 641 children and adolescents were surveyed – 8985 boys and 8656 girls. The proportion of sample neutral drop-outs was 5.3%. The response rate was 66.6%. Discussion The response rate showed little variation between age groups and sexes, but marked variation between resident aliens and Germans, between inhabitants of cities with a population of 100 000 or more and sample points with fewer inhabitants, as well as between the old West German states and the former East German states. By analysing the short non-responder questionnaires it was proven that the collected data give comprehensive and nationally representative evidence on the health status of children and adolescents aged 0 to 17 years.

  4. Prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder and associated features in German adolescents: A self-report survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möllmann, Anne; Dietel, Fanny A; Hunger, Antje; Buhlmann, Ulrike

    2017-08-01

    Prior research has not yet investigated the prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) in adolescents and young adults based on criteria from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition (DSM-5). In the current study, the point prevalence of BDD, comorbid symptoms, and associated features, such as appearance-related suicidality, level of insight or history of plastic surgeries, were examined in a non-clinical sample of German adolescents and young adults (n=308), between 15 and 21 years old, using self-report measures. Eleven participants (3.6%; 95% CI=[1.9, 5.8]) met DSM-5 criteria for BDD. Self-reported BDD (vs. no-BDD) was related to respondents showing significantly more obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms and lower degrees of insight regarding appearance concerns. Significantly more adolescents and young adults with vs. without self-reported BDD (36.4% vs. 8.8%) reported appearance-related suicidal ideation. In conclusion, body dysmorphic symptoms are common in adolescents and young adults and are associated with high rates of comorbid symptoms and suicidal ideation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Characteristics of predrinking and associated risks: a survey in a sample of German high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Sonja; Sonntag, Tobias; Roehrig, Jeanette; Kriston, Levente; Berner, Michael M

    2013-04-01

    Finding predictors for predrinking and placing the new phenomenon of predrinking on a greater database. Predrinking is defined as alcohol consumption, alone or with friends, at home or at public places, before going out in the evening to a party or in bars or discotheques. Data were collected from a representative sample of 757 ninth- and tenth-grade students from 31 high schools located in a south German rural region and a city. Predrinkers, especially those who show this behaviour frequently, were notably more likely to engage in hazardous drinking, and experienced significantly more frequent involvements in fights and alcohol-induced blackouts. They also stated more often that they had the intention of getting drunk when consuming alcohol. Predrinking proves to be a high-risk behaviour, particularly when it occurs at a high frequency. This behaviour has to be seen as part of a new youth culture, which does not seem to be limited to a certain subgroup-with all of the associated risks.

  6. German energy turnaround and Poland's start in nuclear power? A survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knopp, Lothar; Gorski, Marek

    2015-01-01

    The book includes contributions from two meetings: 1. Meeting in Berlin, October 8,2014: Energy transition in Poland - historical background, development and actual situation; legal boundary conditions of the entry into nuclear power in Poland; ecologic and economic causes motivation for the atomic energy entry in Poland; promotion systems for renewable energy in Poland, current status and political background; construction of a nuclear power plant in Northern Poland site specific impacts and social assessment. Meeting in Stettin on November 5, 2014: Energy turnaround in Germany -German nuclear phaseout under consideration of EU legislation; ecologic and economic motivation for the energy turnaround in Germany; energy turnaround in Germany - new legal boundary conditions, especially the amendment to tue renewable energy law; contribution of the industry to the energy turnaround - taking the example waste management and waste incineration plants; fracking as a factor of the energy turnaround? - legal boundary conditions and ecologic risks; ecological, ethical and sociopolitical aspects of the energy turnaround in Germany and Poland.

  7. [Mortality follow-up of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS) : methods and first results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, I-K; Busch, M; Lange, M; Kamtsiuris, P; Doelle, R; Richter, A; Kuhnert, R; Ziese, T; Knopf, H; Scheidt-Nave, C

    2014-11-01

    Within the framework of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS), the Robert Koch Institute (RKI) conducted a nationwide mortality follow-up study. As there is no national mortality register in Germany, mortality and causes of death were investigated individually and under observance of state-specific data protection conditions. The German Health Interview and Examination Survey 1998 (GNHIES98) provided the database including 7,124 participants aged 18-79 years. A total of 6,979 participants of GNHIES98 (98 %) who consented to be re-contacted were invited between October 2008 and October 2011 to also participate in the first data collection wave of DEGS (DEGS1). In this context, the vital status and the causes of death for deceased participants were assessed. Age- and sex-specific probabilities of survival and death rates were calculated and grouped by main causes of death according to ICD-10 groups. A total of 671 individuals (285 women, 386 men) died between the two survey contacts. For all deceased persons the date of death and for 539 (80.3 %) the causes of death could be determined. With a median follow-up time of 12.0 years, 8,0742.5 person years were available for survival analysis. The crude overall death rate amounted to 8.3 per 1,000 persons-years (women: 7.2; men: 9.5). Among 539 persons with available information on causes of death, 209 (38.8 %) were attributable to cardiovascular diseases, 188 (34.9 %) to cancer, 135 (25.0 %) to other causes, and seven (1.3 %) could not be unambiguously assigned. A mortality follow-up was successfully integrated in the longitudinal component of DEGS as part of the national health monitoring at the RKI. Death rates and cause-specific mortality in relation to highly prevalent chronic diseases and risk factors provide essential information for assessing the potential of prevention and quality of care among adults in Germany. This requires a regular and complete conduction of

  8. The impact of energy performance certificates: A survey of German home owners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amecke, Hermann

    2012-01-01

    The building sector accounts for about 40% of the final energy consumption in Germany. At the same time, the sector is regarded as one of the most cost-effective options for saving CO 2 emissions. To target this potential, the European Union introduced energy performance certificates (EPC). EPCs should provide clear information about the energy performance of buildings to building purchasers, owners and tenants. This study analyses, in how far EPCs have helped purchasers of owner-occupied dwellings in Germany to incorporate energy efficiency in their purchasing decisions. The results suggest that the effectiveness of EPCs is limited. Main reasons are first, that the certificates are not helpful for understanding the financial implications of energy efficiency. Second, EPCs are not viewed for most buildings due to their legal status. Third, energy efficiency is only a minor purchasing criterion for dwelling purchases. The results of the study however also point to the potential of EPCs, as these barriers can be removed. From 2013 onwards the use of the EPC will be increased due to the new EU Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD). Changes to the design of the EPC could further increase the importance of energy performance certificates and of energy efficiency. - Highlights: ► Study examines impact of EU energy performance certificate on German housing market. ► Low impact of EPC on purchasing decisions found. ► Reasons are limitations in design, legal status, importance of energy efficiency. ► Study is relevant because of low previous coverage and because of update of directive.

  9. Are tanning salons in compliance with German law? An evaluation based on a nationwide representative survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görig, Tatiana; Schneider, Sven; Greinert, Rüdiger; Breitbart, Eckhard W; Diehl, Katharina

    2018-03-01

    Given the evidence for increased skin cancer risk due to the sunbed use, a regulation of hazardous artificial ultraviolet radiation (UVR regulation) was passed in Germany in 2012. The aim of this study was to explore the advisory services in tanning studios as reported by sunbed users and to evaluate the information provided by the personnel of tanning salons after the UVR regulation was enacted. The first wave of the representative National Cancer Aid Monitoring on Sunbed Use included a subgroup of 357 German citizens between 14 and 45 years who had used sunbeds since the UVR regulation was implemented. The participants provided data on sunbed use and related issues in telephone interviews. Although sunbed operators are mandated to offer their customers certain services at least once since the implementation of the UVR regulation, 15.4% of sunbed users were never advised to use protective eyewear during tanning and 13.1% were not provided with eyewear during their last sunbed use. Overall, 66.0% were never offered to develop a tanning schedule, 56.9% were never advised on the risks of UVR, 43.4% were never offered a determination of their skin type and 40.0% of users were never advised on how to use a sunbed safely. The data showed that 3 years after the UVR regulation was enacted, compliance with this legislation is still not optimal. Binding wording in the legal text and making them applicable to unsupervised sunbeds as well is necessary to extend the impact of this legislation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. [Factors Influencing Lead Time in Multiple Sclerosis: Survey of Members of the German Multiple Sclerosis Society in Saxony-Anhalt].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, A; Hussack, S; Kugler, J

    2016-08-01

    Multiple sclerosis is a neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system in which the myelin layer is disrupted. Early diagnosis and early therapy are decisive for the course of the disease. To analyze the time to diagnosis and the factors having an influence on this process, members of the German Multiple Sclerosis Society in Saxony-Anhalt (n = 941) were surveyed. Thanks to a return rate of 424 questionnaires (response rate ≈45 %), the results provide a good overview of MS patients in this region. Almost 80 % of the respondents were female. The median time to diagnosis was 6.35 years. On average, women were diagnosed 2.93 years later than men (p≤ 0.05; U test). The time to diagnosis has decreased over the last decades. Younger age at the time of the first symptoms seems to be a positive factor for early diagnosis. A recall bias cannot be outruled since all the data are based on individual experience. The results of the self-help group samples cannot be generalized. Further surveys are needed to analyze why it takes over six years to establish the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Implementing a Community-Driven Research Partnership: The Backyard Initiative Community Health Survey Methods and Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orionzi, Dimpho E; Mink, Pamela J; Azzahir, Atum; Yusuf, Amged A; Jernigan, Mau J; Dahlem, Janet L; Anderson, Mark J; Trahan, Lovel; Rosenberg-Carlson, Elena

    In community-based participatory research (CBPR), issues such as creating a setting where community members drive decisions and creating culturally relevant processes remain largely underachieved. The Backyard Initiative (BYI) provided the setting for implementing a community-centered collaborative research process. The BYI is a partnership between Allina Health, the Cultural Wellness Center (CWC), and community residents to improve health. To describe the unique community-centered method used in the 2013 BYI Community Health Survey (CHS) as a viable approach for collecting meaningful and valid health related data. With this approach, the community operates as the agent of change rather than the target. At the core was the BYI assessment team, which brought together conventional researchers and community members to collaboratively design, implement, analyze, interpret, and disseminate the CHS results. Focusing on the CHS, this structure and process permitted and facilitated important and difficult discussions about approach, content and outcomes of the research. We held seven sessions (239 participants). Participants were 37% African American/African and 34% Native American, 65% female, and 72% spoke English at home. Achievement of our recruitment goals, participation of groups typically underrepresented in research, and positive community feedback were indications that the BYI approach to survey research was successful. The BYI CHS community-centered methods built trust among research partners and participants, engaged populations often underrepresented in research, and collected meaningful data. Our success indicates that it is possible to co-design and implement a lengthy survey to inform future research and community activities.

  12. Development and construct validation of the German Workplace Trust Survey (G-WTS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lehmann-Willenbrock, N.K.; Kauffeld, S.

    2010-01-01

    In research on trust in the organizational context, there is some agreement evolving that trust should be measured with respect to various foci. The Workplace Trust Survey (WTS) by Ferres (2002) provides reliable assessment of coworker, supervisor, and organizational trust. By means of a

  13. Analysis of phytoplankton distribution and community structure in the German Bight with respect to the different size classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollschläger, Jochen; Wiltshire, Karen Helen; Petersen, Wilhelm; Metfies, Katja

    2015-05-01

    Investigation of phytoplankton biodiversity, ecology, and biogeography is crucial for understanding marine ecosystems. Research is often carried out on the basis of microscopic observations, but due to the limitations of this approach regarding detection and identification of picophytoplankton (0.2-2 μm) and nanophytoplankton (2-20 μm), these investigations are mainly focused on the microphytoplankton (20-200 μm). In the last decades, various methods based on optical and molecular biological approaches have evolved which enable a more rapid and convenient analysis of phytoplankton samples and a more detailed assessment of small phytoplankton. In this study, a selection of these methods (in situ fluorescence, flow cytometry, genetic fingerprinting, and DNA microarray) was placed in complement to light microscopy and HPLC-based pigment analysis to investigate both biomass distribution and community structure of phytoplankton. As far as possible, the size classes were analyzed separately. Investigations were carried out on six cruises in the German Bight in 2010 and 2011 to analyze both spatial and seasonal variability. Microphytoplankton was identified as the major contributor to biomass in all seasons, followed by the nanophytoplankton. Generally, biomass distribution was patchy, but the overall contribution of small phytoplankton was higher in offshore areas and also in areas exhibiting higher turbidity. Regarding temporal development of the community, differences between the small phytoplankton community and the microphytoplankton were found. The latter exhibited a seasonal pattern regarding number of taxa present, alpha- and beta-diversity, and community structure, while for the nano- and especially the picophytoplankton, a general shift in the community between both years was observable without seasonality. Although the reason for this shift remains unclear, the results imply a different response of large and small phytoplankton to environmental influences.

  14. Diagnostic needs for rare diseases and shared prediagnostic phenomena: Results of a German-wide expert Delphi survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blöß, Susanne; Klemann, Christian; Rother, Ann-Katrin; Mehmecke, Sandra; Schumacher, Ulrike; Mücke, Urs; Mücke, Martin; Stieber, Christiane; Klawonn, Frank; Kortum, Xiaowei; Lechner, Werner; Grigull, Lorenz

    2017-01-01

    Worldwide approximately 7,000 rare diseases have been identified. Accordingly, 4 million individuals live with a rare disease in Germany. The mean time to diagnosis is about 6 years and patients receive several incorrect diagnoses during this time. A multiplicity of factors renders diagnosing a rare disease extremely difficult. Detection of shared phenomena among individuals with different rare diseases could assist the diagnostic process. In order to explore the demand for diagnostic support and to obtain the commonalities among patients, a nationwide Delphi survey of centers for rare diseases and patient groups was conducted. A two-step Delphi survey was conducted using web-based technologies in all centers for rare diseases in Germany. Moreover, the leading patient support group, the German foundation for rare diseases (ACHSE), was contacted to involve patients as experts in their disease. In the survey the experts were invited to name rare diseases with special need for diagnostic improvement. Secondly, communal experiences of affected individuals were collected. 166 of 474 contacted experts (35%) participated in the first round of the Delphi process and 95 of 166 (57%) participated in the second round. Metabolic (n = 74) and autoimmune diseases (n = 39) were ranked the highest for need for diagnostic support. For three diseases (i.e. scleroderma, Pompe's disease, and pulmonary arterial hypertension), a crucial need for diagnostic support was explicitly stated. A typical experience of individuals with a rare disease was stigmatization of having psychological or psychosomatic problems. In addition, most experts endured an 'odyssey' of seeing many different medical specialists before a correct diagnosis (n = 38) was confirmed. There is need for improving the diagnostic process in individuals with rare diseases. Shared experiences in individuals with a rare disease were observed, which could possibly be utilized for diagnostic support in the future.

  15. Hydrological variables play a remarkable role in temporal dynamics of daily sampled diatom community in a German lowland river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiuming; Wu, Naicheng; Faber, Claas; Fohrer, Nicola

    2017-04-01

    Temporal dynamics of diatom community with relation to abiotic factors is an important part of water quality monitoring and water resource management. However, the contribution of hydrological variables to temporal diatom variation has been rarely reported, especially at a short-interval sampling scale. Based on daily riverine diatom samples over a 1-year period (25 April 2013 - 30 April 2014) at the outlet of a German lowland river, we aimed to examine the temporal variation patterns of diatom community and to compare the relative importance between chemical and hydrological variables of affecting the temporal diatom community variation. Among the 339 samples, a total of 113 diatom taxa from 45 genera were identified. Sampling dates with similar species composition and structure were classified into five clusters by a Kohonen Self-Organizing Map (SOM) method within Matlab software. These five groups were distinct with respect to species composition, density, richness, and indicator species, as well as environmental variables. Redundancy analysis (RDA) and variance partitioning techniques were used to explain the relationships between environmental variables and diatom community dynamics. For the whole dataset, chemical and hydrological variables could jointly explain 50.17% of the diatom community variation including chemical variables with 36.45% and hydrological variables with 12.89%. The most important chemical variables were Phosphate-Phosphorus (PO4-P) and Silicon (Si) concentrations, while the most significant hydrological variable was antecedent precipitation index (API), indicating the importance of nutrient and hydrological factor in shaping diatom structure. In general, the relative importance of chemical and hydrological factors to diatom communities varied among seasons (or SOM clusters). Partial RDAs revealed that 3.60%, 11.96%, 7.10%, 10.4% and 7.11% of diatom variation can be explained by hydrological variables from cluster 1 to 5, while 52.71%, 47

  16. Recent Trends in Veteran Unemployment as Measured in the Current Population Survey and the American Community Survey

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Savych, Bogdan; Klerman, Jacob A; Loughran, David S

    2008-01-01

    This technical report explores recent trends in the unemployment of recent veterans as estimated from two nationally representative surveys, the Current Population Survey "CPS" and the American Community Survey "ACS...

  17. Delayed Reaction: The Tardy Embrace of Physical Organic Chemistry by the German Chemical Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weininger, Stephen J

    2018-02-01

    The emergence of physical organic chemistry, which focuses on the mechanisms and structures of organic reactions and molecules using the tools of physical chemistry, was a major development in twentieth-century chemistry. It first flourished in the interwar period, in the UK and then in the US. Germany, by contrast, did not embrace the field until almost a half century later. The great success of classical organic chemistry, especially in synthesis, encouraged indifference to the new field among German chemists, as did their inductivist research philosophy, as enunciated by Walter Hückel's ground-breaking textbook (1931). This author also resisted new concepts and representations, especially those of the American theoretician, Linus Pauling. The arrival of the Nazi regime reinforced such resistance. Postwar conditions initiated a reaction against this conservative, nationalistic attitude, especially in the American Occupation Zone. Exposure to American textbooks and visiting lecturers influenced attitudes of younger chemists. The accompanying shift towards a more explanatory, less hierarchical mode of pedagogy was consonant with larger social and political developments.

  18. Community Survey Q4: Public safety - Fire & emergency management services

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — This question is from the 2015 Chapel Hill Community Survey. Using a scale of 1 to 5 where 5 means “Very Satisfied” and 1 means “Very Dissatisfied,” residents were...

  19. Community Survey Q5: Public safety - Police services

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — This question is from the 2015 Chapel Hill Community Survey.Using a scale of 1 to 5 where 5 means “Very Satisfied” and 1 means “Very Dissatisfied,” residents were...

  20. Prevalence and Correlates of Cyberbullying Perpetration. Findings from a German Representative Student Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Marie Christine; Baier, Dirk

    2018-01-01

    Based on a survey of 9512 ninth-grade students conducted in Lower Saxony in 2013, this paper examines the prevalence of cyberbullying perpetration and the correlates of this behavior. Binary logistic multilevel regression was used in order to analyze correlates of sexual and psychological cyberbully perpetration. In the preceding semester, 2.4% of the adolescents were perpetrators of psychological cyberbullying and 0.4% bullied someone online sexually. Low levels of empathy, frequent consumption of violent media, and being victims of aggressive online behaviors are correlated with the risk that a child will become a bully. Female adolescents are less likely than boys to engage in sexual cyberbullying perpetration, but they are more likely to engage in psychological cyberbullying perpetration. Only a small share of adolescents engage in sexual and psychological cyberbullying perpetration. Both behaviors differ in their correlates, however being a victim of aggressive online behaviors increase the risk for perpetration of both behaviors, respectively. PMID:29415426

  1. Prevalence and Correlates of Cyberbullying Perpetration. Findings from a German Representative Student Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Christine Bergmann

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Based on a survey of 9512 ninth-grade students conducted in Lower Saxony in 2013, this paper examines the prevalence of cyberbullying perpetration and the correlates of this behavior. Binary logistic multilevel regression was used in order to analyze correlates of sexual and psychological cyberbully perpetration. In the preceding semester, 2.4% of the adolescents were perpetrators of psychological cyberbullying and 0.4% bullied someone online sexually. Low levels of empathy, frequent consumption of violent media, and being victims of aggressive online behaviors are correlated with the risk that a child will become a bully. Female adolescents are less likely than boys to engage in sexual cyberbullying perpetration, but they are more likely to engage in psychological cyberbullying perpetration. Only a small share of adolescents engage in sexual and psychological cyberbullying perpetration. Both behaviors differ in their correlates, however being a victim of aggressive online behaviors increase the risk for perpetration of both behaviors, respectively.

  2. Prevalence and Correlates of Cyberbullying Perpetration. Findings from a German Representative Student Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Marie Christine; Baier, Dirk

    2018-02-06

    Based on a survey of 9512 ninth-grade students conducted in Lower Saxony in 2013, this paper examines the prevalence of cyberbullying perpetration and the correlates of this behavior. Binary logistic multilevel regression was used in order to analyze correlates of sexual and psychological cyberbully perpetration. In the preceding semester, 2.4% of the adolescents were perpetrators of psychological cyberbullying and 0.4% bullied someone online sexually. Low levels of empathy, frequent consumption of violent media, and being victims of aggressive online behaviors are correlated with the risk that a child will become a bully. Female adolescents are less likely than boys to engage in sexual cyberbullying perpetration, but they are more likely to engage in psychological cyberbullying perpetration. Only a small share of adolescents engage in sexual and psychological cyberbullying perpetration. Both behaviors differ in their correlates, however being a victim of aggressive online behaviors increase the risk for perpetration of both behaviors, respectively.

  3. Integrated Bioenergy and Food Production—A German Survey on Structure and Developments of Anaerobic Digestion in Organic Farming Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Blumenstein

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Rising global energy needs and limited fossil fuel reserves have led to increased use of renewable energies. In Germany, this has entailed massive exploitation of agricultural biomass for biogas generation, associated with unsustainable farming practices. Organic agriculture not only reduces negative environmental impacts, organic farmers were also prime movers in anaerobic digestion (AD in Germany. This study’s aim was to identify the structure, development, and characteristics of biogas production associated with organic farming systems in order to estimate further development, as well as energetic and associated agronomic potentials. Surveys were conducted among organic farms with AD technology. 144 biogas plants could be included in the analysis. Total installed electrical capacity was 30.8 MWel, accounting for only 0.8% of the total installed electrical capacity in the German biogas sector. Recently, larger plant types (>250 kWel with increased use of (also purchased energy crops have emerged. Farmers noticed increases in yields (22% on average and quality of cash crops in arable farming through integrated biogas production. In conclusion, although the share of AD in organic farming is relatively small it can provide various complementary socio-ecological benefits such as the enhancement of food output through digestate fertilization without additional need for land, while simultaneously reducing greenhouse gas emissions from livestock manures and soils. However, to achieve this eco-functional intensification, AD systems and their management have to be well adapted to farm size and production focus and based primarily on residue biomass.

  4. [Results of an internet-based survey amongst members of the German Ophthalmological Society concerning postmortem cornea donation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlig, C E; Promesberger, J; Hirschfeld, G; Koch, R; Reinhard, T; Seitz, B

    2012-12-01

    Analysis of willingness for postmortem cornea donation by professionals in ophthalmology and their motives in favor of or against donation. 3887 members of the German Ophthalmological Society received an anonymous questionnaire concerning sociodemographic background, physical health, experiences with organ explantation and their former engagement and motives concerning organ and cornea donation. 722 of the questionnaires were partially and 533 completely answered with an average willingness for cornea donation of 79.4%. Significant parameters for cornea donation were gender, former experience with organ explantation, ophthalmological health and fear of false diagnosis of brain death, worse medical treatment or organ commercialization. Of the participants 53.9% suggested the internet as a favorite source of information in this matter. The factors which had a significant impact on cornea donation in this survey seem to be mainly a result of insufficient information. Detailed information regarding this topic should preferentially be presented on internet pages of professional societies and could probably increase donation approval of DOG members.

  5. Acceptance of the German e-mental health portal www.psychenet.de: an online survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tlach, Lisa; Thiel, Juliane; Härter, Martin; Liebherz, Sarah; Dirmaier, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    Background. Taking into account the high prevalence of mental disorders and the multiple barriers to the use of mental health services, new forms of fostering patient information, involvement, and self-management are needed to complement existing mental health services. The study aimed at investigating acceptance regarding design and content of the e-mental health portal www.psychenet.de. Methods. An online cross-sectional survey was conducted between May 2013 and May 2015 using a self-administered questionnaire including items on perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, attitude towards using, and perceived trust. Effects of different participants' characteristics on the portals' acceptance were analyzed. Results. The majority of the N = 252 respondents suffered from mental disorders (n = 139) or were relatives from persons with mental disorders (n = 65). The portal was assessed as "good" or "very good" by 71% of the respondents. High levels of agreement (89-96%) were shown for statements on the perceived ease of use, the behavioral intention to use the portal, and the trustworthiness of the portal. Lower levels of agreement were shown for some statements on the perceived usefulness of the portals' content. There were no effects of different participants' characteristics on the perceived ease of use, the perceived usefulness, the attitude towards using the website and the perceived trust. Discussion. This survey provides preliminary evidence that the e-mental health portal www.psychenet.de appears to be a usable, useful and trustworthy information resource for a broad target group. The behavioral usefulness of the portals' content might be improved by integrating more activating patient decision aids.

  6. Work-life balance of German gynecologists: a web-based survey on satisfaction with work and private life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancke, Katharina; Igl, Wilmar; Toth, Bettina; Bühren, Astrid; Ditsch, Nina; Kreienberg, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    Work-life balance is an upcoming issue for physicians. The working group "Family and Career" of the German Society for Gynecology and Obstetrics (DGGG) designed a survey to reflect the present work-life balance of female and male gynecologists in Germany. The 74-item, web-based survey "Profession-Family-Career" was sent to all members of the DGGG (n = 4,564). In total, there were 1,036 replies (23%) from 75% female gynecologists (n = 775) aged 38 ± 7 (mean ± standard deviation [SD]) years and 25% male (n = 261) gynecologists aged 48 ± 11 years. Statistical analyses were performed using the mean and SD for descriptive analysis. Regression models were performed considering an effect of p ≤ 0.05 as statistically significant. 47% women and 46% men reported satisfaction with their current work-life balance independent of gender (p(gender) = 0.15). 70% women and 75 % men answered that work life and private life were equally important to them (p(gender) = 0.12). While 39% women versus 11% men worked part-time (p gender work than women (p(gender) Work life affected private life of men and women in a similar way (all p(gender) > 0.05). At least 37% women and men neglected both their partner and their children very often due to their work. Female physicians often described their work situation similar to male physicians, although important differences regarding total work time, overtime work and appreciation by supervisors were reported. Work life affected private life of women and men in a similar way.

  7. The association of falls with loneliness and social exclusion: evidence from the DEAS German Ageing Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajek, André; König, Hans-Helmut

    2017-09-05

    It remains an open question whether falls are related with social relations, covering subjective (e.g., perceived loneliness) and more objective dimensions (e.g., number of important individuals in regular contact). Consequently, we aimed at examining the association between falls and social ties comprehensively, including loneliness, social exclusion and the number of important people in regular contact. Cross-sectional data were used from a population-based sample of community-dwelling individuals aged 40 and over (n = 7808) in Germany. Self-rated loneliness was quantified using a short version of the De Jong Gierveld Loneliness Scale. Perceived social exclusion was measured using a scale developed by Bude and Lantermann. Furthermore and in contrast to the subjective outcome measures, the more objective number of important people in regular contact was also used as outcome variable. The experience of a fall in the preceding 12 months (yes; no) was assessed. Controlling for various possible confounding variables, linear regressions showed that experiencing a fall in the past 12 months was associated with higher social exclusion (β = .08, p loneliness (β = .08, p loneliness and social exclusion, whereas falls were unrelated to the more objective measure of number of important people in regular contact, suggesting that falls are particularly related to subjective measures of social ties and relations. This underlines the importance of interventions to prevent falls. Preventing falls in turn might help to prevent loneliness and social exclusion.

  8. Undergraduate medical education in emergency medical care: A nationwide survey at German medical schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timmermann Arnd

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since June 2002, revised regulations in Germany have required "Emergency Medical Care" as an interdisciplinary subject, and state that emergency treatment should be of increasing importance within the curriculum. A survey of the current status of undergraduate medical education in emergency medical care establishes the basis for further committee work. Methods Using a standardized questionnaire, all medical faculties in Germany were asked to answer questions concerning the structure of their curriculum, representation of disciplines, instructors' qualifications, teaching and assessment methods, as well as evaluation procedures. Results Data from 35 of the 38 medical schools in Germany were analysed. In 32 of 35 medical faculties, the local Department of Anaesthesiology is responsible for the teaching of emergency medical care; in two faculties, emergency medicine is taught mainly by the Department of Surgery and in another by Internal Medicine. Lectures, seminars and practical training units are scheduled in varying composition at 97% of the locations. Simulation technology is integrated at 60% (n = 21; problem-based learning at 29% (n = 10, e-learning at 3% (n = 1, and internship in ambulance service is mandatory at 11% (n = 4. In terms of assessment methods, multiple-choice exams (15 to 70 questions are favoured (89%, n = 31, partially supplemented by open questions (31%, n = 11. Some faculties also perform single practical tests (43%, n = 15, objective structured clinical examination (OSCE; 29%, n = 10 or oral examinations (17%, n = 6. Conclusion Emergency Medical Care in undergraduate medical education in Germany has a practical orientation, but is very inconsistently structured. The innovative options of simulation technology or state-of-the-art assessment methods are not consistently utilized. Therefore, an exchange of experiences and concepts between faculties and disciplines should be promoted to guarantee a standard

  9. Psychometric properties of the German version of the Diabetes Eating Problem Survey-Revised: additional benefit of disease-specific screening in adolescents with Type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saßmann, H; Albrecht, C; Busse-Widmann, P; Hevelke, L K; Kranz, J; Markowitz, J T; Marshall, L F; Meurs, S; de Soye, I H; Lange, K

    2015-12-01

    To examine the psychometric properties of the German version of the abbreviated 16-item Diabetes Eating Problem Survey-Revised in a sample of young people with Type 1 diabetes. A total of 246 young people, aged 11-19 years, with Type 1 diabetes from six pediatric diabetes centres in Germany were assessed using the Diabetes Eating Problem Survey-Revised. In addition, they underwent screening with two generic tools as well as the WHO five-question well-being index. A clinician's report was also obtained. The Diabetes Eating Problem Survey-Revised was found to have good internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.84). The Diabetes Eating Problem Survey-Revised scores significantly correlated with those provided by the non-specific screening tools (r = 0.37, P ≤ 0.000 and r = 0.50, P ≤ 0.000 for boys and r = 0.62, P ≤ 0.000 and r = 0.79, P ≤ 0.000 for girls), indicating convergent validity. The mean (sd) total of the scores was 12.0 (9.6). Criterion validity was confirmed against HbA1c value, BMI standard deviation score and expert (clinician) report. Of the boys included in the study, 11 scored higher than the threshold score on the Diabetes Eating Problem Survey-Revised, of whom only three (27%) were classified as 'suspected to have a disordered eating behaviour' by their clinicians. The Diabetes Eating Problem Survey-Revised delivered more specific information than generic screening instruments and identified more young people with eating disorders than did clinician report, especially regarding the detection of boys at risk. The results of this study support the utility of the German version of the Diabetes Eating Problem Survey-Revised to identify eating disorders in young people with Type 1 diabetes at an early stage. (German Clinical Trials Registry no.: DRKS00004699). © 2015 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2015 Diabetes UK.

  10. Informed Choice in the German Mammography Screening Program by Education and Migrant Status: Survey among First-Time Invitees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva-Maria Berens

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer among women and mammography screening programs are seen as a key strategy to reduce breast cancer mortality. In Germany, women are invited to the population-based mammography screening program between ages 50 to 69. It is still discussed whether the benefits of mammography screening outweigh its harms. Therefore, the concept of informed choice comprising knowledge, attitude and intention has gained importance. The objective of this observational study was to assess the proportion of informed choices among women invited to the German mammography screening program for the first time. A representative sample of 17,349 women aged 50 years from a sub-region of North Rhine Westphalia was invited to participate in a postal survey. Turkish immigrant women were oversampled. The effects of education level and migration status on informed choice and its components were assessed. 5,847 (33.7% women responded to the postal questionnaire of which 4,113 were used for analyses. 31.5% of the women had sufficient knowledge. The proportion of sufficient knowledge was lower among immigrants and among women with low education levels. The proportion of women making informed choices was low (27.1%, with similar associations with education level and migration status. Women of low (OR 2.75; 95% CI 2.18-3.46 and medium education level (OR 1.49; 95% CI 1.27-1.75 were more likely to make an uninformed choice than women of high education level. Turkish immigrant women had the greatest odds for making an uninformed choice (OR 5.30, 95% CI 1.92-14.66 compared to non-immigrant women. Other immigrant women only had slightly greater odds for making an uninformed choice than non-immigrant women. As immigrant populations and women with low education level have been shown to have poor knowledge, they need special attention in measures to increase knowledge and thus informed choices.

  11. Cohort profile: the Boston Area Community Health (BACH) survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccolo, Rebecca S; Araujo, Andre B; Pearce, Neil; McKinlay, John B

    2014-02-01

    The Boston Area Community Health (BACH) Survey is a community-based, random sample, epidemiologic cohort of n = 5502 Boston (MA) residents. The baseline BACH Survey (2002-05) was designed to explore the mechanisms conferring increased health risks on minority populations with a particular focus on urologic signs/symptoms and type 2 diabetes. To this end, the cohort was designed to include adequate numbers of US racial/ethnic minorities (Black, Hispanic, White), both men and women, across a broad age of distribution. Follow-up surveys were conducted ∼5 (BACH II, 2008) and 7 (BACH III, 2010) years later, which allows for both within- and between-person comparisons over time. The BACH Survey's measures were designed to cover the following seven broad categories: socio-demographics, health care access/utilization, lifestyles, psychosocial factors, health status, physical measures and biochemical parameters. The breadth of measures has allowed BACH researchers to identify disparities and quantify contributions to social disparities in a number of health conditions including urologic conditions (e.g. nocturia, lower urinary tract symptoms, prostatitis), type 2 diabetes, obesity, bone mineral content and density, and physical function. BACH I data are available through the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) Central Repositories (www.niddkrepository.org). Further inquiries can be made through the New England Research Institutes Inc. website (www.neriscience.com/epidemiology).

  12. A SURVEY OF THE WEEDY COMMUNITIES OF SICILY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. MINISSALE

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available As Sicily has been a central crossroads of human activity for thousands of years, it offers a major perspective on the Mediterranean weedy plant communities. This syntaxonomical survey of the Sicilian weedy vegetation groups together for the first time 30 plant associations, that have been described from the main and neighboring island in the last three decades. The surveyed vegetation is ascribed to the classes Papaveretea rhoeadis and Stellarietea mediae, whose floristic autonomy is here discussed, and to the orders Aperetalia spicae-venti and Papaveretalia rhoeadis for the former, Polygono-Chenopodietalia polispermi, Solano-Polygonetalia convolvuli, Thero- Brometalia and Urtico-Scrophularietalia peregrinae for the latter class. Most of the surveyed associations are linked to hoed cultivations. Major differences are determined by the tillage and watering regimes, on their turn related to the life-cycle of the cultivated plant.

  13. A SURVEY OF THE WEEDY COMMUNITIES OF SICILY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. BRULLO

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available As Sicily has been a central crossroads of human activity for thousands of years, it offers a major perspective on the Mediterranean weedy plant communities. This syntaxonomical survey of the Sicilian weedy vegetation groups together for the first time 30 plant associations, that have been described from the main and neighboring island in the last three decades. The surveyed vegetation is ascribed to the classes Papaveretea rhoeadis and Stellarietea mediae, whose floristic autonomy is here discussed, and to the orders Aperetalia spicae-venti and Papaveretalia rhoeadis for the former, Polygono-Chenopodietalia polispermi, Solano-Polygonetalia convolvuli, Thero- Brometalia and Urtico-Scrophularietalia peregrinae for the latter class. Most of the surveyed associations are linked to hoed cultivations. Major differences are determined by the tillage and watering regimes, on their turn related to the life-cycle of the cultivated plant.

  14. Bacterial community survey of sediments at Naracoorte Caves, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ball Andrew S.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial diversity in sediments at UNESCO World Heritage listed Naracoorte Caves was surveyed as part of an investigation carried out in a larger study on assessing microbial communities in caves. Cave selection was based on tourist accessibility; Stick Tomato and Alexandra Cave (> 15000 annual visits and Strawhaven Cave was used as control (no tourist access. Microbial analysis showed that Bacillus was the most commonly detected microbial genus by culture dependent and independent survey of tourist accessible and inaccessible areas of show (tourist accessible and control caves. Other detected sediment bacterial groups were assigned to the Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria. The survey also showed differences in bacterial diversity in caves with human access compared to the control cave with the control cave having unique microbial sequences (Acinetobacter, Agromyces, Micrococcus and Streptomyces. The show caves had higher bacterial counts, different 16S rDNA based DGGE cluster patterns and principal component groupings compared to Strawhaven. Different factors such as human access, cave use and configurations could have been responsible for the differences observed in the bacterial community cluster patterns (tourist accessible and inaccessible areas of these caves. Cave sediments can therefore act as reservoirs of microorganisms. This might have some implications on cave conservation activities especially if these sediments harbor rock art degrading microorganisms in caves with rock art.

  15. Physical activity patterns and socioeconomic position: the German National Health Interview and Examination Survey 1998 (GNHIES98).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, Jonas D; Tylleskär, Thorkild; Lampert, Thomas; Mensink, Gert B M

    2012-12-15

    We investigated the associations between education and leisure-time, occupational, sedentary and total physical-activity levels based on data from the German National Health Interview and Examination Survey 1998 (GNHIES98). The roles of income level, occupational status and other mediating variables for these associations were also examined. The total study sample of the GNHIES98 comprised 7,124 participants between the ages of 18 and 79. Complete information was available for 6,800 persons on leisure-time, sedentary and total physical-activity outcomes and for 3,809 persons in regular employment on occupational activity outcomes. The associations between educational level and physical activity (occupational, sedentary, leisure-time and total physical activity) were analysed separately for men and women using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Odds ratios (OR) of educational level on physical-activity outcomes were calculated and adjusted for age, region, occupation, income and other mediating variables. After adjusting for age and region, a higher education level was associated with more leisure-time activity - with an OR of 1.6 (95% CI, 1.3-2.0) for men with secondary education and 2.1 (1.7-2.7) for men with tertiary education compared to men with primary education. The corresponding ORs for women were 1.3 (1.1-1.6) and 1.7 (1.2-2.4), respectively. Higher education was associated with a lower level of vigorous work activity: an OR of 6.9 (4.6-10.3) for men with secondary education and 18.6 (12.0-27.3) for men with primary education compared to men with tertiary education. The corresponding ORs for women were 2.8 (2.0-4.0) and 5.8 (4.0-8.5), respectively. Higher education was also associated with a lower level of total activity: an OR of 2.9 (2.2-3.8) for men with secondary education and 4.3 (3.3-5.6) for men with tertiary education compared to men with primary education. The corresponding ORs for women were 1.6 (1.2-2.0) and 1.6 (1.2-2.1), respectively

  16. Evaluation of psychometric properties of the German Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture and its potential for cross-cultural comparisons: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambashidze, Nikoloz; Hammer, Antje; Brösterhaus, Mareen; Manser, Tanja

    2017-11-09

    To study the psychometric characteristics of German version of the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture and to compare its dimensionality to other language versions in order to understand the instrument's potential for cross-national studies. Cross-sectional multicentre study to establish psychometric properties of German version of the survey instrument. 73 units from 37 departments of two German university hospitals. Clinical personnel (n=995 responses, response rate 39.6%). Psychometric properties (eg, model fit, internal consistency, construct validity) of the instrument and comparison of dimensionality across different language translations. The instrument demonstrated acceptable to good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha 0.64-0.88). Confirmatory factor analysis of the original 12-factor model resulted in marginally satisfactory model fit (root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA)=0.05; standardised root mean residual (SRMR)=0.05; comparative fit index (CFI)=0.90; goodness of fit index (GFI)=0.88; Tucker-Lewis Index (TLI)=0.88). Exploratory factor analysis resulted in an alternative eight-factor model with good model fit (RMSEA=0.05; SRMR=0.05; CFI=0.95; GFI=0.91; TLI=0.94) and good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha 0.73-0.87) and construct validity. Analysis of the dimensionality compared with models from 10 other language versions revealed eight dimensions with relatively stable composition and appearance across different versions and four dimensions requiring further improvement. The German version of Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture demonstrated satisfactory psychometric properties for use in German hospitals. However, our comparison of instrument dimensionality across different language versions indicates limitations concerning cross-national studies. Results of this study can be considered in interpreting findings across national contexts, in further refinement of the instrument for cross-national studies and in better

  17. Clustering and community detection in directed networks: A survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malliaros, Fragkiskos D.; Vazirgiannis, Michalis

    2013-12-01

    Networks (or graphs) appear as dominant structures in diverse domains, including sociology, biology, neuroscience and computer science. In most of the aforementioned cases graphs are directed - in the sense that there is directionality on the edges, making the semantics of the edges nonsymmetric as the source node transmits some property to the target one but not vice versa. An interesting feature that real networks present is the clustering or community structure property, under which the graph topology is organized into modules commonly called communities or clusters. The essence here is that nodes of the same community are highly similar while on the contrary, nodes across communities present low similarity. Revealing the underlying community structure of directed complex networks has become a crucial and interdisciplinary topic with a plethora of relevant application domains. Therefore, naturally there is a recent wealth of research production in the area of mining directed graphs - with clustering being the primary method sought and the primary tool for community detection and evaluation. The goal of this paper is to offer an in-depth comparative review of the methods presented so far for clustering directed networks along with the relevant necessary methodological background and also related applications. The survey commences by offering a concise review of the fundamental concepts and methodological base on which graph clustering algorithms capitalize on. Then we present the relevant work along two orthogonal classifications. The first one is mostly concerned with the methodological principles of the clustering algorithms, while the second one approaches the methods from the viewpoint regarding the properties of a good cluster in a directed network. Further, we present methods and metrics for evaluating graph clustering results, demonstrate interesting application domains and provide promising future research directions.

  18. Evaluating tablet computers as a survey tool in rural communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, Steve M; Logan, Henrietta L; Guo, Yi; Marks, John G; Shepperd, James A

    2015-01-01

    Although tablet computers offer advantages in data collection over traditional paper-and-pencil methods, little research has examined whether the 2 formats yield similar responses, especially with underserved populations. We compared the 2 survey formats and tested whether participants' responses to common health questionnaires or perceptions of usability differed by survey format. We also tested whether we could replicate established paper-and-pencil findings via tablet computer. We recruited a sample of low-income community members living in the rural southern United States. Participants were 170 residents (black = 49%; white = 36%; other races and missing data = 15%) drawn from 2 counties meeting Florida's state statutory definition of rural with 100 persons or fewer per square mile. We randomly assigned participants to complete scales (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Inventory and Regulatory Focus Questionnaire) along with survey format usability ratings via paper-and-pencil or tablet computer. All participants rated a series of previously validated posters using a tablet computer. Finally, participants completed comparisons of the survey formats and reported survey format preferences. Participants preferred using the tablet computer and showed no significant differences between formats in mean responses, scale reliabilities, or in participants' usability ratings. Overall, participants reported similar scales responses and usability ratings between formats. However, participants reported both preferring and enjoying responding via tablet computer more. Collectively, these findings are among the first data to show that tablet computers represent a suitable substitute among an underrepresented rural sample for paper-and-pencil methodology in survey research. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  19. Survey Essay 2. Periodizing and Historicizing German Afro-Americanophilia: From Counterculture to Post-soul (1968-2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moritz Ege

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In our second periodizing essay, we begin with the ‘turning point’ of the late 1960s, when German Afro-Americanophilia modulated and intensified, and we then contemplate the rise of interest in the Black Diaspora amongst the new social movements, second-wave feminists, and Afro-German activists in the 1970s and 1980s, as well as various important moments in the German reception and re-contextualisation of African-American coded popular music such as disco (in the 1970s, and techno and hip-hop since the 1980s. We discuss the impact of migration and activism on heretofore unquestioned equivalences between Germanness and whiteness and contemplate the triangulation of desire within the reception and appropriation of U.S. hip-hop by diverse groups of young people in Germany.  We argue that Afro-Americanophile subject positions diversified and that, especially since the 1980s, some new dynamics have emerged that seem to leave behind ideas of racial ‘authenticity.’  Finally, we query what a timeframe-based overview may not address so well, namely the question of structural continuities in the patterns of twentieth-century Afro-Americanophilia in Germany.

  20. Comparing those who do, might and will not invest in sustainable funds: a survey among German retail fund investors

    OpenAIRE

    Wins, Anett; Zwergel, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present the results of an online questionnaire among private German mutual fund investors. In an exploratory nature, we empirically analyze the differences between three groups: sustainable investors, conventional investors that are either generally interested or those that are not interested at all to invest in socially responsible (SR) funds. We provide evidence on motives and attitudes of these three investor groups, showing that SR fund investors are quite similar to tho...

  1. [Epidemiology of hepatitis A, B, and C among adults in Germany: results of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poethko-Müller, C; Zimmermann, R; Hamouda, O; Faber, M; Stark, K; Ross, R S; Thamm, M

    2013-05-01

    Ten years after seroepidemiological data were obtained in the German National Health Interview and Examination Survey 1998 (GNHIES98), German Health Interview and Examination Survey (DEGS1) data contribute to a population-based, representative surveillance of hepatitis A and B immunity and of the serological markers for hepatitis C in Germany. The prevalence of antibodies against the hepatitis A virus is 48.6 %. In comparison to the situation 10 years ago, seroprevalence is significantly higher among 18- to 39-year-old adults and is significantly lower in those aged 50-79 years. The association between age and seroprevalence has changed, indicating a decrease in naturally acquired hepatitis A immunity. Individual and population immunity has to be achieved through vaccination. Prevalence of hepatitis B antibodies indicates that 5.1 % of adults have been exposed to the virus, significantly fewer than 10 years ago (7.9 %). Prevalence of hepatitis B surface antibodies indicates that 22.9 % of adults have been vaccinated against hepatitis B. Vaccination coverage has increased in all age groups and is highest in the younger age groups. These positive trends can be attributed to the general recommendation since 1995 to vaccinate against hepatitis B. For hepatitis C, the prevalence of antibodies in the general population is 0.3 %. Germany thus remains a low-HCV-endemic country. An English full-text version of this article is available at SpringerLink as supplemental.

  2. [Rheumatology: Integration into student training--the RISA- Study. Results of a survey exploring the scale of education and training in rheumatology at German universities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keysser, G; Zacher, J; Zeidler, H

    2004-04-01

    During the Bone and Joint Decade 2000-2010, national and international rheumatological societies campaign for improvements of undergraduate training in the field of musculoskeletal diseases. In 2002, the Committee for Undergraduate Training of the German Society for Rheumatology (DGRh) performed a survey in order to estimate the extent of rheumatological undergraduate training at German universities. A questionnaire was sent to all university hospitals for internal medicine and for orthopaedics. The items of the survey covered the qualification of the teachers, the number and the time frame of lessons and courses, as well as the items of the curriculum in rheumatology. With 95% of the universities responding, a broad variation of the quality of rheumatological training became obvious, ranging from the absence of competent teaching to a comprehensive curriculum covering theory and practical training. Only a minority of universities fulfilled the recommendations of the DGRh for undergraduate education. The most substantial deficits are found in practical training, caused by insufficiently small numbers of patients seen by the medical students, and by the short duration of the practical courses. The insights described here should lead to the adaptation of the level of education in the field of rheumatology to the demands of a society with growing musculoskeletal problems.

  3. Travelling home for treatment and EU patients' rights to care abroad: results of a survey among German students at Maastricht University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glinos, Irene A; Doering, Nora; Maarse, Hans

    2012-04-01

    Empirical evidence on patient mobility in Europe is lacking despite widespread legal, policy and media attention which the phenomenon attracts. This paper presents quantitative data on the health care seeking behaviour of German students at Maastricht University in the Netherlands. A cross-sectional survey design was applied with a mixed-methods approach including open and closed questions. Questionnaire items were based on a theoretical model of patient mobility and input from focus group discussions with German students living in Maastricht. 235 valid surveys were completed, representing ca. 8% of the target population. Data collection took place in Oct-Dec 2010. Of respondents who received medical care over the last two years, 97% returned to Germany; of these, 76% travelled to their home city for medical treatment. 72% received care only in Germany, i.e. not even once in Maastricht. Distance partly influenced whether students travelled to Germany, returned home or stayed in Maastricht, and the type of care accessed. Key motivations were familiarity with home providers/system, and reimbursement issues. In the context of the new EU Directive on patients' rights, the findings call into question whether Europeans use entitlements to cross-border care and what the real potential of patient mobility is. The results demonstrate the existence and magnitude of return movements as a sub-group of patient mobility. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Characterizing Walk Trips in communities by Using Data from 2009 National Household Travel Survey, American Community Survey, and Other Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Ho-Ling [ORNL; Reuscher, Tim [Macrosys; Wilson, Daniel W [ORNL; Murakami, Elaine [FHWA USDOT

    2013-01-01

    Non-motorized travel (i.e. walking and bicycling) are of increasing interest to the transportation profession, especially in context with energy consumption, reducing vehicular congestion, urban development patterns, and promotion of healthier life styles. This research project aimed to identify factors impacting the amount of travel for both walk and bike trips at the Census block group or tract level, using several public and private data sources. The key survey of travel behavior is the 2009 National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) which had over 87,000 walk trips for persons 16 and over, and over 6000 bike trips for persons 16 and over. The NHTS, in conjunction with the Census Bureau s American Community Survey, street density measures using Census Bureau TIGER, WalkScore , Nielsen Claritas employment estimates, and several other sources were used for this study. Stepwise Logistic Regression modeling techniques as well as Discriminant Analysis were applied using the integrated data set. While the models performed reasonably well for walk trips, travel by bike was abandoned due to sparseness of data. This paper discusses data sources utilized and modeling processes conducted under this study. It also presents a summary of findings and addresses data challenges and lesson-learned from this research effort.

  5. Workplace bullying in NHS community trust: staff questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quine, L

    1999-01-23

    To determine the prevalence of workplace bullying in an NHS community trust; to examine the association between bullying and occupational health outcomes; and to investigate the relation between support at work and bullying. Questionnaire survey. NHS community trust in the south east of England. Trust employees. Measures included a 20 item inventory of bullying behaviours designed for the study, the job induced stress scale, the hospital anxiety and depression scale, the overall job satisfaction scale, the support at work scale, and the propensity to leave scale. 1100 employees returned questionnaires-a response rate of 70%. 421 (38%) employees reported experiencing one or more types of bullying in the previous year. 460 (42%) had witnessed the bullying of others. When bullying occurred it was most likely to be by a manager. Two thirds of the victims of bullying had tried to take action when the bullying occurred, but most were dissatisfied with the outcome. Staff who had been bullied had significantly lower levels of job satisfaction (mean 10.5 (SD 2. 7) v 12.2 (2.3), Pjob induced stress (mean 22.5 (SD 6.1) v 16.9 (5.8), Pjob (8.5 (2.9) v 7.0 (2.7), Pbullying. Bullying is a serious problem. Setting up systems for supporting staff and for dealing with interpersonal conflict may have benefits for both employers and staff.

  6. No Austrians in South Tyrol? Why the German-speaking community in Italy’s South Tyrol (Alto Adige province is not usually called an Austrian minority

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Julian Emanuel Volkmer

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available No Austrians in South Tyrol? Why the German-speaking community in Italy’s South Tyrol (Alto Adige province is not usually called an Austrian minority The article discusses the question why the German-speakers in Northern Italy’s South Tyrol province are only very rarely referred to as an Austrian minority, in spite of the fact that they were split off from Austria, and not Germany, in the aftermath of World War I. An analysis of the naming of German-speaking South Tyroleans in German, Austrian, Italian and English-speaking news media, which demonstrates a preference for terms such as “German-speaking minority” or “German minority” over “Austrian minority and equivalents, is followed by a discussion of three hypotheses to account for the situation. The author shows how the question of how to name the German-speaking South Tyroleans is closely intertwined with the issue of Austrian national identity and its re-orientation away from Germany in the aftermath of the Second World War. The author comes to the conclusion that the minority is not usually referred to as Austrian both due to the fact that it is difficult to include them in the young (civic Austrian nation in a logically consistent manner, and due to the German-speaking South Tyroleans’ own inconsistent self-identification as Austrians.   Nie ma Austriaków w Tyrolu Południowym? Dlaczego niemieckojęzyczna wspólnota we włoskiej prowincji Tyrol Południowy (Alto Adige zwykle nie jest nazywana mniejszością austriacką Artykuł podejmuje kwestię, dlaczego niemieckojęzyczna ludność północnowłoskiej prowincji Tyrol Południowy rzadko bywa nazywana mniejszością austriacką, pomimo tego że w efekcie I wojny światowej odłączona została ona od Austrii, a nie od Niemiec. Analiza nazewnictwa odnoszonego do niemieckojęzycznej ludności Tyrolu Południowego, które występuje w informacyjnych środkach przekazu: niemiecko-, austriacko-, włosko- i angloj

  7. [Malnutrition and dementia in the elderly in German nursing homes. Results of a prevalence survey from the years 2008 and 2009].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuther, S; van Nie, N; Meijers, J; Halfens, R; Bartholomeyczik, S

    2013-04-01

    Dementia is one of most challenging problems for the care of older people in Germany. Although malnutrition in nursing homes is also associated with dementia, few systematic studies have described health care structures in German nursing homes for people with dementia and their individual nutritional status. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine dementia-specific differences concerning the nutrition situation for the elderly in German nursing homes. A cross-sectional multicenter study was performed using a standardized multilevel instrument (observation, questionnaire) developed at the University of Maastricht. Variables are indicators for malnutrition and its risks, quality indicators, care dependency and types of interventions. In the 2008 and 2009 surveys, 53% of 4,777 participants (77.9% women, 22.1% men, mean age 82 years) were identified (based on care documentation) as having dementia. More than one third of this population (n = 759, 85.1% women, 14.1% men, mean age 85 years) was probably malnourished; thus, the prevalence rate in the group of people with dementia was 10% higher compared to the group without dementia. People with dementia showed a higher risk in all relevant risk indicators (weight history, body mass index, and food intake) for malnutrition compared to those without dementia. Furthermore, people with dementia had higher care dependency rates and required more assistance for eating and drinking. The study results confirm the relationship between malnutrition and dementia. The use of standardized nutrition screening tools is not common practice in German nursing homes yet. However, the results suggest that with an increasing risk for malnutrition combined with dementia the proportion of nursing interventions also increases, which means that nurses must react adequately. Nevertheless, the interventions concerning malnutrition should be improved especially with respect to preventive measurements.

  8. Current practice and perspectives in CRO oversight based on a survey performed among members of the German Association of Research-Based Pharmaceutical Companies (vfa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennig, Michael; Hundt, Ferdinand; Busta, Susanne; Mikus, Stefan; Sanden, Per-Holger; Sörgel, Andrea; Ruppert, Thorsten

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, the number and scope of outsourced activities in the pharmaceutical industry have increased heavily. In addition, also the type of outsourcing has changed significantly in that time. This raises the question of whether and how sponsors retain the capability to select and to control the contract research organizations (CROs) involved and what expertise still has to be present in the development department as well as other relevant departments to ensure adequate oversight, also in line with the expectations of regulators and health authorities. In order to answer these questions, a survey was conducted among the German vfa member companies. The survey describes the latest developments and experiences in outsourcing by 18 German vfa member companies. It concentrates on measures how to implement Quality Assurance (QA) when performing outsourced clinical studies. This study shows that the majority of companies apply a full-outsourcing, preferred-provider model of clinical trial services, with the clinical research department playing the major role in this process. A large amount of guiding documents, processes and tools are used to ensure an adequate oversight of the services performed by the CRO(s). Finally the guiding principles for all oversight processes should be transparent communication, a clearly established expectation for quality, a precise definition of accountability and responsibility while avoiding silo mentality, and a comprehensive documentation of the oversight’s evidence. For globally acting and outsourcing sponsors, oversight processes need to be aligned with regards to local and global perspectives. This survey shows that the current implementation of oversight processes in the participating companies covers all relevant areas to ensure highest quality and integrity of the data produced by the outsourced clinical trial. PMID:28163667

  9. Current practice and perspectives in CRO oversight based on a survey performed among members of the German Association of Research-Based Pharmaceutical Companies (vfa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hennig, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the number and scope of outsourced activities in the pharmaceutical industry have increased heavily. In addition, also the type of outsourcing has changed significantly in that time. This raises the question of whether and how sponsors retain the capability to select and to control the contract research organizations (CROs involved and what expertise still has to be present in the development department as well as other relevant departments to ensure adequate oversight, also in line with the expectations of regulators and health authorities. In order to answer these questions, a survey was conducted among the German vfa member companies. The survey describes the latest developments and experiences in outsourcing by 18 German vfa member companies. It concentrates on measures how to implement Quality Assurance (QA when performing outsourced clinical studies.This study shows that the majority of companies apply a full-outsourcing, preferred-provider model of clinical trial services, with the clinical research department playing the major role in this process. A large amount of guiding documents, processes and tools are used to ensure an adequate oversight of the services performed by the CRO(s.Finally the guiding principles for all oversight processes should be transparent communication, a clearly established expectation for quality, a precise definition of accountability and responsibility while avoiding silo mentality, and a comprehensive documentation of the oversight’s evidence. For globally acting and outsourcing sponsors, oversight processes need to be aligned with regards to local and global perspectives. This survey shows that the current implementation of oversight processes in the participating companies covers all relevant areas to ensure highest quality and integrity of the data produced by the outsourced clinical trial.

  10. Current practice and perspectives in CRO oversight based on a survey performed among members of the German Association of Research-Based Pharmaceutical Companies (vfa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennig, Michael; Hundt, Ferdinand; Busta, Susanne; Mikus, Stefan; Sanden, Per-Holger; Sörgel, Andrea; Ruppert, Thorsten

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, the number and scope of outsourced activities in the pharmaceutical industry have increased heavily. In addition, also the type of outsourcing has changed significantly in that time. This raises the question of whether and how sponsors retain the capability to select and to control the contract research organizations (CROs) involved and what expertise still has to be present in the development department as well as other relevant departments to ensure adequate oversight, also in line with the expectations of regulators and health authorities. In order to answer these questions, a survey was conducted among the German vfa member companies. The survey describes the latest developments and experiences in outsourcing by 18 German vfa member companies. It concentrates on measures how to implement Quality Assurance (QA) when performing outsourced clinical studies. This study shows that the majority of companies apply a full-outsourcing, preferred-provider model of clinical trial services, with the clinical research department playing the major role in this process. A large amount of guiding documents, processes and tools are used to ensure an adequate oversight of the services performed by the CRO(s). Finally the guiding principles for all oversight processes should be transparent communication, a clearly established expectation for quality, a precise definition of accountability and responsibility while avoiding silo mentality, and a comprehensive documentation of the oversight's evidence. For globally acting and outsourcing sponsors, oversight processes need to be aligned with regards to local and global perspectives. This survey shows that the current implementation of oversight processes in the participating companies covers all relevant areas to ensure highest quality and integrity of the data produced by the outsourced clinical trial.

  11. [Reading behavior and preferences regarding subscriptions to scientific journals : Results of a survey of members of the German Society for General and Visceral Surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronellenfitsch, U; Klinger, C; Buhr, H J; Post, S

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of surgical literature is to publish the latest study results and to provide continuing medical education to readers. For optimal allocation of resources, institutional subscribers, professional societies and scientific publishers require structured data on reading and subscription preferences of potential readers of surgical literature. To obtain representative data on the preferences of German general and visceral surgeons regarding reading of and subscription to scientific journals. All members of the German Society for General and Visceral Surgery (DGAV) were invited to participate in a web-based survey. Questions were asked on the affiliation and position of the member, individual journal subscriptions, institutional access to scientific journals, preferences regarding electronic or print articles and special subscriptions for society members. Answers were descriptively analyzed. A total of 630 out of 4091 (15 %) members participated in the survey and 73 % of the respondents had at least 1 individual subscription to a scientific journal. The most frequently subscribed journal was Der Chirurg (47 % of respondents). The institutional access to journals was deemed insufficient by 48 % of respondents, predominantly in primary care hospitals and outpatient clinics. Almost half of the respondents gave sufficient importance to reading printed versions of articles for which they would pay extra fees. A group subscription for society members was perceived as advantageous as long as no relevant extra costs were incurred. This structured survey among members of the DGAV provides data on preferences regarding reading of and subscription to scientific journals. Individual subscriptions to journals are still common, possibly due to suboptimal institutional access particularly at smaller non-academic institutions. In an age of online publications it seems surprising that many respondents place a high value on printed versions. The results are relevant for

  12. Survey Essay 1. Periodizing and Historicizing German Afro-Americanophilia: From Antebellum to Postwar (1850-1965

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moritz Ege

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this first essay, we delve into significant moments in the history (and pre-history of twentieth century Afro-Americanophilia in Germany. We establish a periodisation stretching from the nineteenth century until the mid-1960s (from which point our second essay will continue, and take in the pre-colonial, the colonial, the Weimar, the Nazi; and the post-war eras.  We draw out some of the particularly significant moments, ruptures, and continuities within that time frame. We also identify some of the salient ways scholars have interpreted ‘Afro-Americanophilia’ during the period.  Focusing on a variety of practices of appropriation, communicative media, actors and forms of agency, power differentials, and sociocultural contexts, we discuss positive images of and affirmative approaches to black people in German culture and in its imaginaries. We attend to who was active in Afro-Americanophilia, in what ways, and what the effects of that agency were. Our main focus is on white German Afro-Americanophiles, but—without attempting to write a history of African Americans, black people in Germany, or Black Germans— we also inquire into the ways that the latter reacted to, suffered under the expectations levied upon them, or were able to engage with the demand for ‘black cultural traffic.’

  13. Public Opinions about Overdiagnosis: A National Community Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moynihan, Ray; Nickel, Brooke; Hersch, Jolyn; Beller, Elaine; Doust, Jenny; Compton, Shane; Barratt, Alexandra; Bero, Lisa; McCaffery, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    Despite evidence about the "modern epidemic" of overdiagnosis, and expanding disease definitions that medicalize more people, data are lacking on public views about these issues. Our objective was to measure public perceptions about overdiagnosis and views about financial ties of panels setting disease definitions. We conducted a 15 minute Computer Assisted Telephone Interview with a randomly selected community sample of 500 Australians in January 2014. We iteratively developed and piloted a questionnaire, with a convenience sample (n=20), then with participants recruited by a research company (n=20). Questions included whether respondents had been informed about overdiagnosis; opinions on informing people; and views about financial ties among panels writing disease definitions. Our sample was generally representative, but included a higher proportion of females and seniors, typical of similar surveys. American Association for Public Opinion Research response rate was 20% and cooperation rate was 44%. Only 10% (95% CI 8%-13%) of people reported ever being told about overdiagnosis by a doctor. 18% (95% CI 11%-28%) of men who reported having prostate cancer screening, and 10% (95% CI 6%-15%) of women who reported having mammography said they were told about overdiagnosis. 93% (95% CI 90%-95%) agreed along with screening benefits, people should be informed about overdiagnosis. On panels setting disease definitions, 78% (95% CI 74%-82%) felt ties to pharmaceutical companies inappropriate, and 91% (95% CI 82%-100%) believed panels should have a minority or no members with ties. Limitations included questionnaire novelty and complexity. A small minority of Australians surveyed, including those reporting being screened for prostate or breast cancer, reported being informed of overdiagnosis; most believed people should be informed; and a majority felt it inappropriate that doctors with ties to pharmaceutical companies write disease definitions. Results suggest strategies

  14. Public Opinions about Overdiagnosis: A National Community Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray Moynihan

    Full Text Available Despite evidence about the "modern epidemic" of overdiagnosis, and expanding disease definitions that medicalize more people, data are lacking on public views about these issues. Our objective was to measure public perceptions about overdiagnosis and views about financial ties of panels setting disease definitions.We conducted a 15 minute Computer Assisted Telephone Interview with a randomly selected community sample of 500 Australians in January 2014. We iteratively developed and piloted a questionnaire, with a convenience sample (n=20, then with participants recruited by a research company (n=20. Questions included whether respondents had been informed about overdiagnosis; opinions on informing people; and views about financial ties among panels writing disease definitions.Our sample was generally representative, but included a higher proportion of females and seniors, typical of similar surveys. American Association for Public Opinion Research response rate was 20% and cooperation rate was 44%. Only 10% (95% CI 8%-13% of people reported ever being told about overdiagnosis by a doctor. 18% (95% CI 11%-28% of men who reported having prostate cancer screening, and 10% (95% CI 6%-15% of women who reported having mammography said they were told about overdiagnosis. 93% (95% CI 90%-95% agreed along with screening benefits, people should be informed about overdiagnosis. On panels setting disease definitions, 78% (95% CI 74%-82% felt ties to pharmaceutical companies inappropriate, and 91% (95% CI 82%-100% believed panels should have a minority or no members with ties. Limitations included questionnaire novelty and complexity.A small minority of Australians surveyed, including those reporting being screened for prostate or breast cancer, reported being informed of overdiagnosis; most believed people should be informed; and a majority felt it inappropriate that doctors with ties to pharmaceutical companies write disease definitions. Results suggest

  15. Prevalence and acceptance of tattoos and piercings: a survey of young adults from the southern German-speaking area of Central Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stieger, Stefan; Pietschnig, Jakob; Kastner, Cornelia K; Voracek, Martin; Swami, Viren

    2010-06-01

    The present study examined the prevalence and acceptance of body piercings and tattoos among a community sample from the southern German-speaking area of Central Europe. A total of 440 respondents completed information about their own body piercings and tattoos and reported whether they would be likely never to have piercings and tattoos in the future. Analyses indicated that 19.8 and 15.2% of respondents had piercings (excluding the earlobe) and tattoos, respectively. Women were more likely to have body piercings than men, but there were no sex differences in tattooing. There were also few sociodemographic differences in piercings and tattoos, and most participants reported being likely to consider body art in the future. These results are considered in relation to prevalence estimates of body art in other Western countries and the associated health risks.

  16. Predicting prediabetes in a rural community: a survey among the Karen ethnic community, Thasongyang, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorga T

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Thaworn Lorga1, Myo Nyein Aung1,2, Prissana Naunboonruang1, Payom Thinuan1, Nara Praipaksin3, Tida Deesakul3, Utumporn Inwan3, Tawatchai Yingtaweesak4, Pratumpan Manokulanan1, Srisomporn Suangkaew1, Apiradee Payaprom41Boromarajonani College of Nursing Nakhon Lampang (BCNLP, Lampang, Thailand; 2Department of Public Health, Graduate School of Medicine, Juntendo University, Tokyo, Japan; 3Baan Rekati Health Station, Thasongyang, Tak, Thailand; 4Thasongyang Hospital, Thasongyang, Tak, ThailandBackground: Diabetes is a growing epidemic in both urban and rural communities worldwide.Aim: We aimed to survey fasting plasma glucose (FPG status and awareness of diabetes in the rural Karen ethnic community. We investigated the predictors of impaired fasting plasma glucose (IFG status, which would be easily applicable for prevention of diabetes in a rural community.Materials and methods: This was a community-based cross-sectional study conducted at Thasongyang, the most north-western district in Thailand. A total of 299 Karen ethnic rural residents were included in the study. FPG, body mass index, and waist circumference were prospectively measured. We assessed the awareness of diabetes and lifestyle-related health behavior with closed questionnaires in a rural community setting.Results: On screening for FPG, 16.72% of the Karen ethnic residents had hyperglycemia: 3.68% in the diabetic range and 13.04% in the prediabetic range respectively. After adjustment for age, sex, and BMI, waist circumference (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 3.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.29–9.57, and having a diabetic blood relative (aOR 4.6, CI 1.81–11.71 are significant predictors of IFG status.Conclusion: It is necessary to promote awareness of diabetes among the Karen ethnic community. Application of simple evidence-based predictors of the prediabetic state may lead to timely and effective prevention of diabetes in rural settings.Keywords: diabetes, prediabetes, fasting plasma

  17. [A health survey in riverine communities in Amazonas State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gama, Abel Santiago Muri; Fernandes, Tiótrefis Gomes; Parente, Rosana Cristina Pereira; Secoli, Silvia Regina

    2018-02-19

    Population-based health surveys are important tools for identifying disease determinants, especially in regions with widely dispersed populations and low health system coverage. The aim of this study was to describe the principal methodological aspects and to describe the socioeconomic, demographic, and health characteristics of the riverine populations of Coari, Amazonas State, Brazil. This was a population-based cross-sectional study in river-dwelling communities in the rural area of Coari, from April to July 2015. The probabilistic cluster sample consisted of 492 individuals. The results showed that the majority of the river-dwellers were females (53%), had up to 9 years of schooling (68.5%), and earned a monthly family income equivalent to one-third the minimum wage. The health problems reported in the previous 30 days featured conditions involving pain (45.2%). The main healthcare resources were allopathic medicines (70.3%), exceeding herbal remedies (44.3%). The river-dwellers travel an average of 60.4km and take some 4.2 hours to reach the urban area of Coari. The riverine population generally presents low economic status and limited access to the urban area. Health problems are mostly solved with allopathic medicines. Geographic characteristics, as barriers to access to health services and to improvements in living conditions for the riverine population, can limit the collection of epidemiological data on these populations.

  18. Psychosocial adaptation of adolescent migrants in a Swiss community survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Bearth-Carrari, Cinzia; Winkler Metzke, Christa

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare psychosocial adaptation in adolescent (first generation) migrants, double-citizens (mainly second generation with one migrant parent), and native Swiss, and to compare migrants from various European regions. Data from a community survey were based on 1,239 participants (mean age 13.8, SD = 1.6 years) with 996 natives, 55 double-citizens, and 188 migrants. The adolescents completed the youth self-report measuring emotional and behavioural problems, and various questionnaires addressing life events, personality variables, perceived parental behaviour (PPB), family functioning, school environment, and social network. Adolescent migrants had significantly higher scores for internalizing and externalizing problems. There was a pattern of various unfavourable psychosocial features including life events, coping, self-related cognitions, and PPB that was more common among adolescent migrants than natives. Double-citizens were similar to natives in all domains. Young adolescents from South and South-East Europe differed from natives in terms of more unfavourable psychosocial features. Migrant status was best predicted by adverse psychosocial features rather than emotional and behavioural problems. There is some indication that certain migrant adolescents are at risk of psychosocial mal-adaptation. Obviously, ethnic origin is an important moderator.

  19. More counselling for end-of-life decisions by GPs with own advance directives: A postal survey among German general practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnakenberg, Rieke; Radbruch, Lukas; Kersting, Christine; Frank, Friederike; Wilm, Stefan; Becka, Denise; Weckbecker, Klaus; Bleckwenn, Markus; Just, Johannes M; Pentzek, Michael; Weltermann, Birgitta

    2018-12-01

    Although general practitioners (GPs) are among the preferred contact persons for discussing end-of-life issues including advance directives (ADs), there is little data on how GPs manage such consultations. This postal survey asked German GPs about their counselling for end-of-life decisions. In 2015, a two-sided questionnaire was mailed to 959 GPs. GPs were asked for details of their consultations on ADs: frequency, duration, template use, and whether they have own ADs. Statistical analysis evaluated physician characteristics associated with an above-average number of consultations on AD. The participation rate was 50.3% (n = 482), 70.5% of the GPs were male; the average age was 54 years. GPs had an average of 18 years of professional experience, and 61.4% serve more than 900 patients per three months. Most (96.9%) GPs perform consultations on living wills (LW) and/or powers of attorney (PA), mainly in selected patients (72.3%). More than 20 consultations each on LWs and PAs are performed by 60% and 50% of GPs, respectively. The estimated mean duration of consultations was 21 min for LWs and 16 min for PAs. Predefined templates were used in 72% of the GPs, 50% of GPs had their ADs. A statistical model showed that GPs with ADs and/or a qualification in palliative medicine were more likely to counsel ≥20 patients per year for each document. The study confirmed that nearly all German GPs surveyed provide counselling on ADs. Physicians with ADs counsel more frequently than those without such documents.

  20. Is Whole-Body Computed Tomography the Standard Work-up for Severely-Injured Children? Results of a Survey among German Trauma Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, J; Reising, K; Kuminack, K; Südkamp, N P; Strohm, P C

    2015-01-01

    Whole-body computed tomography is accepted as the standard procedure in the primary diagnostic of polytraumatised adults in the emergency room. Up to now there is still controversial discussion about the same algorithm in the primary diagnostic of children. The aim of this study was to survey the participation of German trauma-centres in the care of polytraumatised children and the hospital dependant use of whole-body computed tomography for initial patient work-up. A questionnaire was mailed to every Department of Traumatology registered in the DGU (German Trauma Society) databank. We received 60,32% of the initially sent questionnaires and after applying exclusion criteria 269 (53,91%) were applicable to statistical analysis. In the three-tiered German hospital system no statistical difference was seen in the general participation of children polytrauma care between hospitals of different tiers (p = 0.315). Even at the lowest hospital level 69,47% of hospitals stated to participate in polytrauma care for children, at the intermediate and highest level hospitals 91,89% and 95,24% stated to be involved in children polytrauma care, respectively. Children suspicious of multiple injuries or polytrauma received significantly fewer primary whole-body CTs in lowest level compared to intermediate level hospitals (36,07% vs. 56,57%; p = 0.015) and lowest level compared to highest level hospitals (36,07% vs. 68,42%; p = 0.001). Comparing the use of whole-body CT in intermediate to highest level hospitals a not significant increase in its use could be seen in highest level hospitals (56,57% vs. 68,42%; p = 0.174). According to our survey, taking care of polytraumatised children in Germany is not limited to specialised hospitals or a defined hospital level-of-care. Additionally, there is no established radiologic standard in work-up of the polytraumatised child. However, in higher hospital care -levels a higher percentage of hospitals employs whole-body CTs for primary

  1. German Environmental Survey of Children (GerES IV) - environmental module of KiGGS. Pt. 1. Design and research programme; Kinder-Umwelt-Survey - das Umweltmodul im KiGGS. Teil 1. Konzeption und Untersuchungsprogramm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, C.; Babisch, W. [Umweltbundesamt, Berlin (Germany); Becker, K. [Umweltbundesamt, Berlin (DE)] (and others)

    2004-11-15

    The German Environmental Survey for Children (GerES IV) is the environment-oriented module of the National Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS) which is being performed nationwide in Germany. Form 2003 to 2006, a random subsample of 1800 children aged 3-14 years is being studied with regard to their body burden and health impairments linked to housing conditions and the personal environment- and health-relevant behaviour. The basic study programme includes the analysis of blood, urine, tap water and house dust as well as the application of an extensive questionnaire. The data gained from this population sample, which is representative for Germany's children, are the basis for deriving reference values to characterise the background exposure of children aged 3-14 years. Trends over time can be detected and the success of environmental policies verified by comparing the data with those of the German Environmental Survey 1990/92 (GerES II), also conducted in close cooperation with the National Health Survey, which included children aged 6-14 years. By linking the data from the Environmental and the Health Surveys, health-relevant environmental exposures can be detected and different scientific hypotheses can be tested. The main subjects that are being dealt with using subcollectives of GerES IV are ''VOC and eye and nasopharynx irritation'', ''indoor allergens and allergic diseases of the respiratory system'', ''chromium, nickel, fragrances and contact allergens'', and ''noise, hearing capacity and stress hormones''. (orig.)

  2. Benchmarking Alumni Relations in Community Colleges: Findings from a 2015 CASE Survey. CASE White Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradise, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Building on the inaugural survey conducted three years prior, the 2015 CASE Community College Alumni Relations survey collected additional insightful data on staffing, structure, communications, engagement, and fundraising. This white paper features key data on alumni relations programs at community colleges across the United States. The paper…

  3. German Lieder in the Perception of the Modern Australian Listener and/or Singer: A Survey at the 30th National Liederfest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafisi, Julia

    2011-01-01

    German Romantic Art Songs or German "Lieder" constitute a consistent part of every aspiring classical singer's repertoire around the world. This study investigates a contemporary Australian audiences' appreciation of the genre; it asks further what role the various Romantic characteristics play in German "Lieder" genre, gauges…

  4. What Campuses Assess When They Assess Their Learning Community Programs: Selected Findings from a National Survey of Learning Community Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lardner, Emily

    2014-01-01

    In spring 2013, the Washington Center administered a national survey to find what campuses assessed when they assessed their learning community programs, how they assessed those outcomes, and what they did with the results. Sixty-six campuses responded to the survey. Most campuses assess at least one measure of student success (pass rates, course…

  5. Our Environment, Our Health: A Community-Based Participatory Environmental Health Survey in Richmond, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Alison; Lopez, Andrea; Malloy, Nile; Morello-Frosch, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    This study presents a health survey conducted by a community-based participatory research partnership between academic researchers and community organizers to consider environmental health and environmental justice issues in four neighborhoods of Richmond, California, a low-income community of color living along the fence line of a major oil…

  6. Benchmarking Alumni Relations in Community Colleges: Findings from a 2012 CASE Survey. CASE White Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradise, Andrew; Heaton, Paul

    2013-01-01

    In 2011, CASE founded the Center for Community College Advancement to provide training and resources to help community colleges build and sustain effective fundraising, alumni relations and communications and marketing programs. This white paper summarizes the results of a groundbreaking survey on alumni relations programs at community colleges…

  7. [How do nurses in psychiatric institutions assess suicide risk? A survey in the German-speaking part of Switzerland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabenschlag, Franziska; Hoffmann, Sven; Kozel, Bernd; Sprenger, Rosmarie

    2013-08-01

    In the interdisciplinary treatment process nurses play an important role, assessing suicide risk. To cope with this responsibility, the use of assessment instruments is recommended. Although a lot of instruments exist to assess the risk of suicide, nurses do not use them consistently. This cross-sectional study seeks to answer the following questions: How do nurses assess the suicidality of patients of psychiatric hospitals in the German speaking part of Switzerland? Do they use assessment instruments and if so, which ones? Ward nurses in every psychiatric hospital (n = 32) were asked about the state of the nursing practice in assessing the suicide risk by means of an electronic questionnaire. The following results emerged: Nurses use instruments to assess suicide risk on about half of the wards (n = 119, 50.63%). 13% of the mentioned instruments are research-based. Nurses mostly assess suicide endangerment in the case of a presumed danger, less often at admission and least often during the discharge process. As suicidality is assessed mostly when nurses assume a danger in this study, and due to the fact that suicides most frequently occur shortly prior to or during the discharge process, an expansion of or the introduction of the assessment is recommended before the discharge process.

  8. Dementia among elderly in Shanghai suburb: a rural community survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Qi; Sun, Hong-Xian; Ye, Fu-Lin; Wang, Gang; Ling, Hua-Wei; Chen, Sheng-Di; Jiang, Guo-Xin

    2014-01-01

    The number of elderly in the world is increasing rapidly, especially in China. The prevalence of dementia among elderly was investigated in a community of Sheshan town, located in the Southwest suburb of Shanghai, China. Face-to-face interviews were conducted to collect relevant information with prepared questionnaires. The Chinese version of the Mini-Mental Status Examination was used to screen subjects with cognitive impairment (CI). Physical examinations and neuropsychological assessments were carried out. Dementia and its major subtypes, Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD), were diagnosed by senior neurologists according to relevant diagnostic criteria. In addition, magnetic resonance imaging and EEG (with P300) were performed for a number of cases with AD or VaD. There were 1,472 participants (666 males and 806 females) aged 60 years and over in the study. A total of 167 subjects with CI were screened. Among them, dementia was recognized in 79 cases with a prevalence of 5.37% (95% confidence intervals: 4.22%-6.52%). The diagnosis of AD was made for 53 cases (16 males and 37 females) with a prevalence of 3.60% (95% confidence intervals: 2.65%-4.55%), and VaD for 21 cases (5 males and 16 females) with a prevalence of 1.43% (95% confidence intervals: 0.82%-2.03%); while the ratio of AD to VaD was 2.52. The prevalence rates of dementia among elderly from our study are higher than that previously reported from China, but in line with that reported from most world regions. A nationwide survey and surveillance system on the prevalence of dementia is recommended.

  9. Information Behavior of Community College Students: A Survey of Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Leanna

    2009-01-01

    A literature review of articles discussing the information behavior of community college students finds that most of the literature focuses on what libraries and librarians can do to teach community college students information literacy. The articles discuss learning communities, bibliographic instruction, and information technology. Although…

  10. The current state of physical activity and exercise programs in German-speaking, Swiss psychiatric hospitals: results from a brief online survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Br

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Serge Brand,1,2 Flora Colledge,2 Nadja Beeler,2 Uwe Pühse,2 Nadeem Kalak,1 Dena Sadeghi Bahmani,1 Thorsten Mikoteit,1 Edith Holsboer-Trachsler,1 Markus Gerber2 1Psychiatric Clinics of the University of Basel, Center for Affective, Stress and Sleep Disorders, 2Department of Sport, Exercise and Health, Sport Science Section, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland Background: Physical activity and exercise programs (PAEPs are an important factor in increasing and maintaining physical and mental health. This holds particularly true for patients with psychiatric disorders undergoing treatment in a psychiatric hospital. To understand whether the benefits reported in the literature are mirrored in current treatment modalities, the aim of the present study was to assess the current state of PAEPs in psychiatric hospitals in the German-speaking part of Switzerland. Methods: All psychiatric hospitals (N=55 in the German-speaking part of Switzerland were contacted in spring 2014. Staff responsible for PAEPs were asked to complete an online questionnaire covering questions related to PAEPs such as type, frequency, staff training, treatment rationale, importance of PAEPs within the treatment strategy, and possible avenues to increase PAEPs. Results: Staff members of 48 different psychiatric hospitals completed the survey. Hospitals provided the following therapeutic treatments: relaxation techniques (100%, sports therapy (97%, activity-related psychotherapeutic interventions (95%, physiotherapy (85%, body therapies (59%, far-east techniques (57%, and hippotherapy (22%. Frequencies ranged from once/week to five times/week. Approximately 25% of patients participated in the PAEPs. Interventions were offered irrespective of psychiatric disorders. PAEP providers wanted and needed more vocational training. Conclusion: All participating psychiatric hospitals offer a broad variety of PAEPs in their treatment curricula. However, the majority of inpatients do not

  11. [Physician Counseling about Physical and Sports Activity in Neurological Practices in Germany: Results of a Survey Among Members of the German Neurological Society].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimers, C D; Reuter, I; Straube, A; Tettenborn, B; Braumann, K M; Reimers, A K

    2016-01-01

    Physical inactivity is a major but modifiable risk factor for morbidity and mortality. Regular physical activity has preventive and therapeutic effects on numerous diseases including neurological disorders. Therefore, it is desirable that physicians motivate their patients to increase their physical and sports activities and that they help them to overcome barriers to exercising. The present study is a survey of neurologists who are members of the German Neurological Society with their own practices; they were asked whether they advised their patients on the benefits of physical activity. Details on physician counseling on physical activity were obtained, such as the frequency of counseling, the neurological disorders considered by the practitioners to be worth the effort of counseling, and the barriers to exercise on the part of patients. More than 80 % of the participants who responded to the survey stated that they frequently provide their patients with advice on the preventive and therapeutic aspects of physical activity. Almost all of them recommended endurance sports; this was followed by Far Eastern types of sport such as tai chi or yoga (70 % of all physicians who advice sports activities). The frequency of counseling about physical activity significantly correlated to the physician's own sports activity. Frequency of counseling was reduced if the physician assessed the patients to be incapable of adopting and maintaining a lifestyle of habitual physical activity. Lack of time as well as an insufficient reimbursement of the counseling, however, did not significantly influence the frequency of counseling. The physician's own sports activity matched that of individuals with similar social status. Thus, a selection bias does not seem to be of importance regarding the results of the survey. However, since only 169 of the 784 invited neurologists (21.6 %) responded to the questionnaire, the representativeness of the survey may be limited. Counseling about

  12. Desire and reality – teaching and assessing communicative competencies in undergraduate medical education in German-speaking Europe – a survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Härtl, Anja; Bachmann, Cadja; Blum, Katharina; Höfer, Stefan; Peters, Tim; Preusche, Ingrid; Raski, Bianca; Rüttermann, Stefan; Wagner-Menghin, Michaela; Wünsch, Alexander; Kiessling, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Increasingly, communicative competencies are becoming a permanent feature of training and assessment in German-speaking medical schools (n=43; Germany, Austria, Switzerland – ”D-A-CH”). In support of further curricular development of communicative competencies, the survey by the “Communicative and Social Competencies” (KusK) committee of the German Society for Medical Education (GMA) systematically appraises the scope of and form in which teaching and assessment take place. Methods: The iterative online questionnaire, developed in cooperation with KusK, comprises 70 questions regarding instruction (n=14), assessment (n=48), local conditions (n=5), with three fields for further remarks. Per location, two to three individuals who were familiar with the respective institute’s curriculum were invited to take part in the survey. Results: Thirty-nine medical schools (40 degree programmes) took part in the survey. Communicative competencies are taught in all of the programmes. Ten degree programmes have a longitudinal curriculum for communicative competencies; 25 programmes offer this in part. Sixteen of the 40 programmes use the Basler Consensus Statement for orientation. In over 80% of the degree programmes, communicative competencies are taught in the second and third year of studies. Almost all of the programmes work with simulated patients (n=38) and feedback (n=37). Exams are exclusively summative (n=11), exclusively formative (n=3), or both summative and formative (n=16) and usually take place in the fifth or sixth year of studies (n=22 and n=20). Apart from written examinations (n=15) and presentations (n=9), practical examinations are primarily administered (OSCE, n=31); WPA (n=8), usually with self-developed scales (OSCE, n=19). With regards to the examiners’ training and the manner of results-reporting to the students, there is a high variance. Conclusions: Instruction in communicative competencies has been implemented at all 39 of the

  13. Desire and reality--teaching and assessing communicative competencies in undergraduate medical education in German-speaking Europe--a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Härtl, Anja; Bachmann, Cadja; Blum, Katharina; Höfer, Stefan; Peters, Tim; Preusche, Ingrid; Raski, Bianca; Rüttermann, Stefan; Wagner-Menghin, Michaela; Wünsch, Alexander; Kiessling, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Increasingly, communicative competencies are becoming a permanent feature of training and assessment in German-speaking medical schools (n=43; Germany, Austria, Switzerland - "D-A-CH"). In support of further curricular development of communicative competencies, the survey by the "Communicative and Social Competencies" (KusK) committee of the German Society for Medical Education (GMA) systematically appraises the scope of and form in which teaching and assessment take place. The iterative online questionnaire, developed in cooperation with KusK, comprises 70 questions regarding instruction (n=14), assessment (n=48), local conditions (n=5), with three fields for further remarks. Per location, two to three individuals who were familiar with the respective institute's curriculum were invited to take part in the survey. Thirty-nine medical schools (40 degree programmes) took part in the survey. Communicative competencies are taught in all of the programmes. Ten degree programmes have a longitudinal curriculum for communicative competencies; 25 programmes offer this in part. Sixteen of the 40 programmes use the Basler Consensus Statement for orientation. In over 80% of the degree programmes, communicative competencies are taught in the second and third year of studies. Almost all of the programmes work with simulated patients (n=38) and feedback (n=37). Exams are exclusively summative (n=11), exclusively formative (n=3), or both summative and formative (n=16) and usually take place in the fifth or sixth year of studies (n=22 and n=20). Apart from written examinations (n=15) and presentations (n=9), practical examinations are primarily administered (OSCE, n=31); WPA (n=8), usually with self-developed scales (OSCE, n=19). With regards to the examiners' training and the manner of results-reporting to the students, there is a high variance. Instruction in communicative competencies has been implemented at all 39 of the participating medical schools. For the most part

  14. Desire and reality – teaching and assessing communicative competencies in undergraduate medical education in German-speaking Europe – a survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Härtl

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Increasingly, communicative competencies are becoming a permanent feature of training and assessment in German-speaking medical schools (n=43; Germany, Austria, Switzerland – ”D-A-CH”. In support of further curricular development of communicative competencies, the survey by the “Communicative and Social Competencies” (KusK committee of the German Society for Medical Education (GMA systematically appraises the scope of and form in which teaching and assessment take place. Methods: The iterative online questionnaire, developed in cooperation with KusK, comprises 70 questions regarding instruction (n=14, assessment (n=48, local conditions (n=5, with three fields for further remarks. Per location, two to three individuals who were familiar with the respective institute’s curriculum were invited to take part in the survey. Results: Thirty-nine medical schools (40 degree programmes took part in the survey. Communicative competencies are taught in all of the programmes. Ten degree programmes have a longitudinal curriculum for communicative competencies; 25 programmes offer this in part. Sixteen of the 40 programmes use the Basler Consensus Statement for orientation. In over 80% of the degree programmes, communicative competencies are taught in the second and third year of studies. Almost all of the programmes work with simulated patients (n=38 and feedback (n=37. Exams are exclusively summative (n=11, exclusively formative (n=3, or both summative and formative (n=16 and usually take place in the fifth or sixth year of studies (n=22 and n=20. Apart from written examinations (n=15 and presentations (n=9, practical examinations are primarily administered (OSCE, n=31; WPA (n=8, usually with self-developed scales (OSCE, n=19. With regards to the examiners’ training and the manner of results-reporting to the students, there is a high variance. Conclusions: Instruction in communicative competencies has been implemented at all 39 of

  15. Age, puberty, body dissatisfaction, and physical activity decline in adolescents. Results of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey (KiGGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finne Emily

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity (PA shows a marked decline during adolescence. Some studies have pointed to pubertal status or timing as possible PA determinants in this age group. Furthermore, it was supposed that the impact of pubertal changes on PA might be mediated by psychological variables like body dissatisfaction (BDS. Methods The 11- to 17-year-old subsample of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey (KiGGS was used (n = 6 813; 51.3% male, response rate = 66.6%. Through sex-specific sequential multinomial logistic regressions we analysed the univariate and independent associations of chronological age, absolute pubertal status, relative pubertal timing, and BDS with the frequency of PA. Results Chronological age showed a significantly negative association with PA in both sexes, independent of puberty. The odds of inactivity in contrast to nearly daily PA increased about 70% in boys and 35% in girls for each year of age, respectively. Adjusted for age and other possible confounders, inactivity was significantly less likely for boys in late pubertal stages (OR = 0.27, 95% CI = 0.09-0.78. The risk of inactivity was more than doubled in boys maturing earlier than peers in terms of relative pubertal timing (OR = 2.20, 95% CI = 1.36-3.56. No clear significant puberty effects were found in girls, but the inactivity was more likely for those with irregular menstruation (OR = 1.71, 95% CI = 1.06-2.75. BDS also contributed to the prediction of PA in both sexes. It partially mediated puberty effects in boys but not in girls. Conclusions Overall, chronological age was a far more important predictor of PA in German adolescents than absolute pubertal status or relative pubertal timing. Further possible explanatory variables like sociocultural influences, social support or increasing time requirements for education should be analysed in conjunction with chronological age in future studies.

  16. Age, puberty, body dissatisfaction, and physical activity decline in adolescents. Results of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey (KiGGS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finne, Emily; Bucksch, Jens; Lampert, Thomas; Kolip, Petra

    2011-10-27

    Physical activity (PA) shows a marked decline during adolescence. Some studies have pointed to pubertal status or timing as possible PA determinants in this age group. Furthermore, it was supposed that the impact of pubertal changes on PA might be mediated by psychological variables like body dissatisfaction (BDS). The 11- to 17-year-old subsample of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey (KiGGS) was used (n = 6 813; 51.3% male, response rate = 66.6%). Through sex-specific sequential multinomial logistic regressions we analysed the univariate and independent associations of chronological age, absolute pubertal status, relative pubertal timing, and BDS with the frequency of PA. Chronological age showed a significantly negative association with PA in both sexes, independent of puberty. The odds of inactivity in contrast to nearly daily PA increased about 70% in boys and 35% in girls for each year of age, respectively. Adjusted for age and other possible confounders, inactivity was significantly less likely for boys in late pubertal stages (OR = 0.27, 95% CI = 0.09-0.78). The risk of inactivity was more than doubled in boys maturing earlier than peers in terms of relative pubertal timing (OR = 2.20, 95% CI = 1.36-3.56). No clear significant puberty effects were found in girls, but the inactivity was more likely for those with irregular menstruation (OR = 1.71, 95% CI = 1.06-2.75). BDS also contributed to the prediction of PA in both sexes. It partially mediated puberty effects in boys but not in girls. Overall, chronological age was a far more important predictor of PA in German adolescents than absolute pubertal status or relative pubertal timing. Further possible explanatory variables like sociocultural influences, social support or increasing time requirements for education should be analysed in conjunction with chronological age in future studies.

  17. Gender-Specific Determinants and Patterns of Online Health Information Seeking: Results From a Representative German Health Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Eva; Czerwinski, Fabian

    2017-01-01

    Background Online health information-seeking behavior (OHISB) is currently a widespread and common behavior that has been described as an important prerequisite of empowerment and health literacy. Although demographic factors such as socioeconomic status (SES), age, and gender have been identified as important determinants of OHISB, research is limited regarding the gender-specific motivational determinants of OHISB and differences between women and men in the use of online resources for health information purposes. Objective The aim of this study was to identify gender-specific determinants and patterns of OHISB by analyzing data from a representative German sample of adults (N=1728) with special attention to access and frequency of use as well as topics and sources of OHISB. Methods We employed a 2-step analysis, that is, after exploring differences between users and nonusers of online health information using logistic regression models, we highlighted gender-specific determinants of the frequency of OHISB by applying zero-truncated negative binomial models. Results Age (odds ratio, OR for females=0.97, 95% CI 0.96-0.99) and degree of satisfaction with one’s general practitioner (GP) (OR for males=0.73, 95% CI 0.57-0.92) were gender-specific determinants of access to OHISB. Regarding the frequency of OHISB, daily Internet use (incidence rate ratio, IRR=1.67, 95% CI 1.19-2.33) and a strong interest in health topics (IRR=1.45, 95% CI 1.19-1.77) were revealed to be more important predictors than SES (IRR for high SES=1.25, 95% CI 0.91-1.73). Conclusions Users indicate that the Internet seems to be capable of providing a valuable source of informational support and patient empowerment. Increasing the potential value of the Internet as a source for health literacy and patient empowerment requires need-oriented and gender-specific health communication efforts, media, and information strategies. PMID:28377367

  18. Emergency ultrasound and echocardiography in patients with infarct-related cardiogenic shock : A survey among members of the German Society of Medical Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michels, G; Hempel, D; Pfister, R; Janssens, U

    2018-04-09

    Current international and national guidelines promote the use of emergency echocardiography in patients with cardiogenic shock. We assessed whether these recommendations are followed in clinical practice of infarct-related cardiogenic shock patients. For this purpose we conducted a web-based survey among all members of the German Society of Medical Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine (DGIIN); 40% of the DGIIN members completed the survey. Participants reported that in their department emergency echocardiography/ultrasound is performed on most patients in infarct-related cardiogenic shock presenting to the emergency department/chest pain unit or intensive care unit (58.6% versus 81.4%). Only 33% stated that on patients admitted directly to the catheterization laboratory emergency ultrasound/echocardiography is applied in their institution. Local availability of a standardized algorithm was lacking in the majority of departments (77.2%). A great proportion (38.3%) of participants stated that they personally had no formal training in emergency ultrasound. In order to meet the demands of the current guidelines, in addition to integration of ultrasound examinations into diagnostic algorithms, a structured training of all emergency and intensive care physicians is necessary.

  19. [Prevalence and characteristics of children and youth with special health care needs (CSHCN) in the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheidt-Nave, C; Ellert, U; Thyen, U; Schlaud, M

    2007-01-01

    In order to arrive at population-based estimates on the prevalence and characteristics of children and adolescents with specific health care needs (CSHCN), screening instruments focussing on the consequences of physical, mental and behavioral problems rather than on medical diagnoses have been developed. One of the most feasible and widely tested instruments, the CSHCN screener was added to the self-administered questionnaire for parents of children participating in the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS). The overall weighted prevalence of CSHCN was 16.0% among boys and 11.4% among girls. Children at kindergarten or school age were more than 2-3 times more likely to screen positive compared to toddlers. Up to 14 years, the sex difference persisted through all age groups and was most pronounced between the ages of 3 and 10 years. Children with a migrant background had significantly lower rates of CSHCN compared to non-migrants. This was particularly true for boys (8.0% vs. 17.1%). CSHCN status was not related to social status, urbanization or residence in former West vs. former East Germany. Except for the lack of association with social status, these results are in good accordance with observations from the US National Survey of CSHCN.

  20. Why German farmers have their animals vaccinated against Bleutongue virus serotype 8: Results of a questionnaire survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gethmann, J.; Zilow, V.; Probst, C.; Elbers, A.R.W.; Conraths, F.J.

    2015-01-01

    In response to the Bluetongue disease epidemic in 2006–2007, Germany started in 2008 a country-wide mandatory vaccination campaign. By 2009 the number of new outbreaks had decreased so that vaccination became voluntary in 2010. We conducted a questionnaire survey in cattle and sheep farms in three

  1. Supervisors' perspective on medical thesis projects and dropout rates: survey among thesis supervisors at a large German university hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, Elif; Richter, Felicitas; Valchanova, Ralitsa; Dewey, Marc

    2016-10-14

    To identify underlying causes for failure of medical thesis projects and the constantly high drop-out rate in Germany from the supervisors' perspective and to compare the results with the students' perspective. Cross-sectional survey. Online questionnaire for survey of medical thesis supervisors among the staff of Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Germany. Published, earlier longitudinal survey among students for comparison. 1069 thesis supervisors participated. Data are presented using descriptive statistics, and the χ 2 test served to compare the results among supervisors with the earlier data from the longitudinal survey of doctoral students. Not applicable. This survey is an observational study. Of 3653 potential participants, 1069 (29.3%) supervising 3744 doctoral candidates participated in the study. Supervisors considered themselves to be highly motivated and to offer adequate supervision. On the other hand, 87% stated that they did not feel well prepared for thesis supervision. Supervisors gave lack of timeliness of doctoral students and personal differences (p=0.024 and p=0.001) as the main reasons for terminating thesis projects. Doctoral students predominantly mentioned methodological problems and difficult subjects as critical issues (p=0.001 and pthesis supervisors and medical students feel ill prepared for their roles in the process of a medical dissertation. Contradictory reasons for terminating medical thesis projects based on supervisors' and students' self-assessment suggest a lack of communication and true scientific collaboration between supervisors and doctoral students as the major underlying issue that requires resolution. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  2. Network Community Detection: A Review and Visual Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Bisma S.; Niazi, Muaz A.

    2017-01-01

    Community structure is an important area of research. It has received a considerable attention from the scientific community. Despite its importance, one of the key problems in locating information about community detection is the diverse spread of related articles across various disciplines. To the best of our knowledge, there is no current comprehensive review of recent literature which uses a scientometric analysis using complex networks analysis covering all relevant articles from the Web...

  3. Four years of practice-based and exercise-supported behavioural medicine in one community of the German CINDI area. Countrywide Integrated Non-Communicable Diseases Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesemann, A; Metz, J; Nuessel, E; Scheidt, R; Scheuermann, W

    1997-05-01

    The main goal of the preventive intervention study in one community of the German CINDI (Countrywide Integrated Non-Communicable Diseases Intervention programme of the WHO) area was to improve cardiovascular health by reducing the risk factors smoking, hypertension, obesity, hypercholesterolaemia, and by changing sedentary lifestyle. The intervention was performed by using the special "Three-Level-Strategy", which is characterised by activities of primary care physicians in the usual consulting hour (1st level), with patient groups in their practices (2nd level), and at community level (3rd level) where a special work group and a co-ordinating general practice are co-operating. To evaluate the occurrence of the risk factors in practice and the local population, four cross-sectional random samples (N(total) = 4881) were carried out in seven practices from 1992 to 1995. On the community level, 23 special exercise-based health groups (N(total) = 600) were established and were investigated by means of a questionnaire, related to behaviour and health beliefs. A "Local Health Information System" facilitated the evaluation, the management of the data, and the organisation of the health programme. The results of the practice samples showed a significant reduction of smoking (-17.8%) and hypertension (-31.5%) (p healthy nutrition, 52% of relaxation; 86.2% intended to regularly increase physical activity in leisure time and 82 % could not imagine regular health training without exercise meetings. We conclude that the practice-based "Three-Level-Strategy" provides a strong support for successful long-term prevention of cardiovascular risk, particularly, when exercise-based health training sessions are performed in order to change sedentary lifestyle. When organised on community level, they might have a positive impact on the health behaviour of the whole community. Physical activity can be used as a "prodrug" for health promotion in a holistic way.

  4. Gender-Specific Determinants and Patterns of Online Health Information Seeking: Results From a Representative German Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Eva; Czerwinski, Fabian; Reifegerste, Doreen

    2017-04-04

    Online health information-seeking behavior (OHISB) is currently a widespread and common behavior that has been described as an important prerequisite of empowerment and health literacy. Although demographic factors such as socioeconomic status (SES), age, and gender have been identified as important determinants of OHISB, research is limited regarding the gender-specific motivational determinants of OHISB and differences between women and men in the use of online resources for health information purposes. The aim of this study was to identify gender-specific determinants and patterns of OHISB by analyzing data from a representative German sample of adults (N=1728) with special attention to access and frequency of use as well as topics and sources of OHISB. We employed a 2-step analysis, that is, after exploring differences between users and nonusers of online health information using logistic regression models, we highlighted gender-specific determinants of the frequency of OHISB by applying zero-truncated negative binomial models. Age (odds ratio, OR for females=0.97, 95% CI 0.96-0.99) and degree of satisfaction with one's general practitioner (GP) (OR for males=0.73, 95% CI 0.57-0.92) were gender-specific determinants of access to OHISB. Regarding the frequency of OHISB, daily Internet use (incidence rate ratio, IRR=1.67, 95% CI 1.19-2.33) and a strong interest in health topics (IRR=1.45, 95% CI 1.19-1.77) were revealed to be more important predictors than SES (IRR for high SES=1.25, 95% CI 0.91-1.73). Users indicate that the Internet seems to be capable of providing a valuable source of informational support and patient empowerment. Increasing the potential value of the Internet as a source for health literacy and patient empowerment requires need-oriented and gender-specific health communication efforts, media, and information strategies. ©Eva Baumann, Fabian Czerwinski, Doreen Reifegerste. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http

  5. Screening and contact precautions – A survey on infection control measures for multidrug-resistant bacteria in German university hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena M. Biehl

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To assess the scope of infection control measures for multidrug-resistant bacteria in high-risk settings, a survey among university hospitals was conducted. Fourteen professionals from 8 sites participated. Reported policies varied largely with respect to the types of wards conducting screening, sample types used for screening and implementation of contact precautions. This variability among sites highlights the need for an evidence-based consensus of current infection control policies.

  6. Attitude of health care professionals to organ donation: two surveys among the staff of a German university hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radunz, S; Hertel, S; Schmid, K W; Heuer, M; Stommel, P; Frühauf, N R; Saner, F H; Paul, A; Kaiser, G M

    2010-01-01

    The persistent shortage of organs for transplantation could be minimized by increasing the number of potential donors. The opinion of the staff of a university hospital toward organ donation is of special interest because they are directly involved in solid organ transplantation. In 2007, we conducted a first voluntary survey concerning organ donation among the staff of the university hospital of Essen. A short information campaign and further opinion poll among staff as well as visitors was performed in 2009 to compare professional and public attitudes toward organ donation. The first poll comprised 242 questionnaires showing 55% of the hospital staff carrying organ donor cards, particularly more women (60%) than men (46%). After this survey, an additional 19% of the hospital staff imagined they might carrying an organ donor card in the future. In the second survey, we analyzed 151 questionnaires, showing 66% of staff members carrying an organ donor card, an incidence significantly greater than among visitors (48%). The need for information regarding organ donation was greater among visitors (35%). However, 21% of the hospital staff still also need education concerning organ donation. More education and increased transparency of transplantation practice are necessary for hospital staff to act successfully as initiators. Hospital staff with positive attitudes toward organ donation may have a positive impact on the attitudes of the general public toward organ donation.

  7. 453 A Survey of Job Loss in Selected Communities around ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    Satisfaction with life is largely a cognitive summative evaluation of one's life situation in which the individual is forced ... small towns or single-industry communities would benefit by using certain economic development ... state of job loss around this city could hold lessons for other cities around the country. Six communities ...

  8. Demographics for US Census Tracts - 2012 (American Community Survey 2008-2012 Derived Summary Tables)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This map service displays data derived from the 2008-2012 American Community Survey (ACS). Values derived from the ACS and used for this map service include: Total...

  9. Demographics for US Census Tracts - 2010 (American Community Survey 2006-2010 Derived Summary Tables)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This map service displays data derived from the 2006-2010 American Community Survey (ACS). Values derived from the ACS and used for this map service include: Total...

  10. [Mealtime support for patients with eating disorders: a survey on the clinical practice in German eating disorders centers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockmeyer, Timo; Friederich, Hans-Christoph; Jäger, Burkard; Schwab, Michael; Herzog, Wolfgang; de Zwaan, Martina

    2015-03-01

    Mealtime support is a cornerstone of eating disorders (ED) inpatient and day-care treatment but has received only little attention in research so far and no valid recommendations are available for this type of intervention. Thus, the aim of the present study was to gather a comprehensive picture of how mealtime support is currently practiced in Germany. In a nationwide survey, 97 staff members from 66 ED centers across Germany completed a survey-form that covered 4 broad topics: (a) setting, (b) general conditions, (c) specific interventions, and (d) treatment providers' perspective. For the most part, mealtime support is delivered by nurses. Two thirds of the centers provide at least one therapeutically supported meal per day. Most centers offer their patients a kitchen and/or a guided cooking group. Patient eating behavior and amount of food eaten is documented by three quarters of staff members. Most staff members offer some kind of role modeling by eating their own meals at the same table. Food exposure is provided by a minority. Whereas two thirds use sanctions when patients did not achieve their eating goals, only one third use positive reinforcement when patients achieved their goals. Less than one half offer some kind of post-meal support. The results provide important insights into the current practice of mealtime support and will thus inform future studies that examine the efficacy of different types and interventions of mealtime support. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Diagnosis and therapy of polycystic ovarian syndrome: results of a survey among German gynecologists with a review on literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doll, Ines; Doll, Richard; Buhling, Kai J

    2012-03-01

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome is one of the most frequent endocrine dysfunctions in women in their fertile age. To date, a clear definition of the disease remains controversial among experts, partly because study results concerning diagnostics and therapy are incoherent. In this survey, we intend to give an insight into the diagnostics and treatment regimes of PCOS in Germany and subsequently compare these results to the current recommendations found in international literature. In 2005, 7,000 outpatient gynecologists received a questionnaire with questions on PCOS definition, diagnostics and treatment. The survey shows that it remains difficult for gynecologists to restrict themselves to the few definition criteria defined in the 2003 Rotterdam PCOS Consensus Workshop. Nevertheless, therapy and diagnosis of PCOS show a uniform treatment pattern. The current recommendations found in international literature have been widely implemented into clinical practice. Modern therapeutic approaches such as the use of metformin are increasingly acknowledged. Further studies dealing with the diagnosis and therapy of PCOS will be necessary in order to establish guidelines, especially when looking at patients without a desire for reproduction.

  12. [Results of a standardized survey on the medical use of cannabis products in the German-speaking area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnelle, M; Grotenhermen, F; Reif, M; Gorter, R W

    1999-10-01

    The plant Cannabis sativa has a long history of medical use in the treatment of pain and spasms, the promotion of sleep, and the suppression of nausea and vomiting. However, in the early 70s cannabis was classified in the Narcotic Acts in countries all over the world as having no therapeutic benefit; therefore, it cannot be prescribed by physicians or dispensed by pharmacists. In the light of this contradictory situation an increasing number of patients practices a self-prescription with cannabis products for relieving a variety of symptoms. An anonymous standardized survey of the medical use of cannabis and cannabis products of patients in Germany, Austria and Switzerland was conducted by the Association for Cannabis as Medicine (Cologne, Germany). During about one year 170 subjects participated in this survey; questionnaires of 128 patients could be included into the evaluation. 68% of these participants were males, 32% females, with a total mean age of 37.5 (+/- 9.6) years. The most frequently mentioned indications for medicinal cannabis use were depression (12.0%), multiple sclerosis (10.8%), HIV-infection (9.0%), migraine (6.6%), asthma (6.0%), back pain (5.4%), hepatitis C (4. 8%), sleeping disorders (4.8%), epilepsy (3.6%), spasticity (3.6%), headache (3.6%), alcoholism (3.0%), glaucoma (3.0%), nausea (3.0%), disk prolapse (2.4%), and spinal cord injury (2.4%). The majority of patients used natural cannabis products such as marihuana, hashish and an alcoholic tincture; in just 5 cases dronabinol (Marinol) was taken by prescription. About half of the 128 participants of the survey (52.4%) had used cannabis as a recreational drug before the onset of their illness. To date 14.3% took cannabis orally, 49.2% by inhalation and in 36.5% of cases both application modes were used. 72.2% of the patients stated the symptoms of their illness to have 'much improved' after cannabis ingestion, 23.4% stated to have 'slightly improved', 4.8% experienced 'no change' and 1

  13. Pittsburgh American Community Survey Census Data 2014 - Sex by Occupation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Occupation describes the kind of work a person does on the job. Occupation data were derived from answers to questions 45 and 46 in the 2015 American Community...

  14. Association of average daily alcohol consumption, binge drinking and alcohol-related social problems: results from the German Epidemiological Surveys of Substance Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Ludwig; Baumeister, Sebastian E; Pabst, Alexander; Orth, Boris

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigates the combined effect of average volume and binge drinking in predicting alcohol-related social problems and estimates the proportion of alcohol-related harms related to specific drinking patterns that could be prevented if transferred to a low-risk drinking group. Data came from the 1997 and 2000 German Epidemiological Survey of Substance Abuse (ESA) (age: 18-59 years; response rate: 65% and 51%, respectively). The pooled sample consisted of 12,668 current drinkers. By using nine categories of average daily intake and three groups of binge drinking, individuals were grouped into 22 mutual exclusive groups. Social problems were defined as the occurrence of 'repeated family quarrels', 'concern of family members or friends', 'loss of partner or friend' or 'physical fight or injury' in relation to alcohol. The effect of average daily intake is modified by binge drinking frequency such that the association was strongest in those with four or more binge drinking occasions during the last 30 days. Within each binge drinking group, adjusted relative risks (aRR) increased with alcohol intake up to a certain threshold and decreased thereafter. Overall, compared to the reference group (alcohol-related social problems than volume. Alcohol-related social harms especially among drinkers with moderate volume per day may be reduced by targeting prevention strategies towards episodic heavy drinkers.

  15. [Prevalence and Comorbidity of Self-Reported Diagnosis of Burnout Syndrome in the General Population - Results of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maske, Ulrike E; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G; Seiffert, Ingeburg; Jacobi, Frank; Hapke, Ulfert

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence and comorbid mental disorders of self-reported diagnosis of burnout syndrome in the general population of Germany. Methods: In the German Health Interview and Examination Survey (DEGS1) self-reported diagnosis of a burnout syndrome made by a physician or psychotherapist was assessed in a standardized interview (N = 7987). For N = 4483 mental disorders were determined with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Weighted lifetime and 12-month prevalences were calculated. Results: Lifetime prevalence of diagnosed burnout syndrome was 4.2 % (women 5.2 %, men 3.3 %), 12-month prevalence was 1.5 % (women 1.9 %, men 1.1 %). Highest prevalences were found in 40 - 59 year olds, in people with middle and high socio-economic status and in women with low and men with high social support. Among the 12-month cases, 70.9 % had at least one DSM-IV disorder. Associations were found for the diagnosis of burnout syndrome with somatoform, affective and anxiety disorders. Conclusion: The diagnosis of burnout syndrome is less frequently given and reported than expected. People with a burnout diagnosis often have a manifest mental disorder. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. [Employee satisfaction in hospitals - validation of the Picker employee questionnaire: the German version of the "survey of employee perceptions of health care delivery" (Picker Institute Boston)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riechmann, M; Stahl, K

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was the validation of a questionnaire specially developed for the German health-care market to measure workplace-related satisfaction of all employees in direct or indirect contact to patients. Beside this, its suitability for use in human resource and quality management was tested. Based on data from a postal survey of 38 054 employees from 37 hospitals a psychometric evaluation was done via exploratory factor analysis and reliability as well as regression analysis. For testing the capability to differentiate, subgroup analyses were conducted. 14 factors (Cronbach's alpha between 0.6 and 0.9) were extracted, explaining 44% of the variance. The factors leadership and organisational culture, conditions of employment, work load and relationship to direct line manager had the strongest influence on overall employee satisfaction. Age, gender, employment status, and senior position influence job satisfaction or relevant satisfaction-related factors. Psychometric properties, the ability to differentiate between employee groups and practicability render the questionnaire well suited for use in human resource and quality management of hospitals. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Pyrosequencing-based assessment of bacterial community structure along different management types in German forest and grassland soils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heiko Nacke

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Soil bacteria are important drivers for nearly all biogeochemical cycles in terrestrial ecosystems and participate in most nutrient transformations in soil. In contrast to the importance of soil bacteria for ecosystem functioning, we understand little how different management types affect the soil bacterial community composition. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used pyrosequencing-based analysis of the V2-V3 16S rRNA gene region to identify changes in bacterial diversity and community structure in nine forest and nine grassland soils from the Schwäbische Alb that covered six different management types. The dataset comprised 598,962 sequences that were affiliated to the domain Bacteria. The number of classified sequences per sample ranged from 23,515 to 39,259. Bacterial diversity was more phylum rich in grassland soils than in forest soils. The dominant taxonomic groups across all samples (>1% of all sequences were Acidobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Firmicutes. Significant variations in relative abundances of bacterial phyla and proteobacterial classes, including Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Verrucomicrobia, Cyanobacteria, Gemmatimonadetes and Alphaproteobacteria, between the land use types forest and grassland were observed. At the genus level, significant differences were also recorded for the dominant genera Phenylobacter, Bacillus, Kribbella, Streptomyces, Agromyces, and Defluviicoccus. In addition, soil bacterial community structure showed significant differences between beech and spruce forest soils. The relative abundances of bacterial groups at different taxonomic levels correlated with soil pH, but little or no relationships to management type and other soil properties were found. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Soil bacterial community composition and diversity of the six analyzed management types showed significant differences between the land

  18. "History, Theory and Ethics of Medicine": The Last Ten Years. A Survey of Course Content, Methods and Structural Preconditions at Twenty-nine German Medical Faculties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schildmann, Jan; Bruns, Florian; Hess, Volker; Vollmann, Jochen

    2017-01-01

    Objective: "History, Theory, Ethics of Medicine" (German: "Geschichte, Theorie, Ethik der Medizin", abbreviation: GTE) forms part of the obligatory curriculum for medical students in Germany since the winter semester 2003/2004. This paper presents the results of a national survey on the contents, methods and framework of GTE teaching. Methods: Semi-structured questionnaire dispatched in July 2014 to 38 institutions responsible for GTE teaching. Descriptive analysis of quantitative data and content analysis of free-text answers. Results: It was possible to collect data from 29 institutes responsible for GTE teaching (response: 76%). There is at least one professorial chair for GTE in 19 faculties; two professorial chairs or professorships remained vacant at the time of the survey. The number of students taught per academic year ranges from 350. Teaching in GTE comprises an average of 2.18 hours per week per semester (min: 1, max: 6). Teaching in GTE is proportionally distributed according to an arithmetic average as follows: history: 35.4%, theory 14.7% and ethics 49.9%. Written learning objectives were formulated for GTE in 24 faculties. The preferred themes of teaching in history, theory or ethics which according to respondents should be taught comprise a broad spectrum and vary. Teaching in ethics (79 from a max. of 81 possible points) is, when compared to history (61/81) and theory (53/81), attributed the most significance for the training of medical doctors. Conclusion: 10 years after the introduction of GTE the number of students and the personnel resources available at the institutions vary considerably. In light of the differences regarding the content elicited in this study the pros and cons of heterogeneity in GTE should be discussed.

  19. A survey on trace organic chemicals in a German water protection area and the proposal of relevant indicators for anthropogenic influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitz, Wolfram; Winzenbacher, Rudi

    2017-06-01

    A comprehensive monitoring programme of trace organic chemicals (TOrC) was conducted for a German water protection area in karstic ground. The aim of this survey was to detect the potential anthropogenic influences of point sources such as wastewater treatment plants and diffuse pollution such as runoff water from roads on the raw water used for drinking water treatment. The programme comprised seven sampling campaigns within 2 years each with up to 20 sampling sites. In total, the programme included 84 anthropogenic compounds from pharmaceuticals, iodinated X-ray contrast media, sweeteners, industrial chemicals (benzotriazoles, melamines and benzothiazoles) and pesticide metabolites. Cyclamate occurred with the highest median concentration of 44 μg l -1 in untreated wastewater and acesulfame occurred with a concentration of 20 μg l -1 in treated wastewater. In runoff water from roads, the most relevant compounds were tolyltriazole with 2.3 μg l -1 and the desphenyl-chloridazon with 1.2 μg l -1 . In the stream waters, the highest median concentrations were found for melamine and acesulfame both at 0.61 μg l -1 . High elimination during conventional wastewater treatment was observed for 5 out of 49 compounds. These are acetyl-sulfamethoxazole, aciclovir, cyclamate, ibuprofen and saccharin. Based on the survey results, we propose a set of nine compounds to be used as indicators for wastewater, untreated wastewater and runoff water from roads for an efficient surveillance. The indicators are intended to detect anthropogenic influences in surface, ground and drinking water.

  20. Parental views on acute otitis media (AOM) and its therapy in children--results of an exploratory survey in German childcare facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kautz-Freimuth, Sibylle; Redaèlli, Marcus; Samel, Christina; Civello, Daniele; Altin, Sibel V; Stock, Stephanie

    2015-12-01

    Acute otitis media (AOM) is one of the main reasons for medical consultation and antibiotic use during childhood. Although 80% of AOM cases are self-limiting, antibiotic prescription is still high, either for physician- or for parent-related factors. This study aims to identify parental knowledge about, beliefs and attitudes towards, and experiences with AOM and its therapy and thus to gain insights into parents' perspectives within the German health care system. An exploratory survey was conducted among German-speaking parents of children aged 2 to 7 years who sent their children to a childcare facility. Childcare facilities were recruited by convenience sampling in different urban and rural sites in Germany, and all parents with children at those facilities were invited to participate. Data were evaluated using descriptive statistical analyses. One-hundred-thirty-eight parents participated. Of those, 75.4% (n = 104) were AOM-experienced and 75.4% (n = 104) had two or more children. Sixty-six percent generally agree that bacteria cause AOM. 20.2% generally agree that viruses cause AOM. 30.5% do not generally agree that viruses cause AOM. Eight percent generally agree that AOM resolves spontaneously, whereas 53.6% do not generally agree. 92.5% generally (45.7%) and partly (42.8%) agree that AOM needs antibiotic treatment. With respect to antibiotic effects, 56.6% generally agree that antibiotics rapidly relieve earache. 60.1% generally agree that antibiotics affect the gastrointestinal tract and 77.5% generally agree that antibiotics possibly become ineffective after frequent use. About 40% generally support and about 40% generally reject a "wait-and-see" strategy for AOM treatment. Parental-reported experiences reveal that antibiotics are by far more often prescribed (70.2%) than actively requested by parents (26.9%). Parental views on AOM, its therapy, and antibiotic effects reveal uncertainties especially with respect to causes, the natural course of the disease

  1. The current state of external quality control surveys in the German Federal Republic in the field of peptide hormone radioimmunoassays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marschner, I.; Scriba, P.C.; Wood, W.G.; Breuer, H.; Jungbluth, D.; Roehle, G.

    1977-01-01

    Two types of quality control surveys (QSC) are performed in the Federal Republic of Germany in the field of hormone assays: 1) The distribution of two lyophilized sera at regular intervals, in which the participants have to determine 7 or 8 different hormones. Because of the lack of reference methods for peptide hormones, the statistical evaluation of the results indicates only whether the results of the participants are 'correct' or contain systematic or nonsystematic errors with respect to the findings of the other participants. 2) The distribution of approximately 20 deep-frozen sera (including a standard curve in hormone-free serum) in which the participant has to assay a single hormone. These 20 sera-QCS are performed only at long intervals for a given hormone. The statistical analysis of the rate of the radioactive counts of the QCS-sera and those of the participants' standard curves allows - together with a methodological inquiry form - detection of probable causes for deviating results. (orig.) [de

  2. Community-based survey versus sentinel site sampling in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The first objective of this exercise was to determine the extent of acute nutritional stress in the district as an indication of the appropriateness of food relief efforts in the region. The absence of wasting and the high prevalence of stunting (37,5%) in the community-based sample suggested that the main problem is chronic ...

  3. Survey of Classroom Assessment Practices of Community College Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wawiye, Joyce R.

    2016-01-01

    The Spellings Commission (U.S. Secretary of Education Commission on the Future of Higher Education) notes that there are far too many college graduates entering the workforce without the initial employment skills and predispositions needed in a current global economy. Specify measurements of relevant learning within community colleges is therefore…

  4. 453 A Survey of Job Loss in Selected Communities around ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    business industries, but were happy with their own efforts to survive under such conditions. The Diepkloof and Emdeni residents, in particular, stated that their degree of community satisfaction had declined sharply since the cycle of job losses started. Possible Relocation. This study also interviewed long-term residents in ...

  5. Community-based survey versus sentinel site sampling in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rural children. Implications for nutritional surveillance and the development of nutritional programmes. G. c. Solarsh, D. M. Sanders, C. A. Gibson, E. Gouws. A study of the anthropometric status of under-5-year-olds was conducted in the Nqutu district of Kwazulu by means of a representative community-based sample and.

  6. A community survey on the knowledge of neglected tropical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The neglected tropical diseases are a group of 13 infections that affect more than one billion people worldwide, especially those who live in extreme poverty. Aim: This study was conducted to determine community knowledge of these neglected tropical diseases (NTD) in Cameroon. Materials and Methods: A ...

  7. Question Quality in Community Question Answering Forums : A survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baltadzhieva, Antoaneta; Chrupala, Grzegorz

    2015-01-01

    Community Question Answering websites (CQA) offer a new opportunity for users to provide, search and share knowledge. Although the idea of receiving a direct, targeted response to a question sounds very attractive, the quality of the question itself can have an important effect on the likelihood of

  8. Measuring walking and cycling using the PABS (pedestrian and bicycling survey) approach : a low-cost survey method for local communities [research brief].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    Many communities want to promote walking and cycling. However, few know how much nonmotorized travel already occurs in their communities. This research project developed the Pedestrian and Bicycling Survey (PABS), a method that local governments can ...

  9. A survey of hypertensive practices at two community health centres ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lifestyle changes, and avoidance of NSAIDs and tricyclic antidepressants. Major deficiencies were identified in BP measurement, assessment of target organ damage, risk stratification and the reduction of overall cardiovascular risk. S Afr Med J 2007; 97: 280-284. control. In a previous survey done by Steyn et aZ.S in a CHC.

  10. The use of complementary alternative medicine (CAM) in 1 001 German adults: results of a population-based telephone survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bücker, B; Groenewold, M; Schoefer, Y; Schäfer, T

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the patterns of use of complementary alternative medicine (CAM) in a representative adult population in Germany. A population-based telephone survey was conducted in Lübeck, Germany. We performed computer-assisted telephone interviews (CATI) in order to obtain information on demographics, health status, prevalence of CAM usage, motivation for using CAM, type of CAM and health problems for which CAM were used. 1,001 adults (median age 48 years) participated in the study (response 46.8%). 79.6% of the interviewed subjects reported health problems. The most frequently named problems were chronic pain (45.3%), circulation problems (32.9%) and colds with fever (27.8%). Non-users of CAM had a lower incidence (76.6%) of overall illness than users (83.5%) (OR 0.65, 0.47-0.89). 42.3% of the participants had used CAM. The CAM user group consisted of significantly more females (72.8 vs. 55.5%) (OR 2.32, 1.74-3.08) and involved better educated subjects (school education >12 years, 36.6 vs. 27.9%, OR 3.25, 1.35-7.81) than the non-user group. The main health problems for which CAM was used were chronic pain (36.3%), some cases of uncomplicated colds (16.9%) and for improving general health (14.7%). Three procedures accounted for the majority of usage: Acupuncture (34.5%), homeopathy (27.3%) and herbal medicine (9.7%). A large number of participants reported as the main reason for using CAM the wish to avoid drugs as much as possible (31.7%). 26.7% reported opting for CAM due to the recommendation of their physician. 23.9% gave unsatisfactory results of conventional medicine as reason for CAM usage. CAM is used widely for different complaints by the general population. This frequent use of CAM has implications for the health-care system and health policy.

  11. Teaching Games for Understanding Conference Supplement from the German Sport University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 2016

    2016-01-01

    By bringing together the national German sports game community and an international scientific community in a joint conference, the 6th International Teaching Games for Understanding Conference (TGfU) Meets the 10th German Sports Games Symposium of the German Association of Sport Science (DVS), held July 25-27, 2016, at the German Sport University…

  12. Community-based Physiotherapy in Western India: Some Findings from Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavithra Rajan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this seven-year project was to understand the perceptions of different client populations (including physiotherapists towards community health and rehabilitation methods and identify the "gaps" in the existing system. Method: A series of surveys were conducted on several populations with functional disabilities in different parts of western India. Results: It was found that community physiotherapists with adequate motivation, knowledge and skills are insufficient in number. It appears that the community at large is in need of cost-effective preventive strategies to deal with the health problems. Future research should identify the interests of community physiotherapists, and provide adequate resources to increase their existing numbers.

  13. [The module "Motorik" in the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS). Motor fitness and physical activity of children and young people].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opper, E; Worth, A; Wagner, M; Bös, K

    2007-01-01

    Motor fitness and physical activity are important aspects of a healthy development in childhood and adolescence. However, the assessment of motor fitness and physical activity is not subject to standardized criteria; furthermore, the samples investigated do not provide a representative image of the whole population. Therefore, the existing data only allow very limited statements on the state and development of motor fitness and physical activity. The "Motorik" module, as part of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS), offers nationwide representative data on the motor fitness and physical activity of children and adolescents for the first time. Besides the baseline-analysis, another aim is to analyse the complex relationship between motor fitness, physical activity and health. Motor fitness, based on the systematisation of motor abilities, was assessed using a test profile. The test profile consists of 11 items measuring cardiorespiratory fitness, strength, coordination and mobility. Physical activity was assessed using a questionnaire containing 51 items on the duration, intensity and frequency of physical activity in everyday life, during leisure time, at school and in sports clubs. The above-mentioned questionnaire subtopics were supplemented by questions on the weekly prevalence of at least 60 minutes of daily physical activity, on material and local conditions, as well as on cognition and motivation for physical activity. In the years 2004 to 2006, the motor fitness and physical activity of 4,529 children and young people between the ages of 4 and 17 years was investigated on 168 sample points in the context of the "Motorik" module. Half of the children and adolescents investigated belong to the middle class, approximately 15% have a background of migration. The majority of the subjects come from small towns, about a quarter live in the city, less than 20% are settled in rural areas.

  14. The Prevalence of Renal Failure. Results from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults, 2008-2011 (DEGS1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girndt, Matthias; Trocchi, Pietro; Scheidt-Nave, Christa; Markau, Silke; Stang, Andreas

    2016-02-12

    The prevalence of non-end stage renal failure among adults in Germany is unknown. Accurate figures would enable us to estimate the overall need for kidney replacement therapies and the unexploited potential for disease prevention. Renal failure is also an important cardiovascular risk factor. Until now, American prevalence figures have often been applied to Germany despite dissimilarities between the two populations. We analyzed data on renal function from the nationwide German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults, 2008-2011 (DEGS1), which was carried out by the Robert Koch Institute. The glomerular filtration rate was estimated (eGFR) from the serum creatinine and cystatin C levels (CKD-EPI formula) and a semiquantitative measure of albuminuria. Relationships between renal failure and its possible determinants were quantified with adjusted prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Roughly 2.3% (95% CI: [1.9; 2.6 ]) of persons aged 18-79 had an eGFR below 60 mL/min/1.73 m2. The prevalence rose with age. We extrapolated these figures conservatively to persons aged 80 and above, who were not included in the DEGS1, and arrived at a figure of at least 2 million persons in Germany with renal failure. 11.5% of the population have albuminuria of at least 30 mg/L. Diabetes mellitus (PR = 2.25, 95% CI: [1.59; 3.16]) and arterial hypertension (PR = 3.46, 95% CI: [1.95; 6.12]) are important determinants. This study provides the first representative estimate of the prevalence of renal failure in Germany. The condition is highly dependent on age but less prevalent than previously assumed on the basis of American prevalence figures.

  15. Self-reported influenza vaccination rates and attitudes towards vaccination among health care workers: results of a survey in a German university hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagemeister, M H; Stock, N K; Ludwig, T; Heuschmann, P; Vogel, U

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this survey was to analyse vaccination rates and attitudes towards vaccination among health care workers (HCWs). The period prevalence of self-reported acute respiratory infections in the influenza season 2014/2015 was examined. A cross-sectional study was conducted among HCWs of a German university hospital using an anonymised questionnaire. Recruitment was performed by providing all medical and nursing staff a paper questionnaire with an invitation to participate. Descriptive aggregated data were generated from digitalised questionnaires for all variables. Differences in categorical variables were analysed by Chi-squared test. Textual data were analysed by an iterative process based on the grounded theory by Glaser and Strauss. The response rate was 31% (677/2186). Probable influenza was described by 9% (64/677) of the participants. The overall self-reported vaccination rate was 55% (366/666). Self-reported vaccination rate was higher in physicians (172/239, 72%) than in nursing staff (188/418, 45%). HCWs in paediatrics (103/148, 70%) more likely received vaccines than HCWs in surgery (31/84, 37%). Most vaccinations were provided by medical staff on the wards (164/368, 45%). Self-reported lost work-time due to adverse events after vaccination was low (6/336, 2%). Eight categories for vaccine refusal were identified, whereof doubts about effectiveness and indication of the vaccine was most frequently mentioned (72/202, 36%). Efforts to promote vaccination should focus on nursing staff and should provide scientific evidence on effectiveness, adverse effects, and the benefits of health care workers' vaccination for patients. Administering vaccines at the workplace proved to be a successful strategy in our setting. Studies are needed to assess the frequency of influenza causing disease in HCWs. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. [Use of electronic media in adolescence. Results of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampert, T; Sygusch, R; Schlack, R

    2007-01-01

    The use of electronic media is playing an ever greater role in adolescents' recreational behaviour. From the point of view of the health sciences, one question which arises is the extent to which intensive media use is detrimental to physical activity and adolescents' health development. The data from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS), which were evaluated with a focus on 11-17-year-olds, confirm this heavy use of electronic media. However, there are distinct group-specific differences. For example, boys spend more time than girls on computers, the internet and games consoles, whereas girls more often listen to music and use their mobile phones. Watching television and videos is equally popular among girls and boys. Adolescents of low social status or a low level of school education use electronic media far more frequently and for longer times, especially television and video, games consoles and mobile phones. The same is true of boys and girls from the former states of the GDR and for boys (but not girls) with a background of migration. A connection to physical activity has been established for adolescents who spend more than five hours a day using electronic media. Moreover, this group of heavy users is more often affected by adiposity. The results of the KiGGS study, which are in line with earlier research findings, thus demonstrate that the use of electronic media is also of relevance from the point of view of public health and should be included in investigations into the health of children and adolescents.

  17. [How do primary care physicians manage their patients with Helicobacter pylori infection? Results of a survey and their implementation into the German S2k guideline 2016].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischbach, Wolfgang; Zerl, Annemarie; Klassert, Christine

    2017-02-01

    Background  The German S3 guideline "H. pylori and gastroduodenal ulcer disease" clearly recommends how to diagnose H. pylori infection. It also states when and how eradication therapy should be done. However, there are only few data available on the management of these patients in daily routine. With this survey, we wanted to gather information on how primary care physicians are involved in the management of H. pylori infection and how they follow the guideline recommendations. From this, consequences for the update of the new S2k guideline 2016 and their communication should be derived. Methods  A questionnaire with 16 items was sent to all registered primary care physicians in the district of Unterfranken, Germany. Of the 607 questionnaires sent out, 188 (31 %) were returned. Results  A test for H. pylori was induced in 76 % of cases with a history of ulcers, 66 % of dyspepsia, 55 % of a family history of gastric cancer, 54 % of unspecific abdominal discomfort, and 9 % and 6 % before initiating NSAID or ASS medication, respectively. Eighty-six percent of the physicians referred their patients to a gastroenterologist for further diagnostics, 45,8 % initiated eradication therapy by themselves, and 75 % and 25 % favored the French and Italian protocol, respectively. The majority did not consider a possible primary resistance to clarithromycine. Twenty-six percent did not regularly control the success of first-line eradication therapy. In case of control, the time intervals after end of eradication treatment are nearly always considered. Second-line therapy is initiated in 99 %, and its success is checked in 87 %. Conclusion  Management of patients with H. pylori infection does not always follow the recommendations of current guidelines. The reasons for that were addressed in the formulation of the updated S2k guideline and will be communicated. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Comparison of food consumption and nutrient intake assessed with three dietary assessment methods: results of the German National Nutrition Survey II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straßburg, Andrea; Eisinger-Watzl, Marianne; Krems, Carolin; Roth, Alexander; Hoffmann, Ingrid

    2017-11-30

    Comparison of food consumption, nutrient intake and underreporting of diet history interviews, 24-h recalls and weighed food records to gain further insight into specific strength and limitations of each method and to support the choice of the adequate dietary assessment method. For 677 participants (14-80 years) of the German National Nutrition Survey II confidence intervals for food consumption and nutrient intake were calculated on basis of bootstrapping samples, Cohen's d for the relevance of differences, and intraclass correlation coefficients for the degree of agreement of dietary assessment methods. Low energy reporters were identified with Goldberg cut-offs. In 7 of 18 food groups diet history interviews showed higher consumption means than 24-h recalls and weighed food records. Especially mean values of food groups perceived as socially desirable, such as fruit and vegetables, were highest for diet history interviews. For "raw" and "cooked vegetables", the diet history interviews showed a mean consumption of 144 and 109 g/day in comparison with 68 and 70 g/day in 24-h recalls and 76 and 75 g/day in weighed food records, respectively. For "fruit", diet history interviews showed a mean consumption of 256 g/day in comparison with 164 g/day in 24-h recalls and 147 g/day in weighed food records. No major differences regarding underreporting of energy intake were found between dietary assessment methods. With regard to estimating food consumption and nutrient intake, 24-h recalls and weighed food records showed smaller differences and better agreement than pairwise comparisons with diet history interviews.

  19. Language History for Teaching and Learning German

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightfoot, Douglas

    2007-01-01

    This article presents information about the history of the German language and makes pertinent suggestions for teaching German as a Foreign Language. The reasoning for such an approach is presented, along with supportive new empirical data and a related professional directive. A selected survey of historical, explanatory points from the literature…

  20. Skin infections in eastern Panama. Survey of two representative communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, A M; Taplin, D

    1974-09-01

    A skin infection survey of 1,084 people was carried out in two jungle villages in eastern Panama. Bacterial pyoderma was the most prevalent infection, affecting 25% of boys, 15% of girls, and 11% of those over 10 years of age. Streptococcus pyogenes and Staphylococcus aureus were recovered from 84% of pyodermas cultured. Nearly 60% of the cutaneous staphylococcal isolates were resistant to penicillin. Hippelates flies were seen feeding on purulent skin lesions and may have been important in transmission. Scabies, ringworm, candidiasis, and cutaneous leishmaniasis were in comparison with pyoderma involving less than 1% of the population each. All of the ringworm infections were caused by Trichophyton rubrum.

  1. Slowing the Next Pandemic: Survey of Community Mitigation Strategies

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-04-15

    During the next influenza pandemic, it will take time to develop a vaccine and there may be limited medication to treat or prevent illness. To slow the spread of disease, CDC and other public health officials will likely ask Americans to decrease contact with others through altering work schedules, school dismissals and other measures. Researchers recently surveyed the public to see whether people could follow those recommendations and what kind of impact they might have.  Created: 4/15/2008 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 4/29/2008.

  2. Tic disorders: administrative prevalence and co-occurrence with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in a German community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlander, M; Schwarz, O; Rothenberger, A; Roessner, V

    2011-09-01

    Coexistence of tics and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has important clinical and scientific implications. Existing data on the co-occurrence of tic disorders, Tourette Syndrome (TS), and ADHD are largely derived from small-scale studies in selected samples and therefore heterogeneous. The Nordbaden project captures the complete outpatient claims data of more than 2.2 million persons, representing 82% of the regional population in 2003. Based upon the number of diagnosed cases of tic disorders, TS, and ADHD, we determined 12-months administrative prevalence rates as well as rates of co-occurrence. Both tic disorders and ADHD were diagnosed most often in the age group 7-12 years (any tic disorder: 0.8%; ADHD: 5.0%). With increasing age, the administrative prevalence difference in favor of males disappeared, with tic disorders being somewhat more frequently reported in females than males in the age groups above 30 years. The highest rate of ADHD co-occurring with tic disorders was found in adolescents (age 13-18 years, 15.1%). Tic disorders were observed in 2.3% of patients with ADHD. Administrative prevalence rates of tic disorders and TS were substantially lower compared to rates found in community-based epidemiological studies, suggesting that a large number of cases remain undetected and untreated under present conditions of routine outpatient care. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Community Health Worker Professional Advocacy: Voices of Action from the 2014 National Community Health Worker Advocacy Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabo, Samantha; Wennerstrom, Ashley; Phillips, David; Haywoord, Catherine; Redondo, Floribella; Bell, Melanie L; Ingram, Maia

    2015-01-01

    This mixed-methods study explores community health worker (CHW) engagement in professional advocacy. Data from the National Community Health Worker Advocacy Survey (n = 1661) assessed the relationship between CHW professional advocacy and CHW demographics, and work characteristics. Qualitative data articulated the quality of professional advocacy efforts. Approximately, 30% of CHW respondents advocated for professional advancement or collaborated with other CHWs to advance the workforce. Advocacy was more prevalent among CHWs affiliated with a professional network. CHW advocacy targeted recognition of the field, appropriate training and compensation, and sustainable funding. CHW professional advocacy is imperative to advancement of the field.

  4. Defining and describing medical learning communities: results of a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Kristi J; Wolter, Ellen M; Yarbrough, Donald B; Carline, Jan D; Krupat, Edward

    2009-11-01

    To investigate what is meant by learning community in medical education and to identify the most important features of current medical education learning communities. After a literature review, the authors surveyed academic deans of all U.S. and Canadian medical schools and colleges (N=124) to identify those that had implemented a learning community. Those with student learning communities (N=18) answered a series of questions about the goals, structure, function, benefits, and challenges of their communities. The most common primary goals included fostering communication among students and faculty; promoting caring, trust, and teamwork; helping students establish academic support networks; and helping students establish social support networks. Most deans said that students remained in the same community for all four years of medical school and that communities were linked to specific faculty and/or peer advisors. For most schools, communities included students from many class years, and participation was mandatory. Curricular purposes included professionalism training, leadership development, and service learning. Almost all schools had social functions related to their communities, and most provided career planning, group mentoring, and personal counseling. Learning communities in medical education demonstrate diverse approaches to achieving the general goal of enhanced student learning. Medical school leaders considering learning communities should determine the goals they want to accomplish and be open to adopting different approaches based on local needs. Evaluation and effective monitoring of evolution are needed to determine the best approaches for different needs and to assess impact on students and faculty.

  5. Plasmodium vivax molecular diagnostics in community surveys: pitfalls and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruenberg, Maria; Moniz, Clara Antunes; Hofmann, Natalie Ellen; Wampfler, Rahel; Koepfli, Cristian; Mueller, Ivo; Monteiro, Wuelton Marcelo; Lacerda, Marcus; de Melo, Gisely Cardoso; Kuehn, Andrea; Siqueira, Andre M; Felger, Ingrid

    2018-01-30

    A distinctive feature of Plasmodium vivax infections is the overall low parasite density in peripheral blood. Thus, identifying asymptomatic infected individuals in endemic communities requires diagnostic tests with high sensitivity. The detection limits of molecular diagnostic tests are primarily defined by the volume of blood analysed and by the copy number of the amplified molecular marker serving as the template for amplification. By using mitochondrial DNA as the multi-copy template, the detection limit can be improved more than tenfold, compared to standard 18S rRNA targets, thereby allowing detection of lower parasite densities. In a very low transmission area in Brazil, application of a mitochondrial DNA-based assay increased prevalence from 4.9 to 6.5%. The usefulness of molecular tests in malaria epidemiological studies is widely recognized, especially when precise prevalence rates are desired. Of concern, however, is the challenge of demonstrating test accuracy and quality control for samples with very low parasite densities. In this case, chance effects in template distribution around the detection limit constrain reproducibility. Rigorous assessment of false positive and false negative test results is, therefore, required to prevent over- or under-estimation of parasite prevalence in epidemiological studies or when monitoring interventions.

  6. Swiss community pharmacies' on the Web and pharmacists' experiences with E-commerce: longitudinal study and Internet-based questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehnder, Simon; Bruppacher, Rudolf; Ruppanner, Hans; Hersberger, Kurt E

    2004-03-03

    There are multiple ways in which community pharmacies can present themselves on the Internet, e.g., as a platform for drug information or as an advertising platform for their services. To estimate the number of Swiss community pharmacies on the Internet over the period of 32 months (2000-2003), to describe their current e-commerce services, and to explore the experiences and plans these pharmacies have with regard to their Internet presence. A longitudinal study was performed to determine the number of Swiss German pharmacies on the Internet by conducting Internet searches in 2000, 2001, and 2003. In April 2002, a cross-sectional Internet-based survey was administered to explore the pharmacies' experiences and plans regarding their Web sites. As of April 2003, 373 (44%) of 852 community pharmacies from the German speaking part of Switzerland were on the Internet. One hundred eighty four listed an e-mail address and were asked to complete a questionnaire. Of the 107 pharmacies answering the survey questions (58% response rate): 46% had been on the Internet for 1 to 2 years; 33% of the Web sites are part of a pharmacy group's Web portal; 31% of the pharmacies plan to expand their Internet appearance in the future; 74% provide e-commerce services, with 81% of those pharmacies filling five or less orders per month; and 12% plan on expanding their e-commerce services in the future. The number of community pharmacies offering Internet services steadily increased over 32 months. Given the importance of the Internet as a tool for information, communication, and advertising for pharmacy products and services, it can be expected that the increase will continue. Pharmacy-group portals are important promoters of pharmacies on the Internet. For many community pharmacies, Internet portals that provide an Internet presence for the pharmacies and provide regularly-updated content (e.g., health news, tips, drug information) seem to be the most effective solutions. Even though 40

  7. Swiss Community Pharmacies' on the Web and Pharmacists' Experiences with E-commerce: Longitudinal study and Internet-based questionnaire survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruppacher, Rudolf; Ruppanner, Hans; Hersberger, Kurt E

    2004-01-01

    Background There are multiple ways in which community pharmacies can present themselves on the Internet, e.g., as a platform for drug information or as an advertising platform for their services. Objective To estimate the number of Swiss community pharmacies on the Internet over the period of 32 months (2000-2003), to describe their current e-commerce services, and to explore the experiences and plans these pharmacies have with regard to their Internet presence. Methods A longitudinal study was performed to determine the number of Swiss German pharmacies on the Internet by conducting Internet searches in 2000, 2001, and 2003. In April 2002, a cross-sectional Internet-based survey was administered to explore the pharmacies' experiences and plans regarding their Web sites. Results As of April 2003, 373 (44%) of 852 community pharmacies from the German speaking part of Switzerland were on the Internet. One hundred eighty four listed an e-mail address and were asked to complete a questionnaire. Of the 107 pharmacies answering the survey questions (58% response rate): 46% had been on the Internet for 1 to 2 years; 33% of the Web sites are part of a pharmacy group's Web portal; 31% of the pharmacies plan to expand their Internet appearance in the future; 74% provide e-commerce services, with 81% of those pharmacies filling five or less orders per month; and 12% plan on expanding their e-commerce services in the future. Conclusions The number of community pharmacies offering Internet services steadily increased over 32 months. Given the importance of the Internet as a tool for information, communication, and advertising for pharmacy products and services, it can be expected that the increase will continue. Pharmacy-group portals are important promoters of pharmacies on the Internet. For many community pharmacies, Internet portals that provide an Internet presence for the pharmacies and provide regularly-updated content (e.g., health news, tips, drug information) seem to

  8. Consumption of herbal products: a study of urban community survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul’Afifah Sulaiman

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Formulation of herbs into dosage forms promotes their marketing and usage. However, if these herbal products are being taken in an unhealthy trend, they may pose risks to consumers. Aims The present study aimed to investigate herbal product consumption trends (n=550 among adults in the main cities of Malaysia. Methods A questionnaire-based, six-week cross-sectional study was conducted. Respondents were randomly selected in Shah Alam, Klang, Subang, and Kuala Lumpur. Descriptive statistics were used for data analysis and Chi-square test was applied where appropriate. Results Out of the 550 survey instruments distributed, 453(82.4 per cent responded. The prevalence rate of herbal products use among the adult population in the past 12 months was 71.5 per cent. Regarding the consumption profile; the consumers were mostly female (73.4 per cent, age 25–44 (72.8, and educated at tertiary level (74.8 per cent. The majority of respondents perceived that herbal products helped reduce severity of illness and improve health related quality of life, while (16.4 per cent consumed the herbal products for the treatment of menstrual problem, 71.7 per cent without the recommendation of health care professionals and 85.0 per cent of them purchased through over-the-counter retail sales. The herbal products most commonly consume were Labisia pumila (Kacip Fatimah (32.4 per cent, Camellia sinensis (Green Tea (32.1 per cent, Panax ginseng (Ginseng (23.8 per cent, and Eurycoma longifolia (Tongkat Ali (22.5 per cent. Conclusion This study highlights an unhealthy trend in self-prescription of herbal product consumption without healthcare professionals’ recommendation. Hence, there is an urgent need for healthcare professionals to monitor herbal product consumption.

  9. Psychometric properties of the AHRQ Community Pharmacy Survey on Patient Safety Culture: a factor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboneh, Ephrem A; Look, Kevin A; Stone, Jamie A; Lester, Corey A; Chui, Michelle A

    2016-05-01

    The U.S. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) developed a hospital patient safety culture survey in 2004 and has adapted this survey to other healthcare settings, such as nursing homes and medical offices, and most recently, community pharmacies. However, it is unknown whether safety culture dimensions developed for hospitals can be transferred to community pharmacies. The aim of this study was to assess the psychometric properties of the Community Pharmacy Survey on Patient Safety Culture. The survey was administered to 543 community pharmacists in Wisconsin, USA. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to assess the fit of our data with the proposed AHRQ model. Exploratory factor analysis was used to determine the underlying factor structure. Internal consistency reliabilities were calculated. A total of 433 usable surveys were returned (response rate 80%). Results from the confirmatory factor analysis showed inadequate model fit for the original 36 item, 11-factor structure. Exploratory factor analysis showed that a modified 27-item, four-factor structure better reflected the underlying safety culture dimensions in community pharmacies. The communication openness factor, with three items, dropped in its entirety while six items dropped from multiple factors. The remaining 27 items redistributed to form the four-factor structure: safety-related communication, staff training and work environment, organisational response to safety events, and staffing, work pressure and pace. Cronbach's α of 0.95 suggested good internal consistency. Our findings suggest that validation studies need to be conducted before applying safety dimensions from other healthcare settings into community pharmacies. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  10. A Survey for Assessment of Role of Pharmacist in Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Kapur

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Objective: To assess the role of pharmacist in community setting & consumer’s perception in National Capital
    Region.
    Setting: The study was conducted in National Capital Region of India during the year 2003-04.
    Method: Four pharmacy shops were selected for this study which were not attached to any hospital or clinic. Seventy
    seven consumers, who visited these pharmacies during the study period, were selected for this study and
    interviewed just after they visited the pharmacy.
    Key findings: A total of 77 consumers in the age group of 11 to 72 years were included in the present study, of
    which 66.2% were males and 33.8% were females. It is observed that 46.7% consumers came for prescription
    medicines, 23.4% for over the counter medicines. Close to general physicians’ clinics and proximity to home
    were most important reasons given for visiting particular pharmacy. Majority of the consumers (n=56, 72.7%
    rated the advice given by the pharmacist as very useful, only 1(1.3% rated it as not useful at all and 2 (2.6%
    consumers did not respond. Among consumer groups 31 (40.3% thought that pharmacist has a good balance
    between health and business matter and 35.7% were in opinion that pharmacist is more concerned with making
    money, while 5.2% supported that the pharmacist is also interested in the health of his/her customers. The pharmacists
    were ranked at the top with 28(36.4% by the consumers and favoured pharmacy as the most convenient
    place to get advice about staying healthy.
    Conclusion: Most of the consumers in the present study were of the opinion that pharmacist is concerned with the
    health of the consumers, though he/she is also interested in making money. Many respondents were unaware
    about the difference between pharmacist and doctor, most of them consider

  11. Current trends in local anesthesia in cosmetic plastic surgery of the head and neck: results of a German national survey and observations on the use of ropivacaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeppe, Tobias; Constantinescu, Mihai A; Schneider, Jochen; Gubisch, Wolfgang

    2005-05-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate at the national level the current practice in the use of local anesthetics in cosmetic head and neck surgery and to compare the results with the novel local anesthesia technique used in the authors' department over the past 2 years. A questionnaire was posted to all 211 board-certified members of the Association of German Plastic Surgeons. The questions related to the daily practice in rhinoplasty, blepharoplasty, otoplasty, face lift, and forehead lift. The focus was laid on anesthesia techniques, local anesthetics, vasoconstricting agents, dosages, activity onset, observed side effects, mean duration of each procedure type, and surgeon satisfaction with the anesthetic used. A total of 86 questionnaires (40.8 percent) were returned. The overall analysis revealed that local anesthetics were used in 88.9 percent of all cosmetic procedures of the head and neck. Prilocaine 1% (Xylonest; AstraZeneca, Wedel, Germany) was the most frequently used local anesthetic (32.0 percent), followed by lidocaine 1% (Xylocaine; AstraZeneca) and mepivacaine 1% (Scandicaine; AstraZeneca). Ropivacaine 0.2% (Naropin; AstraZeneca) was used only by 1.1 percent and ropivacaine 0.75% only by 0.9 percent (including two of the authors). Approximately half of the respondents (47.2 percent) used epinephrine 1:100,000 for vasoconstriction. In face lifts, the necessity of repeated "top-up" infiltration was reported in more than half (54.7 percent) of the procedures. Ten percent of surgeons surpassed the maximum recommended dosages when working without ropivacaine. Overall adverse cardiovascular effects were reported in 5.9 percent of rhinoplasties and 8.1 percent of face lifts performed mostly with prilocaine and lidocaine. No adverse cardiovascular reactions or overdoses were noticed with the use of ropivacaine. The survey showed a clear trend toward the increasing use of local anesthetics in cosmetic surgery of the head and neck. Although the use of

  12. Results from a survey of the South African GISc community show ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article presents results of a survey by the Geo-information Society of South Africa (GISSA) to gain a better understanding of who the members of the South ... members of the GISc community fulfil roles of data analysis and interpretation, together with data acquisition, data management, and/or visualization/mapping.

  13. The Appalachian Region: A Data Overview from the 2010-2014 American Community Survey. Chartbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Kelvin; Jacobsen, Linda A.

    2016-01-01

    This study examines state- and county-level data on population, age, race and ethnicity, housing occupancy and housing tenure, education, labor force, employment and unemployment, income and poverty, health insurance coverage, disability status, migration patterns, and veteran status from the 2010-2014 American Community Survey (ACS) for the 13…

  14. Follow-Up Survey of the 1988-1989 Radiography Graduates of Middlesex Community College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Weymouth

    A graduate follow-up survey evaluated student outcomes for the radiography program at Middlesex Community College/Middlesex Memorial Hospital (Connecticut). The program prepares students for entry-level employment as radiographers. The questionnaire, based on input from program officials and respondents, was mailed to 14 1988 and 1989 graduates.…

  15. Development of a Community Readiness Survey for Coalitions to Address Prescription Opioid Misuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trudeau, Kimberlee J.

    2015-01-01

    A community readiness survey for coalitions to address the growing epidemic of prescription opioid misuse was developed in this four-part study. A total of 70 coalition members participated. 1) We conducted 30-minute phone interviews with coalition members (n = 30) and a literature review to develop an item list. 2) Coalition members rated these…

  16. Chronic pain in the community: a survey in a township in Mthatha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-04-29

    Apr 29, 2011 ... For the individuals experiencing chronic pain, and their families, the human cost is indeed incalculable, but is easily evident in the decreased quality of life, activity limitation and. Chronic pain in the community: a survey in a township in Mthatha,. Eastern Cape, South Africa. aIgumbor EU, MPH, PhD.

  17. Changes in active and passive smoking in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janson, C; Kunzli, N; de Marco, R; Chinn, S; Jarvis, D; Svanes, C; Heinrich, J; Jogi, R; Gislason, T; Sunyer, J; Ackermann-Liebrich, U; Anto, JM; Cerveri, [No Value; Kerhof, M; Leynaert, B; Luczynska, C; Neukirch, F; Vermeire, P; Wjst, M; Burney, P

    The aim of the present investigation was to study changes and determinants for changes in active and passive smoking. The present study included 9,053 adults from 14 countries that participated in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey II. The mean follow-up period was 8.8 yrs. Change in

  18. Single-Camera Trap Survey Designs Miss Detections: Impacts on Estimates of Occupancy and Community Metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pease, Brent S; Nielsen, Clayton K; Holzmueller, Eric J

    2016-01-01

    The use of camera traps as a tool for studying wildlife populations is commonplace. However, few have considered how the number of detections of wildlife differ depending upon the number of camera traps placed at cameras-sites, and how this impacts estimates of occupancy and community composition. During December 2015-February 2016, we deployed four camera traps per camera-site, separated into treatment groups of one, two, and four camera traps, in southern Illinois to compare whether estimates of wildlife community metrics and occupancy probabilities differed among survey methods. The overall number of species detected per camera-site was greatest with the four-camera survey method (Pcamera survey method detected 1.25 additional species per camera-site than the one-camera survey method, and was the only survey method to completely detect the ground-dwelling silvicolous community. The four-camera survey method recorded individual species at 3.57 additional camera-sites (P = 0.003) and nearly doubled the number of camera-sites where white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were detected compared to one- and two-camera survey methods. We also compared occupancy rates estimated by survey methods; as the number of cameras deployed per camera-site increased, occupancy estimates were closer to naïve estimates, detection probabilities increased, and standard errors of detection probabilities decreased. Additionally, each survey method resulted in differing top-ranked, species-specific occupancy models when habitat covariates were included. Underestimates of occurrence and misrepresented community metrics can have significant impacts on species of conservation concern, particularly in areas where habitat manipulation is likely. Having multiple camera traps per site revealed significant shortcomings with the common one-camera trap survey method. While we realize survey design is often constrained logistically, we suggest increasing effort to at least two camera traps

  19. Development and implementation of a community health survey for public health accreditation: Case study from a rural county in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Kevin; Do-Reynoso, Van; Zarate-Gonzalez, Gilda; Goldman-Mellor, Sidra

    2018-04-01

    To describe the planning, development, pilot testing, fielding, and outcomes of a community health survey in a rural California county pursuing public health accreditation. Community partners helped the local health department develop the community health survey. Extensive English- and Spanish-language pilot testing was conducted over a period of four months. Final survey fielding was conducted online and at 20 community sites. 2189 completed surveys were collected. Total costs for developing and fielding the survey were approximately $25,000. Survey results indicated that alcoholism/drug abuse, breathing problems, and obesity were the primary health concerns of county residents. Benefits of conducting the community survey included strengthening inter-organizational partnerships between community partners, engaging a large and diverse respondent sample, and gathering information on a nuanced set of health indicators. Challenges included an unexpectedly high number of respondents and managing the needs of respondents with disabilities or poor literacy. The information gathered from the community health survey was used in the implementation of a county-wide multi-agency strategic plan to address health priorities identified in the CHA. Engaging a broad set of community partners throughout the survey process was critical for ensuring the project's relevance and long-term regional impact. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Assessing historical fish community composition using surveys, historical collection data, and species distribution models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Labay

    Full Text Available Accurate establishment of baseline conditions is critical to successful management and habitat restoration. We demonstrate the ability to robustly estimate historical fish community composition and assess the current status of the urbanized Barton Creek watershed in central Texas, U.S.A. Fish species were surveyed in 2008 and the resulting data compared to three sources of fish occurrence information: (i historical records from a museum specimen database and literature searches; (ii a nearly identical survey conducted 15 years earlier; and (iii a modeled historical community constructed with species distribution models (SDMs. This holistic approach, and especially the application of SDMs, allowed us to discover that the fish community in Barton Creek was more diverse than the historical data and survey methods alone indicated. Sixteen native species with high modeled probability of occurrence within the watershed were not found in the 2008 survey, seven of these were not found in either survey or in any of the historical collection records. Our approach allowed us to more rigorously establish the true baseline for the pre-development fish fauna and then to more accurately assess trends and develop hypotheses regarding factors driving current fish community composition to better inform management decisions and future restoration efforts. Smaller, urbanized freshwater systems, like Barton Creek, typically have a relatively poor historical biodiversity inventory coupled with long histories of alteration, and thus there is a propensity for land managers and researchers to apply inaccurate baseline standards. Our methods provide a way around that limitation by using SDMs derived from larger and richer biodiversity databases of a broader geographic scope. Broadly applied, we propose that this technique has potential to overcome limitations of popular bioassessment metrics (e.g., IBI to become a versatile and robust management tool for determining

  1. Exploring community pharmacists' experiences of surveying patients for drug utilization research purposes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisk, Pia; Bergman, Ulrika; Kälvemark Sporrong, Sofia

    2015-01-01

    pharmacists. This study is part of a validation of that data acquisition method. Objectives (1) To explore the experiences of the pharmacists involved, (2) to explore a random or systematic exclusion of eligible patients by the pharmacists, and (3) to find areas of improvement to the applied method...... of surveying. Setting 72 Swedish community pharmacies, distributed all over the country. Method (a) A questionnaire was distributed to approximately 400 dispensing pharmacists at the pharmacies conducting the patient surveys; (b) semi-structured telephone interviews conducted with 19 pharmacists at 12...... of the pharmacies. Main outcome measure Proportions of pharmacists reporting positive and negative experiences of structured survey interviews, the nature of their experiences, proportion of pharmacists reporting to avoid survey interviews and reasons for doing so, and suggested areas of improvement. Results...

  2. Methadone and illegal drugs in hair from children with parents in maintenance treatment or suspected for drug abuse in a German community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pragst, Fritz; Broecker, Sebastian; Hastedt, Martin; Herre, Sieglinde; Andresen-Streichert, Hilke; Sachs, Hans; Tsokos, Michael

    2013-12-01

    Children living in homes with drug-addicted parents are in a steady danger of poisoning and may suffer from neglect, maltreatment, and lagging behind in development. Hair analysis could be a suitable way to examine this endangering exposure to drugs. Hair samples from 149 children (aged 1-14 years) living with parents substituted by methadone and/or suspected for abuse of illegal drugs, and from 124 of the parents in a German community were investigated by liquid chromatography-hybrid quadrupole time-of flight mass spectrometry and by headspace solid phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for methadone, heroin, cocaine, amphetamines, ecstasy, cannabinoids and benzodiazepines and their metabolites or degradation products (32 compounds). From the children's hair, only in 35 samples, no drugs were detected. Cannabinoids were found in 56 samples, in 20 of them as the only drug. In the remaining 95 samples, methadone was identified 35 times with additional use of illegal drugs in 28 cases. Drug use in the children's environment was obvious for heroin in 44 cases, cocaine in 73 cases, amphetamine or ecstasy in 6 cases, and diazepam in 8 cases. The concentrations varied from limit of quantification to 2.16 ng/mg of methadone, 11.1 ng/mg of 6-acetylmorphine, 17.8 ng/mg of cocaine, 3.29 ng/mg of amphetamine, and 0.72 ng/mg of Δ-tetrahydrocannabinol. In general, hair from younger children contained higher concentrations than from their elder siblings. Systemic incorporation of methadone, cocaine, or cannabinoids appeared likely from detection of the nonhydrolytic metabolites 2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine in 11 cases, norcocaine in 16 cases, and 11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ-tetrahydrocannabinol in 9 cases. Within the families, hair samples of children and parents provided often the same drug pattern. External deposition from smoke and by contact with contaminated surfaces or parent's hands and systemic deposition after passive smoking

  3. Community Surveys Low Dose Radiation. Fernald, Ohio and Rocky Flats, Colorado

    CERN Document Server

    Mertz, C K; Johnson, S; MacGregor, D G; Satterfield, T

    2002-01-01

    This report is intended to present a basic description of the data from the two community surveys and to document the text of the questions; the methods used for the survey data collection; and a brief overview of the results. Completed surveys were conducted at local communities near the Rocky Flats, Colorado and the Fernald, Ohio sites; no survey was conducted for the Brookhaven, New York site. Fernald. The Fernald sample was randomly selected from 98% of all potential residential telephones in the townships of Ross, Morgan, and Crosby. The only telephone exchanges not used for the Fernald study had 4%, or fewer, of the holders of the telephone numbers actually living in either of the three target townships. Surveying started on July 24, 2001 and finished on August 30, 2001. A total of 399 completed interviews were obtained resulting in a CASRO response rate of 41.8%. The average length of an interview was 16.5 minutes. Rocky Flats. The sample was randomly selected from all potential residential telephones ...

  4. Measuring Community Variables for Household Health and Demographic Surveys in Developing Countries,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-05-01

    the effect of the program on children’s health may be overstated. In this case, one would want to separately measure the program’s effect on inmigrants ...17AD-R159 563 MEASURING COMMUNITY VARIABLES FOR HOUSEHOLD HEALTH AND i/i DEMOGRAPHIC SURVEYS IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES(U) RAND I CORP SANTA MONICA CA J...DEVANZO MAY 85 RAND.’P-7099 UNCLASSIFIED F/G 6/5 NLMh E1hE 1.8p 4i -v1 1 1 In I MEASURING COMMUNITY VARIABLES FOR HOUSEHOLD HEALTH AND DEMOGRAPHIC

  5. An Exploratory Assessment of the Validity of the Community College Survey of Men (CCSM): Implications for Serving Veteran Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Garza, Thomas; Wood, J. Luke; Harris, Frank, III

    2015-01-01

    The Community College Survey of Men (CCSM) assesses predictors of student success for historically underrepresented and underserved men in community colleges. The instrument is designed to inform programming and service-delivery for male students (Wood & Harris, 2013). While the instrument was designed for community college men in general,…

  6. Promising Strategies: Results of the Fourth National Survey on Community Efforts To Reduce Substance Abuse and Gun Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Steven Rathgeb; Dretler, Astrid K.; Rosenbloom, David L.; Paine, Kay H.; Levinson, Suzette; Hingson, Ralph; Bell, Nicole

    More than 4,000 people responded to a survey about community efforts to reduce substance abuse and gun violence. Six major findings were identified from the responses of 1,608 people who identified themselves as leaders of community efforts in these areas. Community leaders want significant changes in long-standing public policies and a change in…

  7. An ethnomedicinal survey of a Tashelhit-speaking community in the High Atlas, Morocco

    OpenAIRE

    Teixidor Toneu, Irene; Martin, Gary J.; Ouhammou, Ahmed; Puri, Rajindra K.; Hawkins, Julie A.

    2016-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance:\\ud Traditional knowledge about medicinal plants from a poorly studied region, the High Atlas in\\ud Morocco, is reported here for the first time; this permits consideration of efficacy and safety of current\\ud practices whilst highlighting species previously not known to have traditional medicinal use.\\ud Aim of the study:\\ud Our study aims to document local medicinal plant knowledge among Tashelhit speaking communities\\ud through ethnobotanical survey, identify...

  8. National survey and community advisory board development for a bipolar disorder biobank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye, Mark A; Doederlein, Allen; Koenig, Barbara; McElroy, Susan L; Nassan, Malik; Seymour, Lisa R; Biernacka, Joanna M; Daniels, Allen S

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to engage a national advocacy group and local stakeholders for guidance in developing a bipolar disorder biobank through a web-based survey and a community advisory board. The Depression and Bipolar Support Alliance and the Mayo Clinic Bipolar Biobank conducted a national web-based survey inquiring about interest in participating in a biobank (i.e., giving DNA and clinical information). A community advisory board was convened to guide establishment of the biobank and identify key deliverables from the research project and for the community. Among 385 survey respondents, funding source (87%), professional opinion (76%), mental health consumer opinion (79%), and return of research results (91%) were believed to be important for considering study participation. Significantly more patients were willing to participate in a biobank managed by a university or clinic (78.2%) than one managed by government (63.4%) or industry (58.2%; both p bipolar disorder developing in a child of an affected parent and which medications to avoid. The advisory board endorsed the use of a comprehension questionnaire to evaluate participants' understanding of the study (e.g., longevity of DNA specimens, right to remove samples, accessing medical records) as a means to strengthen the informed consent process. These national survey and community advisory data support the merit of establishing a biobank to enable studies of disease risk, provided that health records and research results are adequately protected. The goals of earlier diagnosis and individualized treatment of bipolar disorder were endorsed. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Rubella (German Measles)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Rubella (German Measles) KidsHealth / For Parents / Rubella (German Measles) ... Call the Doctor Print en español Rubéola About Rubella Rubella — commonly known as German measles or 3- ...

  10. Food-purchasing behaviour in an Aboriginal community. 1. Results of a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowse, T; Scrimgeour, D; Knight, S; Thomas, D

    1994-03-01

    Attempts to improve the nutritional status of Aboriginal people through nutritional education programs should be informed by an understanding of contemporary patterns of food procurement, preparation and distribution. This paper describes the results of a survey of food-purchasing behaviour in a central-Australian Aboriginal community. Every transaction occurring in each food outlet in the community over a two-week period was recorded and the data analysed. The results show that women play a much greater role than men in food purchasing, that there is a significant recourse to takeaway foods, that there is a cycle of expenditure determined by distribution of pension and Community Development Employment Project cheques, and that children have sufficient disposable income to be able to provision themselves from the food outlets, so that much of their food consumption is not determined by adult members of their family.

  11. Associations Between Resilience, Community Belonging, and Social Participation Among Community-Dwelling Older Adults: Results From the Eastern Townships Population Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levasseur, Mélanie; Roy, Mathieu; Michallet, Bernard; St-Hilaire, France; Maltais, Danielle; Généreux, Mélissa

    2017-12-01

    To examine the associations between resilience, community belonging, and social participation, and the moderating effect of resilience on the association between community belonging and social participation among community-dwelling older adults. Cross-sectional; secondary analyses of the Eastern Townships Population Health Survey. Community. A sample (N=4541) of women (n=2485) and men (n=2056) aged ≥60 years was randomly selected according to area. Most participants had resilience were collected by phone interviewer-administered questionnaire. A social participation scale measured frequency of participation in 8 community activities. A 4-point Likert scale ranging from "very strong" to "very weak" estimated sense of belonging to the local community. Social participation and sense of belonging questions came from Statistics Canada surveys. Resilience was assessed with the 10-item Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, capturing the ability to cope with adversity. Controlling for age, education, and psychological distress, greater resilience and community belonging were associated with greater social participation among women (R 2 =.13; Presilience, especially in men. Greater community belonging further enhanced social participation, especially among women (P=.03) and men (Presilience (moderator effect). Resilience moderates the association between community belonging and social participation among community-dwelling older women and, especially, men. Interventions targeting social participation should consider the potential impact of resilience on improving community belonging. Future studies should investigate why resilience moderates associations between community belonging and social participation, and how to enhance resilience among older adults. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Current practice vs. guideline based imaging in abdominal radiology in the German speaking area. Results of an online survey; Versorgungsrealitaet vs. leitliniengerechte Bildgebung in der Abdominalradiologie im deutschsprachigen Raum. Ergebnisse einer Online-Umfrage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreyer, A.G. [University Hospital Regenburg (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Wessling, J. [Clemens Hospital Muenchen (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Grenacher, L. [Diagnostic Muenchen (Germany). Diagnostic Imaging Center

    2016-03-15

    The working group for abdominal imaging within the German Roentgen Society (DRG) performed an online survey amongst radiologist concerning the current status of techniques for abdominal imaging. The results of this survey were compared with the most recent guidelines. We performed an online survey open for all members of the DRG during a 76-day period with 65 questions and an overall estimated time for finishing the questionnaire of 15 minutes concerning technical specifications for abdominal radiological imaging. The results were evaluated using descriptive statistics. 90 of all participants, who filled out the survey covering more than 80 % of the questions, were included in the statistical evaluation. 27 % of all participants were registered radiologists while 73 % represented radiologists working in a hospital. Most participants worked in a managerial position. The participants gave detailed information regarding the radiological techniques used in dedicated organ systems (esophagus, stomach, pancreas, liver, small intestines, colon) regarding acquired contrast phases and oral and intravenous administration of contrast medium. The results confirm that most radiologists participating in this survey perform their examinations and choose their modalities in conformity with the current existing clinical guidelines. Because most clinical guidelines do not specify radiological examinations in detail, there is a noteworthy heterogeneity of the acquired contrast phases and major divergence in terms of technical parameters. Therefore a joint radiological effort should be initiated for developing and publishing updated radiological parameters for abdominal imaging.

  13. Vegetarian diet and mental disorders: results from a representative community survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The present study investigated associations between vegetarian diet and mental disorders. Methods Participants were drawn from the representative sample of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey and its Mental Health Supplement (GHS-MHS). Completely vegetarian (N = 54) and predominantly vegetarian (N = 190) participants were compared with non-vegetarian participants (N = 3872) and with a non-vegetarian socio-demographically matched subsample (N = 242). Results Vegetarians displayed elevated prevalence rates for depressive disorders, anxiety disorders and somatoform disorders. Due to the matching procedure, the findings cannot be explained by socio-demographic characteristics of vegetarians (e.g. higher rates of females, predominant residency in urban areas, high proportion of singles). The analysis of the respective ages at adoption of a vegetarian diet and onset of a mental disorder showed that the adoption of the vegetarian diet tends to follow the onset of mental disorders. Conclusions In Western cultures vegetarian diet is associated with an elevated risk of mental disorders. However, there was no evidence for a causal role of vegetarian diet in the etiology of mental disorders. PMID:22676203

  14. Community Surveys: Low Dose Radiation. Fernald, Ohio and Rocky Flats, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C. K. Mertz; James Flynn; Donald G. MacGregor; Theresa Satterfield; Stephen M. Johnson; Seth Tuler; Thomas Webler email ckmertz@decisionresearch.org

    2002-01-01

    This report is intended to present a basic description of the data from the two community surveys and to document the text of the questions; the methods used for the survey data collection; and a brief overview of the results. Completed surveys were conducted at local communities near the Rocky Flats, Colorado and the Fernald, Ohio sites; no survey was conducted for the Brookhaven, New York site. Fernald. The Fernald sample was randomly selected from 98% of all potential residential telephones in the townships of Ross, Morgan, and Crosby. The only telephone exchanges not used for the Fernald study had 4%, or fewer, of the holders of the telephone numbers actually living in either of the three target townships. Surveying started on July 24, 2001 and finished on August 30, 2001. A total of 399 completed interviews were obtained resulting in a CASRO response rate of 41.8%. The average length of an interview was 16.5 minutes. Rocky Flats. The sample was randomly selected from all potential residential telephones in Arvada and from 99% of the potential telephones in Westminster. Surveying started on August 10, 2001 and finished on September 25, 2001. A total of 401 completed interviews were obtained with a CASRO response rate of 32.5%. The average length of an interview was 15.7 minutes. Overall, respondents hold favorable views of science. They indicate an interest in developments in science and technology, feel that the world is better off because of science, and that science makes our lives healthier, easier, and more comfortable. However, respondents are divided on whether science should decide what is safe or not safe for themselves and their families. The majority of the respondents think that standards for exposure to radiation should be based on what science knows about health effects of radiation and on what is possible with today's technology. Although few respondents had visited the sites, most had heard or read something about Fernald or Rocky Flat s in the

  15. Community Surveys: Low Dose Radiation. Fernald, Ohio and Rocky Flats, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. K. Mertz; James Flynn; Donald G. MacGregor; Theresa Satterfield; Stephen M. Johnson; Seth Tuler; Thomas Webler

    2002-10-16

    This report is intended to present a basic description of the data from the two community surveys and to document the text of the questions; the methods used for the survey data collection; and a brief overview of the results. Completed surveys were conducted at local communities near the Rocky Flats, Colorado and the Fernald, Ohio sites; no survey was conducted for the Brookhaven, New York site. Fernald. The Fernald sample was randomly selected from 98% of all potential residential telephones in the townships of Ross, Morgan, and Crosby. The only telephone exchanges not used for the Fernald study had 4%, or fewer, of the holders of the telephone numbers actually living in either of the three target townships. Surveying started on July 24, 2001 and finished on August 30, 2001. A total of 399 completed interviews were obtained resulting in a CASRO response rate of 41.8%. The average length of an interview was 16.5 minutes. Rocky Flats. The sample was randomly selected from all potential residential telephones in Arvada and from 99% of the potential telephones in Westminster. Surveying started on August 10, 2001 and finished on September 25, 2001. A total of 401 completed interviews were obtained with a CASRO response rate of 32.5%. The average length of an interview was 15.7 minutes. Overall, respondents hold favorable views of science. They indicate an interest in developments in science and technology, feel that the world is better off because of science, and that science makes our lives healthier, easier, and more comfortable. However, respondents are divided on whether science should decide what is safe or not safe for themselves and their families. The majority of the respondents think that standards for exposure to radiation should be based on what science knows about health effects of radiation and on what is possible with today's technology. Although few respondents had visited the sites, most had heard or read something about Fernald or Rocky Flat s in

  16. Rare earth germanates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondar', I.A.; Vinogradova, N.V.; Dem'yanets, L.N.

    1983-01-01

    From the viewpoint of structural chemistry and general regularities controlling formation reactions of compounds and phases in melts, solid and gaseous states, recent achievements in the chemistry of rare earth germanates are generalized. Methods of synthesizing germanates, systems on the base of germanium oxides and rare earths are considered. The data on crystallochemical characteristics are tabulated. Individual compounds of scandium germanate are also characterized. Processes of germanate formation using the data of IR-spectroscopy, X-ray phase analysis are studied. The structure and morphotropic series of rare earth germanates and silicates are determined. Fields of their present and possible future application are considered

  17. Survey of the Huntington's Disease Patient and Caregiver Community Reveals Most Impactful Symptoms and Treatment Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Jennifer A; Lovecky, Debra; Kogan, Jane; Vetter, Louise A; Yohrling, George J

    2016-12-15

    In preparation for a meeting with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) on Patient-Focused Drug Development in Huntington's disease, the Huntington's Disease Society of America (HDSA) created and distributed two comprehensive surveys on the symptom experience and treatment approaches for Huntington's disease. The objective of these surveys was to identify the specific symptoms that most impact the daily lives of individuals with Huntington's disease/Juvenile Huntington's disease (HD/JHD) and their caregivers and to solicit input on the types of treatments desired by HD affected families. The data were shared with the FDA to offer background and insight in preparation for the patient-focused meeting, as well as to ensure representation by the community in a manner that would complement those who attended in person. Two distinct surveys were created using SurveyMonkey to capture patient and caregiver perspectives on HD symptoms and current treatments. HDSA distributed the surveys to the HD community in August and September 2014 and collected responses through January 2015. More than 3,600 responses to the two surveys were received. The data showed that both caregivers and individuals with HD were severely impacted by the cognitive and behavioral symptoms of HD with HD patients reporting problems with executive functioning and cognitive decline as most impactful to them. However, 30 percent of caregivers reported that chorea was the most impactful symptom compared to 17 percent of people with HD. Across all the symptom categories, patients reported a lower occurrence of symptoms than were reported by their caregivers. With only one drug approved for treatment of a symptom of Huntington's disease and no disease modifying treatments available, there is a critical need for new medicines to treat the cognitive, psychiatric and motor symptoms associated with HD. While the surveys did not capture risk/benefit data, the data collected do provide new insights around the

  18. Patterns of care in patients with cervical cancer 2012. Results of a survey among German radiotherapy departments and out-patient health care centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marnitz, S.; Rauer, A.; Budach, V. [Charite Universitaetsmedizin, Department of Radiooncology, Berlin (Germany); Koehler, C.; Schneider, A.; Mangler, M. [Charite Universitaetsmedizin, Department of Gynecology, Berlin (Germany); Tsunoda, A. [Barretos Cancer Centre, Department of Gynecologic Oncology, Barretos (Brazil)

    2014-01-15

    Platinum-based primary or adjuvant chemoradiation is the treatment of choice for patients with cervical cancer. However, despite national guidelines and international recommendations, many aspects in diagnosis, therapy, and follow-up of patients with cervical cancer are not based on valid data. To evaluate the current patterns of care for patients with cervical cancer in Germany, a questionnaire with 25 items was sent to 281 radiooncologic departments and out-patient health care centers. The response rate was 51 %. While 87 % of institutions treat 0-25 patients/year, 12 % treat between 26 and 50 and only 1 % treat more than 50 patients/year. In 2011, the stage distribution of 1,706 treated cervical cancers were IB1, IB2, IIA, IIB, IIIA/IIIB, and IV in 11, 12, 11, 22, 28, and 16 %, respectively. CT (90 %) and MRI (86 %) are mainly used as staging procedures in contrast to PET-CT with 14 %. Interestingly, 27 % of institutions advocate surgical staging prior to chemoradiation. In the majority of departments 3D-based (70 %) and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (76 %) are used for percutaneous radiation, less frequently volumetric arc techniques (26 %). Nearly all colleagues (99.3 %) apply conventional fractioning of 1.8-2 Gy for external-beam radiotherapy, in 19 % combined with a simultaneous integrated boost. Cisplatinum mono is used as a radiosensitizer with 40 mg/m{sup 2} weekly by 90 % of radiooncologists. For boost application in the primary treatment, HDR (high-dose rate) brachytherapy is the dominant technique (84 %). In patients after radical hysterectomy pT1B1/1B2, node negative and resection in sound margins adjuvant chemoradiation is applied due to the occurrence of 1-4 other risk factors in 16-97 %. There is a broad spectrum of recommended primary treatment strategies in stages IIB and IVA. Results of the survey underline the leading role but also differences in the use of chemoradiation in the treatment of cervical cancer patients in Germany. (orig

  19. [Is health really the most important value? - Results of a representative survey of the German general population concerning the subjective meaning of health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinz, A; Hübscher, U; Brähler, E; Berth, H

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate which meaning is attributed to health by the general population. Furthermore, the relationship between health satisfaction and health importance was also analysed. A sample of 4,808 representatively selected subjects from the general German population judged the importance and the satisfaction with several life domains, including health, using the questions on life satisfaction FLZ (M). Moreover, sociodemographic variables (sex, age, socioeconomic status) and psychological variables (self-esteem, resilience, anxiety and depression) were collected. Health is the most important life domain. The importance of health increases with increasing age. However, there are no sex differences and SES (socio-economic status) differences concerning the importance of health. Subjective satisfaction with health and health importance are only marginally correlated (r=0.08). High degrees of self-esteem and resilience are associated with a high importance of health. Anxiety and depression show only weak relationships to the importance of health. In the German general population health has a very high subjective significance. This is not only true for handicapped or ill people, but for all subsamples of the society. Therefore, a general plea for an understanding of the importance of health is not necessary, not even for subgroups. Preventive activity can be based on the general understanding of the meaning of health, but it should pursue specific health- related goals for target groups. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Random demographic household surveys in highly mobile pastoral communities in Chad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béchir, Mahamat; Hattendorf, Jan; Bonfoh, Bassirou; Zinsstag, Jakob; Schelling, Esther

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Problem Reliable demographic data is a central requirement for health planning and management, and for the implementation of adequate interventions. This study addresses the lack of demographic data on mobile pastoral communities in the Sahel. Approach A total of 1081 Arab, Fulani and Gorane women and 2541 children (1336 boys and 1205 girls) were interviewed and registered by a biometric fingerprint scanner in five repeated random transect demographic and health surveys conducted from March 2007 to January 2008 in the Lake Chad region in Chad. Local setting Important determinants for the planning and implementation of household surveys among mobile pastoral communities include: environmental factors; availability of women for interviews; difficulties in defining “own” children; the need for information-education-communication campaigns; and informed consent of husbands in typically patriarchal societies. Relevant changes Due to their high mobility, only 5% (56/1081) of registered women were encountered twice. Therefore, it was not possible to establish a demographic and health cohort. Lessons learnt Prospective demographic and health cohorts are the most accurate method to assess child mortality and other demographic indices. However, their feasibility in a highly mobile pastoral setting remains to be shown. Future interdisciplinary scientific efforts need to target innovative methods, tools and approaches to include marginalized communities in operational health and demographic surveillance systems. PMID:21556307

  1. Practices and challenges in community aphasia groups in Australia: Results of a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Miranda L; Attard, Michelle C

    2015-06-01

    This study reports on practices and challenges in developing community aphasia groups in Australia. A 24-item web-based survey addressed the structure of existing community aphasia groups, funding models, group activities, facilitator satisfaction, challenges to group development and maintenance and suggestions for improvement. A total of 156 surveys were completed, mostly by speech-language pathologists (SLPs), with 66% urban and 34% regional/rural/remote participants representing all Australian states/territories consistent with their populations. Seventy respondents indicated running a total of 86 groups, reflecting a substantial under-representation of service in proportion to the population of people with aphasia. Further, 23.6% of respondents reported dissatisfaction with aspects of their groups. The primary barriers to achieving satisfaction relate to limited resources and staffing, inability to run sufficient numbers of groups and to tailor them effectively, dispersed populations beyond major cities, group dynamics and a lack of group promotion and referral to groups. Respondents suggested means for improvement including changes to group structure, improved SLP training, dedicated funding and staffing, development of specific resources and better liaison and promotion. The major features differentiating the community aphasia groups run in Australia from those running overseas are discussed and practical ways to achieve service improvement are suggested.

  2. Research culture and capacity in community health services: results of a structured survey of staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Emma L; Comino, Elizabeth J

    2017-05-01

    Developing research capacity is recognised as an important endeavour. However, little is known about the current research culture, capacity and supports for staff working in community-based health settings. A structured survey of Division of Community Health staff was conducted using the research capacity tool. The survey was disseminated by email and in paper format. Quantitative data were analysed using descriptive statistics. Qualitative data were analysed thematically. In total, 109 usable responses were received, giving a response rate of 26%. Respondents were predominately nurses (n=71, 65.7%), with ~50% reporting post-graduate vocational qualifications. The highest levels of skills or organisational success were in using evidence to plan, promote and guide clinical practice. Most participants were unsure of organisational and team level skills and success at generating research. Few reported recent experience in research-generating activities. Barriers to undertaking research included lack of skills, time and access to external support and funding. Lack of skills and success in accessing external funding and resources to protect research time or to 'buy-in' technical expertise appeared to exacerbate these barriers. Community health staff have limited capacity to generate research with current levels of skill, funding and time. Strategies to increase research capacity should be informed by knowledge of clinicians' research experience and interests, and target development of skills to generate research. Resources and funding are needed at the organisational and team levels to overcome the significant barriers to research generation reported.

  3. Random demographic household surveys in highly mobile pastoral communities in Chad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weibel, Daniel; Béchir, Mahamat; Hattendorf, Jan; Bonfoh, Bassirou; Zinsstag, Jakob; Schelling, Esther

    2011-05-01

    Reliable demographic data is a central requirement for health planning and management, and for the implementation of adequate interventions. This study addresses the lack of demographic data on mobile pastoral communities in the Sahel. A total of 1081 Arab, Fulani and Gorane women and 2541 children (1336 boys and 1205 girls) were interviewed and registered by a biometric fingerprint scanner in five repeated random transect demographic and health surveys conducted from March 2007 to January 2008 in the Lake Chad region in Chad. Important determinants for the planning and implementation of household surveys among mobile pastoral communities include: environmental factors; availability of women for interviews; difficulties in defining "own" children; the need for information-education-communication campaigns; and informed consent of husbands in typically patriarchal societies. Due to their high mobility, only 5% (56/1081) of registered women were encountered twice. Therefore, it was not possible to establish a demographic and health cohort. Prospective demographic and health cohorts are the most accurate method to assess child mortality and other demographic indices. However, their feasibility in a highly mobile pastoral setting remains to be shown. Future interdisciplinary scientific efforts need to target innovative methods, tools and approaches to include marginalized communities in operational health and demographic surveillance systems.

  4. Evaluation of clinical trials by Ethics Committees in Germany – results and a comparison of two surveys performed among members of the German Association of Research-Based Pharmaceutical Companies (vfa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russ, Hagen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available [english] Objective: The objective of this project was to evaluate the quality and quantity of initial applications for a clinical trial according to § 7 of the German Good Clinical Practice (GCP ordinance (German: GCP-Verordnung, GCP-V, the quality of evaluations of those applications by Ethics Committees (ECs/Investigational Review Boards (IRBs in Germany as well as the pattern of EC objections in their reasoned opinions (vote. In order to identify a change over time, the results of the present survey were also compared with a survey performed in 2008.Methods: Based on reasoned opinions issued by the respective EC in charge of the coordinating principle investigator (coordinating EC in 2011, a written survey among members of the German Association of Research-Based Pharmaceutical Companies (vfa was conducted in 2012. The answers to the questionnaire were analyzed descriptively. Since the data set collected in 2011 was structurally identical with the data set gained in 2007 both surveys were compared.Results: Of the 24 companies represented on the vfa Clinical Research/Quality Assurance Subcommittee, 75% (18 took part in the survey. Survey evaluation was based on a total of 251 applications of these 18 companies submitted to 43 ECs. These account for about 21% of 1,214 applications for authorization of commercial and non-commercial phase I–IV clinical trials submitted to the regulatory authorities (BfArM and PEI in 2011.In comparison to 2007, a lower amount of applications (n=251 in 2011 vs. n=288 in 2007 was submitted to a slightly higher number of ECs (43 in 2011 vs. 40 in 2007. The amount of objections increased by 21% from 1,299 (2007 to 1,574 (2011 resulting in an average of 4.5 (2007 vs. 6.3 (2011 objections per application. Overall, the analysis of both formal and content related objections revealed almost the same pattern as in the previous survey. In total, the most frequent objections applied to the patient information and consent

  5. Evaluation of clinical trials by Ethics Committees in Germany--results and a comparison of two surveys performed among members of the German Association of Research-Based Pharmaceutical Companies (vfa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russ, Hagen; Busta, Susanne; Jost, Bertfried; Bethke, Thomas D

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this project was to evaluate the quality and quantity of initial applications for a clinical trial according to § 7 of the German Good Clinical Practice (GCP) ordinance (German: GCP-Verordnung, GCP-V), the quality of evaluations of those applications by Ethics Committees (ECs)/Investigational Review Boards (IRBs) in Germany as well as the pattern of EC objections in their reasoned opinions (vote). In order to identify a change over time, the results of the present survey were also compared with a survey performed in 2008. Based on reasoned opinions issued by the respective EC in charge of the coordinating principle investigator (coordinating EC) in 2011, a written survey among members of the German Association of Research-Based Pharmaceutical Companies (vfa) was conducted in 2012. The answers to the questionnaire were analyzed descriptively. Since the data set collected in 2011 was structurally identical with the data set gained in 2007 both surveys were compared. Of the 24 companies represented on the vfa Clinical Research/Quality Assurance Subcommittee, 75% (18) took part in the survey. Survey evaluation was based on a total of 251 applications of these 18 companies submitted to 43 ECs. These account for about 21% of 1,214 applications for authorization of commercial and non-commercial phase I-IV clinical trials submitted to the regulatory authorities (BfArM and PEI) in 2011. In comparison to 2007, a lower amount of applications (n=251 in 2011 vs. n=288 in 2007) was submitted to a slightly higher number of ECs (43 in 2011 vs. 40 in 2007). The amount of objections increased by 21% from 1,299 (2007) to 1,574 (2011) resulting in an average of 4.5 (2007) vs. 6.3 (2011) objections per application. Overall, the analysis of both formal and content related objections revealed almost the same pattern as in the previous survey. In total, the most frequent objections applied to the patient information and consent form followed in descending order by trial

  6. Use of an online survey during an outbreak of clostridium perfringens in a retirement community-Arizona, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasmin, Seema; Pogreba-Brown, Kristen; Stewart, Jennifer; Sunenshine, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    An outbreak of gastrointestinal (GI) illness among retirement community residents was reported to the Maricopa County Department of Public Health. Online surveys can be useful for rapid investigation of disease outbreaks, especially when local health departments lack time and resources to perform telephone interviews. Online survey utility among older populations, which may lack computer access or literacy, has not been defined. To investigate and implement prevention measures for a GI outbreak and assess the utility of an online survey among retirement community residents. A retrospective cohort investigation was conducted using an online survey distributed through the retirement community e-mail listserv; a follow-up telephone survey was conducted to assess computer literacy and Internet access. A case was defined as any GI illness occurring among residents during March 1-14, 2012. A barbecue in a retirement community of 3000 residents. Retirement community residents. Residents were directed to discard leftover food and seek health care for symptoms. A telephone survey was conducted to assess the utility of online surveys in this population. Computer literacy and Internet access of retirement community residents. Of 1000 residents on the listserv, 370 (37%) completed the online survey (mean age, 69.7 years; 60.6% women); 66 residents (17.8%) reported a GI illness after the barbecue, 63 (95.5%) reported diarrhea, and 5 (7.6%) reported vomiting. Leftover beef from an attendee's refrigerator grew Clostridium perfringens. Of 552 residents contacted by telephone, 113 completed the telephone survey (mean age, 71.3 years; 63.3% women), 101 (89.4%) reported the ability to send e-mail, 82 (81.2%) checked e-mail daily, and 28 (27.7%) checked e-mail on a handheld device. The attack rate was 17.8% for online versus 2.7% for telephone respondents (P < .001). This outbreak demonstrated the utility of an online survey to rapidly collect information and implement prevention

  7. Improving the Deaf community's access to prostate and testicular cancer information: a survey study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folkins, Ann; Sadler, Georgia Robins; Ko, Celine; Branz, Patricia; Marsh, Shane; Bovee, Michael

    2005-06-06

    Members of the Deaf community face communication barriers to accessing health information. To resolve these inequalities, educational programs must be designed in the appropriate format and language to meet their needs. Deaf men (102) were surveyed before, immediately following, and two months after viewing a 52-minute prostate and testicular cancer video in American Sign Language (ASL) with open text captioning and voice overlay. To provide the Deaf community with information equivalent to that available to the hearing community, the video addressed two cancer topics in depth. While the inclusion of two cancer topics lengthened the video, it was anticipated to reduce redundancy and encourage men of diverse ages to learn in a supportive, culturally aligned environment while also covering more topics within the partnership's limited budget. Survey data were analyzed to evaluate the video's impact on viewers' pre- and post-intervention understanding of prostate and testicular cancers, as well as respondents' satisfaction with the video, exposure to and use of early detection services, and sources of cancer information. From baseline to immediately post-intervention, participants' overall knowledge increased significantly, and this gain was maintained at the two-month follow-up. Men of diverse ages were successfully recruited, and this worked effectively as a support group. However, combining two complex cancer topics, in depth, in one video appeared to make it more difficult for participants to retain as many relevant details specific to each cancer. Participants related that there was so much information that they would need to watch the video more than once to understand each topic fully. When surveyed about their best sources of health information, participants ranked doctors first and showed a preference for active rather than passive methods of learning. After viewing this ASL video, participants showed significant increases in cancer understanding, and the

  8. Adirondack lakes survey: An interpretive analysis of fish communities and water chemistry, 1984--1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, J.P. (Baker (Joan P.), Raleigh, NC (USA)); Gherini, S.A.; Munson, R.K. (Tetra Tech, Inc., Pasadena, CA (USA)); Christensen, S.W. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Driscoll, C.T. (Syracuse Univ., NY (USA)); Gallagher, J. (Adirondack Lakes Survey Corp., Ray Brook, NY (USA)); Newton, R.M. (Smith Coll., Northampton, MA (USA)); Reckhow, K.H. (Duke Univ., Durham, NC (USA)); Schofield, C.L. (Co

    1990-01-01

    The Adirondack Lakes Survey Corporation (ALSC) was formed as a cooperative effort of the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation and the Empire State Electric Energy Research Corporation to better characterize the chemical and biological status of Adirondack lakes. Between 1984 and 1987, the ALSC surveyed 1469 lakes within the Adirondack ecological zone. As a follow-up to the survey, the ALSC sponsored a series of interpretive analyses of the ALSC data base. The primary objectives of these analyses were as follows: Evaluate the influence of mineral acids (from acidic deposition) and nonmineral acids (natural organic acids) on lake pH levels; classify Adirondack lakes according to lake and watershed features expected to influence their responsiveness to changes in acidic deposition; evaluate the sensitivity of Adirondack lakes to changes in environmental conditions, such as changes in mineral acids or dissolved organic carbon concentrations; identify lake characteristics important in explaining the observed present-day status of fish communities in Adirondack lakes, in particular the relative importance of lake acidity; evaluate changes that have occurred over time in Adirondack fish communities and probable causes for these trends by using the available historical data on fish communities in the Adirondacks and the ALSC data base; and determine the degree to which the existing fish resource might be at risk from continued acidic deposition, or might recover if acidity levels were reduced. The basic approach examined relationships observed in the ALSC data base among watershed characteristics, lake chemistry, and fish status. Individual reports are processed separately for the data bases.

  9. Community-based efforts to prevent obesity: Australia-wide survey of projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Melanie S; Reynolds, Rebecca C; Waters, Elizabeth; Gill, Timothy; King, Lesley; Swinburn, Boyd A; Allender, Steven

    2013-08-01

    Community-based programs that affect healthy environments and policies have emerged as an effective response to high obesity levels in populations. Apart from limited individual reports, little is currently known about these programs, limiting the potential to provide effective support, to promote effective practice, prevent adverse outcomes and disseminate intervention results and experience. The aim of the present study was to identify the size and reach of current community-based obesity prevention projects in Australia and to examine their characteristics, program features (e.g. intervention setting), capacity and approach to obesity prevention. Detailed survey completed by representatives from community-based obesity prevention initiatives in Australia. There was wide variation in funding, capacity and approach to obesity prevention among the 78 participating projects. Median annual funding was Au$94900 (range Au$2500-$4.46 million). The most common intervention settings were schools (39%). Forty per cent of programs focused on a population group of ≥50000 people. A large proportion of respondents felt that they did not have sufficient resources or staff training to achieve project objectives. Community-based projects currently represent a very large investment by both government and non-government sectors for the prevention of obesity. Existing projects are diverse in size and scope, and reach large segments of the population. Further work is needed to identify the full extent of existing community actions and to monitor their reach and future 'scale up' to ensure that future activities aim for effective integration into systems, policies and environments. SO WHAT? Community-based programs make a substantial contribution to the prevention of obesity and promotion of healthy lifestyles in Australia. A risk of the current intervention landscape is that effective approaches may go unrecognised due to lack of effective evaluations or limitations in program

  10. Validity of Self-reported Healthcare Utilization Data in the Community Health Survey in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rim, Hwayoung; Lee, Kunsei; Chang, Sounghoon; Hovell, Melbourne F; Kim, Young-Taek; Kim, Yuna; Kang, Gilwon; Tak, Yangju; Im, Jeehye

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of Community Health Survey (CHS), we analyzed data from 11,217 participants aged ≥ 19 yr, in 13 cities and counties in 2008. Three healthcare utilization indices (admission, outpatient visits, dental visits) as comparative variables and the insurance benefit claim data of the Health Insurance Review & Assessment Service as the gold-standard were used. The sensitivities of admission, outpatient visits, and dental visits in CHS were 54.8%, 52.1%, and 61.0%, respectively. The specificities were 96.4%, 85.6%, and 82.7%, respectively. This is the first study to evaluate the validity of nationwide health statistics resulting from questionnaire surveys and shows that CHS needs a lot of efforts to reflect the true health status, health behavior, and healthcare utilization of the population. PMID:22065895

  11. [Knowledge, attitude and opinion of patients regarding the new German legislation on advance care planning : Results of a survey in a department of general internal medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmeadawy, S; Fitzner, C; Elsner, F; Dietrich, C G

    2017-02-01

    In September 2009 a new legislation for advance care planning was introduced in Germany with the important characteristics of bindingness and unlimited validity for individual directives. Knowledge regarding this act and the attitude towards its characteristics among patients is unclear. Analysis of knowledge, attitude and opinion of patients in a general internal medical department regarding advance care planning in general and the recent German legislation. A total of 200 consecutive patients in an internal medicine ward were interviewed with the help of a questionnaire regarding their attitude to and knowledge on advance care planning in general and the current legislation. Approximately 40 % of the patients had issued some form of directive (either advance care directive or health care proxy) and only 7.5 % were advised by their physicians to make an advance directive. Patients with no directive were not willing to deal with dying and death, were not well-informed about directives or assumed that relatives or physicians would make an appropriate decision. Characteristics of the new legislation were controversially assessed; only 21 % of the patients wished to have a literal implementation of their directive. Regarding the content of an advance directive, more than 80 % of the patients voted for pain control in the palliative setting. The proportion of patients with a directive regarding advance care planning is only slowly increasing. Many patients are not well-informed, do not want to deal with dying or would like to delegate decisions to relatives and physicians. The present characteristics of the German legislation are controversially assessed and often do not represent the wishes of the patients.

  12. Domains of disgust sensitivity: revisited factor structure of the questionnaire for the assessment of disgust sensitivity (QADS in a cross-sectional, representative german survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brähler Elmar

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disgust sensitivity is defined as a predisposition to experiencing disgust, which can be measured on the basis of the Disgust Scale and its German version, the Questionnaire for the Assessment of Disgust Sensitivity (QADS. In various studies, different factor structures were reported for either instrument. The differences may most likely be due to the selected factor analysis estimation methods and the small non-representative samples. Consequently, the aims of this study were to explore and confirm a theory-driven and statistically coherent QADS factor structure in a large representative sample and to present its standard values. Methods The QADS was answered by N = 2473 healthy subjects. The respective households and participants were selected using the random-route sampling method. Afterwards, the collected sample was compared to the information from the Federal Statistical Office to ensure that it was representative for the German residential population. With these data, an exploratory Promax-rotated Principal Axis Factor Analysis as well as comparative confirmatory factor analyses with robust Maximum Likelihood estimations were computed. Any possible socio-demographic influences were quantified as effect sizes. Results The data-driven and theoretically sound solution with the three highly interrelated factors Animal Reminder Disgust, Core Disgust, and Contamination Disgust led to a moderate model fit. All QADS scales had very good reliabilities (Cronbach's alpha from .90 to .95. There were no age-differences found among the participants, however, the female participants showed remarkably higher disgust ratings. Conclusions Based on the representative sample, the QADS factor structure was revised. Gender-specific standard percentages permit a population-based assessment of individual disgust sensitivity. The differences of the original QADS, the new solution, and the Disgust Scale - Revised will be discussed.

  13. Ethnobotanical survey of food and medicinal plants of the Ilkisonko Maasai community in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimondo, Julia; Miaron, Jacob; Mutai, Peggoty; Njogu, Peter

    2015-12-04

    Pastoralist communities such as the Maasai are heavily reliant on traditional foods and medicines. This survey sought to identify traditional foods and/or medicinal plants of the Ilkisonko Maasai community living in Kenya. Ethnobotanical knowledge of traditional plants used as food and human/veterinary medicine was obtained using structured and semi-structured questionnaires administered through face to face interviews of key informants. A total of 30 species from 21 families and 25 genera were reportedly used as food and/or medicine by 48 respondents. The most commonly encountered genus was the Fabaceae. The growth forms encountered were tree (47%), shrub (33%) and herb (20%). Plants that were commonly mentioned by respondents were Salvadora persica (85%), Grewia villosa (52%), Ximenia americana (52%), Albizia anthelmintica (50%), Acacia robusta (46%) and Acacia nilotica (42%). The root/root bark was the most commonly used plant part (35%), followed by the stem/stem bark (30%), fruit (15%), leaves (11%) and whole plant (9%). Common ailments treated were stomach aches, constipation, back aches, joint aches, body pains and sexually transmitted infections. The plants were also used as tonics, digestives, and restoratives. It was evident that traditional medicine was the preferred health care system for the Ilkisonko Maasai community. It is important to document and use this knowledge in producing novel products that could improve nutrition and healthcare in rural communities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. [Relationship between physical activity and health in children and adolescents. Results of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS) and the "Motorik-Modul" (MoMo)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krug, S; Jekauc, D; Poethko-Müller, C; Woll, A; Schlaud, M

    2012-01-01

    The question of whether physical activity is associated with positive aspects of health becomes increasingly more important in the light of the health status in today's children and adolescents and due to the changing lifestyle with respect to everyday activity. The German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS) collected the first set of nationwide representative cross-sectional data to examine the relationship between health and physical activity. Taking sociodemographic parameters into consideration, the results suggest a positive association between self-estimated general health and several types of physical activity. The results vary with respect to gender and type of physical activity. For methodological reasons, causal conclusions can only be drawn after longitudinal data of the second wave of KiGGS are available.

  15. Working with the American Community Survey in R a guide to using the acs package

    CERN Document Server

    Glenn, Ezra Haber

    2016-01-01

    This book serves as a hands-on guide to the "acs" R package for demographers, planners, and other researchers who work with American Community Survey (ACS) data. It gathers the most common problems associated with using ACS data and implements functions as a package in the R statistical programming language. The package defines a new "acs" class object (containing estimates, standard errors, and metadata for tables from the ACS) with methods to deal appropriately with common tasks (e.g., creating and combining subgroups or geographies, automatic fetching of data via the Census API, mathematical operations on estimates, tests of significance, plots of confidence intervals).

  16. Pain profiles in a community dwelling population following spinal cord injury: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Dearbhla; Fullen, Brona M; Lennon, Olive

    2017-07-24

    While as many as 60% of patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) develop chronic pain, limited data currently exists on the prevalence and profile of pain post-SCI in community dwelling populations. A cross-sectional population survey. Primary care. Community dwelling adults with SCI. Following ethical approval members registered to a national SCI database (n=1,574) were surveyed. The survey included demographic and SCI characteristics items, the International Spinal Cord Injury Pain Basic Data Set (version 1) the Douleur Neuropathique 4 questionnaire (interview) and questions relating to health care utilisation. Data were entered into the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (version 20) Significance was set P < 0.05 for between group comparisons. In total 643 (41%) surveys were returned with 458 (71%) respondents experiencing pain in the previous week. Neuropathic pain (NP) was indicated in 236 (37%) of responses and nociceptive pain in 206 (32%) Common treatments for pain included medications n=347 (76%) massage n=133 (29%) and heat n=115 (25%). Respondents with NP reported higher pain intensities and increased healthcare service utilisation (P= < 0.001) when compared to those with nociceptive pain presentations. A higher proportion of females than males reported pain (P = 0.003) and NP (P = 0.001) and those unemployed presented with greater NP profiles compared with those in education or employment (P = 0.006). Pain, in particular NP post SCI interferes with daily life, increases health service utilisation and remains refractory to current management strategies. Increased availability of multi-disciplinary pain management and further research into management strategies is warranted.

  17. A European community pharmacy-based survey to investigate patterns of prescription fraud through identification of falsified prescriptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lapeyre-Mestre, Maryse; Gony, Mireille; Carvajal, Alfonso; Macias, Diego; Conforti, Anita; D'incau, Paola; Heerdink, Rob; Van Der Stichele, Robert; Bergman, Ulf

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To identify prescription drugs involved in falsified prescriptions in community pharmacies in 6 European countries. Methods: A cross-sectional survey among 2,105 community pharmacies in Belgium, France, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain and Sweden was carried out to collect all suspect prescription

  18. The Community College Survey of Men: An Initial Validation of the Instrument's Non-Cognitive Outcomes Construct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, J. \\Luke; Harris, Frank, III.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this manuscript is to discuss the utility of the Community College Survey of Men (CCSM[c]), an instrument designed to examine predictors of student success for men in community colleges. The authors highlight initial validation results from a recent pilot of the CCSM[c], with a focus on the non-cognitive outcomes construct employed…

  19. Swiss national community survey on functioning after spinal cord injury : Protocol, characteristics of participants and determinants of non-response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkhof, Martin W G; Fekete, Christine; Chamberlain, Jonviea D; Post, Marcel W M; Gemperli, Armin

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To detail the protocol, recruitment, study population, response, and data quality of the first population-based community survey of the Swiss Spinal Cord Injury (SwiSCI) Cohort Study. DESIGN: The survey consisted of 3 successive modules administered between September 2011 and March 2013.

  20. Swiss national community survey on functioning after spinal cord injury : Protocol, characteristics of participants and determinants of non-response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkhof, Martin W. G.; Fekete, Christine; Chamberlain, Jonviea D.; Post, Marcel W. M.; Gemperli, Armin

    Objective: To detail the protocol, recruitment, study population, response, and data quality of the first population-based community survey of the Swiss Spinal Cord Injury (SwiSCI) Cohort Study. Design: The survey consisted of 3 successive modules administered between September 2011 and March 2013.

  1. Short Takes: Intelligence-Service Psychology: A German Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Helmut Müller-Enbergs

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available To date, four German volumes in the series "Intelligence-Service Psychology" (Nachrichtendienstpsychologie have been published. These volumes generated interest in both the German and non-German speaking communities. It was therefore decided to translate some of the basic articles of the series into English (Litzcke, Müller-Enbergs & Ungerer, 2008, making them accessible to a wider range of readers. This article contains abbreviated versions of the articles in the book.

  2. Maury Journals - German Vessels

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — German vessels observations, after the 1853 Brussels Conference that set International Maritime Standards, modeled after Maury Marine Standard Observations.

  3. Extent and patterns of community collaboration in local health departments: An exploratory survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fisher John W

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Local public health departments (LHDs in the United States have been encouraged to collaborate with various other community organizations and individuals. Current research suggests that many forms of active partnering are ongoing, and there are numerous examples of LHD collaboration with a specific organization for a specific purpose or program. However, no existing research has attempted to characterize collaboration, for the defined purpose of setting community health status priorities, between a defined population of local officials and a defined group of alternative partnering organizations. The specific aims of this study were to 1 determine the range of collaborative involvement exhibited by a study population of local public health officials, and, 2 characterize the patterns of the selection of organizations/individuals involved with LHDs in the process of setting community health status priorities. Methods Local health department officials in North Carolina (n = 53 responded to an exploratory survey about their levels of involvement with eight types of possible collaborator organizations and individuals. Descriptive statistics and the stochastic clustering technique of Self-Organizing Maps (SOM were used to characterize their collaboration. Results Local health officials vary extensively in their level of collaboration with external collaborators. While the range of total involvement varies, the patterns of involvement for this specific function are relatively uniform. That is, regardless of the total level of involvement (low, medium or high, officials maintain similar hierarchical preference rankings with Community Advisory Boards and Local Boards of Health most involved and Experts and Elected Officials least involved. Conclusion The extent and patterns of collaboration among LHDs with other community stakeholders for a specific function can be described and ultimately related to outcome measures of LHD performance.

  4. Community survey on reference blocks and transducers for non-destructive ultrasonic testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinche, C.; Borloo, E.; Jehenson, P.

    1978-01-01

    In the frame of the European programmes 'Standards and Reference Substances' and 'Reference Materials and Methods' (BCR) the Commission of the European Communities, in conjunction with National experts launched in 1975 an inquiry on reference blocks and transducers for non-destructive ultrasonic testing. This inquiry which is complementary to a general survey made in 1971-1972 by the Commission on Reference Materials (Ref. EUR Report 1973. EUR 4886. d,f,i,n,e) was felt necessary and prepared by a specialists group from the Community Countries and the Joint Research Centre (JRC), Ispra Establishment (the list of these specialists is indicated on p. 2 of the questionnaire). The results of this survey, collated by the JRC Ispra Members have been discussed by the group of specialists and form the subject of this report. On bases of mailing lists submitted by national specialists, 215 organizations have been contacted; the fields of activity of these organizations are mainly: metallurgy, machine parts, technical assistance, aeronautics, power stations and research, 73 organizations have replied to the questionnaire. Most answers were obained from organizations dealing with metallurgy, machine parts manufacturers and technical consultants. The annexes supply a detailed analysis of the results given, on a national basis

  5. Unintentional Childhood Injuries in Urban and Rural Ujjain, India: A Community-Based Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Mathur

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Injuries are a major global public health problem. There are very few community-based studies on childhood injury from India. The objective of this cross-sectional, community-based survey was to identify the incidence, type, and risk factors of unintentional childhood injuries. The study was done in seven villages and ten contiguous urban slums in Ujjain, India. World Health Organization (WHO tested tools and definitions were used for the survey, which included 2518 households having 6308 children up to 18 years of age, with 2907 children from urban households and 3401 from rural households. The annual incidence of all injuries was 16.6%, 95% Confidence Interval 15.7–17.5%, (n = 1049. The incidence was significantly higher among boys compared to girls (20.2% versus 12.7%, respectively, was highest in age group 6–10 years of age (18.9%, and in urban locations (17.5%. The most commonly identified injury types were: physical injuries (71%, burns (16%, poisonings (10%, agriculture-related injuries (2%, near drowning (2%, and suffocations (2%. The most common place of injury was streets followed by home. The study identified incidence of different types of unintentional childhood injuries and factors associated with increased risk of unintentional injuries. The results can help in designing injury prevention strategies and awareness programs in similar settings.

  6. Advancing vector biology research: a community survey for future directions, research applications and infrastructure requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, Alain; Pondeville, Emilie; Schnettler, Esther; Crisanti, Andrea; Supparo, Clelia; Christophides, George K; Kersey, Paul J; Maslen, Gareth L; Takken, Willem; Koenraadt, Constantianus J M; Oliva, Clelia F; Busquets, Núria; Abad, F Xavier; Failloux, Anna-Bella; Levashina, Elena A; Wilson, Anthony J; Veronesi, Eva; Pichard, Maëlle; Arnaud Marsh, Sarah; Simard, Frédéric; Vernick, Kenneth D

    2016-01-01

    Vector-borne pathogens impact public health, animal production, and animal welfare. Research on arthropod vectors such as mosquitoes, ticks, sandflies, and midges which transmit pathogens to humans and economically important animals is crucial for development of new control measures that target transmission by the vector. While insecticides are an important part of this arsenal, appearance of resistance mechanisms is increasingly common. Novel tools for genetic manipulation of vectors, use of Wolbachia endosymbiotic bacteria, and other biological control mechanisms to prevent pathogen transmission have led to promising new intervention strategies, adding to strong interest in vector biology and genetics as well as vector-pathogen interactions. Vector research is therefore at a crucial juncture, and strategic decisions on future research directions and research infrastructure investment should be informed by the research community. A survey initiated by the European Horizon 2020 INFRAVEC-2 consortium set out to canvass priorities in the vector biology research community and to determine key activities that are needed for researchers to efficiently study vectors, vector-pathogen interactions, as well as access the structures and services that allow such activities to be carried out. We summarize the most important findings of the survey which in particular reflect the priorities of researchers in European countries, and which will be of use to stakeholders that include researchers, government, and research organizations.

  7. Sexual and reproductive health and human rights of women living with HIV: a global community survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimhan, Manjulaa; Orza, Luisa; Welbourn, Alice; Bewley, Susan; Crone, Tyler; Vazquez, Marijo

    2016-04-01

    To determine the sexual and reproductive health priorities of women living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and to allow the values and preferences of such women to be considered in the development of new guidelines. A core team created a global reference group of 14 women living with HIV and together they developed a global community online survey. The survey, which contained mandatory and optional questions, was based on an appreciative enquiry approach in which the life-cycle experiences of women living with HIV were investigated. The same set of questions was also used in focus group discussions led by the global reference group. The study covered 945 women (832 in the survey and 113 in the focus groups) aged 15-72 years in 94 countries. Among the respondents to the optional survey questions, 89.0% (427/480) feared or had experienced gender-based violence, 56.7% (177/312) had had an unplanned pregnancy, 72.3% (227/314) had received advice on safe conception and 58.8% (489/832) had suffered poor mental health after they had discovered their HIV-positive status. The sexual and reproductive health needs and rights of women living with HIV are complex and require a stronger response from the health sector. The online survey placed the voices of women living with HIV at the start of the development of new global guidelines. Although not possible in some contexts and populations, a similar approach would merit replication in the development of guidelines for many other health considerations.

  8. Community-Acquired Acute Kidney Injury: A Nationwide Survey in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yafang; Wang, Jinwei; Su, Tao; Qu, Zhen; Zhao, Minghui; Yang, Li

    2017-05-01

    This study aimed to describe the burden of community-acquired acute kidney injury (AKI) in China based on a nationwide survey about AKI. Cross-sectional and retrospective study. A national sample of 2,223,230 hospitalized adult patients from 44 academic/local hospitals in Mainland China was used. AKI was defined according to the 2012 KDIGO AKI creatinine criteria or an increase or decrease in serum creatinine level of 50% during the hospital stay. Community-acquired AKI was identified when a patient had AKI that could be defined at hospital admission. The rate, cause, recognition, and treatment of community-acquired AKI were stratified according to hospital type, latitude, and economic development of the regions in which the patients were admitted. All-cause in-hospital mortality and recovery of kidney function at hospital discharge. 4,136 patients with community-acquired AKI were identified during the 2 single-month snapshots (January 2013 and July 2013). Of these, 2,020 (48.8%) had cases related to decreased kidney perfusion; 1,111 (26.9%), to intrinsic kidney disease; and 499 (12.1%), to urinary tract obstruction. In the north versus the south, more patients were exposed to nephrotoxins or had urinary tract obstructions. 536 (13.0%) patients with community-acquired AKI had indications for renal replacement therapy (RRT), but only 347 (64.7%) of them received RRT. Rates of timely diagnosis and appropriate use of RRT were higher in regions with higher per capita gross domestic product. All-cause in-hospital mortality was 7.3% (295 of 4,068). Delayed AKI recognition and being located in northern China were independent risk factors for in-hospital mortality, and referral to nephrology providers was an independent protective factor. Possible misclassification of AKI and community-acquired AKI due to nonstandard definitions and missing data for serum creatinine. The features of community-acquired AKI varied substantially in different regions of China and were closely

  9. Exploring the Therapeutic Affordances of Self-Harm Online Support Communities: An Online Survey of Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, Emma

    2017-01-01

    Background A growing number of online communities have been established to support those who self-harm. However, little is known about the therapeutic affordances arising from engagement with these communities and resulting outcomes. Objective The aim of this study was to explore the presence of therapeutic affordances as reported by members of self-harm online support communities. Methods In total, 94 respondents (aged 13-63 years, mean=23.5 years; 94% female) completed an online survey exploring their experiences of engaging with a self-harm online support community. Respondents varied in terms of how long they had been accessing an online community, with 22% (21/94) accessing less than 1 year, 39% (37/94) 1 to 2 years, 14% (13/94) 2 to 3 years, and 24.5% (23/94) more than 3 years. Responses were analyzed using deductive thematic analysis. Results The results of our analysis describe each of the five therapeutic affordances that were present in the data, namely (1) connection, the ability to make contact with others who self-harm for the purposes of mutual support and in so doing reduce feelings of loneliness and isolation; (2) adaptation, that is, how use of online support varies in relation to the personal circumstances of the individual user; (3) exploration, that is, the ability to learn about self-harm and learn about strategies to reduce or stop self-harming behavior; (4) narration, that is, the ability to share experiences, as well as read about the experiences of others; and (5) self-presentation, that is, how and what users present about themselves to others in the online community. Conclusions Our findings suggest that engagement with self-harm online support communities may confer a range of therapeutic benefits for some users, which may serve to minimize the psychosocial burden of self-harm and promote positive coping strategies. In addition, the online nature of the support available may be helpful to those who are unable to access face

  10. Exploring the Therapeutic Affordances of Self-Harm Online Support Communities: An Online Survey of Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulson, Neil S; Bullock, Emma; Rodham, Karen

    2017-10-13

    A growing number of online communities have been established to support those who self-harm. However, little is known about the therapeutic affordances arising from engagement with these communities and resulting outcomes. The aim of this study was to explore the presence of therapeutic affordances as reported by members of self-harm online support communities. In total, 94 respondents (aged 13-63 years, mean=23.5 years; 94% female) completed an online survey exploring their experiences of engaging with a self-harm online support community. Respondents varied in terms of how long they had been accessing an online community, with 22% (21/94) accessing less than 1 year, 39% (37/94) 1 to 2 years, 14% (13/94) 2 to 3 years, and 24.5% (23/94) more than 3 years. Responses were analyzed using deductive thematic analysis. The results of our analysis describe each of the five therapeutic affordances that were present in the data, namely (1) connection, the ability to make contact with others who self-harm for the purposes of mutual support and in so doing reduce feelings of loneliness and isolation; (2) adaptation, that is, how use of online support varies in relation to the personal circumstances of the individual user; (3) exploration, that is, the ability to learn about self-harm and learn about strategies to reduce or stop self-harming behavior; (4) narration, that is, the ability to share experiences, as well as read about the experiences of others; and (5) self-presentation, that is, how and what users present about themselves to others in the online community. Our findings suggest that engagement with self-harm online support communities may confer a range of therapeutic benefits for some users, which may serve to minimize the psychosocial burden of self-harm and promote positive coping strategies. In addition, the online nature of the support available may be helpful to those who are unable to access face-to-face support. ©Neil S Coulson, Emma Bullock, Karen Rodham

  11. Conducting health survey research in a deep rural South African community: challenges and adaptive strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casale, Marisa; Lane, Tyler; Sello, Lebo; Kuo, Caroline; Cluver, Lucie

    2013-04-24

    In many parts of the developing world, rural health requires focused policy attention, informed by reliable, representative health data. Yet there is surprisingly little published material to guide health researchers who face the unique set of hurdles associated with conducting field research in remote rural areas. In this paper we provide a detailed description of the key challenges encountered during health survey field research carried out in 2010 in a deep rural site in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The aim of the field research was to collect data on the health of children aged 10 to 17 years old, and their primary adult caregivers, as part of a larger national health survey; the research was a collaboration between several South African and foreign universities, South African national government departments, and various NGO partners. In presenting each of the four fieldwork challenges encountered on this site, we describe the initial planning decisions made, the difficulties faced when implementing these in the field, and the adaptive strategies we used to respond to these challenges. We reflect on learnings of potential relevance for the research community. Our four key fieldwork challenges were scarce research capacity, staff relocation tensions, logistical constraints, and difficulties related to community buy-in. Addressing each of these obstacles required timely assessment of the situation and adaptation of field plans, in collaboration with our local NGO partner. Adaptive strategies included a greater use of local knowledge; the adoption of tribal authority boundaries as the smallest geopolitical units for sampling; a creative developmental approach to capacity building; and planned, on-going engagement with multiple community representatives. We argue that in order to maintain high scientific standards of research and manage to 'get the job done' on the ground, it is necessary to respond to fieldwork challenges that arise as a cohesive team, with timely

  12. Understanding and predicting social media use among community health center patients: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Carl L; West, Josh; Thackeray, Rosemary; Barnes, Michael D; Downey, Jordan

    2014-11-26

    The use of social media by health care organizations is growing and provides Web-based tools to connect patients, caregivers, and providers. The aim was to determine the use and factors predicting the use of social media for health care-related purposes among medically underserved primary care patients. A cross-sectional survey was administered to 444 patients of a federally qualified community health center. Community health center patients preferred that their providers use email, cell phones for texting, and Facebook and cell phone apps for sharing health information. Significantly more Hispanic than white patients believed their providers should use Facebook (P=.001), YouTube (P=.01), and Twitter (P=.04) for sharing health information. Use and intentions to use social media for health-related purposes were significantly higher for those patients with higher subjective norm scores. Understanding use and factors predicting use can increase adoption and utilization of social media for health care-related purposes among underserved patients in community health centers.

  13. Consumer and community involvement in health and medical research: evaluation by online survey of Australian training workshops for researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Anne; Alpers, Kirsten; Heyworth, Jane; Phuong, Cindy; Hanley, Bec

    2016-01-01

    In Australia, since 2009, the Consumer and Community Involvement Program (formerly the Consumer and Community Participation Program) has developed and run workshops to help people working in health and medical research involve more consumers (patients) and community members (the public) in their research. In 2012, workshop attendees were invited to do an online survey to find out the effect, if any, that attending a workshop had on their awareness of and attitudes to consumer and community involvement. They were also asked about changes in their behaviour when it came to the involvement of consumers and the community in their work. The study found that, for people who answered the survey, more than double the number found consumer and community involvement very relevant after attending a workshop, compared with the number who thought that before attending one. Also, amongst those who answered the survey, 94 % thought that the workshop increased their understanding about involvement. Background There is limited evidence of the benefits of providing training workshops for researchers on how to involve consumers (patients) and the community (public) in health and medical research. Australian training workshops were evaluated to contribute to the evidence base. The key objective was to evaluate the impact of the workshops in increasing awareness of consumer and community involvement; changing attitudes to future implementation of involvement activities and influencing behaviour in the methods of involvement used. A secondary objective was to use a formal evaluation survey to build on the anecdotal feedback received from researchers about changes in awareness, attitudes and behaviours. Methods The study used a cross-sectional, online survey of researchers, students, clinicians, administrators and members of non-government organisations who attended Consumer and Community Involvement Program training workshops between 2009 and 2012 to ascertain changes to awareness

  14. [Frequency and distribution of sleep problems and insomnia in the adult population in Germany: results of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlack, R; Hapke, U; Maske, U; Busch, M; Cohrs, S

    2013-05-01

    Sleep disturbances are associated with a variety of physical and mental health disorders and cause high direct and indirect economic costs. The aim of this study was to report the frequency and distribution of problems of sleep onset and maintaining sleep, sleep quality, effective sleep time, and the consumption of sleeping pills in the adult population in Germany. During the 4 weeks prior to the interview, about one third of the respondents reported potentially clinically relevant problems initiating or maintaining sleep; about one-fifth reported poor quality of sleep. When additionally considering impairments during the daytime such as daytime fatigue or exhaustion, a prevalence of 5.7 % for an insomnia syndrome was found. Women were twice as likely to be affected by insomnia-syndrome as men. Significant age differences were not seen. Persons with low socioeconomic status had an increased risk of insomnia (OR: 3.44) as did people residing in West Germany (OR: 1.53). Women with low socioeconomic status (OR: 4.12) and West German men (OR: 1.79) were more affected. The results illustrate the considerable public health relevance of insomnia-related sleep disturbances. An English full-text version of this article is available at SpringerLink as supplemental.

  15. Falls and comorbid conditions among community dwelling Arkansas older adults from a population-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Masil; Azhar, Gohar; Kilmer, Greta; Miller, Sabra; Bynum, LaTonya; Balamurugan, Appathurai

    2014-12-01

    The prevalence of self-reported falls and associated comorbid conditions among community dwelling Arkansas older adults (ages 65 years and older) was estimated using data from the 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey. 1,653 Arkansas older adults were surveyed. Eighteen percent of them had sustained a fall at least once in the past three months prior to the survey period. After adjusting for age, general health, coronary heart disease, diabetes status and quality rest or sleep in a multinomial logistic regression, we found that older adults with visual impairment (OR = 1.47; 95% CI: 1.02, 2.12), and those who use special equipment (OR = 2.85; 95% CI: 1.94, 4.19) were more likely to have sustained a fall. An integrated multidisciplinary approach in caring for older adults is imperative for preventing falls and fall-related injuries. This can also reduce-fall-related hospitalizations and potentially result in substantial cost savings as well as improve the quality of life of older Arkansans.

  16. A survey of skin conditions and concerns in South Asian Americans: a community-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Sejal K; Bhanusali, Dhaval G; Sachdev, Amit; Geria, Aanand N; Alexis, Andrew F

    2011-05-01

    South Asians represent a rapidly growing part of the U.S. population, increasing 188 percent from 1990 to 2000 (0.27% to 0.78%). Studies investigating the epidemiology of skin disorders in South Asian Americans are lacking. We sought to determine common skin conditions and concerns among this population. This was a community-based survey study. The IRB-approved survey tool was distributed to South Asians adults in the New York City area. All data was self-reported. 190 surveys were completed. 54 percent of responders were female and 46 percent were male. The age of participants ranged from 18-74 years. The respondents were predominantly foreign born (76%), but a large minority (32%) reported living in the U.S. for over 20 years. Nearly half (49%) of the study population reported having visited a dermatologist in the past. The five most common dermatologic diagnoses included: acne (37%), eczema (22%), fungal infection (11%), warts (8%) and moles (8%). The five most common concerns included: dry skin (25%), hair loss (22%), uneven tone (21%), dark spots (18%) and acne (17%). Our results suggest that the leading skin conditions and concerns in South Asian Americans are similar to those reported in other populations with skin of color.

  17. Distribution to the Astronomy Community of the Compressed Digitized Sky Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postman, Marc

    1996-03-01

    The Space Telescope Science Institute has compressed an all-sky collection of ground-based images and has printed the data on a two volume, 102 CD-ROM disc set. The first part of the survey (containing images of the southern sky) was published in May 1994. The second volume (containing images of the northern sky) was published in January 1995. Software which manages the image retrieval is included with each volume. The Astronomical Society of the Pacific (ASP) is handling the distribution of the lOx compressed data and has sold 310 sets as of October 1996. ASP is also handling the distribution of the recently published 100x version of the northern sky survey which is publicly available at a low cost. The target markets for the 100x compressed data set are the amateur astronomy community, educational institutions, and the general public. During the next year, we plan to publish the first version of a photometric calibration database which will allow users of the compressed sky survey to determine the brightness of stars in the images.

  18. Community-based distribution of family planning as perceived by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    From September 24 through October 4,1997, a cross-sectional survey was conducted to assess the status of Community-based distribution (CBD) of family planning as perceived by reproductive age groups aged 15-49 years and the CBD workers. The study covered 14 German Agency for Technical Co-operation (GTZ) ...

  19. The German contribution to South African librarianship | van der ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article deals with the contribution of the German community in the Cape to the development of librarianship in South Africa during the eighteenth, nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The influence and important role of certain German nationals have their origins before the onset of the nineteenth century when they had ...

  20. Health Information in German (Deutsch)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → German (Deutsch) URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/german.html Health Information in German (Deutsch) To use ...

  1. Analysis of High School German Textbooks through Rasch Measurement Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batdi, Veli; Elaldi, Senel

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to analyze German teacher trainers' views on high school German textbooks through the Rasch measurement model. A survey research design was employed and study group consisted of a total of 21 teacher trainers, three from each region and selected randomly from provinces which are located in seven regions and…

  2. Evaluation of clinical trials by Ethics Committees in Germany: Experience of applicants with the review of requests for opinion of the Ethics Committees - results of a survey among members of the German Association of Research-Based Pharmaceutical Companies (VFA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russ, Hagen

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The review of requests for a positive opinion of the ethics committees (application procedure as a requirement to start a clinical trial in Germany has been completely redesigned with the transposition of EU Directive 2001/20/EC in the 12th Amendment of the German Medicines Act in August 2004. The experience of applicants (sponsors, legal representatives of sponsors in the EU and persons or organizations authorized by the sponsors to make the application, respectively in terms of interactions with the ethics committees in Germany has been positive overall, especially with respect to ethics committee adherence to the statutory timelines applicable for review of requests. However, inconsistencies between ethics committees exist in terms of the form and content of the requirements for application documents and their evaluation.With the objective of further improving both the quality of applications and the evaluation of those applications by ethics committees, a survey among members of the German Association of Research-Based Pharmaceutical Companies (VFA was conducted from January to April 2008. Based on reasoned opinions issued by the respective ethics committee in charge of the coordinating principal investigator (coordinating ethics committee, the type and frequency of formal and content-related objections to applications according to § 7 of the German Good Clinical Practice (GCP Regulation were systematically documented, and qualitative and quantitative analyses performed. 21 out of 44 members of the VFA participated in the survey. 288 applications for Phase I–IV studies submitted between January and December 2007 to 40 ethics committees were evaluated.This survey shows that about one in six applications is incomplete and has formal and/or content objections, respectively, especially those that pertain to documents demonstrating the qualification of the investigator and/or suitability of the facilities. These objections are attributable to

  3. Evaluation of clinical trials by Ethics Committees in Germany: experience of applicants with the review of requests for opinion of the Ethics Committees - results of a survey among members of the German Association of Research-Based Pharmaceutical Companies (VFA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russ, Hagen; Busta, Susanne; Riedel, Axel; Zöllner, Gereon; Jost, Bertfried

    2009-07-16

    The review of requests for a positive opinion of the ethics committees (application procedure) as a requirement to start a clinical trial in Germany has been completely redesigned with the transposition of EU Directive 2001/20/EC in the 12(th) Amendment of the German Medicines Act in August 2004. The experience of applicants (sponsors, legal representatives of sponsors in the EU and persons or organizations authorized by the sponsors to make the application, respectively) in terms of interactions with the ethics committees in Germany has been positive overall, especially with respect to ethics committee adherence to the statutory timelines applicable for review of requests. However, inconsistencies between ethics committees exist in terms of the form and content of the requirements for application documents and their evaluation. With the objective of further improving both the quality of applications and the evaluation of those applications by ethics committees, a survey among members of the German Association of Research-Based Pharmaceutical Companies (VFA) was conducted from January to April 2008. Based on reasoned opinions issued by the respective ethics committee in charge of the coordinating principal investigator (coordinating ethics committee), the type and frequency of formal and content-related objections to applications according to section sign 7 of the German Good Clinical Practice (GCP) Regulation were systematically documented, and qualitative and quantitative analyses performed. 21 out of 44 members of the VFA participated in the survey. 288 applications for Phase I-IV studies submitted between January and December 2007 to 40 ethics committees were evaluated. This survey shows that about one in six applications is incomplete and has formal and/or content objections, respectively, especially those that pertain to documents demonstrating the qualification of the investigator and/or suitability of the facilities. These objections are attributable to

  4. Improving the Deaf community's access to prostate and testicular cancer information: a survey study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadler Georgia

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Members of the Deaf community face communication barriers to accessing health information. To resolve these inequalities, educational programs must be designed in the appropriate format and language to meet their needs. Methods Deaf men (102 were surveyed before, immediately following, and two months after viewing a 52-minute prostate and testicular cancer video in American Sign Language (ASL with open text captioning and voice overlay. To provide the Deaf community with information equivalent to that available to the hearing community, the video addressed two cancer topics in depth. While the inclusion of two cancer topics lengthened the video, it was anticipated to reduce redundancy and encourage men of diverse ages to learn in a supportive, culturally aligned environment while also covering more topics within the partnership's limited budget. Survey data were analyzed to evaluate the video's impact on viewers' pre- and post-intervention understanding of prostate and testicular cancers, as well as respondents' satisfaction with the video, exposure to and use of early detection services, and sources of cancer information. Results From baseline to immediately post-intervention, participants' overall knowledge increased significantly, and this gain was maintained at the two-month follow-up. Men of diverse ages were successfully recruited, and this worked effectively as a support group. However, combining two complex cancer topics, in depth, in one video appeared to make it more difficult for participants to retain as many relevant details specific to each cancer. Participants related that there was so much information that they would need to watch the video more than once to understand each topic fully. When surveyed about their best sources of health information, participants ranked doctors first and showed a preference for active rather than passive methods of learning. Conclusion After viewing this ASL video, participants

  5. Nurses who work in rural and remote communities in Canada: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, Martha L P; Stewart, Norma J; Kulig, Judith C; Anguish, Penny; Andrews, Mary Ellen; Banner, Davina; Garraway, Leana; Hanlon, Neil; Karunanayake, Chandima; Kilpatrick, Kelley; Koren, Irene; Kosteniuk, Julie; Martin-Misener, Ruth; Mix, Nadine; Moffitt, Pertice; Olynick, Janna; Penz, Kelly; Sluggett, Larine; Van Pelt, Linda; Wilson, Erin; Zimmer, Lela

    2017-05-23

    In Canada, as in other parts of the world, there is geographic maldistribution of the nursing workforce, and insufficient attention is paid to the strengths and needs of those providing care in rural and remote settings. In order to inform workforce planning, a national study, Nursing Practice in Rural and Remote Canada II, was conducted with the rural and remote regulated nursing workforce (registered nurses, nurse practitioners, licensed or registered practical nurses, and registered psychiatric nurses) with the intent of informing policy and planning about improving nursing services and access to care. In this article, the study methods are described along with an examination of the characteristics of the rural and remote nursing workforce with a focus on important variations among nurse types and regions. A cross-sectional survey used a mailed questionnaire with persistent follow-up to achieve a stratified systematic sample of 3822 regulated nurses from all provinces and territories, living outside of the commuting zones of large urban centers and in the north of Canada. Rural workforce characteristics reported here suggest the persistence of key characteristics noted in a previous Canada-wide survey of rural registered nurses (2001-2002), namely the aging of the rural nursing workforce, the growth in baccalaureate education for registered nurses, and increasing casualization. Two thirds of the nurses grew up in a community of under 10 000 people. While nurses' levels of satisfaction with their nursing practice and community are generally high, significant variations were noted by nurse type. Nurses reported coming to rural communities to work for reasons of location, interest in the practice setting, and income, and staying for similar reasons. Important variations were noted by nurse type and region. The proportion of the rural nursing workforce in Canada is continuing to decline in relation to the proportion of the Canadian population in rural and remote

  6. [A Questionnaire Survey on Cooperation between Community Pharmacies and Hospitals in Outpatient Chemotherapy-Comparison of Roles of Pharmacists in Community Pharmacy and Hospitals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishibashi, Masaaki; Ishii, Masakazu; Nagano, Miku; Kiuchi, Yuji; Iwamoto, Sanju

    2018-01-01

     Previous reports suggested that sharing outpatient information during chemotherapy is very important for managing pharmaceutical usage between community pharmacies and hospitals. We herein examined using a questionnaire survey whether pharmaceutical management for outpatient chemotherapy is desired by community and hospital pharmacists. The response rates were 44.3% (133/300) for pharmacists in community pharmacies and 53.7% (161/300) for pharmacists in hospitals. Prescriptions for outpatients during chemotherapy were issued at 88.2% of the hospitals. Currently, 28.9% of hospital pharmacists rarely provide pharmaceutical care, such as patient guidance and adverse effect monitoring, for outpatients receiving oral chemotherapy. Furthermore, whereas 93.7% of hospital pharmacists conducted prescription audits based on the chemotherapy regimen, audits were only performed by 14.8% of community pharmacists. Thus, outpatients, particularly those on oral regimens, were unable to receive safe pharmaceutical care during chemotherapy. Community pharmacists suggested that hospital pharmacists should use "medication notebooks" and disclose prescription information when providing clinical information to community pharmacists. They also suggested sending clinical information to hospital pharmacists by fax. On the other hand, hospital pharmacists suggested the use of "medication notebooks" and electronic medical records when providing clinical information to community pharmacists. In addition, they suggested for community pharmacists to use electronic medical records when providing clinical information to hospital pharmacists. As there may be differences in opinion between community and hospital pharmacists, mutual preliminary communication is important for successful outpatient chemotherapy.

  7. Engaging Community Leaders in the Development of a Cardiovascular Health Behavior Survey Using Focus Group–Based Cognitive Interviewing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwenyth R Wallen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Establishing the validity of health behavior surveys used in community-based participatory research (CBPR in diverse populations is often overlooked. A novel, group-based cognitive interviewing method was used to obtain qualitative data for tailoring a survey instrument designed to identify barriers to improved cardiovascular health in at-risk populations in Washington, DC. A focus group–based cognitive interview was conducted to assess item comprehension, recall, and interpretation and to establish the initial content validity of the survey. Thematic analysis of verbatim transcripts yielded 5 main themes for which participants (n = 8 suggested survey modifications, including survey item improvements, suggestions for additional items, community-specific issues, changes in the skip logic of the survey items, and the identification of typographical errors. Population-specific modifications were made, including the development of more culturally appropriate questions relevant to the community. Group-based cognitive interviewing provided an efficient and effective method for piloting a cardiovascular health survey instrument using CBPR.

  8. Attitudes of German Student Teachers on Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baar, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The contribution discusses attitudes of German Teacher Training Students on Inclusion based on an empirical analysis containing three elements: Evaluation of students' written exams, results of a survey with closed as open questions and the interpretation of group discussions among students about inclusion. One can see that, though the found-out…

  9. Dyspepsia in the community: value of a community-based mailed survey to identify potential participants for a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrick, Linda M; Locke, Giles Richard; Schleck, Cathy D; Zinsmeister, Alan R; Treder, Vickie; Talley, Nicholas J

    2015-08-01

    To assess the usefulness of a community-based mailed survey to identify participants with functional dyspepsia (FD) for a clinical trial. In 2008, a valid self-report questionnaire of gastrointestinal symptoms required for diagnosis of FD was mailed to randomly selected cohorts of Olmsted County, Minnesota, residents. From survey responses (54%), FD cases and controls were identified. Phone calls were completed in 2010 and 2011 to 54% of respondents offering participation to those meeting criteria. Of 937 people identified from the survey, 189 cases and 265 controls were contacted by phone using four questions similar to the written survey resulting in a moderate level of agreement (Kappa 0.43, 95% CI: 0.35- 0.51; p = 0.11). The proportion reporting FD symptoms by survey was 42%, while the proportion by phone was 38%. Comparing classification of cases and controls, 118 (62%) survey cases had dyspepsia symptoms on phone screening while 53 (20%) of the survey controls reported FD symptoms. Of 171 who had symptoms, 60 (35%) declined, 33 (19%) were over study age limit, 24 (14%) had inadequate symptom levels and 36 (21%) had comorbidities. Of survey respondents contacted, six (3%) people were enrolled with two screen fails resulting in four (1%) randomized. Agreement between survey and phone questions was modest. Classifications between case and control changed. People eligible and willing to participate were a fraction of people reporting symptoms. People participating in clinical trials do not broadly represent those in the population.

  10. Determinants, obstacles, sources and cooperation to innovation in Portuguese firms, using community innovation survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Aldina; Braga, Alexandra; Braga, Vitor

    2017-06-01

    Innovation is a topic of interest for the management researchers, confirmed by the creation of a Community Innovation Survey, which is an harmonised tool designed to provide information about Innovation in European Union enterprises. In this study, we use factorial analysis to identify the determinants and obstacles to innovation in Portuguese firms. The sources of innovation and cooperation to innovation are also analysed, using crossed information. For the determinants of innovation six factors were identified: Production costs and impacts to health and environment, Process and product innovation, Organizational innovation, Institutional sources of information, Others sources of information and Market sources of information. Obstacles to innovation were clustered into three groups: Knowledge and market factors, Cost factors and Reasons not to innovate. The main sources of innovation identified, in this study, are Suppliers and Clients, located in Portugal and in Europe. Cooperation partners are also majority Clients and Suppliers, in addition to other enterprises in the same group.

  11. Spirituality, resilience, and anger in survivors of violent trauma: a community survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Kathryn M; Davidson, Jonathan R T; Lee, Li-Ching

    2003-10-01

    This study evaluates the relationship between spirituality, resilience, anger and health status, and posttraumatic symptom severity in trauma survivors. A community sample (N = 1,200) completed an online survey that included measures of resilience, spirituality (general beliefs and reincarnation), anger, forgiveness, and hatred. In survivors of violent trauma (n = 648), these measures were evaluated with respect to their relationship to physical and mental health, trauma-related distress, and posttraumatic symptom severity. Using multivariate regression models, general spiritual beliefs and anger emerged in association with each outcome, whereas resilience was associated with health status and posttraumatic symptom severity only. Forgiveness, hatred, and beliefs in reincarnation were not associated with outcome. The importance of these findings to treating trauma survivors is discussed.

  12. Evaluating arts-based cancer education using an internet survey among Alaska community health workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cueva, Melany; Cueva, Katie; Dignan, Mark; Lanier, Anne; Kuhnley, Regina

    2014-09-01

    Cancer, considered a rare disease among Alaska Native people as recently as the 1950s, surpassed heart disease in the 1990s to become the leading cause of mortality. In response to Alaska's village-based Community Health Workers' (CHWs) desire to learn more about cancer for themselves and the people in their communities, cancer education that incorporated the expressive arts of moving, drawing, and sculpting was developed, implemented, and evaluated. Arts-based education integrates the dynamic wisdom and experiences of Alaska Native people and western medical knowledge to share cancer information in a culturally respectful way. Between May 2009 and March 2013, 12 5-day courses that included arts activities to support cancer information were provided for 118 CHWs in Anchorage, AK, USA. A post-course internet survey was conducted in April 2013, to learn how arts-based cancer education affected participants' knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors. Surveys were completed by 54 of the 96 course participants; 22 course participants were lost to follow-up. As a result of integrating the arts with cancer education, respondents reported an increase in their cancer knowledge and comfort with talking about cancer. Additionally, 82 % (44) of respondents described feeling differently about cancer. By integrating the arts with cancer information, participants reported healthy behavior changes for themselves (76 %), with their families (70 %), and in their work (72 %). The expressive arts of moving, drawing, and sculpting provided a creative pathway for diverse adult learners in Alaska to increase their cancer knowledge, comfort with talking about cancer, and wellness behaviors.

  13. Proxy-Reports in the Ascertainment of Disability Prevalence with American Community Survey Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siordia, C

    2014-01-01

    Population estimates on disability prevalence inform policy makers and public health professionals. Understanding how factors capable of affecting measurement (e.g., proxy-report) vary in the population is important for establishing level of confidence in sample-derived population estimates. To establish how use of proxy-reports varies by six disability types stratified by sex, race-ethnicity, and age group. Specific aim is achieved by investigating the number of proxy-reports used amongst the disable population. Cross-sectional study using American Community Survey (ACS) Public Use Microdata Sample (PUMS) 3-year file collected during 2009-2011 survey period. Community-dwelling population in continental United States (US). The unweighted count of 6,003,183 individuals in the microdata are said to represent about 193,277,485 individuals in the continental US population. Stratified disability period estimates are computed. Amongst the disable: the number of proxy-reports; allocations; and Person Inflation Ratios (PRIs) are presented by disability type. Half of all the reported disabilities are derived through the use of proxy-report. In addition, high rates of item-allocation and PRIs are generally found in race-ethnic minorities. Proxy-report use and PRIs are lower for those aged > 65-but not allocation rates. Although use of proxy report in the ascertainment of disability varies in complex ways, data suggest prevalence of proxy reports is lowest amongst Non-Latino-Black females ages 21 to 64. Efforts toward providing clinicians with high quality descriptive epidemiology should continue as a reliable thermometer for measuring disability in the population is needed.

  14. The impact of seizures on epilepsy outcomes: A national, community-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josephson, Colin B; Patten, Scott B; Bulloch, Andrew; Williams, Jeanne V A; Lavorato, Dina; Fiest, Kirsten M; Secco, Mary; Jette, Nathalie

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the impact of seizures on persons living with epilepsy in a national, community-based setting. The data source was the Survey of Living with Neurological Conditions in Canada (SLNCC), a cohort derived from a national population-based survey of noninstitutionalized persons aged 15 or more years. Participants had to be on a seizure drug or to have had a seizure in the past 5 years to meet the definition of active epilepsy. The respondents were further stratified by seizure status: the seizure group experienced ≥1 seizure in the past 5 years versus the no seizure group who were seizure-free in the past ≥5 years regardless of medication status. Weighted overall and stratified prevalence estimates and odds ratios were used to estimate associations. The SLNCC included 713 persons with epilepsy with a mean age of 45.4 (standard deviation 18.0) years. Fewer people in the seizure group (42.7%) reported being much better than a year ago versus those in the no seizure group (70.1%). Of those with seizures, 32.1% (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 18.8-45.3) had symptoms suggestive of major depression (as per the Patient Health Questionnaire-9) compared to 7.7% (95% CI 3.4-11.9) of those without seizures. Driving, educational, and work opportunities were also significantly limited, whereas stigma was significantly greater in those with seizures. This community-based study emphasizes the need for seizure freedom to improve clinical and psychosocial outcomes in persons with epilepsy. Seizure freedom has an important influence on overall health, as those with at least one seizure over the prior 5 years had an increased risk of mood disorders, worse quality of life, and faced significantly more stigma. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International League Against Epilepsy.

  15. Reconstructing the Past? Low German and the Creating of Regional Identity in Public Language Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reershemius, Gertrud

    2011-01-01

    This article deals with language contact between a dominant standard language--German--and a lesser-used variety--Low German--in a situation in which the minoritised language is threatened by language shift and language loss. It analyses the application of Low German in forms of public language display and the self-presentation of the community in…

  16. Community-based survey during rabies outbreaks in Rangjung town, Trashigang, eastern Bhutan, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenzin, Tenzin; Namgyal, Jamyang; Letho, Sangay

    2017-04-17

    Rabies is a highly fatal disease transmitted through the bite of a rabid animal. Human deaths can be prevented by prompt administering of rabies vaccine and rabies immunoglobulin following the exposure. An assessment of community knowledge, awareness and practices on rabies is important during outbreak to understand their preparedness and target educational messages and response activities by the rapid response team. A rabies outbreak has occurred in Rangjung town, eastern Bhutan on 4 October 2016. A rapid response team was activated to investigate outbreak and to establish a control program. A community-based questionnaire survey was conducted from 20 to 21 October 2016 to assess the community knowledge of rabies to guide outbreak preparedness and also target educational messages and response activities by the RRT. A total of 67 respondents were interviewed, of which 61% were female and 39% male. All the respondents have heard of rabies (100%), have knowledge on source of rabies (dog) and its mode of transmission in animals and humans. Most (61%) respondents were aware and also indicated that they would wash the animal bite wound with soap and water and seek medical care on the same day of exposure (100%). Majority (94%) of the respondents have indicated that they would report to the government agencies if they see any suspected rabid dogs in the community and suggested various control measures for dog population management and rabies in Rangjung including neutering procedure and mass dog vaccination. Although only few (10%) of the respondents households owned dogs and cats, but 50% of them have indicated that their dogs were allowed to roam outside the home premises posing risk of contracting rabies through rabid dog bites. Although this study indicates a high level of knowledge and awareness on rabies among the community, there exists some knowledge gaps about rabies and therefore, an awareness education should be focused on the source of rabies and rabies virus

  17. Becoming German: Integration, Citizenship and Territorialization of Germanness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fogelman, Tatiana

    2017-01-01

    transforms Germanness into more of a lived experience of the territorially grounded, emplaced German society, opening up more space to migrants to become-German. In the conclusion, I consider how this potential opening up of Germanness continues to be threatened by concomitant developments, including...

  18. Frequency and relevance of psychoeducation in psychiatric diagnoses: Results of two surveys five years apart in German-speaking European countries

    OpenAIRE

    Rummel-Kluge, Christine; Kluge, Michael; Kissling, Werner

    2013-01-01

    Background Psychoeducation has been shown to reduce relapse rates in several psychiatric disorders. Studies investigating for which psychiatric diagnoses psychoeducation is offered and assessing its perceived relevance compared to other interventions are lacking. Methods A two-part questionnaire addressing these questions was sent to the heads of all psychiatric hospitals in Germany, Austria and Switzerland. Results were compared with those from a similar survey 5 years earlier. Results 289 o...

  19. Comprehensive survey of deep learning in remote sensing: theories, tools, and challenges for the community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, John E.; Anderson, Derek T.; Chan, Chee Seng

    2017-10-01

    In recent years, deep learning (DL), a rebranding of neural networks (NNs), has risen to the top in numerous areas, namely computer vision (CV), speech recognition, and natural language processing. Whereas remote sensing (RS) possesses a number of unique challenges, primarily related to sensors and applications, inevitably RS draws from many of the same theories as CV, e.g., statistics, fusion, and machine learning, to name a few. This means that the RS community should not only be aware of advancements such as DL, but also be leading researchers in this area. Herein, we provide the most comprehensive survey of state-of-the-art RS DL research. We also review recent new developments in the DL field that can be used in DL for RS. Namely, we focus on theories, tools, and challenges for the RS community. Specifically, we focus on unsolved challenges and opportunities as they relate to (i) inadequate data sets, (ii) human-understandable solutions for modeling physical phenomena, (iii) big data, (iv) nontraditional heterogeneous data sources, (v) DL architectures and learning algorithms for spectral, spatial, and temporal data, (vi) transfer learning, (vii) an improved theoretical understanding of DL systems, (viii) high barriers to entry, and (ix) training and optimizing the DL.

  20. Community environmental quality knowledge and awareness among nurses: developing and piloting an assessment survey in schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shendell, Derek G; Alexander, Melannie S; Huang, Yuqi

    2010-01-01

    About one in five Americans spends a considerable number of hours in school each week, and thus, is exposed to a variety of environmental agents. Community health nursing professionals require resources and specific training to acquire the environmental knowledge needed to raise personal and community awareness as an enhancement of their practice. Given limited resources for schools and local public health education initiatives, identifying and prioritizing environmental concerns comes before actions to prevent or reduce exposures. With the rise in prevalence of childhood asthma, of special concern are those agents within the school environment that may serve as asthma triggers. This pilot project, within a larger study in a large school district in metropolitan Atlanta, Georgia, developed and piloted an environmental health priorities survey with school nurses and other school staff about indoor and outdoor microenvironments relevant to school-aged children. Findings indicate that participants (N = 34) could prioritize environmental issues to inform future intervention activities (such as continuing education training), and distinguish predominantly indoor from typical outdoor exposure agents and their major sources.

  1. Sharing prescription medicines: results of a survey of community pharmacy clients in Auckland, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascoyne, Alexandra; Beyene, Kebede; Stewart, Joanna; Aspden, Trudi; Sheridan, Janie

    2014-12-01

    The practice of medication sharing, the lending (giving) or borrowing (taking) of prescription medicines, has been reported increasingly in the literature. This study aimed to investigate prescription medication sharing practices among adults in Auckland, New Zealand. Community pharmacies in Auckland. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in ten community pharmacies in Auckland during March, 2012. Clients were invited to complete an anonymous questionnaire to assess their medication sharing practices. Proportion of respondents reporting lending or borrowing; information provided or received. Of all participants (N = 642), 25.5% reported borrowing, and 24.1% reported lending prescribed medicines in the past year. Furthermore, 14.8% of participants reported ever giving a child's prescribed medicine to another child in their care, and 49.8% reported having leftover prescription medicines at home. Of those who borrowed medicines (n = 164), 56.1% received written medication instructions from the lender, and of the lenders (n = 155), 47.1% provided verbal instructions with the lent medicines. The sharing of prescription medicines in Auckland appears to be similar to that reported in other developed countries, and it is now clear that information provision while sharing does not always occur. Approaches to reduce harm resulting from sharing medicines should be explored.

  2. Health seeking behavior following snakebites in Sri Lanka: Results of an island wide community based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ediriweera, Dileepa Senajith; Kasturiratne, Anuradhani; Pathmeswaran, Arunasalam; Gunawardena, Nipul Kithsiri; Jayamanne, Shaluka Francis; Lalloo, David Griffith; de Silva, Hithanadura Janaka

    2017-11-01

    Sri Lanka has a population of 21 million and about 80,000 snakebites occur annually. However, there are limited data on health seeking behavior following bites. We investigated the effects of snakebite and envenoming on health seeking behavior in Sri Lanka. In a community-based island-wide survey conducted in Sri Lanka 44,136 households were sampled using a multistage cluster sampling method. An individual who reported experiencing a snakebite within the preceding 12 months was considered a case. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to obtain details of the bite and health seeking behavior among cases. Among 165,665 individuals surveyed, there were 695 snakebite victims. 682 (98.1%) had sought health care after the bite; 381 (54.8%) sought allopathic treatment and 301 (43.3%) sought traditional treatment. 323 (46.5%) had evidence of probable envenoming, among them 227 (70.3%) sought allopathic treatment, 94 (29.1%) sought traditional treatment and 2 did not seek treatment. There was wide geographic variation in the proportion of seeking allopathic treatment from 90% in the Northern province. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that seeking allopathic treatment was independently associated with being systemically envenomed (Odds Ratio = 1.99, 95% CI: 1.36-2.90, P Sri Lanka, both allopathic and traditional treatments are sought following snakebite. The presence of probable envenoming was a major contribution to seeking allopathic treatment.

  3. Falls and other geriatric syndromes in Blantyre, Malawi: a community survey of older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allain, T J; Mwambelo, M; Mdolo, T; Mfune, P

    2014-12-01

    The prevalence of geriatric syndromes (falls, immobility, intellectual or memory impairment, and incontinence) is unknown in many resource-poor countries. With an aging population such knowledge is essential to develop national policies on the health and social needs of older people. The aim of this study was to provide a preliminary survey to explore the prevalence of falls and other geriatric syndromes and their association with known risk factors in people aged > 60 years in urban Blantyre, Malawi. This was a cross-sectional, community survey of adults aged > 60 years. Subjects were recruited at home or in the waiting areas of chronic care clinics. They were interviewed to complete a questionnaire on age-associated syndromes and comorbid problems. The Abbreviated Mental Test (AMT) and Timed Up and Go (TUG) tests were carried out. Ninety-eight subjects were studied; 41% reported falling in the past 12 months, 33% of whom (13% of all subjects) were recurrent fallers. Twenty-five percent reported urine incontinence, 66% self-reported memory difficulties, and 11% had an AMT score Blantyre, Malawi. Falling is associated with cognitive impairment and urinary incontinence. There is an urgent need for more understanding of geriatric problems in this setting to develop national policies on health and social needs of older people. It is likely that many of the contributory factors to falls would be amenable to multifactorial interventions similar to those found to be effective in developed countries.

  4. Beliefs in karma and reincarnation among survivors of violent trauma--a community survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Jonathan R T; Connor, Kathryn M; Lee, Li-Ching

    2005-02-01

    This survey was designed to examine beliefs in karma and reincarnation among survivors of violent trauma in the general US population. Two community surveys were conducted in 2001. From a sample of 1,969 respondents, two groups were created based on level of agreement with karmic belief. This sample forms the basis of this report. Information was obtained as to mental and physical health, resilience, exposure to violent trauma, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity, and the cohorts were compared on these variables. Five percent of the sample admitted strong agreement to a belief in karma and reincarnation (n=99), while 77% strongly disagreed with these beliefs (n=1,511). Characteristics associated with agreement included being non-white, unmarried, and in poor physical and mental health. Moreover, agreement was associated with more extensive traumatization, including abuse, rape, and loss of a family member through violent death, as well as more severe posttraumatic stress symptoms. Few people subscribe strongly to a belief in karma and reincarnation in the US population, but personal experience of trauma may be associated with greater acceptance, as well as certain demographic and health-associated variables. The importance of holding such beliefs, which may represent an important way of coping following violent trauma, deserves further study.

  5. A community-based survey of visible congenital anomalies in rural Tamil Nadu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sridhar K

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available An extensive community-based survey of visible congenital defects covering 12.8 million children in rural Tamil Nadu state was conducted during the years 2004-05. A door-to-door survey was done utilizing the existing health care delivery system. More than 10,000 village health nurses were involved to collect the data. All children between the ages of 0 and 15 years were seen. The children with defects were seen by a medical officer and diagnosis was made as per chart. A total of 1.30% of children were born with some visible anomalies. The male:female ratio was 1.3:1. There was a family history in 9% and consanguinity in 32%. More than 5% mothers had taken some medication in the first trimester of pregnancy out of which anti-convulsants were 3.4%. Facial clefts showed a lower incidence of 1 in 1976 live births with peak incidence between March and June. Cleft palate alone showed a higher percentage (30% than other studies.

  6. Ethnomedicinal survey of a maroon community in Brazil's Atlantic tropical forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Santana, Bruna Farias; Voeks, Robert A; Funch, Ligia Silveira

    2016-04-02

    Considerable medicinal plant research in Brazil has focused on indigenous and mixed-race (caboclo and caiçara) communities, but relatively few studies have examined the medicinal plants and associated healing traditions of the descendants of enslaved Africans. This study surveyed the medicinal plants employed by a relatively isolated maroon community of Afro-Brazilians in the Atlantic coastal rainforests of Bahia, Brazil, a global biodiversity hotspot. The studied community is exceptional in that the residents were defacto slaves until several years ago, with no access to western medicine. We examined the following questions: 1) What medicinal plants are used in this community? 2) What are the principal taxonomic groups, life forms, source habitats, and geographical origins? 3) What species stand out as measured by use value and frequency indices? and 4) Is the community's geographical isolation and African ancestry reflected in their medicinal uses of the local flora? The study was carried out in the Quilombo Salamina Putumuju maroon community in Bahia, Brazil. Data were collected from May to October 2014 from 74 individuals (37 men and 37 women) by means of semi-structured interviews, walk in the woods, and vouchering of identified species. We used the Cultural Value Index (CV), the Relative Frequency Index (RF), and the Use Value Index (UV) to determine the importance of medicinal plant resources. Continuity of African medicinal plant uses and traditions was determined through self-reporting and comparison with previously published works. We recorded 118 medicinal plant species distributed in 100 genera and 51 families. The best represented families were: Asteraceae, Fabaceae, Lamiaceae and Myrtaceae. Most plant medicines were used to treat respiratory, digestive systems, genitourinary, and skin problems. The most common medicinal life form was herbs (44%), followed by trees (28%) and shrubs (18%). Native species (55%) were used somewhat more than exotic

  7. The benefits to medical undergraduates of exposure to community-based survey research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongre, A R; Kalaiselvan, G; Mahalakshmy, T

    2011-12-01

    In India, there has been little effort to teach medical students about public health research. Few medical institutions in India and nearby Nepal formally offer exposure to field surveys or projects to medical undergraduates as a part of their training in community medicine. Little is known about the effect of such activity on students or how they apply what they learn. We implemented a systematic, hands-on experience in the public health research process with medical undergraduates in Puducherry, India to evaluate its effect on students. Two groups, each with 30 third-semester (second year) medical undergraduates, participated in a 15-day, two and one-half hours per day course on the public health research process. At the end of course, a retrospective post-then-pre self-assessment of students skills was obtained. One year later, we resurveyed students with open-ended questions to assess their impressions of what they had gained from learning about the field survey process. Out of the 60 students, 55 (91.6%) provided complete responses for analysis. The mean post-exposure Likert scores of students self-perceived skills and knowledge were significantly higher than their retrospective assessments of themselves prior to the course in areas such as being aware of the public health research process, their skills in interviewing and communicating with local villagers, and ability to collect, enter via computer and present gathered information (p undergraduates to the survey research process appears to help them be better clinicians, who are able to understand and use field level data.

  8. Counting and Surveying Homeless Youth: Recommendations from YouthCount 2.0!, a Community-Academic Partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narendorf, Sarah C; Santa Maria, Diane M; Ha, Yoonsook; Cooper, Jenna; Schieszler, Christine

    2016-12-01

    Communities across the United States are increasing efforts to find and count homeless youth. This paper presents findings and lessons learned from a community/academic partnership to count homeless youth and conduct an in depth research survey focused on the health needs of this population. Over a 4 week recruitment period, 632 youth were counted and 420 surveyed. Methodological successes included an extended counting period, broader inclusion criteria to capture those in unstable housing, use of student volunteers in health training programs, recruiting from magnet events for high risk youth, and partnering with community agencies to disseminate findings. Strategies that did not facilitate recruitment included respondent driven sampling, street canvassing beyond known hotspots, and having community agencies lead data collection. Surveying was successful in gathering data on reasons for homelessness, history in public systems of care, mental health history and needs, sexual risk behaviors, health status, and substance use. Youth were successfully surveyed across housing types including shelters or transitional housing (n = 205), those in unstable housing such as doubled up with friends or acquaintances (n = 75), and those who were literally on the streets or living in a place not meant for human habitation (n = 140). Most youth completed the self-report survey and provided detailed information about risk behaviors. Recommendations to combine research data collection with counting are presented.

  9. ASSESSING THE CONSERVATION STATUS OF EUROPEAN UNION HABITATS – RESULTS OF THE COMMUNITY REPORT WITH A CASE STUDY OF THE GERMAN NATIONAL REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. BALZER

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The EU Habitats Directive requires all member states to report every 6 years on the implementation of the Directive. The report covering the period 2000 – 2006 included for the first time an assessment of the conservation status of the habitats and species listed on annexes I, II, IV & V of the Habitats Directive following an agreed format. Based on national reports submitted from member States the European Topic Centre on Biological Diversity has prepared assessments for each biogeographical region at EU-level. The majority of the habitats of Annex I are not at favourable status although there is much variation both between countries and regions and between habitats. The results will be discussed at European level and at member state level with a case study of the German national report. At the same time a number of methodical problems became apparent both in Germany and at EU-level. Work is already under way to improve the next report for the period 2007 – 2012. The dimension of management needs, threats and pressures and the time scale for improvements of the conservation status are discussed. Habitats linked to agriculture appear to be particularly unfavourable.

  10. ASSESSING THE CONSERVATION STATUS OF EUROPEAN UNION HABITATS – RESULTS OF THE COMMUNITY REPORT WITH A CASE STUDY OF THE GERMAN NATIONAL REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. SIPKOVA

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The EU Habitats Directive requires all member states to report every 6 years on the implementation of the Directive. The report covering the period 2000 – 2006 included for the first time an assessment of the conservation status of the habitats and species listed on annexes I, II, IV & V of the Habitats Directive following an agreed format. Based on national reports submitted from member States the European Topic Centre on Biological Diversity has prepared assessments for each biogeographical region at EU-level. The majority of the habitats of Annex I are not at favourable status although there is much variation both between countries and regions and between habitats. The results will be discussed at European level and at member state level with a case study of the German national report. At the same time a number of methodical problems became apparent both in Germany and at EU-level. Work is already under way to improve the next report for the period 2007 – 2012. The dimension of management needs, threats and pressures and the time scale for improvements of the conservation status are discussed. Habitats linked to agriculture appear to be particularly unfavourable.

  11. A survey of anticoagulation practice among German speaking microsurgeons – Perioperative management of anticoagulant therapy in free flap surgery [Erhebung über die antikoagulatorische Praxis unter deutschsprachigen Mikrochirurgen – Perioperatives Management der antikoagulatorischen Therapie bei freien Lappentransplantaten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jokuszies, Andreas

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available [english] Background: Anticoagulation is a crucial element in microsurgery. Although various clinical studies and international surveys have revealed that anticoagulation strategies can vary and result in similar outcomes, anticoagulative regimen are far away from standardization. In Germany and german speaking countries standardized anticoagulation protocols concerning free flap surgery do not exist so far. Methods: To evaluate the current practice of clinics in Germany, Austria and Switzerland with specialization in microsurgery we performed a questionnaire surveying the perioperative regimen of anticoagulant and antiplatelet therapy in free flap surgery. The microsurgeons were interrogated on several anticoagulant, rheologic and antiplatelet medications, their dosage and perioperative frequency of application pre-, intra- and postoperative.Results: The questionnaire revealed that the used antithrombotic and perioperative regimens varied from department to department presumably based on the personal experience of the surgeon. Multiple approaches are used with a wide range of anticoagulants used either alone or in combination, with different intervals of application and different dosages. Conclusion: Therefore consensus meetings should be held in future leading to conduct prospective multicenter studies with formulation of standardized anticoagulative and perioperative protocols in microsurgery reducing flap failure to other than pharmacologic reasons.[german] Hintergrund: Die Antikoagulation stellt ein zentrales Element in der Mikrochirurgie dar. Zahlreiche klinische Studien und internationale Erhebungen zu antikoagulatorischen Strategien weisen eine grosse Varianz bei vergleichbaren Resultaten nach, entbehren jedoch einer Standardisierung. Auch in Deutschland und deutschsprachigen Ländern fehlen bislang standardisierte Regime zur Antikoagulation in der Mikrochirurgie.Methodik: Zur Erhebung der antikoagulatorischen Praxis unter

  12. Pipeline Corridors through wetlands -- Impacts on plant communities: Mill Creek Tributary Crossing, Jefferson County, New York, 1992 Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Dyke, G.D. [Trinity Christian Coll., Palos Heights, IL (United States). Dept. of Biology; Shem, L.M.; Zimmerman, R.E. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1994-12-01

    The goal of the Gas Research Institute Wetland Corridors Program is to identify representative impacts of existing pipelines on the wetlands they traverse. To accomplish this goal, 12 existing wetland crossings were surveyed. These sites varied in elapsed time since pipeline construction, wetland type, pipeline installation techniques, and right-of-way (ROW) management practices. This report presents the results of the survey July 1992, at the Mills Creek tributary crossing, Jefferson County, New York. Data were collected from three wetland communities along the 1991 pipeline and compared with predisturbance data obtained in a June 1991 survey. Within one year after pipeline installation, 50% of the soil surface of the ROW in the scrub-shrub community was covered by emergent vegetation. Average wetland values for the ROW in 1992 were lower than in 1991, indicating that the removal of woody plants resulted in a community composed of species with greater fidelity to wetlands. In the emergent marsh community after one year, the average percentage of surface covered by standing water was greater in the ROW than in the adjacent natural areas. The ROW in the forested wetland community also contained standing water, although none was found in the natural forest areas. The entire study site remains a wetland, with the majority of plant species in all sites being either obligate or facultative wetland species. Weighted and unweighted average wetland indices for each community, using all species, indicated wetland vegetation within the newly established ROW.

  13. West German Jewry: Guilt, Power and Pluralism

    OpenAIRE

    Anthony d. Kauders

    2010-01-01

    The essay will address the history of West German Jewry using the concept of guilt as its guiding theme. Jews in West Germany had a bad conscience on account of living in the “land of the murderers.” This bad conscience not only distinguished them from other Jewish communities, it also explains much of what characterized West German Jewry from 1945 to 1989: its particular economic structure; its especially close ties to Israel; its preoccupation with democratization; its power arrangements; a...

  14. German-Chinese wedding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iken, Joern

    2010-07-01

    German wind power technology is widely regarded as being ahead of its competitors worldwide. Combine this technology with production in China and a renowned designer and you should get a competitive product. (orig.)

  15. Germanic Verb Particle Variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikner, Sten

    2017-01-01

    This paper has two closely related goals. The more "global" one is to present an overview of the variation conceming verb particles across the Germanic languages (see e.g. den Dikken 1995; Haiden 2005; Mclntyre 2007 and many others), and the more "local" one is to use some of this variation data...... to argue for Yiddish being an SOV-language like German and Dutch rather than an SVO-language like English and the Scandinavian languages....

  16. German Business in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irakliy D. Gvazava

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Since Perestroika German-Russian relationships have been steadily developing fueled by close contacts between the leaders of both countries. Boris Yeltsin and Helmut Kohl, Vladimir Putin and Gerhard Schröder, Dmitry Medvedev and Angela Merkel had friendly relations resulted in some fruitful business projects, intergovernmental economic forums etc. In my article I will consider the activities of German companies in Russia, advantages, barriers and expectations

  17. [Special Issue on SEA Demographics] Response - Language Policy: Using the American Community Survey to Investigate Bilingualism and Biliteracy among Immigrant Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerda de Klerk

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is a response to Mark Pfeifer’s Cambodian, Hmong, Lao and Vietnamese Americans in the 2005 American Community Survey and elaborates on the utility of the American Community Survey (ACS for studying immigrant groups in the United States of America, and also compares the ACS to the U.S. Census. Neither the Census nor ACS questionnaire is structured to capture the language and literacy skills of immigrant communities in as far as these surveys only collect information about respondents’ oral language abilities, with a focus on English fluency. Direct, self-reported, and surrogate measures of literacy are discussed, with a proposal to use education level as surrogate for literacy. Using the Vietnamese subpopulation in the ACS, examples are presented of ways to construct composite variables from the ACS raw microdata, to measure respondents’ bilingualism and biliteracy. When such new variables are used in analysis of immigrant communities, a more complex multilingual picture emerges than is presented normally in Census and ACS data products available to the public.

  18. A Survey of Dog Owners in Remote Northern Australian Indigenous Communities to Inform Rabies Incursion Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Emily G.; Dhand, Navneet; Dürr, Salome; Ward, Michael P.

    2016-01-01

    Australia is underprepared for a rabies incursion due to a lack of information about how a rabies outbreak would spread within the susceptible canine populations and which control strategies would be best to control it. The aim of this study was to collect information to parameterize a recently developed dog rabies spread model as well as use this information to gauge how the community would accept potential control strategies. Such information–together with model outputs–would be used to inform decision makers on the best control strategies and improve Australia’s preparedness against a canine rabies incursion. The parameters this study focussed on were detection time, vaccination rates and dog-culling and dog movement restriction compliance. A cross-sectional survey of 31 dog-owners, using a questionnaire, was undertaken in the five communities of the Northern Peninsular Area (NPA) in northern Australia regarding community dog movements, veterinary visits, reporting systems, perceptions of sick dogs and potential human behaviours during hypothetical rabies outbreaks. It highlighted the significant shortfalls in veterinary care that would need to be vastly improved during an outbreak, who educational programs should be targeted towards and which dog movements should be restricted. The results indicate that men were significantly more likely than women to allow their dogs to roam and to move their dogs. The current low vaccination rate of 12% highlighted the limited veterinary services that would need to be substantially increased to achieve effective rabies control. Participation in mass vaccination was accepted by 100% of the respondents. There was lower acceptance for other possible rabies control strategies with 10–20% of the respondents stating a resistance to both a mass culling program and a ban on dog movements. Consequently, movement bans and mass dog culling would have limited effectiveness as a control strategy in the NPA community. More than

  19. A Survey of Dog Owners in Remote Northern Australian Indigenous Communities to Inform Rabies Incursion Planning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily G Hudson

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Australia is underprepared for a rabies incursion due to a lack of information about how a rabies outbreak would spread within the susceptible canine populations and which control strategies would be best to control it. The aim of this study was to collect information to parameterize a recently developed dog rabies spread model as well as use this information to gauge how the community would accept potential control strategies. Such information-together with model outputs-would be used to inform decision makers on the best control strategies and improve Australia's preparedness against a canine rabies incursion. The parameters this study focussed on were detection time, vaccination rates and dog-culling and dog movement restriction compliance. A cross-sectional survey of 31 dog-owners, using a questionnaire, was undertaken in the five communities of the Northern Peninsular Area (NPA in northern Australia regarding community dog movements, veterinary visits, reporting systems, perceptions of sick dogs and potential human behaviours during hypothetical rabies outbreaks. It highlighted the significant shortfalls in veterinary care that would need to be vastly improved during an outbreak, who educational programs should be targeted towards and which dog movements should be restricted. The results indicate that men were significantly more likely than women to allow their dogs to roam and to move their dogs. The current low vaccination rate of 12% highlighted the limited veterinary services that would need to be substantially increased to achieve effective rabies control. Participation in mass vaccination was accepted by 100% of the respondents. There was lower acceptance for other possible rabies control strategies with 10-20% of the respondents stating a resistance to both a mass culling program and a ban on dog movements. Consequently, movement bans and mass dog culling would have limited effectiveness as a control strategy in the NPA community

  20. Communication and social competencies in medical education in German-speaking countries: the Basel consensus statement. Results of a Delphi survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiessling, Claudia; Dieterich, Anja; Fabry, Götz; Hölzer, Henrike; Langewitz, Wolf; Mühlinghaus, Isabel; Pruskil, Susanne; Scheffer, Simone; Schubert, Sebastian

    2010-11-01

    To propose a comprehensive set of competencies and educational objectives for communication and social competencies in undergraduate medical education and to support the nationwide implementation of these issues in all medical schools. Thirty experts from different medical and psychosocial disciplines participated in a 2-day workshop using the Nominal Group Technique (NGT) to develop an initial set of educational objectives. These were refined, structured, and rated according to their importance by means of a two-step Delphi Survey involving additional experts in medical education. The initial workshop resulted in 188 educational objectives assigned to 26 different topics. After the Delphi Survey, 131 objectives remained, assigned to 19 different topics. Some objectives that could be assigned to more than one topic were subsumed under a new more general category. The described consensus process proved successful as one method to develop a set of educational objectives. The Basel consensus statement can be used to orientate curriculum reform and development in medical education. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Influence of coral cover and structural complexity on the accuracy of visual surveys of coral-reef fish communities

    KAUST Repository

    Coker, Darren James

    2017-04-20

    Using manipulated patch reefs with combinations of varying live-coral cover (low, medium and high) and structural complexity (low and high), common community metrics (abundance, diversity, richness and community composition) collected through standard underwater visual census techniques were compared with exhaustive collections using a fish anaesthetic (clove oil). This study showed that reef condition did not influence underwater visual census estimates at a community level, but reef condition can influence the detectability of some small and cryptic species and this may be exacerbated if surveys are conducted on a larger scale.

  2. Influence of coral cover and structural complexity on the accuracy of visual surveys of coral-reef fish communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, D J; Nowicki, J P; Graham, N A J

    2017-06-01

    Using manipulated patch reefs with combinations of varying live-coral cover (low, medium and high) and structural complexity (low and high), common community metrics (abundance, diversity, richness and community composition) collected through standard underwater visual census techniques were compared with exhaustive collections using a fish anaesthetic (clove oil). This study showed that reef condition did not influence underwater visual census estimates at a community level, but reef condition can influence the detectability of some small and cryptic species and this may be exacerbated if surveys are conducted on a larger scale. © 2017 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  3. Results of a survey on applied quality standards in non-interventional studies among the members of the German Association of Research-based Pharmaceutical Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Michael; Ruppert, Thorsten; Bethke, Thomas D.; Hundt, Ferdinand

    2010-01-01

    After the regulatory approval has been obtained, epidemiological studies are acknowledged scientific medical research methods for a new drug which provide additional knowledge about routine application of the drug in clinical daily routine. These studies are performed according to the recommendations of both international and national expert associations, the recommendations of the higher federal authorities in Germany and according to the recommendations of the associations of the pharmaceutical industry. Two surveys among the member companies of the Association of Research-based Pharmaceutical Companies investigated the status of the implementation of the recommendations in the years 2008 and 2010 and compared the results with each other. It could be shown that these recommendations were implemented successfully and were fully adhered to during the conduct of non-interventional studies in Germany. The recommendations define a quality standard which justifies a high level of confidence in the validity of the data collected and the results from these investigations. PMID:21063466

  4. Determinants of agreement between self-reported and parent-assessed quality of life for children in Germany-results of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellert Ute

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study is to quantify the level of agreement between self-reporting and proxy-assessment of children's health-related quality of life using KINDL-R in a large population based study in Germany and to identify factors which are associated with agreement. Methods The German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents included the KINDL-R questionnaire on health-related quality of life. 6388 children and adolescents filled in the questionnaire while their parents answered the proxy version. Means and standard deviation for the self- and proxy ratings, and also the Pearson und Intra-Class correlation coefficients for the absolute agreement were calculated. The relationship between other variables and parent-child agreement were determined by means of logistic regression. Results In the 'Physical', 'Self-esteem' and 'School' dimension and for the 'Total' score, the parents significantly overestimated the quality of life of their child. In contrast, the quality of life of the children in the dimensions 'Psychological well-being' and 'Family' were considerably underestimated by the parents. The proportion of parent-child ratings in agreement (difference Conclusions Our study shows that parental reports cannot adequately replace self-assessment for 11-17 year olds. In view of the different underlying perspectives, the parental assessments should where possible only be regarded as providing supplementary information.

  5. The "Comprehensive ICF Core Set for Head and Neck Cancer": a Delphi consensus survey among German speaking speech and language therapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelbarts, Matthias; Schuster, Vanessa; Kisser, Ulrich; Sabariego, Carla; Stier-Jarmer, Marita; Coenen, Michaela; Ernst, Benjamin Philipp; Strieth, Sebastian; Harréus, Ulrich; Becker, Sven

    2017-06-01

    The "Comprehensive ICF Core Set for Head and Neck Cancer" (ICF-HNC) is an application of the "International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health" (ICF), representing the characteristic spectrum of issues in patients with head and neck cancer (HNC). Our primary aim was to evaluate which categories of the ICF-HNC are dealt with by speech and language therapists (SLTs) in Germany, Austria, and Switzerland. The secondary aim was to identify outcome measures used by SLTs to measure the categories of the ICF-HNC in clinical practice. SLTs experienced in the treatment of HNC patients evaluated the categories of the ICF-HNC in a three-round Delphi survey. They were asked whether the listed categories represented issues treated by SLTs in HNC patients, and what outcome measures were used to assess them. Altogether, 31 SLTs completed the survey. 47 of 108 previously selected categories of the ICF-HNC achieved the cut-off value. Out of these, 40.4% were derived from the component "Body Functions", 36.2% from "Body Structures", 12.8% from "Environmental Factors", and 10.6% from "Activities and Participation". Altogether, 82 of the mentioned outcome measures were considered as reasonable from the perspective of SLTs. Of these, only 37 achieved more than 50% approval. This study emphasises the importance of "Body Structures" and "Body Functions" for SLTs in Germany and Switzerland in treating patients with HNC. Moreover, the results highlighted the need to agree on evidence-based outcome measures in speech and language therapy.

  6. Military and Veteran Student Achievement in Postsecondary Education: A Structural Equation Model Using the Community College Survey of Men (CCSM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    De LaGarza, Thomas R.; Manuel, Marcus A.; Wood, J. Luke; Harris, Frank, III

    2016-01-01

    Few quantitative studies exist on veteran success in postsecondary education, and existing qualitative research has also not accurately identified factors related to veteran achievement or pathways to success in postsecondary education. In this article, the Community College Survey of Men (CCSM) evaluates predictors of student success for…

  7. Defining Malnutrition in Community Nutrition Surveys: Which is the Right Indicator?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshmukh, Urmila; Joshi, Suyog; Joglekar, Charudatta; Rush, Elaine; Kurpad, Anura; Yajnik, Chittaranjan

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Background: In India, community nutrition surveys of children use weight-for-height Z scores (WHZ) and the World Health Organisation (WHO) International Growth Standards to classify malnutrition and to admit children to the nutrition rehabilitation program. Weight-for-height, an age independent indicator, does not provide information about the prevalence of stunting (height) and underweight which are age-dependent. Children who participated in a rural-community based intervention trial, in Maharashtra, India, of the effect of vitamin B-12 supplementation on growth and body composition were measured at before and after 18 months. The B-12 intervention was discontinued and recruitment stopped when a state-wide government nutrition programme for undernourished children was rolled out. Methods: One hundred and eleven children (6–60 months; 54 boys) attending village Anganwadi centres were enrolled. According to baseline WHZ: 54 were severely wasted (WHZ<-3sd, severe acute malnutrition, SAM), 32 moderately wasted (WHZ> = -3 and <-2sd, moderate acute malnutrition, MAM) and 25 were normal (WHZ> = -2sd). Measures included socio-demographics, anthropometry, bioimpedance, and total body water using deuterium dilution. These measures were repeated at 18 months (N = 107; loss to follow up, 1 MAM, 3 normal). The SAM and MAM children were enrolled in the Government’s 30 days-nutrition rehabilitation program during the follow up period. The children received three times every day, at 8am, 4pm and 6pm, fresh, locally prepared food items providing 900 kcal and 20 g protein. This is in addition to two meals provided in Anganwadi (at 10am and 12noon) and food consumed at home, and daily multi-micronutrients and calcium supplements. Results: No children had any chronic illness, or oedema, and all were free-living. At enrolment, using age based indicators of weight and height all children were underweight (WAZ <-2sd), and in addition 59 (55%) were either stunted and/ or

  8. Traditional medicine practices among community members with chronic kidney disease in northern Tanzania: an ethnomedical survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanifer, John W; Lunyera, Joseph; Boyd, David; Karia, Francis; Maro, Venance; Omolo, Justin; Patel, Uptal D

    2015-10-23

    In sub-Saharan Africa, chronic kidney disease (CKD) is being recognized as a non-communicable disease (NCD) with high morbidity and mortality. In countries like Tanzania, people access many sources, including traditional medicines, to meet their healthcare needs for NCDs, but little is known about traditional medicine practices among people with CKD. Therefore, we sought to characterize these practices among community members with CKD in northern Tanzania. Between December 2013 and June 2014, we administered a previously-developed survey to a random sample of adult community-members from the Kilimanjaro Region; the survey was designed to measure traditional medicine practices such as types, frequencies, reasons, and modes. Participants were also tested for CKD, diabetes, hypertension, and HIV as part of the CKD-AFRiKA study. To identify traditional medicines used in the local treatment of kidney disease, we reviewed the qualitative sessions which had previously been conducted with key informants. We enrolled 481 adults of whom 57 (11.9 %) had CKD. The prevalence of traditional medicine use among adults with CKD was 70.3 % (95 % CI 50.0-84.9 %), and among those at risk for CKD (n = 147; 30.6 %), it was 49.0 % (95 % CI 33.1-65.0 %). Among adults with CKD, the prevalence of concurrent use of traditional medicine and biomedicine was 33.2 % (11.4-65.6 %). Symptomatic ailments (66.7 %; 95 % CI 17.3-54.3), malaria/febrile illnesses (64.0 %; 95 % CI 44.1-79.9), and chronic diseases (49.6 %; 95 % CI 28.6-70.6) were the most prevalent uses for traditional medicines. We identified five plant-based traditional medicines used for the treatment of kidney disease: Aloe vera, Commifora africana, Cymbopogon citrullus, Persea americana, and Zanthoxylum chalybeum. The prevalence of traditional medicine use is high among adults with and at risk for CKD in northern Tanzania where they use them for a variety of conditions including other NCDs. Additionally, many of these same people

  9. Opportunities and barriers to STI testing in community health centres in China: a nationwide survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Jason J; Peng, Minghui; Zhu, Shanzhu; Lo, Ying-Ru J; Fairley, Christopher K; Kidd, Michael R; Roland, Martin; Jiang, Sunfang; Wong, William C W

    2017-12-01

    China has strengthened its primary care workforce and implemented a wide network of community health centres (CHCs). However, STI testing and management are not currently included in the 'Essential Package of Primary Health Care in China'. Legislation change to encourage STI service delivery would be important, but it is also critical to determine if there are also provider-related opportunities and barriers for implementing effective STI programmes through CHCs if future legislation were to change. A national representative survey was conducted between September and December 2015 in a stratified random sample of 180 CHCs based in 20 cities in China. Primary care practitioners (PCPs) provided information on current experiences of STI testing as well as the barriers and facilitators for STI testing in CHCs. Multivariate logistic regression was conducted to determine factors associated with PCPs performing STI testing. 3580 out of 4146 (86%) invited PCPs from 158 CHCs completed the survey. The majority (85%, 95% CI 84% to 87%) of doctors stated that STI testing was an important part of healthcare. However, less than a third (29%, 95% CI 27% to 31%) would perform an STI test if the patients asked. Barriers for performing STI testing included lack of training, concerns about reimbursement, concerns about damage to clinics' reputations and the stigma against key populations. Respondents who reported that they would perform an STI test were likely to be younger, received a bachelor degree or higher, received specific training in STIs, believed that STI test was an important part of healthcare or had resources to perform STI testing. There is potential for improving STI management in China through upskilling the primary care workforce in CHCs. Specific training in STIs is needed, and other structural, logistical and attitudinal barriers are needed to be addressed. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All

  10. German neutron scattering conference. Programme and abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brueckel, Thomas (ed.)

    2012-07-01

    The German Neutron Scattering Conference 2012 - Deutsche Neutronenstreutagung DN 2012 offers a forum for the presentation and critical discussion of recent results obtained with neutron scattering and complementary techniques. The meeting is organized on behalf of the German Committee for Research with Neutrons - Komitee Forschung mit Neutronen KFN - by the Juelich Centre for Neutron Science JCNS of Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH. In between the large European and international neutron scattering conferences ECNS (2011 in Prague) and ICNS (2013 in Edinburgh), it offers the vibrant German and international neutron community an opportunity to debate topical issues in a stimulating atmosphere. Originating from ''BMBF Verbundtreffen'' - meetings for projects funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research - this conference series has a strong tradition of providing a forum for the discussion of collaborative research projects and future developments in the field of research with neutrons in general. Neutron scattering, by its very nature, is used as a powerful probe in many different disciplines and areas, from particle and condensed matter physics through to chemistry, biology, materials sciences, engineering sciences, right up to geology and cultural heritage; the German Neutron Scattering Conference thus provides a unique chance for exploring interdisciplinary research opportunities. It also serves as a showcase for recent method and instrument developments and to inform users of new advances at neutron facilities.

  11. German neutron scattering conference. Programme and abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brueckel, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The German Neutron Scattering Conference 2012 - Deutsche Neutronenstreutagung DN 2012 offers a forum for the presentation and critical discussion of recent results obtained with neutron scattering and complementary techniques. The meeting is organized on behalf of the German Committee for Research with Neutrons - Komitee Forschung mit Neutronen KFN - by the Juelich Centre for Neutron Science JCNS of Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH. In between the large European and international neutron scattering conferences ECNS (2011 in Prague) and ICNS (2013 in Edinburgh), it offers the vibrant German and international neutron community an opportunity to debate topical issues in a stimulating atmosphere. Originating from ''BMBF Verbundtreffen'' - meetings for projects funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research - this conference series has a strong tradition of providing a forum for the discussion of collaborative research projects and future developments in the field of research with neutrons in general. Neutron scattering, by its very nature, is used as a powerful probe in many different disciplines and areas, from particle and condensed matter physics through to chemistry, biology, materials sciences, engineering sciences, right up to geology and cultural heritage; the German Neutron Scattering Conference thus provides a unique chance for exploring interdisciplinary research opportunities. It also serves as a showcase for recent method and instrument developments and to inform users of new advances at neutron facilities.

  12. Which Obstacles Prevent Us from Recruiting into Clinical Trials: A Survey about the Environment for Clinical Studies at a German University Hospital in a Comprehensive Cancer Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Straube

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundProspective clinical studies are the most important tool in modern medicine. The standard in good clinical practice in clinical trials has constantly improved leading to more sophisticated protocols. Moreover, translational questions are increasingly addressed in clinical trials. Such trials must follow elaborate rules and regulations. This is accompanied by a significant increase in documentation issues which require substantial manpower. Furthermore, university-based clinical centers are interested in increasing the amount of patients treated within clinical trials, and this number has evolved to be a key quality criterion. The present study was initiated to elucidate the obstacles that limit clinical scientists in screening and recruiting for clinical trials.MethodsA specific questionnaire with 28 questions was developed focusing on all aspects of clinical trial design as well as trial management. This included questions on organizational issues, medical topics as well as potential patients’ preferences and physician’s goals. The questionnaire was established to collect data anonymously on a web-based platform. The survey was conducted within the Klinikum rechts der Isar, Faculty of Medicine, Technical University of Munich; physicians of all levels (Department Chairs, attending physicians, residents, as well as study nurses, and other study-related staff were addressed. The answers were analyzed using the Survio analyzing tool (http://www.survio.com/de/.ResultsWe collected 42 complete sets of answers; in total 28 physicians, 11 study nurses, and 3 persons with positions in administration answered our survey. The study centers reported to participate in a range of 3–160 clinical trials with a recruitment rate of 1–80%. Main obstacles were determined: 31/42 (74% complained about limited human resources and 22/42 (52% reported to have a lack on technical resources, too. 30/42 (71% consented to the answer, that the documentation

  13. Physical activity, aerobic fitness and parental socio-economic position among adolescents: the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents 2003–2006 (KiGGS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The positive association between parental socio-economic position (PSEP) and health among adolescents may be partly explained by physical activity behaviour. We investigated the associations between physical activity, aerobic fitness and PSEP in a population based sample of German adolescents. Methods 5,251 participants, aged 11–17 years, in the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents 2003–2006 (KiGGS) underwent a sub-maximal cycle ergometer test and completed a questionnaire obtaining information on physical activity and media use. The associations between physical activity, media use, aerobic fitness and PSEP were analysed with multivariate logistic regression models for boys and girls separately. Odds ratios (ORs) of PSEP (education, occupation and income) on the outcomes were calculated adjusted for age, region, and other influencing factors. Results Parental education was more strongly associated with the outcome variables than parental occupation and income. After adjusting for age and region, a higher parental education level was associated with better aerobic fitness – with an OR of 1.5 (95% CI 1.2-1.9) for girls whose parents had secondary education and 1.9 (1.4-2.5) for girls whose parents had tertiary education compared to girls whose parents had primary education. The corresponding ORs for boys were 1.3 (1.0-1.6) and 1.6 (1.2-2.1), respectively. Higher parental education level was associated with lower media use: an OR of 2.1 (1.5-3.0) for girls whose parents had secondary education and 2.7 (1.8-4.1) for girls whose parents had primary education compared to girls whose parents had tertiary education. The corresponding ORs for boys were 1.5 (1.2-1.9) and 1.9 (1.5-2.5), respectively. Higher parental education level was associated with a higher physical activity level only among girls: an OR of 1.3 (1.0-1.6) for girls whose parents had secondary education and 1.2 (0.9-1.5) for girls whose parents had

  14. Physical activity, aerobic fitness and parental socio-economic position among adolescents: the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents 2003-2006 (KiGGS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, Jonas D; Mensink, Gert B M; Banzer, Winfried; Lampert, Thomas; Tylleskär, Thorkild

    2014-03-22

    The positive association between parental socio-economic position (PSEP) and health among adolescents may be partly explained by physical activity behaviour. We investigated the associations between physical activity, aerobic fitness and PSEP in a population based sample of German adolescents. 5,251 participants, aged 11-17 years, in the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents 2003-2006 (KiGGS) underwent a sub-maximal cycle ergometer test and completed a questionnaire obtaining information on physical activity and media use. The associations between physical activity, media use, aerobic fitness and PSEP were analysed with multivariate logistic regression models for boys and girls separately. Odds ratios (ORs) of PSEP (education, occupation and income) on the outcomes were calculated adjusted for age, region, and other influencing factors. Parental education was more strongly associated with the outcome variables than parental occupation and income. After adjusting for age and region, a higher parental education level was associated with better aerobic fitness - with an OR of 1.5 (95% CI 1.2-1.9) for girls whose parents had secondary education and 1.9 (1.4-2.5) for girls whose parents had tertiary education compared to girls whose parents had primary education. The corresponding ORs for boys were 1.3 (1.0-1.6) and 1.6 (1.2-2.1), respectively. Higher parental education level was associated with lower media use: an OR of 2.1 (1.5-3.0) for girls whose parents had secondary education and 2.7 (1.8-4.1) for girls whose parents had primary education compared to girls whose parents had tertiary education. The corresponding ORs for boys were 1.5 (1.2-1.9) and 1.9 (1.5-2.5), respectively. Higher parental education level was associated with a higher physical activity level only among girls: an OR of 1.3 (1.0-1.6) for girls whose parents had secondary education and 1.2 (0.9-1.5) for girls whose parents had tertiary education compared to girls

  15. An overview of the statistical methods reported by studies using the Canadian community health survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yergens, Dean W; Dutton, Daniel J; Patten, Scott B

    2014-01-25

    The Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) is a cross-sectional survey that has collected information on health determinants, health status and the utilization of the health system in Canada since 2001. Several hundred articles have been written utilizing the CCHS dataset. Previous analyses of statistical methods utilized in the literature have focused on a particular journal or set of journals to understand the statistical literacy required for understanding the published research. In this study, we describe the statistical methods referenced in the published literature utilizing the CCHS dataset(s). A descriptive study was undertaken of references published in Medline, Embase, Web of Knowledge and Scopus associated with the CCHS. These references were imported into a Java application utilizing the searchable Apache Lucene text database and screened based upon pre-defined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Full-text PDF articles that met the inclusion criteria were then used for the identification of descriptive, elementary and regression statistical methods referenced in these articles. The identification of statistical methods occurred through an automated search of key words on the full-text articles utilizing the Java application. We identified 4811 references from the 4 bibliographical databases for possible inclusion. After exclusions, 663 references were used for the analysis. Descriptive statistics such as means or proportions were presented in a majority of the articles (97.7%). Elementary-level statistics such as t-tests were less frequently referenced (29.7%) than descriptive statistics. Regression methods were frequently referenced in the articles: 79.8% of articles contained reference to regression in general with logistic regression appearing most frequently in 67.1% of the articles. Our study shows a diverse set of analysis methods being referenced in the CCHS literature, however, the literature heavily relies on only a subset of all possible

  16. Temporal Dynamics of the Microbial Community Composition with a Focus on Toxic Cyanobacteria and Toxin Presence during Harmful Algal Blooms in Two South German Lakes

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    Pia I. Scherer

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Bacterioplankton plays an essential role in aquatic ecosystems, and cyanobacteria are an influential part of the microbiome in many water bodies. In freshwaters used for recreational activities or drinking water, toxic cyanobacteria cause concerns due to the risk of intoxication with cyanotoxins, such as microcystins. In this study, we aimed to unmask relationships between toxicity, cyanobacterial community composition, and environmental factors. At the same time, we assessed the correlation of a genetic marker with microcystin concentration and aimed to identify the main microcystin producer. We used Illumina MiSeq sequencing to study the bacterioplankton in two recreational lakes in South Germany. We quantified a microcystin biosynthesis gene (mcyB using qPCR and linked this information with microcystin concentration to assess toxicity. Microcystin biosynthesis gene (mcyE-clone libraries were used to determine the origin of microcystin biosynthesis genes. Bloom toxicity did not alter the bacterial community composition, which was highly dynamic at the lowest taxonomic level for some phyla such as Cyanobacteria. At the OTU level, we found distinctly different degrees of temporal variation between major bacteria phyla. Cyanobacteria and Bacteroidetes showed drastic temporal changes in their community compositions, while the composition of Actinobacteria remained rather stable in both lakes. The bacterial community composition of Alpha- and Beta-proteobacteria remained stable over time in Lake Klostersee, but it showed temporal variations in Lake Bergknappweiher. The presence of potential microcystin degraders and potential algicidal bacteria amongst prevalent Bacteroidetes and Alphaproteobacteria implied a role of those co-occurring heterotrophic bacteria in cyanobacterial bloom dynamics. Comparison of both lakes studied revealed a large shared microbiome, which was shaped toward the lake specific community composition by environmental factors

  17. Diet survey of two cultural groups in a coastal British Columbia community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, A; Teschke, K; Marion, S A

    1998-01-01

    As part of a larger study of polychlorinated dibenzodioxin (PCDD) and dibenzofuran (PCDF) pollution, to describe and compare Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal residents' recalled diets. We surveyed a stratified random sample aged 25 to 64 years: forest products mill employees (n = 84), Aboriginal reserve residents (n = 78), and other residents (n = 80). We administered a questionnaire on intake of fish/seafood, wild game and plants, domesticated animal meat and eggs, dairy products, vegetable oils and cereals; age, gender, childbearing, lactation, residence and smoking. We measured height and weight. Reserve residents ate less seafood, but more fish roe, eulachon grease, smoked salmon, clams and sea urchins, more deer organs, hamburger meat, pork, fried chicken, and hot-dogs, but less rabbit, beef steaks/roasts, high-fibre cereals, potato chips, bread, cheese and milk. We cannot yet quantify PCDD and PCDF intakes. The wild food consumption data are unique and may be useful for risk assessments in the target population and similar communities.

  18. Could chiropractors screen for adverse drug events in the community? Survey of US chiropractors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bero Lisa

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The "Put Prevention into Practice" campaign of the US Public Health Service (USPHS was launched with the dissemination of the Clinician's Handbook of Preventive Services that recommended standards of clinical care for various prevention activities, including preventive clinical strategies to reduce the risk of adverse drug events. We explored whether nonprescribing clinicians such as chiropractors may contribute to advancing drug safety initiatives by identifying potential adverse drug events in their chiropractic patients, and by bringing suspected adverse drug events to the attention of the prescribing clinicians. Methods Mail survey of US chiropractors about their detection of potential adverse drug events in their chiropractic patients. Results Over half of responding chiropractors (62% reported having identified a suspected adverse drug event occurring in one of their chiropractic patients. The severity of suspected drug-related events detected ranged from mild to severe. Conclusions Chiropractors or other nonprescribing clinicians may be in a position to detect potential adverse drug events in the community. These detection and reporting mechanisms should be standardized and policies related to clinical case management of suspected adverse drug events occurring in their patients should be developed.

  19. Knowledge and Practices of In-Home Pesticide Use: A Community Survey in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Nalwanga

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Many communities in low-income countries use in-home pesticides for the control of pests. Such use is often inadequately controlled. In this study, 100 households in Kireka ward, Wakiso district in Uganda were involved in a cross-sectional survey to assess pests, knowledge, and use patterns of pesticides. A structured pretested questionnaire was administered via personal interviews, and observational checklists were used. Mosquitoes were the most prevalent pests (83%, followed by cockroaches (69% and rats (52%. Pesticides were the most preferred method for pest control (98%, with insecticide spray being the most common form of application (71.4%. Pesticide application was inappropriately done in many households mainly due to inadequate knowledge on use. Only 48% of the respondents read manufacturer's instructions for use. Information on what pesticide to use was obtained from friends (53.1%, points of sales (48%. Educational interventions particularly at points of sale would be a critical avenue for promoting safe use of pesticides in households.

  20. A community participatory model of mobile dental service-survey among stakeholders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biney Anne Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The mobile dental service (MDS at Ludhiana is a unique model of oral health care delivery which enables rural communities to develop their own creative system through partnerships, for ensuring consistent oral health care delivery in the underserved areas. Objectives: The objective of this study was to assess the satisfaction among the stakeholders participating in the MDS program of a premier Dental College in Ludhiana. Methodology: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 12 villages of Ludhiana district in Punjab where the MDSs were being provided. Four hundred and fifty patients, 50 organizers and 40 service providers were interviewed separately with pretested questionnaires. Results: About 98.4% of the patients were completely satisfied with the overall care provided. 71.1% of the patients felt there was increased times in services and 76.7% felt that there was inadequate referral network. Most patients were satisfied with the communication skills of the doctors. 57.5% of the organizers felt that the overall care provided in the MDSs was consistently good and high quality in spite of challenging infrastructure. 100% of the health care providers felt that working in the MDS was a good learning experience in spite of the heavy workload and infrastructure challenges. Conclusion: The study reveals that the MDS is a satisfactory mode of dental care delivery for all the stakeholders involved. Despite the challenges, this partnership program can be nurtured as a successful model of oral health care delivery in underserved areas.

  1. An ethnomedicinal survey of a Tashelhit-speaking community in the High Atlas, Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixidor-Toneu, Irene; Martin, Gary J; Ouhammou, Ahmed; Puri, Rajindra K; Hawkins, Julie A

    2016-07-21

    Traditional knowledge about medicinal plants from a poorly studied region, the High Atlas in Morocco, is reported here for the first time; this permits consideration of efficacy and safety of current practises whilst highlighting species previously not known to have traditional medicinal use. Our study aims to document local medicinal plant knowledge among Tashelhit speaking communities through ethnobotanical survey, identifying preferred species and new medicinal plant citations and illuminating the relationship between emic and etic ailment classifications. Ethnobotanical data were collected using standard methods and with prior informed consent obtained before all interactions, data were characterized using descriptive indices and medicinal plants and healing strategies relevant to local livelihoods were identified. 151 vernacular names corresponding to 159 botanical species were found to be used to treat 36 folk ailments grouped in 14 biomedical use categories. Thirty-five (22%) are new medicinal plant records in Morocco, and 26 described as used for the first time anywhere. Fidelity levels (FL) revealed low specificity in plant use, particularly for the most commonly reported plants. Most plants are used in mixtures. Plant use is driven by local concepts of disease, including "hot" and "cold" classification and beliefs in supernatural forces. Local medicinal plant knowledge is rich in the High Atlas, where local populations still rely on medicinal plants for healthcare. We found experimental evidence of safe and effective use of medicinal plants in the High Atlas; but we highlight the use of eight poisonous species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Could chiropractors screen for adverse drug events in the community? Survey of US chiropractors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Monica; Bero, Lisa; Carber, Lynne

    2010-11-17

    The "Put Prevention into Practice" campaign of the US Public Health Service (USPHS) was launched with the dissemination of the Clinician's Handbook of Preventive Services that recommended standards of clinical care for various prevention activities, including preventive clinical strategies to reduce the risk of adverse drug events. We explored whether nonprescribing clinicians such as chiropractors may contribute to advancing drug safety initiatives by identifying potential adverse drug events in their chiropractic patients, and by bringing suspected adverse drug events to the attention of the prescribing clinicians. Mail survey of US chiropractors about their detection of potential adverse drug events in their chiropractic patients. Over half of responding chiropractors (62%) reported having identified a suspected adverse drug event occurring in one of their chiropractic patients. The severity of suspected drug-related events detected ranged from mild to severe. Chiropractors or other nonprescribing clinicians may be in a position to detect potential adverse drug events in the community. These detection and reporting mechanisms should be standardized and policies related to clinical case management of suspected adverse drug events occurring in their patients should be developed.

  3. Validation of cognitive functioning categories in the Canadian Community Health Survey--Healthy Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findlay, Leanne; Bernier, Julie; Tuokko, Holly; Kirkland, Susan; Gilmour, Heather

    2010-12-01

    The objective of this study was to validate categories of cognitive functioning using data from the 2009 Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS)--Healthy Aging Cognition Module. Four measures of cognitive functioning--immediate and delayed recall (memory), and animal-naming and the Mental Alternation Test (executive functioning)--were coded into five categories for the Canadian household population aged 45 or older. The scores for each measure were standardized to t-scores that controlled for age, sex and education. Respondents were classified into five cognitive functioning categories. Cross-tabulations, stratum-specific likelihood ratios and multinomial logit regression were used to assess associations between levels of cognitive functioning and various health outcomes: self-reported general and mental health status, memory and problem-solving ability, activities of daily living, life satisfaction, loneliness, depression, and chronic conditions. Results supported the use of five levels of cognitive functioning for all four outcomes on the CCHS--Healthy Aging sample overall and by age group (45 to 64, 65 or older) and language group (English, French). These categories can be used in future work on cognitive functioning based on the CCHS--Healthy Aging.

  4. Social Approval of the Community Assessment Model for Odor Dispersal: Results from a Citizen Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyndall, John C.; Grudens-Schuck, Nancy; Harmon, Jay D.; Hoff, Steve J.

    2012-08-01

    Odors emitted from US Midwest hog production facilities present farmers, residents, and state regulatory agencies with a set of complex challenges. To predict odor exposure from multiple swine production sources simultaneously, and to determine siting recommendations for proposed new or enlarged hog facilities, researchers at Iowa State University designed the community assessment model for odor dispersion (CAM). A three-county citizen survey conducted in Iowa examined the level of hypothetical social acceptance of the modeling process, and level of trust in CAM results. While 69 % of respondents approved of modeling as a way to determine the most socially appropriate location for production sites, only 35 % would trust the results if potential odor exposure from a new facility were proposed to be built near their home. We analyzed approval of the CAM model, and level of trust, across a number of demographic, attitudinal, and belief factors regarding environmental quality and the hog industry. Overall, trust in CAM was uneven and varied across respondents. Those residents who would not trust CAM tended to be more concerned with environmental quality and less inclined to believe that the hog industry is critically important economically. Those who would not trust CAM results also had significantly more direct experience with odors. Findings point to predominantly positive, yet equivocal acceptance of CAM results among the citizenry, which is not unexpected given conflict typical of siting decisions in industry and waste disposal arenas. Recommendations are offered regarding the interaction of trust, beliefs and attitudes and the utility of CAM.

  5. An ecological survey of the invertebrate community at the epigean/hypogean interface

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    Stefano Mammola

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We studied the ecological continuum between caves and the associated network of fissures – Milieu Souterrain Superficiel (MSS – in an hypogean site in the Graian Alps, Italy. Over one year, we surveyed the faunal assemblages by means of pitfall traps placed in the caves and specific subterranean sampling devices (SSD buried in the MSS. We used generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs and generalized additive mixed models (GAMMs to compare the spatial and temporal dynamics of the subterranean invertebrates inhabiting the two environments. As expected, arthropod communities occurring near the surface were characterized by minor level of subterranean adaptations, and conversely, subterranean species were more abundant and diversified at higher depths, both in the caves and in the MSS. Diversity and abundance of external elements in the superficial layers were found to be highly seasonal dependent, with minor values in winter compared to the other seasons. We provided information about the faunal assemblages dwelling in the two hypogean compartments, and we characterized the microclimatic conditions therein. We discussed the existence of an ecological gradient of specialization extending from the surface to the deep hypogean layers, which can be interpreted in light of the microclimatic changes occurring at increasing depths and the parallel decrease in available organic matter.

  6. Stress and Depressive Symptoms in Cancer Survivors and Their Family Members: Korea Community Health Survey, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Mi Ah

    2017-09-01

    This study examined the prevalence of perceived stress and depressive symptoms in cancer survivors and their family members compared with subjects without cancer and without family members with cancer. The subjects of this cross-sectional study were adults ≥19 years old who participated in the 2012 Korea Community Health Survey. Stress and depressive symptoms in cancer survivors and their family members were assessed and compared to symptoms in control groups by chi-square tests and multiple logistic regression analyses. Of the 6783 cancer survivors, 26.9% and 8.7% reported having stress and depressive symptoms, respectively, and 27.7% and 5.9% of family members of cancer survivors reported having stress and depressive symptoms, respectively. Cancer survivors showed higher adjusted odds ratio (aOR) for stress (aOR = 1.26, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.16-1.37) and depressive symptoms (aOR = 1.82, 95% CI = 1.57-2.11) than subjects without cancer history. Family members of cancer survivors showed a higher OR for stress and depressive symptoms than subjects without a family member who survived cancer. Cancer survivors and family members of cancer survivors had more stress and depressive symptoms than controls. Careful management for cancer patients and their family members should include screening for stress and depression to improve mental health associated with cancer survivorship.

  7. Illness behaviour in Sri Lanka: results of a survey in two Sinhalese communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolffers, I

    1988-01-01

    Although cosmopolitan medicine plays an increasingly important role in developing countries, people still use indigenous medicines. A 1983 survey in two Sinhalese communities in Sri Lanka investigated the patients' use of cosmopolitan or traditional treatments for various illnesses. It appears that for acute complaints, or when a child seems seriously ill, people use cosmopolitan medicine. For common ailments which are known to be self-limiting, people use traditional home remedies and consult Ayurvedic practitioners. In chronic complaints some patients use cosmopolitan medicine, while others prefer the Ayurvedic system or use both kinds of medicine. For a 'snakebite' or a 'fracture' people prefer the local specialists and for mental illnesses they consult the adura and Buddhist clergy; as a last resort they turn to the cosmopolitan facility. Ayurvedic medicine does not play a role of any importance in the treatment of mental disease. The aduras in the rural areas and the Buddhist monks and priests in the more urban areas have a clear function in the management of mental disease. Institutionally trained Ayurvedic practitioners have a less clear function, since they often dispense cosmopolitan medicines.

  8. The readiness of German GPs to recommend and conduct cancer screening is associated with patient-physician gender concordance. Results of a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engler, Jennifer; Dahlhaus, Anne; Güthlin, Corina

    2017-12-01

    Cancer screening participation rates in Germany differ depending on patients' gender. International studies have found that patient-physician gender concordance fosters recommendation and conducting of cancer screening, and especially cancer screening for women. We aimed to ascertain whether gender concordance influences general practitioners' (GPs') rating of the usefulness of cancer screening, as well as their recommendations and readiness to conduct cancer screening in general practice in Germany. For an exploratory cross-sectional survey, 500 randomly selected GPs from all over Germany were asked to fill in a questionnaire on cancer screening in general practice between March and June 2015. We asked them to rate the usefulness of each cancer screening examination, how frequently they recommended and conducted them and whether they viewed GPs or specialists as responsible for carrying them out. We used multiple logistic regression to analyse gender effect size by calculating odds ratios. Our study sample consisted of 139 GPs of which 65% were male. Male and female GPs did not differ significantly in their rating of the general usefulness of any of the specified cancer screening examinations. Male GPs were 2.9 to 6.8 times as likely to consider GPs responsible for recommending and conducting PSA testing and digital rectal examinations and were 3.7 to 7.9 times as likely to recommend and conduct these examinations on a regular basis. Patient-physician gender concordance made it more likely that male-specific cancer screenings would be recommended and conducted, but not female-specific screenings. [Box: see text].

  9. [Need for information concerning medical rehabilitation of the federal german pension fund--findings of an online survey of general practitioners].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, A L; Pohontsch, N J; Deck, R

    2015-05-01

    General practitioners complain about information deficits, uncertainties and unclear requirements associated with medical rehabilitation. In this study General practitioners' specific information needs are identified and the preferred form for the presentation of information is determined. In a secondary analysis of several focus groups with different stakeholders, rehabilitation specific aspects were identified for which General practitioners could have further information needs. Those were transferred into an online-questionnaire. GPs in Schleswig-Holstein were invited to the online-survey via E-Mail by different medical associations. A total of 194 questionnaires were available for analysis. In general, high information needs covering all rehabilitation topics in the questionnaire are evident. The highest information need is recognised for the following aspects: in which cases it makes sense to file an objection, which measures have to take place before it makes sense to file an objection and what the term "ambulant measures have been exhausted" exactly means. GPs clearly prefer a website as a means of informational source. Under the option of multiple replies 74.2% prefer a website, followed by the option of a brochure (44.8%) and further education (22.2%). General practitioners have high information needs regarding different aspects of rehabilitation which are not satisfied with existing sources of information. The development of a user-friendly website with comprehensible information on the required aspects seems necessary to increase the acceptance and understanding of medical rehabilitation among practitioners and therefore to optimise rehabilitation processes. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. German for physicists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Ben

    2009-04-01

    "German is the language of science" I remember my father telling me as a boy growing up in the Bronx in New York during the 1970s. As I watched astronomy programmes on TV with my father and older brothers, I imagined having to speak ceaselessly in fluent German if I was ever to become a scientist as a grown-up. But when I started my studies at university in New York in the 1980s, I realized my father's advice - sought from weekly trips to the neighbourhood public library - was way out of date. Not only did my physics professors present their research in English at conferences all around the world, but they also published in English-language journals - thus seemingly not needing a single word of German.

  11. Psychometric properties of a German parent rating scale for oppositional defiant and conduct disorder (FBB-SSV) in clinical and community samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görtz-Dorten, Anja; Ise, Elena; Hautmann, Christopher; Walter, Daniel; Döpfner, Manfred

    2014-08-01

    The Fremdbeurteilungsbogen für Störungen des Sozialverhaltens (FBB-SSV) is a commonly used DSM- and ICD-based rating scale for disruptive behaviour problems in Germany. This study examined the psychometric properties of the FBB-SSV rated by parents in both a clinical sample (N = 596) and a community sample (N = 720) of children aged 4-17 years. Results indicate that the FBB-SSV is internally consistent (α = .69-.90). Principal component analyses produced two-factor structures that are largely consistent with the distinction between oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD). Diagnostic accuracy was examined using receiver operating characteristic analyses, which showed that the FBB-SSV is excellent at discriminating children with ODD/CD from those in the community sample (AUC = .91). It has satisfactory diagnostic accuracy for detecting ODD/CD in the clinical sample (AUC = .76). Overall, the results show that the FBB-SSV is a reliable and valid instrument. This finding provides further support for the clinical utility of DSM- and ICD-based rating scales.

  12. Community Health Environment Scan Survey (CHESS: a novel tool that captures the impact of the built environment on lifestyle factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona Wong

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Novel1 1This study was performed on behalf of the Community Interventions for Health (CIH collaboration. efforts and accompanying tools are needed to tackle the global burden of chronic disease. This paper presents an approach to describe the environments in which people live, work, and play. Community Health Environment Scan Survey (CHESS is an empirical assessment tool that measures the availability and accessibility, of healthy lifestyle options lifestyle options. CHESS reveals existing community assets as well as opportunities for change, shaping community intervention planning efforts by focusing on community-relevant opportunities to address the three key risk factors for chronic disease (i.e. unhealthy diet, physical inactivity, and tobacco use. Methods: The CHESS tool was developed following a review of existing auditing tools and in consultation with experts. It is based on the social-ecological model and is adaptable to diverse settings in developed and developing countries throughout the world. Results: For illustrative purposes, baseline results from the Community Interventions for Health (CIH Mexico site are used, where the CHESS tool assessed 583 food stores and 168 restaurants. Comparisons between individual-level survey data from schools and community-level CHESS data are made to demonstrate the utility of the tool in strategically guiding intervention activities. Conclusion: The environments where people live, work, and play are key factors in determining their diet, levels of physical activity, and tobacco use. CHESS is the first tool of its kind that systematically and simultaneously examines how built environments encourage/discourage healthy eating, physical activity, and tobacco use. CHESS can help to design community interventions to prevent chronic disease and guide healthy urban planning.

  13. Open-Framework Germanates and Nickel Germanates : Synthesis and Characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Shiliang

    2012-01-01

    Microporous materials have a wide range of important applications in separation, gas adsorption, ion-exchange and catalysis. Open-framework germanates are a family of microporous compounds and are of particular interest. This thesis focuses on the synthesis and characterization of new open-framework germanates as well as introducing the transition-metal nickel into germanate structures. One new microporous germanosilicate, SU-78 and four new open-framework germanates, SU-74, SU-75, SU-69 and ...

  14. Serum concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in participants of the Anniston Community Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavuk, M; Olson, J R; Sjödin, A; Wolff, P; Turner, W E; Shelton, C; Dutton, N D; Bartell, S

    2014-03-01

    Serum concentrations of 35 ortho-substituted polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (PCBs) were measured in 765 adults from Anniston, Alabama, where PCBs were manufactured between 1929 and 1971. As part of the Anniston Community Health Survey (ACHS), demographic data, questionnaire information, and blood samples were collected from participants in 2005-2007. Forty-six percent of study participants were African-American, 70% were female, and the median age was 56 years. The median concentration of the sum of 35 PCB congeners (ΣPCBs) was 528 ng/g lipid, with a 90th percentile of 2,600 ng/g lipid, minimum of 17.0 ng/g lipid, and maximum of 27,337 ng/g lipid. The least square geometric mean ΣPCBs was more than 2.5 times higher for African-American participants than for White participants (866 ng/g lipid vs. 331 ng/g lipid); this difference did not change materially after adjustment for age, sex, body mass index (BMI) and current smoking. In spite of large differences in absolute PCB levels, relative contributions of individual congeners to ΣPCBs were quite similar between race groups. Nevertheless, while percent contributions to ΣPCBs for most of the most abundant penta- to heptachlorobiphenyls were higher among African-Americans, the percentages were higher in Whites for the lower-chlorinated PCBs 28 and 74 and for octa- to decachlorinated PCBs. No major differences were observed in geometric mean ΣPCBs between women and men when adjusted for age, race, BMI and current smoking (516 ng/g lipid vs. 526 ng/g lipid). Principal component analysis revealed groups of co-varying congeners that appear to be determined by chlorine substitution patterns. These congener groupings were similar between ACHS participants and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-04 sample of the general United States population, despite ACHS participants having serum concentrations of ΣPCBs two to three times higher than those in comparable age and race groups from

  15. A Health Assessment Survey of Veteran Students: Utilizing a Community College-Veterans Affairs Medical Center Partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra-Hebert, Anita D; Santurri, Laura; DeChant, Richard; Watts, Brook; Sehgal, Ashwini R; Aron, David C

    2015-10-01

    To assess health status among student veterans at a community college utilizing a partnership between a Veterans Affairs Medical Center and a community college. Student veterans at Cuyahoga Community College in Cleveland, Ohio, in January to April 2013. A health assessment survey was sent to 978 veteran students. Descriptive analyses to assess prevalence of clinical diagnoses and health behaviors were performed. Logistic regression analyses were performed to assess for independent predictors of functional limitations. 204 students participated in the survey (21% response rate). Self-reported depression and unhealthy behaviors were high. Physical and emotional limitations (45% and 35%, respectively), and pain interfering with work (42%) were reported. Logistic regression analyses confirmed the independent association of self-reported depression with functional limitation (odds ratio [OR] = 3.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.4-7.8, p stress disorder with pain interfering with work (OR 3.9, CI 1.1-13.6, p student veterans at a community college. A partnership between a Veterans Affairs Medical Center and a community college can be utilized to help understand the health needs of veteran students. Reprint & Copyright © 2015 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  16. [European Community Respiratory Health Survey: The main results so far with special reference to Iceland.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gíslason, Davíð; Bjœrnsdóttir, Unnur Steina; Blœndal, Thornorsteinn; Gíslason, Thornórarinn

    2002-12-01

    The European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS) was the first project embarked on extensive study of geographical difference between countries with regards to asthma and atopy incidence in a young adult population. The same methodology and definitions were used at all study sites. The purpose of this article is to review the published results of the ECRHS with a special emphasis on the findings from the Icelandic population, and compare these results with those from the participants from the other nations and study sites. Compiled results from all study sites participating in the ECHRS hereto published were reviewed. The compiled data are derived from approximately 140.000 individuals aged 20-44 (birth-years 1946-71) from 22 nations and 48 study sites. The Icelandic population was chosen from the greater Reykjavik metropolitan area. Subjects responded to seven questions on respiratory symptoms, diagnosis of asthma and use of asthma medications. In the latter part of the investigation, 800 individuals were randomly selected from each study site. They were asked to respond to a detailed questionnaire. Subsequently spirometry, methacholine challange and skin prick testing to 11-12 common aeroallergens was performed. Additionally, allergen specific IgE and total IgE was measured. Somewhat fewer sites participated in this latter part: 17 nations and 37 study sites. The findings are presented from two angles: the compiled data from all study sites and the results from the Icelandic population; specifically comparing the Icelandic data with the participants from the other nations. The study showed a geographical difference in the incidence of asthma, bronchial hyper- responsiveness and other respiratory symptoms. In the first part of the study, an eight-fold difference in wheezing, six-fold difference in asthma, ten-fold difference in physician- diagnosed asthma and a four-fold difference in the prevalence of allergic rhinitis was found between the study sites

  17. The Returns to Education at Community Colleges: New Evidence from the Education Longitudinal Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Marcotte, Dave E.

    2016-01-01

    Community colleges have long been recognized for their potential in providing access to post-secondary education for students of limited means. Indeed, the recent #FreeTuition movement is built on community colleges as a cornerstone. Previous research on the value of community colleges in shaping earnings and career outcomes suggests that encouraging access to community college is a good investment. But, the evidence base on this issue is limited. The main limitations stem from the fact that ...

  18. Community child psychiatric medication experiences measured by an internet-based, prospective parent survey of retail pharmacy customers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilt, Robert; Wolf, Christine; Koprowicz, Kent; Thomas, Elizabeth; Chandler, Mary; Hao, Xiao Lei; Russell, Matthew; Le, Tung; Hooks, Lee; King, Bryan

    2014-02-01

    One thousand five hundred parents filling a psychiatric prescription for their 6-18 year old child with a multi-state retail pharmacy chain received a single mailed invitation to complete a detailed online survey. 276 parents responded (18.4%). 60% of children on medications had a parent rated CBCL scale score in the clinically significant range at enrollment (T score ≥65), with a similar frequency of clinically significant CBCL scores through 15 months of survey followup. 47% of medication regimens were noted to be causing persistent side effects. This simple community based data collection method can offer a unique way to investigate naturalistic treatment outcomes.

  19. [German language physician rating sites].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strech, D; Reimann, S

    2012-08-01

    In physician rating sites (PRS), patients are able to share their experiences and indicate their satisfaction in qualitative and quantitative form. This information should support other patients in the search for a suitable physician and can serve as a form of anonymous feedback for physicians. Medical association representatives are often concerned that such reviews primarily aim at defamation. Furthermore, there are various aspects of medical work that cannot be adequately evaluated solely through the patients. In the United States of America, the majority of such previous reviews were shown to be positive. It has yet to be examined in the German and English speaking regions where distinct criteria presently allow patients to express their satisfaction through PRS. Based on the systematic review of patient satisfaction questionnaires, a set of criteria was created that represents the dimensions of patient satisfaction. German and English language physician rating sites were systematically researched using the Internet search machines "Google" and "Yahoo". The identified PRS were then evaluated with the help of the aforementioned set of criteria. In order to survey the tendency of the amount and content of reviews, a stratified sample of members of the Panel Doctor's Association in Hamburg and Thuringia was generated. A total of 298 randomly selected physicians were searched for in 6 German-language PRS regarding potential reviews. Some of the key features of the relation-ship between physicians and patients, such as medical competence, information, and consultation, were surveyed by more than three-fourths of the German-speaking PRS; however, other features such as communication were only sampled by one. As opposed to formal points of view, office facilities and organisation were assessed by all PRS. General reviews on treatment success and satisfaction were displayed in more than half of the reviews. Between 75% and 98% of physicians from the random sampling

  20. A cross-sectional survey to investigate community understanding of medical research ethics committees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritschi, Lin; Kelsall, Helen L; Loff, Bebe; Slegers, Claudia; Zion, Deborah; Glass, Deborah C

    2015-07-01

    Study explanatory forms often state that an ethics committee has approved a research project. To determine whether the lay community understand the roles of ethics committees in research, we took a cross-sectional national sample from three sampling frames: the general population (n=1532); cohort study participants (n=397); and case-control study participants (n=151). About half (51.3%) of the participants had heard of ethics committees. Those who had were more likely to be those who had participated in previous surveys, older participants, those born in Australia and those with higher education. Almost all participants agreed that the roles of an ethics committee were to protect participants' privacy and ensure no harm came to study participants and most agreed that the committee's role was to ensure that the research was capable of providing answers. Case-control and cohort participants were more likely than the general population to consider that the role of an ethics committee was to design the research and obtain research funding. Overall, we found that about half of the population are aware of ethics committees and that most could correctly identify that ethics committees are there to protect the welfare and rights of research participants, although a substantial minority had some incorrect beliefs about the committees' roles. Increased education, particularly for migrants and older people, might improve understanding of the role of ethics committees in research. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  1. Occupational exposures and 20-year incidence of COPD: the European Community Respiratory Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lytras, Theodore; Kogevinas, Manolis; Kromhout, Hans; Carsin, Anne-Elie; Antó, Josep M; Bentouhami, Hayat; Weyler, Joost; Heinrich, Joachim; Nowak, Dennis; Urrutia, Isabel; Martinez-Moratalla, Jesús; Gullón, José Antonio; Pereira-Vega, Antonio; Raherison-Semjen, Chantal; Pin, Isabelle; Demoly, Pascal; Leynaert, Bénédicte; Villani, Simona; Gislason, Thorarinn; Svanes, Cecilie; Holm, Mathias; Forsberg, Bertil; Norbäck, Dan; Mehta, Amar J; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Benke, Geza; Jogi, Rain; Torén, Kjell; Sigsgaard, Torben; Schlünssen, Vivi; Olivieri, Mario; Blanc, Paul D; Vermeulen, Roel; Garcia-Aymerich, Judith; Jarvis, Deborah; Zock, Jan-Paul

    2018-03-24

    Occupational exposures have been associated with an increased risk of COPD. However, few studies have related objectively assessed occupational exposures to prospectively assessed incidence of COPD, using postbronchodilator lung function tests. Our objective was to examine the effect of occupational exposures on COPD incidence in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey. General population samples aged 20-44 were randomly selected in 1991-1993 and followed up 20 years later (2010-2012). Spirometry was performed at baseline and at follow-up, with incident COPD defined using a lower limit of normal criterion for postbronchodilator FEV1/FVC. Only participants without COPD and without current asthma at baseline were included. Coded job histories during follow-up were linked to a Job-Exposure Matrix, generating occupational exposure estimates to 12 categories of agents. Their association with COPD incidence was examined in log-binomial models fitted in a Bayesian framework. 3343 participants fulfilled the inclusion criteria; 89 of them had COPD at follow-up (1.4 cases/1000 person-years). Participants exposed to biological dust had a higher incidence of COPD compared with those unexposed (relative risk (RR) 1.6, 95% CI 1.1 to 2.3), as did those exposed to gases and fumes (RR 1.5, 95% CI 1.0 to 2.2) and pesticides (RR 2.2, 95% CI 1.1 to 3.8). The combined population attributable fraction for these exposures was 21.0%. These results substantially strengthen the evidence base for occupational exposures as an important risk factor for COPD. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. Correlates of Untreated Hypercholesterolemia in Older Adults: A Community-Based Household Survey in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhi; Zaman, M. Justin; Wang, Jingjing; Peacock, Janet L.; Chen, Ruoling

    2015-01-01

    Hypercholesterolemia is common in older adults and less treated, but little is known about correlates of untreated hypercholesterolemia. Using a standard interview method we examined a random sample of 7,572 participants aged ≥60 years in a community-based household survey across 7 provinces of China during 2007–2012, and documented 328 cases of hypercholesterolemia from self-reported doctor diagnosis. Compared to participants with normal cholesterol, older adults with hypercholesterolemia had higher socioeconomic position and larger body mass index. In patients with hypercholesterolemia, 209 were not treated using lipid-lowering medications (63.7%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 58.5%–68.9%). Untreated hypercholesterolemia was significantly associated with female sex (adjusted odds ratio 2.13, 95%CI 1.17–3.89), current smoking (3.48, 1.44–8.44), heavy alcohol drinking (3.13,1.11–8.84), chronic bronchitis (2.37,1.14–4.90) and high level of meat consumptions (2.85,1.22–6.65). Although having coronary heart disease exposed participants for treatment, half of participants with coronary heart disease did not receive lipid-lowering medications. Among hypercholesterolemia participants with stroke, hypertension or diabetes, more than half of them did not receive lipid-lowering medications. The high proportion of untreated hypercholesterolemia in older, high-risk Chinese adults needs to be mitigated through multi-faceted primary and secondary prevention strategies to increase population opportunities of treating hypercholesterolemia. PMID:26161751

  3. Use of smoking cessation products: A survey of patients in community pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phung, Alan; Luo, Lauren; Breik, Noor; Alessi-Severini, Silvia

    2017-01-01

    At 17.3%, smoking rates in Manitoba continue to exceed the national average. In this province, a total health care spending of more than $200 million per year has been attributed to smoking. This study examined the use of smoking cessation agents, including nicotine replacement products and prescription medications, in a sample of smokers in the city of Winnipeg. A simple multiple-choice questionnaire was administered to willing individuals attending 2 community pharmacies in Winnipeg, Manitoba. Data on demographics, smoking habits, previous attempts of smoking cessation and previous and current use of over-the-counter and prescription smoking cessation products were collected anonymously. Of the 2237 individuals who were approached, 586 were smokers (26.2%) and 180 responded to the survey (30.7%); 48.9% were female. A majority of smokers (32.8%) reported smoking 16 to 25 cigarettes per day. More than 90% had smoked for more than 5 years, 27.2% had more than 5 previous quit attempts and 82.1% used smoking cessation products with the intention to quit. Self-motivation (44.4%) and family/friend advice (28.3%) were major reasons for quitting. Impact of health care practitioners' advice was low (6.4%). More than 80% of respondents reported that they had no insurance coverage for their smoking cessation products. Despite having the highest rate of use, both nicotine gum (33.3%) and patches (24.4%) were reported to have lower rates of perceived efficacy. Electronic cigarette (97.9%) and varenicline (70.6%) had the highest rates of reported effectiveness. Smokers wanting to quit undergo many attempts. Pharmacists should assume a key role in reaching out to smokers.

  4. The spectrum of thyroid disorders in an iodine-deficient community: the Pescopagano survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghini-Lombardi, F; Antonangeli, L; Martino, E; Vitti, P; Maccherini, D; Leoli, F; Rago, T; Grasso, L; Valeriano, R; Balestrieri, A; Pinchera, A

    1999-02-01

    We carefully assessed thyroid status and goiter by ultrasound in 1411 subjects virtually representing the entire resident population of Pescopagano, an iodine-deficient village of Southern Italy. Median urinary iodine excretion was 55 microg/L. The prevalence of goiter was 16.0% in children and 59.8% in adults. Thyroid nodularity was 0.5% in children and progressively increased with age to 28.5% in the 56- to 65-yr-old group. The prevalence of present or past hyperthyroidism was 2.9%, including 9 cases with toxic diffuse goiter and 20 with toxic nodular goiter. Functional autonomy was rare in children, progressively increased with age up to 15.4% in the elderly, and was related to nodular goiter. The prevalences of overt and subclinical hypothyroidism in the adults were 0.2% and 3.8%, respectively. Serum autoantibodies to thyroglobulin and thyroperoxidase were detected in 12.6% of the entire population. The prevalence of diffuse autoimmune thyroiditis was 3.5%, being very low in children. Thyroid cancer was found in only 1 case. In conclusion, in the present survey of an iodine-deficient community, a progressive increase with age of goiter prevalence, thyroid nodularity, and functional autonomy was observed. Hyperthyroidism was twice as high as that reported in iodine-sufficient areas, mainly due to an increased frequency of toxic nodular goiter. Although low titer serum thyroid antibodies were relatively frequent, the prevalences of both overt and subclinical autoimmune hypothyroidism were not different from those observed in iodine-sufficient areas.

  5. Community opinions in the management of corneal ulcers and ophthalmic antibiotics: a survey of 4 states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hugo Y; Nacke, Randall; Song, Jonathan C; Yoo, Sonia H; Alfonso, Eduardo C; Israel, Heidi A

    2010-07-01

    To evaluate the ophthalmic community's current opinions of the management of bacterial keratitis and usage of the currently available ophthalmic antibiotics. An anonymous questionnaire was mailed to ophthalmologists in California, Florida, Illinois, and Missouri. The results were tabulated and analyzed statistically. Six hundred twenty-nine usable questionnaires (10.3%) were returned. In the management of corneal ulcers, 42.2% of comprehensive ophthalmologists and 75.3% of cornea specialists perform Gram stains some of the time. A total of 73.3% of comprehensive ophthalmologists and 93.7% of cornea specialists perform corneal cultures some of the time. A total of 88.8% of comprehensive ophthalmologists and 76% of cornea specialists initiate treatment with the newer fluoroquinolone antibiotics. A total of 12.1% of comprehensive ophthalmologists and 41% of cornea specialists would select fortified antibiotics for the treatment of corneal ulcers. The percentage of those who feel that fortified antibiotics are superior ranges from 17.7% for comprehensive ophthalmologists to 33.3% for cornea specialists. A total of 65.7% of comprehensive ophthalmologists indicate that the newer fluoroquinolones have impacted their practices, and 58.3% indicate that they represent an improvement over older fluoroquinolones. Most responding ophthalmologists initiate empiric therapy with the newer fluoroquinolone antibiotics for corneal ulcers, forgoing Gram staining and culturing. However, respondents are not universally sanguine about the newer fluoroquinolones. The practice patterns and opinions on antibiotics differ almost universally between comprehensive ophthalmologists and cornea specialists. Larger, more detailed surveys and more specific analyses would help to further establish the factors that lead to differing management choices and opinions.

  6. Medication reviews led by community pharmacists in Switzerland: a qualitative survey to evaluate barriers and facilitators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niquille A

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: 1 To evaluate the participation rate and identify the practical barriers to implementing a community pharmacist-led medication review service in francophone Switzerland and, 2 To assess the effectiveness of external support.Methods: A qualitative survey was undertaken to identify barriers to patient inclusion and medication review delivery in daily practice among all contactable independent pharmacists working in francophone Switzerland (n=78 who were members of a virtual chain (pharmacieplus, regardless of their participation in a simultaneous cross-sectional study. This study analyzed the dissemination of a medication review service including a prescription and drug utilization review with access to clinical data, a patient interview and a pharmaceutical report to the physicians. In addition, we observed an exploratory and external coaching for pharmacists that we launched seven months after the beginning of the cross-sectional study. Results: Poor motivation on the part of pharmacists and difficulties communicating with physicians and patients were the primary obstacles identified. Lack of time and lack of self-confidence in administering the medication review process were the most commonly perceived practical barriers to the implementation of the new service. The main facilitators to overcome these issues may be well-planned workflow organization techniques, strengthened by an adequate remuneration scheme and a comprehensive and practice-based training course that includes skill-building in pharmacotherapy and communication. External support may partially compensate for a weak organizational framework.Conclusions: To facilitate the implementation of a medication review service, a strong local networking with physicians, an effective workflow management and a practice- and communications-focused training for pharmacists and their teams seem key elements required. External support can be useful to help some pharmacists improve their

  7. Decision Criteria for German Hardwood Lumber Buyers: Market Needs and Purchase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas G. Ponzurick; Robert J. Bush; Dieter Schaupp; Philip A. Araman

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a better understanding of hardwood exports to the German market. A mail survey was conducted which resulted in a 47.8 percent rate of response. Of those German hardwood buyers responding to the survey, 71 percent purchased hardwood lumber directly from North America.

  8. On German Unity 1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On 3 October 1990 the division of Germany into two states came to an end. The. German Democratic Republic (GDR) acceded to the Federal Republic of Germany and in doing so ceased to exist. This epoch-making event took place peacefully and in agreement with all Germany's friends, allies and European neighbours.

  9. C-terminal provasopressin (copeptin) in patients with community-acquired pneumonia--influence of antibiotic pre-treatment: results from the German competence network CAPNETZ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Stefan; Ewig, Santiago; Kunde, Jan; Hanschmann, Alexa; Marre, Reinhard; Suttorp, Norbert; Welte, Tobias

    2009-07-01

    Recently, C-terminal provasopressin (copeptin) turned out to be predictive for mortality in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of antibiotic pre-treatment on copeptin levels in CAP. We enrolled 370 hospitalized patients (66 +/- 17 years; 42% females) with proven CAP. Venous blood samples were collected at the time of inclusion into the study and as soon as possible after the diagnosis of CAP. Copeptin (B.R.A.H.M.S. AG, Henningsdorf, Germany) levels were determined in venous blood on admission. Eighty-five patients had antibiotic pre-treatment and 285 patients did not. Copeptin levels increased with increasing severity of CAP in patients without antibiotic pre-treatment but not in patients with antibiotic pre-treatment. Patients with prior antibiotic treatment showed significantly lower levels of copeptin [median (interquartile range): 12.8 (5.3-22.6) versus 20.8 (11.1-37.8) pmol/L, P antibiotic pre-treatment. Copeptin serum levels are higher in patients without antibiotic pre-treatment compared with those with antibiotic pre-treatment. Copeptin serum levels increase with an increasing severity of CAP in patients without, but not in patients with, antibiotic pre-treatment. Thus, antibiotic pre-treatment has to be taken into account for the correct interpretation of copeptin levels in CAP.

  10. Control rooms in German nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, E.

    1999-01-01

    The paper explains and illustrates the dissimilarity in design and equipment of control rooms in German NPPs, as well as a historical survey of the general principles and approaches applied in the evolution of control room technology, including backfitting activities. Experience obtained from daily operation as well training at the simulators is taken as a basis to formulate fundamental requirements for modification or novel design approaches. (orig./CB) [de

  11. 'Combating' tropical diseases in the German colonial press.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Sílvio Marcus de Souza

    2013-03-01

    This article shows how much certain German language newspapers were a vehicule for reporting to the lay public on 'combating' tropical diseases. Through the press, immigrants and their descendents in Brazil were informed not only about the diseases which afflicted German colonists in Africa, but also about measures concerning sanitation, prophylaxis and experiments with tropical medicine, etc. Based on hemerographic sources, it shows how successful the overseas German communities were in sharing their experiences regarding health in tropical and/or sub-tropical regions.

  12. Validation of a community-based survey assessing non-obstetric surgical conditions in Burera District, Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden, Allison F; Maine, Rebecca; Hedt-Gauthier, Bethany L; Kamanzi, Emmanual; Mody, Gita; Ntakiyiruta, Georges; Kansayisa, Grace; Ntaganda, Edmond; Niyonkuru, Francine; Mubiligi, Joel; Mpunga, Tharcisse; Meara, John G; Riviello, Robert

    2015-04-27

    Community-based surveillance methods to monitor epidemiological progress in surgery have not yet been employed for surgical capacity building. The aim of this study was to create and assess the validity of a questionnaire that collected data for untreated surgically correctable diseases throughout Burera District, northern Rwanda, to accurately plan for surgical services. A structured interview to assess for the presence or absence of ten index surgically treatable conditions (breast mass, cleft lip/palate, club foot, hernia or hydrocele [adult and paediatric]), hydrocephalus, hypospadias, injuries or wounds, neck mass, undescended testes, and vaginal fistula) was created. The interview was built based on previously validated questionnaires, forward and back translated into the local language and underwent focus group augmentation and pilot testing. In March and May, 2012, data collectors conducted the structured interviews with a household representative in 30 villages throughout Burera District, selected using a two-stage cluster sampling design. Rwandan physicians revisited the surveyed households to perform physical examinations on all household members, used as the gold standard to validate the structured interview. Ethical approval was obtained from Boston Children's Hospital (Boston, MA, USA) and the Rwandan National Ethics Committee (Kigali, Rwanda). Informed consent was obtained from all households. 2990 individuals were surveyed, a 97% response rate. 2094 (70%) individuals were available for physical examination. The calculated overall sensitivity of the structured interview tool was 44·5% (95% CI 38·9-50·2) and the specificity was 97·7% (96·9-98·3%; appendix). The positive predictive value was 70% (95% CI 60·5-73·5), whereas the negative predictive value was 91·3% (90·0-92·5). The conditions with the highest sensitivity and specificity, respectively, were hydrocephalus (100% and 100%), clubfoot (100% and 99·8%), injuries or wounds (54·7% and

  13. Germanic heritage languages in North America: Acquisition, attrition and change

    OpenAIRE

    Johannessen, Janne Bondi; Salmons, Joseph C.; Westergaard, Marit; Anderssen, Merete; Arnbjörnsdóttir, Birna; Allen, Brent; Pierce, Marc; Boas, Hans C.; Roesch, Karen; Brown, Joshua R.; Putnam, Michael; Åfarli, Tor A.; Newman, Zelda Kahan; Annear, Lucas; Speth, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    This book presents new empirical findings about Germanic heritage varieties spoken in North America: Dutch, German, Pennsylvania Dutch, Icelandic, Norwegian, Swedish, West Frisian and Yiddish, and varieties of English spoken both by heritage speakers and in communities after language shift. The volume focuses on three critical issues underlying the notion of ‘heritage language’: acquisition, attrition and change. The book offers theoretically-informed discussions of heritage language processe...

  14. German Jewish Intellectuals and the German Occupation of Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Wyrwa

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In August 1914 the majority of German Jews expressed their patriotic approval of the war and their loyalty to the German state. They identified with Germany, and a large number signed up voluntarily for military service at the front. The Jewish population in Germany affirmed the war not least because it was directed against Russia, the harshest adversary of the Jews. This paper concentrates on the first acts of war conducted by the German military forces during the German occupation of Belgium; it examines whether and in what way German-Jewish Intellectuals perceived Germany’s violation of Belgian neutrality and the new feature of war as a war against a civilian population. The first part examines autobiographical sources to reconstruct the experiences and the perception of German Jewish soldiers, German military rabbis, and other German Jewish witnesses to the war. The second part then analyzes the coverage of German Jewish newspapers regarding the warfare against Belgium; and, finally, the third and last part scrutinizes the commentaries of German Jewish intellectuals and socialist Jews [Jewish socialists?] regarding the German war against Belgium.

  15. Antimicrobial Stewardship: A Cross-Sectional Survey Assessing the Perceptions and Practices of Community Pharmacists in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Asfaw Erku

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Community pharmacists are key healthcare professionals for antimicrobial stewardship programs owing to their role in dispensing of antimicrobials. The aim of the present study was to assess the perception and practices of community pharmacists towards antimicrobial stewardship (AMS in Ethiopia. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted by selecting pharmacy sites through stratified simple random sampling technique. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data. Results. Majority of respondents strongly agreed or agreed that AMS program is vital for the improvement of patient care. Almost all of respondents agreed that pharmacists can play a prominent role in AMS and infection prevention (93.2%, median = 5; IQR = 2–5. However, only 26.5% of respondents strongly agreed or agreed that AMS should be practiced at community pharmacy level (median = 4, IQR = 1–3 and more than half of community pharmacists (59.9% often/always dispense antimicrobial without a prescription. Conclusion. The present study revealed positive perceptions and practices of community pharmacists towards antimicrobial stewardship. Yet, some weak areas like integration of AMS program in community pharmacies, the significance of interprofessional involvement, and dispensing of antimicrobials without a valid prescription still need improvement.

  16. Comparisons between Japanese and Korean Learners of German

    OpenAIRE

    吉満, たか子

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on differences and similarities between Japanese and Korean learners of German at a summer course of the University of Hamburg. A survey was conducted with the intention of gaining insights into the profiles, motivation, and difficulties which Japanese and Koreans possess when learning German and language-learning strategies. A questionnaire was administered to 15 Japanese students and 14 Korean students who participated in the summer course held at the University of ...

  17. Epidemiological patterns of mental disorders and stigma in a community household survey in urban slum and rural settings in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutiso, Victoria N; Musyimi, Christine W; Tomita, Andrew; Loeffen, Lianne; Burns, Jonathan K; Ndetei, David M

    2018-03-01

    This study investigated the epidemiological patterns of mental illness and stigma in community households in Kenya using a cross-sectional community household survey among 846 participants. A cross-sectional community household survey was conducted around urban slum (Kangemi) and rural (Kibwezi) selected health facilities in Kenya. All households within the two sites served by the selected health facilities were included in the study. To select the main respondent in the household, the oldest adult who could speak English, Kiswahili or both (the official languages in Kenya) was selected to participate in the interview. The Opinion about Mental Illness in Chinese Community (OMICC) questionnaire and the MINI-International Neuropsychiatric Interview-Plus Version 5 (MINI) tools were administered to the participants. Pearson's chi-square test was used to compare prevalence according to gender, while adjusted regression models examined the association between mental illness and views about mental illness, stratified by gender. The overall prevalence of mental illness was 45%, showing gender differences regarding common types of illness. The opinions about mental illness were similar for men and women, while rural respondents were more positively opinionated than urban participants. Overall, suffering from mental illness was associated with more positive opinions among women and more negative opinions among men. More research is needed into the factors explaining the observed differences in opinion about mental illness between the subgroups, and the impact of mental illness on stigma in Kenya in order to create an evidence-based approach against stigma.

  18. What do you think overdiagnosis means? A qualitative analysis of responses from a national community survey of Australians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moynihan, Ray; Nickel, Brooke; Hersch, Jolyn; Doust, Jenny; Barratt, Alexandra; Beller, Elaine; McCaffery, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    Objective Overdiagnosis occurs when someone is diagnosed with a disease that will not harm them. Against a backdrop of growing evidence and concern about the risk of overdiagnosis associated with certain screening activities, and recognition of the need to better inform the public about it, we aimed to ask what the Australian community understood overdiagnosis to mean. Design, setting and participants Content analysis of verbatim responses from a randomly sampled community telephone survey of 500 Australian adults, between January and February 2014. Data were analysed independently by two researchers. Main outcome measures Analysis of themes arising from community responses to open-ended questions about the meaning of overdiagnosis. Results The sample was broadly representative of the Australian population. Forty per cent of respondents thought overdiagnosis meant exaggerating a condition that was there, diagnosing something that was not there or too much diagnosis. Twenty-four per cent described overdiagnosis as overprescribing, overtesting or overtreatment. Only 3% considered overdiagnosis meant doctors gained financially. No respondents mentioned screening in conjunction with overdiagnosis, and over 10% of participants were unable to give an answer. Conclusions Around half the community surveyed had an approximate understanding of overdiagnosis, although no one identified it as a screening risk and a quarter equated it with overuse. Strategies to inform people about the risk of overdiagnosis associated with screening and diagnostic tests, in clinical and public health settings, could build on a nascent understanding of the nature of the problem. PMID:25991454

  19. Changes in community perspectives on the roles and rules of church forests in northern Ethiopia: evidence from a panel survey of four Ethiopian Orthodox communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis William Reynolds

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Some of the only Afromontane forest in northern Ethiopia today is on lands managed by followers of the Ethiopian Orthodox Church, where for centuries priests and communities have conserved forest groves around church buildings. The ecological value of the thousands of church forests in Ethiopia has been widely acknowledged, but little is known about the diverse local institutions that govern these resources, or how such institutions might be changing in response to Ethiopia’s rapid recent economic development. This study uses a unique panel survey to explore changes in community perspectives on the social and ecological roles of church forests, and rules governing church forest use, in four Orthodox communities over time. Our sample consists of 122 household surveys conducted in 2002 and a further 122 surveys from 2014, with 71 households interviewed in both periods. We find that reported uses of church forests vary across forests and over time, with larger forests more likely to be used for extractive purposes such as firewood and construction timber, while smaller forests have become more restricted to renewable or non-extractive uses such as natural medicines, honey, and prayer. Results of logistic regression suggest church followers’ support for preserving church forests increases with age and access to alternative sources of firewood – including exotic Eucalyptus spp. plantations which are increasingly widespread in northern Ethiopia. We also observe a shift since 2002 away from an expectation that church followers themselves hold responsibility for rule enforcement in church forests to a perceived sharing of responsibility by church authorities (i.e. priests and government (i.e. police in 2014. Together the progressive introduction of exotic tree species in church forests combined with the erosion of religious norms surrounding local forest governance may threaten the integrity and diversity of these unique social-ecological systems.

  20. SURVEY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SURVEY er en udbredt metode og benyttes inden for bl.a. samfundsvidenskab, humaniora, psykologi og sundhedsforskning. Også uden for forskningsverdenen er der mange organisationer som f.eks. konsulentfirmaer og offentlige institutioner samt marketingsafdelinger i private virksomheder, der arbejder...... med surveys. Denne bog gennemgår alle surveyarbejdets faser og giver en praktisk indføring i: • design af undersøgelsen og udvælgelse af stikprøver, • formulering af spørgeskemaer samt indsamling og kodning af data, • metoder til at analysere resultaterne...

  1. Revised and new reference values for environmental pollutants in urine or blood of children in Germany derived from the German environmental survey on children 2003-2006 (GerES IV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Christine; Angerer, Jürgen; Ewers, Ulrich; Heudorf, Ursel; Wilhelm, Michael

    2009-11-01

    Based on the representative data collection of the German Environmental Survey on Children 2003-2006 (GerES IV) the Human Biomonitoring Commission of the German Federal Environment Agency has updated the reference values for a comprehensive number of environmental pollutants in blood and urine of children in Germany. Reference values are statistically derived values that indicate the upper margin of background exposure to a given pollutant in a given population at a given time. They can be used as criteria to classify the measured values of individuals or population groups as being "elevated" or "not elevated". Since environmental conditions are changing, reference values are continuously checked and updated if new information becomes available. Therefore, the previously derived reference values for metabolites of pyrethroids (cis-, trans-Cl(2)Ca and 3-PBA: 1, 2, and 2microg/l), of PAH (1-hydroxypyrene: 0.5microg/l), for arsenic in urine (15microg/l), and for PCB 138, PCB 153, PCB 180 in whole blood (0.3, 0.4, 0.3microg/l) and for DDE (western Germany) in whole blood (0.7microg/l) were confirmed. The following reference values were lowered: lead in blood from 50 to 35microg/l, cadmium in urine from 0.5 to 0.2microg/l, mercury in whole blood from 1.0 to 0.8microg/l, mercury in urine from 0.7 to 0.4microg/l, beta-HCH in whole blood from 0.3 to 0.1microg/l, HCB in whole blood from 0.3 to 0.2microg/l, and DMP in urine from 135 to 75microg/l, and DMTP in urine from 160 to 100microg/l. Based on the extended data set of the GerES IV, the reference value for the sum of PCB 138+153+180 in whole blood of children aged 7 to 14 was raised from 0.9 to 1.0microg/l. The reference value for DEP in urine of children aged 3 to 14 was raised from 16 to 30microg/l. New reference values in urine of children aged 3 to 14 living in Germany were derived for antimony (0.3microg/l), nickel (4.5microg/l), thallium (0.6microg/l), uranium (0.04microg/l), metabolites of organophosphorous

  2. Behavioral determinants of immunization service utilization in Ethiopia: a cross-sectional community-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ababu, Yohannes; Braka, Fiona; Teka, Aschalew; Getachew, Kinde; Tadesse, Tefera; Michael, Yohannes; Birhanu, Zewdie; Nsubuga, Peter; Assefa, Tersit; Gallagher, Kathleen

    2017-01-01

    According to the Ethiopian Health Sector Development Plan IV annual performance report (HSDP IV), Ethiopia targeted to reach 90% coverage with DPT-Hib-HepB 3 (Pentavalent3) vaccine and 86% coverage with measles vaccine in 2010- 2011. However, the actual performance fell-short of the intended targets due to several reasons. Therefore, a nationwide comprehensive study was conducted to examine the behavioral determinants of immunization practices in the Ethiopian context. The study employed the Modified Steps of Behavioral Change (SBC) Model as a theoretical lens. A cross-sectional study was conducted in May 2012 in all the nine regions and the two city administrations of Ethiopia. The study used a community-based quantitative survey design comprising of multistage cluster sampling to draw relevant data from a sample of 2,328 caretakers whose children were 12-23 months of age at the time of data collection. Overall, the multivariate analysis findings revealed that caretakers, who had high knowledge were 2.24 times more likely to vaccinate their children than participants had low knowledge (OR= 2.24, 95%CI: 1.68-2.98). Participants who had high approval were 2.45 times more likely to vaccinate their children than participants who had unfavorable approval (OR= 2.45, 95%CI: 1.67-3.59); and participants who had high intention were 6.49 times more likely to vaccinate their children with pentavalent3 vaccines than participants who had low intention(OR= 6.49, 95%CI: 4.83-8). Also, it was clear from the regression analysis that aspects of caretakers' demographic characteristics were significant predictors of their immunization practice for the sample group. We identified that caretakers' knowledge, approval, intention, parents' residence, and religious backgrounds were associated with immunization service utilization. To achieve sustainable behavioral change on immunization service utilization of the caretakers in Ethiopia, this study suggests investing in activities that

  3. Australian survey of current practice and guideline use in adult cancer pain assessment and management: The community nurse perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Jane L; Lovell, Melanie; Luckett, Tim; Agar, Meera; Green, Anna; Davidson, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Cancer pain remains a major public health concern. Despite effective treatments being available to manage the majority of cancer pain, this debilitating symptom is frequently under treated. As cancer has becomes a chronic disease a range of health professionals, including community nurses in Australia are increasingly caring for people living with cancer related pain. Yet, little is known about community nurses capacity to assess and manage cancer pain in accordance with best available evidence. This study aimed to: identify the barriers and facilitators to adult cancer pain assessment and management as perceived by Australian health professionals; identify if cancer pain guidelines are currently used; identify barriers and facilitators to guideline use; and establish the need for Australian cancer pain guidelines. This article reports on community nurses' perceptions of managing cancer pain in the community setting. A cross-sectional survey was administered online. Invitations were circulated via peak bodies and clinical leaders seeking the views and experiences of health professionals involved in caring for people living with cancer pain. Descriptive statistics were used to summarise the quantitative data, and thematic content analysis were used to describe the qualitative data. Sixty-two community nurses responded to the survey, representing 29% of the total sample. These participants reported high levels of adherence to accepted cancer pain management practices in their workplace, with 71% nominating the Palliative Care Therapeutic Guideline V.3 as being most frequently used to manage community patients' cancer related pain. Key barriers to effective cancer pain management in the community were: difficulties accessing non-pharmacological interventions (89%), lack of coordination by multiple providers (89%), and impact of distance on ability to access pain-related services for patients (86%). A range of system, health professional and consumer barriers limit

  4. School of German Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei V. Evteev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Department of German is one of the oldest language departments at MGIMO. Since its foundation in 1944 the military experienced teachers of the department, most of whom were native speakers, have begun to develop a unique method of teaching the German language, thereby revolutionize learning this foreign language. The first steps made under the supervision of the Department of Antonina V. Celica. The department refused to conventional time and is still used in universities such as the Moscow Linguistic University, separate teaching phonetics, grammar and vocabulary, which was due to the specific objectives set for the teaching staff: prepare for short term specialists in international relations, active Germanspeaking. The department can be proud of its graduates, many of whom continue his career in the walls of native high school. Many graduates have dedicated their lives to serving the State in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

  5. Community psychiatric nursing in the Netherlands: a survey of a thriving but threatened profession

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koekkoek, B.W.; Meijel, B.K.G. van; Schene, A.H.; Hutschemaekers, G.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe and analyse the Dutch community psychiatric nursing profession. In spite of their large numbers, estimated at 2900, Dutch community psychiatric nurses (CPNs) have contributed little to the international literature. The history of the profession reveals a

  6. Benchmarking Alumni Relations in Community Colleges: Findings from a 2015 CASE Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradise, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    The Benchmarking Alumni Relations in Community Colleges white paper features key data on alumni relations programs at community colleges across the United States. The paper compares results from 2015 and 2012 across such areas as the structure, operations and budget for alumni relations, alumni data collection and management, alumni communications…

  7. Results from the 2014 CASE Survey of Community College Foundations. CASE White Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradise, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    In 2011, the Council for Advancement and Support of Education (CASE) founded the Center for Community College Advancement to provide training and resources to help community colleges build and sustain effective fundraising, alumni relations, and communications and marketing programs. A goal for the center is to collect data on best practices at…

  8. HIV infection in fishing communities of Lake Victoria Basin of Uganda--a cross-sectional sero-behavioral survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Opio

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Uganda's first AIDS case was reported in a fishing village. Thereafter, due to varying risk factors, the epidemic spread heterogeneously to all regions, with some populations more affected. Given the recent rising trends in HIV infection in Uganda, it is crucial to know the risk factors in different populations. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors of HIV infection among fishing communities. METHODOLOGY: A cross-sectional survey of 46 fishing communities was conducted in 2010. Following written consent, 911 randomly selected respondents age 15-59 years were interviewed and gave blood for HIV testing. HIV testing was conducted in the field and central laboratory according to national algorithm. Survey protocol was approved by the Science and Ethics Committee of Uganda Virus Research Institute, and cleared by Uganda National Council for Science and Technology. Data was captured by EPIINFO and statistical analysis done in SPSS. FINDINGS: Overall HIV prevalence was 22%; there was no difference by sex (x (2 test, p>0.05. Association with HIV infection was determined by x (2 test, p<0.5. Never married respondents had lower HIV prevalence (6.2% than the ever married (24.1%. HIV prevalence was lower in younger respondents, age 15-24 years (10.8% than in age group 25 years and above (26.1%. Muslims had lower HIV prevalence (14.4% than Christians (25.2%. HIV prevalence was higher among respondents reporting 3 or more lifetime sexual partners (25.3% than in those reporting less numbers (10.8%. HIV prevalence was higher among uncircumcised men (27% than in circumcised men (11%. Multivariate analysis identified 4 risk factors for HIV infection; age, religion, ever condom use and number of lifetime sexual partners. CONCLUSIONS: HIV prevalence in the surveyed communities was three times higher than of general population. This underscores the need for tailor made HIV combination prevention interventions targeting

  9. Community health nurses' learning needs in relation to the Canadian community health nursing standards of practice: results from a Canadian survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valaitis, Ruta K; Schofield, Ruth; Akhtar-Danesh, Noori; Baumann, Andrea; Martin-Misener, Ruth; Underwood, Jane; Isaacs, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    CANADIAN COMMUNITY HEALTH NURSES (CHNS) WORK IN DIVERSE URBAN, RURAL, AND REMOTE SETTINGS SUCH AS: public health units/departments, home health, community health facilities, family practices, and other community-based settings. Research into specific learning needs of practicing CHNs is sparsely reported. This paper examines Canadian CHNs learning needs in relation to the 2008 Canadian Community Health Nursing Standards of Practice (CCHN Standards). It answers: What are the learning needs of CHNs in Canada in relation to the CCHN Standards? What are differences in CHNs' learning needs by: province and territory in Canada, work setting (home health, public health and other community health settings) and years of nursing practice? Between late 2008 and early 2009 a national survey was conducted to identify learning needs of CHNs based on the CCHN Standards using a validated tool. Results indicated that CHNs had learning needs on 25 of 88 items (28.4%), suggesting CHNs have confidence in most CCHN Standards. Three items had the highest learning needs with mean scores > 0.60: two related to epidemiology (means 0.62 and 0.75); and one to informatics (application of information and communication technology) (mean = 0.73). Public health nurses had a greater need to know about "…evaluating population health promotion programs systematically" compared to home health nurses (mean 0.66 vs. 0.39, p learn "… advocating for healthy public policy…" than their more experienced peers (p = 0.0029). Also, NPs had a greater need to learn about "…using community development principles when engaging the individual/community in a consultative process" compared to RNs (p = 0.05). Many nurses were unsure if they applied foundational theoretical frameworks (i.e., the Ottawa Charter of Health Promotion, the Jakarta Declaration, and the Population Health Promotion Model) in practice. CHN educators and practice leaders need to consider these results in determining where to strengthen

  10. Mental Health and Firearms in Community-Based Surveys: Implications for Suicide Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorenson, Susan B.; Vittes, Katherine A.

    2008-01-01

    Suicide rates are higher among those who own or live in a household with a hand gun. This article examines the association between hand gun ownership and mental health, another risk factor for suicide. Data from the General Social Survey, a series of surveys of U.S. adults, are analyzed to compare general emotional and mental health, sadness and…

  11. Development and Psychometric Evaluation of the HPV Clinical Trial Survey for Parents (CTSP-HPV) Using Traditional Survey Development Methods and Community Engagement Principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Jennifer; Wallston, Kenneth A; Wilkins, Consuelo H; Hull, Pamela C; Miller, Stephania T

    2015-12-01

    This study describes the development and psychometric evaluation of HPV Clinical Trial Survey for Parents with Children Aged 9 to 15 (CTSP-HPV) using traditional instrument development methods and community engagement principles. An expert panel and parental input informed survey content and parents recommended study design changes (e.g., flyer wording). A convenience sample of 256 parents completed the final survey measuring parental willingness to consent to HPV clinical trial (CT) participation and other factors hypothesized to influence willingness (e.g., HPV vaccine benefits). Cronbach's a, Spearman correlations, and multiple linear regression were used to estimate internal consistency, convergent and discriminant validity, and predictively validity, respectively. Internal reliability was confirmed for all scales (a ≥ 0.70.). Parental willingness was positively associated (p advantages of adolescent CTs (r range 0.33-0.42), supporting convergent validity. Moderate discriminant construct validity was also demonstrated. Regression results indicate reasonable predictive validity with the six scales accounting for 31% of the variance in parents' willingness. This instrument can inform interventions based on factors that influence parental willingness, which may lead to the eventual increase in trial participation. Further psychometric testing is warranted. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Considerations for conducting Web-based survey research with people living with human immunodeficiency virus using a community-based participatory approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Kelly K; Solomon, Patricia; Worthington, Catherine; Ibáñez-Carrasco, Francisco; Baxter, Larry; Nixon, Stephanie A; Baltzer-Turje, Rosalind; Robinson, Greg; Zack, Elisse

    2014-03-13

    Web or Internet-based surveys are increasingly popular in health survey research. However, the strengths and challenges of Web-based surveys with people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are unclear. The aim of this article is to describe our experience piloting a cross-sectional, Web-based, self-administered survey with adults living with HIV using a community-based participatory research approach. We piloted a Web-based survey that investigated disability and rehabilitation services use with a sample of adults living with HIV in Canada. Community organizations in five provinces emailed invitations to clients, followed by a thank you/reminder one week later. We obtained survey feedback in a structured phone interview with respondents. Participant responses were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using directed content analysis. Of 30 people living with HIV who accessed the survey link, 24/30 (80%) initiated and 16/30 (53%) completed the survey instrument. A total of 17 respondents participated in post-survey interviews. Participants described the survey instrument as comprehensive, suggesting content validity. The majority (13/17, 76%) felt instruction and item wording were clear and easy to understand, and found the software easy to navigate. Participants felt having a pop-up reminder directing them to missed items would be useful. Strengths of implementing the Web-based survey included: our community-based participatory approach, ease of software use, ability for respondents to complete the questionnaire on one's own time at one's own pace, opportunity to obtain geographic variation, and potential for respondent anonymity. Considerations for future survey implementation included: respondent burden and fatigue, the potentially sensitive nature of HIV Web-based research, data management and storage, challenges verifying informed consent, varying computer skills among respondents, and the burden on community organizations. Overall, results provide

  13. Community-Based Risk Communication Survey: Risk Prevention Behaviors in Communities during the H1N1 crisis, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soo Jeong; Han, Jin A; Lee, Tae-Yong; Hwang, Tae-Yoon; Kwon, Keun-Sang; Park, Ki Soo; Lee, Kyung Jong; Kim, Moon Shik; Lee, Soon Young

    2014-02-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of and factors associated with H1N1 preventive behaviors in a community-based population. A cross-sectional study was conducted in three urban and two rural communities in Korea. Interviews were conducted with 3462 individuals (1608 men and 1854 women) aged ≥ 19 years during February-March 2010. Influenza-related information including anxiety, preventive behaviors and their perceived effectiveness, vaccination status, past influenza-like illness symptoms, and sources of and trust in information was obtained. Among 3462 participants, 173 reported experiencing influenza-like illness symptoms within the past 12 months. The mean H1N1 preventive behavior score was 25.5 ± 5.5 (out of a possible 40). The percent of participants reporting high perceived effectiveness and high anxiety was 46.2% and 21.4%, respectively. After controlling for potential confounders, H1N1 preventive behavior scores were predicted by a high (β = 3.577, p < 0.001) or moderate (β = 2.529, p < 0.001) perception of their effectiveness. Similarly, moderate (β = 1.516, p < 0.001) and high (β = 4.103, p < 0.001) anxiety scores predicted high preventive behavior scores. Effective methods of promoting population behavior change may be nationwide campaigns through mass media, as well as education and promotion by health care providers and broadcasters.

  14. [German ophthalmologists and NSDAP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrbach, Jens Martin

    2008-01-01

    Approximately 40-45 % of all German physicians joined the National Socialist German Workers Party (NSDAP) until 1945. Reasons for party membership are manifold and still a matter of debate. Very likely, the extraordinary high representation of medical doctors in the NSDAP was rather a result of active entry than recruitment by the party. There are only few data concerning the willingness of ophthalmologists to become a party member ("Parteigenosse", "Pg"). According to the list of University teachers in Germany ("Hochschullehrerkarte"; Federal Archive, Berlin), the list of the members of the German Ophthalmological Society (DOG) of 1934 and especially the list of NSDAP-members (Federal Archive, Berlin) the following conclusions can be drawn: 1. Directors of German University eye hospitals (chairmen) were members of the NSDAP with a frequency of 23% in 1933 and 48% in 1938 as well as in 1943. The motivation for joining the party was most likely the perspective of acceleration of the academic career. 2. "Only" 30% of the ophthalmologists working in private praxis were "Pg" (until 1945). 3. Both chairmen and ophthalmologists in private praxis were equally hindered to join the NSDAP between May 1st 1933 and May 1st 1937 when the party temporarily stopped registration. 4. The majority of ophthalmologists who joined the NSDAP were born between 1880 and 1900 and thus had taken part in World War I as soldiers or had experienced the times of need after WW I. Only few ophthalmologists succeeded in the NS-hierarchy and probably only one ophthalmologist, Walther Löhlein from Berlin, came in personal contact with Adolf Hitler who was constantly in fear for his sight after his eye injury in October 1918. The "Law for the prevention of genetically disabled offsprings" ("Gesetz zur Verhütung erbkranken Nachwuchses") from July 14th, 1933 separated ophthalmologists into two parties: those advocating sterilization to a high degree and those recommending sterilization only

  15. Comparison of response rates and cost-effectiveness for a community-based survey: postal, internet and telephone modes with generic or personalised recruitment approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinclair Martha

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological research often requires collection of data from a representative sample of the community or recruitment of specific groups through broad community approaches. The population coverage of traditional survey methods such as mail-outs to residential addresses, and telephone contact via public directories or random-digit-dialing is declining and survey response rates are falling. There is a need to explore new sampling frames and consider multiple response modes including those offered by changes in telecommunications and internet technology. Methods We evaluated response rates and cost-effectiveness for three modes of survey administration (postal invitation/postal survey, postal invitation/internet survey and postal invitation/telephone survey and two styles of contact approach (personalised and generic in a community survey of greywater use. Potential respondents were contacted only once, with no follow up of non-responders. Results The telephone survey produced the highest adjusted response rate (30.2%, followed by the personalised postal survey (10.5%, generic postal survey (7.5% and then the internet survey (4.7% for the personalised approach and 2.2% for the generic approach. There were some differences in household characteristics and greywater use rates between respondents to different survey modes, and between respondents to personalised and generic approaches. These may be attributable to the differing levels of motivations needed for a response, and varying levels of interest in the survey topic among greywater users and non-users. The generic postal survey had the lowest costs per valid survey received (Australian $22.93, followed by the personalised postal survey ($24.75. Conclusions Our findings suggest that postal surveys currently remain the most economic option for population-based studies, with similar costs for personalised and generic approaches. Internet surveys may be effective for

  16. Men with disabilities - A cross sectional survey of health promotion, social inclusion and participation at community Men's Sheds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Nathan J; Cordier, Reinie; Parsons, Richard; Vaz, Sharmila; Buchanan, Angus

    2016-01-01

    The intersections between chronicity, disability and social inequality are well understood. Novel ways to counter the social determinants of health and disability are needed. Men's Sheds are a community space where men can participate in a range of shared activities and potentially experience a health and social benefits. This cross-sectional survey was conducted to inform future research by determining who attended Men's Sheds and the range of health, social, community, and educational activities undertaken there. This paper explores the membership of people with disabilities (PWD) at Men's Sheds and the factors that predict their membership. An online survey link was sent to all known Men's Sheds internationally in 2012. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential (univariate and multivariate) statistics. 32.2% of international sheds and 29% of Australian sheds specifically targeted the inclusion of PWD. 80% of these sheds have significantly more members with disabilities than sheds who do no target PWD. Factors associated with greater membership of PWD included the provision of transport, social outings and promoting occupational skills. PWD are being encouraged to join and are joining Men's Sheds. This is significant as the value of participation and inclusion toward better health and wellbeing is well known. Men's Sheds offer a community space where the social determinants of chronicity and disability can potentially be countered. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Status of coral communities in American Samoa: a re-survey of long-term monitoring sites in 2002 (NODC Accession 0001470)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A re-survey of coral communities in the American Samoa Archipelago covering the island of Tutuila and the Manu'a Group of islands (Ofu, Olosega, and Tau), was...

  18. Baseline assessment of fish and benthic communities of the Flower Garden Banks (2010 - present) using remotely operated vehicle (ROV) survey methods: 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The proposed work develop baseline information on fish and benthic communities within the Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary (FGBNMS). Surveys will employ...

  19. Laxative Use and Self-Reported Constipation in a Community-Dwelling Elderly Population: A Community-Based Survey From Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werth, Barry L; Williams, Kylie A; Pont, Lisa G

    The objectives of this study were to (1) determine the prevalence of laxative use and self-reported constipation and (2) identify risk factors associated with constipation in a community-dwelling elderly population. A retrospective cross-sectional survey using data from the Australian Longitudinal Study of Ageing was used to explore laxative use and constipation in a cohort of community-dwelling older persons. The prevalence of laxative use was 15% and the prevalence of self-reported constipation was 21%. Females were more likely to report constipation and use laxatives. Of those using laxatives, men were more likely to have their laxatives prescribed by a doctor whereas women were more likely to self-medicate. Poor self-rated health and a higher need for assistance with activities of daily living were identified as risk factors for constipation. Constipation is a common condition affecting the community-dwelling elderly. There is a need to optimize the management of constipation and use of laxatives in such populations.

  20. Guam Community Coral Reef Monitoring Program, Benthic Training Surveys at Guam in 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Guam community members gathered benthic cover data using a 0.25m2 quadrat with 6 intersecting points at each meter along a 25-meter transect. Members identified...

  1. Guam Community Coral Reef Monitoring Program, Macroinvertebrate Training Surveys in Guam in 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Guam community members gathered macroinvertebrate within a 25-meter x 2-meter belt transect. Members identified macroinvertebrates to species (when possible),...

  2. Guam Community Coral Reef Monitoring Program, Benthic Quadrat Surveys at Guam in 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Guam community members gathered benthic cover data using a 0.25m2 quadrat with 6 intersecting points at each meter along a 25-meter transect. Members identified...

  3. Leveraging a Community Participatory Framework to Move Climate Survey Data into Action at a Small College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, C. Ellen; Benitez, Michael, Jr.

    2017-01-01

    A participatory framework in conducting research and implementing decisions can engage multiple constituents throughout a college community. At a small college, it is especially relevant, because nonmajority groups are especially vulnerable because of a smaller critical mass.

  4. Attitudes Toward e-Mental Health Services in a Community Sample of Adults: Online Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    March, Sonja; Day, Jamin; Ritchie, Gabrielle; Rowe, Arlen; Gough, Jeffrey; Hall, Tanya; Yuen, Chin Yan Jackie; Donovan, Caroline Leanne; Ireland, Michael

    2018-02-19

    Despite evidence that e-mental health services are effective, consumer preferences still appear to be in favor of face-to-face services. However, the theory of planned behavior (TPB) suggests that cognitive intentions are more proximal to behavior and thus may have a more direct influence on service use. Investigating individual characteristics that influence both preferences and intentions to use e-mental health services is important for better understanding factors that might impede or facilitate the use of these services. This study explores predictors of preferences and intentions to access e-mental health services relative to face-to-face services. Five domains were investigated (demographics, technology factors, personality, psychopathology, and beliefs), identified from previous studies and informed by the Internet interventions model. We expected that more participants would report intentions to use e-mental health services relative to reported preferences for this type of support and that these 5 domains would be significantly associated with both intentions and preferences toward online services. A mixed sample of 308 community members and university students was recruited through social media and the host institution in Australia. Ages ranged between 17 and 68 years, and 82.5% (254/308) were female. Respondents completed an online survey. Chi-square analysis and t tests were used to explore group differences, and logistic regression models were employed to explore factors predicting preferences and intentions. Most respondents (85.7%, 264/308) preferred face-to-face services over e-mental health services. Relative to preferences, a larger proportion of respondents (39.6%, 122/308) endorsed intentions to use e-mental health services if experiencing mental health difficulties in the future. In terms of the 5 predictor domains, 95% CIs of odds ratios (OR) derived from bootstrapped standard errors suggested that prior experience with online services

  5. West German Jewry: Guilt, Power and Pluralism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony d. Kauders

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The essay will address the history of West German Jewry using the concept of guilt as its guiding theme. Jews in West Germany had a bad conscience on account of living in the “land of the murderers.” This bad conscience not only distinguished them from other Jewish communities, it also explains much of what characterized West German Jewry from 1945 to 1989: its particular economic structure; its especially close ties to Israel; its preoccupation with democratization; its power arrangements; and its communal life. The essay will address these issues, and trace a development that led from a close-knit, ideologically homogeneous group to one that became ever more pluralistic in the 1970s and 1980s.

  6. Childbirth in East and West German Stepfamilies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available The present paper studies fertility rates in partnerships with and without children from previous partners in East and West Germany. Data from the German "Fertility and Family Survey" is used to estimate piecewise-linear hazard rate models for having another child. It turns out that a proportional-hazard model would give incorrect results because childbirth follows different time patterns for couples who have already a shared child and couples who do not. Therefore, a model with specific clocks for various experiences of parenthood is specified. Based on these model estimations the probability for having another child within a certain time is calculated. In West Germany the estimated likelihood of having another child within six years varies little by child composition. In contrast, East-German couples with no shared child have a higher likelihood than couples with a shared child to have a child within six years.

  7. How old are Germanic lambs?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vrieland, Seán D.

    2017-01-01

    Gothic and Gutnish lamb with the meaning ‘sheep’ sets these two languages apart from the rest of Germanic, and is the most common piece of evidence used to claim they share a close connection. Yet the same meaning is found in the descendants of Proto-Fennic *lambaz, a loan from Proto-Germanic, an......Gothic and Gutnish lamb with the meaning ‘sheep’ sets these two languages apart from the rest of Germanic, and is the most common piece of evidence used to claim they share a close connection. Yet the same meaning is found in the descendants of Proto-Fennic *lambaz, a loan from Proto......-Germanic, and speaks for Gothic and Gutnish preserving the original Proto-Germanic meaning of the etymon. These semantics provide a missing link for connecting Pro-to-Germanic *lambiz- with PIE *h₁él-n-/*h₁l-ón- ‘red deer’....

  8. Assessment of the ecological potential of mine-water treatment wetlands using a baseline survey of macroinvertebrate communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batty, L.C.; Atkin, L.; Manning, D.A.C.

    2005-01-01

    A baseline survey of macroinvertebrate populations in two mine-water treatment wetlands, one treating a net acidic spoil heap discharge and one a net alkaline ferruginous pumped mine water, was undertaken to assess the potential of these systems to provide habitats for faunal communities. Both wetlands were found to be impoverished in comparison to natural wetlands but did sustain a macroinvertebrate community that could support higher organisms. Wetland size and water quality in terms of pH, conductivity and metal concentrations were found to be important factors in determining the quality of the populations supported. Direct toxicity to organisms was unlikely to be the main cause of lower diversity, but the smothering of organisms via the precipitation of iron hydroxides particularly in the early parts of the treatment systems affected macroinvertebrate communities. The presence of areas of open water within the planted systems was found to be important for providing habitats for macroinvertebrates and this should be both a future design and maintenance consideration for environmental managers. - Mine-water treatment wetlands can be engineered to provide habitats for ecological communities

  9. The German drought monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zink, Matthias; Samaniego, Luis; Kumar, Rohini; Thober, Stephan; Mai, Juliane; Schäfer, David; Marx, Andreas

    2016-07-01

    The 2003 drought event in Europe had major implications on many societal sectors, including energy production, health, forestry and agriculture. The reduced availability of water accompanied by high temperatures led to substantial economic losses on the order of 1.5 Billion Euros, in agriculture alone. Furthermore, soil droughts have considerable impacts on ecosystems, forest fires and water management. Monitoring soil water availability in near real-time and at high-resolution, i.e., 4 × 4 km2, enables water managers to mitigate the impact of these extreme events. The German drought monitor was established in 2014 as an online platform. It uses an operational modeling system that consists of four steps: (1) a daily update of observed meteorological data by the German Weather Service, with consistency checks and interpolation; (2) an estimation of current soil moisture using the mesoscale hydrological model; (3) calculation of a quantile-based soil moisture index (SMI) based on a 60 year data record; and (4) classification of the SMI into five drought classes ranging from abnormally dry to exceptional drought. Finally, an easy to understand map is produced and published on a daily basis on www.ufz.de/droughtmonitor. Analysis of the ongoing 2015 drought event, which garnered broad media attention, shows that 75% of the German territory underwent drought conditions in July 2015. Regions such as Northern Bavaria and Eastern Saxony, however, have been particularly prone to drought conditions since autumn 2014. Comparisons with historical droughts show that the 2015 event is amongst the ten most severe drought events observed in Germany since 1954 in terms of its spatial extent, magnitude and duration.

  10. Results of the radiological survey at the National Community Bank, 113 Essex Street, Maywood, New Jersey (MJ021)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, R.D.; Cottrell, W.D.; Floyd, L.M.

    1989-09-01

    Maywood Chemical Works (MCW) of Maywood, New Jersey, generated process wastes and residues associated with the production and refining of thorium and thorium compounds from monazite ores from 1916 to 1956. MCW supplied rare earth metals and thorium compounds to the Atomic Energy Commission and various other government agencies from the late 1940s to the mid-1950s. Area residents used the sandlike waste from this thorium extraction process mixed with tea and cocoa leaves as mulch in their yards. Some of these contaminated wastes were also eroded from the site into Lodi Brook. At the request of the US Department of Energy (DOE), a group from Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducts investigative radiological surveys of properties in the vicinity of MCW to determine whether a property is contaminated with radioactive residues, principally 232 Th, derived from the MCW site. The survey typically includes direct measurement of gamma radiation levels and soil sampling for radionuclide analyses. The survey of this site, the National Community Bank, 113 Essex Street, Maywood, New Jersey (MJ021), was conducted during 1986. Results of the survey demonstrated radionuclide concentrations in excess of the DOE Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program criteria. The radionuclide distributions are typical of the type of material originating from the MCW site. 5 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  11. Baltic, Slavic, Germanic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederik Kortlandt

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The western Indo-European vocabulary in Baltic and Slavic is the result of an Indo-European substratum which contained an older non-Indo-European layer and was part of the Corded Ware horizon. The numbers show that a considerable part of the vocabulary was borrowed after the split between Baltic and Slavic, which came about when their speakers moved westwards north and south of the Pripet marshes. Germanic and Balto-Slavic were never contiguous Indo-European dialects at any stage of their prehistory.

  12. Electricity: the German example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huet, Sylvestre

    2013-01-01

    The author proposes some comments on the content of the Energiewende, i.e. the definition of the energy transition in Germany which aims at producing and consuming a green energy, without carbon nor nuclear. He comments the German energy mix for 2010 in terms of electricity production per origin (nuclear, coal and lignite, gas, oil, wind, solar photovoltaic, other renewable sources) and of installed capacities per origin. He notices that gas and coal still have a major weight in this mix, and discusses the content of a scenario based 100 per cent renewable energies as it has been studied by the Fraunhofer Institute, notably in terms of production level and of costs

  13. The German Humpback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, Tom; Ploeen, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies find a monotonic positive relationship between a firm’s internationalization and its foreign exchange hedging. We argue that high levels of internationalization can reduce the need for foreign exchange hedging through diversification (e.g. sales to several markets) and operational...... hedging (matching of cash flows and operational flexibility). We employ multivariate regression analysis and find an inverse U-shape relationship (“humpback”) for large listed non-financial German firms. Foreign exchange hedging activity peaks when half of sales (or long-term assets) is outside Europe. We...

  14. The Successful Presidency as a Shared Responsibility. Abstract of Remarks and Survey Data for Distribution to Pennsylvania Community College Presidents and Trustees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cote, Lawrence S.

    In early 1983, a survey was conducted among the presidents and board chairpersons of the 14 public community colleges in Pennsylvania, asking respondents to rate the level of importance of 20 presidential roles based on their institution's needs during the 1982-83 academic year. During a joint annual meeting of Pennsylvania community college…

  15. Trypanosoma cruzi infection in the Mexican state of Guerrero: a seroepidemiological (ELISA) survey of 20 communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, N; Morales, A; Nava, E; Martinez, E; Rodriguez, I; Young, P; Howard, M K; Miles, M A

    1990-10-01

    The enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to analyse 4372 blood samples from residents of 978 households in 20 representative communities in the Mexican state of Guerrero. Seventy-five individuals had very high titres of antibodies against Trypanosoma cruzi. Samples with intermediate optical density values, despite overlapping values with several control positives on a single-well test, did not sustain their positivity at high dilutions. 'Intermediate positives' had a different distribution among the 20 communities to samples sustaining reactivity at high dilutions, indicating possible cross-reactivity with another infectious agent. The finding of seropositive children under the age of 10 years in the Costa Chica, Acapulco and the Tierra Caliente regions, with family clustering of putative cases, indicates that recent transmission must be considered. Very few people interviewed in the 20 communities knew the triatomine bug could transmit a disease.

  16. Gender Differences in Lay Knowledge of Type 2 Diabetes Symptoms Among Community-dwelling Caucasian, Latino, Filipino, and Korean Adults - DiLH Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Fukuoka, Yoshimi; Bender, Melinda S.; Choi, JiWon; Gonzalez, Prisila; Arai, Shoshana

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to explore gender differences in lay knowledge of type 2 diabetes symptoms among community-dwelling Caucasian, Latino, Filipino, and Korean Americans. A cross-sectional survey was administered to a convenience sample of 904 adults (172 Ca ucasians, 248 Latinos, 234 Koreans, and 250 Filipinos) without diabetes at community events, community clinics, churches, and online in the San Francisco Bay Area and San Diego from August to December 2013. Participants ...

  17. Die Deutschen in Wisconsin (Germans in Wisconsin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisconsin State Dept. of Public Instruction, Madison.

    The following curriculum units comprise this course book: (1) Germans in a New Home, (2) Contributions of the Germans in Wisconsin, (3) A Letter to Germany, (4) Germans Come to Kingston, (5) First a Soldier, Then a Man of the Church (about Heinrich von Rohr), (6) A Visiting German, and (7) Germans and Music. Each unit begins with a reading of…

  18. 16S rRNA gene survey of microbial communities in Winogradsky columns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ethan A Rundell

    Full Text Available A Winogradsky column is a clear glass or plastic column filled with enriched sediment. Over time, microbial communities in the sediment grow in a stratified ecosystem with an oxic top layer and anoxic sub-surface layers. Winogradsky columns have been used extensively to demonstrate microbial nutrient cycling and metabolic diversity in undergraduate microbiology labs. In this study, we used high-throughput 16s rRNA gene sequencing to investigate the microbial diversity of Winogradsky columns. Specifically, we tested the impact of sediment source, supplemental cellulose source, and depth within the column, on microbial community structure. We found that the Winogradsky columns were highly diverse communities but are dominated by three phyla: Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Firmicutes. The community is structured by a founding population dependent on the source of sediment used to prepare the columns and is differentiated by depth within the column. Numerous biomarkers were identified distinguishing sample depth, including Cyanobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, and Betaproteobacteria as biomarkers of the soil-water interface, and Clostridia as a biomarker of the deepest depth. Supplemental cellulose source impacted community structure but less strongly than depth and sediment source. In columns dominated by Firmicutes, the family Peptococcaceae was the most abundant sulfate reducer, while in columns abundant in Proteobacteria, several Deltaproteobacteria families, including Desulfobacteraceae, were found, showing that different taxonomic groups carry out sulfur cycling in different columns. This study brings this historical method for enrichment culture of chemolithotrophs and other soil bacteria into the modern era of microbiology and demonstrates the potential of the Winogradsky column as a model system for investigating the effect of environmental variables on soil microbial communities.

  19. A Follow-Up Community Survey of Knowledge and Beliefs About Cancer and Genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Shannon M; Hastrup, Janice L; Hyland, Andrew; Rivard, Cheryl

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess changes since the launch of the US Surgeon General's campaign in the public's beliefs about the role of genetics in the etiology of cancer, as well as changes in recording family health history. We conducted a survey of 480 Western New York adults, assessing: (1) experiences with cancer, (2) beliefs about cancer and genetics, and (3) practices of recording family health history. Most respondents were aware of the importance of family history. The sample also showed increased knowledge about cancer and genetics compared with a previous survey. However, only 7 % kept written records that included medical conditions, which was not different from a previous survey. Time constraints, apathy, and reluctance to find out negative health information were the most reported barriers. Results suggest a need for continued education of the public, with increased emphasis on written family health records.

  20. Interleukin 6, lipopolysaccharide-binding protein and interleukin 10 in the prediction of risk and etiologic patterns in patients with community-acquired pneumonia: results from the German competence network CAPNETZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of our study was to investigate the predictive value of the biomarkers interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 10 (IL-10) and lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) compared with clinical CRB and CRB-65 severity scores in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Methods Samples and data were obtained from patients enrolled into the German CAPNETZ study group. Samples (blood, sputum and urine) were collected within 24 h of first presentation and inclusion in the CAPNETZ study, and CRB and CRB-65 scores were determined for all patients at the time of enrollment. The combined end point representative of a severe course of CAP was defined as mechanical ventilation, intensive care unit treatment and/or death within 30 days. Overall, a total of 1,000 patients were enrolled in the study. A severe course of CAP was observed in 105 (10.5%) patients. Results The highest IL-6, IL-10 and LBP concentrations were found in patients with CRB-65 scores of 3-4 or CRB scores of 2-3. IL-6 and LBP levels on enrollment in the study were significantly higher for patients with a severe course of CAP than for those who did not have severe CAP. In receiver operating characteristic analyses, the area under the curve values for of IL-6 (0.689), IL-10 (0.665) and LPB (0.624) in a severe course of CAP were lower than that of CRB-65 (0.764) and similar to that of CRB (0.69). The accuracy of both CRB and CRB-65 was increased significantly by including IL-6 measurements. In addition, higher cytokine concentrations were found in patients with typical bacterial infections compared with patients with atypical or viral infections and those with infection of unknown etiology. LBP showed the highest discriminatory power with respect to the etiology of infection. Conclusions IL-6, IL-10 and LBP concentrations were increased in patients with a CRB-65 score of 3-4 and a severe course of CAP. The concentrations of IL-6 and IL-10 reflected the severity of disease in patients with CAP

  1. Relationship of Evidence-Based Practice and Treatments: A Survey of Community Mental Health Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMeo, Michelle A.; Moore, G. Kurt; Lichtenstein, Carolyn

    2012-01-01

    Evidence-based treatments (EBTs) are "interventions" that have been proven effective through rigorous research methodologies. Evidence-based practice (EBP), however, refers to a "decision-making process" that integrates the best available research, clinician expertise, and client characteristics. This study examined community mental health service…

  2. Forest soil microbial communities: Using metagenomic approaches to survey permanent plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amy L. Ross-Davis; Jane E. Stewart; John W. Hanna; John D. Shaw; Andrew T. Hudak; Theresa B. Jain; Robert J. Denner; Russell T. Graham; Deborah S. Page-Dumroese; Joanne M. Tirocke; Mee-Sook Kim; Ned B. Klopfenstein

    2014-01-01

    Forest soil ecosystems include some of the most complex microbial communities on Earth (Fierer et al. 2012). These assemblages of archaea, bacteria, fungi, and protists play essential roles in biogeochemical cycles (van der Heijden et al. 2008) and account for considerable terrestrial biomass (Nielsen et al. 2011). Yet, determining the microbial composition of forest...

  3. Adapting the Community of Inquiry Survey for an Online Graduate Program: Implications for Online Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Swapna; Ritzhaupt, Albert D.

    2014-01-01

    A cohort-based online professional doctorate program that consisted of both online coursework and research activities was designed using Garrison et al's community of inquiry (CoI) framework. The evaluation of the program proved a challenge because all existing CoI assessment methods in the past have dealt with online courses, not with online…

  4. 78 FR 25473 - Information Collection: Northern Alaska Native Community Surveys; Proposed Collection for OMB...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ... subsistence (harvest data) and sharing networks of the communities. The Social Indicators Study will be given... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Ocean Energy Management [OMB Number 1010-0184] Information... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) is inviting comments on a collection of information that we will...

  5. Community Childhood Hunger Identification Project: A Survey of Childhood Hunger in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehler, Cheryl A.; And Others

    Millions of children are hungry in America, and it is clearly time to make childhood hunger a national priority. To document the need, a comprehensive study of hunger among low-income families was developed by the Connecticut Association for Human Services. National replication of the study, the Community Childhood Hunger Identification Project…

  6. An ethnomycological survey of macrofungi utilized by Aeta communities in Central Luzon, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Leon AM

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Questionnaires and formatted interviews were used to determine mushrooms used as food and as materials for societal rituals and beliefs among six Aeta communities in three provinces of Central Luzon, Northern Philippines. Thirty-eight different fungi were utilized by the Aeta communities: 21 in Pampanga, 10 in Tarlac, and 19 in Zambales. Fourteen fungal species were collected and identified based on their morphological characters: Auricularia auricula, A. polytricha, Calvatia sp., Ganoderma lucidum, Lentinus tigrinus, L. sajor-caju, Mycena sp., Pleurotus sp., Schizophyllum commune, Termitomyces clypeatus, T. robustus, Termitomyces sp. 1, Termitomyces sp. 2, and Volvariella volvacea. Twelve of the identified macrofungi were consumed as food while Ganoderma lucidum and Mycena sp. were used as house decoration and medicine, respectively. The Aeta communities also performed rituals prior to the collection of these mushrooms, including tribal dancing, praying and kissing the ground. Their indigenous beliefs regarding mushrooms are also documented. This is the most extensive enthnomycological study on the Aeta communities in the Philippines.

  7. An ethnopharmacological survey of natural remedies used by the Chinese community in Mauritius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Fawzi Mahomoodally

    2014-05-01

    Conclusions: It was found that the Chinese community of Mauritius still relies, to a great extent, on NRs which need to be preserved and used sustainably. Nonetheless, further research is needed to probe the possible active constituents that could be the basis of an evidence-based investigation to discover new drugs.

  8. A Survey on Dementia Training Needs among Staff at Community-Based Outpatient Clinics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Geri; Lawrence, Briana M.; Ounpraseuth, Songthip T.; Asghar-Ali, Ali Abbas

    2015-01-01

    Dementia is a major public health concern. Educating health-care providers about dementia warning signs, diagnosis, and management is paramount to fostering clinical competence and improving patient outcomes. The objective of this project was to describe and identify educational and training needs of staff at community-based outpatient clinics…

  9. Dengue risk factors and community participation in Binh Thuan Province, Vietnam, a household survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phuong, Hoang Lan; de Vries, Peter J.; Boonshuyar, Chaweewon; Binh, Tran Q.; Nam, Nguyen V.; Kager, Piet A.

    2008-01-01

    To look for risk factors for dengue and community participation in dengue control in Binh Thuan Province, Vietnam, three communes with a low incidence of dengue and three with a high incidence, in Binh Thuan Province, were compared. Knowledge, perception and preventive practice of dengue were

  10. Surveying Community Nursing Support for Persons with an Intellectual Disability and Palliative Care Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Maria; Doody, Owen; Lyons, Rosemary

    2016-01-01

    Palliative care services have developed over the years to support all persons with life-limiting conditions. Moreover, services for people with an intellectual disability have moved from the traditional institutional setting to supporting people with an intellectual disability to live in their own community and family home. The expansion of…

  11. Cybersecurity Education in Community Colleges across America: A Survey of Four Approaches by Five Institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Robert D.; Hawthorne, Elizabeth K.

    This document describes four distinct approaches to education in the area of cybersecurity currently taught at community colleges across America. The four broad categories of instruction are: (1) degree program--four semesters of study leading to an associate's degree; (2) certificate program--two semesters leading to an institution-conferred…

  12. Howard Community College 1986 Staff Services Evaluation: Internal Marketing Survey, Spring 1986. Research Report Number 45.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radcliffe, Susan; Novak, Virginia E.

    As part of an internal marketing effort, a study was conducted at Howard Community College (HCC) to determine employees' evaluation of key educational services provided by the college. All full-time faculty, administrators, and support staff were asked to evaluate 13 areas of service on a scale of 1 (poor) to 5 (excellent) and to identify HCC's…

  13. A Community Based Survey of the Burden of Ascaris lumbricoides in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Intestinal helminthiasis is common in our environment and antihelminthic drugs are specie specific. Thus, need to identify and characterize the species cannot be overemphasized. Objective: To determine the prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides in Enugu Metropolis. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 361 ...

  14. A Survey of Community Sheltered Facilities: Implications for Mandated School Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Kevin P.; Gerber, Paul J.

    1980-01-01

    A survey examined admission barriers, client and disability variables, program content, and levels of school/agency cooperation in adult activity, work activity, and sheltered workshops in a midwestern state which has a representative urban-suburban-rural profile. (Author/SB)

  15. The Deaf Mentoring Survey: A Community Cultural Wealth Framework for Measuring Mentoring Effectiveness with Underrepresented Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Derek C.; Gormally, Cara; Clark, M. Diane

    2017-01-01

    Disabled individuals, women, and individuals from cultural/ethnic minorities continue to be underrepresented in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). Research has shown that mentoring improves retention for underrepresented individuals. However, existing mentoring surveys were developed to assess the majority population, not…

  16. A Molecular Survey of the Diversity of Microbial Communities in Different Amazonian Agricultural Model Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acácio A. Navarrete

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The processes of land conversion and agricultural intensification are a significant cause of biodiversity loss, with consequent negative effects both on the environment and the sustainability of food production.The anthrosols associated with pre-Colombian settlements in the Amazonian region are examples of how anthropogenic activities may sustain the native populations against harsh tropical environments for human establishment, even without a previous intentionality of anthropic soil formation. In a case study (Model I—“Slash-and-Burn” the community structures detected by automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA revealed that soil archaeal, bacterial and fungal communities are heterogeneous and each capable of responding differently to environmental characteristics. ARISA data evidenced considerable difference in structure existing between microbial communities in forest and agricultural soils. In a second study (Model II—“Anthropogenic Soil”, the bacterial community structures revealed by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP differed among an Amazonian Dark Earth (ADE, black carbon (BC and its adjacent non-anthropogenic oxisoil. The bacterial 16S rRNA gene (OTU richness estimated by pyrosequencing was higher in ADE than BC. The most abundant bacterial phyla in ADE soils and BC were Proteobacteria—24% ADE, 15% BC; Acidobacteria—10% ADE, 21% BC; Actinobacteria—7% ADE, 12% BC; Verrucomicrobia, 8% ADE; 9% BC; Firmicutes—3% ADE, 8% BC. Overall, unclassified bacteria corresponded to 36% ADE, and 26% BC. Regardless of current land uses, our data suggest that soil microbial community structures may be strongly influenced by the historical soil management and that anthrosols in Amazonia, of anthropogenic origins, in addition to their capacity of enhancing crop yields, may also improve microbial diversity, with the support of the black carbon, which may sustain a particular and unique habitat for the

  17. Goal setting practice in services delivering community-based stroke rehabilitation: a United Kingdom (UK) wide survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scobbie, Lesley; Duncan, Edward A; Brady, Marian C; Wyke, Sally

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the nature of services providing community-based stroke rehabilitation across the UK, and goal setting practice used within them, to inform evaluation of a goal setting and action planning (G-AP) framework. We designed, piloted and electronically distributed a survey to health professionals working in community-based stroke rehabilitation settings across the UK. We optimised recruitment using a multi-faceted strategy. Responses were analysed from 437 services. Services size, composition and input was highly variable; however, most were multi-disciplinary (82%; n = 335/407) and provided input to a mixed diagnostic group of patients (71%; n = 312/437). Ninety one percent of services (n = 358/395) reported setting goals with "all" or "most" stroke survivors. Seventeen percent (n = 65/380) reported that no methods were used to guide goal setting practice; 47% (n = 148/315) reported use of informal methods only. Goal setting practice varied, e.g. 98% of services (n = 362/369) reported routinely asking patients about goal priorities; 39% (n = 141/360) reported routinely providing patients with a copy of their goals. Goal setting is embedded within community-based stroke rehabilitation; however, practice varies and is potentially sub-optimal. Further evaluation of the G-AP framework is warranted to inform optimal practice. Evaluation design will take account of the diverse service models that exist. Implications for Rehabilitation Community-based stroke rehabilitation services across the UK are diverse and tend to see a mixed diagnostic group of patients. Goal setting is implemented routinely within community-based stroke rehabilitation services; however, practice is variable and potentially sub-optimal. Further evaluation of the G-AP framework is warranted to assess its effectiveness in practice.

  18. Missing medical records: an obstacle to archival survey-research in a rural community in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Wegner

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Keeping good quality medical records is an essential yet oftenneglected part of a health-care practitioner’s workload. In South Africa, by lawall health care facilities are required to retain medical records for a minimum ofsix years after the cessation of a patient’s treatment. In an archival survey thatwas attempted in a rural community in South Africa, only 39% of the recordsthat were requested were located. The procedure that was followed in order toobtain the records to be included in the survey is briefly described in this paper,highlighting the challenges experienced in four district hospitals in this community.The phenomenon has serious implications not only for the quality of healthcare,incidence of iatrogenic injuries and the future of the health-care practitioner’s career, but it also impacts on the ability to conductresearch to inform practice. An aspect that is not often considered is the impact of poor record keeping on the research and teachingcomponent of the broader medical profession.

  19. Non-response bias in a community survey of drinking, alcohol-related experiences and public opinion on alcohol policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclennan, Brett; Kypri, Kypros; Langley, John; Room, Robin

    2012-11-01

    The continuing decline in response rates to household surveys is a concern for the health and social sciences as it increases the risk of selective non-response biasing the estimates of interest. We analysed non-response bias in a postal survey measuring drinking behaviour, experience of harm and opinion on local government alcohol policies among residents in six New Zealand communities. The Continuum of Resistance model, which suggests that late respondents to a survey are most similar to non-respondents on the measures of interest, was used to guide our investigation. Men, younger people, those of Māori descent and those living in more deprived areas were less likely to respond to our survey than women, older people, those not of Māori descent and those living in comparatively affluent areas. Late respondents more closely resembled non-respondents demographically than early respondents. The prevalence of binge drinking and experience of assault was higher, and support for restrictive local government alcohol policies lower, among late respondents. Assuming the drinking behaviour and alcohol-related experiences of non-respondents were the same as those of late respondents, prevalence was under-estimated by 3.4% (relative difference: 13%) and 2.1% (relative difference: 21%) for monthly binge drinking and assault respectively. Policy support was not over-estimated. The findings add to a growing body of evidence suggesting that surveys under-estimate risk behaviour because of selective non-response and this bias increases as response rates fall. Notably, public opinion may not be subject to such misestimation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grauer, Kit, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    Art in context of community is the theme of this newsletter. The theme is introduced in an editorial "Community-Enlarging the Definition" (Kit Grauer). Related articles include: (1) "The Children's Bridge is not Destroyed: Heart in the Middle of the World" (Emil Robert Tanay); (2) "Making Bridges: The Sock Doll…

  1. A Comparative Study on Storytelling Perceptions of Chinese, Vietnamese, American, and German Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Kate; Stanley, Nile; Stanley, Laurel; Rank, Astrid; Wang, Yonghui

    2016-01-01

    The study compared the perceptions of adults from four countries about storytelling. Americans (N = 153), Germans (N = 163), Chinese (N = 324), and Vietnamese (N = 356) completed a survey. Americans' scores on measures of storytelling experiences were the highest overall. Americans and Germans reported having significantly more childhood…

  2. Survey study of communities with nuclear facilities; Oeversiktsstudie av kommuner med kaernteknisk verksamhet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eng, T. [ed.

    1995-05-01

    The report gives a description of the five Swedish communities that already have nuclear facilities, in order to find the potential for selecting any of these for a future Swedish nuclear waste repository. Only existing, available information has been collected for this report, with the aim to find the interest and need for more detailed localization studies. The following subjects are treated: General data like area, population, industry etc. Communications (road, rail and airports). Existing facilities. Geology. Hydrology. Experiences from rock constructions. Land use, planning, natural reserves etc. Local technical conditions for transport and construction. The following conclusions are drawn: Oskarshamn, Nykoeping and Oesthammar have good geologic potentials and should be candidates for more extensive geologic studies. The geologic potential of Varberg is less well known, and geologic mapping and geophysical measurements are needed. Kaevlinge does not have geologic or technical potentials on par with the other communities, and can be disregarded for further studies. 64 refs, 18 figs.

  3. Prevalence and Determinants of Appropriate Health Seeking Behaviour among Known Diabetics: Results from a Community-Based Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheleaswani Inche Zainal Abidin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Living with diabetes requires patients to have good self-monitoring of their disease and treatment. Appropriate health seeking behavior is important to minimize complications and improve quality of life. Methodology. A community-based, cross-sectional study of disease events and experiences from diagnosis to the time of study was conducted among 460 known diabetics in Tanjong Karang district. The aim of this study was to describe the current pattern of health seeking behavior and its determinants among rural communities. Appropriate diabetic health services utilization was defined as using modern treatment either through oral hypoglycemics or insulin injections, obtained from either a public or private health facility. Result. 85.9% of respondents reported having appropriate health seeking behaviour at the time of the house-to-house community survey. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that appropriate health seeking behaviour was significantly associated with age of respondent, presence of comorbidity, family history of diabetes, distance from health facilities, perceived family support, and history of early treatment seeking at diagnosis and duration of disease. Conclusion. The present population has better appropriate health seeking behavior and provision of knowledge with strong family support in diabetic care which are important in control and prevention of diabetic complication that need to be emphasized.

  4. Single-Camera Trap Survey Designs Miss Detections: Impacts on Estimates of Occupancy and Community Metrics

    OpenAIRE

    Pease, Brent S.; Nielsen, Clayton K.; Holzmueller, Eric J.

    2016-01-01

    The use of camera traps as a tool for studying wildlife populations is commonplace. However, few have considered how the number of detections of wildlife differ depending upon the number of camera traps placed at cameras-sites, and how this impacts estimates of occupancy and community composition. During December 2015-February 2016, we deployed four camera traps per camera-site, separated into treatment groups of one, two, and four camera traps, in southern Illinois to compare whether estimat...

  5. A metagenomic survey of forest soil microbial communities more than a decade after timber harvesting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Roland C; Cardenas, Erick; Leung, Hilary; Maas, Kendra; Hartmann, Martin; Hahn, Aria; Hallam, Steven; Mohn, William W

    2017-01-01

    The scarcity of long-term data on soil microbial communities in the decades following timber harvesting limits current understanding of the ecological problems associated with maintaining the productivity of managed forests. The high complexity of soil communities and the heterogeneity of forest and soil necessitates a comprehensive approach to understand the role of microbial processes in managed forest ecosystems. Here, we describe a curated collection of well replicated, multi-faceted data from eighteen reforested sites in six different North American ecozones within the Long-term Soil Productivity (LTSP) Study, without detailed analysis of results or discussion. The experiments were designed to contrast microbial community composition and function among forest soils from harvested treatment plots with varying intensities of organic matter removal. The collection includes 724 bacterial (16S) and 658 fungal (ITS2) amplicon libraries, 133 shotgun metagenomic libraries as well as stable isotope probing amplicon libraries capturing the effects of harvesting on hemicellulolytic and cellulolytic populations. This collection serves as a foundation for the LTSP Study and other studies of the ecology of forest soil and forest disturbance.

  6. [Counselling customers with psychotropic vs. cardiovascular prescriptions: a survey among Austrian community pharmacists].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagmair, Gisela; Amering, Michaela; Kaiser, Gerda; Katschnig, Heinz

    2014-01-01

    Prescriptions for psychotropic drugs in general and their share of all prescriptions have substantially risen over the last decades. Thus, also counselling by pharmacists becomes more important in this area. This study focuses on how community pharmacists see their own role when counselling persons with prescriptions for psychotropic medication and how this differs from counselling persons with other types of prescriptions. Based on the Toronto Community Pharmacists' Questionnaire an online questionnaire was developed with the assistance of the Austrian Pharmacists Association. This instrument elicits pharmacists' attitudes toward and professional interactions with users of psychotropic drugs on the one hand and of cardiovascular medication on the other. After a pilot study the questionnaire - which was to be filled in anonymously - was put on a web portal for six months and Austrian community pharmacists were invited to answer it. 125 pharmacists completed the questionnaire. Overall it was reported, that new customers with psychotropic prescriptions were less often counselled than those with prescriptions for cardiovascular medication. The main reasons for this difference seem to be the lack of privacy in public pharmacies, the fear of stigmatising customers with psychotropic medication and a perceived lack of training concerning the treatment of mental disorders. In addition to improving such training, it was suggested that seminars and workshops for communication skills should be organised. The reduced frequency in counselling new customers with psychotropic medication is related to a lack of privacy in public pharmacies, fear of stigmatising customers and a perceived need for improving the training on the treatment of mental disorders.

  7. A national survey of diagnostic tests reported by UK community optometrists for the detection of chronic open angle glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myint, Joy; Edgar, David F; Kotecha, Aachal; Murdoch, Ian E; Lawrenson, John G

    2011-07-01

    In the UK, the majority of cases of chronic open angle glaucoma are detected by community optometrists following a routine sight test. However, there is potential for variability in case finding strategies used. The aim of this study was to carry out a national web-based survey to determine current diagnostic tests used by optometrists in glaucoma case finding. Optometrists on the Association of Optometrists (AOP) electronic database were invited to participate. The survey was open for 16 weeks between April and July 2008. A total of 1875 optometrists were eligible to enter the survey, of which 1264 answered the questions relating to diagnostic equipment. Respondents were asked to indicate their usual method of examining the optic nerve head. Direct ophthalmoscopy only was used by 25% with the majority (62%) using a combination of direct and slit-lamp binocular indirect methods. The vast majority of optometrists (78%) used non-contact tonometry to measure intraocular pressure, with only 16% routinely using a Goldmann or Perkins applanation tonometer. The perimeter most frequently used was either one of the Henson range of instruments (39%) or the Humphrey Field Analyser (22%). A smaller number of optometrists (angle glaucoma, although there is a lack of standardisation with respect to equipment used. Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2011 The College of Optometrists.

  8. Eating Disorder Behaviors Are Increasing: Findings from Two Sequential Community Surveys in South Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Hay, Phillipa J.; Mond, Jonathan; Buttner, Petra; Darby, Anita

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Evidence for an increase in the prevalence of eating disorders is inconsistent. Our aim was to determine change in the population point prevalence of eating disorder behaviors over a 10-year period. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Eating disorder behaviors were assessed in consecutive general population surveys of men and women conducted in 1995 (n = 3001, 72% respondents) and 2005 (n = 3047, 63.1% respondents). Participants were randomly sampled from households in rural and metro...

  9. Individual- and community-level determinants of social acceptance of people living with HIV in Kenya: results from a national population-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiao, Chi; Mishra, Vinod; Sambisa, William

    2009-09-01

    Using the 2003 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey, we investigated the influence of individual- and community-level factors on accepting attitudes toward people living with HIV (PLHIV) using three outcomes: (1) willingness to care for an infected household member, (2) willingness to buy vegetables from an infected vendor, and (3) willingness to allow an infected female teacher to continue teaching. In multilevel logistic regression models, we found that individuals who expressed greater acceptance of PLHIV were more likely to be male, older, more educated, high AIDS knowledge, and exposed to mass media. At the community level, differences in accepting attitudes were associated with community AIDS knowledge, community education, and community AIDS experience, but not for region, or place of residence. The findings suggest the important role of community factors in determining social acceptance of PLHIV. Programmatic strategies aimed at increasing these accepting attitudes should consider both individual- and community-level factors.

  10. Environmental DNA metabarcoding: Transforming how we survey animal and plant communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deiner, Kristy; Bik, Holly M; Mächler, Elvira; Seymour, Mathew; Lacoursière-Roussel, Anaïs; Altermatt, Florian; Creer, Simon; Bista, Iliana; Lodge, David M; de Vere, Natasha; Pfrender, Michael E; Bernatchez, Louis

    2017-11-01

    The genomic revolution has fundamentally changed how we survey biodiversity on earth. High-throughput sequencing ("HTS") platforms now enable the rapid sequencing of DNA from diverse kinds of environmental samples (termed "environmental DNA" or "eDNA"). Coupling HTS with our ability to associate sequences from eDNA with a taxonomic name is called "eDNA metabarcoding" and offers a powerful molecular tool capable of noninvasively surveying species richness from many ecosystems. Here, we review the use of eDNA metabarcoding for surveying animal and plant richness, and the challenges in using eDNA approaches to estimate relative abundance. We highlight eDNA applications in freshwater, marine and terrestrial environments, and in this broad context, we distill what is known about the ability of different eDNA sample types to approximate richness in space and across time. We provide guiding questions for study design and discuss the eDNA metabarcoding workflow with a focus on primers and library preparation methods. We additionally discuss important criteria for consideration of bioinformatic filtering of data sets, with recommendations for increasing transparency. Finally, looking to the future, we discuss emerging applications of eDNA metabarcoding in ecology, conservation, invasion biology, biomonitoring, and how eDNA metabarcoding can empower citizen science and biodiversity education. © 2017 The Authors. Molecular Ecology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. German-Egyptian seminar on environmental research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aly, H.F.; Nentwich, D.

    1994-01-01

    Industrial development and scientific advancement have opened new frontiers of interest and challenges. Anthropogenic activities are increasingly upsetting the natural environmental balance and are at the same time shifting from local impact to global importance. Science is confronted with the challenge to answer the question of what are the consequences of anthropogenic changes to the environment and to help politics formulate countermeasures for the sake of a sustainable future. Protect results achieved within the Egyptian-German cooperation were presented to the scientific community and to the interested public and discussions on future lines of actions took place. (orig./KW)

  12. Fifth French-German Conference on Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    1989-01-01

    The 2-yearly French-German Conferences on Optimization review the state-of-the-art and the trends in the field. The proceedings of the Fifth Conference include papers on projective methods in linear programming (special session at the conference), nonsmooth optimization, two-level optimization, multiobjective optimization, partial inverse method, variational convergence, Newton type algorithms and flows and on practical applications of optimization. A. Ioffe and J.-Ph. Vial have contributed survey papers on, respectively second order optimality conditions and projective methods in linear programming.

  13. German visits to CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    State secretary to Germany's Federal Ministry of Education and Research, Frieder Meyer-Krahmer, with CERN's Director-General Robert Aymar.On 21 February, Professor Frieder Meyer-Krahmer, State Secretary to Germany's Federal Ministry of Education and Research, came to CERN. He visited the ALICE and ATLAS experiments and the computing centre before meeting the CERN's Director-General, some German physicists and members of the top management. The Minister of Science, Research and the Arts of the Baden-Württemberg regional government, Peter Frankenberg, and CERN's Director-General, Robert Aymar, signing an agreement on education. In the background: Sigurd Lettow, CERN's Director of Finance and Human Resources, and Karl-Heinz Meisel, Rector of the Fachhochschule Karlsruhe. The Minister of Science, Research and the Arts of the Baden-Württemberg regional government, Prof. Peter Frankenberg, visited CERN on 23 February. He was accompanied by the Rector of the Fachhochschule Karlsruhe, Prof. Karl-Heinz Meisel, and b...

  14. Whither voluntary communities of co-located patients in Vietnam? Empirical evidence from a 2016 medical survey dataset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan-Hoang Vuong

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Empirical evidence on quality of life of poor patients falls short for policy-making in Vietnam. Financial burdens and isolation give rise to Vietnamese voluntary co-location clusters where patients seek to rely on each other. These communities, although important, have been under-researched. Increasingly, there are questions about their sustainability. Aim & Objectives: This study aims to identify factors that affect sustainability of such co-location clusters, seeking to measure the community prospect through critical determinants as seen by member patients. An in-depth analysis is expected to yield insights that help shape future policies contributing to improvement of healthcare systems.  Material & Method: A dataset containing responses from 336 patients living in four clusters in Hanoi was obtained from a survey during 2015Q4-2016Q1. The processing of data is performed using R 3.2.3, employing baseline category logit models (BCL. Coefficients are estimated to compute empirical probabilities. Results: 1 There is a 50% probability that a patient seeing his/her benefits as unsatisfactory views the community prospect as dim; 2 The more a patient contributes time/effort, the less he/she believes in future growth; 3 There is a 80.8% probability that a patient who makes a significant financial contribution and receives back in-kind benefits predicts no growth. Conclusion: Patients predict community growth when receiving what they need/expect. There exists a kind of “liquidity preference”. Only 14% and 32% make significant financial and labor contributions, respectively. There exists a “risk aversion” attitude, viewing contribution as certain while future benefits to be uncertain.

  15. Incidence of self-reported brain injury and the relationship with substance abuse: findings from a longitudinal community survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Butterworth Peter

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traumatic or serious brain injury (BI has persistent and well documented adverse outcomes, yet 'mild' or 'moderate' BI, which often does not result in hospital treatment, accounts for half the total days of disability attributed to BI. There are currently few data available from community samples on the incidence and correlates of these injuries. Therefore, the study aimed to assess the 1 incidence of self-reported mild (not requiring hospital admission and moderate (admitted to hospital brain injury (BI, 2 causes of injury 3 physical health scores and 4 relationship between BI and problematic alcohol or marijuana use. Methods An Australian community sequential-cohort study (cohorts aged 20-24, 40-44 and 60-64 years at wave one used a survey methodology to assess BI and substance use at baseline and four years later. Results Of the 7485 wave one participants, 89.7% were re-interviewed at wave two. There were 56 mild (230.8/100000 person-years and 44 moderate BI (180.5/100000 person-years reported between waves one and two. Males and those in the 20-24 year cohort had increased risk of BI. Sports injury was the most frequent cause of BI (40/100 with traffic accidents being a greater proportion of moderate (27% than mild (7% BI. Neither alcohol nor marijuana problems at wave one were predictors of BI. BI was not a predictor of developing substance use problems by wave two. Conclusions BI were prevalent in this community sample, though the incidence declined with age. Factors associated with BI in community samples differ from those reported in clinical samples (e.g. typically traumatic brain injury with traffic accidents the predominate cause. Further, detailed evaluation of the health consequences of these injuries is warranted.

  16. Preferences for Internet-Based Mental Health Interventions in an Adult Online Sample: Findings From an Online Community Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batterham, Philip J; Calear, Alison L

    2017-06-30

    Despite extensive evidence that Internet interventions are effective in treating mental health problems, uptake of Internet programs is suboptimal. It may be possible to make Internet interventions more accessible and acceptable through better understanding of community preferences for delivery of online programs. This study aimed to assess community preferences for components, duration, frequency, modality, and setting of Internet interventions for mental health problems. A community-based online sample of 438 Australian adults was recruited using social media advertising and administered an online survey on preferences for delivery of Internet interventions, along with scales assessing potential correlates of these preferences. Participants reported a preference for briefer sessions, although they recognized a trade-off between duration and frequency of delivery. No clear preference for the modality of delivery emerged, although a clear majority preferred tailored programs. Participants preferred to access programs through a computer rather than a mobile device. Although most participants reported that they would seek help for a mental health problem, more participants had a preference for face-to-face sources only than online programs only. Younger, female, and more educated participants were significantly more likely to prefer Internet delivery. Adults in the community have a preference for Internet interventions with short modules that are tailored to individual needs. Individuals who are reluctant to seek face-to-face help may also avoid Internet interventions, suggesting that better implementation of existing Internet programs requires increasing acceptance of Internet interventions and identifying specific subgroups who may be resistant to seeking help. ©Philip J Batterham, Alison L Calear. Originally published in JMIR Mental Health (http://mental.jmir.org), 30.06.2017.

  17. Joint and soft tissue injections in the community: questionnaire survey of general practitioners' experiences and attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormley, G J; Corrigan, M; Steele, W K; Stevenson, M; Taggart, A J

    2003-01-01

    To investigate the numbers and types of joint and soft tissue injections performed by general practitioners (GPs) and to explore attitudes to training in joint and soft tissue injection and perceived barriers to performing injections. A self administered questionnaire was mailed to a random sample of 410 (30%) of 1367 GPs in Northern Ireland. Two mailings were used to increase the response rate. Questions explored the GPs' demographic characteristics, types and numbers of injections performed, previous training experience, attitudes towards training, and perceived barriers. The overall response rate was 75%. Practitioners who were men, worked in a "rural" or "mixed" locality, and had had a previous post in rheumatology, orthopaedics, or sports medicine were more likely to perform joint and soft tissue injections. Forty six per cent of GPs did not currently perform any injections; 5% of GPs performed most of the injections in the community. Injections into the shoulder, knee, and lateral epicondylitis were found to be the most commonly performed injections. The GPs preferred to train on "real patients" rather than "mannequin models". Those GPs who had trained on "real patients" were more likely to perform injections. The main perceived barrier to performing joint and soft tissue injections in the community was the "inability to maintain injection skills". Postgraduate training, methods of training, and the ability to maintain injection skills seemed to be determinants affecting GP confidence and the amount of joint and soft tissue injections that they performed. Most injections were performed by a few GPs in the community. These findings may have implications for the developing role of GP specialists in primary care trusts.

  18. High rates of child hypertension associated with obesity: a community survey in China, India and Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyson, Pamela A; Anthony, Denis; Fenton, Brenda; Matthews, David R; Stevens, Denise E

    2014-02-01

    Hypertension is a significant risk factor for cardiovascular disease, and epidemiological evidence suggests that it is increasing in parallel with obesity in children and adolescents in low- and middle-income countries. To identify and determine the relationship between overweight, obesity and hypertension in a community sample of school children. Anthropometric data were collected from 12,730 school children aged 12-18 years in China, India and Mexico as part of the Community Interventions for Health programme, an international study evaluating community interventions to reduce non-communicable disease by addressing the three main risk factors of tobacco use, unhealthy diets and physical inactivity. Logistic regression was used to examine the association of body mass index and gender and hypertension. Prevalence rates of hypertension were 5.2% in China, 10.1% in India and 14.1% in Mexico, and pre-hypertension rates in China, India and Mexico were 13.4%, 9.4% and 11.2%, respectively. Overweight and obesity prevalence rates varied by country and were 16.6% in China, 4.1% in India and 37.1% in Mexico. In all countries there was a significant association between overweight and obesity and rates of hypertension. Overweight children were 1.7-2.3 times more likely to be hypertensive and obese children 3.5-5.5 more likely to show hypertension than those of normal weight. Rates of hypertension and overweight and obesity are high in school children in China, India and Mexico, and increased bodyweight is a significant risk factor for hypertension.

  19. Risks, regulation responsibilities and costs in nuclear waste management: a preliminary survey in the European Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlowski, S.

    1980-01-01

    The use of nuclear energy produces radioactive waste which may present risks of pollution for man and his environment. Their protection must be ensured by technical or institutional controls. The report examines the second, i.e. the administrative, legal and financial measures, dealing with the management of radioactive waste in existence or under consideration within the Member States of the European Community. The following aspects are studied: laws and regulations, authorities concerned, costs and financing of radioactive waste management, civil liability, national policies, international aspects of radioactive waste management

  20. An Untargeted Metabolomics Survey from a Perturbation Model of Nitrogen Transformation in a Tropical Wastewater Community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Rasmus Hansen; Angel Cokro, Anisa; Umashankar, Shivshankar

    In order to understand metabolic changes occurring during nitrogen transformation in a complex wastewater community, we conducted a metabolome time series study on a volume of freshly sourced, anoxic activated sludge, studying metabolic changes associated with the transition from anoxic to aerobic...... states. We develop analytic procedures for identifying reliable mass features that are modulated over the time, and are significantly correlated with shifts in physiochemical states. Our methods are widely applicable, and point towards to development of an eco-systems biology approach suitable...

  1. A Survey of the Perceived Risk for Stroke among Community Residents in Western Urban China

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Juan; Zheng, Min; Chen, Shuqun; Ou, Shu; Zhang, Jie; Wang, Ni; Cao, Yingying; Miao, Qiaoqiao; Zhang, Xingxiu; Hao, Ling; Lou, Jinhe; Guo, Huijuan; Li, Nan; Wang, Jian

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Persons who perceive their risk for stroke can promote the intervention of stroke risk factors and reduce the risk of stroke occurrence. Our purpose was to assess the knowledge of stroke risk factors and the level of perceived risk for stroke. METHODS: In 2011, a population-based face-to-face interview survey was conducted in Yuzhong district, Chongqing. A total of 1500 potential participants aged ≥18 years old were selected using a multi-stage sampling method. The kno...

  2. Adaptation of the Patient Feedback Survey at a Community Treatment Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodziej, Monika E.; Muchowski, Patrice M.; Hamdi, Nayla R.; Morrissette, Paula; Psy.D.; McGowan, Alicen J.; Weiss, Roger D.

    2013-01-01

    The Patient Feedback Survey is a performance improvement measure designed to assess the quality of outpatient substance abuse treatment. We modified and administered this measure to 500 individuals at a multi-site treatment provider. Although the feedback scores were high in general, analyses of variance showed score variability in relation to type and length of treatment. Moreover, respondents who reported any use of marijuana, cravings for substances, or mutual-support group attendance (i.e. Alcoholics Anonymous or Narcotics Anonymous) had lower feedback scores than respondents without these experiences. We highlight the importance of investigating treatment evaluations in the context of other recovery experiences. PMID:22211348

  3. Perceptions of Working Climate: A Study of German Employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkcaldy, Bruce; Athanasou, James A.

    1999-01-01

    A survey of 50 male and 54 female German social service workers found their perceptions of working climate varied by gender and age. For both, career motivation decreased over time. Women were particularly affected by decreased quality of the working climate. Factors affecting perceptions included job pressure, dissatisfaction, poor collegial…

  4. German by Satellite: An Alternative for Small Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Bruce O.; Garrett, Sandy

    1988-01-01

    Describes the German by Satellite program broadcast by Oklahoma State University to small rural high schools. Outlines school costs for program participation and equipment purchases. Lists program strengths and weaknesses identified in a survey of administrators in 30 participating schools. (SV)

  5. Prevalence, associated factors and predictors of anxiety: a community survey in Selangor, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kader Maideen, Siti Fatimah; Mohd Sidik, Sherina; Rampal, Lekhraj; Mukhtar, Firdaus

    2015-10-24

    Anxiety is the most common mental health disorders in the general population. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of anxiety, its associated factors and the predictors of anxiety among adults in the community of Selangor, Malaysia. A cross sectional study was carried out in three districts in Selangor, Malaysia. The inclusion criteria of this study were Malaysian citizens, adults aged 18 years and above, and living in the selected living quarters based on the list provided by the Department of Statistics Malaysia (DOS). Participants completed a set of questionnaires, including the validated Malay version of Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7 (GAD 7) to detect anxiety. Of the 2512 participants who were approached, 1556 of them participated in the study (61.90%). Based on the cut-off point of 8 and above in the GAD-7, the prevalence of anxiety was 8.2%. Based on the initial multiple logistic regression analysis, the predictors of anxiety were depression, serious problems at work, domestic violence and high perceived stress. When reanalyzed again after removing depression, low self-esteem and high perceived stress, six predictors that were identified are cancer, serious problems at work, domestic violence, unhappy relationship with family, non-organizational religious activity and intrinsic religiosity. This study reports the prevalence of anxiety among adults in the community of Selangor, Malaysia and also the magnitude of the associations between various factors and anxiety.

  6. The current provision of community-based teaching in UK medical schools: an online survey and systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sandra W W; Clement, Naomi; Tang, Natalie; Atiomo, William

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate the current provision and outcome of community-based education (CBE) in UK medical schools. An online survey of UK medical school websites and course prospectuses and a systematic review of articles from PubMed and Web of Science were conducted. Articles in the systematic review were assessed using Rossi, Lipsey and Freeman's approach to programme evaluation. Publications from November 1998 to 2013 containing information related to community teaching in undergraduate medical courses were included. Out of the 32 undergraduate UK medical schools, one was excluded due to the lack of course specifications available online. Analysis of the remaining 31 medical schools showed that a variety of CBE models are utilised in medical schools across the UK. Twenty-eight medical schools (90.3%) provide CBE in some form by the end of the first year of undergraduate training, and 29 medical schools (93.5%) by the end of the second year. From the 1378 references identified, 29 papers met the inclusion criteria for assessment. It was found that CBE mostly provided advantages to students as well as other participants, including GP tutors and patients. However, there were a few concerns regarding the lack of GP tutors' knowledge in specialty areas, the negative impact that CBE may have on the delivery of health service in education settings and the cost of CBE. Despite the wide variations in implementation, community teaching was found to be mostly beneficial. To ensure the relevance of CBE for 'Tomorrow's Doctors', a national framework should be established, and solutions sought to reduce the impact of the challenges within CBE. This is the first study to review how community-based education is currently provided throughout Medical Schools in the UK. The use of Rossi, Lipsey and Freeman's method of programme evaluation means that the literature was analysed in a consistent and comprehensive way. However, a weakness is that data from the online survey was obtained from

  7. Otitis media in young Aboriginal children from remote communities in Northern and Central Australia: a cross-sectional survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Peter S; Leach, Amanda J; Silberberg, Peter; Mellon, Gabrielle; Wilson, Cate; Hamilton, Elizabeth; Beissbarth, Jemima

    2005-01-01

    Background Middle ear disease (otitis media) is common and frequently severe in Australian Aboriginal children. There have not been any recent large-scale surveys using clear definitions and a standardised middle ear assessment. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of middle ear disease (otitis media) in a high-risk population of young Aboriginal children from remote communities in Northern and Central Australia. Methods 709 Aboriginal children aged 6–30 months living in 29 communities from 4 health regions participated in the study between May and November 2001. Otitis media (OM) and perforation of the tympanic membrane (TM) were diagnosed by tympanometry, pneumatic otoscopy, and video-otoscopy. We used otoscopic criteria (bulging TM or recent perforation) to diagnose acute otitis media. Results 914 children were eligible to participate in the study and 709 were assessed (78%). Otitis media affected nearly all children (91%, 95%CI 88, 94). Overall prevalence estimates adjusted for clustering by community were: 10% (95%CI 8, 12) for unilateral otitis media with effusion (OME); 31% (95%CI 27, 34) for bilateral OME; 26% (95%CI 23, 30) for acute otitis media without perforation (AOM/woP); 7% (95%CI 4, 9) for AOM with perforation (AOM/wiP); 2% (95%CI 1, 3) for dry perforation; and 15% (95%CI 11, 19) for chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM). The perforation prevalence ranged from 0–60% between communities and from 19–33% between regions. Perforations of the tympanic membrane affected 40% of children in their first 18 months of life. These were not always persistent. Conclusion Overall, 1 in every 2 children examined had otoscopic signs consistent with suppurative ear disease and 1 in 4 children had a perforated tympanic membrane. Some of the children with intact tympanic membranes had experienced a perforation that healed before the survey. In this high-risk population, high rates of tympanic perforation were associated with high rates of

  8. The current provision of community-based teaching in UK medical schools: an online survey and systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sandra W W; Clement, Naomi; Tang, Natalie; Atiomo, William

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the current provision and outcome of community-based education (CBE) in UK medical schools. Design and data sources An online survey of UK medical school websites and course prospectuses and a systematic review of articles from PubMed and Web of Science were conducted. Articles in the systematic review were assessed using Rossi, Lipsey and Freeman's approach to programme evaluation. Study selection Publications from November 1998 to 2013 containing information related to community teaching in undergraduate medical courses were included. Results Out of the 32 undergraduate UK medical schools, one was excluded due to the lack of course specifications available online. Analysis of the remaining 31 medical schools showed that a variety of CBE models are utilised in medical schools across the UK. Twenty-eight medical schools (90.3%) provide CBE in some form by the end of the first year of undergraduate training, and 29 medical schools (93.5%) by the end of the second year. From the 1378 references identified, 29 papers met the inclusion criteria for assessment. It was found that CBE mostly provided advantages to students as well as other participants, including GP tutors and patients. However, there were a few concerns regarding the lack of GP tutors’ knowledge in specialty areas, the negative impact that CBE may have on the delivery of health service in education settings and the cost of CBE. Conclusions Despite the wide variations in implementation, community teaching was found to be mostly beneficial. To ensure the relevance of CBE for ‘Tomorrow's Doctors’, a national framework should be established, and solutions sought to reduce the impact of the challenges within CBE. Strengths and limitations of this study This is the first study to review how community-based education is currently provided throughout Medical Schools in the UK. The use of Rossi, Lipsey and Freeman's method of programme evaluation means that the literature was analysed

  9. Common mental disorders and recent physical activity status: findings from a National Community Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suetani, Shuichi; Saha, Sukanta; Milad, Adam; Eakin, Elizabeth; Scott, James G; McGrath, John J

    2017-07-01

    To explore the association between histories of common mental disorders, delusional-like experiences, and recent physical activity using a large nationally representative population-based sample from Australia. We predicted that a past history of a common mental disorder or delusional-like experiences would be associated with insufficient physical activity. The study was based on the Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing 2007 (n = 8841). The Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used to identify a lifetime and past year history of common mental disorders and delusional-like experiences. Physical activity over the preceding week was estimated using the questions based on the Active Australia survey with respondents classified as (a) insufficiently physically active versus (b) sufficiently physically active based on national recommendations. We examined the relationship between the variables of interest using logistic regression, adjusting for potential confounding factors. Almost half of the participants (46.0%) were classified as sufficiently physically active. Compared to those with no past mental disorder, those with lifetime or past year history of common mental disorders did not differ on recent physical activity status. Furthermore, we found no significant association between the number of lifetime mental disorders or the presence of delusional-like experience and recent physical activity status. Our findings suggest that a diagnosis of common mental disorder, with or without recent symptoms and comorbid diagnoses, or even having self-ascribed perception of poor mental well-being, is not associated with insufficient physical activity.

  10. Three dimensional marine seismic survey has no measurable effect on species richness or abundance of a coral reef associated fish community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Ian; Cripps, Edward

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A marine seismic survey was conducted at Scott Reef, North Western Australia. • Effects of the survey on demersal fish were gauged using underwater visual census. • There was no detectable impact of the seismic survey on species abundance. • There was no detectable impact of the seismic survey on species richness. -- Abstract: Underwater visual census was used to determine the effect of a three dimensional seismic survey on the shallow water coral reef slope associated fish community at Scott Reef. A census of the fish community was conducted on six locations at Scott Reef both before and after the survey. The census included small site attached demersal species belonging to the family Pomacentridae and larger roving demersal species belonging to the non-Pomacentridae families. These data were combined with a decade of historical data to assess the impact of the seismic survey. Taking into account spatial, temporal, spatio-temporal and observer variability, modelling showed no significant effect of the seismic survey on the overall abundance or species richness of Pomacentridae or non-Pomacentridae. The six most abundant species were also analysed individually. In all cases no detectable effect of the seismic survey was found on the abundance of these fish species at Scott Reef

  11. Mental disorders and their association with perceived work stress: an investigation of the 2010 Canadian Community Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szeto, Andrew C H; Dobson, Keith S

    2013-04-01

    The economic repercussions of mental disorders in the workplace are vast. Research has found that individuals in high-stress jobs tend to have higher prevalence of mental disorders. The current cross-sectional study examined the relationships between work-related stress and mental disorders in a recent representative population-based sample-the 2010 Canadian Community Health Survey by Statistics Canada (CCHS; 2010a; Retrieved from http://www23.statcan.gc.ca/imdb-bmdi/instrument/3226_Q1_V7-eng.pdf). Respondents in the highest level of perceived work stress had higher odds of ever being treated for an emotional or mental-health problem and for be